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Sample records for force impulse elastography

  1. Assessment of liver fibrosis with 2-D shear wave elastography in comparison to transient elastography and acoustic radiation force impulse imaging in patients with chronic liver disease.

    PubMed

    Gerber, Ludmila; Kasper, Daniela; Fitting, Daniel; Knop, Viola; Vermehren, Annika; Sprinzl, Kathrin; Hansmann, Martin L; Herrmann, Eva; Bojunga, Joerg; Albert, Joerg; Sarrazin, Christoph; Zeuzem, Stefan; Friedrich-Rust, Mireen

    2015-09-01

    Two-dimensional shear wave elastography (2-D SWE) is an ultrasound-based elastography method integrated into a conventional ultrasound machine. It can evaluate larger regions of interest and, therefore, might be better at determining the overall fibrosis distribution. The aim of this prospective study was to compare 2-D SWE with the two best evaluated liver elastography methods, transient elastography and acoustic radiation force impulse (point SWE using acoustic radiation force impulse) imaging, in the same population group. The study included 132 patients with chronic hepatopathies, in which liver stiffness was evaluated using transient elastography, acoustic radiation force impulse imaging and 2-D SWE. The reference methods were liver biopsy for the assessment of liver fibrosis (n = 101) and magnetic resonance imaging/computed tomography for the diagnosis of liver cirrhosis (n = 31). No significant difference in diagnostic accuracy, assessed as the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC), was found between the three elastography methods (2-D SWE, transient elastography, acoustic radiation force impulse imaging) for the diagnosis of significant and advanced fibrosis and liver cirrhosis in the "per protocol" (AUROCs for fibrosis stages ≥2: 0.90, 0.95 and 0.91; for fibrosis stage [F] ≥3: 0.93, 0.95 and 0.94; for F = 4: 0.92, 0.96 and 0.92) and "intention to diagnose" cohort (AUROCs for F ≥2: 0.87, 0.92 and 0.91; for F ≥3: 0.91, 0.93 and 0.94; for F = 4: 0.88, 0.90 and 0.89). Therefore, 2-D SWE, ARFI imaging and transient elastography seem to be comparably good methods for non-invasive assessment of liver fibrosis. Copyright © 2015 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Assessment of Placental Stiffness Using Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse Elastography in Pregnant Women with Fetal Anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Göya, Cemil; Tunç, Senem; Teke, Memik; Hattapoğlu, Salih

    2016-01-01

    Objective We aimed to evaluate placental stiffness measured by acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) elastography in pregnant women in the second trimester with a normal fetus versus those with structural anomalies and non-structural findings. Materials and Methods Forty pregnant women carrying a fetus with structural anomalies diagnosed sonographically at 18–28 weeks of gestation comprised the study group. The control group consisted of 34 healthy pregnant women with a sonographically normal fetus at a similar gestational age. Placental shear wave velocity (SWV) was measured by ARFI elastography and compared between the two groups. Structural anomalies and non-structural findings were scored based on sonographic markers. Placental stiffness measurements were compared among fetus anomaly categories. Doppler parameters of umbilical and uterine arteries were compared with placental SWV measurements. Results All placental SWV measurements, including minimum SWV, maximum SWV, and mean SWV were significantly higher in the study group than the control group ([0.86 ± 0.2, 0.74 ± 0.1; p < 0.001], [1.89 ± 0.7, 1.59 ± 0.5; p = 0.04], and [1.26 ± 0.4, 1.09 ± 0.2; p = 0.01]), respectively. Conclusion Placental stiffness evaluated by ARFI elastography during the second trimester in pregnant women with fetuses with congenital structural anomalies is higher than that of pregnant women with normal fetuses. PMID:26957906

  3. Value of acoustic radiation force impulse imaging elastography for non-invasive evaluation of patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Fierbinteanu Braticevici, Carmen; Sporea, Ioan; Panaitescu, Eugenia; Tribus, Laura

    2013-11-01

    The goals of the work described here were to evaluate the clinical utility of acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) elastography in differentiating non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) histologic subtypes and to determine if ARFI elastography measurements correlate with the severity of liver fibrosis. We compared ARFI elastography measurements with clinical, biologic and histologic features (simple steatosis or steatohepatitis) in 64 patients with histologically proven NAFLD. ARFI elastography is suitable for distinguishing patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis from those with simple steatosis, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) of 0.867 (95% confidence interval = 0.782-0.953). There was a highly significant correlation (r = 0.843) between ARFI elastography measurements and fibrosis (p < 0.001). In patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, the diagnostic performance of ARFI elastography in predicting significant fibrosis (F ≥ 2) had an AUROC of 0.944. ARFI elastography better predicted F = 4 fibrosis (AUROC = 0.984). In conclusion, ARFI elastography is a promising method for differentiating patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis from patients with simple steatosis and can also predict significant fibrosis in these patients.

  4. Role of Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (ARFI) Elastography in Determination of Severity of Benign Prostate Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Alan, Bircan; Utangaç, Mazhar; Göya, Cemil; Dağgülli, Mansur

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate the potential contribution of acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) elastography to the determination of the severity of benign prostate hypertrophy (BPH) by performing shear wave velocity (SWV) measurements of the prostate using ARFI technology. Material/Methods Sixty BPH patients and 40 healthy volunteers were included in this study. SWV measurements of the prostate were performed by transabdominal ultrasonography (US), both in the BPH patients and control subjects. The BPH patients also underwent uroflowmetry measurements. Using the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), the BPH patients were divided into two subgroups, a mild-to-moderate BPH group and a severe BPH group, to compare SWV values. Results The BPH patients had higher SWV values for the central area of the prostate compared to the control subjects (2.52±0.59 m/s and 1.47±0.42 m/s, p<0.01). The SWV values of the central area of prostate were higher in the severe BPH group compared to the mild-to-moderate BPH group (2.62±0.58 and 2.25±0.55, p=0.02). Conclusions Our ARFI elastography results indicated that the central prostate SWV values of BPH patients were significantly higher relative to those of a healthy control group. The central prostate SWV values increased in proportion to the increased severity of BPH. Measurement of SWV by ARFI technology constitutes a non-invasive alternative to other methods for the determination of BPH severity. PMID:27876713

  5. Renal acoustic radiation force impulse elastography in the evaluation of coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Alan, Bircan; Göya, Cemil; Aktan, Adem; Alan, Sait

    2017-02-01

    Background Renal insufficiency may occur in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) is a method for quantifying tissue elasticity, which could be used as an additional diagnostic test for renal insufficiency and provide an additional contribution to the determination of CAD. Purpose To evaluate ARFI elastography with shear wave velocity (SWV) measurements in the diagnosis of mild-to-moderate chronic kidney disease (CKD) in CAD patients, and to analyze the relationship between the severity of CAD assessed by the Gensini scoring system and kidney stiffness. Material and Methods The study included 76 CAD patients and 79 healthy volunteers. SWV was measured for each kidney in the both groups. The CAD group was divided into two subgroups based on Gensini score: mild CAD and severe CAD. SWV values of the CAD patients were compared to those of the healthy volunteers; values of subgroups were also compared with each other. Results The patient group had significantly lower renal mean SWV values than those of the healthy group (1.87 ± 0.58 vs. 2.34 ± 0.38, P < 0.01). The SWV value decreased as the eGFR level decreased. Mean SWV values for kidneys of the patients with severe CAD were lower than those of the mild CAD patients (1.64 ± 0.39 vs. 2.42 ± 0.60, P < 0.01). Conclusion renal mean SWV values of CAD patients decreased in proportion to the reduction in eGFR, and the SWV values decreased as the severity of CAD increased. ARFI elastography is a novel technique for diagnosing CKD and defining illness severity in CAD patients.

  6. Prediction of cervical lymph node metastasis in patients with papillary thyroid cancer using combined conventional ultrasound, strain elastography, and acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) elastography.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jun-Mei; Xu, Xiao-Hong; Xu, Hui-Xiong; Zhang, Yi-Feng; Guo, Le-Hang; Liu, Lin-Na; Liu, Chang; Bo, Xiao-Wan; Qu, Shen; Xing, Mingzhao; Li, Xiao-Long

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the value of combined conventional ultrasound (US), strain elastography (SE) and acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) elastography for prediction of cervical lymph node metastasis (CLNM) in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). A consecutive series of 203 patients with 222 PTCs were preoperatively evaluated by US, SE, and ARFI including virtual touch tissue imaging (VTI) and virtual touch tissue quantification (VTQ). A multivariate analysis was performed to predict CLNM by 22 independent variables. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to evaluate the diagnostic performance. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that VTI area ratio (VAR) > 1 was the best predictor for CLNM, followed by abnormal cervical lymph node (ACLN), capsule contact, microcalcification, capsule involvement, and multiple nodules (all P < 0.05). ROC analyses of these characteristics showed the areas under the curve (Az), sensitivity, and specificity were 0.600-0.630, 47.7 %-93.2 %, and 26.9 %-78.4 % for US, respectively; and they were 0.784, 83.0 %, and 73.9 %, respectively, for VAR > 1. As combination of US characteristics with and without VAR, the Az, sensitivity, and specificity were 0.803 and 0.556, 83.0 % and 100.0 %, and 77.6 % and 11.2 %, respectively (P < 0.001). ARFI elastography shows superior performance over conventional US, particularly when combined with US, in predicting CLNM in PTC patients. • Conventional ultrasound is useful in predicting cervical lymph node metastasis preoperatively. • Virtual touch tissue imaging area ratio is the strongest predicting factor. • Predictive performance is markedly improved by combining ultrasound characteristics with VAR. • Acoustic radiation force impulse elastography may be a promising complementary tool.

  7. [Acoustic radiation force impulse imaging elastography is efficacious in detecting hepatic fibrosis in children].

    PubMed

    Picó Aliaga, S D; Muro Velilla, D; García-Martí, G; Sangüesa Nebot, C; Martí-Bonmatí, L

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic performance of acoustic radiation force impulse imaging (ARFI) in detecting significant hepatic fibrosis in children. Our hospital's ethics committee approved the study and all patients or their representatives provided informed written consent. We included 96 children (50 boys, 46 girls; mean age, 8 y). We also studied 16 volunteers without liver disease as controls and 80 patients with diseases that can lead to fibrosis and cirrhosis of the liver. The final sample included 31 patients with biopsies and the 16 controls. All patients underwent abdominal ultrasonography including Doppler imaging and elastography with ARFI. The ARFI value, expressed as velocity (m/s) of shear wave propagation through the tissue, was calculated by averaging 16 measurements in both liver lobes. We used one-way analysis of variance to compare means between groups; we set statistical significance at P<.05. We used Student's t-tests and chi-square tests for categorical data. The ARFI value in children with fibrosis ≥ F2 was higher (1.80±0.45m/s) than in controls and higher than in patients with F0-F1 (1.38±0.22m/s). The difference was significant (P<.001) for detecting F ≥ 2. Steatosis was not related with the ARFI value (Student's t-test, P>.84). Necroinflammatory activity was strongly associated with the ARFI value (Student's t-test, P<.01). Fibrosis and necroinflammatory activity were strongly associated with each other (chi-square test, P<.0001). The speed of shear wave propagation is significantly associated with the degree of hepatic fibrosis in children. Copyright © 2013 SERAM. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Liver fibrosis in viral hepatitis: noninvasive assessment with acoustic radiation force impulse imaging versus transient elastography.

    PubMed

    Friedrich-Rust, Mireen; Wunder, Katrin; Kriener, Susanne; Sotoudeh, Fariba; Richter, Swantje; Bojunga, Joerg; Herrmann, Eva; Poynard, Thierry; Dietrich, Christoph F; Vermehren, Johannes; Zeuzem, Stefan; Sarrazin, Christoph

    2009-08-01

    To compare, in a pilot study, acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) imaging technology integrated into a conventional ultrasonography (US) system with both transient elastography (TE) and serologic fibrosis marker testing for the noninvasive assessment of liver fibrosis. Informed consent was obtained from all subjects, and the local ethics committee approved the study. ARFI imaging involved the mechanical excitation of tissue with use of short-duration acoustic pulses to generate localized displacements in tissue. The displacements resulted in shear-wave propagation, which was tracked by using US correlation-based methods and recorded in meters per second. Eighty-six patients with chronic viral hepatitis underwent TE, ARFI imaging, and serum fibrosis marker testing. Results were compared with liver biopsy findings, which served as the reference standard. ARFI imaging (rho = 0.71), TE (rho = 0.73), and serum fibrosis marker test (rho = 0.66) results correlated significantly with histologic fibrosis stage (P < .001). Median ARFI velocities ranged from 0.84 to 3.83 m/sec. Areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the accuracy of ARFI imaging, TE, and serum fibrosis marker testing were 0.82, 0.84, and 0.82, respectively, for the diagnosis of moderate fibrosis (histologic fibrosis stage, > or = 2) and 0.91, 0.91, and 0.82, respectively, for the diagnosis of cirrhosis. ARFI imaging is a promising US-based method for assessing liver fibrosis in chronic viral hepatitis, with diagnostic accuracy comparable to that of TE in this preliminary study. http://radiology.rsnajnls.org/cgi/content/full/252/2/595/DC1.

  9. Shear wave velocity of the healthy thyroid gland in children with acoustic radiation force impulse elastography.

    PubMed

    Ceyhan Bilgici, Meltem; Sağlam, Dilek; Delibalta, Semra; Yücel, Serap; Tomak, Leman; Elmalı, Muzaffer

    2017-04-19

    Acoustic radiation force impulse imaging is a kind of shear wave elastography that can be used in children for differentiating thyroid pathologies. Possible changes in the healthy thyroid gland in children may create difficulties in the use of shear wave velocities (SWV) in thyroid pathologies. The aim of this study was to define the normal values of SWV for the healthy thyroid gland in children, elucidate the correlation of the SWV values with potential influencing factors, and evaluate intra-operator reproducibility of the SWV. Between January 2015 and December 2015, a total of 145 healthy children (81 girls, 64 boys; mean age, 10.5 ± 3.14 years; range 6-17 years) were enrolled in the study. The SWV and volume of the thyroid gland were determined. The mean shear wave velocity of the thyroid gland was 1.22 ± 0.20 m/s. There was no correlation between age and the mean SWV of the thyroid gland (Spearman Rho = 0.049, p = 0.556). There was also no correlation between the thyroid gland volume or BSA and the mean SWV. The only correlation detected was between BSA and total thyroid gland volume (p < 0.001). In the present study, the SWV of the healthy thyroid gland in children was determined. There was no correlation between the SWV of the thyroid gland and age, BSA, or thyroid gland volume.

  10. The safety and feasibility of diagnostic acoustic radiation force impulse elastography used for eyes. A preliminary in vivo study.

    PubMed

    Zha, Li; Chen, Ke Qi; Zheng, Xiao Zhi; Wu, Jing

    2017-04-22

    To assess the safety and feasibility of acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) elastography in the eyes of rats. Material and methods: One hundred and twenty-six SD rats were divided into 7 groups. Group 1 was the control group and Group 2 to Group 7 were investigated by ARFI elastography using increased powers of 5%, 10%, 20%, 50%, and 100% and repetitions of 5 or 10. The changes of ocular architecture structures and functions were examined by phthalmoscopic, histopathologic, and light reflex examination, and the expression level of IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α was determined in days 1, 3, and 7 after ARFI elastography, respectively. A satisfactory ARFI elastography was obtained in all SD rats. The shear wave velocity (SWV) values of soft tissues behind the eyeball were significantly greater than those of the eyes (1.89±0.95 vs. 0.84±0.36 m/s, p<0.05). The SWV values of eyes and the soft tissues behind the eyeball did not differ among any groups at any time-point (p>0.05). The SD rats of each group showed good light perception, pupillary light reflex, and avoidance reaction induced by the sudden bright light from the dark environment at any time. In each group, ocular architecture structures were well preserved, and with a normal expression level of IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α (p>0.05). Diagnostic ARFI elastography is a safe and feasible ultrasonic imaging mode and may potentially be applied for human eyes in its present form.

  11. Evaluation of Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Using Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse Imaging Elastography in Rat Models.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yanrong; Dong, Changfeng; Lin, Haoming; Zhang, Xinyu; Wen, Huiying; Shen, Yuanyuan; Wang, Tianfu; Chen, Siping; Liu, Yingxia; Chen, Xin

    2017-08-12

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the utility of acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) elastography for assessing hepatic fibrosis stage and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) severity, as well as the relationship among hepatic histologic changes using shear wave velocity (SWV). Animal models with various degrees of NAFLD were established in 110 rats. The right liver lobe was processed and embedded in a fabricated gelatin solution (porcine skin). Liver mechanics were measured using SWV induced by acoustic radiation force. Among the histologic findings, liver elasticity could be used to differentiate normal rats from rats with simple steatosis (SS) as well as distinguish SS from non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), with areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUROC) of 0.963 (95% confidence interval = 0.871-0.973) and 0.882 (95% confidence interval = 0.807-0.956), respectively. For NAFLD rats, the diagnostic performance of ARFI elastography in predicting significant fibrosis (F ≥ 2) had an AUROC of 0.963. For evaluating steatosis severity, we found a progressive increase in ARFI velocity proportional to steatotic severity in NAFLD rat models, but we observed no significant differences for steatotic severity after excluding the rats with fibrosis. ARFI elastography may be used to differentiate among degrees of severity of NAFLD and hepatic fibrotic stages in NAFLD rat models. Copyright © 2017 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The diagnosis value of acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) elastography for thyroid malignancy without highly suspicious features on conventional ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bo-Ji; Lu, Feng; Xu, Hui-Xiong; Guo, Le-Hang; Li, Dan-Dan; Bo, Xiao-Wan; Li, Xiao-Long; Zhang, Yi-Feng; Xu, Jun-Mei; Xu, Xiao-Hong; Qu, Shen

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential diagnostic performance of acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) elastography in identifying malignancy in nodules that do not appear highly suspicious on conventional ultrasound (US). Methods: 330 pathologically confirmed thyroid nodules (40 malignant and 290 benign; mean size, 22.0±11.6 mm) not suspicious of malignancy on conventional US in 330 patients (mean age 52.8±11.7 years) underwent ARFI elastography before surgery. ARFI elastography included qualitative ARFI-induced strain elastography (SE) and quantitative point shear wave elastography (p-SWE). ARFI-induced SE image was assessed by SE score, while p-SWE was denoted with shear wave velocity (SWV, m/s). The diagnostic performance of four criteria sets was evaluated: criteria set 1 (ARFI-induced SE), criteria set 2 (p-SWE), criteria set 3 (either set 1 or 2), criteria set 4 (both set 1 and 2). Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analyses were performed to assess the diagnostic performance. Results: SE score ≥4 was more frequently found in malignant nodules (32/40) than in benign nodules (30/290, P<0.001). The mean SWV of malignant nodules (3.64±2.23 m/s) was significantly higher than that of benign nodules (2.02±0.69 m/s) (P<0.001). ARFI-induced SE (set 1) had a sensitivity of 80.0% (32/40) and a specificity of 89.7% (260/290) with a cut-off point of SE score ≥4; p-SWE (set 2) had a sensitivity of 80.0% (32/40) and a specificity of 57.9% (168/290) with a cut-off point of SWV ≥2.15 m/s. When ARFI-induced SE and p-SWE were combined, set 3 had the highest sensitivity (92.5%, 37/40) while set 4 had the highest specificity (95.2%, 276/290). Conclusion: ARFI elastography can be used for differential diagnosis of malignant thyroid nodules without highly suspicious features on US. The combination of ARFI-induced SE and p-SWE leads to improved sensitivity and specificity. PMID:26629025

  13. Comparison of acoustic radiation force impulse imaging and transient elastography for non-invasive assessment of liver fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dakun; Chen, Min; Wang, Ruifang; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Dedong; Liu, Liping; Zhou, Guangde

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to compare the performance of acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) elastography and transient elastography (TE) in the assessment of liver fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B and to evaluate the impact of elevated alanine transaminase levels on liver stiffness assessment using ARFI elastography. One hundred eighty consecutive patients with chronic hepatitis B were enrolled in this study and evaluated with respect to histologic and biochemical features. All patients underwent ARFI elastography and TE. ARFI elastography and TE correlated significantly with histologically assessed fibrosis (r = 0.599, p < 0.001, for ARFI elastography; r = 0.628, p < 0.001, for TE) and necro-inflammatory activity (r = 0.591, p < 0.001, for ARFI elastography; r = 0.616, p < 0.001, for TE). Areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves for ARFI elastography and TE were 0.764 and 0.813 (p = 0.302, ≥stage 2), 0.852 and 0.852 (p = 1.000, ≥stage 3) and 0.825 and 0.799 (p = 0.655, S = 4), respectively. The optimum cutoff values for ARFI elastography were 1.63 m/s for stage ≥2, 1.74 m/s for stage ≥3 and 2.00 m/s for stage 4 in patients for whom alanine transaminase levels were evaluated. The cutoff values decreased to 1.24 m/s for ≥ stage 2, 1.32 m/s for ≥ stage 3 and 1.41 m/s for stage 4 in patients with normal alanine transaminase levels. ARFI elastography may be a reliable method for diagnosing the stage of liver fibrosis with diagnostic performance similar to that of TE in patients with chronic hepatitis B. In addition, liver stiffness values obtained with ARFI elastography, like those obtained with TE, may be influenced by alanine transaminase levels.

  14. Ex vivo study of acoustic radiation force impulse imaging elastography for evaluation of rat liver with steatosis.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yanrong; Dong, Changfeng; Lin, Haoming; Zhang, Xinyu; Wen, Huiying; Shen, Yuanyuan; Wang, Tianfu; Chen, Siping; Liu, Yingxia; Chen, Xin

    2017-02-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common liver diseases in developed countries. Accurate, noninvasive tests for diagnosing NAFLD are urgently needed. The goals of this study were to evaluate the utility of acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) elastography for determining the severity grade of steatosis in rat livers, and to investigate the changes in various histologic and biochemical characteristics. Steatosis was induced in the livers of 57 rats by gavage feeding of a high fat emulsion; 12 rats received a standard diet only and served as controls. Liver mechanics were measured ex vivo using shear wave velocity (SWV) induced by acoustic radiation force. The measured mean values of liver SWV ranged from 1.33 to 3.85m/s for different grades of steatosis. The area under the receiver operative characteristic curve (⩾S1) was equal to 0.82 (95% CI=0.69, 0.96) between the steatosis group and the normal group, and the optimal cutoff value was 2.59 with sensitivity of 88% and specificity of 76%. However, there are no significant differences in SWV measurements between the steatosis grades. SWV values did not correlate with the early grade of inflammation. In conclusion, ARFI elastography is a promising method for differentiating normal rat liver from rat liver with steatosis, but it cannot reliably predict the grade of steatosis in rat livers. The early grade of inflammation activity did not significantly affect the SWV measurements.

  15. Hepatic and Splenic Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse Shear Wave Velocity Elastography in Children with Liver Disease Associated with Cystic Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Cañas, Teresa; Maciá, Araceli; Muñoz-Codoceo, Rosa Ana; Fontanilla, Teresa; González-Rios, Patricia; Miralles, María; Gómez-Mardones, Gloria

    2015-01-01

    Liver disease associated with cystic fibrosis (CFLD) is the second cause of mortality in these patients. The diagnosis is difficult because none of the available tests are specific enough. Noninvasive elastographic techniques have been proven to be useful to diagnose hepatic fibrosis. Acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) imaging is an elastography imaging system. The purpose of the work was to study the utility of liver and spleen ARFI Imaging in the detection of CFLD. Method. 72 patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) were studied and received ARFI imaging in the liver and in the spleen. SWV values were compared with the values of 60 healthy controls. Results. Comparing the SWV values of CFLD with the control healthy group, values in the right lobe were higher in patients with CFLD. We found a SWV RHL cut-off value to detect CFLD of 1.27 m/s with a sensitivity of 56.5% and a specificity of 90.5%. CF patients were found to have higher SWC spleen values than the control group. Conclusions. ARFI shear wave elastography in the right hepatic lobe is a noninvasive technique useful to detect CFLD in our sample of patients. Splenic SWV values are higher in CF patients, without any clinical consequence.

  16. Delineation of Post-Procedure Ablation Regions with Electrode Displacement Elastography with a Comparison to Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse Imaging.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wenjun; Varghese, Tomy; Ziemlewicz, Timothy; Alexander, Marci; Lubner, Meghan; Hinshaw, James Louis; Wells, Shane; Lee, Fred T

    2017-09-01

    We compared a quasi-static ultrasound elastography technique, referred to as electrode displacement elastography (EDE), with acoustic radiation force impulse imaging (ARFI) for monitoring microwave ablation (MWA) procedures on patients diagnosed with liver neoplasms. Forty-nine patients recruited to this study underwent EDE and ARFI with a Siemens Acuson S2000 system after an MWA procedure. On the basis of visualization results from two observers, the ablated region in ARFI images was recognizable on 20 patients on average in conjunction with B-mode imaging, whereas delineable ablation boundaries could be generated on 4 patients on average. With EDE, the ablated region was delineable on 40 patients on average, with less imaging depth dependence. Study of tissue-mimicking phantoms revealed that the ablation region dimensions measured on EDE and ARFI images were within 8%, whereas the image contrast and contrast-to-noise ratio with EDE was two to three times higher than that obtained with ARFI. This study indicated that EDE provided improved monitoring results for minimally invasive MWA in clinical procedures for liver cancer and metastases. Copyright © 2017 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Hepatic and Splenic Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse Shear Wave Velocity Elastography in Children with Liver Disease Associated with Cystic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Cañas, Teresa; Maciá, Araceli; Muñoz-Codoceo, Rosa Ana; Fontanilla, Teresa; González-Rios, Patricia; Miralles, María; Gómez-Mardones, Gloria

    2015-01-01

    Background. Liver disease associated with cystic fibrosis (CFLD) is the second cause of mortality in these patients. The diagnosis is difficult because none of the available tests are specific enough. Noninvasive elastographic techniques have been proven to be useful to diagnose hepatic fibrosis. Acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) imaging is an elastography imaging system. The purpose of the work was to study the utility of liver and spleen ARFI Imaging in the detection of CFLD. Method. 72 patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) were studied and received ARFI imaging in the liver and in the spleen. SWV values were compared with the values of 60 healthy controls. Results. Comparing the SWV values of CFLD with the control healthy group, values in the right lobe were higher in patients with CFLD. We found a SWV RHL cut-off value to detect CFLD of 1.27 m/s with a sensitivity of 56.5% and a specificity of 90.5%. CF patients were found to have higher SWC spleen values than the control group. Conclusions. ARFI shear wave elastography in the right hepatic lobe is a noninvasive technique useful to detect CFLD in our sample of patients. Splenic SWV values are higher in CF patients, without any clinical consequence. PMID:26609528

  18. Prospective Comparison of the Diagnostic Performance of Magnetic Resonance Elastography with Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse Elastography for Pre-operative Staging of Hepatic Fibrosis in Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chou, Chen-Te; Chen, Ran-Chou; Wu, Wen-Pei; Lin, Ping-Yi; Chen, Yao-Li

    2017-09-28

    The purpose of this study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of magnetic resonance (MR) elastography with that of acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) elastography for pre-operative staging of hepatic fibrosis in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. We prospectively enrolled 77 patients who were scheduled to undergo hepatectomy for hepatocellular carcinoma. Pre-operative MRE and ARFI elastography examinations were performed on the same day, and liver stiffness/velocity values were determined. Fibrosis stage and necro-inflammatory activity of resected specimens were determined histopathologically using the METAVIR scoring system. Correlations between MRE and ARFI elastography findings and histologic findings were determined by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Correlation of MRE was excellent and correlation of ARFI elastography was good with fibrosis stage. MRE had better diagnostic performance than ARFI elastography in estimating substantial fibrosis (F2), severe fibrosis (F3) and cirrhosis (F4). The optimal cutoff value and the area under the ROC curve (AUROC) were determined using ROC curve analysis. The highest Youden index was used as a criterion for selecting the optimal cutoff value. ROC analysis revealed that MRE discriminated advanced stages of fibrosis (F ≥ 2) well in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma at a cutoff value of 3.0 kPa with an AUROC value of 0.93, and ARFI elastography did so at a cutoff value of 1.77 m/s with an AUROC value of 0.81 for predicting advanced stages of fibrosis (F ≥ 2). In conclusion, MRE is a more accurate imaging modality than ARFI elastography in estimating advanced stages of fibrosis and cirrhosis. Copyright © 2017 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Quantitative shear wave optical coherence elastography (SW-OCE) with acoustic radiation force impulses (ARFI) induced by phase array transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Shaozhen; Le, Nhan Minh; Wang, Ruikang K.; Huang, Zhihong

    2015-03-01

    Shear Wave Optical Coherence Elastography (SW-OCE) uses the speed of propagating shear waves to provide a quantitative measurement of localized shear modulus, making it a valuable technique for the elasticity characterization of tissues such as skin and ocular tissue. One of the main challenges in shear wave elastography is to induce a reliable source of shear wave; most of nowadays techniques use external vibrators which have several drawbacks such as limited wave propagation range and/or difficulties in non-invasive scans requiring precisions, accuracy. Thus, we propose linear phase array ultrasound transducer as a remote wave source, combined with the high-speed, 47,000-frame-per-second Shear-wave visualization provided by phase-sensitive OCT. In this study, we observed for the first time shear waves induced by a 128 element linear array ultrasound imaging transducer, while the ultrasound and OCT images (within the OCE detection range) were triggered simultaneously. Acoustic radiation force impulses are induced by emitting 10 MHz tone-bursts of sub-millisecond durations (between 50 μm - 100 μm). Ultrasound beam steering is achieved by programming appropriate phase delay, covering a lateral range of 10 mm and full OCT axial (depth) range in the imaging sample. Tissue-mimicking phantoms with agarose concentration of 0.5% and 1% was used in the SW-OCE measurements as the only imaging samples. The results show extensive improvements over the range of SW-OCE elasticity map; such improvements can also be seen over shear wave velocities in softer and stiffer phantoms, as well as determining the boundary of multiple inclusions with different stiffness. This approach opens up the feasibility to combine medical ultrasound imaging and SW-OCE for high-resolution localized quantitative measurement of tissue biomechanical property.

  20. Elastography by acoustic radiation force impulse technology for differentiation of benign and malignant breast lesions: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, BaoXian; Zheng, YanLing; Shan, QuanYuan; Lu, Ying; Lin, ManXia; Tian, WenShuo; Xie, XiaoYan

    2016-01-01

    To perform a meta-analysis assessing the ability of elastography by acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) technology to differentiate benign and malignant breast lesions. PubMed, the Cochrane Library, and the Web of Knowledge before September 24, 2014 were searched. Published studies that evaluated the diagnostic performance of ARFI for characterization of focal breast lesions were included. A total of fifteen studies, including 1720 patients with 1873 breast lesions (743 cancers, 1130 benign lesions), was analyzed. Among the included studies, virtual touch tissue imaging (VTI) was used in six studies, virtual touch tissue quantification (VTQ) in eight, combined VTI and VTQ in four, and virtual touch tissue imaging quantification (VTIQ) in three. Summary sensitivity and summary specificity for distinguishing malignant from benign breast lesions were 0.913 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.779-0.969] and 0.871 (95% CI 0.773-0.930) for VTI, 0.849 (95% CI 0.805-0.884) and 0.889 (95% CI 0.771-0.950) for VTQ, and 0.935 (95% CI 0.892-0.961) and 0.881 (95% CI 0.818-0.924) for combined VTI and VTQ, respectively. The area under summary receiver operating characteristic (sROC) curve of VTI, VTQ, and combined VTI and VTQ were 0.95, 0.88, and 0.96, respectively. Significant publication bias was found only in the VTQ assessment (p = 0.025). The obtained sensitivity of VTIQ ranged from 80.4 to 90.3%, while the specificity ranged from 73.0 to 93.0%. The summary diagnostic value of VTIQ could not be evaluated due to insufficient data. Elastography by ARFI technology could be used as a good identification tool for differentiating benign and malignant breast lesions.

  1. Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse Elastography in Determining the Effects of Type 1 Diabetes on Pancreas and Kidney Elasticity in Children.

    PubMed

    Sağlam, Dilek; Bilgici, Meltem Ceyhan; Kara, Cengiz; Yılmaz, Gülay Can; Çamlıdağ, İlkay

    2017-09-05

    The aim of this study is to determine the effects of type 1 diabetes on pancreas and kidney elasticity in children, using acoustic radiation force impulse ultrasound elastography. Sixty autoantibody-positive patients with type 1 diabetes (45% girls; mean [± SD] age, 11.7 ± 4.4 years; range, 1.9-19.3 years) admitted to the pediatric endocrinology outpatient clinic and 32 healthy children (50% girls; mean age, 10.2 ± 3.8 years; range, 2.1-17.3 years) were included in the study. Acoustic radiation force impulse elastography measurements were performed of the kidneys and pancreas in both groups. Body mass index, duration of diabetes, HbA1c levels, and insulin dosage of patients with type 1 diabetes were recorded. The mean shear-wave velocities of the pancreas were 0.99 ± 0.25 m/s in patients with type 1 diabetes and 1.09 ± 0.22 m/s in healthy control subjects; the difference was not significant (p = 0.08). The median shear-wave velocities of the right and left kidneys in patients with type 1 diabetes were 2.43 ± 0.29 and 2.47 ± 0.25 m/s, respectively. There were no significant differences in the shear-wave velocities of the right and left kidneys between the patients with type 1 diabetes and the healthy control subjects (p = 0.91 and p = 0.73, respectively). Correlation analysis showed no correlation between the shear-wave velocities of the pancreas and kidney versus HbA1c level, duration of diabetes, insulin dosage, height, weight, and body mass index of the patients with type 1 diabetes. The current study showed no significant difference in the shear-wave velocity of kidneys in children with type 1 diabetes with normoalbuminuria compared with the healthy control subjects. We also observed that the shear-wave velocity of the pancreas in children with type 1 diabetes and healthy control subjects did not differ significantly.

  2. Solid hypo-echoic thyroid nodules on ultrasound: the diagnostic value of acoustic radiation force impulse elastography.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jun-Mei; Xu, Hui-Xiong; Xu, Xiao-Hong; Liu, Chang; Zhang, Yi-Feng; Guo, Le-Hang; Liu, Lin-Na; Zhang, Jin

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the study described here was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) elastography in the differential diagnosis between benign and malignant solid hypo-echoic thyroid nodules (SHTNs) on ultrasound. In this retrospective study, 183 histologically proven SHTNs in 159 patients were enrolled. Conventional US, as well as Virtual Touch tissue imaging (VTI) and Virtual Touch tissue quantification (VTQ) of ARFI elastography, was performed on each nodule. The VTI features of SHTNs were divided into six grades, where higher grades represent harder tissue. VTQ was expressed as shear wave velocity, where higher shear wave velocity values indicate stiffer tissue. The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and Youden index for ultrasound and ARFI were assessed. The 183 pathologically proven SHTNs included 117 benign and 66 malignant lesions. Nodules classified as VTI grades IV to VI were more frequently malignant (49/66, 74.2%) than benign (10/117, 8.5%) (p < 0.001). The mean shear wave velocity of VTQ for malignant SHTNs (mean ± standard deviation, 4.65 ± 2.68 m/s; range, 1.36-9 m/s) was significantly higher than that for benign SHTNs (2.34 ± 0.85 m/s, 0-5.7 m/s) (p < 0.001). The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and Youden index were 27.3%-84.8%, 13.7%-89.7%, 39.3%-69.4%, 35.7%-60%, 61.5%-78.5%, and -0.015 to 0.37 for ultrasound; 68.2%, 76.9%, 73.8%, 62.5%, 81.1% and 0.451 for VTQ; and 74.2%, 91.5%, 85.2%, 83.1%, 86.3% and 0.657 for VTI, respectively. ARFI elastography performed at a superior level, compared with conventional ultrasound, in the differential diagnosis between malignant and benign SHTNs. The diagnostic performance of VTI is higher than that of VTQ.

  3. Pancreatic Elastography From Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse Imaging for Evaluation of Diabetic Microangiopathy.

    PubMed

    He, Yu; Wang, Hui; Li, Xiao Ping; Zheng, Juan-Juan; Jin, Chun-Xiang

    2017-10-01

    The purposes of this study were to compare pancreatic shear-wave velocity (SWV) in subjects with and those without diabetic microvascular complications and to investigate the feasibility of pancreatic SWV in evaluating diabetic microangiopathy. SWV measurements were prospectively performed in 115 patients with diabetes mellitus and 115 healthy persons by use of acoustic radiation force impulse imaging. Patients with diabetes were divided into subgroups with and without microangiopathy. Pancreatic SWV was compared in three groups. Factors associated with increased SWV were studied. Pancreatic SWV increased significantly in the subgroups with diabetes mellitus compared with the control group (p < 0.01). Especially, the SWV in the pancreatic body was significantly higher when microangiopathy was present (p < 0.01). In patients with diabetes, microangiopathy (standardized β = 0.208, p = 0.022), age (standardized β = 0.265, p = 0.004), and total cholesterol level (standardized β = 0.223, p = 0.011) were positively and markedly correlated with high SWV in the pancreatic body. The increased SWV in the pancreatic body was significantly related to the presence of microangiopathy. It is feasible to use SWV in the pancreatic body to evaluate diabetic microangiopathy.

  4. Comparison of acoustic radiation force impulse imaging with transient elastography for the detection of complications in patients with cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Vermehren, Johannes; Polta, Andreas; Zimmermann, Olga; Herrmann, Eva; Poynard, Thierry; Hofmann, Wolf-Peter; Bojunga, Jörg; Sarrazin, Christoph; Zeuzem, Stefan; Friedrich-Rust, Mireen

    2012-05-01

    Acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) imaging is a new non-invasive, ultrasound-based method for the evaluation of liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. To determine the diagnostic accuracy of ARFI imaging, transient elastography (TE) and Fibrotest for the evaluation of complications in patients with cirrhosis. A total of 166 patients (109 male, mean age: 54 ± 11 years) with chronic liver disease and established cirrhosis were included in this study. ARFI-imaging of the liver and spleen, TE and Fibrotest were performed in all patients. In addition, clinical, laboratory and morphological parameters, including MELD/Child-Pugh scores, presence of oesophageal varices and hepatocellular carcinoma, history of variceal bleeding and history of hepatic encephalopathy were recorded. Acoustic radiation force impulse liver was significantly correlated with ARFI spleen (r = 0.48, P < 0.001), TE (r = 0.75, P < 0.001) and Fibrotest (r = 0.21, P = 0.006). The diagnostic accuracy (AUROC) for the diagnosis of large oesophageal varices was 0.58 (95% CI: 0.48-0.67), 0.58 (0.49-0.67), 0.53 (0.44-0.63) and 0.50 (0.41-0.59) for ARFI liver, spleen, TE and Fibrotest respectively (P > 0.20). The AUROC for the detection of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was 0.54 (0.39-0.70), 0.58 (0.44-0.73), 0.56 (0.40-0.73) and 0.72 (0.60-0.84) respectively (P > 0.20). Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that ARFI spleen better predicted the presence of large oesophageal varices and HCC compared with ARFI liver. The diagnostic accuracy of ARFI liver and spleen was comparable to TE and Fibrotest for the detection of complications in patients with cirrhosis. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  5. Quantitative assessment of muscular stiffness in children with cerebral palsy using acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) ultrasound elastography.

    PubMed

    Bilgici, Meltem Ceyhan; Bekci, Tumay; Ulus, Yasemin; Ozyurek, Hamit; Aydin, Omer Faruk; Tomak, Leman; Selcuk, Mustafa Bekir

    2017-09-12

    To evaluate the feasibility of quantitative analysis of muscle stiffness in the medial gastrocnemius muscle (GCM) by acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) ultrasound elastography in children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP). Seventeen children with spastic CP and 25 healthy children participated in the study between the years 2016-2017. The medial GCM in the CP group was assessed using the Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS) by a physiatrist. ARFI was used to measure the shear-wave velocities (SWVs) of the medial GCM. The mean SWV value for each MAS score was calculated and used for statistics. The mean SWV values of the medial GCM in the CP and healthy groups were 3.17 ± 0.81 m/s (mean ± SD) and 1.45 ± 0.25 m/s (mean ± SD), respectively. The SWV of the medial GCM significantly increased in the CP patients when compared with controls (p < 0.001). In addition, the SWV values were correlated with the MAS scores (p < 0.001). The interobserver agreement expressed as the interclass correlation coefficient was 0.65 (95% CI 0.33-0.84, p < 0.001). ARFI imaging demonstrated a difference in muscle stiffness in the medial GCM between the CP and healthy groups. This method is a feasible imaging modality for the noninvasive assessment of contracting muscles in children with CP.

  6. Risk stratification of thyroid nodules with Bethesda category III results on fine-needle aspiration cytology: The additional value of acoustic radiation force impulse elastography.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chong-Ke; Xu, Hui-Xiong; Xu, Jun-Mei; Sun, Cheng-Yu; Chen, Wei; Liu, Bo-Ji; Bo, Xiao-Wan; Wang, Dan; Qu, Shen

    2017-01-03

    To assess the value of conventional ultrasound, conventional strain elastography (CSE) and acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) elastography in differentiating likelihood of malignancy for Bethesda category III thyroid nodules. 103 thyroid nodules with Bethesda category III results on fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in 103 patients were included and all were pathologically confirmed after surgery. Conventional ultrasound, CSE and ARFI elastography including ARFI imaging and point shear wave speed (SWS) measurement were performed. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify the independent factors associated with malignancy. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (Az) was calculated to assess the diagnostic performance. Pathologically, 65 nodules were benign and 38 were malignant. Significant differences were found between benign and malignant nodules in ARFI. The cut-off points were ARFI imaging grade ≥ 4, SWS > 2.94 m/s and SWS ratio > 1.09, respectively. ARFI imaging (Az: 0.861) had the highest diagnostic performance to differentiate malignant from benign nodules, following by conventional ultrasound (Az: 0.606 - 0.744), CSE (Az: 0.660) and point SWS measurement (Az: 0.725 - 0.735). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that ARFI imaging grade ≥ 4 was the most significant independent predictor. The combination of ARFI imaging with point SWS measurement significantly improved the specificity (100% vs. 80.0%) and positive predictive value (100 % vs. 72.9%) in comparison with ARFI imaging alone. ARFI elastography is a useful tool in differentiating malignant from benign thyroid nodules with Bethesda category III results on FNAC.

  7. Virtual touch tissue imaging on acoustic radiation force impulse elastography: a new technique for differential diagnosis between benign and malignant thyroid nodules.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi-Feng; He, Yong; Xu, Hui-Xiong; Xu, Xiao-Hong; Liu, Chang; Guo, Le-Hang; Liu, Lin-Na; Xu, Jun-Mei

    2014-04-01

    Objectives- Acoustic radiation force impulse elastography is a newly developed ultrasound elasticity imaging technique that included both Virtual Touch tissue quantification and Virtual Touch tissue imaging (VTI; Siemens Medical Solutions, Mountain View, CA). This study aimed to evaluate the usefulness of VTI in differentiating malignant from benign thyroid nodules. Methods- This study included 192 consecutive patients with thyroid nodules (n = 219) who underwent surgery for compressive symptoms or suspicion of malignancy. Tissue stiffness on VTI elastography was scored from 1 (soft) to 6 (hard). The VTI scores between malignant and benign thyroid nodules were compared. The intraobserver and interobserver agreement for VTI elastography was also assessed. Results- On VTI elastography: score 1 was found in 84 nodules (all benign); score 2 in 37 nodules (3 papillary carcinomas and 34 benign nodules); score 3 in 25 nodules (1 medullary carcinoma, 6 papillary carcinomas, and 18 benign nodules); score 4 in 53 nodules (50 papillary carcinomas and 3 benign nodules); score 5 in 17 nodules (14 papillary carcinomas and 3 benign nodules); and score 6 in 3 nodules (all papillary carcinomas). A VTI elasticity score of 4 or greater was highly predictive of malignancy (P< .01), and the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy were 87.0% (67 of 77), 95.8% (136 of 142), 91.8% (67 of 73), 93.1% (136 of 146), and 92.7% (203 of 219), respectively. The κ values were 0.69 for intraobserver agreement and 0.85 for interobserver agreement. Conclusions- Virtual Touch tissue elasticity imaging has great potential as an adjunctive tool combined with conventional sonography for differential diagnosis between benign and malignant thyroid nodules.

  8. Risk stratification of thyroid nodules with Bethesda category III results on fine-needle aspiration cytology: The additional value of acoustic radiation force impulse elastography

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Chong-Ke; Xu, Hui-Xiong; Xu, Jun-Mei; Sun, Cheng-Yu; Chen, Wei; Liu, Bo-Ji; Bo, Xiao-Wan; Wang, Dan; Qu, Shen

    2017-01-01

    To assess the value of conventional ultrasound, conventional strain elastography (CSE) and acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) elastography in differentiating likelihood of malignancy for Bethesda category III thyroid nodules. 103 thyroid nodules with Bethesda category III results on fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in 103 patients were included and all were pathologically confirmed after surgery. Conventional ultrasound, CSE and ARFI elastography including ARFI imaging and point shear wave speed (SWS) measurement were performed. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify the independent factors associated with malignancy. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (Az) was calculated to assess the diagnostic performance. Pathologically, 65 nodules were benign and 38 were malignant. Significant differences were found between benign and malignant nodules in ARFI. The cut-off points were ARFI imaging grade ≥ 4, SWS > 2.94 m/s and SWS ratio > 1.09, respectively. ARFI imaging (Az: 0.861) had the highest diagnostic performance to differentiate malignant from benign nodules, following by conventional ultrasound (Az: 0.606 - 0.744), CSE (Az: 0.660) and point SWS measurement (Az: 0.725 - 0.735). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that ARFI imaging grade ≥ 4 was the most significant independent predictor. The combination of ARFI imaging with point SWS measurement significantly improved the specificity (100% vs. 80.0%) and positive predictive value (100 % vs. 72.9%) in comparison with ARFI imaging alone. ARFI elastography is a useful tool in differentiating malignant from benign thyroid nodules with Bethesda category III results on FNAC. PMID:27906671

  9. Acoustic radiation force impulse elastography for chronic liver disease: comparison with ultrasound-based scores of experienced radiologists, Child-Pugh scores and liver function tests.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Eun; Lee, Jae Young; Kim, Yoon Jun; Yoon, Jung Hwan; Kim, Se Hyung; Lee, Jeong Min; Han, Joon Koo; Choi, Byung Ihn

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of our study was to investigate whether acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) elastography provides better diagnostic performance for diagnosis of chronic liver disease and correlates better with Child-Pugh scores and liver function tests, compared with an ultrasound (US) scoring system based on visual assessment of conventional B-mode US images by experienced radiologists. Five hundred and twenty-one patients with clinically proven chronic liver disease (n = 293), fatty liver (n = 95) or normal liver (n = 133) were included in this study. B-mode liver US and ARFI elastography were performed in all patients. ARFI elastography was performed at least five times, with each measurement obtained at a different area of the right hepatic lobe; mean shear wave velocity (SWV) was calculated for each patient. The mean SWV was compared with US-based scores from two radiologists (based on liver surface nodularity, parenchyma echotexture and hepatic vein contour), Child-Pugh scores and liver function tests. The mean SWV of the normal liver group was 1.08 m/s ± 0.15; of the fatty liver group, 1.02 m/s ± 0.16; and of the chronic liver disease group, 1.66 m/s ± 0.60 (p < 0.001). The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve of the mean SWV in ARFI elastography was significantly higher than that of the conventional B-mode US-based scores by two radiologists (0.89 vs. 0.74 and 0.77, p < 0.05), with a sensitivity of 75.4% and a specificity of 89.5% at the cut-off value of 1.22 m/s. The sensitivity of the mean SWV was significantly higher than the US-based scores (p < 0.001), although the specificity was not (p > 0.05). The mean SWV was better correlated with Child-Pugh scores and all liver function tests (except total protein) than the US-based scores from two radiologists. In conclusion, ARFI elastography showed better diagnostic performance than visual assessment of experienced radiologists for diagnosis of chronic liver disease, as well as for

  10. Acoustic radiation force impulse-imaging and transient elastography for non-invasive assessment of liver fibrosis and steatosis in NAFLD.

    PubMed

    Friedrich-Rust, Mireen; Romen, Daniela; Vermehren, Johannes; Kriener, Susanne; Sadet, Dilek; Herrmann, Eva; Zeuzem, Stefan; Bojunga, Joerg

    2012-03-01

    Transient elastography (TE) and acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI)-imaging have shown promising results for the staging of liver fibrosis. The aim of the present study was to compare ARFI of the left and right liver lobe with TE using the standard and obese probes for the diagnosis of liver fibrosis in NAFL/NASH. In addition, liver steatosis is evaluated using the novel controlled attenuation parameter (CAP). Sixty-one patients with NAFLD/NASH were included in the study. All patients received TE with both probes, ARFI of both liver lobes and CAP. The results were compared with liver histology. 57 patients were included in the final analysis. The diagnostic accuracy for TE measurements with the M-and XL-probe and for ARFI of the right and left liver lobe was 0.73, 0.84, 0.71 and 0.60 for the diagnosis of severe fibrosis, and 0.93, 0.93, 0.74 and 0.90 for the diagnosis of cirrhosis, respectively. No significant difference of results was observed between TE and ARFI in the subgroup of patients with reliable TE-measurement when taking into account the best results of both methods. However, while a significant correlation could be found for TE with histological liver fibrosis, the correlation of ARFI with liver fibrosis was not statistically significant. A significant correlation was found for CAP with histological steatosis (r=0.49, p<0.001). No significant difference in diagnostic accuracy for the non-invasive assessment of liver fibrosis was found for transient elastography and ARFI. Nevertheless TE significantly correlated with liver fibrosis while ARFI did not. CAP enables the non-invasive assessment of steatosis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Relationship between the estimated glomerular filtration rate and kidney shear wave speed values assessed by acoustic radiation force impulse elastography: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Bob, Flaviu; Bota, Simona; Sporea, Ioan; Sirli, Roxana; Popescu, Alina; Schiller, Adalbert

    2015-04-01

    The aim of the study was to establish the relationship between the estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and kidney shear wave speed values assessed by acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) elastography. Our study included 104 patients with or without chronic kidney disease in which the kidney shear wave speed was evaluated by ARFI elastography and correlated with the estimated GFR. Five ARFI measurements were performed in the parenchyma of each kidney. A median value expressed as meters per second was calculated. Five valid ARFI elastographic measurements were obtained in the right kidney in all patients and in the left kidney in 97.1% of patients. The mean kidney shear wave speed values ± SD in the right and left kidneys were similar: 2.17 ± 0.81 versus 2.06 ± 0.75 m/s (P = .30). The mean kidney shear wave speed decreased with the decrease in the estimated GFR. Statistically significant differences were obtained only when kidney shear wave speed values obtained in patients with an estimated GFR of greater than 90 mL/min/1.73 m(2) were compared to values in patients with stage 4 (estimated GFR, 15-29 mL/min/1.73 m(2)) and stage 5 (estimated GFR, <15 mL/min/1.73 m(2)) chronic kidney disease: 2.32 ± 0.83 versus 1.62 ± 0.75 m/s (P = .03) and 2.32 ± 0.83 versus 1.66 ± 0.72 m/s (P = .04), respectively. For a cutoff value of 2.26 m/s or lower, kidney shear wave speed had 86.7% sensitivity, 48.3% specificity, a 22.1% positive predictive value, and a 95.6% negative predictive value (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.692; P = .008) for predicting the presence of an estimated GFR of less than 30 mL/min/1.73 m(2). Kidney shear wave speed values obtained by ARFI elastography decrease with the decrease in the estimated GFR. © 2015 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  12. A Risk Model for Predicting Central Lymph Node Metastasis of Papillary Thyroid Microcarcinoma Including Conventional Ultrasound and Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse Elastography

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jun-Mei; Xu, Hui-Xiong; Li, Xiao-Long; Bo, Xiao-Wan; Xu, Xiao-Hong; Zhang, Yi-Feng; Guo, Le-Hang; Liu, Lin-Na; Qu, Shen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this prospective study was to propose a new rating system using a risk model including conventional ultrasound (US) and acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) elastography for predicting central lymph node metastasis (LNM) in patients with papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC). A total of 252 patients with PTMCs were enrolled, who were preoperatively evaluated by US and ARFI elastography including virtual touch tissue imaging (VTI) and virtual touch tissue quantification (VTQ). Risk factors of independent variables for central LNM were analyzed by univariate and multivariate analyses. A multivariate analysis was performed to create a predicting model and rating system. Of the 252 patients, 72 (28.6%) had central LNMs. Multivariate analysis revealed that rare internal flow (odds ratio [OR]: 4.454), multiple suspicious foci on US (OR: 5.136), capsule involvement (OR: 20.632), and VTI area ratio (VAR) > 1 (OR: 5.621) were independent risk factors for central LNM. The final predicting model was obtained and the risk score (RS) was defined as 1.5 × (if rare internal flow) + 1.6 × (if multiple suspicious foci on US) + 1.7 × (if VAR > 1) + 3.0 × (if capsule involvement). The rating system was divided into 5 stages. Stage I, <1.5; Stage II, 1.5 to 3.0; Stage III, 3.1 to 4.7; Stage IV, 4.8 to 6.3; and Stage V, 6.4 to 7.8. The risk rates of central LNM were 3.4% (2/59) in Stage I, 13.3% (13/98) in Stage II, 54.2% (39/72) in Stage III, 72.2% (13/18) in Stage IV, and 100% (5/5) in Stage V (P < 0.001). The results indicated that rare internal flow, multiple suspicious foci, capsule involvement on US, and VAR > 1 on ARFI elastography are the risk factors for predicting central LNM. The risk model developed in the study clearly predicts the risk of central LNM in patients with PTMC and thus has a potential to avoid unnecessary central compartment node dissection. PMID:26817907

  13. Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse Elastography for Efficacy Evaluation after Hepatocellular Carcinoma Radiofrequency Ablation: A Comparative Study with Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiaohong; Luo, Liangping; Chen, Jiexin; Wang, Jiexin; Zhou, Honglian; Li, Mingyi; Jin, Zhanqiang; Chen, Nianping; Miao, Huilai; Lin, Manzhou; Dai, Wei; Ahuja, Anil T.; Wang, Yi-Xiang J.

    2014-01-01

    Aim. To explore acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) elastography in assessing residual tumors of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after radiofrequency ablation (RFA). Materials and Methods. There were 83 HCC lesions among 72 patients. All patients were examined with ARFI, contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS), and CT or MRI. Tumor brightness on virtual touch tissue imaging (VTI) and shear wave velocity (SWV) were assessed before and approximately one month after RFA. Results. There were 14 residual tumors after RFA. VTI showed that all the tumors were darker after RFA. VTI was not able to distinguish the ablated lesions and the residual tumors. 13 residual tumor lesions were detected by CEUS. All completely ablated nodules had SWV demonstration of x.xx., while with those residual nodules, 6 tumors had x.xx measurement and 8 tumors had measurable SWV. nine lesions with residual tumors occurred in cirrhosis subjects and 5 lesions with residual tumors occurred in fibrosis subjects; there was no residual tumor in the normal liver subjects. Conclusion. VTI technique cannot demonstrate residual tumor post RFA. While SWV measurement of less than x.xx is likely associated with residual tumors, measurement of less than x.xx cannot exclude residual tumors. Liver cirrhosis is associated with decreased chance of a complete ablation. PMID:24895624

  14. Investigation of the effects of myocardial anisotropy for shear wave elastography using impulsive force and harmonic vibration.

    PubMed

    Urban, Matthew W; Qiang, Bo; Song, Pengfei; Nenadic, Ivan Z; Chen, Shigao; Greenleaf, James F

    2016-01-07

    The myocardium is known to be an anisotropic medium where the muscle fiber orientation changes through the thickness of the wall. Shear wave elastography methods use propagating waves which are measured by ultrasound or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques to characterize the mechanical properties of various tissues. Ultrasound- or MR-based methods have been used and the excitation frequency ranges for these various methods cover a large range from 24-500 Hz. Some of the ultrasound-based methods have been shown to be able to estimate the fiber direction. We constructed a model with layers of elastic, transversely isotropic materials that were oriented at different angles to simulate the heart wall in systole and diastole. We investigated the effect of frequency on the wave propagation and the estimation of fiber direction and wave speeds in the different layers of the assembled models. We found that waves propagating at low frequencies such as 30 or 50 Hz showed low sensitivity to the fiber direction but also had substantial bias in estimating the wave speeds in the layers. Using waves with higher frequency content (>200 Hz) allowed for more accurate fiber direction and wave speed estimation. These results have particular relevance for MR- and ultrasound-based elastography applications in the heart.

  15. Investigation of the effects of myocardial anisotropy for shear wave elastography using impulsive force and harmonic vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urban, Matthew W.; Qiang, Bo; Song, Pengfei; Nenadic, Ivan Z.; Chen, Shigao; Greenleaf, James F.

    2016-01-01

    The myocardium is known to be an anisotropic medium where the muscle fiber orientation changes through the thickness of the wall. Shear wave elastography methods use propagating waves which are measured by ultrasound or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques to characterize the mechanical properties of various tissues. Ultrasound- or MR-based methods have been used and the excitation frequency ranges for these various methods cover a large range from 24-500 Hz. Some of the ultrasound-based methods have been shown to be able to estimate the fiber direction. We constructed a model with layers of elastic, transversely isotropic materials that were oriented at different angles to simulate the heart wall in systole and diastole. We investigated the effect of frequency on the wave propagation and the estimation of fiber direction and wave speeds in the different layers of the assembled models. We found that waves propagating at low frequencies such as 30 or 50 Hz showed low sensitivity to the fiber direction but also had substantial bias in estimating the wave speeds in the layers. Using waves with higher frequency content (>200 Hz) allowed for more accurate fiber direction and wave speed estimation. These results have particular relevance for MR- and ultrasound-based elastography applications in the heart.

  16. Investigation of the Effects of Myocardial Anisotropy for Shear Wave Elastography using Impulsive Force and Harmonic Vibration

    PubMed Central

    Urban, Matthew W.; Qiang, Bo; Song, Pengfei; Nenadic, Ivan Z.; Chen, Shigao; Greenleaf, James F.

    2016-01-01

    The myocardium is known to be an anisotropic medium where the muscle fiber orientation changes through the thickness of the wall. Shear wave elastography methods use propagating waves which are measured by ultrasound or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques to characterize the mechanical properties of various tissues. Ultrasound- or MR-based methods have been used and the excitation frequency ranges for these various methods cover a large range from 24-500 Hz. Some of the ultrasound-based methods have been shown to be able to estimate the fiber direction. We constructed a model with layers of elastic, transversely isotropic materials that were oriented at different angles to simulate the heart wall in systole and diastole. We investigated the effect of frequency on the wave propagation and the estimation of fiber direction and wave speeds in the different layers of the assembled models. We found that waves propagating at low frequencies such as 30 or 50 Hz showed low sensitivity to the fiber direction but also had substantial bias in estimating the wave speeds in the layers. Using waves with higher frequency content (> 200 Hz) allowed for more accurate fiber direction and wave speed estimation. These results have particular relevance for MR- and ultrasound-based elastography applications in the heart. PMID:26674613

  17. [Contrastive study on conventional ultrasound, compression elastography and acoustic radiation force impulse imaging in the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant breast tumors].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lu; Zhou, Ping; Deng, Jin; Tian, Shuangming; Qian, Ying; Wu, Xiaomin; Ma, Shuhua; Li, Jiale

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic performance of conventional ultrasound, compression elastography (CE) and acoustic radiation force impulse imaging (ARFI) in differential diagnosis of benign and malignant breast tumors. A total of 98 patients with liver lesions were included in the study. The images of conventional ultrasound, CE and the values of virtual touch tissue quantification (VTQ) of breast lesions were obtained. The diagnostic performance of conventional ultrasound, CE and ARFI were assessed by using pathology as the gold standard, and then evaluate the diagnosis efficiency of these three approaches in differential diagnosing benign and malignant breast tumors. The specificity, sensitivity and accuracy in the diagnosis of malignant breast tumors for conventional ultrasound were 80.0%, 81.1% and 81.7%, respectively, whereas for CE elastic score were 85.7%, 86.7% and 86.3%, respectively. With a cutoff value of 3.71 for the SR, the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy in diagnosis of malignant breast tumors were 97.1%, 83.3% and 88.4%, respectively. With a cutoff value of 3.78 m/s for VTQ, the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy in diagnosis of malignant breast tumors were 94.3%, 91.7% and 92.6%, respectively. The difference in diagnosis efficiency among ARFI, CE and conventional ultrasound in differential diagnosis of benign and malignant breast tumors was significant (P< 0.05). Conventional ultrasound, CE and ARFI are all useful for the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant breast tumors. But the diagnosis efficiency of ARFI is superior to CE and conventional ultrasound. The three approaches can help each other in differential diagnosis of benign and malignant breast tumors.

  18. Evaluation of Transient Elastography, Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse Imaging (ARFI), and Enhanced Liver Function (ELF) Score for Detection of Fibrosis in Morbidly Obese Patients

    PubMed Central

    Karlas, Thomas; Dietrich, Arne; Peter, Veronica; Wittekind, Christian; Lichtinghagen, Ralf; Garnov, Nikita; Linder, Nicolas; Schaudinn, Alexander; Busse, Harald; Prettin, Christiane; Keim, Volker; Tröltzsch, Michael; Schütz, Tatjana; Wiegand, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Background Liver fibrosis induced by non-alcoholic fatty liver disease causes peri-interventional complications in morbidly obese patients. We determined the performance of transient elastography (TE), acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) imaging, and enhanced liver fibrosis (ELF) score for fibrosis detection in bariatric patients. Patients and Methods 41 patients (median BMI 47 kg/m2) underwent 14-day low-energy diets to improve conditions prior to bariatric surgery (day 0). TE (M and XL probe), ARFI, and ELF score were performed on days -15 and -1 and compared with intraoperative liver biopsies (NAS staging). Results Valid TE and ARFI results at day -15 and -1 were obtained in 49%/88% and 51%/90% of cases, respectively. High skin-to-liver-capsule distances correlated with invalid TE measurements. Fibrosis of liver biopsies was staged as F1 and F3 in n = 40 and n = 1 individuals. However, variations (median/range at d-15/-1) of TE (4.6/2.6–75 and 6.7/2.9–21.3 kPa) and ARFI (2.1/0.7–3.7 and 2.0/0.7–3.8 m/s) were high and associated with overestimation of fibrosis. The ELF score correctly classified 87.5% of patients. Conclusion In bariatric patients, performance of TE and ARFI was poor and did not improve after weight loss. The ELF score correctly classified the majority of cases and should be further evaluated. PMID:26528818

  19. The pursuit of normal reference values of pancreas stiffness by using Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (ARFI) elastography.

    PubMed

    Zaro, Razvan; Lupsor-Platon, Monica; Cheviet, Alexandre; Badea, Radu

    2016-12-05

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate pancreatic stiffness by ARFI abdominal elastography. In the current literature, there are relatively few studies that have assessed the clinical utility of this technique. A number of 37 healthy subjects were included. The data were collected in a prospective manner and afterwards included in an observational, analytical and longitudinal study. Subsequently viewing the pancreatic parenchyma in bidimensional mode (2D-US) mode, 10 shear wave velocity (SWV) measurements for each segment: head, body and tail were performed. Statistical analysis by regression models targeted also the possible influence of other factors in assessing SWV. A comparative analysis was performed regarding the statistical significance of 5 versus 10 SWV measurements for each segment. The pancreas was entirely evaluated in all subjects. The mean SWV from the entire parenchyma was 1.216 m/s±0.36 and between the three segments SWV were similar (head: 1.224 m/s, body: 1.227 m/s and tail: 1.191 m/s). A ratio of the IQR/Median >0.4 was interpreted as statistically invalid, relevant data being highlighted in the percentage of 83.78% for the head of the pancreas, 78.37% for the body, and 67.56% at the caudal level. Significant correlations were observed between the data (mean and median SWV) provided by the group with 5 measurements of the SWV versus the standard group: 93.9% for the head, 96.6% for the body, and 98.7% accordingly to the tail. SWV determination by percutaneous approach represents a useful imaging method for evaluating pancreatic stiffness, of course within these limitations. Because we did not observe statistically significant differences between the results obtained by 5 or 10 measurements, we suggest that it would be sufficient to perform only five measurements of the SWV per pancreatic segment. The data obtained in the normal pancreas could be used in future comparative assessments regarding the inflammatory or tumoral pathology of the

  20. Lorentz force optical coherence elastography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chen; Singh, Manmohan; Han, Zhaolong; Raghunathan, Raksha; Liu, Chih-Hao; Li, Jiasong; Schill, Alexander; Larin, Kirill V.

    2016-09-01

    Quantifying tissue biomechanical properties can assist in detection of abnormalities and monitoring disease progression and/or response to a therapy. Optical coherence elastography (OCE) has emerged as a promising technique for noninvasively characterizing tissue biomechanical properties. Several mechanical loading techniques have been proposed to induce static or transient deformations in tissues, but each has its own areas of applications and limitations. This study demonstrates the combination of Lorentz force excitation and phase-sensitive OCE at ˜1.5 million A-lines per second to quantify the elasticity of tissue by directly imaging Lorentz force-induced elastic waves. This method of tissue excitation opens the possibility of a wide range of investigations using tissue biocurrents and conductivity for biomechanical analysis.

  1. The diagnostic performances of conventional strain elastography (SE), acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) imaging and point shear-wave speed (pSWS) measurement for non-calcified thyroid nodules.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bao-Ding; Xu, Hui-Xiong; Zhang, Yi-Feng; Liu, Bo-Ji; Guo, Le-Hang; Li, Dan-Dan; Zhao, Chong-Ke; Li, Xiao-Long; Wang, Dan; Zhao, Shuang-Shuang

    2017-01-01

    Non-calcified thyroid nodules are relatively difficult to diagnose only relying on features of at conventional US images. To investigate the diagnostic performances of conventional strain elastography (SE), acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) SE and point shear-wave speed (pSWS) measurement for non-calcified thyroid nodules. A total of 201 non-calcified thyroid nodules in 195 patients were studied. They were examined with conventional ultrasound (US), conventional SE, ARFI SE and pSWS measurement. Their diagnostic performances and multivariable models were assessed with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and logistic regression analyses respectively. There were 156 benign and 45 malignant non-calcified nodules proven by histopathology or cystology. The mean diameters of the nodules were 21.2±10.8 mm. Areas under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUCs) of elastography features (ranged, 0.488-0.745) were all greater than that of US (ranged, 0.111-0.332). At multivariate analysis, there were three predictors of malignancy for non-calcified nodules, including pSWS of nodule (odds ratio [OR], 34.960; 95% CI, 11.582-105.529), marked hypoechogenicity (OR, 16.223; 95% CI, 1.761-149.454) and ARFI SE grade (OR, 10.900; 95% CI, 3.567-33.310). US+SE+pSWS owned the largest AUC (0.936; 95% CI, 0.887-0.985; P < 0.05), followed by US+pSWS (0.889; 95% CI, 0.823-0.955), and the poorest was US (0.727; 95% CI, 0.635-0.819). ARFI SE and pSWS measurement had better diagnostic performances than conventional SE and US. When US combined with SE and pSWS measurement, it could achieve an excellent diagnostic performance and might contribute a better decision-making of FNA for non-calcified thyroid nodules.

  2. Prospective Assessment of Correlation between US Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse and MR Elastography in a Pediatric Population: Dispersion of US Shear-Wave Speed Measurement Matters.

    PubMed

    Trout, Andrew T; Dillman, Jonathan R; Xanthakos, Stavra; Kohli, Rohit; Sprague, Garrett; Serai, Suraj; Mahley, Alana D; Podberesky, Daniel J

    2016-11-01

    Purpose To evaluate the correlation between ultrasonographic (US) point shear-wave elastography (SWE) and magnetic resonance (MR) elastography liver shear-wave speed (SWS) measurements in a pediatric population and to determine if US data dispersion affects this relationship. Materials and Methods Institutional review board approval was obtained for this HIPAA-compliant investigation; informed consent and patient assent (as indicated) were obtained. Patients (age range, 0-21 years) undergoing clinical liver MR elastography between July 2014 and November 2015 were prospectively enrolled. Patients underwent two-dimensional gradient-recalled-echo 1.5-T MR elastography with point SWE performed immediately before or immediately after MR elastography. Spearman rank correlation coefficients were calculated to assess the relationship and agreement between point SWE and MR elastography SWS measurements. Uni- and multivariate logistic regression were performed to identify predictors of US data dispersion, with the best multivariate model selected based on Akaike information criterion. Results A total of 55 patients (24 female) were enrolled (mean age, 14.0 years ± 3.9 (standard deviation) (range, 3.5-21.4 years). There was fair correlation between point SWE and MR elastography SWS values for all patients (ρ = 0.33, P = .016). Correlation was substantial, however, when including only patients with minimal US data dispersion (n = 26, ρ = 0.61, P = .001). Mean body mass index (BMI) was significantly lower in patients with minimal US data dispersion than in those with substantial US data dispersion (25.4 kg/m(2) ± 7.8 vs 32.3 kg/m(2) ± 8.3, P = .003). At univariate analysis, BMI (odds ratio, 1.12; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.03, 1.21; P = .006) and abdominal wall thickness (odds ratio, 2.50; 95% CI: 1.32, 4.74; P = .005) were significant predictors of US data dispersion. In the best multivariate model, BMI was the only significant predictor (odds ratio, 1.11; 95% CI: 1

  3. Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse Elastography for the Non-Invasive Evaluation of Hepatic Fibrosis in Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Patients: A Systematic Review & Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Haixia; Fu, Jing; Hong, Ruixia; Liu, Li; Li, Fang

    2015-01-01

    Background In order to better monitor non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) patients at higher risk for HCC, there is a need for non-invasive diagnostic approaches to screen for the presence of advanced fibrosis in these patients. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis will be to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of ARFI elastography in detecting hepatic fibrosis in NAFLD patients. Methods Relevant studies were identified from systematic searches of several major electronic databases (PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials). The primary outcomes were the summary sensitivity, summary specificity, the diagnostic odds ratio, and the summary receiver operating characteristic curve (SROC) of ARFI elastography in detecting significant fibrosis (defined as 4>F≥2) in NAFLD patients. Study quality was assessed using the Quality Assessment of Studies of Diagnostic Accuracy included in Systematic Review (QUADAS-2). Results The summary sensitivity and specificity of ARFI in detecting significant fibrosis were 80.2% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.758–0.842; p = 0.0000) and 85.2% (95% CI: 0.808–0.890), p = 0.1617), respectively. The pooled diagnostic odds ratio of ARFI in detecting significant fibrosis was 30.13 (95% CI: 12.08–75; chi-squared = 14.59, p = 0.0237). The area under the SROC curve (AUC) was 0.898 (standard error (SE): 0.031) with a Q* index of 0.830 (SE: 0.033). Conclusions ARFI elastography appears to be modestly accurate in detecting significant fibrosis in NAFLD patients. Future studies in this field should provide head-to-head comparisons of ARFI elastography versus other elastographic imaging modalities in NAFLD patients. PMID:26131717

  4. Building an open-source simulation platform of acoustic radiation force-based breast elastography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yu; Peng, Bo; Jiang, Jingfeng

    2017-03-01

    Ultrasound-based elastography including strain elastography, acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) imaging, point shear wave elastography and supersonic shear imaging (SSI) have been used to differentiate breast tumors among other clinical applications. The objective of this study is to extend a previously published virtual simulation platform built for ultrasound quasi-static breast elastography toward acoustic radiation force-based breast elastography. Consequently, the extended virtual breast elastography simulation platform can be used to validate image pixels with known underlying soft tissue properties (i.e. ‘ground truth’) in complex, heterogeneous media, enhancing confidence in elastographic image interpretations. The proposed virtual breast elastography system inherited four key components from the previously published virtual simulation platform: an ultrasound simulator (Field II), a mesh generator (Tetgen), a finite element solver (FEBio) and a visualization and data processing package (VTK). Using a simple message passing mechanism, functionalities have now been extended to acoustic radiation force-based elastography simulations. Examples involving three different numerical breast models with increasing complexity—one uniform model, one simple inclusion model and one virtual complex breast model derived from magnetic resonance imaging data, were used to demonstrate capabilities of this extended virtual platform. Overall, simulation results were compared with the published results. In the uniform model, the estimated shear wave speed (SWS) values were within 4% compared to the predetermined SWS values. In the simple inclusion and the complex breast models, SWS values of all hard inclusions in soft backgrounds were slightly underestimated, similar to what has been reported. The elastic contrast values and visual observation show that ARFI images have higher spatial resolution, while SSI images can provide higher inclusion-to-background contrast

  5. Building an open-source simulation platform of acoustic radiation force-based breast elastography.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Peng, Bo; Jiang, Jingfeng

    2017-03-07

    Ultrasound-based elastography including strain elastography, acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) imaging, point shear wave elastography and supersonic shear imaging (SSI) have been used to differentiate breast tumors among other clinical applications. The objective of this study is to extend a previously published virtual simulation platform built for ultrasound quasi-static breast elastography toward acoustic radiation force-based breast elastography. Consequently, the extended virtual breast elastography simulation platform can be used to validate image pixels with known underlying soft tissue properties (i.e. 'ground truth') in complex, heterogeneous media, enhancing confidence in elastographic image interpretations. The proposed virtual breast elastography system inherited four key components from the previously published virtual simulation platform: an ultrasound simulator (Field II), a mesh generator (Tetgen), a finite element solver (FEBio) and a visualization and data processing package (VTK). Using a simple message passing mechanism, functionalities have now been extended to acoustic radiation force-based elastography simulations. Examples involving three different numerical breast models with increasing complexity-one uniform model, one simple inclusion model and one virtual complex breast model derived from magnetic resonance imaging data, were used to demonstrate capabilities of this extended virtual platform. Overall, simulation results were compared with the published results. In the uniform model, the estimated shear wave speed (SWS) values were within 4% compared to the predetermined SWS values. In the simple inclusion and the complex breast models, SWS values of all hard inclusions in soft backgrounds were slightly underestimated, similar to what has been reported. The elastic contrast values and visual observation show that ARFI images have higher spatial resolution, while SSI images can provide higher inclusion-to-background contrast. In

  6. Lorentz force megahertz optical coherence elastography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chen; Singh, Manmohan; Han, Zhaolong; Raghunathan, Raksha; Liu, Chih-Hao; Li, Jiasong; Schill, Alexander; Larin, Kirill V.

    2016-03-01

    Optical Coherence Elastography (OCE) is a rapidly developing technique for assessing tissue biomechanical properties. This study demonstrates the first use of the Lorentz force to induce elastic waves within tissue to quantify the elasticity of tissue in combination with a phase-sensitive OCE system at ~1.5 million A-scans per second. The feasibility of this technique was tested on tissue-mimicking agar phantoms of various concentrations. The results as assessed by OCE were in good agreement with standard mechanical testing of the samples. After the preliminary experiments, the stiffness of porcine liver was examined. The results demonstrate that Lorentz force MHz OCE can be applied to study the elasticity of biological tissue effectively and has the potential for clinical applications due to rapid excitation and imaging.

  7. Frequency adaptation for enhanced radiation force amplitude in dynamic elastography.

    PubMed

    Ouared, Abderrahmane; Montagnon, Emmanuel; Kazemirad, Siavash; Gaboury, Louis; Robidoux, André; Cloutier, Guy

    2015-08-01

    In remote dynamic elastography, the amplitude of the generated displacement field is directly related to the amplitude of the radiation force. Therefore, displacement improvement for better tissue characterization requires the optimization of the radiation force amplitude by increasing the push duration and/or the excitation amplitude applied on the transducer. The main problem of these approaches is that the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) thresholds for medical applications and transducer limitations may be easily exceeded. In the present study, the effect of the frequency used for the generation of the radiation force on the amplitude of the displacement field was investigated. We found that amplitudes of displacements generated by adapted radiation force sequences were greater than those generated by standard nonadapted ones (i.e., single push acoustic radiation force impulse and supersonic shear imaging). Gains in magnitude were between 20 to 158% for in vitro measurements on agar-gelatin phantoms, and 170 to 336% for ex vivo measurements on a human breast sample, depending on focus depths and attenuations of tested samples. The signal-to-noise ratio was also improved more than 4-fold with adapted sequences. We conclude that frequency adaptation is a complementary technique that is efficient for the optimization of displacement amplitudes. This technique can be used safely to optimize the deposited local acoustic energy without increasing the risk of damaging tissues and transducer elements.

  8. Model-based optical coherence elastography using acoustic radiation force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aglyamov, Salavat; Wang, Shang; Karpiouk, Andrei; Li, Jiasong; Emelianov, Stanislav; Larin, Kirill V.

    2014-02-01

    Acoustic Radiation Force (ARF) stimulation is actively used in ultrasound elastography to estimate mechanical properties of tissue. Compared with ultrasound imaging, OCT provides advantage in both spatial resolution and signal-to-noise ratio. Therefore, a combination of ARF and OCT technologies can provide a unique opportunity to measure viscoelastic properties of tissue, especially when the use of high intensity radiation pressure is limited for safety reasons. In this presentation we discuss a newly developed theoretical model of the deformation of a layered viscoelastic medium in response to an acoustic radiation force of short duration. An acoustic impulse was considered as an axisymmetric force generated on the upper surface of the medium. An analytical solution of this problem was obtained using the Hankel transform in frequency domain. It was demonstrated that layers at different depths introduce different frequency responses. To verify the developed model, experiments were performed using tissue-simulating, inhomogeneous phantoms of varying mechanical properties. The Young's modulus of the phantoms was varied from 5 to 50 kPa. A single-element focused ultrasound transducer (3.5 MHz) was used to apply the radiation force with various durations on the surface of phantoms. Displacements on the phantom surface were measured using a phase-sensitive OCT at 25 kHz repetition frequency. The experimental results were in good agreement with the modeling results. Therefore, the proposed theoretical model can be used to reconstruct the mechanical properties of tissue based on ARF/OCT measurements.

  9. [Radiology Update Ultrasound Elastography – Quintessence for the Primary Care Physician].

    PubMed

    Franckenberg, Sabine; Gubler, Christoph; Frauenfelder, Thomas; Rominger, Marga

    2016-02-03

    Ultrasound elastography visualizes and measures elasticity of tissue. Depending on the methods there are four types of elastography: strain elastography (SE), transient elastography (TE), acoustic radiation force impulse imaging (ARFI) and shear wave elastography (SWE). Due to the fact that pathological changes in the tissue in most of the cases mean a lower elasticity, ultrasound elastography is able to diagnose diseases such as liver fibrosis, liver cirrhosis, to help in the diagnosis of suspicious lesions in mamma, prostate and thyroid gland. So far, ultrasound elastography is not yet able to replace other standardized diagnostic tools but can add valuable diagnostic information.

  10. Acoustic radiation force optical coherence elastography using vibro-acoustography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Yueqiao (.; Ma, Teng; Li, Rui; Qi, Wenjuan; Zhu, Jiang; He, Youmin; Shung, K. K.; Zhou, Qifa; Chen, Zhongping

    2015-03-01

    High-resolution elasticity mapping of tissue biomechanical properties is crucial in early detection of many diseases. We report a method of acoustic radiation force optical coherence elastography (ARF-OCE) based on the methods of vibroacoustography, which uses a dual-ring ultrasonic transducer in order to excite a highly localized 3-D field. The single element transducer introduced previously in our ARF imaging has low depth resolution because the ARF is difficult to discriminate along the entire ultrasound propagation path. The novel dual-ring approach takes advantage of two overlapping acoustic fields and a few-hundred-Hertz difference in the signal frequencies of the two unmodulated confocal ring transducers in order to confine the acoustic stress field within a smaller volume. This frequency difference is the resulting "beating" frequency of the system. The frequency modulation of the transducers has been validated by comparing the dual ring ARF-OCE measurement to that of the single ring using a homogeneous silicone phantom. We have compared and analyzed the phantom resonance frequency to show the feasibility of our approach. We also show phantom images of the ARF-OCE based vibro-acoustography method and map out its acoustic stress region. We concluded that the dual-ring transducer is able to better localize the excitation to a smaller region to induce a focused force, which allows for highly selective excitation of small regions. The beat-frequency elastography method has great potential to achieve high-resolution elastography for ophthalmology and cardiovascular applications.

  11. Force-Time Entropy of Isometric Impulse.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Tsung-Yu; Newell, Karl M

    2016-01-01

    The relation between force and temporal variability in discrete impulse production has been viewed as independent (R. A. Schmidt, H. Zelaznik, B. Hawkins, J. S. Frank, & J. T. Quinn, 1979 ) or dependent on the rate of force (L. G. Carlton & K. M. Newell, 1993 ). Two experiments in an isometric single finger force task investigated the joint force-time entropy with (a) fixed time to peak force and different percentages of force level and (b) fixed percentage of force level and different times to peak force. The results showed that the peak force variability increased either with the increment of force level or through a shorter time to peak force that also reduced timing error variability. The peak force entropy and entropy of time to peak force increased on the respective dimension as the parameter conditions approached either maximum force or a minimum rate of force production. The findings show that force error and timing error are dependent but complementary when considered in the same framework with the joint force-time entropy at a minimum in the middle parameter range of discrete impulse.

  12. Testicular microlithiasis and preliminary experience of acoustic radiation force impulse imaging

    PubMed Central

    Osther, Palle Jørn Sloth; Rafaelsen, Søren Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Background Elastography of the testis can be used as a part of multiparametric examination of the scrotum. Purpose To determine the testicular stiffness using acoustic radiation force impulse imaging (ARFI) technique in men with testicular microlithiasis (TML). Material and Methods In 2013, 12 patients with diagnosed testicular microlithiasis in 2008 (mean age, 51 years; age range, 25–76 years) underwent a 5-year follow-up B-mode ultrasonography with three ARFI elastography measurements of each testis. We used a Siemens Acuson S3000 machine. Results No malignancy was found at the 5-year follow-up B-mode and elastography in 2013. However, we found an increase in TML; in the previous ultrasonography in 2008, eight men had bilateral TML, whereas in 2013, 10 men were diagnosed with bilateral TML. The mean elasticity of testicles with TML was 0.82 m/s (interquartile range [IQR], 0.72–0.88 m/s; range, 65–1.08 m/s). Conclusion Elastography velocity of testis with TML seems to be in the same velocity range as in men with normal testis tissue. PMID:27504193

  13. A novel motion compensation algorithm for acoustic radiation force elastography.

    PubMed

    Fahey, B J; Hsu, S J; Trahey, G E

    2008-05-01

    A novel method of physiological motion compensation for use with radiation force elasticity imaging has been developed. The method utilizes a priori information from finite element method models of the response of soft tissue to impulsive radiation force to isolate physiological motion artifacts from radiation force-induced displacement fields. The new algorithmis evaluated in a series of clinically realistic imaging scenarios, and its performance is compared to that achieved with previously described motion compensation algorithms. Though not without limitations, the new model-based motion compensation algorithm performs favorably in many circumstances and may be a logical choice for use with in vivo abdominal imaging.

  14. Phase-resolved acoustic radiation force optical coherence elastography.

    PubMed

    Qi, Wenjuan; Chen, Ruimin; Chou, Lidek; Liu, Gangjun; Zhang, Jun; Zhou, Qifa; Chen, Zhongping

    2012-11-01

    Many diseases involve changes in the biomechanical properties of tissue, and there is a close correlation between tissue elasticity and pathology. We report on the development of a phase-resolved acoustic radiation force optical coherence elastography method (ARF-OCE) to evaluate the elastic properties of tissue. This method utilizes chirped acoustic radiation force to produce excitation along the sample's axial direction, and it uses phase-resolved optical coherence tomography (OCT) to measure the vibration of the sample. Under 500-Hz square wave modulated ARF signal excitation, phase change maps of tissue mimicking phantoms are generated by the ARF-OCE method, and the resulting Young's modulus ratio is correlated with a standard compression test. The results verify that this technique could efficiently measure sample elastic properties accurately and quantitatively. Furthermore, a three-dimensional ARF-OCE image of the human atherosclerotic coronary artery is obtained. The result indicates that our dynamic phase-resolved ARF-OCE method can delineate tissues with different mechanical properties.

  15. Experimental study on temperature rise of acoustic radiation force elastography.

    PubMed

    Tabaru, Marie; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Azuma, Takashi; Asami, Rei; Hashiba, Kunio

    2012-07-01

    Acoustic radiation force (ARF) elastography is potentially useful for imaging the elasticity of human tissue. Because a "push wave" that is used to generate ARF is a long burst wave comparable to that used in regular clinical imaging, detailed investigation of its safety is required. We focus on the transient temperature rise in the far field, where the beam paths are overlapped. Soft tissue mimicking a phantom and bone samples were exposed to a 2-MHz plane wave for 20 s. The temperature rises in the far field were measured using a thermocouple. The temperature rises at 1 ms, the time required for the displacement measurement, were estimated by fitting the experimental results. The results showed that the thermosensitivity of the bone was 36 times higher than that of the phantom, and the use of a repeated push wave may have exceeded the allowable maximum temperature rise, 1°C, on the bone surface. In conclusion, the imaging area, including the path of the push wave, should be carefully checked and the time interval for consecutive use should be adjusted to prevent thermal risk on the surface of the bone.

  16. Confocal acoustic radiation force optical coherence elastography using a ring ultrasonic transducer

    SciTech Connect

    Qi, Wenjuan; Li, Rui; Ma, Teng; Kirk Shung, K.; Zhou, Qifa; Chen, Zhongping

    2014-03-24

    We designed and developed a confocal acoustic radiation force optical coherence elastography system. A ring ultrasound transducer was used to achieve reflection mode excitation and generate an oscillating acoustic radiation force in order to generate displacements within the tissue, which were detected using the phase-resolved optical coherence elastography method. Both phantom and human tissue tests indicate that this system is able to sense the stiffness difference of samples and quantitatively map the elastic property of materials. Our confocal setup promises a great potential for point by point elastic imaging in vivo and differentiation of diseased tissues from normal tissue.

  17. [SWE elastography in assessment of liver fibrosis].

    PubMed

    Zaleska-Dorobisz, Urszula; Pawluś, Aleksander; Kucharska, Marta; Inglot, Marcin

    2015-02-15

    Liver fibrosis is a relatively common consequence of chronic liver diseases, especially chronic viral hepatitis B and C. Biopsy still remains the gold standard in the assessment of liver fibrosis. However, due to its invasiveness and possible complications, less or even non-invasive methods are being developed, e.g. using biochemical parameters (Fibrotest) or elastography. Elastography is a new diagnostic tool that aims to evaluate stiffness of the tissues. Elastography techniques that are used in the assessment of liver fibrosis are transient elastography (TE), acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) and shear-wave elastography (SWE). SWE is a novel real-time two-dimensional elastography technique, which allows one to estimate stiffness quantitatively in kilopascals (kPa). Moreover, lapping elastography over regular B-mode allows precise choice of the region of interest. Therefore SWE creates the opportunity for accurate assessment of liver fibrosis. In this paper we describe processes leading to liver fibrosis as well as methods of liver fibrosis assessment, e.g. liver biopsy, biochemical tests or elastography. The main goal of this paper is to present the SWE technique, its role in liver fibrosis assessment and a short review of the most important clinical studies on SWE. We also present several examples of SWE examinations performed on patients with different stages of liver fibrosis - F0 to F4 on the METAVIR scale.

  18. Applications of acoustic radiation force impulse quantification in chronic kidney disease: a review

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) imaging is an emerging technique with great promise in the field of elastography. Previous studies have validated ARFI quantification as a method of estimating fibrosis in chronic liver disease. Similarly, fibrosis is the principal process underlying the progression of chronic kidney disease, which is the major cause of renal failure. However, the quantification of tissue stiffness using ARFI imaging is more complex in the kidney than in the liver. Moreover, not all previous studies are comparable because they employed different procedures. Therefore, subsequent studies are warranted, both in animal models and in clinical patients, in order to better understand the histopathological mechanisms associated with renal elasticity and to further improve this imaging method by developing a standardized guidelines for its implementation. PMID:27599890

  19. Liver Stiffness Measurements Using Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse in Recipients of Living-Donor and Deceased-Donor Orthotopic Liver Transplant.

    PubMed

    Haberal, Kemal Murat; Turnaoğlu, Hale; Özdemir, Adnan; Uslu, Nihal; Haberal Reyhan, Asuman Nihan; Moray, Gökhan; Haberal, Mehmet

    2017-08-24

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic efficiency of the acoustic radiation force impulse (Siemens Medical Solutions, Erlangen, Germany) elastography in assessment of fibrosis in orthotopic liver transplant patients. We enrolled 28 orthotopic liver transplant patients (deceased and living donors), whose biopsy decision had been prospectively given clinically. Ten acoustic radiation force impulse elastographic measurements were applied before the biopsy or within 3 days after the biopsy by 2 radiologists. After the core tissue needle biopsy, specimens of all patients were analyzed according to the modified Ishak scoring system. Measurements of acoustic radiation force impulse elastography and pathology specimen results were compared. From 28 biopsies, fibrosis scores of 4 biopsies were evaluated as F0 (14.3%), 16 as F1 (57.1%), 4 as F2 (14.3%), and 4 as F3 (14.3%). Mean results of acoustic radiation force impulse measurements were calculated as 1.4 ± 0.07 in F0, 1.74 ± 0.57 in F1, 2.19 ± 0.7 in F2, and 2.18 ± 0.35 in F3. There were no significant correlations of mean acoustic radiation force impulse values between the F0 versus F1 (P = .956) and F0 versus F2 stages (P = .234). A statistically significant correlation of mean acoustic radiation force impulse values was found between the F0 and F3 fibrosis stages (P = .046). Acoustic radiation force impulse imaging is a promising screening test for detecting significant liver fibrosis (≥ F3 in modified Ishak) in living-donor or deceased-donor orthotopic liver transplant recipients.

  20. Transthoracic Cardiac Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradway, David Pierson

    This dissertation investigates the feasibility of a real-time transthoracic Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (ARFI) imaging system to measure myocardial function non-invasively in clinical setting. Heart failure is an important cardiovascular disease and contributes to the leading cause of death for developed countries. Patients exhibiting heart failure with a low left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) can often be identified by clinicians, but patients with preserved LVEF might be undetected if they do not exhibit other signs and symptoms of heart failure. These cases motivate development of transthoracic ARFI imaging to aid the early diagnosis of the structural and functional heart abnormalities leading to heart failure. M-Mode ARFI imaging utilizes ultrasonic radiation force to displace tissue several micrometers in the direction of wave propagation. Conventional ultrasound tracks the response of the tissue to the force. This measurement is repeated rapidly at a location through the cardiac cycle, measuring timing and relative changes in myocardial stiffness. ARFI imaging was previously shown capable of measuring myocardial properties and function via invasive open-chest and intracardiac approaches. The prototype imaging system described in this dissertation is capable of rapid acquisition, processing, and display of ARFI images and shear wave elasticity imaging (SWEI) movies. Also presented is a rigorous safety analysis, including finite element method (FEM) simulations of tissue heating, hydrophone intensity and mechanical index (MI) measurements, and thermocouple transducer face heating measurements. For the pulse sequences used in later animal and clinical studies, results from the safety analysis indicates that transthoracic ARFI imaging can be safely applied at rates and levels realizable on the prototype ARFI imaging system. Preliminary data are presented from in vivo trials studying changes in myocardial stiffness occurring under normal and abnormal

  1. Diagnostic Value of Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse Quantification in the Differentiation of Benign and Malignant Thyroid Nodules.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Niraj Nirmal; Pradhan, Gaurav Shanker; Manchanda, Alpana; Garg, Anju

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of ultrasound elastography using acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) quantification in characterizing and differentiating malignant versus benign thyroid nodules. A total of 40 thyroid nodules were evaluated with conventional sonography and ultrasound elastography using ARFI quantification. The final diagnosis was obtained from histologic findings. A total of 14 malignant and 26 benign nodules were diagnosed on the basis of histologic examination. Majority of the malignant thyroid nodules demonstrated presence of intranodular vascular flow, hypoechoic echotexture, absent halo, irregular margins and microcalcifications. However, a considerable overlap was noted in the sonographic features of malignant and benign thyroid nodules. On ARFI quantification, the mean shear wave speed (SWS) values ( M ± SD) of malignant and benign thyroid nodules were 3.131 ± 0.921 m/s and 1.691 ± 0.513 m/s, respectively. A significant difference was observed between the mean SWS values of malignant thyroid nodules and benign thyroid nodules ( p < 0.0001). Applying a cutoff value of 2.53 m/s, the sensitivity, specificity, and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the differentiation were 85.71%, 96.15%, and 0.922, respectively. ARFI quantification is a promising elastography technique that provides quantitative information about tissue stiffness. It provides additional information and complements sonography as an effective diagnostic tool in characterizing and differentiating benign from malignant thyroid nodules.

  2. Preclinical evaluation of acoustic radiation force impulse measurements in regions of heterogeneous elasticity

    PubMed Central

    Gaßmann, Bernhard; Wagenpfeil, Stefan; Moog, Philipp; Vo-Cong, Minh-Truc; Heemann, Uwe; Stock, Konrad Friedrich

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to compare the reliability of ultrasound-based shear wave elastography in regions of homogeneous versus heterogeneous elasticity by using two different probes. Methods Using acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) elastography, we measured the shear wave velocity (SWV) in different lesions of an elastography phantom with the convex 4C1 probe and the linear 9L4 probe. The region of interest (ROI) was positioned in such a way that it was partly filled by one of the lesions (0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100%) and partly by the background of the phantom (100%, 75%, 50%, 25%, and 0%, respectively). Results The success rate was 98.5%. The measured value and the reference value of SWV correlated significantly (r=0.89, P<0.001). Further, a comparison of the two probes revealed that there was no statistical difference in either the mean or the variance values. However, the deviation of SWV from the reference was higher in the case of the 9L4 probe than in the case of the 4C1 probe, both overall and in measurements in which the ROI contained structures of different elasticity (P=0.021 and P=0.002). Taking into account all data, for both probes, we found that there was a greater spread and deviation of the SWV from the reference value when the ROI was positioned in structures having different elastic properties (standard deviation, 0.02±0.01 m/sec vs. 0.04±0.04 m/sec; P=0.010; deviation from the reference value, 0.21±0.12 m/sec vs. 0.38±0.27 m/sec; P=0.050). Conclusion Quantitative ARFI elastography was achievable in structures of different elasticity; however, the validity and the reliability of the SWV measurements decreased in comparison to those of the measurements performed in structures of homogeneous elasticity. Therefore, a convex probe is preferred for examining heterogeneous structures. PMID:27599889

  3. Magnetic force Optical Coherence Elastography at 1.5 million a-lines per second

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chen; Han, Zhaolong; Singh, Manmohan; Liu, Chih-Hao; Li, Jiasong; Schill, Alexander; Raghunathan, Raksha; Larin, Kirill V.

    2016-03-01

    Optical Coherence Elastography (OCE) has been widely used to characterize tissue elasticity. In this paper we introduce a new excitation method using magnetic force to induce shear waves in phantoms and tissues. The shear waves were imaged using an Optical Coherence Tomography system with an A-scan rate of ~1.5 million a-lines per second and the speed of the waves were used to quantify elasticity of different concentrations of agar sampled and porcine liver. The OCE results acquired from this magnetic force excitation were compared with the mechanical compressional tests for validation. The results showed that magnetic force OCE and mechanical testing results were in good agreement, demonstrating the ability of magnetic force OCE to accurately quantify the Young's modulus of tissue.

  4. Impact of Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse Imaging in Clinical Practice of Patients after Orthotopic Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Wildner, Dane; Strobel, Deike; Konturek, Peter C.; Görtz, Rüdiger S.; Croner, Roland S.; Neurath, Markus F.; Zopf, Steffen

    2014-01-01

    Background Acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) elastography is a reliable diagnostic device for quantitative non-invasive assessment of liver fibrosis in patients with chronic liver disease. The aim of our prospective study was to evaluate the impact of ARFI in patients after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). Therefore, we compared ARFI shear wave velocities with clinical features, non-invasive markers, and the histology of patients following OLT. Material/Methods Post-transplant patients underwent a clinical examination and blood samples were taken. B-mode and Doppler ultrasound (US) of the portal vein and the hepatic artery were performed. Subsequently, a minimum of 10 valid ARFI values were measured in the left and right liver lobe. Liver biopsy was performed if indicated. Results Between May 2012 and May 2014, 58 Patients after OLT were included in the prospective study. Laboratory markers and aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index (APRI) correlated with ARFI values (r=0.44, p<0.001). The histological (n=22) fibrosis score (Ludwig) was significantly correlated with the ARFI of the biopsy site (r=0.55, p=0.008). The mean shear-wave velocities were significantly increased in advanced fibrosis (F≤2 1.57±0.57 m/s; F≥3 2.85±0.66 m/s; p<0.001), obstructive cholestasis and active viral hepatitis. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curves for the accuracy of ARFI were 74% (F≥1), 73% (F≥2), 93% (F≥3), and 80% (=F4). Conclusions ARFI elastography correlates well with laboratory values and with noninvasive and invasive markers of fibrosis in patients after OLT. In this regard, elevated ARFI-velocities should be interpreted with caution in the context of obstructive cholestasis and active viral disease. PMID:25342166

  5. Impulsive Enzymes: A New Force in Mechanobiology

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Peter J.; Dey, Krishna K.; Sen, Ayusman

    2015-01-01

    We review studies that quantify newly discovered forces from single enzymatic reactions. These forces arise from the conversion of chemical energy to kinetic energy, which can be harnessed to direct diffusion of the enzyme up a concentration gradient of substrate, a novel phenomenon of molecular chemotaxis. When immobilized, enzymes can move fluid around them and perform directional pumping in microfluidic chambers. Because of the extensive array of enzymes in biological cells, we also develop three new hypotheses: that enzymatic self diffusion can assist in organizing signaling pathways in cells, can assist in pumping of fluid in cells, and can impose biologically significant forces on organelles, which will be manifested as stochastic motion not explained by thermal forces or myosin II. Such mechanochemical phenomena open up new directions in research in mechanobiology in which all enzymes, in addition to their primary function as catalysts for reactions, may have secondary functions as initiators of mechanosensitive transduction pathways. PMID:26019728

  6. Impulsive Enzymes: A New Force in Mechanobiology.

    PubMed

    Butler, Peter J; Dey, Krishna K; Sen, Ayusman

    2015-03-01

    We review studies that quantify newly discovered forces from single enzymatic reactions. These forces arise from the conversion of chemical energy to kinetic energy, which can be harnessed to direct diffusion of the enzyme up a concentration gradient of substrate, a novel phenomenon of molecular chemotaxis. When immobilized, enzymes can move fluid around them and perform directional pumping in microfluidic chambers. Because of the extensive array of enzymes in biological cells, we also develop three new hypotheses: that enzymatic self diffusion can assist in organizing signaling pathways in cells, can assist in pumping of fluid in cells, and can impose biologically significant forces on organelles, which will be manifested as stochastic motion not explained by thermal forces or myosin II. Such mechanochemical phenomena open up new directions in research in mechanobiology in which all enzymes, in addition to their primary function as catalysts for reactions, may have secondary functions as initiators of mechanosensitive transduction pathways.

  7. Using MR Elastography to Image Force Chains in a Quasi-Static Granular Assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanfratello, L.; Altobelli, S. A.; Behringer, R. P.; Fukushima, E.

    2008-03-01

    Questions about the internal structure of dense granular assemblies remain unanswered for lack of 3D experimental data. It is known from 2D observations and from the boundaries of 3D systems that non-uniform stresses are present on container boundaries as well as at the bottom of granular piles. These forces are seen in 2D to be distributed by force chains, where most of the stress is transmitted through a small number of chains with much of the assembly transmitting little or none of the force. However, force chains have yet to be fully visualized in 3D. We propose a variation of magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) to image 3D force chains within a densely packed granular assembly. MRE is an MRI technique whereby small periodic displacements within an elastic material can be measured. Multiple bipolar motion encoding gradients incorporated into a typical pulse sequence, and applied at the frequency of mechanical oscillations, are used to detect the displacements. We have verified our MRE technique using a gel (Perma-Gel). We now extend this method to image force chains within a 3D granular assembly of particles under stress, on top of which is superimposed a small-amplitude vibration. It is our hypothesis that significant coherent displacements will be found only along force chains while most particles will move randomly. Experimental results will be presented.

  8. Response Due To Impulsive Force In Generalized Thermomicrostretch Elastic Solid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, V.; Singh, R.

    2015-08-01

    A two dimensional Cartesian model of a generalized thermo-microstretch elastic solid subjected to impulsive force has been studied. The eigen value approach is employed after applying the Laplace and Fourier transforms on the field equations for L-S and G-L model of the plain strain problem. The integral transforms have been inverted into physical domain numerically and components of normal displacement, normal force stress, couple stress and microstress have been illustrated graphically.

  9. A diffraction correction for storage and loss moduli imaging using radiation force based elastography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budelli, Eliana; Brum, Javier; Bernal, Miguel; Deffieux, Thomas; Tanter, Mickaël; Lema, Patricia; Negreira, Carlos; Gennisson, Jean-Luc

    2017-01-01

    Noninvasive evaluation of the rheological behavior of soft tissues may provide an important diagnosis tool. Nowadays, available commercial ultrasound systems only provide shear elasticity estimation by shear wave speed assessment under the hypothesis of a purely elastic model. However, to fully characterize the rheological behavior of tissues, given by its storage (G‧) and loss (G″) moduli, it is necessary to estimate both: shear wave speed and shear wave attenuation. Most elastography techniques use the acoustic radiation force to generate shear waves. For this type of source the shear waves are not plane and a diffraction correction is needed to properly estimate the shear wave attenuation. The use of a cylindrical wave approximation to evaluate diffraction has been proposed by other authors before. Here the validity of such approximation is numerically and experimentally revisited. Then, it is used to generate images of G‧ and G″ in heterogeneous viscoelastic mediums. A simulation algorithm based on the anisotropic and viscoelastic Green’s function was used to establish the validity of the cylindrical approximation. Moreover, two experiments were carried out: a transient elastography experiment where plane shear waves were generated using a vibrating plate and a SSI experiment that uses the acoustic radiation force to generate shear waves. For both experiments the shear wave propagation was followed with an ultrafast ultrasound scanner. Then, the shear wave velocity and shear wave attenuation were recovered from the phase and amplitude decay versus distance respectively. In the SSI experiment the cylindrical approximation was applied to correct attenuation due to diffraction effects. The numerical and experimental results validate the use of a cylindrical correction to assess shear wave attenuation. Finally, by applying the cylindrical correction G‧ and G″ images were generated in heterogeneous phantoms and a preliminary in vivo feasibility study

  10. A diffraction correction for storage and loss moduli imaging using radiation force based elastography.

    PubMed

    Budelli, Eliana; Brum, Javier; Bernal, Miguel; Deffieux, Thomas; Tanter, Mickaël; Lema, Patricia; Negreira, Carlos; Gennisson, Jean-Luc

    2017-01-07

    Noninvasive evaluation of the rheological behavior of soft tissues may provide an important diagnosis tool. Nowadays, available commercial ultrasound systems only provide shear elasticity estimation by shear wave speed assessment under the hypothesis of a purely elastic model. However, to fully characterize the rheological behavior of tissues, given by its storage (G') and loss (G″) moduli, it is necessary to estimate both: shear wave speed and shear wave attenuation. Most elastography techniques use the acoustic radiation force to generate shear waves. For this type of source the shear waves are not plane and a diffraction correction is needed to properly estimate the shear wave attenuation. The use of a cylindrical wave approximation to evaluate diffraction has been proposed by other authors before. Here the validity of such approximation is numerically and experimentally revisited. Then, it is used to generate images of G' and G″ in heterogeneous viscoelastic mediums. A simulation algorithm based on the anisotropic and viscoelastic Green's function was used to establish the validity of the cylindrical approximation. Moreover, two experiments were carried out: a transient elastography experiment where plane shear waves were generated using a vibrating plate and a SSI experiment that uses the acoustic radiation force to generate shear waves. For both experiments the shear wave propagation was followed with an ultrafast ultrasound scanner. Then, the shear wave velocity and shear wave attenuation were recovered from the phase and amplitude decay versus distance respectively. In the SSI experiment the cylindrical approximation was applied to correct attenuation due to diffraction effects. The numerical and experimental results validate the use of a cylindrical correction to assess shear wave attenuation. Finally, by applying the cylindrical correction G' and G″ images were generated in heterogeneous phantoms and a preliminary in vivo feasibility study was

  11. Shear wave elastography with a new reliability indicator.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, Christoph F; Dong, Yi

    2016-09-01

    Non-invasive methods for liver stiffness assessment have been introduced over recent years. Of these, two main methods for estimating liver fibrosis using ultrasound elastography have become established in clinical practice: shear wave elastography and quasi-static or strain elastography. Shear waves are waves with a motion perpendicular (lateral) to the direction of the generating force. Shear waves travel relatively slowly (between 1 and 10 m/s). The stiffness of the liver tissue can be assessed based on shear wave velocity (the stiffness increases with the speed). The European Federation of Societies for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology has published Guidelines and Recommendations that describe these technologies and provide recommendations for their clinical use. Most of the data available to date has been published using the Fibroscan (Echosens, France), point shear wave speed measurement using an acoustic radiation force impulse (Siemens, Germany) and 2D shear wave elastography using the Aixplorer (SuperSonic Imagine, France). More recently, also other manufacturers have introduced shear wave elastography technology into the market. A comparison of data obtained using different techniques for shear wave propagation and velocity measurement is of key interest for future studies, recommendations and guidelines. Here, we present a recently introduced shear wave elastography technology from Hitachi and discuss its reproducibility and comparability to the already established technologies.

  12. Maternal liver elasticity determined by acoustic radiation force impulse elastosonography in intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Cetin, Orkun; Karaman, Erbil; Arslan, Harun; Akbudak, Ibrahim; Yildizhan, Recep; Kolusari, Ali

    2017-07-01

    Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) is a pregnancy-specific liver disorder characterized by maternal pruritus and impaired liver function. The objective of the study was to evaluate maternal liver elasticity by acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) elastosonography in ICP and to compare it with that in healthy pregnant women. This descriptive, case-control study consisted of 33 women with healthy pregnancies and 22 women with ICP in the third trimester of gestation. Maternal liver elasticity measurements were performed by ARFI elastosonography. The maternal characteristics and perinatal outcomes of the participants were also collected. All maternal liver ARFI elastosonography scores were elevated in women with ICP compared to healthy controls (p = 0.015, p = 0.011, and p = 0.004, respectively). There was a significant positive correlation between maternal liver enzymes and ARFI elastosonography scores (r = 0.404, p = 0.002 and r = 0.389, p = 0.003, respectively). The optimal cut-off point of maternal liver ARFI-mean elastography score to identify the risk of ICP was >1.23 m/s, and the sensitivity and specificity were 68.2 and 69.7%, respectively [area under curve (AUC) 0.731, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.594-0.869). The current study found that maternal liver stiffness measured by ARFI elastosonography was increased in pregnancies complicated with ICP.

  13. Management of rotator cuff calcific tendinosis guided by ultrasound elastography.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yen-Huai; Chiou, Hong-Jen; Wang, Hsin-Kai; Lai, Yi-Chen; Chou, Yi-Hong; Chang, Cheng-Yen

    2015-10-01

    Ultrasound (US) elastography can provide information about the hardness of calcification and might help decide treatment strategy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the hardness of the calcific area within rotator cuffs by US elastography as an aid for the selection of aspiration or fine-needle repeated puncture for the treatment of rotator cuff calcific tendinosis. This prospective study included 39 patients (32 males, 7 females; mean age, 52.9 years) who received US elastography and gray-scale ultrasonography before US-guided treatment for rotator cuff calcific tendinosis. The morphology of the calcifications was classified as arc, fragmented, nodular, and cystic types. US elastography using virtual touch imaging (acoustic radiation force impulse) technique was performed to examine the calcified region to obtain an elastogram that was graded dark, intermediate, or bright. The hardness of the calcifications were recorded, and graded as hard, sand-like, or fluid-like tactile patterns during the US-guided treatment, and the tactile patterns were compared with the results of US elastography and gray-scale ultrasonography. Though the morphologies of the calcifications were significantly related to the tactile pattern of the needle punctures (p < 0.001), gray-scale US could not accurately demonstrate the hardness of the calcifications. With the aid of elastography, the fluid-like tactile pattern could be predicted well as a nondark pattern by elastography (p < 0.001). Ultrasound elastography is a useful modality for evaluation of rotator cuff calcific tendinosis, and as an aid to guide management. If elastography shows the calcified area as a non-dark pattern, then fine-needle aspiration should be performed. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  14. Arterial stiffness measurements with acoustic radiation force impulse imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trahey, Gregg E.; Dahl, Jeremy J.; McAleavey, Stephen A.; Gallippi, Caterina M.; Nightingale, Kathryn R.

    2003-05-01

    We have developed a new method of imaging the mechanical properties of tissues based on very brief (<1msec) and localized applications of acoustic radiation force and the ultrasonic measurement of local tissues' responses to that force. Initial results with this technique demonstrate its ability to image mechanical properties of the medial and adventitial layers within ex vivo and in vivo arteries, and to distinguish hard and soft atherosclerotic plaques from normal vessel wall. We have labeled this method Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (ARFI) imaging. We describe studies to utilize this technique in the characterization of diffuse and focal atherosclerosis. We describe phantom trials and finite element simulations which explore the fundamental resolution and contrast achievable with this method. We describe in vivo and ex vivo trials in the popliteal, femoral and brachial arteries to assess the relationship between the mechanical properties of healthy and diseased arteries provided by this method and those obtained by alternative methods.

  15. Quantified elasticity mapping of ocular tissue using acoustic radiation force optical coherence elastography (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Yueqiao; He, Youmin; Zhang, Yi; Ma, Teng; Zhu, Jiang; Miao, Yusi; Dai, Cuixia; Silverman, Ronald; Humayun, Mark S.; Zhou, Qifa; Chen, Zhongping

    2017-02-01

    Age-related macular degeneration and keratoconus are two ocular diseases occurring in the posterior and anterior eye, respectively. In both conditions, the mechanical elasticity of the respective tissues changes during the early onset of disease. It is necessary to detect these differences and treat the diseases in their early stages to provide proper treatment. Acoustic radiation force optical coherence elastography is a method of elasticity mapping using confocal ultrasound waves for excitation and Doppler optical coherence tomography for detection. We report on an ARF-OCE system that uses modulated compression wave based excitation signals, and detects the spatial and frequency responses of the tissue. First, all components of the system is synchronized and triggered such that the signal is consistent between frames. Next, phantom studies are performed to validate and calibrate the relationship between the resonance frequency and the Young's modulus. Then the frequency responses of the anterior and posterior eye are detected for porcine and rabbit eyes, and the results correlated to the elasticity. Finally, spatial elastograms are obtained for a porcine retina. Layer segmentation and analysis is performed and correlated to the histology of the retina, where five distinct layers are recognized. The elasticities of the tissue layers will be quantified according to the mean thickness and displacement response for the locations on the retina. This study is a stepping stone to future in-vivo animal studies, where the elastic modulus of the ocular tissue can be quantified and mapped out accordingly.

  16. Radiation force of ultrasound as shear wave source in microscopic magnetic resonance elastography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Othman, Shadi F.; Ozer, M. Bulent; Xu, Huihui; Royston, Thomas J.; Magin, Richard L.

    2005-09-01

    Microscopic magnetic resonance elastography (micro-MRE) is a high-resolution imaging technique for measuring the viscoelastic properties of small synthetic and biological samples. Taking MRE to the microscopic scale requires stronger static fields, stronger magnetic field gradients, higher performance RF coils, and more compact, higher frequency shear wave actuators. Prior work by our group has been conducted at 11.74 T. A needle attached to a vibrating cantilever beam was placed in contact with the surface of the sample to generate shear waves up to 800 Hz. At higher frequencies, the excited shear waves attenuate within an extremely short distance such that only a very small region in the vicinity of the actuator can be studied due to inherent dynamic range limitations. In principle, modulated focused radiation force of US should be able to create a localized shear wave source within the test sample at a distance from the US transducer, thereby enabling micro-MRE probing of the sample at very high frequencies (up to 5 kHz). A confocal US transducer was fabricated to create such a source within the working constraints of the micro-MRE system. Initial feasibility studies are reviewed in this presentation. [Research supported by NIH Grant No. EB004885-01.

  17. Shear wave elastography using amplitude-modulated acoustic radiation force and phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Thu-Mai; Arnal, Bastien; Song, Shaozhen; Huang, Zhihong; Wang, Ruikang K.; O’Donnell, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Investigating the elasticity of ocular tissue (cornea and intraocular lens) could help the understanding and management of pathologies related to biomechanical deficiency. In previous studies, we introduced a setup based on optical coherence tomography for shear wave elastography (SWE) with high resolution and high sensitivity. SWE determines tissue stiffness from the propagation speed of shear waves launched within tissue. We proposed acoustic radiation force to remotely induce shear waves by focusing an ultrasound (US) beam in tissue, similar to several elastography techniques. Minimizing the maximum US pressure is essential in ophthalmology for safety reasons. For this purpose, we propose a pulse compression approach. It utilizes coded US emissions to generate shear waves where the energy is spread over a long emission, and then numerically compressed into a short, localized, and high-energy pulse. We used a 7.5-MHz single-element focused transducer driven by coded excitations where the amplitude is modulated by a linear frequency-swept square wave (1 to 7 kHz). An inverse filter approach was used for compression. We demonstrate the feasibility of performing shear wave elastography measurements in tissue-mimicking phantoms at low US pressures (mechanical index <0.6). PMID:25554970

  18. Shear wave elastography using amplitude-modulated acoustic radiation force and phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Thu-Mai; Arnal, Bastien; Song, Shaozhen; Huang, Zhihong; Wang, Ruikang K.; O'Donnell, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Investigating the elasticity of ocular tissue (cornea and intraocular lens) could help the understanding and management of pathologies related to biomechanical deficiency. In previous studies, we introduced a setup based on optical coherence tomography for shear wave elastography (SWE) with high resolution and high sensitivity. SWE determines tissue stiffness from the propagation speed of shear waves launched within tissue. We proposed acoustic radiation force to remotely induce shear waves by focusing an ultrasound (US) beam in tissue, similar to several elastography techniques. Minimizing the maximum US pressure is essential in ophthalmology for safety reasons. For this purpose, we propose a pulse compression approach. It utilizes coded US emissions to generate shear waves where the energy is spread over a long emission, and then numerically compressed into a short, localized, and high-energy pulse. We used a 7.5-MHz single-element focused transducer driven by coded excitations where the amplitude is modulated by a linear frequency-swept square wave (1 to 7 kHz). An inverse filter approach was used for compression. We demonstrate the feasibility of performing shear wave elastography measurements in tissue-mimicking phantoms at low US pressures (mechanical index <0.6).

  19. Acoustic radiation force impulse imaging for assessing liver fibrosis in alcoholic liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Kiani, Anita; Brun, Vanessa; Lainé, Fabrice; Turlin, Bruno; Morcet, Jeff; Michalak, Sophie; Le Gruyer, Antonia; Legros, Ludivine; Bardou-Jacquet, Edouard; Gandon, Yves; Moirand, Romain

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the performance of elastography by ultrasound with acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) in determining fibrosis stage in patients with alcoholic liver disease (ALD) undergoing alcoholic detoxification in relation to biopsy. METHODS: Eighty-three patients with ALD undergoing detoxification were prospectively enrolled. Each patient underwent ARFI imaging and a liver biopsy on the same day. Fibrosis was staged according to the METAVIR scoring system. The median of 10 valid ARFI measurements was calculated for each patient. RESULTS: Sixty-nine males and thirteen females (one patient excluded due to insufficient biopsy size) were assessed with a mean alcohol consumption of 132.4 ± 128.8 standard drinks per week and mean cumulative year duration of 17.6 ± 9.5 years. Sensitivity and specificity were respectively 82.4% (0.70-0.95) and 83.3% (0.73-0.94) (AUROC = 0.87) for F ≥ 2 with a cut-off value of 1.63m/s; 82.4% (0.64-1.00) and 78.5% (0.69-0.89) (AUROC = 0.86) for F ≥ 3 with a cut-off value of 1.84m/s; and 92.3% (0.78-1.00] and 81.6% (0.72-0.90) (AUROC = 0.89) for F = 4 with a cut-off value of 1.94 m/s. CONCLUSION: ARFI is an accurate, non-invasive and easy method for assessing liver fibrosis in patients with ALD undergoing alcoholic detoxification. PMID:27239119

  20. Noncontact estimation of intercellular breaking force using a femtosecond laser impulse quantified by atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Hosokawa, Yoichiroh; Hagiyama, Man; Iino, Takanori; Murakami, Yoshinori; Ito, Akihiko

    2011-02-01

    When a femtosecond laser pulse (fsLP) is focused through an objective lens into a culture medium, an impulsive force (fsLP-IF) is generated that propagates from the laser focal point (O(f)) in a micron-sized space. This force can detach individual adherent cells without causing considerable cell damage. In this study, an fsLP-IF was reflected in the vibratory movement of an atomic force microscopy (AFM) cantilever. Based on the magnitude of the vibration and the geometrical relationship between O(f) and the cantilever, the fsLP-IF generated at O(f) was calculated as a unit of impulse [N-s]. This impulsive force broke adhesion molecule-mediated intercellular interactions in a manner that depended on the adhesion strength that was estimated by the cell aggregation assay. The force also broke the interactions between streptavidin-coated microspheres and a biotin-coated substrate with a measurement error of approximately 7%. These results suggest that fsLP-IF can be used to break intermolecular and intercellular interactions and estimate the adhesion strength. The fsLP-IF was used to break intercellular contacts in two biologically relevant cultures: a coculture of leukocytes seeded over on an endothelial cell monolayer, and a polarized monolayer culture of epithelial cells. The impulses needed to break leukocyte-endothelial and interepithelial interactions, which were calculated based on the geometrical relationship between O(f) and the adhesive interface, were on the order of 10(-13) and 10(-12) N-s, respectively. When the total impulse at O(f) is well-defined, fsLP-IF can be used to estimate the force required to break intercellular adhesions in a noncontact manner under biologically relevant conditions.

  1. Tissue-mimicking bladder wall phantoms for evaluating acoustic radiation force-optical coherence elastography systems.

    PubMed

    Ejofodomi, O'tega A; Zderic, Vesna; Zara, Jason M

    2010-04-01

    Acoustic radiation force-optical coherence elastography (ARF-OCE) systems are novel imaging systems that have the potential to simultaneously quantify and characterize the optical and mechanical properties of in vivo tissues. This article presents the construction of bladder wall phantoms for use in ARF-OCE systems. Mechanical, acoustic, and optical properties are reported and compared to published values for the urinary bladder. The phantom consisted of 0.2000 +/- 0.0089 and 6.0000 +/- 0.2830 microm polystyrene microspheres (Polysciences Inc., Warrington, PA, Catalog Nos. 07304 and 07312), 7.5 +/- 1.5 microm copolymer microspheres composed of acrylonitrile and vinylidene chloride, (Expancel, Duluth, GA, Catalog No. 461 DU 20), and bovine serum albumin within a gelatin matrix. Young's modulus was measured by successive compression of the phantom and obtaining the slope of the resulting force-displacement data. Acoustic measurements were performed using the transmission method. The phantoms were submerged in a water bath and placed between transmitting and receiving 13 mm diameter unfocused transducers operating at a frequency of 3.5 MHz. A MATLAB algorithm to extract the optical scattering coefficient from optical coherence tomography (OCT) images of the phantom was used. The phantoms possess a Young's modulus of 17.12 +/- 2.72 kPa, a mass density of 1.05 +/- 0.02 g/cm3, an acoustic attenuation coefficient of 0.66 +/- 0.08 dB/cm/MHz, a speed of sound of 1591 +/- 8.76 m/s, and an optical scattering coefficient of 1.80 +/- 0.23 mm(-1). Ultrasound and OCT images of the bladder wall phantom are presented. A material that mimics the mechanical, optical, and acoustic properties of healthy bladder wall has been developed. This tissue-mimicking bladder wall phantom was developed as a control tool to investigate the feasibility of using ARF-OCE to detect the mechanical and optical changes that may be indicative of the onset or development of cancer in the urinary bladder

  2. Three dimensional breakdown of an impulsively forced laminar separation bubble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michelis, Theodoros; Kotsonis, Marios

    2016-11-01

    The spatio-temporal behaviour of a short laminar separation bubble is investigated experimentally. The bubble develops on a flat plate driven by an adverse pressure gradient wall at Reynolds number based on displacement thickness at separation of Reδs* = 975 . The boundary layer is impulsively forced by means of AC dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuator located upstream of the separation point. The full four-dimensional flow development is captured by time resolved tomographic PIV measurements using the multi-pass light amplification technique. Immediately after forcing, a convectively unstable wave packet emerges due to selective amplification of modes which interacts with the reattachment process. The interaction becomes non-linear at the reattachment region, where Λ structures typical of laminar separation bubbles are captured before the occurrence of breakdown. The structures and breakdown are characterised in terms of temporal evolution, spanwise coherence and energy budget. The diminishing of Λ structures triggers a sharp reduction in size of the separation bubble by interfering with the natural shedding process. As a result, the bubble significantly elongates without shedding undergoing bursting before recovering to its unperturbed state.

  3. Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse Imaging of Human Prostates ex vivo

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Liang; Madden, John; Foo, Wen-Chi; Palmeri, Mark L.; Mouraviev, Vladimir; Polascik, Thomas J.; Nightingale, Kathryn R.

    2010-01-01

    It has been challenging for clinicians using current imaging modalities to visualize internal structures and detect lesions inside human prostates. Lack of contrast among prostatic tissues and high false positive or negative detection rates of prostate lesions have limited the use of current imaging modalities in the diagnosis of prostate cancer. In this study, Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (ARFI) imaging is introduced to visualize the anatomic and abnormal structures in freshly excised human prostates. A modified Siemens Antares™ ultrasound scanner and a Siemens VF10-5 linear array were used to acquire ARFI images. The transducer was attached to a three-dimensional (3D) translation stage, which was programmed to automate volumetric data acquisition. A depth dependent gain (DDG) method was developed and applied to 3D ARFI datasets to compensate for the displacement gradients associated with spatially varying radiation force magnitudes as a function of depth. Nine human prostate specimens were collected and imaged immediately after surgical excision. Prostate anatomical structures such as seminal vesicles, ejaculatory ducts, peripheral zone, central zone, transition zone and verumontanum were visualized with high spatial resolution and in good agreement with McNeal's zonal anatomy. The characteristic appearance of prostate pathologies, such as prostate cancerous lesions, benign prostatic hyperplasia, calcified tissues and atrophy were identified in ARFI images based upon correlation with the corresponding histological slides. This study demonstrates that ARFI imaging can be used to visualize internal structures and detecting suspicious lesions in the prostate and appears promising for image guidance of prostate biopsy. PMID:20350685

  4. Transient MR elastography (t-MRE) using ultrasound radiation force: theory, safety, and initial experiments in vitro.

    PubMed

    Souchon, Rémi; Salomir, Rares; Beuf, Olivier; Milot, Laurent; Grenier, Denis; Lyonnet, Denis; Chapelon, Jean-Yves; Rouvière, Olivier

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of our study was to assess the feasibility of using ultrasound radiation force as a safe vibration source for transient MR elastography (t-MRE). We present a theoretical framework to predict the phase shift of the complex MRE signal, the temperature elevation due to ultrasound, and safety indicators (I(SPPA), I(SPTA), MI). Next, we report wave images acquired in porcine liver samples in vitro. MR thermometry was used to estimate the temperature elevation induced by ultrasound. Finally, we discuss the implications of our results with regard to the feasibility of using radiation force for t-MRE in a clinical setting, and a specific echo-planar imaging (EPI) MRE sequence is proposed.

  5. Transient Elastography for Assessment of Liver Fibrosis and Steatosis: An Evidence-Based Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Brener, S

    2015-01-01

    Background Liver fibrosis is a sign of advanced liver disease and is often an indication for treatment. The current standard for diagnosing liver fibrosis and steatosis is biopsy, but noninvasive alternatives are available; one of the most common is transient elastography (FibroScan). Objectives The objective of this analysis was to assess the diagnostic accuracy and clinical utility of transient elastography alone for liver fibrosis and with controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) for steatosis in patients with hepatitis C virus, hepatitis B virus, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, alcoholic liver disease, or cholestatic diseases. The analysis also aimed to compare the diagnostic accuracy of transient elastography with two alternative noninvasive technologies: FibroTest and acoustic force radiation impulse (ARFI). Data Sources Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process, Ovid Embase, and all EBM databases were searched for all studies published prior to October 2, 2014. Review Methods An overview of reviews was conducted using a systematic search and assessment approach. The results of the included systematic reviews were summarized, analyzed, and reported for outcomes related to diagnostic accuracy and clinical utility as a measure of impact on diagnoses, therapeutic decisions, and patient outcomes. Results Fourteen systematic reviews were included, summarizing more than 150 studies. The reviews demonstrated that transient elastography (with or without CAP) has good diagnostic accuracy compared to biopsy for the assessment of liver fibrosis and steatosis. Acoustic force radiation impulse and FibroTest were not superior to transient elastography. Limitations None of the included systematic reviews reported on the clinical utility of transient elastography. Conclusions Transient elastography (with or without CAP) offers a noninvasive alternative to biopsy for the assessment of liver fibrosis and steatosis, given its comparable diagnostic accuracy. PMID:26664664

  6. Scanning-mode 2D acoustic radiation force impulse (s2D-ARFI) imaging based on GPU acceleration.

    PubMed

    Wang, Congzhi; Zeng, Bo; Qiu, Weibao; Zheng, Hairong

    2014-01-01

    Acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) technique is a quantitative method for tissue stiffness assessment. It has been proved to be less operator dependent than the quasi-static elastography, and has more simple hardware architecture than the supersonic shearwave imaging (SSI) technique, which make it easier to be miniaturized for some special clinical applications. However, unlike the SSI, ARFI cannot provide real-time 2D images of tissue stiffness distribution mainly due to its data-intensive and time-consuming algorithms. In this study, the algorithms of ARFI were modified and improved to fit for the parallel computation on graphics processing unit (GPU), and the quasi-real-time scanning-mode 2D ARFI images (s2D-ARFI) were implemented on a self-developed compact system. High ratio of the time consumptions between the algorithms using CPU and using GPU has been verified, and it was also proved that there was no distinct difference between the stiffness images obtained by these two methods. The s2D-ARFI provides us an additional choice for quantitatively imaging the tissue stiffness, and has a potential to be miniaturized and used in the emergency treatments in field first-aid and the donor evaluation for organ transplantation.

  7. Acoustic radiation force impulse imaging (ARFI) for differentiation of benign and malignant thyroid nodules--A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Jia; Jin, Jia-Mei; Diao, Xue-Hong; Chen, Yue

    2015-11-01

    Work-up of thyroid nodules remains challenging. Acoustic radiation force impulse imaging (ARFI)-generated shear wave elastography, which can measure quantitatively tissue stiffness (virtual touch tissue quantification) is used as a complement to conventional sonography for improving the diagnosis of thyroid nodules. This meta-analysis was performed to expand on a previous meta-analysis to assess the diagnostic power of ARFI in differentiating benign and malignant thyroid nodules. The MEDLINE, PubMed, SpringerLink databases up to December 31, 2014, were searched. The pooled sensitivity, specificity, and summary receiver operating characteristic curve were obtained from individual studies with a random effects model. Sixteen studies that included a total of 2436 nodules in 2147 patients for ARFI studies were analyzed. The overall mean sensitivity and specificity of ARFI for differentiation of thyroid nodules were 0.80 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.73-0.87) and 0.85 (95% CI, 0.80-0.90), respectively. A significant heterogeneity was found for both sensitivity and specificity of the different studies (P<0.001). The area under the curve for the ARFI was 0.91. ARFI has high sensitivity and specificity for identification of thyroid. This technique might be useful to select patients with thyroid nodules for surgery. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  8. Photoacoustic elastography.

    PubMed

    Hai, Pengfei; Yao, Junjie; Li, Guo; Li, Chiye; Wang, Lihong V

    2016-02-15

    Elastography can noninvasively map the elasticity distribution in biological tissue, which can potentially be used to reveal disease conditions. In this Letter, we have demonstrated photoacoustic elastography by using a linear-array photoacoustic computed tomography system. The feasibility of photoacoustic elastography was first demonstrated by imaging the strains of single-layer and bilayer gelatin phantoms with various stiffness values. The measured strains agreed well with theoretical values, with an average error of less than 5.2%. Next, in vivo photoacoustic elastography was demonstrated on a mouse leg, where the fat and muscle distribution was mapped based on the elasticity contrast. We confirmed the photoacoustic elastography results by ultrasound elastography performed simultaneously.

  9. Identifying Vulnerable Plaques with Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doherty, Joshua Ryan

    The rupture of arterial plaques is the most common cause of ischemic complications including stroke, the fourth leading cause of death and number one cause of long term disability in the United States. Unfortunately, because conventional diagnostic tools fail to identify plaques that confer the highest risk, often a disabling stroke and/or sudden death is the first sign of disease. A diagnostic method capable of characterizing plaque vulnerability would likely enhance the predictive ability and ultimately the treatment of stroke before the onset of clinical events. This dissertation evaluates the hypothesis that Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (ARFI) imaging can noninvasively identify lipid regions, that have been shown to increase a plaque's propensity to rupture, within carotid artery plaques in vivo. The work detailed herein describes development efforts and results from simulations and experiments that were performed to evaluate this hypothesis. To first demonstrate feasibility and evaluate potential safety concerns, finite- element method simulations are used to model the response of carotid artery plaques to an acoustic radiation force excitation. Lipid pool visualization is shown to vary as a function of lipid pool geometry and stiffness. A comparison of the resulting Von Mises stresses indicates that stresses induced by an ARFI excitation are three orders of magnitude lower than those induced by blood pressure. This thesis also presents the development of a novel pulse inversion harmonic tracking method to reduce clutter-imposed errors in ultrasound-based tissue displacement estimates. This method is validated in phantoms and was found to reduce bias and jitter displacement errors for a marked improvement in image quality in vivo. Lastly, this dissertation presents results from a preliminary in vivo study that compares ARFI imaging derived plaque stiffness with spatially registered composition determined by a Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) gold standard

  10. The diagnostic performance of shear wave elastography for malignant cervical lymph nodes: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Suh, Chong Hyun; Choi, Young Jun; Baek, Jung Hwan; Lee, Jeong Hyun

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic performance of shear wave elastography for malignant cervical lymph nodes. We searched the Ovid-MEDLINE and EMBASE databases for published studies regarding the use of shear wave elastography for diagnosing malignant cervical lymph nodes. The diagnostic performance of shear wave elastography was assessed using bivariate modelling and hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristic modelling. Meta-regression analysis and subgroup analysis according to acoustic radiation force impulse imaging (ARFI) and Supersonic shear imaging (SSI) were also performed. Eight eligible studies which included a total sample size of 481 patients with 647 cervical lymph nodes, were included. Shear wave elastography showed a summary sensitivity of 81 % (95 % CI: 72-88 %) and specificity of 85 % (95 % CI: 70-93 %). The results of meta-regression analysis revealed that the prevalence of malignant lymph nodes was a significant factor affecting study heterogeneity (p < .01). According to the subgroup analysis, the summary estimates of the sensitivity and specificity did not differ between ARFI and SSI (p = .93). Shear wave elastography is an acceptable imaging modality for diagnosing malignant cervical lymph nodes. We believe that both ARFI and SSI may have a complementary role for diagnosing malignant cervical lymph nodes. • Shear wave elastography is acceptable modality for diagnosing malignant cervical lymph nodes. • Shear wave elastography demonstrated summary sensitivity of 81 % and specificity of 85 %. • ARFI and SSI have complementary roles for diagnosing malignant cervical lymph nodes.

  11. Principles and clinical application of ultrasound elastography for diffuse liver disease

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Accurate assessment of the degree of liver fibrosis is important for estimating prognosis and deciding on an appropriate course of treatment for cases of chronic liver disease (CLD) with various etiologies. Because of the inherent limitations of liver biopsy, there is a great need for non-invasive and reliable tests that accurately estimate the degree of liver fibrosis. Ultrasound (US) elastography is considered a non-invasive, convenient, and precise technique to grade the degree of liver fibrosis by measuring liver stiffness. There are several commercial types of US elastography currently in use, namely, transient elastography, acoustic radiation force impulse imaging, supersonic shear-wave imaging, and real-time tissue elastography. Although the low reproducibility of measurements derived from operator-dependent performance remains a significant limitation of US elastography, this technique is nevertheless useful for diagnosing hepatic fibrosis in patients with CLD. Likewise, US elastography may also be used as a convenient surveillance method that can be performed by physicians at the patients’ bedside to enable the estimation of the prognosis of patients with fatal complications related to CLD in a non-invasive manner. PMID:25038804

  12. In vivo visualization of abdominal malignancies with acoustic radiation force elastography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fahey, B. J.; Nelson, R. C.; Bradway, D. P.; Hsu, S. J.; Dumont, D. M.; Trahey, G. E.

    2008-01-01

    The utility of acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) imaging for real-time visualization of abdominal malignancies was investigated. Nine patients presenting with suspicious masses in the liver (n = 7) or kidney (n = 2) underwent combined sonography/ARFI imaging. Images were acquired of a total of 12 tumors in the nine patients. In all cases, boundary definition in ARFI images was improved or equivalent to boundary definition in B-mode images. Displacement contrast in ARFI images was superior to echo contrast in B-mode images for each tumor. The mean contrast for suspected hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) in B-mode images was 2.9 dB (range: 1.5-4.2) versus 7.5 dB (range: 3.1-11.9) in ARFI images, with all HCCs appearing more compliant than regional cirrhotic liver parenchyma. The mean contrast for metastases in B-mode images was 3.1 dB (range: 1.2-5.2) versus 9.3 dB (range: 5.7-13.9) in ARFI images, with all masses appearing less compliant than regional non-cirrhotic liver parenchyma. ARFI image contrast (10.4 dB) was superior to B-mode contrast (0.9 dB) for a renal mass. To our knowledge, we present the first in vivo images of abdominal malignancies in humans acquired with the ARFI method or any other technique of imaging tissue elasticity.

  13. Suppressing self-excited vibrations of mechanical systems by impulsive force excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pumhössel, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    In this contribution, self-excited mechanical systems subjected to force excitation of impulsive type are investigated. It is shown that applying force impulses which are equally spaced in time, but whose impulsive strength depends in a certain manner on the state-variables of the mechanical system, results in a periodic energy exchange between lower and higher modes of vibration. Moreover, in the theoretical case of Dirac delta impulses, it is possible that no energy crosses the system boundary while energy is transferred across modes, i.e. neither external energy is fed to the mechanical system, nor energy is extracted from the mechanical system. Shifting energy to higher modes of vibration, whose natural damping is larger compared to lower ones, results in a faster dissipation of energy. An analytical stability investigation is presented using the assumption of impulsive forcing of Dirac delta type, which allows deciding easily about the stability by evaluating the eigenvalues of the coefficient matrix of a corresponding set of difference equations. It is shown that the developed impulsive forcing concept is capable to suppress self-excited vibrations of mechanical systems. Some numerical results of a simple mechanical system with two degrees of freedom underline the presented approach.

  14. Liver reserve function assessment by acoustic radiation force impulse imaging

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiao-Lan; Liang, Li-Wei; Cao, Hui; Men, Qiong; Hou, Ke-Zhu; Chen, Zhen; Zhao, Ya-E

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the utility of liver reserve function by acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) imaging in patients with liver tumors. METHODS: Seventy-six patients with liver tumors were enrolled in this study. Serum biochemical indexes, such as aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), serum albumin (ALB), total bilirubin (T-Bil), and other indicators were observed. Liver stiffness (LS) was measured by ARFI imaging, measurements were repeated 10 times, and the average value of the results was taken as the final LS value. Indocyanine green (ICG) retention was performed, and ICG-K and ICG-R15 were recorded. Child-Pugh (CP) scores were carried out based on patient’s preoperative biochemical tests and physical condition. Correlations among CP scores, ICG-R15, ICG-K and LS values were observed and analyzed using either the Pearson correlation coefficient or the Spearman rank correlation coefficient. Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare LS values of CP scores, and the receiver-operator characteristic (ROC) curve was used to analyze liver reserve function assessment accuracy. RESULTS: LS in the ICG-R15 10%-20% group was significantly higher than in the ICG-R15 < 10% group; and the difference was statistically significant (2.19 ± 0.27 vs 1.59 ± 0.32, P < 0.01). LS in the ICG-R15 > 20% group was significantly higher than in the ICG-R15 < 10% group; and the difference was statistically significant (2.92 ± 0.29 vs 1.59 ± 0.32, P < 0.01). The LS value in patients with CP class A was lower than in patients with CP class B (1.57 ± 0.34 vs 1.86 ± 0.27, P < 0.05), while the LS value in patients with CP class B was lower than in patients with CP class C (1.86 ± 0.27 vs 2.47 ± 0.33, P < 0.01). LS was positively correlated with ICG-R15 (r = 0.617, P < 0.01) and CP score (r = 0.772, P < 0.01). Meanwhile, LS was negatively correlated with ICG-K (r = -0.673, P < 0.01). AST, ALT and T-Bil were positively correlated with LS, while ALB was negatively

  15. Impulsive events in the evolution of a forced nonlinear system

    SciTech Connect

    Longcope, D.W.; Sudan, R.N. )

    1992-03-16

    Long-time numerical solutions of a low-dimensional model of the reduced MHD equations show that, when this system is driven quasistatically, the response is punctuated by impulsive events. The statistics of these events indicate a Poisson process; the frequency of these events scales as {Delta}{ital E}{sub {ital M}}{sup {minus}1}, where {Delta}{ital E}{sub {ital M}} is the energy released in one event.

  16. Low Pretreatment Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse Imaging (ARFI) Values Predict Sustained Virological Response in Antiviral Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Zopf, Steffen; Rösch, Lara; Konturek, Peter C.; Goertz, Ruediger S.; Neurath, Markus F.; Strobel, Deike

    2016-01-01

    Background Non-invasive procedures such as acoustic radiation force impulse imaging (ARFI) shear-wave elastography are currently used for the assessment of liver fibrosis. In the course of chronic hepatitis C, significant liver fibrosis or cirrhosis develops in approximately 25% of patients, which is a negative predictor of antiviral treatment response. Cirrhosis can be prevented by successful virus elimination. In this prospective study, a pretreatment ARFI cutoff value of 1.5 m/s was evaluated in relation to sustained virological response to anti-HCV therapy. Material/Methods In 23 patients with chronic hepatitis C, liver stiffness was examined with ARFI at defined times before and under antiviral triple therapy (peginterferon, ribavirin in combination with a first-generation protease inhibitor, and telaprevir or boceprevir). Patients were stratified into 2 groups based on pretreatment ARFI values (<1.5 m/s and ≥1.5 m/s) for the assessment of virological response. Results The liver stiffness at baseline for all patients was 1.57±0.79 m/s (ARFI median ± standard deviation; margin: 0.81 m/s to 3.45 m/s). At week 4 of triple therapy, patients with low pretreatment ARFI values had higher rates of HCV-RNA negativity (69% vs. 43%), reflecting an early rapid virological response (eRVR). Sustained virological response (SVR) was found in 75% (12/16) of patients with an ARFI value <1.5 m/s and only 57% (4/7) of patients with ARFI value ≥1.5 m/s. Conclusions Patients with chronic hepatitis C and pretreatment ARFI <1.5 m/s showed earlier virus elimination and better response to treatment. PMID:27690214

  17. Quantitative optical coherence elastography based on fiber-optic probe with integrated Fabry-Perot force sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Yi; Wang, Yahui; Xu, Yiqing; Chandra, Namas; Haorah, James; Hubbi, Basil; Pfister, Bryan J.; Liu, Xuan

    2016-03-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a versatile imaging technique and has great potential in tissue characterization for breast cancer diagnosis and surgical guidance. In addition to structural difference, cancerous breast tissue is usually stiffer compared to normal adipose breast tissue. However, previous studies on compression optical coherence elastography (OCE) are qualitative rather than quantitative. It is challenging to identify the cancerous status of tissue based on qualitative OCE results obtained from different measurement sessions or from different patients. Therefore, it is critical to develop technique that integrates structural imaging and force sensing, for quantitative elasticity characterization of breast tissue. In this work, we demonstrate a quantitative OCE (qOCE) microsurgery device which simultaneously quantifies force exerted to tissue and measures the resultant tissue deformation. The qOCE system is based on a spectral domain OCT engine operated at 1300 nm and a probe with an integrated Febry-Perot (FP) interferometric cavity at its distal end. The FP cavity is formed by the cleaved end of the lead-in fiber and the end surface of a GRIN lens which allows light to incident into tissue for structural imaging. The force exerted to tissue is quantified by the change of FP cavity length which is interrogated by a fiber-optic common-paths phase resolved OCT system with sub-nanometer sensitivity. Simultaneously, image of the tissue structure is acquired from photons returned from tissue through the GRIN lens. Tissue deformation is obtained through Doppler analysis. Tissue elasticity can be quantified by comparing the force exerted and tissue deformation.

  18. Mechanical response of single nerve cells estimated by femtosecond laser-induced impulsive force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iino, Takanori; Furuno, Tadahide; Hagiyama, Man; Ito, Akihiko; Hosokawa, Yoichiroh

    2015-03-01

    Single nerve cell's mechanical response is an important issue for understanding function of nerve system, though, the response has been rarely clear. One of the factors is difficulty to stimulate the single cells by quantitative and controllable mechanical stress with subcellular spatial selectivity. As such mechanical stimulator, our group has focused on shock and stress waves generated by focusing the femtosecond laser under a microscope. When those waves impact on the biological cell, they act as an impulsive force. Although the impulsive force is available as a mechanical manipulator of the single cells, it was not confirmed that it could stimulate the nerve cells. Here we investigated the issue using neuro2a cells extending their neurite as an experimental model of nerve cell. Our results indicated that the impulsive force could be available as the stimulator to cause the mechanical response of the neuro2a cell.

  19. Ultrasound-based elastography for the diagnosis of portal hypertension in cirrhotics

    PubMed Central

    Şirli, Roxana; Sporea, Ioan; Popescu, Alina; Dănilă, Mirela

    2015-01-01

    Progressive fibrosis is encountered in almost all chronic liver diseases. Its clinical signs are diagnostic in advanced cirrhosis, but compensated liver cirrhosis is harder to diagnose. Liver biopsy is still considered the reference method for staging the severity of fibrosis, but due to its drawbacks (inter and intra-observer variability, sampling errors, unequal distribution of fibrosis in the liver, and risk of complications and even death), non-invasive methods were developed to assess fibrosis (serologic and elastographic). Elastographic methods can be ultrasound-based or magnetic resonance imaging-based. All ultrasound-based elastographic methods are valuable for the early diagnosis of cirrhosis, especially transient elastography (TE) and acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) elastography, which have similar sensitivities and specificities, although ARFI has better feasibility. TE is a promising method for predicting portal hypertension in cirrhotic patients, but it cannot replace upper digestive endoscopy. The diagnostic accuracy of using ARFI in the liver to predict portal hypertension in cirrhotic patients is debatable, with controversial results in published studies. The accuracy of ARFI elastography may be significantly increased if spleen stiffness is assessed, either alone or in combination with liver stiffness and other parameters. Two-dimensional shear-wave elastography, the ElastPQ technique and strain elastography all need to be evaluated as predictors of portal hypertension. PMID:26556985

  20. Miniature probe for mechanical properties of vascular lesions using acoustic radiation force optical coherence elastography (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Yueqiao; Ma, Teng; He, Youmin; Yu, Mingyue; Li, Rui; Zhu, Jiang; Dai, Cuixia; Piao, Zhonglie; Shung, K. Kirk; Zhou, Qifa; Chen, Zhongping

    2016-03-01

    Changes in tissue biomechanical properties often signify the onset and progression of diseases, such as in determining the vulnerability of atherosclerotic plaques. Acoustic radiation force optical coherence elastography (ARF-OCE) has been used in the detection of tissue elasticity to obtain high-resolution elasticity maps. We have developed a probe-based ARF-OCE technology that utilizes a miniature 10 MHz ring ultrasonic transducer for excitation and Doppler optical coherence tomography (OCT) for detection. The transducer has a small hole in the center for the OCT light to propagate through. This allows for a confocal stress field and light detection within a small region for high sensitivity and localized excitation. This device is a front-facing probe that is only 3.5 mm in diameter and it is the smallest ARF-OCE catheter to the best of our knowledge. We have tested the feasibility of the probe by measuring the point displacement of an agarose tissue-mimicking phantom using different ARF excitation voltages. Small displacement values ranging from 30 nm to 90 nm have been detected and are shown to be directly proportional to the excitation voltage as expected. We are currently working on obtaining 2D images using a scanning mechanism. We will be testing to capture 2D elastograms of phantoms to further verify feasibility, and eventually characterize the mechanical properties of cardiovascular tissue. With its high portability and sensitivity, this novel technology can be applied to the diagnosis and characterization of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques.

  1. Evaluating the intensity of the acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) in intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) imaging: Preliminary in vitro results.

    PubMed

    Shih, Cho-Chiang; Lai, Ting-Yu; Huang, Chih-Chung

    2016-08-01

    The ability to measure the elastic properties of plaques and vessels is significant in clinical diagnosis, particularly for detecting a vulnerable plaque. A novel concept of combining intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) imaging and acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) imaging has recently been proposed. This method has potential in elastography for distinguishing between the stiffness of plaques and arterial vessel walls. However, the intensity of the acoustic radiation force requires calibration as a standard for the further development of an ARFI-IVUS imaging device that could be used in clinical applications. In this study, a dual-frequency transducer with 11MHz and 48MHz was used to measure the association between the biological tissue displacement and the applied acoustic radiation force. The output intensity of the acoustic radiation force generated by the pushing element ranged from 1.8 to 57.9mW/cm(2), as measured using a calibrated hydrophone. The results reveal that all of the acoustic intensities produced by the transducer in the experiments were within the limits specified by FDA regulations and could still displace the biological tissues. Furthermore, blood clots with different hematocrits, which have elastic properties similar to the lipid pool of plaques, with stiffness ranging from 0.5 to 1.9kPa could be displaced from 1 to 4μm, whereas the porcine arteries with stiffness ranging from 120 to 291kPa were displaced from 0.4 to 1.3μm when an acoustic intensity of 57.9mW/cm(2) was used. The in vitro ARFI images of the artery with a blood clot and artificial arteriosclerosis showed a clear distinction of the stiffness distributions of the vessel wall. All the results reveal that ARFI-IVUS imaging has the potential to distinguish the elastic properties of plaques and vessels. Moreover, the acoustic intensity used in ARFI imaging has been experimentally quantified. Although the size of this two-element transducer is unsuitable for IVUS imaging, the

  2. Viability evaluation of culture cells patterned by femtosecond laser-induced impulsive force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takizawa, Noriko; Okano, Kazunori; Uwada, Takayuki; Hosokawa, Yoichiroh; Masuhara, Hiroshi

    2008-02-01

    PC12 cells, which are derived from a rat pheochromocytoma, were independently patterned utilizing an impulsive force resulting in impulsive shockwave and cavitation bubble generation by focused femtosecond laser irradiation. Since the PC12 cells respond reversibly to nerve growth factor by induction of the neuronal phenotype, we can assess an influence that the impulsive force gives to the bioactivity in term of the cell differentiation. The patterned cells were accumulated on an intact dish and cultured for 3 days. The behavior of appearance and cell differentiation was observed by multipoint time-lapse system. On bases of these results, it was proved that the biological activity of the cell is unaffected by the femtosecond laser patterning.

  3. The role of impulse parameters in force variability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlton, L. G.; Newell, K. M.

    1986-01-01

    One of the principle limitations of the human motor system is the ability to produce consistent motor responses. When asked to repeatedly make the same movement, performance outcomes are characterized by a considerable amount of variability. This occurs whether variability is expressed in terms of kinetics or kinematics. Variability in performance is of considerable importance because for tasks requiring accuracy it is a critical variable in determining the skill of the performer. What has long been sought is a description of the parameter or parameters that determine the degree of variability. Two general experimental protocals were used. One protocal is to use dynamic actions and record variability in kinematic parameters such as spatial or temporal error. A second strategy was to use isometric actions and record kinetic variables such as peak force produced. What might be the important force related factors affecting variability is examined and an experimental approach to examine the influence of each of these variables is provided.

  4. Impulse-forces during walking are not increased in patients with knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Henriksen, Marius; Simonsen, Erik B; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas; Lund, Hans; Danneskiold-Samsøe, Bente; Bliddal, Henning

    2006-08-01

    Impulsive forces in the knee joint have been suspected to be a co-factor in the development and progression of knee osteoarthritis. We thus evaluated the impulsive sagittal ground reaction forces (iGRF), shock waves and lower extremity joint kinematics at heel strike during walking in knee osteoarthritis (OA) patients and compared them to those in healthy subjects. We studied 9 OA patients and 10 healthy subjects using three-dimensional gait analyses concentrated on the heel strike. Impulse GRF (iGRF) was measured together with peak accelerations (PA) at the tibial tuberosity and sacrum. Sagittal lower extremity joint angles at heel strike were extracted from the gait analyses. As OA is painful and pain might alter movement strategies, the patient group was also evaluated following pain relief by intraarticular lidocaine injections. The two groups showed similar iGRF, similar tibial and sacral PA, and similar joint angles at heel strike. Following pain relief, the OA patients struck the ground with more extended hip and knee joints and lower tibial PA compared to the painful condition. Although such changes occurred after pain relief, all parameters were within their normal ranges. OA patients and healthy subjects show similar impulse-forces and joint kinematics at heel strike. Following pain relief in the patient group, changes in tibial PA and in hip and knee joint angles were observed but these were still within the normal range. Our findings make us question the hypothesis that impulse-forces generated at heel strike during walking contribute to progression of OA.

  5. Bubble mass center and fluid feedback force fluctuations activated by constant lateral impulse with variable thrust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, R. J.; Long, Y. T.

    1995-01-01

    Sloshing dynamics within a partially filled rotating dewar of superfluid helium 2 are investigated in response to constant lateral impulse with variable thrust. The study, including how the rotating bubble of superfluid helium 2 reacts to the constant impulse with variable time period of thrust action in microgravity, how amplitudes of bubble mass center fluctuates with growth and decay of disturbances, and how fluid feedback forces fluctuates in activating on the rotating dewar through the dynamics of sloshing waves are investigated. The numerical computation of sloshing dynamics is based on the non-inertial frame spacecraft bound coordinate with lateral impulses actuating on the rotating dewar in both inertial and non-inertial frames of thrust. Results of the simulations are illustrated.

  6. Force-Velocity, Impulse-Momentum Relationships: Implications for Efficacy of Purposefully Slow Resistance Training

    PubMed Central

    Schilling, Brian K.; Falvo, Michael J.; Chiu, Loren Z.F.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this brief review is to explain the mechanical relationship between impulse and momentum when resistance exercise is performed in a purposefully slow manner (PS). PS is recognized by ~10s concentric and ~4-10s eccentric actions. While several papers have reviewed the effects of PS, none has yet explained such resistance training in the context of the impulse-momentum relationship. A case study of normal versus PS back squats was also performed. An 85kg man performed both normal speed (3 sec eccentric action and maximal acceleration concentric action) and PS back squats over a several loads. Normal speed back squats produced both greater peak and mean propulsive forces than PS action when measured across all loads. However, TUT was greatly increased in the PS condition, with values fourfold greater than maximal acceleration repetitions. The data and explanation herein point to superior forces produced by the neuromuscular system via traditional speed training indicating a superior modality for inducing neuromuscular adaptation. Key pointsAs velocity approaches zero, propulsive force approaches zero, therefore slow moving objects only require force approximately equal to the weight of the resistance.As mass is constant during resistance training, a greater impulse will result in a greater velocity.The inferior propulsive forces accompanying purposefully slow training suggest other methods of resistance training have a greater potential for adaptation. PMID:24149464

  7. A Finite-Element Method Model of Soft Tissue Response to Impulsive Acoustic Radiation Force

    PubMed Central

    Palmeri, Mark L.; Sharma, Amy C.; Bouchard, Richard R.; Nightingale, Roger W.; Nightingale, Kathryn R

    2010-01-01

    Several groups are studying acoustic radiation force and its ability to image the mechanical properties of tissue. Acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) imaging is one modality using standard diagnostic ultrasound scanners to generate localized, impulsive, acoustic radiation forces in tissue. The dynamic response of tissue is measured via conventional ultrasonic speckle-tracking methods and provides information about the mechanical properties of tissue. A finite-element method (FEM) model has been developed that simulates the dynamic response of tissues, with and without spherical inclusions, to an impulsive acoustic radiation force excitation from a linear array transducer. These FEM models were validated with calibrated phantoms. Shear wave speed, and therefore elasticity, dictates tissue relaxation following ARFI excitation, but Poisson’s ratio and density do not significantly alter tissue relaxation rates. Increased acoustic attenuation in tissue increases the relative amount of tissue displacement in the near field compared with the focal depth, but relaxation rates are not altered. Applications of this model include improving image quality, and distilling material and structural information from tissue’s dynamic response to ARFI excitation. Future work on these models includes incorporation of viscous material properties and modeling the ultrasonic tracking of displaced scatterers. PMID:16382621

  8. Introduction to ultrasound elastography

    PubMed Central

    Dobruch-Sobczak, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    For centuries tissue palpation has been an important diagnostic tool. During palpation, tumors are felt as tissues harder than the surrounding tissues. The significance of palpation is related to the relationship between mechanical properties of different tissue lesions. The assessment of tissue stiffness through palpation is based on the fact that mechanical properties of tissues are changing as a result of various diseases. A higher tissue stiffness translates into a higher elasticity modulus. In the 90's, ultrasonography was extended by the option of examining the stiffness of tissue by estimating the difference in backscattering of ultrasound in compressed and non-compressed tissue. This modality is referred to as the static, compression elastography and is based on tracking the deformation of tissue subjected to the slowly varying compression through the recording of the backscattered echoes. The displacement is estimated using the methods of cross-correlation between consecutive ultrasonic lines of examined tissue, so calculating the degree of similarity of ultrasonic echoes acquired from tissue before and after the compression was applied. The next step in the development of ultrasound palpation was to apply the local remote tissue compression by using the acoustic radiation force generated through the special beam forming of the ultrasonic beam probing the tissue. The acoustic radiation force causes a slight deformation the tissue thereby forming a shear wave propagating in the tissue at different speeds dependent on the stiffness of the tissue. Shear wave elastography, carries great hopes in the field of quantitative imaging of tissue lesions. This article describes the physical basis of both elastographic methods: compression elastography and shear wave elastography. PMID:27446596

  9. Dynamical relations for left ventricular ejection - Flow rate, momentum, force and impulse

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Back, L. H.; Selzer, R. H.; Gordon, D. G.; Ledbetter, D. C.; Crawford, D. W.

    1984-01-01

    An investigation was carried out to quantitatively evaluate left ventricular volume flow rate, momentum, force and impulse derived from application of conservation principles for mass and momentum of blood within the ventricle during the ejection phase. An automated digital image processing system was developed and applied to left ventricular angiograms which are computer processed and analyzed frame by frame to determine the dynamical relations by numerical methods. The initial experience with force and impulse has indicated that neither quantity seemed to be a sensitive indicator of coronary artery disease as evaluated by qualitative angiography for the particular patient group studied. Utilization of the dynamical relations in evaluating human left ventricular performance requires improved means of measurement and interpretation of clinical studies.

  10. Dynamical relations for left ventricular ejection - Flow rate, momentum, force and impulse

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Back, L. H.; Selzer, R. H.; Gordon, D. G.; Ledbetter, D. C.; Crawford, D. W.

    1984-01-01

    An investigation was carried out to quantitatively evaluate left ventricular volume flow rate, momentum, force and impulse derived from application of conservation principles for mass and momentum of blood within the ventricle during the ejection phase. An automated digital image processing system was developed and applied to left ventricular angiograms which are computer processed and analyzed frame by frame to determine the dynamical relations by numerical methods. The initial experience with force and impulse has indicated that neither quantity seemed to be a sensitive indicator of coronary artery disease as evaluated by qualitative angiography for the particular patient group studied. Utilization of the dynamical relations in evaluating human left ventricular performance requires improved means of measurement and interpretation of clinical studies.

  11. Acoustic radiation force impulse imaging for evaluation of renal parenchyma elasticity in diabetic nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Goya, Cemil; Kilinc, Faruk; Hamidi, Cihad; Yavuz, Alpaslan; Yildirim, Yasar; Cetincakmak, Mehmet Guli; Hattapoglu, Salih

    2015-02-01

    OBJECTIVE. The goal of this study is to evaluate the changes in the elasticity of the renal parenchyma in diabetic nephropathy using acoustic radiation force impulse imaging. SUBJECTS AND METHODS. The study included 281 healthy volunteers and 114 patients with diabetic nephropathy. In healthy volunteers, the kidney elasticity was assessed quantitatively by measuring the shear-wave velocity using acoustic radiation force impulse imaging based on age, body mass index, and sex. The changes in the renal elasticity were compared between the different stages of diabetic nephropathy and the healthy control group. RESULTS. In healthy volunteers, there was a statistically significant correlation between the shear-wave velocity values and age and sex. The shear-wave velocity values for the kidneys were 2.87, 3.14, 2.95, 2.68, and 2.55 m/s in patients with stage 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 diabetic nephropathy, respectively, compared with 2.35 m/s for healthy control subjects. Acoustic radiation force impulse imaging was able to distinguish between the different diabetic nephropathy stages (except for stage 5) in the kidneys. The threshold value for predicting diabetic nephropathy was 2.43 m/s (sensitivity, 84.1%; specificity, 67.3%; positive predictive value, 93.1%; negative predictive value 50.8%; accuracy, 72.1%; positive likelihood ratio, 2.5; and negative likelihood ratio, 0.23). CONCLUSION. Acoustic radiation force impulse imaging could be used for the evaluation of the renal elasticity changes that are due to secondary structural and functional changes in diabetic nephropathy.

  12. Ultrasonic Elastography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souchon, Rémi

    Elastography is a new ultrasound-based imaging technique that provides images (called elastograms) of internal strain in soft tissues under a static compression. The strain is related to the stiffness of the tissues, which is in turn related to the pathological state of tissues. For example, it has been known for long that breast and prostate cancer are stiffer than normal tissues, and palpation is a standard medical practice.

  13. Using MBL To Verify Newton's Second Law and the Impulse-Momentum Relationship with an Arbitrary Changing Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trumper, Ricardo; Gelbman, Moshe

    2002-01-01

    Uses microcomputer-based laboratories (MBL) to teach Newton's second law and the impulse-momentum relationship with a high degree of precision and accuracy while applying forces that change in an arbitrary way. (YDS)

  14. Using MBL To Verify Newton's Second Law and the Impulse-Momentum Relationship with an Arbitrary Changing Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trumper, Ricardo; Gelbman, Moshe

    2002-01-01

    Uses microcomputer-based laboratories (MBL) to teach Newton's second law and the impulse-momentum relationship with a high degree of precision and accuracy while applying forces that change in an arbitrary way. (YDS)

  15. Ultrasound Elastography: The New Frontier in Direct Measurement of Muscle Stiffness

    PubMed Central

    Brandenburg, Joline E.; Eby, Sarah F.; Song, Pengfei; Zhao, Heng; Brault, Jeffrey S.; Chen, Shigao; An, Kai-Nan

    2014-01-01

    The use of brightness-mode ultrasound and Doppler ultrasound in physical medicine and rehabilitation has increased dramatically. The continuing evolution of ultrasound technology has also produced ultrasound elastography, a cutting-edge technology that can directly measure the mechanical properties of tissue, including muscle stiffness. Its real-time and direct measurements of muscle stiffness can aid the diagnosis and rehabilitation of acute musculoskeletal injuries and chronic myofascial pain. It can also help monitor outcomes of interventions affecting muscle in neuromuscular and musculoskeletal diseases, and it can better inform the functional prognosis. This technology has implications for even broader use of ultrasound in physical medicine and rehabilitation practice, but more knowledge about its uses and limitations is essential to its appropriate clinical implementation. In this review, we describe different ultrasound elastography techniques for studying muscle stiffness, including strain elastography, acoustic radiation force impulse imaging, and shear-wave elastography. We discuss the basic principles of these techniques, including the strengths and limitations of their measurement capabilities. We review the current muscle research, discuss physiatric clinical applications of these techniques, and note directions for future research. PMID:25064780

  16. Ultrasound elastography: the new frontier in direct measurement of muscle stiffness.

    PubMed

    Brandenburg, Joline E; Eby, Sarah F; Song, Pengfei; Zhao, Heng; Brault, Jeffrey S; Chen, Shigao; An, Kai-Nan

    2014-11-01

    The use of brightness-mode ultrasound and Doppler ultrasound in physical medicine and rehabilitation has increased dramatically. The continuing evolution of ultrasound technology has also produced ultrasound elastography, a cutting-edge technology that can directly measure the mechanical properties of tissue, including muscle stiffness. Its real-time and direct measurements of muscle stiffness can aid the diagnosis and rehabilitation of acute musculoskeletal injuries and chronic myofascial pain. It can also help monitor outcomes of interventions affecting muscle in neuromuscular and musculoskeletal diseases, and it can better inform the functional prognosis. This technology has implications for even broader use of ultrasound in physical medicine and rehabilitation practice, but more knowledge about its uses and limitations is essential to its appropriate clinical implementation. In this review, we describe different ultrasound elastography techniques for studying muscle stiffness, including strain elastography, acoustic radiation force impulse imaging, and shear-wave elastography. We discuss the basic principles of these techniques, including the strengths and limitations of their measurement capabilities. We review the current muscle research, discuss physiatric clinical applications of these techniques, and note directions for future research.

  17. Non-contact quantification of laser micro-impulse in water by atomic force microscopy and its application for biomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosokawa, Yoichiroh

    2011-12-01

    We developed a local force measurement system of a femtosecond laser-induced impulsive force, which is due to shock and stress waves generated by focusing an intense femtosecond laser into water with a highly numerical aperture objective lens. In this system, the force localized in micron-sized region was detected by bending movement of a cantilever of atomic force microscope (AFM). Here we calculated the bending movement of the AFM cantilever when the femtosecond laser is focused in water at the vicinity of the cantilever and the impulsive force is loaded on the cantilever. From the result, a method to estimate the total of the impulsive force at the laser focal point was suggested and applied to estimate intercellular adhesion strength.

  18. Elastography for the pancreas: Current status and future perspective

    PubMed Central

    Kawada, Natsuko; Tanaka, Sachiko

    2016-01-01

    Elastography for the pancreas can be performed by either ultrasound or endoscopic ultrasound (EUS). There are two types of pancreatic elastographies based on different principles, which are strain elastography and shear wave elastography. The stiffness of tissue is estimated by measuring the grade of strain generated by external pressure in the former, whereas it is estimated by measuring propagation speed of shear wave, the transverse wave, generated by acoustic radiation impulse (ARFI) in the latter. Strain elastography is difficult to perform when the probe, the pancreas and the aorta are not located in line. Accordingly, a fine elastogram can be easily obtained in the pancreatic body but not in the pancreatic head and tail. In contrast, shear wave elastography can be easily performed in the entire pancreas because ARFI can be emitted to wherever desired. However, shear wave elastography cannot be performed by EUS to date. Recently, clinical guidelines for elastography specialized in the pancreas were published from Japanese Society of Medical Ultrasonics. The guidelines show us technical knacks of performing elastography for the pancreas. PMID:27076756

  19. Elastography for the pancreas: Current status and future perspective.

    PubMed

    Kawada, Natsuko; Tanaka, Sachiko

    2016-04-14

    Elastography for the pancreas can be performed by either ultrasound or endoscopic ultrasound (EUS). There are two types of pancreatic elastographies based on different principles, which are strain elastography and shear wave elastography. The stiffness of tissue is estimated by measuring the grade of strain generated by external pressure in the former, whereas it is estimated by measuring propagation speed of shear wave, the transverse wave, generated by acoustic radiation impulse (ARFI) in the latter. Strain elastography is difficult to perform when the probe, the pancreas and the aorta are not located in line. Accordingly, a fine elastogram can be easily obtained in the pancreatic body but not in the pancreatic head and tail. In contrast, shear wave elastography can be easily performed in the entire pancreas because ARFI can be emitted to wherever desired. However, shear wave elastography cannot be performed by EUS to date. Recently, clinical guidelines for elastography specialized in the pancreas were published from Japanese Society of Medical Ultrasonics. The guidelines show us technical knacks of performing elastography for the pancreas.

  20. Comparison of ultrasound B-mode, strain imaging, acoustic radiation force impulse displacement and shear wave velocity imaging using real time clinical breast images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manickam, Kavitha; Machireddy, Ramasubba Reddy; Raghavan, Bagyam

    2016-04-01

    It has been observed that many pathological process increase the elastic modulus of soft tissue compared to normal. In order to image tissue stiffness using ultrasound, a mechanical compression is applied to tissues of interest and local tissue deformation is measured. Based on the mechanical excitation, ultrasound stiffness imaging methods are classified as compression or strain imaging which is based on external compression and Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (ARFI) imaging which is based on force generated by focused ultrasound. When ultrasound is focused on tissue, shear wave is generated in lateral direction and shear wave velocity is proportional to stiffness of tissues. The work presented in this paper investigates strain elastography and ARFI imaging in clinical cancer diagnostics using real time patient data. Ultrasound B-mode imaging, strain imaging, ARFI displacement and ARFI shear wave velocity imaging were conducted on 50 patients (31 Benign and 23 malignant categories) using Siemens S2000 machine. True modulus contrast values were calculated from the measured shear wave velocities. For ultrasound B-mode, ARFI displacement imaging and strain imaging, observed image contrast and Contrast to Noise Ratio were calculated for benign and malignant cancers. Observed contrast values were compared based on the true modulus contrast values calculated from shear wave velocity imaging. In addition to that, student unpaired t-test was conducted for all the four techniques and box plots are presented. Results show that, strain imaging is better for malignant cancers whereas ARFI imaging is superior than strain imaging and B-mode for benign lesions representations.

  1. Analysis of Dragonfly Take-off Mechanism: Initial Impulse Generated by Aerodynamic Forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Ruijie; Bode-Oke, Ayodeji; Ren, Yan; Dong, Haibo; Flow Simulation Research Team

    2013-11-01

    Take-off is a critical part of insect flight due to not only that every single flight initiates from take-off, but also that the take-off period, despite its short duration, accounts for a relatively large fraction of the total energy consumption. Thus, studying the mechanism of insect take-off will help to improve the design of Micro Air Vehicles (MAVs) in two major properties, the success rate and the energy efficiency of take-off. In this work, we study 20 cases in which dragonflies (species including Pachydiplax longipennis, Epitheca Cynosura, Epitheca princeps etc.) take off from designed platform. By high-speed photogrammetry, 3-d reconstruction and numerical simulation, we explore how dragonflies coordinate different body parts to help take-off. We evaluate how aerodynamic forces generated by wing flapping create the initial impulse, and how these forces help save energy consumption. Supported by NSF CBET-1343154.

  2. Design of a phased array for the generation of adaptive radiation force along a path surrounding a breast lesion for dynamic ultrasound elastography imaging.

    PubMed

    Ekeom, Didace; Hadj Henni, Anis; Cloutier, Guy

    2013-03-01

    This work demonstrates, with numerical simulations, the potential of an octagonal probe for the generation of radiation forces in a set of points following a path surrounding a breast lesion in the context of dynamic ultrasound elastography imaging. Because of the in-going wave adaptive focusing strategy, the proposed method is adapted to induce shear wave fronts to interact optimally with complex lesions. Transducer elements were based on 1-3 piezocomposite material. Three-dimensional simulations combining the finite element method and boundary element method with periodic boundary conditions in the elevation direction were used to predict acoustic wave radiation in a targeted region of interest. The coupling factor of the piezocomposite material and the radiated power of the transducer were optimized. The transducer's electrical impedance was targeted to 50 Ω. The probe was simulated by assembling the designed transducer elements to build an octagonal phased-array with 256 elements on each edge (for a total of 2048 elements). The central frequency is 4.54 MHz; simulated transducer elements are able to deliver enough power and can generate the radiation force with a relatively low level of voltage excitation. Using dynamic transmitter beamforming techniques, the radiation force along a path and resulting acoustic pattern in the breast were simulated assuming a linear isotropic medium. Magnitude and orientation of the acoustic intensity (radiation force) at any point of a generation path could be controlled for the case of an example representing a heterogeneous medium with an embedded soft mechanical inclusion.

  3. On the Evolution of Pulsatile Flow Subject to a Transverse Impulse Body Force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Labbio, Giuseppe; Keshavarz-Motamed, Zahra; Kadem, Lyes

    2014-11-01

    In the event of an unexpected abrupt traffic stop or car accident, automotive passengers will experience an abrupt body deceleration. This may lead to tearing or dissection of the aortic wall known as Blunt Traumatic Aortic Rupture (BTAR). BTAR is the second leading cause of death in automotive accidents and, although quite frequent, the mechanisms leading to BTAR are still not clearly identified, particularly the contribution of the flow field. As such, this work is intended to provide a fundamental framework for the investigation of the flow contribution to BTAR. In this fundamental study, pulsatile flow in a three-dimensional, straight pipe of circular cross-section is subjected to a unidirectional, transverse, impulse body force applied on a strictly bounded volume of fluid. These models were simulated using the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software FLUENT. The evolution of fluid field characteristics was investigated during and after the application of the force. The application of the force significantly modified the flow field. The force induces a transverse pressure gradient causing the development of secondary flow structures that dissipate the energy added by the acceleration. Once the force ceases to act, these structures are carried downstream and gradually dissipate their excess energy.

  4. Clinical application of Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse Imaging with Virtual Touch IQ in breast ultrasound: diagnostic performance and reproducibility of a new technique.

    PubMed

    Kapetas, Panagiotis; Pinker-Domenig, Katja; Woitek, Ramona; Clauser, Paola; Bernathova, Maria; Spick, Claudio; Helbich, Thomas; Baltzer, Pascal A

    2017-02-01

    Background Virtual Touch IQ (VTIQ) is a novel technique of quantitative sonoelastography that applies acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI). Purpose To evaluate breast ARFI imaging with VTIQ in the clinical setting, with regard to reproducibility and diagnostic performance, and to specify cutoff limits for the differentiation of benign and malignant lesions. Material and Methods This retrospective study included 83 patients with 85 breast lesions (51 benign, 34 malignant) who received ARFI imaging with VTIQ. Two independent ARFI measurements of each lesion were performed and shear wave velocities (SWV) of the lesion and the adjacent tissues were measured. A lesion-to-fat velocity ratio (L/F Ratio) was calculated for each lesion. Diagnostic performance of SWV measurements and L/F Ratios was evaluated with receiver operating curve (ROC) analysis. The intraclass correlation coefficient and Bland-Altman plots were used to evaluate measurement reproducibility. Results All measurements showed equal diagnostic performance, as measured by the area under the ROC curve (0.853 for SWV, 0.882 for the L/F Ratio). At a cutoff value of 3.23 m/s, sensitivity and specificity were 82.4% and 80.4%, respectively. An L/F Ratio cutoff value of 2.23 revealed a sensitivity and specificity of 89.7% and 76.5%. The reproducibility of the SWV measurements was moderate (limits of agreement, 40.3-44.4%) and higher than that of the L/F Ratios (54.5-60.2%). Conclusion ARFI imaging with VTIQ is a novel, moderately reproducible, quantitative elastography technique, which provides useful information for the differentiation of benign and malignant breast lesions in the clinical setting.

  5. Acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) imaging: Characterizing the mechanical properties of tissues using their transient response to localized force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nightingale, Kathryn R.; Palmeri, Mark L.; Congdon, Amy N.; Frinkely, Kristin D.; Trahey, Gregg E.

    2004-05-01

    Acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) imaging utilizes brief, high energy, focused acoustic pulses to generate radiation force in tissue, and conventional diagnostic ultrasound methods to detect the resulting tissue displacements in order to image the relative mechanical properties of tissue. The magnitude and spatial extent of the applied force is dependent upon the transmit beam parameters and the tissue attenuation. Forcing volumes are on the order of 5 mm3, pulse durations are less than 1 ms, and tissue displacements are typically several microns. Images of tissue displacement reflect local tissue stiffness, with softer tissues (e.g., fat) displacing farther than stiffer tissues (e.g., muscle). Parametric images of maximum displacement, time to peak displacement, and recovery time provide information about tissue material properties and structure. In both in vivo and ex vivo data, structures shown in matched B-mode images are in good agreement with those shown in ARFI images, with comparable resolution. Potential clinical applications under investigation include soft tissue lesion characterization, assessment of focal atherosclerosis, and imaging of thermal lesion formation during tissue ablation procedures. Results from ongoing studies will be presented. [Work supported by NIH Grant R01 EB002132-03, and the Whitaker Foundation. System support from Siemens Medical Solutions USA, Inc.

  6. Ultrasound elastography: principles, techniques, and clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Dewall, Ryan J

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasound elastography is an emerging set of imaging modalities used to image tissue elasticity and are often referred to as virtual palpation. These techniques have proven effective in detecting and assessing many different pathologies, because tissue mechanical changes often correlate with tissue pathological changes. This article reviews the principles of ultrasound elastography, many of the ultrasound-based techniques, and popular clinical applications. Originally, elastography was a technique that imaged tissue strain by comparing pre- and postcompression ultrasound images. However, new techniques have been developed that use different excitation methods such as external vibration or acoustic radiation force. Some techniques track transient phenomena such as shear waves to quantitatively measure tissue elasticity. Clinical use of elastography is increasing, with applications including lesion detection and classification, fibrosis staging, treatment monitoring, vascular imaging, and musculoskeletal applications.

  7. Differentiation of benign from malignant liver masses with Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse technique.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hojun; Wilson, Stephanie R

    2011-12-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the performance of Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (ARFI) imaging to differentiate benign from malignant liver masses, both of hepatocellular origin and metastases, by quantification of their stiffness. This study has institutional review board approval and informed consent. Eighty-nine patients (42 female and 47 male patients) with 105 liver masses had ARFI evaluation on ultrasound, S2000 (Siemens, Mountain View, Calif). Mean age of the patients was 53.67 years (range, 27-83 years). Mean diameter of the masses was 2.77 cm (range, 1.0-13.0 cm). Final diagnoses, confirmed by imaging on contrast-enhanced computed tomography, magnetic resonance, or ultrasound or biopsy, include hepatocellular carcinoma (n = 28), metastasis (n = 13), hemangioma (n = 35), focal nodular hyperplasia (n = 15), focal fat sparing (n = 8), focal fat deposit (n = 4), and adenoma (n = 2). Receiver operating characteristic analysis was performed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the ARFI measurement and to extract the optimal cutoff values in the differentiation of benign from malignant disease. Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse values showed a statistically significant difference between benign (1.73 [SD, 0.8] m/sec) and malignant masses (2.57 [SD, 1.01] m/sec) (P < 0.001). However, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.744, suggesting only fair accuracy. For differentiation of malignant from benign masses, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were 68% (28/41), 69% (44/64), 58% (28/48), and 77% (44/57), respectively, when 1.9 m/sec was chosen as a cutoff value, reflective of a wide variation of ARFI values in each diagnosis. For differentiation of metastasis from benign masses, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and NPV were 69% (9/13), 89% (57/64), 56% (9/16), and 93% (57/61), respectively, when 2.72 m/sec was chosen as a cutoff value. Acoustic

  8. On the clinical characterization of impulse and suction force contributions by the diastolic left ventricular vortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Legazpi, Pablo; Alhama, Marta; Benito, Yolanda; Bermejo, Javier; Yotti, Raquel; Perez-David, Esther; Barrio, Alicia; Perez-Del-Villar, Candelas; Gonzalez-Mansilla, Ana; Fernandez-Aviles, Francisco; Del Alamo, Juan C.

    2012-11-01

    One of the fluid-dynamic mechanisms that characterize the diastolic phase of the cardiac cycle is the formation of a left ventricular (LV) vortex ring that has been proposed to improve LV filling. However, direct clinical quantification of the contribution of this vortex to LV filling is elusive. In this clinical study, we considered 20 patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and 40 healthy volunteers. We have developed and validated a method that derives two-dimensional maps of the LV flow from standard color-Doppler sequences. This study employs the new imaging modality in combination with a vortex identification method and a panel method in order to isolate and estimate the direct contribution of the LV vortex to fluid impulse and suction force during filling in the healthy and diseased populations. Funded by NIH Grant R21HL108268.

  9. Jitter reduction technique for acoustic radiation force impulse microscopy via photoacoustic detection

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Bong Jin; Yoon, Changhan; Man Park, Jin; Hwang, Jae Youn; Shung, K. Kirk

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate a jitter noise reduction technique for acoustic radiation force impulse microscopy via photoacoustic detection (PA-ARFI), which promises to be capable of measuring cell mechanics. To reduce the jitter noise induced by Q-switched pulsed laser operated at high repetition frequency, photoacoustic signals from the surface of an ultrasound transducer are aligned by cross-correlation and peak-to-peak detection, respectively. Each method is then employed to measure the displacements of a target sample in an agar phantom and a breast cancer cell due to ARFI application, followed by the quantitative comparison between their performances. The suggested methods for PA-ARFI significantly reduce jitter noises, thus allowing us to measure displacements of a target cell due to ARFI application by less than 3 μm. PMID:26367579

  10. Efficiency of grip force adjustments for impulsive loading during imposed and actively produced collisions.

    PubMed

    Delevoye-Turrell, Y N; Li, F-X; Wing, A M

    2003-10-01

    During object manipulation, both predictive feedforward and reactive feedback mechanisms are available to adjust grip force (GF) levels to compensate for the destabilizing effects of load force changes. During collisions, load force increases impulsively (< 20 ms). Thus, only predictive control of GF can be used to ensure grasp stabilization. A collision paradigm is here used to investigate the effects of practice and vision on the efficiency of the predictive control of GF. Subjects actively produced or received an imposed collision with a pendulum. Subjects were more efficient (used smaller GF for identical loads) when producing than when receiving the collisions. Effects of practice were evident in the active producing task only, with GF levels reducing over repetitions, suggesting that sensorimotor memory for the task was used to adjust GF more efficiently. With imposed collisions, GF levels did not reduce with repetition, which suggests that a direct relation between motor action and sensory feedback may be necessary to improve efficiency. Nevertheless, in this condition GF was lower with visual feedback, indicating potential for more efficient grip possibly associated with subjects degree of confidence. We discuss the implications of these results for accounts of the predictive and the reactive control of movement.

  11. Effect of baffle on slosh reaction forces in rotating liquid helium subjected to a lateral impulse in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, R. J.; Long, Y. T.

    1995-01-01

    Sloshing dynamics within a partially filled rotating Dewar of superfluid He II are investigated in response to a lateral impulse. The study investigates several factors, including how the rotating bubble of superfluid He II reacts to the impulse in microgravity, how the amplitudes of slosh reaction forces act on the Dewar with various rotating speeds, how the frequencies of the sloshing modes excited differ in terms of differences in rotating speeds, and how the sloshing dynamics differ with and without a baffle. The numerical computation of sloshing dynamics is based on the noninertial frame spacecraft-bound coordinates. Results of the simulations are illustrated.

  12. Non-contact acoustic radiation force impulse microscopy via photoacoustic detection for probing breast cancer cell mechanics

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Jae Youn; Kang, Bong Jin; Lee, Changyang; Kim, Hyung Ham; Park, Jinhyoung; Zhou, Qifa; Shung, K. Kirk

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate a novel non-contact method: acoustic radiation force impulse microscopy via photoacoustic detection (PA-ARFI), capable of probing cell mechanics. A 30 MHz lithium niobate ultrasound transducer is utilized for both detection of phatoacoustic signals and generation of acoustic radiation force. To track cell membrane displacements by acoustic radiation force, functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes are attached to cell membrane. Using the developed microscopy evaluated with agar phantoms, the mechanics of highly- and weakly-metastatic breast cancer cells are quantified. These results clearly show that the PA-ARFI microscopy may serve as a novel tool to probe mechanics of single breast cancer cells. PMID:25657870

  13. Evaluation of graft stiffness using acoustic radiation force impulse imaging after living donor liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Ijichi, Hideki; Shirabe, Ken; Matsumoto, Yoshihiro; Yoshizumi, Tomoharu; Ikegami, Toru; Kayashima, Hiroto; Morita, Kazutoyo; Toshima, Takeo; Mano, Yohei; Maehara, Yoshihiko

    2014-11-01

    Acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) imaging is an ultrasound-based modality to evaluate tissue stiffness using short-duration acoustic pulses in the region of interest. Virtual touch tissue quantification (VTTQ), which is an implementation of ARFI, allows quantitative assessment of tissue stiffness. Twenty recipients who underwent living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) for chronic liver diseases were enrolled. Graft types included left lobes with the middle hepatic vein and caudate lobes (n = 11), right lobes (n = 7), and right posterior segments (n = 2). They underwent measurement of graft VTTQ during the early post-LDLT period. The VTTQ value level rose after LDLT, reaching a maximum level on postoperative day 4. There were no significant differences in the VTTQ values between the left and right lobe graft types. Significant correlations were observed between the postoperative maximum value of VTTQ and graft volume-to-recipient standard liver volume ratio, portal venous flow to graft volume ratio, and post-LDLT portal venous pressure. The postoperative maximum serum alanine aminotransferase level and ascites fluid production were also significantly correlated with VTTQ. ARFI may be a useful diagnostic tool for the noninvasive and quantitative evaluation of the severity of graft dysfunction after LDLT.

  14. Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse Imaging of Mechanical Stiffness Propagation in Myocardial Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Stephen J.; Byram, Brett C.; Bouchard, Richard R.; Dumont, Douglas M.; Wolf, Patrick D.; Trahey, Gregg E.

    2012-01-01

    Acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) imaging has been shown to be capable of imaging local myocardial stiffness changes throughout the cardiac cycle. Expanding on these results, the authors present experiments using cardiac ARFI imaging to visualize and quantify the propagation of mechanical stiffness during ventricular systole. In vivo ARFI images of the left ventricular free wall of two exposed canine hearts were acquired. Images were formed while the heart was externally paced by one of two electrodes positioned on the epicardial surface and either side of the imaging plane. Two-line M-mode ARFI images were acquired at a sampling frequency of 120 Hz while the heart was paced from an external stimulating electrode. Two-dimensional ARFI images were also acquired, and an average propagation velocity across the lateral field of view was calculated. Directions and speeds of myocardial stiffness propagation were measured and compared with the propagations derived from the local electrocardiogram (ECG), strain, and tissue velocity measurements estimated during systole. In all ARFI images, the direction of myocardial stiffness propagation was seen to be away from the stimulating electrode and occurred with similar velocity magnitudes in either direction. When compared with the local epicardial ECG, the mechanical stiffness waves were observed to travel in the same direction as the propagating electrical wave and with similar propagation velocities. In a comparison between ARFI, strain, and tissue velocity imaging, the three methods also yielded similar propagation velocities. PMID:22972912

  15. Acoustic radiation force impulse imaging of vulnerable plaques: a finite element method parametric analysis

    PubMed Central

    Doherty, Joshua R.; Dumont, Douglas M.; Trahey, Gregg E.; Palmeri, Mark L.

    2012-01-01

    Plaque rupture is the most common cause of complications such as stroke and coronary heart failure. Recent histopathological evidence suggests that several plaque features, including a large lipid core and a thin fibrous cap, are associated with plaques most at risk for rupture. Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (ARFI) imaging, a recently developed ultrasound-based elasticity imaging technique, shows promise for imaging these features noninvasively. Clinically, this could be used to distinguish vulnerable plaques, for which surgical intervention may be required, from those less prone to rupture. In this study, a parametric analysis using Finite-Element Method (FEM) models was performed to simulate ARFI imaging of five different carotid artery plaques across a wide range of material properties. It was demonstrated that ARFI could resolve the softer lipid pool from the surrounding, stiffer media and fibrous cap and was most dependent upon the stiffness of the lipid pool component. Stress concentrations due to an ARFI excitation were located in the media and fibrous cap components. In all cases, the maximum Von Mises stress was < 1.2 kPa. In comparing these results with others investigating plaque rupture, it is concluded that while the mechanisms may be different, the Von Mises stresses imposed by ARFI are orders of magnitude lower than the stresses associated with blood pressure. PMID:23122224

  16. Impulsive force on the head during performance of typical ukemi techniques following different judo throws.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Toshihiko; Ishii, Takanori; Okada, Naoyuki; Itoh, Masahiro

    2015-01-01

    In this study, eight judo athletes who are major candidates for the Japan national team were recruited as participants. Kinematic analysis of exemplary ukemi techniques was carried out using two throws, o-soto-gari, a throw linked to frequent injury, and o-uchi-gari. The aim of this study was to kinematically quantify the timing patterns of exemplary ukemi techniques and to obtain kinematic information of the head, in a sequence of ukemi from the onset of the throw to the completion of ukemi. The results indicated that the vertical velocity with which the uke's head decelerated was reduced by increasing the body surface exposed to the collision with the tatami and by increasing the elapsed time. In particular, overall upper limb contact with the tatami is greatly associated with deceleration. In o-soto-gari, the impulsive force on the faller's head as the head reached the lowest point was 204.82 ± 19.95 kg m · s(-2) while in o-uchi-gari it was 118.46 ± 63.62 kg m · s(-2), z = -1.75, P = 0.08, and it did present a large-sized effect with r = 0.78. These findings indicate that the exemplary o-soto-gari as compared to o-uchi-gari is the technique that causes more significant damage to the uke's head.

  17. Optical tracking of acoustic radiation force impulse-induced dynamics in a tissue-mimicking phantom.

    PubMed

    Bouchard, Richard R; Palmeri, Mark L; Pinton, Gianmarco F; Trahey, Gregg E; Streeter, Jason E; Dayton, Paul A

    2009-11-01

    Optical tracking was utilized to investigate the acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI)-induced response, generated by a 5-MHz piston transducer, in a translucent tissue-mimicking phantom. Suspended 10-microm microspheres were tracked axially and laterally at multiple locations throughout the field of view of an optical microscope with 0.5-microm displacement resolution, in both dimensions, and at frame rates of up to 36 kHz. Induced dynamics were successfully captured before, during, and after the ARFI excitation at depths of up to 4.8 mm from the phantom's proximal boundary. Results are presented for tracked axial and lateral displacements resulting from on-axis and off-axis (i.e., shear wave) acquisitions; these results are compared to matched finite element method modeling and independent ultrasonically based empirical results and yielded reasonable agreement in most cases. A shear wave reflection, generated by the proximal boundary, consistently produced an artifact in tracked displacement data later in time (i.e., after the initial ARFI-induced displacement peak). This tracking method provides high-frame-rate, two-dimensional tracking data and thus could prove useful in the investigation of complex ARFI-induced dynamics in controlled experimental settings.

  18. Acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) imaging of zebrafish embryo by high-frequency coded excitation sequence.

    PubMed

    Park, Jinhyoung; Lee, Jungwoo; Lau, Sien Ting; Lee, Changyang; Huang, Ying; Lien, Ching-Ling; Kirk Shung, K

    2012-04-01

    Acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) imaging has been developed as a non-invasive method for quantitative illustration of tissue stiffness or displacement. Conventional ARFI imaging (2-10 MHz) has been implemented in commercial scanners for illustrating elastic properties of several organs. The image resolution, however, is too coarse to study mechanical properties of micro-sized objects such as cells. This article thus presents a high-frequency coded excitation ARFI technique, with the ultimate goal of displaying elastic characteristics of cellular structures. Tissue mimicking phantoms and zebrafish embryos are imaged with a 100-MHz lithium niobate (LiNbO₃) transducer, by cross-correlating tracked RF echoes with the reference. The phantom results show that the contrast of ARFI image (14 dB) with coded excitation is better than that of the conventional ARFI image (9 dB). The depths of penetration are 2.6 and 2.2 mm, respectively. The stiffness data of the zebrafish demonstrate that the envelope is harder than the embryo region. The temporal displacement change at the embryo and the chorion is as large as 36 and 3.6 μm. Consequently, this high-frequency ARFI approach may serve as a remote palpation imaging tool that reveals viscoelastic properties of small biological samples.

  19. Acoustic radiation force impulse imaging (ARFI) on an IVUS circular array.

    PubMed

    Patel, Vivek; Dahl, Jeremy J; Bradway, David P; Doherty, Joshua R; Lee, Seung Yun; Smith, Stephen W

    2014-04-01

    Our long-term goal is the detection and characterization of vulnerable plaque in the coronary arteries of the heart using intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) catheters. Vulnerable plaque, characterized by a thin fibrous cap and a soft, lipid-rich necrotic core is a precursor to heart attack and stroke. Early detection of such plaques may potentially alter the course of treatment of the patient to prevent ischemic events. We have previously described the characterization of carotid plaques using external linear arrays operating at 9 MHz. In addition, we previously modified circular array IVUS catheters by short-circuiting several neighboring elements to produce fixed beamwidths for intravascular hyperthermia applications. In this paper, we modified Volcano Visions 8.2 French, 9 MHz catheters and Volcano Platinum 3.5 French, 20 MHz catheters by short-circuiting portions of the array for acoustic radiation force impulse imaging (ARFI) applications. The catheters had an effective transmit aperture size of 2 mm and 1.5 mm, respectively. The catheters were connected to a Verasonics scanner and driven with pushing pulses of 180 V p-p to acquire ARFI data from a soft gel phantom with a Young's modulus of 2.9 kPa. The dynamic response of the tissue-mimicking material demonstrates a typical ARFI motion of 1 to 2 microns as the gel phantom displaces away and recovers back to its normal position. The hardware modifications applied to our IVUS catheters mimic potential beamforming modifications that could be implemented on IVUS scanners. Our results demonstrate that the generation of radiation force from IVUS catheters and the development of intravascular ARFI may be feasible.

  20. Acoustic radiation force impulse imaging of kidneys – a phantom study

    PubMed Central

    Januszewicz, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Aim of the study Since there have been only few works reporting the diagnosis of kidneys using Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse technique and those works do not provide consistent results of shear wave velocity measurements in renal tissue, we have decided to use kidney phantoms with known properties to examine the reliability of the method itself in a controlled setup similar to kidneys examination. Materials and methods Four gelatin-based phantoms imitating different clinical situations were manufactured – two with thick and two with thin renal cortex, each type at a depth similar to a normal-weight or overweight patient. For each phantom, a series of interest points was chosen and for each point 20 Shear Wave Velocity measurements were taken using the build-in Virtual Touch Tissue Quantification™ tool in a Siemens Acuson S2000 ultrasound scanner equipped with a 6C1 HD Transducer (Siemens Mountainview, USA). Results Mean Shear Wave Velocity values obtained for all the examined points ranged from 2.445 to 3.941 m/s, with standard deviation exceeding 0.1 in only one case out of 29 points, but differing significantly between all points. Conclusions The obtained results indicate that the method is highly reliable as long as the measurement volume contains a uniform tissue region. If the measurement window covers a region with different properties even partially, the obtained results are affected. The variance of measured values on the other hand is not affected by the said non-uniformity of material under examination. Furthermore, the variance of measured values does not show a clear dependency on the depth at which the shear wave velocities are measured. PMID:28138404

  1. Differential diagnosis of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis and breast cancer using acoustic radiation force impulse imaging.

    PubMed

    Teke, Memik; Teke, Fatma; Alan, Bircan; Türkoğlu, Ahmet; Hamidi, Cihad; Göya, Cemil; Hattapoğlu, Salih; Gumus, Metehan

    2017-01-01

    Differentiation of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) from carcinoma with routine imaging methods, such as ultrasonography (US) and mammography, is difficult. Therefore, we evaluated the value of a newly developed noninvasive technique called acoustic radiation force impulse imaging in differentiating IGM versus malignant lesions in the breast. Four hundred and eighty-six patients, who were referred to us with a presumptive diagnosis of a mass, underwent Virtual Touch tissue imaging (VTI; Siemens) and Virtual Touch tissue quantification (VTQ; Siemens) after conventional gray-scale US. US-guided percutaneous needle biopsy was then performed on 276 lesions with clinically and radiologically suspicious features. Malignant lesions (n = 122) and IGM (n = 48) were included in the final study group. There was a statistically significant difference in shear wave velocity marginal and internal values between the IGM and malignant lesions. The median marginal velocity for IGM and malignant lesions was 3.19 m/s (minimum-maximum 2.49-5.82) and 5.05 m/s (minimum-maximum 2.09-8.46), respectively (p < 0.001). The median internal velocity for IGM and malignant lesions was 2.76 m/s (minimum-maximum 1.14-4.12) and 4.79 m/s (minimum-maximum 2.12-8.02), respectively (p < 0.001). The combination of VTI and VTQ as a complement to conventional US provides viscoelastic properties of tissues, and thus has the potential to increase the specificity of US.

  2. Intracardiac Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (ARFI) and Shear Wave Imaging in Pigs with Focal Infarctions

    PubMed Central

    Hollender, Peter; Bradway, David; Wolf, Patrick; Goswami, Robi; Trahey, Gregg

    2013-01-01

    Four pigs, three with focal infarctions in the apical intraventricular septum (IVS) and/or left ventricular free wall (LVFW), were imaged with an intracardiac echocardiography (ICE) transducer. Custom beam sequences were used to excite the myocardium with focused acoustic radiation force (ARF) impulses and image the subsequent tissue response. Tissue displacement in response to the ARF excitation was calculated with a phase-based estimator, and transverse wave magnitude and velocity were each estimated at every depth. The excitation sequence was repeated rapidly, either in the same location to generate 40 Hz M-Modes at a single steering angle, or with a modulated steering angle to synthesize 2-D displacement magnitude and shear wave velocity images at 17 points in the cardiac cycle. Both types of images were acquired from various views in the right and left ventricles, in and out of infarcted regions. In all animals, ARFI and SWEI estimates indicated diastolic relaxation and systolic contraction in non-infarcted tissues. The M-Mode sequences showed high beat-to-beat spatio-temporal repeatability of the measurements for each imaging plane. In views of noninfarcted tissue in the diseased animals, no significant elastic remodeling was indicated when compared to the control. Where available, views of infarcted tissue were compared to similar views from the control animal. In views of the LVFW, the infarcted tissue presented as stiff and non-contractile compared to the control. In a view of the IVS, no significant difference was seen between infarcted and healthy tissue, while in another view, a heterogeneous infarction was seen presenting itself as non-contractile in systole. PMID:25004538

  3. The utility of acoustic radiation force impulse imaging in diagnosing acute appendicitis and staging its severity

    PubMed Central

    Göya, Cemil; Hamidi, Cihad; Okur, Mehmet Hanifi; İçer, Mustafa; Oğuz, Abdullah; Hattapoğlu, Salih; Çetinçakmak, Mehmet Güli; Teke, Memik

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) imaging to diagnose acute appendicitis. METHODS Abdominal ultrasonography (US) and ARFI imaging were performed in 53 patients that presented with right lower quadrant pain, and the results were compared with those obtained in 52 healthy subjects. Qualitative evaluation of the patients was conducted by Virtual Touch™ tissue imaging (VTI), while quantitative evaluation was performed by Virtual Touch™ tissue quantification (VTQ) measuring the shear wave velocity (SWV). The severity of appendix inflammation was observed and rated using ARFI imaging in patients diagnosed with acute appendicitis. Alvarado scores were determined for all patients presenting with right lower quadrant pain. All patients diagnosed with appendicitis received appendectomies. The sensitivity and specificity of ARFI imaging relative to US was determined upon confirming the diagnosis of acute appendicitis via histopathological analysis. RESULTS The Alvarado score had a sensitivity and specificity of 70.8% and 20%, respectively, in detecting acute appendicitis. Abdominal US had 83.3% sensitivity and 80% specificity, while ARFI imaging had 100% sensitivity and 98% specificity, in diagnosing acute appendicitis. The median SWV value was 1.11 m/s (range, 0.6–1.56 m/s) for healthy appendix and 3.07 m/s (range, 1.37–4.78 m/s) for acute appendicitis. CONCLUSION ARFI imaging may be useful in guiding the clinical management of acute appendicitis, by helping its diagnosis and determining the severity of appendix inflammation. PMID:25323836

  4. In Vivo Study of Transverse Carpal Ligament Stiffness Using Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (ARFI) Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Zhilei Liu; Vince, D. Geoffrey; Li, Zong-Ming

    2013-01-01

    The transverse carpal ligament (TCL) forms the volar boundary of the carpal tunnel and may provide mechanical constraint to the median nerve, leading to carpal tunnel syndrome. Therefore, the mechanical properties of the TCL are essential to better understand the etiology of carpal tunnel syndrome. The purpose of this study was to investigate the in vivo TCL stiffness using acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) imaging. The shear wave velocity (SWV) of the TCL was measured using Virtual Touch IQTM software in 15 healthy, male subjects. The skin and the thenar muscles were also examined as reference tissues. In addition, the effects of measurement location and ultrasound transducer compression on the SWV were studied. The SWV of the TCL was dependent on the tissue location, with greater SWV values within the muscle-attached region than those outside of the muscle-attached region. The SWV of the TCL was significantly smaller without compression (5.21 ± 1.08 m/s) than with compression (6.62 ± 1.18 m/s). The SWV measurements of the skin and the thenar muscles were also affected by transducer compression, but to different extents than the SWV of the TCL. Therefore to standardize the ARFI imaging procedure, it is recommended that a layer of ultrasound gel be maintained to minimize the effects of tissue compression. This study demonstrated the feasibility of ARFI imaging for assessing the stiffness characteristics of the TCL in vivo, which has the potential to identify pathomechanical changes of the tissue. PMID:23861919

  5. An In Vitro Assessment of Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse Imaging for Visualizing Cardiac Radiofrequency Ablation Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Eyerly, Stephanie A.; Hsu, Stephen J.; Agashe, Shruti H.; Trahey, Gregg E.; Li, Yang; Wolf, Patrick D.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Lesion placement and transmurality are critical factors in the success of cardiac transcatheter radiofrequency ablation (RFA) treatments for supraventricular arrhythmias. This study investigated the capabilities of catheter transducer based acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) ultrasound imaging for quantifying ablation lesion dimensions. Methods and Results RFA lesions were created in vitro in porcine ventricular myocardium and imaged with an intracardiac ultrasound catheter transducer capable of acquiring spatially registered B-mode and ARFI images. The myocardium was sliced along the imaging plane and photographed. The maximum ARFI-induced displacement images of the lesion were normalized and spatially registered with the photograph by matching the surfaces of the tissue in the B-mode and photographic images. The lesion dimensions determined by a manual segmentation of the photographed lesion based on the visible discoloration of the tissue were compared to automatic segmentations of the ARFI image using two different calculated thresholds. ARFI imaging accurately localized and sized the lesions within the myocardium. Differences in the maximum lateral and axial dimensions were statistically below 2 mm and 1 mm respectively for the two thresholding methods, with mean percent overlap of 68.7±5.21% and 66.3±8.4% for the two thresholds used. Conclusion ARFI imaging is capable of visualizing myocardial RFA lesion dimensions to within 2 mm in vitro. Visualizing lesions during transcatheter cardiac ablation procedures could improve the success of the treatment by imaging lesion line discontinuity and potentially reducing the required number of ablation lesions and procedure time. PMID:20021518

  6. Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse Measurement in Renal Transplantation: A Prospective, Longitudinal Study With Protocol Biopsies.

    PubMed

    Lee, Juhan; Oh, Young Taik; Joo, Dong Jin; Ma, Bo Gyoung; Lee, A-lan; Lee, Jae Geun; Song, Seung Hwan; Kim, Seung Up; Jung, Dae Chul; Chung, Yong Eun; Kim, Yu Seun

    2015-09-01

    Interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy (IF/TA) is a common cause of kidney allograft loss. Several noninvasive techniques developed to assess tissue fibrosis are widely used to examine the liver. However, relatively few studies have investigated the use of elastographic methods to assess transplanted kidneys. The aim of this study was to explore the clinical implications of the acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) technique in renal transplant patients. A total of 91 patients who underwent living donor renal transplantation between September 2010 and January 2013 were included in this prospective study. Shear wave velocity (SWV) was measured by ARFI at baseline and predetermined time points (1 week and 6 and 12 months after transplantation). Protocol biopsies were performed at 12 months. Instead of reflecting IF/TA, SWVs were found to be related to time elapsed after transplantation. Mean SWV increased continuously during the first postoperative year (P < 0.001). In addition, mixed model analysis showed no correlation existed between SWV and serum creatinine (r = -0.2426, P = 0.0771). There was also no evidence of a relationship between IF/TA and serum creatinine (odds ratio [OR] = 1.220, P = 0.7648). Furthermore, SWV temporal patterns were dependent on the kidney weight to body weight ratio (KW/BW). In patients with a KW/BW < 3.5 g/kg, mean SWV continuously increased for 12 months, whereas it decreased after 6 months in those with a KW/BW ≥ 3.5 g/kg.No significant correlation was observed between SWV and IF/TA or renal dysfunction. However, SWV was found to be related to the time after transplantation. Renal hemodynamics influenced by KW/BW might impact SWV values.

  7. MR Elastography Studies of the 3D Force Chain Structure in Dense Granular Media: Distribution of Chain Lengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanfratello, L.; Fukushima, E.

    2009-06-01

    We recently developed a novel extension of MR Elastograpy (MRE) to image the force chain structure within a dense 3D quasi-static granular assembly. Subsequently, computer codes and algorithms to determine the distribution of the force chain lengths, where a chain is taken to be a relatively straight section between branching points, were developed. Similar tools were used previously to analyze 2D photoelastic data and now have been expanded to analyze our most current 3D MRE force chain data. These investigations reveal that the distribution of the chain lengths in 3D decays exponentially, as was observed in 2D. The exponential decay of the length distribution is consistent with DEM simulation results of Peters, et al. We conclude that the decay length of this distribution is a meaningful quantitative measure that characterizes granular assemblies.

  8. Single- and Multiple- Track Location Shear Wave and Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse Imaging: Matched Comparison of Contrast, CNR, and Resolution

    PubMed Central

    Hollender, Peter J.; Rosenzweig, Stephen J.; Nightingale, Kathryn R.; Trahey, Gregg E.

    2014-01-01

    Acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) imaging and shear wave elasticity imaging (SWEI) use the dynamic response of tissue to impulsive mechanical stimulus to characterize local elasticity. A variant of conventional, multiple track location SWEI (MTL-SWEI), denoted single track location SWEI (STL-SWEI) offers the promise of creating speckle-free shear wave images. This work compares the three imaging modalities using a high push and track beam density combined acquisition sequence to image inclusions of different sizes and contrasts. STL-SWEI is shown to have significantly higher CNR than MTL-SWEI, allowing for operation at higher resolution. ARFI and STL-SWEI perform similarly in the larger inclusions, with STL-SWEI providing better visualization of small targets ≤2.5 mm in diameter. The processing of each modality introduces different trade-offs between smoothness and resolution of edges and structures; these are discussed in detail. PMID:25701531

  9. Mechanics of ultrasound elastography

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guo-Yang

    2017-01-01

    Ultrasound elastography enables in vivo measurement of the mechanical properties of living soft tissues in a non-destructive and non-invasive manner and has attracted considerable interest for clinical use in recent years. Continuum mechanics plays an essential role in understanding and improving ultrasound-based elastography methods and is the main focus of this review. In particular, the mechanics theories involved in both static and dynamic elastography methods are surveyed. They may help understand the challenges in and opportunities for the practical applications of various ultrasound elastography methods to characterize the linear elastic, viscoelastic, anisotropic elastic and hyperelastic properties of both bulk and thin-walled soft materials, especially the in vivo characterization of biological soft tissues. PMID:28413350

  10. Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse Imaging for Noninvasive Evaluation of Renal Parenchyma Elasticity: Preliminary Findings

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hui-Xiong; Peng, Ai; Zhang, Yi-Feng; Liu, Lin-Na

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the diagnostic value of acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) to test the elasticity of renal parenchyma by measuring the shear wave velocity (SWV) which might be used to detect chronic kidney disease (CKD). Methods 327 healthy volunteers and 64 CKD patients were enrolled in the study. The potential influencing factors and measurement reproducibility were evaluated in the healthy volunteers. Correlations between SWV and laboratory tests were analyzed in CKD patients.?Receiver-operating characteristic curve (ROC) analyses were performed to assess the diagnostic performance of ARFI. Results The SWV of healthy volunteers correlated significantly to age (r = −0.22, P<0.001, n = 327) and differed significantly between men and women (2.06±0.48 m/s vs. 2.2±0.52 m/s, P = 0.018, n = 327). However, it did not correlate significantly to height, weight, body mass index, waistline, kidney dimension and the depth for SWV measurement (n = 30). Inter- and intraobserver agreement expressed as intraclass coefficient correlation were 0.64 (95% CI: 0.13 to 0.82, P = 0.011) and 0.6 (95% CI: 0.31 to 0.81, P = 0.001) (n = 40). The mean SWV in healthy volunteers was 2.15±0.51 m/s, while was 1.81±0.43 m/s, 1.79±0.29 m/s, 1.81±0.44 m/s, 1.64±0.55 m/s, and 1.36±0.17 m/s for stage 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 in CKD patients respectively. The SWV was significantly higher for healthy volunteers compared with each stage in CKD patients. ARFI could not predict the different stages of CKD except stage 5. In CKD patients, SWV correlated to e-GFR (r = 0.3, P = 0.018), to urea nitrogen (r =  −0.3, P = 0.016), and to creatinine (r =  −0.41, P = 0.001). ROC analyses indicated that the area under the ROC curve was 0.752 (95% CI: 0.704 to 0.797) (P<0.001). The cut-off value for predicting CKD was 1.88 m/s (sensitivity 71.87% and specificity 69.69%). Conclusion ARFI may be a potentially useful tool in detecting CKD. PMID

  11. Acoustic radiation force impulse imaging of human prostates: initial in vivo demonstration.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Liang; Polascik, Thomas J; Foo, Wen-Chi; Rosenzweig, Stephen; Palmeri, Mark L; Madden, John; Nightingale, Kathryn R

    2012-01-01

    Reliably detecting prostate cancer (PCa) has been a challenge for current imaging modalities. Acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) imaging is an elasticity imaging method that uses remotely generated, focused acoustic beams to probe tissue stiffness. A previous study on excised human prostates demonstrated ARFI images portray various prostatic structures and has the potential to guide prostate needle biopsy with improved sampling accuracy. The goal of this study is to demonstrate the feasibility of ARFI imaging to portray internal structures and PCa in the human prostate in vivo. Custom ARFI imaging sequences were designed and implemented using a modified Siemens Antares™ scanner with a three-dimensional (3-D) wobbler, end-firing, trans-cavity transducer, EV9F4. Nineteen patients were consented and imaged immediately preceding surgical prostatectomy. Pathologies and anatomic structures were identified in histologic slides by a pathologist blinded to ARFI data and were then registered with structures found in ARFI images. The results demonstrated that when PCa is visible, it generally appears as bilaterally asymmetric stiff structures; benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) appears heterogeneous with a nodular texture; the verumontanum and ejaculatory ducts appears softer compared with surrounding tissue, which form a unique 'V' shape; and the boundary of the transitional zone (TZ) forms a stiff rim separating the TZ from the peripheral zone (PZ). These characteristic appearances of prostatic structures are consistent with those found in our previous study of prostate ARFI imaging on excised human prostates. Compared with the matched B-mode images, ARFI images, in general, portray prostate structures with higher contrast. With the end-firing transducer used for this study, ARFI depth penetration was limited to 22 mm. Image contrast and resolution were decreased as compared with the previous ex vivo study due to the small transducer aperture. Even with these

  12. Prostate elastography: preliminary in vivo results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, S. K.; Feleppa, E. J.; Kalisz, A.; Ramchandran, S.; Ennis, R. D.; Lizzi, Frederick L.; Wuu, C.-S.; Ketterling, Jeffrey A.

    2005-04-01

    We report preliminary results from our investigation of in vivo prostate elastography. Fewer than 50% of all prostate cancers are typically visible in current clinical imaging modalities. Elastography displays a map of strain that results when tissue is externally compressed. Thus, elastography is ideal for imaging prostate cancers because they are generally stiffer than the surrounding tissue and stiffer regions usually exhibit lower strain in elastograms. In our study, digital radio-frequency (RF) ultrasound echo data were acquired from prostate-cancer patients undergoing brachytherapy. Seed placement is guided by a transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) probe, which is held in a mechanical fixture. The probe can be moved in XYZ directions and tilted. The probe face, in contact with the rectal wall, is used to apply a compression force to the immediately adjacent prostate. We also used a water-filled (acoustic) coupling balloon to compress the prostate by increasing the water volume inside the balloon. In each scan plane (transverse), we acquired RF data from successive scans at the scanner frame rate as the deformation force on the rectal wall was continuously increased. We computed strain using 1D RF cross-correlation analysis. The compression method based on fixture displacement produced low-noise elastograms that beautifully displayed the prostate architecture and emphasized stiff areas. Balloon-based compression also produced low-noise elastograms. Initial results demonstrate that elastography may be useful in the detection and evaluation of prostate cancers, occult in conventional imaging modalities.

  13. Texture generation in compressional photoacoustic elastography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmid, J. W.; Zabihian, B.; Widlak, T.; Glatz, T.; Liu, M.; Drexler, W.; Scherzer, O.

    2015-03-01

    Elastography is implemented by applying a mechanical force to a specimen and visualizing the resulting displacement. As a basis of elastographic imaging typically ultrasound, optical coherence tomography or magnetic resonance imaging are used. Photoacoustics has not been viewed as a primary imaging modality for elastography, but only as a complementary method to enhance the contrast in ultrasound elastography. The reason is that photoacoustics is considered speckle free [3], which hinders application of speckle tracking algorithms. However, while conventional ultrasound only uses a single frequency, photoacoustics utilizes a broad frequency spectrum. We are therefore able to generate artificial texture by using a frequency band limited part of the recorded data. In this work we try to assess the applicability of this technique to photoacoustic tomography. We use Agar phantoms with predefined Young's moduli and laterally apply a 50μm static compression. Pre- and post compression data are recorded via a Fabry Pérot interferometer planar sensor setup and reconstructed via a non-uniform-FFT reconstruction algorithm. A displacement vector field, between pre- and post compressed data is then determined via optical flow algorithms. While the implementation of texture generation during post processing reduces image quality overall, it turns out that it improves the detection of moving patterns and is therefore better suited for elastography.

  14. Many flaked particles generated by electric field stress working as an impulsive force in mass-production plasma etching equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasashima, Yuji; Uesugi, Fumihiko

    2015-09-01

    Particles generated in plasma etching significantly lower production yield. In plasma etching, etching reaction products adhere to the inner chamber walls, gradually forming films, and particles are generated by flaking of the deposited films due to electric field stress that acts boundary between the inner wall and the film. In this study, we have investigated the mechanism of instantaneous generation of many flaked particles using the mass-production reactive ion etching equipment. Particles, which flake off from the films on the ground electrode, are detected by the in-situ particle monitoring system using a sheet-shaped laser beam. The results indicate that the deposited films are severely damaged and flake off as numerous particles when the floating potential at the inner wall suddenly changes. This is because the rapid change in floating potential, observed when unusual wafer movement and micro-arc discharge occur, causes electric field stress working as an impulsive force. The films are easily detached by the impulsive force and many flaked particles are instantaneously generated. This mechanism can occur on not only a ground electrode but a chamber walls, and cause serious contamination in mass-production line. This work was partially supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number B 26870903.

  15. Sonographic Elastography of Mastitis.

    PubMed

    Sousaris, Nicholas; Barr, Richard G

    2016-08-01

    Sonographic elastography has been shown to be a useful imaging modality in characterizing breast lesions as benign or malignant. However, in preliminary research, mastitis has given false-positive findings on both strain and shear wave elastography. In this article, we review the findings in mastitis with and without abscess formation on both strain and shear wave elastography. The elastographic findings in all cases were suggestive of a malignancy according to published thresholds. In cases of mastitis with abscess formation, there is a characteristic appearance, with a central very soft area (abscess cavity) and a very stiff outer rim (edema and inflammation). This appearance should raise the suspicion of mastitis with abscess formation, since these findings are rare in breast cancers.

  16. Added value of Virtual Touch IQ shear wave elastography in the ultrasound assessment of breast lesions.

    PubMed

    Ianculescu, Victor; Ciolovan, Laura Maria; Dunant, Ariane; Vielh, Philippe; Mazouni, Chafika; Delaloge, Suzette; Dromain, Clarisse; Blidaru, Alexandru; Balleyguier, Corinne

    2014-05-01

    To determine the diagnostic performance of Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (ARFI) Virtual Touch IQ shear wave elastography in the discrimination of benign and malignant breast lesions. Conventional B-mode and elasticity imaging were used to evaluate 110 breast lesions. Elastographic assessment of breast tissue abnormalities was done using a shear wave based technique, Virtual Touch IQ (VTIQ), implemented on a Siemens Acuson S3000 ultrasound machine. Tissue mechanical properties were interpreted as two-dimensional qualitative and quantitative colour maps displaying relative shear wave velocity. Wave speed measurements in m/s were possible at operator defined regions of interest. The pathologic diagnosis was established on samples obtained by ultrasound guided core biopsy or fine needle aspiration. BIRADS based B-mode evaluation of the 48 benign and 62 malignant lesions achieved 92% sensitivity and 62.5% specificity. Subsequently performed VTIQ elastography relying on visual interpretation of the colour overlay displaying relative shear wave velocities managed similar standalone diagnostic performance with 92% sensitivity and 64.6% specificity. Lesion and surrounding tissue shear wave speed values were calculated and a significant difference was found between the benign and malignant populations (Mann-Whitney U test, p<0.0001). By selecting a lesion cut-off value of 3.31m/s we achieved 80.4% sensitivity and 73% specificity. Applying this threshold only to BIRADS 4a masses, we reached overall levels of 92% sensitivity and 72.9% specificity. VTIQ qualitative and quantitative elastography has the potential to further characterise B-mode detected breast lesions, increasing specificity and reducing the number of unnecessary biopsies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Intravascular ultrasound elastography.

    PubMed

    van der Steen, A F; de Korte, C L; Céspedes, E I

    1998-10-01

    Intravascular Ultrasound Blastography. The response of a tissue to mechanical excitation is a function of its mechanical properties. Excitation can be dynamic or quasistatic in nature. The response (e.g. displacement, velocity, compression) can be measured via ultrasound. This is the main principle underlying ultrasound elasticity imaging, sonoelasticity imaging, or ultrasound elastography. It is of great interest to know the local hardness of vessel wall and plaques. Intravascular elastography yields information unavailable or inconclusive if obtained from IVUS alone and thus contributes to more correct diagnosis. Potentially it can be used for therapy guidance. During the last decade several working groups used elastography in intravascular applications with varying success. In this paper we discuss the various approaches by different working groups. Focus will be on the approach of the Rotterdam group. Using a 30 MHz IVUS catheter, RF data are acquired from vessels in vitro at different intraluminal pressures. Local tissue displacement estimation by cross-correlation is followed by computation of the local strain. The resulting image supplies local information on the elastic properties of the vessel and plaque with high spatial resolution. Feasibility and usefulness are shown by means of phantom measurements. Furthermore, initial in vitro results of femoral arteries and correlation with histology are discussed. Phantom data show that the elastograms reveal information not presented by the echogram. In vitro artery data prove that in principle elastography is capable of identifying plaque composition where echography fails.

  18. Serial changes of liver stiffness measured by acoustic radiation force impulse imaging in acute liver failure: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Hidekatsu; Takikawa, Yasuhiro; Onodera, Mio; Kakisaka, Keisuke; Yoshida, Yuichi; Kataoka, Koujiro; Sawara, Kei; Miyamoto, Yasuhiro; Oikawa, Kanta; Endo, Ryujin; Suzuki, Kazuyuki

    2012-02-01

    Acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) imaging is a new technology used to determine liver elasticity. We report the case of a patient that survived hyperacute-type acute liver failure (ALF) and who showed a dramatic change in the value of shear wave velocity (SWV) measured by ARFI, which corresponded with the severity of her liver damage. The value of SWV increased significantly up to 3.6 ± 0.3 m/s during the encephalopathy phase and then decreased along with the recovery of liver function, the blood flow of the right portal vein, and the liver volume. These findings suggest the value of SWV in ALF as a reliable marker of liver tissue damage. Further investigations of the pathophysiological significance of SWV in ALF are warranted.

  19. Crawling wave optical coherence elastography.

    PubMed

    Meemon, Panomsak; Yao, Jianing; Chu, Ying-Ju; Zvietcovich, Fernando; Parker, Kevin J; Rolland, Jannick P

    2016-03-01

    Elastography is a technique that measures and maps the local elastic property of biological tissues. Aiming for detection of micron-scale inclusions, various optical elastography, especially optical coherence elastography (OCE), techniques have been investigated over the past decade. The challenges of current optical elastography methods include the decrease in elastographic resolution as compared with its parent imaging resolution, the detection sensitivity and accuracy, and the cost of the overall system. Here we report for the first time, we believe, on an elastography technique-crawling wave optical coherence elastography (CRW-OCE)-which significantly lowers the requirements on the imaging speed and opens the path to high-resolution and high-sensitivity OCE at relatively low cost. Methods of crawling wave excitation, data acquisition, and crawling wave tracking are presented.

  20. JSUM ultrasound elastography practice guidelines: pancreas.

    PubMed

    Hirooka, Yoshiki; Kuwahara, Takamichi; Irisawa, Atsushi; Itokawa, Fumihide; Uchida, Hiroki; Sasahira, Naoki; Kawada, Natsuko; Itoh, Yuya; Shiina, Tsuyoshi

    2015-04-01

    Ultrasound elastography is a relatively new diagnostic technique for measuring the elasticity (hardness) of tissue. Eleven years have passed since the debut of elastography. Various elastography devices are currently being marketed by manufacturers under different names. Pancreatic elastography can be used not only with transabdominal ultrasonography but also with endoscopic ultrasonography, but some types of elastography are difficult to perform for the pancreas. These guidelines aim to classify the various types of elastography into two major categories depending on the differences in the physical quantity (strain, shear wave), and to present the evidence for pancreatic elastography and how to use pancreatic elastography in the present day. But the number of reports on ultrasound elastography for the pancreas is still small, and there are no reports on some elastography devices for the pancreas. Therefore, these guidelines do not recommend methods of imaging and analysis by elastography device.

  1. Friction force and pressure calculations for time-dependent impulsive intelligent lubrication of human hip joint.

    PubMed

    Wierzcholski, Krzysztof

    2010-01-01

    The core of the present problem was to indicate the values of the optimum synovial fluid velocity and friction forces appearing near the cartilage cells of cooperating surfaces, as well as to find the ways of controlling the friction forces between particles of the liquid and the cells of the biobearing cooperating bodies in the thin boundary layer. In the research, we used a numerical method. Investigations of the physical and strength features are expected to be performed for various kinds of biobearing superficial layer and for damage to biobearings. In order to begin treating the surface structure of a superficial layer on the cooperating biobearing surfaces it is absolutely necessary to build a proper model of a liquid flow in the thin layer and to obtain the proper values of friction forces.

  2. A novel fast full inversion based breast ultrasound elastography technique.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Hirad; Fenster, Aaron; Samani, Abbas

    2013-04-07

    Cancer detection and classification have been the focus of many imaging and therapeutic research studies. Elastography is a non-invasive technique to visualize suspicious soft tissue areas where tissue stiffness is used as image contrast mechanism. In this study, a breast ultrasound elastography system including software and hardware is proposed. Unlike current elastography systems that image the tissue strain and present it as an approximation to relative tissue stiffness, this system is capable of imaging the breast absolute Young's modulus in fast fashion. To improve the quality of elastography images, a novel system consisting of two load cells has been attached to the ultrasound probe. The load cells measure the breast surface forces to be used for calculating the tissue stress distribution throughout the breast. To facilitate fast imaging, this stress calculation is conducted by an accelerated finite element method. Acquired tissue displacements and surface force data are used as input to the proposed Young's modulus reconstruction technique. Numerical and tissue mimicking phantom studies were conducted for validating the proposed system. These studies indicated that fast imaging of breast tissue absolute Young's modulus using the proposed ultrasound elastography system is feasible. The tissue mimicking phantom study indicated that the system is capable of providing reliable absolute Young's modulus values for both normal tissue and tumour as the maximum Young's modulus reconstruction error was less than 6%. This demonstrates that the proposed system has a good potential to be used for clinical breast cancer assessment.

  3. A novel fast full inversion based breast ultrasound elastography technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimi, Hirad; Fenster, Aaron; Samani, Abbas

    2013-04-01

    Cancer detection and classification have been the focus of many imaging and therapeutic research studies. Elastography is a non-invasive technique to visualize suspicious soft tissue areas where tissue stiffness is used as image contrast mechanism. In this study, a breast ultrasound elastography system including software and hardware is proposed. Unlike current elastography systems that image the tissue strain and present it as an approximation to relative tissue stiffness, this system is capable of imaging the breast absolute Young’s modulus in fast fashion. To improve the quality of elastography images, a novel system consisting of two load cells has been attached to the ultrasound probe. The load cells measure the breast surface forces to be used for calculating the tissue stress distribution throughout the breast. To facilitate fast imaging, this stress calculation is conducted by an accelerated finite element method. Acquired tissue displacements and surface force data are used as input to the proposed Young’s modulus reconstruction technique. Numerical and tissue mimicking phantom studies were conducted for validating the proposed system. These studies indicated that fast imaging of breast tissue absolute Young’s modulus using the proposed ultrasound elastography system is feasible. The tissue mimicking phantom study indicated that the system is capable of providing reliable absolute Young’s modulus values for both normal tissue and tumour as the maximum Young’s modulus reconstruction error was less than 6%. This demonstrates that the proposed system has a good potential to be used for clinical breast cancer assessment.

  4. The effect of total hip and hip resurfacing arthroplasty on vertical ground reaction force and impulse symmetry during a sit-to-stand task.

    PubMed

    Caplan, N; Stewart, S; Kashyap, S; Banaszkiewicz, P; St Clair Gibson, A; Kader, D; Ewen, A

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of total hip arthroplasty and hip resurfacing arthroplasty on limb loading symmetry before, and after, hip reconstruction surgery during a sit-to-stand task. Fourteen patients were recruited that were about to receive either a total hip prosthesis (n=7) or a hip resurfacing prosthesis (n=7), as well as matched controls. Patients performed a sit-to-stand movement before, 3 months after, and 12 months after surgery. Peak vertical ground reaction force and impulse were measured for each leg, from which ground reaction force and impulse symmetry ratios were calculated. Before surgery, hip resurfacing patients showed a small asymmetry which was not different to normal for ground reaction force (0.88(0.28) vs. 1.00(0.11); p=0.311) or impulse (0.87(0.29) vs. 0.99(0.09); p=0.324) symmetry ratios. Total hip patients offloaded their affected hip by 30% in terms of impulse symmetry ratio (0.71(0.36) vs. 0.99(0.23); p=0.018). At 3 months following surgery asymmetries were seen that were different to normal in both hip resurfacing patients for ground reaction force (0.77(0.16); p=0.007), and total hip patients for ground reaction force (0.70(0.15); p=0.018) and impulse (0.72(0.16); p=0.011) symmetry ratios. By 12 months after surgery total hip patients regained a symmetrical loading pattern for both ground reaction force (0.95(0.06); p=0.676) and impulse (1.00(0.06); p=0.702) symmetry ratios. Hip resurfacing patients, however, performed the task by overloading their operated hip, with impulse symmetry ratio being larger than normal (1.16(0.16); p=0.035). Physiotherapists should appreciate the need for early recovery of limb loading symmetry as well as subsequent differences in the responses observed with different prostheses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Optical Coherence Elastography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, Brendan F.; Kennedy, Kelsey M.; Oldenburg, Amy L.; Adie, Steven G.; Boppart, Stephen A.; Sampson, David D.

    The mechanical properties of tissue are pivotal in its function and behavior, and are often modified by disease. From the nano- to the macro-scale, many tools have been developed to measure tissue mechanical properties, both to understand the contribution of mechanics in the origin of disease and to improve diagnosis. Optical coherence elastography is applicable to the intermediate scale, between that of cells and whole organs, which is critical in the progression of many diseases and not widely studied to date. In optical coherence elastography, a mechanical load is imparted to a tissue and the resulting deformation is measured using optical coherence tomography. The deformation is used to deduce a mechanical parameter, e.g., Young's modulus, which is mapped into an image, known as an elastogram. In this chapter, we review the development of optical coherence elastography and report on the latest developments. We provide a focus on the underlying principles and assumptions, techniques to measure deformation, loading mechanisms, imaging probes and modeling, including the inverse elasticity problem.

  6. Magnetic resonance acoustic radiation force imaging.

    PubMed

    McDannold, Nathan; Maier, Stephan E

    2008-08-01

    Acoustic radiation force impulse imaging is an elastography method developed for ultrasound imaging that maps displacements produced by focused ultrasound pulses systematically applied to different locations. The resulting images are "stiffness weighted" and yield information about local mechanical tissue properties. Here, the feasibility of magnetic resonance acoustic radiation force imaging (MR-ARFI) was tested. Quasistatic MR elastography was used to measure focal displacements using a one-dimensional MRI pulse sequence. A 1.63 or 1.5 MHz transducer supplied ultrasound pulses which were triggered by the magnetic resonance imaging hardware to occur before a displacement-encoding gradient. Displacements in and around the focus were mapped in a tissue-mimicking phantom and in an ex vivo bovine kidney. They were readily observed and increased linearly with acoustic power in the phantom (R2=0.99). At higher acoustic power levels, the displacement substantially increased and was associated with irreversible changes in the phantom. At these levels, transverse displacement components could also be detected. Displacements in the kidney were also observed and increased after thermal ablation. While the measurements need validation, the authors have demonstrated the feasibility of detecting small displacements induced by low-power ultrasound pulses using an efficient magnetic resonance imaging pulse sequence that is compatible with tracking of a dynamically steered ultrasound focal spot, and that the displacement increases with acoustic power. MR-ARFI has potential for elastography or to guide ultrasound therapies that use low-power pulsed ultrasound exposures, such as drug delivery.

  7. Small airway dysfunction by impulse oscillometry in asthmatic patients with normal forced expiratory volume in the 1st second values.

    PubMed

    Pisi, Roberta; Tzani, Panagiota; Aiello, Marina; Martinelli, Enrico; Marangio, Emilio; Nicolini, Gabriele; Olivieri, Dario; Chetta, Alfredo

    2013-01-01

    Small airways are relevant to the pathophysiology of asthma. We investigated whether in asthmatic patients with normal forced expiratory volume in the 1st second (FEV(1)) values, impulse oscillometry system (IOS), as a measure of small airway function, contributed additional information to spirometry either at baseline or after bronchodilator, and whether it was related to the disease control. The fall in resistance from 5 to 20 Hz (R5-R20) and reactance at 5 Hz (X5) by IOS and spirometry measures of small airway function (forced expiratory flow at 25-75% [FEF(25-75)] and forced vital capacity/slow inspiratory vital capacity [FVC/SVC]) at baseline and after 400 micrograms of salbutamol were prospectively measured in 33 asthmatic patients (18 women; age range, 18-66 years). Disease control was assessed by the Asthma Control Test (ACT). R5-R20 but not X5 values were significantly related to FEF(25-75) and FVC/SVC values (p < 0.05 for both correlations). When the bronchodilator response was assessed, no correlation was found among IOS and spirometry changes. ACT scores were related to R5-R20, FEF(25-75), and FVC/SVC values (p < 0.01 for all correlations). In asthmatic patients with normal FEV(1) values, R5-R20 values were related to spirometry measures of small airway function. However, when the bronchodilator response was assessed, IOS and spirometry provided quite different results. Moreover, small airway dysfunction, as assessed by IOS and spirometry, was associated with poor disease control and history of asthma exacerbations. The results of this study confirm the value of IOS, as an investigative tool, and suggest that in asthmatic patients with normal FEV(1) values and poor disease control, small airway function should be investigated.

  8. Experiments on waves under impulsive wind forcing in view of the Phillips (1957) theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shemer, Lev; Zavadsky, Andrey

    2016-11-01

    Only limited information is currently available on the initial stages of wind-waves growth from rest under sudden wind forcing; the mechanisms leading to the appearance of waves are still not well understood. In the present work, waves emerging in a small-scale laboratory facility under the action of step-like turbulent wind forcing are studied using capacitance and laser slope gauges. Measurements are performed at a number of fetches and for a range of wind velocities. Taking advantage of the fully automated experimental procedure, at least 100 independent realizations are recorded for each wind velocity at every fetch. The accumulated data sets allow calculating ensemble-averaged values of the measured parameters as a function of time elapsed from the blower activation. The accumulated results on the temporal variation of wind-wave field initially at rest allow quantitative comparison with the theory of Phillips (1957). Following Phillips, appearance of the initial detectable ripples was considered first, while the growth of short gravity waves at later times was analyzed separately. Good qualitative and partial quantitative agreement between the Phillips predictions and the measurements was obtained for both those stages of the initial wind-wave field evolution.

  9. Measuring lung function using sound waves: role of the forced oscillation technique and impulse oscillometry system.

    PubMed

    Brashier, Bill; Salvi, Sundeep

    2015-03-01

    Measuring lung function is an important component in the decision making process for patients with obstructive airways disease (OAD). Not only does it help in arriving at a specific diagnosis, but it also helps in evaluating severity so that appropriate pharmacotherapy can be instituted, it helps determine prognosis and it helps evaluate response to therapy. Spirometry is currently the most commonly performed lung function test in clinical practice and is considered to be the gold standard diagnostic test for asthma and COPD. However, spirometry is not an easy test to perform because the forceful expiratory and inspiratory manoeuvres require good patient co-operation. Children aged <5 years, elderly people and those with physical and cognitive limitations cannot perform spirometry easily.

  10. Elastography Method for Reconstruction of Nonlinear Breast Tissue Properties

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Z. G.; Liu, Y.; Wang, G.; Sun, L. Z.

    2009-01-01

    Elastography is developed as a quantitative approach to imaging linear elastic properties of tissues to detect suspicious tumors. In this paper a nonlinear elastography method is introduced for reconstruction of complex breast tissue properties. The elastic parameters are estimated by optimally minimizing the difference between the computed forces and experimental measures. A nonlinear adjoint method is derived to calculate the gradient of the objective function, which significantly enhances the numerical efficiency and stability. Simulations are conducted on a three-dimensional heterogeneous breast phantom extracting from real imaging including fatty tissue, glandular tissue, and tumors. An exponential-form of nonlinear material model is applied. The effect of noise is taken into account. Results demonstrate that the proposed nonlinear method opens the door toward nonlinear elastography and provides guidelines for future development and clinical application in breast cancer study. PMID:19636362

  11. Evaluation of maternal liver elasticity by acoustic radiation force impulse elastosonography in hypertensive disorders of pregnancy: a preliminary descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Cetin, Orkun; Karaman, Erbil; Arslan, Harun; Kolusarı, Ali; Yıldızhan, Recep; Ozgokce, Mesut; Batur, Abdussamet; Akbudak, Ibrahim

    2017-10-01

    To compare maternal liver elasticity scores by Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (ARFI) elastosonography in healthy and preeclamptic pregnancies and its association with the severity of the disease. Forty-two healthy, 33 mild, 33 severe preeclamptic and 28 pregnant women with Hemolysis, Elevated Liver enzymes and Low Platelets (HELLP) syndrome were included into the study. Maternal liver elasticity was measured by ARFI elastosonography at the first day of puerperium. The maternal and neonatal outcomes of the patients were retrieved from the medical records. The ARFI-Mean liver elastosonography scores of controls and mild preeclamptic women were lower than severe preeclamptic and HELLP syndrome women (p: 0.001). The mean ARFI elastosonography score >1.22 m/s indicated the effect of severe preeclampsia on maternal liver elasticity with 72.7% sensitivity and 74.7% specificity (Area under curve [AUC], 0.835, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.757-0.913). The mean ARFI elastosonography score >1.31 m/s indicated the effect of HELLP syndrome on maternal liver elasticity with 78.6% sensitivity and 75.9% specificity (AUC, 0.794, 95% CI, 0.695-0.892). The maternal liver becomes stiffer in severe preeclampsia and HELLP syndrome measured by ARFI elastosonography. The increased maternal liver ARFI scores may alert the obstetrician about the possible maternal puerperal morbidity.

  12. Experimental system for in-situ measurement of temperature rise in animal tissue under exposure to acoustic radiation force impulse.

    PubMed

    Nitta, Naotaka; Ishiguro, Yasunao; Sasanuma, Hideki; Taniguchi, Nobuyuki; Akiyama, Iwaki

    2015-01-01

    Acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) has recently been used for tissue elasticity measurement and imaging. On the other hand, it is predicted that a rise in temperature occurs. In-situ measurement of temperature rise in animal experiments is important, yet measurement using thermocouples has some problems such as position mismatch of the temperature measuring junction of the thermocouple and the focal point of ultrasound. Therefore, an in-situ measurement system for solving the above problems was developed in this study. The developed system is composed mainly of an ultrasound irradiation unit including a custom-made focused transducer with a through hole for inserting a thin-wire thermocouple, and a temperature measurement unit including the thermocouple. The feasibility of the developed system was evaluated by means of experiments using a tissue-mimicking material (TMM), a TMM containing a bone model or a chicken bone, and an extracted porcine liver. The similarity between the experimental results and the results of simulation using a finite element method (FEM) implied the reasonableness of in-situ temperature rise measured by the developed system. The developed system will become a useful tool for measuring in-situ temperature rise in animal experiments and obtaining findings with respect to the relationship between ultrasound irradiation conditions and in-situ temperature rise.

  13. Renal elasticity quantification by acoustic radiation force impulse applied to the evaluation of kidney diseases: a review.

    PubMed

    Zaffanello, Marco; Piacentini, Giorgio; Bruno, Costanza; Brugnara, Milena; Fanos, Vassilios

    2015-04-01

    For centuries, clinicians have used palpation to evaluate abdominal organs. After exploring almost all the different methods of interaction between x-rays, ultrasound, and magnetic fields on tissues, recent interest has focused on the evaluation of their mechanical properties.Acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) is a recent, established ultrasound-based diagnostic technique that allows physicians to obtain a measure of the elastic properties of an organ. Shear wave velocity, obtained by the ARFI technique, depends on the elasticity of tissues.To date, there are studies on the ARFI technique applied to normal kidneys, chronic kidney diseases, and kidney transplants. Mechanical properties of the kidney, such as stiffness and deformity, depend on various conditions that alter its histology, in particular the amount of fibrosis in the renal parenchyma; urinary pressure and renal blood perfusion may be other important contributing factors. Unfortunately, the ARFI technique applied to native renal pathologies is still limited, and not all studies are comparable because they used different methods. Therefore, the results reported in recent literature encourage further improvement of this method and the drawing up of standardized guidelines of investigation.

  14. Reproducibility of Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse Imaging in Thyroid and Salivary Glands with Experienced and Inexperienced Examiners.

    PubMed

    Hofauer, Benedikt; Mansour, Naglaa; Heiser, Clemens; Wirth, Markus; Straßen, Ulrich; Loeffelbein, Denys; Bas, Murat; Knopf, Andreas

    2016-11-01

    Acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) imaging enables the sonographic measurement of tissue stiffness. The aim of this study was to evaluate if experience in ARFI imaging influences the reproducibility of ARFI imaging of the head and neck. Three experienced sonographers and three inexperienced sonographers performed ARFI imaging of thyroid, submandibular and parotid glands in 10 healthy volunteers. The examination was repeated after 2 wk. Ten single ARFI measurements were done in every gland. Inter-rater and intra-rater reliability was analyzed using the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). Moderate agreement was observed between experienced and inexperienced examiners (ICC = 0.46). In salivary glands, agreement was fair between the groups (ICC = 0.33), whereas in separate evaluations, inter-rater reliability in the submandibular glands was moderate (ICC = 0.52), and that in the parotid glands, only poor (ICC = 0.09). For ARFI imaging of the thyroid gland, there was moderate agreement between the groups (ICC = 0.50). The intra-rater reliability for the salivary and thyroid glands together and separately was strong in both groups. ARFI imaging of the thyroid and salivary glands did exhibit good reproducibility. ARFI imaging of the thyroid gland reached the highest levels of inter- and intra-observer agreement in both groups. ARFI imaging in salivary glands is only reproducible with experienced examiners. Copyright © 2016 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The texture quantitative analysis of the normal mammary parenchyma and in breast lesions: acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) technology.

    PubMed

    Li, Y; Liu, C; Geng, J; Zheng, X; Chen, B; Lu, Z; Wang, X

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to investigate the feasibility of acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) technology in the normal mammary parenchyma and in breast lesions. The virtual touch tissue quantification (VTQ) value was measured on a total of 150 cases in the normal mammary parenchyma and a total of 69 cases in breast lesions (19 cases of nodules, 28 cases of fibroadenoma, and 22 cases of cancer). Then the statistic analysis was carried out on the VTQ value combined with mammographic density, ages, menstrual stages, and pathological result. The VTQ value of mammary parenchyma rose with the increase of the mammographic density, and the value of VTQ had statistical differences in the comparison of group C with group B and in the comparison of group D with group C. The comparison of the VTQ value of the mammary parenchyma in patients with breast cancer and the nodule had statistical difference. The comparison of the VTQ value of the mammary parenchyma in patients with breast cancer, and the fibroadenoma had statistical difference. The value ofVTQ in masses gradually increased in the groups of nodule, fibroadenoma, and breast cancer. There was significant difference in the comparison of VTQ value of the nodule group and the fibroadenoma group with breast cancer group respectively. ARFI-VTQ technology has some reference value in assessing mammographic density. ARFI-VTQ can be used as the quantitative indicater for differentially diagnosing the breast lesions.

  16. A scanning-mode 2D shear wave imaging (s2D-SWI) system for ultrasound elastography.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Weibao; Wang, Congzhi; Li, Yongchuan; Zhou, Juan; Yang, Ge; Xiao, Yang; Feng, Ge; Jin, Qiaofeng; Mu, Peitian; Qian, Ming; Zheng, Hairong

    2015-09-01

    Ultrasound elastography is widely used for the non-invasive measurement of tissue elasticity properties. Shear wave imaging (SWI) is a quantitative method for assessing tissue stiffness. SWI has been demonstrated to be less operator dependent than quasi-static elastography, and has the ability to acquire quantitative elasticity information in contrast with acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) imaging. However, traditional SWI implementations cannot acquire two dimensional (2D) quantitative images of the tissue elasticity distribution. This study proposes and evaluates a scanning-mode 2D SWI (s2D-SWI) system. The hardware and image processing algorithms are presented in detail. Programmable devices are used to support flexible control of the system and the image processing algorithms. An analytic signal based cross-correlation method and a Radon transformation based shear wave speed determination method are proposed, which can be implemented using parallel computation. Imaging of tissue mimicking phantoms, and in vitro, and in vivo imaging test are conducted to demonstrate the performance of the proposed system. The s2D-SWI system represents a new choice for the quantitative mapping of tissue elasticity, and has great potential for implementation in commercial ultrasound scanners.

  17. Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse Imaging (ARFI) on an IVUS Circular Array

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Vivek; Dahl, Jeremy; Bradway, David; Doherty, Joshua; Lee, Seung Yun; Smith, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Our long-term goal is the detection and characterization of vulnerable plaque in the coronary arteries of the heart using IVUS catheters. Vulnerable plaque, characterized by a thin fibrous cap and a soft, lipid-rich, necrotic core is a pre-cursor to heart attack and stroke. Early detection of such plaques may potentially alter the course of treatment of the patient in order to prevent ischemic events. We have previously described the characterization of carotid plaques using external linear arrays operating at 9 MHz. In addition, we previously modified circular array IVUS catheters by short-circuiting several neighboring elements to produce fixed beam-widths for intra-vascular hyperthermia applications. In this paper we modified Volcano Visions 8.2 French, 9 MHz catheters and Volcano Platinum 3.5 French, 20 MHz catheters by short circuiting portions of the array for ARFI applications. The catheters had an effective transmit aperture size of 2 mm and 1.5 mm respectively. The catheters were connected to a Verasonics scanner and driven with pushing pulses of 180 V p-p to acquire ARFI data from a soft gel phantom with a Young’s modulus of 2.9 kPa. The dynamic response of the tissue-mimicking material demonstrates a typical ARFI motion of 1–2 microns as the gel phantom displaces away and recovers back to its normal position. The hardware modifications applied to our IVUS catheters mimic potential beamforming modifications that could be implemented on IVUS scanners. Our results demonstrate that the generation of radiation force from IVUS catheters and the development of intra-vascular ARFI may be feasible. PMID:24554291

  18. Acoustic radiation force impulse elastosonography of placenta in maternal red blood cell alloimmunization: a preliminary and descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Cetin, Orkun; Karaman, Erbil; Arslan, Harun; Akbudak, Ibrahim; Yıldızhan, Recep; Kolusarı, Ali

    2017-01-31

    Maternal red blood cell alloimmunization is an important cause of fetal morbidity and mortality in the perinatal period, despite well-organized prophylaxis programs. The objective of the study was to evaluate placental elasticity by using Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (ARFI) in Rhesus (Rh) alloimmunized pregnant women with hydropic and nonhydropic fetuses and to compare those with healthy pregnant women. This case-control and descriptive study comprised twenty-eight healthy pregnant women, 14 Rh alloimmunized pregnant women with nonhydropic fetuses, and 16 Rh alloimmunized pregnant women with hydropic fetuses in the third trimester of pregnancy. Placental elasticity measurements were performed by ARFI elastosonography at the day of delivery. The maternal characteristics and neonatal outcomes of the patients were also noted. The highest mean placental ARFI scores were observed in Rh alloimmunized pregnant women with hydropic fetuses (1.13 m/s) (p=0.001). Healthy controls and Rh alloimmunized pregnant women with nonhydropic fetuses had similar mean placenta ARFI scores (0.84 m/s, 0.88 m/s, respectively) (p<0.05). Based on the present findings, the placenta becomes stiffer in Rh alloimmunized pregnancies complicated with hydrops fetalis. The increased placental ARFI scores may be a supplemental marker for adverse pregnancy outcomes, additional to Doppler evaluation of middle cerebral artery. This data should be confirmed with a large sample size and prospective studies by using serial measurements of ARFI elastosonography in maternal red blood cell alloimmunization.

  19. Surface response of a fluid-loaded solid to impulsive line and point forces: Application to scanning acoustic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Every, A. G.; Briggs, G. A. D.

    1998-07-01

    Algorithms are presented for calculating the two- and three-dimensional time domain dynamic Green's functions of a pair of joined semi-infinite anisotropic elastic continua. They are used to calculate the normal surface displacement response of fluid-loaded solids to impulsive line and point forces. Particular attention is given to the resonant and singular features in the response associated with the Stoneley-Scholte interfacial wave, leaky Rayleigh and pseudosurface acoustic waves, and lateral waves, i.e., surface skimming bulk waves of the solid and of the liquid. The various regimes are explored, in which the fluid sound speed and acoustic impedance range from small to large as compared to those of the solid. The effects of elastic anisotropy of the solid are illustrated with results for a carbon fiber composite and for the principal crystallographic cuts of a number of cubic crystals of anisotropy coefficient η=2C44/(C11-C12) greater and less than unity. Calculated images, representing the dependence of the normal displacement response on time and direction, are in good agreement with published acoustic microscopy images of a number of anisotropic solids that have been measured with a configuration of two line focus or two point focus lenses. These images display prominent features due to leaky Rayleigh and pseudosurface waves, as well as sharper lateral wave structures. The mode of excitation and detection does not, however, couple into the water lateral wave and Sholte wave, which are absent from the measured images. This effect is simulated by setting a finite cutoff, determined by the aperture angles of the lenses, to the spatial Fourier transform of the surface Green's function.

  20. Experimental and calculative estimation of femtosecond laser induced-impulsive force in culture medium solution with motion analysis of polymer micro-beads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamakawa, Takeshi; Maruyama, Akihiro; Uedan, Hirohisa; Iino, Takanori; Hosokawa, Yoichiroh

    2015-03-01

    A new methodology to estimate the dynamics of femtosecond laser-induced impulsive force generated into water under microscope was developed. In this method, the position shift of the bead in water before and after the femtosecond laser irradiation was investigated experimentally and compared with motion equation assuming stress wave propagation with expansion and collapse the cavitation bubble. In the process of the comparison, parameters of force and time of the stress wave were determined. From these results, dynamics of propagations of shock and stress waves, cavitation bubble generation, and these actions to micro-objects were speculated.

  1. Single- and multiple-track-location shear wave and acoustic radiation force impulse imaging: matched comparison of contrast, contrast-to-noise ratio and resolution.

    PubMed

    Hollender, Peter J; Rosenzweig, Stephen J; Nightingale, Kathryn R; Trahey, Gregg E

    2015-04-01

    Acoustic radiation force impulse imaging and shear wave elasticity imaging (SWEI) use the dynamic response of tissue to impulsive mechanical stimulus to characterize local elasticity. A variant of conventional, multiple-track-location SWEI, denoted single-track-location SWEI, offers the promise of creating speckle-free shear wave images. This work compares the three imaging modalities using a high push and track beam density combined acquisition sequence to image inclusions of different sizes and contrasts. Single-track-location SWEI is found to have a significantly higher contrast-to-noise ratio than multiple-track-location SWEI, allowing for operation at higher resolution. Acoustic radiation force impulse imaging and single-track-location SWEI perform similarly in the larger inclusions, with single-track-location SWEI providing better visualization of small targets ≤ 2.5 mm in diameter. The processing of each modality introduces different trade-offs between smoothness and resolution of edges and structures; these are discussed in detail. Copyright © 2015 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. SU-E-J-76: Incorporation of Ultrasound Elastography in Target Volume Delineation for Partial Breast Radiotherapy Planning: A Comparative Study

    SciTech Connect

    Juneja, P; Harris, E; Bamber, J

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: There is substantial observer variability in the delineation of target volumes for post-surgical partial breast radiotherapy because the tumour bed has poor x-ray contrast. This variability may result in substantial variations in planned dose distribution. Ultrasound elastography (USE) has an ability to detect mechanical discontinuities and therefore, the potential to image the scar and distortion in breast tissue architecture. The goal of this study was to compare USE techniques: strain elastography (SE), shear wave elastography (SWE) and acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) imaging using phantoms that simulate features of the tumour bed, for the purpose of incorporating USE in breast radiotherapy planning. Methods: Three gelatine-based phantoms (10% w/v) containing: a stiff inclusion (gelatine 16% w/v) with adhered boundaries, a stiff inclusion (gelatine 16% w/v) with mobile boundaries and fluid cavity inclusion (to mimic seroma), were constructed and used to investigate the USE techniques. The accuracy of the elastography techniques was quantified by comparing the imaged inclusion with the modelled ground-truth using the Dice similarity coefficient (DSC). For two regions of interest (ROI), the DSC measures their spatial overlap. Ground-truth ROIs were modelled using geometrical measurements from B-mode images. Results: The phantoms simulating stiff scar tissue with adhered and mobile boundaries and seroma were successfully developed and imaged using SE and SWE. The edges of the stiff inclusions were more clearly visible in SE than in SWE. Subsequently, for all these phantoms the measured DSCs were found to be higher for SE (DSCs: 0.91–0.97) than SWE (DSCs: 0.68–0.79) with an average relative difference of 23%. In the case of seroma phantom, DSC values for SE and SWE were similar. Conclusion: This study presents a first attempt to identify the most suitable elastography technique for use in breast radiotherapy planning. Further analysis will

  3. Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (ARFI)-Induced Peak Displacements Reflect Degree of Anisotropy in Transversely Isotropic Elastic Materials.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Md Murad; Moore, Christopher; Gallippi, Caterina

    2017-03-31

    In transversely isotropic (TI) materials, mechanical properties (Young's modulus, shear modulus, and Poisson's ratio) are different along versus across the axis of symmetry (AoS). In this work, the feasibility of interrogating such directional mechanical property differences using acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) imaging is investigated. We herein test the hypotheses that 1) ARFI-induced peak displacements (PDs) vary with TI material orientations when an asymmetrical ARFI excitation point spread function (PSF) is used, but not when a symmetrical ARFI PSF is employed; and 2) the ratio of PDs induced with the long axis of an asymmetrical ARFI PSF oriented along versus across the material's AoS is related to the degree of anisotropy of the material. These hypotheses were tested in silico using finite element method (FEM) models and Field II. ARFI excitations had F/1.5, 3, 4, or 5 focal configurations, with the F/1.5 and F/5 cases having the most asymmetrical and symmetrical PSFs at the focal depth, respectively. These excitations were implemented for ARFI imaging in 52 different simulated TI materials with varying degrees of anisotropy, and the ratio of ARFI-induced PDs was calculated. The change in the ratio of PDs with respect to the anisotropy of the materials was highest for the F/1.5, indicating that PD was most strongly impacted by the material orientation when the ARFI excitation was the most asymmetrical. On the contrary, the ratio of PDs did not depend on the anisotropy of the material for the F/5 ARFI excitation, suggesting that PD did not depend on material orientation when the ARFI excitation was symmetrical. Finally, the ratio of PDs achieved using asymmetrical ARFI PSF reflected the degree of anisotropy in TI materials. These results support that symmetrical ARFI focal configurations are desirable when the orientation of the ARFI excitation to the AoS is not specifically known and measurement standardization is important, such as for longitudinal

  4. [Clinical value of acoustic radiation force impulse technique to predict esophageal and gastric varices in patients with biliary atresia].

    PubMed

    Zhang, G Y; Tang, Y; Niu, N N; Wu, H T

    2017-02-21

    Objective: To investigate the clinical value of acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI)technique in predicting esophageal and gastric varices in patients with biliary atresia after Kasai portoenterostomy. Methods: A total of 42 patients with biliary atresia after Kasai portoenterostomy were collected from September 2015 to May 2016 in Tianjin First Central Hospital.ARFI technique was used to measure the stiffness of liver and spleen, and 28 healthy children as control.According to the result of CT examination , patients with biliary atresia were divided into two groups , twenty-three patients with esophageal and gastric varices(A group) and nineteen patients without esophageal and gastric varices (B group), Comparing the difference of liver and spleen stiffness between the two groups.The ROC curve analysis was carried out to test the diagnostic power of effective parameter. Results: The ARFI value of liver (2.98±0.80) m/s and spleen (3.00±0.33) m/s of patients with biliary atresia was significantly higher than that of control group((1.10±0.16) m/s, (2.12±0.32) m/s), the differences had statistical significance (both P<0.01). Between group A and group B, the spleen ARFI value of group A(3.16±0.26) m/s was higher than group B(2.83±0.32) m/s, the difference had statistical significance (P<0.01), whereas there was no statistical difference of liver ARFI value between two group((2.93±0.65), (3.02±0.96) m/s)(P>0.05). The cut-off ARFI value of spleen to diagnose esophageal and gastric varices in biliary atresia was 3.02 m/s, and the biggest area under the ROC curve, sensitivity, and specificity were 0.81, 78.6% and 84.5%, respectively. Conclusion: ARFI can be used as a noninvasive method to predict the presence of esophageal and gastric varices in patients with biliary atresia after Kasai portoenterostomy.

  5. Combination of acoustic radiation force impulse imaging, serological indexes and contrast-enhanced ultrasound for diagnosis of liver lesions.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiao-Lan; Yao, Hui; Men, Qiong; Hou, Ke-Zhu; Chen, Zhen; Xu, Chang-Qing; Liang, Li-Wei

    2017-08-14

    To assess the value of combined acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) imaging, serological indexes and contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in distinguishing between benign and malignant liver lesions. Patients with liver lesions treated at our hospital were included in this study. The lesions were divided into either a malignant tumor group or a benign tumor group according to pathological or radiological findings. ARFI quantitative detection, serological testing and CEUS quantitative detection were performed and compared. A comparative analysis of the measured indexes was performed between these groups. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed to compare the diagnostic accuracy of ARFI imaging, serological indexes and CEUS, alone or in different combinations, in identifying benign and malignant liver lesions. A total of 112 liver lesions in 43 patients were included, of which 78 were malignant and 34 were benign. Shear wave velocity (SWV) value, serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) content and enhancement rate were significantly higher in the malignant tumor group than in the benign tumor group (2.39 ± 1.20 m/s vs 1.50 ± 0.49 m/s, 18.02 ± 5.01 ng/mL vs 15.96 ± 4.33 ng/mL, 2.14 ± 0.21 dB/s vs 2.01 ± 0.31 dB/s; P < 0.05). The ROC curve analysis revealed that the areas under the curves (AUCs) of SWV value alone, AFP content alone, enhancement rate alone, SWV value + AFP content, SWV value + enhancement rate, AFP content + enhancement rate and SWV value + AFP content + enhancement rate were 85.1%, 72.1%, 74.5%, 88.3%, 90.4%, 82.0% and 92.3%, respectively. The AUC of SWV value + AFP content + enhancement rate was higher than those of SWV value + AFP content and SWV value + enhancement rate, and significantly higher than those of any single parameter or the combination of any two of parameters. The combination of SWV, AFP and enhancement rate had better diagnostic performance in distinguishing between benign and malignant liver lesions than the

  6. Instantaneous Impulses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erlichson, Herman

    2000-01-01

    Describes an experiment that extends Newton's instantaneous-impulse method of orbital analysis to a graphical method of orbit determination. Discusses the experiment's usefulness for teaching both horizontal projectile motion and instantaneous impulse. (WRM)

  7. Instantaneous Impulses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erlichson, Herman

    2000-01-01

    Describes an experiment that extends Newton's instantaneous-impulse method of orbital analysis to a graphical method of orbit determination. Discusses the experiment's usefulness for teaching both horizontal projectile motion and instantaneous impulse. (WRM)

  8. Ultrasound Elastography: Review of Techniques and Clinical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Sigrist, Rosa M.S.; Liau, Joy; Kaffas, Ahmed El; Chammas, Maria Cristina; Willmann, Juergen K.

    2017-01-01

    Elastography-based imaging techniques have received substantial attention in recent years for non-invasive assessment of tissue mechanical properties. These techniques take advantage of changed soft tissue elasticity in various pathologies to yield qualitative and quantitative information that can be used for diagnostic purposes. Measurements are acquired in specialized imaging modes that can detect tissue stiffness in response to an applied mechanical force (compression or shear wave). Ultrasound-based methods are of particular interest due to its many inherent advantages, such as wide availability including at the bedside and relatively low cost. Several ultrasound elastography techniques using different excitation methods have been developed. In general, these can be classified into strain imaging methods that use internal or external compression stimuli, and shear wave imaging that use ultrasound-generated traveling shear wave stimuli. While ultrasound elastography has shown promising results for non-invasive assessment of liver fibrosis, new applications in breast, thyroid, prostate, kidney and lymph node imaging are emerging. Here, we review the basic principles, foundation physics, and limitations of ultrasound elastography and summarize its current clinical use and ongoing developments in various clinical applications. PMID:28435467

  9. Breast Adenomyoepithelioma: Ultrasonography, Elastography, Digital Mammography, Contrast-Enhanced Digital Mammography, and Pathology Findings of This Rare Type of Breast Tumor.

    PubMed

    Gkali, Christina An; Chalazonitis, Athanasios N; Feida, Eleni; Dimitrakakis, Constantine; Sotiropoulou, Maria

    2015-09-01

    Breast adenomyoepithelioma is considered as an uncommon breast tumor. It is evaluated as a variant of intraductal papilloma. The treatment of choice is local resection with free margins. It is the first case of breast adenomyoepithelioma reported with conventional ultrasonography, elastography (both free-hand and acoustic radiation force impulse imaging), digital mammography, contrast-enhanced digital mammography, and pathology findings. A 35-year-old white woman presented with a painless lump of the left breast. Treatment was local resection with free margins. There has been no recurrence for 6 months. Although breast adenomyoepithelioma is an uncommon breast tumor, its awareness is imperative because the differential diagnosis from other breast tumors is quite extensive.

  10. Liver elastography, comments on EFSUMB elastography guidelines 2013

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Xin-Wu; Friedrich-Rust, Mireen; Molo, Chiara De; Ignee, Andre; Schreiber-Dietrich, Dagmar; Dietrich, Christoph F

    2013-01-01

    Recently the European Federation of Societies for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology Guidelines and Recommendations have been published assessing the clinical use of ultrasound elastography. The document is intended to form a reference and to guide clinical users in a practical way. They give practical advice for the use and interpretation. Liver disease forms the largest section, reflecting published experience to date including evidence from meta-analyses with shear wave and strain elastography. In this review comments and illustrations on the guidelines are given. PMID:24151351

  11. Numerical simulation of flows in a circular pipe transversely subjected to a localized impulsive body force with applications to blunt traumatic aortic rupture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Labbio, G.; Keshavarz-Motamed, Z.; Kadem, L.

    2017-06-01

    Much debate surrounds the mechanisms responsible for the occurrence of blunt traumatic aortic rupture in car accidents, particularly on the role of the inertial body force experienced by the blood due to the abrupt deceleration. The isolated influence of such body forces acting on even simple fluid flows is a fundamental problem in fluid dynamics that has not been thoroughly investigated. This study numerically investigates the fundamental physical problem, where the pulsatile flow in a straight circular pipe is subjected to a transverse body force on a localized volume of fluid. The body force is applied as a brief rectangular impulse in three distinct cases, namely during the accelerating, peak, and decelerating phases of the pulsatile flow. A dimensionless number, termed the degree of influence of the body force (Ψ), is devised to quantify the relative strength of the body force over the flow inertia. The impact induces counter-rotating cross-stream vortices at the boundaries of the forced section accompanied by complex secondary flow structures. This secondary flow is found to develop slowest for an impact occurring during an accelerating flow and fastest during a decelerating flow. The peak skewness of the velocity field, however, occurred at successively later times for the three respective cases. After the impact, these secondary flows act to restore the unforced state and such dominant spatial structures are revealed by proper orthogonal decomposition of the velocity field. This work presents a new class of problems that requires further theoretical and experimental investigation.

  12. Spectroscopic optical coherence elastography.

    PubMed

    Adie, Steven G; Liang, Xing; Kennedy, Brendan F; John, Renu; Sampson, David D; Boppart, Stephen A

    2010-12-06

    We present an optical technique to image the frequency-dependent complex mechanical response of a viscoelastic sample. Three-dimensional hyperspectral data, comprising two-dimensional B-mode images and a third dimension corresponding to vibration frequency, were acquired from samples undergoing external mechanical excitation in the audio-frequency range. We describe the optical coherence tomography (OCT) signal when vibration is applied to a sample and detail the processing and acquisition techniques used to extract the local complex mechanical response from three-dimensional data that, due to a wide range of vibration frequencies, possess a wide range of sample velocities. We demonstrate frequency-dependent contrast of the displacement amplitude and phase of a silicone phantom containing inclusions of higher stiffness. Measurements of an ex vivo tumor margin demonstrate distinct spectra between adipose and tumor regions, and images of displacement amplitude and phase demonstrated spatially-resolved contrast. Contrast was also observed in displacement amplitude and phase images of a rat muscle sample. These results represent the first demonstration of mechanical spectroscopy based on B-mode OCT imaging. Spectroscopic optical coherence elastography (S-OCE) provides a high-resolution imaging capability for the detection of tissue pathologies that are characterized by a frequency-dependent viscoelastic response.

  13. Lagrangian and energy forms for retrieving the impulse response of the Earth due to random electromagnetic forcing.

    PubMed

    Slob, Evert; Weiss, Chester J

    2011-08-01

    We distinguish between trivial and nontrivial differences in retrieving the real or imaginary parts of the Green's function. Trivial differences come from different Green's function definitions. The energy and lagrangian forms constitute nontrivial differences. Magnetic noise sources suffice to extract the quasistatic electromagnetic-field Earth impulse response in the lagrangian form. This is of interest for Earth subsurface imaging. A numerical example demonstrates that all source vector components are necessary to extract a single-field vector component.

  14. Ultrasound Shear Wave Elastography for Liver Disease. A Critical Appraisal of the Many Actors on the Stage.

    PubMed

    Piscaglia, F; Salvatore, V; Mulazzani, L; Cantisani, V; Schiavone, C

    2016-02-01

    transient elastography, performed with Fibroscan(®), a technology dedicated exclusively to liver elastography. Since then, more than 1300 articles dealing with transient elastography have been listed in PubMed, some describing results with more than 10,000 patients 5. The technique has been tested in nearly all liver disease etiologies, with histology as the reference standard. Meta-analysis of data, available in many etiologies 6, showed good performance and reproducibility as well as some situations limiting reliability 5. Thresholds for the different fibrosis stages (F0 to F4) have been provided by many large-scale studies utilizing histology as the reference standard 7. Transient elastography tracks the velocity of shear waves generated by the gentle hit of a piston on the skin, with the resulting compression wave traveling in the liver along its longitudinal axis. The measurement is made in a 4 cm long section of the liver, thus able to average slightly inhomogeneous fibrotic deposition.In 2008 a new modality became available, Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (ARFI) quantification, and classified by EFSUMB 1 as point shear wave elastography (pSWE), since the speed of the shear wave (perpendicular to the longitudinal axis) is measured in a small region (a "point", few millimeters) at a freely-choosen depth within 8 cm from the skin. This technology was the first to be implemented in a conventional ultrasound scanner by Siemens(®) 8. Several articles have been published regarding this technology, most with the best reference standards 9, some including findings on more than 1000 hepatitis C patients 10 or reporting meta-analysis of data 11. Although the correlation between Siemens pSWE and transient elastography appeared high 12 13, the calculated thresholds for the different fibrosis stages and the stiffness ranges between the two techniques are not superimposable.Interestingly, pSWE appears to provide greater applicability than transient elastography for

  15. Ultrasound elastography in diagnosis and follow-up for patients with chronic recurrent parotitis.

    PubMed

    Zengel, Pamela; Reichel, Christoph A; Vincek, Teresa; Clevert, Dirk André

    2017-09-04

    Chronic recurrent parotitis (CRP) is a non-obstructive disease with episodes characterized by painful swelling of the parotid gland. It presents in both a juvenile and an adult form, with no clear information on its actual origin. Diagnosis is based on patient medical history and ultrasound examination but is frequently not correctly identified. Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse Imaging (ARFI) is a novel ultrasound elastography technology that has recently been implemented in the diagnostic work-up of patients with malignancies. This study aimed to answer whether ARFI can reasonably be employed in the initial examination and follow-up during therapy in patients with CRP. Mechanical tissue properties of the salivary glands were analyzed by ARFI in 37 parotid glands of patients with CRP. Having integrated ARFI into our diagnostic protocol for CRP, affected parotid glands were found to exhibit lower tissue elasticity compared to both healthy contralateral glands in the same individuals as well as those of healthy individuals. Most importantly, this method enabled us to quantitatively assess the patient benefit of therapy regarding the recovery of the glands' diseased parenchyma. ARFI provides a quick, easy, and reliable diagnostic tool for the assessment of disease severity and progression in patients with CRP that can be seamlessly implemented into preexisting ultrasound protocols.

  16. Shear wave elastography using Wigner-Ville distribution: a simulated multilayer media study.

    PubMed

    Bidari, Pooya Sobhe; Alirezaie, Javad; Tavakkoli, Jahan

    2016-08-01

    Shear Wave Elastography (SWE) is a quantitative ultrasound-based imaging modality for distinguishing normal and abnormal tissue types by estimating the local viscoelastic properties of the tissue. These properties have been estimated in many studies by propagating ultrasound shear wave within the tissue and estimating parameters such as speed of wave. Vast majority of the proposed techniques are based on the cross-correlation of consecutive ultrasound images. In this study, we propose a new method of wave detection based on time-frequency (TF) analysis of the ultrasound signal. The proposed method is a modified version of the Wigner-Ville Distribution (WVD) technique. The TF components of the wave are detected in a propagating ultrasound wave within a simulated multilayer tissue and the local properties are estimated based on the detected waves. Image processing techniques such as Alternative Sequential Filters (ASF) and Circular Hough Transform (CHT) have been utilized to improve the estimation of TF components. This method has been applied to a simulated data from Wave3000™ software (CyberLogic Inc., New York, NY). This data simulates the propagation of an acoustic radiation force impulse within a two-layer tissue with slightly different viscoelastic properties between the layers. By analyzing the local TF components of the wave, we estimate the longitudinal and shear elasticities and viscosities of the media. This work shows that our proposed method is capable of distinguishing between different layers of a tissue.

  17. MR elastography of hydrocephalus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pattison, Adam J.; Lollis, S. Scott; Perrinez, Phillip R.; Weaver, John B.; Paulsen, Keith D.

    2009-02-01

    Hydrocephalus occurs due to a blockage in the transmission of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in either the ventricles or subarachnoid space. Characteristics of this condition include increased intracranial pressure, which can result in neurologic deterioration [1]. Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) is an imaging technique that estimates the mechanical properties of tissue in vivo. While some investigations of brain tissue have been performed using MRE [2,3,4,5], the effects due to changes in interstitial pressure and fluid content on the mechanical properties of the brain remain unknown. The purpose of this work is to assess the potential of MRE to differentiate between the reconstructed properties of normal and hydrocephalic brains. MRE data was acquired in 18 female feline subjects, 12 of which received kaolin injections resulting in an acute form of hydrocephalus. In each animal, four MRE scans were performed during the process including one pre-injection and three post-injection scans. The elastic parameters were obtained using a subzone-based reconstruction algorithm that solves Navier's equations for linearly elastic materials [6]. The remaining cats were used as controls, injected with saline instead of kaolin. To determine the state of hydrocephalus, ventricular volume was estimated from segmenting anatomical images. The mean ventricular volume of hydrocephalic cats significantly increased (P <~ 0.0001) between the first and second scans. The mean volume was not observed to increase (P >~ 0.5) for the control cats. Also, there was an observable increase in the recorded elastic shear modulus of brain tissue in the normal and hydrocephalic acquisitions. Results suggest that MRE is able to detect changes in the mechanical properties of brain tissue resulting from kaolin-induced hydrocephalus, indicating the need for further study.

  18. Impulse Pump

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-17

    APPLICATIONS [0002] None. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION (1) Field of the Invention [0003] The present invention relates to an impulse pump for generating...impulse pump 15. The sleeve bearings 98 are affixed to the head block 90 to ease axial motion while the plunger 72 is under torsional loads. [0041

  19. Monitoring stiffness contrast in elastography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiss, Miklos; Bharat, Shyam; Varghese, Tomy; Techavipoo, Udomchai; Liu, Wu

    2005-03-01

    Elastography is an imaging modality used to image tissue strains resulting from external quasi-static compression of tissue. Therefore, elastograms can be used to study variations in the stiffness of thermally coagulated regions of tissue. In this study, the variations in stiffness contrast of lesions formed by radio frequency (RF) ablation of canine liver tissue have been investigated. RF ablation was performed on in vitro canine liver tissue over a range of temperatures from 70 - 100 degrees C, and over a range of ablation times from 1 -- 8 minutes. Elastography was then performed on these samples and on normal tissue. It was expected that stiffness contrast would increase with increasing lesion temperature and ablation duration, on the basis that higher temperature and greater ablation durations lead to increased protein denaturation. This increase was seen with ablation duration, but is not obvious with ablation temperature. These and other results will be discussed.

  20. Sparsity regularization in dynamic elastography.

    PubMed

    Honarvar, M; Sahebjavaher, R S; Salcudean, S E; Rohling, R

    2012-10-07

    We consider the inverse problem of continuum mechanics with the tissue deformation described by a mixed displacement-pressure finite element formulation. The mixed formulation is used to model nearly incompressible materials by simultaneously solving for both elasticity and pressure distributions. To improve numerical conditioning, a common solution to this problem is to use regularization to constrain the solutions of the inverse problem. We present a sparsity regularization technique that uses the discrete cosine transform to transform the elasticity and pressure fields to a sparse domain in which a smaller number of unknowns is required to represent the original field. We evaluate the approach by solving the dynamic elastography problem for synthetic data using such a mixed finite element technique, assuming time harmonic motion, and linear, isotropic and elastic behavior for the tissue. We compare our simulation results to those obtained using the more common Tikhonov regularization. We show that the sparsity regularization is less dependent on boundary conditions, less influenced by noise, requires no parameter tuning and is computationally faster. The algorithm has been tested on magnetic resonance elastography data captured from a CIRS elastography phantom with similar results as the simulation.

  1. Elastography for hepato-biliary-pancreatic surgery.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Yosuke; Kokudo, Norihiro

    2014-10-01

    Palpation is a subjective and non-sharable diagnostic method. Recently, palpation has been supported and replaced by elastography, which provides a novel parameter of "stiffness" as a visual representation or quantified value. Today, elastography is performed using two major modalities: strain elastography and shear wave elastography. Strain elastography converts the extent of deformation during external compression into colors, displaying these colors as a strain map in a motion picture representing the relative elasticity inside the region of interest. Shear wave elastography can quantify the elasticity of a target by calculating the velocity of shear waves generated by a probe. In addition to superficial organs, elastography has also been applied to upper abdominal organs, including the liver, pancreas and spleen. The visualization of the stiffness of focal lesions in the liver or the pancreas has enabled a more sensitive and specific depiction of small, non-palpable nodules, which are difficult to depict using B-mode ultrasonography. The quantification of stiffness also enables non-invasive estimates of liver fibrosis, the risk of postoperative liver insufficiency and the risk of recurrence of viral hepatitis after transplantation. In this article, we review the major reports that have recently been published describing the effective application of elastography to solid upper abdominal organs in a clinical setting.

  2. Force balance in the take-off of a pierid butterfly: relative importance and timing of leg impulsion and aerodynamic forces.

    PubMed

    Bimbard, Gaëlle; Kolomenskiy, Dmitry; Bouteleux, Olivier; Casas, Jérôme; Godoy-Diana, Ramiro

    2013-09-15

    Up to now, the take-off stage has remained an elusive phase of insect flight that was relatively poorly explored compared with other maneuvers. An overall assessment of the different mechanisms involved in force production during take-off has never been explored. Focusing on the first downstroke, we have addressed this problem from a force balance perspective in butterflies taking off from the ground. In order to determine whether the sole aerodynamic wing force could explain the observed motion of the insect, we have firstly compared a simple analytical model of the wing force with the acceleration of the insect's center of mass estimated from video tracking of the wing and body motions. Secondly, wing kinematics were also used for numerical simulations of the aerodynamic flow field. Similar wing aerodynamic forces were obtained by the two methods. However, neither are sufficient, nor is the inclusion of the ground effect, to predict faithfully the body acceleration. We have to resort to the leg forces to obtain a model that best fits the data. We show that the median and hind legs display an active extension responsible for the initiation of the upward motion of the insect's body, occurring before the onset of the wing downstroke. We estimate that legs generate, at various times, an upward force that can be much larger than all other forces applied to the insect's body. The relative timing of leg and wing forces explains the large variability of trajectories observed during the maneuvers.

  3. Robust intravascular optical coherence elastography driven by acoustic radiation pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Soest, Gijs; Bouchard, Richard R.; Mastik, Frits; de Jong, Nico; van der Steen, Anton F. W.

    2007-07-01

    High strain spots in the vessel wall indicate the presence of vulnerable plaques. The majority of acute cardiovascular events are preceded by rupture of such a plaque in a coronary artery. Intracoronary optical coherence tomography (OCT) can be extended, in principle, to an elastography technique, mapping the strain in the vascular wall. However, the susceptibility of OCT to frame-to-frame decorrelation, caused by tissue and catheter motion, inhibits reliable tissue displacement tracking and has to date obstructed the development of OCT-based intravascular elastography. We introduce a new technique for intravascular optical coherence elastography, which is robust against motion artifacts. Using acoustic radiation force, we apply a pressure to deform the tissue synchronously with the line scan rate of the OCT instrument. Radial tissue displacement can be tracked based on the correlation between adjacent lines, instead of subsequent frames in conventional elastography. The viability of the method is demonstrated with a simulation study. The root mean square (rms) error of the displacement estimate is 0.55 μm, and the rms error of the strain is 0.6%. It is shown that high-strain spots in the vessel wall, such as observed at the sites of vulnerable atherosclerotic lesions, can be detected with the technique. Experiments to realize this new elastographic method are presented. Simultaneous optical and ultrasonic pulse-echo tracking demonstrate that the material can be put in a high-frequency oscillatory motion with an amplitude of several micrometers, more than sufficient for accurate tracking with OCT. The resulting data are used to optimize the acoustic pushing sequence and geometry.

  4. Ultrasound Elastography and MR Elastography for Assessing Liver Fibrosis: Part 1, Principles and Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Tang, An; Cloutier, Guy; Szeverenyi, Nikolaus M.; Sirlin, Claude B.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of ultrasound and magnetic resonance elastography, including a glossary of relevant terminology, a classification of elastography techniques, and a discussion of their respective strengths and limitations. Conclusion Elastography is an emerging technique for the non-invasive assessment of mechanical tissue properties. These techniques report metrics related to tissue stiffness such as shear wave speed, magnitude of the complex shear modulus, and Young’s modulus. PMID:25905647

  5. Real-time elastography of the prostate.

    PubMed

    Junker, D; De Zordo, T; Quentin, M; Ladurner, M; Bektic, J; Horniger, W; Jaschke, W; Aigner, F

    2014-01-01

    Palpation of organs is one of the oldest clinical examination techniques, for instance, if you think of the palpation of the breast or the digital rectal examination of the prostate, where hard palpable regions are suspicious for cancer. This is the basic principle of real-time elastography, an ultrasound technique, which is able to visualise tissue elasticity. Since prostate cancer features an increased stiffness due to the higher cell and vessel density than the normal surrounding tissue, real-time elastography has been used for several years for prostate cancer detection. This review introduces the different techniques of ultrasound elastography and furthermore summarises its limitations and potentials.

  6. Real-Time Elastography of the Prostate

    PubMed Central

    Junker, D.; De Zordo, T.; Quentin, M.; Ladurner, M.; Bektic, J.; Horniger, W.; Jaschke, W.; Aigner, F.

    2014-01-01

    Palpation of organs is one of the oldest clinical examination techniques, for instance, if you think of the palpation of the breast or the digital rectal examination of the prostate, where hard palpable regions are suspicious for cancer. This is the basic principle of real-time elastography, an ultrasound technique, which is able to visualise tissue elasticity. Since prostate cancer features an increased stiffness due to the higher cell and vessel density than the normal surrounding tissue, real-time elastography has been used for several years for prostate cancer detection. This review introduces the different techniques of ultrasound elastography and furthermore summarises its limitations and potentials. PMID:24967334

  7. Primary Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma of the Breast: Ultrasonography, Elastography, Digital Mammography, Contrast-Enhanced Digital Mammography, and Pathology Findings.

    PubMed

    Gkali, Christina An; Chalazonitis, Athanasios N; Feida, Eleni; Giannos, Aris; Sotiropoulou, Maria; Dimitrakakis, Constantine; Loutradis, Dimitrios

    2015-12-01

    Lymphomas constitute approximately 0.15% of malignant mammary neoplasms. Less than 0.5% of all malignant lymphomas involve the breast primarily. Primary non-Hodgkin breast lymphoma is usually right sided. The combined therapy approach, with chemotherapy and radiotherapy, is the most successful treatment. Mastectomy offers no benefit in the treatment of primary non-Hodgkin breast lymphoma. To the author's knowledge, this is the first published case of primary non-Hodgkin breast lymphoma reported with conventional ultrasonography, elastography (both freehand and acoustic radiation force impulse imaging), digital mammography, contrast-enhanced digital mammography, and pathology findings. A 45-year-old woman presented with a lump in the right breast for 2 months. There was no evidence of systemic lymphoma or leukemia when the breast lesion was detected. Imaging findings were negative for lymphoma. Ipsilateral lymph nodes were not palpable. The mass was resected, and histopathology findings were diagnostic of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Immunohistochemistry was confirmatory of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, diffuse large cell type of B-cell lineage. Although primary and secondary lymphomas of the breast are rare entities, they should be considered in the differential diagnosis of breast malignancies.

  8. Nonlinear characterization of elasticity using quantitative optical coherence elastography

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Yi; Zaki, Farzana R.; Chandra, Namas; Chester, Shawn A.; Liu, Xuan

    2016-01-01

    Optical coherence elastography (OCE) has been used to perform mechanical characterization on biological tissue at the microscopic scale. In this work, we used quantitative optical coherence elastography (qOCE), a novel technology we recently developed, to study the nonlinear elastic behavior of biological tissue. The qOCE system had a fiber-optic probe to exert a compressive force to deform tissue under the tip of the probe. Using the space-division multiplexed optical coherence tomography (OCT) signal detected by a spectral domain OCT engine, we were able to simultaneously quantify the probe deformation that was proportional to the force applied, and to quantify the tissue deformation. In other words, our qOCE system allowed us to establish the relationship between mechanical stimulus and tissue response to characterize the stiffness of biological tissue. Most biological tissues have nonlinear elastic behavior, and the apparent stress-strain relationship characterized by our qOCE system was nonlinear an extended range of strain, for a tissue-mimicking phantom as well as biological tissues. Our experimental results suggested that the quantification of force in OCE was critical for accurate characterization of tissue mechanical properties and the qOCE technique was capable of differentiating biological tissues based on the elasticity of tissue that is generally nonlinear. PMID:27896009

  9. Ultrasound exposure (mechanical index 1.8) with acoustic radiation force impulse evokes extrasystolic waves in rabbit heart under concomitant administration of an ultrasound contrast agent.

    PubMed

    Ishiguro, Yasunao; Nitta, Naotaka; Taniguchi, Nobuyuki; Akai, Kazuki; Takakayama, Noriya; Sasanuma, Hideki; Ogata, Yukiyo; Yasuda, Yoshikazu; Akiyama, Iwaki

    2016-01-01

    Acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) is a modality for elasticity imaging of various organs using shear waves. In some situations, the heart is a candidate for elasticity evaluation with ARFI. Additionally, an ultrasound contrast agent (UCA) provides information on the blood flow conditions of the cardiac muscle. This study aimed to evaluate ARFI's effect on the heart concomitantly with UCA administration (i.e., perfluorobutane). Ultrasound with ARFI was applied to the hearts of male Japanese white rabbits (n = 3) using a single-element focused transducer with or without UCA administration. They were exposed to ultrasound for 0.3 ms with a mechanical index (MI) of 1.8. UCA was administered in two ways: a single (bolus) injection or drip infusion. Electrocardiograms were recorded to identify arrhythmias during ultrasound exposure. Extrasystolic waves were observed following ultrasound exposure with drip infusion of UCA. Life-threatening arrhythmia was not observed. The frequency of the extra waves ranged from 4.2 to 59.6 %. With bolus infusion, extra waves were not observed. Arrhythmogenicity was observed during ultrasound (MI 1.8) with ARFI and concomitant administration of UCA in rabbits. Although the bolus administration of UCA was similar to its clinical use, which may not cause extra cardiac excitation, cardiac ultrasound examinations with ARFI should be carefully performed, particularly with concomitant use of UCA.

  10. Assessment of the Stiffness of Major Salivary Glands in Primary Sjögren's Syndrome through Quantitative Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse Imaging.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shanshan; Zhu, Jiaan; Zhang, Xia; He, Jing; Li, Jianguo

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of the study described here was to evaluate salivary gland stiffness in primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) via acoustic radiation force impulse imaging, including Virtual Touch tissue quantification (VTQ) and Virtual Touch tissue imaging quantification (VTIQ). Twenty-one patients with pSS and 11 healthy patients were included, and the paired parotid and submandibular glands of all of the patients were examined using VTQ and VTIQ. Differences between the two groups were compared with independent and paired t-tests. The VTQ value for the parotid in the pSS group was significantly higher than that obtained for the control group (1.33 ± 0.22 and 1.18 ± 0.04 m/s, respectively, p < 0.01). The VTIQ values for the parotid and submandibular gland were both significantly higher in the pSS group than in the control group (p < 0.05). In the pSS group, a positive correlation was observed between the VTQ and VTIQ results for the parotid and submandibular glands. In summary, the stiffness of the major salivary glands in patients with pSS was increased compared with that of patients with normal glands. This finding indicates that VTQ and VTIQ imaging may be valuable adjuncts to gray-scale ultrasonography for the clinical diagnosis of pSS. Copyright © 2016 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Differential diagnostic performance of acoustic radiation force impulse imaging in small (≤20 mm) breast cancers: Is it valuable?

    PubMed

    Wang, Si-Da; Wang, Lei; Li, Zhi-Xian; Wei, Kang-Lai; Liao, Xin-Hong; Chen, Yuan-Yuan; Huang, Xue

    2017-08-17

    To evaluate acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) inthe differential diagnosis of small (≤20 mm) solid breast lesions and identify the most efficient ARFI parameters. Conventional ultrasonography and ARFIwere performed in 120 patients with 121 small solid breast lesions. The area ratios (ARs) of the lesion on virtual touch tissue compared to B-mode were calculated. The shear wave velocity of the inner (SWVi) and boundary (SWVb) of the lesions and surrounding fatty tissue (SWVf) was measured. The ratio of SWVi to SWVf (SWVrat) was calculated. AR, SWVi, SWVb, and SWVrat were significantly larger in malignant lesions (all P < 0.001). A cutoff AR of 1.17 yielded the highest area under the receiver operating characteristic curveamong the various parameters (91.2% sensitivity, 85.9% specificity, 88.4% accuracy) for the differential diagnosis of small breast lesions, but this value did not significantly differ from SWVi (P = 0.1144). This AR cutoff indowngradingcategory 4a to category 3 would avoid 83.3% unnecessary biopsies, and improved diagnostic specificity up to 73.4% without decreasing sensitivity. AR and SWVi are efficient parameters for the differential diagnosis of small breast lesions, whichwill improve diagnostic specificity and reduce unnecessary biopsies.

  12. In vivo feasibility case study for evaluating abdominal aortic aneurysm tissue properties and rupture potential using acoustic radiation force impulse imaging.

    PubMed

    Tierney, Aine P; Callanan, Anthony; McGloughlin, Timothy M

    2011-04-01

    An abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is defined as a permanent and irreversible localized dilatation of the abdominal aorta. A reliable, non-invasive method to assess the wall mechanics of an aneurysm may provide additional information regarding their susceptibility to rupture. Acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) imaging is a phenomenon associated with the propagation of acoustic waves in attenuating media. This study was a preliminary evaluation to explore the feasibility of using ARFI imaging to examine an AAA in vivo. A previously diagnosed in vivo aneurysm case study was imaged to demonstrate the viability of excitation of the abdominal aorta using ARFI imaging. Ex vivo experiments were used to assess an artificially induced aneurysm to establish its development and whether ARFI was able to capture the mechanical changes during artificial aneurysm formation. A combination of in vivo and ex vivo results demonstrated a proposed hypothesis of estimation of the tissue's stiffness properties. The study details a method for non-invasive rupture potential prediction of AAAs using patient-specific moduli to generate a physiological stiffness rupture potential index (PSRPI) of the AAA. Clinical feasibility of ARFI imaging as an additional surgical tool to interrogate AAAs was verified and methods to utilize this data as a diagnostic tool was demonstrated with the PSRPI.

  13. Probabilistic Elastography: Estimating Lung Elasticity

    PubMed Central

    Risholm, Petter; Ross, James; Washko, George R.; Wells, William M.

    2011-01-01

    We formulate registration-based elastography in a probabilistic framework and apply it to study lung elasticity in the presence of emphysematous and fibrotic tissue. The elasticity calculations are based on a Finite Element discretization of a linear elastic biomechanical model. We marginalize over the boundary conditions (deformation) of the biomechanical model to determine the posterior distribution over elasticity parameters. Image similarity is included in the likelihood, an elastic prior is included to constrain the boundary conditions, while a Markov model is used to spatially smooth the inhomogeneous elasticity. We use a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) technique to characterize the posterior distribution over elasticity from which we extract the most probable elasticity as well as the uncertainty of this estimate. Even though registration-based lung elastography with inhomogeneous elasticity is challenging due the problem's highly underdetermined nature and the sparse image information available in lung CT, we show promising preliminary results on estimating lung elasticity contrast in the presence of emphysematous and fibrotic tissue. PMID:21761697

  14. Probabilistic elastography: estimating lung elasticity.

    PubMed

    Risholm, Petter; Ross, James; Washko, George R; Wells, William M

    2011-01-01

    We formulate registration-based elastography in a probabilistic framework and apply it to study lung elasticity in the presence of emphysematous and fibrotic tissue. The elasticity calculations are based on a Finite Element discretization of a linear elastic biomechanical model. We marginalize over the boundary conditions (deformation) of the biomechanical model to determine the posterior distribution over elasticity parameters. Image similarity is included in the likelihood, an elastic prior is included to constrain the boundary conditions, while a Markov model is used to spatially smooth the inhomogeneous elasticity. We use a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) technique to characterize the posterior distribution over elasticity from which we extract the most probable elasticity as well as the uncertainty of this estimate. Even though registration-based lung elastography with inhomogeneous elasticity is challenging due the problem's highly underdetermined nature and the sparse image information available in lung CT, we show promising preliminary results on estimating lung elasticity contrast in the presence of emphysematous and fibrotic tissue.

  15. Impulsive control for fast nanopositioning.

    PubMed

    Tuma, Tomas; Sebastian, Abu; Häberle, Walter; Lygeros, John; Pantazi, Angeliki

    2011-04-01

    In this paper we present a non-linear control scheme for high-speed nanopositioning based on impulsive control. Unlike in the case of a linear feedback controller, the controller states are altered in a discontinuous manner at specific instances in time. Using this technique, it is possible to simultaneously achieve good tracking performance, disturbance rejection and tolerance to measurement noise. Impulsive control is demonstrated experimentally on an atomic force microscope. A significant improvement in tracking performance is demonstrated.

  16. Relativistic impulse dynamics.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Stanley M

    2011-08-01

    Classical electrodynamics has some annoying rough edges. The self-energy of charges is infinite without a cutoff. The calculation of relativistic trajectories is difficult because of retardation and an average radiation reaction term. By reconceptuallizing electrodynamics in terms of exchanges of impulses rather than describing it by forces and potentials, we eliminate these problems. A fully relativistic theory using photonlike null impulses is developed. Numerical calculations for a two-body, one-impulse-in-transit model are discussed. A simple relationship between center-of-mass scattering angle and angular momentum was found. It reproduces the Rutherford cross section at low velocities and agrees with the leading term of relativistic distinguishable-particle quantum cross sections (Møller, Mott) when the distance of closest approach is larger than the Compton wavelength of the particle. Magnetism emerges as a consequence of viewing retarded and advanced interactions from the vantage point of an instantaneous radius vector. Radiation reaction becomes the local conservation of energy-momentum between the radiating particle and the emitted impulse. A net action is defined that could be used in developing quantum dynamics without potentials. A reinterpretation of Newton's laws extends them to relativistic motion.

  17. Virtual Breast Quasi-static Elastography (VBQE).

    PubMed

    Rosen, David; Wang, Yu; Jiang, Jingfeng

    2017-03-01

    Viscoelasticity Imaging (VEI) has been proposed to measure relaxation time constants for characterization of in vivo breast lesions. In this technique, an external compression force on the tissue being imaged is maintained for a fixed period of time to induce strain creep. A sequence of ultrasound echo signals is then utilized to generate time-resolved strain measurements. Relaxation time constants can be obtained by fitting local time-resolved strain measurements to a viscoelastic tissue model (e.g., a modified Kevin-Voigt model). In this study, our primary objective is to quantitatively evaluate the contrast transfer efficiency (CTE) of VEI, which contains useful information regarding image interpretations. Using an open-source simulator for virtual breast quasi-static elastography (VBQE), we conducted a case study of contrast transfer efficiency of VEI. In multiple three-dimensional (3D) numerical breast phantoms containing various degrees of heterogeneity, finite element (FE) simulations in conjunction with quasi-linear viscoelastic constitutive tissue models were performed to mimic data acquisition of VEI under freehand scanning. Our results suggested that there were losses in CTE, and the losses could be as high as -18 dB. FE results also qualitatively corroborated clinical observations, for example, artifacts around tissue interfaces.

  18. Evaluation of Post-stroke Spastic Muscle Stiffness Using Shear Wave Ultrasound Elastography.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chueh-Hung; Ho, Yu-Chun; Hsiao, Ming-Yen; Chen, Wen-Shiang; Wang, Tyng-Guey

    2017-03-09

    Current clinical evaluations of post-stroke upper limb spasticity are subjective and qualitative. We proposed a quantitative measurement of post-stroke spastic muscle stiffness by using shear-wave ultrasound elastography and tested its reliability. Acoustic radiation force impulse with shear wave velocity (SWV) detection was used to evaluate stiffness of the biceps brachii muscles at 90° and 0° elbow flexion. In 21 control subjects, SWV did not significantly differ between dominant and non-dominant sides at either flexion angle (0°: p = 0.311, 90°: p = 0.436). In 31 patients who had recent stroke, SWV was significantly greater on the paretic side than on the non-paretic side at both 90° (2.23 ± 0.15 m/s vs. 1.88 ± 0.08 m/s, p = 0.036) and 0° (3.28 ± 0.11 m/s vs. 2.93 ± 0.06 m/s, p = 0.002). The physical appearance of arms and forearms of our patients and controls prevented blinding of the rater to paretic or non-paretic side. At 90°, SWV on the paretic side correlated positively with modified Ashworth scale and modified Tardieu scale (spasticity severity) and negatively with Stroke Rehabilitation Assessment of Movement score (motor function impairment). The intra-class correlation coefficients of intra-rater and inter-rater reliability for SWV measurements were classified as excellent. In conclusion, high SWV was associated with high spasticity and poor function of the post-stroke upper limb, suggesting possible use as a reliable quantitative measure for disease progression and treatment follow-up.

  19. Magnetic Resonance Elastography of Abdomen

    PubMed Central

    Venkatesh, Sudhakar K.; Ehman, Richard L.

    2015-01-01

    Many diseases cause substantial changes in the mechanical properties of tissue and this provides motivation for developing methods to non-invasively assess the stiffness of tissue using imaging technology. Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) has emerged as a versatile MRI-based technique, based on direct visualization of propagating shear waves in the tissues. The most established clinical application of MRE in the abdomen is in chronic liver disease. MRE is currently regarded as the most accurate non-invasive technique for detection and staging of liver fibrosis. Increasing experience and ongoing research is leading to exploration of applications in other abdominal organs. In this review article, the current use of MRE in liver disease and the potential future applications of this technology in other parts of the abdomen are surveyed. PMID:25488346

  20. Ultrasound elastography for musculoskeletal applications

    PubMed Central

    Drakonaki, E E; Allen, G M; Wilson, D J

    2012-01-01

    Ultrasound elastography (EUS) is a method to assess the mechanical properties of tissue, by applying stress and detecting tissue displacement using ultrasound. There are several EUS techniques used in clinical practice; strain (compression) EUS is the most common technique that allows real-time visualisation of the elastographic map on the screen. There is increasing evidence that EUS can be used to measure the mechanical properties of musculoskeletal tissue in clinical practice, with the future potential for early diagnosis to both guide and monitor therapy. This review describes the various EUS techniques available for clinical use, presents the published evidence on musculoskeletal applications of EUS and discusses the technical issues, limitations and future perspectives of this method in the assessment of the musculoskeletal system. PMID:23091287

  1. Quantitative photoacoustic elastography in humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hai, Pengfei; Zhou, Yong; Gong, Lei; Wang, Lihong V.

    2016-06-01

    We report quantitative photoacoustic elastography (QPAE) capable of measuring Young's modulus of biological tissue in vivo in humans. By combining conventional PAE with a stress sensor having known stress-strain behavior, QPAE can simultaneously measure strain and stress, from which Young's modulus is calculated. We first demonstrate the feasibility of QPAE in agar phantoms with different concentrations. The measured Young's modulus values fit well with both the empirical expectation based on the agar concentrations and those measured in an independent standard compression test. Next, QPAE was applied to quantify the Young's modulus of skeletal muscle in vivo in humans, showing a linear relationship between muscle stiffness and loading. The results demonstrated the capability of QPAE to assess the absolute elasticity of biological tissue noninvasively in vivo in humans, indicating its potential for tissue biomechanics studies and clinical applications.

  2. Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse Imaging for the Differentiation of Benign and Malignant Lymph Nodes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Cheng; Xie, Mingxing; Lv, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the overall performance of acoustic radiation force impulse imaging (ARFI) in differentiating between benign and malignant lymph nodes (LNs) by conducting a meta-analysis. Methods PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure were comprehensively searched for potential studies through August 13th, 2016. Studies that investigated the diagnostic power of ARFI for the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant LNs by using virtual touch tissue quantification (VTQ) or virtual touch tissue imaging quantification (VTIQ) were collected. The included articles were published in English or Chinese. Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies-2 (QUADAS-2) was used to evaluate the methodological quality. The pooled sensitivity, specificity, and the area under the summary receiver operating characteristic (SROC) curve (AUC) were calculated by means of a bivariate mixed-effects regression model. Meta-regression analysis was performed to identify the potential sources of between study heterogeneity. Fagan plot analysis was used to explore the clinical utilities. Publication bias was assessed using Deek’s funnel plot. Results Nine studies involving 1084 LNs from 929 patients were identified to analyze in the meta-analysis. The summary sensitivity and specificity of ARFI in detecting malignant LNs were 0.87 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.83–0.91) and 0.88 (95% CI, 0.82–0.92), respectively. The AUC was 0.93 (95% CI, 0.90–0.95). The pooled DOR was 49.59 (95% CI, 26.11–94.15). Deek’s funnel plot revealed no significant publication bias. Conclusion ARFI is a promising tool for the differentiation of benign and malignant LNs with high sensitivity and specificity. PMID:27855188

  3. Identifying Clinically Significant Prostate Cancers using 3-D In Vivo Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse Imaging with Whole-Mount Histology Validation.

    PubMed

    Palmeri, Mark L; Glass, Tyler J; Miller, Zachary A; Rosenzweig, Stephen J; Buck, Andrew; Polascik, Thomas J; Gupta, Rajan T; Brown, Alison F; Madden, John; Nightingale, Kathryn R

    2016-06-01

    Overly aggressive prostate cancer (PCa) treatment adversely affects patients and places an unnecessary burden on our health care system. The inability to identify and grade clinically significant PCa lesions is a factor contributing to excessively aggressive PCa treatment, such as radical prostatectomy, instead of more focal, prostate-sparing procedures such as cryotherapy and high-dose radiation therapy. We have performed 3-D in vivo B-mode and acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) imaging using a mechanically rotated, side-fire endorectal imaging array to identify regions suspicious for PCa in 29 patients being treated with radical prostatectomies for biopsy-confirmed PCa. Whole-mount histopathology analyses were performed to identify regions of clinically significant/insignificant PCa lesions, atrophy and benign prostatic hyperplasia. Regions of suspicion for PCa were reader-identified in ARFI images based on boundary delineation, contrast, texture and location. These regions of suspicion were compared with histopathology identified lesions using a nearest-neighbor regional localization approach. Of all clinically significant lesions identified on histopathology, 71.4% were also identified using ARFI imaging, including 79.3% of posterior and 33.3% of anterior lesions. Among the ARFI-identified lesions, 79.3% corresponded to clinically significant PCa lesions, with these lesions having higher indices of suspicion than clinically insignificant PCa. ARFI imaging had greater sensitivity for posterior versus anterior lesions because of greater displacement signal-to-noise ratio and finer spatial sampling. Atrophy and benign prostatic hyperplasia can cause appreciable prostate anatomy distortion and heterogeneity that confounds ARFI PCa lesion identification; however, in general, ARFI regions of suspicion did not coincide with these benign pathologies.

  4. Evaluation of normal and pathological Achilles tendon by real-time shear wave elastography.

    PubMed

    Petrescu, Pompiliu HoraŢiu; Izvernariu, Dragoş Andrei; Iancu, Cătălina; Dinu, Gabriel Ovidiu; Crişan, Dan; Popescu, Simona Alina; Şirli, Roxana Lucia Denisa; Nistor, Bogdan Mihai; RăuŢia, Ion Călin; Lăzureanu, Dorela CodruŢa; Dema, Sorin; Prejbeanu, Ion Radu; Sporea, Ioan

    2016-01-01

    Tendinopathy covers a range of several tendon conditions, mostly caused by overuse but at least in Achilles tendon pathology, favored by obesity, diabetes, inflammatory and autoimmune conditions. Subclinical tendon pathology is difficult to diagnose, as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations are sometimes inconclusive and not cost-effective. Elastography is an ultrasound examination method that uses mechanical impulses to produce shear waves in the tissue of interest, then measures the tissue displacement and calculates the shear wave speed or the elastic modulus of the examined tissue. We have used B-mode ultrasonography and shear wave elastography on 80 Achilles tendons from healthy volunteers with or without tendon pathology history, and correlated the data obtained with the clinical parameters of the volunteers, such as age, body mass index (BMI) and sports practice. We have shown that there is no significant correlation between the elastic modulus of the Achilles tendon and age, sports practice and body mass index with the exception of the correlation between the elastic modulus of the right Achilles tendon in men and age. Shear wave elastography has proved to be cost-effective for the evaluation of the Achilles tendon in healthy volunteers and was able to monitor the evolution of one patient with old tendon rupture treated by surgery. It can complete MRI investigation and it can replace B-mode ultrasonography particularly in monitoring the post-surgery evolution.

  5. Evaluating the Feasibility of Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse Shear Wave Elasticity Imaging of the Uterine Cervix With an Intracavity Array: A Simulation Study

    PubMed Central

    Feltovich, Helen; Homyk, Andrew D.; Carlson, Lindsey C.; Hall, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    The uterine cervix softens, shortens, and dilates throughout pregnancy in response to progressive disorganization of its layered collagen microstructure. This process is an essential part of normal pregnancy, but premature changes are associated with preterm birth. Clinically, there are no reliable noninvasive methods to objectively measure cervical softening or assess cervical microstructure. The goal of these preliminary studies was to evaluate the feasibility of using an intracavity ultrasound array to generate acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) excitations in the uterine cervix through simulation, and to optimize the acoustic radiation force (ARF) excitation for shear wave elasticity imaging (SWEI) of the tissue stiffness. The cervix is a unique soft tissue target for SWEI because it has significantly greater acoustic attenuation (α = 1.3 to 2.0 dB·cm−1·MHz−1) than other soft tissues, and the pathology being studied tends to lead to an increase in tissue compliance, with healthy cervix being relatively stiff compared with other soft tissues (E ≈ 25 kPa). Additionally, the cervix can only be accessed in vivo using a transvaginal or catheter-based array, which places additional constraints on the excitation focal characteristics that can be used during SWEI. Finite element method (FEM) models of SWEI show that larger-aperture, catheter-based arrays can utilize excitation frequencies up to 7 MHz to generate adequate focal gain up to focal depths 10 to 15 mm deep, with higher frequencies suffering from excessive amounts of near-field acoustic attenuation. Using full-aperture excitations can yield ~40% increases in ARFI-induced displacements, but also restricts the depth of field of the excitation to ~0.5 mm, compared with 2 to 6 mm, which limits the range that can be used for shear wave characterization of the tissue. The center-frequency content of the shear wave particle velocity profiles ranges from 1.5 to 2.5 kHz, depending on the focal

  6. From supersonic shear wave imaging to full-field optical coherence shear wave elastography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nahas, Amir; Tanter, Mickaël; Nguyen, Thu-Mai; Chassot, Jean-Marie; Fink, Mathias; Claude Boccara, A.

    2013-12-01

    Elasticity maps of tissue have proved to be particularly useful in providing complementary contrast to ultrasonic imaging, e.g., for cancer diagnosis at the millimeter scale. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) offers an endogenous contrast based on singly backscattered optical waves. Adding complementary contrast to OCT images by recording elasticity maps could also be valuable in improving OCT-based diagnosis at the microscopic scale. Static elastography has been successfully coupled with full-field OCT (FF-OCT) in order to realize both micrometer-scale sectioning and elasticity maps. Nevertheless, static elastography presents a number of drawbacks, mainly when stiffness quantification is required. Here, we describe the combination of two methods: transient elastography, based on speed measurements of shear waves induced by ultrasonic radiation forces, and FF-OCT, an en face OCT approach using an incoherent light source. The use of an ultrafast ultrasonic scanner and an ultrafast camera working at 10,000 to 30,000 images/s made it possible to follow shear wave propagation with both modalities. As expected, FF-OCT is found to be much more sensitive than ultrafast ultrasound to tiny shear vibrations (a few nanometers and micrometers, respectively). Stiffness assessed in gel phantoms and an ex vivo rat brain by FF-OCT is found to be in good agreement with ultrasound shear wave elastography.

  7. From supersonic shear wave imaging to full-field optical coherence shear wave elastography.

    PubMed

    Nahas, Amir; Tanter, Mickaël; Nguyen, Thu-Mai; Chassot, Jean-Marie; Fink, Mathias; Claude Boccara, A

    2013-12-01

    Elasticity maps of tissue have proved to be particularly useful in providing complementary contrast to ultrasonic imaging, e.g., for cancer diagnosis at the millimeter scale. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) offers an endogenous contrast based on singly backscattered optical waves. Adding complementary contrast to OCT images by recording elasticity maps could also be valuable in improving OCT-based diagnosis at the microscopic scale. Static elastography has been successfully coupled with full-field OCT (FF-OCT) in order to realize both micrometer-scale sectioning and elasticity maps. Nevertheless, static elastography presents a number of drawbacks, mainly when stiffness quantification is required. Here, we describe the combination of two methods: transient elastography, based on speed measurements of shear waves induced by ultrasonic radiation forces, and FF-OCT, an en face OCT approach using an incoherent light source. The use of an ultrafast ultrasonic scanner and an ultrafast camera working at 10,000 to 30,000 images/s made it possible to follow shear wave propagation with both modalities. As expected, FF-OCT is found to be much more sensitive than ultrafast ultrasound to tiny shear vibrations (a few nanometers and micrometers, respectively). Stiffness assessed in gel phantoms and an ex vivo rat brain by FF-OCT is found to be in good agreement with ultrasound shear wave elastography.

  8. [Ultrasonographic elastography in alimentary tract lesions diagnostics].

    PubMed

    Dyrla, Przemysław; Wojtuńi, Stanisław; Gil, Jerzy; Jałocha, Łukasz; Krzysztof, Kosik; Błaszak, Antoni; Wojtkowiak, Marek

    2009-05-01

    Technology development in data processing in ultrasonography let new imaging method feasible. New method of imaging is elastography (elastosonography, ultrasonographic elastography). It relays on the presumption that pathologically changed tissues have different elasticity and change their shape in different way than health tissue. Elastography is used in lesions in alimentary tract diagnostics. Sensitivity and specificity in malignant lesions differentiation is 85% and 90%. In elastography there is used conventional ultrasonography device that is equipped with additional transformator that is located in probe. Examination is performed with multiple pressing the organ. Imaging is acquired in real-time regime they are colour-coded and they are created during compression. As a result of computer analysis images are generated in two colours. On the basis of character of normal and increased rigidity images were classified in five point scale from one to five. Indication to elastography is suspicion of malignant lesions in traditional ultrasonography and monitoring of liver cirrhosis and fibrosis. More trials are required to evaluate this method more reliably. Then it could be recommended for everyday clinical use.

  9. The emergence of optical elastography in biomedicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, Brendan F.; Wijesinghe, Philip; Sampson, David D.

    2017-04-01

    Optical elastography, the use of optics to characterize and map the mechanical properties of biological tissue, involves measuring the deformation of tissue in response to a load. Such measurements may be used to form an image of a mechanical property, often elastic modulus, with the resulting mechanical contrast complementary to the more familiar optical contrast. Optical elastography is experiencing new impetus in response to developments in the closely related fields of cell mechanics and medical imaging, aided by advances in photonics technology, and through probing the microscale between that of cells and whole tissues. Two techniques -- optical coherence elastography and Brillouin microscopy -- have recently shown particular promise for medical applications, such as in ophthalmology and oncology, and as new techniques in cell mechanics.

  10. Differentiating malignant from benign breast tumors on acoustic radiation force impulse imaging using fuzzy-based neural networks with principle component analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hsiao-Chuan; Chou, Yi-Hong; Tiu, Chui-Mei; Hsieh, Chi-Wen; Liu, Brent; Shung, K. Kirk

    2017-03-01

    Many modalities have been developed as screening tools for breast cancer. A new screening method called acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) imaging was created for distinguishing breast lesions based on localized tissue displacement. This displacement was quantitated by virtual touch tissue imaging (VTI). However, VTIs sometimes express reverse results to intensity information in clinical observation. In the study, a fuzzy-based neural network with principle component analysis (PCA) was proposed to differentiate texture patterns of malignant breast from benign tumors. Eighty VTIs were randomly retrospected. Thirty four patients were determined as BI-RADS category 2 or 3, and the rest of them were determined as BI-RADS category 4 or 5 by two leading radiologists. Morphological method and Boolean algebra were performed as the image preprocessing to acquire region of interests (ROIs) on VTIs. Twenty four quantitative parameters deriving from first-order statistics (FOS), fractal dimension and gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) were utilized to analyze the texture pattern of breast tumors on VTIs. PCA was employed to reduce the dimension of features. Fuzzy-based neural network as a classifier to differentiate malignant from benign breast tumors. Independent samples test was used to examine the significance of the difference between benign and malignant breast tumors. The area Az under the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve, sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were calculated to evaluate the performance of the system. Most all of texture parameters present significant difference between malignant and benign tumors with p-value of less than 0.05 except the average of fractal dimension. For all features classified by fuzzy-based neural network, the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and Az were 95.7%, 97.1%, 95% and 0.964, respectively. However, the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and Az can be increased to 100%, 97.1%, 98.8% and 0.985, respectively

  11. Measurement of Spleen Stiffness With Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse Imaging Predicts Mortality and Hepatic Decompensation in Patients With Liver Cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Takuma, Yoshitaka; Morimoto, Youichi; Takabatake, Hiroyuki; Toshikuni, Nobuyuki; Tomokuni, Junko; Sahara, Akiko; Matsueda, Kazuhiro; Yamamoto, Hiroshi

    2016-12-23

    Hepatic venous pressure gradient can predict mortality and hepatic decompensation in patients with cirrhosis. Measurement of hepatic venous pressure gradient requires an invasive procedure; therefore, prognostic markers are needed that do not require invasive procedures. We investigated whether measurements of spleen stiffness, made by acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) imaging, associated with mortality and decompensation in patients with cirrhosis, compared with liver stiffness and other markers. We measured spleen stiffness in 393 patients diagnosed with cirrhosis (based on histologic or physical, laboratory, and radiologic findings) at a hospital in Japan from September 2010 through August 2013 (280 patients with compensated and 113 patients with decompensated cirrhosis). Patients underwent biochemical, ARFI, ultrasonography, and endoscopy evaluations every 3 or 6 months to screen for liver-related complications until their death, liver transplantation, or the end of the study period (October 2015). The primary outcome was the accuracy of spleen stiffness in predicting mortality and decompensation, measured by Cox proportional hazards model analysis. We compared spleen stiffness with other noninvasive parameters using the Harrell's C-index analysis. During a median follow-up period of 44.6 months, 67 patients died and 35 patients developed hepatic decompensation. In the multivariate analysis, spleen stiffness was an independent parameter associated with mortality, after adjustment for levels of alanine aminotransferase and serum sodium, and the model for end-stage liver disease score (P < .001). Spleen stiffness was associated independently with decompensation after adjustment for Child-Pugh score and model for end-stage liver disease score (P < .001). Spleen stiffness predicted mortality and decompensation with greater accuracy than other parameters (C-indexes for predicting mortality and decompensation were 0.824 and 0.843, respectively). A spleen

  12. B-mode and acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) imaging of prostate zonal anatomy: comparison with 3T T2-weighted MR imaging.

    PubMed

    Palmeri, Mark L; Miller, Zachary A; Glass, Tyler J; Garcia-Reyes, Kirema; Gupta, Rajan T; Rosenzweig, Stephen J; Kauffman, Christopher; Polascik, Thomas J; Buck, Andrew; Kulbacki, Evan; Madden, John; Lipman, Samantha L; Rouze, Ned C; Nightingale, Kathryn R

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common non-cutaneous malignancy among men in the United States and the second leading cause of cancer-related death. Multi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) has gained recent popularity to characterize PCa. Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (ARFI) imaging has the potential to aid PCa diagnosis and management by using tissue stiffness to evaluate prostate zonal anatomy and lesions. MR and B-mode/ARFI in vivo imaging datasets were compared with one another and with gross pathology measurements made immediately after radical prostatectomy. Images were manually segmented in 3D Slicer to delineate the central gland (CG) and prostate capsule, and 3D models were rendered to evaluate zonal anatomy dimensions and volumes. Both imaging modalities showed good correlation between estimated organ volume and gross pathologic weights. Ultrasound and MR total prostate volumes were well correlated (R(2) = 0.77), but B-mode images yielded prostate volumes that were larger (16.82% ± 22.45%) than MR images, due to overestimation of the lateral dimension (18.4% ± 13.9%), with less significant differences in the other dimensions (7.4% ± 17.6%, anterior-to-posterior, and -10.8% ± 13.9%, apex-to-base). ARFI and MR CG volumes were also well correlated (R(2) = 0.85). CG volume differences were attributed to ARFI underestimation of the apex-to-base axis (-28.8% ± 9.4%) and ARFI overestimation of the lateral dimension (21.5% ± 14.3%). B-mode/ARFI imaging yielded prostate volumes and dimensions that were well correlated with MR T2-weighted image (T2WI) estimates, with biases in the lateral dimension due to poor contrast caused by extraprostatic fat. B-mode combined with ARFI imaging is a promising low-cost, portable, real-time modality that can complement mpMRI for PCa diagnosis, treatment planning, and management. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. B-Mode and Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (ARFI) Imaging of Prostate Zonal Anatomy: Comparison with 3T T2-Weighted MR Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Palmeri, Mark L.; Miller, Zachary A.; Glass, Tyler J.; Garcia-Reyes, Kirema; Gupta, Rajan T.; Rosenzweig, Stephen J.; Kauffman, Christopher; Polascik, Thomas J.; Buck, Andrew; Kulbacki, Evan; Madden, John; Lipman, Samantha L.; Rouze, Ned C.; Nightingale, Kathryn R.

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common non-cutaneous malignancy among men in the United States and the second leading cause of cancer-related death. Multi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) has gained recent popularity to characterize PCa. Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (ARFI) imaging has the potential to aid PCa diagnosis and management by using tissue stiffness to evaluate prostate zonal anatomy and lesions. MR and B-mode/ARFI in vivo imaging datasets were compared with one another and with gross pathology measurements made immediately after radical prostatectomy. Images were manually segmented in 3D Slicer to delineate the central gland (CG) and prostate capsule, and 3D models were rendered to evaluate zonal anatomy dimensions and volumes. Both imaging modalities showed good correlation between estimated organ volume and gross pathologic weights. Ultrasound and MR total prostate volumes were well correlated (R2 = 0.77), but B-mode images yielded prostate volumes that were larger (16.82% ± 22.45%) than MR images, due to overestimation of the lateral dimension (18.4% ± 13.9%), with less significant differences in the other dimensions (7.4% ± 17.6%, anterior-to-posterior, and −10.8% ± 13.9%, apex-to-base). ARFI and MR CG volumes were also well correlated (R2 = 0.85). CG volume differences were attributed to ARFI underestimation of the apex-to-base axis (−28.8% ± 9.4%) and ARFI overestimation of the lateral dimension (21.5% ± 14.3%). B-mode/ARFI imaging yielded prostate volumes and dimensions that were well correlated with MR T2-weighted image (T2WI) estimates, with biases in the lateral dimension due to poor contrast caused by extraprostatic fat. B-mode combined with ARFI imaging is a promising low-cost, portable, real-time modality that can complement mpMRI for PCa diagnosis, treatment planning, and management. PMID:25060914

  14. Sonographic Elastography of the Thyroid Gland

    PubMed Central

    Menzilcioglu, Mehmet Sait; Duymus, Mahmut; Avcu, Serhat

    2016-01-01

    Summary Thyroid gland disorders include benign and malignant thyroid nodules and diffuse thyroid disorders. The incidence of malignant thyroid nodules is low and the prognosis is good. The diagnosis of thyroid cancer and diffuse parenchymal disorders is generally based on clinical manifestations and histopathological evaluation. Ultrasonography has its place in the diagnostics and follow-up of thyroid disorders. Ultrasonographic elastography is a new, developing method that shows increase in clinical practice. In this study, we aimed to review the data on thyroid ultrasound elastography. PMID:27103947

  15. MAGNETIC RESONANCE ELASTOGRAPHY: A REVIEW

    PubMed Central

    Mariappan, Yogesh K; Glaser, Kevin J; Ehman, Richard L

    2011-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance Elastography (MRE) is a rapidly developing technology for quantitatively assessing the mechanical properties of tissue. The technology can be considered to be an imaging-based counterpart to palpation, commonly used by physicians to diagnose and characterize diseases. The success of palpation as a diagnostic method is based on the fact that the mechanical properties of tissues are often dramatically affected by the presence of disease processes such as cancer, inflammation, and fibrosis. MRE obtains information about the stiffness of tissue by assessing the propagation of mechanical waves through the tissue with a special magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique. The technique essentially involves three steps: generating shear waves in the tissue,acquiring MR images depicting the propagation of the induced shear waves andprocessing the images of the shear waves to generate quantitative maps of tissue stiffness, called elastograms. MRE is already being used clinically for the assessment of patients with chronic liver diseases and is emerging as a safe, reliable and noninvasive alternative to liver biopsy for staging hepatic fibrosis. MRE is also being investigated for application to pathologies of other organs including the brain, breast, blood vessels, heart, kidneys, lungs and skeletal muscle. The purpose of this review article is to introduce this technology to clinical anatomists and to summarize some of the current clinical applications that are being pursued. PMID:20544947

  16. Clinical applications of transient elastography

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Kyu Sik

    2012-01-01

    Chronic liver disease represents a major public health problem, accounting for significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. As prognosis and management depend mainly on the amount and progression of liver fibrosis, accurate quantification of liver fibrosis is essential for therapeutic decision-making and follow-up of chronic liver diseases. Even though liver biopsy is the gold standard for evaluation of liver fibrosis, non-invasive methods that could substitute for invasive procedures have been investigated during past decades. Transient elastography (TE, FibroScan®) is a novel non-invasive method for assessment of liver fibrosis with chronic liver disease. TE can be performed in the outpatient clinic with immediate results and excellent reproducibility. Its diagnostic accuracy for assessment of liver fibrosis has been demonstrated in patients with chronic viral hepatitis; as a result, unnecessary liver biopsy could be avoided in some patients. Moreover, due to its excellent patient acceptance, TE could be used for monitoring disease progression or predicting development of liver-related complications. This review aims at discussing the usefulness of TE in clinical practice. PMID:22893866

  17. An elastography method based on the scanning contact resonance of a piezoelectric cantilever

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, Ji; Li, Faxin

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: Most tissues may become significantly stiffer than their normal states when there are lesions inside. The tissue's modulus can then act as an identification parameter for clinic diagnosis of tumors or fibrosis, which leads to elastography. This study introduces a novel elastography method that can be used for modulus imaging of superficial organs. Methods: This method is based on the scanning contact-resonance of a unimorph piezoelectric cantilever. The cantilever vibrates in its bending mode with the tip pressed tightly on the sample. The contact resonance frequency of the cantilever-sample system is tracked at each scanning point, from which the sample's modulus can be derived based on a beam dynamic model and a contact mechanics model. Scanning is performed by a three-dimensional motorized stage and the whole system is controlled by a homemade software program based on LabVIEW. Results: Testing onin vitro beef tissues indicates that the fat and the muscle can be easily distinguished using this system, and the accuracy of the modulus measurement can be comparable with that of nanoindentation. Imaging on homemade gelatin phantoms shows that the depth information of the abnormalities can be qualitatively obtained by varying the pressing force. The detection limit of this elastography method is specially examined both experimentally and numerically. Results show that it can detect the typical lesions in superficial organs with the depth of several centimeters. The lateral resolution of this elastography method/system is better than 0.5 mm, and could be further enhanced by using more scanning points. Conclusions: The proposed elastography system can be regarded as a sensitive palpation robot, which may be very promising in early diagnosis of tumors in superficial organs such as breast and thyroid.

  18. An elastography method based on the scanning contact resonance of a piezoelectric cantilever

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, Ji; Li, Faxin

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: Most tissues may become significantly stiffer than their normal states when there are lesions inside. The tissue's modulus can then act as an identification parameter for clinic diagnosis of tumors or fibrosis, which leads to elastography. This study introduces a novel elastography method that can be used for modulus imaging of superficial organs. Methods: This method is based on the scanning contact-resonance of a unimorph piezoelectric cantilever. The cantilever vibrates in its bending mode with the tip pressed tightly on the sample. The contact resonance frequency of the cantilever-sample system is tracked at each scanning point, from which the sample's modulus can be derived based on a beam dynamic model and a contact mechanics model. Scanning is performed by a three-dimensional motorized stage and the whole system is controlled by a homemade software program based on LabVIEW. Results: Testing onin vitro beef tissues indicates that the fat and the muscle can be easily distinguished using this system, and the accuracy of the modulus measurement can be comparable with that of nanoindentation. Imaging on homemade gelatin phantoms shows that the depth information of the abnormalities can be qualitatively obtained by varying the pressing force. The detection limit of this elastography method is specially examined both experimentally and numerically. Results show that it can detect the typical lesions in superficial organs with the depth of several centimeters. The lateral resolution of this elastography method/system is better than 0.5 mm, and could be further enhanced by using more scanning points. Conclusions: The proposed elastography system can be regarded as a sensitive palpation robot, which may be very promising in early diagnosis of tumors in superficial organs such as breast and thyroid.

  19. Ultrasound elastography in tendon pathology: state of the art.

    PubMed

    Domenichini, Romain; Pialat, Jean-Baptiste; Podda, Andrea; Aubry, Sébastien

    2017-08-01

    Elastography assesses the biomechanical and structural properties of tissues by measuring their stiffness. Despite promising results, elastography has not yet earned its place in the daily practice of musculoskeletal radiologists. The purpose of this article is to present and examine the data available to date on ultrasound elastography of the tendons through a review of the literature to provide musculoskeletal radiologists with an overview that may help them better understand and use elastography routinely. The most common techniques in ultrasound elastography are described. Then, the aspects of the physiologic and pathologic tendon are presented and discussed. One must make this technique one's own to better apprehend its contribution to the musculoskeletal imaging field, while bearing in mind that further research will be required before admitting elastography as a reliable and validated tool able to optimize our daily clinical practice.

  20. 3D mapping of elastic modulus using shear wave optical micro-elastography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jiang; Qi, Li; Miao, Yusi; Ma, Teng; Dai, Cuixia; Qu, Yueqiao; He, Youmin; Gao, Yiwei; Zhou, Qifa; Chen, Zhongping

    2016-10-01

    Elastography provides a powerful tool for histopathological identification and clinical diagnosis based on information from tissue stiffness. Benefiting from high resolution, three-dimensional (3D), and noninvasive optical coherence tomography (OCT), optical micro-elastography has the ability to determine elastic properties with a resolution of ~10 μm in a 3D specimen. The shear wave velocity measurement can be used to quantify the elastic modulus. However, in current methods, shear waves are measured near the surface with an interference of surface waves. In this study, we developed acoustic radiation force (ARF) orthogonal excitation optical coherence elastography (ARFOE-OCE) to visualize shear waves in 3D. This method uses acoustic force perpendicular to the OCT beam to excite shear waves in internal specimens and uses Doppler variance method to visualize shear wave propagation in 3D. The measured propagation of shear waves agrees well with the simulation results obtained from finite element analysis (FEA). Orthogonal acoustic excitation allows this method to measure the shear modulus in a deeper specimen which extends the elasticity measurement range beyond the OCT imaging depth. The results show that the ARFOE-OCE system has the ability to noninvasively determine the 3D elastic map.

  1. 3D mapping of elastic modulus using shear wave optical micro-elastography

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jiang; Qi, Li; Miao, Yusi; Ma, Teng; Dai, Cuixia; Qu, Yueqiao; He, Youmin; Gao, Yiwei; Zhou, Qifa; Chen, Zhongping

    2016-01-01

    Elastography provides a powerful tool for histopathological identification and clinical diagnosis based on information from tissue stiffness. Benefiting from high resolution, three-dimensional (3D), and noninvasive optical coherence tomography (OCT), optical micro-elastography has the ability to determine elastic properties with a resolution of ~10 μm in a 3D specimen. The shear wave velocity measurement can be used to quantify the elastic modulus. However, in current methods, shear waves are measured near the surface with an interference of surface waves. In this study, we developed acoustic radiation force (ARF) orthogonal excitation optical coherence elastography (ARFOE-OCE) to visualize shear waves in 3D. This method uses acoustic force perpendicular to the OCT beam to excite shear waves in internal specimens and uses Doppler variance method to visualize shear wave propagation in 3D. The measured propagation of shear waves agrees well with the simulation results obtained from finite element analysis (FEA). Orthogonal acoustic excitation allows this method to measure the shear modulus in a deeper specimen which extends the elasticity measurement range beyond the OCT imaging depth. The results show that the ARFOE-OCE system has the ability to noninvasively determine the 3D elastic map. PMID:27762276

  2. Usefulness of semiquantitative elastography in predicting malignancy in thyroid nodules.

    PubMed

    Franco Uliaque, C; Pardo Berdún, F J; Laborda Herrero, R; Pérez Lórenz, C

    2016-01-01

    To retrospectively review the diagnostic capacity of semiquantitative elastography in differentiating between benign and malignant thyroid nodules. We analyzed 314 thyroid nodules in 295 consecutive patients referred to the endocrinology department for cytological study, studying all by conventional ultrasonography, elastography, and fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). Using a semiquantitative elastography system that portrays tissue stiffness through a color map, we designed our own classification system for thyroid nodules based on their characteristics on elastography. We classified nodules into three groups: predominantly soft, predominantly stiff, and mosaic patterned. We used logistic regression analysis to investigate the relation between elastography and thyroid cancer. We obtained a definite diagnosis of malignancy after surgery in 19 nodules, of which on elastography 8 had the mosaic pattern, 6 were predominantly stiff, and 5 were predominantly soft. We found no significant association between the pattern on elastography and the probability of malignancy in any of the models. According to our study, la probability of malignancy in a thyroid nodule is not related to the findings at elastography. Therefore, semiquantitative elastography as used in this study cannot obviate FNAC. Copyright © 2016 SERAM. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. US elastography of breast and prostate lesions.

    PubMed

    Ginat, Daniel T; Destounis, Stamatia V; Barr, Richard G; Castaneda, Benjamin; Strang, John G; Rubens, Deborah J

    2009-11-01

    Elastography is a technique that maps relative tissue stiffness. Ultrasonographic (US) elastography (sonoelastography) is a novel modality that is the subject of active research for clinical applications, primarily breast and prostate lesion imaging. Breast and prostate tumors generally have biomechanical properties different from those of normal tissues: Tumors are usually stiffer. This phenomenon is responsible for tissue contrast on elastograms. For the prostate gland and breast, the main image acquisition techniques are vibration sonoelastography and compression sonoelastography. The sonoelastographic appearances of several common breast lesions, including fibroadenomas, simple and complex cysts, ductal carcinomas, malignant lymph nodes, and hematomas, are reviewed. In addition, the US elastographic appearances of the normal prostate gland, prostate carcinomas, and benign prostate hyperplasia are illustrated. Potential pitfalls in the interpretation of elastograms, including false-positive and false-negative images, are illustrated. These imaging findings are derived from ongoing research because sonoelastography is not yet accepted for routine clinical use.

  4. Ultrasound-Based Shear Wave Elastography in the Assessment of Patients with Diabetic Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Bob, Flaviu; Grosu, Iulia; Sporea, Ioan; Bota, Simona; Popescu, Alina; Sima, Alexandra; Şirli, Roxana; Petrica, Ligia; Timar, Romulus; Schiller, Adalbert

    2017-10-01

    In previous studies of acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) elastography, using Virtual Touch tissue quantification (VTQ) (Siemens Acuson S2000), it was reported that the measurement of renal shear wave speed in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is not influenced exclusively by renal fibrosis. The purpose of the present study was to analyze the role of VTQ in patients with diabetic kidney disease, considered the main cause of CKD. The study group included 164 patients: 80 patients with diabetic kidney disease (DKD) and 84 without renal disease or diabetes mellitus. In each subject in lateral decubitus, five valid VTQ measurements were performed in each kidney and a median value was calculated, the result being expressed in meters/second. The following means of the median values were obtained In DKD patients, the means of the median values were for VTQ right kidney, 2.21 ± 0.71 m/s, and for VTQ left kidney, 2.13 ± 0.72 m/s, whereas in the normal controls statistically significant higher values were obtained: 2.58 ± 0.78 m/s for VTQ right kidney (p = 0.0017) and 2.46 ± 0.81 m/s for VTQ left kidney (p = 0.006). Patients with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) >60 mL/min (DKD stages 1 and 2 together with normal controls) had a significantly higher kidney shear wave speed compared with patients with an eGFR <60 mL/min (2.53 m/s vs. 2.09 m/s, p < 0.05). In the DKD group, there was a significant correlation between eGFR and VTQ levels for the right kidney (r = 0.28, p = 0.04). There was no correlation of VTQ values with proteinuria level, stage of diabetic retinopathy or glycated hemoglobin. Our study indicates that shear wave speed values in patients with diabetic kidney disease and eGFRs <60 mL/min are significantly lower compared with those of patients with eGFRs >60 mL/min (either normal controls or diabetic patients with DKD stages 1 and 2), and values decrease with the decrease in eGFR. However, proteinuria

  5. Cervical elastography during pregnancy: clinical perspectives.

    PubMed

    Swiatkowska-Freund, Malgorzata; Preis, Krzysztof

    2017-01-01

    Uterine cervix is a part of the uterus responsible for maintaining pregnancy till term. As long as the cervix remains long and firm and its internal orifice (os) is closed, it can withstand enlargement of the uterine contents and resultant growing pressure. Mechanical properties of the cervix change during pregnancy; the cervix ripens prior to delivery, then effaces and dilates with contractions of the uterus. Ripening of the cervix can be assessed using the Bishop score and ultrasonographically determined length of the cervical canal and internal os. Consistency is one of the cervical properties that change during the course of the maturation process. Until recently, cervical consistency has been assessed only manually, but in 2007, the first report on elastographic imaging of the cervix during pregnancy has been published. Elastography presents the ability of a tissue to deform under pressure. The softer the tissue, the easier it changes its shape. Different methods of elastography are used - static, when tissue displacement in response to manual compression or physiological movements of vessels is measured, or dynamic, when the speed of shear wave propagation is determined. Irrespective of the method, elastography provides information on the internal os stiffness; this parameter, impossible for manual assessment, was shown to correlate with pregnancy outcome and is a strong predictor of preterm delivery or successful labor induction. Although elastography seems to be a highly promising diagnostic option, still no consensus has been reached regarding an optimal method for uterine cervix assessment, and virtually all previous studies of various elastographic methods produced highly satisfactory results. Future studies need to identify the most promising and objective elastographic method which may serve as a novel tool for pregnancy management, preventing adverse events, such as preterm delivery and unsuccessful labor induction.

  6. ANTHROPOMORPHIC BREAST PHANTOMS FOR TESTING ELASTOGRAPHY SYSTEMS

    PubMed Central

    Madsen, Ernest L.; Hobson, Maritza A.; Frank, Gary R.; Shi, Hairong; Jiang, Jingfeng; Hall, Timothy J.; Varghese, Tomy; Doyley, Marvin M.; Weaver, John B.

    2006-01-01

    Two equivalent anthropomorphic breast phantoms were constructed, one for use in ultrasound elastography and the other in magnetic resonance (MR) elastography. A complete description of the manufacturing methods is provided. The materials used were oil-in-gelatin dispersions, where the volume percent oil differentiates the materials, primarily according to Young’s moduli. Values of Young’s moduli are in agreement with in vitro ranges for the corresponding normal and abnormal breast tissues. Ultrasound and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) properties are reasonably well represented. Phantoms of the type described promise to aid researchers who are developing hardware and software for elastography. Examples of ultrasound and MR elastograms of the phantoms are included to demonstrate the utility of the phantoms. Also, the level of stability of elastic properties of the component materials is quantified over a 15-month period. Such phantoms can serve as performance-assessing intermediaries between simple phantoms (consisting, for example, of homogeneous cylindrical inclusions in a homogeneous background) and a full-scale clinical trial. Thus, premature clinical trials may be avoided. PMID:16785008

  7. Probe Oscillation Shear Elastography (PROSE): A High Frame-Rate Method for Two-Dimensional Ultrasound Shear Wave Elastography.

    PubMed

    Mellema, Daniel C; Song, Pengfei; Kinnick, Randall R; Urban, Matthew W; Greenleaf, James F; Manduca, Armando; Chen, Shigao

    2016-09-01

    Ultrasound shear wave elastography (SWE) utilizes the propagation of induced shear waves to characterize the shear modulus of soft tissue. Many methods rely on an acoustic radiation force (ARF) "push beam" to generate shear waves. However, specialized hardware is required to generate the push beams, and the thermal stress that is placed upon the ultrasound system, transducer, and tissue by the push beams currently limits the frame-rate to about 1 Hz. These constraints have limited the implementation of ARF to high-end clinical systems. This paper presents Probe Oscillation Shear Elastography (PROSE) as an alternative method to measure tissue elasticity. PROSE generates shear waves using a harmonic mechanical vibration of an ultrasound transducer, while simultaneously detecting motion with the same transducer under pulse-echo mode. Motion of the transducer during detection produces a "strain-like" compression artifact that is coupled with the observed shear waves. A novel symmetric sampling scheme is proposed such that pulse-echo detection events are acquired when the ultrasound transducer returns to the same physical position, allowing the shear waves to be decoupled from the compression artifact. Full field-of-view (FOV) two-dimensional (2D) shear wave speed images were obtained by applying a local frequency estimation (LFE) technique, capable of generating a 2D map from a single frame of shear wave motion. The shear wave imaging frame rate of PROSE is comparable to the vibration frequency, which can be an order of magnitude higher than ARF based techniques. PROSE was able to produce smooth and accurate shear wave images from three homogeneous phantoms with different moduli, with an effective frame rate of 300 Hz. An inclusion phantom study showed that increased vibration frequencies improved the accuracy of inclusion imaging, and allowed targets as small as 6.5 mm to be resolved with good contrast (contrast-to-noise ratio ≥ 19 dB) between the target and

  8. External Vibration Multi-directional Ultrasound Shearwave Elastography (EVMUSE): Application in Liver Fibrosis Staging

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Heng; Song, Pengfei; Meixner, Duane D.; Kinnick, Randall R.; Callstrom, Matthew R.; Sanchez, William; Urban, Matthew W.; Manduca, Armando; Greenleaf, James F.

    2014-01-01

    Shear wave speed can be used to assess tissue elasticity, which is associated with tissue health. Ultrasound shear wave elastography techniques based on measuring the propagation speed of the shear waves induced by acoustic radiation force are becoming promising alternatives to biopsy in liver fibrosis staging. However, shear waves generated by such methods are typically very weak. Therefore, the penetration may become problematic, especially for overweight or obese patients. In this study, we developed a new method called External Vibration Multi-directional Ultrasound Shearwave Elastography (EVMUSE), in which external vibration from a loudspeaker was used to generate a multi-directional shear wave field. A directional filter was then applied to separate the complex shear wave field into several shear wave fields propagating in different directions. A two-dimensional (2D) shear wave speed map was reconstructed from each individual shear wave field, and a final 2D shear wave speed map was constructed by compounding these individual wave speed maps. The method was validated using two homogeneous phantoms and one multi-purpose tissue-mimicking phantom. Ten patients undergoing liver Magnetic Resonance Elastography (MRE) were also studied with EVMUSE to compare results between the two methods. Phantom results showed EVMUSE was able to quantify tissue elasticity accurately with good penetration. In vivo EVMUSE results were well correlated with MRE results, indicating the promise of using EVMUSE for liver fibrosis staging. PMID:25020066

  9. Specific Impulse and Mass Flow Rate Error

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, Don A.

    2005-01-01

    Specific impulse is defined in words in many ways. Very early in any text on rocket propulsion a phrase similar to .specific impulse is the thrust force per unit propellant weight flow per second. will be found.(2) It is only after seeing the mathematics written down does the definition mean something physically to scientists and engineers responsible for either measuring it or using someone.s value for it.

  10. Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamble, Reed

    1989-01-01

    Discusses pupil misconceptions concerning forces. Summarizes some of Assessment of Performance Unit's findings on meaning of (1) force, (2) force and motion in one dimension and two dimensions, and (3) Newton's second law. (YP)

  11. Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamble, Reed

    1989-01-01

    Discusses pupil misconceptions concerning forces. Summarizes some of Assessment of Performance Unit's findings on meaning of (1) force, (2) force and motion in one dimension and two dimensions, and (3) Newton's second law. (YP)

  12. Subzone based magnetic resonance elastography using a Rayleigh damped material model

    PubMed Central

    Van Houten, Elijah E.W.; Viviers, D. vR.; McGarry, M. D.J.; Perriñez, P. R.; Perreard, I. I.; Weaver, J. B.; Paulsen, K. D.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Recently, the attenuating behavior of soft tissue has been addressed in magnetic resonance elastography by the inclusion of a damping mechanism in the methods used to reconstruct the resulting mechanical property image. To date, this mechanism has been based on a viscoelastic model for material behavior. Rayleigh, or proportional, damping provides a more generalized model for elastic energy attenuation that uses two parameters to characterize contributions proportional to elastic and inertial forces. In the case of time-harmonic vibration, these two parameters lead to both the elastic modulus and the density being complex valued (as opposed to the case of pure viscoelasticity, where only the elastic modulus is complex valued). Methods: This article presents a description of Rayleigh damping in the time-harmonic case, discussing the differences between this model and the viscoelastic damping models. In addition, the results from a subzone based Rayleigh damped elastography study of gelatin and tofu phantoms are discussed, along with preliminary results from in vivo breast data. Results: Both the phantom and the tissue studies presented here indicate a change in the Rayleigh damping structure, described as Rayleigh composition, between different material types, with tofu and healthy tissue showing lower Rayleigh composition values than gelatin or cancerous tissue. Conclusions: It is possible that Rayleigh damping elastography and the concomitant Rayleigh composition images provide a mechanism for differentiating tissue structure in addition to measuring elastic stiffness and attenuation. Such information could be valuable in the use of Rayleigh damped magnetic resonance elastography as a diagnostic imaging tool. PMID:21626932

  13. American Gastroenterological Association Institute Technical Review on the Role of Elastography in Chronic Liver Diseases.

    PubMed

    Singh, Siddharth; Muir, Andrew J; Dieterich, Douglas T; Falck-Ytter, Yngve T

    2017-05-01

    Chronic liver diseases (CLDs), due to chronic hepatitis C; hepatitis B; nonalcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD); and alcoholic liver disease, are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality globally. Early identification of patients with cirrhosis at high risk of progression to liver-related complications may facilitate timely care and improve outcomes. With risks and misclassification associated with invasive tests, such as liver biopsy, noninvasive imaging modalities for liver fibrosis assessment have gained popularity. Therefore, the American Gastroenterological Association prioritized clinical guidelines on the role of elastography in CLDs, focusing on vibration-controlled transient elastography (VCTE) and magnetic resonance elastography (MRE). To inform these clinical guidelines, the current technical review was developed in accordance with the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) framework for diagnostic accuracy studies. This technical review addresses focused questions related to: (1) comparative diagnostic performance of VCTE and MRE relative to nonproprietary, serum-based fibrosis markers for detection of cirrhosis in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), NAFLD, and alcoholic liver diseases; (2) performance of specific VCTE-defined liver stiffness cutoffs as a test replacement strategy (to replace liver biopsy) in making key decisions in the management of patients with CLDs; and (3) performance of specific VCTE-defined liver stiffness cutoffs as a triage test to identify patients with low likelihood of harboring high-risk esophageal varices (EVs) or having clinically significant portal hypertension (for presurgical risk stratification). This technical review does not address performance of other noninvasive modalities for assessing fibrosis (eg, acoustic radiation force pulse imaging or shear wave elastography) or steatosis (controlled attenuation parameter or magnetic resonance imaging

  14. STRAIN ELASTOGRAPHY USING DOBUTAMINE-INDUCED CAROTID ARTERY PULSATION IN CANINE THYROID GLAND.

    PubMed

    Lee, Gahyun; Jeon, Sunghoon; Lee, Sang-Kwon; Kim, Hyunwoo; Yu, Dohyeon; Choi, Jihye

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid disease is common in dogs and conventional ultrasonography is a standard diagnostic test for diagnosis and treatment planning. Strain elastography can provide additional information about tissue stiffness noninvasively after applying external or internal compression. However, natural carotid artery pulsations in the canine thyroid gland are too weak to maintain sufficient internal compression force. The objective of the present study was to describe the feasibility of strain elastography for evaluating the canine thyroid gland and the repeatability of dobutamine-induced carotid artery pulsation as an internal compression method. In seven healthy Beagle dogs, strain on each thyroid lobe was induced by external compression using the ultrasound probe and internal compression using carotid artery pulsation after dobutamine infusion. The thyroid appeared homogeneously green and the subcutaneous fat superficial to the thyroid lobe appeared blue. Strain values and strain ratios did not differ among dogs or between the left and right lobes. Interobserver repeatability was excellent for both compression methods. Intraobserver repeatability of the strain ratio measured using the carotid artery pulsation method (intraclass coefficient correlation = 0.933) was higher than that measured using the external compression method (0.760). Mean strain values of thyroid lobes for the external compression method (142.93 ± 6.67) differed from the internal method (147.31 ± 8.24; P < 0.05). Strain ratios between the two methods did not differ. Strain elastography was feasible for estimating thyroid stiffness in dogs. Carotid artery pulsation induced by dobutamine infusion can be used for canine thyroid strain elastography with excellent repeatability. © 2015 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  15. Current status of musculoskeletal application of shear wave elastography

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Ultrasonography (US) is a very powerful diagnostic modality for the musculoskeletal system due to the ability to perform real-time dynamic high-resolution examinations with the Doppler technique. In addition to acquiring morphologic data, we can now obtain biomechanical information by quantifying the elasticity of the musculoskeletal structures with US elastography. The earlier diagnosis of degeneration and the ability to perform follow-up evaluations of healing and the effects of treatment are possible. US elastography enables a transition from US-based inspection to US-based palpation in order to diagnose the characteristics of tissue. Shear wave elastography is considered the most suitable type of US elastography for the musculoskeletal system. It is widely used for tendons, ligaments, and muscles. It is important to understand practice guidelines in order to enhance reproducibility. Incorporating viscoelasticity and overcoming inconsistencies among manufacturers are future tasks for improving the capabilities of US elastography. PMID:28292005

  16. Endoscopic Ultrasound Elastography: Current Clinical Use in Pancreas.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Utpal; Henkes, Nichole; Patel, Sandeep; Rosenkranz, Laura

    2016-08-01

    Elastography is a newer technique for the assessment of tissue elasticity using ultrasound. Cancerous tissue is known to be stiffer (hence, less elastic) than corresponding healthy tissue, and as a result, could be identified in an elasticity-based imaging. Ultrasound elastography has been used in the breast, thyroid, and cervix to differentiate malignant from benign neoplasms and to guide or avoid unnecessary biopsies. In the liver, elastography has enabled a noninvasive and reliable estimate of fibrosis. Endoscopic ultrasound has become a robust diagnostic and therapeutic tool for the management of pancreatic diseases. The addition of elastography to endoscopic ultrasound enabled further characterization of pancreas lesions, and several European and Asian studies have reported encouraging results. The current clinical role of endoscopic ultrasound elastography in the management of pancreas disorders and related literature are reviewed.

  17. Campground marketing - the impulse camper

    Treesearch

    Wilbur F. LaPage; Dale P. Ragain

    1972-01-01

    Impulse or unplanned campground visits may account for one-fourth to one-half of all camping activity. The concepts of impulse travel and impulse camping appear to be potentially useful extensions of the broader concept of impulse purchasing, which has become an important influence in retail marketing. Impulse campers may also be impulse buyers; they were found to...

  18. Magnetic resonance elastography for the noninvasive staging of liver fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Huwart, Laurent; Sempoux, Christine; Vicaut, Eric; Salameh, Najat; Annet, Laurence; Danse, Etienne; Peeters, Frank; ter Beek, Leon C; Rahier, Jacques; Sinkus, Ralph; Horsmans, Yves; Van Beers, Bernard E

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of our study was to prospectively compare the success rate and diagnostic accuracy of magnetic resonance elastography, ultrasound elastography, and aspartate aminotransferase to platelets ratio index (APRI) measurements for the noninvasive staging of fibrosis in patients with chronic liver disease. We performed a prospective blind comparison of magnetic resonance elastography, ultrasound elastography, and APRI in a consecutive series of patients who underwent liver biopsy for chronic liver disease in a university-based hospital. Histopathologic staging of liver fibrosis according to the METAVIR scoring system served as the reference. A total of 141 patients were assessed. The technical success rate of magnetic resonance elastography was higher than that of ultrasound elastography (133/141 [94%] vs 118/141 [84%]; P = .016). Magnetic and ultrasound elastography, APRI measurements, and histopathologic analysis of liver biopsy specimens were technically successful in 96 patients. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves of magnetic resonance elasticity (0.994 for F >or= 2; 0.985 for F >or= 3; 0.998 for F = 4) were larger (P < .05) than those of ultrasound elasticity, APRI, and the combination of ultrasound elasticity and APRI (0.837, 0.709, and 0.849 for F >or= 2; 0.906, 0.816, and 0.936 for F >or= 3; 0.930, 0.820, and 0.944 for F = 4, respectively). Magnetic resonance elastography has a higher technical success rate than ultrasound elastography and a better diagnostic accuracy than ultrasound elastography and APRI for staging liver fibrosis.

  19. [Affective disorders and impulsivity].

    PubMed

    Belzeaux, R; Correard, N; Mazzola-Pomietto, P; Adida, M; Cermolacce, M; Azorin, J-M

    2014-12-01

    Impulsivity is a complex and important phenomenon in mood disorders. Impulse control disorders, as defined in DSM, are more frequent in mood disorders especially in Bipolar Disorder type I, and are associated with a more severe course of illness. Dimensional studies demonstrate that impulsivity is a core manifestation of bipolar disorder both as state- and trait-dependent markers in patients. Comorbid substance use disorders are often associated with a higher level of impulsivity whereas the relation between suicidal behaviors and higher impulsivity remains uncertain. Moreover, neuropsychological tests were used to study correlation between clinical impulsivity and laboratory measurements of impulsivity. Level of correlation remains weak and several explanations are proposed in the literature. Copyright © 2014 L’Encéphale. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.. All rights reserved.

  20. Genetics of impulsive behaviour.

    PubMed

    Bevilacqua, Laura; Goldman, David

    2013-01-01

    Impulsivity, defined as the tendency to act without foresight, comprises a multitude of constructs and is associated with a variety of psychiatric disorders. Dissecting different aspects of impulsive behaviour and relating these to specific neurobiological circuits would improve our understanding of the etiology of complex behaviours for which impulsivity is key, and advance genetic studies in this behavioural domain. In this review, we will discuss the heritability of some impulsivity constructs and their possible use as endophenotypes (heritable, disease-associated intermediate phenotypes). Several functional genetic variants associated with impulsive behaviour have been identified by the candidate gene approach and re-sequencing, and whole genome strategies can be implemented for discovery of novel rare and common alleles influencing impulsivity. Via deep sequencing an uncommon HTR2B stop codon, common in one population, was discovered, with implications for understanding impulsive behaviour in both humans and rodents and for future gene discovery.

  1. Genetics of impulsive behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Bevilacqua, Laura; Goldman, David

    2013-01-01

    Impulsivity, defined as the tendency to act without foresight, comprises a multitude of constructs and is associated with a variety of psychiatric disorders. Dissecting different aspects of impulsive behaviour and relating these to specific neurobiological circuits would improve our understanding of the etiology of complex behaviours for which impulsivity is key, and advance genetic studies in this behavioural domain. In this review, we will discuss the heritability of some impulsivity constructs and their possible use as endophenotypes (heritable, disease-associated intermediate phenotypes). Several functional genetic variants associated with impulsive behaviour have been identified by the candidate gene approach and re-sequencing, and whole genome strategies can be implemented for discovery of novel rare and common alleles influencing impulsivity. Via deep sequencing an uncommon HTR2B stop codon, common in one population, was discovered, with implications for understanding impulsive behaviour in both humans and rodents and for future gene discovery. PMID:23440466

  2. Impulsive action: emotional impulses and their control

    PubMed Central

    Frijda, Nico H.; Ridderinkhof, K. Richard; Rietveld, Erik

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel theoretical view on impulsive action, integrating thus far separate perspectives on non-reflective action, motivation, emotion regulation, and impulse control. We frame impulsive action in terms of directedness of the individual organism toward, away, or against other givens – toward future states and away from one’s present state. First, appraisal of a perceived or thought-of event or object on occasion, rapidly and without premonition or conscious deliberation, triggers a motive to modify one’s relation to that event or object. Situational specifics of the event as perceived and appraised motivate and guide selection of readiness for a particular kind of purposive action. Second, perception of complex situations can give rise to multiple appraisals, multiple motives, and multiple simultaneous changes in action readiness. Multiple states of action readiness may interact in generating action, by reinforcing or attenuating each other, thereby yielding impulse control. We show how emotion control can itself result from a motive state or state of action readiness. Our view links impulsive action mechanistically to states of action readiness, which is the central feature of what distinguishes one kind of emotion from another. It thus provides a novel theoretical perspective to the somewhat fragmented literature on impulsive action. PMID:24917835

  3. Magnetic resonance elastography using an air ball-actuator.

    PubMed

    Numano, Tomokazu; Kawabata, Yoshihiko; Mizuhara, Kazuyuki; Washio, Toshikatsu; Nitta, Naotaka; Homma, Kazuhiro

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a new technique for a powerful compact MR elastography (MRE) actuator based on a pneumatic ball-vibrator. This is a compact actuator that generates powerful centrifugal force vibrations via high speed revolutions of an internal ball using compressed air. This equipment is easy to handle due to its simple principles and structure. Vibration frequency and centrifugal force are freely adjustable via air pressure changes (air flow volume), and replacement of the internal ball. In order to achieve MRI compatibility, all parts were constructed from non-ferromagnetic materials. Vibration amplitudes (displacements) were measured optically by a laser displacement sensor. From a bench test of displacement, even though the vibration frequency increased, the amount of displacement did not decrease. An essential step in MRE is the generation of mechanical waves within tissue via an actuator, and MRE sequences are synchronized to several phase offsets of vibration. In this system, the phase offset was detected by a four-channel optical-fiber sensor, and it was used as an MRI trigger signal. In an agarose gel phantom experiment, this actuator was used to make an MR elastogram. This study shows that the use of a ball actuator for MRE is feasible.

  4. Biomechanical properties of crystalline lens as a function of intraocular pressure assessed noninvasively by optical coherence elastography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chen; Aglyamov, Salavat R.; Liu, Chih-Hao; Han, Zhaolong; Singh, Manmohan; Larin, Kirill V.

    2017-02-01

    Many ocular diseases such as glaucoma and uveitis can lead to the elevation of intraocular pressure (IOP). Previous research implies a link between elevated IOP and lens disease. However, the relationship between IOP elevation and biomechanical properties of the crystalline lens has not been directly studied yet. In this work, we investigated the biomechanical properties of porcine lens as a function of IOP by acoustic radiation force optical coherence elastography.

  5. Contemporary use of elastography in liver fibrosis and portal hypertension.

    PubMed

    Thiele, Maja; Kjaergaard, Maria; Thielsen, Peter; Krag, Aleksander

    2015-10-13

    The risk and speed of progression from fibrosis to compensated and decompensated cirrhosis define the prognosis in liver diseases. Therefore, early detection and preventive strategies affect outcomes. Patients with liver disease have traditionally been diagnosed at an advanced stage of disease, in part due to lack of non-invasive markers. Ultrasound elastography to measure liver stiffness can potentially change this paradigm. The purpose of this review was therefore to summarize advances in the field of ultrasound elastography with focus on diagnosis of liver fibrosis, cirrhosis and clinically significant portal hypertension, techniques and limitations. Four types of ultrasound elastography exist, but there is scarce evidence comparing the different techniques. The majority of experience concern transient elastography for diagnosing fibrosis and cirrhosis in patients with chronic viral hepatitis C. That said, the role of elastography in other aetiologies such as alcoholic- and non-alcoholic liver fibrosis still needs clarification. Although elastography can be used to diagnose liver fibrosis and cirrhosis, its true potential lies in the possibility of multiple, repeated measurements that allow for treatment surveillance, continuous risk stratification and monitoring of complications. As such, elastography may be a powerful tool for personalized medicine. While elastography is an exciting technique, the nature of ultrasound imaging limits its applicability, due to the risk of failures and unreliable results. Key factors that limit the applicability of liver stiffness measurements are as follows: liver vein congestion, cholestasis, a recent meal, inflammation, obesity, observer experience and ascites. The coming years will show whether elastography will be widely adapted in general care.

  6. MR elastography of the liver: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Rouvière, Olivier; Yin, Meng; Dresner, M Alex; Rossman, Phillip J; Burgart, Lawrence J; Fidler, Jeff L; Ehman, Richard L

    2006-08-01

    To develop a method for measuring liver stiffness with magnetic resonance (MR) elastography and to prospectively test this technique in healthy volunteers and patients with liver fibrosis. This HIPAA-compliant study was approved by an institutional review board, and informed consent was obtained from each subject. First, to determine the feasibility of applying shear waves to the liver, a pneumatic acoustic wave generator was developed and tested by using a tissue-simulating gel phantom with ribs on one side and without ribs on the other. The effect of interposed ribs on stiffness measurements was tested. Then, liver stiffness was measured with MR elastography in 12 healthy volunteers (eight men, four women; mean age, 26.7 years; age range, 19-39 years) by using the subcostal approach and the transcostal approach and in 12 patients with chronic liver disease (six men, six women; mean age, 50.5 years; age range, 36-60 years) by using the transcostal approach. Various statistical analyses were performed to assess all measurements. Ex vivo, interposed ribs reduced shear wave amplitude but did not hinder stiffness measurements. In volunteers, the transcostal approach surprisingly yielded better shear waves in the liver than did the subcostal approach. The mean liver shear stiffness was significantly lower in volunteers (mean, 2.0 kPa +/- 0.3 [standard deviation]) than it was in patients with liver fibrosis (mean, 5.6 kPa +/- 5.0; median, 3.7 kPa; range, 2.7-19.2 kPa; P < .001). MR elastography of the liver is feasible and shows promise as a quantitative method for noninvasive assessment of liver fibrosis. RSNA, 2006

  7. Multiresolution MR elastography using nonlinear inversion

    PubMed Central

    McGarry, M. D. J.; Van Houten, E. E. W.; Johnson, C. L.; Georgiadis, J. G.; Sutton, B. P.; Weaver, J. B.; Paulsen, K. D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Nonlinear inversion (NLI) in MR elastography requires discretization of the displacement field for a finite element (FE) solution of the “forward problem”, and discretization of the unknown mechanical property field for the iterative solution of the “inverse problem”. The resolution requirements for these two discretizations are different: the forward problem requires sufficient resolution of the displacement FE mesh to ensure convergence, whereas lowering the mechanical property resolution in the inverse problem stabilizes the mechanical property estimates in the presence of measurement noise. Previous NLI implementations use the same FE mesh to support the displacement and property fields, requiring a trade-off between the competing resolution requirements. Methods: This work implements and evaluates multiresolution FE meshes for NLI elastography, allowing independent discretizations of the displacements and each mechanical property parameter to be estimated. The displacement resolution can then be selected to ensure mesh convergence, and the resolution of the property meshes can be independently manipulated to control the stability of the inversion. Results: Phantom experiments indicate that eight nodes per wavelength (NPW) are sufficient for accurate mechanical property recovery, whereas mechanical property estimation from 50 Hz in vivo brain data stabilizes once the displacement resolution reaches 1.7 mm (approximately 19 NPW). Viscoelastic mechanical property estimates of in vivo brain tissue show that subsampling the loss modulus while holding the storage modulus resolution constant does not substantially alter the storage modulus images. Controlling the ratio of the number of measurements to unknown mechanical properties by subsampling the mechanical property distributions (relative to the data resolution) improves the repeatability of the property estimates, at a cost of modestly decreased spatial resolution. Conclusions: Multiresolution

  8. Passive in vivo elastography from skeletal muscle noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabra, Karim G.; Conti, Stephane; Roux, Philippe; Kuperman, W. A.

    2007-05-01

    Measuring the in vivo elastic properties of muscles (e.g., stiffness) provides a means for diagnosing and monitoring muscular activity. The authors demonstrated a passive in vivo elastography technique without an active external radiation source. This technique instead uses cross correlations of contracting skeletal muscle noise recorded with skin-mounted sensors. Each passive sensor becomes a virtual in vivo shear wave source. The results point to a low-cost, noninvasive technique for monitoring biomechanical in vivo muscle properties. The efficacy of the passive elastography technique originates from the high density of cross paths between all sensor pairs, potentially achieving the same sensitivity obtained from active elastography methods.

  9. [Breast elastography--new diagnostic quality or technologic bubble].

    PubMed

    Rzymski, Paweł; Wilczak, Maciej; Opala, Tomasz

    2014-09-17

    Breast elastography consist of static and dynamic method. The paper deals with morphologic characterization of breast lesions and typical symptoms like: mass ventralisation, size change, switch-off sign and posterior boundary imaging. The recent studies of dynamic elastography implementation into breast cancer screening are presented. In the shear wave elastography red colour, irregular shape or maximum stiffnes above 160kPa the upgrade from BIRADS 3 to 4a should be made. If the lesion is homogenous, blue and with stiffness < 80kPa them safe downgrade to BIRADS 3 could be considered.

  10. Passive in vivo elastography from skeletal muscle noise

    SciTech Connect

    Sabra, Karim G.; Conti, Stephane; Roux, Philippe; Kuperman, W. A.

    2007-05-07

    Measuring the in vivo elastic properties of muscles (e.g., stiffness) provides a means for diagnosing and monitoring muscular activity. The authors demonstrated a passive in vivo elastography technique without an active external radiation source. This technique instead uses cross correlations of contracting skeletal muscle noise recorded with skin-mounted sensors. Each passive sensor becomes a virtual in vivo shear wave source. The results point to a low-cost, noninvasive technique for monitoring biomechanical in vivo muscle properties. The efficacy of the passive elastography technique originates from the high density of cross paths between all sensor pairs, potentially achieving the same sensitivity obtained from active elastography methods.

  11. The Latent Structure of Impulsivity: Impulsive Choice, Impulsive Action, and Impulsive Personality Traits

    PubMed Central

    MacKillop, James; Weafer, Jessica; Gray, Joshua; Oshri, Assaf; Palmer, Abraham; de Wit, Harriet

    2016-01-01

    Rationale Impulsivity has been strongly linked to addictive behaviors, but can be operationalized in a number of ways that vary considerably in overlap, suggesting multidimensionality. Objective This study tested the hypothesis that the latent structure among multiple measures of impulsivity would reflect three broad categories: impulsive choice, reflecting discounting of delayed rewards; impulsive action, reflecting ability to inhibit a prepotent motor response; and impulsive personality traits, reflecting self-reported attributions of self-regulatory capacity. Methods The study used a cross-sectional confirmatory factor analysis of multiple impulsivity assessments. Participants were 1252 young adults (62% female) with low levels of addictive behavior who were assessed in individual laboratory rooms at the University of Chicago and the University of Georgia. The battery comprised a delay discounting task, Monetary Choice Questionnaire, Conners Continuous Performance Test, Go/NoGo Task, Stop Signal Task, Barratt Impulsivity Scale, and the UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale. Results The hypothesized three-factor model provided the best fit to the data, although Sensation Seeking was excluded from the final model. The three latent factors were largely unrelated to each other and were variably associated with substance use. Conclusions These findings support the hypothesis that diverse measures of impulsivity can broadly be organized into three categories that are largely distinct from one another. These findings warrant investigation among individuals with clinical levels of addictive behavior and may be applied to understanding the underlying biological mechanisms of these categories. PMID:27449350

  12. Nerve Impulses in Plants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blatt, F. J.

    1974-01-01

    Summarizes research done on the resting and action potential of nerve impulses, electrical excitation of nerve cells, electrical properties of Nitella, and temperature effects on action potential. (GS)

  13. Nerve Impulses in Plants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blatt, F. J.

    1974-01-01

    Summarizes research done on the resting and action potential of nerve impulses, electrical excitation of nerve cells, electrical properties of Nitella, and temperature effects on action potential. (GS)

  14. Resolution of axial shear strain elastography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thitaikumar, Arun; Righetti, Raffaella; Krouskop, Thomas A.; Ophir, Jonathan

    2006-10-01

    The technique of mapping the local axial component of the shear strain due to quasi-static axial compression is defined as axial shear strain elastography. In this paper, the spatial resolution of axial shear strain elastography is investigated through simulations, using an elastically stiff cylindrical lesion embedded in a homogeneously softer background. Resolution was defined as the smallest size of the inclusion for which the strain value at the inclusion/background interface was greater than the average of the axial shear strain values at the interface and inside the inclusion. The resolution was measured from the axial shear strain profile oriented at 45° to the axis of beam propagation, due to the absence of axial shear strain along the normal directions. The effects of the ultrasound system parameters such as bandwidth, beamwidth and transducer element pitch along with signal processing parameters such as correlation window length (W) and axial shift (ΔW) on the estimated resolution were investigated. The results show that the resolution (at 45° orientation) is determined by the bandwidth and the beamwidth. However, the upper bound on the resolution is limited by the larger of the beamwidth and the window length, which is scaled inversely to the bandwidth. The results also show that the resolution is proportional to the pitch and not significantly affected by the axial window shift.

  15. Tissue mimicking materials for the detection of prostate cancer using shear wave elastography: a validation study.

    PubMed

    Cao, Rui; Huang, Zhihong; Varghese, Tomy; Nabi, Ghulam

    2013-02-01

    Quantification of stiffness changes may provide important diagnostic information and aid in the early detection of cancers. Shear wave elastography is an imaging technique that assesses tissue stiffness using acoustic radiation force as an alternate to manual palpation reported previously with quasistatic elastography. In this study, the elastic properties of tissue mimicking materials, including agar, polyacrylamide (PAA), and silicone, are evaluated with an objective to determine material characteristics which resemble normal and cancerous prostate tissue. Acoustic properties and stiffness of tissue mimicking phantoms were measured using compressional mechanical testing and shear wave elastography using supersonic shear imaging. The latter is based on the principles of shear waves generated using acoustic radiation force. The evaluation included tissue mimicking materials (TMMs) within the prostate at different positions and sizes that could mimic cancerous and normal prostate tissue. Patient data on normal and prostate cancer tissues quantified using biopsy histopathology were used to validate the findings. Pathologist reports on histopathology were blinded to mechanical testing and elastographic findings. Young's modulus values of 86.2 ± 4.5 and 271.5 ± 25.7 kPa were obtained for PAA mixed with 2% Al(2)O(3) particles and silicone, respectively. Young's modulus of TMMs from mechanical compression testing showed a clear trend of increasing stiffness with an increasing percentage of agar. The silicone material had higher stiffness values when compared with PAA with Al(2)O(3). The mean Young's modulus value in cancerous tissue was 90.5 ± 4.5 kPa as compared to 93.8 ± 4.4 and 86.2 ± 4.5 kPa obtained with PAA with 2% Al(2)O(3) phantom at a depth of 52.4 and 36.6 mm, respectively. PAA mixed with Al(2)O(3) provides the most suitable tissue mimicking material for prostate cancer tumor material, while agar could form the surrounding background to simulate normal

  16. Impulsivity and Academic Cheating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderman, Eric M.; Cupp, Pamela K.; Lane, Derek

    2009-01-01

    The authors examined the relations between academic cheating and impulsivity in a large sample of adolescents enrolled in high school health education classes. Results indicated that impulsivity predicts academic cheating for students who report extensive involvement in cheating. However, students who engage in extensive cheating are less likely…

  17. Rethinking Impulsivity in Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klonsky, E. David; May, Alexis

    2010-01-01

    Elevated impulsivity is thought to facilitate the transition from suicidal thoughts to suicidal behavior. Therefore, impulsivity should distinguish those who have attempted suicide (attempters) from those who have only considered suicide (ideators-only). This hypothesis was examined in three large nonclinical samples: (1) 2,011 military recruits,…

  18. Rethinking Impulsivity in Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klonsky, E. David; May, Alexis

    2010-01-01

    Elevated impulsivity is thought to facilitate the transition from suicidal thoughts to suicidal behavior. Therefore, impulsivity should distinguish those who have attempted suicide (attempters) from those who have only considered suicide (ideators-only). This hypothesis was examined in three large nonclinical samples: (1) 2,011 military recruits,…

  19. Dealing with Impulsivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neidhardt, Janet

    1987-01-01

    A mother recounts her neurologically impaired son's struggles and progress in combating impulsivity in his work and social habits. Now 23 years old, employed full-time, and off medication, the son is still impulsive, has problems with social skills, but has improved his self-image through a photography hobby. (CB)

  20. Imaging feedback of histotripsy treatments using ultrasound shear wave elastography.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tzu-Yin; Hall, Timothy L; Xu, Zhen; Fowlkes, J Brian; Cain, Charles A

    2012-06-01

    Histotripsy is a cavitation-based ultrasound therapy that mechanically fractionates soft solid tissues into fluid-like homogenates. This paper investigates the feasibility of imaging the tissue elasticity change during the histotripsy process as a tool to provide feedback for the treatments. The treatments were performed on agar tissue phantoms and ex vivo kidneys using 3-cycle ultrasound pulses delivered by a 750-kHz therapeutic array at peak negative/positive pressure of 17/108 MPa and a repetition rate of 50 Hz. Lesions with different degrees of damage were created with increasing numbers of therapy pulses from 0 to 2000 pulses per treatment location. The elasticity of the lesions was measured with ultrasound shear wave elastography, in which a quasi-planar shear wave was induced by acoustic radiation force generated by the therapeutic array, and tracked with ultrasound imaging at 3000 frames per second. Based on the shear wave velocity calculated from the sequentially captured frames, the Young's modulus was reconstructed. Results showed that the lesions were more easily identified on the shear wave velocity images than on B-mode images. As the number of therapy pulses increased from 0 to 2000 pulses/location, the Young's modulus decreased exponentially from 22.1 ± 2.7 to 2.1 ± 1.1 kPa in the tissue phantoms (R2 = 0.99, N = 9 each), and from 33.0 ± 7.1 to 4.0 ± 2.5 kPa in the ex vivo kidneys (R2 = 0.99, N = 8 each). Correspondingly, the tissues transformed from completely intact to completely fractionated as examined via histology. A good correlation existed between the lesions' Young's modulus and the degree of tissue fractionation as examined with the percentage of remaining structurally intact cell nuclei (R2 = 0.91, N = 8 each). These results indicate that lesions produced by histotripsy can be detected with high sensitivity using shear wave elastography. Because the decrease in the tissue elasticity corresponded well with the morphological and

  1. Shear-Wave Elastography: Basic Physics and Musculoskeletal Applications.

    PubMed

    Taljanovic, Mihra S; Gimber, Lana H; Becker, Giles W; Latt, L Daniel; Klauser, Andrea S; Melville, David M; Gao, Liang; Witte, Russell S

    2017-01-01

    In the past 2 decades, sonoelastography has been progressively used as a tool to help evaluate soft-tissue elasticity and add to information obtained with conventional gray-scale and Doppler ultrasonographic techniques. Recently introduced on clinical scanners, shear-wave elastography (SWE) is considered to be more objective, quantitative, and reproducible than compression sonoelastography with increasing applications to the musculoskeletal system. SWE uses an acoustic radiation force pulse sequence to generate shear waves, which propagate perpendicular to the ultrasound beam, causing transient displacements. The distribution of shear-wave velocities at each pixel is directly related to the shear modulus, an absolute measure of the tissue's elastic properties. Shear-wave images are automatically coregistered with standard B-mode images to provide quantitative color elastograms with anatomic specificity. Shear waves propagate faster through stiffer contracted tissue, as well as along the long axis of tendon and muscle. SWE has a promising role in determining the severity of disease and treatment follow-up of various musculoskeletal tissues including tendons, muscles, nerves, and ligaments. This article describes the basic ultrasound physics of SWE and its applications in the evaluation of various traumatic and pathologic conditions of the musculoskeletal system. (©)RSNA, 2017.

  2. Demonstration of concurrent tensile testing and magnetic resonance elastography.

    PubMed

    Brinker, Spencer; Klatt, Dieter

    2016-10-01

    Magnetic Resonance Elastography (MRE) is a technique used to measure the mechanical properties of soft tissues and has already shown its diagnostic potential for pathologies involving fibrogenesis and neurodegeneration. Experimental investigation of loading during MRE is fairly unexplored and may help to better understand changing mechanical properties in relation to organ function. Tensile testing is a common technique for examining mechanical properties of materials and is used as the simultaneous comparison method with MRE in this study. 3D MRE data was acquired during quasistatic uniaxial tensile loading of an Ecoflex 0010 cylindrical specimen. Individual MRE scans at 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5kHz where performed on engineering strain increments of 20% from 0% to 140% while tensile reaction force was recorded using a load cell attached to an adjustable elongation slide. Tensile stress-strain relation resembled the Fung hyperelastic strain energy model. We observe that the MRE shear storage modulus is related to the state of tensile deformation. This study demonstrates the feasibility of simultaneous tensile testing during MRE and the new design can potentially be used for MRE calibration using pre-tension.

  3. AN OVERVIEW OF ELASTOGRAPHY - AN EMERGING BRANCH OF MEDICAL IMAGING.

    PubMed

    Sarvazyan, Armen; Hall, Timothy J; Urban, Matthew W; Fatemi, Mostafa; Aglyamov, Salavat R; Garra, Brian S

    2011-11-01

    From times immemorial manual palpation served as a source of information on the state of soft tissues and allowed detection of various diseases accompanied by changes in tissue elasticity. During the last two decades, the ancient art of palpation gained new life due to numerous emerging elasticity imaging (EI) methods. Areas of applications of EI in medical diagnostics and treatment monitoring are steadily expanding. Elasticity imaging methods are emerging as commercial applications, a true testament to the progress and importance of the field.In this paper we present a brief history and theoretical basis of EI, describe various techniques of EI and, analyze their advantages and limitations, and overview main clinical applications. We present a classification of elasticity measurement and imaging techniques based on the methods used for generating a stress in the tissue (external mechanical force, internal ultrasound radiation force, or an internal endogenous force), and measurement of the tissue response. The measurement method can be performed using differing physical principles including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ultrasound imaging, X-ray imaging, optical and acoustic signals.Until recently, EI was largely a research method used by a few select institutions having the special equipment needed to perform the studies. Since 2005 however, increasing numbers of mainstream manufacturers have added EI to their ultrasound systems so that today the majority of manufacturers offer some sort of Elastography or tissue stiffness imaging on their clinical systems. Now it is safe to say that some sort of elasticity imaging may be performed on virtually all types of focal and diffuse disease. Most of the new applications are still in the early stages of research, but a few are becoming common applications in clinical practice.

  4. Ultrasound elastography of the prostate: state of the art.

    PubMed

    Correas, J-M; Tissier, A-M; Khairoune, A; Khoury, G; Eiss, D; Hélénon, O

    2013-05-01

    Prostate cancer is the cancer exhibiting the highest incidence rate and it appears as the second cause of cancer death in men, after lung cancer. Prostate cancer is difficult to detect, and the treatment efficacy remains limited despite the increase use of biological tests (prostate-specific antigen [PSA] dosage), the development of new imaging modalities, and the use of invasive procedures such as biopsy. Ultrasound elastography is a novel imaging technique capable of mapping tissue stiffness of the prostate. It is known that prostatic cancer tissue is often harder than healthy tissue (information used by digital rectal examination [DRE]). Two elastography techniques have been developed based on different principles: first, quasi-static (or strain) technique, and second, shear wave technique. The tissue stiffness information provided by US elastography should improve the detection of prostate cancer and provide guidance for biopsy. Prostate elastography provides high sensitivity for detecting prostate cancer and shows high negative predictive values, ensuring that few cancers will be missed. US elastography should become an additional method of imaging the prostate, complementing the conventional transrectal ultrasound and MRI. This technique requires significant training (especially for quasi-static elastography) to become familiar with acquisition process, acquisition technique, characteristics and limitations, and to achieve correct diagnoses. Copyright © 2013 Éditions françaises de radiologie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Quantifying viscoelasticity of gelatin phantoms by measuring impulse response using compact optical sensors.

    PubMed

    Qiang, Bo; Greenleaf, James; Zhang, Xiaoming

    2010-07-01

    Tissue elastography measures tissue mechanical properties, which contain important physiological information and help medical diagnosis. Instead of tracking shear wave propagation inside tissue as do magnetic resonance elastography and ultrasound based techniques, this study focuses on monitoring the propagation of surface Raleigh waves stimulated by short impulses. The method is noncontact, noninvasive, and low cost and has a potential for clinical applications. A customized device designed to measure surface wave propagation is constructed based on a laser displacement sensor (LDS). Experiments are carried out on two porcine skin gelatin phantoms of different concentrations. For each phantom, the phase velocities of specific frequencies are extracted using a cross-spectrum method and then the material elasticity and viscosity are found by fitting the phase velocities with the Voigt's model. The results suggest that measuring viscoelasticity by monitoring the response to a surface impulse is an efficient method because of the richness of frequency content of impulse responses. The results are validated with a standard continuous wave (CW) method.

  6. Evaluating Eve: visceral states influence the evaluation of impulsive behavior.

    PubMed

    Nordgren, Loran F; van der Pligt, Joop; van Harreveld, Frenk

    2007-07-01

    Impulsive behavior is a common source of stigma. The authors argue that people often stigmatize impulsive behavior because they fail to appreciate the influence visceral impulses have on behavior. Because people tend to underestimate the motivational force of cravings for sex, drugs, food, and so forth, they are prone to stigmatize those who act on these impulses. In line with this reasoning, in 4 studies, the authors found that participants who were in a cold state (e.g., not hungry) made less favorable evaluations of a related impulsive behavior (impulsive eating) than did participants who were in a hot state (e.g., hungry). This empathy gap effect was tested with 3 different visceral states--fatigue, hunger, and sexual arousal--and was found both when participants evaluated others' impulsive behavior (Studies 1 & 2) and when participants evaluated their own impulsive behavior (Study 3). Study 3 also demonstrated that the empathy gap effect is due to different perceptions of the strength of the visceral state itself. Finally, Study 4 revealed that this effect is state specific: Hungry people, for example, evaluated only hunger-driven impulses, and not other forms of impulse, more favorably.

  7. Ultrahigh resolution optical coherence elastography combined with a rigid micro-endoscope (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Qi; Curatolo, Andrea; Wijesinghe, Philip; Hamzah, Juliana; Ganss, Ruth; Noble, Peter B.; Karnowski, Karol; Sampson, David D.; Kim, Jun Ki; Lee, Wei M.; Kennedy, Brendan F.

    2017-02-01

    The mechanical forces that living cells experience represent an important framework in the determination of a range of intricate cellular functions and processes. Current insight into cell mechanics is typically provided by in vitro measurement systems; for example, atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements are performed on cells in culture or, at best, on freshly excised tissue. Optical techniques, such as Brillouin microscopy and optical elastography, have been used for ex vivo and in situ imaging, recently achieving cellular-scale resolution. The utility of these techniques in cell mechanics lies in quick, three-dimensional and label-free mechanical imaging. Translation of these techniques toward minimally invasive in vivo imaging would provide unprecedented capabilities in tissue characterization. Here, we take the first steps along this path by incorporating a gradient-index micro-endoscope into an ultrahigh resolution optical elastography system. Using this endoscope, a lateral resolution of 2 µm is preserved over an extended depth-of-field of 80 µm, achieved by Bessel beam illumination. We demonstrate this combined system by imaging stiffness of a silicone phantom containing stiff inclusions and a freshly excised murine liver tissue. Additionally, we test this system on murine ribs in situ. We show that our approach can provide high quality extended depth-of-field images through an endoscope and has the potential to measure cell mechanics deep in tissue. Eventually, we believe this tool will be capable of studying biological processes and disease progression in vivo.

  8. Fractionating impulsivity: neuropsychiatric implications.

    PubMed

    Dalley, Jeffrey W; Robbins, Trevor W

    2017-02-17

    The ability to make decisions and act quickly without hesitation can be advantageous in many settings. However, when persistently expressed, impulsive decisions and actions are considered risky, maladaptive and symptomatic of such diverse brain disorders as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, drug addiction and affective disorders. Over the past decade, rapid progress has been made in the identification of discrete neural networks that underlie different forms of impulsivity - from impaired response inhibition and risky decision making to a profound intolerance of delayed rewards. Herein, we review what is currently known about the neural and psychological mechanisms of impulsivity, and discuss the relevance and application of these new insights to various neuropsychiatric disorders.

  9. Elastography: A New Ultrasound and MRI Procedure

    SciTech Connect

    Pavan, Theo Z.; Vieira, Silvio L.; Carneiro, Antonio A. O.

    2008-08-11

    Elastography is an imaging technique whereby local tissue strains are estimated from small displacements of internal tissue structure. These displacements are generated from a weak, quasi-static or dynamic stress field. Displacement evaluation through ultrasound is based on time delay estimation between speckle patterns of echo maps acquired for different levels of tissue deformation. A classical model of deformation is applying a quasi-static compression on a sample during echoes acquisition. The elastogram map corresponds to the spatial derivation of the displacement map. By magnetic resonance, the displacement is evaluated from a map of phase acquired using a sequence gradient echo synchronized with a mechanical end sinusoidal excitation. The map of shear elastic modulus is obtained from the phase map.

  10. Elastography: A New Ultrasound and MRI Procedure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavan, Theo Z.; Vieira, Sílvio L.; Carneiro, Antônio. A. O.

    2008-08-01

    Elastography is an imaging technique whereby local tissue strains are estimated from small displacements of internal tissue structure. These displacements are generated from a weak, quasi-static or dynamic stress field. Displacement evaluation through ultrasound is based on time delay estimation between speckle patterns of echo maps acquired for different levels of tissue deformation. A classical model of deformation is applying a quasi-static compression on a sample during echoes acquisition. The elastogram map corresponds to the spatial derivation of the displacement map. By magnetic resonance, the displacement is evaluated from a map of phase acquired using a sequence gradient echo synchronized with a mechanical end sinusoidal excitation. The map of shear elastic modulus is obtained from the phase map.

  11. Overhauser-enhanced magnetic resonance elastography.

    PubMed

    Salameh, Najat; Sarracanie, Mathieu; Armstrong, Brandon D; Rosen, Matthew S; Comment, Arnaud

    2016-05-01

    Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) is a powerful technique to assess the mechanical properties of living tissue. However, it suffers from reduced sensitivity in regions with short T2 and T2 * such as in tissue with high concentrations of paramagnetic iron, or in regions surrounding implanted devices. In this work, we exploit the longer T2 * attainable at ultra-low magnetic fields in combination with Overhauser dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) to enable rapid MRE at 0.0065 T. A 3D balanced steady-state free precession based MRE sequence with undersampling and fractional encoding was implemented on a 0.0065 T MRI scanner. A custom-built RF coil for DNP and a programmable vibration system for elastography were developed. Displacement fields and stiffness maps were reconstructed from data recorded in a polyvinyl alcohol gel phantom loaded with stable nitroxide radicals. A DNP enhancement of 25 was achieved during the MRE sequence, allowing the acquisition of 3D Overhauser-enhanced MRE (OMRE) images with (1.5 × 2.7 × 9) mm(3) resolution over eight temporal steps and 11 slices in 6 minutes. In conclusion, OMRE at ultra-low magnetic field can be used to detect mechanical waves over short acquisition times. This new modality shows promise to broaden the scope of conventional MRE applications, and may extend the utility of low-cost, portable MRI systems to detect elasticity changes in patients with implanted devices or iron overload. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. MR elastography of breast cancer: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    McKnight, Alexia L; Kugel, Jennifer L; Rossman, Phillip J; Manduca, Armando; Hartmann, Lynn C; Ehman, Richard L

    2002-06-01

    Motivated by the long-recognized value of palpation in detecting breast cancer, we tested the feasibility of a technique for quantitatively evaluating the mechanical properties of breast tissues on the basis of direct MR imaging visualization of acoustic waves. The prototypic elasticity imaging technique consists of a device for generating acoustic shear waves in tissue, an MR imaging-based method for imaging the propagation of these waves, and an algorithm for processing the wave images to generate quantitative images depicting tissue stiffness. After tests with tissue-simulating phantom materials and breast cancer specimens, we used the prototypic breast MR elastography technique to image six healthy women and six patients with known breast cancer. Acoustic shear waves were clearly visualized in phantoms, breast cancer specimens, healthy volunteers, and patients with breast cancer. The elastograms of the tumor specimens showed focal areas of high shear stiffness. MR elastograms of healthy volunteers revealed moderately heterogeneous mechanical properties, with the shear stiffness of fibroglandular tissue measuring slightly higher than that of adipose tissue. The elastograms of patients with breast cancer showed focal areas of high shear stiffness corresponding to the locations of the known tumors. The mean shear stiffness of breast carcinoma was 418% higher than the mean value of surrounding breast tissues. The results confirm the hypothesis that the prototypic breast MR elastographic technique can quantitatively depict the elastic properties of breast tissues in vivo and reveal high shear elasticity in known breast tumors. Further research is needed to evaluate the potential applications of MR elastography, such as detecting breast carcinoma and characterizing suspicious breast lesions.

  13. Tendon motion and strain patterns evaluated with two-dimensional ultrasound elastography

    PubMed Central

    Chernak, Laura A.; Thelen, Darryl G.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of 2D ultrasound elastography to assess tendon tissue motion and strains under axial loading conditions. Four porcine flexor tendons were cyclically loaded to 4% peak strain using a servo hydraulic test system. An ultrasound transducer was positioned to image a longitudinal cross-section of the tendon during loading. Ultrasound radiofrequency (RF) data were collected at 63 frames per second simultaneously with applied force and crosshead displacement. A grid of nodes was manually positioned on an ultrasound image of the unloaded tendon. Small kernels (2 × 1 mm) centered at each node were then cross-correlated with search regions centered at corresponding nodal locations in the subsequent frame. Frame-to-frame nodal displacements were defined as the values that maximized the normalized cross-correlations. This process was repeated across all frames in the loading cycle, providing a measurement of the 2D trajectories of tissue motion through out the loading cycle. The high resolution displacement measures along the RF beam direction were spatially differentiated to estimate the transverse (relative to tend on fibers) tissue strains. The nodal displacements obtained using this method were very repeatable, with average along-fiber trajectories that were highly correlated (r2>0.98) with the prescribed crosshead displacements. The elastography transverse strains were also repeatable and were consistent with average transverse strains estimated via changes in tendon width. The apparent Poisson’s ratios (0.82-1.64) exceeded the incompressibility limit, but are comparable to values found for tendon in prior experimental and computational studies. The results demonstrate that 2D ultrasound elastography is a promising approach for noninvasively assessing localized tissue motion and strain patterns. PMID:22939179

  14. Impulsivity and methamphetamine use.

    PubMed

    Semple, Shirley J; Zians, Jim; Grant, Igor; Patterson, Thomas L

    2005-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between methamphetamine (meth) use and impulsivity in a sample of 385 HIV-negative heterosexually identified meth users. Participants who scored highest on a self-report measure of impulsivity were compared with those who scored lower in terms of background characteristics, meth use patterns, use of alcohol and other illicit drugs, sexual risk behavior, and psychiatric health variables. Methamphetamine users in the high impulsivity group were younger, less educated, used larger quantities of meth, were more likely to be binge users, had a larger number of sexual partners, engaged in more unprotected vaginal and oral sex, and scored higher on the Beck Depression Inventory as compared with those in the low impulsivity group. In a logistic regression analysis, Beck depression was the factor that best distinguished between meth users who scored high and those who scored low on impulsivity. Neurophysiological pathways that may underlie the relationship between impulsivity and meth use are discussed.

  15. The role of real-time elastography in the evaluation of post chemotherapy hepatotoxicity in children with cancer.

    PubMed

    Mărginean, Cristina Oana; Baghiu, Maria Despina; Branzaniuc, Klara; Chinceşan, Mihaela; Adrienne, Horvath; Buzoianu, Anca; Mărginean, C

    2011-01-01

    The drugs hepatotoxicity represents a major problem of the iatrogenic pathology, with various manifestations, directly through the hepatotoxic effect or through idiosycrasy reactions. The hepatic affection induced by chemotherapy appears in children in cases of prolonged therapy, chronic diseases, or other associated conditions. Hepatotoxicity clinically develops through hepatic disorder, cholestatic or mixed hepato-cholestatic manifestations and systematic affection. There are no specific hystological or biochemical characteristics for diagnostic of hepatotoxicity. The international criteria for asessing the hepatotoxicity includes the bilirubin, the transaminasis, GGT, FA, albumin and the flow on the vein. It has been noticed that these parameters are not enough for the right assesssment of the chemotherapics' hepatotoxicity. Thus it is required the abdominal ultrasonography and computerised tomography for the identification of billiary tract, vascularisation, associated conditions and the degree of fibrosis; also, the hepatic biopsy may be necessary. The ultrasound elastography is a method which can give information related to the elasticity/stiffness of the examined tissue and degree of fibrosis. Acustic radiation force imaging(ARFI) is an elastographic method which allows valid, accurate and flexible evaluation of liver stiffness, a quantification with a strong correlation with the fibrosis stage, not influenced by steatosis. In conclusion, the hepatic toxicity showed by alterated hepatic biochemical tests and by symptomes of hepatopathy needs a proper appreciation of the hepatic modifications, which can be obtained through hepatic biopsy or by assessing the hepatic elasticity through elastography. Thus, real-time elastography is an useful tool in assessing the chemotherapics hepatotoxicity in children with cancer.

  16. Angular Impulse and Balance Regulation During the Golf Swing.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Travis J; Wilcox, Rand R; McNitt-Gray, Jill L

    2016-08-01

    Our aim was to determine how skilled players regulate linear and angular impulse while maintaining balance during the golf swing. Eleven highly-skilled golf players performed swings with a 6-iron and driver. Components contributing to linear and angular impulse generated by the rear and target legs (resultant horizontal reaction force [RFh], RFh-angle, and moment arm) were quantified and compared across the group and within a player (α = .05). Net angular impulse generated by both the rear and target legs was greater for the driver than the 6-iron. Mechanisms used to regulate angular impulse generation between clubs varied across players and required coordination between the legs. Increases in net angular impulse with a driver involved increases in target leg RFh. Rear leg RFh-angle was maintained between clubs whereas target leg RFh became more aligned with the target line. Net linear impulse perpendicular to the target line remained near zero, preserving balance, while net linear impulse along the target line decreased in magnitude. These results indicate that the net angular impulse was regulated between clubs by coordinating force generation of the rear and target legs while sustaining balance throughout the task.

  17. What we need to know when performing and interpreting US elastography.

    PubMed

    Park, So Hyun; Kim, So Yeon; Suh, Chong Hyun; Lee, Seung Soo; Kim, Kyoung Won; Lee, So Jung; Lee, Moon-Gyu

    2016-09-01

    According to the increasing need for accurate staging of hepatic fibrosis, the ultrasound (US) elastography techniques have evolved significantly over the past two decades. Currently, US elastography is increasingly used in clinical practice. Previously published studies have demonstrated the excellent diagnostic performance of US elastography for the detection and staging of liver fibrosis. Although US elastography may seem easy to perform and interpret, there are many technical and clinical factors which can affect the results of US elastography. Therefore, clinicians who are involved with US elastography should be aware of these factors. The purpose of this article is to present a brief overview of US techniques with the relevant technology, the clinical indications, diagnostic performance, and technical and biological factors which should be considered in order to avoid misinterpretation of US elastography results.

  18. Imaging the mechanical stiffness of skin lesions by in vivo acousto-optical elastography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkpatrick, Sean J.; Wang, Ruikang K.; Duncan, Donald D.; Kulesz-Martin, Molly; Lee, Ken

    2006-10-01

    Optical elastography is an imaging modality that relies on variations in the local mechanical properties of biological tissues as the contrast mechanism for image formation. Skin lesions, such as melanomas and other invasive conditions, are known to alter the arrangement of collagen fibers in the skin and thus should lead to alterations in local skin mechanical properties. We report on an acousto-optical elastography (AOE) imaging modality for quantifying the mechanical behavior of skin lesions. The method relies upon stimulating the tissue with a low frequency acoustic force and imaging the resulting strains in the tissue by means of quantifying the magnitude of the dynamic shift in a back-reflected laser speckle pattern from the skin. The magnitude of the shift reflects the local stiffness of the tissue. We demonstrate AOE on a tissue-mimicking phantom, an in vivo mouse melanoma lesion and two types of in vivo human melanocytic nevi. The skin lesions we examined were found to have distinct mechanical properties that appear to correlate with the varying degrees of dermal involvement of the lesions.

  19. Usefulness of strain elastography of the musculoskeletal system

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasound elastography is a widely used technique for assessing the mechanical characteristics of tissues. Although there are several ultrasound elastography techniques, strain elastography (SE) is currently the most widely used technique for visualizing an elastographic map in real time. Among its various indications, SE is especially useful in evaluating the musculoskeletal system. In this article, we review the SE techniques for clinical practice and describe the images produced by these techniques in the context of the musculoskeletal system. SE provides information about tissue stiffness and allows real-time visualization of the image; however, SE cannot completely replace gray-scale, color, or power Doppler ultrasonography. SE can increase diagnostic accuracy and may be useful for the follow-up of benign lesions. PMID:26810195

  20. Dynamic programming on a tree for ultrasound elastography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shams, Roozbeh; Boily, Mathieu; Martineau, Paul A.; Rivaz, Hassan

    2016-04-01

    Ultrasound Elastography is an emerging imaging technique that allows estimation of the mechanical characteristics of tissue. Two issues that need to be addressed before widespread use of elastography in clinical environments are real time constraints and deteriorating effects of signal decorrelation between pre- and post-compression images. Previous work has used Dynamic Programming (DP) to estimate tissue deformation. However, in case of large signal decorrelation, DP can fail. In this paper we, have proposed a novel solution to this problem by solving DP on a tree instead of a single Radio-Frequency line. Formulation of DP on a tree allows exploiting significantly more information, and as such, is more robust and accurate. Our results on phantom and in-vivo human data show that DP on tree significantly outperforms traditional DP in ultrasound elastography.

  1. Experimental classification of surface waves in optical coherence elastography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zvietcovich, Fernando; Yao, Jianing; Rolland, Jannick P.; Parker, Kevin J.

    2016-03-01

    Various types of waves are produced when a harmonic force is applied to a semi-infinite half space elastic medium. In particular, surface waves are perturbations with transverse and longitudinal components of displacement that propagate in the boundary region at the surface of the elastic solid. Shear wave speed estimation is the standard for characterizing elastic properties of tissue in elastography; however, the penetration depth of Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is typically measured in millimeters constraining the measurement region of interest to be near the surface. Plane harmonic Rayleigh waves propagate in solid-vacuum interfaces while Scholte waves exist in solid-fluid interfaces. Theoretically, for an elastic solid with a Poisson's ratio close to 0.5, the ratio of the Rayleigh to shear wave speed is 95%, and 84% for the Scholte to shear wave. Our study demonstrates the evidence of Rayleigh waves propagating in the solid-air boundary of tissue-mimicking elastic phantoms. Sinusoidal tone-bursts of 400Hz and 1000 Hz were excited over the phantom by using a piezoelectric actuator. The wave propagation was detected with a phase-sensitive OCT system, and its speed was measured by tracking the most prominent peak of the tone in time and space. Similarly, this same experiment was repeated with a water interface. In order to obtain the shear wave speed in the material, mechanical compression tests were conducted in samples of the same phantom. A 93.9% Rayleigh-shear and 82.4% Scholte-Shear speed ratio were measured during experiments which are in agreement with theoretical results.

  2. Endoscopic ultrasound elastography: Current status and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Cui, Xin-Wu; Chang, Jian-Min; Kan, Quan-Cheng; Chiorean, Liliana; Ignee, Andre; Dietrich, Christoph F

    2015-12-21

    Elastography is a new ultrasound modality that provides images and measurements related to tissue stiffness. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) has played an important role in the diagnosis and management of numerous abdominal and mediastinal diseases. Elastography by means of EUS examination can assess the elasticity of tumors in the proximity of the digestive tract that are hard to reach with conventional transcutaneous ultrasound probes, such as pancreatic masses and mediastinal or abdominal lymph nodes, thus improving the diagnostic yield of the procedure. Results from previous studies have promised benefits for EUS elastography in the differential diagnosis of lymph nodes, as well as for assessing masses with pancreatic or gastrointestinal (GI) tract locations. It is important to mention that EUS elastography is not considered a modality that can replace biopsy. However, it may be a useful adjunct, improving the accuracy of EUS-fine needle aspiration biopsy (EUS-FNAB) by selecting the most suspicious area to be targeted. Even more, it may be useful for guiding further clinical management when EUS-FNAB is negative or inconclusive. In the present paper we will discuss the current knowledge of EUS elastography, including the technical aspects, along with its applications in the differential diagnosis between benign and malignant solid pancreatic masses and lymph nodes, as well as its aid in the differentiation between normal pancreatic tissues and chronic pancreatitis. Moreover, the emergent indication and future perspectives are summarized, such as the benefit of EUS elastography in EUS-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy, and its uses for characterization of lesions in liver, biliary tract, adrenal glands and GI tract.

  3. Quantitative micro-elastography: imaging of tissue elasticity using compression optical coherence elastography

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Kelsey M.; Chin, Lixin; McLaughlin, Robert A.; Latham, Bruce; Saunders, Christobel M.; Sampson, David D.; Kennedy, Brendan F.

    2015-01-01

    Probing the mechanical properties of tissue on the microscale could aid in the identification of diseased tissues that are inadequately detected using palpation or current clinical imaging modalities, with potential to guide medical procedures such as the excision of breast tumours. Compression optical coherence elastography (OCE) maps tissue strain with microscale spatial resolution and can delineate microstructural features within breast tissues. However, without a measure of the locally applied stress, strain provides only a qualitative indication of mechanical properties. To overcome this limitation, we present quantitative micro-elastography, which combines compression OCE with a compliant stress sensor to image tissue elasticity. The sensor consists of a layer of translucent silicone with well-characterized stress-strain behaviour. The measured strain in the sensor is used to estimate the two-dimensional stress distribution applied to the sample surface. Elasticity is determined by dividing the stress by the strain in the sample. We show that quantification of elasticity can improve the ability of compression OCE to distinguish between tissues, thereby extending the potential for inter-sample comparison and longitudinal studies of tissue elasticity. We validate the technique using tissue-mimicking phantoms and demonstrate the ability to map elasticity of freshly excised malignant and benign human breast tissues. PMID:26503225

  4. Quantitative micro-elastography: imaging of tissue elasticity using compression optical coherence elastography.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Kelsey M; Chin, Lixin; McLaughlin, Robert A; Latham, Bruce; Saunders, Christobel M; Sampson, David D; Kennedy, Brendan F

    2015-10-27

    Probing the mechanical properties of tissue on the microscale could aid in the identification of diseased tissues that are inadequately detected using palpation or current clinical imaging modalities, with potential to guide medical procedures such as the excision of breast tumours. Compression optical coherence elastography (OCE) maps tissue strain with microscale spatial resolution and can delineate microstructural features within breast tissues. However, without a measure of the locally applied stress, strain provides only a qualitative indication of mechanical properties. To overcome this limitation, we present quantitative micro-elastography, which combines compression OCE with a compliant stress sensor to image tissue elasticity. The sensor consists of a layer of translucent silicone with well-characterized stress-strain behaviour. The measured strain in the sensor is used to estimate the two-dimensional stress distribution applied to the sample surface. Elasticity is determined by dividing the stress by the strain in the sample. We show that quantification of elasticity can improve the ability of compression OCE to distinguish between tissues, thereby extending the potential for inter-sample comparison and longitudinal studies of tissue elasticity. We validate the technique using tissue-mimicking phantoms and demonstrate the ability to map elasticity of freshly excised malignant and benign human breast tissues.

  5. Contrast-Enhanced Quantitative Intravascular Elastography: The Impact of Microvasculature on Model-Based Elastography.

    PubMed

    Huntzicker, Steven; Shekhar, Himanshu; Doyley, Marvin M

    2016-05-01

    Model-based intravascular ultrasound elastography visualizes the stress distribution within vascular tissue-information that clinicians could use to predict the propensity of atherosclerotic plaque rupture. However, there are concerns that clusters of microvessels may reduce the accuracy of the estimated stress distribution. Consequently, we have developed a contrast-enhanced intravascular ultrasound system to investigate how plaque microvasculature affects the performance of model-based elastography. In simulations, diameters of 200, 400 and 800 μm were used, where the latter diameter represented a cluster of microvessels. In phantoms, we used a microvessel with a diameter of 750 μm. Peak stress errors of 3% and 38% were incurred in the fibrous cap when stress recovery was performed with and without a priori information about microvessel geometry. The results indicate that incorporating geometric information about plaque microvasculature obtained with contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging improves the accuracy of estimates of the stress distribution within the fibrous cap precisely. Copyright © 2016 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Quantitative micro-elastography: imaging of tissue elasticity using compression optical coherence elastography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, Kelsey M.; Chin, Lixin; McLaughlin, Robert A.; Latham, Bruce; Saunders, Christobel M.; Sampson, David D.; Kennedy, Brendan F.

    2015-10-01

    Probing the mechanical properties of tissue on the microscale could aid in the identification of diseased tissues that are inadequately detected using palpation or current clinical imaging modalities, with potential to guide medical procedures such as the excision of breast tumours. Compression optical coherence elastography (OCE) maps tissue strain with microscale spatial resolution and can delineate microstructural features within breast tissues. However, without a measure of the locally applied stress, strain provides only a qualitative indication of mechanical properties. To overcome this limitation, we present quantitative micro-elastography, which combines compression OCE with a compliant stress sensor to image tissue elasticity. The sensor consists of a layer of translucent silicone with well-characterized stress-strain behaviour. The measured strain in the sensor is used to estimate the two-dimensional stress distribution applied to the sample surface. Elasticity is determined by dividing the stress by the strain in the sample. We show that quantification of elasticity can improve the ability of compression OCE to distinguish between tissues, thereby extending the potential for inter-sample comparison and longitudinal studies of tissue elasticity. We validate the technique using tissue-mimicking phantoms and demonstrate the ability to map elasticity of freshly excised malignant and benign human breast tissues.

  7. Impulsive action and motivation.

    PubMed

    Frijda, Nico H

    2010-07-01

    This paper explores the way in which emotions are causal determinants of action. It argues that emotional events, as appraised by the individual, elicit changes in motive states (called states of action readiness), which in turn may (or may not) cause action. Actions can be elicited automatically, without prior intention (called impulsive actions), or intentionally. Impulsive actions reflect the simplest and biologically most general form in which emotions can cause action, since they require no reflection, no foresight, and no planning. Impulsive actions are determined conjointly by the nature of action readiness, the affordances perceived in the eliciting event as appraised, and the individual's action repertoire. Those actions from one's repertoire are performed that both match the perceived affordances and the aim of the state of action readiness. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Tomographic elastography of contracting skeletal muscles from their natural vibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabra, Karim G.; Archer, Akibi

    2009-11-01

    Conventional elastography techniques require an external mechanical or radiation excitation to measure noninvasively the viscoelastic properties of skeletal muscles and thus monitor human motor functions. We developed instead a passive elastography technique using only an array of skin-mounted accelerometers to record the low-frequency vibrations of the biceps brachii muscle naturally generated during voluntary contractions and to determine their two-dimensional directionality. Cross-correlating these recordings provided travel-times measurements of these muscle vibrations between multiple sensor pairs. Travel-time tomographic inversions yielded spatial variations of their propagation velocity during isometric elbow flexions which indicated a nonuniform longitudinal stiffening of the biceps.

  9. Compression-sensitive magnetic resonance elastography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirsch, Sebastian; Beyer, Frauke; Guo, Jing; Papazoglou, Sebastian; Tzschaetzsch, Heiko; Braun, Juergen; Sack, Ingolf

    2013-08-01

    Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) quantifies the shear modulus of biological tissue to detect disease. Complementary to the shear elastic properties of tissue, the compression modulus may be a clinically useful biomarker because it is sensitive to tissue pressure and poromechanical interactions. In this work, we analyze the capability of MRE to measure volumetric strain and the dynamic bulk modulus (P-wave modulus) at a harmonic drive frequency commonly used in shear-wave-based MRE. Gel phantoms with various densities were created by introducing CO2-filled cavities to establish a compressible effective medium. The dependence of the effective medium's bulk modulus on phantom density was investigated via static compression tests, which confirmed theoretical predictions. The P-wave modulus of three compressible phantoms was calculated from volumetric strain measured by 3D wave-field MRE at 50 Hz drive frequency. The results demonstrate the MRE-derived volumetric strain and P-wave modulus to be sensitive to the compression properties of effective media. Since the reconstruction of the P-wave modulus requires third-order derivatives, noise remains critical, and P-wave moduli are systematically underestimated. Focusing on relative changes in the effective bulk modulus of tissue, compression-sensitive MRE may be useful for the noninvasive detection of diseases involving pathological pressure alterations such as hepatic hypertension or hydrocephalus.

  10. Vibration safety limits for magnetic resonance elastography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehman, E. C.; Rossman, P. J.; Kruse, S. A.; Sahakian, A. V.; Glaser, K. J.

    2008-02-01

    Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) has been demonstrated to have potential as a clinical tool for assessing the stiffness of tissue in vivo. An essential step in MRE is the generation of acoustic mechanical waves within a tissue via a coupled mechanical driver. Motivated by an increasing volume of human imaging trials using MRE, the objectives of this study were to audit the vibration amplitude of exposure for our IRB-approved human MRE studies, to compare these values to a conservative regulatory standard for vibrational exposure and to evaluate the applicability and implications of this standard for MRE. MRE displacement data were examined from 29 MRE exams, including the liver, brain, kidney, breast and skeletal muscle. Vibrational acceleration limits from a European Union directive limiting occupational exposure to whole-body and extremity vibrations (EU 2002/44/EC) were adjusted for time and frequency of exposure, converted to maximum displacement values and compared to the measured in vivo displacements. The results indicate that the vibrational amplitudes used in MRE studies are below the EU whole-body vibration limit, and the EU guidelines represent a useful standard that could be readily accepted by Institutional Review Boards to define standards for vibrational exposures for MRE studies in humans.

  11. General review of magnetic resonance elastography

    PubMed Central

    Low, Gavin; Kruse, Scott A; Lomas, David J

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) is an innovative imaging technique for the non-invasive quantification of the biomechanical properties of soft tissues via the direct visualization of propagating shear waves in vivo using a modified phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequence. Fundamentally, MRE employs the same physical property that physicians utilize when performing manual palpation - that healthy and diseased tissues can be differentiated on the basis of widely differing mechanical stiffness. By performing “virtual palpation”, MRE is able to provide information that is beyond the capabilities of conventional morphologic imaging modalities. In an era of increasing adoption of multi-parametric imaging approaches for solving complex problems, MRE can be seamlessly incorporated into a standard MRI examination to provide a rapid, reliable and comprehensive imaging evaluation at a single patient appointment. Originally described by the Mayo Clinic in 1995, the technique represents the most accurate non-invasive method for the detection and staging of liver fibrosis and is currently performed in more than 100 centers worldwide. In this general review, the mechanical properties of soft tissues, principles of MRE, clinical applications of MRE in the liver and beyond, and limitations and future directions of this discipline -are discussed. Selected diagrams and images are provided for illustration. PMID:26834944

  12. General review of magnetic resonance elastography.

    PubMed

    Low, Gavin; Kruse, Scott A; Lomas, David J

    2016-01-28

    Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) is an innovative imaging technique for the non-invasive quantification of the biomechanical properties of soft tissues via the direct visualization of propagating shear waves in vivo using a modified phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequence. Fundamentally, MRE employs the same physical property that physicians utilize when performing manual palpation - that healthy and diseased tissues can be differentiated on the basis of widely differing mechanical stiffness. By performing "virtual palpation", MRE is able to provide information that is beyond the capabilities of conventional morphologic imaging modalities. In an era of increasing adoption of multi-parametric imaging approaches for solving complex problems, MRE can be seamlessly incorporated into a standard MRI examination to provide a rapid, reliable and comprehensive imaging evaluation at a single patient appointment. Originally described by the Mayo Clinic in 1995, the technique represents the most accurate non-invasive method for the detection and staging of liver fibrosis and is currently performed in more than 100 centers worldwide. In this general review, the mechanical properties of soft tissues, principles of MRE, clinical applications of MRE in the liver and beyond, and limitations and future directions of this discipline -are discussed. Selected diagrams and images are provided for illustration.

  13. Wideband MR elastography for viscoelasticity model identification

    PubMed Central

    Yasar, Temel K.; Royston, Thomas J.; Magin, Richard L.

    2012-01-01

    The growing clinical use of MR Elastography (MRE) requires the development of new quantitative standards for measuring tissue stiffness. Here, we examine a soft tissue mimicking phantom material (Ecoflex) over a wide frequency range (200 Hz to 7.75 kHz). The recorded data are fit to a cohort of viscoelastic models of varying complexity (integer and fractional order). This was accomplished using multiple sample sizes by employing geometric focusing of the shear wave front to compensate for the changes in wavelength and attenuation over this broad range of frequencies. The simple axisymmetric geometry and shear wave front of this experiment allows us to calculate the frequency-dependent complex-valued shear modulus of the material. The data were fit to several common models of linear viscoelasticity, including those with fractional derivative operators, and we identified the best possible matches over both a limited frequency band (often used in clinical studies) and over the entire frequency span considered. In addition to demonstrating the superior capability of the fractional order viscoelastic models, this study highlights the advantages of measuring the complex-valued shear modulus over as wide a range of frequencies as possible. PMID:23001852

  14. Vibration safety limits for magnetic resonance elastography.

    PubMed

    Ehman, E C; Rossman, P J; Kruse, S A; Sahakian, A V; Glaser, K J

    2008-02-21

    Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) has been demonstrated to have potential as a clinical tool for assessing the stiffness of tissue in vivo. An essential step in MRE is the generation of acoustic mechanical waves within a tissue via a coupled mechanical driver. Motivated by an increasing volume of human imaging trials using MRE, the objectives of this study were to audit the vibration amplitude of exposure for our IRB-approved human MRE studies, to compare these values to a conservative regulatory standard for vibrational exposure and to evaluate the applicability and implications of this standard for MRE. MRE displacement data were examined from 29 MRE exams, including the liver, brain, kidney, breast and skeletal muscle. Vibrational acceleration limits from a European Union directive limiting occupational exposure to whole-body and extremity vibrations (EU 2002/44/EC) were adjusted for time and frequency of exposure, converted to maximum displacement values and compared to the measured in vivo displacements. The results indicate that the vibrational amplitudes used in MRE studies are below the EU whole-body vibration limit, and the EU guidelines represent a useful standard that could be readily accepted by Institutional Review Boards to define standards for vibrational exposures for MRE studies in humans.

  15. Magnetic resonance elastography hardware design: a survey.

    PubMed

    Tse, Z T H; Janssen, H; Hamed, A; Ristic, M; Young, I; Lamperth, M

    2009-05-01

    Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) is an emerging technique capable of measuring the shear modulus of tissue. A suspected tumour can be identified by comparing its properties with those of tissues surrounding it; this can be achieved even in deep-lying areas as long as mechanical excitation is possible. This would allow non-invasive methods for cancer-related diagnosis in areas not accessible with conventional palpation. An actuating mechanism is required to generate the necessary tissue displacements directly on the patient in the scanner and three different approaches, in terms of actuator action and position, exist to derive stiffness measurements. However, the magnetic resonance (MR) environment places considerable constraints on the design of such devices, such as the possibility of mutual interference between electrical components, the scanner field, and radio frequency pulses, and the physical space restrictions of the scanner bore. This paper presents a review of the current solutions that have been developed for MRE devices giving particular consideration to the design criteria including the required vibration frequency and amplitude in different applications, the issue of MR compatibility, actuation principles, design complexity, and scanner synchronization issues. The future challenges in this field are also described.

  16. Magnetic Resonance Elastography: Inversions in Bounded Media

    PubMed Central

    Kolipaka, Arunark; McGee, Kiaran P.; Manduca, Armando; Romano, Anthony J.; Glaser, Kevin J.; Araoz, Philip A.; Ehman, Richard L.

    2009-01-01

    Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) is a noninvasive imaging technique capable of quantifying and spatially resolving the shear stiffness of soft tissues by visualization of synchronized mechanical wave displacement fields. However, MRE inversions generally assume that the measured tissue motion consists primarily of shear waves propagating in a uniform, infinite medium. This assumption is not valid in organs such as the heart, eye, bladder, skin, fascia, bone and spinal cord in which the shear wavelength approaches the geometric dimensions of the object. The aim of this study was to develop and test mathematical inversion algorithms capable of resolving shear stiffness from displacement maps of flexural waves propagating in bounded media such as beams, plates and spherical shells using geometry-specific equations of motion. MRE and finite element modeling (FEM) of beam, plate, and spherical shell phantoms of various geometries were performed. Mechanical testing of the phantoms agreed with the stiffness values obtained from FEM and MRE data and a linear correlation of r2 ≥ 0.99 was observed between the stiffness values obtained using MRE and FEM data. In conclusion, we have demonstrated new inversion methods for calculating shear stiffness that may be more appropriate for waves propagating in bounded media. PMID:19780146

  17. Detection of small inclusions by elastography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fehrenbach, Jérôme; Masmoudi, Mohamed; Souchon, Rémi; Trompette, Philippe

    2006-06-01

    The problem of parameter identification for elastostatics equilibrium equations in two-dimensional inhomogeneous domains is considered. Elastic properties of a linear isotropic material depend on two parameters: Young's modulus E and Poisson coefficient ν, and our objective is to determine the values and the spatial distribution of E in a plane domain Ω, where ν is assumed to be constant. It is assumed that the input data are directional displacements in Ω under a small quasistatic compression; this is consistent with an existing imaging modality called elastography. We prove that this problem involves a compact operator. A method is proposed here to identify the spatial distribution of E up to a multiplicative factor. It is based on an implementation of the Gauss-Newton method that is obtained without the calculation of the Jacobian matrix. It is performed by the use of conjugate gradient, through a combination of reverse (adjoint) and forward (direct) differentiation that makes sense in the case of compact operators. Our method is validated both with numerical and experimental results.

  18. Vibration safety limits for magnetic resonance elastography

    PubMed Central

    Ehman, E C; Rossman, P J; Kruse, S A; Sahakian, A V; Glaser, K J

    2010-01-01

    Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) has been demonstrated to have potential as a clinical tool for assessing the stiffness of tissue in vivo. An essential step in MRE is the generation of acoustic mechanical waves within tissue via a coupled mechanical driver. Motivated by an increasing volume of human imaging trials using MRE, the objectives of this study were to audit the vibration amplitude of exposure for our IRB-approved human MRE studies, to compare these values to a conservative regulatory standard for vibrational exposure, and to evaluate the applicability and implications of this standard for MRE. MRE displacement data were examined from 29 MRE exams, including the liver, brain, kidney, breast, and skeletal muscle. Vibrational acceleration limits from a European Union directive limiting occupational exposure to whole-body and extremity vibrations (EU 2002/44/EC) were adjusted for time and frequency of exposure, converted to maximum displacement values, and compared to the measured in vivo displacements. The results indicate that the vibrational amplitudes used in MRE studies are below the EU whole-body vibration limit and the EU guidelines represent a useful standard that could be readily accepted by Institutional Review Boards to define standards for vibrational exposures for MRE studies in humans. PMID:18263949

  19. Ballistic impulse gauge

    DOEpatents

    Ault, S.K.

    1993-12-21

    A gauge for detecting the impulse generated in sample materials by X-rays or other impulse producing mechanisms utilizes a pair of flat annular springs to support a plunger relative to a housing which may itself be supported by a pair of flat annular springs in a second housing. The plunger has a mounting plate mounted on one end and at the other, a position or velocity transducer is mounted. The annular springs consist of an outer ring and an inner ring with at least three arcuate members connecting the outer ring with the inner ring. 4 figures.

  20. Endeavour Impulse Tests

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-10-27

    In the Orbiter Processing Facility, Eric Madaras, NASA-Langley Research Center, conducts impulse tests on the right wing leading edge (WLE) of Space Shuttle Endeavour. The tests monitor how sound impulses propagate through the WLE area. The data collected will be analyzed to explore the possibility of adding new instrumentation to the wing that could automatically detect debris or micrometeroid impacts on the Shuttle while in flight. The study is part of the initiative ongoing at KSC and around the agency to return the orbiter fleet to flight status.

  1. Ballistic impulse gauge

    DOEpatents

    Ault, Stanley K.

    1993-01-01

    A gauge for detecting the impulse generated in sample materials by X-rays or other impulse producing mechanisms utilizes a pair of flat annular springs to support a plunger relative to a housing which may itself be supported by a pair of flat annular springs in a second housing. The plunger has a mounting plate mounted on one end and at the other, a position or velocity transducer is mounted. The annular springs consist of an outer ring and an inner ring with at least three arcuate members connecting the outer ring with the inner ring.

  2. Walking Through the Impulse-Momentum Theorem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haugland, Ole Anton

    2013-02-01

    Modern force platforms are handy tools for investigating forces during human motion. Earlier they were very expensive and were mostly used in research laboratories. But now even platforms that can measure in two directions are quite affordable. In this work we used the PASCO 2-Axis Force Platform. The analysis of the data can serve as a nice illustration of qualitative or quantitative use of the impulse-momentum theorem p - p0 = ∫t0t Fdt = I. The most common use of force platforms is to study the force from the base during the push-off period of a vertical jump. I think this is an activity of great value, and I would recommend it. The use of force platforms in teaching is well documented in research literature.1-4

  3. Impulse radar studfinder

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, T.E.

    1995-10-10

    An impulse radar studfinder propagates electromagnetic pulses and detects reflected pulses from a fixed range. Unmodulated pulses, about 200 ps wide, are emitted. A large number of reflected pulses are sampled and averaged. Background reflections are subtracted. Reflections from wall studs or other hidden objects are detected and displayed using light emitting diodes. 9 figs.

  4. Impulse radar studfinder

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1995-01-01

    An impulse radar studfinder propagates electromagnetic pulses and detects reflected pulses from a fixed range. Unmodulated pulses, about 200 ps wide, are emitted. A large number of reflected pulses are sampled and averaged. Background reflections are subtracted. Reflections from wall studs or other hidden objects are detected and displayed using light emitting diodes.

  5. Computer-aided diagnosis of breast color elastography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Ruey-Feng; Shen, Wei-Chih; Yang, Min-Chun; Moon, Woo Kyung; Takada, Etsuo; Ho, Yu-Chun; Nakajima, Michiko; Kobayashi, Masayuki

    2008-03-01

    Ultrasound has been an important imaging technique for detecting breast tumors. As opposed to the conventional B-mode image, the ultrasound elastography is a new technique for imaging the elasticity and applied to detect the stiffness of tissues. The red region of color elastography indicates the soft tissue and the blue one indicates the hard tissue, and the harder tissue usually is classified to malignancy. In this paper, we proposed a CAD system on elastography to measure whether this system is effective and accurate to classify the tumor into benign and malignant. According to the features of elasticity, the color elastography was transferred to HSV color space and extracted meaningful features from hue images. Then the neural network was utilized in multiple features to distinguish tumors. In this experiment, there are 180 pathology-proven cases including 113 benign and 67 malignant cases used to examine the classification. The results of the proposed system showed an accuracy of 83.89%, a sensitivity of 85.07% and a specificity of 83.19%. Compared with the physician's diagnosis, an accuracy of 78.33%, a sensitivity of 53.73% and a specificity of 92.92%, the proposed CAD system had better performance. Moreover, the agreement of the proposed CAD system and the physician's diagnosis was calculated by kappa statistics, the kappa 0.54 indicated there is a fair agreement of observers.

  6. Copolymer-in-oil phantom materials for elastography.

    PubMed

    Oudry, J; Bastard, C; Miette, V; Willinger, R; Sandrin, L

    2009-07-01

    Phantoms that mimic mechanical and acoustic properties of soft biological tissues are essential to elasticity imaging investigation and to elastography device characterization. Several materials including agar/gelatin, polyvinyl alcohol and polyacrylamide gels have been used successfully in the past to produce tissue phantoms, as reported in the literature. However, it is difficult to find a phantom material with a wide range of stiffness, good stability over time and high resistance to rupture. We aim at developing and testing a new copolymer-in-oil phantom material for elastography. The phantom is composed of a mixture of copolymer, mineral oil and additives for acoustic scattering. The mechanical properties of phantoms were evaluated with a mechanical test instrument and an ultrasound-based elastography technique. The acoustic properties were investigated using a through-transmission water-substituting method. We showed that copolymer-in-oil phantoms are stable over time. Their mechanical and acoustic properties mimic those of most soft tissues: the Young's modulus ranges from 2.2-150 kPa, the attenuation coefficient from 0.4-4.0 dB.cm(-1) and the ultrasound speed from 1420-1464 m/s. Their density is equal to 0.90 +/- 0.04 g/cm3. The results suggest that copolymer-in-oil phantoms are attractive materials for elastography.

  7. Elastography in Distinguishing Benign from Malignant Thyroid Nodules

    PubMed Central

    Colakoglu, Bulent; Yildirim, Duzgun; Alis, Deniz; Ucar, Gokhan; Samanci, Cesur; Ustabasioglu, Fethi Emre; Bakir, Alev; Ulusoy, Onur Levent

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study is to test the diagnostic success of strain elastography in distinguishing benign from malignant thyroid nodules. Materials and Methods: The size, echogenicity, and halo integrity of 293 thyroid nodules and the presence of microcalcification in these nodules were evaluated on gray-scale examination. Doppler characteristics and elastography patterns were also evaluated and recorded. Nodules were classified in four categories (patterns 1–4) based on elastographic examination. Results: According to the cytopathological findings, 222 nodules were benign, and 71 nodules were malignant. The risk of a nodule to be malignant was 3.8 times increased by hypoechogenicity, 7.7 times increased by the presence of microcalcification, and 11.5 times increased by the absence of halo. On Doppler patterns, the presence of central vascularity increased the malignancy risk of a nodule by 5.8 times. According to the receiver operating characteristic analysis, patterns 3 and 4 were malignant, and patterns 1 and 2 were benign. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy of elastography were 100%, 80.2%, 61.7%, 100%, and 85%, respectively. Conclusion: Strain elastography can be used as a noninvasive method in distinguishing benign from malignant thyroid nodules and in identifying the patients who would undergo surgery. PMID:28123841

  8. Quantitative optical coherence elastography based on fiber-optic probe for in situ measurement of tissue mechanical properties.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Yi; Wang, Yahui; Xu, Yiqing; Chandra, Namas; Haorah, James; Hubbi, Basil; Pfister, Bryan J; Liu, Xuan

    2016-02-01

    We developed a miniature quantitative optical coherence elastography (qOCE) instrument with an integrated Fabry-Perot force sensor, for in situ elasticity measurement of biological tissue. The technique has great potential for biomechanics modeling and clinical diagnosis. We designed the fiber-optic qOCE probe that was used to exert a compressive force to deform tissue at the tip of the probe. Using the space-division multiplexed optical coherence tomography (OCT) signal detected by a spectral domain OCT engine, we were able to quantify the probe deformation that was proportional to the force applied, and to quantify the tissue deformation corresponding to the external stimulus. Simultaneous measurement of force and displacement allowed us to extract Young's modulus of biological tissue. We experimentally calibrated our qOCE instrument, and validated its effectiveness on tissue mimicking phantoms and biological tissues.

  9. Quantitative optical coherence elastography based on fiber-optic probe for in situ measurement of tissue mechanical properties

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Yi; Wang, Yahui; Xu, Yiqing; Chandra, Namas; Haorah, James; Hubbi, Basil; Pfister, Bryan J.; Liu, Xuan

    2016-01-01

    We developed a miniature quantitative optical coherence elastography (qOCE) instrument with an integrated Fabry-Perot force sensor, for in situ elasticity measurement of biological tissue. The technique has great potential for biomechanics modeling and clinical diagnosis. We designed the fiber-optic qOCE probe that was used to exert a compressive force to deform tissue at the tip of the probe. Using the space-division multiplexed optical coherence tomography (OCT) signal detected by a spectral domain OCT engine, we were able to quantify the probe deformation that was proportional to the force applied, and to quantify the tissue deformation corresponding to the external stimulus. Simultaneous measurement of force and displacement allowed us to extract Young’s modulus of biological tissue. We experimentally calibrated our qOCE instrument, and validated its effectiveness on tissue mimicking phantoms and biological tissues. PMID:26977372

  10. Tissue mimicking materials for the detection of prostate cancer using shear wave elastography: A validation study

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Rui; Huang, Zhihong; Varghese, Tomy; Nabi, Ghulam

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Quantification of stiffness changes may provide important diagnostic information and aid in the early detection of cancers. Shear wave elastography is an imaging technique that assesses tissue stiffness using acoustic radiation force as an alternate to manual palpation reported previously with quasistatic elastography. In this study, the elastic properties of tissue mimicking materials, including agar, polyacrylamide (PAA), and silicone, are evaluated with an objective to determine material characteristics which resemble normal and cancerous prostate tissue. Methods: Acoustic properties and stiffness of tissue mimicking phantoms were measured using compressional mechanical testing and shear wave elastography using supersonic shear imaging. The latter is based on the principles of shear waves generated using acoustic radiation force. The evaluation included tissue mimicking materials (TMMs) within the prostate at different positions and sizes that could mimic cancerous and normal prostate tissue. Patient data on normal and prostate cancer tissues quantified using biopsy histopathology were used to validate the findings. Pathologist reports on histopathology were blinded to mechanical testing and elastographic findings. Results: Young's modulus values of 86.2 ± 4.5 and 271.5 ± 25.7 kPa were obtained for PAA mixed with 2% Al2O3 particles and silicone, respectively. Young's modulus of TMMs from mechanical compression testing showed a clear trend of increasing stiffness with an increasing percentage of agar. The silicone material had higher stiffness values when compared with PAA with Al2O3. The mean Young's modulus value in cancerous tissue was 90.5 ± 4.5 kPa as compared to 93.8 ± 4.4 and 86.2 ± 4.5 kPa obtained with PAA with 2% Al2O3 phantom at a depth of 52.4 and 36.6 mm, respectively. Conclusions: PAA mixed with Al2O3 provides the most suitable tissue mimicking material for prostate cancer tumor material, while agar could form the surrounding

  11. Feasibility of optical coherence elastography measurements of shear wave propagation in homogeneous tissue equivalent phantoms.

    PubMed

    Razani, Marjan; Mariampillai, Adrian; Sun, Cuiru; Luk, Timothy W H; Yang, Victor X D; Kolios, Michael C

    2012-05-01

    In this work, we explored the potential of measuring shear wave propagation using optical coherence elastography (OCE) based on a swept-source optical coherence tomography (OCT) system. Shear waves were generated using a 20 MHz piezoelectric transducer (circular element 8.5 mm diameter) transmitting sine-wave bursts of 400 μs, synchronized with the OCT swept source wavelength sweep. The acoustic radiation force (ARF) was applied to two gelatin phantoms (differing in gelatin concentration by weight, 8% vs. 14%). Differential OCT phase maps, measured with and without the ARF, demonstrate microscopic displacement generated by shear wave propagation in these phantoms of different stiffness. We present preliminary results of OCT derived shear wave propagation velocity and modulus, and compare these results to rheometer measurements. The results demonstrate the feasibility of shear wave OCE (SW-OCE) for high-resolution microscopic homogeneous tissue mechanical property characterization.

  12. Annoyance of helicopter impulsive noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dambra, F.; Damongeot, A.

    1978-01-01

    Psychoacoustic studies of helicopter impulsive noise were conducted in order to qualify additional annoyance due to this feature and to develop physical impulsiveness descriptors to develop impulsivity correction methods. The currently proposed descriptors and methods of impulsiveness correction are compared using a multilinear regression analysis technique. It is shown that the presently recommended descriptor and correction method provides the best correlation with the subjective evaluations of real helicopter impulsive noises. The equipment necessary for data processing in order to apply the correction method is discussed.

  13. Elastography in Chronic Liver Disease: Modalities, Techniques, Limitations, and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Srinivasa Babu, Aparna; Wells, Michael L; Teytelboym, Oleg M; Mackey, Justin E; Miller, Frank H; Yeh, Benjamin M; Ehman, Richard L; Venkatesh, Sudhakar K

    2016-01-01

    Chronic liver disease has multiple causes, many of which are increasing in prevalence. The final common pathway of chronic liver disease is tissue destruction and attempted regeneration, a pathway that triggers fibrosis and eventual cirrhosis. Assessment of fibrosis is important not only for diagnosis but also for management, prognostic evaluation, and follow-up of patients with chronic liver disease. Although liver biopsy has traditionally been considered the reference standard for assessment of liver fibrosis, noninvasive techniques are the emerging focus in this field. Ultrasound-based elastography and magnetic resonance (MR) elastography are gaining popularity as the modalities of choice for quantifying hepatic fibrosis. These techniques have been proven superior to conventional cross-sectional imaging for evaluation of fibrosis, especially in the precirrhotic stages. Moreover, elastography has added utility in the follow-up of previously diagnosed fibrosis, the assessment of treatment response, evaluation for the presence of portal hypertension (spleen elastography), and evaluation of patients with unexplained portal hypertension. In this article, a brief overview is provided of chronic liver disease and the tools used for its diagnosis. Ultrasound-based elastography and MR elastography are explored in depth, including a brief glimpse into the evolution of elastography. Elastography is based on the principle of measuring tissue response to a known mechanical stimulus. Specific elastographic techniques used to exploit this principle include MR elastography and ultrasonography-based static or quasistatic strain imaging, one-dimensional transient elastography, point shear-wave elastography, and supersonic shear-wave elastography. The advantages, limitations, and pitfalls of each modality are emphasized. (©)RSNA, 2016.

  14. Micropower impulse radar imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, M.S.

    1995-11-01

    From designs developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in radar and imaging technologies, there exists the potential for a variety of applications in both public and private sectors. Presently tests are being conducted for the detection of buried mines and the analysis of civil structures. These new systems use a patented ultra-wide band (impulse) radar technology known as Micropower Impulse Radar (GPR) imaging systems. LLNL has also developed signal processing software capable of producing 2-D and 3-D images of objects embedded in materials such as soil, wood and concrete. My assignment while at LLNL has focused on the testing of different radar configurations and applications, as well as assisting in the creation of computer algorithms which enable the radar to scan target areas of different geometeries.

  15. Prostate clinical study of a full inversion unconstrained ultrasound elastography technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mousavi, S. Reza; Sadeghi-Naini, Ali; Czarnota, Gregory J.; Samani, Abbas

    2014-03-01

    Prostate cancer detection at early stages is crucial for desirable treatment outcome. Among available imaging modalities, ultrasound (US) elastography is being developed as an effective clinical tool for prostate cancer diagnosis. Current clinical US elastography systems utilise strain imaging where tissue strain images are generated to approximate the tissue elastic modulus distribution. While strain images can be generated in real-time fashion, they lack the accuracy necessary for having desirable sensitivity and specificity. To improve strain imaging, full inversion based elastography techniques were proposed. Among these techniques, a constrained elastography technique was developed which showed promising results as long as the tumor and prostate geometry can be obtained accurately from the imaging modality used in conjunction with the elastography system. This requirement is not easy to fulfill, especially with US imaging. To address this issue, we present an unconstrained full inversion prostate elastography method in conjunction with US imaging where knowledge of tissue geometry is not necessary. One of the reasons that full inversion elastography techniques have not been routinely used in the clinic is lack of clinical validation studies. To our knowledge, no quasistatic full inversion based prostate US elastography technique has been applied in vivo before. In this work, the proposed method was applied to clinical prostate data and reconstructed elasticity images were compared to corresponding annotated histopathology images which is the first quasi-static full inversion based prostate US elastography technique applied successfully in vivo. Results demonstrated a good potential for clinical utility of the proposed method.

  16. A novel breast software phantom for biomechanical modeling of elastography.

    PubMed

    Bhatti, Syeda Naema; Sridhar-Keralapura, Mallika

    2012-04-01

    In developing breast imaging technologies, testing is done with phantoms. Physical phantoms are normally used but their size, shape, composition, and detail cannot be modified readily. These difficulties can be avoided by creating a software breast phantom. Researchers have created software breast phantoms using geometric and/or mathematical methods for applications like image fusion. The authors report a 3D software breast phantom that was built using a mechanical design tool, to investigate the biomechanics of elastography using finite element modeling (FEM). The authors propose this phantom as an intermediate assessment tool for elastography simulation; for use after testing with commonly used phantoms and before clinical testing. The authors design the phantom to be flexible in both, the breast geometry and biomechanical parameters, to make it a useful tool for elastography simulation. The authors develop the 3D software phantom using a mechanical design tool based on illustrations of normal breast anatomy. The software phantom does not use geometric primitives or imaging data. The authors discuss how to create this phantom and how to modify it. The authors demonstrate a typical elastography experiment of applying a static stress to the top surface of the breast just above a simulated tumor and calculate normal strains in 3D and in 2D with plane strain approximations with linear solvers. In particular, they investigate contrast transfer efficiency (CTE) by designing a parametric study based on location, shape, and stiffness of simulated tumors. The authors also compare their findings to a commonly used elastography phantom. The 3D breast software phantom is flexible in shape, size, and location of tumors, glandular to fatty content, and the ductal structure. Residual modulus, maps, and profiles, served as a guide to optimize meshing of this geometrically nonlinear phantom for biomechanical modeling of elastography. At best, low residues (around 1-5 KPa) were

  17. Automated 3D ultrasound elastography of the breast: a phantom validation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendriks, Gijs A. G. M.; Holländer, Branislav; Menssen, Jan; Milkowski, Andy; Hansen, Hendrik H. G.; de Korte, Chris L.

    2016-04-01

    In breast cancer screening, the automated breast volume scanner (ABVS) was introduced as an alternative for mammography since the latter technique is less suitable for women with dense breasts. Although clinical studies show promising results, clinicians report two disadvantages: long acquisition times (>90 s) introducing breathing artefacts, and high recall rates due to detection of many small lesions of uncertain malignant potential. Technical improvements for faster image acquisition and better discrimination between benign and malignant lesions are thus required. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate if 3D ultrasound elastography using plane-wave imaging is feasible. Strain images of a breast elastography phantom were acquired by an ABVS-mimicking device that allowed axial and elevational movement of the attached transducer. Pre- and post-deformation volumes were acquired with different constant speeds (between 1.25 and 40.0 mm s-1) and by three protocols: Go-Go (pre- and post-volumes with identical start and end positions), Go-Return (similar to Go-Go with opposite scanning directions) and Control (pre- and post-volumes acquired per position, this protocol can be seen as reference). Afterwards, 2D and 3D cross-correlation and strain algorithms were applied to the acquired volumes and the results were compared. The Go-Go protocol was shown to be superior with better strain image quality (CNRe and SNRe) than Go-Return and to be similar as Control. This can be attributed to applying opposite mechanical forces to the phantom during the Go-Return protocol, leading to out-of-plane motion. This motion was partly compensated by using 3D cross-correlation. However, the quality was still inferior to Go-Go. Since these results were obtained in a phantom study with controlled deformations, the effect of possible uncontrolled in vivo tissue motion artefacts has to be addressed in future studies. In conclusion, it seems feasible to implement 3D ultrasound

  18. The role of viscosity estimation for oil-in-gelatin phantom in shear wave based ultrasound elastography.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ying; Dong, Changfeng; Yin, Yin; Chen, Xin; Guo, Yanrong; Zheng, Yi; Shen, Yuanyuan; Wang, Tianfu; Zhang, Xinyu; Chen, Siping

    2015-02-01

    Shear wave based ultrasound elastography utilizes mechanical excitation or acoustic radiation force to induce shear waves in deep tissue. The tissue response is monitored to obtain elasticity information about the tissue. During the past two decades, tissue elasticity has been extensively studied and has been used in clinical disease diagnosis. However, biological soft tissues are viscoelastic in nature. Therefore, they should be simultaneously characterized in terms of elasticity and viscosity. In this study, two shear wave-based elasticity imaging methods, shear wave dispersion ultrasound vibrometry (SDUV) and acoustic radiation force impulsive (ARFI) imaging, were compared. The discrepancy between the measurements obtained by the two methods was analyzed, and the role of viscosity was investigated. To this end, four types of gelatin phantoms containing 0%, 20%, 30% and 40% castor oil were fabricated to mimic different viscosities of soft tissue. For the SDUV method, the shear elasticity μ1 was 3.90 ± 0.27 kPa, 4.49 ± 0.16 kPa, 2.41 ± 0.33 kPa and 1.31 ± 0.09 kPa; and the shear viscosity μ2 was 1.82 ± 0.31 Pa•s, 2.41 ± 0.35 Pa•s, 2.65 ± 0.13 Pa•s and 2.89 ± 0.14 Pa•s for 0%, 20%, 30% and 40% oil, respectively in both cases. For the ARFI measurements, the shear elasticity μ was 7.30 ± 0.20 kPa, 8.20 ± 0.31 kPa, 7.42 ± 0.21 kPa and 5.90 ± 0.36 kPa for 0%, 20%, 30% and 40% oil, respectively. The SDUV results demonstrated that the elasticity first increased from 0% to 20% oil and then decreased for the 30% and 40% oil. The viscosity decreased consistently as the concentration of castor oil increased from 0% to 40%. The elasticity measured by ARFI showed the same trend as that of the SDUV but exceeded the results measured by SDUV. To clearly validate the impact of viscosity on the elasticity estimation, an independent measurement of the elasticity and viscosity by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) was conducted on these four types of gelatin

  19. Magnetic Resonance Elastography to Assess Fibrosis in Kidney Allografts.

    PubMed

    Kirpalani, Anish; Hashim, Eyesha; Leung, General; Kim, Jin K; Krizova, Adriana; Jothy, Serge; Deeb, Maya; Jiang, Nan N; Glick, Lauren; Mnatzakanian, Gevork; Yuen, Darren A

    2017-10-06

    Fibrosis is a major cause of kidney allograft injury. Currently, the only means of assessing allograft fibrosis is by biopsy, an invasive procedure that samples <1% of the kidney. We examined whether magnetic resonance elastography, an imaging-based measure of organ stiffness, could noninvasively estimate allograft fibrosis and predict progression of allograft dysfunction. Kidney allograft recipients >1 year post-transplant undergoing an allograft biopsy first underwent free-breathing, flow-compensated magnetic resonance elastography on a 3.0-T magnetic resonance imaging scanner. Each patient had serial eGFR measurements after the elastography scan for a follow-up period of up to 1 year. The mean stiffness value of the kidney allograft was compared with both the histopathologic Banff fibrosis score and the rate of eGFR change during the follow-up period. Sixteen patients who underwent magnetic resonance elastography and biopsy were studied (mean age: 54±9 years old). Whole-kidney mean stiffness ranged between 3.5 and 7.3 kPa. Whole-kidney stiffness correlated with biopsy-derived Banff fibrosis score (Spearman rho =0.67; P<0.01). Stiffness was heterogeneously distributed within each kidney, providing a possible explanation for the lack of a stronger stiffness-fibrosis correlation. We also found negative correlations between whole-kidney stiffness and both baseline eGFR (Spearman rho =-0.65; P<0.01) and eGFR change over time (Spearman rho =-0.70; P<0.01). Irrespective of the baseline eGFR, increased kidney stiffness was associated with a greater eGFR decline (regression r(2)=0.48; P=0.03). Given the limitations of allograft biopsy, our pilot study suggests the potential for magnetic resonance elastography as a novel noninvasive measure of whole-allograft fibrosis burden that may predict future changes in kidney function. Future studies exploring the utility and accuracy of magnetic resonance elastography are needed. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of

  20. Impulse pumping modelling and simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierre, B.; Gudmundsson, J. S.

    2010-08-01

    Impulse pumping is a new pumping method based on propagation of pressure waves. Of particular interest is the application of impulse pumping to artificial lift situations, where fluid is transported from wellbore to wellhead using pressure waves generated at wellhead. The motor driven element of an impulse pumping apparatus is therefore located at wellhead and can be separated from the flowline. Thus operation and maintenance of an impulse pump are facilitated. The paper describes the different elements of an impulse pumping apparatus, reviews the physical principles and details the modelling of the novel pumping method. Results from numerical simulations of propagation of pressure waves in water-filled pipelines are then presented for illustrating impulse pumping physical principles, and validating the described modelling with experimental data.

  1. Magnetic hyperthermia dosimetry by biomechanical properties revealed in magnetomotive optical coherence elastography (MM-OCE) (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Pin-Chieh; Marjanovic, Marina; Spillman, Darold R.; Odintsov, Boris M.; Boppart, Stephen A.

    2016-03-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have been utilized in magnetic hyperthermia to treat solid tumors. Under an appropriate AC magnetic field, energy can be transferred to the MNPs to heat up the intended tissue target while sparing non-targeted healthy tissue. However, a sensitive monitoring technique for the dose of MNP thermal therapy is desirable in order to prevent over-treatment and collateral injury. Typical hyperthermia dosimetry often relies on changes in imaging properties or temperature measurements based on the thermal distribution. Alternative dosimetric indicators can include the biomechanical properties of the tissue, reflecting the changes due to protein denaturation, coagulation, and tissue dehydration during hyperthermia treatments. Tissue stiffness can be probed by elastography modalities including MRI, ultrasound imaging, and optical coherence elastography (OCE), with OCE showing the highest displacement sensitivity (tens of nanometers). Magnetomotive optical coherence elastography (MM-OCE) is one type of OCE that utilizes MNPs as internal force transducers to probe the tissue stiffness. Therefore, we examined the feasibility of evaluating the hyperthermia dose based on the elasticity changes revealed by MM-OCE. Superparamagnetic MNPs were applied to ex vivo tissue specimens for both magnetic hyperthermia and MM-OCE experiments, where temperature and elastic modulus were obtained. A correlation between temperature rise and measured stiffness was observed. In addition, we found that with repetitive sequential treatments, tissue stiffness increased, while temperature rise remained relatively constant. These results potentially suggest that MM-OCE could indicate the irreversible changes the tissue undergoes during thermal therapy, which supports the idea for MM-OCE-based hyperthermia dosage control in future applications.

  2. In vivo measurement of rotator cuff tendon strain with ultrasound elastography: an investigation using a porcine model.

    PubMed

    Hatta, Taku; Yamamoto, Nobuyuki; Sano, Hirotaka; Itoi, Eiji

    2014-09-01

    To clarify the relationship between the strain ratio measured by ultrasound elastography and the mechanical properties of the tendon measured by a universal testing machine. We also attempted to determine the effect of the type and depth of soft tissue overlying the tendon on the elastographic measurement. Twelve fresh porcine shoulders were prepared. Elastographic measurement was performed on the infraspinatus tendon by manually applying repetitive compressions from an ultrasound probe with an acoustic coupler consisting of an elastomer with definite elasticity as a reference material. The strain ratio, defined as tendon/reference strain, was obtained by 4 different approaches: with the probe placed on the skin, on the subcutaneous fat after removing the skin, on the muscle after removing the subcutaneous fat, and directly on the tendon. The strain ratios measured by these approaches were compared statistically. The relationship between the depth of the tendon measured on elastography and the strain ratio was also investigated. We also attempted to clarify the relationship between the strain ratio of the tendon and its elastic property. The tendon was mounted on a testing machine, and compressive force was applied. Tendon compliance was calculated as the reciprocal of the Young modulus in the range of 5% to 10% strain, which was compared to its strain ratio. The tendon/reference strain ratio significantly correlated with the tendon compliance (r = 0.73; P < .01). The strain ratio was not affected by differences in the measuring approaches (P = .4) or by the depth to the tendon level (P = .8). Our results indicated that the strain ratio of the rotator cuff tendon could be measured with minimal influence by overlying soft tissues if its depth from the skin was less than 22 mm. We believe that ultrasound elastography would be a useful tool for assessment of tendon elasticity in clinical practice. © 2014 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  3. Application of new optical coherence elastography to monitor the mineralization processing in bone tissue engineering constructs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Guangying; Song, Shaozhen; Huang, Zhihong; Yang, Ying

    2015-03-01

    Generation of functional tissue in vitro through tissue engineering technique is a promising direction to repair and replace malfunctioned organ and tissue in the modern medicine for various diseases which could not been treated well by conventional therapy. Similar to the embryo development, the generation of tissue in vitro is a highly dynamic processing. Obtaining the feedback of the processing real time is highly demanded. In this study, a new methodology has been explored aiming to monitor the morphological and mechanical property alteration of bone tissue engineering constructs simultaneously. Optical coherence elastography (OCE) equipped with a LDS V201 permanent magnet shaker and a modulated acoustic radiation force (ARF) to provide a vibration signal, has been used for the real time and non-destructive monitoring. A phantom construct system has been used to optimize the measurement conditions in which agar hydrogel with concentration from 0, 0.75 to 2% with/without hydroxyappatite particles have been injected to 3D porous poly (lactic acid) scaffolds to simulate the collagenous extracellular matrix (ECM) and mineralized ECM. The structural and elastography images of the constructs have clearly demonstrated the linear relation with the increased mechanical property versus the increase of agar concentration within the pores of the scaffolds. The MG63 bone cells seeded in the scaffolds and cultured for 4 weeks have been monitored by the established protocol exhibiting the increased mechanical strength in the pore wall where the ECM or mineralized ECM was assumed to be formed in comparison to empty pores. This study confirms that OCE-ARF could become a valuable tool in regenerative medicine to assess the biological events during in vitro culture and conditioning.

  4. Micropower impulse radar

    SciTech Connect

    Azevedo, S.; McEwan, T.E.

    1996-01-01

    Invented and developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is an inexpensive and highly sensitive, low-power radar system that produces and samples extremely short pulses of energy at the rate of 2 million per second. Called micropower impulse radar (MIR), it can detect objects at a greater variety of distances with greater sensitivity than conventional radar. Its origins in the Laboratory`s Laser Directorate stem from Nova`s transient digitizer. The MIR`s extraordinary range of applications include security, search and rescue, life support, nondestructive evaluation, and transportation.

  5. Real-time elastography for the detection of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Salomon, Georg; Schiffmann, Jonas

    2014-03-01

    The lack of reliable imaging tools in detecting prostate cancer makes a random biopsy still the standard of care to detect prostate cancer. To reduce the number of cores during a biopsy and therefore the risk of biopsy-related complications, an imaging tool which provides reliable guided biopsies is required. Transrectal real-time elastography has shown to have the ability to visualize prostate cancer foci to some extent. In addition to the conventional B-mode image of transrectal ultrasound, it adds information about the stiffness of the prostate tissue. This review highlights the most important studies on elastography to follow the improvements in techniques and to outline the ability to detect prostate cancer and guide biopsies.

  6. Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) in cancer: Technique, analysis, and applications

    PubMed Central

    Pepin, Kay M.; Ehman, Richard L.; McGee, Kiaran P.

    2015-01-01

    Tissue mechanical properties are significantly altered with the development of cancer. Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) is a noninvasive technique capable of quantifying tissue mechanical properties in vivo. This review describes the basic principles of MRE and introduces some of the many promising MRE methods that have been developed for the detection and characterization of cancer, evaluation of response to therapy, and investigation of the underlying mechanical mechanisms associated with malignancy. PMID:26592944

  7. Quantitative photoacoustic elastography of Young's modulus in humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hai, Pengfei; Zhou, Yong; Gong, Lei; Wang, Lihong V.

    2017-03-01

    Elastography can noninvasively map the elasticity distribution of biological tissue, which is often altered in pathological states. In this work, we report quantitative photoacoustic elastography (QPAE), capable of measuring Young's modulus of human tissue in vivo. By combining photoacoustic elastography with a stress sensor having known stress-strain behavior, QPAE can simultaneously measure strain and stress, from which Young's modulus is calculated. We first applied QPAE to quantify the Young's modulus of tissue-mimicking agar phantoms with different concentrations. The measured values fitted well with both the empirical expectations based on the agar concentrations and those measured in independent standard compression tests. We then demonstrated the feasibility of QPAE by measuring the Young's modulus of human skeletal muscle in vivo. The data showed a linear relationship between muscle stiffness and loading. The results proved that QPAE can noninvasively quantify the absolute elasticity of biological tissue, thus enabling longitudinal imaging of tissue elasticity. QPAE can be exploited for both preclinical biomechanics studies and clinical applications.

  8. Transurethral prostate magnetic resonance elastography: prospective imaging requirements.

    PubMed

    Arani, Arvin; Plewes, Donald; Chopra, Rajiv

    2011-02-01

    Tissue stiffness is known to undergo alterations when affected by prostate cancer and may serve as an indicator of the disease. Stiffness measurements can be made with magnetic resonance elastography performed using a transurethral actuator to generate shear waves in the prostate gland. The goal of this study was to help determine the imaging requirements of transurethral magnetic resonance elastography and to evaluate whether the spatial and stiffness resolution of this technique overlapped with the requirements for prostate cancer detection. Through the use of prostate-mimicking gelatin phantoms, frequencies of at least 400 Hz were necessary to obtain accurate stiffness measurements of 10 mm diameter inclusions, but the detection of inclusions with diameters as small as 4.75 mm was possible at 200 Hz. The shear wave attenuation coefficient was measured in vivo in the canine prostate gland, and was used to predict the detectable penetration depth of shear waves in prostate tissue. These results suggested that frequencies below 200 Hz could propagate to the prostate boundary with a signal to noise ratio (SNR) of 60 and an actuator capable of producing 60 μm displacements. These requirements are achievable with current imaging and actuator technologies, and motivate further investigation of magnetic resonance elastography for the targeting of prostate cancer. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Measurement of elastic nonlinearity of soft solid with transient elastography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catheline, S.; Gennisson, J.-L.; Fink, M.

    2003-12-01

    Transient elastography is a powerful tool to measure the speed of low-frequency shear waves in soft tissues and thus to determine the second-order elastic modulus μ (or the Young's modulus E). In this paper, it is shown how transient elastography can also achieve the measurement of the nonlinear third-order elastic moduli of an Agar-gelatin-based phantom. This method requires speed measurements of polarized elastic waves measured in a statically stressed isotropic medium. A static uniaxial stress induces a hexagonal anisotropy (transverse isotropy) in solids. In the special case of uniaxially stressed isotropic media, the anisotropy is not caused by linear elastic coefficients but by the third-order nonlinear elastic constants, and the medium recovers its isotropic properties as soon as the uniaxial stress disappears. It has already been shown how transient elastography can measure the elastic (second-order) moduli in a media with transverse isotropy such as muscles. Consequently this method, based on the measurement of the speed variations of a low-frequency (50-Hz) polarized shear strain waves as a function of the applied stress, allows one to measure the Landau moduli A, B, C that completely describe the third-order nonlinearity. The several orders of magnitude found among these three constants can be justified from the theoretical expression of the internal energy.

  10. Impulsive phase transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canfield, Richard C.; Bely-Dubau, Francoise; Brown, John C.; Dulk, George A.; Emslie, A. Gordon; Enome, Shinzo; Gabriel, Alan H.; Kundu, Mukul R.; Melrose, Donald; Neidig, Donald F.

    1986-01-01

    The transport of nonthermal electrons is explored. The thick-target electron beam model, in which electrons are presumed to be accelerated in the corona and typically thermalized primarily in the chromosphere and photosphere, is supported by observations throughout the electromagnetic spectrum. At the highest energies, the anisotropy of gamma-ray emission above 10 MeV clearly indicates that these photons are emitted by anisotropically-directed particles. The timing of this high-energy gamma-radiation with respect to lower-energy hard X-radiation implies that the energetic particles have short life-times. For collisional energy loss, this means that they are stopped in the chromosphere or below. Stereoscopic (two-spacecraft) observations at hard X-ray energies (up to 350 keV) imply that these lower-energy (but certainly nonthermal) electrons are also stopped deep in the chromosphere. Hard X-ray images show that, in spatially resolved flares whose radiation consists of impulsive bursts, the impulsive phase starts with X-radiation that comes mostly from the foot-points of coronal loops whose coronal component is outlined by microwaves.

  11. Ultrasound Vascular Elastography as a Tool for Assessing Atherosclerotic Plaques – A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Mahmood, B.; Ewertsen, C.; Carlsen, J.; Nielsen, M. B.

    2016-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a widespread disease that accounts for nearly 3-quarters of deaths due to cardiovascular disease. Ultrasound elastography might be able to reliably identify characteristics associated with vulnerable plaques. There is a need for the evaluation of elastography and its ability to distinguish between vulnerable and stable plaques. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the literature on vascular elastography. A systematic search of the available literature for studies using elastography for assessing atherosclerotic plaques was conducted using the MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Library and Web of Science databases. A standardized template was used to extract relevant data following the PRISMA 2009 checklist. 20 articles were included in this paper. The studies were heterogeneous. All studies reported that elastography was a feasible technique and provided additional information compared to B-mode ultrasound alone. Most studies reported higher strain values for vulnerable plaques. Ultrasound elastography has potential as a clinical tool in the assessment of atherosclerotic plaques. Elastography is able to distinguish between different plaque types, but there is considerable methodological variation between studies. There is a need for larger studies in a clinical setting to determine the full potential of elastography. PMID:27896334

  12. Real-time elastography for the diagnosis of prostate cancer: evaluation of elastographic moving images.

    PubMed

    Miyagawa, Tomoaki; Tsutsumi, Masakazu; Matsumura, Takeshi; Kawazoe, Natsui; Ishikawa, Satoru; Shimokama, Tatsuro; Miyanaga, Naoto; Akaza, Hideyuki

    2009-06-01

    Elastography is a technique for detecting the stiffness of tissues. We applied elastography for the diagnosis of prostate cancer and evaluated the usefulness of elastography for prostate biopsy. The subjects of this study were 311 patients who underwent elastography during prostate needle biopsy at Hitachi General Hospital. Strain images obtained during compression of the prostate tissue were displayed on a monitor and recorded on the computer. The elastographic moving images (EMI) were evaluated retrospectively. The evaluable images and biopsy results were compared in terms of the feasibility and accuracy. The median patient age was 67 years (range 50-85 years), the median serum level of prostate-specific antigen was 8.4 ng/ml (range 0.3-82.5 ng/ml) and the median prostate volume was 42.6 ml (range 12-150 ml). Among the 311 patients, prostate cancer was detected in 95 patients (30%) by biopsy. The diagnostic sensitivity was 37.9% for digital rectal examination (DRE) and 59.0% for transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS), whereas it was 72.6% for elastography and 89.5% for the combination of TRUS and elastography. Elastography-positive EMIs with negative biopsies were eventually determined to be due to benign prostatic hyperplasia. Elastography has a significantly higher sensitivity for the detection of prostate cancer than the conventionally used examinations including DRE and TRUS. It is a useful real-time diagnostic method because it is not invasive, and simultaneous evaluation is possible while performing TRUS.

  13. The Journey of Elastography: Background, Current Status, and Future Possibilities in Breast Cancer Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Faruk, Tasnuva; Islam, Md Kafiul; Arefin, Sams; Haq, Md Zahurul

    2015-10-01

    Elastography is a promising way to assess tissue differences regarding stiffness or elasticity for what was historically assessed manually by palpation. Combined with conventional imaging modalities (eg, ultrasonography [US]), elastography can potentially evaluate the stiffness of a breast lesion and consequently help to detect malignant breast tumor from benign ones. Recent studies show that ultrasonographic elastography (USE) provides higher image quality compared with conventional B-mode US or mammography during breast cancer diagnosis, which eventually helps to reduce false-positive results (ie, increased specificity) and therefore is useful in avoiding breast biopsy. This article reviews the basics of elastography technique, classifications, diagnosis results obtained from clinical studies to date for differentiating malignant breast tumors from benign lesions, and its future possibilities. In addition, this article generalizes different elastography methods, modes, and associated imaging modalities in a simpler way and attempts to identify misconceptions and confusion related to existing elastography techniques. It also makes an effort to identify the gaps of information that need to be filled so that interested researchers can get an overall idea of elastography-based methods in a convenient way to carry out their research on breast elastography for prospective future applications, eg, breast cancer diagnosis or even in intraoperative breast tumor localization.

  14. High Frame-Rate Imaging Applied to Quasi-static Elastography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramalli, Alessandro; Boni, Enrico; Basset, Olivier; Cachard, Christian; Tortoli, Piero

    Ultrasound elastography is an imaging technique addressed to investigate the tissue elastic properties. In freehand elastography, the ultrasound probe is moved by the operator to compress the tissue while the echo RF-data are processed to estimate the axial strain tensor by calculating the gradient of the corresponding displacement.

  15. Prospective Comparison of Liver Stiffness Measurements between Two Point Shear Wave Elastography Methods: Virtual Touch Quantification and Elastography Point Quantification.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Hyunsuk; Lee, Jeong Min; Yoon, Jeong Hee; Lee, Dong Ho; Chang, Won; Han, Joon Koo

    2016-01-01

    To prospectively compare technical success rate and reliable measurements of virtual touch quantification (VTQ) elastography and elastography point quantification (ElastPQ), and to correlate liver stiffness (LS) measurements obtained by the two elastography techniques. Our study included 85 patients, 80 of whom were previously diagnosed with chronic liver disease. The technical success rate and reliable measurements of the two kinds of point shear wave elastography (pSWE) techniques were compared by χ(2) analysis. LS values measured using the two techniques were compared and correlated via Wilcoxon signed-rank test, Spearman correlation coefficient, and 95% Bland-Altman limit of agreement. The intraobserver reproducibility of ElastPQ was determined by 95% Bland-Altman limit of agreement and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). The two pSWE techniques showed similar technical success rate (98.8% for VTQ vs. 95.3% for ElastPQ, p = 0.823) and reliable LS measurements (95.3% for VTQ vs. 90.6% for ElastPQ, p = 0.509). The mean LS measurements obtained by VTQ (1.71 ± 0.47 m/s) and ElastPQ (1.66 ± 0.41 m/s) were not significantly different (p = 0.209). The LS measurements obtained by the two techniques showed strong correlation (r = 0.820); in addition, the 95% limit of agreement of the two methods was 27.5% of the mean. Finally, the ICC of repeat ElastPQ measurements was 0.991. Virtual touch quantification and ElastPQ showed similar technical success rate and reliable measurements, with strongly correlated LS measurements. However, the two methods are not interchangeable due to the large limit of agreement.

  16. Strain US Elastography for the Characterization of Thyroid Nodules: Advantages and Limitation.

    PubMed

    Cantisani, Vito; Grazhdani, Hektor; Drakonaki, Elena; D'Andrea, Vito; Di Segni, Mattia; Kaleshi, Erton; Calliada, Fabrizio; Catalano, Carlo; Redler, Adriano; Brunese, Luca; Drudi, Francesco Maria; Fumarola, Angela; Carbotta, Giovanni; Frattaroli, Fabrizio; Di Leo, Nicola; Ciccariello, Mauro; Caratozzolo, Marcello; D'Ambrosio, Ferdinando

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid nodules, with their high prevalence in the general population, represent a diagnostic challenge for clinicians. Ultrasound (US), although absolutely reliable in detecting thyroid nodules, is still not accurate enough to differentiate them into benign and malignant. A promising novel modality, US elastography, has been introduced in order to further increase US accuracy. The purpose of this review article is to assess the thyroid application of US strain elastography, also known as real-time elastography or quasistatic elastography. We provide a presentation of the technique, and of up-to-date literature, analyzing the most prominent results reported for thyroid nodules differentiation. The practical advantages and limitations of strain elastography are extensively discussed herein.

  17. Strain US Elastography for the Characterization of Thyroid Nodules: Advantages and Limitation

    PubMed Central

    Cantisani, Vito; Grazhdani, Hektor; Drakonaki, Elena; D'Andrea, Vito; Di Segni, Mattia; Kaleshi, Erton; Calliada, Fabrizio; Catalano, Carlo; Brunese, Luca; Drudi, Francesco Maria; Fumarola, Angela; Carbotta, Giovanni; Frattaroli, Fabrizio; Di Leo, Nicola; Ciccariello, Mauro; Caratozzolo, Marcello; D'Ambrosio, Ferdinando

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid nodules, with their high prevalence in the general population, represent a diagnostic challenge for clinicians. Ultrasound (US), although absolutely reliable in detecting thyroid nodules, is still not accurate enough to differentiate them into benign and malignant. A promising novel modality, US elastography, has been introduced in order to further increase US accuracy. The purpose of this review article is to assess the thyroid application of US strain elastography, also known as real-time elastography or quasistatic elastography. We provide a presentation of the technique, and of up-to-date literature, analyzing the most prominent results reported for thyroid nodules differentiation. The practical advantages and limitations of strain elastography are extensively discussed herein. PMID:25954310

  18. IMPULSIVITY PARAMETER FOR SOLAR FLARES

    SciTech Connect

    Fajardo-Mendieta, W. G.; Alvarado-Gómez, J. D.; Calvo-Mozo, B.; Martinez-Oliveros, J. C. E-mail: bcalvom@unal.edu.co E-mail: jalvarad@eso.org

    2016-02-10

    Three phases are typically observed during solar flares: the preflare, impulsive, and decay phases. During the impulsive phase, it is believed that the electrons and other particles are accelerated after the stored energy in the magnetic field is released by reconnection. The impulsivity of a solar flare is a quantifiable property that shows how quickly this initial energy release occurs. It is measured via the impulsivity parameter, which we define as the inverse of the overall duration of the impulsive phase. We take the latter as the raw width of the most prominent nonthermal emission of the flare. We computed this observable over a work sample of 48 M-class events that occurred during the current Solar Cycle 24 by using three different methods. The first method takes into account all of the nonthermal flare emission and gives very accurate results, while the other two just cover fixed energy intervals (30–40 keV and 25–50 keV) and are useful for fast calculations. We propose an alternative way to classify solar flares according to their impulsivity parameter values, defining three different types of impulsivity, namely, high, medium, and low. This system of classification is independent of the manner used to calculated the impulsivity parameter. Lastly, we show the relevance of this tool as a discriminator of different HXR generation processes.

  19. Teaching about Impulse and Momentum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Bill

    2004-01-01

    This American Association of Physics Teachers/Physics Teaching Resource Agents (APPT/PTRA) spiral-bound manual features labs and demos physics teachers can use to give students hands-on opportunities to learn about impulse and momentum. "Make-and-take activities" include AAPT Apparatus Contest winners "An Air Impulse Rocket," "A Fan Driven…

  20. Teaching about Impulse and Momentum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Bill

    2004-01-01

    This American Association of Physics Teachers/Physics Teaching Resource Agents (APPT/PTRA) spiral-bound manual features labs and demos physics teachers can use to give students hands-on opportunities to learn about impulse and momentum. "Make-and-take activities" include AAPT Apparatus Contest winners "An Air Impulse Rocket," "A Fan Driven…

  1. Impulsive control for hypervelocity missiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magness, R. W.

    1981-05-01

    A hypervelocity agile interceptor/quickshot is being developed for defense of ballistic missile launch sites. A guidance and control system is required to achieve the missile guidance accuracy necessary for direct target impact. Attitude control systems evaluated for the agile interceptor included aerodynamic controls, thrust vector controls and impulsive motor controls. The solid squib impulsive control motion was selected because of high response rate, low weight and low volume. A baseline motor configuration was designed and a solid propellant squib was developed for use in the control system. Ballistic pendulum and bench tests were conducted with a test impulsive control motor to measure nominal performance, establish the standard deviation of performance, and define requirements to prevent sympathetic ignition. A dynamic control wind tunnel test was also conducted to determine the impulse augmentation due to the impulsive motor jet interaction with the missile boundary layer. The degree and direction of augmentation was measured for variations in Mach number and angle of attack.

  2. Recent Insights into the Neurobiology of Impulsivity

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Marci R.; Potenza, Marc N.

    2014-01-01

    Impulsivity is associated with various psychopathologies, and elevated impulsivity is typically disadvantageous. This manuscript reviews recent investigations into the neurobiology of impulsivity using human imaging techniques and animal models. Both human imaging and preclinical pharmacological manipulations have yielded important insights into the neurobiological underpinnings of impulsivity. A more thorough understanding of the complex neurobiology underlying aspects of impulsivity may provide insight into new treatment options that target elevated impulsivity and psychopathologies such as addictions. PMID:25431750

  3. Braking and propulsive impulses increase with speed during accelerated and decelerated walking.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Carrie L; Kautz, Steven A; Neptune, Richard R

    2011-04-01

    The ability to accelerate and decelerate is important for daily activities and likely more demanding than maintaining a steady-state walking speed. Walking speed is modulated by anterior-posterior (AP) ground reaction force (GRF) impulses. The purpose of this study was to investigate AP impulses across a wide range of speeds during accelerated and decelerated walking. Kinematic and GRF data were collected from 10 healthy subjects walking on an instrumented treadmill. Subjects completed trials at steady-state speeds and at four rates of acceleration and deceleration across a speed range of 0-1.8 m/s. Mixed regression models were generated to predict AP impulses, step length and frequency from speed, and joint moment impulses from AP impulses during non-steady-state walking. Braking and propulsive impulses were positively related to speed. The braking impulse had a greater relationship with speed than the propulsive impulse, suggesting that subjects modulate the braking impulse more than the propulsive impulse to change speed. Hip and knee extensor, and ankle plantarflexor moment impulses were positively related to the braking impulse, and knee flexor and ankle plantarflexor moment impulses were positively related to the propulsive impulse. Step length and frequency increased with speed and were near the subjects' preferred combination at steady-state speeds, at which metabolic cost is minimized in nondisabled walking. Thus, these variables may be modulated to minimize metabolic cost while accelerating and decelerating. The outcomes of this work provide the foundation to investigate motor coordination in pathological subjects in response to the increased task demands of non-steady-state walking. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Braking and Propulsive Impulses Increase with Speed during Accelerated and Decelerated Walking

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Carrie L.; Kautz, Steven A.; Neptune, Richard R.

    2011-01-01

    The ability to accelerate and decelerate is important for daily activities and likely more demanding than maintaining a steady-state walking speed. Walking speed is modulated by anterior-posterior (AP) ground reaction force (GRF) impulses. The purpose of this study was to investigate AP impulses across a wide range of speeds during accelerated and decelerated walking. Kinematic and GRF data were collected from ten healthy subjects walking on an instrumented treadmill. Subjects completed trials at steady-state speeds and at four rates of acceleration and deceleration across a speed range of 0 to 1.8 m/s. Mixed regression models were generated to predict AP impulses, step length and frequency from speed, and joint moment impulses from AP impulses during non-steady-state walking. Braking and propulsive impulses were positively related to speed. The braking impulse had a greater relationship with speed than the propulsive impulse, suggesting that subjects modulate the braking impulse more than the propulsive impulse to change speed. Hip and knee extensor, and ankle plantarflexor moment impulses were positively related to the braking impulse, and knee flexor and ankle plantarflexor moment impulses were positively related to the propulsive impulse. Step length and frequency increased with speed and were near the subjects’ preferred combination at steady-state speeds, at which metabolic cost is minimized in nondisabled walking. Thus, these variables may be modulated to minimize metabolic cost while accelerating and decelerating. The outcomes of this work provide the foundation to investigate motor coordination in pathological subjects in response to the increased task demands of non-steady-state walking. PMID:21356590

  5. [Kleptomania: an irresistible impulse].

    PubMed

    Hatzigeorgiou, K

    2011-01-01

    This review presents the historical-epidemiological and clinical aspects of Kleptomania. The diagnostic criteria, on the basis of which it is categorized in the group of Impulse Control Disorders, are defined precisely. All the aspects of its causative pathogenesis are deeply analyzed, as they are projected through its phenomenological, psychoanalytical and psycho-biological approach. Particular emphasis is given on its differential diagnosis from other psycho-pathological conditions and especially from the co-morbidities that often accompany it. The frame of treatment is established and its course and the final outcome are analyzed. Finally, it is determined what should be the objectives of future research, which will contribute decisively to the ascertainment of the exact incidence of Kleptomania in the general population, to the clarification of its causative pathogenesis and especially to the most effective treatment of this serious mental disorder.

  6. Nonsputtering impulse magnetron discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Khodachenko, G. V.; Mozgrin, D. V.; Fetisov, I. K.; Stepanova, T. V.

    2012-01-15

    Experiments with quasi-steady high-current discharges in crossed E Multiplication-Sign B fields in various gases (Ar, N{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, and SF{sub 6}) and gas mixtures (Ar/SF{sub 6} and Ar/O{sub 2}) at pressures from 10{sup -3} to 5 Torr in discharge systems with different configurations of electric and magnetic fields revealed a specific type of stable low-voltage discharge that does not transform into an arc. This type of discharge came to be known as a high-current diffuse discharge and, later, a nonsputtering impulse magnetron discharge. This paper presents results from experimental studies of the plasma parameters (the electron temperature, the plasma density, and the temperature of ions and atoms of the plasma-forming gas) of a high-current low-pressure diffuse discharge in crossed E Multiplication-Sign B fields.

  7. Elastography Using Multi-Stream GPU: An Application to Online Tracked Ultrasound Elastography, In-Vivo and the da Vinci Surgical System

    PubMed Central

    Deshmukh, Nishikant P.; Kang, Hyun Jae; Billings, Seth D.; Taylor, Russell H.; Hager, Gregory D.; Boctor, Emad M.

    2014-01-01

    A system for real-time ultrasound (US) elastography will advance interventions for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer by advancing methods such as thermal monitoring of tissue ablation. A multi-stream graphics processing unit (GPU) based accelerated normalized cross-correlation (NCC) elastography, with a maximum frame rate of 78 frames per second, is presented in this paper. A study of NCC window size is undertaken to determine the effect on frame rate and the quality of output elastography images. This paper also presents a novel system for Online Tracked Ultrasound Elastography (O-TRuE), which extends prior work on an offline method. By tracking the US probe with an electromagnetic (EM) tracker, the system selects in-plane radio frequency (RF) data frames for generating high quality elastograms. A novel method for evaluating the quality of an elastography output stream is presented, suggesting that O-TRuE generates more stable elastograms than generated by untracked, free-hand palpation. Since EM tracking cannot be used in all systems, an integration of real-time elastography and the da Vinci Surgical System is presented and evaluated for elastography stream quality based on our metric. The da Vinci surgical robot is outfitted with a laparoscopic US probe, and palpation motions are autonomously generated by customized software. It is found that a stable output stream can be achieved, which is affected by both the frequency and amplitude of palpation. The GPU framework is validated using data from in-vivo pig liver ablation; the generated elastography images identify the ablated region, outlined more clearly than in the corresponding B-mode US images. PMID:25541954

  8. Impulse and Frequency Response of a Moving Coil Galvanometer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeill, D. J.

    1985-01-01

    Describes an undergraduate laboratory experiment in which a moving coil galvanometer is studied and the electromotive force generated by the swinging coil provides the impulse response information in a form suitable for digitizing and inputing to a microcomputer. Background information and analysis of typical data are included. (JN)

  9. Impulse and Frequency Response of a Moving Coil Galvanometer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeill, D. J.

    1985-01-01

    Describes an undergraduate laboratory experiment in which a moving coil galvanometer is studied and the electromotive force generated by the swinging coil provides the impulse response information in a form suitable for digitizing and inputing to a microcomputer. Background information and analysis of typical data are included. (JN)

  10. Output feedback model matching in linear impulsive systems with control feedthrough: a structural approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zattoni, Elena

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the problem of structural model matching by output feedback in linear impulsive systems with control feedthrough. Namely, given a linear impulsive plant, possibly featuring an algebraic link from the control input to the output, and given a linear impulsive model, the problem consists in finding a linear impulsive regulator that achieves exact matching between the respective forced responses of the linear impulsive plant and of the linear impulsive model, for all the admissible input functions and all the admissible sequences of jump times, by means of a dynamic feedback of the plant output. The problem solvability is characterized by a necessary and sufficient condition. The regulator synthesis is outlined through the proof of sufficiency, which is constructive.

  11. Modification of impulse generation during piqué turns with increased rotational demands.

    PubMed

    Zaferiou, Antonia M; Wilcox, Rand R; McNitt-Gray, Jill L

    2016-06-01

    During initiation of a piqué turn, a dancer generates impulse to achieve the desired lateral translation and whole-body rotation. The goal of this study was to determine how individuals regulate impulse generation when initiating piqué turns with increased rotational demands. Skilled dancers (n=10) performed single (∼360°) and double (∼720°) piqué turns from a stationary position. Linear and angular impulse generated by the push and turn legs were quantified using ground reaction forces and compared across turn conditions as a group and within a dancer using probability-based statistical methods. The results indicate that as the rotation demands of the piqué turn increased, the net angular impulse generated increased whereas net lateral impulse decreased. Early during turn initiation, the free moment contributed to angular impulse generation. Later during turn initiation, horizontal reaction forces were controlled to generate angular impulse. As rotational demands increased, the moment applied increased primarily from redirection of the horizontal reaction force (RFh) at the push leg and a combination of RFh magnitude and moment arm increases at the turn leg. RFh at each leg were coordinated to limit unwanted net linear impulse. Knowledge of observed subject-specific mechanisms is important to inform the design of turning performance training tools.

  12. Modification of Impulse Generation During Pirouette Turns With Increased Rotational Demands.

    PubMed

    Zaferiou, Antonia M; Wilcox, Rand R; McNitt-Gray, Jill L

    2016-10-01

    This study determined how dancers regulated angular and linear impulse during the initiation of pirouettes of increased rotation. Skilled dancers (n = 11) performed single and double pirouette turns with each foot supported by a force plate. Linear and angular impulses generated by each leg were quantified and compared between turn types using probability-based statistical methods. As rotational demands increased, dancers increased the net angular impulse generated. The contribution of each leg to net angular impulse in both single and double pirouettes was influenced by stance configuration strategies. Dancers who generated more angular impulse with the push leg than with the turn leg initiated the turn with the center of mass positioned closer to the turn leg than did other dancers. As rotational demands increased, dancers tended to increase the horizontal reaction force magnitude at one or both feet; however, they used subject-specific mechanisms. By coordinating the generation of reaction forces between legs, changes in net horizontal impulse remained minimal, despite impulse regulation at each leg used to achieve more rotations. Knowledge gained regarding how an individual coordinates the generation of linear and angular impulse between both legs as rotational demand increased can help design tools to improve that individual's performance.

  13. [Biodynamic response of the human shank subjected to impulse load].

    PubMed

    Wang, X; Bai, R; Tumer, S T

    2000-06-01

    This paper reported the establishment of biodynamic modelling of the human shank in the sagittal palne while the human thigh is fixed. And when the shank is subjected to the two types of externally applied impulse loads, the forces associated with the four main ligaments, as well as the bone-to-bone contact forces in the knee joint are numerically obtained. The contact point locations are also presented together with the angular motions of the lower limb segments.

  14. Dynamic and quantitative assessment of blood coagulation using optical coherence elastography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiangqun; Zhu, Jiang; Chen, Zhongping

    2016-04-01

    Reliable clot diagnostic systems are needed for directing treatment in a broad spectrum of cardiovascular diseases and coagulopathy. Here, we report on non-contact measurement of elastic modulus for dynamic and quantitative assessment of whole blood coagulation using acoustic radiation force orthogonal excitation optical coherence elastography (ARFOE-OCE). In this system, acoustic radiation force (ARF) is produced by a remote ultrasonic transducer, and a shear wave induced by ARF excitation is detected by the optical coherence tomography (OCT) system. During porcine whole blood coagulation, changes in the elastic property of the clots increase the shear modulus of the sample, altering the propagating velocity of the shear wave. Consequently, dynamic blood coagulation status can be measured quantitatively by relating the velocity of the shear wave with clinically relevant coagulation metrics, including reaction time, clot formation kinetics and maximum shear modulus. The results show that the ARFOE-OCE is sensitive to the clot formation kinetics and can differentiate the elastic properties of the recalcified porcine whole blood, blood added with kaolin as an activator, and blood spiked with fibrinogen.

  15. Dynamic and quantitative assessment of blood coagulation using optical coherence elastography

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiangqun; Zhu, Jiang; Chen, Zhongping

    2016-01-01

    Reliable clot diagnostic systems are needed for directing treatment in a broad spectrum of cardiovascular diseases and coagulopathy. Here, we report on non-contact measurement of elastic modulus for dynamic and quantitative assessment of whole blood coagulation using acoustic radiation force orthogonal excitation optical coherence elastography (ARFOE-OCE). In this system, acoustic radiation force (ARF) is produced by a remote ultrasonic transducer, and a shear wave induced by ARF excitation is detected by the optical coherence tomography (OCT) system. During porcine whole blood coagulation, changes in the elastic property of the clots increase the shear modulus of the sample, altering the propagating velocity of the shear wave. Consequently, dynamic blood coagulation status can be measured quantitatively by relating the velocity of the shear wave with clinically relevant coagulation metrics, including reaction time, clot formation kinetics and maximum shear modulus. The results show that the ARFOE-OCE is sensitive to the clot formation kinetics and can differentiate the elastic properties of the recalcified porcine whole blood, blood added with kaolin as an activator, and blood spiked with fibrinogen. PMID:27090437

  16. Reliability and validity of quantifying absolute muscle hardness using ultrasound elastography.

    PubMed

    Chino, Kentaro; Akagi, Ryota; Dohi, Michiko; Fukashiro, Senshi; Takahashi, Hideyuki

    2012-01-01

    Muscle hardness is a mechanical property that represents transverse muscle stiffness. A quantitative method that uses ultrasound elastography for quantifying absolute human muscle hardness has been previously devised; however, its reliability and validity have not been completely verified. This study aimed to verify the reliability and validity of this quantitative method. The Young's moduli of seven tissue-mimicking materials (in vitro; Young's modulus range, 20-80 kPa; increments of 10 kPa) and the human medial gastrocnemius muscle (in vivo) were quantified using ultrasound elastography. On the basis of the strain/Young's modulus ratio of two reference materials, one hard and one soft (Young's moduli of 7 and 30 kPa, respectively), the Young's moduli of the tissue-mimicking materials and medial gastrocnemius muscle were calculated. The intra- and inter-investigator reliability of the method was confirmed on the basis of acceptably low coefficient of variations (≤6.9%) and substantially high intraclass correlation coefficients (≥0.77) obtained from all measurements. The correlation coefficient between the Young's moduli of the tissue-mimicking materials obtained using a mechanical method and ultrasound elastography was 0.996, which was equivalent to values previously obtained using magnetic resonance elastography. The Young's moduli of the medial gastrocnemius muscle obtained using ultrasound elastography were within the range of values previously obtained using magnetic resonance elastography. The reliability and validity of the quantitative method for measuring absolute muscle hardness using ultrasound elastography were thus verified.

  17. Running gait impulse asymmetries in below-knee amputees.

    PubMed

    Prince, F; Allard, P; Therrien, R G; McFadyen, B J

    1992-04-01

    In running, large gait asymmetry is expected due to the inability of the foot prosthesis to comply with the kinematic demands and produce a powerful plantarflexion moment. In this work, interlimb asymmetry in below-knee (BK) amputee running gait was assessed for one rigid and three flexible keel prostheses, using vertical and anteroposterior ground reaction forces and respective impulses. Nine BK amputees and 6 controls participated in this study. The running speed was monitored by two light sensitive detectors while the ground reaction forces were measured with a Kistler force plate. Between the prosthetic side and the sound limb the impulse indicator showed greater asymmetry than the force. Interlimb asymmetry was very much present in all types of prosthesis tested but is less pronounced in the flexible keel prostheses. In the latter, the asymmetry may be associated with the force-time history modulation rather than its magnitude alone. Generally, the impulses better describe interlimb asymmetry and the forces allow a greater discrimination between prosthetic foot types.

  18. Use of Ultrasound Elastography in the Assessment of the Musculoskeletal System

    PubMed Central

    Paluch, Łukasz; Nawrocka-Laskus, Ewa; Wieczorek, Janusz; Mruk, Bartosz; Frel, Małgorzata; Walecki, Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    Summary This article presents possible applications of ultrasound elastography in musculoskeletal imaging based on the available literature, as well as the possibility of extending indications for the use of elastography in the future. Ultrasound elastography (EUS) is a new method that shows structural changes in tissues following application of physical stress. Elastography techniques have been widely used to assess muscles and tendons in vitro since the early parts of the twentieth century. Only recently with the advent of new technology and creation of highly specialized ultrasound devices, has elastography gained widespread use in numerous applications. The authors performed a search of the Medline/PubMed databases for original research and reviewed publications on the application of ultrasound elastography for musculoskeletal imaging. All publications demonstrate possible uses of ultrasound elastography in examinations of the musculoskeletal system. The most widely studied areas include the muscles, tendons and rheumatic diseases. There are also reports on the employment in vessel imaging. The main limitation of elastography as a technique is above all the variability of applied pressure during imaging, which is operator-dependent. It would therefore be reasonable to provide clear guidelines on the technique applied, as well as clear indications for performing the test. It is important to develop methods for creating artifact-free, closed-loop, compression-decompression cycles. The main advantages include cost-effectiveness, short duration of the study, non-invasive nature of the procedure, as well as a potentially broader clinical availability. There are no clear guidelines with regard to indications as well as examination techniques. Ultrasound elastography is a new and still poorly researched method. We conclude, however, that it can be widely used in the examinations of musculoskeletal system. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct large, multi

  19. In vivo skin elastography with high-definition optical videos.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Brodell, Robert T; Mostow, Eliot N; Vinyard, Christopher J; Marie, Hazel

    2009-08-01

    Continuous measurements of biomechanical properties of skin provide potentially valuable information to dermatologists for both clinical diagnosis and quantitative assessment of therapy. This paper presents an experimental study on in vivo imaging of skin elastic properties using high-definition optical videos. The objective is to (i) investigate whether skin property abnormalities can be detected in the computed strain elastograms, (ii) quantify property abnormalities with a Relative Strain Index (RSI), so that an objective rating system can be established, (iii) determine whether certain skin diseases are more amenable to optical elastography and (iv) identify factors that may have an adverse impact on the quality of strain elastograms. There are three steps in optical skin elastography: (i) skin deformations are recorded in a video sequence using a high-definition camcorder, (ii) a dense motion field between two adjacent video frames is obtained using a robust optical flow algorithm, with which a cumulative motion field between two frames of a larger interval is derived and (iii) a strain elastogram is computed by applying two weighted gradient filters to the cumulative motion data. Experiments were carried out using videos of 25 patients. In the three cases presented in this article (hypertrophic lichen planus, seborrheic keratosis and psoriasis vulgaris), abnormal tissues associated with the skin diseases were successfully identified in the elastograms. There exists a good correspondence between the shape of property abnormalities and the area of diseased skin. The computed RSI gives a quantitative measure of the magnitude of property abnormalities that is consistent with the skin stiffness observed on clinical examinations. Optical elastography is a promising imaging modality that is capable of capturing disease-induced property changes. Its main advantage is that an elastogram presents a continuous description of the spatial variation of skin properties on

  20. New aspects in shear-wave elastography of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Porsch, Markus; Wendler, Johann Jakob; Liehr, Uwe-Bernd; Lux, Anke; Schostak, Martin; Pech, Maciej

    2015-03-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the performance of shear-wave elastography as a diagnostic tool for prostate cancer in a larger cohort of patients than previously reported. Seventy-three patients with suspected prostate carcinoma were investigated by ultrasound elastography followed by directed biopsy. The elastographic and histological results for all biopsies were compared. After exclusion of invalid and non-assessable results, 794 samples were obtained for which both a histological assessment and an elastometric result (tissue stiffness in kPa) were available: according to the histology 589 were benign and 205 were malignant. Tissue elasticity was found to be weakly correlated with patient's age, PSA level and gland volume. ROC analysis showed that, for the set of results acquired, elastometry did not fulfil literature claims that it could identify malignant neoplasia with high sensitivity and specificity. However, it did show promise in distinguishing between Gleason scores ≤6 and >6 when malignancy had already been identified. Unexpected observations were the finding of a smaller proportion of tumours in the lateral regions of the prostate than generally expected, and also the observation that the elasticity of benign prostate tissue is region-sensitive, the tissue being stiffest in the basal region and more elastic at the apex. Shear-wave elastography was found to be a poor predictor of malignancy, but for malignant lesions an elasticity cut-off of 80 kPa allowed a fairly reliable distinction between lesions with Gleason ≤6 and those with Gleason >6. We demonstrate an increase in elasticity of benign prostate tissue from the basal to the apical region.

  1. Angle-independent myocardial elastography: theoretical analysis and clinical validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konofagou, Elisa E.; Lee, Wei-Ning; Fung-kee-Fung, Simon D.

    2007-03-01

    Several methods have been introduced in the past few years to quantify left-ventricular strain in order to detect myocardial ischemia and infarction. Myocardial Elastography is one of these methods, which is based on ultrasound Radio-Frequency (RF) signal processing at high frame rates for the highest precision and resolution of strain estimation. Myocardial elastography estimates displacement and strain during the natural contraction of the myocardium using cross-correlation techniques. We have previously shown that imaging of the myocardial strain at high precision allows the correct assessment of the contractility of the cardiac muscle and thus measurement of the extent of ischemia or infarct. In this paper, for the first time in echocardiography, we show how angle-independent techniques can be used to estimate and image the mechanics of normal and pathological myocardia, both in simulations and in vivo. First, the fundamental limits of 2D normal and principal strain component estimation are determined using an ultrasound image formation model and a 2D short-axis view of a 3D left-ventricular, finite-element model, in normal and ischemic configurations. Two-dimensional (i.e., lateral and axial) cumulative displacement and strain components were iteratively estimated and imaged using 1D cross-correlation and recorrelation techniques in a 2D search. Validation of these elastographic findings in one normal human subject was performed. Principal strains were also imaged for the characterization of normal myocardium. In conclusion, the feasibility of angle-independent, 2D myocardial elastography technique was shown through the calculation of the in-plane principal strains, which was proven essential in the reliable depiction of strains independent of the beam-tissue angle or the type of sonographic view used.

  2. Update on ultrasound elastography: miscellanea. Prostate, testicle, musculo-skeletal.

    PubMed

    Correas, J M; Drakonakis, E; Isidori, A M; Hélénon, O; Pozza, C; Cantisani, V; Di Leo, N; Maghella, F; Rubini, A; Drudi, F M; D'ambrosio, F

    2013-11-01

    Nowadays ultrasound elastosonography is an established technique, although with limited clinical application, used to assess tissue stiffness, which is a parameter that in most cases is associated with malignancy. However, although a consistent number of articles have been published about several applications of elastosonography, its use in certain human body districts is still not well defined. In this paper we write on the use of elastosonography in prostate, testicle and musculo-skeletal apparatus. We report and compare the work of several authors, different type of elastosonography (shear wave, strain elastography, etc.) and instrumental data obtained in the study of both benign and malignant lesions.

  3. Optimal Design of Damper Layer for Static Elastography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Takayuki; Watanabe, Yasuaki; Sekimoto, Hitoshi

    2012-07-01

    An effective method in static elastography for improving the nonuniformity of stress applied by the shape of a transducer head is to insert a damper between the tissue being analyzed and the transducer head. We previously demonstrated the effectiveness of inserting a damper through computer simulations of structural and acoustic analyses on tissue models with flat surfaces. In this study, the optimal values were obtained for two parameters of the damper: Young's modulus and damper thickness. An effective damper shape was also determined through structural analyses.

  4. Real-time quasi-static ultrasound elastography

    PubMed Central

    Treece, Graham; Lindop, Joel; Chen, Lujie; Housden, James; Prager, Richard; Gee, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Ultrasound elastography is a technique used for clinical imaging of tissue stiffness with a conventional ultrasound machine. It was first proposed two decades ago, but active research continues in this area to the present day. Numerous clinical applications have been investigated, mostly related to cancer imaging, and though these have yet to prove conclusive, the technique has seen increasing commercial and clinical interest. This paper presents a review of the most widely adopted, non-quantitative, techniques focusing on technical innovations rather than clinical applications. The review is not intended to be exhaustive, concentrating instead on placing the various techniques in context according to the authors' perspective of the field. PMID:22866230

  5. Review of MR Elastography Applications and Recent Developments

    PubMed Central

    Glaser, Kevin J.; Manduca, Armando; Ehman, Richard L.

    2012-01-01

    The technique of MR elastography (MRE) has emerged as a useful modality for quantitatively imaging the mechanical properties of soft tissues in vivo. Recently, MRE has been introduced as a clinical tool for evaluating chronic liver disease, but many other potential applications are being explored. These applications include measuring tissue changes associated with diseases of the liver, breast, brain, heart, and skeletal muscle including both focal lesions (e.g., hepatic, breast, and brain tumors) and diffuse diseases (e.g., fibrosis and multiple sclerosis). The purpose of this review article is to summarize some of the recent developments of MRE and to highlight some emerging applications. PMID:22987755

  6. The Neurobiology of Impulsive Aggression

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This selective review provides a model of the neurobiology of impulsive aggression from a cognitive neuroscience perspective. It is argued that prototypical cases of impulsive aggression, those associated with anger, involve the recruitment of the acute threat response system structures; that is, the amygdala, hypothalamus, and periaqueductal gray. It is argued that whether the recruitment of these structures results in impulsive aggression or not reflects the functional roles of ventromedial frontal cortex and dorsomedial frontal and anterior insula cortex in response selection. It is also argued that impulsive aggression may occur because of impaired decision making. The aggression may not be accompanied by anger, but it will reflect disrupted evaluation of the rewards/benefits of the action. PMID:26465707

  7. The Neurobiology of Impulsive Aggression.

    PubMed

    Blair, Robert J R

    2016-02-01

    This selective review provides a model of the neurobiology of impulsive aggression from a cognitive neuroscience perspective. It is argued that prototypical cases of impulsive aggression, those associated with anger, involve the recruitment of the acute threat response system structures; that is, the amygdala, hypothalamus, and periaqueductal gray. It is argued that whether the recruitment of these structures results in impulsive aggression or not reflects the functional roles of ventromedial frontal cortex and dorsomedial frontal and anterior insula cortex in response selection. It is also argued that impulsive aggression may occur because of impaired decision making. The aggression may not be accompanied by anger, but it will reflect disrupted evaluation of the rewards/benefits of the action.

  8. WFUMB Guidelines and Recommendations on the Clinical Use of Ultrasound Elastography: Part 4. Thyroid.

    PubMed

    Cosgrove, David; Barr, Richard; Bojunga, Joerg; Cantisani, Vito; Chammas, Maria Cristina; Dighe, Manjiri; Vinayak, Sudhir; Xu, Jun-Mei; Dietrich, Christoph F

    2017-01-01

    The World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology (WFUMB) has produced guidelines for the use of elastography techniques including basic science, breast and liver. Here we present elastography in thyroid diseases. For each available technique, procedure, reproducibility, results and limitations are analyzed and recommendations are given. Finally, recommendations are given based on the level of evidence of the published literature and on the WFUMB expert group's consensus. The document has a clinical perspective and is aimed at assessing the usefulness of elastography in the management of thyroid diseases.

  9. Impulsivity, risk taking, and timing.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Ana A; Odum, Amy L

    2012-07-01

    This study examined the relations among measures of impulsivity and timing. Impulsivity was assessed using delay and probability discounting, and self-report impulsivity (as measured by the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale; BIS-11). Timing was assessed using temporal perception as measured on a temporal bisection task and time perspective (as measured by the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory). One hundred and forty three college students completed these measures in a computer laboratory. The degree of delay discounting was positively correlated with the mean and range of the temporal bisection procedure. The degree of delay and probability discounting were also positively correlated. Self-reported motor impulsiveness on the BIS-11 was positively correlated with present hedonism and negatively correlated with future orientation on the ZTPI. Self-reported non-planning on the BIS-11 was positively correlated with fatalism on the ZTPI. These results show that people who overestimate the passage of time (perceive time as passing more quickly) hold less value in delayed rewards. They also confirm previous results regarding the relation between delay and probability discounting, as well as highlight similarities in self-report measures of impulsivity and time perspective.

  10. Impulsivity, Risk Taking, and Timing

    PubMed Central

    Baumann, Ana A.; Odum, Amy. L.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relations among measures of impulsivity and timing. Impulsivity was assessed using delay and probability discounting, and self-report impulsivity (as measured by the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale; BIS-11). Timing was assessed using temporal perception as measured on a temporal bisection task and time perspective (as measured by the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory). One hundred and forty three college students completed these measures in a computer laboratory. The degree of delay discounting was positively correlated with the mean and range of the temporal bisection procedure. The degree of delay and probability discounting were also positively correlated. Self-reported Motor impulsiveness on the BIS-11 was positively correlated with Present Hedonism and negatively correlated with Future orientation on the ZTPI. Self-reported Non-Planning on the BIS-11 was positively correlated with Fatalism on the ZTPI. These results show that people who overestimate the passage of time (perceive time as passing more quickly) hold less value in delayed rewards. They also confirm previous results regarding the relation between delay and probability discounting, as well as highlight similarities in self-report measures of impulsivity and time perspective. PMID:22542458

  11. A regularization-free elasticity reconstruction method for ultrasound elastography with freehand scan.

    PubMed

    Pan, Xiaochang; Liu, Ke; Bai, Jing; Luo, Jianwen

    2014-09-07

    In ultrasound elastography, reconstruction of tissue elasticity (e.g., Young's modulus) requires regularization and known information of forces and/or displacements on tissue boundaries. In practice, it is challenging to choose an appropriate regularization parameter; and the boundary conditions are difficult to obtain in vivo. The purpose of this study is to develop a more applicable algorithm that does not need any regularization or boundary force/displacement information. The proposed method adopts the bicubic B-spline as the tissue motion model to estimate the displacement fields. Then the estimated displacements are input to the finite element inversion scheme to reconstruct the Young's modulus of each element. In the inversion, a modulus boundary condition is used instead of force/displacement boundary conditions. Simulation and experiments on tissue-mimicking phantoms are carried out to test the proposed method. The simulation results demonstrate that Young's modulus reconstruction of the proposed method has a relative error of -3.43 ± 0.43% and root-squared-mean error of 16.94 ± 0.25%. The phantom experimental results show that the target hardening artifacts in the strain images are significantly reduced in the Young's modulus images. In both simulation and phantom studies, the size and position of inclusions can be accurately depicted in the modulus images. The proposed method can reconstruct tissue Young's modulus distribution with a high accuracy. It can reduce the artifacts shown in the strain image and correctly delineate the locations and sizes of inclusions. Unlike most modulus reconstruction methods, it does not need any regularization during the inversion procedure. Furthermore, it does not need to measure the boundary conditions of displacement or force. Thus this method can be used with a freehand scan, which facilitates its usage in the clinic.

  12. The Video Head Impulse Test

    PubMed Central

    Halmagyi, G. M.; Chen, Luke; MacDougall, Hamish G.; Weber, Konrad P.; McGarvie, Leigh A.; Curthoys, Ian S.

    2017-01-01

    In 1988, we introduced impulsive testing of semicircular canal (SCC) function measured with scleral search coils and showed that it could accurately and reliably detect impaired function even of a single lateral canal. Later we showed that it was also possible to test individual vertical canal function in peripheral and also in central vestibular disorders and proposed a physiological mechanism for why this might be so. For the next 20 years, between 1988 and 2008, impulsive testing of individual SCC function could only be accurately done by a few aficionados with the time and money to support scleral search-coil systems—an expensive, complicated and cumbersome, semi-invasive technique that never made the transition from the research lab to the dizzy clinic. Then, in 2009 and 2013, we introduced a video method of testing function of each of the six canals individually. Since 2009, the method has been taken up by most dizzy clinics around the world, with now close to 100 refereed articles in PubMed. In many dizzy clinics around the world, video Head Impulse Testing has supplanted caloric testing as the initial and in some cases the final test of choice in patients with suspected vestibular disorders. Here, we consider seven current, interesting, and controversial aspects of video Head Impulse Testing: (1) introduction to the test; (2) the progress from the head impulse protocol (HIMPs) to the new variant—suppression head impulse protocol (SHIMPs); (3) the physiological basis for head impulse testing; (4) practical aspects and potential pitfalls of video head impulse testing; (5) problems of vestibulo-ocular reflex gain calculations; (6) head impulse testing in central vestibular disorders; and (7) to stay right up-to-date—new clinical disease patterns emerging from video head impulse testing. With thanks and appreciation we dedicate this article to our friend, colleague, and mentor, Dr Bernard Cohen of Mount Sinai Medical School, New York, who since his

  13. Dopamine-agonists and impulsivity in Parkinson's disease: impulsive choices vs. impulsive actions.

    PubMed

    Antonelli, Francesca; Ko, Ji Hyun; Miyasaki, Janis; Lang, Anthony E; Houle, Sylvain; Valzania, Franco; Ray, Nicola J; Strafella, Antonio P

    2014-06-01

    The control of impulse behavior is a multidimensional concept subdivided into separate subcomponents, which are thought to represent different underlying mechanisms due to either disinhibitory processes or poor decision-making. In patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), dopamine-agonist (DA) therapy has been associated with increased impulsive behavior. However, the relationship among these different components in the disease and the role of DA is not well understood. In this imaging study, we investigated in PD patients the effects of DA medication on patterns of brain activation during tasks testing impulsive choices and actions. Following overnight withdrawal of antiparkinsonian medication, PD patients were studied with a H2 ((15)) O PET before and after administration of DA (1 mg of pramipexole), while they were performing the delay discounting task (DDT) and the GoNoGo Task (GNG). We observed that pramipexole augmented impulsivity during DDT, depending on reward magnitude and activated the medial prefrontal cortex and posterior cingulate cortex and deactivated ventral striatum. In contrast, the effect of pramipexole during the GNG task was not significant on behavioral performance and involved different areas (i.e., lateral prefrontal cortex). A voxel-based correlation analysis revealed a significant negative correlation between the discounting value (k) and the activation of medial prefrontal cortex and posterior cingulate suggesting that more impulsive patients had less activation in those cortical areas. Here we report how these different subcomponents of inhibition/impulsivity are differentially sensitive to DA treatment with pramipexole influencing mainly the neural network underlying impulsive choices but not impulsive action.

  14. Cardiac elastography: detecting pathological changes in myocardium tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konofagou, Elisa E.; Harrigan, Timothy; Solomon, Scott

    2003-05-01

    Estimation of the mechanical properties of the cardiac muscle has been shown to play a crucial role in the detection of cardiovascular disease. Elastography was recently shown feasible on RF cardiac data in vivo. In this paper, the role of elastography in the detection of ischemia/infarct is explored with simulations and in vivo experiments. In finite-element simulations of a portion of the cardiac muscle containing an infarcted region, the cardiac cycle was simulated with successive compressive and tensile strains ranging between -30% and 20%. The incremental elastic modulus was also mapped uisng adaptive methods. We then demonstrated this technique utilizing envelope-detected sonographic data (Hewlett-Packard Sonos 5500) in a patient with a known myocardial infarction. In cine-loop and M-Mode elastograms from both normal and infarcted regions in simulations and experiments, the infarcted region was identifed by the up to one order of magnitude lower incremental axial displacements and strains, and higher modulus. Information on motion, deformation and mechanical property should constitute a unique tool for noninvasive cardiac diagnosis.

  15. The feasibility of endorectal MR elastography for prostate cancer localization.

    PubMed

    Arani, Arvin; Plewes, Donald; Krieger, Axel; Chopra, Rajiv

    2011-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the feasibility of using a rigid radio-frequency receiver endorectal coil for intracavitary prostate magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) and to demonstrate the capability of this technique for generating stiffness maps over a typical prostate volume. An endorectal coil is currently used to help improve the signal-to-noise ratio of images acquired with multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging. We propose that this same coil could also serve to generate shear waves in the prostate gland during imaging, opening up the possibility of incorporating prostate stiffness characterization into multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging. Prostate cancer has been shown to change the elasticity of tissue, suggesting that stiffness imaging (elastography) may provide supplementary diagnostic information. A rigid endorectal coil was mechanically coupled to a piezoceramic actuator and used to investigate full volume (27 slices, 2-mm thick) endorectal MRE in a prostate mimicking phantom. The low-amplitude vibrations (± 8-38 μm displacements) necessary to perform endorectal MRE did not affect the signal-to noise ratio of the coil and endorectal MRE was capable of resolving 0.1 cc (0.6 cm diameter) spherical inclusion volumes. Therefore, the results of this study, in combination with current clinical practice, motivate clinical evaluation of endorectal MRE in patients. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Strain index: a new visualizing parameter for US elastography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sosa-Cabrera, Dario; de Luis-García, R.; Tristán-Vega, A.; Alberola-López, Carlos; Ruiz-Alzola, Juan

    2008-03-01

    Elastography, an ultrasound modality based on the relation between tissue strain and its mechanical properties, has a strong potential in the diagnosis and prognosis of tumors. For instance, tissue affected by breast and prostate cancer undergoes a change in its elastic properties. These changes can be measured using ultrasound signals. The standard way to visualize the elastic properties of tissues in elastography is the representation of the axial strain. Other approaches investigate the information contained in shear strain elastograms, vorticity or the representation of the full strain tensor. In this paper, we propose to represent the elastic behaviour of tissues through the visualization of the Strain Index, related with the trace of the strain tensor. Based on the mathematical interpretation of the strain tensor, this novel parameter is equivalent to the sum of the eigenvalues of the strain tensor, and constitutes a measure of the total amount of strain of the soft tissue. In order to show the potential of this visualization approach, a tissue-mimicking phantom was modeled as a 10x10x5 cm region containing a centered 10mm cylindrical inclusion three times stiffer than the surrounding material, and its elastic behavior was simulated using finite elements software. Synthetic pre- and post-compression (1.25%) B-mode images were computer-generated with ultrasound simulator. Results show that the visualization of the tensor trace significantly improves the representation and detection of inclusions, and can help add insight in the detection of different types of tumors.

  17. Feasibility of monitoring HIFU prostate cancer therapy using elastography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souchon, Remi; Chapelon, Jean Y.; Bertrand, Michel J.; Kallel, Faouzi; Ophir, Jonathan

    2001-05-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the feasibility of elastographic monitoring of High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) therapy of prostate cancer. Elastography is an imaging technique based on strain estimation in soft tissues under quasi-static compression. Since pathological tissues and HIFU-induced lesions exhibit different elastic properties than normal tissues, elastography is potentially able to achieve these goals. An ultrasound scanner was connected to a PC to acquire RF images. This setup is compatible with a HIFU device used for prostate cancer therapy by transrectal route. The therapy transducer and the biplane-imaging probe are covered with a balloon filled with a coupling liquid. Compression of the prostate is applied by inflating the balloon, while imaging sector scans of the prostate. In-vivo elastograms of the prostate were acquired before HIFU treatment. Problems inherent to in-vivo acquisitions are reported, such as undesired tangential displacements during the radial compression. This study shows the potential for in-vivo elastogram acquisition of HIFU-induced lesions in the human prostate.

  18. An Impulse Based Substructuring approach for impact analysis and load case simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rixen, Daniel J.; van der Valk, Paul L. C.

    2013-12-01

    In the present paper we outline the basic theory of assembling substructures for which the dynamics are described as Impulse Response Functions. The assembly procedure computes the time response of a system by evaluating per substructure the convolution product between the Impulse Response Functions and the applied forces, including the interface forces that are computed to satisfy the interface compatibility. We call this approach the Impulse Based Substructuring method since it transposes to the time domain the Frequency Based Substructuring approach. In the Impulse Based Substructuring technique the Impulse Response Functions of the substructures can be gathered either from experimental tests using a hammer impact or from time-integration of numerical submodels. In this paper the implementation of the method is outlined for the case when the impulse responses of the substructures are computed numerically. A simple bar example is shown in order to illustrate the concept. The Impulse Based Substructuring allows fast evaluation of impact response of a structure when the impulse response of its components is known. It can thus be used to efficiently optimize designs of consumer products by including impact behavior at the early stage of the design, but also for performing substructured simulations of complex structures such as offshore wind turbines.

  19. Effect of transient occlusal loading on the threshold of tooth tactile sensation perception for tapping like the impulsive stimulation.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Yuta; Oki, Kazuhiro; Iida, Sachiyo; Shirahige, Chieko; Maeda, Naoto; Kawakami, Shigehisa; Matsunaga, Tadashi; Minagi, Shogo

    2013-07-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to establish a reliable method for detecting the force threshold of the tooth tactile sensation while avoiding experimenter bias and (2) to examine the effect of occlusal force loading on the threshold for impulsive force stimulation in subjects with normal dentition. Twenty volunteers participated in this study (10 males and 10 females; mean age, 26.6 ± 2.9 years). To simulate the bite force during occlusal tapping, a force-loading device was designed to exert impulsive force to the occlusal surface in the direction parallel to the tooth axis. The impulsive force detection threshold of the periodontal sensation was measured before and after loading 98 N of occlusal force on the left upper first molar for 1 min. Transient mechanical loading of the upper first molar caused an increase in the absolute threshold for impulsive force. This increase did not vanish immediately, and the increment of the threshold was maintained during the remainder of the experiment. A computer-controlled method for the evaluation of tooth tactile sensation using impulsive stimulation was established. Transient occlusal force loading parallel to the tooth axis increases the threshold of periodontal sensation for mechanical impulsive stimulation.

  20. Relationships between ground reaction impulse and sprint acceleration performance in team sport athletes.

    PubMed

    Kawamori, Naoki; Nosaka, Kazunori; Newton, Robert U

    2013-03-01

    Large horizontal acceleration in short sprints is a critical performance parameter for many team sport athletes. It is often stated that producing large horizontal impulse at each ground contact is essential for high short sprint performance, but the optimal pattern of horizontal and vertical impulses is not well understood, especially when the sprints are initiated from a standing start. This study was an investigation of the relationships between ground reaction impulses and sprint acceleration performance from a standing start in team sport athletes. Thirty physically active young men with team sport background performed 10-m sprint from a standing start, whereas sprint time and ground reaction forces were recorded during the first ground contact and at 8 m from the start. Associations between sprint time and ground reaction impulses (normalized to body mass) were determined by a Pearson's correlation coefficient (r) analysis. The 10-m sprint time was significantly (p < 0.01) correlated with net horizontal impulse (r = -0.52) and propulsive impulse (r = -0.66) measured at 8 m from the start. No significant correlations were found between sprint time and impulses recorded during the first ground contact after the start. These results suggest that applying ground reaction impulse in a more horizontal direction is important for sprint acceleration from a standing start. This is consistent with the hypothesis of training to increase net horizontal impulse production using sled towing or using elastic resistance devices, which needs to be validated by future longitudinal training studies.

  1. IPD -The Use of Impulse Plasma in Surface Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zdunek, Krzysztof

    2008-10-01

    It is evident that impulse plasma ensures both the highest level of nonequilibrity and highest level of vapour ionisation. These conditions seemed to be especially suitable for synthetizing the phases with high energetic barrier of nucleation process. In our methods, called by us as the Impulse Plasma Deposition (IPD) the impulse plasma is generated and accelerated in a coaxial accelerator. The only source of electric energy in the plasma process is condenser battery charged to the voltage of order of kVs. During the discharge of condensers individual plasmoids are being accelerated in the coaxial generator by the Ampere force to the speed of the order of 10^4 ms-1 and directed to the non-heated substrate. The most characteristic feature of the is that the synthesis proceeds in the impulse plasma itself, with the participation of ions. The crystallization on ions (ionization degree of the impulse plasma is equal to 100%) makes individual plasmoids to be strongly enriched rather in clusters or particles agglomerates with dimensions of order of single nms than the atoms. Because of the very short life time of plasmoids (approx. 10-4 sec each) the surface coalescence of particles delivered to the substrate has a limited character. As a consequence the material of the layer has nanocrystalline, globular morphology.

  2. Optical coherence elastography – OCT at work in tissue biomechanics [Invited

    PubMed Central

    Larin, Kirill V.; Sampson, David D.

    2017-01-01

    Optical coherence elastography (OCE), as the use of OCT to perform elastography has come to be known, began in 1998, around ten years after the rest of the field of elastography – the use of imaging to deduce mechanical properties of tissues. After a slow start, the maturation of OCT technology in the early to mid 2000s has underpinned a recent acceleration in the field. With more than 20 papers published in 2015, and more than 25 in 2016, OCE is growing fast, but still small compared to the companion fields of cell mechanics research methods, and medical elastography. In this review, we describe the early developments in OCE, and the factors that led to the current acceleration. Much of our attention is on the key recent advances, with a strong emphasis on future prospects, which are exceptionally bright. PMID:28271011

  3. The physics of spinal manipulation: work-energy and impulse-momentum principles.

    PubMed

    Herzog, W

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to illustrate that the work-energy and impulse-momentum relations are derived from Newton's second law, and, thus, will give identical results to F = ma for any force system analysis. It should be noted that using the work-energy or the impulse-momentum approach requires that all external forces acting on a system are considered. Furthermore, it must be emphasized that any force acting internal to the system (e.g., muscular forces in the system "chiropractor") do not enter these equations.

  4. Comparison of Diagnostic Accuracy of Real-Time Elastography and Shear Wave Elastography in Differentiation Malignant From Benign Thyroid Nodules.

    PubMed

    Tian, Wuguo; Hao, Shuai; Gao, Bo; Jiang, Yan; Zhang, Shu; Guo, Lingji; Gu, Lingji; Luo, Donglin

    2015-12-01

    Thyroid nodules are relatively more prevalent in iodine-deficiency area, and the incidence increased sharply in the past decade in these areas. Workup of malignant from benign nodules in clinic was the main problem for managing thyroid nodules.An overall search for the articles about the diagnostic performance of real-time elastography (RTE) and shear wave elastography (SWE) before April 2015 in the databases of PubMed, Embase, and Google scholar. The pooled sensitivity, specificity, and summary receiver operating characteristic (SROC) curve were obtained from individual studies with a random-effects model. Subgroup and meta-regression analysis were also performed.Fifty-six studies involved in 2621 malignant nodules and 7380 benign nodules were contained in our meta-analysis. The pooled sensitivity and specificity of RTE was 83.0% and 81.2%, which is higher than SWE (sensitivity: 78.7%, specificity: 80.5%). The areas under the SROC curve of RTE and SWE were 0.885 and 0.842 respectively. RTE had higher diagnostic value for Caucasians than Asians. Stran ratio (SR) assessment had higher diagnostic performance than elasticity score (ES) system. Similarly, it had higher diagnostic value when malignant nodules were more than 50.In summary, the results revealed that RTE had higher diagnostic performance than SWE in differentiating malignant from benign nodules. However, future international multicenter studies in the region of thyroid risk need to further assess the diagnostic performance of RTE.

  5. Model-independent quantification of soft tissue viscoelasticity with dynamic optical coherence elastography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leartprapun, Nichaluk; Iyer, Rishyashring; Adie, Steven G.

    2017-02-01

    Mechanical properties of cells and tissues play an important role in governing both normal and diseased biological processes. Recent findings in mechanobiology have demonstrated that viscosity, independent of elasticity, of extracellular matrix (ECM) can alter cellular behaviors. To obtain a comprehensive understanding of the mechanical properties of viscoelastic biological tissues for biomedical applications and mechanobiology research, both the elasticity and the viscosity must be characterized. Although optical coherence elastography (OCE) has emerged as a promising tool for probing the mechanical properties of biological tissues, quantitative OCE methods have mostly been limited to elasticity reconstruction or relied on the use of a presumed mechanical model, which may or may not adequately describe the response of a given tissue type. We present the first experimental demonstration of a mechanical model-independent reconstruction of complex shear modulus from direct measurement of surface wave propagation in viscoelastic media with dynamic acoustic radiation force (ARF)-OCE. Our results suggest that elasticity imaging based on shear wave speed alone could overlook potentially significant variations in the viscoelastic properties of biological tissues.

  6. Impulse control disorders and depression.

    PubMed

    Lejoyeux, Michel; Arbaretaz, Marie; McLoughlin, Mary; Adès, Jean

    2002-05-01

    This study assessed the frequency of impulse control disorders (ICDs) and their association with bulimia, compulsive buying, and suicide attempts in a population of depressed inpatients. We investigated ICDs using the Minnesota Impulsive Disorders Interview. Patients answered the Zuckerman Sensation-Seeking Scale and the Barratt Impulsivity Rating Scale. Among the 31 depressed patients who met criteria for ICD (ICD+ group), we found 18 cases of intermittent explosive disorder, three cases of pathological gambling, four cases of kleptomania, three cases of pyromania, and three cases of trichotillomania. Patients with co-occurring ICDs were significantly younger (mean age = 37.7 versus 42.8 years). Patients with kleptomania had a higher number of previous depressive episodes (5.7 versus 1.3), and patients with pyromania had a higher number of previous depressions (3.3 versus 1.3, p =.01). Bipolar disorders were more frequent in the ICD+ group than in the ICD- group (19% versus 1.3%, p =.002), whereas antisocial personality was not (3% versus 1%, p = ns). Bulimia (42% versus 10.5%, p =.005) and compulsive buying (51% versus 22%, p =.006) were significantly more frequent in the ICD+ group. Patients from the ICD+ group had higher scores of motor impulsivity assessed with the Barratt Impulsivity rating scale (p =.01).

  7. AN OVERVIEW OF ELASTOGRAPHY – AN EMERGING BRANCH OF MEDICAL IMAGING

    PubMed Central

    Sarvazyan, Armen; Hall, Timothy J.; Urban, Matthew W.; Fatemi, Mostafa; Aglyamov, Salavat R.; Garra, Brian S.

    2011-01-01

    From times immemorial manual palpation served as a source of information on the state of soft tissues and allowed detection of various diseases accompanied by changes in tissue elasticity. During the last two decades, the ancient art of palpation gained new life due to numerous emerging elasticity imaging (EI) methods. Areas of applications of EI in medical diagnostics and treatment monitoring are steadily expanding. Elasticity imaging methods are emerging as commercial applications, a true testament to the progress and importance of the field. In this paper we present a brief history and theoretical basis of EI, describe various techniques of EI and, analyze their advantages and limitations, and overview main clinical applications. We present a classification of elasticity measurement and imaging techniques based on the methods used for generating a stress in the tissue (external mechanical force, internal ultrasound radiation force, or an internal endogenous force), and measurement of the tissue response. The measurement method can be performed using differing physical principles including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ultrasound imaging, X-ray imaging, optical and acoustic signals. Until recently, EI was largely a research method used by a few select institutions having the special equipment needed to perform the studies. Since 2005 however, increasing numbers of mainstream manufacturers have added EI to their ultrasound systems so that today the majority of manufacturers offer some sort of Elastography or tissue stiffness imaging on their clinical systems. Now it is safe to say that some sort of elasticity imaging may be performed on virtually all types of focal and diffuse disease. Most of the new applications are still in the early stages of research, but a few are becoming common applications in clinical practice. PMID:22308105

  8. Model-based elastography: a survey of approaches to the inverse elasticity problem

    PubMed Central

    Doyley, M M

    2012-01-01

    Elastography is emerging as an imaging modality that can distinguish normal versus diseased tissues via their biomechanical properties. This article reviews current approaches to elastography in three areas — quasi-static, harmonic, and transient — and describes inversion schemes for each elastographic imaging approach. Approaches include: first-order approximation methods; direct and iterative inversion schemes for linear elastic; isotropic materials; and advanced reconstruction methods for recovering parameters that characterize complex mechanical behavior. The paper’s objective is to document efforts to develop elastography within the framework of solving an inverse problem, so that elastography may provide reliable estimates of shear modulus and other mechanical parameters. We discuss issues that must be addressed if model-based elastography is to become the prevailing approach to quasi-static, harmonic, and transient elastography: (1) developing practical techniques to transform the ill-posed problem with a well-posed one; (2) devising better forward models to capture the transient behavior of soft tissue; and (3) developing better test procedures to evaluate the performance of modulus elastograms. PMID:22222839

  9. Value of Strain Elastography Ultrasound in Differentiation of Breast Masses and Histopathologic Correlation

    PubMed Central

    Atabey, Aysun Okar; Arıbal, Erkin; Ergelen, Rabia; Kaya, Handan

    2014-01-01

    Objective US elastography is an emerging technique that can be used during breast US examination. The increasing awareness of breast cancer led to an increase in mammography and breast US examinations. The specificity of these techniques is not high enough to prevent unnecessary biopsies. There is still a need for a more specific technique that can overcome this problem. This study aimed to evaluate the value of strain elastography in breast lesions. Materials and Methods In this study, 110 lesions of 96 patients were evaluated with strain elastography. Five score system was used for lesion scoring. The histopathologic results of lesions were obtained and were accepted as gold standard. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of the technique were calculated. Histopathologic and strain elastography results were correlated. Results The sensitivity of US strain elastography was calculated as 83%, the specificity as 89%, the positive predictive value as 79% and the negative predictive value as 91%. There were no score 1 lesions. All score 2 lesions were benign. Score 5 had the highest true positivity rate. Conclusion We believe that ultrasound elastography is an effective imaging technique that can be used as an adjunct for differential diagnosis, prior to the decision to biopsy a lesion in certain cases.

  10. Pulmonary ultrasound elastography: a feasibility study with phantoms and ex-vivo tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Man Minh; Xie, Hua; Paluch, Kamila; Stanton, Douglas; Ramachandran, Bharat

    2013-03-01

    Elastography has become widely used for minimally invasive diagnosis in many tumors as seen with breast, liver and prostate. Among different modalities, ultrasound-based elastography stands out due to its advantages including being safe, real-time, and relatively low-cost. While lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality among both men and women, the use of ultrasound elastography for lung cancer diagnosis has hardly been investigated due to the limitations of ultrasound in air. In this work, we investigate the use of static-compression based endobronchial ultrasound elastography by a 3D trans-oesophageal echocardiography (TEE) transducer for lung cancer diagnosis. A water-filled balloon was designed to 1) improve the visualization of endobronchial ultrasound and 2) to induce compression via pumping motion inside the trachea and bronchiole. In a phantom study, we have successfully generated strain images indicating the stiffness difference between the gelatin background and agar inclusion. A similar strain ratio was confirmed with Philips ultrasound strain-based elastography product. For ex-vivo porcine lung study, different tissue ablation methods including chemical injection, Radio Frequency (RF) ablation, and direct heating were implemented to achieve tumor-mimicking tissue. Stiff ablated lung tissues were obtained and detected with our proposed method. These results suggest the feasibility of pulmonary elastography to differentiate stiff tumor tissue from normal tissue.

  11. Correlates of mammographic density in B-mode ultrasound and real time elastography.

    PubMed

    Jud, Sebastian Michael; Häberle, Lothar; Fasching, Peter A; Heusinger, Katharina; Hack, Carolin; Faschingbauer, Florian; Uder, Michael; Wittenberg, Thomas; Wagner, Florian; Meier-Meitinger, Martina; Schulz-Wendtland, Rüdiger; Beckmann, Matthias W; Adamietz, Boris R

    2012-07-01

    The aim of our study involved the assessment of B-mode imaging and elastography with regard to their ability to predict mammographic density (MD) without X-rays. Women, who underwent routine mammography, were prospectively examined with additional B-mode ultrasound and elastography. MD was assessed quantitatively with a computer-assisted method (Madena). The B-mode and elastography images were assessed by histograms with equally sized gray-level intervals. Regression models were built and cross validated to examine the ability to predict MD. The results of this study showed that B-mode imaging and elastography were able to predict MD. B-mode seemed to give a more accurate prediction. R for B-mode image and elastography were 0.67 and 0.44, respectively. Areas in the B-mode images that correlated with mammographic dense areas were either dark gray or of intermediate gray levels. Concerning elastography only the gray levels that represent extremely stiff tissue correlated positively with MD. In conclusion, ultrasound seems to be able to predict MD. Easy and cheap utilization of regular breast ultrasound machines encourages the use of ultrasound in larger case-control studies to validate this method as a breast cancer risk predictor. Furthermore, the application of ultrasound for breast tissue characterization could enable comprehensive research concerning breast cancer risk and breast density in young and pregnant women.

  12. Model-based elastography: a survey of approaches to the inverse elasticity problem.

    PubMed

    Doyley, M M

    2012-02-07

    Elastography is emerging as an imaging modality that can distinguish normal versus diseased tissues via their biomechanical properties. This paper reviews current approaches to elastography in three areas--quasi-static, harmonic and transient--and describes inversion schemes for each elastographic imaging approach. Approaches include first-order approximation methods; direct and iterative inversion schemes for linear elastic; isotropic materials and advanced reconstruction methods for recovering parameters that characterize complex mechanical behavior. The paper's objective is to document efforts to develop elastography within the framework of solving an inverse problem, so that elastography may provide reliable estimates of shear modulus and other mechanical parameters. We discuss issues that must be addressed if model-based elastography is to become the prevailing approach to quasi-static, harmonic and transient elastography: (1) developing practical techniques to transform the ill-posed problem with a well-posed one; (2) devising better forward models to capture the complex mechanical behavior of soft tissues and (3) developing better test procedures to evaluate the performance of modulus elastograms.

  13. Model-based elastography: a survey of approaches to the inverse elasticity problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyley, M. M.

    2012-02-01

    Elastography is emerging as an imaging modality that can distinguish normal versus diseased tissues via their biomechanical properties. This paper reviews current approaches to elastography in three areas—quasi-static, harmonic and transient—and describes inversion schemes for each elastographic imaging approach. Approaches include first-order approximation methods; direct and iterative inversion schemes for linear elastic; isotropic materials and advanced reconstruction methods for recovering parameters that characterize complex mechanical behavior. The paper's objective is to document efforts to develop elastography within the framework of solving an inverse problem, so that elastography may provide reliable estimates of shear modulus and other mechanical parameters. We discuss issues that must be addressed if model-based elastography is to become the prevailing approach to quasi-static, harmonic and transient elastography: (1) developing practical techniques to transform the ill-posed problem with a well-posed one; (2) devising better forward models to capture the complex mechanical behavior of soft tissues and (3) developing better test procedures to evaluate the performance of modulus elastograms.

  14. Impulsivity, "advergames," and food intake.

    PubMed

    Folkvord, Frans; Anschütz, Doeschka J; Nederkoorn, Chantal; Westerik, Henk; Buijzen, Moniek

    2014-06-01

    Previous studies have focused on the effect of food advertisements on the caloric intake of children. However, the role of individual susceptibility in this effect is unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the role of impulsivity in the effect of advergames that promote energy-dense snacks on children's snack intake. First, impulsivity scores were assessed with a computer task. Then a randomized between-subject design was conducted with 261 children aged 7 to 10 years who played an advergame promoting either energy-dense snacks or nonfood products. As an extra manipulation, half of the children in each condition were rewarded for refraining from eating, the other half were not. Children could eat freely while playing the game. Food intake was measured. The children then completed questionnaire measures, and were weighed and measured. Overall, playing an advergame containing food cues increased general caloric intake. Furthermore, rewarding children to refrain from eating decreased their caloric intake. Finally, rewarding impulsive children to refrain from eating had no influence when they were playing an advergame promoting energy-dense snacks, whereas it did lead to reduced intake among low impulsive children and children who played nonfood advergames. Playing an advergame promoting energy-dense snacks contributes to increased caloric intake in children. The advergame promoting energy-dense snacks overruled the inhibition task to refrain from eating among impulsive children, making it more difficult for them to refrain from eating. The findings suggest that impulsivity plays an important role in susceptibility to food advertisements. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  15. Inability of shear-wave elastography to distinguish malignant from benign prostate tissue – a comparison of biopsy, whole-mount sectioning and shear-wave elastography

    PubMed Central

    Görner, Claudia; Wendler, Johann Jakob; Liehr, Uwe-Bernd; Lux, Anke; Siedentopf, Sandra; Schostak, Martin; Pech, Maciej

    2016-01-01

    Aim This study was designed to assess the possible usefulness of shear-wave elastography in differentiating between benign and malignant tissue in prostate neoplasia. Patients and methods A total of 120 prostate tissue samples were obtained from 10 patients treated by radical prostatectomy and investigated pre-operatively by ultrasound elastography followed by directed biopsy. After resection, whole-mount sectioning and histological examination was performed. The predictions based on shear-wave elastography were compared with biopsy and histological results. Results The comparison between the results of shear-wave elastography and those of biopsy was performed by receiver operating characteristic analysis, which suggested an optimum cut-off tissue elasticity value of 50 kPa, in agreement with earlier studies aimed at distinguishing between benign and malignant tissue. However, the diagnostic selectivity (and thus the diagnostic power) was poor (area under the curve 0.527, which hardly differs from the value of 0.500 that would correspond to a complete lack of predictive power); furthermore, application of this cut-off value to the samples led to a sensitivity of only 74% and a specificity of only 43%. An analogous comparison between the results of shear-wave elastography and those of whole-mount histology, which itself is more reliable than biopsy, gave an even poorer diagnostic selectivity (sensitivity of 62%, specificity of 35%). Meaningful association with Gleason score was not found for D’Amico risk groups (p = 0.35). Conclusions The (negative) findings of this investigation add to the dissonance among results of studies investigating the possible value of shear-wave elastography as a diagnostic tool to identify malignant neoplasia. There is a clear need for further research to elucidate the diversity of study results and to identify the usefulness, if any, of the method in question. PMID:28138406

  16. Nonlinear multiscale regularisation in MR elastography: Towards fine feature mapping.

    PubMed

    Barnhill, Eric; Hollis, Lyam; Sack, Ingolf; Braun, Jürgen; Hoskins, Peter R; Pankaj, Pankaj; Brown, Colin; van Beek, Edwin J R; Roberts, Neil

    2017-01-01

    Fine-featured elastograms may provide additional information of radiological interest in the context of in vivo elastography. Here a new image processing pipeline called ESP (Elastography Software Pipeline) is developed to create Magnetic Resonance Elastography (MRE) maps of viscoelastic parameters (complex modulus magnitude |G(*)| and loss angle ϕ) that preserve fine-scale information through nonlinear, multi-scale extensions of typical MRE post-processing techniques. A new MRE image processing pipeline was developed that incorporates wavelet-domain denoising, image-driven noise estimation, and feature detection. ESP was first validated using simulated data, including viscoelastic Finite Element Method (FEM) simulations, at multiple noise levels. ESP images were compared with MDEV pipeline images, both in the FEM models and in three ten-subject cohorts of brain, thigh, and liver acquisitions. ESP and MDEV mean values were compared to 2D local frequency estimation (LFE) mean values for the same cohorts as a benchmark. Finally, the proportion of spectral energy at fine frequencies was quantified using the Reduced Energy Ratio (RER) for both ESP and MDEV. Blind estimates of added noise (σ) were within 5.3% ± 2.6% of prescribed, and the same technique estimated σ in the in vivo cohorts at 1.7 ± 0.8%. A 5 × 5 × 5 truncated Gabor filter bank effectively detects local spatial frequencies at wavelengths λ ≤ 10px. For FEM inversions, mean |G(*)| of hard target, soft target, and background remained within 8% of prescribed up to σ=20%, and mean ϕ results were within 10%, excepting hard target ϕ, which required redrawing around a ring artefact to achieve similar accuracy. Inspection of FEM |G(*)| images showed some spatial distortion around hard target boundaries and inspection of ϕ images showed ring artefacts around the same target. For the in vivo cohorts, ESP results showed mean correlation of R=0.83 with MDEV and liver stiffness estimates within 7% of 2D

  17. Reflection-Impulsivity and Wholist-Analytic: Two Fledglings...or is R-I a cuckoo?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Anne Elizabeth

    1997-01-01

    Considers the theoretical validity of two approaches to cognitive style. Wholist-Analytic maintains that cognitive processes depend on the interaction of two opposing forces, destructive and constructive. Reflection-Impulsivity characterizes learners according to their reflective or impulsive responses to solution hypotheses. Evaluates these…

  18. Reflection-Impulsivity and Wholist-Analytic: Two Fledglings...or is R-I a cuckoo?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Anne Elizabeth

    1997-01-01

    Considers the theoretical validity of two approaches to cognitive style. Wholist-Analytic maintains that cognitive processes depend on the interaction of two opposing forces, destructive and constructive. Reflection-Impulsivity characterizes learners according to their reflective or impulsive responses to solution hypotheses. Evaluates these…

  19. Dynamic spectral-domain optical coherence elastography for tissue characterization.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xing; Adie, Steven G; John, Renu; Boppart, Stephen A

    2010-06-21

    A dynamic spectral-domain optical coherence elastography (OCE) imaging technique is reported. In this technique, audio-frequency compressive vibrations are generated by a piezoelectric stack as external excitation, and strain rates in the sample are calculated and mapped quantitatively using phase-sensitive spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. At different driving frequencies, this technique provides contrast between sample regions with different mechanical properties, and thus is used to mechanically characterize tissue. We present images of a three-layer silicone tissue phantom and rat tumor tissue ex vivo, based on quantitative strain rate. Both acquisition speed and processing speed are improved dramatically compared with previous OCE imaging techniques. With high resolution, high acquisition speed, and the ability to characterize the mechanical properties of tissue, this OCE technique has potential use in non-destructive volumetric imaging and clinical applications.

  20. Parametric imaging of viscoelasticity using optical coherence elastography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijesinghe, Philip; McLaughlin, Robert A.; Sampson, David D.; Kennedy, Brendan F.

    2015-03-01

    We demonstrate imaging of soft tissue viscoelasticity using optical coherence elastography. Viscoelastic creep deformation is induced in tissue using step-like compressive loading and the resulting time-varying deformation is measured using phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography. From a series of co-located B-scans, we estimate the local strain rate as a function of time, and parameterize it using a four-parameter Kelvin-Voigt model of viscoelastic creep. The estimated viscoelastic strain and time constant are used to visualize viscoelastic creep in 2D, dual-parameter viscoelastograms. We demonstrate our technique on six silicone tissue-simulating phantoms spanning a range of viscoelastic parameters. As an example in soft tissue, we report viscoelastic contrast between muscle and connective tissue in fresh, ex vivo rat gastrocnemius muscle and mouse abdominal transection. Imaging viscoelastic creep deformation has the potential to provide complementary contrast to existing imaging modalities, and may provide greater insight into disease pathology.

  1. Single shot line-field optical coherence elastography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chih-Hao; Schill, Alexander; Singh, Manmohan; Wu, Chen; Li, Jiasong; Han, Zhaolong; Raghunathan, Raksha; Kazemi, Tina; Nair, Achuth; Hsu, Thomas; Larin, Kirill V.

    2016-03-01

    Elastic wave imaging optical coherence elastography (EWI-OCE) is an emerging technique that can quantify local biomechanical properties of tissues. However, long acquisition times make this technique unfeasible for clinical use. Here, we demonstrate a noncontact single shot line-field OCE technique using a line-field interferometer and an air-pulse delivery system. The spatial-temporal elastic wave propagation profile was acquired in a single shot and used to quantify the elastic wave group velocity in tissue. Results on tissue-mimicking phantoms and chicken breast muscle agreed well with mechanical compression testing, demonstrating that the presented method can effectively reduce the OCE acquisition time to a few milliseconds in biological application.

  2. A new shear wave imaging system for ultrasound elastography.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Weibao; Wang, Congzhi; Xiao, Yang; Qian, Ming; Zheng, Hairong

    2015-08-01

    Ultrasound elastography is able to provide a non-invasive measurement of tissue elasticity properties. Shear wave imaging (SWI) technique is a quantitative method for tissue stiffness assessment. However, traditional SWI implementations cannot acquire 2D quantitative images of tissue elasticity distribution. In this study, a new shear wave imaging system is proposed and evaluated. Detailed delineation of hardware and image processing algorithms are presented. Programmable devices are selected to support flexible control of the system and the image processing algorithms. Analytic signal based cross-correlation method and a Radon transform based shear wave speed determination method are proposed with parallel computation ability. Tissue mimicking phantom imaging, and in vitro imaging measurements are conducted to demonstrate the performance of the proposed system. The system has the ability to provide a new choice for quantitative mapping of the tissue elasticity, and has good potential to be implemented into commercial ultrasound scanner.

  3. Optical coherence elastography: current status and future applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Cuiru; Standish, Beau; Yang, Victor X. D.

    2011-04-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has several advantages over other imaging modalities, such as angiography and ultrasound, due to its inherently high in vivo resolution, which allows for the identification of morphological tissue structures. Optical coherence elastography (OCE) benefits from the superior spatial resolution of OCT and has promising applications, including cancer diagnosis and the detailed characterization of arterial wall biomechanics, both of which are based on the elastic properties of the tissue under investigation. We present OCE principles based on techniques associated with static and dynamic tissue excitation, and their corresponding elastogram image-reconstruction algorithms are reviewed. OCE techniques, including the development of intravascular- or catheter-based OCE, are in their early stages of development but show great promise for surgical oncology or intravascular cardiology applications.

  4. Piezoelectric actuator design for MR elastography: implementation and vibration issues.

    PubMed

    Tse, Zion Tsz Ho; Chan, Yum Ji; Janssen, Henning; Hamed, Abbi; Young, Ian; Lamperth, Michael

    2011-09-01

    MR elastography (MRE) is an emerging technique for tumor diagnosis. MRE actuation devices require precise mechanical design and radiofrequency engineering to achieve the required mechanical vibration performance and MR compatibility. A method of designing a general-purpose, compact and inexpensive MRE actuator is presented. It comprises piezoelectric bimorphs arranged in a resonant structure designed to operate at its resonant frequency for maximum vibration amplitude. An analytical model was established to understand the device vibration characteristics. The model-predicted performance was validated in experiments, showing its accuracy in predicting the actuator resonant frequency with an error < 4%. The device MRI compatibility was shown to cause minimal interference to a 1.5 tesla MRI scanner, with maximum signal-to-noise ratio reduction of 7.8% and generated artefact of 7.9 mm in MR images. A piezoelectric MRE actuator is proposed, and its implementation, vibration issues and future work are discussed. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Trait Impulsivity and Newlyweds' Marital Trajectories.

    PubMed

    Lavner, Justin A; Lamkin, Joanna; Miller, Joshua D

    2017-02-01

    Despite the relationship of impulsivity with interpersonal dysfunction, including romantic relationship dysfunction, surprisingly little research has examined the degree to which impulsivity predicts how marriages unfold over time. The current study used data from 172 newlywed couples to examine spouses' impulsivity in relation to their 4-year trajectories of marital satisfaction, marital problems, relationship commitment, and verbal aggression, as well as their 10-year divorce rates. Hierarchical linear modeling indicated that husbands' and wives' impulsivity predicted their own intercepts of marital satisfaction and marital problems, reflecting lower levels of satisfaction and higher levels of problems. Wives' impulsivity also predicted their relationship commitment and their verbal aggression intercepts. No cross-spouse effects or effects on slopes were found, and impulsivity did not predict 10-year divorce rates. These findings indicate that the relationship distress associated with impulsivity begins early in marriage, and they suggest a need for further research on the processes by which impulsivity undermines marital quality.

  6. Thyroid nodules in acromegaly: The role of elastography.

    PubMed

    Andrioli, M; Scacchi, M; Carzaniga, C; Vitale, G; Moro, M; Poggi, L; Fatti, L M; Cavagnini, F

    2010-09-01

    Ultrasound elastography (US-E) is a helpful tool for the diagnosis of thyroid cancer. In acromegaly, multinodular goiter is a common occurrence while the prevalence of thyroid cancer is still matter of debate. Our aims were to evaluate thyroid nodules in acromegaly and to assess the accuracy of US-E in providing information on their nature (benign vs. malignant) using cytological analysis as a reference. US-E was performed in 25 patients with acromegaly (active in 10 cases, medically controlled in 8, and cured by pituitary surgery in 7), each of whom had at least one solid thyroid nodule. A total of 90 nodules were classified according to the elastography scores (ES): ES1 and ES2 for soft nodules, ES3 and ES4 for an elastic lesions. FNAC was performed in 78.6% of the ES 4 lesions and 54.1% of the ES 3 nodules. Fourteen of the 90 nodules (15.5%) displayed an ES of 1, 25 (27.7%) an ES of 2, 37 (41.3%) an ES of 3, and 14 (15.5%) an ES of 4. The prevalence of hard nodules in patients with active acromegaly (68.9%) was greater than that observed in patients with cured (44.4%) or controlled (52.5%) acromegaly. The prevalence of hard nodules in the total series (56.7%) was higher than that reported in nonacromegalic goitrous subjects. All thyroid nodules subjected to FNAC were negative for malignant cells and follicular lesions. Acromegaly (particularly active forms) is associated with a high prevalence of stiff thyroid nodules that exceeds that observed in nonacromegalic patients with goiters (33.7%). However, these nodules were never malignant at cytology, and their firmness is probably due to fibrosis. US-E therefore appears to be of limited value for the diagnosis of thyroid cancer in patients with acromegaly.

  7. Thyroid nodules in acromegaly: The role of elastography

    PubMed Central

    Andrioli, M.; Scacchi, M.; Carzaniga, C.; Vitale, G.; Moro, M.; Poggi, L.; Fatti, L.M.; Cavagnini, F.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Ultrasound elastography (US-E) is a helpful tool for the diagnosis of thyroid cancer. In acromegaly, multinodular goiter is a common occurrence while the prevalence of thyroid cancer is still matter of debate. Our aims were to evaluate thyroid nodules in acromegaly and to assess the accuracy of US-E in providing information on their nature (benign vs. malignant) using cytological analysis as a reference. Materials and methods US-E was performed in 25 patients with acromegaly (active in 10 cases, medically controlled in 8, and cured by pituitary surgery in 7), each of whom had at least one solid thyroid nodule. A total of 90 nodules were classified according to the elastography scores (ES): ES1 and ES2 for soft nodules, ES3 and ES4 for an elastic lesions. FNAC was performed in 78.6% of the ES 4 lesions and 54.1% of the ES 3 nodules. Results Fourteen of the 90 nodules (15.5%) displayed an ES of 1, 25 (27.7%) an ES of 2, 37 (41.3%) an ES of 3, and 14 (15.5%) an ES of 4. The prevalence of hard nodules in patients with active acromegaly (68.9%) was greater than that observed in patients with cured (44.4%) or controlled (52.5%) acromegaly. The prevalence of hard nodules in the total series (56.7%) was higher than that reported in nonacromegalic goitrous subjects. All thyroid nodules subjected to FNAC were negative for malignant cells and follicular lesions. Discussion Acromegaly (particularly active forms) is associated with a high prevalence of stiff thyroid nodules that exceeds that observed in nonacromegalic patients with goiters (33.7%). However, these nodules were never malignant at cytology, and their firmness is probably due to fibrosis. US-E therefore appears to be of limited value for the diagnosis of thyroid cancer in patients with acromegaly. PMID:23396892

  8. A class of kernel based real-time elastography algorithms.

    PubMed

    Kibria, Md Golam; Hasan, Md Kamrul

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, a novel real-time kernel-based and gradient-based Phase Root Seeking (PRS) algorithm for ultrasound elastography is proposed. The signal-to-noise ratio of the strain image resulting from this method is improved by minimizing the cross-correlation discrepancy between the pre- and post-compression radio frequency signals with an adaptive temporal stretching method and employing built-in smoothing through an exponentially weighted neighborhood kernel in the displacement calculation. Unlike conventional PRS algorithms, displacement due to tissue compression is estimated from the root of the weighted average of the zero-lag cross-correlation phases of the pair of corresponding analytic pre- and post-compression windows in the neighborhood kernel. In addition to the proposed one, the other time- and frequency-domain elastography algorithms (Ara et al., 2013; Hussain et al., 2012; Hasan et al., 2012) proposed by our group are also implemented in real-time using Java where the computations are serially executed or parallely executed in multiple processors with efficient memory management. Simulation results using finite element modeling simulation phantom show that the proposed method significantly improves the strain image quality in terms of elastographic signal-to-noise ratio (SNRe), elastographic contrast-to-noise ratio (CNRe) and mean structural similarity (MSSIM) for strains as high as 4% as compared to other reported techniques in the literature. Strain images obtained for the experimental phantom as well as in vivo breast data of malignant or benign masses also show the efficacy of our proposed method over the other reported techniques in the literature. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Noncontact depth-resolved micro-scale corneal elastography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shang; Larin, Kirill V.

    2015-03-01

    Noninvasive high-resolution depth-resolved measurement of corneal biomechanics is of great clinical significance for improving the diagnosis and optimizing the treatment of various degenerated ocular diseases. Here, we report a micro-scale optical coherence elastography (OCE) method that enables noncontact assessment of the depthwise elasticity distribution in the cornea. The OCE system combines a focused air-puff device with phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography (OCT). Low-pressure short-duration air stream is used to load the cornea with the localized displacement at micron level. The phase-resolved OCT detection with nano-scale sensitivity probes the induced corneal deformation at various locations within a scanning line, providing the ultra-fast imaging of the corneal lamb wave propagation. With spectral analysis, the amplitude spectra and the phase spectra are available for the estimation of the frequency range of the lamb wave and the quantification of the wave propagation, respectively. Curved propagation paths following the top and bottom corneal boundaries are selected inside the cornea for measuring the phase velocity of the lamb wave at the major frequency components over the whole depths. Our pilot experiments on ex vivo rabbit eyes indicate the distinct stiffness of different layers in the cornea, including the epithelium, the anterior stroma, the posterior stroma, and the innermost region, which demonstrates the feasibility of this micro-scale OCE method for noncontact depth-resolved corneal elastography. Also, the quantification of the lamb wave dispersion in the cornea could lead to the measurement of the elastic modulus, suggesting the potential of this method for quantitative monitoring of the corneal biomechanics.

  10. Global Time-Delay Estimation in Ultrasound Elastography.

    PubMed

    Hashemi, Hoda Sadat; Rivaz, Hassan

    2017-10-01

    A critical step in quasi-static ultrasound elastography is the estimation of time delay between two frames of radio-frequency (RF) data that are obtained while the tissue is undergoing deformation. This paper presents a novel technique for time-delay estimation (TDE) of all samples of RF data simultaneously, thereby exploiting all the information in RF data for TDE. A nonlinear cost function that incorporates similarity of RF data intensity and prior information of displacement continuity is formulated. Optimization of this function involves searching for TDE of all samples of the RF data, rendering the optimization intractable with conventional techniques given that the number of variables can be approximately one million. Therefore, the optimization problem is converted to a sparse linear system of equations, and is solved in real time using a computationally efficient optimization technique. We call our method GLobal Ultrasound Elastography (GLUE), and compare it to dynamic programming analytic minimization (DPAM) and normalized cross correlation (NCC) techniques. Our simulation results show that the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) values of the axial strain maps are 4.94 for NCC, 14.62 for DPAM, and 26.31 for GLUE. Our results on experimental data from tissue mimicking phantoms show that the CNR values of the axial strain maps are 1.07 for NCC, 16.01 for DPAM, and 18.21 for GLUE. Finally, our results on in vivo data show that the CNR values of the axial strain maps are 3.56 for DPAM and 13.20 for GLUE.

  11. Swept-source anatomic optical coherence elastography of porcine trachea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bu, Ruofei; Price, Hillel; Mitran, Sorin; Zdanski, Carlton; Oldenburg, Amy L.

    2016-02-01

    Quantitative endoscopic imaging is at the vanguard of novel techniques in the assessment upper airway obstruction. Anatomic optical coherence tomography (aOCT) has the potential to provide the geometry of the airway lumen with high-resolution and in 4 dimensions. By coupling aOCT with measurements of pressure, optical coherence elastography (OCE) can be performed to characterize airway wall stiffness. This can aid in identifying regions of dynamic collapse as well as informing computational fluid dynamics modeling to aid in surgical decision-making. Toward this end, here we report on an anatomic optical coherence tomography (aOCT) system powered by a wavelength-swept laser source. The system employs a fiber-optic catheter with outer diameter of 0.82 mm deployed via the bore of a commercial, flexible bronchoscope. Helical scans are performed to measure the airway geometry and to quantify the cross-sectional-area (CSA) of the airway. We report on a preliminary validation of aOCT for elastography, in which aOCT-derived CSA was obtained as a function of pressure to estimate airway wall compliance. Experiments performed on a Latex rubber tube resulted in a compliance measurement of 0.68+/-0.02 mm2/cmH2O, with R2=0.98 over the pressure range from 10 to 40 cmH2O. Next, ex vivo porcine trachea was studied, resulting in a measured compliance from 1.06+/-0.12 to 3.34+/-0.44 mm2/cmH2O, (R2>0.81). The linearity of the data confirms the elastic nature of the airway. The compliance values are within the same order-of-magnitude as previous measurements of human upper airways, suggesting that this system is capable of assessing airway wall compliance in future human studies.

  12. Evaluation of cervical stiffness during pregnancy using semiquantitative ultrasound elastography

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez-Andrade, Edgar; Hassan, Sonia S; Ahn, Hyunyoung; Korzeniewski, Steven J.; Yeo, Lami; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Romero, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate cervical stiffness during pregnancy using ultrasound-derived elastography, a method used to estimate the average tissue displacement (strain) on a defined region of interest when oscillatory compression is applied. Methods Strain was calculated in two regions of interest, the endocervical canal and the entire cervix, from three anatomical planes of the cervix: mid-sagittal in the plane used for cervical length measurement, and in cross-sectional planes located at the internal and external cervical os. Associations between strain values, method of ascertainment and patient characteristics were assessed using linear mixed models to account for within-subject correlation. Inter-rater agreement in defining the degree of cervical stiffness was evaluated in 120 regions of interest acquired by two operators in 20 patients. Results A total of 1557 strain estimations were performed in 262 patients at 8-40 weeks of gestation. Adjusting for other sources of variation, 1) cervical tissue strain estimates obtained in the endocervical canal were on average 33% greater than those obtained in the entire cervix; 2) measures obtained in the cross-sectional plane of the external cervical os and sagittal plane were 45% and 13% greater compared to those measured in the cross-sectional plane of the internal cervical os, respectively; 3) mean strain rate was 14% and 5% greater among multiparous women with and without a history of preterm delivery compared to nulliparous women, respectively, and was on average 13% greater among women with a cervical length between 25-30mm compared to those with a cervical length >30mm; and 4) cervical tissue strain was more strongly associated with cervical length than with gestational age. Conclusion Semiquantitative elastography can be employed to evaluate changes in cervical stiffness during pregnancy. PMID:23151941

  13. Demonstrating Sound Impulses in Pipes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raymer, M. G.; Micklavzina, Stan

    1995-01-01

    Describes a simple, direct method to demonstrate the effects of the boundary conditions on sound impulse reflections in pipes. A graphical display of the results can be made using a pipe, cork, small hammer, microphone, and fast recording electronics. Explains the principles involved. (LZ)

  14. Demonstrating Sound Impulses in Pipes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raymer, M. G.; Micklavzina, Stan

    1995-01-01

    Describes a simple, direct method to demonstrate the effects of the boundary conditions on sound impulse reflections in pipes. A graphical display of the results can be made using a pipe, cork, small hammer, microphone, and fast recording electronics. Explains the principles involved. (LZ)

  15. Commentary on Hyperkinetic Impulse Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkley, Russell A.

    2011-01-01

    Dr. Goldstein continues the laudable practice of reprinting articles of historical significance in the history of ADHD with this selective reprinting of material from the original article by Maurice Laufer, Eric Denhoff, and Gerald Solomons on hyperkinetic impulsive disorder (HID) in children. This article on HID is among the first articles to…

  16. Commentary on Hyperkinetic Impulse Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkley, Russell A.

    2011-01-01

    Dr. Goldstein continues the laudable practice of reprinting articles of historical significance in the history of ADHD with this selective reprinting of material from the original article by Maurice Laufer, Eric Denhoff, and Gerald Solomons on hyperkinetic impulsive disorder (HID) in children. This article on HID is among the first articles to…

  17. Children's Help Seeking and Impulsivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puustinen, Minna; Kokkonen, Marja; Tolvanen, Asko; Pulkkinen, Lea

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze the relationship between students' (100 children aged 8 to 12) help-seeking behavior and impulsivity. Help-seeking behavior was evaluated using a naturalistic experimental paradigm in which children were placed in a problem-solving situation and had the opportunity to seek help from the experimenter, if…

  18. Children's Help Seeking and Impulsivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puustinen, Minna; Kokkonen, Marja; Tolvanen, Asko; Pulkkinen, Lea

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze the relationship between students' (100 children aged 8 to 12) help-seeking behavior and impulsivity. Help-seeking behavior was evaluated using a naturalistic experimental paradigm in which children were placed in a problem-solving situation and had the opportunity to seek help from the experimenter, if…

  19. Hypohydration Reduces Vertical Ground Reaction Impulse But Not Jump Height

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    jumping plays a major role, such as basketball and volleyball (Hoffman et al. 1995). The precise balance between losses in body mass and losses in strength...code) 2010 Journal Article-Eur. Journal of Applied Physiology Hypohydration Reduces Vertical Ground Reaction Impulse But Not Jump Height S.N...study examined vertical jump performance using a force platform and weighted vest to determine why hypohydration (~4% body mass) does not improve jump

  20. Baseline impulsive choice predicts the effects of nicotine and nicotine withdrawal on impulsivity in rats.

    PubMed

    Kayir, Hakan; Semenova, Svetlana; Markou, Athina

    2014-01-03

    Impulsive choice, a form of impulsivity, is associated with tobacco smoking in humans. Trait impulsivity may be a vulnerability factor for smoking, or smoking may lead to impulsive behaviors. We investigated the effects of 14-day nicotine exposure (6.32mg/kg/day base, subcutaneous minipumps) and spontaneous nicotine withdrawal on impulsive choice in low impulsive (LI) and high impulsive (HI) rats. Impulsive choice was measured in the delayed reward task in which rats choose between a small immediate reward and a large delayed reward. HI and LI rats were selected from the highest and lowest quartiles of the group before exposure to nicotine. In non-selected rats, nicotine or nicotine withdrawal had no effect on impulsive choice. In LI rats, chronic nicotine exposure decreased preference for the large reward with larger effects at longer delays, indicating increased impulsive choice. Impulsive choices for the smaller immediate rewards continued to increase during nicotine withdrawal in LI rats. In HI rats, nicotine exposure and nicotine withdrawal had no effect on impulsive choice, although there was a tendency for decreased preference for the large reward at short delays. These results indicate that nicotine- and nicotine withdrawal-induced increases in impulsive choice depend on trait impulsivity with more pronounced increases in impulsive choice in LI compared to HI subjects. Increased impulsivity during nicotine exposure may strengthen the addictive properties of nicotine and contribute to compulsive nicotine use.

  1. Real time endoscopic ultrasound elastography and strain ratio in the diagnosis of solid pancreatic lesions

    PubMed Central

    Okasha, Hussein; Elkholy, Shaimaa; El-Sayed, Ramy; Wifi, Mohamed-Naguib; El-Nady, Mohamed; El-Nabawi, Walid; El-Dayem, Waleed A; Radwan, Mohamed I; Farag, Ali; El-sherif, Yahya; Al-Gemeie, Emad; Salman, Ahmed; El-Sherbiny, Mohamed; El-Mazny, Ahmed; Mahdy, Reem E

    2017-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the accuracy of the elastography score combined to the strain ratio in the diagnosis of solid pancreatic lesions (SPL). METHODS A total of 172 patients with SPL identified by endoscopic ultrasound were enrolled in the study to evaluate the efficacy of elastography and strain ratio in differentiating malignant from benign lesions. The semi quantitative score of elastography was represented by the strain ratio method. Two areas were selected, area (A) representing the region of interest and area (B) representing the normal area. Area (B) was then divided by area (A). Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and accuracy were calculated by comparing diagnoses made by elastography, strain ratio and final diagnoses. RESULTS SPL were shown to be benign in 49 patients and malignant in 123 patients. Elastography alone had a sensitivity of 99%, a specificity of 63%, and an accuracy of 88%, a PPV of 87% and an NPV of 96%. The best cut-off level of strain ratio to obtain the maximal area under the curve was 7.8 with a sensitivity of 92%, specificity of 77%, PPV of 91%, NPV of 80% and an accuracy of 88%. Another estimated cut off strain ratio level of 3.8 had a higher sensitivity of 99% and NPV of 96%, but with less specificity, PPV and accuracy 53%, 84% and 86%, respectively. Adding both elastography to strain ratio resulted in a sensitivity of 98%, specificity of 77%, PPV of 91%, NPV of 95% and accuracy of 92% for the diagnosis of SPL. CONCLUSION Combining elastography to strain ratio increases the accuracy of the differentiation of benign from malignant SPL. PMID:28932088

  2. Real time endoscopic ultrasound elastography and strain ratio in the diagnosis of solid pancreatic lesions.

    PubMed

    Okasha, Hussein; Elkholy, Shaimaa; El-Sayed, Ramy; Wifi, Mohamed-Naguib; El-Nady, Mohamed; El-Nabawi, Walid; El-Dayem, Waleed A; Radwan, Mohamed I; Farag, Ali; El-Sherif, Yahya; Al-Gemeie, Emad; Salman, Ahmed; El-Sherbiny, Mohamed; El-Mazny, Ahmed; Mahdy, Reem E

    2017-08-28

    To evaluate the accuracy of the elastography score combined to the strain ratio in the diagnosis of solid pancreatic lesions (SPL). A total of 172 patients with SPL identified by endoscopic ultrasound were enrolled in the study to evaluate the efficacy of elastography and strain ratio in differentiating malignant from benign lesions. The semi quantitative score of elastography was represented by the strain ratio method. Two areas were selected, area (A) representing the region of interest and area (B) representing the normal area. Area (B) was then divided by area (A). Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and accuracy were calculated by comparing diagnoses made by elastography, strain ratio and final diagnoses. SPL were shown to be benign in 49 patients and malignant in 123 patients. Elastography alone had a sensitivity of 99%, a specificity of 63%, and an accuracy of 88%, a PPV of 87% and an NPV of 96%. The best cut-off level of strain ratio to obtain the maximal area under the curve was 7.8 with a sensitivity of 92%, specificity of 77%, PPV of 91%, NPV of 80% and an accuracy of 88%. Another estimated cut off strain ratio level of 3.8 had a higher sensitivity of 99% and NPV of 96%, but with less specificity, PPV and accuracy 53%, 84% and 86%, respectively. Adding both elastography to strain ratio resulted in a sensitivity of 98%, specificity of 77%, PPV of 91%, NPV of 95% and accuracy of 92% for the diagnosis of SPL. Combining elastography to strain ratio increases the accuracy of the differentiation of benign from malignant SPL.

  3. Hepatic MR Elastography: Clinical Performance in a Series of 1377 Consecutive Examinations

    PubMed Central

    Glaser, Kevin J.; Talwalkar, Jayant A.; Chen, Jun; Manduca, Armando; Ehman, Richard L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To assess the technical success rate and diagnostic performance of liver magnetic resonance (MR) elastography. Materials and Methods This retrospective study was approved by the institutional review board with patient informed consent. A total of 1377 consecutive MR elastography examinations performed between 2007 and 2010 in 1287 patients for clinical indications were included. Medical records were used to retrieve liver stiffness as assessed with MR elastography, histologic analysis, blood work, and other liver disease–related information. Nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis tests and analysis of covariance methods were used to evaluate the diagnostic values and relationships of the collected data. Results Hepatic MR elastography had a success rate of 94.4% (1300 of 1377 cases) and yielded reproducible measurements (r = 0.9716, P < .0001) in the study cohort, with a complex patient profile and multiple interpreters. Body mass index had no significant effect on success rate (P = .2). In 289 patients who underwent liver biopsy within 1 year of the MR elastography date, mean liver stiffness as assessed with MR elastography was significantly higher in patients with advanced fibrosis (stages F3, F4) than in those with mild to moderate fibrosis (stages F0, F1, F2) (5.93 kPa ± 2.31 [standard deviation] vs 3.35 kPa ± 1.44, P < .0001). Liver stiffness is associated with many factors other than fibrosis extent, including cause of fibrosis (viral hepatitis C vs nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, P = .025), inflammation (severe vs mild to moderate, P = .03), and hepatic metabolic and synthetic function (no fibrosis vs intermediate fibrosis, P ≤ .01). Conclusion In a general clinical practice environment, hepatic MR elastography is a robust imaging method with a high success rate in a broad spectrum of patients. It also shows the complex association between liver stiffness and hepatic pathophysiology. © RSNA, 2015 Online supplemental material is available for this

  4. Reliability and Validity of Quantifying Absolute Muscle Hardness Using Ultrasound Elastography

    PubMed Central

    Chino, Kentaro; Akagi, Ryota; Dohi, Michiko; Fukashiro, Senshi; Takahashi, Hideyuki

    2012-01-01

    Muscle hardness is a mechanical property that represents transverse muscle stiffness. A quantitative method that uses ultrasound elastography for quantifying absolute human muscle hardness has been previously devised; however, its reliability and validity have not been completely verified. This study aimed to verify the reliability and validity of this quantitative method. The Young’s moduli of seven tissue-mimicking materials (in vitro; Young’s modulus range, 20–80 kPa; increments of 10 kPa) and the human medial gastrocnemius muscle (in vivo) were quantified using ultrasound elastography. On the basis of the strain/Young’s modulus ratio of two reference materials, one hard and one soft (Young’s moduli of 7 and 30 kPa, respectively), the Young’s moduli of the tissue-mimicking materials and medial gastrocnemius muscle were calculated. The intra- and inter-investigator reliability of the method was confirmed on the basis of acceptably low coefficient of variations (≤6.9%) and substantially high intraclass correlation coefficients (≥0.77) obtained from all measurements. The correlation coefficient between the Young’s moduli of the tissue-mimicking materials obtained using a mechanical method and ultrasound elastography was 0.996, which was equivalent to values previously obtained using magnetic resonance elastography. The Young’s moduli of the medial gastrocnemius muscle obtained using ultrasound elastography were within the range of values previously obtained using magnetic resonance elastography. The reliability and validity of the quantitative method for measuring absolute muscle hardness using ultrasound elastography were thus verified. PMID:23029231

  5. Adolescent Impulsivity: Findings from a Community Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    d'Acremont, Mathieu; Van der Linden, Martial

    2005-01-01

    Impulsivity is central to several psychopathological states in adolescence. However, there is little consensus concerning the definition of impulsivity and its core dimensions. In response to this lack of consensus, Whiteside and Lynam (2001, "Pers. Individ. Differ." 30, 669-689) have developed the UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale, which is able to…

  6. Adolescent Impulsivity: Findings from a Community Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    d'Acremont, Mathieu; Van der Linden, Martial

    2005-01-01

    Impulsivity is central to several psychopathological states in adolescence. However, there is little consensus concerning the definition of impulsivity and its core dimensions. In response to this lack of consensus, Whiteside and Lynam (2001, "Pers. Individ. Differ." 30, 669-689) have developed the UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale, which is able to…

  7. Characteristics of Impulsive Suicide Attempts and Attempters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Thomas R.; Swann, Alan C.; Powell, Kenneth E.; Potter, Lloyd B.; Kresnow, Marcie-jo; O'Carroll, Patrick W.

    2002-01-01

    Examined impulsive suicide attempts within a population-based, case-control study of nearly lethal suicide attempts among adolescents and young adults. Impulsive attempts were more likely among those who had been in a physical fight and less likely among those who were depressed. Findings suggest inadequate control of aggressive impulses as a…

  8. A zero cost experiment on the ‘impulse-momentum theorem’

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganci, Salvatore; Lagomarsino Oneto, Daniele

    2017-01-01

    Impulse-momentum theorem is a basic matter of the mechanics. A zero cost experiment can be used in the classroom, without any apparatus, in order to verify the fundamental relationship between an impulsive force and the linear momentum variation. Using various data, the use of an electronic sheet such Excel gives an ‘impulse’ to put in practice the ‘errors-analysis’ theory.

  9. Mechanical impulses can control metaphase progression in a mammalian cell.

    PubMed

    Itabashi, Takeshi; Terada, Yasuhiko; Kuwana, Kenta; Kan, Tetsuo; Shimoyama, Isao; Ishiwata, Shin'ichi

    2012-05-08

    Chromosome segregation machinery is controlled by mechanochemical regulation. Tension in a mitotic spindle, which is balanced by molecular motors and polymerization-depolymerization dynamics of microtubules, is thought to be essential for determining the timing of chromosome segregation after the establishment of the kinetochore-microtubule attachments. It is not known, however, whether and how applied mechanical forces modulate the tension balance and chemically affect the molecular processes involved in chromosome segregation. Here we found that a mechanical impulse externally applied to mitotic HeLa cells alters the balance of forces within the mitotic spindle. We identified two distinct mitotic responses to the applied mechanical force that either facilitate or delay anaphase onset, depending on the direction of force and the extent of cell compression. An external mechanical impulse that physically increases tension within the mitotic spindle accelerates anaphase onset, and this is attributed to the facilitation of physical cleavage of sister chromatid cohesion. On the other hand, a decrease in tension activates the spindle assembly checkpoint, which impedes the degradation of mitotic proteins and delays the timing of chromosome segregation. Thus, the external mechanical force acts as a crucial regulator for metaphase progression, modulating the internal force balance and thereby triggering specific mechanochemical cellular reactions.

  10. Mechanical impulses can control metaphase progression in a mammalian cell

    PubMed Central

    Itabashi, Takeshi; Terada, Yasuhiko; Kuwana, Kenta; Kan, Tetsuo; Shimoyama, Isao; Ishiwata, Shin’ichi

    2012-01-01

    Chromosome segregation machinery is controlled by mechanochemical regulation. Tension in a mitotic spindle, which is balanced by molecular motors and polymerization-depolymerization dynamics of microtubules, is thought to be essential for determining the timing of chromosome segregation after the establishment of the kinetochore-microtubule attachments. It is not known, however, whether and how applied mechanical forces modulate the tension balance and chemically affect the molecular processes involved in chromosome segregation. Here we found that a mechanical impulse externally applied to mitotic HeLa cells alters the balance of forces within the mitotic spindle. We identified two distinct mitotic responses to the applied mechanical force that either facilitate or delay anaphase onset, depending on the direction of force and the extent of cell compression. An external mechanical impulse that physically increases tension within the mitotic spindle accelerates anaphase onset, and this is attributed to the facilitation of physical cleavage of sister chromatid cohesion. On the other hand, a decrease in tension activates the spindle assembly checkpoint, which impedes the degradation of mitotic proteins and delays the timing of chromosome segregation. Thus, the external mechanical force acts as a crucial regulator for metaphase progression, modulating the internal force balance and thereby triggering specific mechanochemical cellular reactions. PMID:22523237

  11. Measuring shear-wave speed with point shear-wave elastography and MR elastography: a phantom study

    PubMed Central

    Kishimoto, Riwa; Suga, Mikio; Koyama, Atsuhisa; Omatsu, Tokuhiko; Tachibana, Yasuhiko; Ebner, Daniel K; Obata, Takayuki

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To compare shear-wave speed (SWS) measured by ultrasound-based point shear-wave elastography (pSWE) and MR elastography (MRE) on phantoms with a known shear modulus, and to assess method validity and variability. Methods 5 homogeneous phantoms of different stiffnesses were made. Shear modulus was measured by a rheometer, and this value was used as the standard. 10 SWS measurements were obtained at 4 different depths with 1.0–4.5 MHz convex (4C1) and 4.0–9.0 MHz linear (9L4) transducers using pSWE. MRE was carried out once per phantom, and SWSs at 5 different depths were obtained. These SWSs were then compared with those from a rheometer using linear regression analyses. Results SWSs obtained with both pSWE as well as MRE had a strong correlation with those obtained by a rheometer (R2>0.97). The relative difference in SWS between the procedures was from −25.2% to 25.6% for all phantoms, and from −8.1% to 6.9% when the softest and hardest phantoms were excluded. Depth dependency was noted in the 9L4 transducer of pSWE and MRE. Conclusions SWSs from pSWE and MRE showed a good correlation with a rheometer-determined SWS. Although based on phantom studies, SWSs obtained with these methods are not always equivalent, the measurement can be thought of as reliable and these SWSs were reasonably close to each other for the middle range of stiffness within the measurable range. PMID:28057657

  12. Quantitative comparison of transient elastography (TE), shear wave elastography (SWE) and liver biopsy results of patients with chronic liver disease.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Jin; Lee, Hae-Kag; Cho, Jae-Hwan; Yang, Han-Jun

    2015-08-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to carry out a comparitive analysis of hepatic fibrosis results of the liver hardness of patients with chronic liver disease as measured by elastography (TE), shear wave elastography (SWE), and liver biopsy. [Subjects and Methods] This study was a retrospective analysis of 304 patients who underwent SWE and TE before and after liver biopsy, taken from among patients who had been checked for liver fibrosis by liver biopsy between August 2013 and August 2014. We used receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve to prove the diagnostic significance of liver stiffness, and then analyzed the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of SWE and TE, as well as the kappa index through cross-analysis of SWE, TE, and liver biopsy. [Results] For liver hardness, the sensitivity of SWE was 84.39%, the specificity of SWE was 97.92%, the accuracy of SWE was 87.33%, the positive predictive value of SWE was 99.32%, and the negative predictive value of SWE was 63.51%. The sensitivity of TE was 94.80%, the specificity of TE was 77.08%, the accuracy of TE was 90.95%, the positive predictive value of TE was 93.97%, and the negative predictive value of TE was 80.43%. [Conclusion] It is our opinion that SWE and TE are non-invasive methods that are more effective than the invasive methods used for diagnosing liver hardness. Invasive methods cover only a section of liver tissue, and are more likely to cause side effects during biopsy.

  13. Cervical elastography during pregnancy: a critical review of current approaches with a focus on controversies and limitations.

    PubMed

    Fruscalzo, Arrigo; Mazza, Edoardo; Feltovich, Helen; Schmitz, Ralf

    2016-10-01

    In normal pregnancy, the cervix functions as a protective mechanical barrier that must remain tight and closed. Premature remodeling and consecutive shortening occur in many cases of spontaneous preterm birth. Although the complex underlying physiology of normal and abnormal cervical remodeling is not fully understood, it is clear that cervical softening occurs prior to delivery, and inappropriate timing seems to be associated with preterm delivery. Also, degree of cervical softness is a component of the Bishop score currently used clinically to predict successful induction of labor. Therefore, the assessment of changes in cervical stiffness with ultrasound elastography techniques might be useful in the prediction of preterm delivery or successful induction of labor. Two different approaches for cervical elastography for quantitative determination of the physical properties of the pregnant cervix have been developed: strain elastography and shear wave elastography. Recently, several feasibility studies showed the reliability of these cervical elastography techniques for the prediction of preterm delivery and successful labor induction. In this review, we contrast strain elastography, which determines only relative values of tissue stiffness because the applied transducer pressure is unknown, with shear wave elastography, which provides, in principle at least, a more objective description of tissue softness. While more promising preliminary results involving these approaches to assessing cervical softness have been recently published, current limitations in technical implementation need to be addressed before elastography techniques will become clinically useful. We discuss these limitations and present challenges for future studies and equipment development.

  14. Two-dimensional Shear Wave Elastography on Conventional Ultrasound Scanners with Time Aligned Sequential Tracking (TAST) and Comb-push Ultrasound Shear Elastography (CUSE)

    PubMed Central

    Song, Pengfei; Macdonald, Michael C.; Behler, Russell H.; Lanning, Justin D.; Wang, Michael H.; Urban, Matthew W.; Manduca, Armando; Zhao, Heng; Callstrom, Matthew R.; Alizad, Azra; Greenleaf, James F.; Chen, Shigao

    2014-01-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) shear wave elastography presents 2D quantitative shear elasticity maps of tissue, which are clinically useful for both focal lesion detection and diffuse disease diagnosis. Realization of 2D shear wave elastography on conventional ultrasound scanners, however, is challenging due to the low tracking pulse-repetition-frequency (PRF) of these systems. While some clinical and research platforms support software beamforming and plane wave imaging with high PRF, the majority of current clinical ultrasound systems do not have the software beamforming capability, which presents a critical challenge for translating the 2D shear wave elastography technique from laboratory to clinical scanners. To address this challenge, this paper presents a Time Aligned Sequential Tracking (TAST) method for shear wave tracking on conventional ultrasound scanners. TAST takes advantage of the parallel beamforming capability of conventional systems and realizes high PRF shear wave tracking by sequentially firing tracking vectors and aligning shear wave data in the temporal direction. The Comb-push Ultrasound Shear Elastography (CUSE) technique was used to simultaneously produce multiple shear wave sources within the field-of-view (FOV) to enhance shear wave signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) and facilitate robust reconstructions of 2D elasticity maps. TAST and CUSE were realized on a conventional ultrasound scanner (the General Electric LOGIQ E9). A phantom study showed that the shear wave speed measurements from the LOGIQ E9 were in good agreement to the values measured from other 2D shear wave imaging technologies. An inclusion phantom study showed that the LOGIQ E9 had comparable performance to the Aixplorer (Supersonic Imagine) in terms of bias and precision in measuring different sized inclusions. Finally, in vivo case analysis of a breast with a malignant mass, and a liver from a healthy subject demonstrated the feasibility of using the LOGIQ E9 for in vivo 2D shear wave

  15. Two-dimensional shear-wave elastography on conventional ultrasound scanners with time-aligned sequential tracking (TAST) and comb-push ultrasound shear elastography (CUSE).

    PubMed

    Song, Pengfei; Macdonald, Michael; Behler, Russell; Lanning, Justin; Wang, Michael; Urban, Matthew; Manduca, Armando; Zhao, Heng; Callstrom, Matthew; Alizad, Azra; Greenleaf, James; Chen, Shigao

    2015-02-01

    Two-dimensional shear-wave elastography presents 2-D quantitative shear elasticity maps of tissue, which are clinically useful for both focal lesion detection and diffuse disease diagnosis. Realization of 2-D shear-wave elastography on conventional ultrasound scanners, however, is challenging because of the low tracking pulse-repetition-frequency (PRF) of these systems. Although some clinical and research platforms support software beamforming and plane-wave imaging with high PRF, the majority of current clinical ultrasound systems do not have the software beamforming capability, which presents a critical challenge for translating the 2-D shear-wave elastography technique from laboratory to clinical scanners. To address this challenge, this paper presents a time-aligned sequential tracking (TAST) method for shear-wave tracking on conventional ultrasound scanners. TAST takes advantage of the parallel beamforming capability of conventional systems and realizes high-PRF shear-wave tracking by sequentially firing tracking vectors and aligning shear wave data in the temporal direction. The comb-push ultrasound shear elastography (CUSE) technique was used to simultaneously produce multiple shear wave sources within the field-of-view (FOV) to enhance shear wave SNR and facilitate robust reconstructions of 2-D elasticity maps. TAST and CUSE were realized on a conventional ultrasound scanner. A phantom study showed that the shear-wave speed measurements from the conventional ultrasound scanner were in good agreement with the values measured from other 2-D shear wave imaging technologies. An inclusion phantom study showed that the conventional ultrasound scanner had comparable performance to a state-of-the-art shear-wave imaging system in terms of bias and precision in measuring different sized inclusions. Finally, in vivo case analysis of a breast with a malignant mass, and a liver from a healthy subject demonstrated the feasibility of using the conventional ultrasound

  16. Impulse-based methods for fluid flow

    SciTech Connect

    Cortez, Ricardo

    1995-05-01

    A Lagrangian numerical method based on impulse variables is analyzed. A relation between impulse vectors and vortex dipoles with a prescribed dipole moment is presented. This relation is used to adapt the high-accuracy cutoff functions of vortex methods for use in impulse-based methods. A source of error in the long-time implementation of the impulse method is explained and two techniques for avoiding this error are presented. An application of impulse methods to the motion of a fluid surrounded by an elastic membrane is presented.

  17. Periodic components of hand acceleration/deceleration impulses during telemanipulation

    SciTech Connect

    Draper, J.V.; Handel, S.

    1994-01-01

    Responsiveness is the ability of a telemanipulator to recreate user trajectories and impedance in time and space. For trajectory production, a key determinant of responsiveness is the ability of the system to accept user inputs, which are forces on the master handle generated by user hand acceleration/deceleration (a/d) impulses, and translate them into slave arm acceleration/deceleration. This paper presents observations of master controller a/d impulses during completion of a simple target acquisition task. Power spectral density functions (PSDF`s) calculated from hand controller a/d impulses were used to assess impulse waveform. The relative contributions of frequency intervals ranging up to 25 Hz for three spatially different versions of the task were used to determine which frequencies were most important. The highest relative power was observed in frequencies between 1 Hz and 6 Hz. The key frequencies related to task difficulty were in the range from 2 Hz to 8 Hz. the results provide clues to the source of the performance inhibition.

  18. Application of a discretized vortex impulse framework to fish maneuvering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendelson, Leah; Techet, Alexandra

    2015-11-01

    In studies of biological propulsion, metrics for quantitative analysis of the vortex wake, including circulation, impulse, and their time derivatives, are a valuable indicator of performance. To better utilize volumetric PIV data in this type of analysis, a discretized method of deriving vortex impulse relying only on velocity data is developed. The impulse formulation is based on the geometry and distribution of circulation along the vortex core line, which can be detected using critical points in the velocity field. This analysis method is then applied to time-resolved velocity data of a turning giant danio (Devario aequipinnatus) and a jumping archer fish (Toxotes microlepis) obtained using Synthetic Aperture PIV (SAPIV). In the case of the danio, the vortex force vector derived from the impulse derivative shows good agreement with the kinematics of the fish tail during the turning maneuver. With the archer fish, the model is used to explore the relationship between the number of tail beats prior to the jump and the jump height.

  19. Impulse generation by detonation tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Marcia Ann

    Impulse generation with gaseous detonation requires conversion of chemical energy into mechanical energy. This conversion process is well understood in rocket engines where the high pressure combustion products expand through a nozzle generating high velocity exhaust gases. The propulsion community is now focusing on advanced concepts that utilize non-traditional forms of combustion like detonation. Such a device is called a pulse detonation engine in which laboratory tests have proven that thrust can be achieved through continuous cyclic operation. Because of poor performance of straight detonation tubes compared to conventional propulsion systems and the success of using nozzles on rocket engines, the effect of nozzles on detonation tubes is being investigated. Although previous studies of detonation tube nozzles have suggested substantial benefits, up to now there has been no systematic investigations over a range of operating conditions and nozzle configurations. As a result, no models predicting the impulse when nozzles are used exist. This lack of data has severely limited the development and evaluation of models and simulations of nozzles on pulse detonation engines. The first experimental investigation measuring impulse by gaseous detonation in plain tubes and tubes with nozzles operating in varying environment pressures is presented. Converging, diverging, and converging-diverging nozzles were tested to determine the effect of divergence angle, nozzle length, and volumetric fill fraction on impulse. The largest increases in specific impulse, 72% at an environment pressure of 100 kPa and 43% at an environment pressure of 1.4 kPa, were measured with the largest diverging nozzle tested that had a 12° half angle and was 0.6 m long. Two regimes of nozzle operation that depend on the environment pressure are responsible for these increases and were first observed from these data. To augment this experimental investigation, all data in the literature regarding

  20. Are transient and shear wave elastography useful tools in Gaucher disease?

    PubMed

    Webb, Muriel; Zimran, Ari; Dinur, Tama; Shibolet, Oren; Levit, Stella; Steinberg, David M; Salomon, Ophira

    2016-12-23

    Up to now, there are no reliable biochemical markers or imaging that could reveal early tissue damage in Gaucher disease. Therefore, we addressed whether elastography technique can serve as a tool for evaluating patients with Gaucher disease. The study included 42 patients with Gaucher disease type I and 33 patients with liver cirrhosis as well as 22 healthy volunteers. Ultrasound and Doppler examination was performed on each participant prior to apply transient and 2D shear wave elastography. In Gaucher disease the median stiffness of the spleen as assessed by transient elastography (TE) and shear wave elastography (SWE) was 35KPa and 22KPa respectively in contrast to the median stiffness of healthy controls (16.95 and 17.5KPa, p=0.0028 and p=0.0002, respectively) and of patients with cirrhosis (45KPa and 34.5KPa, p=0.015 and p<0.0001 respectively). The liver stiffness in GD as measured by TE and SWE had median values of 7.1KPa and 7KPa respectively, slightly higher than in the healthy controls, but much smaller than for the cirrhotic patients (medians of 24.2KPa and 21KPa). In conclusion, a transient and shear wave elastography show a significant promise as noninvasive and reproducible tools to differentiate Gaucher disease from healthy controls and among those with splenomegaly from cirrhotic patients.

  1. Voxel-level reproducibility assessment of modality independent elastography in a pre-clinical murine model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flint, Katelyn M.; Weis, Jared A.; Yankeelov, Thomas E.; Miga, Michael I.

    2015-03-01

    Changes in tissue mechanical properties, measured non-invasively by elastography methods, have been shown to be an important diagnostic tool, particularly for cancer. Tissue elasticity information, tracked over the course of therapy, may be an important prognostic indicator of tumor response to treatment. While many elastography techniques exist, this work reports on the use of a novel form of elastography that uses image texture to reconstruct elastic property distributions in tissue (i.e., a modality independent elastography (MIE) method) within the context of a pre-clinical breast cancer system.1,2 The elasticity results have previously shown good correlation with independent mechanical testing.1 Furthermore, MIE has been successfully utilized to localize and characterize lesions in both phantom experiments and simulation experiments with clinical data.2,3 However, the reproducibility of this method has not been characterized in previous work. The goal of this study is to evaluate voxel-level reproducibility of MIE in a pre-clinical model of breast cancer. Bland-Altman analysis of co-registered repeat MIE scans in this preliminary study showed a reproducibility index of 24.7% (scaled to a percent of maximum stiffness) at the voxel level. As opposed to many reports in the magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) literature that speak to reproducibility measures of the bulk organ, these results establish MIE reproducibility at the voxel level; i.e., the reproducibility of locally-defined mechanical property measurements throughout the tumor volume.

  2. Accuracy of ultrasound elastography in the diagnosis of thyroid cancer in a low-risk population.

    PubMed

    Vidal-Casariego, A; López-González, L; Jiménez-Pérez, A; Ballesteros-Pomar, M D; Kyriakos, G; Urioste-Fondo, A; Álvarez-San Martín, R; Cano-Rodríguez, I; Jiménez-García de la Marina, J M

    2012-11-01

    Stiffness has been associated to malignancy in prostate and breast, as well as thyroid. Ultrasound elastography objectively measures tissue elasticity, and previous studies have described it as a high sensitivity and specificity technique for the detection of malignant thyroid nodules in high-risk populations. The aim was to assess the accuracy of elastography in a population with low risk of malignancy. 128 consecutive patients with nodular goiter were recruited. Elastography and ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration were performed. When malignancy was suspected by citology, surgery was recommended. Thyroid nodules were classified by elastography according the criteria described by Ueno, and an alternative classification. Sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, and odds ratio were calculated. Most patients were female, aged 56.1 year, with single nodule (52.0%) or multinodular goiter (45.6%), and a few thyroiditis (2.4%). The majority of nodules were mostly elastic. Fine-needle aspiration found 86% of benign nodules, 9.3% of indeterminate, and 4.7% possibly malignant. After surgery, 3 malignant nodules were confirmed, all of them being papillary carcinomas. All the malignant nodules were mostly elastic, as well as 75% of indeterminate nodules. Low values of sensitivity and specificity were found for elastic nodules being benign and hard nodules malignant. In a low-risk population for thyroid cancer, elastography lacks accuracy for the diagnosis of malignant nodules. © J. A. Barth Verlag in Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Effect of bone-soft tissue friction on ultrasound axial shear strain elastography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Songyuan; Chaudhry, Anuj; Kim, Namhee; Reddy, J. N.; Righetti, Raffaella

    2017-08-01

    Bone-soft tissue friction is an important factor affecting several musculoskeletal disorders, frictional syndromes and the ability of a bone fracture to heal. However, this parameter is difficult to determine using non-invasive imaging modalities, especially in clinical settings. Ultrasound axial shear strain elastography is a non-invasive imaging modality that has been used in the recent past to estimate the bonding between different tissue layers. As most elastography methods, axial shear strain elastography is primarily used in soft tissues. More recently, this technique has been proposed to assess the bone-soft tissue interface. In this paper, we investigate the effect of a variation in bone-soft tissue friction coefficient in the resulting axial shear strain elastograms. Finite element poroelastic models of bone specimens exhibiting different bone-soft tissue friction coefficients were created and mechanically analyzed. These models were then imported to an ultrasound elastography simulation module to assess the presence of axial shear strain patterns. In vitro experiments were performed to corroborate selected simulation results. The results of this study show that the normalized axial shear strain estimated at the bone-soft tissue interface is statistically correlated to the bone-soft tissue coefficient of friction. This information may prove useful to better interpret ultrasound elastography results obtained in bone-related applications and, possibly, monitor bone healing.

  4. Ultrasound-Based Carotid Elastography for Detection of Vulnerable Atherosclerotic Plaques Validated by Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chengwu; Pan, Xiaochang; He, Qiong; Huang, Manwei; Huang, Lingyun; Zhao, Xihai; Yuan, Chun; Bai, Jing; Luo, Jianwen

    2016-02-01

    Ultrasound-based carotid elastography has been developed to estimate the mechanical properties of atherosclerotic plaques. The objective of this study was to evaluate the in vivo capability of carotid elastography in vulnerable plaque detection using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging as reference. Ultrasound radiofrequency data of 46 carotid plaques from 29 patients (74 ± 5 y old) were acquired and inter-frame axial strain was estimated with an optical flow method. The maximum value of absolute strain rate for each plaque was derived as an indicator for plaque classification. Magnetic resonance imaging of carotid arteries was performed on the same patients to classify the plaques into stable and vulnerable groups for carotid elastography validation. The maximum value of absolute strain rate was found to be significantly higher in vulnerable plaques (2.15 ± 0.79 s(-1), n = 27) than in stable plaques (1.21 ± 0.37 s(-1), n = 19) (p < 0.0001). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed, and the area under the curve was 0.848. Therefore, the in vivo capability of carotid elastography to detect vulnerable plaques, validated by magnetic resonance imaging, was proven, revealing the potential of carotid elastography as an important tool in atherosclerosis assessment and stroke prevention.

  5. Considering Angle Selection When Using Ultrasound Electrode Displacement Elastography to Evaluate Radiofrequency Ablation of Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qiang; Chen, Pin-Yu; Wang, Chiao-Yin; Liu, Hao-Li; Teng, Jianfu

    2014-01-01

    Percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a minimally invasive treatment to thermally destroy tumors. Ultrasound-based electrode-displacement elastography is an emerging technique for evaluating the region of RFA-induced lesions. The angle between the imaging probe and the RFA electrode can influence electrode-displacement elastography when visualizing the ablation zone. We explored the angle effect on electrode-displacement elastography to measure the ablation zone. Phantoms embedded with meatballs were fabricated and then ablated using an RFA system to simulate RFA-induced lesions. For each phantom, a commercial ultrasound scanner with a 7.5 MHz linear probe was used to acquire raw image data at different angles, ranging from 30° to 90° at increments of 10°, to construct electrode-displacement images and facilitate comparisons with tissue section images. The results revealed that the ablation regions detected using electrode-displacement elastography were highly correlated with those from tissue section images when the angle was between 30° and 60°. However, the boundaries of lesions were difficult to distinguish, when the angle was larger than 60°. The experimental findings suggest that angle selection should be considered to achieve reliable electrode-displacement elastography to describe ablation zones. PMID:24971347

  6. Emotion Regulation and Impulsivity in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Schreiber, Liana R.N.; Grant, Jon E.; Odlaug, Brian L.

    2012-01-01

    Past research has linked both emotion regulation and impulsivity with the development and maintenance of addictions. However, no research has investigated the relationship between emotion regulation and impulsivity within young adults. In the present study, we analyzed 194 young adults (27.8% female; 21.3 ± 3.32 years old; 91.8% single; 85.1% Caucasian), grouping them as low, average, or high emotionally dysregulated, and compared self-reported impulsivity, impulsive behaviors (such as alcohol and substance use and gambling) and cognitive impulsivity. We hypothesized that those with high levels of emotion dysregulation would score higher on self-reported and cognitive impulsivity, and report more impulsive behaviors. Analysis indicated that compared to low, the high emotion dysregulation group scored significantly higher on two self-report measures of impulsivity, harm avoidance, and cognitive reasoning. No significant differences were found between groups in impulsive behaviors and cognitive impulsivity. Overall, this study highlights the relationship between emotion dysregulation and impulsivity, suggesting that emotion regulation may be an important factor to consider when assessing individuals at a higher risk for developing an addiction. PMID:22385661

  7. [Impulse control in addiction: a translational perspective].

    PubMed

    Schmaal, L; Broos, N; Joos, L; Pattij, T; Goudriaan, A E

    2013-01-01

    Impulsivity is a hallmark of addiction and predicts treatment response and relapse. Impulsivity is, however, a complex construct. Translational cross-species research is needed to give us greater insight into the neurobiology and the role of impulsivity in addiction and to help with the development of new treatment strategies for improving patients' impulse control. To review recent evidence concerning the concept of impulsivity and the role of impulsivity in addiction. The concept and neurobiology of impulsivity are reviewed from a translational perspective. The role of impulsivity in addiction and implications for treatment are discussed. Our recent translational cross-species study indicates that impulsivity is made up of several, separate independent features with partly distinct underlying neurobiological substrates. There are also indications that these features make a unique and independent contribution to separate stages of the addiction cycle. In addition, the improvement of impulse control is a promising new target area for treatments that could lead to better results. However, those involved in developing new treatment strategies will have to take into account the complexity and multidimensional character of impulsivity.

  8. Technical Failure of MR Elastography Examinations of the Liver: Experience from a Large Single-Center Study.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Mathilde; Corcuera-Solano, Idoia; Lo, Grace; Esses, Steven; Liao, Joseph; Besa, Cecilia; Chen, Nelson; Abraham, Ginu; Fung, Maggie; Babb, James S; Ehman, Richard L; Taouli, Bachir

    2017-08-01

    Purpose To assess the determinants of technical failure of magnetic resonance (MR) elastography of the liver in a large single-center study. Materials and Methods This retrospective study was approved by the institutional review board. Seven hundred eighty-one MR elastography examinations performed in 691 consecutive patients (mean age, 58 years; male patients, 434 [62.8%]) in a single center between June 2013 and August 2014 were retrospectively evaluated. MR elastography was performed at 3.0 T (n = 443) or 1.5 T (n = 338) by using a gradient-recalled-echo pulse sequence. MR elastography and anatomic image analysis were performed by two observers. Additional observers measured liver T2* and fat fraction. Technical failure was defined as no pixel value with a confidence index higher than 95% and/or no apparent shear waves imaged. Logistic regression analysis was performed to assess potential predictive factors of technical failure of MR elastography. Results The technical failure rate of MR elastography at 1.5 T was 3.5% (12 of 338), while it was higher, 15.3% (68 of 443), at 3.0 T. On the basis of univariate analysis, body mass index, liver iron deposition, massive ascites, use of 3.0 T, presence of cirrhosis, and alcoholic liver disease were all significantly associated with failure of MR elastography (P < .004); but on the basis of multivariable analysis, only body mass index, liver iron deposition, massive ascites, and use of 3.0 T were significantly associated with failure of MR elastography (P < .004). Conclusion The technical failure rate of MR elastography with a gradient-recalled-echo pulse sequence was low at 1.5 T but substantially higher at 3.0 T. Massive ascites, iron deposition, and high body mass index were additional independent factors associated with failure of MR elastography of the liver with a two-dimensional gradient-recalled-echo pulse sequence. (©) RSNA, 2017.

  9. Scale model ultrawideband impulse radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, Michael A.

    1993-05-01

    The Transient Electromagnetic Scattering Laboratory (TESL) is described which employs a unique dual-channel ultra-wideband impulsive illuminating source. This is a free-field facility where targets are suspended within an anechoic chamber. A highly coherent primal step pulse is amplified by two GaAs wideband power amplifiers having complementary passbands which feed individual wideband horn antennas. This yields an effective 1 - 12 GHz impulse bandwidth. A high speed digital processing oscilloscope samples the output of a single receiving horn. The TESL has facilitated research into radar target identification using complex natural resonances. Theory and operational characteristics of the facility are discussed and technical improvements are described which have yielded significant improvement in both the effective bandwidth and the signal-to-noise ratio of transient scattering measurements. Experimental validations are shown which illustrate the level of fidelity attainable and consideration is given to recent enhancements, including an increase of measurement bandwidth to 50 GHz.

  10. A Neurogenetic Approach to Impulsivity

    PubMed Central

    Congdon, Eliza; Canli, Turhan

    2008-01-01

    Impulsivity is a complex and multidimensional trait that is of interest to both personality psychologists and to clinicians. For investigators seeking the biological basis of personality traits, the use of neuroimaging techniques such as positron emission tomography (PET) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) revolutionized personality psychology in less than a decade. Now, another revolution is under way, and it originates from molecular biology. Specifically, new findings in molecular genetics, the detailed mapping and the study of the function of genes, have shown that individual differences in personality traits can be related to individual differences within specific genes. In this article, we will review the current state of the field with respect to the neural and genetic basis of trait impulsivity. PMID:19012655

  11. Point shear wave elastography method for assessing liver stiffness

    PubMed Central

    Ferraioli, Giovanna; Tinelli, Carmine; Lissandrin, Raffaella; Zicchetti, Mabel; Dal Bello, Barbara; Filice, Gaetano; Filice, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To estimate the validity of the point shear-wave elastography method by evaluating its reproducibility and accuracy for assessing liver stiffness. METHODS: This was a single-center, cross-sectional study. Consecutive patients with chronic viral hepatitis scheduled for liver biopsy (LB) (Group 1) and healthy volunteers (Group 2) were studied. In each subject 10 consecutive point shear-wave elastography (PSWE) measurements were performed using the iU22 ultrasound system (Philips Medical Systems, Bothell, WA, United States). Patients in Group 1 underwent PSWE, transient elastography (TE) using FibroScan (Echosens, Paris, France) and ultrasound-assisted LB. For the assessment of PSWE reproducibility two expert raters (rater 1 and rater 2) independently performed the examinations. The performance of PSWE was compared to that of TE using LB as a reference standard. Fibrosis was staged according to the METAVIR scoring system. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses were performed to calculate the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) for F ≥ 2, F ≥ 3 and F = 4. The intraobserver and interobserver reproducibility of PSWE were assessed by calculating Lin’s concordance correlation coefficient. RESULTS: To assess the performance of PSWE, 134 consecutive patients in Group 1 were studied. The median values of PSWE and TE (in kilopascals) were 4.7 (IQR = 3.8-5.4) and 5.5 (IQR = 4.7-6.5), respectively, in patients at the F0-F1 stage and 3.5 (IQR = 3.2-4.0) and 4.4 (IQR = 3.5-4.9), respectively, in the healthy volunteers in Group 2 (P < 10-5). In the univariate analysis, the PSWE and TE values showed a high correlation with the fibrosis stage; low correlations with the degree of necroinflammation, aspartate aminotransferase and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT); and a moderate negative correlation with the platelet count. A multiple regression analysis confirmed the correlations of both PSWE and TE with fibrosis stage and GGT but not with

  12. Microwave emission from lead zirconate titanate induced by impulsive mechanical load

    SciTech Connect

    Aman, A.; Majcherek, S.; Hirsch, S.; Schmidt, B.

    2015-10-28

    This paper focuses on microwave emission from Lead zirconate titanate Pb [Zr{sub x}Ti{sub 1−x}] O{sub 3} (PZT) induced by mechanical stressing. The mechanical stress was initiated by impact of a sharp tungsten indenter on the upper surface of PZT ceramic. The sequences of microwave and current impulses, which flew from indenter to electric ground, were detected simultaneously. The voltage between the upper and lower surface of ceramic was measured to obtain the behavior of mechanical force acting on ceramic during the impact. It was found that the amplitude, form, and frequency of measured microwave impulses were different by compression and restitution phase of impact. Two different mechanisms of electron emission, responsible for microwave impulse generation, were proposed based on the dissimilar impulse behavior. The field emission from tungsten indenter is dominant during compression, whereas ferroemission dominates during restitution phase. Indeed, it was observed that the direction of the current flow, i.e., sign of current impulses is changed by tr