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Sample records for forebrain cholinergic system

  1. Basal Forebrain Cholinergic System and Memory.

    PubMed

    Blake, M G; Boccia, M M

    2017-02-18

    Basal forebrain cholinergic neurons constitute a way station for many ascending and descending pathways. These cholinergic neurons have a role in eliciting cortical activation and arousal. It is well established that they are mainly involved in cognitive processes requiring increased levels of arousal, attentive states and/or cortical activation with desynchronized activity in the EEG. These cholinergic neurons are modulated by several afferents of different neurotransmitter systems. Of particular importance within the cortical targets of basal forebrain neurons is the hippocampal cortex. The septohippocampal pathway is a bidirectional pathway constituting the main septal efferent system, which is widely known to be implicated in every memory process investigated. The present work aims to review the main neurotransmitter systems involved in modulating cognitive processes related to learning and memory through modulation of basal forebrain neurons.

  2. Basal Forebrain Cholinergic System and Orexin Neurons: Effects on Attention

    PubMed Central

    Villano, Ines; Messina, Antonietta; Valenzano, Anna; Moscatelli, Fiorenzo; Esposito, Teresa; Monda, Vincenzo; Esposito, Maria; Precenzano, Francesco; Carotenuto, Marco; Viggiano, Andrea; Chieffi, Sergio; Cibelli, Giuseppe; Monda, Marcellino; Messina, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    The basal forebrain (BF) cholinergic system has an important role in attentive functions. The cholinergic system can be activated by different inputs, and in particular, by orexin neurons, whose cell bodies are located within the postero-lateral hypothalamus. Recently the orexin-producing neurons have been proved to promote arousal and attention through their projections to the BF. The aim of this review article is to summarize the evidence showing that the orexin system contributes to attentional processing by an increase in cortical acetylcholine release and in cortical neurons activity. PMID:28197081

  3. Rabbit forebrain cholinergic system: morphological characterization of nuclei and distribution of cholinergic terminals in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Varga, Csaba; Härtig, Wolfgang; Grosche, Jens; Keijser, Jan; Luiten, Paul G M; Seeger, Johannes; Brauer, Kurt; Harkany, Tibor

    2003-06-09

    Although the rabbit brain, in particular the basal forebrain cholinergic system, has become a common model for neuropathological changes associated with Alzheimer's disease, detailed neuroanatomical studies on the morphological organization of basal forebrain cholinergic nuclei and on their output pathways are still awaited. Therefore, we performed quantitative choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) immunocytochemistry to localize major cholinergic nuclei and to determine the number of respective cholinergic neurons in the rabbit forebrain. The density of ChAT-immunoreactive terminals in layer V of distinct neocortical territories and in hippocampal subfields was also measured. Another cholinergic marker, the low-affinity neurotrophin receptor (p75(NTR)), was also employed to identify subsets of cholinergic neurons. Double-immunofluorescence labeling of ChAT and p75(NTR), calbindin D-28k (CB), parvalbumin, calretinin, neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), tyrosine hydroxylase, or substance P was used to elucidate the neuroanatomical borders of cholinergic nuclei and to analyze the neurochemical complexity of cholinergic cell populations. Cholinergic projection neurons with heterogeneous densities were found in the medial septum, vertical and horizontal diagonal bands of Broca, ventral pallidum, and magnocellular nucleus basalis (MBN)/substantia innominata (SI) complex; cholinergic interneurons were observed in the caudate nucleus, putamen, accumbens nucleus, and olfactory tubercule, whereas the globus pallidus was devoid of cholinergic nerve cells. Cholinergic interneurons were frequently present in the hippocampus and to a lesser extent in cerebral cortex. Cholinergic projection neurons, except those localized in SI, abundantly expressed p75(NTR), and a subset of cholinergic neurons in posterior MBN was immunoreactive for CB and nNOS. A strict laminar distribution pattern of cholinergic terminals was recorded both in the cerebral cortex and in CA1-CA3 and dentate gyrus

  4. Basal Forebrain Cholinergic Modulation of Sleep Transitions

    PubMed Central

    Ozen Irmak, Simal; de Lecea, Luis

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The basal forebrain cholinergic system is involved in cognitive processes that require an attentive state, an increased level of arousal, and/or cortical activation associated with low amplitude fast EEG activity. The activity of most neurons in the basal forebrain cholinergic space is tightly correlated with the cortical EEG and the activity state. While most cholinergic neurons fire maximally during waking and REM sleep, the activity of other types of basal forebrain neurons vastly differs across different arousal and sleep states. Numerous studies have suggested a role for the basal forebrain cholinergic neurons in eliciting cortical activation and arousal. However, the intricate local connectivity within the region requires the use of cell-specific manipulation methods to demonstrate such a causal relationship. Design and Measurements: Here we have combined optogenetics with surface EEG recordings in freely moving mice in order to investigate the effects of acute cholinergic activation on the dynamics of sleep-to-wake transitions. We recorded from naturally sleeping animals and analyzed transitions from NREM sleep to REM sleep and/or wakefulness in response to photo-stimulation of cholinergic neurons in substantia innominata. Results and Conclusions: Our results show that optogenetic activation of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons during NREM sleep is sufficient to elicit cortical activation and facilitate state transitions, particularly transitions to wakefulness and arousal, at a time scale similar to the activation induced by other subcortical systems. Our results provide in vivo cell-specific demonstration for the role of basal forebrain cholinergic system in induction of wakefulness and arousal. Citation: Ozen Irmak S, de Lecea L. Basal forebrain cholinergic modulation of sleep transitions. SLEEP 2014;37(12):1941-1951. PMID:25325504

  5. Developmental specification of forebrain cholinergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Allaway, Kathryn C; Machold, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Striatal cholinergic interneurons and basal forebrain cholinergic projection neurons, which together comprise the forebrain cholinergic system, regulate attention, memory, reward pathways, and motor activity through the neuromodulation of multiple brain circuits. The importance of these neurons in the etiology of neurocognitive disorders has been well documented, but our understanding of their specification during embryogenesis is still incomplete. All forebrain cholinergic projection neurons and interneurons appear to share a common developmental origin in the embryonic ventral telencephalon, a region that also gives rise to GABAergic projection neurons and interneurons. Significant progress has been made in identifying the key intrinsic and extrinsic factors that promote a cholinergic fate in this precursor population. However, how cholinergic interneurons and projection neurons differentiate from one another during development, as well as how distinct developmental programs contribute to heterogeneity within those two classes, is not yet well understood. In this review we summarize the transcription factors and signaling molecules known to play a role in the specification and early development of striatal and basal forebrain cholinergic neurons. We also discuss the heterogeneity of these populations and its possible developmental origins. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of neonatal handling on the basal forebrain cholinergic system of adult male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Pondiki, S; Stamatakis, A; Fragkouli, A; Philippidis, H; Stylianopoulou, F

    2006-10-13

    Neonatal handling is an early experience which results in improved function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, increased adaptability and coping as a response to stress, as well as better cognitive abilities. In the present study, we investigated the effect of neonatal handling on the basal forebrain cholinergic system, since this system is known to play an important role in cognitive processes. We report that neonatal handling results in increased number of choline-acetyl transferase immunopositive cells in the septum/diagonal band, in both sexes, while no such effect was observed in the other cholinergic nuclei, such as the magnocellular preoptic nucleus and the nucleus basalis of Meynert. In addition, neonatal handling resulted in increased M1 and M2 muscarinic receptor binding sites in the cingulate and piriform cortex of both male and female rats. A handling-induced increase in M1 muscarinic receptor binding sites was also observed in the CA3 and CA4 (fields 3 and 4 of Ammon's horn) areas of the hippocampus. Furthermore, a handling-induced increase in acetylcholinesterase staining was found only in the hippocampus of females. Our results thus show that neonatal handling acts in a sexually dimorphic manner on one of the cholinergic parameters, and has a beneficial effect on BFCS function, which could be related to the more efficient and adaptive stress response and the superior cognitive abilities of handled animals.

  7. Whole-Brain Monosynaptic Afferent Inputs to Basal Forebrain Cholinergic System

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Rongfeng; Jin, Sen; He, Xiaobin; Xu, Fuqiang; Hu, Ji

    2016-01-01

    The basal forebrain cholinergic system (BFCS) robustly modulates many important behaviors, such as arousal, attention, learning and memory, through heavy projections to cortex and hippocampus. However, the presynaptic partners governing BFCS activity still remain poorly understood. Here, we utilized a recently developed rabies virus-based cell-type-specific retrograde tracing system to map the whole-brain afferent inputs of the BFCS. We found that the BFCS receives inputs from multiple cortical areas, such as orbital frontal cortex, motor cortex, and insular cortex, and that the BFCS also receives dense inputs from several subcortical nuclei related to motivation and stress, including lateral septum, central amygdala, paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus, dorsal raphe, and parabrachial nucleus. Interestingly, we found that the BFCS receives inputs from the olfactory areas and the entorhinal–hippocampal system. These results greatly expand our knowledge about the connectivity of the mouse BFCS and provided important preliminary indications for future exploration of circuit function. PMID:27777554

  8. Interaction of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons with the glucocorticoid system in stress regulation and cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Paul, Saswati; Jeon, Won Kyung; Bizon, Jennifer L; Han, Jung-Soo

    2015-01-01

    A substantial number of studies on basal forebrain (BF) cholinergic neurons (BFCN) have provided compelling evidence for their role in the etiology of stress, cognitive aging, Alzheimer's disease (AD), and other neurodegenerative diseases. BFCN project to a broad range of cortical sites and limbic structures, including the hippocampus, and are involved in stress and cognition. In particular, the hippocampus, the primary target tissue of the glucocorticoid stress hormones, is associated with cognitive function in tandem with hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis modulation. The present review summarizes glucocorticoid and HPA axis research to date in an effort to establish the manner in which stress affects the release of acetylcholine (ACh), glucocorticoids, and their receptor in the context of cognitive processes. We attempt to provide the molecular interactive link between the glucocorticoids and cholinergic system that contributes to BFCN degeneration in stress-induced acceleration of cognitive decline in aging and AD. We also discuss the importance of animal models in facilitating such studies for pharmacological use, to which could help decipher disease states and propose leads for pharmacological intervention.

  9. Interaction of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons with the glucocorticoid system in stress regulation and cognitive impairment

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Saswati; Jeon, Won Kyung; Bizon, Jennifer L.; Han, Jung-Soo

    2015-01-01

    A substantial number of studies on basal forebrain (BF) cholinergic neurons (BFCN) have provided compelling evidence for their role in the etiology of stress, cognitive aging, Alzheimer’s disease (AD), and other neurodegenerative diseases. BFCN project to a broad range of cortical sites and limbic structures, including the hippocampus, and are involved in stress and cognition. In particular, the hippocampus, the primary target tissue of the glucocorticoid stress hormones, is associated with cognitive function in tandem with hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis modulation. The present review summarizes glucocorticoid and HPA axis research to date in an effort to establish the manner in which stress affects the release of acetylcholine (ACh), glucocorticoids, and their receptor in the context of cognitive processes. We attempt to provide the molecular interactive link between the glucocorticoids and cholinergic system that contributes to BFCN degeneration in stress-induced acceleration of cognitive decline in aging and AD. We also discuss the importance of animal models in facilitating such studies for pharmacological use, to which could help decipher disease states and propose leads for pharmacological intervention. PMID:25883567

  10. Corelease of acetylcholine and GABA from cholinergic forebrain neurons

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, Arpiar; Granger, Adam J; Sabatini, Bernardo L

    2015-01-01

    Neurotransmitter corelease is emerging as a common theme of central neuromodulatory systems. Though corelease of glutamate or GABA with acetylcholine has been reported within the cholinergic system, the full extent is unknown. To explore synaptic signaling of cholinergic forebrain neurons, we activated choline acetyltransferase expressing neurons using channelrhodopsin while recording post-synaptic currents (PSCs) in layer 1 interneurons. Surprisingly, we observed PSCs mediated by GABAA receptors in addition to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Based on PSC latency and pharmacological sensitivity, our results suggest monosynaptic release of both GABA and ACh. Anatomical analysis showed that forebrain cholinergic neurons express the GABA synthetic enzyme Gad2 and the vesicular GABA transporter (Slc32a1). We confirmed the direct release of GABA by knocking out Slc32a1 from cholinergic neurons. Our results identify GABA as an overlooked fast neurotransmitter utilized throughout the forebrain cholinergic system. GABA/ACh corelease may have major implications for modulation of cortical function by cholinergic neurons. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06412.001 PMID:25723967

  11. A cholinergic basal forebrain feeding circuit modulates appetite suppression.

    PubMed

    Herman, Alexander M; Ortiz-Guzman, Joshua; Kochukov, Mikhail; Herman, Isabella; Quast, Kathleen B; Patel, Jay M; Tepe, Burak; Carlson, Jeffrey C; Ung, Kevin; Selever, Jennifer; Tong, Qingchun; Arenkiel, Benjamin R

    2016-10-13

    Atypical food intake is a primary cause of obesity and other eating and metabolic disorders. Insight into the neural control of feeding has previously focused mainly on signalling mechanisms associated with the hypothalamus, the major centre in the brain that regulates body weight homeostasis. However, roles of non-canonical central nervous system signalling mechanisms in regulating feeding behaviour have been largely uncharacterized. Acetylcholine has long been proposed to influence feeding owing in part to the functional similarity between acetylcholine and nicotine, a known appetite suppressant. Nicotine is an exogenous agonist for acetylcholine receptors, suggesting that endogenous cholinergic signalling may play a part in normal physiological regulation of feeding. However, it remains unclear how cholinergic neurons in the brain regulate food intake. Here we report that cholinergic neurons of the mouse basal forebrain potently influence food intake and body weight. Impairment of cholinergic signalling increases food intake and results in severe obesity, whereas enhanced cholinergic signalling decreases food consumption. We found that cholinergic circuits modulate appetite suppression on downstream targets in the hypothalamus. Together our data reveal the cholinergic basal forebrain as a major modulatory centre underlying feeding behaviour.

  12. Maternal choline supplementation differentially alters the basal forebrain cholinergic system of young-adult Ts65Dn and disomic mice.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Christy M; Powers, Brian E; Velazquez, Ramon; Ash, Jessica A; Ginsberg, Stephen D; Strupp, Barbara J; Mufson, Elliott J

    2014-04-15

    Down syndrome (DS), trisomy 21, is a multifaceted condition marked by intellectual disability and early presentation of Alzheimer's disease (AD) neuropathological lesions including degeneration of the basal forebrain cholinergic neuron (BFCN) system. Although DS is diagnosable during gestation, there is no treatment option for expectant mothers or DS individuals. Using the Ts65Dn mouse model of DS that displays age-related degeneration of the BFCN system, we investigated the effects of maternal choline supplementation on the BFCN system in adult Ts65Dn mice and disomic (2N) littermates at 4.3-7.5 months of age. Ts65Dn dams were maintained on a choline-supplemented diet (5.1 g/kg choline chloride) or a control, unsupplemented diet with adequate amounts of choline (1 g/kg choline chloride) from conception until weaning of offspring; post weaning, offspring were fed the control diet. Mice were transcardially perfused with paraformaldehyde, and brains were sectioned and immunolabeled for choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) or p75-neurotrophin receptor (p75(NTR) ). BFCN number and size, the area of the regions, and the intensity of hippocampal labeling were determined. Ts65Dn-unsupplemented mice displayed region- and immunolabel-dependent increased BFCN number, larger areas, smaller BFCNs, and overall increased hippocampal ChAT intensity compared with 2N unsupplemented mice. These effects were partially normalized by maternal choline supplementation. Taken together, the results suggest a developmental imbalance in the Ts65Dn BFCN system. Early maternal-diet choline supplementation attenuates some of the genotype-dependent alterations in the BFCN system, suggesting this naturally occurring nutrient as a treatment option for pregnant mothers with knowledge that their offspring is trisomy 21.

  13. Maternal choline supplementation differentially alters the basal forebrain cholinergic system of young-adult Ts65Dn and disomic mice

    PubMed Central

    Kelley, Christy M.; Powers, Brian E.; Velazquez, Ramon; Ash, Jessica A.; Ginsberg, Stephen D.; Strupp, Barbara J.; Mufson, Elliott J.

    2014-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS), trisomy 21, is a multifaceted condition marked by intellectual disability and early presentation of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) neuropathological lesions including degeneration of the basal forebrain cholinergic neuron (BFCN) system. While DS is diagnosable during gestation, there is no treatment option for expectant mothers or DS individuals. Using the Ts65Dn mouse model of DS that displays age-related degeneration of the BFCN system, we investigated the effects of maternal choline supplementation on the BFCN system in adult Ts65Dn mice and disomic (2N) littermates at 4.3–7.5 mos of age. Ts65Dn dams were maintained on a choline supplemented diet (5.1 g/kg choline chloride) or a control, unsupplemented diet with adequate amounts of choline (1 g/kg choline chloride) from conception until weaning of offspring; postweaning, offspring were fed the control diet. Mice were transcardially perfused with paraformaldehyde, brains were sectioned, and immunolabeled for choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) or p75-neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR). BFCN number and size, the area of the regions, and the intensity of hippocampal labeling were determined. Ts65Dn unsupplemented mice displayed region- and immunolabel-dependent increased BFCN number, larger areas, smaller BFCNs, and overall increased hippocampal ChAT intensity compared with 2N unsupplemented mice. These effects were partially normalized by maternal choline supplementation. Taken together, the results suggest a developmental imbalance in the Ts65Dn BFCN system. Early maternal-diet choline supplementation attenuates some of the genotype-dependent alterations in the BFCN system, suggesting this naturally occurring nutrient as a treatment option for pregnant mothers with knowledge that their offspring is trisomy 21. PMID:24178831

  14. Cholinergic Inputs from Basal Forebrain Add an Excitatory Bias to Odor Coding in the Olfactory Bulb

    PubMed Central

    Rothermel, Markus; Carey, Ryan M.; Puche, Adam; Shipley, Michael T.

    2014-01-01

    Cholinergic modulation of central circuits is associated with active sensation, attention, and learning, yet the neural circuits and temporal dynamics underlying cholinergic effects on sensory processing remain unclear. Understanding the effects of cholinergic modulation on particular circuits is complicated by the widespread projections of cholinergic neurons to telencephalic structures that themselves are highly interconnected. Here we examined how cholinergic projections from basal forebrain to the olfactory bulb (OB) modulate output from the first stage of sensory processing in the mouse olfactory system. By optogenetically activating their axons directly in the OB, we found that cholinergic projections from basal forebrain regulate OB output by increasing the spike output of presumptive mitral/tufted cells. Cholinergic stimulation increased mitral/tufted cell spiking in the absence of inhalation-driven sensory input and further increased spiking responses to inhalation of odorless air and to odorants. This modulation was rapid and transient, was dependent on local cholinergic signaling in the OB, and differed from modulation by optogenetic activation of cholinergic neurons in basal forebrain, which led to a mixture of mitral/tufted cell excitation and suppression. Finally, bulbar cholinergic enhancement of mitral/tufted cell odorant responses was robust and occurred independent of the strength or even polarity of the odorant-evoked response, indicating that cholinergic modulation adds an excitatory bias to mitral/tufted cells as opposed to increasing response gain or sharpening response spectra. These results are consistent with a role for the basal forebrain cholinergic system in dynamically regulating the sensitivity to or salience of odors during active sensing of the olfactory environment. PMID:24672011

  15. Opposing regulation of dopaminergic activity and exploratory motor behavior by forebrain and brainstem cholinergic circuits.

    PubMed

    Patel, Jyoti C; Rossignol, Elsa; Rice, Margaret E; Machold, Robert P

    2012-01-01

    Dopamine transmission is critical for exploratory motor behaviour. A key regulator is acetylcholine; forebrain acetylcholine regulates striatal dopamine release, whereas brainstem cholinergic inputs regulate the transition of dopamine neurons from tonic to burst firing modes. How these sources of cholinergic activity combine to control dopamine efflux and exploratory motor behaviour is unclear. Here we show that mice lacking total forebrain acetylcholine exhibit enhanced frequency-dependent striatal dopamine release and are hyperactive in a novel environment, whereas mice lacking rostral brainstem acetylcholine are hypoactive. Exploratory motor behaviour is normalized by the removal of both cholinergic sources. Involvement of dopamine in the exploratory motor phenotypes observed in these mutants is indicated by their altered sensitivity to the dopamine D2 receptor antagonist raclopride. These results support a model in which forebrain and brainstem cholinergic systems act in tandem to regulate striatal dopamine signalling for proper control of motor activity.

  16. Distribution of secretagogin-containing neurons in the basal forebrain of mice, with special reference to the cholinergic corticopetal system.

    PubMed

    Gyengesi, Erika; Andrews, Zane B; Paxinos, George; Zaborszky, Laszlo

    2013-05-01

    Cholinergic and GABAergic corticopetal neurons in the basal forebrain play important roles in cortical activation, sensory processing, and attention. Cholinergic neurons are intermingled with peptidergic, and various calcium binding protein-containing cells, however, the functional role of these neurons is not well understood. In this study we examined the expression pattern of secretagogin (Scgn), a newly described calcium-binding protein, in neurons of the basal forebrain. We also assessed some of the corticopetal projections of Scgn neurons and their co-localization with choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), neuropeptide-Y, and other calcium-binding proteins (i.e., calbindin, calretinin, and parvalbumin). Scgn is expressed in cell bodies of the medial and lateral septum, vertical and horizontal diagonal band nuclei, and of the extension of the amygdala but it is almost absent in the ventral pallidum. Scgn is co-localized with ChAT in neurons of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, extension of the amygdala, and interstitial nucleus of the posterior limb of the anterior commissure. Scgn was co-localized with calretinin in the accumbens nucleus, medial division of the bed nucleus of stria terminalis, the extension of the amygdala, and interstitial nucleus of the posterior limb of the anterior commissure. We have not found co-expression of Scgn with parvalbumin, calbindin, or neuropeptide-Y. Retrograde tracing studies using Fluoro Gold in combination with Scgn-specific immunohistochemistry revealed that Scgn neurons situated in the nucleus of the horizontal limb of the diagonal band project to retrosplenial and cingulate cortical areas.

  17. Short-term ethanol exposure causes imbalanced neurotrophic factor allocation in the basal forebrain cholinergic system: a novel insight into understanding the initial processes of alcohol addiction.

    PubMed

    Miki, Takanori; Kusaka, Takashi; Yokoyama, Toshifumi; Ohta, Ken-ichi; Suzuki, Shingo; Warita, Katsuhiko; Jamal, Mostofa; Wang, Zhi-Yu; Ueki, Masaaki; Liu, Jun-Qian; Yakura, Tomiko; Tamai, Motoki; Sumitani, Kazunori; Hosomi, Naohisa; Takeuchi, Yoshiki

    2014-02-01

    Alcohol ingestion affects both motor and cognitive functions. One brain system that is influenced by ethanol is the basal forebrain (BF) cholinergic projection system, which projects to diverse neocortical and limbic areas. The BF is associated with memory and cognitive function. Our primary interest is the examination of how regions that receive BF cholinergic projections are influenced by short-term ethanol exposure through alterations in the mRNA levels of neurotrophic factors [nerve growth factor/TrkA, brain-derived neurotrophic factor/TrkB, and glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF)/GDNF family receptor α1]. Male BALB/C mice were fed a liquid diet containing 5 % (v/v) ethanol. Pair-fed control mice were maintained on an identical liquid diet, except that the ethanol was isocalorically substituted with sucrose. Mice exhibiting signs of ethanol intoxication (stages 1-2) were used for real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analyses. Among the BF cholinergic projection regions, decreased levels of GDNF mRNA and increased levels of TrkB mRNA were observed in the basal nucleus, and increased levels of TrkB mRNA were observed in the cerebral cortex. There were no significant alterations in the levels of expression of relevant neurotrophic factors in the septal nucleus and hippocampus. Given that neurotrophic factors function in retrograde/anterograde or autocrine/paracrine mechanisms and that BF cholinergic projection regions are neuroanatomically connected, these findings suggested that an imbalanced allocation of neurotrophic factor ligands and receptors is an initial phenomenon in alcohol addiction. The exact mechanisms underlying this phenomenon in the BF cholinergic system are unknown. However, our results provide a novel notion for the understanding of the initial processes in alcohol addiction.

  18. TASK Channels on Basal Forebrain Cholinergic Neurons Modulate Electrocortical Signatures of Arousal by Histamine

    PubMed Central

    Vu, Michael T.; Du, Guizhi; Bayliss, Douglas A.

    2015-01-01

    . Basal forebrain cholinergic neurons are important modulators of cortical arousal and γ activity, and in this study we investigated the mechanism by which these neurons are activated by the wake-active neurotransmitter histamine. We found that histamine inhibited a class of K+ leak channels called TASK channels and that deletion of TASK channels selectively on cholinergic neurons modulated baseline EEG activity as well as histamine-induced changes in γ activity. By identifying a discrete brain circuit where TASK channels can influence γ activity, these results represent new knowledge that enhances our understanding of how subcortical arousal systems may contribute to the generation of attentive states. PMID:26446210

  19. TrkA Gene Ablation in Basal Forebrain Results in Dysfunction of the Cholinergic Circuitry

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez-Ortiz, Efrain; Yui, Daishi; Song, Dongli; Li, Yun; Rubenstein, John L.; Reichardt, Louis F.; Parada, Luis F.

    2012-01-01

    Dysfunction of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons (BFCNs) is an early pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Numerous studies have indicated that nerve growth factor (NGF) supports survival and phenotypic differentiation of BFCNs. Consistent with a potential link to AD pathogenesis, TrkA, a NGF receptor, is expressed in cholinergic forebrain neuronal populations including those in basal forebrain (BF) and striatum, and is markedly reduced in individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) without dementia and early-stage AD. To investigate the role of TrkA in the development, connectivity, and function of the BF cholinergic system and its contribution to AD pathology, we have generated a forebrain-specific conditional TrkA knockout mouse line. Our findings show a key role for TrkA signaling in establishing the BF cholinergic circuitry through the ERK pathway, and demonstrate that the normal developmental increase of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) expression becomes critically dependent on TrkA signaling before neuronal connections are established. Moreover, the anatomical and physiological deficits caused by lack of TrkA signaling in BFCNs have selective impact on cognitive activity. These data demonstrate that TrkA loss results in cholinergic BF dysfunction and cognitive decline that is reminiscent of MCI and early AD. PMID:22442072

  20. Increase in cortical endocannabinoid signaling in a rat model of basal forebrain cholinergic dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Llorente-Ovejero, Alberto; Manuel, Iván; Giralt, Maria Teresa; Rodríguez-Puertas, Rafael

    2017-08-18

    The basal forebrain cholinergic pathways progressively degenerate during the progression of Alzheimer's disease, leading to an irreversible impairment of memory and thinking skills. The stereotaxic lesion with 192IgG-saporin in the rat brain has been used to eliminate basal forebrain cholinergic neurons and is aimed at emulating the cognitive damage described in this disease in order to explore its effects on behavior and on neurotransmission. Learning and memory processes that are controlled by cholinergic neurotransmission are also modulated by the endocannabinoid (eCB) system. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the eCB signaling in relation to the memory impairment induced in adult rats following a specific cholinergic lesion of the basal forebrain. Therefore, CB1 receptor-mediated signaling was analyzed using receptor and functional autoradiography, and cellular distribution by immunofluorescence. The passive avoidance test and histochemical data revealed a relationship between impaired behavioral responses and a loss of approximately 75% of cholinergic neurons in the nucleus basalis magnocellularis (NBM), accompanied by cortical cholinergic denervation. The decrease in CB1 receptor density observed in the hippocampus, together with hyperactivity of eCB signaling in the NBM and cortex, suggest an interaction between the eCB and cholinergic systems. Moreover, following basal forebrain cholinergic denervation, the presynaptic GABAergic immunoreactivity was reduced in cortical areas. In conclusion, CB1 receptors present in presynaptic GABAergic terminals in the hippocampus are down regulated, but not those in cortical glutamatergic synapses. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Understanding the cognitive impact of the contraceptive estrogen Ethinyl Estradiol: tonic and cyclic administration impairs memory, and performance correlates with basal forebrain cholinergic system integrity.

    PubMed

    Mennenga, Sarah E; Gerson, Julia E; Koebele, Stephanie V; Kingston, Melissa L; Tsang, Candy W S; Engler-Chiurazzi, Elizabeth B; Baxter, Leslie C; Bimonte-Nelson, Heather A

    2015-04-01

    Ethinyl Estradiol (EE), a synthetic, orally bio-available estrogen, is the most commonly prescribed form of estrogen in oral contraceptives, and is found in at least 30 different contraceptive formulations currently prescribed to women as well as hormone therapies prescribed to menopausal women. Thus, EE is prescribed clinically to women at ages ranging from puberty to reproductive senescence. Here, in two separate studies, the cognitive effects of cyclic or tonic EE administration following ovariectomy (Ovx) were evaluated in young female rats. Study I assessed the cognitive effects of low and high doses of EE, delivered tonically via a subcutaneous osmotic pump. Study II evaluated the cognitive effects of low, medium, and high doses of EE administered via a daily subcutaneous injection, modeling the daily rise and fall of serum EE levels with oral regimens. Study II also investigated the impact of low, medium and high doses of EE on the basal forebrain cholinergic system. The low and medium doses utilized here correspond to the range of doses currently used in clinical formulations, and the high dose corresponds to doses prescribed to a generation of women between 1960 and 1970, when oral contraceptives first became available. We evaluate cognition using a battery of maze tasks tapping several domains of spatial learning and memory as well as basal forebrain cholinergic integrity using immunohistochemistry and unbiased stereology to estimate the number of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-producing cells in the medial septum and vertical/diagonal bands. At the highest dose, EE treatment impaired multiple domains of spatial memory relative to vehicle treatment, regardless of administration method. When given cyclically at the low and medium doses, EE did not impact working memory, but transiently impaired reference memory during the learning phase of testing. Of the doses and regimens tested here, only EE at the highest dose impaired several domains of memory

  2. Nerve growth factor corrects developmental impairments of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons in the trisomy 16 mouse.

    PubMed Central

    Corsi, P; Coyle, J T

    1991-01-01

    The trisomy 16 (Ts16) mouse, which shares genetic and phenotypic homologies with Down syndrome, exhibits impaired development of the basal forebrain cholinergic system. Basal forebrains obtained from Ts16 and euploid littermate fetuses at 15 days of gestation were dissociated and cultured in completely defined medium, with cholinergic neurons identified by choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) immunoreactivity. The Ts16 cultures exhibited fewer ChAT-immunoreactive neurons, which were smaller and emitted shorter, smoother, and more simplified neurites than those from euploid littermates. Whereas the addition of beta-nerve growth factor (100 ng/ml) augmented the specific activity of ChAT and neuritic extension for both Ts16 and euploid cholinergic neurons, only Ts16 cultures exhibited an increase in the number and size of ChAT-immunoreactive neurons. Furthermore, Ts16 ChAT-immunoreactive neurites formed varicosities only in the presence of beta-nerve growth factor. Images PMID:2000385

  3. Cholinergic Neurons Excite Cortically Projecting Basal Forebrain GABAergic Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chun; McKenna, James T.; Zant, Janneke C.; Winston, Stuart; Basheer, Radhika

    2014-01-01

    The basal forebrain (BF) plays an important role in the control of cortical activation and attention. Understanding the modulation of BF neuronal activity is a prerequisite to treat disorders of cortical activation involving BF dysfunction, such as Alzheimer's disease. Here we reveal the interaction between cholinergic neurons and cortically projecting BF GABAergic neurons using immunohistochemistry and whole-cell recordings in vitro. In GAD67-GFP knock-in mice, BF cholinergic (choline acetyltransferase-positive) neurons were intermingled with GABAergic (GFP+) neurons. Immunohistochemistry for the vesicular acetylcholine transporter showed that cholinergic fibers apposed putative cortically projecting GABAergic neurons containing parvalbumin (PV). In coronal BF slices from GAD67-GFP knock-in or PV-tdTomato mice, pharmacological activation of cholinergic receptors with bath application of carbachol increased the firing rate of large (>20 μm diameter) BF GFP+ and PV (tdTomato+) neurons, which exhibited the intrinsic membrane properties of cortically projecting neurons. The excitatory effect of carbachol was blocked by antagonists of M1 and M3 muscarinic receptors in two subpopulations of BF GABAergic neurons [large hyperpolarization-activated cation current (Ih) and small Ih, respectively]. Ion substitution experiments and reversal potential measurements suggested that the carbachol-induced inward current was mediated mainly by sodium-permeable cation channels. Carbachol also increased the frequency of spontaneous excitatory and inhibitory synaptic currents. Furthermore, optogenetic stimulation of cholinergic neurons/fibers caused a mecamylamine- and atropine-sensitive inward current in putative GABAergic neurons. Thus, cortically projecting, BF GABAergic/PV neurons are excited by neighboring BF and/or brainstem cholinergic neurons. Loss of cholinergic neurons in Alzheimer's disease may impair cortical activation, in part, through disfacilitation of BF cortically

  4. Silencing of Cholinergic Basal Forebrain Neurons Using Archaerhodopsin Prolongs Slow-Wave Sleep in Mice.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yu-Feng; Han, Yong; Su, Yun-Ting; Yang, Jun-Hua; Yu, Yan-Qin

    2015-01-01

    The basal forebrain (BF) plays a crucial role in cortical activation. Our previous study showed that activation of cholinergic BF neurons alone is sufficient to suppress slow-wave sleep (SWS) and promote wakefulness and rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep. However, the exact role of silencing cholinergic BF neurons in the sleep-wake cycle remains unclear. We inhibitied the cholinergic BF neurons genetically targeted with archaerhodopsin (Arch) with yellow light to clarify the role of cholinergic BF neurons in the sleep-wake cycle. Bilateral inactivation of cholinergic BF neurons genetically targeted with archaerhodopsin prolonged SWS and decreased the probability of awakening from SWS in mice. However, silencing these neurons changed neither the duration of wakefulness or REM sleep, nor the probability of transitions to other sleep-wake episodes from wakefulness or REM sleep. Furthermore, silencing these neurons for 6 h within the inactive or active period increased the duration of SWS at the expense of the duration of wakefulness, as well as increasing the number of prolonged SWS episodes (120-240 s). The lost wakefulness was compensated by a delayed increase of wakefulness, so the total duration of SWS and wakefulness during 24 h was kept stable. Our results indicate that the main effect of these neurons is to terminate SWS, whereas wakefulness or REM sleep may be determined by co-operation of the cholinergic BF neurons with other arousal-sleep control systems.

  5. Neurotrophic Factors Rescue Basal Forebrain Cholinergic Neurons and Improve Performance on a Spatial Learning Test

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yu-Shang; Danandeh, Andalib; Baratta, Janie; Lin, Ching-Yi; Yu, Jen; Robertson, Richard T.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether animals sustaining experimental damage to the basal forebrain cholinergic system would benefit from treatment with exogenous neurotrophic factors. Specifically, we set out to determine whether neurotrophic factors would rescue damaged cholinergic neurons and improve behavioral performance on a spatial learning and memory task. Adult rats received bilateral injections of either saline (controls) or 192 IgG-saporin to damage basal forebrain cholinergic neurons (BFCNs). Two weeks later, animals received implants of an Alzet mini-pump connected to cannulae implanted bilaterally in the lateral ventricles. Animals received infusions of nerve growth factor (NGF), neurotrophin 3 (NT3), a combination of NGF and NT3, or a saline control over a 4-week period. Compared to saline-treated controls, animals sustaining saporin-induced damage to BFCNs took significantly more trials to learn a delayed match to position task and also performed more poorly on subsequent tests, with increasing delays between test runs. In contrast, animals infused with neurotrophins after saporin treatment performed significantly better than animals receiving saline infusions; no differences were detected for performance scores among animals infused with NGF, NT3, or a combination of NGF and NT3. Studies of ChAT immunnocytochemical labeling of BFCNs revealed a reduction in the numbers of ChAT-positive neurons in septum, nucleus of diagonal band, and nucleus basalis in animals treated with saporin followed by saline infusions, whereas animals treated with infusions of NGF, NT3 or a combination of NGF and NT3 showed only modest reductions in ChAT-positive neurons. Together, these data support the notion that administration of neurotrophic factors can rescue basal forebrain cholinergic neurons and improve learning and memory performance in rats. PMID:24017996

  6. Neurotrophic factors rescue basal forebrain cholinergic neurons and improve performance on a spatial learning test.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yu-Shang; Danandeh, Andalib; Baratta, Janie; Lin, Ching-Yi; Yu, Jen; Robertson, Richard T

    2013-11-01

    This study investigated whether animals sustaining experimental damage to the basal forebrain cholinergic system would benefit from treatment with exogenous neurotrophic factors. Specifically, we set out to determine whether neurotrophic factors would rescue damaged cholinergic neurons and improve behavioral performance on a spatial learning and memory task. Adult rats received bilateral injections of either saline (controls) or 192 IgG-saporin to damage basal forebrain cholinergic neurons (BFCNs). Two weeks later, animals received implants of an Alzet mini-pump connected to cannulae implanted bilaterally in the lateral ventricles. Animals received infusions of nerve growth factor (NGF), neurotrophin 3 (NT3), a combination of NGF and NT3, or a saline control over a 4-week period. Compared to saline-treated controls, animals sustaining saporin-induced damage to BFCNs took significantly more trials to learn a delayed match to position task and also performed more poorly on subsequent tests, with increasing delays between test runs. In contrast, animals infused with neurotrophins after saporin treatment performed significantly better than animals receiving saline infusions; no differences were detected for performance scores among animals infused with NGF, NT3, or a combination of NGF and NT3. Studies of ChAT immunnocytochemical labeling of BFCNs revealed a reduction in the numbers of ChAT-positive neurons in septum, nucleus of diagonal band, and nucleus basalis in animals treated with saporin followed by saline infusions, whereas animals treated with infusions of NGF, NT3 or a combination of NGF and NT3 showed only modest reductions in ChAT-positive neurons. Together, these data support the notion that administration of neurotrophic factors can rescue basal forebrain cholinergic neurons and improve learning and memory performance in rats.

  7. Isl1 directly controls a cholinergic neuronal identity in the developing forebrain and spinal cord by forming cell type-specific complexes.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hyong-Ho; Cargnin, Francesca; Kim, Yujin; Lee, Bora; Kwon, Ryuk-Jun; Nam, Heejin; Shen, Rongkun; Barnes, Anthony P; Lee, Jae W; Lee, Seunghee; Lee, Soo-Kyung

    2014-04-01

    The establishment of correct neurotransmitter characteristics is an essential step of neuronal fate specification in CNS development. However, very little is known about how a battery of genes involved in the determination of a specific type of chemical-driven neurotransmission is coordinately regulated during vertebrate development. Here, we investigated the gene regulatory networks that specify the cholinergic neuronal fates in the spinal cord and forebrain, specifically, spinal motor neurons (MNs) and forebrain cholinergic neurons (FCNs). Conditional inactivation of Isl1, a LIM homeodomain factor expressed in both differentiating MNs and FCNs, led to a drastic loss of cholinergic neurons in the developing spinal cord and forebrain. We found that Isl1 forms two related, but distinct types of complexes, the Isl1-Lhx3-hexamer in MNs and the Isl1-Lhx8-hexamer in FCNs. Interestingly, our genome-wide ChIP-seq analysis revealed that the Isl1-Lhx3-hexamer binds to a suite of cholinergic pathway genes encoding the core constituents of the cholinergic neurotransmission system, such as acetylcholine synthesizing enzymes and transporters. Consistently, the Isl1-Lhx3-hexamer directly coordinated upregulation of cholinergic pathways genes in embryonic spinal cord. Similarly, in the developing forebrain, the Isl1-Lhx8-hexamer was recruited to the cholinergic gene battery and promoted cholinergic gene expression. Furthermore, the expression of the Isl1-Lhx8-complex enabled the acquisition of cholinergic fate in embryonic stem cell-derived neurons. Together, our studies show a shared molecular mechanism that determines the cholinergic neuronal fate in the spinal cord and forebrain, and uncover an important gene regulatory mechanism that directs a specific neurotransmitter identity in vertebrate CNS development.

  8. Modes and Models of Forebrain Cholinergic Neuromodulation of Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Hasselmo, Michael E; Sarter, Martin

    2011-01-01

    As indicated by the profound cognitive impairments caused by cholinergic receptor antagonists, cholinergic neurotransmission has a vital role in cognitive function, specifically attention and memory encoding. Abnormally regulated cholinergic neurotransmission has been hypothesized to contribute to the cognitive symptoms of neuropsychiatric disorders. Loss of cholinergic neurons enhances the severity of the symptoms of dementia. Cholinergic receptor agonists and acetylcholinesterase inhibitors have been investigated for the treatment of cognitive dysfunction. Evidence from experiments using new techniques for measuring rapid changes in cholinergic neurotransmission provides a novel perspective on the cholinergic regulation of cognitive processes. This evidence indicates that changes in cholinergic modulation on a timescale of seconds is triggered by sensory input cues and serves to facilitate cue detection and attentional performance. Furthermore, the evidence indicates cholinergic induction of evoked intrinsic, persistent spiking mechanisms for active maintenance of sensory input, and planned responses. Models have been developed to describe the neuronal mechanisms underlying the transient modulation of cortical target circuits by cholinergic activity. These models postulate specific locations and roles of nicotinic and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors and that cholinergic neurotransmission is controlled in part by (cortical) target circuits. The available evidence and these models point to new principles governing the development of the next generation of cholinergic treatments for cognitive disorders. PMID:20668433

  9. Brain atrophy in primary progressive aphasia involves the cholinergic basal forebrain and Ayala’s nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Teipel, Stefan J.; Flatz, Wilhelm; Ackl, Nibal; Grothe, Michel; Kilimann, Ingo; Bokde, Arun L.W.; Grinberg, Lea; Amaro, Edson; Kljajevic, Vanja; Alho, Eduardo; Knels, Christina; Ebert, Anne; Heinsen, Helmut; Danek, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is characterized by left hemispheric frontotemporal cortical atrophy. Evidence from anatomical studies suggests that the nucleus subputaminalis (NSP), a subnucleus of the cholinergic basal forebrain, may be involved in the pathological process of PPA. Therefore, we studied the pattern of cortical and basal forebrain atrophy in 10 patients with a clinical diagnosis of PPA and 18 healthy age-matched controls using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We determined the cholinergic basal forebrain nuclei according to Mesulam’s nomenclature and the NSP in MRI reference space based on histological sections and the MRI scan of a post-mortem brain in cranio. Using voxel-based analysis, we found left hemispheric cortical atrophy in PPA patients compared with controls, including prefrontal, lateral temporal and medial temporal lobe areas. We detected cholinergic basal forebrain atrophy in left predominant localizations of Ch4p, Ch4am, Ch4al, Ch3 and NSP. For the first time, we have described the pattern of basal forebrain atrophy in PPA and confirmed the involvement of NSP that had been predicted based on theoretical considerations. Our findings may enhance understanding of the role of cholinergic degeneration for the regional specificity of the cortical destruction leading to the syndrome of PPA. PMID:24434193

  10. GABAergic terminals are a source of galanin to modulate cholinergic neuron development in the neonatal forebrain.

    PubMed

    Keimpema, Erik; Zheng, Kang; Barde, Swapnali Shantaram; Berghuis, Paul; Dobszay, Márton B; Schnell, Robert; Mulder, Jan; Luiten, Paul G M; Xu, Zhiqing David; Runesson, Johan; Langel, Ülo; Lu, Bai; Hökfelt, Tomas; Harkany, Tibor

    2014-12-01

    The distribution and (patho-)physiological role of neuropeptides in the adult and aging brain have been extensively studied. Galanin is an inhibitory neuropeptide that can coexist with γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the adult forebrain. However, galanin's expression sites, mode of signaling, impact on neuronal morphology, and colocalization with amino acid neurotransmitters during brain development are less well understood. Here, we show that galaninergic innervation of cholinergic projection neurons, which preferentially express galanin receptor 2 (GalR2) in the neonatal mouse basal forebrain, develops by birth. Nerve growth factor (NGF), known to modulate cholinergic morphogenesis, increases GalR2 expression. GalR2 antagonism (M871) in neonates reduces the in vivo expression and axonal targeting of the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT), indispensable for cholinergic neurotransmission. During cholinergic neuritogenesis in vitro, GalR2 can recruit Rho-family GTPases to induce the extension of a VAChT-containing primary neurite, the prospective axon. In doing so, GalR2 signaling dose-dependently modulates directional filopodial growth and antagonizes NGF-induced growth cone differentiation. Galanin accumulates in GABA-containing nerve terminals in the neonatal basal forebrain, suggesting its contribution to activity-driven cholinergic development during the perinatal period. Overall, our data define the cellular specificity and molecular complexity of galanin action in the developing basal forebrain. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Local cholinergic-GABAergic circuitry within the basal forebrain is modulated by galanin.

    PubMed

    Damborsky, Joanne C; Smith, Kathleen G; Jensen, Patricia; Yakel, Jerrel L

    2017-04-01

    The basal forebrain (BF) is an important regulator of hippocampal and cortical activity. In Alzheimer's disease (AD), there is a significant loss and dysfunction of cholinergic neurons within the BF, and also a hypertrophy of fibers containing the neuropeptide galanin. Understanding how galanin interacts with BF circuitry is critical in determining what role galanin overexpression plays in the progression of AD. Here, we examined the location and function of galanin in the medial septum/diagonal band (MS/DBB) region of the BF. We show that galanin fibers are located throughout the MS/DBB and intermingled with both cholinergic and GABAergic neurons. Whole-cell patch clamp recordings from MS/DBB neurons in acute slices reveal that galanin decreases tetrodotoxin-sensitive spontaneous GABA release and dampens muscarinic receptor-mediated increases in GABA release in the MS/DBB. These effects are not blocked by pre-exposure to β-amyloid peptide (Aβ1-42). Optogenetic activation of cholinergic neurons in the MS/DBB increases GABA release back onto cholinergic neurons, forming a functional circuit within the MS/DBB. Galanin disrupts this cholinergic-GABAergic circuit by blocking the cholinergic-induced increase in GABA release. These data suggest that galanin works in the BF to reduce inhibitory input onto cholinergic neurons and to prevent cholinergic-induced increase in inhibitory tone. This disinhibition of cholinergic neurons could serve as a compensatory mechanism to counteract the loss of cholinergic signaling that occurs during the progression of AD.

  12. Extensive Lesions of Cholinergic Basal Forebrain Neurons Do Not Impair Spatial Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vuckovich, Joseph A.; Semel, Mara E.; Baxter, Mark G.

    2004-01-01

    A recent study suggests that lesions to all major areas of the cholinergic basal forebrain in the rat (medial septum, horizontal limb of the diagonal band of Broca, and nucleus basalis magnocellularis) impair a spatial working memory task. However, this experiment used a surgical technique that may have damaged cerebellar Purkinje cells. The…

  13. Extensive Lesions of Cholinergic Basal Forebrain Neurons Do Not Impair Spatial Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vuckovich, Joseph A.; Semel, Mara E.; Baxter, Mark G.

    2004-01-01

    A recent study suggests that lesions to all major areas of the cholinergic basal forebrain in the rat (medial septum, horizontal limb of the diagonal band of Broca, and nucleus basalis magnocellularis) impair a spatial working memory task. However, this experiment used a surgical technique that may have damaged cerebellar Purkinje cells. The…

  14. Effect of Estradiol on Neurotrophin Receptors in Basal Forebrain Cholinergic Neurons: Relevance for Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kwakowsky, Andrea; Milne, Michael R.; Waldvogel, Henry J.; Faull, Richard L.

    2016-01-01

    The basal forebrain is home to the largest population of cholinergic neurons in the brain. These neurons are involved in a number of cognitive functions including attention, learning and memory. Basal forebrain cholinergic neurons (BFCNs) are particularly vulnerable in a number of neurological diseases with the most notable being Alzheimer’s disease, with evidence for a link between decreasing cholinergic markers and the degree of cognitive impairment. The neurotrophin growth factor system is present on these BFCNs and has been shown to promote survival and differentiation on these neurons. Clinical and animal model studies have demonstrated the neuroprotective effects of 17β-estradiol (E2) on neurodegeneration in BFCNs. It is believed that E2 interacts with neurotrophin signaling on cholinergic neurons to mediate these beneficial effects. Evidence presented in our recent study confirms that altering the levels of circulating E2 levels via ovariectomy and E2 replacement significantly affects the expression of the neurotrophin receptors on BFCN. However, we also showed that E2 differentially regulates neurotrophin receptor expression on BFCNs with effects depending on neurotrophin receptor type and neuroanatomical location. In this review, we aim to survey the current literature to understand the influence of E2 on the neurotrophin system, and the receptors and signaling pathways it mediates on BFCN. In addition, we summarize the physiological and pathophysiological significance of E2 actions on the neurotrophin system in BFCN, especially focusing on changes related to Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:27999310

  15. Histamine release in the basal forebrain mediates cortical activation through cholinergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Zant, Janneke C; Rozov, Stanislav; Wigren, Henna-Kaisa; Panula, Pertti; Porkka-Heiskanen, Tarja

    2012-09-19

    The basal forebrain (BF) is a key structure in regulating both cortical activity and sleep homeostasis. It receives input from all ascending arousal systems and is particularly highly innervated by histaminergic neurons. Previous studies clearly point to a role for histamine as a wake-promoting substance in the BF. We used in vivo microdialysis and pharmacological treatments in rats to study which electroencephalogram (EEG) spectral properties are associated with histamine-induced wakefulness and whether this wakefulness is followed by increased sleep and increased EEG delta power during sleep. We also investigated which BF neurons mediate histamine-induced cortical activation. Extracellular BF histamine levels rose immediately and remained constant throughout a 6 h period of sleep deprivation, returning to baseline levels immediately afterward. During the spontaneous sleep-wake cycle, we observed a strong correlation between wakefulness and extracellular histamine concentrations in the BF, which was unaffected by the time of day. The perfusion of histamine into the BF increased wakefulness and cortical activity without inducing recovery sleep. The perfusion of a histamine receptor 1 antagonist into the BF decreased both wakefulness and cortical activity. Lesioning the BF cholinergic neurons abolished these effects. Together, these results show that activation of the cholinergic BF by histamine is important in sustaining a high level of cortical activation, and that a lack of activation of the cholinergic BF by histamine may be important in initiating and maintaining nonrapid eye movement sleep. The level of histamine release is tightly connected to behavioral state, but conveys no information about sleep pressure.

  16. Neuronal amyloid-β accumulation within cholinergic basal forebrain in ageing and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Baker-Nigh, Alaina; Vahedi, Shahrooz; Davis, Elena Goetz; Weintraub, Sandra; Bigio, Eileen H; Klein, William L; Geula, Changiz

    2015-06-01

    The mechanisms that contribute to selective vulnerability of the magnocellular basal forebrain cholinergic neurons in neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, are not fully understood. Because age is the primary risk factor for Alzheimer's disease, mechanisms of interest must include age-related alterations in protein expression, cell type-specific markers and pathology. The present study explored the extent and characteristics of intraneuronal amyloid-β accumulation, particularly of the fibrillogenic 42-amino acid isoform, within basal forebrain cholinergic neurons in normal young, normal aged and Alzheimer's disease brains as a potential contributor to the selective vulnerability of these neurons using immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. Amyloid-β1-42 immunoreactivity was observed in the entire cholinergic neuronal population regardless of age or Alzheimer's disease diagnosis. The magnitude of this accumulation as revealed by optical density measures was significantly greater than that in cortical pyramidal neurons, and magnocellular neurons in the globus pallidus did not demonstrate a similar extent of amyloid immunoreactivity. Immunoblot analysis with a panel of amyloid-β antibodies confirmed accumulation of high concentration of amyloid-β in basal forebrain early in adult life. There was no age- or Alzheimer-related alteration in total amyloid-β content within this region. In contrast, an increase in the large molecular weight soluble oligomer species was observed with a highly oligomer-specific antibody in aged and Alzheimer brains when compared with the young. Similarly, intermediate molecular weight oligomeric species displayed an increase in aged and Alzheimer brains when compared with the young using two amyloid-β42 antibodies. Compared to cortical homogenates, small molecular weight oligomeric species were lower and intermediate species were enriched in basal forebrain in ageing and Alzheimer's disease. Regional and age

  17. The Role Of Basal Forebrain Cholinergic Neurons In Fear and Extinction Memory

    PubMed Central

    Knox, Dayan

    2016-01-01

    Cholinergic input to the neocortex, dorsal hippocampus (dHipp), and basolateral amygdala (BLA) is critical for neural function and synaptic plasticity in these brain regions. Synaptic plasticity in the neocortex, dHipp, ventral Hipp (vHipp), and BLA has also been implicated in fear and extinction memory. This finding raises the possibility that basal forebrain (BF) cholinergic neurons, the predominant source of acetylcholine in these brain regions, have an important role in mediating fear and extinction memory. While empirical studies support this hypothesis, there are interesting inconsistencies among these studies that raise questions about how best to define the role of BF cholinergic neurons in fear and extinction memory. Nucleus basalis magnocellularis (NBM) cholinergic neurons that project to the BLA are critical for fear memory and contextual fear extinction memory. NBM cholinergic neurons that project to the neocortex are critical for cued and contextual fear conditioned suppression, but are not critical for fear memory in other behavioral paradigms and in the inhibitory avoidance paradigm may even inhibit contextual fear memory formation. Medial septum and diagonal band of Broca cholinergic neurons are critical for contextual fear memory and acquisition of cued fear extinction. Thus, even though the results of previous studies suggest BF cholinergic neurons modulate fear and extinction memory, inconsistent findings among these studies necessitates more research to better define the neural circuits and molecular processes through which BF cholinergic neurons modulate fear and extinction memory. Furthermore, studies determining if BF cholinergic neurons can be manipulated in such a manner so as to treat excessive fear in anxiety disorders are needed. PMID:27264248

  18. Cholinergic ventral forebrain grafts into the neocortex improve passive avoidance memory in a rat model of Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed Central

    Fine, A; Dunnett, S B; Björklund, A; Iversen, S D

    1985-01-01

    The memory dysfunction of Alzheimer disease has been associated with a cortical cholinergic deficiency and loss of cholinergic neurons of the nucleus basalis of Meynert. This cholinergic component of Alzheimer disease can be modeled in the rat by ibotenic acid lesions of the cholinergic nucleus basalis magnocellularis. The memory impairment caused by such unilateral lesions, as reflected in passive avoidance behavior, is reversed by grafts into the deafferented neocortex of embryonic neurons of the cholinergic ventral forebrain, but not by grafts of noncholinergic hippocampal cells. Images PMID:3860857

  19. Reduced Cholinergic Basal Forebrain Integrity Links Neonatal Complications and Adult Cognitive Deficits After Premature Birth.

    PubMed

    Grothe, Michel J; Scheef, Lukas; Bäuml, Josef; Meng, Chun; Daamen, Marcel; Baumann, Nicole; Zimmer, Claus; Teipel, Stefan; Bartmann, Peter; Boecker, Henning; Wolke, Dieter; Wohlschläger, Afra; Sorg, Christian

    2017-07-15

    Prematurely born individuals have an increased risk for long-term neurocognitive impairments. In animal models, development of the cholinergic basal forebrain (cBF) is selectively vulnerable to adverse effects of perinatal stressors, and impaired cBF integrity results in lasting cognitive deficits. We hypothesized that cBF integrity is impaired in prematurely born individuals and mediates adult cognitive impairments associated with prematurity. We used magnetic resonance imaging-based volumetric assessments of a cytoarchitectonically defined cBF region of interest to determine differences in cBF integrity between 99 adults who were born very preterm and/or with very low birth weight and 106 term-born control subjects from the same birth cohort. Magnetic resonance imaging-derived cBF volumes were studied in relation to neonatal clinical complications after delivery and intelligence measures (IQ) in adulthood. In adults who were born very preterm and/or with very low birth weight, cBF volumes were significantly reduced compared with term-born adults (-4.5% [F1,202 = 11.82, p = .001]). Lower cBF volume in adults who were born very preterm and/or with very low birth weight was specifically associated with both neonatal complications (rpart,92 = -.35, p < .001) and adult IQ (rpart,88 = .33, p = .001) even after controlling for global gray matter and white matter volume. In a path analytic model, cBF volume significantly mediated the association between neonatal complications and adult cognitive deficits. We provide first-time evidence in humans that cBF integrity is impaired after premature birth and links neonatal complications with long-term cognitive outcome. Data suggest that cholinergic system abnormalities may play a relevant role for long-term neurocognitive impairments associated with premature delivery. Copyright © 2017 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The integrity of cholinergic basal forebrain neurons depends on expression of Nkx2-1

    PubMed Central

    Magno, Lorenza; Kretz, Oliver; Bert, Bettina; Ersözlü, Sara; Vogt, Johannes; Fink, Heidrun; Kimura, Shioko; Vogt, Angelika; Monyer, Hannah; Nitsch, Robert; Naumann, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The transcription factor Nkx2-1 belongs to the homeobox-encoding family of proteins that have essential functions in prenatal brain development. Nkx2-1 is required for the specification of cortical interneurons and several neuronal subtypes of the ventral forebrain. Moreover, this transcription factor is involved in migratory processes by regulating the expression of guidance molecules. Interestingly, Nkx2-1 expression was recently detected in the mouse brain at postnatal stages. Using two transgenic mouse lines that allow prenatal or postnatal cell type-specific deletion of Nkx2-1, we show that continuous expression of the transcription factor is essential for the maturation and maintenance of cholinergic basal forebrain neurons in mice. Notably, prenatal deletion of Nkx2-1 in GAD67-expressing neurons leads to a nearly complete loss of cholinergic neurons and parvalbumin-containing GABAergic neurons in the basal forebrain. We also show that postnatal mutation of Nkx2-1 in choline acetyltransferase-expressing cells causes a striking reduction in their number. These degenerative changes are accompanied by partial denervation of their target structures and results in a discrete impairment of spatial memory. PMID:22098391

  1. The LIM-homeobox gene Lhx8 is required for the development of many cholinergic neurons in the mouse forebrain

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yangu; Marín, Oscar; Hermesz, Edit; Powell, Aaron; Flames, Nuria; Palkovits, Miklós; Rubenstein, John L. R.; Westphal, Heiner

    2003-01-01

    Forebrain cholinergic neurons play important roles as striatal local circuit neurons and basal telencephalic projection neurons. The genetic mechanisms that control development of these neurons suggest that most of them are derived from the basal telencephalon where Lhx8, a LIM-homeobox gene, is expressed. Here we report that mice with a null mutation of Lhx8 are deficient in the development of forebrain cholinergic neurons. Lhx8 mutants lack the nucleus basalis, a major source of the cholinergic input to the cerebral cortex. In addition, the number of cholinergic neurons is reduced in several other areas of the subcortical forebrain in Lhx8 mutants, including the caudate-putamen, medial septal nucleus, nucleus of the diagonal band, and magnocellular preoptic nucleus. Although cholinergic neurons are not formed, initial steps in their specification appear to be preserved, as indicated by a presence of cells expressing a truncated Lhx8 mRNA and mRNA of the homeobox gene Gbx1. These results provide genetic evidence supporting an important role for Lhx8 in development of cholinergic neurons in the forebrain. PMID:12855770

  2. Adenosine Inhibits the Excitatory Synaptic Inputs to Basal Forebrain Cholinergic, GABAergic, and Parvalbumin Neurons in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chun; Franciosi, Serena; Brown, Ritchie E.

    2013-01-01

    Coffee and tea contain the stimulants caffeine and theophylline. These compounds act as antagonists of adenosine receptors. Adenosine promotes sleep and its extracellular concentration rises in association with prolonged wakefulness, particularly in the basal forebrain (BF) region involved in activating the cerebral cortex. However, the effect of adenosine on identified BF neurons, especially non-cholinergic neurons, is incompletely understood. Here we used whole-cell patch-clamp recordings in mouse brain slices prepared from two validated transgenic mouse lines with fluorescent proteins expressed in GABAergic or parvalbumin (PV) neurons to determine the effect of adenosine. Whole-cell recordings were made from BF cholinergic neurons and from BF GABAergic and PV neurons with the size (>20 μm) and intrinsic membrane properties (prominent H-currents) corresponding to cortically projecting neurons. A brief (2 min) bath application of adenosine (100 μM) decreased the frequency but not the amplitude of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) in all groups of BF cholinergic, GABAergic, and PV neurons we recorded. In addition, adenosine decreased the frequency of miniature EPSCs in BF cholinergic neurons. Adenosine had no effect on the frequency of spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents in cholinergic neurons or GABAergic neurons with large H-currents but reduced them in a group of GABAergic neurons with smaller H-currents. All effects of adenosine were blocked by a selective, adenosine A1 receptor antagonist, cyclopentyltheophylline (CPT, 1 μM). Adenosine had no postsynaptic effects. Taken together, our work suggests that adenosine promotes sleep by an A1 receptor-mediated inhibition of glutamatergic inputs to cortically projecting cholinergic and GABA/PV neurons. Conversely, caffeine and theophylline promote attentive wakefulness by inhibiting these A1 receptors in BF thereby promoting the high-frequency oscillations in the cortex required

  3. Cholinergic Neurons in the Basal Forebrain Promote Wakefulness by Actions on Neighboring Non-Cholinergic Neurons: An Opto-Dialysis Study

    PubMed Central

    Zant, Janneke C.; Kim, Tae; Prokai, Laszlo; Szarka, Szabolcs; McNally, James; McKenna, James T.; Shukla, Charu; Yang, Chun; Kalinchuk, Anna V.; McCarley, Robert W.; Brown, Ritchie E.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the control of sleep–wake states by the basal forebrain (BF) poses a challenge due to the intermingled presence of cholinergic, GABAergic, and glutamatergic neurons. All three BF neuronal subtypes project to the cortex and are implicated in cortical arousal and sleep–wake control. Thus, nonspecific stimulation or inhibition studies do not reveal the roles of these different neuronal types. Recent studies using optogenetics have shown that “selective” stimulation of BF cholinergic neurons increases transitions between NREM sleep and wakefulness, implicating cholinergic projections to cortex in wake promotion. However, the interpretation of these optogenetic experiments is complicated by interactions that may occur within the BF. For instance, a recent in vitro study from our group found that cholinergic neurons strongly excite neighboring GABAergic neurons, including the subset of cortically projecting neurons, which contain the calcium-binding protein, parvalbumin (PV) (Yang et al., 2014). Thus, the wake-promoting effect of “selective” optogenetic stimulation of BF cholinergic neurons could be mediated by local excitation of GABA/PV or other non-cholinergic BF neurons. In this study, using a newly designed opto-dialysis probe to couple selective optical stimulation with simultaneous in vivo microdialysis, we demonstrated that optical stimulation of cholinergic neurons locally increased acetylcholine levels and increased wakefulness in mice. Surprisingly, the enhanced wakefulness caused by cholinergic stimulation was abolished by simultaneous reverse microdialysis of cholinergic receptor antagonists into BF. Thus, our data suggest that the wake-promoting effect of cholinergic stimulation requires local release of acetylcholine in the basal forebrain and activation of cortically projecting, non-cholinergic neurons, including the GABAergic/PV neurons. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Optogenetics is a revolutionary tool to assess the roles of

  4. Quality of life: the bridge from the cholinergic basal forebrain to cognitive science and bioethics.

    PubMed

    Whitehouse, Peter J

    2006-01-01

    Our paper on loss of neurons in the Nucleus Basalis of Meynert (now considered part of the cholinergic basal forebrain) in Alzheimer disease (AD) stimulated scientific interest in this little studied brain region. Our subsequent studies associated pathology in the basal forebrain with other dementias, such as Parkinson's disease, and with neurotransmitter receptor changes, such as in nicotinic receptors. We and many others worked to develop medications to treat AD through cholinergic mechanisms and eventually four cholinesterase inhibitors were approved. However the effect sizes of currently available drugs are modest and ethical issues in conducting research in dementia are challenging. In Cleveland we came to focus on the goals of improving quality of life and the importance on non-pharmacological approaches to treatment. International efforts were organized to improve the efficiency of drug development and to focus on important cultural and pharmacoeconomic issues. Eventually I became concerned about the very way we conceive AD and related concepts like MCI (mild cognitive impairment). As the hundredth anniversary of the first case approaches I am helping to organize meetings to reflect deeply on what we have learned and how to imagine creating a more positive future for persons affected by what I used to call AD.

  5. The Role of Basal Forebrain in Rat Somatosensory Cortex: Impact on Cholinergic Innervation, Sensory Information Processing, and Tactile Discrimination

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-05-28

    noradrenergic neurons, as well as from the cholinergic neurons of the brainstem tegmentum (Jones and Cuello , 1989). This suggests that final control over...Jones, B. E., & Cuello , A. C. (1989). Afferents to the basal forebrain cholinergic cell area from pontomesencephalic- catecholamine, serotonin, and...organization in mouse barrel cortex. Brain Research, 165, 327-332. 160 Sofroniew, M. V., Eckenstein, Fo, Thoenen, Ho, & Cuello , A. C. (1982

  6. Layer- and cell type-selective co-transmission by a basal forebrain cholinergic projection to the olfactory bulb.

    PubMed

    Case, Daniel T; Burton, Shawn D; Gedeon, Jeremy Y; Williams, Sean-Paul G; Urban, Nathaniel N; Seal, Rebecca P

    2017-09-21

    Cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain project heavily to the main olfactory bulb, the first processing station in the olfactory pathway. The projections innervate multiple layers of the main olfactory bulb and strongly influence odor discrimination, detection, and learning. The precise underlying circuitry of this cholinergic input to the main olfactory bulb remains unclear, however. Here, we identify a specific basal forebrain cholinergic projection that innervates select neurons concentrated in the internal plexiform layer of the main olfactory bulb. Optogenetic activation of this projection elicits monosynaptic nicotinic and GABAergic currents in glomerular layer-projecting interneurons. Additionally, we show that the projection co-expresses markers for GABAergic neurotransmission. The data thus implicate neurotransmitter co-transmission in the basal forebrain regulation of this inhibitory olfactory microcircuit.Cholinergic neurons innervate multiple layers in the main olfactory bulb but the precise circuitry of this input is not known. Here the authors show that VGLUT3(+) cholinergic neurons selectively innervate deep short axon cells in specific layers and elicit robust monosynaptic GABAergic and nicotinic postsynaptic currents.

  7. Effects of continuous infusion of cholinergic drugs on memory impairment in rats with basal forebrain lesions.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, M; Narumi, S; Nagaoka, A; Coyle, J T

    1989-02-01

    The effects of continuous infusion of cholinergic drugs on behavior in normal rats and on impaired acquisition and retention of several behavioral tasks in rats with basal forebrain (BF) lesions were investigated. Physostigmine and oxotremorine were infused continuously with a miniosmotic pump for 3 weeks, and the performance on several different behavioral tasks was examined during the infusion. In normal rats high doses of physostigmine (4 and 8 mg/kg/day s.c.) produced significant changes in general behavior and impaired performance in the Morris water maze. Oxotremorine (0.25-2 mg/kg/day s.c.) had no significant effects on general behavior or cognitive performance in normal rats, although severe cataracts developed at the high dose (4 mg/kg/day). A deficit in motor habituation in rats with BF lesions produced by bilateral injections of ibotenic acid (30 nmol on each side) was improved markedly by the chronic administration of physostigmine (2 mg/kg/day) and oxotremorine (1 mg/kg/day). BF lesions produced severe impairments in acquisition and retention in a passive avoidance task, an active avoidance and the Morris water maze, which was characterized by a marked disruption of retention. The impairment was also ameliorated markedly by the cholinergic drugs, whereas other behavioral impairments were not affected by the drugs. These results indicate that the continuous administration of cholinergic drugs produces a marked improvement of acquisition and retention in rats with BF lesions, and suggest that the impairment in cognitive performance, especially with regard to retention, caused by BF lesions is due to the disruption of the BF-cortical cholinergic pathway.

  8. GRK5 Deficiency Leads to Selective Basal Forebrain Cholinergic Neuronal Vulnerability

    PubMed Central

    He, Minchao; Singh, Prabhakar; Cheng, Shaowu; Zhang, Qiang; Peng, Wei; Ding, XueFeng; Li, Longxuan; Liu, Jun; Premont, Richard T.; Morgan, Dave; Burns, Jeffery M.; Swerdlow, Russell H.; Suo, William Z.

    2016-01-01

    Why certain diseases primarily affect one specific neuronal subtype rather than another is a puzzle whose solution underlies the development of specific therapies. Selective basal forebrain cholinergic (BFC) neurodegeneration participates in cognitive impairment in Alzheimer’s disease (AD), yet the underlying mechanism remains elusive. Here, we report the first recapitulation of the selective BFC neuronal loss that is typical of human AD in a mouse model termed GAP. We created GAP mice by crossing Tg2576 mice that over-express the Swedish mutant human β-amyloid precursor protein gene with G protein-coupled receptor kinase-5 (GRK5) knockout mice. This doubly defective mouse displayed significant BFC neuronal loss at 18 months of age, which was not observed in either of the singly defective parent strains or in the wild type. Along with other supporting evidence, we propose that GRK5 deficiency selectively renders BFC neurons more vulnerable to degeneration. PMID:27193825

  9. Adolescent Intermittent Alcohol Exposure: Deficits in Object Recognition Memory and Forebrain Cholinergic Markers.

    PubMed

    Swartzwelder, H Scott; Acheson, Shawn K; Miller, Kelsey M; Sexton, Hannah G; Liu, Wen; Crews, Fulton T; Risher, Mary-Louise

    2015-01-01

    The long-term effects of intermittent ethanol exposure during adolescence (AIE) are of intensive interest and investigation. The effects of AIE on learning and memory and the neural functions that drive them are of particular interest as clinical findings suggest enduring deficits in those cognitive domains in humans after ethanol abuse during adolescence. Although studies of such deficits after AIE hold much promise for identifying mechanisms and therapeutic interventions, the findings are sparse and inconclusive. The present results identify a specific deficit in memory function after AIE and establish a possible neural mechanism of that deficit that may be of translational significance. Male rats (starting at PND-30) received exposure to AIE (5g/kg, i.g.) or vehicle and were allowed to mature into adulthood. At PND-71, one group of animals was assessed using the spatial-temporal object recognition (stOR) test to evaluate memory function. A separate group of animals was used to assess the density of cholinergic neurons in forebrain areas Ch1-4 using immunohistochemistry. AIE exposed animals manifested deficits in the temporal component of the stOR task relative to controls, and a significant decrease in the number of ChAT labeled neurons in forebrain areas Ch1-4. These findings add to the growing literature indicating long-lasting neural and behavioral effects of AIE that persist into adulthood and indicate that memory-related deficits after AIE depend upon the tasks employed, and possibly their degree of complexity. Finally, the parallel finding of diminished cholinergic neuron density suggests a possible mechanism underlying the effects of AIE on memory and hippocampal function as well as possible therapeutic or preventive strategies for AIE.

  10. Discharge patterns of neurons in cholinergic regions of the basal forebrain during waking and sleep.

    PubMed

    Szymusiak, R; Alam, N; McGinty, D

    2000-11-01

    A subset of neurons recorded in the magnocellular basal forebrain (mBF) of cats and rats exhibit elevated discharge rates during waking and REM sleep, and diminished discharge during sleep with cortical EEG synchrony (nonREM sleep). This pattern is observed in mBF neurons in cats with identified ascending projections, and in neurons located in cholinergic regions of the rat mBF. However, the cholinergic versus noncholinergic nature of recorded cells could not be determined with the extracellular recording method employed. During waking, discharge of mBF neurons is strongly movement-related. Peak discharge rates occur during a variety of head and limb movements. Discharge rates during waking immobility are reduced by >50% compared to rates during waking movement. The absence of movement accounts for more of the variance in discharge across the sleep-wake cycle than does the presence of cortical EEG synchronization. Several factors participate in the regulation of mBF neuronal activity across arousal states. Tonic inhibition mediated by adenosine appears to be present during both waking and sleep. In some mBF neurons, increased GABAergic inhibition contributes to nonREM sleep-related reductions in discharge rate. Fluctuations in mBF cell activity during waking behaviors may reflect changing excitatory input from neurons in the pontine and midbrain tegmentum.

  11. Longitudinal measures of cholinergic forebrain atrophy in the transition from healthy aging to Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Grothe, Michel; Heinsen, Helmut; Teipel, Stefan

    2013-04-01

    Recent evidence from cross-sectional in vivo imaging studies suggests that atrophy of the cholinergic basal forebrain (BF) in Alzheimer's disease (AD) can be distinguished from normal age-related degeneration even at predementia stages of the disease. Longitudinal study designs are needed to specify the dynamics of BF degeneration in the transition from normal aging to AD. We applied recently developed techniques for in vivo volumetry of the BF to serial magnetic resonance imaging scans of 82 initially healthy elderly individuals (60-93 years) and 50 patients with very mild AD (Clinical Dementia Rating score = 0.5) that were clinically followed over an average of 3 ± 1.5 years. BF atrophy rates were found to be significantly higher than rates of global brain shrinkage even in cognitively stable healthy elderly individuals. Compared with healthy control subjects, very mild AD patients showed reduced BF volumes at baseline and increased volume loss over time. Atrophy of the BF was more pronounced in progressive patients compared with those that remained stable. The cholinergic BF undergoes disproportionate degeneration in the aging process, which is further increased by the presence of AD.

  12. Alzheimer's Disease: Targeting the Cholinergic System

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira-Vieira, Talita H.; Guimaraes, Isabella M.; Silva, Flavia R.; Ribeiro, Fabiola M.

    2016-01-01

    Acetylcholine (ACh) has a crucial role in the peripheral and central nervous systems. The enzyme choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) is responsible for synthesizing ACh from acetyl-CoA and choline in the cytoplasm and the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) uptakes the neurotransmitter into synaptic vesicles. Following depolarization, ACh undergoes exocytosis reaching the synaptic cleft, where it can bind its receptors, including muscarinic and nicotinic receptors. ACh present at the synaptic cleft is promptly hydrolyzed by the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE), forming acetate and choline, which is recycled into the presynaptic nerve terminal by the high-affinity choline transporter (CHT1). Cholinergic neurons located in the basal forebrain, including the neurons that form the nucleus basalis of Meynert, are severely lost in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). AD is the most ordinary cause of dementia affecting 25 million people worldwide. The hallmarks of the disease are the accumulation of neurofibrillary tangles and amyloid plaques. However, there is no real correlation between levels of cortical plaques and AD-related cognitive impairment. Nevertheless, synaptic loss is the principal correlate of disease progression and loss of cholinergic neurons contributes to memory and attention deficits. Thus, drugs that act on the cholinergic system represent a promising option to treat AD patients. PMID:26813123

  13. Dynamic changes in murine forebrain miR-211 expression associate with cholinergic imbalances and epileptiform activity

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Nibha; Milikovsky, Dan Z.; Hanin, Geula; Zelig, Daniel; Sheintuch, Liron; Berson, Amit; Greenberg, David S.; Friedman, Alon

    2017-01-01

    Epilepsy is a common neurological disease, manifested in unprovoked recurrent seizures. Epileptogenesis may develop due to genetic or pharmacological origins or following injury, but it remains unclear how the unaffected brain escapes this susceptibility to seizures. Here, we report that dynamic changes in forebrain microRNA (miR)-211 in the mouse brain shift the threshold for spontaneous and pharmacologically induced seizures alongside changes in the cholinergic pathway genes, implicating this miR in the avoidance of seizures. We identified miR-211 as a putative attenuator of cholinergic-mediated seizures by intersecting forebrain miR profiles that were Argonaute precipitated, synaptic vesicle target enriched, or differentially expressed under pilocarpine-induced seizures, and validated TGFBR2 and the nicotinic antiinflammatory acetylcholine receptor nAChRa7 as murine and human miR-211 targets, respectively. To explore the link between miR-211 and epilepsy, we engineered dTg-211 mice with doxycycline-suppressible forebrain overexpression of miR-211. These mice reacted to doxycycline exposure by spontaneous electrocorticography-documented nonconvulsive seizures, accompanied by forebrain accumulation of the convulsive seizures mediating miR-134. RNA sequencing demonstrated in doxycycline-treated dTg-211 cortices overrepresentation of synaptic activity, Ca2+ transmembrane transport, TGFBR2 signaling, and cholinergic synapse pathways. Additionally, a cholinergic dysregulated mouse model overexpressing a miR refractory acetylcholinesterase-R splice variant showed a parallel propensity for convulsions, miR-211 decreases, and miR-134 elevation. Our findings demonstrate that in mice, dynamic miR-211 decreases induce hypersynchronization and nonconvulsive and convulsive seizures, accompanied by expression changes in cholinergic and TGFBR2 pathways as well as in miR-134. Realizing the importance of miR-211 dynamics opens new venues for translational diagnosis of and

  14. Low-Affinity Neurotrophin Receptor p75 Promotes the Transduction of Targeted Lentiviral Vectors to Cholinergic Neurons of Rat Basal Forebrain.

    PubMed

    Antyborzec, Inga; O'Leary, Valerie B; Dolly, James O; Ovsepian, Saak V

    2016-10-01

    Basal forebrain cholinergic neurons (BFCNs) are one of the most affected neuronal types in Alzheimer's disease (AD), with their extensive loss documented at late stages of the pathology. While discriminatory provision of neuroprotective agents and trophic factors to these cells is thought to be of substantial therapeutic potential, the intricate topography and structure of the forebrain cholinergic system imposes a major challenge. To overcome this, we took advantage of the physiological enrichment of BFCNs with a low-affinity p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75(NTR)) for their targeting by lentiviral vectors within the intact brain of adult rat. Herein, a method is described that affords selective and effective transduction of BFCNs with a green fluorescence protein (GFP) reporter, which combines streptavidin-biotin technology with anti-p75(NTR) antibody-coated lentiviral vectors. Specific GFP expression in cholinergic neurons was attained in the medial septum and nuclei of the diagonal band Broca after a single intraventricular administration of such targeted vectors. Bioelectrical activity of GFP-labeled neurons was proven to be unchanged. Thus, proof of principle is obtained for the utility of the low-affinity p75(NTR) for targeted transduction of vectors to BFCNs in vivo.

  15. Basal Forebrain Cholinergic Neurons Primarily Contribute to Inhibition of Electroencephalogram Delta Activity, Rather Than Inducing Behavioral Wakefulness in Mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li; Yin, Dou; Wang, Tian-Xiao; Guo, Wei; Dong, Hui; Xu, Qi; Luo, Yan-Jia; Cherasse, Yoan; Lazarus, Michael; Qiu, Zi-Long; Lu, Jun; Qu, Wei-Min; Huang, Zhi-Li

    2016-07-01

    The basal forebrain (BF) cholinergic neurons have long been thought to be involved in behavioral wakefulness and cortical activation. However, owing to the heterogeneity of BF neurons and poor selectivity of traditional methods, the precise role of BF cholinergic neurons in regulating the sleep-wake cycle remains unclear. We investigated the effects of cell-selective manipulation of BF cholinergic neurons on the sleep-wake behavior and electroencephalogram (EEG) power spectrum using the pharmacogenetic technique, the 'designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADD)' approach, and ChAT-IRES-Cre mice. Our results showed that activation of BF cholinergic neurons expressing hM3Dq receptors significantly and lastingly decreased the EEG delta power spectrum, produced low-delta non-rapid eye movement sleep, and slightly increased wakefulness in both light and dark phases, whereas inhibition of BF cholinergic neurons expressing hM4Di receptors significantly increased EEG delta power spectrum and slightly decreased wakefulness. Next, the projections of BF cholinergic neurons were traced by humanized Renilla green fluorescent protein (hrGFP). Abundant and highly dense hrGFP-positive fibers were observed in the secondary motor cortex and cingulate cortex, and sparse hrGFP-positive fibers were observed in the ventrolateral preoptic nucleus, a known sleep-related structure. Finally, we found that activation of BF cholinergic neurons significantly increased c-Fos expression in the secondary motor cortex and cingulate cortex, but decreased c-Fos expression in the ventrolateral preoptic nucleus. Taken together, these findings reveal that the primary function of BF cholinergic neurons is to inhibit EEG delta activity through the activation of cerebral cortex, rather than to induce behavioral wakefulness.

  16. Muscarinic M1 receptor partially modulates higher sensitivity to cadmium-induced cell death in primary basal forebrain cholinergic neurons: A cholinesterase variants dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Del Pino, Javier; Zeballos, Gabriela; Anadon, María José; Díaz, María Jesús; Moyano, Paula; Díaz, Gloria Gómez; García, Jimena; Lobo, Margarita; Frejo, María Teresa

    2016-06-15

    Cadmium is a toxic compound reported to produce cognitive dysfunctions, though the mechanisms involved are unknown. In a previous work we described how cadmium blocks cholinergic transmission and induces greater cell death in primary cholinergic neurons from the basal forebrain. It also induces cell death in SN56 cholinergic neurons from the basal forebrain through M1R blockage, alterations in the expression of AChE variants and GSK-3β, and an increase in Aβ and total and phosphorylated Tau protein levels. It was observed that the silencing or blockage of M1R altered ChAT activity, GSK-3β, AChE splice variants gene expression, and Aβ and Tau protein formation. Furthermore, AChE-S variants were associated with the same actions modulated by M1R. Accordingly, we hypothesized that cholinergic transmission blockage and higher sensitivity to cadmium-induced cell death of primary basal forebrain cholinergic neurons is mediated by M1R blockage, which triggers this effect through alteration of the expression of AChE variants. To prove this hypothesis, we evaluated, in primary culture from the basal forebrain region, whether M1R silencing induces greater cell death in cholinergic neurons than cadmium does, and whether in SN56 cells M1R mediates the mechanisms described so as to play a part in the cadmium induction of cholinergic transmission blockage and cell death in this cell line through alteration of the expression of AChE variants. Our results prove that M1R silencing by cadmium partially mediates the greater cell death observed on basal forebrain cholinergic neurons. Moreover, all previously described mechanisms for blocking cholinergic transmission and inducing cell death on SN56 cells after cadmium exposure are partially mediated by M1R through the alteration of AChE expression. Thus, our results may explain cognitive dysfunctions observed in cadmium toxicity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. CHOLINERGIC NEURONS OF THE BASAL FOREBRAIN MEDIATE BIOCHEMICAL AND ELECTROPHYSIOLOGICAL MECHANISMS UNDERLYING SLEEP HOMEOSTASIS

    PubMed Central

    Kalinchuk, Anna V.; Porkka-Heiskanen, Tarja; McCarley, Robert W.; Basheer, Radhika

    2015-01-01

    The tight coordination of biochemical and electrophysiological mechanisms underlies the homeostatic sleep pressure (HSP) produced by sleep deprivation (SD). We have reported that during SD the levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), extracellular nitric oxide (NO), adenosine [AD]ex, lactate [Lac]ex and pyruvate [Pyr]ex increase in the basal forebrain (BF). However, it is not clear whether all of them contribute to HSP leading to increased electroencephalogram (EEG) delta activity during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) recovery sleep (RS) following SD. Previously, we showed that NREM delta increase evident during RS depends on the presence of BF cholinergic (ChBF) neurons. Here, we investigated the role of ChBF cells in coordination of biochemical and EEG changes seen during SD and RS in the rat. Increases in low theta power (5–7Hz), but not high theta (7–9Hz), during SD correlated with the increase in NREM delta power during RS, and with the changes in nitrate/nitrite [NOx]ex and [AD]ex. Lesions of ChBF cells using IgG 192-saporin prevented increases in [NOx]ex, [AD]ex and low theta activity, during SD, but did not prevent increases in [Lac]ex and [Pyr]ex. Infusion of NO donor DETA NONOate into the saporin-treated BF failed to increase NREM RS and delta power, suggesting ChBF cells are important for mediating NO homeostatic effects. Finally, SD-induced iNOS was mostly expressed in ChBF cells, and the intensity of iNOS induction correlated with the increase in low theta activity. Together, our data indicate ChBF cells are important in regulating the biochemical and EEG mechanisms that contribute to HSP. PMID:25369989

  18. c-Fos protein expression is increased in cholinergic neurons of the rodent basal forebrain during spontaneous and induced wakefulness

    PubMed Central

    McKenna, J. T.; Cordeira, J. W.; Jeffrey, B. A.; Ward, C. P.; Winston, S.; McCarley, R. W.; Strecker, R. E.

    2009-01-01

    It has been proposed that cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain (BF) may play a role in vigilance state control. Since not all vigilance states have been studied, we evaluated cholinergic neuronal activation levels across spontaneously occurring states of vigilance, as well as during sleep deprivation and recovery sleep following sleep deprivation. Sleep deprivation was performed for two hours at the beginning of the light (inactive) period, by means of gentle sensory stimulation. In the rodent BF, we used immunohistochemical detection of the c-Fos protein as a marker for activation combined with labeling for choline acetyl-transferase (ChAT) as a marker for cholinergic neurons. We found c-Fos activation in BF cholinergic neurons was highest in the group undergoing sleep deprivation (12.9% of cholinergic neurons), while the spontaneous wakefulness group showed a significant increase (9.2%), compared to labeling in the spontaneous sleep group (1.8%) and sleep deprivation recovery group (0.8%). A subpopulation of cholinergic neurons expressed c-Fos during spontaneous wakefulness, when possible confounds of the sleep deprivation procedure were minimized (e.g., stress and sensory stimulation). Double-labeling in the sleep deprivation treatment group was significantly elevated in select subnuclei of the BF (medial septum/vertical limb of the diagonal band, horizontal limb of the diagonal band, and the magnocellular preoptic nucleus), when compared to spontaneous wakefulness. These findings support and provide additional confirming data of previous reports that cholinergic neurons of BF play a role in vigilance state regulation by promoting wakefulness. PMID:19716862

  19. Immunization Against Specific Fragments of Neurotrophin p75 Receptor Protects Forebrain Cholinergic Neurons in the Olfactory Bulbectomized Mice

    PubMed Central

    Bobkova, Natalia; Vorobyov, Vasily; Medvinskaya, Natalia; Nesterova, Inna; Tatarnikova, Olga; Nekrasov, Pavel; Samokhin, Alexander; Deev, Alexander; Sengpiel, Frank; Koroev, Dmitry; Volpina, Olga

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is characterized by progressive cognitive impairment associated with marked cholinergic neuron loss and amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide accumulation in the brain. The cytotoxicity in AD is mediated, at least in part, by Aβ binding with the extracellular domain of the p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR), localized predominantly in the membranes of acetylcholine-producing neurons in the basal forebrain. Hypothesizing that an open unstructured loop of p75NTR might be the effective site for Aβ binding, we have immunized both olfactory bulbectomized (OBX) and sham-operated (SO) mice (n = 82 and 49, respectively) with synthetic peptides, structurally similar to different parts of the loops, aiming to block them by specific antibodies. OBX-mice have been shown in previous studies, and confirmed in the present one, to be characterized by typical behavioral, morphological, and biochemical AD hallmarks, including cholinergic deficits in forebrain neurons. Immunization of OBX- or SO-mice with KLH conjugated fragments of p75NTR induced high titers of specific serum antibodies for each of nine chosen fragments. However, maximal protective effects on spatial memory, evaluated in a Morris water maze, and on activity of choline acetyltransferase in forebrain neurons, detected by immunoreactivity to specific antibodies, were revealed only for peptides with amino acid residue sequences of 155–164 and 167–176. We conclude that the approach based on immunological blockade of specific p75NTR sites, linked with the cytotoxicity, is a useful and effective tool for study of AD-associated mechanisms and for development of highly selective therapy of cholinergic malfunctioning in AD patients. PMID:27163825

  20. A second wind for the cholinergic system in Alzheimer's therapy.

    PubMed

    Douchamps, Vincent; Mathis, Chantal

    2017-04-01

    Notwithstanding tremendous research efforts, the cause of Alzheimer's disease (AD) remains elusive and there is no curative treatment. The cholinergic hypothesis presented 35 years ago was the first major evidence-based hypothesis on the etiology of AD. It proposed that the depletion of brain acetylcholine was a primary cause of cognitive decline in advanced age and AD. It relied on a series of observations obtained in aged animals, elderly, and AD patients that pointed to dysfunctions of cholinergic basal forebrain, similarities between cognitive impairments induced by anticholinergic drugs and those found in advanced age and AD, and beneficial effects of drugs stimulating cholinergic activity. This review revisits these major results to show how this hypothesis provided the drive for the development of anticholinesterase inhibitor-based therapies of AD, the almost exclusively approved treatment in use despite transient and modest efficacy. New ideas for improving cholinergic therapies are also compared and discussed in light of the current revival of the cholinergic hypothesis on the basis of two sets of evidence from new animal models and refined imagery techniques in humans. First, human and animal studies agree in detecting signs of cholinergic dysfunctions much earlier than initially believed. Second, alterations of the cholinergic system are deeply intertwined with its reactive responses, providing the brain with efficient compensatory mechanisms to delay the conversion into AD. Active research in this field should provide new insight into development of multitherapies incorporating cholinergic manipulation, as well as early biomarkers of AD enabling earlier diagnostics. This is of prime importance to counteract a disease that is now recognized to start early in adult life.

  1. Adolescent binge ethanol exposure alters specific forebrain cholinergic cell populations and leads to selective functional deficits in the prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Gina M; Savage, Lisa M

    2017-10-11

    Adolescence has been identified as a vulnerable developmental time period during which exposure to drugs can have long-lasting, detrimental effects. Although adolescent binge-like ethanol (EtOH) exposure leads to a significant reduction in forebrain cholinergic neurons, EtOH's functional effect on acetylcholine (ACh) release during behavior has yet to be examined. Using an adolescent intermittent ethanol exposure model (AIE), rats were exposed to binge-like levels of EtOH from postnatal days (PD) 25 to 55. Three weeks following the final EtOH exposure, cholinergic functioning was assessed during a spontaneous alternation protocol. During maze testing, ACh levels increased in both the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. However, selectively in the prefrontal cortex, AIE rats displayed reduced levels of behaviorally relevant ACh efflux. We found no treatment differences in spatial exploration, spatial learning, spatial reversal, or novel object recognition. In contrast, AIE rats were impaired during the first attentional set shift on an operant set-shifting task, indicative of an EtOH-mediated deficit in cognitive flexibility. A unique pattern of cholinergic cell loss was observed in the basal forebrain following AIE: Within the medial septum/diagonal band there was a selective loss (30%) of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-positive neurons that were nestin negative (ChAT+/nestin-); whereas in the Nucleus basalis of Meynert (NbM) there was a selective reduction (50%) in ChAT+/nestin+. These results indicate that early adolescent binge EtOH exposure leads to a long-lasting frontocortical functional cholinergic deficit, driven by a loss of ChAT+/nestin+ neurons in the NbM, which was associated with impaired cognitive flexibility during adulthood. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Estrogen receptors colocalize with low-affinity nerve growth factor receptors in cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain.

    PubMed Central

    Toran-Allerand, C D; Miranda, R C; Bentham, W D; Sohrabji, F; Brown, T J; Hochberg, R B; MacLusky, N J

    1992-01-01

    The rodent and primate basal forebrain is a target of a family of endogenous peptide signaling molecules, the neurotrophins--nerve growth factor, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and neurotrophin 3--and of the gonadal steroid hormone estrogen, both of which have been implicated in cholinergic function. To investigate whether or not these ligands may act on the same neurons in the developing and adult rodent basal forebrain, we combined autoradiography with 125I-labeled estrogen and either nonisotopic in situ hybridization histochemistry or immunohistochemistry. We now report colocalization of intranuclear estrogen binding sites with the mRNA and immunoreactive protein for the low-affinity nerve growth factor receptor, which binds all three neurotrophins, and for the cholinergic marker enzyme choline acetyltransferase (acetyl-CoA:choline O-acetyltransferase, EC 2.3.1.6). Colocalization of estrogen and low-affinity nerve growth factor receptors implies that their ligands may act on the same neuron, perhaps synergistically, to regulate the expression of specific genes or gene networks that may influence neuronal survival, differentiation, regeneration, and plasticity. That cholinergic neurons in brain regions subserving cognitive functions may be regulated not only by the neurotrophins but also by estrogen may have considerable relevance for the development and maintenance of neural substrates of cognition. If estrogen-neurotrophin interactions are important for survival of target neurons, then clinical conditions associated with estrogen deficiency could contribute to the atrophy or death of these neurons. These findings have implications for the subsequent decline in those differentiated neural functions associated with aging and Alzheimer disease. Images PMID:1316615

  3. Spatial relationship between neurotensinergic axons and cholinergic neurons in the rat basal forebrain: a light microscopic study with three-dimensional reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Morin, A J; Tajani, M; Jones, B E; Beaudet, A

    1996-04-01

    Cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain are known to project to the hippocampus and cerebral cortex wherein they play an important role in cortical activation, attention and memory. These neurons have been shown to possess neurotensin binding sites and to respond electrophysiologically to local application of neurotensin, indicating the presence of functional receptors on their membrane. In the present light microscopic study, the spatial relationship between neurotensinergic axons and cholinergic nerve cell bodies and proximal dendrites was investigated in the basal forebrain of the rat by dual immunostaining for neurotensin and choline acetyltransferase. Rostrally, neurotensinergic fibres were concentrated in the lateral septum and anterior substantia innominata, whereas cholinergic neurons were located in the medial septum, diagonal band of Broca and magnocellular preoptic nucleus. At high magnification, a few neurotensinergic axonal varicosities were observed in the region of cholinergic neurons, and fewer still in close proximity to cholinergic perikarya and proximal dendrites. Caudally, neurotensinergic fibres formed a dense plexus of varicose axons in the same regions where cholinergic neurons were located in the posterior substantia innominata and in the ventral and caudal aspects of the globus paltidus. At high magnification, many of these neurotensinergic varicosities were seen in close proximity to the cholinergic perikarya. These results suggest that cholinergic cells receive a much denser neurotensinergic innervation in the caudal than in the rostral aspect of the basal forebrain. This differential distribution is not reflected in the uniform density of neurotensin receptors and potent responses to neurotensin through the cholinergic cell population, suggesting the possibility that neurotensin's effects are mediated in part by a paracrine mechanism.

  4. Forebrain deletion of the dystonia protein torsinA causes dystonic-like movements and loss of striatal cholinergic neurons

    PubMed Central

    Pappas, Samuel S; Darr, Katherine; Holley, Sandra M; Cepeda, Carlos; Mabrouk, Omar S; Wong, Jenny-Marie T; LeWitt, Tessa M; Paudel, Reema; Houlden, Henry; Kennedy, Robert T; Levine, Michael S; Dauer, William T

    2015-01-01

    Striatal dysfunction plays an important role in dystonia, but the striatal cell types that contribute to abnormal movements are poorly defined. We demonstrate that conditional deletion of the DYT1 dystonia protein torsinA in embryonic progenitors of forebrain cholinergic and GABAergic neurons causes dystonic-like twisting movements that emerge during juvenile CNS maturation. The onset of these movements coincides with selective degeneration of dorsal striatal large cholinergic interneurons (LCI), and surviving LCI exhibit morphological, electrophysiological, and connectivity abnormalities. Consistent with the importance of this LCI pathology, murine dystonic-like movements are reduced significantly with an antimuscarinic agent used clinically, and we identify cholinergic abnormalities in postmortem striatal tissue from DYT1 dystonia patients. These findings demonstrate that dorsal LCI have a unique requirement for torsinA function during striatal maturation, and link abnormalities of these cells to dystonic-like movements in an overtly symptomatic animal model. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.08352.001 PMID:26052670

  5. Aging causes partial loss of basal forebrain but no loss of pontine reticular cholinergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Baskerville, Karen A; Kent, Caroline; Nicolle, Michelle M; Gallagher, Michela; McKinney, Michael

    2006-11-27

    Cholinergic degeneration occurs in several neurodegenerative diseases. To investigate whether normal aging causes selective neurodegeneration, we compared counts of cholinergic neurons in the medial septum/vertical limb of the diagonal band and pedunculopontine and laterodorsal tegmental nuclei of the brainstem in young and aged Long-Evans rats characterized for their spatial learning ability in the Morris water maze. A subset of aged rats (aged-unimpaired) learned the spatial learning task as young rats, whereas another group (age-impaired) showed poorer learning than young animals. In the medial septum/diagonal band, there was a significant loss (-23%, P < 0.02) of cholinergic neurons in aged-impaired animals compared with young subjects. In the brainstem, there were no significant differences in cholinergic cell number in any group. This selective loss of cholinergic neurons may, in part, account for the cognitive deficits observed in aging and, considering previous findings in this model, may be related to oxidative stress.

  6. Treatment of beta amyloid 1–42 (Aβ1–42)-induced basal forebrain cholinergic damage by a non-classical estrogen signaling activator in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Kwakowsky, Andrea; Potapov, Kyoko; Kim, SooHyun; Peppercorn, Katie; Tate, Warren P.; Ábrahám, István M.

    2016-01-01

    In Alzheimer’s disease (AD), there is a loss in cholinergic innervation targets of basal forebrain which has been implicated in substantial cognitive decline. Amyloid beta peptide (Aβ1–42) accumulates in AD that is highly toxic for basal forebrain cholinergic (BFC) neurons. Although the gonadal steroid estradiol is neuroprotective, the administration is associated with risk of off-target effects. Previous findings suggested that non-classical estradiol action on intracellular signaling pathways has ameliorative potential without estrogenic side effects. After Aβ1–42 injection into mouse basal forebrain, a single dose of 4-estren-3α, 17β-diol (estren), the non-classical estradiol pathway activator, restored loss of cholinergic cortical projections and also attenuated the Aβ1–42-induced learning deficits. Estren rapidly and directly phosphorylates c-AMP-response–element-binding-protein and extracellular-signal-regulated-kinase-1/2 in BFC neurons and restores the cholinergic fibers via estrogen receptor-α. These findings indicated that selective activation of non-classical intracellular estrogen signaling has a potential to treat the damage of cholinergic neurons in AD. PMID:26879842

  7. The cholinergic system, circadian rhythmicity, and time memory.

    PubMed

    Hut, R A; Van der Zee, E A

    2011-08-10

    This review provides an overview of the interaction between the mammalian cholinergic system and circadian system, and its possible role in time memory. Several studies made clear that circadian (daily) fluctuations in acetylcholine (ACh) release, cholinergic enzyme activity and cholinergic receptor expression varies remarkably between species and even strains. Apparently, cholinergic features can be flexibly adjusted to the needs of a species or strain. Nevertheless, it can be generalized that circadian rhythmicity in the cholinergic system is characterized by high ACh release during the active phase of an individual. During the active phase, the activity of the ACh synthesizing enzyme Choline Acetyltransferase (ChAT) is enhanced, and the activity of the ACh degrading enzyme Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is reduced. The number of free, unbound and thus available muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) is highest when ACh release is lowest. The cholinergic innervation of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), the hypothalamic circadian master clock, arises from the cholinergic forebrain and brain stem nuclei. The density of cholinergic fibers and terminals is modest as compared to other hypothalamic nuclei. This is the case for rat, hamster and mouse, three chronobiological model rodent species studied by us. A new finding is that the rat SCN contains some local cholinergic neurons. Hamster SCN contains less cholinergic neurons, whereas the mouse SCN is devoid of such cells. ACh has an excitatory effect on SCN cells (at least in vivo), and functions in close interaction with other neurotransmitters. Originally it was thought that ACh transferred retinal light information to the SCN. This turned out to be wrong. Thereafter, the phase shifting effects of ACh prompted researches to view ACh as an agent for nocturnal clock resetting. It is still not clear, however, what the function consequence is of SCN cholinergic neurotransmission. Here, we postulate the hypothesis

  8. Pontine cholinergic neurons depend on three neuroprotection systems to resist nitrosative stress.

    PubMed

    McKinney, Michael; Williams, Katrina; Personett, David; Kent, Caroline; Bryan, David; Gonzalez, John; Baskerville, Karen

    2004-03-26

    Brainstem cholinergic populations survive in neurodegenerative disease, while basal forebrain cholinergic neurons degenerate. We have postulated that variable resistance to oxidative stress may in part explain this. Rat primary cultures were used to study the effects of several nitrosative/oxidative stressors on brainstem (upper pons, containing pedunculopontine and lateraldorsal tegmental nuclei; BS) cholinergic neurons, comparing them with medial septal (MS), and striatal cholinergic neurons. BS cholinergic neurons were significantly more resistant to S-nitro-N-acetyl-d,l-penicillamine (SNAP), sodium nitroprusside (SNP), and hydrogen peroxide than were MS cholinergic neurons, which in turn were more resistant than striatal cholinergic neurons. Pharmacological analyses using specific inhibitors of neuroprotective systems also revealed differences between these three cholinergic populations with respect to their vulnerability to SNAP. Toxicity of SNAP to BS neurons was exacerbated by blocking NF-kappaB activation with SN50 or ERK1/2 activation by PD98059, or by inhibition of phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K) activity by LY294002. In contrast, SNAP toxicity to MS neurons was augmented only by SN50, and SNAP toxicity to striatal cholinergic neurons was not increased by any of these three pharmacological agents. In neuron-enriched primary cultures, BS cholinergic neurons remained resistant to SNAP while MS cholinergic neurons remained vulnerable to this agent. Immunohistochemical experiments demonstrated nitric oxide (NO)-induced increases in nuclear levels of phospho-epitopes for ERK1/2 and Akt, and of the p65 subunit of NF-kappaB, within BS cholinergic neurons. These data indicate that the relative resistance of BS cholinergic neurons to toxic levels of nitric oxide involves three intrinsic neuroprotective pathways that control transcriptional and anti-apoptotic cellular functions.

  9. Involvement of the cholinergic system in conditioning and perceptual memory.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Lianne; Platt, Bettina; Riedel, Gernot

    2011-08-10

    The cholinergic systems play a pivotal role in learning and memory, and have been the centre of attention when it comes to diseases containing cognitive deficits. It is therefore not surprising, that the cholinergic transmitter system has experienced detailed examination of its role in numerous behavioural situations not least with the perspective that cognition may be rescued with appropriate cholinergic 'boosters'. Here we reviewed the literature on (i) cholinergic lesions, (ii) pharmacological intervention of muscarinic or nicotinic system, or (iii) genetic deletion of selective receptor subtypes with respect to sensory discrimination and conditioning procedures. We consider visual, auditory, olfactory and somatosensory processing first before discussing more complex tasks such as startle responses, latent inhibition, negative patterning, eye blink and fear conditioning, and passive avoidance paradigms. An overarching reoccurring theme is that lesions of the cholinergic projection neurones of the basal forebrain impact negatively on acquisition learning in these paradigms and blockade of muscarinic (and to a lesser extent nicotinic) receptors in the target structures produce similar behavioural deficits. While these pertain mainly to impairments in acquisition learning, some rare cases extend to memory consolidation. Such single case observations warranted replication and more in-depth studies. Intriguingly, receptor blockade or receptor gene knockout repeatedly produced contradictory results (for example in fear conditioning) and combined studies, in which genetically altered mice are pharmacological manipulated, are so far missing. However, they are desperately needed to clarify underlying reasons for these contradictions. Consistently, stimulation of either muscarinic (mainly M(1)) or nicotinic (predominantly α7) receptors was beneficial for learning and memory formation across all paradigms supporting the notion that research into the development and

  10. Modeling Parkinson’s Disease Falls Associated With Brainstem Cholinergic Systems Decline

    PubMed Central

    Kucinski, Aaron; Sarter, Martin

    2015-01-01

    In addition to the primary disease-defining symptoms, approximately half of patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) suffer from postural instability, impairments in gait control and a propensity for falls. Consistent with evidence from patients, we previously demonstrated that combined striatal dopamine (DA) and basal forebrain (BF) cholinergic cell loss causes falls in rats traversing dynamic surfaces. Because evidence suggests that degeneration of brainstem cholinergic neurons arising from the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) also contributes to impaired gait and falls, here we assessed the effects of selective cholinergic PPN lesions in combination with striatal DA loss or BF cholinergic cells loss as well as losses in all 3 regions. Results indicate that all combination losses that included the BF cholinergic system slowed traversal and increased slips and falls. However, the performance of rats with losses in all 3 regions (PPN, BF, and DA) was not more severely impaired than following combined BF cholinergic and striatal DA lesions. These results confirm the hypothesis that BF cholinergic-striatal disruption of attentional-motor interactions is a primary source of falls. Additional losses of PPN cholinergic neurons may worsen posture and gait control in situations not captured by the current testing conditions. PMID:25798629

  11. Decreased interactions in protein kinase A-glucocorticoid receptor signaling in the hippocampus after selective removal of the basal forebrain cholinergic input.

    PubMed

    Lim, Chol Seung; Kim, Youn Jung; Hwang, Yoo Kyeong; Bañuelos, Christina; Bizon, Jennifer L; Han, Jung-Soo

    2012-03-01

    Removal of the cholinergic innervation to the hippocampus via selective immunolesions of septohippocampal cholinergic neurons induces dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis and decreases glucocorticoid receptor (GR) mRNA. This study examined whether removal of the cholinergic innervation decreased GR protein levels and induced changes in the interaction between GR and the cytoplasmic catalytic subunit of protein kinase A (PKAc) in the hippocampus. In lesioned animals, GR protein levels were markedly decreased in the nucleus, but not in the cytosol of hippocampal neurons, whereas mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) levels remained unchanged in both the nucleus and cytosol. PKAc levels did not differ between lesioned and control groups, but PKAc activity was reduced in lesion tissue compared with the controls. The interaction between GR and PKAc was also decreased in the hippocampus without cholinergic input. These results indicate that degeneration of septohippocampal cholinergic neurons leads to reduced PKAc activity in the hippocampus which, in turn, alters GR signaling. The altered GR signaling induced by the degeneration of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons may contribute to dysfunction of the HPA axis in aged animals and patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and lead to neuropsychiatric symptoms that occur throughout the course of AD.

  12. Stem cell derived basal forebrain cholinergic neurons from Alzheimer's disease patients are more susceptible to cell death.

    PubMed

    Duan, Lishu; Bhattacharyya, Bula J; Belmadani, Abdelhak; Pan, Liuliu; Miller, Richard J; Kessler, John A

    2014-01-08

    An early substantial loss of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons (BFCNs) is a constant feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and is associated with deficits in spatial learning and memory. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) derived from patients with AD as well as from normal controls could be efficiently differentiated into neurons with characteristics of BFCNs. We used BFCNs derived from iPSCs to model sporadic AD with a focus on patients with ApoE3/E4 genotypes (AD-E3/E4). BFCNs derived from AD-E3/E4 patients showed typical AD biochemical features evidenced by increased Aβ42/Aβ40 ratios. AD-E3/E4 neurons also exhibited altered responses to treatment with γ-secretase inhibitors compared to control BFCNs or neurons derived from patients with familial AD. BFCNs from patients with AD-E3/E4 also exhibited increased vulnerability to glutamate-mediated cell death which correlated with increased intracellular free calcium upon glutamate exposure. The ability to generate BFCNs with an AD phenotype is a significant step both for understanding disease mechanisms and for facilitating screening for agents that promote synaptic integrity and neuronal survival.

  13. Cadmium-induced cell death of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons mediated by muscarinic M1 receptor blockade, increase in GSK-3β enzyme, β-amyloid and tau protein levels.

    PubMed

    Del Pino, Javier; Zeballos, Gabriela; Anadón, María José; Moyano, Paula; Díaz, María Jesús; García, José Manuel; Frejo, María Teresa

    2016-05-01

    Cadmium is a neurotoxic compound which induces cognitive alterations similar to those produced by Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the mechanism through which cadmium induces this effect remains unknown. In this regard, we described in a previous work that cadmium blocks cholinergic transmission and induces a more pronounced cell death on cholinergic neurons from basal forebrain which is partially mediated by AChE overexpression. Degeneration of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons, as happens in AD, results in memory deficits attributable to the loss of cholinergic modulation of hippocampal synaptic circuits. Moreover, cadmium has been described to activate GSK-3β, induce Aβ protein production and tau filament formation, which have been related to a selective loss of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons and development of AD. The present study is aimed at researching the mechanisms of cell death induced by cadmium on basal forebrain cholinergic neurons. For this purpose, we evaluated, in SN56 cholinergic mourine septal cell line from basal forebrain region, the cadmium toxic effects on neuronal viability through muscarinic M1 receptor, AChE splice variants, GSK-3β enzyme, Aβ and tau proteins. This study proves that cadmium induces cell death on cholinergic neurons through blockade of M1 receptor, overexpression of AChE-S and GSK-3β, down-regulation of AChE-R and increase in Aβ and total and phosphorylated tau protein levels. Our present results provide new understanding of the mechanisms contributing to the harmful effects of cadmium on cholinergic neurons and suggest that cadmium could mediate these mechanisms by M1R blockade through AChE splices altered expression.

  14. Substitution of natural sensory input by artificial neurostimulation of an amputated trigeminal nerve does not prevent the degeneration of basal forebrain cholinergic circuits projecting to the somatosensory cortex

    PubMed Central

    Herrera-Rincon, Celia; Panetsos, Fivos

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral deafferentation downregulates acetylcholine (ACh) synthesis in sensory cortices. However, the responsible neural circuits and processes are not known. We irreversibly transected the rat infraorbital nerve and implanted neuroprosthetic microdevices for proximal stump stimulation, and assessed cytochrome-oxidase and choline- acetyl-transferase (ChAT) in somatosensory, auditory and visual cortices; estimated the number and density of ACh-neurons in the magnocellular basal nucleus (MBN); and localized down-regulated ACh-neurons in basal forebrain using retrograde labeling from deafferented cortices. Here we show that nerve transection, causes down regulation of MBN cholinergic neurons. Stimulation of the cut nerve reverses the metabolic decline but does not affect the decrease in cholinergic fibers in cortex or cholinergic neurons in basal forebrain. Artifical stimulation of the nerve also has no affect of ACh-innervation of other cortices. Cortical ChAT depletion is due to loss of corticopetal MBN ChAT-expressing neurons. MBN ChAT downregulation is not due to a decrease of afferent activity or to a failure of trophic support. Basalocortical ACh circuits are sensory specific, ACh is provided to each sensory cortex “on demand” by dedicated circuits. Our data support the existence of a modality-specific cortex-MBN-cortex circuit for cognitive information processing. PMID:25452715

  15. Diverse Roads to Relapse: A Discriminative Cue Signaling Cocaine Availability Is More Effective in Renewing Cocaine Seeking in Goal Trackers Than Sign Trackers and Depends on Basal Forebrain Cholinergic Activity.

    PubMed

    Pitchers, Kyle K; Phillips, Kyra B; Jones, Jonte L; Robinson, Terry E; Sarter, Martin

    2017-07-26

    Stimuli associated with taking drugs are notorious instigators of relapse. There is, however, considerable variation in the motivational properties of such stimuli, both as a function of the individual and the nature of the stimulus. The behavior of some individuals (sign trackers, STs) is especially influenced by cues paired with reward delivery, perhaps because they are prone to process information via dopamine-dependent, cue-driven, incentive salience systems. Other individuals (goal trackers, GTs) are better able to incorporate higher-order contextual information, perhaps because of better executive/attentional control over behavior, which requires frontal cortical cholinergic activity. We hypothesized, therefore, that a cue that "sets the occasion" for drug taking (a discriminative stimulus, DS) would reinstate cocaine seeking more readily in GTs than STs and that this would require intact cholinergic neurotransmission. To test this, male STs and GTs were trained to self-administer cocaine using an intermittent access schedule with periods of cocaine availability and unavailability signaled by a DS(+) and a DS(-), respectively. Thereafter, half of the rats received an immunotoxic lesion that destroyed 40-50% of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons and later, after extinction training, were tested for the ability of noncontingent presentations of the DS(+) to reinstate cocaine seeking behavior. The DS(+) was much more effective in reinstating cocaine seeking in GTs than STs and this effect was abolished by cholinergic losses despite the fact that all rats continued to orient to the DS(+) We conclude that vulnerability to relapse involves interactions between individual cognitive-motivational biases and the form of the drug cue encountered.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The most predictable outcome of a diagnosis of addiction is a high chance for relapse. When addicts encounter cues previously associated with drug, their attention may be unduly attracted to such cues and

  16. Cholinergic regulation of the vasopressin neuroendocrine system

    SciTech Connect

    Michels, K.M.

    1987-01-01

    To clarify the physical and functional relationship between the cholinergic system, and the neurodocrine cells of the supraoptic nucleus, a combination of experiments on receptor binding, localization and function were carried out. The putative nicotinic receptor probe (/sup 125/I)alpha bungarotoxin ((/sup 125/I)alpha BTX) bound with high affinity and specificity to the vasopressin and oxytocin magnocellular neurons of the supraoptic nucleus, nucleus circularis, and paraventricular nucleus. Binding of (/sup 125/I)alpha BTX within the neural lobe was very low. In contrast, the muscarinic cholinergic receptor probe (/sup 3/H)quinuclidinylbenzilate ((/sup 3/H)QNB) did not bind to magnocellular vasopressin and oxytocin cell groups. The median eminence, which contains the neurosecretory axons, and the neural lobe of the pituitary contain low levels of (/sup 3/H)QNB binding. The physiological significance of these cholinergic receptors in regulation of vasopressin release was tested using an in vitro preparation of the supraoptic - neural lobe system.

  17. Impact of the NGF maturation and degradation pathway on the cortical cholinergic system phenotype.

    PubMed

    Allard, Simon; Leon, Wanda C; Pakavathkumar, Prateep; Bruno, Martin A; Ribeiro-da-Silva, Alfredo; Cuello, A Claudio

    2012-02-08

    Cortical cholinergic atrophy plays a significant role in the cognitive loss seen with aging and in Alzheimer's disease (AD), but the mechanisms leading to it remain unresolved. Nerve growth factor (NGF) is the neurotrophin responsible for the phenotypic maintenance of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons in the mature and fully differentiated CNS. In consequence, its implication in cholinergic atrophy has been suspected; however, no mechanistic explanation has been provided. We have previously shown that the precursor of NGF (proNGF) is cleaved extracellularly by plasmin to form mature NGF (mNGF) and that mNGF is degraded by matrix metalloproteinase 9. Using cognitive-behavioral tests, Western blotting, and confocal and electron microscopy, this study demonstrates that a pharmacologically induced chronic failure in extracellular NGF maturation leads to a reduction in mNGF levels, proNGF accumulation, cholinergic degeneration, and cognitive impairment in rats. It also shows that inhibiting NGF degradation increases endogenous levels of the mature neurotrophin and increases the density of cortical cholinergic boutons. Together, the data point to a mechanism explaining cholinergic loss in neurodegenerative conditions such as AD and provide a potential therapeutic target for the protection or restoration of this CNS transmitter system in aging and AD.

  18. BMP9 (bone morphogenetic protein 9) induces NGF as an autocrine/paracrine cholinergic trophic factor in developing basal forebrain neurons.

    PubMed

    Schnitzler, Aletta C; Mellott, Tiffany J; Lopez-Coviella, Ignacio; Tallini, Yvonne N; Kotlikoff, Michael I; Follettie, Maximillian T; Blusztajn, Jan Krzysztof

    2010-06-16

    Acetylcholine (ACh) synthesis and release from basal forebrain cholinergic neurons (BFCN) innervating the cerebral cortex and hippocampus are essential processes for normal learning, memory and attention. Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 9 is a cholinergic differentiation factor in the developing septum that increases ACh synthesis and choline acetyltransferase (Chat) gene expression both in vivo and in vitro. We investigated the possible induction of cholinergic trophic factors by BMP9 in murine septal cells. Nerve growth factor (NGF) protein expression and secretion into the medium was increased in cultured embryonic septal cells treated with BMP9, and partially mediated BMP9-induced acetylcholine production and Chat gene expression. BMP9-induced Ngf gene expression was detected in postmitotic cells, required new protein synthesis and was blocked by BMP type I receptor inhibition. Cholinergic neurons were isolated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting based on either transgenic expression of green fluorescent protein driven by the Chat promoter or NGF receptor (p75) immunostaining. Although both noncholinergic and cholinergic neurons in untreated cultures expressed similar low levels of Ngf, increased Ngf gene expression was restricted to Chat-positive neurons in BMP9-treated cultures. Likewise, similar levels of Ngf mRNA were detected in p75-negative and p75-positive septal cells, yet only p75-positive BFCN increased their Ngf gene expression when treated with BMP9, and only these cells expressed the Alk1 BMP receptor. The data suggest an autocrine/paracrine role for NGF in the development and/or maintenance of BFCN and imply that the stimulation of NGF production and release contributes to the cholinergic-supportive properties of BMP9.

  19. The role of cholinergic basal forebrain neurons in adenosine-mediated homeostatic control of sleep: lessons from 192 IgG-saporin lesions.

    PubMed

    Kalinchuk, A V; McCarley, R W; Stenberg, D; Porkka-Heiskanen, T; Basheer, R

    2008-11-11

    A topic of high current interest and controversy is the basis of the homeostatic sleep response, the increase in non-rapid-eye-movement (NREM) sleep and NREM-delta activity following sleep deprivation (SD). Adenosine, which accumulates in the cholinergic basal forebrain (BF) during SD, has been proposed as one of the important homeostatic sleep factors. It is suggested that sleep-inducing effects of adenosine are mediated by inhibiting the wake-active neurons of the BF, including cholinergic neurons. Here we examined the association between SD-induced adenosine release, the homeostatic sleep response and the survival of cholinergic neurons in the BF after injections of the immunotoxin 192 immunoglobulin G (IgG)-saporin (saporin) in rats. We correlated SD-induced adenosine level in the BF and the homeostatic sleep response with the cholinergic cell loss 2 weeks after local saporin injections into the BF, as well as 2 and 3 weeks after i.c.v. saporin injections. Two weeks after local saporin injection there was an 88% cholinergic cell loss, coupled with nearly complete abolition of the SD-induced adenosine increase in the BF, the homeostatic sleep response, and the sleep-inducing effects of BF adenosine infusion. Two weeks after i.c.v. saporin injection there was a 59% cholinergic cell loss, correlated with significant increase in SD-induced adenosine level in the BF and an intact sleep response. Three weeks after i.c.v. saporin injection there was an 87% cholinergic cell loss, nearly complete abolition of the SD-induced adenosine increase in the BF and the homeostatic response, implying that the time course of i.c.v. saporin lesions is a key variable in interpreting experimental results. Taken together, these results strongly suggest that cholinergic neurons in the BF are important for the SD-induced increase in adenosine as well as for its sleep-inducing effects and play a major, although not exclusive, role in sleep homeostasis.

  20. Experiment K-7-18: Effects of Spaceflight in the Muscle Adductor Longus of Rats Flown in the Soviet Biosatellite Cosmos 2044. Part 2; Quantitative Autoradiographic Analysis of Gaba (Benzodiazepine) and Muscarinic (Cholinergic) Receptors in the Forebrain of Rats Flown on Cosmos 2044

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, L.; Daunton, N. G.; Krasnov, I. B.; DAmelio, F.; Hyde, T. M.; Sigworth, S. K.

    1994-01-01

    Quantitative autoradiographic analysis of receptors for GABA and acetylcholine in the forebrain of rats flown on COSMOS 2044 was undertaken as part of a joint US-Soviet study to determine the effects of microgravity on the central nervous system, and in particular on the sensory and motor portions of the forebrain. Changes in binding of these receptors in tissue from animals exposed to microgravity would provide evidence for possible changes in neural processing as a result of exposure to microgravity. Tritium-labelled diazepam and Quinuclidinyl-benzilate (QNB) were used to visualize GABA (benzodiazepine) and muscarinic (cholinergic) receptors, respectively. The density of tritium-labelled radioligands bound to various regions in the forebrain of both flight and control animals were measured from autoradiograms. Data from rats flown in space and from ground-based control animals that were not exposed to microgravity were compared.

  1. Experiment K-7-18: Effects of Spaceflight in the Muscle Adductor Longus of Rats Flown in the Soviet Biosatellite Cosmos 2044. Part 2; Quantitative Autoradiographic Analysis of Gaba (Benzodiazepine) and Muscarinic (Cholinergic) Receptors in the Forebrain of Rats Flown on Cosmos 2044

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, L.; Daunton, N. G.; Krasnov, I. B.; DAmelio, F.; Hyde, T. M.; Sigworth, S. K.

    1994-01-01

    Quantitative autoradiographic analysis of receptors for GABA and acetylcholine in the forebrain of rats flown on COSMOS 2044 was undertaken as part of a joint US-Soviet study to determine the effects of microgravity on the central nervous system, and in particular on the sensory and motor portions of the forebrain. Changes in binding of these receptors in tissue from animals exposed to microgravity would provide evidence for possible changes in neural processing as a result of exposure to microgravity. Tritium-labelled diazepam and Quinuclidinyl-benzilate (QNB) were used to visualize GABA (benzodiazepine) and muscarinic (cholinergic) receptors, respectively. The density of tritium-labelled radioligands bound to various regions in the forebrain of both flight and control animals were measured from autoradiograms. Data from rats flown in space and from ground-based control animals that were not exposed to microgravity were compared.

  2. Targeted delivery of nerve growth factor to the cholinergic basal forebrain of Alzheimer's disease patients: application of a second-generation encapsulated cell biodelivery device.

    PubMed

    Eyjolfsdottir, Helga; Eriksdotter, Maria; Linderoth, Bengt; Lind, Göran; Juliusson, Bengt; Kusk, Philip; Almkvist, Ove; Andreasen, Niels; Blennow, Kaj; Ferreira, Daniel; Westman, Eric; Nennesmo, Inger; Karami, Azadeh; Darreh-Shori, Taher; Kadir, Ahmadul; Nordberg, Agneta; Sundström, Erik; Wahlund, Lars-Olof; Wall, Anders; Wiberg, Maria; Winblad, Bengt; Seiger, Åke; Wahlberg, Lars; Almqvist, Per

    2016-07-07

    Targeted delivery of nerve growth factor (NGF) has emerged as a potential therapy for Alzheimer's disease (AD) due to its regenerative effects on basal forebrain cholinergic neurons. This hypothesis has been tested in patients with AD using encapsulated cell biodelivery of NGF (NGF-ECB) in a first-in-human study. We report our results from a third-dose cohort of patients receiving second-generation NGF-ECB implants with improved NGF secretion. Four patients with mild to moderate AD were recruited to participate in an open-label, phase Ib dose escalation study with a 6-month duration. Each patient underwent stereotactic implant surgery with four NGF-ECB implants targeted at the cholinergic basal forebrain. The NGF secretion of the second-generation implants was improved by using the Sleeping Beauty transposon gene expression technology and an improved three-dimensional internal scaffolding, resulting in production of about 10 ng NGF/device/day. All patients underwent successful implant procedures without complications, and all patients completed the study, including implant removal after 6 months. Upon removal, 13 of 16 implants released NGF, 8 implants released NGF at the same rate or higher than before the implant procedure, and 3 implants failed to release detectable amounts of NGF. Of 16 adverse events, none was NGF-, or implant-related. Changes from baseline values of cholinergic markers in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) correlated with cortical nicotinic receptor expression and Mini Mental State Examination score. Levels of neurofilament light chain (NFL) protein increased in CSF after NGF-ECB implant, while glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) remained stable. The data derived from this patient cohort demonstrate the safety and tolerability of sustained NGF release by a second-generation NGF-ECB implant to the basal forebrain, with uneventful surgical implant and removal of NGF-ECB implants in a new dosing cohort of four patients with AD. Clinical

  3. Targeting the Cholinergic System to Develop a Novel Therapy for Huntington’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    D’Souza, Gary X.; Waldvogel, Henry J.

    2016-01-01

    In this review, we outline the role of the cholinergic system in Huntington’s disease, and briefly describe the dysfunction of cholinergic transmission, cholinergic neurons, cholinergic receptors and cholinergic survival factors observed in post-mortem human brains and animal models of Huntington’s disease. We postulate how the dysfunctional cholinergic system can be targeted to develop novel therapies for Huntington’s disease, and discuss the beneficial effects of cholinergic therapies in pre-clinical and clinical studies. PMID:27983560

  4. Targeting the Cholinergic System to Develop a Novel Therapy for Huntington's Disease.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Gary X; Waldvogel, Henry J

    2016-12-15

    In this review, we outline the role of the cholinergic system in Huntington's disease, and briefly describe the dysfunction of cholinergic transmission, cholinergic neurons, cholinergic receptors and cholinergic survival factors observed in post-mortem human brains and animal models of Huntington's disease. We postulate how the dysfunctional cholinergic system can be targeted to develop novel therapies for Huntington's disease, and discuss the beneficial effects of cholinergic therapies in pre-clinical and clinical studies.

  5. Modulation of Specific Sensory Cortical Areas by Segregated Basal Forebrain Cholinergic Neurons Demonstrated by Neuronal Tracing and Optogenetic Stimulation in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Chaves-Coira, Irene; Barros-Zulaica, Natali; Rodrigo-Angulo, Margarita; Núñez, Ángel

    2016-01-01

    Neocortical cholinergic activity plays a fundamental role in sensory processing and cognitive functions. Previous results have suggested a refined anatomical and functional topographical organization of basal forebrain (BF) projections that may control cortical sensory processing in a specific manner. We have used retrograde anatomical procedures to demonstrate the existence of specific neuronal groups in the BF involved in the control of specific sensory cortices. Fluoro-Gold (FlGo) and Fast Blue (FB) fluorescent retrograde tracers were deposited into the primary somatosensory (S1) and primary auditory (A1) cortices in mice. Our results revealed that the BF is a heterogeneous area in which neurons projecting to different cortical areas are segregated into different neuronal groups. Most of the neurons located in the horizontal limb of the diagonal band of Broca (HDB) projected to the S1 cortex, indicating that this area is specialized in the sensory processing of tactile stimuli. However, the nucleus basalis magnocellularis (B) nucleus shows a similar number of cells projecting to the S1 as to the A1 cortices. In addition, we analyzed the cholinergic effects on the S1 and A1 cortical sensory responses by optogenetic stimulation of the BF neurons in urethane-anesthetized transgenic mice. We used transgenic mice expressing the light-activated cation channel, channelrhodopsin-2, tagged with a fluorescent protein (ChR2-YFP) under the control of the choline-acetyl transferase promoter (ChAT). Cortical evoked potentials were induced by whisker deflections or by auditory clicks. According to the anatomical results, optogenetic HDB stimulation induced more extensive facilitation of tactile evoked potentials in S1 than auditory evoked potentials in A1, while optogenetic stimulation of the B nucleus facilitated either tactile or auditory evoked potentials equally. Consequently, our results suggest that cholinergic projections to the cortex are organized into segregated

  6. Probing peripheral and central cholinergic system responses.

    PubMed Central

    Naranjo, C A; Fourie, J; Herrmann, N; Lanctôt, K L; Birt, C; Yau, K K

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The pharmacological response to drugs that act on the cholinergic system of the iris has been used to predict deficits in central cholinergic functioning due to diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, yet correlations between central and peripheral responses have not been properly studied. This study assessed the effect of normal aging on (1) the tropicamide-induced increase in pupil diameter, and (2) the reversal of this effect with pilocarpine. Scopolamine was used as a positive control to detect age-dependent changes in central cholinergic functioning in the elderly. DESIGN: Randomized double-blind controlled trial. PARTICIPANTS: Ten healthy elderly (mean age 70) and 9 young (mean age 33) volunteers. INTERVENTIONS: Pupil diameter was monitored using a computerized infrared pupillometer over 4 hours. The study involved 4 sessions. In 1 session, tropicamide (20 microL, 0.01%) was administered to one eye and placebo to the other. In another session, tropicamide (20 microL, 0.01%) was administered to both eyes, followed 23 minutes later by the application of pilocarpine (20 microL, 0.1%) to one eye and placebo to the other. All eye drops were given in a randomized order. In 2 separate sessions, a single dose of scopolamine (0.5 mg, intravenously) or placebo was administered, and the effects on word recall were measured using the Buschke Selective Reminding Test over 2 hours. OUTCOME MEASURES: Pupil size at time points after administration of tropicamide and pilocarpine; scopolamine-induced impairment in word recall. RESULTS: There was no significant difference between elderly and young volunteers in pupillary response to tropicamide at any time point (p > 0.05). The elderly group had a significantly greater pilocarpine-induced net decrease in pupil size 85, 125, 165 and 215 minutes after administration, compared with the young group (p < 0.05). Compared with the young group, the elderly group had greater scopolamine-induced impairment in word recall 60, 90

  7. [Modulation of the cholinergic system during inflammation].

    PubMed

    Nezhinskaia, G I; Vladykin, A L; Sapronov, N S

    2008-01-01

    This review describes the effects of realization of the central and peripheral "cholinergic antiinflammatory pathway" in a model of endotoxic and anaphylactic shock. Under endotoxic shock conditions, a pharmacological correction by means of the central m-cholinomimetic action (electrical stimulation of the distal ends of nervus vagus after bilateral cervical vagotomy, surgical implantation of the stimulant devise, activation of efferent vagal neurons by means of muscarinic agonist) is directed toward the elimination of LPS-induced hypotension. During the anaphylaxis, peripheral effects of the cholinergic system induced by blocking m-AChR on the target cells (neuronal and non-neuronal lung cells) and acetylcholinesterase inhibition are related to suppression of the bronchoconstrictor response. The role of immune system in the pathogenesis of endotoxic shock is associated with the production of proinflammatory cytokines by macrophages, increase in IgM concentration, and complement activation, while the role in the pathogenesis of anaphylactic shock is associated with IgE, IgG1 augmentation. Effects of B cell stimulation may be important in hypoxia and in the prophylaxis of stress ulcers and other diseases. Plasma proteins can influence the effects of the muscarinic antagonist methacine: IgG enhance its action while albumin and CRP abolish it.

  8. White Matter Damage in the Cholinergic System Contributes to Cognitive Impairment in Subcortical Vascular Cognitive Impairment, No Dementia.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qing; Zhu, Zude; Teipel, Stefan J; Yang, Jianwei; Xing, Yi; Tang, Yi; Jia, Jianping

    2017-01-01

    Cholinergic deficiency has been implicated in the pathogenesis of vascular cognitive impairment (VCI), but the extent of involvement and underlying mechanism remain unclear. In this study, targeting the early stage of VCI, we determined regional atrophy within the basal forebrain and deficiency in cholinergic pathways in 25 patients with vascular cognitive impairment no dementia (VCIND) compared to 24 healthy elderly subjects. By applying stereotaxic cytoarchitectonic maps of the nucleus basalis of Meynert (NbM), no significant atrophy was identified in VCIND. Using probabilistic tractography analysis, our study tracked the two major white matter tracks which map to cholinergic pathways. We identified significantly lower fractional anisotropy (FA) in VCIND. Mediation analysis demonstrated that FA in the tracked pathways could fully account for the executive dysfunction, and partly mediate the memory and global cognition impairment. Our study suggests that the fibers mapped to the cholinergic pathways, but not the NbM, are significantly impaired in VCIND. MRI-based in vivo tracking of cholinergic pathways together with NbM measurement may become a valuable in vivo marker for evaluating the cholinergic system in cognitive disorders.

  9. White Matter Damage in the Cholinergic System Contributes to Cognitive Impairment in Subcortical Vascular Cognitive Impairment, No Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qing; Zhu, Zude; Teipel, Stefan J.; Yang, Jianwei; Xing, Yi; Tang, Yi; Jia, Jianping

    2017-01-01

    Cholinergic deficiency has been implicated in the pathogenesis of vascular cognitive impairment (VCI), but the extent of involvement and underlying mechanism remain unclear. In this study, targeting the early stage of VCI, we determined regional atrophy within the basal forebrain and deficiency in cholinergic pathways in 25 patients with vascular cognitive impairment no dementia (VCIND) compared to 24 healthy elderly subjects. By applying stereotaxic cytoarchitectonic maps of the nucleus basalis of Meynert (NbM), no significant atrophy was identified in VCIND. Using probabilistic tractography analysis, our study tracked the two major white matter tracks which map to cholinergic pathways. We identified significantly lower fractional anisotropy (FA) in VCIND. Mediation analysis demonstrated that FA in the tracked pathways could fully account for the executive dysfunction, and partly mediate the memory and global cognition impairment. Our study suggests that the fibers mapped to the cholinergic pathways, but not the NbM, are significantly impaired in VCIND. MRI-based in vivo tracking of cholinergic pathways together with NbM measurement may become a valuable in vivo marker for evaluating the cholinergic system in cognitive disorders. PMID:28289381

  10. Loss of Calbindin-D28K is Associated with the Full Range of Tangle Pathology within Basal Forebrain Cholinergic Neurons in Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadian, Saman S.; Rezvanian, Aras; Peterson, Melanie; Weintraub, Sandra; Bigio, Eileen H.; Mesulam, M.-Marsel; Geula, Changiz

    2015-01-01

    Basal forebrain cholinergic neurons (BFCN) are selectively vulnerable in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We have shown that the majority of BFCN in the human brain contain the calcium binding protein calbindin-D28K (CB), a large proportion lose their CB in the course of normal aging, and the BFCN which degenerate in AD lack CB. Here we investigated the relationship between CB in the BFCN and the process of tangle formation in AD using antibodies to Tau epitopes that appear early, intermediate or late in the process of tangle formation. Very small percentages (0-3.7%) of CB-positive BFCN contained pre-tangles/tangles and very small percentages (0-5%) of the total BFCN pre-tangles/tangles were in CB-immunoreactive neurons. The number of CB-positive BFCN which contained Tau immunoreactivity was highest for the early epitope and lower for intermediate epitopes. A late appearing epitope was absent from CB-positive BFCN. Age-related loss of CB appears to coincide with tangle formation in the BFCN and is associated with the full range of Tau pathology, including late appearing epitopes. PMID:26417681

  11. Maternal choline supplementation improves spatial mapping and increases basal forebrain cholinergic neuron number and size in aged Ts65Dn mice.

    PubMed

    Ash, Jessica A; Velazquez, Ramon; Kelley, Christy M; Powers, Brian E; Ginsberg, Stephen D; Mufson, Elliott J; Strupp, Barbara J

    2014-10-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is marked by intellectual disability (ID) and early-onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD) neuropathology, including basal forebrain cholinergic neuron (BFCN) degeneration. The present study tested the hypothesis that maternal choline supplementation (MCS) improves spatial mapping and protects against BFCN degeneration in the Ts65Dn mouse model of DS and AD. During pregnancy and lactation, dams were assigned to either a choline sufficient (1.1g/kg choline chloride) or choline supplemented (5.0g/kg choline chloride) diet. Between 13 and 17months of age, offspring were tested in the radial arm water maze (RAWM) to examine spatial mapping followed by unbiased quantitative morphometry of BFCNs. Spatial mapping was significantly impaired in unsupplemented Ts65Dn mice relative to normal disomic (2N) littermates. Additionally, a significantly lower number and density of medial septum (MS) hippocampal projection BFCNs was also found in unsupplemented Ts65Dn mice. Notably, MCS significantly improved spatial mapping and increased number, density, and size of MS BFCNs in Ts65Dn offspring. Moreover, the density and number of MS BFCNs correlated significantly with spatial memory proficiency, providing support for a functional relationship between these behavioral and morphometric effects of MCS for trisomic offspring. Thus, increasing maternal choline intake during pregnancy may represent a safe and effective treatment approach for expectant mothers carrying a DS fetus, as well as a possible means of BFCN neuroprotection during aging for the population at large.

  12. Maternal choline supplementation improves spatial mapping and increases basal forebrain cholinergic neuron number and size in aged Ts65Dn mice

    PubMed Central

    Ash, Jessica A.; Velazquez, Ramon; Kelley, Christy M.; Powers, Brian E.; Ginsberg, Stephen D.; Mufson, Elliott J.; Strupp, Barbara J.

    2014-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is marked by intellectual disability (ID) and early-onset of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) neuropathology, including basal forebrain cholinergic neuron (BFCN) degeneration. The present study tested the hypothesis that maternal choline supplementation (MCS) lessens hippocampal dysfunction and protects against BFCN degeneration in the Ts65Dn mouse model of DS and AD. During pregnancy and lactation, dams were assigned to either a choline sufficient (1.1 g/kg choline chloride) or choline supplemented (5.0 g/kg choline chloride) diet. Between 13 and 17 months of age, offspring were tested in the radial arm water maze (RAWM) to examine spatial learning and memory followed by unbiased quantitative morphometry of BFCNs. Spatial mapping was significantly impaired in unsupplemented Ts65Dn mice relative to normal disomic (2N) littermates. Additionally, a significantly lower number and density of medial septum (MS) hippocampal projection BFCNs was also found in unsupplemented Ts65Dn mice. Notably, MCS significantly improved spatial mapping and increased number, density, and size of MS BFCNs in Ts65Dn offspring. Moreover, the density and number of MS BFCNs correlated significantly with spatial memory proficiency, providing powerful support for a functional relationship between these behavioral and morphometric effects of MCS for the trisomic offspring. Thus, increasing maternal choline intake during pregnancy may represent a safe and effective treatment approach for expectant mothers carrying a DS fetus, as well as a possible means of BFCN neuroprotection during aging for the population at large. PMID:24932939

  13. The dopaminergic projection system, basal forebrain macrosystems, and conditioned stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Zahm, Daniel S.

    2011-01-01

    This review begins with a description of some problems that in recent years have beset an influential circuit model of fear-conditioning and goes on to look at neuroanatomy that might subserve conditioning viewed in a broader perspective, including not only fear, but also appetitive, conditioning. The paper then focuses on basal forebrain functional-anatomical systems, or macrosystems, as they have come to be called, which Lennart Heimer and colleagues described beginning in the 1970’s. Yet more specific attention is then given to the relationships of the dorsal and ventral striatopallidal systems and extended amygdala with the dopaminergic mesotelencephalic projection systems, culminating with the hypothesis that all macrosystems contribute to behavioral conditioning. PMID:18204412

  14. The nicotinic cholinergic system function in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Nees, Frauke

    2015-09-01

    Research on the nicotinic cholinergic system function in the brain was previously mainly derived from animal studies, yet, research in humans is growing. Up to date, findings allow significant advances on the understanding of nicotinic cholinergic effects on human cognition, emotion and behavior using a range of functional brain imaging approaches such as pharmacological functional magnetic resonance imaging or positron emission tomography. Studies provided insights across various mechanistic psychological domains using different tasks as well as at rest in both healthy individuals and patient populations, with so far partly mixed results reporting both enhancements and decrements of neural activity related to the nicotinic cholinergic system. Moreover, studies on the relation between brain structure and the nicotinic cholinergic system add important information in this context. The present review summarizes the current status of human brain imaging studies and presents the findings within a theoretical and clinical perspective as they may be useful not only for an advancement of the understanding of basic nicotinic cholinergic-related mechanisms, but also for the development and integration of psychological and pharmacological treatment approaches. Patterns of functional neuroanatomy and neural circuitry across various cognitive and emotional domains may be used as neuropsychological markers of mental disorders such as addiction, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson disease or schizophrenia, where nicotinic cholinergic system changes are characteristic. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'The Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor: From Molecular Biology to Cognition'. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Beyond Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors: Novel Cholinergic Treatments for Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Kamkwalala, Asante R; Newhouse, Paul A

    2017-01-01

    The major components of the cholinergic receptor system of the human brain include projections from the basal forebrain nuclei, and utilize the two types of receptors that they synapse on, nicotinic and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. With the widespread cortical and subcortical projections of the basal forebrain, activity of these two receptor systems provide modulation of neurotransmitter activity underlying normal cognitive processes, such as attention, episodic memory, and working memory. Alzheimer's disease (AD) targets and damages cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain, and as these projections are lost, cognitive performance progressively declines. Currently, the most widely prescribed treatment for AD is acetylcholinesterase inhibitor medications, which work by partially blocking the degradation of acetylcholine in the synapse and enabling more of the neurotransmitter to reach and activate cholinergic receptors. However since these medications have limited effectiveness, alternate treatments that focus on augmenting the activity of the receptors themselves, independent of acetylcholinesterase inhibition, are being explored. This review will discuss: 1) the role of the cholinergic system in modulating cognition, 2) novel cholinergic treatment strategies for AD-related cognitive decline, in particular treatments intended to increase cholinergic system activity by selectively targeting muscarinic and nicotinic acetylcholinergic receptors to improve cognitive performance, 3) risks, and additional considerations for cholinergic cognitive treatments for AD.

  16. Glucocorticoid programing of the mesopontine cholinergic system.

    PubMed

    Borges, Sónia; Coimbra, Bárbara; Soares-Cunha, Carina; Ventura-Silva, Ana P; Pinto, Luisa; Carvalho, Miguel M; Pêgo, José-Miguel; Rodrigues, Ana João; Sousa, Nuno

    2013-01-01

    Stress perception, response, adaptation, and coping strategies are individually distinct, and the sequel of stress and/or glucocorticoids (GCs) is also distinct between subjects. In the last years, it has become clear that early life stress is a powerful modulator of neuroendocrine stress-responsive circuits, programing intrinsic susceptibility to stress, and potentiating the appearance of stress-related disorders such as depression, anxiety, and addiction. Herein we were interested in understanding how early life experiences reset the normal processing of negative stimuli, leading to emotional dysfunction. Animals prenatally exposed to GCs (in utero glucocorticoid exposure, iuGC) present hyperanxiety, increased fear behavior, and hyper-reactivity to negative stimuli. In parallel, we found a remarkable increase in the number of aversive 22 kHz ultrasonic vocalizations in response to an aversive cue. Considering the suggested role of the mesopontine tegmentum cholinergic pathway, arising from the laterodorsal tegmental nucleus (LDT) and pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPT), in the initiation of 22 kHz vocalizations and hypothetically in the control of emotional arousal and tone, we decided to evaluate the condition of this circuit in iuGC animals. Notably, in a basal situation, iuGC animals present increased choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) expression in the LDT and PPT, but not in other cholinergic nuclei, namely in the nucleus basalis of Meynert. In addition, and in accordance with the amplified response to an adverse stimulus of iuGC animals, we found marked changes in the cholinergic activation pattern of LDT and PPT regions. Altogether, our results suggest a specific cholinergic pathway programing by prenatal GC, and hint that this may be of relevance in setting individual stress vulnerability threshold.

  17. Excitatory and inhibitory actions of isoflurane on the cholinergic ascending arousal system of the rat.

    PubMed

    Dong, Hai-Long; Fukuda, Satoru; Murata, Eri; Higuchi, Takashi

    2006-01-01

    The cholinergic arousal systems are known to critically regulate the state of consciousness. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of isoflurane on the inhibitory or excitatory neurotransmitters efflux in important nuclei within the cholinergic arousal system using in vivo intracerebral microdialysis. The efflux of glutamate, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), or acetylcholine in the posterior hypothalamus (PH), the basal forebrain (BF), and the somatosensory cortex (S1BF) of rats was detected using intracerebral microdialysis under an awake condition and at 0.5-2.0 minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) isoflurane anesthesia. The intrabasalis perfusion of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) and N-methyl-D-aspartate on the cortical acetylcholine effluxes was also examined under both conditions. Isoflurane had no influence on the glutamate and GABA efflux in the PH, whereas in the BF, it dose-dependently increased glutamate efflux and decreased GABA efflux. A transient increase in glutamate efflux at 1.0 MAC and a decrease in GABA at 0.5-1.5 MAC were observed in the S1BF. Isoflurane dose-dependently decreased acetylcholine efflux in the S1BF. Perfusion of the BF with AMPA increased acetylcholine efflux in the S1BF with electroencephalographic activation during 0.75 MAC isoflurane anesthesia, suggesting an inhibitory action of isoflurane on AMPA receptors in the BF. However, N-methyl-D-aspartate had no effect on these parameters. Isoflurane induces both excitatory and inhibitory actions in the cholinergic arousal system. The predominant inhibitory action of isoflurane over its excitatory action at the BF would result in the decrease in the acetylcholine efflux in the S1BF.

  18. Cholinergic circuits in cognitive flexibility.

    PubMed

    Prado, Vania F; Janickova, Helena; Al-Onaizi, Mohammed A; Prado, Marco A M

    2017-03-14

    Cognitive flexibility, the ability to adjust behavior in response to new and unexpected conditions in the environment, is essential for adaptation to new challenges and survival. The cholinergic system is an important modulator of this complex behavior however, the exact cholinergic circuits involved in this modulation and the precise influence of acetylcholine (ACh) in the process is still not fully understood. Here we review the role of different cholinergic circuits in cognitive flexibility. Strong evidence indicates that cholinergic interneurons (CINs) from the dorsomedial striatum are essential for facilitating the establishment of a new selected strategy; an effect that seems to depend mainly on activation of muscarinic receptors. Cholinergic neurons from the nucleus basalis magnocellularis (nBM), which project to the prefrontal cortex, seem to modulate the initial inhibition of a previously learned strategy, however, this concept is still controversial. Additionally, some studies suggest that basal forebrain cholinergic neurons projecting to the hippocampus, basolateral amygdala, and posterior parietal cortex may also participate on the modulation of cognitive flexibility. We highlight the fact that when investigating effects of ACh on behavioral flexibility, or any other behavior, one has to keep in mind two important particularities of the cholinergic system: (1) Many cholinergic neurons in the brain co-release glutamate or GABA with ACh. Methodologies that rely on neuronal silencing or ablation lead to simultaneous elimination of both neurotransmitters, making interpretation of results complex. (2) The cholinergic gene locus has a unique organization, with the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) gene present within the intron between the first and second exons of the choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) gene. Thus, behavioral studies using transgenic animals generated with ChAT bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones should be considered

  19. Interaction of nerve agent antidotes with cholinergic systems.

    PubMed

    Soukup, O; Tobin, G; Kumar, U K; Binder, J; Proska, J; Jun, D; Fusek, J; Kuca, K

    2010-01-01

    The poisoning with organophosphorus compounds represents a life threatening danger especially in the time of terroristic menace. No universal antidote has been developed yet and other therapeutic approaches not related to reactivation of acetylcholinesterase are being investigated. This review describes the main features of the cholinergic system, cholinergic receptors, cholinesterases and their inhibitors. It also focuses on the organophosphorus nerve agents, their properties, effects and a large part describes various possibilities in treatments, mainly traditional oxime therapies based on reactivation of AChE. Furthermore, non-cholinesterase coupled antidotal effects of the oximes are thoroughly discussed. These antidotal effects principally include oxime interactions with muscarinic and nicotinic receptors.

  20. Intracellular Aß triggers neuron loss in the cholinergic system of the APP/PS1KI mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Ditte Z; Bayer, Thomas A; Wirths, Oliver

    2010-07-01

    Loss of cholinergic neurons in the Nucleus Basalis of Meynert in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients was one of the first discoveries of neuron loss in AD. Despite an intense focus on the cholinergic system in AD, the reason for this cholinergic neuron loss is yet unknown. In the present study we examined Abeta-induced pathology and neuron loss in the cholinergic system of the bigenic APP/PS1KI mouse model. Expression of the APP transgene was found in ChAT-positive neurons of motor nuclei accompanied by robust intracellular Abeta accumulation, whereas no APP expressing neurons and thus no intracellular Abeta accumulation were found in neither the forebrain or pons complexes, nor in the caudate putamen. This expression pattern was used as a model system to study the effect of intra- and extracellular Abeta accumulation on neuron loss in the cholinergic system. Stereological quantification revealed a loss of ChAT-positive neurons in APP/PS1KI mice only in the motor nuclei Mo5 and 7N accumulating intracellular Abeta. This study supports the hypothesis of intracellular Abeta accumulation as an early pathological alteration contributing to cell death in AD.

  1. Contribution of the Cholinergic System to Verbal Memory Performance in Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    PubMed

    Peter, Jessica; Lahr, Jacob; Minkova, Lora; Lauer, Eliza; Grothe, Michel J; Teipel, Stefan; Köstering, Lena; Kaller, Christoph P; Heimbach, Bernhard; Hüll, Michael; Normann, Claus; Nissen, Christoph; Reis, Janine; Klöppel, Stefan

    2016-06-18

    Acetylcholine is critically involved in modulating learning and memory function, which both decline in neurodegeneration. It remains unclear to what extent structural and functional changes in the cholinergic system contribute to episodic memory dysfunction in mild cognitive impairment (MCI), in addition to hippocampal degeneration. A better understanding is critical, given that the cholinergic system is the main target of current symptomatic treatment in mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease. We simultaneously assessed the structural and functional integrity of the cholinergic system in 20 patients with MCI and 20 matched healthy controls and examined their effect on verbal episodic memory via multivariate regression analyses. Mediating effects of either cholinergic function or hippocampal volume on the relationship between cholinergic structure and episodic memory were computed. In MCI, a less intact structure and function of the cholinergic system was found. A smaller cholinergic structure was significantly correlated with a functionally more active cholinergic system in patients, but not in controls. This association was not modulated by age or disease severity, arguing against compensational processes. Further analyses indicated that neither functional nor structural changes in the cholinergic system influence verbal episodic memory at the MCI stage. In fact, those associations were fully mediated by hippocampal volume. Although the cholinergic system is structurally and functionally altered in MCI, episodic memory dysfunction results primarily from hippocampal neurodegeneration, which may explain the inefficiency of cholinergic treatment at this disease stage.

  2. Attention and the Cholinergic System: Relevance to Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Lustig, Cindy; Sarter, Martin

    Traditional methods of drug discovery often rely on a unidirectional, "bottom-up" approach: A search for molecular compounds that target a particular neurobiological substrate (e.g., a receptor type), the refinement of those compounds, testing in animal models using high-throughput behavioral screening methods, and then human testing for safety and effectiveness. Many attempts have found the "effectiveness" criterion to be a major stumbling block, and we and others have suggested that success may be improved by an alternative approach that considers the neural circuits mediating the effects of genetic and molecular manipulations on behavior and cognition. We describe our efforts to understand the cholinergic system's role in attention using parallel approaches to test main hypotheses in both rodents and humans as well as generating converging evidence using methods and levels of analysis tailored to each species. The close back-and-forth between these methods has enhanced our understanding of the cholinergic system's role in attention both "bottom-up" and "top-down"-that is, the basic neuroscience identifies potential neuronal circuit-based mechanisms of clinical symptoms, and the patient and genetic populations serve as natural experiments to test and refine hypotheses about its contribution to specific processes. Together, these studies have identified (at least) two major and potentially independent contributions of the cholinergic system to attention: a neuromodulatory component that influences cognitive control in response to challenges from distractors that either make detection more difficult or draw attention away from the distractor, and a phasic or transient cholinergic signal that instigates a shift from ongoing behavior and the activation of cue-associated response. Right prefrontal cortex appears to play a particularly important role in the neuromodulatory component integrating motivational and cognitive influences for top-down control across

  3. The cholinergic system, sigma-1 receptors and cognition.

    PubMed

    van Waarde, Aren; Ramakrishnan, Nisha K; Rybczynska, Anna A; Elsinga, Philip H; Ishiwata, Kiichi; Nijholt, Ingrid M; Luiten, Paul G M; Dierckx, Rudi A

    2011-08-10

    This article provides an overview of present knowledge regarding the relationship between the cholinergic system and sigma-1 receptors, and discusses potential applications of sigma-1 receptor agonists in the treatment of memory deficits and cognitive disorders. Sigma-1 receptors, initially considered as a subtype of the opioid family, are unique ligand-regulated molecular chaperones in the endoplasmatic reticulum playing a modulatory role in intracellular calcium signaling and in the activity of several neurotransmitter systems, particularly the cholinergic and glutamatergic pathways. Several central nervous system (CNS) drugs show high to moderate affinities for sigma-1 receptors, including acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (donepezil), antipsychotics (haloperidol, rimcazole), selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (fluvoxamine, sertraline) and monoamine oxidase inhibitors (clorgyline). These compounds can influence cognitive functions both via their primary targets and by activating sigma-1 receptors in the CNS. Sigma-1 agonists show powerful anti-amnesic and neuroprotective effects in a large variety of animal models of cognitive dysfunction involving, among others (i) pharmacologic target blockade (with muscarinic or NMDA receptor antagonists or p-chloroamphetamine); (ii) selective lesioning of cholinergic neurons; (iii) CNS administration of β-amyloid peptides; (iv) aging-induced memory loss, both in normal and senescent-accelerated rodents; (v) neurodegeneration induced by toxic compounds (CO, trimethyltin, cocaine), and (vi) prenatal restraint stress.

  4. Synaptic mechanisms underlying cholinergic control of thalamic reticular nucleus neurons

    PubMed Central

    Beierlein, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Neuronal networks of the thalamus are the target of extensive cholinergic projections from the basal forebrain and the brainstem. Activation of these afferents can regulate neuronal excitability, transmitter release, and firing patterns in thalamic networks, thereby altering the flow of sensory information during distinct behavioural states. However, cholinergic regulation in the thalamus has been primarily examined by using receptor agonist and antagonist, which has precluded a detailed understanding of the spatiotemporal dynamics that govern cholinergic signalling under physiological conditions. This review summarizes recent studies on cholinergic synaptic transmission in the thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN), a brain structure intimately involved in the control of sensory processing and the generation of rhythmic activity in the thalamocortical system. This work has shown that acetylcholine (ACh) released from individual axons can rapidly and reliably activate both pre- and postsynaptic cholinergic receptors, thereby controlling TRN neuronal activity with high spatiotemporal precision. PMID:24973413

  5. Alterations in Cholinergic Pathways and Therapeutic Strategies Targeting Cholinergic System after Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Samuel S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Traumatic brain injury (TBI) results in varying degrees of disability in a significant number of persons annually. The mechanisms of cognitive dysfunction after TBI have been explored in both animal models and human clinical studies for decades. Dopaminergic, serotonergic, and noradrenergic dysfunction has been described in many previous reports. In addition, cholinergic dysfunction has also been a familiar topic among TBI researchers for many years. Although pharmacological agents that modulate cholinergic neurotransmission have been used with varying degrees of success in previous studies, improving their function and maximizing cognitive recovery is an ongoing process. In this article, we review the previous findings on the biological mechanism of cholinergic dysfunction after TBI. In addition, we describe studies that use both older agents and newly developed agents as candidates for targeting cholinergic neurotransmission in future studies. PMID:25646580

  6. Characterization of Channelrhodopsin and Archaerhodopsin in Cholinergic Neurons of Cre-Lox Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hedrick, Tristan; Danskin, Bethanny; Larsen, Rylan S.; Ollerenshaw, Doug; Groblewski, Peter; Valley, Matthew; Olsen, Shawn; Waters, Jack

    2016-01-01

    The study of cholinergic signaling in the mammalian CNS has been greatly facilitated by the advent of mouse lines that permit the expression of reporter proteins, such as opsins, in cholinergic neurons. However, the expression of opsins could potentially perturb the physiology of opsin-expressing cholinergic neurons or mouse behavior. Indeed, the published literature includes examples of cellular and behavioral perturbations in preparations designed to drive expression of opsins in cholinergic neurons. Here we investigate expression of opsins, cellular physiology of cholinergic neurons and behavior in two mouse lines, in which channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) and archaerhodopsin (Arch) are expressed in cholinergic neurons using the Cre-lox system. The two mouse lines were generated by crossing ChAT-Cre mice with Cre-dependent reporter lines Ai32(ChR2-YFP) and Ai35(Arch-GFP). In most mice from these crosses, we observed expression of ChR2 and Arch in only cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain and in other putative cholinergic neurons in the forebrain. In small numbers of mice, off-target expression occurred, in which fluorescence did not appear limited to cholinergic neurons. Whole-cell recordings from fluorescently-labeled basal forebrain neurons revealed that both proteins were functional, driving depolarization (ChR2) or hyperpolarization (Arch) upon illumination, with little effect on passive membrane properties, spiking pattern or spike waveform. Finally, performance on a behavioral discrimination task was comparable to that of wild-type mice. Our results indicate that ChAT-Cre x reporter line crosses provide a simple, effective resource for driving indicator and opsin expression in cholinergic neurons with few adverse consequences and are therefore an valuable resource for studying the cholinergic system. PMID:27243816

  7. Co-expression of alpha7 and beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit mRNAs within rat brain cholinergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Azam, L; Winzer-Serhan, U; Leslie, F M

    2003-01-01

    Nicotine enhances cognitive and attentional processes through stimulation of the basal forebrain cholinergic system. Although muscarinic cholinergic autoreceptors have been well characterized, pharmacological characterization of nicotinic autoreceptors has proven more difficult. The present study used double-labeling in situ hybridization to determine expression of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunit mRNAs within basal forebrain cholinergic neurons in order to gain information about possible nAChR autoreceptor properties. Cholinergic cells of the mesopontine tegmentum and striatal interneurons were also examined, as were septohippocampal GABAergic neurons that interact with cholinergic neurons to regulate hippocampal activity. alpha7 and beta2 nAChR mRNAs were found to be co-expressed in almost all cholinergic cells and in the majority of GABAergic neurons examined. alpha4 nAChR mRNA expression was restricted to cholinergic cells of the nucleus basalis magnocellularis, and to non-cholinergic cells of the medial septum and mesopontine tegmentum. These data suggest possible regional differences in the pharmacological properties of nicotinic autoreceptors on cholinergic cells. Whereas most cholinergic cells express rapidly desensitizing alpha7 homomers or alpha7beta2 heteromers, cortical projection neurons may also express a pharmacologically distinct alpha4beta2 nAChR subtype. There may also be differential nAChR regulation of cholinergic and non-cholinergic cells within the mesopontine tegmentum that are implicated in acquisition of nicotine self-administration.

  8. Clinical Markers for Identifying Cholinergic Deficits in Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Martijn L.T.M.; Bohnen, Nicolaas I.; Kotagal, Vikas; Scott, Peter J.H.; Koeppe, Robert A.; Frey, Kirk A.; Albin, Roger L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Cholinergic projection systems degeneration is associated with dopamine non-responsive features of Parkinson's disease (PD). Cholinergic deficits are variable in non-demented PD. Identification of cholinergic deficits in PD may help with selection of suitable patients for targeted cholinergic drug treatment in PD. The objective of this retrospective multivariate predictor analysis study was to identify clinical markers indicative of cholinergic deficits in PD patients, as assessed by acetylcholinesterase ([11C]PMP) positron emission tomography. Methods One hundred thirty-seven PD patients (34 female) participated; median modified Hoehn and Yahr score was 2.5 (range 1–4), average age of 65.6 ± 7.4 years, and average duration of motor disease symptoms of 6.0 ± 4.2 years. Subjects were dichotomized as “normocholinergic” or “hypocholinergic” based on a 5th percentile cutoff from normal for the basal forebrain-cortical and pedunculopontine nucleus-thalamic cholinergic projection systems. Previously identified clinical indices of cholinergic denervation were used for statistical prediction of cholinergic deficits. Logistic regression determined which risk factors predicted cholinergic deficits. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were determined for the (combinations of) significant predictor variables. Results There were 49 (35.8%) hypocholinergic PD subjects. The combination of RBD symptoms and fall history showed highest diagnostic accuracy (81.1%) for predicting combined thalamic and cortical cholinergic deficits. A combined assessment of 8.5 meter walk time and lower score on the Montreal cognitive assessment scale provided diagnostic accuracy of 80.7 % for predicting isolated cortical cholinergic denervation. Conclusion Assessment of clinical indices of cholinergic denervation may be useful for identifying suitable subjects for trials of targeted cholinergic drug treatments in PD. PMID:25393613

  9. Cholinergic Modulation of Visual Attention and Working Memory: Dissociable Effects of Basal Forebrain 192-IgG-Saporin Lesions and Intraprefrontal Infusions of Scopolamine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chudasama, Yogita; Dalley, Jeffrey W.; Nathwani, Falgyni; Bouger, Pascale; Robbins, Trevor W.

    2004-01-01

    Two experiments examined the effects of reductions in cortical cholinergic function on performance of a novel task that allowed for the simultaneous assessment of attention to a visual stimulus and memory for that stimulus over a variable delay within the same test session. In the first experiment, infusions of the muscarinic receptor antagonist…

  10. Unique Contributions of Distinct Cholinergic Projections to Motor Cortical Plasticity and Learning

    PubMed Central

    Kulczycki, M.; Tuszynski, M.H.

    2010-01-01

    The cholinergic basal forebrain projects throughout the neocortex, exerting a critical role in modulating plasticity associated with normal learning. Cholinergic modulation of cortical plasticity could arise from 3 distinct mechanisms by 1) “direct” modulation via cholinergic inputs to regions undergoing plasticity, 2) “indirect” modulation via cholinergic projections to anterior, prefrontal attentional systems, or 3) modulating more global aspects of processing via distributed inputs throughout the cortex. To segregate these potential mechanisms, we investigated cholinergic-dependent reorganization of cortical motor representations in rats undergoing skilled motor learning. Behavioral and electrophysiological consequences of depleting cholinergic inputs to either motor cortex, prefrontal cortex, or globally, were compared. We find that local depletion of cholinergic afferents to motor cortex significantly disrupts map plasticity and skilled motor behavior, whereas prefrontal cholinergic depletion has no effect on these measures. Global cholinergic depletion perturbs map plasticity comparable with motor cortex depletions but results in significantly greater impairments in skilled motor acquisition. These findings indicate that local cholinergic activation within motor cortex, as opposed to indirect regulation of prefrontal systems, modulate cortical map plasticity and motor learning. More globally acting cholinergic mechanisms provide additional support for the acquisition of skilled motor behaviors, beyond those associated with cortical map reorganization. PMID:20181623

  11. Continuous estrone treatment impairs spatial memory and does not impact number of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons in the surgically menopausal middle-aged rat.

    PubMed

    Engler-Chiurazzi, Elizabeth B; Talboom, Joshua S; Braden, B Blair; Tsang, Candy W S; Mennenga, Sarah; Andrews, Madeline; Demers, Laurence M; Bimonte-Nelson, Heather A

    2012-06-01

    CEE (conjugated equine estrogens) is the most widely prescribed estrogen-only menopausal hormone therapy in the United States, and is comprised of over 50% estrone (E1) sulfate. Following CEE administration, E1 is the principal circulating estrogen. However, the cognitive and neurobiological effects of E1 in a middle-aged rodent model have not yet been evaluated. We assessed cognitive effects of continuous E1 treatment in middle-aged surgically menopausal rats using a maze battery. We also quantified number of choline acetyltransferase-immunoreactive (ChAT-IR) neurons in distinct basal forebrain regions known in earlier studies in to be impacted by the most potent naturally-circulating estrogen in rodents and women, 17β-estradiol (17β-E2), as well as CEE. On the spatial working memory delayed-match-to-sample water maze, the highest E1 dose impaired memory performance during acquisition and after delay challenge. E1 did not impact ChAT-IR neuron number in the medial septum (MS) or horizontal/vertical diagonal bands. In a comparison study, 17β-E2 increased MS ChAT-IR neuron number. Findings indicate that E1 negatively impacts spatial working memory and memory retention, and does not increase ChAT-IR neuron number in basal forebrain, as does 17β-E2. Thus, data from prior studies suggest that 17β-E2 and CEE can enhance cognition and increase number of ChAT-IR basal forebrain neurons, while here we show that E1 does not induce these effects. Findings from preclinical basic science studies can inform the design of specific combinations of estrogens that could be beneficial to the brain and cognition. Accumulating data suggest that E1 is not likely to be among these key beneficial estrogens. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Aging elevates metabolic gene expression in brain cholinergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Baskerville, Karen A; Kent, Caroline; Personett, David; Lai, Weil R; Park, Peter J; Coleman, Paul; McKinney, Michael

    2008-12-01

    The basal forebrain (BF) cholinergic system is selectively vulnerable in human brain diseases, while the cholinergic groups in the upper pons of the brainstem (BS) resist neurodegeneration. Cholinergic neurons (200 per region per animal) were laser-microdissected from five young (8 months) and five aged (24 months) F344 rats from the BF and the BS pontine lateral dorsal tegmental/pedunculopontine nuclei (LDTN/PPN) and their expression profiles were obtained. The bioinformatics program SigPathway was used to identify gene groups and pathways that were selectively affected by aging. In the BF cholinergic system, aging most significantly altered genes involved with a variety of metabolic functions. In contrast, BS cholinergic neuronal age effects included gene groupings related to neuronal plasticity and a broad range of normal cellular functions. Transcription factor GA-binding protein alpha (GABPalpha), which controls expression of nuclear genes encoding mitochondrial proteins, was more strongly upregulated in the BF cholinergic neurons (+107%) than in the BS cholinergic population (+40%). The results suggest that aging elicits elevates metabolic activity in cholinergic populations and that this occurs to a much greater degree in the BF group than in the BS group.

  13. Low-level microwave irradiation and central cholinergic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, H.; Carino, M.A.; Horita, A.; Guy, A.W. )

    1989-05-01

    Our previous research showed that 45 min of exposure to low-level, pulsed microwaves (2450-MHz, 2-microseconds pulses, 500 pps, whole-body average specific absorption rate 0.6 W/kg) decreased sodium-dependent high-affinity choline uptake in the frontal cortex and hippocampus of the rat. The effects of microwaves on central cholinergic systems were further investigated in this study. Increases in choline uptake activity in the frontal cortex, hippocampus, and hypothalamus were observed after 20 min of acute microwave exposure, and tolerance to the effect of microwaves developed in the hypothalamus, but not in the frontal cortex and hippocampus, of rats subjected to ten daily 20-min exposure sessions. Furthermore, the effects of acute microwave irradiation on central choline uptake could be blocked by pretreating the animals before exposure with the narcotic antagonist naltrexone. In another series of experiments, rats were exposed to microwaves in ten daily sessions of either 20 or 45 min, and muscarinic cholinergic receptors in different regions of the brain were studied by 3H-QNB binding assay. Decreases in concentration of receptors occurred in the frontal cortex and hippocampus of rats subjected to ten 20-min microwave exposure sessions, whereas increase in receptor concentration occurred in the hippocampus of animals exposed to ten 45-min sessions. This study also investigated the effects of microwave exposure on learning in the radial-arm maze. Rats were trained in the maze to obtain food reinforcements immediately after 20 or 45 min of microwave exposure.

  14. A cellular and regulatory map of the cholinergic nervous system of C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Laura; Kratsios, Paschalis; Serrano-Saiz, Esther; Sheftel, Hila; Mayo, Avi E; Hall, David H; White, John G; LeBoeuf, Brigitte; Garcia, L Rene; Alon, Uri; Hobert, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Nervous system maps are of critical importance for understanding how nervous systems develop and function. We systematically map here all cholinergic neuron types in the male and hermaphrodite C. elegans nervous system. We find that acetylcholine (ACh) is the most broadly used neurotransmitter and we analyze its usage relative to other neurotransmitters within the context of the entire connectome and within specific network motifs embedded in the connectome. We reveal several dynamic aspects of cholinergic neurotransmitter identity, including a sexually dimorphic glutamatergic to cholinergic neurotransmitter switch in a sex-shared interneuron. An expression pattern analysis of ACh-gated anion channels furthermore suggests that ACh may also operate very broadly as an inhibitory neurotransmitter. As a first application of this comprehensive neurotransmitter map, we identify transcriptional regulatory mechanisms that control cholinergic neurotransmitter identity and cholinergic circuit assembly. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12432.001 PMID:26705699

  15. The place of choline acetyltransferase activity measurement in the "cholinergic hypothesis" of neurodegenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    Contestabile, Antonio; Ciani, Elisabetta; Contestabile, Andrea

    2008-02-01

    The so-called "cholinergic hypothesis" assumes that degenerative dysfunction of the cholinergic system originating in the basal forebrain and innervating several cortical regions and the hippocampus, is related to memory impairment and neurodegeneration found in several forms of dementia and in brain aging. Biochemical methods measuring the activity of the key enzyme for acetylcholine synthesis, choline acetyltransferase, have been used for many years as a reliable marker of the integrity or the damage of the cholinergic pathways. Stereologic counting of the basal forebrain cholinergic cell bodies, has been additionally used to assess neurodegenerative changes of the forebrain cholinergic system. While initially believed to mark relatively early stages of disease, cholinergic dysfunction is at present considered to occur in advanced dementia of Alzheimer's type, while its involvement in mild and prodromal stages of the disease has been questioned. The issue is relevant to better understand the neuropathological basis of the diseases, but it is also of primary importance for therapy. During the last few years, indeed, cholinergic replacement therapies, mainly based on the use of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors to increase synaptic availability of acetylcholine, have been exploited on the assumption that they could ameliorate the progression of the dementia from its initial stages. In the present paper, we review data from human studies, as well as from animal models of Alzheimer's and Down's diseases, focusing on different ways to evaluate cholinergic dysfunction, also in relation to the time point at which these dysfunctions can be demonstrated, and on some discrepancy arising from the use of different methodological approaches. The reviewed literature, as well as some recent data from our laboratories on a mouse model of Down's syndrome, stress the importance of performing biochemical evaluation of choline acetyltransferase activity to assess cholinergic

  16. A non-neuronal cholinergic system of the ovarian follicle.

    PubMed

    Mayerhofer, Artur; Kunz, Lars

    2005-11-01

    We have recently provided evidence that acetylcholine (ACh) is a non-neuronal intraovarian signalling molecule, produced by granulosa cells (GCs) and which appears to act as signalling factor in the growing follicle. The ACh biosynthesis enzyme, choline-acetyltransferase (ChAT), is expressed only in growing, antral follicles in rodent and primate species. This restriction to follicle stages, which depend on the activity of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), may suggest that ACh could be an as yet unknown local mediator of FSH actions. In respect of ACh actions, our ongoing studies indicate that they may be exerted via different muscarinic ACh-receptors (MR) in GCs, but also in oocytes in an overlapping fashion. To elucidate functional details we have studied cultured human GCs isolated from preovulatory follicles. Activation of MRs increases intracellular calcium and, e.g., induces the master transcription factor egr-1, implying involvement in cell differentiation events. ACh agonists also activate a calcium-activated potassium channel (BK(Ca)) resulting in membrane hyperpolarization, which allows activation of other voltage-dependent ion channels. Experimental modulation of the chain of these events causes altered steroidogenesis, implying a crucial role of ACh in endocrine functions. Further ACh actions include phosphorylation of the gap junction molecule connexin 43 and disruption of intercellular communication between GCs. This may allow strongly coupled GCs to escape from the functional syncytium of the follicle in order to initiate proliferation. Proliferation is indeed strongly increased in cultured human GCs when treated with cholinergic agents. The repertoire of ACh/MR actions is far from being fully appreciated and may include epigenetic regulation in healthy growing follicles. Although many aspects of the ovarian cholinergic system, including, for instance, influence of follicular ACh on the MR-bearing oocyte, remain to be examined. The present data

  17. Estrogen-Cholinergic Interactions: Implications for Cognitive Aging

    PubMed Central

    Newhouse, Paul; Dumas, Julie

    2015-01-01

    While many studies in humans have investigated the effects of estrogen and hormone therapy on cognition, potential neurobiological correlates of these effects have been less well studied. An important site of action for estrogen in the brain is the cholinergic system. Several decades of research support the critical role of CNS cholinergic systems in cognition in humans, particularly in learning and memory formation and attention. In humans, the cholinergic system has been implicated in many aspects of cognition including the partitioning of attentional resources, working memory, inhibition of irrelevant information, and improved performance on effort-demanding tasks. Studies support the hypothesis that estradiol helps to maintain aspects of attention and verbal and visual memory. Such cognitive domains are exactly those modulated by cholinergic systems and extensive basic and preclinical work over the past several decades has clearly shown that basal forebrain cholinergic systems are dependent on estradiol support for adequate functioning. This paper will review recent human studies from our laboratories and others that have extended preclinical research examining estrogen-cholinergic interactions to humans. Studies examined include estradiol and cholinergic antagonist reversal studies in normal older women, examinations of the neural representations of estrogen-cholinergic interactions using functional brain imaging, and studies of the ability of selective estrogen receptor modulators such as tamoxifen to interact with cholinergic-mediated cognitive performance. We also discuss the implications of these studies for the underlying hypotheses of cholinergic-estrogen interactions and cognitive aging, and indications for prophylactic and therapeutic potential that may exploit these effects. PMID:26187712

  18. Cortical cholinergic signaling controls the detection of cues

    PubMed Central

    Gritton, Howard J.; Howe, William M.; Mallory, Caitlin S.; Hetrick, Vaughn L.; Berke, Joshua D.; Sarter, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The cortical cholinergic input system has been described as a neuromodulator system that influences broadly defined behavioral and brain states. The discovery of phasic, trial-based increases in extracellular choline (transients), resulting from the hydrolysis of newly released acetylcholine (ACh), in the cortex of animals reporting the presence of cues suggests that ACh may have a more specialized role in cognitive processes. Here we expressed channelrhodopsin or halorhodopsin in basal forebrain cholinergic neurons of mice with optic fibers directed into this region and prefrontal cortex. Cholinergic transients, evoked in accordance with photostimulation parameters determined in vivo, were generated in mice performing a task necessitating the reporting of cue and noncue events. Generating cholinergic transients in conjunction with cues enhanced cue detection rates. Moreover, generating transients in noncued trials, where cholinergic transients normally are not observed, increased the number of invalid claims for cues. Enhancing hits and generating false alarms both scaled with stimulation intensity. Suppression of endogenous cholinergic activity during cued trials reduced hit rates. Cholinergic transients may be essential for synchronizing cortical neuronal output driven by salient cues and executing cue-guided responses. PMID:26787867

  19. Orexin A-induced enhancement of attentional processing in rats: role of basal forebrain neurons

    PubMed Central

    Zajo, Kristin N.; Fadel, Jim R.; Burk, Joshua A.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Orexins are neuropeptides released in multiple brain regions from neurons that originate within the lateral hypothalamus and contiguous perfornical area. The basal forebrain, a structure implicated in attentional processing, receives orexinergic inputs. Our previous work demonstrated that administration of an orexin-1 receptor antagonist, SB-334867, systemically or via infusion directly into the basal forebrain, can disrupt performance in a task that places explicit demands on attentional processing. Objectives Given that the orexin-1 receptor binds orexin A with high affinity, we tested whether orexin A could enhance attention in rats. Methods Attentional performance was assessed using a task that required discrimination of variable duration visual signals from trials when no signal was presented. We also tested whether infusions of orexin A into the lateral ventricle could attenuate deficits following lesions of medial prefrontal cortical cholinergic projections that arise from the basal forebrain. Results Infusions of orexin A into the basal forebrain attenuated distracter-induced decreases in attentional performance. Orexin A attenuated deficits in lesioned animals when a visual distracter was presented. Conclusion The present results support the view that orexin A can enhance attentional performance via actions in the basal forebrain and may be beneficial for some conditions characterized by attentional dysfunction due to disruption of cortical cholinergic inputs. PMID:26534765

  20. The electromotor system of Torpedo. A model cholinergic system.

    PubMed

    Whittaker, V P

    1977-12-01

    The electric organ of Torpedo, besides providing abundant amounts of cholinoceptive post-synaptic membrane for the isolation of the acetylcholine receptor protein, is a rich source of cholinergic nerve terminals. Using perfused, innervated tissue blocks from which synaptic vesicles in different functional states can be isolated, much information can be obtained about synaptic-vesicle dynamics. So far this is consistent with the view that the synaptic vesicles are the source of transmitter released on stimulation and that uptake of newly synthesized transmitter by the vesicles is dependent on their having discharged their previous charge of transmitter in at least one cycle of exo- and endocytosis. Studies of the protein composition of the vesicle membrane, especially when combined with similar information about the external presynaptic membrane, purified samples of which are now available from synaptosome (T-sac) preparations, promise to throw new light on the molecular mechanism underlying vesicle exo-/endocytosis.

  1. Cholinergic systems are essential for late-stage maturation and refinement of motor cortical circuits

    PubMed Central

    Ramanathan, Dhakshin S.; Conner, James M.; Anilkumar, Arjun A.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies reported that early postnatal cholinergic lesions severely perturb early cortical development, impairing neuronal cortical migration and the formation of cortical dendrites and synapses. These severe effects of early postnatal cholinergic lesions preclude our ability to understand the contribution of cholinergic systems to the later-stage maturation of topographic cortical representations. To study cholinergic mechanisms contributing to the later maturation of motor cortical circuits, we first characterized the temporal course of cortical motor map development and maturation in rats. In this study, we focused our attention on the maturation of cortical motor representations after postnatal day 25 (PND 25), a time after neuronal migration has been accomplished and cortical volume has reached adult size. We found significant maturation of cortical motor representations after this time, including both an expansion of forelimb representations in motor cortex and a shift from proximal to distal forelimb representations to an extent unexplainable by simple volume enlargement of the neocortex. Specific cholinergic lesions placed at PND 24 impaired enlargement of distal forelimb representations in particular and markedly reduced the ability to learn skilled motor tasks as adults. These results identify a novel and essential role for cholinergic systems in the late refinement and maturation of cortical circuits. Dysfunctions in this system may constitute a mechanism of late-onset neurodevelopmental disorders such as Rett syndrome and schizophrenia. PMID:25505106

  2. Decreased subcortical cholinergic arousal in focal seizures

    PubMed Central

    Motelow, Joshua E.; Li, Wei; Zhan, Qiong; Mishra, Asht M.; Sachdev, Robert N. S.; Liu, Geoffrey; Gummadavelli, Abhijeet; Zayyad, Zaina; Lee, Hyun Seung; Chu, Victoria; Andrews, John P.; Englot, Dario J.; Herman, Peter; Sanganahalli, Basavaraju G.; Hyder, Fahmeed; Blumenfeld, Hal

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Impaired consciousness in temporal lobe seizures has a major negative impact on quality of life. The prevailing view holds that this disorder impairs consciousness by seizure spread to the bilateral temporal lobes. We propose instead that seizures invade subcortical regions and depress arousal, causing impairment through decreases rather than through increases in activity. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging in a rodent model, we found increased activity in regions known to depress cortical function including lateral septum and anterior hypothalamus. Importantly, we found suppression of intralaminar thalamic and brainstem arousal systems and suppression of the cortex. At a cellular level, we found reduced firing of identified cholinergic neurons in the brainstem pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus and basal forebrain. Finally, we used enzyme-based amperometry to demonstrate reduced cholinergic neurotransmission in both cortex and thalamus. Decreased subcortical arousal is a novel mechanism for loss of consciousness in focal temporal lobe seizures. PMID:25654258

  3. The effects of periaqueductally injected transmitter antagonists on forebrain-elicited vocalization in the squirrel monkey.

    PubMed

    Jürgens, U; Lu, C L

    1993-06-01

    In 15 squirrel monkeys, vocalization-eliciting electrodes were implanted into the following forebrain structures: anterior cingulate cortex, genu of the internal capsule, amygdala, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, hypothalamus, midline thalamus, inferior thalamic peduncle and periventricular grey. Then, injections of 29 transmitter antagonists were made into the midbrain periaqueductal grey (PAG) and their effects tested on the elicitability of vocalization from the forebrain. Vocalization could be blocked completely with glutamate antagonists. NMDA receptor antagonists as well as kainate/quisqualate receptor antagonists were effective. Facilitatory effects, i.e. a decrease in threshold of forebrain-elicited vocalization, was obtained with GABA-A receptor, glycine and opioid antagonists. The facilitatory effect of the opioid antagonist naloxone was limited to vocalizations expressing aversive emotional states. GABA-A receptor antagonists not only facilitated forebrain-induced vocalization but also produced vocalization themselves, i.e. without concomitant forebrain stimulation. No effects were obtained with antagonists of muscarinic and nicotinic receptors, with the GABA-B receptor antagonist phaclofen and antagonists of the monoamines dopamine, noradrenaline, adrenaline, serotonin and histamine. It is concluded that the PAG represents a crucial relay station of the vocalization-controlling system. In this station, transmission of vocalization-relevant information depends upon the activation of glutamatergic synapses. Inhibitory control is exerted by GABA, glycine and endogenous opioids. Acetylcholine, dopamine, noradrenaline, adrenaline, serotonin and histamine may play a transient modulatory role; forebrain-induced vocalization, however, does not depend upon the cholinergic or monoaminergic activation of PAG neurons.

  4. Orexin Receptor Activation Generates Gamma Band Input to Cholinergic and Serotonergic Arousal System Neurons and Drives an Intrinsic Ca(2+)-Dependent Resonance in LDT and PPT Cholinergic Neurons.

    PubMed

    Ishibashi, Masaru; Gumenchuk, Iryna; Kang, Bryan; Steger, Catherine; Lynn, Elizabeth; Molina, Nancy E; Eisenberg, Leonard M; Leonard, Christopher S

    2015-01-01

    A hallmark of the waking state is a shift in EEG power to higher frequencies with epochs of synchronized intracortical gamma activity (30-60 Hz) - a process associated with high-level cognitive functions. The ascending arousal system, including cholinergic laterodorsal (LDT) and pedunculopontine (PPT) tegmental neurons and serotonergic dorsal raphe (DR) neurons, promotes this state. Recently, this system has been proposed as a gamma wave generator, in part, because some neurons produce high-threshold, Ca(2+)-dependent oscillations at gamma frequencies. However, it is not known whether arousal-related inputs to these neurons generate such oscillations, or whether such oscillations are ever transmitted to neuronal targets. Since key arousal input arises from hypothalamic orexin (hypocretin) neurons, we investigated whether the unusually noisy, depolarizing orexin current could provide significant gamma input to cholinergic and serotonergic neurons, and whether such input could drive Ca(2+)-dependent oscillations. Whole-cell recordings in brain slices were obtained from mice expressing Cre-induced fluorescence in cholinergic LDT and PPT, and serotonergic DR neurons. After first quantifying reporter expression accuracy in cholinergic and serotonergic neurons, we found that the orexin current produced significant high frequency, including gamma, input to both cholinergic and serotonergic neurons. Then, by using a dynamic clamp, we found that adding a noisy orexin conductance to cholinergic neurons induced a Ca(2+)-dependent resonance that peaked in the theta and alpha frequency range (4-14 Hz) and extended up to 100 Hz. We propose that this orexin current noise and the Ca(2+) dependent resonance work synergistically to boost the encoding of high-frequency synaptic inputs into action potentials and to help ensure cholinergic neurons fire during EEG activation. This activity could reinforce thalamocortical states supporting arousal, REM sleep, and intracortical gamma.

  5. Orexin Receptor Activation Generates Gamma Band Input to Cholinergic and Serotonergic Arousal System Neurons and Drives an Intrinsic Ca2+-Dependent Resonance in LDT and PPT Cholinergic Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Ishibashi, Masaru; Gumenchuk, Iryna; Kang, Bryan; Steger, Catherine; Lynn, Elizabeth; Molina, Nancy E.; Eisenberg, Leonard M.; Leonard, Christopher S.

    2015-01-01

    A hallmark of the waking state is a shift in EEG power to higher frequencies with epochs of synchronized intracortical gamma activity (30–60 Hz) – a process associated with high-level cognitive functions. The ascending arousal system, including cholinergic laterodorsal (LDT) and pedunculopontine (PPT) tegmental neurons and serotonergic dorsal raphe (DR) neurons, promotes this state. Recently, this system has been proposed as a gamma wave generator, in part, because some neurons produce high-threshold, Ca2+-dependent oscillations at gamma frequencies. However, it is not known whether arousal-related inputs to these neurons generate such oscillations, or whether such oscillations are ever transmitted to neuronal targets. Since key arousal input arises from hypothalamic orexin (hypocretin) neurons, we investigated whether the unusually noisy, depolarizing orexin current could provide significant gamma input to cholinergic and serotonergic neurons, and whether such input could drive Ca2+-dependent oscillations. Whole-cell recordings in brain slices were obtained from mice expressing Cre-induced fluorescence in cholinergic LDT and PPT, and serotonergic DR neurons. After first quantifying reporter expression accuracy in cholinergic and serotonergic neurons, we found that the orexin current produced significant high frequency, including gamma, input to both cholinergic and serotonergic neurons. Then, by using a dynamic clamp, we found that adding a noisy orexin conductance to cholinergic neurons induced a Ca2+-dependent resonance that peaked in the theta and alpha frequency range (4–14 Hz) and extended up to 100 Hz. We propose that this orexin current noise and the Ca2+ dependent resonance work synergistically to boost the encoding of high-frequency synaptic inputs into action potentials and to help ensure cholinergic neurons fire during EEG activation. This activity could reinforce thalamocortical states supporting arousal, REM sleep, and intracortical gamma. PMID

  6. The non-neuronal cholinergic system as novel drug target in the airways.

    PubMed

    Pieper, Michael Paul

    2012-11-27

    The parasympathetic nervous system is a key regulator of the human organism involved in the pathophysiology of various disorders through cholinergic mechanisms. In the lungs, acetylcholine (ACh) released by vagal nerve endings stimulates muscarinic receptors thereby increasing airway smooth muscle tone. Contraction of airway smooth muscle cells leads to increased respiratory resistance and dyspnea. An additional branch of the cholinergic system is the non-neuronal cholinergic system expressed in nearly all cell types present in the airways. Activation of this system may contribute to an increased cholinergic tone in the lungs, inducing pathophysiological processes like inflammation, remodeling, mucus hypersecretion and chronic cough. Selective muscarinic receptor antagonists specifically inhibit acetylcholine at the receptor inducing bronchodilation in patients with obstructive airway diseases. This paper reviews preclinical pharmacological research activities on anticholinergics including experimental models of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, COPD. It discloses various options to follow up the non-neuronal cholinergic system as a novel drug target for the treatment of key aspects of obstructive airway diseases, in particular those of a chronic nature.

  7. NKX2-1 Is Required in the Embryonic Septum for Cholinergic System Development, Learning, and Memory.

    PubMed

    Magno, Lorenza; Barry, Caswell; Schmidt-Hieber, Christoph; Theodotou, Polyvios; Häusser, Michael; Kessaris, Nicoletta

    2017-08-15

    The transcription factor NKX2-1 is best known for its role in the specification of subsets of cortical, striatal, and pallidal neurons. We demonstrate through genetic fate mapping and intersectional focal septal deletion that NKX2-1 is selectively required in the embryonic septal neuroepithelium for the development of cholinergic septohippocampal projection neurons and large subsets of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons. In the absence of NKX2-1, these neurons fail to develop, causing alterations in hippocampal theta rhythms and severe deficiencies in learning and memory. Our results demonstrate that learning and memory are dependent on NKX2-1 function in the embryonic septum and suggest that cognitive deficiencies that are sometimes associated with pathogenic mutations in NKX2-1 in humans may be a direct consequence of loss of NKX2-1 function. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. On the interaction of drugs with the cholinergic nervous system. II. Cross-tolerance between phencyclidine derivatives and cholinergic drugs.

    PubMed

    Pinchasi, I; Maayani, S; Egozi, Y; Sokolovsky, M

    1978-01-31

    A symmetrical cross-tolerance was found between two phencyclidine derivatives--phencyclidine and cyclohexamine--and also between two cholinergic drugs--physostigmine and oxotremorine. On the other hand, mice rendered tolerant to the phencyclidine derivatives showed cross-tolerance to these cholinergic drugs, but no cross-tolerance was observed in the opposite direction. The applicability of such experiments to the elucidation of neurochemical interactions of centrally acting drugs is discussed.

  9. Induction of choline acetyltransferase activity in cholinergic neurons by stolonidiol: structure-activity relationship.

    PubMed

    Yabe, T; Yamada, H; Shimomura, M; Miyaoka, H; Yamada, Y

    2000-04-01

    The effect of stolonidiol (1), a bioactive marine diterpenoid from the Japanese soft coral Clavularia sp., on choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) activity was examined using cultured cholinergic neurons. Stolonidiol (1) showed potent ChAT inducible activity in primary cultured basal forebrain cells and clonal septal SN49 cells, suggesting that it may act as a potent neurotrophic factor-like agent on the cholinergic nervous system. Further expansion of the structure-activity relationship to include stolonidiol (1) and its derivatives demonstrated that the exo-methylene group and the epoxide group are essential for ChAT-inducing activity. Stolonidiol (1) showed the highest activity among the test samples.

  10. The interface between cholinergic pathways and the immune system and its relevance to arthritis.

    PubMed

    McAllen, Robin M; Cook, Andrew D; Khiew, Hsu Wei; Martelli, Davide; Hamilton, John A

    2015-03-31

    The nervous and immune systems are likely to be interacting in arthritis, with the possible involvement of both neural and non-neural cholinergic transmission. Centrally acting muscarinic agonists, electrical stimulation of the vagus and treatment with nicotinic receptor agonists can all act systemically to reduce inflammation, although the responsible pathways are incompletely understood. While this 'cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway' is widely viewed as a significant pathophysiological mechanism controlling inflammation, the evidence supporting this view is critically reviewed and considered inconclusive; an alternative pathway via sympathetic nerves is implicated. This review also discusses how cholinergic pathways, both neural and non-neural, may impact on inflammation and specifically arthritis. Nicotinic agonists have been reported to reduce the incidence and severity of murine arthritis, albeit an observation we could not confirm, and clinical studies in rheumatoid arthritis have been proposed and/or are underway. While the therapeutic potential of nicotinic agonists and vagal stimulation is clear, we suggest that the 'cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway' should not be uncritically embraced as a significant factor in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis.

  11. Cholinergic vasodilative system in the cerebral cortex: effects of acupuncture and aging.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Sae

    2014-08-01

    This article presents a review of our studies on the cholinergic vasodilative system in the cerebral cortex in relation to the effects of acupuncture and aging. In anesthetized rats, manual acupuncture-like stimulation of the cheek, forepaw, upper arm, and hindpaw increases the cortical cerebral blood flow (CBF). The mechanism for the increased response of CBF due to forepaw stimulation has been found to be a reflex response whose afferents are Groups III and IV somatic afferent fibers and whose efferents are cholinergic fibers that originate in the nucleus basalis of Meynert. Although the cholinergic cortical vasodilation to nucleus basalis of Meynert stimulation at high intensities declines with age, the increased response of CBF induced by natural somatic afferent stimulation, such as an acupuncture-like stimulation of a forepaw, is well maintained even in very old rats (approximately 3 years of age). These findings in anesthetized rats may support the application of acupuncture to elderly people and patients with disturbances in the CBF by activating the intracranial cholinergic vasodilative system.

  12. Effects of one-day reperfusion after transient forebrain ischemia on circulatory system in the rat.

    PubMed

    Kravcukova, Petra; Danielisova, Viera; Nemethova, Miroslava; Burda, Jozef; Gottlieb, Miroslav

    2010-06-01

    Although ischemia/reperfusion injury remains incompletely understood, it appears that reactive oxygen species produced mainly during postischemic recirculation play a critical role. The present study examined the impact of forebrain ischemia and subsequent one-day reperfusion on several blood parameters. We determined glutamate concentration in whole blood, measured Cu/Zn- and Mn-SOD (superoxide dismutase) activity in blood cells as well as plasma, and investigated the prevalence of single and double strand breaks of lymphocyte DNA. The results of our experiment showed that the concentration of glutamic acid in whole blood was increased by about 25%. Antioxidant activity of total SOD and Cu/Zn-SOD was reduced in blood cells and plasma. Mn-SOD activity in blood cells was not affected by ischemic insult and one-day reperfusion, but we detected its significantly lower activity in samples of plasma. We observed a weakly reduced level of double and a significantly elevated level of single strand breaks of lymphocyte DNA. In conclusion, one day of recovery after the ischemic attack failed to return peripheral circulatory system to physiological conditions. Reduced antioxidant capacity in the blood and an elevated level of excitotoxic amino acid glutamate may cause lymphocyte DNA damage, and probably contribute to insufficient postischemic recovery of brain tissue.

  13. Cholinotrophic basal forebrain system alterations in 3xTg-AD transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Sylvia E.; He, Bin; Muhammad, Nadeem; Oh, Kwang-Jin; Fahnestock, Margaret; Ikonomovic, Milos; Mufson, Elliott J.

    2010-01-01

    The cholinotrophic system, which is dependent upon nerve growth factor and its receptors for survival, is selectively vulnerable in Alzheimer's disease (AD). But, virtually nothing is known about how this deficit develops in relation to the hallmark lesions of this disease, amyloid plaques and tau containing neurofibrillary tangles. The vast majority of transgenic models of AD used to evaluate the effect of beta amyloid (Aβ) deposition upon the cholinotrophic system over-express the amyloid precursor protein (APP). However, nothing is known about how this system is affected in triple transgenic (3xTg)-AD mice, an AD animal model displaying Aβ plaque- and tangle-like pathology in the cortex and hippocampus, which receive extensive cholinergic innervation. We performed a detailed morphological and biochemical characterization of the cholinotrophic system in young (2-4 months), middle-aged (13-15 months), and old (18-20 months) 3xTg-AD mice. Cholinergic neuritic swellings increased in number and size with age, and were more conspicuous in the hippocampal-subicular complex in aged female than in 3xTg-AD male mice. Stereological analysis revealed a reduction in choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) positive cells in the medial septum/vertical limb of the diagonal band of Broca in aged 3xTg-AD mice. ChAT enzyme activity levels decreased significantly in the hippocampus of middle-aged 3xTg-AD mice compared to age-matched ntg mice. ProNGF protein levels increased in the cortex of aged 3xTg-AD mice, whereas TrkA protein levels were reduced in a gender-dependent manner in aged mutant mice. In contrast, p75NTR protein cortical levels were stable but increased in the hippocampus of aged 3xTg-AD mice. These data demonstrate that cholinotrophic alterations in 3xTg-AD mice are age and gender dependent and more pronounced in the hippocampus, a structure more severely affected with Aβ plaque pathology. PMID:20937383

  14. Multiple forebrain systems converge on motor neurons innervating the thyroarytenoid muscle

    PubMed Central

    Van Daele, Douglas J.; Cassell, Martin D.

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated the central connections of motor neurons innervating the thyroarytenoid laryngeal muscle that is active in swallowing, respiration and vocalization. In both intact and sympathectomized rats, the pseudorabies virus (PRV) was inoculated into the muscle. After initial infection of laryngomotor neurons in the ipsilateral loose division of the nucleus ambiguous (NA) by 3 days post-inoculation., PRV spread to the ipsilateral compact portion of the NA, the central and intermediate divisions of the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS), the Botzinger complex, and the parvocellular reticular formation by 4 days. Infection was subsequently expanded to include the ipsilateral granular and dysgranular parietal insular cortex, the ipsilateral medial division of the central nucleus of the amygdala, the lateral, paraventricular, ventrolateral and medial preoptic nuclei of the hypothalamus (generally bilaterally), the lateral periaqueductal gray, the A7 and oral and caudal pontine nuclei. At the latest time points sampled post-inoculation (5 days), infected neurons were identified in the ipsilateral agranular insular cortex, the caudal parietal insular cortex, the anterior cingulate cortex, and the contralateral motor cortex. In the amygdala, infection had spread to the lateral central nucleus and the parvocellular portion of the basolateral nucleus. Hypothalamic infection was largely characterized by an increase in the number of infected cells in earlier infected regions though the posterior, dorsomedial, tuberomammillary and mammillary nuclei contained infected cells. Comparison with previous connectional data suggest PRV followed three interconnected systems originating in the forebrain; a bilateral system including the ventral anterior cingulate cortex, periaqueductal gray and ventral respiratory group; an ipsilateral system involving the parietal insular cortex, central nucleus of the amygdala and parvicellular reticular formation, and a minor

  15. Engrailed-2 (En2) deletion produces multiple neurodevelopmental defects in monoamine systems, forebrain structures and neurogenesis and behavior

    PubMed Central

    Genestine, Matthieu; Lin, Lulu; Durens, Madel; Yan, Yan; Jiang, Yiqin; Prem, Smrithi; Bailoor, Kunal; Kelly, Brian; Sonsalla, Patricia K.; Matteson, Paul G.; Silverman, Jill; Crawley, Jacqueline N.; Millonig, James H.; DiCicco-Bloom, Emanuel

    2015-01-01

    Many genes involved in brain development have been associated with human neurodevelopmental disorders, but underlying pathophysiological mechanisms remain undefined. Human genetic and mouse behavioral analyses suggest that ENGRAILED-2 (EN2) contributes to neurodevelopmental disorders, especially autism spectrum disorder. In mouse, En2 exhibits dynamic spatiotemporal expression in embryonic mid-hindbrain regions where monoamine neurons emerge. Considering their importance in neuropsychiatric disorders, we characterized monoamine systems in relation to forebrain neurogenesis in En2-knockout (En2-KO) mice. Transmitter levels of serotonin, dopamine and norepinephrine (NE) were dysregulated from Postnatal day 7 (P7) to P21 in En2-KO, though NE exhibited the greatest abnormalities. While NE levels were reduced ∼35% in forebrain, they were increased 40–75% in hindbrain and cerebellum, and these patterns paralleled changes in locus coeruleus (LC) fiber innervation, respectively. Although En2 promoter was active in Embryonic day 14.5–15.5 LC neurons, expression diminished thereafter and gene deletion did not alter brainstem NE neuron numbers. Significantly, in parallel with reduced NE levels, En2-KO forebrain regions exhibited reduced growth, particularly hippocampus, where P21 dentate gyrus granule neurons were decreased 16%, suggesting abnormal neurogenesis. Indeed, hippocampal neurogenic regions showed increased cell death (+77%) and unexpectedly, increased proliferation. Excess proliferation was restricted to early Sox2/Tbr2 progenitors whereas increased apoptosis occurred in differentiating (Dcx) neuroblasts, accompanied by reduced newborn neuron survival. Abnormal neurogenesis may reflect NE deficits because intra-hippocampal injections of β-adrenergic agonists reversed cell death. These studies suggest that disruption of hindbrain patterning genes can alter monoamine system development and thereby produce forebrain defects that are relevant to human

  16. Engrailed-2 (En2) deletion produces multiple neurodevelopmental defects in monoamine systems, forebrain structures and neurogenesis and behavior.

    PubMed

    Genestine, Matthieu; Lin, Lulu; Durens, Madel; Yan, Yan; Jiang, Yiqin; Prem, Smrithi; Bailoor, Kunal; Kelly, Brian; Sonsalla, Patricia K; Matteson, Paul G; Silverman, Jill; Crawley, Jacqueline N; Millonig, James H; DiCicco-Bloom, Emanuel

    2015-10-15

    Many genes involved in brain development have been associated with human neurodevelopmental disorders, but underlying pathophysiological mechanisms remain undefined. Human genetic and mouse behavioral analyses suggest that ENGRAILED-2 (EN2) contributes to neurodevelopmental disorders, especially autism spectrum disorder. In mouse, En2 exhibits dynamic spatiotemporal expression in embryonic mid-hindbrain regions where monoamine neurons emerge. Considering their importance in neuropsychiatric disorders, we characterized monoamine systems in relation to forebrain neurogenesis in En2-knockout (En2-KO) mice. Transmitter levels of serotonin, dopamine and norepinephrine (NE) were dysregulated from Postnatal day 7 (P7) to P21 in En2-KO, though NE exhibited the greatest abnormalities. While NE levels were reduced ∼35% in forebrain, they were increased 40 -: 75% in hindbrain and cerebellum, and these patterns paralleled changes in locus coeruleus (LC) fiber innervation, respectively. Although En2 promoter was active in Embryonic day 14.5 -: 15.5 LC neurons, expression diminished thereafter and gene deletion did not alter brainstem NE neuron numbers. Significantly, in parallel with reduced NE levels, En2-KO forebrain regions exhibited reduced growth, particularly hippocampus, where P21 dentate gyrus granule neurons were decreased 16%, suggesting abnormal neurogenesis. Indeed, hippocampal neurogenic regions showed increased cell death (+77%) and unexpectedly, increased proliferation. Excess proliferation was restricted to early Sox2/Tbr2 progenitors whereas increased apoptosis occurred in differentiating (Dcx) neuroblasts, accompanied by reduced newborn neuron survival. Abnormal neurogenesis may reflect NE deficits because intra-hippocampal injections of β-adrenergic agonists reversed cell death. These studies suggest that disruption of hindbrain patterning genes can alter monoamine system development and thereby produce forebrain defects that are relevant to human

  17. The Forebrain Song System Mediates Predictive Call Timing in Female and Male Zebra Finches

    PubMed Central

    Benichov, Jonathan I.; Benezra, Sam E.; Vallentin, Daniela; Globerson, Eitan; Long, Michael A.; Tchernichovski, Ofer

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY The dichotomy between vocal learners and non-learners is a fundamental distinction in the study of animal communication. Male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) are vocal learners that acquire a song resembling their tutors’, whereas females can only produce innate calls. The acoustic structure of short calls, produced by both males and females, is not learned. However, these calls can be precisely coordinated across individuals. To examine how birds learn to synchronize their calls, we developed a vocal robot that exchanges calls with a partner bird. Because birds answer the robot with stereotyped latencies, we could program it to disrupt each bird’s responses by producing calls that are likely to coincide with the bird’s. Within minutes, the birds learned to avoid this disruptive masking (jamming) by adjusting the timing of their responses. Notably, females exhibited greater adaptive timing plasticity than males. Further, when challenged with complex rhythms containing jamming elements, birds dynamically adjusted the timing of their calls in anticipation of jamming. Blocking the song system cortical output dramatically reduced the precision of birds’ response timing and abolished their ability to avoid jamming. Surprisingly, we observed this effect in both males and females, indicating that the female song system is functional rather than vestigial. We suggest that descending forebrain projections, including the song-production pathway, function as a general-purpose sensorimotor communication system. In the case of calls, it enables plasticity in vocal timing to facilitate social interactions, whereas in the case of songs, plasticity extends to developmental changes in vocal structure. PMID:26774786

  18. Progression of tau pathology within cholinergic nucleus basalis neurons in chronic traumatic encephalopathy: A Chronic Effects of Neurotrauma Consortium Study

    PubMed Central

    Mufson, Elliott J.; Perez, Sylvia E.; Nadeem, Muhammad; Mahady, Laura; Kanaan, Nicholas M.; Abrahamson, Eric E.; Ikonomovic, Milos D.; Crawford, Fiona; Alvarez, Victor; Stein, Thor; McKee, Ann C.

    2017-01-01

    Objective To test the hypothesis that the nucleus basalis of Meynert (nbM), a cholinergic basal forebrain (CBF) cortical projection system, develops neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) during the progressive pathological stages of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) in the brain of athletes. Method To characterize NFT pathology we used tau- antibodies marking early, intermediate, and late stages of NFT development in cholinergic basal forebrain tissue obtained at autopsy from eighteen former athletes and veterans with a history of repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (TBI). Results We found evidence that cholinergic nbM neurons develop intracellular tau-immunoreactive changes progressively across the pathological stages of CTE. In particular, there was an increase in pretangle (phosphorylated pS422) and oligomeric (TOC1 and TNT1) forms of tau in stage IV compared to stage II CTE cases. The nbM neurons also displayed pathologic TDP-43 inclusions and diffuse extracellular and vascular amyloid-β (Aβ) deposits in CTE. A higher percent of pS422/p75NTR, pS422 and TNT1 labeled neurons were significantly correlated with age at symptom onset, interval between symptom onset and death and age at death. Conclusion The development of NFTs within the nbM neurons could contribute to the basal forebrain cortical cholinergic disconnection in CTE. Further studies are needed to determine the mechanism driving NFT formation in the nbM neurons and its relation to chronic cognitive dysfunction in CTE. PMID:27834536

  19. Cholinergic agonists reduce blood pressure in a mouse model of systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Fairley, Amber S; Mathis, Keisa W

    2017-04-01

    Increased inflammation arising from an abnormal immune response can damage healthy tissue and lead to disease progression. An important example of this is the accumulation of inflammatory mediators in the kidney, which can subsequently lead to hypertension and renal injury. The origin of this inflammation may involve neuro-immune interactions. For example, the novel vagus nerve-to-spleen mechanism known as the "cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway" controls inflammation upon stimulation. However, if this pathway is dysfunctional, inflammation becomes less regulated and chronic inflammatory diseases such as hypertension may develop. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease with aberrant immune function, increased renal inflammation, and prevalent hypertension. We hypothesized that the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway is impaired in SLE and that stimulation of this pathway would protect from the progression of hypertension in SLE mice. Female SLE (NZBWF1) and control (NZW) mice were administered nicotine or vehicle for 7 days (2 mg/kg/day, subcutaneously) in order to stimulate the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway at the level of the splenic nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7-nAChR). Blood pressure was assessed posttreatment. Nicotine-treated SLE mice did not develop hypertension and this lower blood pressure (compared to saline-treated SLE mice) coincided with lower splenic and renal cortical expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. These data provide evidence that the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway is impaired in SLE In addition, these data suggest that stimulation of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway can protect the kidney by dampening inflammation and therefore prevent the progression of hypertension in the setting of SLE.

  20. Interaction between the antioxidant activity of curcumin and cholinergic system on memory retention in adult male Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Sarlak, Zeynab; Oryan, Shahrbanoo; Moghaddasi, Mehrnoush

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): The cholinergic system plays an important role in learning and memory. This study investigated the effects of curcumin (turmeric extract) and the cholinergic system and their interaction on memory retention of passive avoidance learning in adult male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: At first, an injection cannula was implanted in right ventricles of the animals. One week after the surgery, the animals were trained with a shuttle box set up. Post-training, injections were performed in all experiments. Administration of curcumin increased memory retention. Also administrations of nicotine and pilocarpine, the cholinergic receptor agonists, increased memory retention, while it is decreased by succinylcholine and scopolamine, the cholinergic receptor antagonists. Then co-administration of curcumin and cholinergic drugs were performed. Intraperitoneal and intracerebroventricular injections were applied for the curcumin and cholinergic drugs, respectively. Results: Co-administration of curcumin (45 mg/kg) with a low dose of nicotine (0.1 µg/rat) or pilocarpine (0.5 µg/rat) increased memory retention significantly. Effects of succinylcholine (0.01, 0.1 and 0.5 µg/rat) or scopolamine (0.1, 1 and 5 µg/rat) were attenuated by curcumin markedly (45 mg/kg). Conclusion: The results suggest that curcumin has a close interaction with cholinergic system in memory retention process. PMID:26019804

  1. Activation of the cholinergic system of the striatum improves attention to conditioned reflex stimuli.

    PubMed

    Shapovalova, K B

    1999-01-01

    Chronic experiments were performed on 16 dogs using a model of an operant defensive reflex associated with maintenance of a flexion pose to study the effects of uni- and bilateral microinjections of the acetylcholine agonist carbacholine (0.05-0.4 microg) and the choline receptor blocker scopolamine (0.5 microg) into the dorsolateral part of the head of the caudate nucleus and CM-Pf intralaminar thalamic nuclei. These experiments produced data showing that the cholinergic system of the striatum has an important role in realizing the sensory and motor components of the learned movement. Activation of the cholinergic system of the dorsal striatum led to general calming of behavior and inhibition of intersignal limb elevation and the phasic components of the movement, along with ordering and stabilizing of the pose and an increase in the tonic component of the operant response. This suggests that the cholinergic system of the striatum receives an indirect efferent output via motor structures and takes part in preparing the motor apparatus needed for transferring attention to significant stimuli. Microinjections of scopolamine had the opposite effects. Use of differential signals in the same behavioral model, along with special tests for attention, showed that the cholinergic system of the striatum plays an important role in the sensory control of attention. Activation of the striatal cholinergic system led to a significant improvement in responses to differential signals and defensive signals of intensity 2-3 times slower than normal signals, and these changes were accompanied by clearer responses in special tests for attention. Scopolamine microinjections had the opposite effects. Carbacholine microinjections into the intralaminar thalamic nuclei potentiated the effects of cholinergic activation of the striatum. These data indicate that the dorsal striatum can be regarded not only as a parallel level of information processing, but also as a control system for passing

  2. A Cell Line Producing Recombinant Nerve Growth Factor Evokes Growth Responses in Intrinsic and Grafted Central Cholinergic Neurons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernfors, Patrik; Ebendal, Ted; Olson, Lars; Mouton, Peter; Stromberg, Ingrid; Persson, Hakan

    1989-06-01

    The rat β nerve growth factor (NGF) gene was inserted into a mammalian expression vector and cotransfected with a plasmid conferring resistance to neomycin into mouse 3T3 fibroblasts. From this transfection a stable cell line was selected that contains several hundred copies of the rat NGF gene and produces excess levels of recombinant NGF. Such genetically modified cells were implanted into the rat brain as a probe for in vivo effects of NGF on central nervous system neurons. In a model of the cortical cholinergic deficits in Alzheimer disease, we demonstrate a marked increase in the survival of, and fiber outgrowth from, grafts of fetal basal forebrain cholinergic neurons, as well as stimulation of fiber formation by intact adult intrinsic cholinergic circuits in the cerebral cortex. Adult cholinergic interneurons in intact striatum also sprout vigorously toward implanted fibroblasts. Our results suggest that this model has implications for future treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.

  3. Cholinergic, serotoninergic and peptidergic components of the nervous system of Discocotyle sagittata (Monogenea:Polyopisthocotylea).

    PubMed

    Cable, J; Marks, N J; Halton, D W; Shaw, C; Johnston, C F; Tinsley, R C; Gannicott, A M

    1996-12-01

    Cholinergic, serotoninergic (5-HT) and peptidergic neuronal pathways have been demonstrated in both central and peripheral nervous systems of adult Discocotyle sagittata, using enzyme histochemistry and indirect immunocytochemistry in conjunction with confocal scanning laser microscopy. Antisera to 2 native flatworm neuropeptides, neuropeptide F and the FMRFamide-related peptide (FaRP), GNFFRFamide, were employed to detect peptide immunoreactivity. The CNS is composed of paired cerebral ganglia and connecting dorsal commissure, together with several paired longitudinal nerve cords. The main longitudinal nerve cords (lateral, ventral and dorsal) are interconnected at intervals by a series of annular cross-connectives, producing a ladder-like arrangement typical of the platyhelminth nervous system. At the level of the haptor, the ventral cords provide nerve roots which innervate each of the 9 clamps. Cholinergic and peptidergic neuronal organisation was similar, but distinct from that of the serotoninergic components. The PNS and reproductive system are predominantly innervated by peptidergic neurones.

  4. Cholinergic markers in the cortex and hippocampus of some animal species and their correlation to Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Orta-Salazar, E; Cuellar-Lemus, C A; Díaz-Cintra, S; Feria-Velasco, A I

    2014-10-01

    The cholinergic system includes neurons located in the basal forebrain and their long axons that reach the cerebral cortex and the hippocampus. This system modulates cognitive function. In Alzheimer's disease (AD) and ageing, cognitive impairment is associated with progressive damage to cholinergic fibres, which leads us to the cholinergic hypothesis for AD. The AD produces alterations in the expression and activity of acetyltransferase (ChAT) and acetyl cholinesterase (AChE), enzymes specifically related to cholinergic system function. Both proteins play a role in cholinergic transmission, which is altered in both the cerebral cortex and the hippocampus due to ageing and AD. Dementia disorders are associated with the severe destruction and disorganisation of the cholinergic projections extending to both structures. Specific markers, such as anti-ChAT and anti-AChE antibodies, have been used in light immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy assays to study this system in adult members of certain animal species. This paper reviews the main immunomorphological studies of the cerebral cortex and hippocampus in some animal species with particular emphasis on the cholinergic system and its relationship with the AD. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. Basal forebrain lesions in monkeys disrupt attention but not learning and memory.

    PubMed

    Voytko, M L; Olton, D S; Richardson, R T; Gorman, L K; Tobin, J R; Price, D L

    1994-01-01

    Cognitive impairments in humans and animals have been linked to dysfunction of neurons in the basal forebrain cholinergic system (BFCS). Degeneration of these cells may be, in part, responsible for some of the cognitive deficits observed in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although memory deficits are associated with lesions of the BFCS in rats, impairments in memory have been more subtle following similar lesions in monkeys. To evaluate the effects of BFCS lesions on cognitive processes in monkeys, we have systematically investigated the behavioral effects of ibotenic acid injections in the medial septum, nucleus of the diagonal band of Broca, and nucleus basalis of Meynert in cynomolgus monkeys, using a large series of cognitive tasks that examined different mnemonic and attentional abilities. These lesions did not impair accuracy in delayed nonmatching-to-sample, delayed response, simple or concurrent visual discriminations, spatial discriminations, or discrimination reversals. However, these lesions disrupted attentional focusing. Similar impairments in attention have been noted in patients with AD. BFCS lesions increased sensitivity to injections of the cholinergic antagonist scopolamine in a delayed nonmatching-to-sample task, indicating that the central cholinergic system was compromised in these monkeys. In concert, the results of this study suggest that the primate basal forebrain may be more involved in attentional than mnemonic processes, and that degeneration of neurons in the BFCS in cases of AD may contribute to the attention deficits observed in these individuals.

  6. Effects of histamine and cholinergic systems on memory retention of passive avoidance learning in rats.

    PubMed

    Eidi, Maryam; Zarrindast, Mohammad-Reza; Eidi, Akram; Oryan, Shahrbanoo; Parivar, Kazem

    2003-03-28

    In the present study, the effects of the histamine and cholinergic systems on memory retention in adult male rats were investigated. Post-training intracerebroventricular injections were carried out in all the experiments. Cholinoceptor agonist, acetylcholine (1-10 microg/rat) or nicotine (1-10 microg/rat), increased, while a cholinoceptor antagonist, scopolamine (5-20 microg/rat), decreased memory retention. The response to acetylcholine was attenuated by scopolamine. Administration of histamine (5-20 microg/rat) reduced, but the histamine H(1) receptor antagonist, pyrilamine (10-50 microg/rat), and the histamine H(2) receptor antagonist, cimetidine (1-50 microg/rat), increased memory retention in rats. The histamine receptor antagonists attenuated the response to histamine. Histamine reduced the acetylcholine- or nicotine-induced enhancement. The histamine receptor antagonists enhanced the nicotine- or acetylcholine-induced response. Histamine potentiated the inhibitory effect induced by scopolamine. It is concluded that histaminergic and cholinergic systems have opposing effects on memory retention. Also, the histaminergic system elicits an interaction with the cholinergic system in memory retention.

  7. A cholinergic mechanism for reward timing within primary visual cortex

    PubMed Central

    Chubykin, Alexander A.; Roach, Emma B.; Bear, Mark F.; Shuler, Marshall G. Hussain

    2013-01-01

    Summary Neurons in rodent primary visual cortex (V1) relate operantly conditioned stimulus-reward intervals with modulated patterns of spiking output, but little is known about the locus or mechanism of this plasticity. Here we show that cholinergic basal forebrain projections to V1 are necessary for the neural acquisition, but not the expression, of reward timing in the visual cortex of awake, behaving animals. We then mimic reward timing in vitro by pairing white matter stimulation with muscarinic receptor activation at a fixed interval, and show that this protocol results in the prolongation of electrically-evoked spike train durations out to the conditioned interval. Together, these data suggest that (1) V1 possesses the circuitry and plasticity to support reward time prediction learning and (2) the cholinergic system serves as an important reinforcement signal which, in vivo, conveys to the cortex the outcome of behavior. PMID:23439124

  8. Effect of tianeptine on the central cholinergic system: involvement of serotonin.

    PubMed

    Bertorelli, R; Amoroso, D; Girotti, P; Consolo, S

    1992-03-01

    The effect of tianeptine on in vivo acetylcholine (ACh) release from brain hemispheric regions of freely moving rats was investigated using the microdialysis technique coupled with a sensitive radioenzymatic method. Tianeptine, at the dose of 30 mg/kg i.p., reduced ACh release from dorsal hippocampi by 40% in 40 min, and induced a 30% decrease of ACh output from frontal cortices while at the doses of 10 and 20 mg/kg it had no effect. In striata the drug did not significantly affect ACh release although it showed a tendency to increase it. The ACh content in the three areas considered was not affected by tianeptine at above doses. The drug did not alter choline-o-acetyltransferase and acetylcholinesterase activities suggesting that it did not influence the cholinergic system through direct action on the ACh metabolism; furthermore, it did not influence the sodium-dependent high-affinity uptake of choline in striatum, cortex and hippocampus. Impairment of serotonergic (5-HT) neurotransmission by chemical lesion of the median raphe nucleus or by metergoline, a blocker of 5-HT receptors, antagonized the cholinergic effect of tianeptine. The involvement of the serotonergic system is specific because lesions of the noradrenergic dorsal bundle failed to prevent the inhibitory action of tianeptine. The present data suggest that 5-HT may mediate the effect of tianeptine on the cholinergic system in dorsal hippocampi.

  9. Changes in brain cholinergic markers and spatial learning in old galanin-overexpressing mice.

    PubMed

    Pirondi, S; D'Intino, G; Gusciglio, M; Massella, A; Giardino, L; Kuteeva, E; Ogren, S-O; Hökfelt, T; Calzà, L

    2007-03-23

    The cholinergic forebrain system is involved in learning and memory, and its age-dependent decline correlates with a decrease in cognitive performance. Since the neuropeptide galanin participates in cholinergic neuron regulation, we have studied 19- to 23-month-old male mice overexpressing galanin under the platelet-derived growth factor B promoter (GalOE) and wild-type (WT) littermates by monitoring behavioral, neurochemical and morphological/histochemical parameters. In the Morris water maze test, old transgenic animals showed a significant impairment in escape latency in the hidden platform test compared to age-matched WT animals. The morphological/histochemical studies revealed that cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain display a slight, age- but not genotype-related, alteration in choline acetyltransferase- (ChAT) immunoreactivity. The neurochemical studies showed an age-related decline in ChAT activity in the cerebral cortex of all mice, whereas in the hippocampal formation this effect was seen in GalOE but not WT animals. Expression of BDNF mRNA in the hippocampal formation, as evaluated by RT-PCR, was reduced in old animals; no age- or genotype-induced variations in NGF mRNA expression were observed. These data suggest that galanin overexpression further accentuates the age-related decline of the cholinergic system activity in male mice, resulting in impairment of water maze performance in old animals.

  10. Effects of diazinon on the lymphocytic cholinergic system of Nile tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus).

    PubMed

    Toledo-Ibarra, G A; Díaz-Resendiz, K J G; Pavón-Romero, L; Rojas-García, A E; Medina-Díaz, I M; Girón-Pérez, M I

    2016-08-01

    Fish rearing under intensive farming conditions can be easily disturbed by pesticides, substances that have immunotoxic properties and may predispose to infections. Organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) are widely used in agricultural activities; however, the mechanism of immunotoxicity of these substances is unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of diazinon pesticides (OPs) on the cholinergic system of immune cells as a possible target of OP immunotoxicity. We evaluated ACh levels and cholinergic (nicotinic and muscarinic) receptor concentration. Additionally, AChE activity was evaluated in mononuclear cells of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), a freshwater fish mostly cultivated in tropical regions around the world. The obtained results indicate that acute exposure to diazinon induces an increase in ACh concentration and a decrease in nAChR and mAChR concentrations and AChE activity in fish immune cells, This suggests that the non-neuronal lymphocytic cholinergic system may be the main target in the mechanism of OP immunotoxicity. This study contributes to the understanding of the mechanisms of immunotoxicity of pollutants and may help to take actions for animal health improvement. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. An ontogenetic study of the cholinergic and serotoninergic nervous systems in Trilocularia acanthiaevulgaris (Cestoda, Tetraphyllidea).

    PubMed

    Fairweather, I; Mahendrasingam, S; Johnston, C F; Halton, D W; McCullough, J S; Shaw, C

    1990-01-01

    The localisation and distribution of the cholinergic and serotoninergic components of the nervous system in the plerocercoid, adult and free proglottis stages of the tetraphyllidean tapeworm Trilocularia acanthiavulgaris were determined by enzyme histochemical and immunocytochemical techniques. The central nerve ring (CNR) in the scolex contains two lateral ganglia and gives rise to five pairs of longitudinal nerve cords (LNC's; three lateral, two median). The nerve cords run posteriorly throughout the bodies of the plerocercoid and adult worms and the free proglottis. Nerves from the CNR and accessory lateral LNC's pass to the bothridia, where they give rise to extensive nerve plexuses. As the individual proglottides develop along the strobila, a small nerve ring forms at the anterior end of each proglottis; within the nerve ring, distinct bilateral ganglia develop prior to the release of the proglottis. All ten LNC's are present in the free proglottis. The genital atrium and cirrus sac are innervated by cholinergic and serotoninergic elements. The cholinergic nervous system predominates in the CNS within the scolex, whereas there is a larger population of 5-HT-immunoreactive nerve cells associated with the LNC's and segmental ganglia along the strobila and within the free proglottis.

  12. Urtica dioica leaves modulates muscarinic cholinergic system in the hippocampus of streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sita Sharan; Parashar, Arun; Udayabanu, Malairaman

    2015-06-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder and has been associated with cognitive dysfunction. In our earlier study, chronic Urtica dioica (UD) treatment significantly ameliorated diabetes induced associative and spatial memory deficit in mice. The present study was designed to explore the effect of UD leaves extract on muscarinic cholinergic system, which has long been known to be involved in cognition. Streptozotocin (STZ) (50 mg/kg, i.p., consecutively for 5 days) was used to induce diabetes followed by treatment with UD extract (50 mg/kg, oral) or rosiglitazone (5 mg/kg, oral) for 8 weeks. STZ-induced diabetic mice showed significant reduction in hippocampal muscarinic acetylcholine receptor-1 and choline acetyltransferase expressions. Chronic diabetes significantly up-regulated the protein expression of acetylcholinesterase associated with oxidative stress in hippocampus. Besides, STZ-induced diabetic mice showed hypolocomotion with up-regulation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor-4 expression in striatum. Chronic UD treatment significantly attenuated the cholinergic dysfunction and oxidative stress in the hippocampus of diabetic mice. UD had no effect on locomotor activity and muscarinic acetylcholine receptor-4 expression in striatum. In conclusion, UD leaves extract has potential to reverse diabetes mediated alteration in muscarinic cholinergic system in hippocampus and thereby improve memory functions.

  13. Cholinergic shaping of neural correlations

    PubMed Central

    Minces, Victor; Pinto, Lucas; Dan, Yang; Chiba, Andrea A.

    2017-01-01

    A primary function of the brain is to form representations of the sensory world. Its capacity to do so depends on the relationship between signal correlations, associated with neuronal receptive fields, and noise correlations, associated with neuronal response variability. It was recently shown that the behavioral relevance of sensory stimuli can modify the relationship between signal and noise correlations, presumably increasing the encoding capacity of the brain. In this work, we use data from the visual cortex of the awake mouse watching naturalistic stimuli and show that a similar modification is observed under heightened cholinergic modulation. Increasing cholinergic levels in the cortex through optogenetic stimulation of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons decreases the dependency that is commonly observed between signal and noise correlations. Simulations of correlated neural networks with realistic firing statistics indicate that this change in the correlation structure increases the encoding capacity of the network. PMID:28507133

  14. New pharmacological approaches to the cholinergic system: an overview on muscarinic receptor ligands and cholinesterase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Greig, Nigel H; Reale, Marcella; Tata, Ada M

    2013-08-01

    The cholinergic system is expressed in neuronal and in non-neuronal tissues. Acetylcholine (ACh), synthesized in and out of the nervous system can locally contribute to modulation of various cell functions (e.g. survival, proliferation). Considering that the cholinergic system and its functions are impaired in a number of disorders, the identification of new pharmacological approaches to regulate cholinergic system components appears of great relevance. The present review focuses on recent pharmacological drugs able to modulate the activity of cholinergic receptors and thereby, cholinergic function, with an emphasis on the muscarinic receptor subtype, and additionally covers the cholinesterases, the main enzymes involved in ACh hydrolysis. The presence and function of muscarinic receptor subtypes both in neuronal and non-neuronal cells has been demonstrated using extensive pharmacological data emerging from studies on transgenic mice. The possible involvement of ACh in different pathologies has been proposed in recent years and is becoming an important area of study. Although the lack of selective muscarinic receptor ligands has for a long time limited the definition of therapeutic treatment based on muscarinic receptors as targets, some muscarinic ligands such as cevimeline (patents US4855290; US5571918) or xanomeline (patent, US5980933) have been developed and used in pre-clinical or in clinical studies for the treatment of nervous system diseases (Alzheimer' and Sjogren's diseases). The present review focuses on the potential implications of muscarinic receptors in different pathologies, including tumors. Moreover, the future use of muscarinic ligands in therapeutic protocols in cancer therapy will be discussed, considering that some muscarinic antagonists currently used in the treatment of genitourinary disease (e.g. darifenacin, patent, US5096890; US6106864) have also been demonstrated to arrest tumor progression in nude mice. The involvement of muscarinic

  15. Opposite effects of moderate heat stress and hyperthermia on cholinergic system of soil nematodes Caenorhabditis elegans and Caenorhabditis briggsae.

    PubMed

    Kalinnikova, Tatiana B; Kolsanova, Rufina R; Belova, Evgenia B; Shagidullin, Rifgat R; Gainutdinov, Marat Kh

    2016-12-01

    Cholinergic system plays important role in all functions of organisms of free-living soil nematodes C. elegans and C. briggsae. Using pharmacological analysis we showed the existence of two opposite responses of nematodes cholinergic system to moderate and extreme heat stress. Short-term (15min) noxious heat (31-32°C) caused activation of cholinergic synaptic transmission in C. elegans and C. briggsae organisms by sensitization of nicotinic ACh receptors. In contrast, hyperthermia blocked cholinergic synaptic transmission by inhibition of ACh secretion by neurons. The resistance of behavior to extreme high temperature (36-37°C) was significantly higher in C. briggsae than in C. elegans, and thermostability of cholinergic transmission correlated with resistance of behavior to hyperthermia. Activation of cholinergic transmission by moderate heat stress can be the reason of movement speed increase in such adaptive behavior as noxious heat escape. Inhibition of ACh release is one of reasons for behavior failure caused by extreme high temperature since partial inhibition of ACh-esterase by aldicarb protected C. elegans and C. briggsae behavior against hyperthermia. Antagonist of mAChRs atropine almost completely prevented the rise in behavior thermotolerance caused by aldicarb. Pilocarpine, agonist of mAChRs, protected nematodes behavior against hyperthermia similarly with aldicarb. Therefore it is evident that it is the deficiency of mAChRs activity that is the reason for nematodes' behavior failure by hyperthermia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Nuclear organization of cholinergic, catecholaminergic, serotonergic and orexinergic systems in the brain of the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii).

    PubMed

    Patzke, Nina; Bertelsen, Mads F; Fuxe, Kjell; Manger, Paul R

    2014-11-01

    This study investigated the nuclear organization of four immunohistochemically identifiable neural systems (cholinergic, catecholaminergic, serotonergic and orexinergic) within the brains of three male Tasmanian devils (Sarcophilus harrisii), which had a mean brain mass of 11.6g. We found that the nuclei generally observed for these systems in other mammalian brains were present in the brain of the Tasmanian devil. Despite this, specific differences in the nuclear organization of the cholinergic, catecholaminergic and serotonergic systems appear to carry a phylogenetic signal. In the cholinergic system, only the dorsal hypothalamic cholinergic nucleus could be observed, while an extra dorsal subdivision of the laterodorsal tegmental nucleus and cholinergic neurons within the gelatinous layer of the caudal spinal trigeminal nucleus were observed. Within the catecholaminergic system the A4 nucleus of the locus coeruleus complex was absent, as was the caudal ventrolateral serotonergic group of the serotonergic system. The organization of the orexinergic system was similar to that seen in many mammals previously studied. Overall, while showing strong similarities to the organization of these systems in other mammals, the specific differences observed in the Tasmanian devil reveal either order specific, or class specific, features of these systems. Further studies will reveal the extent of change in the nuclear organization of these systems in marsupials and how these potential changes may affect functionality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Obesity induces neuroinflammation mediated by altered expression of the renin-angiotensin system in mouse forebrain nuclei.

    PubMed

    de Kloet, Annette D; Pioquinto, David J; Nguyen, Dan; Wang, Lei; Smith, Justin A; Hiller, Helmut; Sumners, Colin

    2014-09-01

    Obesity is a widespread health concern that is associated with an increased prevalence of hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Both obesity and hypertension have independently been associated with increased levels of inflammatory cytokines and immune cells within specific brain regions, as well as increased activity of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). To test the hypothesis that high-fat diet (HFD) induced obesity leads to an angiotensin-II (Ang-II)-dependent increase in inflammatory cells within specific forebrain regions that are important for cardiovascular regulation, we first assessed microglial activation, astrocyte activation, inflammation and RAS component gene expression within selected metabolic and cardiovascular control centers of the forebrain in adult male C57BL/6 mice given either a HFD or a low-fat diet (LFD) for 8weeks. Subsequently, we assessed the necessity of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) angiotensin type-1a (AT1a) receptor for these responses by using the Cre/lox system in mice to selectively delete the AT1a receptor from the PVN. These studies reveal that in addition to the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARC), the PVN and the subfornical organ (SFO), two brain regions that are known to regulate blood pressure and energy balance, also initiate proinflammatory responses after the consumption of a diet high in fat. They further indicate that some, but not all, of these responses are reversed upon deletion of AT1a specifically within the PVN. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Neuronal ensemble bursting in the basal forebrain encodes salience irrespective of valence

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Shih-Chieh; Nicolelis, Miguel A.L.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY Both reward- and punishment-related stimuli are motivationally salient and attract the attention of animals. However, it remains unclear how motivational salience is processed in the brain. Here we show that both reward- and punishment-predicting stimuli elicited robust bursting of many non-cholinergic basal forebrain (BF) neurons in behaving rats. The same BF neurons also responded with similar bursting to primary reinforcement of both valences. Reinforcement responses were modulated by expectation, with surprising reinforcement eliciting stronger BF bursting. We further demonstrate that BF burst firing predicted successful detection of near-threshold stimuli. Together, our results point to the existence of a salience-encoding system independent of stimulus valence. We propose that the encoding of motivational salience by ensemble bursting of non-cholinergic BF neurons may improve behavioral performance by affecting the activity of widespread cortical circuits, and therefore represents a novel candidate mechanism for top-down attention. PMID:18614035

  19. Developmental suppression of forebrain trkA receptors and attentional capacities in aging rats: A longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Yegla, Brittney; Parikh, Vinay

    2017-09-29

    Basal forebrain (BF) cholinergic neurons innervating the cortex regulate cognitive, specifically attentional, processes. Cholinergic atrophy and cognitive decline occur at an accelerated pace in age-related neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease; however, the mechanism responsible for this phenomenon remains unknown. Here we hypothesized that developmental suppression of nerve growth factor signaling, mediated via tropomyosin-related kinase A (trkA) receptors, would escalate age-related attentional vulnerability. An adeno-associated viral vector expressing trkA shRNA (AAV-trkA) was utilized to knockdown trkA receptors in postnatal rats at an ontogenetic time point when cortical cholinergic inputs mature, and the impact of this manipulation on performance was assessed in animals maintained on an operant attention task throughout adulthood and until old (24 months) age. A within-subject comparison across different time points illustrated a gradual age-related decline in attentional capacities. However, the performance under baseline and distracted conditions did not differ between the AAV-trkA-infused and animals infused with a vector expressing shRNA against the control protein luciferase at any time point. Additional analysis of cholinergic measures conducted at 24 months showed that the capacity of cholinergic terminals to release acetylcholine following a depolarizing stimulus, cortical cholinergic fiber density and BF cholinergic cell size remained comparable between the two groups. Contrary to our predictions, these data indicate that developmental BF trkA disruption does not impact age-related changes in attentional functions. It is possible that life-long engagement in cognitive activity might have potentially rescued the developmental insults on the cholinergic system, thus preserving attentional capacities in advanced age. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Interactions between Aβ oligomers and presynaptic cholinergic signaling: age-dependent effects on attentional capacities

    PubMed Central

    Parikh, Vinay; Bernard, Carcha S.; Naughton, Sean X.; Yegla, Brittney

    2014-01-01

    Substantial evidence suggests that cerebral deposition of the neurotoxic fibrillar form of amyloid precursor protein, β-amyloid (Aβ), plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Yet, many aspects of AD pathology including the cognitive symptoms and selective vulnerability of cortically-projecting basal forebrain (BF) cholinergic neurons are not well explained by this hypothesis. Specifically, it is not clear why cognitive decline appears early when the loss of BF cholinergic neurons and plaque deposition are manifested late in AD. Soluble oligomeric forms of Aβ are proposed to appear early in the pathology and to be better predictors of synaptic loss and cognitive deficits. The present study was designed to examine the impact of Aβ oligomers on attentional functions and presynaptic cholinergic transmission in young and aged rats. Chronic intracranial infusions of Aβ oligomers produced subtle decrements in the ability of rats to sustain attentional performance with time on task, irrespective of the age of the animals. However, Aβ oligomers produced robust detrimental effects on performance under conditions of enhanced attentional load in aged animals. In vivo electrochemical recordings show reduced depolarization-evoked cholinergic signals in Aβ-infused aged rats. Moreover, soluble Aβ disrupted the capacity of cholinergic synapses to clear exogenous choline from the extracellular space in both young and aged rats, reflecting impairments in the choline transport process that is critical for acetylcholine (ACh) synthesis and release. Although aging per se reduced the cross-sectional area of BF cholinergic neurons and presynaptic cholinergic proteins in the cortex, attentional performance and ACh release remained unaffected in aged rats infused with the control peptide. Taken together, these data suggest that soluble Aβ may marginally influence attentional functions at young ages primarily by interfering with the choline uptake

  1. Basal forebrain control of wakefulness and cortical rhythms

    PubMed Central

    Anaclet, Christelle; Pedersen, Nigel P.; Ferrari, Loris L.; Venner, Anne; Bass, Caroline E.; Arrigoni, Elda; Fuller, Patrick M.

    2015-01-01

    Wakefulness, along with fast cortical rhythms and associated cognition, depend on the basal forebrain (BF). BF cholinergic cell loss in dementia and the sedative effect of anti-cholinergic drugs have long implicated these neurons as important for cognition and wakefulness. The BF also contains intermingled inhibitory GABAergic and excitatory glutamatergic cell groups whose exact neurobiological roles are unclear. Here we show that genetically targeted chemogenetic activation of BF cholinergic or glutamatergic neurons in behaving mice produced significant effects on state consolidation and/or the electroencephalogram but had no effect on total wake. Similar activation of BF GABAergic neurons produced sustained wakefulness and high-frequency cortical rhythms, whereas chemogenetic inhibition increased sleep. Our findings reveal a major contribution of BF GABAergic neurons to wakefulness and the fast cortical rhythms associated with cognition. These findings may be clinically applicable to manipulations aimed at increasing forebrain activation in dementia and the minimally conscious state. PMID:26524973

  2. Brain acetylcholinesterase activity controls systemic cytokine levels through the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway

    PubMed Central

    Pavlov, Valentin A.; Parrish, William R.; Rosas-Ballina, Mauricio; Ochani, Mahendar; Puerta, Margot; Ochani, Kanta; Chavan, Sangeeta; Al-Abed, Yousef; Tracey, Kevin J.

    2015-01-01

    The excessive release of cytokines by the immune system contributes importantly to the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases. Recent advances in understanding the biology of cytokine toxicity led to the discovery of the “cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway,” defined as neural signals transmitted via the vagus nerve that inhibit cytokine release through a mechanism that requires the alpha7 subunit-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR). Vagus nerve regulation of peripheral functions is controlled by brain nuclei and neural networks, but despite considerable importance, little is known about the molecular basis for central regulation of the vagus nerve-based cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway. Here we report that brain acetylcholinesterase activity controls systemic and organ specific TNF production during endotoxemia. Peripheral administration of the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor galantamine significantly reduced serum TNF levels through vagus nerve signaling, and protected against lethality during murine endotoxemia. Administration of a centrally-acting muscarinic receptor antagonist abolished the suppression of TNF by galantamine, indicating that suppressing acetylcholinesterase activity, coupled with central muscarinic receptors, controls peripheral cytokine responses. Administration of galantamine to α7nAChR knockout mice failed to suppress TNF levels, indicating that the α7nAChR-mediated cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway is required for the anti-inflammatory effect of galantamine. These findings show that inhibition of brain acetylcholinesterase suppresses systemic inflammation through a central muscarinic receptor-mediated and vagal- and α7nAChR-dependent mechanism. Our data also indicate that a clinically used centrally-acting acetylcholinesterase inhibitor can be utilized to suppress abnormal inflammation to therapeutic advantage. PMID:18639629

  3. Effect of amplitude-modulated radio frequency radiation on cholinergic system of developing rats.

    PubMed

    Kunjilwar, K K; Behari, J

    1993-01-22

    We examined the effect of long-term exposure to radio frequency radiation 147 MHz and its sub-harmonics 73.5 and 36.75 MHz amplitude modulated at 16 and 76 Hz (30-35 days, 3 h per day) on cholinergic systems in developing rat brain. A significant decrease in acetylcholine esterase activity was found in exposed rats as compared to the control. Decrease in acetylcholine esterase (AChE) activity was independent of carrier wave frequencies. A short-term exposure did not have any significant effect on AChE activity.

  4. Nicotine and ethanol interact during adolescence: effects on the central cholinergic systems.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro-Carvalho, Anderson; Lima, Carla S; Filgueiras, Cláudio C; Manhães, Alex C; Abreu-Villaça, Yael

    2008-09-26

    Co-occurrence of tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption during adolescence is frequent and well documented. However, little is known about the basic neurobiology of the combined exposure in the adolescent brain. Since nicotine is a cholinergic agonist and it has been shown that ethanol interferes with nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), the current work focused on cholinergic systems. From the 30th to the 45th postnatal day (PN), C57BL/6 male and female mice were exposed to nicotine free base (NIC) and/or ethanol (ETOH). Four groups were analyzed: 1) concomitant NIC (50 microg/ml in 2% saccharin to drink) and ETOH (25%, 2 g/kg i.p. injected every other day) exposure; 2) NIC exposure; 3) ETOH exposure; 4) vehicle. We assessed nAChR binding, choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) activity and [3H]hemicholinium-3 (HC-3) binding in the cerebral cortex and midbrain of mice on PN45. In the cortex, ETOH had no effect on nAChRs. In contrast, NIC produced nAChR upregulation while NIC+ETOH elicited a more pronounced effect. In the midbrain, neither ETOH nor NIC had effects on nAChRs. NIC+ETOH, however, elicited a robust nAChR upregulation. Regarding ChAT activity, treatment effects differed between males and females in the cortex. Male NIC mice presented an increase in ChAT. However, ETOH reversed this effect. In contrast, female NIC mice presented decreased ChAT activity. In the midbrain, ETOH increased ChAT. HC-3 binding was not affected. These results indicate that the central cholinergic system is a site at which nicotine and ethanol interact. This interaction might underlie the association between tobacco and alcohol consumption during adolescence.

  5. Analeptic activity produced by TRH microinjection into basal forebrain area of the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Horita, A.; Carino, M.A.; Lai, H.

    1986-03-05

    Earlier, Kalivas and Horita demonstrated that the analeptic effect of TRH was mediated in part by cholinergic neurons in the medial septum-diagonal band of Broca (MS-DBB). Since the MS-DBB constitutes part of the cholinergic basal forebrain system, the present study investigated whether the area designated as the n. basalis of Meynert (NBM) was also sensitive to TRH in producing an antipentobarbital effect. Saline or TRH (0.5 ..mu..l) was microinjected via bilateral stainless steel cannulae implanted stereotaxically into the NBM using the coordinates of Wenk et al. Accuracy of cannula placement was confirmed by histological examination. Rats treated with PB (40 mg/kg, i.p.) lost their righting reflex for 130 +/- 28 min. Intrabasalis injection of TRH (but not saline) in doses of 0.1-1.0 ..mu..g exerted analeptic activity as follows: 0.1 ..mu..g = 81 +/- 21 min; 0.5 ..mu..g = 65 +/- 19 min; 1.0 ..mu..g = 45 +/- 10 min. All of these doses exerted significant shortening of narcosis duration of pentobarbitalized rats. The analeptic effect of TRH was blocked by atropine pretreatment, indicating that it was mediated via cholinergic mechanisms. High affinity, sodium-dependent /sup 3/H-choline uptake by cortical synaptosomes prepared from these animals was also increased by TRH. These results suggest that the cholinergic neurons of NBM are highly sensitive to TRH and contributes to the analeptic effect of TRH.

  6. Cholinergic regulation of fear learning and extinction.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Marlene A; Fadel, Jim R

    2017-03-01

    Cholinergic activation regulates cognitive function, particularly long-term memory consolidation. This Review presents an overview of the anatomical, neurochemical, and pharmacological evidence supporting the cholinergic regulation of Pavlovian contextual and cue-conditioned fear learning and extinction. Basal forebrain cholinergic neurons provide inputs to neocortical regions and subcortical limbic structures such as the hippocampus and amygdala. Pharmacological manipulations of muscarinic and nicotinic receptors support the role of cholinergic processes in the amygdala, hippocampus, and prefrontal cortex in modulating the learning and extinction of contexts or cues associated with threat. Additional evidence from lesion studies and analysis of in vivo acetylcholine release with microdialysis similarly support a critical role of cholinergic neurotransmission in corticoamygdalar or corticohippocampal circuits during acquisition of fear extinction. Although a few studies have suggested a complex role of cholinergic neurotransmission in the cellular plasticity essential for extinction learning, more work is required to elucidate the exact cholinergic mechanisms and physiological role of muscarinic and nicotinic receptors in these fear circuits. Such studies are important for elucidating the role of cholinergic neurotransmission in disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder that involve deficits in extinction learning as well as for developing novel therapeutic approaches for such disorders. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. An invertebrate-specific miRNA targeted the ancient cholinergic neuroendocrine system of oyster

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hao; Zhou, Zhi; Wang, Hao; Liu, Rui; Zhang, Huan; Song, Linsheng

    2016-01-01

    Acetylcholine (ACh) is the main neurotransmitter in the cholinergic neuroendocrine system and plays an indispensable role in modulating diverse immune responses. As important transporters in choline uptake, choline transporter-like proteins (CTLs) can control ACh synthesis and release indirectly in multiple organisms. In this study, cgi-miR-2d, an invertebrate-specific miRNA in oyster Crassostrea gigas, is proved to repress the synthesis/release of ACh by targeting CgCTL1 and choline uptake in haemocytes during the early stage of pathogen infection. In short, an opposite expression pattern between CgCTL1 and cgi-miR-2d is observed during Vibrio splendidus infection, accompanied by changes in haemolymph ACh. In addition, the expression level of CgCTL1 is found to be significantly repressed after cgi-miR-2d overexpression in vivo, while both haemocyte choline and haemolymph ACh are also decreased simultaneously, similar to the finding in CgCTL1 knock-down assay. As a result, the expression of two tumour necrosis factor-like proteins and the bacteriostatic activity of oyster haemocytes are found to be altered significantly by either gain-of-function cgi-miR-2d or knock-down of CgCTL1. To our knowledge, this is the first miRNA identified in invertebrates that can target the ancient cholinergic system and augment immune response during infection. PMID:27488375

  8. Feminizing cholinergic neurons in a male Drosophila nervous system enhances aggression

    PubMed Central

    Mundiyanapurath, Sibu; Chan, Yick-Bun; Leung, Adelaine K.W.; Kravitz, Edward A.

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies in Drosophila have demonstrated that whether flies fight like males or females can be switched by selectively manipulating genes of the sex determination hierarchy in male and female nervous systems. Here we extend these studies by demonstrating that changing the sex of cholinergic neurons in male fruit fly nervous systems via expression of the transformer gene increases the levels of aggression shown by the flies without altering the way the flies fight. Transformer manipulation in this way does not change phototaxis, geotaxis, locomotion or odor avoidance of the mutant males compared to controls. Cholinergic neurons must be feminized via this route during the late larval/early pupal stages of development to show the enhanced aggression phenotype. Other investigators have shown that this is the same time period during which sexually dimorphic patterns of behavior are specified in flies. Neurons that co-express fruitless and choline acetyl transferase are found in varying numbers within different clusters of fruitless-expressing neurons: together they make up approximately 10% of the pool of fruitless-expressing neurons in the brain and nerve cord. PMID:19556850

  9. Altitude acclimatization improves submaximal cognitive performance in mice and involves an imbalance of the cholinergic system.

    PubMed

    Guerra-Narbona, R; Delgado-García, J M; López-Ramos, J C

    2013-06-15

    The aim of this work was to reveal a hypothetical improvement of cognitive abilities in animals acclimatized to altitude and performing under ground level conditions, when looking at submaximal performance, once seen that it was not possible when looking at maximal scores. We modified contrasted cognitive tasks (object recognition, operant conditioning, eight-arm radial maze, and classical conditioning of the eyeblink reflex), increasing their complexity in an attempt to find performance differences in acclimatized animals vs. untrained controls. In addition, we studied, through immunohistochemical quantification, the expression of choline acetyltransferase and acetyl cholinesterase, enzymes involved in the synthesis and degradation of acetylcholine, in the septal area, piriform and visual cortexes, and the hippocampal CA1 area of animals submitted to acute hypobaric hypoxia, or acclimatized to this simulated altitude, to find a relationship between the cholinergic system and a cognitive improvement due to altitude acclimatization. Results showed subtle improvements of the cognitive capabilities of acclimatized animals in all of the tasks when performed under ground-level conditions (although not before 24 h), in the three tasks used to test explicit memory (object recognition, operant conditioning in the Skinner box, and eight-arm radial maze) and (from the first conditioning session) in the classical conditioning task used to evaluate implicit memory. An imbalance of choline acetyltransferase/acetyl cholinesterase expression was found in acclimatized animals, mainly 24 h after the acclimatization period. In conclusion, altitude acclimatization improves cognitive capabilities, in a process parallel to an imbalance of the cholinergic system.

  10. Some embryological aspects of cholinergic innervation in the cardiovascular system--a close association with the subintestinal circulatory channel.

    PubMed

    Shigei, Tatsuro; Tsuru, Hiromichi; Ishikawa, Naohisa; Yoshioka, Koichi

    2010-01-01

    A series of our studies on the dog venous system revealed that cholinergic excitatory innervation was localized in a group of veins: the portal, mesenteric, and hepatic veins and the middle segment of the inferior vena cava. Our studies on pharmacological responsiveness of dog veins also revealed that they could be divided into two groups: the visceral and somatic parts, and the cholinergic excitatory innervation localized to the visceral part. Considering these results and some relevant literature, a hypothesis is proposed on the classification of muscles of the cardiovascular system and some embryological aspects of the parasympathetic cholinergic innervation in the circulatory system are discussed. The embryonic circulatory system of vertebrates can be divided into two parts: somatic and visceral. The body of an embryo is regarded as a double tube and vessels of the visceral part and the heart belong to the inner tube. The muscle of these vessels and the heart are derived from visceral mesoderm, either the coelomic epithelium or mesenchymal cells, in common with muscle of the digestive tube; and thus the parasympathetic cholinergic nerves innervating the muscle of the digestive tube also distribute to these vessels and the heart. The heart and vascular muscles in the visceral part are structures developed early in the course of evolution in invertebrates. Their primary function is to propel the body fluid, and the chief structure containing them is the subintestinal circulatory channel (ventral aorta - heart - subintestinal vein). They exhibit spontaneous, rhythmic activity, showing characteristics of a single unit muscle, and receive parasympathetic cholinergic innervation. On the other hand, the vascular muscles in the somatic part are endothelium-associated muscles developed anew in the vertebrate; do not contract spontaneously, being classified as a multiunit muscle; and lack parasympathetic cholinergic innervation.

  11. Presence of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-like immunoreactivity in the cholinergic electromotor system of Torpedo marmorata.

    PubMed

    Agoston, D V; Conlon, J M

    1986-08-01

    Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP)-like immunoreactivity was detected in the cholinergic electro-motor system of Torpedo marmorata using a combination of immunohistochemical assays, radioimmunoassay, and HPLC. The immunohistochemical assays revealed that the distribution of VIP-like immunoreactivity in the electric lobes, electromotor nerves, and electric organ is comparable to that of the stable cholinergic synaptic vesicle marker vesicle-specific proteoglycan. Ligation of the electromotor nerves caused a marked accumulation of VIP-like immunoreactivity in the lobes (180%) and the proximal portions of the electromotor nerves (130%) and a decrease in the electric organ (-50%), when measured by radioimmunoassay using synthetic VIP (porcine sequence) as the standard. VIP-like immunoreactivity in extracts of electric lobes electromotor nerves, and electric organ was eluted from a semipreparative reverse-phase HPLC column as a single peak with a retention time similar to that of porcine VIP. Rechromatography at higher resolution on an analytical column indicated diversity between the molecular forms of VIP-like immunoreactivity extracted from electric lobe and electric organ, suggesting the possibility of posttranslational processing.

  12. Acute stress or systemic insulin injection increases flunitrazepam sensitive-GABAA receptor density in synaptosomes of chick forebrain: Modulation by systemic epinephrine.

    PubMed

    Cid, Mariana Paula; Arce, Augusto; Salvatierra, Nancy Alicia

    2008-03-01

    Interactions between acute stress and systemic insulin and epinephrine on GABAA receptor density in the forebrain were studied. Here, 10 day-old chicks were intraperitoneally injected with insulin, epinephrine or vehicle and then immediately stressed by partial water immersion for 15 min and killed by decapitation. Non-stressed controls were similarly injected, then returned to their rearing boxes for 15 min and then killed. Forebrains were dissected and GABAA receptor density was measured ex vivo in synaptosomes by 3[H]-flunitrazepam binding assay. In non-stressed chicks, insulin at 1.25, 2.50 and 5.00 IU/kg of body weight (non-hypoglycemic doses) increased Bmax by 33, 53 and 44% compared to saline, respectively. A similar increase of 41% was observed in receptor density after stress. However, the insulin effect was not additive to the stress-induced increase suggesting that both effects occur through similar mechanisms. In contrast, epinephrine, at 0.25 and 0.5 mg/kg did not induce any changes in Bmax in non-stressed chicks. Nevertheless, after stress these doses increased the receptor density by about 13 and 27%, respectively. Similarly, the same epinephrine doses co-administered with insulin (2.50 IU/kg), increased the receptor density by about 20% compared to insulin alone. These results suggest that systemic epinephrine, perhaps by evoking central norepinephrine release, modulates the increase in forebrain GABAA receptor binding induced by both insulin and stress.

  13. A ten fold reduction of nicotine yield in tobacco smoke does not spare the central cholinergic system in adolescent mice.

    PubMed

    Abreu-Villaça, Yael; Correa-Santos, Monique; Dutra-Tavares, Ana C; Paes-Branco, Danielle; Nunes-Freitas, Andre; Manhães, Alex C; Filgueiras, Cláudio C; Ribeiro-Carvalho, Anderson

    2016-08-01

    The tobacco industry has gradually decreased nicotine content in cigarette smoke but the impact of this reduction on health is still controversial. Since the central cholinergic system is the primary site of action of nicotine, here, we investigated the effects of exposure of adolescent mice to tobacco smoke containing either high or low levels of nicotine on the central cholinergic system and the effects associated with cessation of exposure. From postnatal day (PN) 30 to 45, male and female Swiss mice were exposed to tobacco smoke (whole body exposure, 8h/day, 7 days/week) generated from 2R1F (HighNic group: 1.74mg nicotine/cigarette) or 4A1 (LowNic group: 0.14mg nicotine/cigarette) research cigarettes, whereas control mice were exposed to ambient air. Cholinergic biomarkers were assessed in the cerebral cortex and midbrain by the end of exposure (PN45), at short- (PN50) and long-term (PN75) deprivation. In the cortex, nicotinic cholinergic receptor upregulation was observed with either type of cigarette. In the midbrain, upregulation was detected only in HighNic mice and remained significant in females at short-term deprivation. The high-affinity choline transporter was reduced in the cortex: of HighNic mice by the end of exposure; of both HighNic and LowNic females at short-term deprivation; of LowNic mice at long-term deprivation. These decrements were separable from effects on choline acetyltransferase and acetylcholinesterase activities, suggesting cholinergic synaptic impairment. Here, we demonstrated central cholinergic alterations in an animal model of tobacco smoke exposure during adolescence. This system was sensitive even to tobacco smoke with very low nicotine content.

  14. Layer-specific cholinergic control of human and mouse cortical synaptic plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Verhoog, Matthijs B.; Obermayer, Joshua; Kortleven, Christian A.; Wilbers, René; Wester, Jordi; Baayen, Johannes C.; De Kock, Christiaan P. J.; Meredith, Rhiannon M.; Mansvelder, Huibert D.

    2016-01-01

    Individual cortical layers have distinct roles in information processing. All layers receive cholinergic inputs from the basal forebrain (BF), which is crucial for cognition. Acetylcholinergic receptors are differentially distributed across cortical layers, and recent evidence suggests that different populations of BF cholinergic neurons may target specific prefrontal cortical (PFC) layers, raising the question of whether cholinergic control of the PFC is layer dependent. Here we address this issue and reveal dendritic mechanisms by which endogenous cholinergic modulation of synaptic plasticity is opposite in superficial and deep layers of both mouse and human neocortex. Our results show that in different cortical layers, spike timing-dependent plasticity is oppositely regulated by the activation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) either located on dendrites of principal neurons or on GABAergic interneurons. Thus, layer-specific nAChR expression allows functional layer-specific control of cortical processing and plasticity by the BF cholinergic system, which is evolutionarily conserved from mice to humans. PMID:27604129

  15. Transient impairment of recognition memory following ibotenic-acid lesions of the basal forebrain in macaques.

    PubMed

    Aigner, T G; Mitchell, S J; Aggleton, J P; DeLong, M R; Struble, R G; Price, D L; Wenk, G L; Pettigrew, K D; Mishkin, M

    1991-01-01

    To assess the contributions of the basal forebrain cholinergic nuclei to visual recognition memory in macaques, we compared the effects of lesions of (a) the nucleus basalis of Meynert, (b) the medial septal and diagonal band nuclei, and (c) all nuclei combined on performance of delayed nonmatching-to-sample with trial-unique stimuli. Whereas monkeys with the separate lesions did not differ from each other or from normal control animals, those with combined lesions showed a significant impairment. With time and extended practice, however, the performance of the animals with combined lesions recovered to normal levels. During the recovery period, these monkeys showed an initially increased sensitivity to scopolamine that later dissipated, at which time they also failed to show the improvement that follows physostigmine administration in normal animals. Postmortem assessment of cortical choline acetyltransferase activity revealed that only the group with combined lesions had significant depletion of this enzyme. The results suggest that (1) the basal forebrain cholinergic system participates in mnemonic processes in primates and that (2) extensive damage to this system is necessary before impairments in recognition memory, even transient ones, can be observed.

  16. The distribution and morphological characteristics of cholinergic cells in the brain of monotremes as revealed by ChAT immunohistochemistry.

    PubMed

    Manger, P R; Fahringer, H M; Pettigrew, J D; Siegel, J M

    2002-01-01

    The present study employs choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) immunohistochemistry to identify the cholinergic neuronal population in the central nervous system of the monotremes. Two of the three extant species of monotreme were studied: the platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) and the short-beaked echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus). The distribution of cholinergic cells in the brain of these two species was virtually identical. Distinct groups of cholinergic cells were observed in the striatum, basal forebrain, habenula, pontomesencephalon, cranial nerve motor nuclei, and spinal cord. In contrast to other tetrapods studied with this technique, we failed to find evidence for cholinergic cells in the hypothalamus, the parabigeminal nucleus (or nucleus isthmus), or the cerebral cortex. The lack of hypothalamic cholinergic neurons creates a hiatus in the continuous antero-posterior aggregation of cholinergic neurons seen in other tetrapods. This hiatus might be functionally related to the phenomenology of monotreme sleep and to the ontogeny of sleep in mammals, as juvenile placental mammals exhibit a similar combination of sleep elements to that found in adult monotremes.

  17. The failure in NGF maturation and its increased degradation as the probable cause for the vulnerability of cholinergic neurons in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Cuello, A Claudio; Bruno, Martin A

    2007-06-01

    This short review discusses the arguments to consider the dismetabolism of the pathway responsible for both the maturation and degradation of NGF as the culprit of vulnerability of the forebrain cholinergic system to the Alzheimer's disease neuropathology. This summary includes information regarding a novel metabolic cascade converting Pro-NGF to mature NGF in the extracellular space and its ultimate degradation by a metalloprotease. It also describes how this pathway is altered in Alzheimer's disease with the consequential CNS accumulation of proNGF and impairment in the formation of NGF along with increased degradation of this key trophic factor. This metabolic scenario in Alzheimer's disease should result in the failure of NGF trophic support to forebrain cholinergic neurons and thus explaining the vulnerability of these neurons in this neurodegenerative condition.

  18. Fructus mume Ethanol Extract Prevents Inflammation and Normalizes the Septohippocampal Cholinergic System in a Rat Model of Chronic Cerebral Hypoperfusion

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min-Soo; Bang, Ji Hye; Lee, Jun; Han, Jung-Soo; Kang, Hyung Won

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Fructus mume (F. mume), the unripe fruit of Prunus mume, has long been used in Asian countries to treat cough and chronic diarrhea. We previously reported that F. mume exerts anti-inflammatory effects in a model of chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH), a key etiological factor of vascular dementia (VaD). The present study was performed to investigate the protective effects of an ethanolic extract of F. mume on the inflammatory response and cholinergic dysfunction in a model of CCH induced by bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAo) in Wistar rats. Rats were assigned to three treatment groups: sham plus vehicle, BCCAo plus vehicle, and BCCAo plus F. mume extract (200 mg/kg). F. mume was administered by oral gavage from days 21 to 42 following BCCAo. Glial cell numbers were measured in the white matter and hippocampus. The hippocampal expressions of proinflammatory cytokines, angiotensin-II (Ang-II), receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPKs) were also evaluated. Choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) levels in the hippocampus and basal forebrain were examined. Rats with BCCAo showed an increase in the number of glial cells and levels of proinflammatory cytokines, Ang-II, RAGE, and MAPKs, all of which were significantly attenuated by F. mume treatment. F. mume administration also restored ChAT expression in the basal forebrain and hippocampus following chronic BCCAo. These results suggest that F. mume is a potentially valuable drug or nutraceutical for the treatment of VaD. PMID:26714236

  19. A cholinergic hypothesis of the unconscious in affective disorders

    PubMed Central

    Vakalopoulos, Costa

    2013-01-01

    The interactions between distinct pharmacological systems are proposed as a key dynamic in the formation of unconscious memories underlying rumination and mood disorder, but also reflect the plastic capacity of neural networks that can aid recovery. An inverse and reciprocal relationship is postulated between cholinergic and monoaminergic receptor subtypes. M1-type muscarinic receptor transduction facilitates encoding of unconscious, prepotent behavioral repertoires at the core of affective disorders and ADHD. Behavioral adaptation to new contingencies is mediated by the classic prototype receptor: 5-HT1A (Gi/o) and its modulation of M1-plasticity. Reversal of learning is dependent on increased phasic activation of midbrain monoaminergic nuclei and is a function of hippocampal theta. Acquired hippocampal dysfunction due to abnormal activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis predicts deficits in hippocampal-dependent memory and executive function and further impairments to cognitive inhibition. Encoding of explicit memories is mediated by Gq/11 and Gs signaling of monoamines only. A role is proposed for the phasic activation of the basal forebrain cholinergic nucleus by cortical projections from the complex consisting of the insula and claustrum. Although controversial, recent studies suggest a common ontogenetic origin of the two structures and a functional coupling. Lesions of the region result in loss of motivational behavior and familiarity based judgements. A major hypothesis of the paper is that these lost faculties result indirectly, from reduced cholinergic tone. PMID:24319409

  20. Cortical cholinergic input is required for normal auditory perception and experience-dependent plasticity in adult ferrets.

    PubMed

    Leach, Nicholas D; Nodal, Fernando R; Cordery, Patricia M; King, Andrew J; Bajo, Victoria M

    2013-04-10

    The nucleus basalis (NB) in the basal forebrain provides most of the cholinergic input to the neocortex and has been implicated in a variety of cognitive functions related to the processing of sensory stimuli. However, the role that cortical acetylcholine release plays in perception remains unclear. Here we show that selective loss of cholinergic NB neurons that project to the cortex reduces the accuracy with which ferrets localize brief sounds and prevents them from adaptively reweighting auditory localization cues in response to chronic occlusion of one ear. Cholinergic input to the cortex was disrupted by making bilateral injections of the immunotoxin ME20.4-SAP into the NB. This produced a substantial loss of both p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75(NTR))-positive and choline acetyltransferase-positive cells in this region and of acetylcholinesterase-positive fibers throughout the auditory cortex. These animals were significantly impaired in their ability to localize short broadband sounds (40-500 ms in duration) in the horizontal plane, with larger cholinergic cell lesions producing greater performance impairments. Although they localized longer sounds with normal accuracy, their response times were significantly longer than controls. Ferrets with cholinergic forebrain lesions were also less able to relearn to localize sound after plugging one ear. In contrast to controls, they exhibited little recovery of localization performance after behavioral training. Together, these results show that cortical cholinergic inputs contribute to the perception of sound source location under normal hearing conditions and play a critical role in allowing the auditory system to adapt to changes in the spatial cues available.

  1. Neonicotinoid insecticides inhibit cholinergic neurotransmission in a molluscan (Lymnaea stagnalis) nervous system.

    PubMed

    Vehovszky, Á; Farkas, A; Ács, A; Stoliar, O; Székács, A; Mörtl, M; Győri, J

    2015-10-01

    Neonicotinoids are highly potent and selective systemic insecticides, but their widespread use also has a growing impact on non-target animals and contaminates the environment, including surface waters. We tested the neonicotinoid insecticides commercially available in Hungary (acetamiprid, Mospilan; imidacloprid, Kohinor; thiamethoxam, Actara; clothianidin, Apacs; thiacloprid, Calypso) on cholinergic synapses that exist between the VD4 and RPeD1 neurons in the central nervous system of the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis. In the concentration range used (0.01-1 mg/ml), neither chemical acted as an acetylcholine (ACh) agonist; instead, both displayed antagonist activity, inhibiting the cholinergic excitatory components of the VD4-RPeD1 connection. Thiacloprid (0.01 mg/ml) blocked almost 90% of excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs), while the less effective thiamethoxam (0.1 mg/ml) reduced the synaptic responses by about 15%. The ACh-evoked membrane responses of the RPeD1 neuron were similarly inhibited by the neonicotinoids, confirming that the same ACh receptor (AChR) target was involved. We conclude that neonicotinoids act on nicotinergic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in the snail CNS. This has been established previously in the insect CNS; however, our data indicate differences in the background mechanism or the nAChR binding site in the snail. Here, we provide the first results concerning neonicotinoid-related toxic effects on the neuronal connections in the molluscan nervous system. Aquatic animals, including molluscs, are at direct risk while facing contaminated surface waters, and snails may provide a suitable model for further studies of the behavioral/neuronal consequences of intoxication by neonicotinoids. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids improve cholinergic transmission in the aged brain

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The cholinergic theory of aging states that dysfunction of cholinergic neurons arising from the basal forebrain and terminating in the cortex and hippocampus may be involved in the cognitive decline that occurs during aging and Alzheimer’s disease. Despite years of research, pharmacological interven...

  3. Evaluation of functional relationship between mouse hippocampal cholinergic and nitrergic systems in anxiogenic-like behavior.

    PubMed

    Zarrindast, Mohammad-Reza; Piri, Morteza; Bananej, Maryam; Shahab, Zahra; Zahmatkesh, Maryam

    2013-06-01

    Although a body of evidence shows the crucial role of hippocampal nitrergic and cholinergic systems in the modulation of anxiety, little is known about their functional relationship with regard to anxiety. The present study investigated the relationship between intra-CA1 administration of a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist (mecamylamine) and a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor [Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME)] or its precursor (L-arginine) in anxiety-related behaviors. Mice received bilateral intra-CA1 injections of either L-NAME or L-arginine in the presence of mecamylamine and were subsequently tested in the elevated plus maze. A dose of 0.5 μg/0.5 μl mecamylamine bilaterally administered into CA1 did not change the percentage of open arm time (%OAT) or the percentage of open arm entries (%OAE) in the elevated plus maze task and thus was considered as a subeffective dose. Intra-CA1 administration of either L-arginine (1 and 1.5 μg/0.5 μl, bilaterally) or L-NAME (at 60 ng/0.5 μl, bilaterally) decreased %OAT, which represents an anxiogenic-like effect. Coadministration of the subeffective dose of mecamylamine together with the lower doses of L-NAME (10 and 30 ng/0.5 μl, bilaterally) or L-arginine (0.5 μg/0.5 μl, bilaterally) led to a decrease in %OAT and %OAE. Thus, both L-NAME and L-arginine showed anxiogenic-like effects, but the effects of mecamylamine were too small to support a functional relationship between the hippocampal cholinergic and nitrergic systems.

  4. Bacopa monnieri ameliorates memory deficits in olfactory bulbectomized mice: possible involvement of glutamatergic and cholinergic systems.

    PubMed

    Le, Xoan Thi; Pham, Hang Thi Nguyet; Do, Phuong Thi; Fujiwara, Hironori; Tanaka, Ken; Li, Feng; Van Nguyen, Tai; Nguyen, Khoi Minh; Matsumoto, Kinzo

    2013-10-01

    This study investigated the effects of alcoholic extract of Bacopa monnieri (L.) Wettst. (BM) on cognitive deficits using olfactory bulbectomized (OBX) mice and the underlying molecular mechanisms of its action. OBX mice were treated daily with BM (50 mg/kg, p.o.) or a reference drug, tacrine (2.5 mg/kg, i.p.), 1 week before and continuously 3 days after OBX. Cognitive performance of the animals was analyzed by the novel object recognition test, modified Y maze test, and fear conditioning test. Brain tissues of OBX animals were used for neurochemical and immunohistochemical studies. OBX impaired non-spatial short-term memory, spatial working memory, and long-term fair memory. BM administration ameliorated these memory disturbances. The effect of BM on short-term memory deficits was abolished by a muscarinic receptor antagonist, scopolamine. OBX downregulated phosphorylation of synaptic plasticity-related signaling proteins: NR1 subunit of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor, glutamate receptor 1 (GluR1), and calmodulin-dependent kinase II but not cyclic AMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB), and reduced brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA in the hippocampus. OBX also reduced choline acetyltransferase in the hippocampus and cholinergic neurons in the medial septum, and enlarged the size of lateral ventricle. BM administration reversed these OBX-induced neurochemical and histological alterations, except the decrease of GluR1 phosphorylation, and enhanced CREB phosphorylation. Moreover, BM treatment inhibited ex vivo activity of acetylcholinesterase in the brain. These results indicate that BM treatment ameliorates OBX-induced cognition dysfunction via a mechanism involving enhancement of synaptic plasticity-related signaling and BDNF transcription and protection of cholinergic systems from OBX-induced neuronal damage.

  5. CANNABINOID AND CHOLINERGIC SYSTEMS INTERACT DURING PERFORMANCE OF A SHORT-TERM MEMORY TASK IN THE RAT

    PubMed Central

    Goonawardena, Anushka V.; Robinson, Lianne; Hampson, Robert E.; Riedel, Gernot

    2011-01-01

    It is now well established that cannabinoid agonists such as D9–tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), anandamide, and WIN 55,212-2 (WIN-2) produce potent and specific deficits in working memory (WM)/short-term memory (STM) tasks in rodents. Although mediated through activation of CB1 receptors located in memory-related brain regions such as the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, these may, in part, be due to a reduction in acetylcholine release (i.e., cholinergic hypofunction). To determine the interaction between cannabinoid and cholinergic systems, we exposed rats treated with WIN-2 or cholinergic drugs to a hippocampal-dependent delayed nonmatch to sample (DNMS) task to study STM, and recorded hippocampal single-unit activity in vivo. WIN-2 induced significant deficits in DNMS performance and reduced the average firing and bursting rates of hippocampal principal cells through a CB1 receptor-mediated mechanism. Rivastigmine, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, reversed these STM deficits and normalized hippocampal discharge rates. Effects were specific to 1 mg/kg WIN-2 as rivastigmine failed to reverse the behavioral and physiological deficits that were observed in the presence of MK-801, an NMDA receptor antagonist. This supports the notion that cannabinoid-modulated cholinergic activity is a mechanism underlying the performance deficits in DNMS. Whether deficits are due to reduced nicotinic or muscarinic receptor activation, or both, awaits further analysis. PMID:20079375

  6. Cannabinoid and cholinergic systems interact during performance of a short-term memory task in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Goonawardena, Anushka V.; Robinson, Lianne; Hampson, Robert E.; Riedel, Gernot

    2010-01-01

    It is now well established that cannabinoid agonists such as Δ9–tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), anandamide, and WIN 55,212-2 (WIN-2) produce potent and specific deficits in working memory (WM)/short-term memory (STM) tasks in rodents. Although mediated through activation of CB1 receptors located in memory-related brain regions such as the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, these may, in part, be due to a reduction in acetylcholine release (i.e., cholinergic hypofunction). To determine the interaction between cannabinoid and cholinergic systems, we exposed rats treated with WIN-2 or cholinergic drugs to a hippocampal-dependent delayed nonmatch to sample (DNMS) task to study STM, and recorded hippocampal single-unit activity in vivo. WIN-2 induced significant deficits in DNMS performance and reduced the average firing and bursting rates of hippocampal principal cells through a CB1 receptor-mediated mechanism. Rivastigmine, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, reversed these STM deficits and normalized hippocampal discharge rates. Effects were specific to 1 mg/kg WIN-2 as rivastigmine failed to reverse the behavioral and physiological deficits that were observed in the presence of MK-801, an NMDA receptor antagonist. This supports the notion that cannabinoid-modulated cholinergic activity is a mechanism underlying the performance deficits in DNMS. Whether deficits are due to reduced nicotinic or muscarinic receptor activation, or both, awaits further analysis. PMID:20876271

  7. Cannabinoid and cholinergic systems interact during performance of a short-term memory task in the rat.

    PubMed

    Goonawardena, Anushka V; Robinson, Lianne; Hampson, Robert E; Riedel, Gernot

    2010-10-01

    It is now well established that cannabinoid agonists such as Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), anandamide, and WIN 55,212-2 (WIN-2) produce potent and specific deficits in working memory (WM)/short-term memory (STM) tasks in rodents. Although mediated through activation of CB1 receptors located in memory-related brain regions such as the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, these may, in part, be due to a reduction in acetylcholine release (i.e., cholinergic hypofunction). To determine the interaction between cannabinoid and cholinergic systems, we exposed rats treated with WIN-2 or cholinergic drugs to a hippocampal-dependent delayed nonmatch to sample (DNMS) task to study STM, and recorded hippocampal single-unit activity in vivo. WIN-2 induced significant deficits in DNMS performance and reduced the average firing and bursting rates of hippocampal principal cells through a CB1 receptor-mediated mechanism. Rivastigmine, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, reversed these STM deficits and normalized hippocampal discharge rates. Effects were specific to 1 mg/kg WIN-2 as rivastigmine failed to reverse the behavioral and physiological deficits that were observed in the presence of MK-801, an NMDA receptor antagonist. This supports the notion that cannabinoid-modulated cholinergic activity is a mechanism underlying the performance deficits in DNMS. Whether deficits are due to reduced nicotinic or muscarinic receptor activation, or both, awaits further analysis.

  8. Basal forebrain moderates the magnitude of task-dependent amygdala functional connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Knodt, Annchen R.; Hariri, Ahmad R.

    2015-01-01

    Animal studies reveal that the amygdala promotes attention and emotional memory, in part, by driving activity in downstream target regions including the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus. Prior work has demonstrated that the amygdala influences these regions directly through monosynaptic glutamatergic signaling, and indirectly by driving activity of the cholinergic basal forebrain and subsequent downstream acetylcholine release. Yet to date, no work has addressed the functional relevance of the cholinergic basal forebrain in facilitating signaling from the amygdala in humans. We set out to determine how blood oxygen level-dependent signal within the amygdala and cholinergic basal forebrain interact to predict neural responses within downstream targets. Here, we use functional connectivity analyses to demonstrate that the cholinergic basal forebrain moderates increased amygdala connectivity with both the PFC and the hippocampus during the processing of biologically salient stimuli in humans. We further demonstrate that functional variation within the choline transporter gene predicts the magnitude of this modulatory effect. Collectively, our results provide novel evidence for the importance of cholinergic signaling in modulating neural pathways supporting arousal, attention and memory in humans. Further, our results may shed light on prior association studies linking functional variation within the choline transporter gene and diagnoses of major depression and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. PMID:24847112

  9. Targeting the non-neuronal cholinergic system in macrophages for the management of infectious diseases and cancer: challenge and promise

    PubMed Central

    Reichrath, Sandra; Reichrath, Jörg; Moussa, Amira-Talaat; Meier, Carola; Tschernig, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Macrophages represent key players of the immune system exerting highly effective defense mechanisms against microbial infections and cancer that include phagocytosis and programmed cell removal. Recent findings highlight the relevance of the non-neuronal cholinergic system for the regulation of macrophage function that opens promising new concepts for the treatment of infectious diseases and cancer. This mini review summarizes our present knowledge on this topic and gives an outlook on future developments. PMID:27785369

  10. Cholinergic profiles in the Goettingen miniature pig (Sus scrofa domesticus) brain.

    PubMed

    Mahady, Laura J; Perez, Sylvia E; Emerich, Dwaine F; Wahlberg, Lars U; Mufson, Elliott J

    2017-02-15

    Central cholinergic structures within the brain of the even-toed hoofed Goettingen miniature domestic pig (Sus scrofa domesticus) were evaluated by immunohistochemical visualization of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and the low-affinity neurotrophin receptor, p75(NTR) . ChAT-immunoreactive (-ir) perikarya were seen in the olfactory tubercle, striatum, medial septal nucleus, vertical and horizontal limbs of the diagonal band of Broca, and the nucleus basalis of Meynert, medial habenular nucleus, zona incerta, neurosecretory arcuate nucleus, cranial motor nuclei III and IV, Edinger-Westphal nucleus, parabigeminal nucleus, pedunculopontine nucleus, and laterodorsal tegmental nucleus. Cholinergic ChAT-ir neurons were also found within transitional cortical areas (insular, cingulate, and piriform cortices) and hippocampus proper. ChAT-ir fibers were seen throughout the dentate gyrus and hippocampus, in the mediodorsal, laterodorsal, anteroventral, and parateanial thalamic nuclei, the fasciculus retroflexus of Meynert, basolateral and basomedial amygdaloid nuclei, anterior pretectal and interpeduncular nuclei, as well as select laminae of the superior colliculus. Double immunofluorescence demonstrated that virtually all ChAT-ir basal forebrain neurons were also p75(NTR) -positive. The present findings indicate that the central cholinergic system in the miniature pig is similar to other mammalian species. Therefore, the miniature pig may be an appropriate animal model for preclinical studies of neurodegenerative diseases where the cholinergic system is compromised. J. Comp. Neurol. 525:553-573, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Cognitive sequelae of head injury: involvement of basal forebrain and associated structures.

    PubMed

    Salmond, C H; Chatfield, D A; Menon, D K; Pickard, J D; Sahakian, B J

    2005-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury is the most common cause of death and disability in young people and survivors often suffer from chronic cognitive deficits. From animal, post-mortem and cognitive studies, there is now increased evidence that abnormalities in the cholinergic system may be underlying some of these deficits. This study investigated this hypothesis in a group of survivors of moderate-severe head injury (n = 31). Patients completed a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment and an MRI scan. Compared with a group of controls (matched on age, sex and premorbid intelligence quotient), the patients showed deficits in sustained attention, paired associate learning and reaction time, but comparative preservation of spatial working memory. Voxel-based morphometry revealed reduced grey matter density in the head injured group in the basal forebrain, the hippocampal formation and regions of the neocortex. These cognitive and structural results are consistent with cholinergic dysfunction. These preliminary findings suggest that cholinergic enhancers may be an effective treatment of cognitive deficits post head injury.

  12. Differential effects of unilateral olfactory deprivation on noradrenergic and cholinergic systems in the main olfactory bulb of the rat.

    PubMed

    Gómez, C; Briñón, J G; Colado, M I; Orio, L; Vidal, M; Barbado, M V; Alonso, J R

    2006-09-15

    The lack of environmental olfactory stimulation produced by sensory deprivation causes significant changes in the deprived olfactory bulb. Olfactory transmission in the main olfactory bulb (MOB) is strongly modulated by centrifugal systems. The present report examines the effects of unilateral deprivation on the noradrenergic and cholinergic centrifugal systems innervating the MOB. The morphology, distribution, and density of positive axons were studied in the MOBs of control and deprived rats, using dopamine-beta-hydroxylase (DBH)-immunohistochemistry and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) histochemistry in serial sections. Catecholamine content was compared among the different groups of MOBs (control, contralateral, and ipsilateral to the deprivation) using high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. Sensory deprivation revealed that the noradrenergic system developed adaptive plastic changes after olfactory deprivation, including important modifications in its fiber density and distribution, while no differences in cholinergic innervation were observed under the same conditions. The noradrenergic system underwent an important alteration in the glomerular layer, in which some glomeruli showed a dense noradrenergic innervation that was not detected in control animals. The DBH-positive glomeruli with the highest noradrenergic fiber density were compared with AChE-stained sections and it was observed that the strongly noradrenergic-innervated glomeruli were always atypical glomeruli (characterized by their strong degree of cholinergic innervation). In addition to the morphological findings, our biochemical data revealed that olfactory deprivation caused a decrease in the content of dopamine and its metabolite 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid in the ipsilateral MOB in comparison to the contralateral and control MOBs, together with an increase in noradrenaline levels in both the ipsilateral and contralateral MOBs. Our results show that regulation of the noradrenergic

  13. Involvement of the Nonneuronal Cholinergic System in Bone Remodeling in Rat Midpalatal Suture after Rapid Maxillary Expansion

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jie; Wang, Lue; Miao, Cong; Ge, Lihua; Tian, Zhenchuan; Wang, Jianhong

    2016-01-01

    Few studies sought to analyze the expression and function of the nonneuronal acetylcholine system in bone remodeling in vivo due to the lack of suitable models. We established a rat maxilla expansion model in which the midline palatine suture of the rat was rapidly expanded under mechanical force application, inducing tissue remodeling and new bone formation, which could be a suitable model to investigate the role of the nonneuronal acetylcholine system in bone remodeling in vivo. During the expansion, the expression pattern changes of the nonneuronal cholinergic system components and the mRNA levels of OPG/RANKL were detected by immunohistochemistry or real-time PCR. The value of the RANKL/OPG ratio significantly increased after 1 day of expansion, indicating dominant bone resorption induced by the mechanical stimulation; however after 3 days of expansion, the value of the RANKL/OPG ratio significantly decreased, suggesting a dominant role of the subsequent bone formation process. Increasing expression of Ach was detected after 3 days of expansion which indicated that ACh might play a role in bone formation. The mRNA expression levels of other components also showed observable changes during the expansion which confirmed the involvement of the nonneuronal cholinergic system in the process of bone remodeling in vivo. Further researches are still needed to figure out the detailed functions of the nonneuronal cholinergic system and its components. PMID:27478838

  14. Hippocampal long term memory: effect of the cholinergic system on local protein synthesis.

    PubMed

    Lana, Daniele; Cerbai, Francesca; Di Russo, Jacopo; Boscaro, Francesca; Giannetti, Ambra; Petkova-Kirova, Polina; Pugliese, Anna Maria; Giovannini, Maria Grazia

    2013-11-01

    The present study was aimed at establishing a link between the cholinergic system and the pathway of mTOR and its downstream effector p70S6K, likely actors in long term memory encoding. We performed in vivo behavioral experiments using the step down inhibitory avoidance test (IA) in adult Wistar rats to evaluate memory formation under different conditions, and immunohistochemistry on hippocampal slices to evaluate the level and the time-course of mTOR and p70S6K activation. We also examined the effect of RAPA, inhibitor of mTORC1 formation, and of the acetylcholine (ACh) muscarinic receptor antagonist scopolamine (SCOP) or ACh nicotinic receptor antagonist mecamylamine (MECA) on short and long term memory formation and on the functionality of the mTOR pathway. Acquisition test was performed 30 min after i.c.v. injection of RAPA, a time sufficient for the drug to diffuse to CA1 pyramidal neurons, as demonstrated by MALDI-TOF-TOF imaging. Recall test was performed 1 h, 4 h or 24 h after acquisition. To confirm our results we performed in vitro experiments on live hippocampal slices: we evaluated whether stimulation of the cholinergic system with the cholinergic receptor agonist carbachol (CCh) activated the mTOR pathway and whether the administration of the above-mentioned antagonists together with CCh could revert this activation. We found that (1) mTOR and p70S6K activation in the hippocampus were involved in long term memory formation; (2) RAPA administration caused inhibition of mTOR activation at 1 h and 4 h and of p70S6K activation at 4 h, and long term memory impairment at 24 h after acquisition; (3) scopolamine treatment caused short but not long term memory impairment with an early increase of mTOR/p70S6K activation at 1 h followed by stabilization at longer times; (4) mecamylamine plus scopolamine treatment caused short term memory impairment at 1 h and 4 h and reduced the scopolamine-induced increase of mTOR/p70S6K activation at 1 h and 4 h; (5

  15. Regulation of blood flow in adipose tissue: involvement of the cholinergic system.

    PubMed

    Sotorník, Richard; Baillargeon, Jean-Patrice; Gagnon-Auger, Maude; Ménard, Julie; Brassard, Pascal; Ardilouze, Jean-Luc

    2015-07-01

    Acetylcholine (Ach) has vasodilatory actions. However, data are conflicting about the role of Ach in regulating blood flow in subcutaneous adipose tissue (ATBF). This may be related to inaccurate ATBF recording or to the responder/nonresponder (R/NR) phenomenon. We showed previously that healthy individuals are R (ATBF increases postprandially by >50% of baseline BF) or NR (ATBF increases ≤50% postprandially). Our objective was to assess the role of the cholinergic system on ATBF in R and NR subjects. ATBF was manipulated by in situ microinfusion of vasoactive agents (VA) in AT and monitored by the (133)Xenon washout technique (both recognized methods) at the VA site and at the control site. We tested incrementally increasing doses of Ach (10(-5), 10(-3), and 10(-1) mol/l; n = 15) and Ach receptor antagonists (Ra) before and after oral administration of 75-g glucose using atropine (muscarinic Ra; 10(-4) mol/l, n = 13; 10(-5) mol/l, n = 22) and mecamylamine (nicotinic Ra; 10(-3) mol/l, n = 15; 10(-4) mol/l, n = 10). Compared with baseline [2.41 (1.36-2.83) ml·100 g(-1)·min(-1)], Ach increased ATBF dose dependently [3.32 (2.80-5.09), 6.46 (4.36-9.51), and 10.31 (7.98-11.52), P < 0.0001], with no difference between R and NR. Compared with control side, atropine (both concentrations) had no effect on fasting ATBF; only atropine 10(-4) mol/l decreased post-glucose ATBF [iAUC: 1.25 (0.32-2.91) vs. 1.98 (0.64-2.94); P = 0.04]. This effect was further apparent in R. Mecamylamine had no impact on fasting and postglucose ATBF in R and NR. Our results suggest that the cholinergic system is implicated in ATBF regulation, although it has no role in the blunting of ATBF response in NR.

  16. Stereotaxic probabilistic maps of the magnocellular cell groups in human basal forebrain

    PubMed Central

    Zaborszky, L.; Hoemke, L.; Mohlberg, H.; Schleicher, A.; Amunts, K.; Zilles, K.

    2008-01-01

    The basal forebrain contains several interdigitating anatomical structures, including the diagonal band of Broca, the basal nucleus of Meynert, the ventral striatum, and also cell groups underneath the globus pallidus that bridge the centromedial amygdala to the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. Among the cell populations, the magnocellular, cholinergic corticopetal projection neurons have received particular attention due to their loss in Alzheimer’s disease. In MRI images, the precise delineation of these structures is difficult due to limited spatial resolution and contrast. Here, using microscopic delineations in ten human postmortem brains, we present stereotaxic probabilistic maps of the basal forebrain areas containing the magnocellular cell groups. Cytoarchitectonic mapping was performed in silver stained histological serial sections. The positions and the extent of the magnocellular cell groups within the septum (Ch1-2), the horizontal limb of the diagonal band (Ch3), and in the sublenticular part of the basal forebrain (Ch4) were traced in high-resolution digitized histological sections, 3D reconstructed, and warped to the reference space of the MNI single subject brain. The superposition of the cytoarchitectonic maps in the MNI brain shows the intersubject variability of the various Ch compartments and their stereotaxic position relative to other brain structures. Both the right and left Ch4 regions showed significantly smaller volumes when age was considered as a covariate. Probabilistic maps of compartments of the basal forebrain magnocellular system are now available as an open source reference for correlation with fMRI, PET, and structural MRI data of the living human brain. PMID:18585468

  17. Ameliorative Effect of Ginsenoside Rg1 on Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Cognitive Impairment: Role of Cholinergic System.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yang; Peng, Jian; Wang, Xiaona; Zhang, Dong; Wang, Tianyin

    2017-01-11

    Bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) can induce systemic inflammation, and therefore disrupt learning and memory processes. Ginsenoside Rg1, a major bioactive component of ginseng, is shown to greatly improve cognitive function. The present study was designed to further investigate whether administration of ginsenoside Rg1 can ameliorate LPS-induced cognitive impairment in the Y-maze and Morris water maze (MWM) task, and to explore the underlying mechanisms. Results showed that exposure to LPS (500 μg/kg) significantly impaired working and spatial memory and that repeated treatment with ginsenoside Rg1 (200 mg/kg/day, for 30 days) could effectively alleviate the LPS-induced cognitive decline as indicated by increased working and spatial memory in the Y-maze and MWM tests. Furthermore, ginsenoside Rg1 treatment prevented LPS-induced decrease of acetylcholine (ACh) levels and increase of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity. Ginsenoside Rg1 treatment also reverted the decrease of alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7 nAChR) protein expression in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus of LPS-treated rats. These findings suggest that ginsenoside Rg1 has protective effect against LPS-induced cognitive deficit and that prevention of LPS-induced changes in cholinergic system is crucial to this ameliorating effect.

  18. Involvement of cholinergic and adenosinergic systems on the branchial immune response of experimentally infected silver catfish with Streptococcus agalactiae.

    PubMed

    Baldissera, M D; Souza, C F; Doleski, P H; Moreira, K L S; da Veiga, M L; da Rocha, M I U M; Santos, R C V; Baldisserotto, B

    2017-07-12

    It has been recognized that the cholinergic and adenosinergic systems have an essential role in immune and inflammatory responses during bacterial fish pathogens, such as the enzymes acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and adenosine deaminase (ADA), which are responsible for catalysis of the anti-inflammatory molecules acetylcholine (ACh) and adenosine (Ado) respectively. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of the cholinergic and adenosinergic systems on the immune response and inflammatory process in gills of experimentally infected Rhamdia quelen with Streptococcus agalactiae. Acetylcholinesterase activity decreased, while ACh levels increased in gills of infected animals compared to uninfected animals. On the other hand, a significant increase in ADA activity with a concomitant decrease in Ado levels was observed in infected animals compared to uninfected animals. Based on this evidence, we concluded that infection by S. agalactiae in silver catfish alters the cholinergic and adenosinergic systems, suggesting the involvement of AChE and ADA activities on immune and inflammatory responses, regulating the ACh and Ado levels. In summary, the downregulation of AChE activity exerts an anti-inflammatory profile in an attempt to reduce or prevent the tissue damage, while the upregulation of ADA activity exerts a pro-inflammatory profile, contributing to disease pathophysiology. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Neuroanatomical organization of the cholinergic system in the central nervous system of a basal actinopterygian fish, the senegal bichir Polypterus senegalus.

    PubMed

    López, Jesús M; Perlado, Jorge; Morona, Ruth; Northcutt, R Glenn; González, Agustín

    2013-01-01

    Polypterid bony fishes are believed to be basal to other living ray-finned fishes, and their brain organization is therefore critical in providing information as to primitive neural characters that existed in the earliest ray-finned fishes. The cholinergic system has been characterized in more advanced ray-finned fishes, but not in polypterids. In order to establish which cholinergic neural centers characterized the earliest ray-finned fishes, the distribution of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) is described in Polypterus and compared with the distribution of this molecule in other ray-finned fishes. Cell groups immunoreactive for ChAT were observed in the hypothalamus, the habenula, the optic tectum, the isthmus, the cranial motor nuclei, and the spinal motor column. Cholinergic fibers were observed in both the telencephalic pallium and the subpallium, in the thalamus and pretectum, in the optic tectum and torus semicircularis, in the mesencephalic tegmentum, in the cerebellar crest, in the solitary nucleus, and in the dorsal column nuclei. Comparison of the data within a segmental neuromeric context indicates that the cholinergic system in polypterid fishes is generally similar to that in other ray-finned fishes, but cholinergic-positive neurons in the pallium and subpallium, and in the thalamus and cerebellum, of teleosts appear to have evolved following the separation of polypterids and other ray-finned fishes.

  20. Changes in the cholinergic system of rat sciatic nerve and skeletal muscle following suspension induced disuse

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, R. C.; Misulis, K. E.; Dettbarn, W. D.

    1984-01-01

    Muscle disused induced changes in the cholinergic system of sciatic nerve, slow twitch soleus (SOL) and fast twitch extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle were studied in rats. Rats with hindlimbs suspended for 2 to 3 weeks showed marked elevation in the activity of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) in sciatic nerve (38%), in SOL (108%) and in EDL (67%). Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in SOL increased by 163% without changing the molecular forms pattern of 4S, 10S, 12S, and 16S. No significant changes in activity and molecular forms pattern of AChE were seen in EDL or in AChE activity of sciatic nerve. Nicotinic receptor binding of 3H-acetylcholine was increased in both muscles. When measured after 3 weeks of hindlimb suspension the normal distribution of type 1 fibers in SOL was reduced and a corresponding increase in type IIa and IIb fibers is seen. In EDL no significant change in fiber proportion is observed. Muscle activity, such as loadbearing, appears to have a greater controlling influence on the characteristics of the slow twitch SOL muscle than upon the fast twitch EDL muscle.

  1. The Role of Gut Microflora and the Cholinergic Anti-inflammatory Neuroendocrine System in Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Parekh, Parth J.; Nayi, Vipul R.; Johnson, David A.; Vinik, Aaron I.

    2016-01-01

    The obesity epidemic has drastically impacted the state of health care in the United States. Paralleling this epidemic is the incidence of diabetes mellitus, with a notable shift toward a much younger age of onset. While central to the pathogenesis of diabetes associated with obesity is the role of inflammation attributed to “adiposopathy.” Emerging data suggest that changes in sympathetic/parasympathetic balance regulated by the brain precede changes in the inflammatory cascade. It has now been established that the gut microflora contributes significantly to the activation and inhibition of autonomic control and impact the set of the neuroinflammatory inhibitory reflex mediated by the cholinergic nervous system. There has been a paradigm shift toward further investigating commensal bacteria in the pathogenesis of obesity and diabetes mellitus and its complications, as dysbiosis is thought to play a pivotal role in diabetic-associated disorders. This paper is intended to evaluate the role of intestinal dysbiosis in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus and examine the potential for restoration of balance via use of probiotics. PMID:27375553

  2. Involvement of Cholinergic and Opioid System in γ-Terpinene-Mediated Antinociception

    PubMed Central

    Passos, Flávia Franceli de Brito; Lopes, Everton Moraes; de Araújo, Jonas Moura; de Sousa, Damião Pergentino; Veras, Leiz Maria C.; Leite, José Roberto S. A.; Almeida, Fernanda Regina de Castro

    2015-01-01

    The literature shows that the monoterpenes are great candidates for the development of new drugs for the treatment of various pathological processes, including painful conditions. The gamma terpinene (γ-TPN) is a monoterpene present in plant species that have multiple pharmacological properties and has structural similarity to antinociceptive monoterpenes, such as limonene and alpha-phellandrene. The γ-TPN molecular mass was evaluated by mass spectrometry and showed a pseudomolecular ion with m/z 137.0 Da. The animals did not present any signs of acute toxicity at 2 g/kg, p.o. γ-TPN (1.562 to 50 mg/kg, p.o.) showed an antinociceptive effect in the formalin, capsaicin, and glutamate tests. γ-TPN has antinociceptive action when administered by others routes in glutamate test. To eliminate a possible sedative effect of γ-TPN, the open field and rota-rod test were conducted and the γ-TPN did not show muscle relaxant activity or central depressant effect. To investigate the mechanisms of action, the animals were pretreated with naloxone, glibenclamide, atropine, mecamylamine, or L-arginine in the glutamate test. γ-TPN antinociception was inhibited in the presence of naloxone, glibenclamide, atropine, and mecamylamine. The results suggest that the γ-TPN (p.o.) produced antinociceptive effect in models of chemical nociception through the cholinergic and opioid systems involvement. PMID:26170885

  3. [Anti-inflammatory role of cholinergic and serotonergic systems in shock].

    PubMed

    Nezhinskaia, G I; Vladykin, A L; Sapronov, N S

    2010-01-01

    Development of anaphylactic shock initiated with the horse serum (anaphylactic index = 4.0 +/- 0.0 arbitrary units) leads to acute decrease in spleen concentration of serotonin (in shock--0.443 +/- 0.005; basal level--1.532 +/- 0.004 ng per mg of protein). Unlike of anaphylaxis, development of endotoxic shock in rats, caused by introduction of a sublethal dose (20 mg/kg) of lipopolysaccharide, results in acute increase in serotonin concentration (at a shock--56.588 +/- 0.006, basal level--5.465 +/- 0.005 ng per mg of protein) and marked tachycardia (+76 +/- 8, intact rats--+2 +/- 1 beats per min). Administration of atropine with galantamine leads to the most essential decrease of anaphylactic reaction (1.5 +/- 0.3 arbitrary units). Administration of choline alfoscerate (-16 +/- 3 beats per min) or galantamine (+9 +/- 2 beats per min) significantly reduces tachycardia. Data show, that inhibition of the central cholinergic mechanisms leads to increase and their excitation--to decrease in activity of the spleen serotonergic system. So, spleen concentration of serotonin is connected with a target of shock defeat (lungs or heart).

  4. The Role of Gut Microflora and the Cholinergic Anti-inflammatory Neuroendocrine System in Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Parekh, Parth J; Nayi, Vipul R; Johnson, David A; Vinik, Aaron I

    2016-01-01

    The obesity epidemic has drastically impacted the state of health care in the United States. Paralleling this epidemic is the incidence of diabetes mellitus, with a notable shift toward a much younger age of onset. While central to the pathogenesis of diabetes associated with obesity is the role of inflammation attributed to "adiposopathy." Emerging data suggest that changes in sympathetic/parasympathetic balance regulated by the brain precede changes in the inflammatory cascade. It has now been established that the gut microflora contributes significantly to the activation and inhibition of autonomic control and impact the set of the neuroinflammatory inhibitory reflex mediated by the cholinergic nervous system. There has been a paradigm shift toward further investigating commensal bacteria in the pathogenesis of obesity and diabetes mellitus and its complications, as dysbiosis is thought to play a pivotal role in diabetic-associated disorders. This paper is intended to evaluate the role of intestinal dysbiosis in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus and examine the potential for restoration of balance via use of probiotics.

  5. Attentional control of associative learning—A possible role of the central cholinergic system

    PubMed Central

    Pauli, Wolfgang M.; O'Reilly, Randall C.

    2010-01-01

    How does attention interact with learning? Kruschke [Kruschke, J.K. (2001). Toward a unified Model of Attention in Associative Learning. J. Math. Psychol. 45, 812–863.] proposed a model (EXIT) that captures Mackintosh's [Mackintosh, N.J. (1975). A theory of attention: Variations in the associability of stimuli with reinforcement. Psychological Review, 82(4), 276–298.] framework for attentional modulation of associative learning. We developed a computational model that showed analogous interactions between selective attention and associative learning, but is significantly simplified and, in contrast to EXIT, is motivated by neurophysiological findings. Competition among input representations in the internal representation layer, which increases the contrast between stimuli, is critical for simulating these interactions in human behavior. Furthermore, this competition is modulated in a way that might be consistent with the phasic activation of the central cholinergic system, which modulates activity in sensory cortices. Specifically, phasic increases in acetylcholine can cause increased excitability of both pyramidal excitatory neurons in cortical layers II/III and cortical GABAergic inhibitory interneurons targeting the same pyramidal neurons. These effects result in increased attentional contrast in our model. This model thus represents an initial attempt to link human attentional learning data with underlying neural substrates. PMID:17870060

  6. The acute asymmetric effects of hemiovariectomy on testosterone secretion vary along the estrous cycle. The participation of the cholinergic system

    PubMed Central

    Flores, Angélica; Rodríguez, Jorge O; Palafox, María T; Meléndez, Griselda; Barco, Ana I; Chavira, Roberto; Esther Cruz, M; Domínguez, Roberto

    2006-01-01

    The presence of asymmetry in the capacity of the left and right ovaries to secrete testosterone was analyzed by studying the effects of hemiovariectomy along the estrus cycle one hour after surgery. The effects of ether anesthesia on hormone serum levels were also analyzed. Bilateral ovariectomy and the extirpation of the left ovary performed on the day of proestrus resulted in significantly lower testosterone levels. Compared to the anesthetized group, the effects of perforating the peritoneum unilaterally varied according to the day of the estrous cycle and the side of the peritoneum surgery was performed on. Injecting atropine sulfate (ATR) to control or anesthetized rats on D1 resulted in a significant increase of testosterone serum levels. The effects of perforating the peritoneum on testosterone levels depended on the cholinergic innervation and varied along the estrous cycle. Blocking the cholinergic system before performing unilateral or bilateral ovariectomy had different effects depending on the day of the estrous cycle. Testosterone plasma levels increased significantly when surgery was performed on the day of diestrus and dropped when surgery was performed on proestrus. Similar effects were observed when the left adrenal was extirpated from animals with the cholinergic system blocked. The results presented herein support the hypothesis of asymmetry in the ovaries' abilities to secrete steroid hormones, and that the capacity to secrete testosterone varies along the estrous cycle. PMID:16509991

  7. An In Vivo Pharmacological Screen Identifies Cholinergic Signaling as a Therapeutic Target in Glial-Based Nervous System Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Liqun; Hagemann, Tracy L.; Messing, Albee

    2016-01-01

    The role that glia play in neurological disease is poorly understood but increasingly acknowledged to be critical in a diverse group of disorders. Here we use a simple genetic model of Alexander disease, a progressive and severe human degenerative nervous system disease caused by a primary astroglial abnormality, to perform an in vivo screen of 1987 compounds, including many FDA-approved drugs and natural products. We identify four compounds capable of dose-dependent inhibition of nervous system toxicity. Focusing on one of these hits, glycopyrrolate, we confirm the role for muscarinic cholinergic signaling in pathogenesis using additional pharmacologic reagents and genetic approaches. We further demonstrate that muscarinic cholinergic signaling works through downstream Gαq to control oxidative stress and death of neurons and glia. Importantly, we document increased muscarinic cholinergic receptor expression in Alexander disease model mice and in postmortem brain tissue from Alexander disease patients, and that blocking muscarinic receptors in Alexander disease model mice reduces oxidative stress, emphasizing the translational significance of our findings. We have therefore identified glial muscarinic signaling as a potential therapeutic target in Alexander disease, and possibly in other gliopathic disorders as well. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Despite the urgent need for better treatments for neurological diseases, drug development for these devastating disorders has been challenging. The effectiveness of traditional large-scale in vitro screens may be limited by the lack of the appropriate molecular, cellular, and structural environment. Using a simple Drosophila model of Alexander disease, we performed a moderate throughput chemical screen of FDA-approved drugs and natural compounds, and found that reducing muscarinic cholinergic signaling ameliorated clinical symptoms and oxidative stress in Alexander disease model flies and mice. Our work demonstrates that small

  8. Chronic hypoxic incubation blunts thermally dependent cholinergic tone on the cardiovascular system in embryonic American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis).

    PubMed

    Marks, Chris; Eme, John; Elsey, Ruth M; Crossley, Dane A

    2013-10-01

    Environmental conditions play a major role in shaping reptilian embryonic development, but studies addressing the impact of interactions between chronic and acute environmental stressors on embryonic systems are lacking. In the present study, we investigated thermal dependence of cholinergic and adrenergic cardiovascular tone in embryonic American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) and assessed possible phenotypic plasticity in a chronic hypoxic incubation treatment. We compared changes in heart rate (f H) and mean arterial blood pressure (P M) for chronically hypoxic and normoxic-incubated embryos after cholinergic and adrenergic blockade following three different acute temperature treatments: (1) 30 °C (control incubation temperature), (2) acute, progressive decrease 30-24 °C then held at 24 °C, and (3) acute, progressive increase 30-36 °C then held at 36 °C. f H progressively fell in response to decreasing temperature and rose in response to increasing temperature. P M did not significantly change with decreasing temperature, but was lowered significantly with increasing acute temperature in the normoxic group at 90 % of development only. Propranolol administration (β adrenergic antagonist) produced a significant f H decrease at 24, 30, and 36 °C that was similar at all temperatures for all groups. For normoxic-incubated embryos at 90 % of development, atropine administration (cholinergic antagonist) significantly increased f H in both 24 and 36 °C treatments, but not in the 30 °C control treatment. This atropine response at 24 and 36 °C demonstrated acute thermally dependent cholinergic tone on f H late in development for normoxic-incubated, but not chronically hypoxic-incubated embryos. Collectively, data indicated that cardiovascular control mechanisms in embryonic alligators may be activated by thermal extremes, and the maturation of control mechanisms was delayed by chronic hypoxia.

  9. Paradoxical facilitation of object recognition memory after infusion of scopolamine into perirhinal cortex: implications for cholinergic system function.

    PubMed

    Winters, Boyer D; Saksida, Lisa M; Bussey, Timothy J

    2006-09-13

    The cholinergic system has long been implicated in learning and memory, yet its specific function remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the role of cortical acetylcholine in a rodent model of declarative memory by infusing the cholinergic muscarinic receptor antagonist scopolamine into the rat perirhinal cortex during different stages (encoding, storage/consolidation, and retrieval) of the spontaneous object recognition task. Presample infusions of scopolamine significantly impaired object recognition compared with performance of the same group of rats on saline trials; this result is consistent with previous reports supporting a role for perirhinal acetylcholine in object information acquisition. Scopolamine infusions directly before the retrieval stage had no discernible effect on object recognition. However, postsample infusions of scopolamine with sample-to-infusion delays of up to 20 h significantly facilitated performance relative to postsample saline infusion trials. Additional analysis suggested that the infusion episode could cause retroactive or proactive interference with the sample object trace and that scopolamine blocked the acquisition of this interfering information, thereby facilitating recognition memory. This is, to our knowledge, the first example of improved recognition memory after administration of scopolamine. The overall pattern of results is inconsistent with a direct role for cortical acetylcholine in declarative memory consolidation or retrieval. Rather, the cholinergic input to the perirhinal cortex may facilitate acquisition by enhancing the cortical processing of incoming stimulus information.

  10. Zebra Finch Mates Use Their Forebrain Song System in Unlearned Call Communication

    PubMed Central

    Ter Maat, Andries; Trost, Lisa; Sagunsky, Hannes; Seltmann, Susanne; Gahr, Manfred

    2014-01-01

    Unlearned calls are produced by all birds whereas learned songs are only found in three avian taxa, most notably in songbirds. The neural basis for song learning and production is formed by interconnected song nuclei: the song control system. In addition to song, zebra finches produce large numbers of soft, unlearned calls, among which “stack” calls are uttered frequently. To determine unequivocally the calls produced by each member of a group, we mounted miniature wireless microphones on each zebra finch. We find that group living paired males and females communicate using bilateral stack calling. To investigate the role of the song control system in call-based male female communication, we recorded the electrical activity in a premotor nucleus of the song control system in freely behaving male birds. The unique combination of acoustic monitoring together with wireless brain recording of individual zebra finches in groups shows that the neuronal activity of the song system correlates with the production of unlearned stack calls. The results suggest that the song system evolved from a brain circuit controlling simple unlearned calls to a system capable of producing acoustically rich, learned vocalizations. PMID:25313846

  11. Zebra finch mates use their forebrain song system in unlearned call communication.

    PubMed

    Ter Maat, Andries; Trost, Lisa; Sagunsky, Hannes; Seltmann, Susanne; Gahr, Manfred

    2014-01-01

    Unlearned calls are produced by all birds whereas learned songs are only found in three avian taxa, most notably in songbirds. The neural basis for song learning and production is formed by interconnected song nuclei: the song control system. In addition to song, zebra finches produce large numbers of soft, unlearned calls, among which "stack" calls are uttered frequently. To determine unequivocally the calls produced by each member of a group, we mounted miniature wireless microphones on each zebra finch. We find that group living paired males and females communicate using bilateral stack calling. To investigate the role of the song control system in call-based male female communication, we recorded the electrical activity in a premotor nucleus of the song control system in freely behaving male birds. The unique combination of acoustic monitoring together with wireless brain recording of individual zebra finches in groups shows that the neuronal activity of the song system correlates with the production of unlearned stack calls. The results suggest that the song system evolved from a brain circuit controlling simple unlearned calls to a system capable of producing acoustically rich, learned vocalizations.

  12. Genetic variation in the morphology of the septo-hippocampal cholinergic and GABAergic systems in mice: II. Morpho-behavioral correlations.

    PubMed

    Schwegler, H; Boldyreva, M; Linke, R; Wu, J; Zilles, K; Crusio, W E

    1996-01-01

    We investigated the contribution of the septo-hippocampal cholinergic and GABAergic system to spatial and nonspatial aspects of learning and memory that had previously been found to correlate with the extent of the hippocampal intra- and infrapyramidal mossy fiber projection in different inbred mouse strains. The following cholinergic and GABAergic markers were measured in the septi and hippocampi of male mice: the number of cholinergic and parvalbumin-containing neurons in the medial septum/vertical limb of the diagonal band of Broca (MS/vDB), the number of septo-hippocampal cholinergic and GABAergic projection neurons, the density of cholinergic fibers in different hippocampal subfields, and the density of muscarinic receptors (predominantly M1 and M2) in the hippocampus. In addition, animals were behaviorally tested for spatially dependent and activity-dependent variables in a water maze and spatial and nonspatial working and reference memory in different experimental set-ups in an eight-arm radial maze. Using only those variables for which significant strain differences were obtained, we looked for covariations between behavior and neuroanatomy. The density of cholinergic fibers in the dentate gyrus was significantly correlated with activity-dependent learning in the water maze, whereas the number of septo-hippocampal cholinergic projection neurons correlated with spatial and, to a lesser extent, also with nonspatial aspects of radial maze learning. Only weak correlations were found between receptor densities and behavioral traits. From these data we conclude that variations in the septo-hippocampal cholinergic system, like variations in the mossy fiber projection, entail functional consequences for different types of maze learning in mice.

  13. Role for the nicotinic cholinergic system in movement disorders; therapeutic implications.

    PubMed

    Quik, Maryka; Zhang, Danhui; Perez, Xiomara A; Bordia, Tanuja

    2014-10-01

    A large body of evidence using experimental animal models shows that the nicotinic cholinergic system is involved in the control of movement under physiological conditions. This work raised the question whether dysregulation of this system may contribute to motor dysfunction and whether drugs targeting nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) may be of therapeutic benefit in movement disorders. Accumulating preclinical studies now show that drugs acting at nAChRs improve drug-induced dyskinesias. The general nAChR agonist nicotine, as well as several nAChR agonists (varenicline, ABT-089 and ABT-894), reduces l-dopa-induced abnormal involuntary movements or dyskinesias up to 60% in parkinsonian nonhuman primates and rodents. These dyskinesias are potentially debilitating abnormal involuntary movements that arise as a complication of l-dopa therapy for Parkinson's disease. In addition, nicotine and varenicline decrease antipsychotic-induced abnormal involuntary movements in rodent models of tardive dyskinesia. Antipsychotic-induced dyskinesias frequently arise as a side effect of chronic drug treatment for schizophrenia, psychosis and other psychiatric disorders. Preclinical and clinical studies also show that the nAChR agonist varenicline improves balance and coordination in various ataxias. Lastly, nicotine has been reported to attenuate the dyskinetic symptoms of Tourette's disorder. Several nAChR subtypes appear to be involved in these beneficial effects of nicotine and nAChR drugs including α4β2*, α6β2* and α7 nAChRs (the asterisk indicates the possible presence of other subunits in the receptor). Overall, the above findings, coupled with nicotine's neuroprotective effects, suggest that nAChR drugs have potential for future drug development for movement disorders.

  14. The placental cholinergic system: localization to the cytotrophoblast and modulation of nitric oxide

    PubMed Central

    Bhuiyan, Md Badiul; Murad, Ferid; Fant, Michael E

    2006-01-01

    Background The human placenta, a non-neuronal tissue, contains an active cholinergic system comprised of acetylcholine (ACh), choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and high affinity muscarinic receptors. The cell(s) of origin of placental ACh and its role in trophoblast function has not been defined. These studies were performed to define the cellular location of ACh synthesis (ChAT) in the human placenta and to begin studying its functional role. Results Using immunohistochemical techniques, ChAT was observed primarily within the cytotrophoblasts of preterm placentae as well as some mesenchymal elements. Similar intense immunostaining of the cytotrophoblast was observed for endothelium-derived nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) suggesting that ACh may interact with nitric oxide (NO)-dependent signaling pathways. The ability of carbamylcholine (CCh), an ACh analogue, to stimulate a rise in intracellular Ca++ and NO production in trophoblasts was therefore tested using the BeWob30 choriocarcinoma cell as a model system. First, CCh significantly increased intracellular calcium as assessed by fluorescence microscopy. We then examined the ability of CCh to stimulate NO production by measuring total nitrite/nitrate production in conditioned media using chemiluminescence-based analysis. CCh, alone, had no effect on NO production. However, CCh increased measurable NO approximately 100% in the presence of 10 nM estradiol. This stimulatory effect was inhibited by 1 (micro)M scopolamine suggesting mediation via muscarinic receptors. Estradiol, alone, had no effect on total NO or eNOS protein or mRNA. Conclusion These data demonstrate that placental ChAT localizes to the cytotrophoblast and some mesenchymal cells in human placenta. It further suggests that ACh acts via muscarinic receptors on the trophoblast cell membrane to modulate NO in an estrogen-dependent manner. PMID:16686954

  15. Dexmedetomidine controls systemic cytokine levels through the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Hui; Hu, Bo; Li, Zhifeng; Li, Jianguo

    2014-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that dexmedetomidine exerted anti-inflammatory effect on several animal models with inflammation, but the mechanism is not clear. This study intends to elucidate the anti-inflammatory mechanism of dexmedetomidine through the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway. To investigate this therapeutic potential of dexmedetomidine, a murine model of endotoxemia was established induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Animals were assigned to one of four protocols. Protocol one: animals were randomly assigned to control group, dexmedetomidine group, and sterile saline group (n=20 each), and these animals were used for survival analysis. The survival rate was assessed up to 120 h after endotoxin injection. Protocol two: animals were randomly assigned to one of four groups (n=16 each): group 1 (group Saline), treated with sterile saline 15 min prior to endotoxin treatment (10 mg kg(-1) over 2 min); group 2 (group Dex), treated with dexmedetomidine 15 min prior to endotoxin treatment; group 3 (group αBGT+Dex), treated with alpha-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7nAChR) antagonist alpha-bungarotoxin (αBGT, 1 μg/kg) 15 min prior to dexmedetomidine treatment; group 4 (group saline+Dex), treated with equivalent sterile saline 15 min prior to dexmedetomidine treatment. Protocol three: animals were randomly assigned to one of two groups (n=16 each): vagotomy group (group VNX+Dex), right cervical vagus nerve was exposed and transected; sham-operated group (group SHAM+Dex), the cervical vagus nerve was visualized, but was neither isolated from the surrounding tissues nor transected. Protocol four: animals were treated with dexmedetomidine (40 μg/kg) and sterile saline to observe the discharge activity of cervical vagus nerves by using BL-420F data acquisition and analysis system (n=16 each). In the survival analysis groups, the survival rate of dexmedetomidine group was significantly higher than that of the endotoxemia group (65 versus 25 %, P<0

  16. Cholinergic System and Oxidative Stress Changes in the Brain of a Zebrafish Model Chronically Exposed to Ethanol.

    PubMed

    Agostini, Jotele Fontana; Toé, Helena Cristina Zuehl Dal; Vieira, Karine Medeiros; Baldin, Samira Leila; Costa, Naithan Ludian Fernandes; Cruz, Carolina Uribe; Longo, Larisse; Machado, Marcel Marcos; da Silveira, Themis Reverbel; Schuck, Patrícia Fernanda; Rico, Eduardo Pacheco

    2017-09-23

    Ethanol is a widely used drug, and excess or even moderate consumption of ethanol is associated with changes in several neurotransmitter systems, including the cholinergic system. The incidence of alcoholic dementia and its insults are well supported by multiple studies, although the mechanisms of neurotoxicity are still poorly understood. Considering that zebrafish have a complete central nervous system (CNS) and that several signaling systems have already been identified in zebrafish, this neurotoxicological model has become useful. In the present study, we investigated the long-term effects of ethanol consumption on the cholinergic system, on oxidative stress, and on inflammatory parameters in the zebrafish brain. Animals were exposed to 0.5% (v/v) ethanol for 7, 14, and 28 days. Ethanol inhibited choline acetyltransferase activity after 7 and 14 days but not after 28 days. Acetylcholinesterase activity did not change after any of the exposure periods. When compared to the control group, thiobarbituric acid reactive species and dichlorodihydrofluorescein levels were increased after chronic ethanol exposure. Antioxidant activity promoted by the CAT/SOD ratio was altered after chronic ethanol exposure, suggesting that EtOH can induce oxidative damage in the zebrafish brain. In contrast, nitrate and nitrite levels and sulfhydryl content were not altered. Ethanol did not modify gene expression of the inflammatory cytokines il-1b, il-10, or tnf-α in the zebrafish brain. Therefore, the cholinergic system and the oxidative balance were targeted by chronic ethanol toxicity. This neurochemical regulatory mechanism may play an important role in understanding the effects of long-term ethanol consumption and tolerance in zebrafish model studies.

  17. Dysfunction of the non-neuronal cholinergic system in the airways and blood cells of patients with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Wessler, Ignaz; Bittinger, Fernando; Kamin, Wolfgang; Zepp, Fred; Meyer, Eckhard; Schad, Arno; Kirkpatrick, Charles James

    2007-05-30

    The non-neuronal cholinergic system is widely expressed in human airways, skin and immune cells. Choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), acetylcholine and nicotine/muscarine receptors are demonstrated in epithelial surface cells, submucosal glands, airway smooth muscle fibres and immune cells. Moreover, acetylcholine is involved in the regulation of cell functions like proliferation, differentiation, migration, organization of the cytoskeleton, cell-cell contact, secretion and transport of ions and water. Cystic fibrosis (CF), the most frequent genetic disorder, is known to be caused by a mutation of the CF-gene coding for the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator protein (CFTR). CFTR represents a regulating transport protein for ion channels and processes involving endo- and exocytosis. Despite the identification of the genetic mutation knowledge of the underlying cellular pathways is limited. In the present experiments the cholinergic system was investigated in the peripheral blood and in the lung of CF patients undergoing lung transplantation (n=7). Acetylcholine content in bronchi and lung parenchyma of CF was reduced by 70% compared to controls (tumor-free tissue obtained from patients with lung tumor; n=13). In contrast, ChAT activity was elevated to some extent (p>0.05) in CF, and esterase activity did not differ from control. Acetylcholine content extracted from peripheral leucocytes (30 ml) was also reduced by 70% in CF (n=13) compared to healthy volunteers (n=9). Double labelling experiments with anti-CF antibodies and anti-ChAT antibodies showed a co-localization in peripheral lymphocytes, giving first evidence that CFTR may be linked with the intracellular storage/transport of non-neuronal acetylcholine. It is concluded that the non-neuronal cholinergic system is involved in the pathogenesis of CF. A reduced content of non-neuronal acetylcholine could contribute to the deleterious changes of epithelial ion and water movements in CF, because acetylcholine

  18. Basal forebrain dynamics during nonassociative and associative olfactory learning

    PubMed Central

    Devore, Sasha; Pender-Morris, Nathaniel; Dean, Owen; Smith, David

    2015-01-01

    Cholinergic and GABAergic projections from the horizontal diagonal band (HDB) and medial preoptic area (MCPO) of the basal forebrain to the olfactory system are associated with odor discrimination and odor learning, as well as modulation of neural responses in olfactory structures. Whereas pharmacological and lesion studies give insights into the functional role of these modulatory inputs on a slow timescale, the response dynamics of neurons in the HDB/MCPO during olfactory behaviors have not been investigated. In this study we examined how these neurons respond during two olfactory behaviors: spontaneous investigation of odorants and odor-reward association learning. We observe rich heterogeneity in the response dynamics of individual HDB/MCPO neurons, with a substantial fraction of neurons exhibiting task-related modulation. HDB/MCPO neurons show both rapid and transient responses during bouts of odor investigation and slow, long-lasting modulation of overall response rate based on behavioral demands. Specifically, baseline rates were higher during the acquisition phase of an odor-reward association than during spontaneous investigation or the recall phase of an odor reward association. Our results suggest that modulatory projections from the HDB/MCPO are poised to influence olfactory processing on multiple timescales, from hundreds of milliseconds to minutes, and are therefore capable of rapidly setting olfactory network dynamics during odor processing and learning. PMID:26561601

  19. Basal forebrain dynamics during nonassociative and associative olfactory learning.

    PubMed

    Devore, Sasha; Pender-Morris, Nathaniel; Dean, Owen; Smith, David; Linster, Christiane

    2016-01-01

    Cholinergic and GABAergic projections from the horizontal diagonal band (HDB) and medial preoptic area (MCPO) of the basal forebrain to the olfactory system are associated with odor discrimination and odor learning, as well as modulation of neural responses in olfactory structures. Whereas pharmacological and lesion studies give insights into the functional role of these modulatory inputs on a slow timescale, the response dynamics of neurons in the HDB/MCPO during olfactory behaviors have not been investigated. In this study we examined how these neurons respond during two olfactory behaviors: spontaneous investigation of odorants and odor-reward association learning. We observe rich heterogeneity in the response dynamics of individual HDB/MCPO neurons, with a substantial fraction of neurons exhibiting task-related modulation. HDB/MCPO neurons show both rapid and transient responses during bouts of odor investigation and slow, long-lasting modulation of overall response rate based on behavioral demands. Specifically, baseline rates were higher during the acquisition phase of an odor-reward association than during spontaneous investigation or the recall phase of an odor reward association. Our results suggest that modulatory projections from the HDB/MCPO are poised to influence olfactory processing on multiple timescales, from hundreds of milliseconds to minutes, and are therefore capable of rapidly setting olfactory network dynamics during odor processing and learning.

  20. Demodex canis regulates cholinergic system mediated immunosuppressive pathways in canine demodicosis.

    PubMed

    Kumari, P; Nigam, R; Singh, A; Nakade, U P; Sharma, A; Garg, S K; Singh, S K

    2017-09-01

    Demodex canis infestation in dogs remains one of the main challenges in veterinary dermatology. The exact pathogenesis of canine demodicosis is unknown but an aberration in immune status is considered very significant. No studies have underpinned the nexus between induction of demodicosis and neural immunosuppressive pathways so far. We have evaluated the involvement of cholinergic pathways in association with cytokines regulation as an insight into the immuno-pathogenesis of canine demodicosis in the present study. Remarkable elevations in circulatory immunosuppressive cytokine interleukin-10 and cholinesterase activity were observed in dogs with demodicosis. Simultaneously, remarkable reduction in circulatory pro-inflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor-alpha level was observed in dogs with demodicosis. Findings of the present study evidently suggest that Demodex mites might be affecting the cholinergic pathways to induce immunosuppression in their host and then proliferate incessantly in skin microenvironment to cause demodicosis.

  1. Developmental Neurotoxicity of Tobacco Smoke Directed Toward Cholinergic and Serotonergic Systems: More Than Just Nicotine.

    PubMed

    Slotkin, Theodore A; Skavicus, Samantha; Card, Jennifer; Stadler, Ashley; Levin, Edward D; Seidler, Frederic J

    2015-09-01

    Tobacco smoke contains thousands of compounds in addition to nicotine, a known neuroteratogen. We evaluated the developmental neurotoxicity of tobacco smoke extract (TSE) administered to pregnant rats starting preconception and continued through the second postnatal week. We simulated nicotine concentrations encountered with second-hand smoke, an order of magnitude below those seen in active smokers, and compared TSE with an equivalent dose of nicotine alone, and to a 10-fold higher nicotine dose. We conducted longitudinal evaluations in multiple brain regions, starting in adolescence (postnatal day 30) and continued to full adulthood (day 150). TSE exposure impaired presynaptic cholinergic activity, exacerbated by a decrement in nicotinic cholinergic receptor concentrations. Although both nicotine doses produced presynaptic cholinergic deficits, these were partially compensated by hyperinnervation and receptor upregulation, effects that were absent with TSE. TSE also produced deficits in serotonin receptors in females that were not seen with nicotine. Regression analysis showed a profound sex difference in the degree to which nicotine could account for overall TSE effects: whereas the 2 nicotine doses accounted for 36%-46% of TSE effects in males, it accounted for only 7%-13% in females. Our results show that the adverse effects of TSE on neurodevelopment exceed those that can be attributed to just the nicotine present in the mixture, and further, that the sensitivity extends down to levels commensurate with second-hand smoke exposure. Because nicotine itself evoked deficits at low exposures, "harm reduction" nicotine products do not eliminate the potential for neurodevelopmental damage.

  2. The character of sleep disturbances produced by multiple administrations of atropine the antagonist of brain muscarinic cholinergic system.

    PubMed

    Maglakelidze, N T; Chkhartishvili, E V; Mchedlidze, O M; Dzadzamiia, Sh Sh; Nachkebiia, N G

    2012-03-01

    Modification of brain muscarinic cholinergic system normal functioning can be considered as an appropriate strategy for the study of its role in sleep-wakefulness cycle basic mechanisms in general and in the course/maintenance of PS in particular. For this aim systemic application of muscarinic cholinoreceptors antagonists is significant because it gives possibility to modify functioning all of known five sub-types of muscarinic cholinoreceptors and to study the character of sleep disturbances in these conditions. Problem is very topical because the question about the intimate aspects of BMChS involvement in PS maintaining mechanisms still remains unsolved. In cats Atropine systemic administration was made once daily at 10:00 a.m. and continuous EEG registration of sleep-wakefulness cycle ultradian structure, lasting for 10 hour daily, was started immediately. In sum each animal received anti-muscarinic drugs for 12 times. Thereafter drug administrations were ceased and EEG registration of sleep-wakefulness cycle ultradian structure was continued during 10 consecutive days. On the basis of results obtained in these conditions we can conclude that brain muscarinic cholinergic system normal functioning is significant for basic mechanisms of sleep-wakefulness cycle. During wakefulness, at the level of neocortex and hippocampus, MChS supports only EEG activation, while it is one of the main factors in PS triggering and maintaining mechanisms.

  3. Effects of central galanin administration on muscarinic cholinergic and galanin receptor G protein coupling.

    PubMed

    Barreda-Gómez, G; Giralt, M T; Rodríguez-Puertas, R

    2005-06-01

    The neuropeptide galanin is expressed in the mammalian central nervous system and has been implicated in neurotrophic actions. Central galanin administration induces cognitive deficits in rodents and inhibits the release of acetylcholine in the hippocampus. In addition, a galanin hyperinnervation of the basal forebrain cholinergic cells in Alzheimer's disease patients has been reported. To evaluate the effect of galanin treatment on galanin and muscarinic cholinergic receptor G protein coupling, galanin was administered into the lateral ventricle of rats via an implanted cannula. Galanin or muscarinic receptor functional coupling to G proteins was quantified by galanin or carbachol stimulation of guanosine 5'-(gamma-[35S]thio)triphosphate binding in rat brain slices. Guanosine 5'-(gamma-[35S]thio)triphosphate basal binding in nucleus basalis of Meynert and thalamic nuclei was increased in the vehicle treated group. This effect was reverted by galanin treatment and indicates that the surgery increased receptor functional coupling to G proteins, which is restored by a possible neurotrophic action mediated by galanin. In addition, in galanin administered animals, galanin-stimulated binding was increased in the amygdala but decreased in the diagonal band, whilst binding stimulation mediated by carbachol was found to be increased in the amygdala, thalamic nuclei and diagonal band. These findings indicate that galanin treatment modulates the coupling of galanin and muscarinic cholinergic receptors to G proteins in specific regions of the rat central nervous system.

  4. Effects of Maternal Choline Supplementation on the Septohippocampal Cholinergic System in the Ts65Dn Mouse Model of Down Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Christy M; Ash, Jessica A; Powers, Brian E; Velazquez, Ramon; Alldred, Melissa J; Ikonomovic, Milos D; Ginsberg, Stephen D; Strupp, Barbara J; Mufson, Elliott J

    2016-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS), caused by trisomy of chromosome 21, is marked by intellectual disability (ID) and early onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD) neuropathology including hippocampal cholinergic projection system degeneration. Here we determined the effects of age and maternal choline supplementation (MCS) on hippocampal cholinergic deficits in Ts65Dn mice compared to 2N mice sacrificed at 6-8 and 14-18 months of age. Ts65Dn mice and disomic (2N) littermates sacrificed at ages 6-8 and 14-18 mos were used for an aging study and Ts65Dn and 2N mice derived from Ts65Dn dams were maintained on either a choline-supplemented or a choline-controlled diet (conception to weaning) and examined at 14-18 mos for MCS studies. In the latter, mice were behaviorally tested on the radial arm Morris water maze (RAWM) and hippocampal tissue was examined for intensity of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) immunoreactivity. Hippocampal ChAT activity was evaluated in a separate cohort. ChAT-positive fiber innervation was significantly higher in the hippocampus and dentate gyrus in Ts65Dn mice compared with 2N mice, independent of age or maternal diet. Similarly, hippocampal ChAT activity was significantly elevated in Ts65Dn mice compared to 2N mice, independent of maternal diet. A significant increase with age was seen in hippocampal cholinergic innervation of 2N mice, but not Ts65Dn mice. Degree of ChAT intensity correlated negatively with spatial memory ability in unsupplemented 2N and Ts65Dn mice, but positively in MCS 2N mice. The increased innervation produced by MCS appears to improve hippocampal function, making this a therapy that may be exploited for future translational approaches in human DS.

  5. Effects of Maternal Choline Supplementation on the Septohippocampal Cholinergic System in the Ts65Dn Mouse Model of Down Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kelley, Christy M.; Ash, Jessica A.; Powers, Brian E.; Velazquez, Ramon; Alldred, Melissa J.; Ikonomovic, Milos D.; Ginsberg, Stephen D.; Strupp, Barbara J.; Mufson, Elliott J.

    2016-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS), caused by trisomy of chromosome 21, is marked by intellectual disability (ID) and early onset of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) neuropathology including hippocampal cholinergic projection system degeneration. Here we determined the effects of age and maternal choline supplementation (MCS) on hippocampal cholinergic deficits in Ts65Dn mice. Ts65Dn mice and disomic (2N) littermates sacrificed at ages 6–8 and 14–18 mos were used for an aging study, and Ts65Dn and 2N mice derived from Ts65Dn dams were maintained on either a choline-supplemented or a choline-controlled diet (conception to weaning) and examined at 14–18 mos for MCS studies. In the latter, mice were behaviorally tested on the radial arm Morris water maze (RAWM) and hippocampal tissue was examined for intensity of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) immunoreactivity. Hippocampal ChAT activity was evaluated in a separate cohort. ChAT-positive fiber innervation was significantly higher in the hippocampus and dentate gyrus in Ts65Dn mice compared with 2N mice, independent of age or maternal diet. Similarly, hippocampal ChAT activity was significantly elevated in TS65Dn mice compared to 2N mice, independent of maternal diet. A significant increase with age was seen in hippocampal cholinergic innervation of 2N mice, but not Ts65Dn mice. Degree of ChAT intensity correlated negatively with spatial memory ability in unsupplemented 2N and Ts65Dn mice, but positively in MCS 2N mice. The increased innervation produced by MCS appears to improve hippocampal function, making this a therapy that may be exploited for future translational approaches in human DS. PMID:26391045

  6. Involvement of cholinergic and purinergic systems during the inflammatory response caused by Aeromonas hydrophila in Rhamdia quelen.

    PubMed

    Baldissera, Matheus D; Souza, Carine F; Doleski, Pedro Henrique; Júnior, Guerino B; de Vargas, Agueda C; Baldisserotto, Bernardo

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the cholinergic (acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE)) and purinergic (adenosine deaminase (ADA)) systems in head kidney, spleen, total blood and serum samples in experimentally infected fish with A. hydrophila, and the involvement of these systems during the inflammatory process. Silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) juveniles were divided into two groups with seven fish each: uninfected (negative control) and infected (positive control). On day 2 post-infection, animals were euthanized and the head kidney, spleen, total blood and serum were collected. AChE and ADA activities in head kidney and spleen decreased in infected animals compared to uninfected animals, as well as AChE in total blood and seric ADA activities. BChE activity was not expressed in the evaluated tissues. Therefore, our results lead to the hypothesis that cholinergic and purinergic systems play an important role on the immune response against A. hydrophila with an anti-inflammatory effect. In summary, AChE and ADA activities reduced probably in order to protect against tissue inflammatory damage caused by infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Cell migration in the forebrain.

    PubMed

    Marín, Oscar; Rubenstein, John L R

    2003-01-01

    The forebrain comprises an intricate set of structures that are required for some of the most complex and evolved functions of the mammalian brain. As a reflection of its complexity, cell migration in the forebrain is extremely elaborated, with widespread dispersion of cells across multiple functionally distinct areas. Two general modes of migration are distinguished in the forebrain: radial migration, which establishes the general cytoarchitectonical framework of the different forebrain subdivisions; and tangential migration, which increases the cellular complexity of forebrain circuits by allowing the dispersion of multiple neuronal types. Here, we review the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying each of these types of migrations and discuss how emerging concepts in neuronal migration are reshaping our understanding of forebrain development in normal and pathological situations.

  8. Caffeine elicits c-Fos expression in horizontal diagonal band cholinergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Reznikov, Leah R; Pasumarthi, Ravi K; Fadel, Jim R

    2009-12-09

    Caffeine is a widely self-administered psychostimulant with purported neuroprotective and procognitive effects in rodent models of aging. The cholinergic basal forebrain is important for arousal and attention and is implicated in age-related cognitive decline. Accordingly, we determined the effects of caffeine on cholinergic neuron activation in the rat basal forebrain. Young adult (age 2 months) male rats were treated with caffeine (0, 10, or 50 mg/kg) and killed 2 h later. Caffeine significantly increased c-Fos expression in cholinergic neurons of the horizontal limb of the diagonal band of Broca but not other basal forebrain regions such as the medial septum or substantia innominata. The horizontal limb of the diagonal band of Broca provides cholinergic innervation to the olfactory bulb, suggesting that deficits in this structure may contribute to diminished olfactory function observed in Alzheimer's disease patients. These results suggest that part of the cognitive-enhancing effects of caffeine may be mediated through activation of this part of the cholinergic basal forebrain.

  9. Possible interaction of cholinergic and GABAergic systems between MS and CA1 upon memory acquisition in rats.

    PubMed

    Yousefi, Behnam; Nasehi, Mohammad; Khakpai, Fatemeh; Zarrindast, Mohammad Reza

    2012-12-01

    The present study explored the possibility that cholinergic and GABAergic systems of medial septum (MS) might influence acquisition of memory by regulation of acetylcholine (Ach) and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors function in hippocampus and vice versa. The step-through passive avoidance (PA) task was used. The results showed that pre-training intra-MS/CA1 administration of nonselective muscarinic Ach antagonist, scopolamine (0.5, 1 and 2 μg/rat) and GABA(A) receptor agonist, muscimol (0.01 and 0.02 μg/rat) impaired, while acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, physostigmine (0.5 and 1 μg/rat) and GABA(A) receptor antagonist, bicuculline (0.25 μg/rat) improved memory acquisition. Moreover, intra-CA1/MS administration of a subthreshold dose of muscimol or bicuculline increased and reversed the impairment induced by scopolamine in MS/CA1 respectively (cross injection). Also, the result revealed that, intra-CA1/MS administration subthreshold dose of muscimol reduced improvement of memory induced by physostigmine in the MS/CA1, respectively (cross injection). On the other hand, subthreshold dose of bicuculline in CA1/MS did not alter memory improvement induced by physostigmine in the other site (MS/CA1). In conclusion, both cholinergic and GABAergic systems not only seem to play a role in the modulation of memory in the MS and CA1 but also to have a complex interaction.

  10. Open field exposure facilitates recovery from an aversive emotional event: Involvement of adrenergic and cholinergic transmitter systems.

    PubMed

    Psyrdellis, Mariana; Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos; Justel, Nadia

    2016-10-28

    Successive negative contrast (SNC) is an incentive relativity procedure that has been widely used to model emotional reactivity in rodents. The reward downshift experienced during SNC is thought to result in frustration. The exploration of a novel open field (OF), a complex situation involving stress induction and novelty detection, can enhance or block the acquisition of associative and non-associative memories. Previous experiments found a modulatory effect of OF, applied before downshift trials, on SNC. This schedule, however, can affect retention performance by influencing attentional, motivational, motor or sensory-perceptual mechanisms at training or retention testing. The use of post-training OF exposure avoids these confounds. This work assessed the effect of OF exposure after the acquisition of the downshifted memory, with the goal of targeting the consolidation of this mnemonic trace. We also investigated the involvement of the cholinergic and adrenergic systems in this phenomenon. The results indicated that OF facilitates recovery from reward loss and that both transmitter systems, cholinergic and adrenergic, play a role in this effect of OF.

  11. Comparative analysis of the organization of the cholinergic system in the brains of two holostean fishes, the Florida gar Lepisosteus platyrhincus and the bowfin Amia calva.

    PubMed

    Morona, Ruth; López, Jesús M; Northcutt, R Glenn; González, Agustín

    2013-01-01

    The cholinergic system in the brain has been widely studied in most vertebrate groups, but there is no information available about this neurotransmission system in the brains of holostean fishes, a primitive and poorly understood group of actinopterygian fishes. The present study provides the first detailed information on the distribution of cholinergic cell bodies and fibers in the central nervous system in two holostean species, the Florida gar, Lepisosteus platyrhincus, and the bowfin, Amia calva. Immmunohistochemistry against the enzyme choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) revealed distinct groups of ChAT-immunoreactive (ChAT-ir) cells in the habenula, isthmic nucleus, laterodorsal tegmental nucleus, octavolateral area, reticular formation, cranial nerve motor nuclei and the motor column of the spinal cord, all of which seem to be highly conserved among vertebrates. Some ChAT-ir cells were detected in the basal telencephalon that appear in actinopterygians for the first time in the evolution of this neurotransmission system, whereas the remarkable cholinergic population in the optic tectum is a peculiar characteristic, the presence of which varies throughout evolution, although it is present in all teleosts studied. Abundant cholinergic fibers were found in the pretectal region and optic tectum, where they probably modulate vision, and in the hypothalamus and the interpeduncular neuropil. Some interspecific differences were also observed, such as the presence of ChAT-ir cells in the supraoptoparaventricular band only in Lepisosteus and in in the nucleus subglomerulosus only in Amia. In addition, ChAT-ir fibers in the olfactory bulb were detected only in Amia. Comparison of these results with those from other classes of vertebrates, and a segmental analysis to correlate cell populations, reveal that the pattern of the cholinergic system in holosteans is very close to that in ancestral actinopterygian fishes, as recently described in the bichir (Cladistia), although

  12. Shotgun proteomics implicates extracellular matrix proteins and protease systems in neuronal development induced by astrocyte cholinergic stimulation.

    PubMed

    Moore, Nadia H; Costa, Lucio G; Shaffer, Scott A; Goodlett, David R; Guizzetti, Marina

    2009-02-01

    Astrocytes play an important role in neuronal development through the release of soluble factors that affect neuronal maturation. Shotgun proteomics followed by gene ontology analysis was used in this study to identify proteins present in the conditioned medium of primary rat astrocytes. One hundred and thirty three secreted proteins were identified, the majority of which were never before reported to be produced by astrocytes. Extracellular proteins were classified based on their biological and molecular functions; most of the identified proteins were involved in neuronal development. Semi-quantitative proteomic analysis was carried out to identify changes in the levels of proteins released by astrocytes after stimulation with the cholinergic agonist carbachol, as we have previously reported that carbachol-treated astrocytes elicit neuritogenesis in hippocampal neurons through the release of soluble factors. Carbachol up-regulated secretion of 15 proteins and down-regulated the release of 17 proteins. Changes in the levels of four proteins involved in neuronal differentiation (thrombospondin-1, fibronectin, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, and plasminogen activator urokinase) were verified by western blot or ELISA. In conclusion, this study identified a large number of proteins involved in neuronal development in the astrocyte secretome and implicated extracellular matrix proteins and protease systems in neuronal development induced by astrocyte cholinergic stimulation.

  13. Shotgun proteomics implicates extracellular matrix proteins and protease systems in neuronal development induced by astrocyte cholinergic stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Nadia H.; Costa, Lucio G.; Shaffer, Scott A; Goodlett, David R.; Guizzetti, Marina

    2009-01-01

    Astrocytes play an important role in neuronal development through the release of soluble factors that affect neuronal maturation. Shotgun proteomics followed by Gene Ontology analysis was used in this study to identify proteins present in the conditioned medium of primary rat astrocytes. 133 secreted proteins were identified, the majority of which were never before reported to be produced by astrocytes. Extracellular proteins were classified based on their biological and molecular functions; most of the identified proteins were involved in neuronal development. Semi-quantitative proteomic analysis was carried out to identify changes in the levels of proteins released by astrocytes after stimulation with the cholinergic agonist carbachol, as we have previously reported that carbachol-treated astrocytes elicit neuritogenesis in hippocampal neurons through the release of soluble factors. Carbachol up-regulated the secretion of 15 proteins and down-regulated the release of 17 proteins. Changes in the levels of four proteins involved in neuronal differentiation (thrombospondin-1, fibronectin, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, and plasminogen activator urokinase) were verified by Western blot or ELISA. In conclusion, this study identified a large number of proteins involved in neuronal development in the astrocyte secretome and implicated extracellular matrix proteins and protease systems in neuronal development induced by astrocyte cholinergic stimulation. PMID:19077055

  14. Interactions between β-amyloid and central cholinergic neurons: implications for Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Kar, Satyabrata; Slowikowski, Stephen P.M.; Westaway, David; Mount, Howard T.J.

    2004-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease is an age-related neurodegenerative disorder that is characterized by a progressive loss of memory and deterioration of higher cognitive functions. The brain of an individual with Alzheimer's disease exhibits extracellular plaques of aggregated β-amyloid protein (Aβ), intracellular neurofibrillary tangles that contain hyperphosphorylated tau protein and a profound loss of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons that innervate the hippocampus and the neocortex. Aβ accumulation may trigger or contribute to the process of neurodegeneration. However, the mechanisms whereby Aβ induces basal forebrain cholinergic cell loss and cognitive impairment remain obscure. Physiologically relevant concentrations of Aβ-related peptides have acute, negative effects on multiple aspects of acetylcholine (ACh) synthesis and release, without inducing toxicity. These data suggest a neuromodulatory influence of the peptides on central cholinergic functions. Long-term exposure to micromolar Aβ induces cholinergic cell toxicity, possibly via hyperphosphorylation of tau protein. Conversely, activation of selected cholinergic receptors has been shown to alter the processing of the amyloid precursor protein as well as phosphorylation of tau protein. A direct interaction between Aβ and nicotinic ACh receptors has also been demonstrated. This review addresses the role of Aβ-related peptides in regulating the function and survival of central cholinergic neurons and the relevance of these effects to cholinergic deficits in Alzheimer's disease. Understanding the functional interrelations between Aβ peptides, cholinergic neurons and tau phosphorylation will unravel the biologic events that precede neurodegeneration and may lead to the development of more effective pharmacotherapies for Alzheimer's disease. PMID:15644984

  15. Evaluation of levetiracetam effects on pilocarpine-induced seizures: cholinergic muscarinic system involvement.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, A A; Nogueira, C R A; Nascimento, V S; Aguiar, L M V; Freitas, R M; Sousa, F C F; Viana, G S B; Fonteles, M M F

    2005-09-16

    Levetiracetam (LEV) is a new antiepileptic drug effective as adjunctive therapy for partial seizures. It displays a unique pharmacological profile against experimental models of seizures, including pilocarpine-induced seizures in rodents. Aiming to clarify if anticonvulsant activity of LEV occurs due to cholinergic alterations, adult male mice received LEV injections before cholinergic agonists' administration. Pretreatment with LEV (30-200 mg/kg, i.p.) increased the latencies of seizures, but decreased status epilepticus and death on the seizure model induced by pilocarpine, 400 mg/kg, s.c. (P400). LEV (LEV200, 200 mg/kg, i.p.) pretreatment also reduced the intensity of tremors induced by oxotremorine (0.5 mg/kg, i.p). [3H]-N-methylscopolamine-binding assays in mice hippocampus showed that LEV200 pretreatment reverts the downregulation on muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChR), induced by P400 administration, bringing back these density values to control ones (0.9% NaCl, i.p.). However, subtype-specific-binding assays revealed that P400- and LEV-alone treatments result in M1 and M2 subtypes decrease, respectively. The agonist-like behavior of LEV on the inhibitory M2 mAChR subtype, observed in this work, could contribute to explain the reduction on oxotremorine-induced tremors and the delay on pilocarpine-induced seizures, by an increase in the attenuation of neuronal activity mediated by the M1 receptors.

  16. Optogenetic Dissection of the Basal Forebrain Neuromodulatory Control of Cortical Activation, Plasticity, and Cognition.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shih-Chieh; Brown, Ritchie E; Hussain Shuler, Marshall G; Petersen, Carl C H; Kepecs, Adam

    2015-10-14

    The basal forebrain (BF) houses major ascending projections to the entire neocortex that have long been implicated in arousal, learning, and attention. The disruption of the BF has been linked with major neurological disorders, such as coma and Alzheimer's disease, as well as in normal cognitive aging. Although it is best known for its cholinergic neurons, the BF is in fact an anatomically and neurochemically complex structure. Recent studies using transgenic mouse lines to target specific BF cell types have led to a renaissance in the study of the BF and are beginning to yield new insights about cell-type-specific circuit mechanisms during behavior. These approaches enable us to determine the behavioral conditions under which cholinergic and noncholinergic BF neurons are activated and how they control cortical processing to influence behavior. Here we discuss recent advances that have expanded our knowledge about this poorly understood brain region and laid the foundation for future cell-type-specific manipulations to modulate arousal, attention, and cortical plasticity in neurological disorders. Although the basal forebrain is best known for, and often equated with, acetylcholine-containing neurons that provide most of the cholinergic innervation of the neocortex, it is in fact an anatomically and neurochemically complex structure. Recent studies using transgenic mouse lines to target specific cell types in the basal forebrain have led to a renaissance in this field and are beginning to dissect circuit mechanisms in the basal forebrain during behavior. This review discusses recent advances in the roles of basal forebrain cholinergic and noncholinergic neurons in cognition via their dynamic modulation of cortical activity. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/3513896-08$15.00/0.

  17. Optogenetic Dissection of the Basal Forebrain Neuromodulatory Control of Cortical Activation, Plasticity, and Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Ritchie E.; Hussain Shuler, Marshall G.; Petersen, Carl C.H.; Kepecs, Adam

    2015-01-01

    The basal forebrain (BF) houses major ascending projections to the entire neocortex that have long been implicated in arousal, learning, and attention. The disruption of the BF has been linked with major neurological disorders, such as coma and Alzheimer's disease, as well as in normal cognitive aging. Although it is best known for its cholinergic neurons, the BF is in fact an anatomically and neurochemically complex structure. Recent studies using transgenic mouse lines to target specific BF cell types have led to a renaissance in the study of the BF and are beginning to yield new insights about cell-type-specific circuit mechanisms during behavior. These approaches enable us to determine the behavioral conditions under which cholinergic and noncholinergic BF neurons are activated and how they control cortical processing to influence behavior. Here we discuss recent advances that have expanded our knowledge about this poorly understood brain region and laid the foundation for future cell-type-specific manipulations to modulate arousal, attention, and cortical plasticity in neurological disorders. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Although the basal forebrain is best known for, and often equated with, acetylcholine-containing neurons that provide most of the cholinergic innervation of the neocortex, it is in fact an anatomically and neurochemically complex structure. Recent studies using transgenic mouse lines to target specific cell types in the basal forebrain have led to a renaissance in this field and are beginning to dissect circuit mechanisms in the basal forebrain during behavior. This review discusses recent advances in the roles of basal forebrain cholinergic and noncholinergic neurons in cognition via their dynamic modulation of cortical activity. PMID:26468190

  18. Rapid induction of the immediate early gene c-fos in a chick forebrain system involved in memory.

    PubMed

    Suge, Rie; Kato, Hidemasa; McCabe, Brian J

    2010-01-01

    Previous work has shown that expression of Fos protein in neurons of the intermediate and medial mesopallium (IMM), a memory region in the forebrain of the domestic chick, increases in a learning-related manner after behavioural imprinting. We show here, using in situ hybridisation, that when chicks are trained for 15 min with an imprinting stimulus, expression of c-fos mRNA in the IMM rises to a maximum at or before the end of this training period. The results suggest that the learning-related increase in Fos protein production, which occurs in identifiable neuronal sub-populations in the IMM, reflects events that make an early contribution to learning and/or memory processing.

  19. Cellular and molecular basis of cholinergic function

    SciTech Connect

    Dowdall, M.J.; Hawthorne, J.N.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains 105 selections. Some of the titles are: Functional correlates of brain nicotine receptors; Muscarinic receptor subclasses; Cholinergic innervation and levels of nerve growth factor and its mRNA in the central nervous system; Developmentally regulated neurontrophic activities of Torpedo electric organ tissue; and Association of a regulatory peptide with cholinergic neurons.

  20. Elimination of the vesicular acetylcholine transporter in the forebrain causes hyperactivity and deficits in spatial memory and long-term potentiation

    PubMed Central

    Martyn, Amanda C.; De Jaeger, Xavier; Magalhães, Ana C.; Kesarwani, Rohit; Gonçalves, Daniela F.; Raulic, Sanda; Guzman, Monica S.; Jackson, Michael F.; Izquierdo, Ivan; MacDonald, John F.; Prado, Marco A. M.; Prado, Vania F.

    2012-01-01

    Basal forebrain cholinergic neurons, which innervate the hippocampus and cortex, have been implicated in many forms of cognitive function. Immunolesion-based methods in animal models have been widely used to study the role of acetylcholine (ACh) neurotransmission in these processes, with variable results. Cholinergic neurons have been shown to release both glutamate and ACh, making it difficult to deduce the specific contribution of each neurotransmitter on cognition when neurons are eliminated. Understanding the precise roles of ACh in learning and memory is critical because drugs that preserve ACh are used as treatment for cognitive deficits. It is therefore important to define which cholinergic-dependent behaviors could be improved pharmacologically. Here we investigate the contributions of forebrain ACh on hippocampal synaptic plasticity and cognitive behavior by selective elimination of the vesicular ACh transporter, which interferes with synaptic storage and release of ACh. We show that elimination of vesicular ACh transporter in the hippocampus results in deficits in long-term potentiation and causes selective deficits in spatial memory. Moreover, decreased cholinergic tone in the forebrain is linked to hyperactivity, without changes in anxiety or depression-related behavior. These data uncover the specific contribution of forebrain cholinergic tone for synaptic plasticity and behavior. Moreover, these experiments define specific cognitive functions that could be targeted by cholinergic replacement therapy. PMID:23045697

  1. Developmental effects of fractionated low-dose exposure to gamma radiation on behaviour and susceptibility of the cholinergic system in mice.

    PubMed

    Buratovic, Sonja; Stenerlöw, Bo; Fredriksson, Anders; Sundell-Bergman, Synnöve; Eriksson, Per

    2016-07-01

    To investigate whether neonatal exposure to fractionated external gamma radiation and co-exposure to radiation and nicotine can affect/exacerbate developmental neurotoxic effects, including altered behavior/cognitive function and the susceptibility of the cholinergic system in adult male mice. Neonatal male Naval Medical Research Institute (NMRI) mice were irradiated with one 200 mGy fraction/day and/or exposed to nicotine (66 μg/kg b.w.) twice daily on postnatal day (PND) 10, 10-11, 10-12 or 10-13 (nicotine only). At 2 months of age the animals were tested for spontaneous behavior in a novel home environment, habituation capacity and nicotine-induced behavior. Fractionated irradiation and co-exposure to radiation and nicotine on three consecutive days disrupted behavior and habituation and altered susceptibility of the cholinergic system. All observed effects were significantly more pronounced in mice co-exposed to both radiation and nicotine. The fractionated irradiation regime affects behavior/cognitive function in a similar manner as has previously been observed for single-dose exposures. Neonatal co-exposure to radiation and nicotine, during a critical period of brain development in general and cholinergic system development in particular, enhance these behavioral defects suggesting that the cholinergic system can be a target system for this type of developmental neurotoxic effects.

  2. Drugs of anesthesia acting on central cholinergic system may cause post-operative cognitive dysfunction and delirium.

    PubMed

    Praticò, C; Quattrone, D; Lucanto, T; Amato, A; Penna, O; Roscitano, C; Fodale, V

    2005-01-01

    Given the progressive and constant increase of average life expectancy, an increasing number of elderly patients undergo surgery. After surgery, elderly patients often exhibit a transient reversible state of cerebral cognitive alterations. Among these cognitive dysfunctions, a state of delirium may develop. Delirium is an aetiologically non-specific syndrome characterised by concurrent disturbances of consciousness and attention, perception, thinking, memory, psychomotor behaviour and the sleep-wake cycle. Delirium appears to occur in 10-26% of general medical patients over 65, and is frequently associated with a significant increase in morbidity and mortality. During hospitalization, mortality rates have been estimated to be 10-26% of patients who developed post-operative delirium, and 22-76% during the following months. Over the last few decades, post-operative delirium has been associated with several pre-operative predictor factors, as well as age (50 years and older), alcohol abuse, poor cognitive and functional status, electrolyses or glucose abnormalities, and type of surgery. The uncertain pathogenesis of post-operative cognitive dysfunctions and delirium has not permitted a causal approach to developing an effective treatment. General anesthesia affects brain function at all levels, including neuronal membranes, receptors, ion channels, neurotransmitters, cerebral blood flow and metabolism. The functional equivalents of these impairments involve mood, memory, and motor function behavioural changes. These dysfunctions are much more evident in the occurrence of stress-regulating transmission and in the alteration of intra-cellular signal transduction systems. In addition, more essential cellular processes, that play an important role in neurotransmitter synthesis and release, such as intra-neuronal signal transduction and second messenger system, may be altered. Keeping in mind the functions of the central muscarinic cholinergic system and its multiple

  3. Inhibitory role of cholinergic system mediated via alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in LPS-induced neuro-inflammation.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, Ethika; Agrawal, Rahul; Nath, Chandishwar; Shukla, Rakesh

    2010-02-01

    This study investigated the influence of the cholinergic system on neuro-inflammation using nicotinic and muscarinic receptor agonists and antagonists. Intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 50 microg) was used to induce neuro-inflammation in rats and estimations of pro-inflammatory cytokines, alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) mRNA expression were done in striatum, cerebral cortex, hippocampus and hypothalamus at 24 h after LPS injection. Nicotine (0.2, 0.4 and 0.8 mg/kg, i.p.) or oxotremorine (0.2, 0.4 and 0.8 mg/kg, i.p.) were administered 2 h prior to sacrifice. We found that only nicotine was able to block the proinflammatory cytokines induced by LPS whereas, oxotremorine was found ineffective. Methyllycaconitine (MLA; 1.25, 2.5 and 5 mg/kg, i.p.), an alpha7 nAChR antagonist or dihydro-beta-erythroidine (DHbetaE; 1.25, 2.5 and 5 mg/kg, i.p.), an alpha4beta2 nAChR antagonist, was given 20 min prior to nicotine in LPS-treated rats. Methyllycaconitine antagonized the anti-inflammatory effect of nicotine whereas DHbetaE showed no effect demonstrating that alpha7 nAChR is responsible for attenuation of LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines. This study suggests that the inhibitory role of the central cholinergic system on neuro-inflammation is mediated via alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and muscarinic receptors are not involved.

  4. Possible interaction between opioidergic and cholinergic systems of CA1 in cholestasis-induced amnesia in mice.

    PubMed

    Zarrindast, Mohammad Reza; Hoseindoost, Saereh; Nasehi, Mohammad

    2012-03-01

    Bile duct ligation (BDL) induces primary biliary cirrhosis characterized by cholestasis, impaired liver function and cognition including impairment of memory formation and anxiety-like behaviors. Endogenous opioid and acetylcholine levels are elevated in animal model of cholestasis. In addition, there is no data about the effects of interaction opioidergic and cholinergic systems of dorsal hippocampus (CA1) on amnesia-induced by cholestasis. Male mice weighing 25-35 g were used in this study. Cholestasis was induced by the ligation of the common bile duct. One-trial step-down and hole-board paradigms were used for the assessment of memory retrieval and anxiety-like behaviors respectively. All drugs injected intra-CA1. The data showed that cholestasis (24 days after BDL) decreased memory retrieval. Sole intra-CA1 injection of higher dose of mecamylamine (0.125, 0.25, 0.5 and 1 μg/mice) and scopolamine (0.125, 0.25, 0.5 1 and 2 μg/mice) but not all doses of naloxone (0.0125, 0.025 and 0.05 μg/mice) decreased memory retrieval in the sham operated BDL. The ineffective doses of naloxone (0.025 and 0.05 μg/mice), mecamylamine (0.5 μg/mice) and scopolamine (0.5 μg/mice) restored cholestasis-induced amnesia 24 days after BDL. Further, all cross co-administration ineffective doses of naloxone (0.0125 μg/mice), mecamylamine (0.125 μg/mice) and scopolamine (0.125 μg/mice) reversed cholestasis-induced amnesia. All doses of the drugs have no effect on exploratory behaviors. The data strongly revealed that synergistic effect between opioidergic and cholinergic systems of CA1 on the modulation of cholestasis-induced amnesia.

  5. Investigation into the role of the cholinergic system in radiation-induced damage in the rat liver and ileum.

    PubMed

    Özyurt, Hazan; Özden, A Sevgi; Çevik, Özge; Özgen, Zerrin; Cadirci, Selin; Elmas, Merve Açıkel; Ercan, Feriha; Şener, Göksel; Gören, M Z

    2014-09-01

    It has been previously shown that acetylcholine (ACh) may affect pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. The role of the cholinergic system in radiation-induced inflammatory responses and tissue damage remains unclear. Therefore, the present study was designed to determine the radio-protective properties of the cholinergic system in the ileum and the liver of rats. Rats were exposed to 8-Gy single-fraction whole-abdominal irradiation and were then decapitated at either 36 h or 10 d post-irradiation. The rats were treated either with intraperitoneal physiological saline (1 ml/kg), physostigmine (80 µg/kg) or atropine (50 μg/kg) twice daily for 36 h or 10 d. Cardiac blood samples and liver and ileal tissues were obtained in which TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-10 levels were assayed using ELISA. In the liver and ileal homogenates, caspase-3 immunoblots were performed and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity was analyzed. Plasma levels of IL-1β and TNF-α increased significantly following radiation (P < 0.01 and P < 0.001, respectively) as compared with non-irradiated controls, and physostigmine treatment prevented the increase in the pro-inflammatory cytokines (P < 0.01 and P < 0.001, respectively). Plasma IL-10 levels were not found to be significantly changed following radiation, whereas physostigmine augmented IL-10 levels during the late phase (P < 0.01). In the liver and ileum homogenates, IL-1β and TNF-α levels were also elevated following radiation, and this effect was inhibited by physostigmine treatment but not by atropine. Similarly, physostigmine also reversed the changes in MPO activity and in the caspase-3 levels in the liver and ileum. Histological examination revealed related changes. Physostigmine experiments suggested that ACh has a radio-protective effect not involving the muscarinic receptors.

  6. What do phasic cholinergic signals do?

    PubMed

    Sarter, Martin; Lustig, Cindy; Berry, Anne S; Gritton, Howard; Howe, William M; Parikh, Vinay

    2016-04-01

    In addition to the neuromodulatory role of cholinergic systems, brief, temporally discrete cholinergic release events, or "transients", have been associated with the detection of cues in attention tasks. Here we review four main findings about cholinergic transients during cognitive processing. Cholinergic transients are: (1) associated with the detection of a cue and influenced by cognitive state; (2) not dependent on reward outcome, although the timing of the transient peak co-varies with the temporal relationship between detection and reward delivery; (3) correlated with the mobilization of the cue-evoked response; (4) causal mediators of shifts from monitoring to cue detection. We next discuss some of the key questions concerning the timing and occurrence of transients within the framework of available evidence including: (1) Why does the shift from monitoring to cue detection require a transient? (2) What determines whether a cholinergic transient will be generated? (3) How can cognitive state influence transient occurrence? (4) Why do cholinergic transients peak at around the time of reward delivery? (5) Is there evidence of cholinergic transients in humans? We conclude by outlining future research studies necessary to more fully understand the role of cholinergic transients in mediating cue detection.

  7. Where attention falls: Increased risk of falls from the converging impact of cortical cholinergic and midbrain dopamine loss on striatal function.

    PubMed

    Sarter, Martin; Albin, Roger L; Kucinski, Aaron; Lustig, Cindy

    2014-07-01

    Falls are a major source of hospitalization, long-term institutionalization, and death in older adults and patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Limited attentional resources are a major risk factor for falls. In this review, we specify cognitive-behavioral mechanisms that produce falls and map these mechanisms onto a model of multi-system degeneration. Results from PET studies in PD fallers and findings from a recently developed animal model support the hypothesis that falls result from interactions between loss of basal forebrain cholinergic projections to the cortex and striatal dopamine loss. Striatal dopamine loss produces inefficient, low-vigor gait, posture control, and movement. Cortical cholinergic deafferentation impairs a wide range of attentional processes, including monitoring of gait, posture and complex movements. Cholinergic cell loss reveals the full impact of striatal dopamine loss on motor performance, reflecting loss of compensatory attentional supervision of movement. Dysregulation of dorsomedial striatal circuitry is an essential, albeit not exclusive, mediator of falls in this dual-system model. Because cholinergic neuromodulatory activity influences cortical circuitry primarily via stimulation of α4β2* nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, and because agonists at these receptors are known to benefit attentional processes in animals and humans, treating PD fallers with such agonists, as an adjunct to dopaminergic treatment, is predicted to reduce falls. Falls are an informative behavioral endpoint to study attentional-motor integration by striatal circuitry. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Expression and role of Roundabout-1 in embryonic Xenopus forebrain.

    PubMed

    Connor, R M; Key, B

    2002-09-01

    The receptor Roundabout-1 (Robo1) and its ligand Slit are known to influence axon guidance and central nervous system (CNS) patterning in both vertebrate and nonvertebrate systems. Although Robo-Slit interactions mediate axon guidance in the Drosophila CNS, their role in establishing the early axon scaffold in the embryonic vertebrate brain remains unclear. We report here the identification and expression of a Xenopus Robo1 orthologue that is highly homologous to mammalian Robo1. By using overexpression studies and immunohistochemical and in situ hybridization techniques, we have investigated the role of Robo1 in the development of a subset of neurons and axon tracts in the Xenopus forebrain. Robo1 is expressed in forebrain nuclei and in neuroepithelial cells underlying the main axon tracts. Misexpression of Robo1 led to aberrant development of axon tracts as well as the ectopic differentiation of forebrain neurons. These results implicate Robo1 in both neuronal differentiation and axon guidance in embryonic vertebrate forebrain.

  9. Cholinergic modulation of cognition: Insights from human pharmacological functional neuroimaging

    PubMed Central

    Bentley, Paul; Driver, Jon; Dolan, Raymond J.

    2011-01-01

    Evidence from lesion and cortical-slice studies implicate the neocortical cholinergic system in the modulation of sensory, attentional and memory processing. In this review we consider findings from sixty-three healthy human cholinergic functional neuroimaging studies that probe interactions of cholinergic drugs with brain activation profiles, and relate these to contemporary neurobiological models. Consistent patterns that emerge are: (1) the direction of cholinergic modulation of sensory cortex activations depends upon top-down influences; (2) cholinergic hyperstimulation reduces top-down selective modulation of sensory cortices; (3) cholinergic hyperstimulation interacts with task-specific frontoparietal activations according to one of several patterns, including: suppression of parietal-mediated reorienting; decreasing ‘effort’-associated activations in prefrontal regions; and deactivation of a ‘resting-state network’ in medial cortex, with reciprocal recruitment of dorsolateral frontoparietal regions during performance-challenging conditions; (4) encoding-related activations in both neocortical and hippocampal regions are disrupted by cholinergic blockade, or enhanced with cholinergic stimulation, while the opposite profile is observed during retrieval; (5) many examples exist of an ‘inverted-U shaped’ pattern of cholinergic influences by which the direction of functional neural activation (and performance) depends upon both task (e.g. relative difficulty) and subject (e.g. age) factors. Overall, human cholinergic functional neuroimaging studies both corroborate and extend physiological accounts of cholinergic function arising from other experimental contexts, while providing mechanistic insights into cholinergic-acting drugs and their potential clinical applications. PMID:21708219

  10. Effect of voluntary running on adult hippocampal neurogenesis in cholinergic lesioned mice

    PubMed Central

    Ho, New Fei; Han, Siew Ping; Dawe, Gavin S

    2009-01-01

    Background Cholinergic neuronal dysfunction of the basal forebrain is observed in patients with Alzheimer's disease and dementia, and has been linked to decreased neurogenesis in the hippocampus, a region involved in learning and memory. Running is a robust inducer of adult hippocampal neurogenesis. This study aims to address the effect of running on hippocampal neurogenesis in lesioned mice, where septohippocampal cholinergic neurones have been selectively eliminated in the medial septum and diagonal band of Broca of the basal forebrain by infusion of mu-p75-saporin immunotoxin. Results Running increased the number of newborn cells in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus in cholinergic denervated mice compared to non-lesioned mice 24 hours after injection of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU). Although similar levels of surviving cells were present in cholinergic depleted animals and their respective controls four weeks after injection of BrdU, the majority of progenitors that proliferate in response to the initial period of running were not able to survive beyond one month without cholinergic input. Despite this, the running-induced increase in the number of surviving neurones was not affected by cholinergic depletion. Conclusion The lesion paradigm used here models aspects of the cholinergic deficits associated with Alzheimer's Disease and aging. We showed that running still increased the number of newborn cells in the adult hippocampal dentate gyrus in this model of neurodegenerative disease. PMID:19500352

  11. Roles of p75NTR, long-term depression and cholinergic transmission in anxiety and acute stress coping

    PubMed Central

    Martinowich, Keri; Schloesser, Robert J.; Lu, Yuan; Jimenez, Dennisse V.; Paredes, Daniel; Greene, Joshua S.; Greig, Nigel H.; Manji, Husseini K.; Lu, Bai

    2011-01-01

    Background Stress is causally associated with anxiety. While the underlying cellular mechanisms are not well understood, the basal forebrain cholinergic neurons (BFCNs) have been implicated in stress response. p75NTR is a pan-neurotrophin receptor expressed almost exclusively in BFCNs in adult brain. The present study investigates whether and how p75NTR, via regulation of the cholinergic system and hippocampal synaptic plasticity, influences stress-related behaviors. Methods We used a combination of slice electrophysiology, behavioral analyses, pharmacology, in vivo microdialysis and neuronal activity mapping to assess the role of p75NTR in mood and stress-related behaviors and its underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms. Results We show that acute stress enables hippocampal long-term depression (LTD) in adult wild-type mice, but not in mice lacking p75NTR. The p75NTR mutant mice also exhibit two distinct behavioral impairments: baseline anxiety-like behavior and a deficit in coping with and recovering from stressful situations. Blockade of stress-enabled LTD with a GluA2-derived peptide impaired stress recovery without affecting baseline anxiety. Pharmacological manipulations of cholinergic transmission mimicked the p75NTR perturbation in both baseline anxiety and responses to acute stress. Finally, we show evidence of misregulated cholinergic signaling in animals with p75NTR deletion. Conclusions Our results suggest that loss of p75NTR leads to changes in hippocampal cholinergic signaling, which may be involved in regulation of stress-enabled hippocampal LTD and in modulating behaviors related to stress and anxiety. PMID:21978521

  12. Selectively driving cholinergic fibers optically in the thalamic reticular nucleus promotes sleep.

    PubMed

    Ni, Kun-Ming; Hou, Xiao-Jun; Yang, Ci-Hang; Dong, Ping; Li, Yue; Zhang, Ying; Jiang, Ping; Berg, Darwin K; Duan, Shumin; Li, Xiao-Ming

    2016-02-11

    Cholinergic projections from the basal forebrain and brainstem are thought to play important roles in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and arousal. Using transgenic mice in which channelrhdopsin-2 is selectively expressed in cholinergic neurons, we show that optical stimulation of cholinergic inputs to the thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) activates local GABAergic neurons to promote sleep and protect non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. It does not affect REM sleep. Instead, direct activation of cholinergic input to the TRN shortens the time to sleep onset and generates spindle oscillations that correlate with NREM sleep. It does so by evoking excitatory postsynaptic currents via α7-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and inducing bursts of action potentials in local GABAergic neurons. These findings stand in sharp contrast to previous reports of cholinergic activity driving arousal. Our results provide new insight into the mechanisms controlling sleep.

  13. Selectively driving cholinergic fibers optically in the thalamic reticular nucleus promotes sleep

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Kun-Ming; Hou, Xiao-Jun; Yang, Ci-Hang; Dong, Ping; Li, Yue; Zhang, Ying; Jiang, Ping; Berg, Darwin K; Duan, Shumin; Li, Xiao-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Cholinergic projections from the basal forebrain and brainstem are thought to play important roles in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and arousal. Using transgenic mice in which channelrhdopsin-2 is selectively expressed in cholinergic neurons, we show that optical stimulation of cholinergic inputs to the thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) activates local GABAergic neurons to promote sleep and protect non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. It does not affect REM sleep. Instead, direct activation of cholinergic input to the TRN shortens the time to sleep onset and generates spindle oscillations that correlate with NREM sleep. It does so by evoking excitatory postsynaptic currents via α7-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and inducing bursts of action potentials in local GABAergic neurons. These findings stand in sharp contrast to previous reports of cholinergic activity driving arousal. Our results provide new insight into the mechanisms controlling sleep. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10382.001 PMID:26880556

  14. Behavioral and biochemical effects of neonicotinoid thiamethoxam on the cholinergic system in rats.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, K J A; Santana, M B; Do Nascimento, J L M; Picanço-Diniz, D L W; Maués, L A L; Santos, S N; Ferreira, V M M; Alfonso, M; Durán, R; Faro, L R F

    2010-01-01

    Thiamethoxam is a neonicotinoid insecticide, a group of pesticides that acts selectively on insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), with only a little action on mammalian nAChRs. Nevertheless, the selectivity of neonicotinoids for the insect nAChRs may change when these substances are metabolized. Therefore, we aimed to determine the potential effects of thiamethoxam on mammalian brain, testing the performance in the open field and elevated plus-maze of rats exposed to this insecticide and, in order to establish the neurochemical endpoints, we measured the acetylcholinesterase activity in different brain regions (hippocampus, striatum and cortex) and the high-affinity choline uptake (HACU) in synaptosomes from rat hippocampus. Treated animals received thiamethoxam (25, 50 or 100mg/kg) for 7 consecutive days. The results showed that treatment with thiamethoxam induced an increase in the anxiety behavior at two doses (50 or 100mg/kg). Moreover, there was a significant decrease in both HACU and acetylcholinesterase activity. Our hypothesis is that thiamethoxam (or its metabolites) could be acting on the central rats nAChRs. This would produce an alteration on the cholinergic transmission, modulating the anxiety behavior, acetylcholinesterase levels and HACU.

  15. Association of basal forebrain volumes and cognition in normal aging.

    PubMed

    Wolf, D; Grothe, M; Fischer, F U; Heinsen, H; Kilimann, I; Teipel, S; Fellgiebel, A

    2014-01-01

    The basal forebrain cholinergic system (BFCS) is known to undergo moderate neurodegenerative alterations during normal aging and severe atrophy in Alzheimer's disease (AD). It has been suggested that functional and structural alterations of the BFCS mediate cognitive performance in normal aging and AD. But, it is still unclear to what extend age-associated cognitive decline can be related to BFCS in normal aging. We analyzed the relationship between BFCS volume and cognition using MRI and a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery in a cohort of 43 healthy elderly subjects spanning the age range from 60 to 85 years. Most notably, we found significant associations between general intelligence and BFCS volumes, specifically within areas corresponding to posterior nuclei of the nucleus basalis of Meynert (Ch4p) and the nucleus subputaminalis (NSP). Associations between specific cognitive domains and BFCS volumes were less pronounced. Supplementary analyses demonstrated that especially the volume of NSP but also the volume of Ch4p was related to the volume of widespread temporal, frontal, and parietal gray and white matter regions. Volumes of these gray and white matter regions were also related to general intelligence. Higher volumes of Ch4p and NSP may enhance the effectiveness of acetylcholine supply in related gray and white matter regions underlying general intelligence and hence explain the observed association between the volume of Ch4p as well as NSP and general intelligence. Since general intelligence is known to attenuate the degree of age-associated cognitive decline and the risk of developing late-onset AD, the BFCS might, besides the specific contribution to the pathophysiology in AD, constitute a mechanism of brain resilience in normal aging.

  16. Influence of the cholinergic system on the immune response of teleost fishes: potential model in biomedical research.

    PubMed

    Toledo-Ibarra, G A; Rojas-Mayorquín, A E; Girón-Pérez, M I

    2013-01-01

    Fishes are the phylogenetically oldest vertebrate group, which includes more than one-half of the vertebrates on the planet; additionally, many species have ecological and economic importance. Fish are the first evolved group of organisms with adaptive immune mechanisms; consequently, they are an important link in the evolution of the immune system, thus a potential model for understanding the mechanisms of immunoregulation. Currently, the influence of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) on the cells of the immune system is widely studied in mammalian models, which have provided evidence on ACh production by immune cells (the noncholinergic neuronal system); however, these neuroimmunomodulation mechanisms in fish and lower vertebrates are poorly studied. Therefore, the objective of this review paper was to analyze the influence of the cholinergic system on the immune response of teleost fish, which could provide information concerning the possibility of bidirectional communication between the nervous and immune systems in these organisms and provide data for a better understanding of basic issues in neuroimmunology in lower vertebrates, such as bony fishes. Thus, the use of fish as a model in biomedical research may contribute to a better understanding of human diseases and diseases in other animals.

  17. Influence of the Cholinergic System on the Immune Response of Teleost Fishes: Potential Model in Biomedical Research

    PubMed Central

    Toledo-Ibarra, G. A.; Rojas-Mayorquín, A. E.; Girón-Pérez, M. I.

    2013-01-01

    Fishes are the phylogenetically oldest vertebrate group, which includes more than one-half of the vertebrates on the planet; additionally, many species have ecological and economic importance. Fish are the first evolved group of organisms with adaptive immune mechanisms; consequently, they are an important link in the evolution of the immune system, thus a potential model for understanding the mechanisms of immunoregulation. Currently, the influence of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) on the cells of the immune system is widely studied in mammalian models, which have provided evidence on ACh production by immune cells (the noncholinergic neuronal system); however, these neuroimmunomodulation mechanisms in fish and lower vertebrates are poorly studied. Therefore, the objective of this review paper was to analyze the influence of the cholinergic system on the immune response of teleost fish, which could provide information concerning the possibility of bidirectional communication between the nervous and immune systems in these organisms and provide data for a better understanding of basic issues in neuroimmunology in lower vertebrates, such as bony fishes. Thus, the use of fish as a model in biomedical research may contribute to a better understanding of human diseases and diseases in other animals. PMID:24324508

  18. A cholinergic modulatory interneuron in the feeding system of the snail, Lymnaea.

    PubMed

    Yeoman, M S; Parish, D C; Benjamin, P R

    1993-07-01

    1. Pharmacological and physiological methods were used to examine the role of acetylcholine (ACh) in modulation of the Lymnaea feeding central pattern generator (CPG) by the slow oscillator (SO) interneuron. 2. Extracts of dissected SO cell bodies inhibited spontaneous ventricular contractions of the clam Mya arenaria, indicating the presence of ACh. These effects were blocked by the specific antagonist benzoquinonium chloride (10(-7) M). 3. Isolated SO cells grown in culture synthesized ACh from tritiated choline. 4. High [K+] saline induced release of synthesized ACh from cultured SO cells into the medium. 5. The specific ACh antagonist phenyltrimethylammonium (10(-4) M) blocked both excitatory, biphasic (inhibitory-excitatory) and inhibitory monosynaptic connections from the SO to feeding CPG interneurons and motor neurons. Less specific cholinergic antagonists blocked either excitatory (hexamethonium, 10(-4) M) or both excitatory and inhibitory connections (d-tubo-curarine, 10(-4) M). 6. The synaptic responses of the SO could be mimicked by brief (20 ms) pressure-pulsed application of ACh onto the cell bodies of the postsynaptic cells in high-Mg2+ saline. In normal saline, ACh elicited bursts of spikes in the N1 cells, indicating that a fictive feeding pattern had been induced in the CPG. This mimics the main mechanism by which the SO activates the CPG, which is by exciting the N1s. 7. The frequency of SO-induced fictive feeding rhythm was reduced by bath application of hexamethonium chloride to the buccal ganglia. This reduced the amplitude of the SO-->N1 excitatory synaptic response (30% of controls) and is probably the main mechanism for the reduction in the frequency of the rhythm. 8. The evidence suggests that ACh is the main neurochemical involved in allowing the SO to initiate and control the frequency of the Lymnaea feeding CPG.

  19. Forebrain Pain Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Neugebauer, Volker; Galhardo, Vasco; Maione, Sabatino; Mackey, Sean C.

    2009-01-01

    Emotional-affective and cognitive dimensions of pain are less well understood than nociceptive and nocifensive components, but the forebrain is believed to play an important role. Recent evidence suggests subcortical and cortical brain areas outside the traditional pain processing network contribute critically to emotional-affective responses and cognitive deficits related to pain. These brain areas include different nuclei of the amygdala and certain prefrontal cortical areas. Their roles in various aspects of pain will be discussed. Biomarkers of cortical dysfunction are being identified that may evolve into therapeutic targets to modulate pain experience and improve pain-related cognitive impairment. Supporting data from preclinical studies in neuropathic pain models will be presented. Neuroimaging analysis provides evidence for plastic changes in the pain processing brain network. Results of clinical studies in neuropathic pain patients suggest that neuroimaging may help determine mechanisms of altered brain functions in pain as well as monitor the effects of pharmacologic interventions to optimize treatment in individual patients. Recent progress in the analysis of higher brain functions emphasizes the concept of pain as a multidimensional experience and the need for integrative approaches to determine the full spectrum of harmful or protective neurobiological changes in pain. PMID:19162070

  20. [Interaction of the cholinergic and adrenergic systems during generation of 2 forms of sleep in Rana temporaria frogs and Emys orbicularis turtles].

    PubMed

    Karmanova, I G; Belich, A I; Voronov, I B; Shilling, N V

    1977-01-01

    Universal role of cholinergic mechanisms has been revealed in triggering of activation during two forms of sleep in cold-blooded animals--the primary sleep (fish, amphibians) and intermediate sleep (reptiles). The intensity of activation phenomenon in the brain during these forms of the sleep is controlled by functional interaction between cholinergic and adrenergic systems of the brain. It is suggested that the vegetative nervous system is the most ancient regulatory system of the cycle awakefulness-sleep in vertebrates. The observed activation phenomenon, developing during sleep in the cold-blooded animals, with respect to its biological role plays presumably the same function as paradoxical stage during slow--wave sleep in warm-blooded animals.

  1. Cholinergic connectivity: it's implications for psychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Scarr, Elizabeth; Gibbons, Andrew S.; Neo, Jaclyn; Udawela, Madhara; Dean, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Acetylcholine has been implicated in both the pathophysiology and treatment of a number of psychiatric disorders, with most of the data related to its role and therapeutic potential focusing on schizophrenia. However, there is little thought given to the consequences of the documented changes in the cholinergic system and how they may affect the functioning of the brain. This review looks at the cholinergic system and its interactions with the intrinsic neurotransmitters glutamate and gamma-amino butyric acid as well as those with the projection neurotransmitters most implicated in the pathophysiologies of psychiatric disorders; dopamine and serotonin. In addition, with the recent focus on the role of factors normally associated with inflammation in the pathophysiologies of psychiatric disorders, links between the cholinergic system and these factors will also be examined. These interfaces are put into context, primarily for schizophrenia, by looking at the changes in each of these systems in the disorder and exploring, theoretically, whether the changes are interconnected with those seen in the cholinergic system. Thus, this review will provide a comprehensive overview of the connectivity between the cholinergic system and some of the major areas of research into the pathophysiologies of psychiatric disorders, resulting in a critical appraisal of the potential outcomes of a dysregulated central cholinergic system. PMID:23653591

  2. Antibodies in Cerebrospinal Fluid of Some Alzheimer Disease Patients Recognize Cholinergic Neurons in the Rat Central Nervous System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McRae-Degueurce, Amanda; Booj, Serney; Haglid, Kenneth; Rosengren, Lars; Karlsson, Jan Erik; Karlsson, Ingvar; Wallin, Anders; Svennerholm, Lars; Gottfries, Carl-Gerhard; Dahlstrom, Annica

    1987-12-01

    The etiology of Alzheimer disease is unclear. However, immunological aberrations have been suggested to be critical factors in the pathogenesis of this neurodegenerative disease. This study was carried out to investigate if cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from Alzheimer disease patients contains antibodies that recognize specific neuronal populations in the rat central nervous system. The results indicate that in a subgroup of patients this is indeed the case. The antibodies reported in this study have the following properties: (i) they recognize neuronal populations and components in the medial septum and spinal motor neurons in rats perfused with a mixture that fixes small neurotransmitter molecules; (ii) adsorption of the patient CSF with staphylococcal protein A-Sepharose and using a polyclonal antiserum against human IgG3 indicates that the immunocytochemical reaction in these brain regions is mainly due to the subclass IgG3; and (iii) the CSF immunocytochemical reaction is blocked by preincubation of the sections with a rabbit anti-acetylcholine antiserum. These results provide evidence that antibodies in the CSF of some, but not all, Alzheimer disease patients recognize acetylcholine-like epitopes in cholinergic neurons in the rat central nervous system.

  3. The Brain of the Archerfish Toxotes chatareus: A Nissl-Based Neuroanatomical Atlas and Catecholaminergic/Cholinergic Systems

    PubMed Central

    Karoubi, Naomi; Segev, Ronen; Wullimann, Mario F.

    2016-01-01

    Over recent years, the seven-spot archerfish (Toxotes chatareus) has emerged as a new model for studies in visual and behavioral neuroscience thanks to its unique hunting strategy. Its natural ability to spit at insects outside of water can be used in the laboratory for well controlled behavioral experiments where the fish is trained to aim at targets on a screen. The need for a documentation of the neuroanatomy of this animal became critical as more research groups use it as a model. Here we present an atlas of adult T. chatareus specimens caught in the wild in South East Asia. The atlas shows representative sections of the brain and specific structures revealed by a classic Nissl staining as well as corresponding schematic drawings. Additional immunostainings for catecholaminergic and cholinergic systems were conducted to corroborate the identification of certain nuclei and the data of a whole brain scanner is available online. We describe the general features of the archerfish brain as well as its specificities, especially for the visual system and compare the neuroanatomy of the archerfish with other teleosts. This atlas of the archerfish brain shows all levels of the neuraxis and intends to provide a solid basis for further neuroscientific research on T. chatareus, in particular electrophysiological studies. PMID:27891081

  4. The Brain of the Archerfish Toxotes chatareus: A Nissl-Based Neuroanatomical Atlas and Catecholaminergic/Cholinergic Systems.

    PubMed

    Karoubi, Naomi; Segev, Ronen; Wullimann, Mario F

    2016-01-01

    Over recent years, the seven-spot archerfish (Toxotes chatareus) has emerged as a new model for studies in visual and behavioral neuroscience thanks to its unique hunting strategy. Its natural ability to spit at insects outside of water can be used in the laboratory for well controlled behavioral experiments where the fish is trained to aim at targets on a screen. The need for a documentation of the neuroanatomy of this animal became critical as more research groups use it as a model. Here we present an atlas of adult T. chatareus specimens caught in the wild in South East Asia. The atlas shows representative sections of the brain and specific structures revealed by a classic Nissl staining as well as corresponding schematic drawings. Additional immunostainings for catecholaminergic and cholinergic systems were conducted to corroborate the identification of certain nuclei and the data of a whole brain scanner is available online. We describe the general features of the archerfish brain as well as its specificities, especially for the visual system and compare the neuroanatomy of the archerfish with other teleosts. This atlas of the archerfish brain shows all levels of the neuraxis and intends to provide a solid basis for further neuroscientific research on T. chatareus, in particular electrophysiological studies.

  5. Calcium Imaging of Basal Forebrain Activity during Innate and Learned Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Thomas C; Pinto, Lucas; Brock, Julien R; Dan, Yang

    2016-01-01

    The basal forebrain (BF) plays crucial roles in arousal, attention, and memory, and its impairment is associated with a variety of cognitive deficits. The BF consists of cholinergic, GABAergic, and glutamatergic neurons. Electrical or optogenetic stimulation of BF cholinergic neurons enhances cortical processing and behavioral performance, but the natural activity of these cells during behavior is only beginning to be characterized. Even less is known about GABAergic and glutamatergic neurons. Here, we performed microendoscopic calcium imaging of BF neurons as mice engaged in spontaneous behaviors in their home cages (innate) or performed a go/no-go auditory discrimination task (learned). Cholinergic neurons were consistently excited during movement, including running and licking, but GABAergic and glutamatergic neurons exhibited diverse responses. All cell types were activated by overt punishment, either inside or outside of the discrimination task. These findings reveal functional similarities and distinctions between BF cell types during both spontaneous and task-related behaviors.

  6. Calcium Imaging of Basal Forebrain Activity during Innate and Learned Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Thomas C.; Pinto, Lucas; Brock, Julien R.; Dan, Yang

    2016-01-01

    The basal forebrain (BF) plays crucial roles in arousal, attention, and memory, and its impairment is associated with a variety of cognitive deficits. The BF consists of cholinergic, GABAergic, and glutamatergic neurons. Electrical or optogenetic stimulation of BF cholinergic neurons enhances cortical processing and behavioral performance, but the natural activity of these cells during behavior is only beginning to be characterized. Even less is known about GABAergic and glutamatergic neurons. Here, we performed microendoscopic calcium imaging of BF neurons as mice engaged in spontaneous behaviors in their home cages (innate) or performed a go/no-go auditory discrimination task (learned). Cholinergic neurons were consistently excited during movement, including running and licking, but GABAergic and glutamatergic neurons exhibited diverse responses. All cell types were activated by overt punishment, either inside or outside of the discrimination task. These findings reveal functional similarities and distinctions between BF cell types during both spontaneous and task-related behaviors. PMID:27242444

  7. Environmental enrichment reduces the response to stress of the cholinergic system in the prefrontal cortex during aging.

    PubMed

    Segovia, Gregorio; Del Arco, Alberto; Garrido, Pedro; de Blas, Marta; Mora, Francisco

    2008-05-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the release of acetylcholine in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) induced by handling stress during aging and also to investigate whether this response changed as a result of the animals living in an enriched environment. Male Wistar rats of 3 months of age were housed in control and enriched conditions during the entire period of their adult life and experiments were performed at 6, 15 and 24 months of age. Spontaneous motor activity was first monitored in an open field arena. Then, rats were stereotaxically implanted with guide cannula to perform microdialysis experiments in the PFC and to evaluate the effects of stress on extracellular concentrations of acetylcholine. Handling stress increased the extracellular concentrations of acetylcholine in the PFC of control and enriched rats. These increases were not modified by aging in control rats. However, environmental enrichment (EE) reduced the effects of stress on acetylcholine concentrations in all groups of age. Spontaneous motor activity in the open field was reduced by aging. EE also decreased motor activity in all groups of age. These results suggest that EE reduces the reactivity to stress of the cholinergic system in the prefrontal cortex during aging.

  8. Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate disrupts axonal growth, cholinergic system and motor behavior in early life zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Rui; Jia, Yali; Dai, Lili; Liu, Chunsheng; Wang, Jianghua; Li, Guangyu; Yu, Liqin

    2017-09-05

    Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCIPP) could have neurotoxic effects and alter motor behaviors in zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae, however, the underlying mechanisms are still unknown. In this study, zebrafish embryos were subjected to waterborne exposure of TDCIPP at 100, 300, 600, 900μg/L from 2 to 120-h post-fertilization (hpf). Behavioral measurements indicate that TDCIPP exposure significantly elevated spontaneous movement, and altered swimming behavior response of larvae to both light and dark stimulation. Interestingly, in accordance with these motor effects, TDCIPP significantly decreased expression of the neuron-specific GFP in transgenic (HuC-GFP) zebrafish larvae as well as decreased expression of the neural marker genes elavl3 and ngn1, inhibited the axonal growth of the secondary motoneurons and altered the expressions of axon-related genes (α1-tubulin, shha and netrin2) in zebrafish larvae. Furthermore, TDCIPP exposure at 900μg/L significantly increased the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzyme, and decreased the total acetylcholine (ACh) concentration. Our data indicate that the alteration in motor neuron and inhibition of cholinergic system could together lead to the TDCIPP induced motor behavior alterations in zebrafish larvae. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Chotosan, a kampo formula, ameliorates chronic cerebral hypoperfusion-induced deficits in object recognition behaviors and central cholinergic systems in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qi; Murakami, Yukihisa; Tohda, Michihisa; Obi, Ryosuke; Shimada, Yutaka; Matsumoto, Kinzo

    2007-04-01

    We previously demonstrated that the Kampo formula chotosan (CTS) ameliorated spatial cognitive impairment via central cholinergic systems in a chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (P2VO) mouse model. In this study, the object discrimination tasks were used to determine if the ameliorative effects of CTS on P2VO-induced cognitive deficits are a characteristic pharmacological profile of this formula, with the aim of clarifying the mechanisms by which CTS enhances central cholinergic function in P2VO mice. The cholinesterase inhibitor tacrine (THA) and Kampo formula saikokeishito (SKT) were used as controls. P2VO impaired object discrimination performance in the object recognition, location, and context tests. Daily administration of CTS (750 mg/kg, p.o.) and THA (2.5 mg/kg, i.p.) improved the object discrimination deficits, whereas SKT (750 mg/kg, p.o.) did not. In ex vivo assays, tacrine but not CTS or SKT inhibited cortical cholinesterase activity. P2VO reduced the mRNA expression of m(3) and m(5) muscarinic receptors and choline acetyltransferase but not that of other muscarinic receptor subtypes in the cerebral cortex. Daily administration of CTS and THA but not SKT reversed these expression changes. These results suggest that CTS and THA improve P2VO-induced cognitive impairment by normalizing the deficit of central cholinergic systems and that the beneficial effect on P2VO-induced cognitive deficits is a distinctive pharmacological characteristic of CTS.

  10. Mechanisms underlying the basal forebrain enhancement of top-down and bottom-up attention.

    PubMed

    Avery, Michael C; Dutt, Nikil; Krichmar, Jeffrey L

    2014-03-01

    Both attentional signals from frontal cortex and neuromodulatory signals from basal forebrain (BF) have been shown to influence information processing in the primary visual cortex (V1). These two systems exert complementary effects on their targets, including increasing firing rates and decreasing interneuronal correlations. Interestingly, experimental research suggests that the cholinergic system is important for increasing V1's sensitivity to both sensory and attentional information. To see how the BF and top-down attention act together to modulate sensory input, we developed a spiking neural network model of V1 and thalamus that incorporated cholinergic neuromodulation and top-down attention. In our model, activation of the BF had a broad effect that decreases the efficacy of top-down projections and increased the reliance of bottom-up sensory input. In contrast, we demonstrated how local release of acetylcholine in the visual cortex, which was triggered through top-down gluatmatergic projections, could enhance top-down attention with high spatial specificity. Our model matched experimental data showing that the BF and top-down attention decrease interneuronal correlations and increase between-trial reliability. We found that decreases in correlations were primarily between excitatory-inhibitory pairs rather than excitatory-excitatory pairs and suggest that excitatory-inhibitory decorrelation is necessary for maintaining low levels of excitatory-excitatory correlations. Increased inhibitory drive via release of acetylcholine in V1 may then act as a buffer, absorbing increases in excitatory-excitatory correlations that occur with attention and BF stimulation. These findings will lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms underyling the BF's interactions with attention signals and influences on correlations.

  11. The role of the intrinsic cholinergic system of the striatum: What have we learned from TAN recordings in behaving animals?

    PubMed

    Apicella, Paul

    2017-09-30

    Cholinergic interneurons provide rich local innervation of the striatum and play an important role in controlling behavior, as evidenced by the variety of movement and psychiatric disorders linked to disrupted striatal cholinergic transmission. Much progress has been made in recent years regarding our understanding of how these interneurons contribute to the processing of information in the striatum. In particular, investigation of the activity of presumed striatal cholinergic interneurons, identified as tonically active neurons or TANs in behaving animals, has pointed to their role in the signaling and learning of the motivational relevance of environmental stimuli. Although the bulk of this work has been conducted in monkeys, several studies have also been carried out in behaving rats, but information remains rather disparate across studies and it is still questionable whether rodent TANs correspond to TANs described in monkeys. Consequently, our current understanding of the function of cholinergic transmission in the striatum is challenged by the rapidly growing, but often confusing literature on the relationship between TAN activity and specific behaviors. As regards the precise nature of the information conveyed by the cholinergic TANs, a recent influential view emphasized that these local circuit neurons may play a special role in the processing of contextual information that is important for reinforcement learning and selection of appropriate actions. This review provides a summary of recent progress in TAN physiology from which it is proposed that striatal cholinergic interneurons are crucial elements for flexible switching of behaviors under changing environmental conditions. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of ageing on post-lesion oestradiol treatment on mouse cholinergic neurones in vivo.

    PubMed

    Kőszegi, Z; Abrahám, I M

    2012-09-01

    A single 17β-oestradiol (E(2)) treatment reduces the loss in cholinergic fibre density in the cortex after NMDA lesion into the nucleus basalis magnocellularis (NBM) of the basal forebrain (BF) in young female mice. In the present study, we examined whether age influences this protective effect of E(2) on cholinergic neurones in male and female mice. Gonad-intact young and aged animals of both sexes were treated with E(2) after unilateral NMDA lesion into the NBM. NMDA lesion elicited ipsilateral cholinergic cell loss in the NBM and ipsilateral fibre loss in the somatosensory cortex to the same extent, irrespective of age or sex. A single E(2) injection performed 1 h post-lesion did not affect the cholinergic cell loss but reduced the loss of fibres in the ipsilateral cortex in young male and female mice. By contrast, E(2) did not have an effect on the NMDA-induced cholinergic cell and fibre loss in aged male or female mice. The oestrous stage of young female mice did not alter the number of cholinergic cells/fibres or the protective effect of E(2) on cholinergic fibres after NMDA injection. Our results show that E(2) has a protective action on BF cholinergic fibres in young males and females, although the treatment potential of E(2) declines with age.

  13. Effects of lateral fluid percussion injury on cholinergic markers in the newborn piglet brain.

    PubMed

    Donat, Cornelius K; Walter, Bernd; Kayser, Tanja; Deuther-Conrad, Winnie; Schliebs, Reinhard; Nieber, Karen; Bauer, Reinhard; Härtig, Wolfgang; Brust, Peter

    2010-02-01

    Traumatic brain injury is a leading cause of death and disability in children. Studies using adult animal models showed alterations of the central cholinergic neurotransmission as a result of trauma. However, there is a lack of knowledge about consequences of brain trauma on cholinergic function in the immature brain. It is hypothesized that trauma affects the relative acetylcholine esterase activity and causes a loss of cholinergic neurons in the immature brain. Severe fluid percussion trauma (FP-TBI, 3.8+/-0.3atm) was induced in 15 female newborn piglets, monitored for 6h and compared with 12 control animals. The hemispheres ipsilateral to FP-TBI obtained from seven piglets were used for acetylcholine esterase histochemistry on frozen sagittal slices, while regional cerebral blood flow and oxygen availability was determined in the remaining eight FP-TBI animals. Post-fixed slices were immunohistochemically labelled for choline acetyltransferase as well as for low-affinity neurotrophin receptor in order to characterize cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain. Regional cerebral blood flow and brain oxygen availability were reduced during the first 2h after FP-TBI (P<0.05). In addition, acetylcholine esterase activity was significantly increased in the neocortex, basal forebrain, hypothalamus and medulla after trauma (P<0.05), whereas the number of choline acetyltransferase and low-affinity neurotrophin receptor positive cells in the basal forebrain were unaffected by the injury. Thus, traumatic brain injury evoked an increased relative activity of the acetylcholine esterase in the immature brain early after injury, without loss of cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain. These changes may contribute to developmental impairments after immature traumatic brain injury. Copyright 2009 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Learning to Ignore: A Modeling Study of a Decremental Cholinergic Pathway and Its Influence on Attention and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oros, Nicolas; Chiba, Andrea A.; Nitz, Douglas A.; Krichmar, Jeffrey L.

    2014-01-01

    Learning to ignore irrelevant stimuli is essential to achieving efficient and fluid attention, and serves as the complement to increasing attention to relevant stimuli. The different cholinergic (ACh) subsystems within the basal forebrain regulate attention in distinct but complementary ways. ACh projections from the substantia innominata/nucleus…

  15. Learning to Ignore: A Modeling Study of a Decremental Cholinergic Pathway and Its Influence on Attention and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oros, Nicolas; Chiba, Andrea A.; Nitz, Douglas A.; Krichmar, Jeffrey L.

    2014-01-01

    Learning to ignore irrelevant stimuli is essential to achieving efficient and fluid attention, and serves as the complement to increasing attention to relevant stimuli. The different cholinergic (ACh) subsystems within the basal forebrain regulate attention in distinct but complementary ways. ACh projections from the substantia innominata/nucleus…

  16. The forebrain of the ferret.

    PubMed

    Lockard, B I

    1985-06-01

    The basic neuroanatomy of the forebrain, mainly of the telencephalon, of the adult ferret (Mustela furo), is reviewed and illustrated with special references to the features that distinguish this animal from other carnivores. References to the pertinent literature describing similar regions of other carnivores are cited.

  17. Immunohistochemical localisation of cholinergic muscarinic receptor subtype 1 (M1r) in the guinea pig and human enteric nervous system.

    PubMed

    Harrington, A M; Hutson, J M; Southwell, B R

    2007-07-01

    Little is known regarding the location of cholinergic muscarinic receptor 1 (M1r) in the ENS, even though physiological data suggest that M1rs are central to cholinergic neurotransmission. This study localised M1rs in the ENS of the guinea pig ileum and human colon using fluorescence immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR in human colon. Double labelling using antibodies against neurochemical markers was used to identify neuron subytpes bearing M1r. M1r immunoreactivity (IR) was present on neurons in the myenteric and submucosal ganglia. The two antibodies gave similar M1r-IR patterns and M1r-IR was abolished upon antibody preabsorption. M1r-IR was present on cholinergic and nNOS-IR nerve cell bodies in both guinea pig and human myenteric neurons. Presynaptic M1r-IR was present on NOS-IR and VAChT-IR nerve fibres in the circular muscle in the human colon. In the submucosal ganglia, M1r-IR was present on a population of neurons that contained cChAT-IR, but did not contain NPY-IR or calretinin-IR. M1r-IR was present on endothelial cells of blood vessels in the submucosal plexus. The localisation of M1r-IR in the guinea pig and human ENS shown in this study agrees with physiological studies. M1r-IR in cholinergic and nitrergic neurons and nerve fibres indicate that M1rs have a role in both cholinergic and nitrergic transmission. M1r-IR present in submucosal neurons suggests a role in mediating acetylcholine's effect on submucosal sensory and secretomotor/vasodilator neurons. M1r-IR present on blood vessel endothelial cells suggests that M1rs may also mediate acetylcholine's direct effect on vasoactivation.

  18. Evolution of vertebrate forebrain development: how many different mechanisms?

    PubMed Central

    FOLEY, ANN C.; STERN, CLAUDIO D.

    2001-01-01

    Over the past 50 years and more, many models have been proposed to explain how the nervous system is initially induced and how it becomes subdivided into gross regions such as forebrain, midbrain, hindbrain and spinal cord. Among these models is the 2-signal model of Nieuwkoop & Nigtevecht (1954), who suggested that an initial signal (‘activation’) from the organiser both neuralises and specifies the forebrain, while later signals (‘transformation’) from the same region progressively caudalise portions of this initial territory. An opposing idea emerged from the work of Otto Mangold (1933) and other members of the Spemann laboratory: 2 or more distinct organisers, emitting different signals, were proposed to be responsible for inducing the head, trunk and tail regions. Since then, evidence has accumulated that supports one or the other model, but it has been very difficult to distinguish between them. Recently, a considerable body of work from mouse embryos has been interpreted as favouring the latter model, and as suggesting that a ‘head organiser’, required for the induction of the forebrain, is spatially separate from the classic organiser (Hensen's node). An extraembryonic tissue, the ‘anterior visceral endoderm’ (AVE), was proposed to be the source of forebrain-inducing signals. It is difficult to find tissues that are directly equivalent embryologically or functionally to the AVE in other vertebrates, which led some (e.g. Kessel, 1998) to propose that mammals have evolved a new way of patterning the head. We will present evidence from the chick embryo showing that the hypoblast is embryologically and functionally equivalent to the mouse AVE. Like the latter, the hypoblast also plays a role in head development. However, it does not act like a true organiser. It induces pre-neural and pre-forebrain markers, but only transiently. Further development of neural and forebrain phenotypes requires additional signals not provided by the hypoblast. In

  19. Antidepressant and anxiolytic effects of the methanol root extract of Capparis thonningii: involvement of monoaminergic, cholinergic and GABAergic systems.

    PubMed

    Ishola, I O; Olayemi, S O; Yemitan, O K; Umeh, E A

    2015-04-01

    Capparis thonningii Schum. (Capparaceae) is used in traditional African Medicine for the treatment of mood disorders. The study investigates antidepressant and anxiolytic activities of methanol root extract of C. thonningii (CT). CT (25-100 mg/kg, p. o.) was administered 1 h before behavioral studies were carried out in mice. Antidepressant effect was investigated using the forced swimming test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST). The anxiolytic effect was evaluated using the elevated-plus maze test (EPM), hole-board test (HBT), and light-dark test. CT (25 and 50 mg/kg) increased swimming activity (P<0.05) by 92.73% and attenuated immobility time by 35.72%, similar to anti-immobility effect of imipramine (33.87%) in FST. In addition, CT (50 mg/kg) significantly (P<0.01) reduced immobility time by 30.24% in TST. -However, the antidepressant-like effect elicited by CT was reversed by metergoline, cyproheptadine, and sulpiride (40.81, 45.93, and 48.52%, respectively) pretreatment but prazosin, and yohimbine failed to reverse this antidepressant-like effect. Similar to diazepam, CT (25 mg/kg) increased duration of open arms exploration (P<0.05) by 43.73% in EPM, number of head-dips (HBT) (90.32%), and time spent in the light compartment by 45.77% in light/dark test indicating anxiolytic-like effect. The anxiolytic-like effect of CT was reversed by flumazenil pretreatment. The findings from this study suggest antidepressant-like effect of C. thonningii involving interaction with serotonergic (5-HT2), dopaminergic (D2), noradrenergic (α1 and α2), and muscarinic cholinergic systems; and anxiolytic effect through an interaction with GABAA benzodiazepine receptor. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. EFFECTS OF DEVELOPMENTAL EXPOSURE TO HEPTACHLOR ON THE CHOLINERGIC SYSTEM IN RATS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Heptachlor is an environmentally persistent cyclodiene pesticide which is a known antagonist of the -aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptor. Since GABA is a trophic factor for the development of other neurotransmitter systems (Lauder et al., Perspectives in Developmental Neurobiolog...

  1. EFFECTS OF DEVELOPMENTAL EXPOSURE TO HEPTACHLOR ON THE CHOLINERGIC SYSTEM IN RATS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Heptachlor is an environmentally persistent cyclodiene pesticide which is a known antagonist of the -aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptor. Since GABA is a trophic factor for the development of other neurotransmitter systems (Lauder et al., Perspectives in Developmental Neurobiolog...

  2. Alterations in the cholinergic system of brain stem neurons in a mouse model of Rett syndrome.

    PubMed

    Oginsky, Max F; Cui, Ningren; Zhong, Weiwei; Johnson, Christopher M; Jiang, Chun

    2014-09-15

    Rett syndrome is an autism-spectrum disorder resulting from mutations to the X-linked gene, methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2), which causes abnormalities in many systems. It is possible that the body may develop certain compensatory mechanisms to alleviate the abnormalities. The norepinephrine system originating mainly in the locus coeruleus (LC) is defective in Rett syndrome and Mecp2-null mice. LC neurons are subject to modulation by GABA, glutamate, and acetylcholine (ACh), providing an ideal system to test the compensatory hypothesis. Here we show evidence for potential compensatory modulation of LC neurons by post- and presynaptic ACh inputs. We found that the postsynaptic currents of nicotinic ACh receptors (nAChR) were smaller in amplitude and longer in decay time in the Mecp2-null mice than in the wild type. Single-cell PCR analysis showed a decrease in the expression of α3-, α4-, α7-, and β3-subunits and an increase in the α5- and α6-subunits in the mutant mice. The α5-subunit was present in many of the LC neurons with slow-decay nAChR currents. The nicotinic modulation of spontaneous GABAA-ergic inhibitory postsynaptic currents in LC neurons was enhanced in Mecp2-null mice. In contrast, the nAChR manipulation of glutamatergic input to LC neurons was unaffected in both groups of mice. Our current-clamp studies showed that the modulation of LC neurons by ACh input was reduced moderately in Mecp2-null mice, despite the major decrease in nAChR currents, suggesting possible compensatory processes may take place, thus reducing the defects to a lesser extent in LC neurons.

  3. Catecholaminergic and cholinergic systems of mouse brain are modulated by LMN diet, rich in theobromine, polyphenols and polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Fernández, Laura; Esteban, Gerard; Giralt, Mercedes; Valente, Tony; Bolea, Irene; Solé, Montse; Sun, Ping; Benítez, Susana; Morelló, José Ramón; Reguant, Jordi; Ramírez, Bartolomé; Hidalgo, Juan; Unzeta, Mercedes

    2015-04-01

    The possible modulatory effect of the functional LMN diet, rich in theobromine, polyphenols and polyunsaturated fatty acids, on the catecholaminergic and cholinergic neurotransmission, affecting cognition decline during aging has been studied. 129S1/SvlmJ mice were fed for 10, 20, 30 and 40 days with either LMN or control diets. The enzymes involved in catecholaminergic and cholinergic metabolism were determined by both immunohistological and western blot analyses. Noradrenalin, dopamine and other metabolites were quantified by HPLC analysis. Theobromine, present in cocoa, the main LMN diet component, was analysed in parallel using SH-SY5Y and PC12 cell lines. An enhanced modulatory effect on both cholinergic and catecholaminergic transmissions was observed on 20 day fed mice. Similar effect was observed with theobromine, besides its antioxidant capacity inducing SOD-1 and GPx expression. The enhancing effect of the LMN diet and theobromine on the levels of acetylcholine-related enzymes, dopamine and specially noradrenalin confirms the beneficial role of this diet on the "cognitive reserve" and hence a possible reducing effect on cognitive decline underlying aging and Alzheimer's disease.

  4. Effects of a 60 Hz magnetic field on central cholinergic systems of the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, H.; Carino, M.A.; Horita, A.; Guy, A.W. )

    1993-03-15

    The authors studied the effects of an acute exposure to a 60 Hz magnetic field on sodium-dependent, high-affinity choline uptake in the brain of the rat. Decreases in uptake were observed in the frontal cortex and hippocampus after the animals were exposed to a magnetic field at flux densities [>=] 0.75 mT. These effects of the magnetic field were blocked by pretreating the animals with the narcotic antagonist naltrexone, but not by the peripheral opioid antagonist, naloxone methiodide. These data indicate that the magnetic-field-induced decreases in high-affinity choline uptake in the rat brain were mediated by endogenous opioids in the central nervous systems.

  5. Combined exposure to nicotine and ethanol in adolescent mice: effects on the central cholinergic systems during short and long term withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro-Carvalho, A; Lima, C S; Medeiros, A H; Siqueira, N R; Filgueiras, C C; Manhães, A C; Abreu-Villaça, Y

    2009-09-15

    Relapse to drug use is a major public health problem. In this sense, understanding the biological substrates that are affected during withdrawal may provide information to prevent relapse. Both smoking and alcoholic beverage consumption usually begin during adolescence, however, little is known about the basic neurobiology of the combined adolescent exposure, particularly during withdrawal. Since nicotine is a cholinergic agonist and it has been shown that ethanol interferes with nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), the current study focused on the effects of drug withdrawal on the central cholinergic system. From the 30th to the 45th postnatal day (PN), C57BL/6 male and female mice were exposed to nicotine free base (NIC) and/or ethanol (ETOH). Four groups were analyzed: (1) concomitant NIC (50 microg/ml in 2% saccharin to drink) and ETOH (25%, 2 g/kg i.p. injected every other day) exposure; (2) NIC exposure; (3) ETOH exposure; (4) vehicle. We assessed nAChR binding, choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) activity and [(3)H]hemicholinium-3 (HC-3) binding in the cerebral cortex and midbrain of mice at short (PN50) and long term (PN75) withdrawal. NIC and NIC+ETOH promoted nAChR upregulation during a short-term withdrawal. NIC short-term withdrawal elicited an increase in ChAT activity that was reversed by ETOH withdrawal. In addition, NIC+ETOH elicited a decrease in ChAT activity at long term withdrawal. Regarding HC-3, ETOH and NIC+ETOH promoted a decrease that persisted at long-term withdrawal. The present study provides experimental evidence that nicotine and ethanol during adolescence interact resulting in cholinergic system alterations during withdrawal.

  6. Brain Region–Specific Alterations in the Gene Expression of Cytokines, Immune Cell Markers and Cholinergic System Components during Peripheral Endotoxin–Induced Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Silverman, Harold A; Dancho, Meghan; Regnier-Golanov, Angelique; Nasim, Mansoor; Ochani, Mahendar; Olofsson, Peder S; Ahmed, Mohamed; Miller, Edmund J; Chavan, Sangeeta S; Golanov, Eugene; Metz, Christine N; Tracey, Kevin J; Pavlov, Valentin A

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory conditions characterized by excessive peripheral immune responses are associated with diverse alterations in brain function, and brain-derived neural pathways regulate peripheral inflammation. Important aspects of this bidirectional peripheral immune–brain communication, including the impact of peripheral inflammation on brain region–specific cytokine responses, and brain cholinergic signaling (which plays a role in controlling peripheral cytokine levels), remain unclear. To provide insight, we studied gene expression of cytokines, immune cell markers and brain cholinergic system components in the cortex, cerebellum, brainstem, hippocampus, hypothalamus, striatum and thalamus in mice after an intraperitoneal lipopolysaccharide injection. Endotoxemia was accompanied by elevated serum levels of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and other cytokines and brain region–specific increases in Il1b (the highest increase, relative to basal level, was in cortex; the lowest increase was in cerebellum) and Il6 (highest increase in cerebellum; lowest increase in striatum) mRNA expression. Gene expression of brain Gfap (astrocyte marker) was also differentially increased. However, Iba1 (microglia marker) mRNA expression was decreased in the cortex, hippocampus and other brain regions in parallel with morphological changes, indicating microglia activation. Brain choline acetyltransferase (Chat ) mRNA expression was decreased in the striatum, acetylcholinesterase (Ache) mRNA expression was decreased in the cortex and increased in the hippocampus, and M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (Chrm1) mRNA expression was decreased in the cortex and the brainstem. These results reveal a previously unrecognized regional specificity in brain immunoregulatory and cholinergic system gene expression in the context of peripheral inflammation and are of interest for designing future antiinflammatory approaches. PMID:25299421

  7. The mRNA expression and histological integrity in rat forebrain motor and sensory regions are minimally affected by acrylamide exposure through drinking water

    SciTech Connect

    Bowyer, John F.; Latendresse, John R.; Delongchamp, Robert R.; Warbritton, Alan R.; Thomas, Monzy; Divine, Becky; Doerge, Daniel R.

    2009-11-01

    A study was undertaken to determine whether alterations in the gene expression or overt histological signs of neurotoxicity in selected regions of the forebrain might occur from acrylamide exposure via drinking water. Gene expression at the mRNA level was evaluated by cDNA array and/or RT-PCR analysis in the striatum, substantia nigra and parietal cortex of rat after a 2-week acrylamide exposure. The highest dose tested (maximally tolerated) of approximately 44 mg/kg/day resulted in a significant decreased body weight, sluggishness, and locomotor activity reduction. These physiological effects were not accompanied by prominent changes in gene expression in the forebrain. All the expression changes seen in the 1200 genes that were evaluated in the three brain regions were <= 1.5-fold, and most not significant. Very few, if any, statistically significant changes were seen in mRNA levels of the more than 50 genes directly related to the cholinergic, noradrenergic, GABAergic or glutamatergic neurotransmitter systems in the striatum, substantia nigra or parietal cortex. All the expression changes observed in genes related to dopaminergic function were less than 1.5-fold and not statistically significant and the 5HT1b receptor was the only serotonin-related gene affected. Therefore, gene expression changes were few and modest in basal ganglia and sensory cortex at a time when the behavioral manifestations of acrylamide toxicity had become prominent. No histological evidence of axonal, dendritic or neuronal cell body damage was found in the forebrain due to the acrylamide exposure. As well, microglial activation was not present. These findings are consistent with the absence of expression changes in genes related to changes in neuroinflammation or neurotoxicity. Over all, these data suggest that oral ingestion of acrylamide in drinking water or food, even at maximally tolerable levels, induced neither marked changes in gene expression nor neurotoxicity in the motor and

  8. The mRNA expression and histological integrity in rat forebrain motor and sensory regions are minimally affected by acrylamide exposure through drinking water.

    PubMed

    Bowyer, John F; Latendresse, John R; Delongchamp, Robert R; Warbritton, Alan R; Thomas, Monzy; Divine, Becky; Doerge, Daniel R

    2009-11-01

    A study was undertaken to determine whether alterations in the gene expression or overt histological signs of neurotoxicity in selected regions of the forebrain might occur from acrylamide exposure via drinking water. Gene expression at the mRNA level was evaluated by cDNA array and/or RT-PCR analysis in the striatum, substantia nigra and parietal cortex of rat after a 2-week acrylamide exposure. The highest dose tested (maximally tolerated) of approximately 44 mg/kg/day resulted in a significant decreased body weight, sluggishness, and locomotor activity reduction. These physiological effects were not accompanied by prominent changes in gene expression in the forebrain. All the expression changes seen in the 1200 genes that were evaluated in the three brain regions were < or =1.5-fold, and most not significant. Very few, if any, statistically significant changes were seen in mRNA levels of the more than 50 genes directly related to the cholinergic, noradrenergic, GABAergic or glutamatergic neurotransmitter systems in the striatum, substantia nigra or parietal cortex. All the expression changes observed in genes related to dopaminergic function were less than 1.5-fold and not statistically significant and the 5HT1b receptor was the only serotonin-related gene affected. Therefore, gene expression changes were few and modest in basal ganglia and sensory cortex at a time when the behavioral manifestations of acrylamide toxicity had become prominent. No histological evidence of axonal, dendritic or neuronal cell body damage was found in the forebrain due to the acrylamide exposure. As well, microglial activation was not present. These findings are consistent with the absence of expression changes in genes related to changes in neuroinflammation or neurotoxicity. Over all, these data suggest that oral ingestion of acrylamide in drinking water or food, even at maximally tolerable levels, induced neither marked changes in gene expression nor neurotoxicity in the motor and

  9. Diminished trkA receptor signaling reveals cholinergic-attentional vulnerability of aging

    PubMed Central

    Parikh, Vinay; Howe, William M.; Welchko, Ryan M.; Naughton, Sean X.; D'Amore, Drew E.; Han, Daniel H.; Deo, Monika; Turner, David L.; Sarter, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The cellular mechanisms underlying the exceptional vulnerability of the basal forebrain (BF) cholinergic neurons during pathological aging have remained elusive. Here we employed an adeno-associated viral vector-based RNA interference (AAV-RNAi) strategy to suppress the expression of trkA receptors by cholinergic neurons in the nucleus basalis of Meynert/ substantia innominata (nMB/SI) of adult and aged rats. Suppression of trkA receptor expression impaired attentional performance selectively in aged rats. Performance correlated with trkA levels in the nMB/SI. TrkA knockdown neither affected nMB/SI cholinergic cell counts nor the decrease in cholinergic cell size observed in aged rats. However, trkA suppression augmented an age-related decrease in the density of cortical cholinergic processes and attenuated the capacity of cholinergic neurons to release ACh. The capacity of cortical synapses to release acetylcholine (ACh) in vivo was also lower in aged/trkA-AAV-infused rats than in aged or young controls, and it correlated with their attentional performance. Furthermore, age-related increases in cortical proNGF and p75 receptor levels interacted with the vector-induced loss of trkA receptors to shift NGF signaling toward p75-mediated suppression of the cholinergic phenotype, thereby attenuating cholinergic function and impairing attentional performance. These effects model the abnormal trophic regulation of cholinergic neurons and cognitive impairments in patients with early Alzheimer's disease. This rat model is useful for identifying the mechanisms rendering aging cholinergic neurons vulnerable as well as for studying the neuropathological mechanisms that are triggered by disrupted trophic signaling. PMID:23228124

  10. Dynamic expression of MEIS1 homeoprotein in E14.5 forebrain and differentiated forebrain-derived neural stem cells.

    PubMed

    Barber, Benjamin A; Liyanage, Vichithra R B; Zachariah, Robby M; Olson, Carl O; Bailey, Melissa A G; Rastegar, Mojgan

    2013-10-01

    Central nervous system development is controlled by highly conserved homeoprotein transcription factors including HOX and TALE (Three Amino acid Loop Extension). TALE proteins are primarily known as HOX-cofactors and play key roles in cell proliferation, differentiation and organogenesis. MEIS1 is a TALE member with established expression in the developing central nervous system. MEIS1 is essential for embryonic development and Meis1 knockout mice dies at embryonic day (E) 14.5. However, Meis1/MEIS1 expression in the devolving forebrain, at this critical time-point has not been studied. Here, for the first time we characterize the region-specific expression of MEIS1 in E14.5 mouse forebrain, filling the gap of MEIS1 expression profile between E12.5 and E16.5. Previously, we reported MEIS1 transcriptional regulatory role in neuronal differentiation and established forebrain-derived neural stem cells (NSC) for gene therapy application of neuronal genes. Here, we show the dynamic expression of Meis1/MEIS1 during the differentiation of forebrain-derived NSC toward a glial lineage. Our results show that Meis1/MEIS1 expression is induced during NSC differentiation and is expressed in both differentiated neurons and astrocytes. Confirming these results, we detected MEIS1 expression in primary cultures of in vivo differentiated cortical neurons and astrocytes. We further demonstrate Meis1/MEIS1 expression relative to other TALE family members in the forebrain-derived NSC in the absence of Hox genes. Our data provide evidence that forebrain-derived NSC can be used as an accessible in vitro model to study the expression and function of TALE proteins, supporting their potential role in modulating NSC self-renewal and differentiation.

  11. Organization of the avian basal forebrain: chemical anatomy in the parrot (Melopsittacus undulatus).

    PubMed

    Roberts, Todd Freeman; Hall, William Sterling; Brauth, Steven Earle

    2002-12-23

    Hodological, electrophysiological, and ablation studies indicate a role for the basal forebrain in telencephalic vocal control; however, to date the organization of the basal forebrain has not been extensively studied in any nonmammal or nonhuman vocal learning species. To this end the chemical anatomy of the avian basal forebrain was investigated in a vocal learning parrot, the budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus). Immunological and histological stains, including choline acetyltransferase, acetylcholinesterase, tyrosine hydroxylase, dopamine and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein (DARPP)-32, the calcium binding proteins calbindin D-28k and parvalbumin, calcitonin gene-related peptide, iron, substance P, methionine enkephalin, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphotase diaphorase, and arginine vasotocin were used in the present study. We conclude that the ventral paleostriatum (cf. Kitt and Brauth [1981] Neuroscience 6:1551-1566) and adjacent archistriatal regions can be subdivided into several distinct subareas that are chemically comparable to mammalian basal forebrain structures. The nucleus accumbens is histochemically separable into core and shell regions. The nucleus taeniae (TN) is theorized to be homologous to the medial amygdaloid nucleus. The archistriatum pars ventrolateralis (Avl; comparable to the pigeon archistriatum pars dorsalis) is theorized to be a possible homologue of the central amygdaloid nucleus. The TN and Avl are histochemically continuous with the medial aspects of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and the ventromedial striatum, forming an avian analogue of the extended amygdala. The apparent counterpart in budgerigars of the mammalian nucleus basalis of Meynert consists of a field of cholinergic neurons spanning the basal forebrain. The budgerigar septal region is theorized to be homologous as a field to the mammalian septum. Our results are discussed with regard to both the evolution of the basal forebrain and its role in vocal

  12. Cholinergic Modulation of Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Pavlov, Valentin A.

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that cytokine levels and inflammation can be regulated by specifically augmenting cholinergic signaling via the efferent vagus nerve and the α7 subunit-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR). Cholinergic modalities, acting through vagus nerve- and/or α7nAChR-mediated mechanisms have been shown to suppress excessive inflammation in several experimental models of disease, including endotoxemic shock, sepsis, ischemia-reperfusion injury, hemorrhagic shock, colitis, postoperative ileus and pancreatitis. These studies have advanced the current understanding of the mechanisms regulating inflammation. They have also provided a rationale for exploring new possibilities to treat excessive, disease-underlying inflammation by applying selective cholinergic modalities in preclinical and clinical settings. An overview of this research is presented here. PMID:19079659

  13. Cholinergic modulation of inflammation.

    PubMed

    Pavlov, Valentin A

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that cytokine levels and inflammation can be regulated by specifically augmenting cholinergic signaling via the efferent vagus nerve and the alpha7 subunit-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (alpha7nAChR). Cholinergic modalities, acting through vagus nerve- and/or alpha7nAChR-mediated mechanisms have been shown to suppress excessive inflammation in several experimental models of disease, including endotoxemic shock, sepsis, ischemia-reperfusion injury, hemorrhagic shock, colitis, postoperative ileus and pancreatitis. These studies have advanced the current understanding of the mechanisms regulating inflammation. They have also provided a rationale for exploring new possibilities to treat excessive, disease-underlying inflammation by applying selective cholinergic modalities in preclinical and clinical settings. An overview of this research is presented here.

  14. Anaphe venata larva extract-induced purposeless chewing in rats: the role of cholinergic, GABAergic and opioid systems.

    PubMed

    Bamitale, K D S; Akanmu, M A; Ukponmwan, O E

    2010-11-25

    Seasonal ataxia was reported in humans following the consumption ofAnaphe venata larva as protein supplement in diet and altered motor function in rodents when the extract was administered intraperitoneally. In this study we investigated the effect of the crude aqueous and Phosphate Buffer Saline (PBS) extracts of this larva on altered spontaneous rat behavior in a novel environment particularly chewing behaviour, with a view to determine the mechanism(s) involved in these behavioural alteration. Animals were randomly assigned into four groups (n = 6-12 per group) and graded doses of aqueous and PBS extracts (100-400 mg/kg) were administered dissolved in saline intraperitoneally (i.p.) to each animal in the experimental groups. The control group received an equivalent volume of saline. Behavioral scores were recorded for a period of 30 minutes after the administration of saline or extract. The role of various receptors in the extract induced chewing was evaluated using known receptor agonist/antagonists. Results revealed a significant increase in purposeless chewing (F (7, 95) = 7.85; p <0.05) by the aqueous extract compared to saline control at all dose levels, which was significantly attenuated by scopolamine (3 mg/kg, i.p) and thiamine (1 mg/kg, i.p) respectively (p <0.05); while flumazenil (2 mg/kg, i.p) and naloxone (2.5 mg/kg, i.p) did not alter the induced purposeless chewing behaviour. Also, administration of PBS induced a significant (F (7, 95) = 6.11; p <0.05) increase in chewing behaviour but only at 400 mg/kg dose level which was attenuated by scopolamine (3 mg/kg, i.p); while flumazenil (2 mg/kg, i.p), naloxone (2.5 mg/kg, i.p), and thiamine (1 mg/kg, i.p) potentiated purposeless chewing behaviour respectively. It may therefore be concluded from this study that Anaphe extract-induced purposeless chewing behaviour in rat is mediated via the activation of cholinergic neurotransmission which is modulated by GABAergic and opioid receptor systems.

  15. Methamidophos Exposure During the Early Postnatal Period of Mice: Immediate and Late-Emergent Effects on the Cholinergic and Serotonergic Systems and Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Abreu-Villaça, Yael

    2013-01-01

    Organophosphates (OPs) are among the most used pesticides. Although some OPs have had their use progressively more restricted, other OPs are being used without sufficient investigation of their effects. Here, we investigated the immediate neurochemical and delayed neurochemical and behavioral actions of the OP methamidophos to verify whether there are concerns regarding exposure during early postnatal development. From the third to the nineth postnatal day (PN), Swiss mice were sc injected with methamidophos (1mg/kg). At PN10, we assessed cholinergic and serotonergic biomarkers in the cerebral cortex and brainstem. From PN60 to PN63, mice were submitted to a battery of behavioral tests and subsequently to biochemical analyses. At PN10, the effects were restricted to females and to the cholinergic system: Methamidophos promoted increased choline transporter binding in the brainstem. At PN63, in the brainstem, there was a decrease in choline transporter, a female-only decrease in 5HT1A and a male-only increase in 5HT2 receptor binding. In the cortex, choline acetyltransferase activity was decreased and 5HT2 receptor binding was increased both in males and females. Methamidophos elicited behavioral alterations, suggestive of increased depressive-like behavior and impaired decision making. There were no significant alterations on anxiety-related measures and on memory/learning. Methamidophos elicited cholinergic and serotonergic alterations that depended on brain region, sex, and age of the animals. These outcomes, together with the behavioral effects, indicate that this OP is deleterious to the developing brain and that alterations are indeed identified long after the end of exposure. PMID:23596261

  16. Genetic Risk For Nicotine Dependence in the Cholinergic System and Activation of the Brain Reward System in Healthy Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Nees, F; Witt, S H; Lourdusamy, A; Vollstädt-Klein, S; Steiner, S; Poustka, L; Banaschewski, T; Barker, G J; Büchel, C; Conrod, P J; Frank, J; Gallinat, J; Garavan, H; Heinz, A; Ittermann, B; Loth, E; Mann, K; Artiges, E; Paus, T; Pausova, Z; Smolka, M N; Struve, M; Schumann, G; Rietschel, M; Flor, H

    2013-01-01

    Genetic variation in a genomic region on chromosome 15q25.1, which encodes the alpha5, alpha3, and beta4 subunits of the cholinergic nicotinic receptor genes, confers risk to smoking and nicotine dependence (ND). Neural reward-related responses have previously been identified as important factors in the development of drug dependence involving ND. Applying an imaging genetics approach in two cohorts (N=487; N=478) of healthy non-smoking adolescents, we aimed to elucidate the impact of genome-wide significant smoking-associated variants in the CHRNA5–CHRNA3–CHRNB4 gene cluster on reward-related neural responses in central regions such as the striatum, orbitofrontal and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and personality traits related to addiction. In both samples, carriers of the rs578776 GG compared with AG/AA genotype showed a significantly lower neural response to reward outcomes in the right ventral and dorsal ACC but not the striatum or the orbitofrontal cortex. Rs578776 was unrelated to neural reward anticipation or reward magnitude. Significantly higher scores of anxiety sensitivity in GG compared with AG/AA carriers were found only in sample 1. Associations with other personality traits were not observed. Our findings suggest that the rs578776 risk variant influences susceptibility to ND by dampening the response of the ACC to reward feedback, without recruiting the striatum or orbitofrontal cortex during feedback or anticipation. Thus, it seems to have a major role in the processing of and behavioral adaptation to changing reward outcomes. PMID:23689675

  17. Effects of Two Years of Conjugated Equine Estrogens on Cholinergic Neurons in Young and Middle-Aged Ovariectomized Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Browne, Carole; Tobin, Joseph R.; Voytko, Mary Lou

    2009-01-01

    The effect of estrogen on the number and size of cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain was examined in surgically menopausal young and middle-aged cynomolgus monkeys. Young and middle-aged female monkeys were ovariectomized and treated with conjugated equine estrogens (Premarin) at doses that are equivalent to those currently prescribed to postmenopausal women. In the medial septum/diagonal band (MS/DB), no effect of treatment with Premarin was observed in the cholinergic neurons in either ovariectomized young or middle-aged monkeys. However, the number and size of cholinergic neurons in the MS/DB of middle-aged monkeys was greater than that in the young monkeys. In the nucleus basalis of Meynert (NBM) of middle-aged monkeys, the number of cholinergic neurons in the intermediate region (Ch4i) was greater in Premarin-treated monkeys as compared to controls and numbers of neurons in this region were greater at higher levels of estrogen. No effects of estrogen were observed in other NBM regions in the middle-aged monkeys and the size of cholinergic neurons was unaffected by Premarin. These findings suggest that treatment with Premarin has selective beneficial effects on cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain but that these effects are both age and region specific. PMID:19401167

  18. Age-dependent loss of cholinergic neurons in learning and memory-related brain regions and impaired learning in SAMP8 mice with trigeminal nerve damage.

    PubMed

    He, Yifan; Zhu, Jihong; Huang, Fang; Qin, Liu; Fan, Wenguo; He, Hongwen

    2014-11-15

    The tooth belongs to the trigeminal sensory pathway. Dental damage has been associated with impairments in the central nervous system that may be mediated by injury to the trigeminal nerve. In the present study, we investigated the effects of damage to the inferior alveolar nerve, an important peripheral nerve in the trigeminal sensory pathway, on learning and memory behaviors and structural changes in related brain regions, in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. Inferior alveolar nerve transection or sham surgery was performed in middle-aged (4-month-old) or elderly (7-month-old) senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8) mice. When the middle-aged mice reached 8 months (middle-aged group 1) or 11 months (middle-aged group 2), and the elderly group reached 11 months, step-down passive avoidance and Y-maze tests of learning and memory were performed, and the cholinergic system was examined in the hippocampus (Nissl staining and acetylcholinesterase histochemistry) and basal forebrain (choline acetyltransferase immunohistochemistry). In the elderly group, animals that underwent nerve transection had fewer pyramidal neurons in the hippocampal CA1 and CA3 regions, fewer cholinergic fibers in the CA1 and dentate gyrus, and fewer cholinergic neurons in the medial septal nucleus and vertical limb of the diagonal band, compared with sham-operated animals, as well as showing impairments in learning and memory. Conversely, no significant differences in histology or behavior were observed between middle-aged group 1 or group 2 transected mice and age-matched sham-operated mice. The present findings suggest that trigeminal nerve damage in old age, but not middle age, can induce degeneration of the septal-hippocampal cholinergic system and loss of hippocampal pyramidal neurons, and ultimately impair learning ability. Our results highlight the importance of active treatment of trigeminal nerve damage in elderly patients and those with Alzheimer's disease, and indicate that

  19. The forebrain-midbrain acts as functional endocrine signaling pathway of Kiss2/Gnrh1 system controlling the gonadotroph activity in the teleost fish European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax).

    PubMed

    Espigares, Felipe; Carrillo, Manuel; Gómez, Ana; Zanuy, Silvia

    2015-03-01

    Some teleost species, including European sea bass, harbor two different kisspeptin coding genes: kiss1 and kiss2. Both genes are expressed in the brain, but their differential roles in the central control of fish reproduction are only beginning to be elucidated. In this study, we have examined the effects of intracerebroventricular injections of the highly active sea bass peptides Kiss1-15 and Kiss2-12 on spermiating male sea bass. Physiological saline, Kiss1-15, or Kiss2-12 was injected into the third ventricle. To establish the gene expression cascade involved in the action of kisspeptins, the expression of the two sea bass kisspeptin receptor genes (kiss1r and kiss2r) and the three sea bass Gnrh genes (gnrh1, gnrh2, and gnrh3) were analyzed in the forebrain-midbrain and the hypothalamus. In addition, the protein levels of hypothalamic and pituitary Gnrh1 were measured. Blood samples were collected at different times after injection to analyze the effects of kisspeptins on the release of gonadotropins (Lh and Fsh) and androgens (testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone). The present results provide the first evidence that the effects of Kiss2 on central regulation of reproductive function involve the neuroendocrine areas of the forebrain-midbrain in teleost fish. The marked effect of Kiss2 on kiss2r and gnrh1 expression in the forebrain-midbrain and on Gnrh1 release suggest that this neuronal system is involved in the neuroendocrine regulation of gonadotroph activity. This hypothesis was confirmed by a surge of plasma Lh in response to Kiss2, which presumably has a strong stimulatory effect on testosterone release, and thus on sperm quality parameters. © 2015 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  20. Blockade of GABA, type A, receptors in the rat pontine reticular formation induces rapid eye movement sleep that is dependent upon the cholinergic system.

    PubMed

    Marks, G A; Sachs, O W; Birabil, C G

    2008-09-22

    The brainstem reticular formation is an area important to the control of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. The antagonist of GABA-type A (GABA(A)) receptors, bicuculline methiodide (BMI), injected into the rat nucleus pontis oralis (PnO) of the reticular formation resulted in a long-lasting increase in REM sleep. Thus, one factor controlling REM sleep appears to be the number of functional GABA(A) receptors in the PnO. The long-lasting effect produced by BMI may result from secondary influences on other neurotransmitter systems known to have long-lasting effects. To study this question, rats were surgically prepared for chronic sleep recording and additionally implanted with guide cannulas aimed at sites in the PnO. Multiple, 60 nl, unilateral injections were made either singly or in combination. GABA(A) receptor antagonists, BMI and gabazine (GBZ), produced dose-dependent increases in REM sleep with GBZ being approximately 35 times more potent than BMI. GBZ and the cholinergic agonist, carbachol, produced very similar results, both increasing REM sleep for about 8 h, mainly through increased period frequency, with little reduction in REM latency. Pre-injection of the muscarinic antagonist, atropine, completely blocked the REM sleep-increase by GBZ. GABAergic control of REM sleep in the PnO requires the cholinergic system and may be acting through presynaptic modulation of acetylcholine release.

  1. The bilaterian forebrain: an evolutionary chimaera.

    PubMed

    Tosches, Maria Antonietta; Arendt, Detlev

    2013-12-01

    The insect, annelid and vertebrate forebrains harbour two major centres of output control, a sensory-neurosecretory centre releasing hormones and a primordial locomotor centre that controls the initiation of muscular body movements. In vertebrates, both reside in the hypothalamus. Here, we review recent comparative neurodevelopmental evidence indicating that these centres evolved from separate condensations of neurons on opposite body sides ('apical nervous system' versus 'blastoporal nervous system') and that their developmental specification involved distinct regulatory networks (apical six3 and rx versus mediolateral nk and pax gene-dependent patterning). In bilaterian ancestors, both systems approached each other and became closely intermingled, physically, functionally and developmentally. Our 'chimeric brain hypothesis' sheds new light on the vast success and rapid diversification of bilaterian animals in the Cambrian and revises our understanding of brain architecture.

  2. Action of cholinergic poisons on the central nervous system and effectiveness of potential antidotes. Annual report 1 Jul 81-30 Jun 82

    SciTech Connect

    Samson, F.; Nelson, S.

    1982-11-01

    The research aim was to determine the effects of soman, related organophosphate toxins and potential antidotes on brain regional functions in rats: The (/sup 14/C)-2-deoxyglucose procedure (2-DG) was used for mapping brain regional glucose use. Quantitative autoradiography was used for muscarinic and nicotinic cholinergic receptors. The 2-DG procedure gives a quantitative measure of glucose utilization in brain regions and is in index of the 'functional activity' in brain regions and systems. Values were determined in controls, rats with soman induced seizures, seizures induced by convulsants (DFP, strychnine, picrotoxin, pentylenetetrazol, penicillin) and soman pretreated with TAB. Brain regional cholinergic receptor maps were prepared and some regional muscarinic and nicotinic receptor densities have been quantified. Soman (112 micrograms/kg i.m.) causes strong, continuous seizures and a dramatic (2-6 fold) increase in the rate of glucose use in 10 major brain regions. Most intense increases were in septum, substants nigra reticularis and outer layer of hippcampal dendata gyrus. The overt seizures of rats induced by convulsants DFP, strychnine, picrotoxin, pentylenetetrazol and penicillin (in hippocampus) were strikingly different from that of rats with soman seizures. High doses (2X LD50) of soman in rats protected with TAB caused a 50% depression of glucose use in most brain regions. The effects of repeated soman exposure on muscarinic and nicotinic receptors are under study.

  3. Laser Acupuncture at HT7 Acupoint Improves Cognitive Deficit, Neuronal Loss, Oxidative Stress, and Functions of Cholinergic and Dopaminergic Systems in Animal Model of Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Wattanathorn, Jintanaporn; Sutalangka, Chatchada

    2014-01-01

    To date, the therapeutic strategy against cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease (PD) is still not in satisfaction level and requires novel effective intervention. Based the oxidative stress reduction and cognitive enhancement induced by laser acupuncture at HT7, the beneficial effect of laser acupuncture at HT7 against cognitive impairment in PD has been focused. In this study, we aimed to determine the effect of laser acupuncture at HT7 on memory impairment, oxidative stress status, and the functions of both cholinergic and dopaminergic systems in hippocampus of animal model of PD. Male Wistar rats, weighing 180-220 g, were induced unilateral lesion at right substantianigra by 6-OHDA and were treated with laser acupuncture continuously at a period of 14 days. The results showed that laser acupuncture at HT7 enhanced memory and neuron density in CA3 and dentate gyrus. The decreased AChE, MAO-B, and MDA together with increased GSH-Px in hippocampus of a 6-OHDA lesion rats were also observed. In conclusion, laser acupuncture at HT7 can improve neuron degeneration and memory impairment in animal model of PD partly via the decreased oxidative stress and the improved cholinergic and dopaminergic functions. More researches concerning effect of treatment duration are still required.

  4. Cholinergic neuronal lesions in the medial septum and vertical limb of the diagonal bands of Broca induce contextual fear memory generalization and impair acquisition of fear extinction.

    PubMed

    Knox, Dayan; Keller, Samantha M

    2016-06-01

    Previous research has shown that the ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and hippocampus (Hipp) are critical for extinction memory. Basal forebrain (BF) cholinergic input to the vmPFC and Hipp is critical for neural function in these substrates, which suggests BF cholinergic neurons may be critical for extinction memory. In order to test this hypothesis, we applied cholinergic lesions to different regions of the BF and observed the effects these lesions had on extinction memory. Complete BF cholinergic lesions induced contextual fear memory generalization, and this generalized fear was resistant to extinction. Animals with complete BF cholinergic lesions could not acquire cued fear extinction. Restricted cholinergic lesions in the medial septum and vertical diagonal bands of Broca (MS/vDBB) mimicked the effects that BF cholinergic lesions had on contextual fear memory generalization and acquisition of fear extinction. Cholinergic lesions in the horizontal diagonal band of Broca and nucleus basalis (hDBB/NBM) induced a small deficit in extinction of generalized contextual fear memory with no accompanying deficits in cued fear extinction. The results of this study reveal that MS/vDBB cholinergic neurons are critical for inhibition and extinction of generalized contextual fear memory, and via this process, may be critical for acquisition of cued fear extinction. Further studies delineating neural circuits and mechanisms through which MS/vDBB cholinergic neurons facilitate these emotional memory processes are needed. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Cholinergic neuronal lesions in the medial septum and vertical limb of the Diagonal Bands of Broca induce contextual fear memory generalization and impair acquisition of fear extinction

    PubMed Central

    Knox, Dayan; Keller, Samantha M.

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has shown that the ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and hippocampus (Hipp) are critical for extinction memory. Basal forebrain (BF) cholinergic input to the vmPFC and Hipp is critical for neural function in these substrates, which suggests BF cholinergic neurons may be critical for extinction memory. In order to test this hypothesis, we applied cholinergic lesions to different regions of the BF and observed the effects these lesions had on extinction memory. Complete BF cholinergic lesions induced contextual fear memory generalization, and this generalized fear was resistant to extinction. Animals with complete BF cholinergic lesions could not acquire cued fear extinction. Restricted cholinergic lesions in the medial septum and vertical diagonal bands of Broca (MS/vDBB) mimicked the effects that BF cholinergic lesions had on contextual fear memory generalization and acquisition of fear extinction. Cholinergic lesions in the horizontal diagonal band of Broca and nucleus basalis (hDBB/NBM) induced a small deficit in extinction of generalized contextual fear memory with no accompanying deficits in cued fear extinction. The results of this study reveal that MS/vDBB cholinergic neurons are critical for inhibition and extinction of generalized contextual fear memory, and via this process, may be critical for acquisition of cued fear extinction. Further studies delineating neural circuits and mechanisms through which MS/vDBB cholinergic neurons facilitate these emotional memory processes are needed. PMID:26606423

  6. Involvement of cholinergic and GABAergic systems in the reversal of memory disruption by NS-105, a cognition enhancer.

    PubMed

    Ogasawara, T; Itoh, Y; Tamura, M; Mushiroi, T; Ukai, Y; Kise, M; Kimura, K

    1999-09-01

    The effects of (+)-5-oxo-D-prolinepiperidinamide monohydrate (NS-105) on the scopolamine-, electrolytic lesion of the nucleus basalis magnocellularis (NBM)-, AF64A-, baclofen-, cerebral ischemia- and electroconvulsive shock (ECS)-induced memory disruption in the passive avoidance response or radial arm maze tasks were investigated in rats. The effects of NS-105 were compared with those of aniracetam, bifemelane, idebenone, and indeloxazine in two tasks of the passive avoidance response. Furthermore, effects of NS-105 on in vivo release of acetylcholine (ACh) in the cerebral cortex, high-affinity choline uptake (HACU) of the cerebral cortex in rats with lesion of NBM, HACU of the hippocampus in rats treated with pentobarbital and activity of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) of the cerebral cortex in rats with lesion of NBM were examined. NS-105 showed antiamnestic actions in a variety of animal models of cholinergic dysfunction employed in this study. Aniracetam improved memory disruption caused by scopolamine, but bifemelane, idebenone, and indeloxazine did not. NS-105 (10 mg/kg) showed the increase of ACh release from the cerebral cortex and the enhancement of HACU both in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus, but showed no change in activity of ChAT. NS-105 also reversed memory disruption induced by baclofen, a potent GABA(B) receptor agonist, but all of reference drugs did not. These results suggest that antiamnestic action of NS-105 is due to the facilitation of cholinergic neuronal activity and the suppression of GABA(B) receptor-mediated responses.

  7. Nuclear organization of cholinergic, putative catecholaminergic, serotonergic and orexinergic systems in the brain of the African pygmy mouse (Mus minutoides): organizational complexity is preserved in small brains.

    PubMed

    Kruger, Jean-Leigh; Patzke, Nina; Fuxe, Kjell; Bennett, Nigel C; Manger, Paul R

    2012-05-01

    This study investigated the nuclear organization of four immunohistochemically identifiable neural systems (cholinergic, catecholaminergic, serotonergic and orexinergic) within the brain of the African pygmy mouse (Mus minutoides). The African pygmy mice studied had a brain mass of around 275 mg, making these the smallest rodent brains to date in which these neural systems have been investigated. In contrast to the assumption that in this small brain there would be fewer subdivisions of these neural systems, we found that all nuclei generally observed for these systems in other rodent brains were also present in the brain of the African pygmy mouse. As with other rodents previously studied in the subfamily Murinae, we observed the presence of cortical cholinergic neurons and a compactly organized locus coeruleus. These two features of these systems have not been observed in the non-Murinae rodents studied to date. Thus, the African pygmy mouse displays what might be considered a typical Murinae brain organization, and despite its small size, the brain does not appear to be any less complexly organized than other rodent brains, even those that are over 100 times larger such as the Cape porcupine brain. The results are consistent with the notion that changes in brain size do not affect the evolution of nuclear organization of complex neural systems. Thus, species belonging to the same order generally have the same number and complement of the subdivisions, or nuclei, of specific neural systems despite differences in brain size, phenotype or time since evolutionary divergence. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Cholinergic and perfusion brain networks in Parkinson disease dementia

    PubMed Central

    McKeith, Ian G.; Burn, David J.; Wyper, David J.; O'Brien, John T.; Taylor, John-Paul

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate muscarinic M1/M4 cholinergic networks in Parkinson disease dementia (PDD) and their association with changes in Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) after 12 weeks of treatment with donepezil. Methods: Forty-nine participants (25 PDD and 24 elderly controls) underwent 123I-QNB and 99mTc-exametazime SPECT scanning. We implemented voxel principal components (PC) analysis, producing a series of PC images of patterns of interrelated voxels across individuals. Linear regression analyses derived specific M1/M4 and perfusion spatial covariance patterns (SCPs). Results: We found an M1/M4 SCP of relative decreased binding in basal forebrain, temporal, striatum, insula, and anterior cingulate (F1,47 = 31.9, p < 0.001) in cholinesterase inhibitor–naive patients with PDD, implicating limbic-paralimbic and salience cholinergic networks. The corresponding regional cerebral blood flow SCP showed relative decreased uptake in temporoparietal and prefrontal areas (F1,47 = 177.5, p < 0.001) and nodes of the frontoparietal and default mode networks (DMN). The M1/M4 pattern that correlated with an improvement in MMSE (r = 0.58, p = 0.005) revealed relatively preserved/increased pre/medial/orbitofrontal, parietal, and posterior cingulate areas coinciding with the DMN and frontoparietal networks. Conclusion: Dysfunctional limbic-paralimbic and salience cholinergic networks were associated with PDD. Established cholinergic maintenance of the DMN and frontoparietal networks may be prerequisite for cognitive remediation following cholinergic treatment in this condition. PMID:27306636

  9. Basic and modern concepts on cholinergic receptor: A review

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Prashant; Dwivedi, Shubhangi; Singh, Mukesh Pratap; Mishra, Rahul; Chandy, Anish

    2013-01-01

    Cholinergic system is an important system and a branch of the autonomic nervous system which plays an important role in memory, digestion, control of heart beat, blood pressure, movement and many other functions. This article serves as both structural and functional sources of information regarding cholinergic receptors and provides a detailed understanding of the determinants governing specificity of muscarinic and nicotinic receptor to researchers. The study helps to give overall information about the fundamentals of the cholinergic system, its receptors and ongoing research in this field.

  10. Crocodilian Forebrain: Evolution and Development

    PubMed Central

    Pritz, Michael B.

    2015-01-01

    Organization and development of the forebrain in crocodilians are reviewed. In juvenile Caiman crocodilus, the following features were examined: identification and classification of dorsal thalamic nuclei and their respective connections with the telencephalon, presence of local circuit neurons in the dorsal thalamic nuclei, telencephalic projections to the dorsal thalamus, and organization of the thalamic reticular nucleus. These results document many similarities between crocodilians and other reptiles and birds. While crocodilians, as well as other sauropsids, demonstrate several features of neural circuitry in common with mammals, certain striking differences in organization of the forebrain are present. These differences are the result of evolution. To explore a basis for these differences, embryos of Alligator misissippiensis were examined to address the following. First, very early development of the brain in Alligator is similar to that of other amniotes. Second, the developmental program for individual vesicles of the brain differs between the secondary prosencephalon, diencephalon, midbrain, and hindbrain in Alligator. This is likely to be the case for other amniotes. Third, initial development of the diencephalon in Alligator is similar to that in other amniotes. In Alligator, alar and basal parts likely follow a different developmental scheme. PMID:25829019

  11. [Involvement of cross interaction between central cholinergic and histaminergic systems in the nucleus tractus solitarius in regulating carotid sinus baroreceptor reflex].

    PubMed

    Hu, Li-Xun; Zhang, Guo-Xing; Zhang, Yu-Ying; Zhao, Hong-Fen; Yu, Kang-Ying; Wang, Guo-Qing

    2013-12-25

    The carotid sinus baroreceptor reflex (CSR) is an important approach for regulating arterial blood pressure homeostasis instantaneously and physiologically. Activation of the central histaminergic or cholinergic systems results in CSR functional inhibitory resetting. However, it is unclear whether two systems at the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) level display cross interaction to regulate the CSR or not. In the present study, the left or right carotid sinus region was isolated from the systemic circulation in Sprague-Dawley rats (sinus nerve was reserved) anesthetized with pentobarbital sodium. Respective intubation was conducted into one side isolated carotid sinus and into the femoral artery for recording the intracarotid sinus pressure (ISP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) simultaneously with pressure transducers connection in vivo. ISP was set at the level of 0 mmHg to eliminate the effect of initial internal pressure of the carotid sinus on the CSR function. To trigger CSR, the ISP was quickly elevated from 0 mmHg to 280 mmHg in a stepwise manner (40 mmHg) which was added at every step for over 4 s, and then ISP returned to 0 mmHg in similar steps. The original data of ISP and corresponding MAP were fitted to a modified logistic equation with five parameters to obtain the ISP-MAP, ISP-Gain relationship curves and the CSR characteristic parameters, which were statistically compared and analyzed separately. Under the precondition of no influence on the basic levels of the artery blood pressure, the effects and potential regulatory mechanism of preceding microinjection with different cholinoceptor antagonists, the selective cholinergic M1 receptor antagonist, i.e., pirenzepine (PRZ), the M2 receptor antagonist, i.e., methoctramine (MTR) or the N1 receptor antagonist, i.e., hexamethonium (HEX) into the NTS on the changes in function of CSR induced by intracerebroventricular injection (i.c.v.) of histamine (HA) in rats were observed. Meanwhile, the actions and

  12. Role of various subtypes of muscarinic cholinergic receptors in the development of posthemorrhagic abnormalities in systemic and portal circulation in rats.

    PubMed

    Kovalenko, N Ya; Matsievskii, D D; Reshetnyak, V K

    2012-01-01

    The experiments employing high-frequency ultrasonic technique and selective blockers of M1, M3, and M4 muscarinic cholinergic receptors pirenzepine, 4-DAMP, and tropicamide, respectively, revealed individual roles of these receptors in the development of severe posthemorrhagic hypotension in rats with low or high individual resistance to circulatory hypoxia. The study showed that M1 and M4 muscarinic receptors are involved in shock-limiting and shock-activating processes, respectively, while M3 receptors exert no effect on the course of posthemorrhagic abnormalities in systemic and hepatic portal circulation and on the posthemorrhagic lifespan. Poor resistance of the cardiovascular system to circulatory hypoxia during shock development is considered to be dysregulatory pathology.

  13. Nematode cholinergic pharmacology

    SciTech Connect

    Segerberg, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    Nematode acetylcholine (ACh) receptors were characterized using both biochemical and electrophysiological techniques, including: (1) receptor binding studies in crude homogenates of the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and the parasitic nematode Ascaris lumbricoides with the high-affinity probe ({sup 3}H)N-methylscopolamine (({sup 3}H)NMS) which binds to muscarinic receptors in many vertebrate and invertebrate tissues (2) measurement of depolarization and contraction induced by a variety of cholinergic agents, including N-methylscopolamine (NMS), in an innervated dorsal muscle strip preparation of Ascaris; (3) examination of the antagonistic actions of d-tubocurarine (dTC) and NMS at dorsal neuromuscular junction; (4) measurement of input resistance changes in Ascaris commissural motorneurons induced by ACh, dTC, NMS, pilocarpine and other cholinergic drugs.

  14. Establishment of cholinergic neuron-like cell lines with differential vulnerability to nitrosative stress.

    PubMed

    Personett, David A; Williams, Katrina; Baskerville, Karen A; McKinney, Michael

    2007-05-01

    Cholinergic cell lines were established by fusion of embryonic day 17 wild-type neurons from rat basal forebrain (BF) and upper brainstem (BS) with N18tg neuroblastoma cells. Isolated clones expressed choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) activities that were increased upon differentiation with retinoic acid. Clones from the BF expressed high levels of the tyrosine kinase type A (TrkA) receptor expression and activation of the mitogen-activated kinase ERK2 upon treatment with nerve growth factor. Like wild-type cholinergic populations, the six clones studied were variably resistant to nitric oxide (NO) excess from addition of S-nitroso-N-acetyl-D, L-penicillamine (SNAP). Of these, the BS2 clone exhibited resistance like in vivo BS cholinergic neurons, while the MS10 clone mimicked in vivo BF vulnerability. Apoptosis in response to NO excess was preceded by increases in mitochondrial responses bax/bcl-2 ratios, but cytochrome C was not released. Mitochondrial levels of apoptosis initiating factor (AIF) were either unchanged or increased, and only in MS clones was endonuclease G (EndoG) released. Microarray data indicated the existence of endoplasmic reticular (ER) stress and caspase-4 and caspase-12 were involved in the pathway to DNA fragmentation. The array data also indicated a survival role for mdm2, and its blockade rendered vulnerable the brainstem survivor clone BS2. Akt and ERK1/2 pathways were activated in response to NO and their blockade increased DNA fragmentation. Blockade of GSK-3 alpha/beta, a downstream target of Akt, reduced SNAP toxicity and this was more prominent in basal forebrain clones. We have identified two cholinergic cell lines useful for molecular studies of cholinergic vulnerability. We hypothesize that, in cholinergic neurons, control of ER stress signaling may be a major factor in differential vulnerability.

  15. Forebrain Mechanisms of Nociception and Pain: Analysis through Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casey, Kenneth L.

    1999-07-01

    Pain is a unified experience composed of interacting discriminative, affective-motivational, and cognitive components, each of which is mediated and modulated through forebrain mechanisms acting at spinal, brainstem, and cerebral levels. The size of the human forebrain in relation to the spinal cord gives anatomical emphasis to forebrain control over nociceptive processing. Human forebrain pathology can cause pain without the activation of nociceptors. Functional imaging of the normal human brain with positron emission tomography (PET) shows synaptically induced increases in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in several regions specifically during pain. We have examined the variables of gender, type of noxious stimulus, and the origin of nociceptive input as potential determinants of the pattern and intensity of rCBF responses. The structures most consistently activated across genders and during contact heat pain, cold pain, cutaneous laser pain or intramuscular pain were the contralateral insula and anterior cingulate cortex, the bilateral thalamus and premotor cortex, and the cerebellar vermis. These regions are commonly activated in PET studies of pain conducted by other investigators, and the intensity of the brain rCBF response correlates parametrically with perceived pain intensity. To complement the human studies, we developed an animal model for investigating stimulus-induced rCBF responses in the rat. In accord with behavioral measures and the results of human PET, there is a progressive and selective activation of somatosensory and limbic system structures in the brain and brainstem following the subcutaneous injection of formalin. The animal model and human PET studies should be mutually reinforcing and thus facilitate progress in understanding forebrain mechanisms of normal and pathological pain.

  16. Differential effects of systemic cholinergic receptor blockade on Pavlovian incentive motivation and goal-directed action selection.

    PubMed

    Ostlund, Sean B; Kosheleff, Alisa R; Maidment, Nigel T

    2014-05-01

    Reward-seeking actions can be guided by external cues that signal reward availability. For instance, when confronted with a stimulus that signals sugar, rats will prefer an action that produces sugar over a second action that produces grain pellets. Action selection is also sensitive to changes in the incentive value of potential rewards. Thus, rats that have been prefed a large meal of sucrose will prefer a grain-seeking action to a sucrose-seeking action. The current study investigated the dependence of these different aspects of action selection on cholinergic transmission. Hungry rats were given differential training with two unique stimulus-outcome (S1-O1 and S2-O2) and action-outcome (A1-O1 and A2-O2) contingencies during separate training phases. Rats were then given a series of Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer tests, an assay of cue-triggered responding. Before each test, rats were injected with scopolamine (0, 0.03, or 0.1 mg/kg, intraperitoneally), a muscarinic receptor antagonist, or mecamylamine (0, 0.75, or 2.25 mg/kg, intraperitoneally), a nicotinic receptor antagonist. Although the reward-paired cues were capable of biasing action selection when rats were tested off-drug, both anticholinergic treatments were effective in disrupting this effect. During a subsequent round of outcome devaluation testing-used to assess the sensitivity of action selection to a change in reward value--we found no effect of either scopolamine or mecamylamine. These results reveal that cholinergic signaling at both muscarinic and nicotinic receptors mediates action selection based on Pavlovian reward expectations, but is not critical for flexibly selecting actions using current reward values.

  17. Analgesic and Antineuropathic Drugs Acting Through Central Cholinergic Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Bartolini, Alessandro; Cesare Mannelli, Lorenzo Di; Ghelardini, Carla

    2011-01-01

    The role of muscarinic and nicotinic cholinergic receptors in analgesia and neuropathic pain relief is relatively unknown. This review describes how such drugs induce analgesia or alleviate neuropathic pain by acting on the central cholinergic system. Several pharmacological strategies are discussed which increase synthesis and release of acetylcholine (ACh) from cholinergic neurons. The effects of their acute and chronic administration are described. The pharmacological strategies which facilitate the physiological functions of the cholinergic system without altering the normal modulation of cholinergic signals are highlighted. It is proposed that full agonists of muscarinic or nicotinic receptors should be avoided. Their activation is too intense and un-physiological because neuronal signals are distorted when these receptors are constantly activated. Good results can be achieved by using agents that are able to a) increase ACh synthesis, b) partially inhibit cholinesterase activity c) selectively block the autoreceptor or heteroreceptor feedback mechanisms. Activation of M1 subtype muscarinic receptors induces analgesia. Chronic stimulation of nicotinic (N1) receptors has neuronal protective effects. Recent experimental results indicate a relationship between repeated cholinergic stimulation and neurotrophic activation of the glial derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) family. At least 9 patents covering novel chemicals for cholinergic system modulation and pain control are discussed. PMID:21585331

  18. Roles of cholinergic, dopaminergic, noradrenergic, serotonergic and GABAergic systems in changes of the EEG power spectra and behavioral states in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, J

    1988-06-01

    In the present study, the influences of cholinergic (ACh), dopaminergic (DA), noradrenergic, serotonergic and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) ergic system activation and blocking agents on the cortical (CT) and hippocampal (HC) EEG power spectra were investigated in rabbits. The AChergic agents, physostigmine and atropine, produced marked increases or decreases in peak powers, the changes of which were inversely related to each other, but similar to those of the normal behavioral states. The other agents did not always produce changes. ACh seems to play an important role in the regulation of peak powers. Apomorphine shifted the theta wave peak to higher frequencies and haloperidol shifted it to lower frequencies. The other drugs did not cause a shift. DA seems to regulate peak frequency. These findings suggest that ACh is important for the regulation of consciousness between the wakefulness and SWS states and suggest that DA is involved in the production of REM sleep.

  19. Cholinergic drugs as diagnostic and therapeutic tools in affective disorders.

    PubMed

    Berger, M; Riemann, D; Krieg, C

    1991-01-01

    The hypothesis of a significant involvement of the cholinergic system in the pathogenesis of affective disorders still lacks strong experimental support. This is mainly because of missing specific peripheral markers of the central nervous activity of the cholinergic system and the lack of specific cholinergic agonists and antagonists without severe peripheral side effects. As the direct cholinergic agonist RS 86 seems to be more suitable because of its minor side effects, long half-life and oral applicability, it was tested for its antimanic property and its effect on the hypothalamo-pituitary adrenal system and the rapid eye movement (REM) sleep-generating system. RS 86 exhibited antimanic and REM sleep-inducing properties, but failed to stimulate the cortisol system.

  20. N-palmitoyl serotonin alleviates scopolamine-induced memory impairment via regulation of cholinergic and antioxidant systems, and expression of BDNF and p-CREB in mice.

    PubMed

    Min, A Young; Doo, Choon Nan; Son, Eun Jung; Sung, Nak Yun; Lee, Kun Jong; Sok, Dai-Eun; Kim, Mee Ree

    2015-12-05

    N-Palmitoyl-5-hydroxytryptamines (Pal-5HT), a cannabinoid, has recently been reported to express anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory actions in RBL-2H3 cells, and ameliorate glutamate-induced cytotoxicity in HT-22 cells. In this study, we examined the effect of Pal-5HT on deficits of learning and memory induced by scopolamine in mice. Memory performance was evaluated using Morris water maze test and passive avoidance test. Activities of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), level of oxidative stress markers, and expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), phosphorylation of cAMP response element-binding protein (p-CREB) were determined. Loss of neuronal cells in hippocampus was evaluated by histological examinations. Pal-5HT significantly improved the amnesia in the behavioral assessment. Pal-5HT regulated cholinergic function by inhibiting scopolamine-induced elevation of AChE activity and decline of ChAT activity. Pal-5HT suppressed oxidative stress by increasing activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR) or NAD(P)H quinine oxidoreductase-1 (NQO-1) and lowering MDA level. Additionally, it prevented against scopolamine-induced expression of iNOS and COX-2. Moreover, Pal-5HT suppressed the death of neuronal cells in CA1 and CA3 regions, while it restored expression of p-CREB and BDNF in hippocampus. Taken together, Pal-5HT is suggested to ameliorate deficits of memory and learning through regulation of cholinergic function, activation of antioxidant systems as well as restoration of BDNF and p-CREB expression. From these, Pal-5HT may be a potential candidate to prevent against neurodegeneration related to the memory deficit.

  1. Selective cholinergic denervation of the cingulate cortex impairs the acquisition and performance of a conditional visual discrimination in rats.

    PubMed

    Winters, Boyer D; Robbins, Trevor W; Everitt, Barry J

    2004-01-01

    Results from excitotoxic lesion studies have implicated the cingulate cortex and its basal forebrain afferents in the acquisition and performance of conditional discrimination tasks. In the present work, we sought to clarify the role of specifically cholinergic projections from the vertical limb nucleus of the diagonal band (VDB) to the cingulate cortex in conditional visual discrimination (CVD) learning and performance in rats. We injected the cholinergic immunotoxin 192 IgG-saporin into the cingulate cortex to produce selective retrograde lesions of the cholinergic neurons projecting from the VDB to the cingulate cortex with the aim of sparing afferents of non-cingulate regions that can be disrupted by excitotoxic or immunotoxic VDB injections and non-cholinergic VDB projections that can also be damaged by excitotoxic lesions. Rats sustaining selective cholinergic denervation in this manner were significantly impaired relative to sham-operated animals in the acquisition and performance of a CVD rule of the type 'If lights are flashing FAST, press the left lever; if SLOW, press right'. Asymptotic performance of the lesion group was substantially lower than for control rats, indicating an enduring performance deficit. This impairment was associated with a selective disruption on trials with the FAST flashing stimulus. The results confirm the involvement of cholinergic innervation of the cingulate cortex in CVD performance; however, the nature of the deficit suggests a role for cholinergic modulation in task-relevant stimulus processing rather than stimulus-response learning per se.

  2. Neurodevelopment Genes in Lampreys Reveal Trends for Forebrain Evolution in Craniates

    PubMed Central

    Guérin, Adèle; d'Aubenton-Carafa, Yves; Marrakchi, Emna; Da Silva, Corinne; Wincker, Patrick; Mazan, Sylvie; Rétaux, Sylvie

    2009-01-01

    The forebrain is the brain region which has undergone the most dramatic changes through vertebrate evolution. Analyses conducted in lampreys are essential to gain insight into the broad ancestral characteristics of the forebrain at the dawn of vertebrates, and to understand the molecular basis for the diversifications that have taken place in cyclostomes and gnathostomes following their splitting. Here, we report the embryonic expression patterns of 43 lamprey genes, coding for transcription factors or signaling molecules known to be involved in cell proliferation, stemcellness, neurogenesis, patterning and regionalization in the developing forebrain. Systematic expression patterns comparisons with model organisms highlight conservations likely to reflect shared features present in the vertebrate ancestors. They also point to changes in signaling systems –pathways which control the growth and patterning of the neuroepithelium-, which may have been crucial in the evolution of forebrain anatomy at the origin of vertebrates. PMID:19399187

  3. Neurodevelopment genes in lampreys reveal trends for forebrain evolution in craniates.

    PubMed

    Guérin, Adèle; d'Aubenton-Carafa, Yves; Marrakchi, Emna; Da Silva, Corinne; Wincker, Patrick; Mazan, Sylvie; Rétaux, Sylvie

    2009-01-01

    The forebrain is the brain region which has undergone the most dramatic changes through vertebrate evolution. Analyses conducted in lampreys are essential to gain insight into the broad ancestral characteristics of the forebrain at the dawn of vertebrates, and to understand the molecular basis for the diversifications that have taken place in cyclostomes and gnathostomes following their splitting. Here, we report the embryonic expression patterns of 43 lamprey genes, coding for transcription factors or signaling molecules known to be involved in cell proliferation, stemcellness, neurogenesis, patterning and regionalization in the developing forebrain. Systematic expression patterns comparisons with model organisms highlight conservations likely to reflect shared features present in the vertebrate ancestors. They also point to changes in signaling systems -pathways which control the growth and patterning of the neuroepithelium-, which may have been crucial in the evolution of forebrain anatomy at the origin of vertebrates.

  4. IgA from HIV+ haemophilic patients triggers intracellular signals coupled to the cholinergic system of the intestine

    PubMed Central

    SALES, M E; STERIN-BORDA, L; DE BRACCO, M M E; RODRIGUEZ, M; NARBAITZ, M; BORDA, E

    1997-01-01

    IgA was obtained from HIV-infected haemophilic patients and the intracellular signals triggered by its reaction with isolated rat intestinal strips were studied. HTV+ IgA stained intestinal microvilli with a granular immunofluorescence pattern and bound to the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR), displacing the specific muscarinic cholinergic antagonist QNB in a non-competitive manner. It triggered the signals that are the consequence of mAChR stimulation in die intestine. Thus, it decreased cAMP synthesis and increased guanosine 3′:5′-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP) formation and phosphoinositide (PI) turnover of the intestine. In addition, it stimulated prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthesis by intestinal strips. Through its effect on PGE2 synthesis, HIV+ IgA could have a dual action. On the one hand, it could enhance immunosuppression at a local level, favouring pathogen growth and subsequent intestinal dysfunction. On the other hand, PGE2 could directly increase intestinal motility and electrolyte/fluid loss. Both effects could be involved in intestinal damage in AIDS. PMID:9367401

  5. Genetically Induced Cholinergic Hyper-Innervation Enhances Taste Learning

    PubMed Central

    Neseliler, Selin; Narayanan, Darshana; Fortis-Santiago, Yaihara; Katz, Donald B.; Birren, Susan J.

    2011-01-01

    Acute inhibition of acetylcholine (ACh) has been shown to impair many forms of simple learning, and notably conditioned taste aversion (CTA). The most adhered-to theory that has emerged as a result of this work – that ACh increases a taste’s perceived novelty, and thereby its associability – would be further strengthened by evidence showing that enhanced cholinergic function improves learning above normal levels. Experimental testing of this corollary hypothesis has been limited, however, by side-effects of pharmacological ACh agonism and by the absence of a model that achieves long-term increases in cholinergic signaling. Here, we present this further test of the ACh hypothesis, making use of mice lacking the p75 pan-neurotrophin receptor gene, which show a resultant over-abundance of cholinergic neurons in sub-regions of the basal forebrain (BF). We first demonstrate that the p75−/− abnormality directly affects portions of the CTA circuit, locating mouse gustatory cortex (GC) using a functional assay and then using immunohistochemisty to demonstrate cholinergic hyper-innervation of GC in the mutant mice – hyper-innervation that is unaccompanied by changes in cell numbers or compensatory changes in muscarinic receptor densities. We then demonstrate that both p75−/− and wild-type (WT) mice learn robust CTAs, which extinguish more slowly in the mutants. Further testing to distinguish effects on learning from alterations in memory retention demonstrate that p75−/− mice do in fact learn stronger CTAs than WT mice. These data provide novel evidence for the hypothesis linking ACh and taste learning. PMID:22144949

  6. The basal forebrain modulates spontaneous activity of principal cells in the main olfactory bulb of anesthetized mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Xiping; Yin, Pingbo; Heinbockel, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Spontaneous activity is an important characteristic of the principal cells in the main olfactory bulb (MOB) for encoding odor information, which is modulated by the basal forebrain. Cholinergic activation has been reported to inhibit all major neuron types in the MOB. In this study, the effect of diagonal band (NDB) stimulation on mitral/tufted (M/T) cell spontaneous activity was examined in anesthetized mice. NDB stimulation increased spontaneous activity in 66 MOB neurons which lasted for 2–35 s before returning to the baseline level. The majority of the effected units showed a decrease of interspike intervals (ISI) at a range of 8–25 ms. Fifty-two percent of NDB stimulation responsive units showed intrinsic rhythmical bursting, which was enhanced temporarily by NDB stimulation, whereas the remaining non-rhythmic units were capable of synchronized bursting. The effect was attenuated by scopolamine in 21 of 27 units tested. Only four NDB units were inhibited by NDB stimulation, an inhibition that lasted less than 10 s. The NDB stimulation responsive neurons appeared to be M/T cells. Our findings demonstrate an NDB excitation effect on M/T neurons that mostly requires muscarinic receptor activation, and is likely due to non-selectivity of electrical stimulation. This suggests that cholinergic and a diverse group of non-cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain co-ordinately modulate the dynamics of M/T cell spontaneous activity, which is fundamental for odor representation and attentional perception. PMID:24065892

  7. A two-layer biophysical model of cholinergic neuromodulation in olfactory bulb

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guoshi; Cleland, Thomas A.

    2013-01-01

    Cholinergic inputs from the basal forebrain regulate multiple olfactory bulb (OB) functions including odor discrimination, perceptual learning, and short term memory. Previous studies have shown that nicotinic cholinergic receptor activation sharpens mitral cell chemoreceptive fields, likely via intraglomerular circuitry. Muscarinic cholinergic activation is less well understood, though muscarinic receptors are implicated in olfactory learning and in the regulation of synchronized oscillatory dynamics in hippocampus and cortex. To understand the mechanisms underlying cholinergic neuromodulation in OB, we developed a biophysical model of the OB neuronal network including both glomerular layer and external plexiform layer (EPL) computations and incorporating both nicotinic and muscarinic neuromodulatory effects. Our simulations show how nicotinic activation within glomerular circuits sharpens mitral cell chemoreceptive fields, even in the absence of EPL circuitry, but does not facilitate intrinsic oscillations or spike synchronization. In contrast, muscarinic receptor activation increases mitral cell spike synchronization and field oscillatory power by potentiating granule cell excitability and lateral inhibitory interactions within the EPL, but has little effect on mitral cell firing rates and hence will not sharpen olfactory representations under a rate metric. These results are consistent with the theory that EPL interactions regulate the timing, rather than the existence, of mitral cell action potentials, and perform their computations with respect to a spike timing-based metric. This general model suggests that the roles of nicotinic and muscarinic receptors in olfactory bulb are both distinct and complementary to one another, together regulating the effects of ascending cholinergic inputs on olfactory bulb transformations. PMID:23407960

  8. Cognitive Performance as a Zeitgeber: Cognitive Oscillators and Cholinergic Modulation of the SCN Entrain Circadian Rhythms

    PubMed Central

    Gritton, Howard J.; Stasiak, Ashley M.; Sarter, Martin; Lee, Theresa M.

    2013-01-01

    The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is the primary circadian pacemaker in mammals that can synchronize or entrain to environmental cues. Although light exerts powerful influences on SCN output, other non-photic stimuli can modulate the SCN as well. We recently demonstrated that daily performance of a cognitive task requiring sustained periods of attentional effort that relies upon basal forebrain (BF) cholinergic activity dramatically alters circadian rhythms in rats. In particular, normally nocturnal rats adopt a robust diurnal activity pattern that persists for several days in the absence of cognitive training. Although anatomical and pharmacological data from non-performing animals support a relationship between cholinergic signaling and circadian rhythms, little is known about how endogenous cholinergic signaling influences SCN function in behaving animals. Here we report that BF cholinergic projections to the SCN provide the principal signal allowing for the expression of cognitive entrainment in light-phase trained animals. We also reveal that oscillator(s) outside of the SCN drive cognitive entrainment as daily timed cognitive training robustly entrains SCN-lesioned arrhythmic animals. Ablation of the SCN, however, resulted in significant impairments in task acquisition, indicating that SCN-mediated timekeeping benefits new learning and cognitive performance. Taken together, we conclude that cognition entrains non-photic oscillators, and cholinergic signaling to the SCN serves as a temporal timestamp attenuating SCN photic-driven rhythms, thereby permitting cognitive demands to modulate behavior. PMID:23441168

  9. Nerve growth factor promotes survival of septal cholinergic neurons after fimbrial transections.

    PubMed

    Hefti, F

    1986-08-01

    Several findings obtained in recent years suggest that NGF, aside from its well-established function as a neurotrophic factor for peripheral sympathetic and sensory neurons, also has trophic influence on the cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain. The present study assessed whether NGF was able to affect survival of central cholinergic neurons after axonal transections in adult rats. The septo-hippocampal pathway was transected unilaterally by cutting the fimbria, and animals were implanted with a cannula through which NGF or control solutions were injected intraventricularly over 4 weeks. The lesions reduced the number of large cell bodies, as visualized by Nissl staining in the medial septal nucleus and in the vertical limb of the diagonal band of Broca. Furthermore, in the same nuclei, they reduced the number of cell bodies positively stained for AChE after pretreatment with diisopropylfluorophosphate (a method known to result in reliable identification of cholinergic neurons in the septal area). On lesioned sides, the number of cholinergic cells in medial septal nucleus and the vertical limb of the diagonal band was reduced by 50 +/- 4%, as compared to the number on contralateral sides. On lesioned sides of animals chronically treated with NGF, the number of AChE-positive cells in these areas was reduced only by 12 +/- 6%, as compared to control levels. These findings suggest that fimbrial transections resulted in retrograde degeneration of cholinergic septo-hippocampal neurons and that NGF treatment strongly attenuated this lesion-induced degeneration.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Cholinergic involvement in Alzheimer's disease. A link with NGF maturation and degradation.

    PubMed

    Cuello, A Claudio; Bruno, Martin A; Allard, Simon; Leon, Wanda; Iulita, M Florencia

    2010-01-01

    Basal forebrain cholinergic neurons are highly dependent on nerve growth factor (NGF) supply for the maintenance of their cholinergic phenotype as well as their cholinergic synaptic integrity. The precursor form of NGF, proNGF, abounds in the CNS and is highly elevated in Alzheimer's disease. In order to obtain a deeper understanding of the NGF biology in the CNS, we have performed a series of ex vivo and in vivo investigations to elucidate the mechanisms of release, maturation and degradation of this neurotrophin. In this short review, we describe this NGF metabolic pathway, its significance for the maintenance of basal cholinergic neurons, and its dysregulation in Alzheimer's disease. We are proposing that the conversion of proNGF to mature NGF occurs in the extracellular space by the coordinated action of zymogens, convertases, and endogenous regulators, which are released in the extracellular space in an activity-dependent fashion. We further discuss our findings of a diminished conversion of the NGF precursor molecule to its mature form in Alzheimer's disease as well as an augmented degradation of mature NGF. These combined effects on NGF metabolism would explain the well-known cholinergic atrophy found in Alzheimer's disease and would offer new therapeutic opportunities aimed at correcting the NGF dysmetabolism along with Abeta-induced inflammatory responses.

  11. Basal forebrain circuit for sleep-wake control.

    PubMed

    Xu, Min; Chung, Shinjae; Zhang, Siyu; Zhong, Peng; Ma, Chenyan; Chang, Wei-Cheng; Weissbourd, Brandon; Sakai, Noriaki; Luo, Liqun; Nishino, Seiji; Dan, Yang

    2015-11-01

    The mammalian basal forebrain (BF) has important roles in controlling sleep and wakefulness, but the underlying neural circuit remains poorly understood. We examined the BF circuit by recording and optogenetically perturbing the activity of four genetically defined cell types across sleep-wake cycles and by comprehensively mapping their synaptic connections. Recordings from channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2)-tagged neurons revealed that three BF cell types, cholinergic, glutamatergic and parvalbumin-positive (PV+) GABAergic neurons, were more active during wakefulness and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep (wake/REM active) than during non-REM (NREM) sleep, and activation of each cell type rapidly induced wakefulness. By contrast, activation of somatostatin-positive (SOM+) GABAergic neurons promoted NREM sleep, although only some of them were NREM active. Synaptically, the wake-promoting neurons were organized hierarchically by glutamatergic→cholinergic→PV+ neuron excitatory connections, and they all received inhibition from SOM+ neurons. Together, these findings reveal the basic organization of the BF circuit for sleep-wake control.

  12. Dopamine receptor gene expression by enkephalin neurons in rat forebrain

    SciTech Connect

    Le Moine, C.; Normand, E.; Guitteny, A.F.; Fouque, B.; Teoule, R.; Bloch, B. )

    1990-01-01

    In situ hybridization experiments were performed with brain sections from normal, control and haloperidol-treated rats to identify and map the cells expressing the D2 dopamine receptor gene. D2 receptor mRNA was detected with radioactive or biotinylated oligonucleotide probes. D2 receptor mRNA was present in glandular cells of the pituitary intermediate lobe and in neurons of the substantia nigra, ventral tegmental area, and forebrain, especially in caudate putamen, nucleus accumbens, olfactory tubercle, and piriform cortex. Hybridization with D2 and preproenkephalin A probes in adjacent sections, as well as combined hybridization with the two probes in the same sections, demonstrated that all detectable enkephalin neurons in the striatum contained the D2 receptor mRNA. Large neurons in caudate putamen, which were unlabeled with the preproenkephalin A probe and which may have been cholinergic, also expressed the D2 receptor gene. Haloperidol treatment (14 or 21 days) provoked an increase in mRNA content for D2 receptor and preproenkephalin A in the striatum. This suggests that the increase in D2 receptor number observed after haloperidol treatment is due to increased activity of the D2 gene. These results indicate that in the striatum, the enkephalin neurons are direct targets for dopamine liberated from mesostriatal neurons.

  13. Activation of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory system by nicotine attenuates arthritis via suppression of macrophage migration

    PubMed Central

    Li, Sha; Zhou, Bin; Liu, Ben; Zhou, Yaou; Zhang, Huali; Li, Tong; Zuo, Xiaoxia

    2016-01-01

    Activation of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway (CAP), which relies on the alpha-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, has been reported to reduce proinflammatory cytokine levels in experimental arthritis. To gain more insight regarding the role of the CAP in the pathogenesis of arthritis, the present study focused on the modulation of macrophage infiltration. In a mouse model of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA), nicotine and vagotomy were used to stimulate and inhibit the CAP, respectively. Subsequently, arthritic scores were measured and histopathological assessment of joint sections was conducted. Cluster of differentiation (CD)11b-positive macrophages in the synovium were studied by immunofluorescence histochemistry. The serum levels of chemokines, including macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 and MIP-2 were evaluated by ELISA. Furthermore, the expression levels of C-C chemokine receptor (CCR)2 and intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 in the synovium were evaluated by immunohistochemical staining. The results indicated that treatment with nicotine significantly attenuated the clinical and histopathological changes associated with arthritis, reduced CD11b-positive macrophages in the synovium, and downregulated the serum expression levels of MIP-1α and MCP-1. Conversely, vagotomy aggravated arthritis and upregulated the expression levels of MCP-1. However, MIP-2 expression did not differ among the control, CIA, vagotomy and nicotine groups. In addition, the expression levels of CCR2 were reduced in the nicotine group; however, they were increased in the vagotomy group compared with in the untreated CIA group. The expression levels of ICAM-1 in the synovium were also influenced by activation of the CAP. Taken together, the present results indicated that nicotine-induced activation of the CAP in mice with CIA may reduce the number of macrophages in the synovium, which may serve a role in alleviating

  14. Targeting the nicotinic cholinergic system to treat attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: rationale and progress to date.

    PubMed

    Potter, Alexandra S; Schaubhut, Geoffrey; Shipman, Megan

    2014-12-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common chronic neurobehavioral disorder related to clinically significant levels of inattention, hyperactivity, and/or impulsivity. ADHD begins in childhood and symptoms persist into adulthood for the majority of those with the disorder. Associated features of ADHD include emotion dysregulation and cognitive impairments, which contribute to the considerable functional impairments in this disorder. Current approved treatments are reasonably effective; however, a significant need remains for new pharmacotherapies, both for individuals who do not achieve a full therapeutic response and for symptoms that are under-treated including cognition and emotion regulation. The striking relationship between ADHD and cigarette smoking and the known effects of nicotine on cognition has spurred research into the therapeutic potential of nicotinic agents for ADHD. Although there are no approved medications for ADHD that target nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) function, results from many trials of nicotinic drugs are available and reviewed in this article. ADHD symptoms were reduced in the majority of published studies of nicotine and novel α4β2 nicotinic agonists in adult ADHD. The drugs were generally well tolerated, with mild to moderate side effects reported, which were largely consistent with cholinergic stimulation and included nausea, dizziness, and gastrointestinal distress. Within-subject crossover study designs were used in the majority of positive studies. This design may be particularly useful in ADHD trials because it minimizes variability in this notoriously heterogeneous diagnostic group. In addition, many studies found evidence for a beneficial effect of nicotinic stimulation on cognitive and emotional domains. Thus, targeting nAChRs in ADHD appears to have a modest clinical benefit in adult ADHD. Continued refinement of nAChR agonists with greater specificity and fewer side effects may lead to even more

  15. Targeting the Nicotinic Cholinergic System to Treat Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Rationale and Progress to Date

    PubMed Central

    Potter, Alexandra S.; Schaubhut, Geoffrey; Shipman, Megan

    2014-01-01

    Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common, chronic neurobehavioral disorder related to clinically significant levels of inattention, hyperactivity and/or impulsivity. ADHD begins in childhood and symptoms persist into adulthood for the majority of those with the disorder. Associated features of ADHD include emotion dysregulation and cognitive impairments which contribute to the considerable functional impairments in this disorder. Current approved treatments are reasonably effective however a significant need remains for new pharmacotherapies, both for individuals who do not achieve a full therapeutic response and for symptoms that are under-treated including cognition and emotion regulation. The striking relationship between ADHD and cigarette smoking and the known effects of nicotine on cognition has spurred research into the therapeutic potential of nicotinic agents for ADHD. Although there are no approved medications for ADHD that target nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) function, results from many trials of nicotinic drugs are available and reviewed in this article. ADHD symptoms were reduced in the majority of published studies of nicotine and novel α4β2 nicotinic agonists in adult ADHD. The drugs were generally well tolerated, with mild to moderate side effects reported, which were largely consistent with cholinergic stimulation and included nausea, dizziness, and gastrointestinal distress. Within-subject crossover study designs were used in the majority of positive studies. This design may be particularly useful in ADHD trials because it minimizes variability in this notoriously heterogeneous diagnostic group. In addition, many studies found evidence for a beneficial effect of nicotinic stimulation on cognitive and emotional domains. Thus, targeting nAChRs in ADHD appears to have modest clinical benefit in adult ADHD. Continued refinement of nAChR agonists with greater specificity and fewer side effects may lead to even more

  16. Altered nocifensive behavior in animal models of autism spectrum disorder: The role of the nicotinic cholinergic system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Almeida, Luis E F; Nettleton, Margaret; Khaibullina, Alfia; Albani, Sarah; Kamimura, Sayuri; Nouraie, Mehdi; Quezado, Zenaide M N

    2016-12-01

    Caretakers and clinicians alike have long recognized that individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can have altered sensory processing, which can contribute to its core symptoms. However, the pathobiology of sensory alterations in ASD is poorly understood. Here we examined nocifensive behavior in ASD mouse models, the BTBR T(+)Itpr3(tf)/J (BTBR) and the fragile-X mental retardation-1 knockout (Fmr1-KO) mice. We also examined the effects of nicotine on nocifensive behavior given that nicotine, a nicotinic cholinergic receptor (nAChR) agonist that has antinociceptive effects, was shown to improve social deficits and decrease repetitive behaviors in BTBR mice. Compared to respective controls, both BTBR and Fmr1-KO had hyporesponsiveness to noxious thermal stimuli and electrical stimulation of C-sensory fibers, normal responsiveness to electrical stimulation of Aβ- and Aδ-fiber, and hyperresponsiveness to visceral pain after acetic acid intraperitoneal injection. In BTBR, nicotine at lower doses increased, whereas at higher doses, it decreased hotplate latency compared to vehicle. In a significantly different effect pattern, in control mice, nicotine had antinociceptive effects to noxious heat only at the high dose. Interestingly, these nocifensive behavior alterations and differential responses to nicotine antinociceptive effects in BTBR mice were associated with significant downregulation of α3, α4, α5, α7, β2, β3, and β4 nAChR subunits in several cerebral regions both, during embryonic development and adulthood. Taken together, these findings further implicate nAChRs in behaviors alterations in the BTBR model and lend support to the hypothesis that nAChRs may be a target for treatment of behavior deficits and sensory dysfunction in ASD.

  17. Forebrain GABAergic projections to locus coeruleus in mouse.

    PubMed

    Dimitrov, Eugene L; Yanagawa, Yuchio; Usdin, Ted B

    2013-07-01

    The noradrenergic locus coeruleus (LC) regulates arousal, memory, sympathetic nervous system activity, and pain. Forebrain projections to LC have been characterized in rat, cat, and primates, but not systematically in mouse. We surveyed mouse forebrain LC-projecting neurons by examining retrogradely labeled cells following LC iontophoresis of Fluoro-Gold and anterograde LC labeling after forebrain injection of biotinylated dextran amine or viral tracer. Similar to other species, the central amygdalar nucleus (CAmy), anterior hypothalamus, paraventricular nucleus, and posterior lateral hypothalamic area (PLH) provide major LC inputs. By using mice expressing green fluorescent protein in γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic neurons, we found that more than one-third of LC-projecting CAmy and PLH neurons are GABAergic. LC colocalization of biotinylated dextran amine, following CAmy or PLH injection, with either green fluorescent protein or glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD)65/67 immunoreactivity confirmed these GABAergic projections. CAmy injection of adeno-associated virus encoding channelrhodopsin-2-Venus showed similar fiber labeling and association with GAD65/67-immunoreactive (ir) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-ir neurons. CAmy and PLH projections were densest in a pericoerulear zone, but many fibers entered the LC proper. Close apposition between CAmy GABAergic projections and TH-ir processes suggests that CAmy GABAergic neurons may directly inhibit noradrenergic principal neurons. Direct LC neuron targeting was confirmed by anterograde transneuronal labeling of LC TH-ir neurons following CAmy or PLH injection of a herpes virus that expresses red fluorescent protein following activation by Cre recombinase in mice that express Cre recombinase in GABAergic neurons. This description of GABAergic projections from the CAmy and PLH to the LC clarifies important forebrain sources of inhibitory control of central nervous system noradrenergic activity.

  18. Roof plate mediated morphogenesis of the forebrain: New players join the game.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Sandeep; Sen, Jonaki

    2016-05-15

    The roof plate is a crucial signaling center located at the dorsal midline of the developing central nervous system (CNS) along its rostro-caudal axis. By virtue of secreting multiple signaling molecules, it regulates diverse processes such as specification of dorsal fate, proliferation and axon guidance. In the forebrain, the roof plate is not only involved in patterning but is also involved in the division of the single forebrain vesicle into the two cerebral hemispheres, the failure of which leads to certain forms of holoprosencephaly. Although several molecular players such as Fgfs, BMPs, Wnts and Shh have been identified as crucial regulators of development of the forebrain, little is known about how they interact to bring about the morphological changes associated with the division of the forebrain vesicle into the cerebral hemispheres. Recent studies have now identified the dorsal mesenchyme as an additional source of signaling cues, which is likely to influence the division of the forebrain vesicle into cerebral hemispheres. In this review, we discuss the current understanding about the molecular mechanisms of roof plate mediated patterning and morphogenesis of the forebrain including some recently identified factors that influence this process and also highlight the gaps in our knowledge that remain.

  19. Disruption of cardiac cholinergic neurons enhances susceptibility to ventricular arrhythmias

    PubMed Central

    Jungen, Christiane; Scherschel, Katharina; Eickholt, Christian; Kuklik, Pawel; Klatt, Niklas; Bork, Nadja; Salzbrunn, Tim; Alken, Fares; Angendohr, Stephan; Klene, Christiane; Mester, Janos; Klöcker, Nikolaj; Veldkamp, Marieke W.; Schumacher, Udo; Willems, Stephan; Nikolaev, Viacheslav O.; Meyer, Christian

    2017-01-01

    The parasympathetic nervous system plays an important role in the pathophysiology of atrial fibrillation. Catheter ablation, a minimally invasive procedure deactivating abnormal firing cardiac tissue, is increasingly becoming the therapy of choice for atrial fibrillation. This is inevitably associated with the obliteration of cardiac cholinergic neurons. However, the impact on ventricular electrophysiology is unclear. Here we show that cardiac cholinergic neurons modulate ventricular electrophysiology. Mechanical disruption or pharmacological blockade of parasympathetic innervation shortens ventricular refractory periods, increases the incidence of ventricular arrhythmia and decreases ventricular cAMP levels in murine hearts. Immunohistochemistry confirmed ventricular cholinergic innervation, revealing parasympathetic fibres running from the atria to the ventricles parallel to sympathetic fibres. In humans, catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation, which is accompanied by accidental parasympathetic and concomitant sympathetic denervation, raises the burden of premature ventricular complexes. In summary, our results demonstrate an influence of cardiac cholinergic neurons on the regulation of ventricular function and arrhythmogenesis. PMID:28128201

  20. Biphasic cholinergic synaptic transmission controls action potential activity in thalamic reticular nucleus neurons.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yan-Gang; Pita-Almenar, Juan D; Wu, Chia-Shan; Renger, John J; Uebele, Victor N; Lu, Hui-Chen; Beierlein, Michael

    2013-01-30

    Cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain and the brainstem form extensive projections to a number of thalamic nuclei. Activation of cholinergic afferents during distinct behavioral states can regulate neuronal firing, transmitter release at glutamatergic and GABAergic synapses, and synchrony in thalamic networks, thereby controlling the flow of sensory information. These effects are thought to be mediated by slow and persistent increases in extracellular ACh levels, resulting in the modulation of populations of thalamic neurons over large temporal and spatial scales. However, the synaptic mechanisms underlying cholinergic signaling in the thalamus are not well understood. Here, we demonstrate highly reliable cholinergic transmission in the mouse thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN), a brain structure essential for sensory processing, arousal, and attention. We find that ACh release evoked by low-frequency stimulation leads to biphasic excitatory-inhibitory (E-I) postsynaptic responses, mediated by the activation of postsynaptic α4β2 nicotinic ACh receptors (nAChRs) and M2 muscarinic ACh receptors (mAChRs), respectively. In addition, ACh can bind to mAChRs expressed near cholinergic release sites, resulting in autoinhibition of release. We show that the activation of postsynaptic nAChRs by transmitter release from only a small number of individual axons is sufficient to trigger action potentials in TRN neurons. Furthermore, short trains of cholinergic synaptic inputs can powerfully entrain ongoing TRN neuronal activity. Our study demonstrates fast and precise synaptic E-I signaling mediated by ACh, suggesting novel computational mechanisms for the cholinergic control of neuronal activity in thalamic circuits.

  1. Cholinergic circuit control of postnatal neurogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Asrican, Brent; Paez-Gonzalez, Patricia; Erb, Joshua; Kuo, Chay T.

    2016-01-01

    abstract New neuron addition via continued neurogenesis in the postnatal/adult mammalian brain presents a distinct form of nervous system plasticity. During embryonic development, precise temporal and spatial patterns of neurogenesis are necessary to create the nervous system architecture. Similar between embryonic and postnatal stages, neurogenic proliferation is regulated by neural stem cell (NSC)-intrinsic mechanisms layered upon cues from their local microenvironmental niche. Following developmental assembly, it remains relatively unclear what may be the key driving forces that sustain continued production of neurons in the postnatal/adult brain. Recent experimental evidence suggests that patterned activity from specific neural circuits can also directly govern postnatal/adult neurogenesis. Here, we review experimental findings that revealed cholinergic modulation, and how patterns of neuronal activity and acetylcholine release may differentially or synergistically activate downstream signaling in NSCs. Higher-order excitatory and inhibitory inputs regulating cholinergic neuron firing, and their implications in neurogenesis control are also considered. PMID:27468423

  2. Shh and forebrain evolution in the blind cavefish Astyanax mexicanus.

    PubMed

    Rétaux, Sylvie; Pottin, Karen; Alunni, Alessandro

    2008-03-01

    The blind cavefish and its surface counterpart of the teleost species Astyanax mexicanus constitute an excellent model to study the evolution of morphological features. During adaptation to their lives in perpetual darkness, the cave population has lost eyes (and pigmentation), but has gained several constructive traits. Recently, the demonstration that an increase in Shh (Sonic Hedgehog) midline signalling was indirectly responsible for the loss of eyes in cavefish led to new ways to search for possible modifications in the forebrain of these cavefish, as this anterior-most region of the vertebrate central nervous system develops under close control of the powerful Shh morphogen. In this review, we summarize the recent progress in the understanding of forebrain and eye modifications in cavefish. These include major changes in cell death, cell proliferation and cell migration in various parts of the forebrain when compared with their surface counterparts with eyes. The outcome of these modifications, in terms of neuronal circuitry, morphological and behavioral adaptations are discussed.

  3. Cholinergic mechanisms in spinal locomotion—potential target for rehabilitation approaches

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, Larry M.; McVagh, J. R.; Noga, B. R.; Cabaj, A. M.; Majczyński, H.; Sławińska, Urszula; Provencher, J.; Leblond, H.; Rossignol, Serge

    2014-01-01

    Previous experiments implicate cholinergic brainstem and spinal systems in the control of locomotion. Our results demonstrate that the endogenous cholinergic propriospinal system, acting via M2 and M3 muscarinic receptors, is capable of consistently producing well-coordinated locomotor activity in the in vitro neonatal preparation, placing it in a position to contribute to normal locomotion and to provide a basis for recovery of locomotor capability in the absence of descending pathways. Tests of these suggestions, however, reveal that the spinal cholinergic system plays little if any role in the induction of locomotion, because MLR-evoked locomotion in decerebrate cats is not prevented by cholinergic antagonists. Furthermore, it is not required for the development of stepping movements after spinal cord injury, because cholinergic agonists do not facilitate the appearance of locomotion after spinal cord injury, unlike the dramatic locomotion-promoting effects of clonidine, a noradrenergic α-2 agonist. Furthermore, cholinergic antagonists actually improve locomotor activity after spinal cord injury, suggesting that plastic changes in the spinal cholinergic system interfere with locomotion rather than facilitating it. Changes that have been observed in the cholinergic innervation of motoneurons after spinal cord injury do not decrease motoneuron excitability, as expected. Instead, the development of a “hyper-cholinergic” state after spinal cord injury appears to enhance motoneuron output and suppress locomotion. A cholinergic suppression of afferent input from the limb after spinal cord injury is also evident from our data, and this may contribute to the ability of cholinergic antagonists to improve locomotion. Not only is a role for the spinal cholinergic system in suppressing locomotion after SCI suggested by our results, but an obligatory contribution of a brainstem cholinergic relay to reticulospinal locomotor command systems is not confirmed by our

  4. Loss of medial septum cholinergic neurons in THY-Tau22 mouse model: what links with tau pathology?

    PubMed

    Belarbi, K; Burnouf, S; Fernandez-Gomez, F-J; Desmercières, J; Troquier, L; Brouillette, J; Tsambou, L; Grosjean, M-E; Caillierez, R; Demeyer, D; Hamdane, M; Schindowski, K; Blum, D; Buée, L

    2011-09-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder histologically defined by the cerebral accumulation of amyloid deposits and neurofibrillary tangles composed of hyperphosphorylated tau proteins. Loss of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons is another hallmark of the disease thought to contribute to the cognitive dysfunctions. To this date, the mechanisms underlying cholinergic neurons degeneration remain uncertain. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between neurofibrillary degeneration and cholinergic defects in AD using THY-Tau22 transgenic mouse model exhibiting a major hippocampal AD-like tau pathology and hyperphosphorylated tau species in the septohippocampal pathway. Here, we report that at a time THY-Tau22 mice display strong reference memory alterations, the retrograde transport of fluorogold through the septohippocampal pathway is altered. This impairment is associated with a significant reduction in the number of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-immunopositive cholinergic neurons in the medial septum. Analysis of nerve growth factor (NGF) levels supports an accumulation of the mature neurotrophin in the hippocampus of THY-Tau22 mice, consistent with a decrease of its uptake or retrograde transport by cholinergic terminals. Finally, our data strongly support that tau pathology could be instrumental in the cholinergic neuronal loss observed in AD.

  5. Personalized genetics of the cholinergic blockade of neuroinflammation.

    PubMed

    Simchovitz, Alon; Heneka, Michael T; Soreq, Hermona

    2017-03-21

    Acetylcholine signaling is essential for cognitive functioning and blocks inflammation. To maintain homeostasis, cholinergic signaling is subjected to multi-leveled and bidirectional regulation by both proteins and non-coding microRNAs ('CholinomiRs'). CholinomiRs coordinate the cognitive and inflammatory aspects of cholinergic signaling by targeting major cholinergic transcripts including the acetylcholine hydrolyzing enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Notably, AChE inhibitors are the only currently approved line of treatment for Alzheimer's disease patients. Since cholinergic signaling blocks neuroinflammation which is inherent to Alzheimer's disease, genomic changes modifying AChE's properties and its susceptibility to inhibitors and/or to CholinomiRs regulation may affect the levels and properties of inflammasome components such as NLRP3. This calls for genomic-based medicine approaches based on genotyping of both coding and non-coding single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the genes involved in cholinergic signaling. An example is a SNP in a recognition element for the primate-specific microRNA-608 within the 3' untranslated region of the AChE transcript. Carriers of the minor allele of that SNP present massively elevated brain AChE levels, increased trait anxiety and inflammation, accompanied by perturbed CholinomiR-608 regulatory networks and elevated prefrontal activity under exposure to stressful insults. Several additional SNPs in the AChE and other cholinergic genes await further studies, and might likewise involve different CholinomiRs and pathways including those modulating the initiation and progression of neurodegenerative diseases. CholinomiRs regulation of the cholinergic system thus merits in-depth interrogation and is likely to lead to personalized medicine approaches for achieving better homeostasis in health and disease. This is an article for the special issue XVth International Symposium on Cholinergic Mechanisms.

  6. A Rat Model of Alzheimer’s Disease Based on Abeta42 and Pro-oxidative Substances Exhibits Cognitive Deficit and Alterations in Glutamatergic and Cholinergic Neurotransmitter Systems

    PubMed Central

    Petrasek, Tomas; Skurlova, Martina; Maleninska, Kristyna; Vojtechova, Iveta; Kristofikova, Zdena; Matuskova, Hana; Sirova, Jana; Vales, Karel; Ripova, Daniela; Stuchlik, Ales

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is one of the most serious human, medical, and socioeconomic burdens. Here we tested the hypothesis that a rat model of AD (Samaritan; Taconic Pharmaceuticals, USA) based on the application of amyloid beta42 (Abeta42) and the pro-oxidative substances ferrous sulfate heptahydrate and L-buthionine-(S, R)-sulfoximine, will exhibit cognitive deficits and disruption of the glutamatergic and cholinergic systems in the brain. Behavioral methods included the Morris water maze (MWM; long-term memory version) and the active allothetic place avoidance (AAPA) task (acquisition and reversal), testing spatial memory and different aspects of hippocampal function. Neurochemical methods included testing of the NR1/NR2A/NR2B subunits of NMDA receptors in the frontal cortex and CHT1 transporters in the hippocampus, in both cases in the right and left hemisphere separately. Our results show that Samaritan rats™ exhibit marked impairment in both the MWM and active place avoidance tasks, suggesting a deficit of spatial learning and memory. Moreover, Samaritan rats exhibited significant changes in NR2A expression and CHT1 activity compared to controls rats, mimicking the situation in patients with early stage AD. Taken together, our results corroborate the hypothesis that Samaritan rats are a promising model of AD in its early stages. PMID:27148049

  7. Repeated effects of asenapine on adrenergic and cholinergic muscarinic receptors.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yong Kee; Wong, Erik H F; Henry, Brian; Shahid, Mohammed; Tarazi, Frank I

    2010-04-01

    Adrenergic (alpha1 and alpha2) and cholinergic muscarinic (M1-M5) receptor binding in rat forebrain was quantified after 4 wk of twice-daily subcutaneous administration of asenapine or vehicle. Asenapine (0.03, 0.1, and 0.3 mg/kg) produced increases in [3H]prazosin binding to alpha1-adrenergic receptors in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC: 30%, 39%, 57%) and dorsolateral frontal cortex (DFC: 27%, 37%, 53%) and increased [3H]RX821002 binding to alpha2-adrenergic receptors in mPFC (36%, 43%, 50%) and DFC (41%, 44%, 52%). Despite showing no appreciable affinity for muscarinic receptors, asenapine produced regionally selective increases in binding of [3H]QNB to M1-M5 receptors in mPFC (26%, 31%, 43%), DFC (27%, 34%, 41%), and hippocampal CA1 (40%, 44%, 42%) and CA3 (25%, 52%, 48%) regions. These regionally selective effects of asenapine on adrenergic and cholinergic muscarinic receptor subtypes may contribute to its beneficial clinical effects in the treatment of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

  8. Activation of the basal forebrain by the orexin/hypocretin neurones.

    PubMed

    Arrigoni, E; Mochizuki, T; Scammell, T E

    2010-03-01

    The orexin neurones play an essential role in driving arousal and in maintaining normal wakefulness. Lack of orexin neurotransmission produces a chronic state of hypoarousal characterized by excessive sleepiness, frequent transitions between wake and sleep, and episodes of cataplexy. A growing body of research now suggests that the basal forebrain (BF) may be a key site through which the orexin-producing neurones promote arousal. Here we review anatomical, pharmacological and electrophysiological studies on how the orexin neurones may promote arousal by exciting cortically projecting neurones of the BF. Orexin fibres synapse on BF cholinergic neurones and orexin-A is released in the BF during waking. Local application of orexins excites BF cholinergic neurones, induces cortical release of acetylcholine and promotes wakefulness. The orexin neurones also contain and probably co-release the inhibitory neuropeptide dynorphin. We found that orexin-A and dynorphin have specific effects on different classes of BF neurones that project to the cortex. Cholinergic neurones were directly excited by orexin-A, but did not respond to dynorphin. Non-cholinergic BF neurones that project to the cortex seem to comprise at least two populations with some directly excited by orexin-A that may represent wake-active, GABAergic neurones, whereas others did not respond to orexin-A but were inhibited by dynorphin and may be sleep-active, GABAergic neurones. This evidence suggests that the BF is a key site through which orexins activate the cortex and promote behavioural arousal. In addition, orexins and dynorphin may act synergistically in the BF to promote arousal and improve cognitive performance.

  9. A cholinergic receptor gene (CHRM2) affects event-related oscillations.

    PubMed

    Jones, Kevin A; Porjesz, Bernice; Almasy, Laura; Bierut, Laura; Dick, Danielle; Goate, Alison; Hinrichs, Anthony; Rice, John P; Wang, Jen C; Bauer, Lance O; Crowe, Raymond; Foroud, Tatiana; Hesselbrock, Victor; Kuperman, Samuel; Nurnberger, John; O'Connor, Sean J; Rohrbaugh, John; Schuckit, Marc A; Tischfield, Jay; Edenberg, Howard J; Begleiter, Henri

    2006-09-01

    We report genetic linkage and association findings which implicate the gene encoding the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2 (CHRM2) in the modulation of a scalp-recorded electrophysiological phenotype. The P3 (P300) response was evoked using a three-stimulus visual oddball paradigm and a phenotype that relates to the energy in the theta band (4-5 Hz) was analyzed. Studies have shown that similar electrophysiological measures represent cognitive correlates of attention, working memory, and response selection; a role has been suggested for the ascending cholinergic pathway in the same functions. The results of our genetic association tests, combined with knowledge regarding the presence of presynaptic cholinergic M2 autoreceptors in the basal forebrain, indicate that the cognitive processes required by the experiment may in part be mediated by inhibitory neural networks. These findings underscore the utility of electrophysiology and neurogenetics in the understanding of cognitive function and the study of brain-related disorders.

  10. Modified expression of peripheral blood lymphocyte muscarinic cholinergic receptors in asthmatic children.

    PubMed

    Cherubini, Emanuela; Tabbì, Luca; Scozzi, Davide; Mariotta, Salvatore; Galli, Elena; Carello, Rossella; Avitabile, Simona; Tayebati, Seyed Koshrow; Amenta, Francesco; De Vitis, Claudia; Mancini, Rita; Ricci, Alberto

    2015-07-15

    Lymphocytes possess an independent cholinergic system. We assessed the expression of muscarinic cholinergic receptors in lymphocytes from 49 asthmatic children and 10 age matched controls using Western blot. We demonstrated that CD4+ and CD8+ T cells expressed M2 and M4 muscarinic receptors which density were significantly increased in asthmatic children in comparison with controls. M2 and M4 receptor increase was strictly related with IgE and fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) measurements and with impairment in objective measurements of airway obstruction. Increased lymphocyte muscarinic cholinergic receptor expression may concur with lung cholinergic dysfunction and with inflammatory molecular framework in asthma.

  11. Maturation and maintenance of cholinergic medial septum neurons require glucocorticoid receptor signaling.

    PubMed

    Guijarro, Christian; Rutz, Susanne; Rothmaier, Katharina; Turiault, Marc; Zhi, Qixia; Naumann, Thomas; Frotscher, Michael; Tronche, Francois; Jackisch, Rolf; Kretz, Oliver

    2006-05-01

    Glucocorticoids have been shown to influence trophic processes in the nervous system. In particular, they seem to be important for the development of cholinergic neurons in various brain regions. Here, we applied a genetic approach to investigate the role of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) on the maturation and maintenance of cholinergic medial septal neurons between P15 and one year of age by using a mouse model carrying a CNS-specific conditional inactivation of the GR gene (GRNesCre). The number of choline acetyltransferase and p75NTR immuno-positive neurons in the medial septum (MS) was analyzed by stereology in controls versus mutants. In addition, cholinergic fiber density, acetylcholine release and cholinergic key enzyme activity of these neurons were determined in the hippocampus. We found that in GRNesCre animals the number of medial septal cholinergic neurons was significantly reduced during development. In addition, cholinergic cell number further decreased with aging in these mutants. The functional GR gene is therefore required for the proper maturation and maintenance of medial septal cholinergic neurons. However, the loss of cholinergic neurons in the medial septum is not accompanied by a loss of functional cholinergic parameters of these neurons in their target region, the hippocampus. This pinpoints to plasticity of the septo-hippocampal system, that seems to compensate for the septal cell loss by sprouting of the remaining neurons.

  12. Antidepressant-like effects of the cannabinoid receptor ligands in the forced swimming test in mice: mechanism of action and possible interactions with cholinergic system.

    PubMed

    Kruk-Slomka, Marta; Michalak, Agnieszka; Biala, Grazyna

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of the experiments was to explore the role of the endocannabinoid system, through cannabinoid (CB) receptor ligands, nicotine and scopolamine, in the depression-related responses using the forced swimming test (FST) in mice. Our results revealed that acute injection of oleamide (10 and 20 mg/kg), a CB1 receptor agonist, caused antidepressant-like effect in the FST, while AM 251 (0.25-3 mg/kg), a CB1 receptor antagonist, did not provoke any effect in this test. Moreover, acute administration of both CB2 receptor agonist, JWH 133 (0.5 and 1 mg/kg) and CB2 receptor antagonist, AM 630 (0.5 mg/kg), exhibited antidepressant action. Antidepressant effects of oleamide and JWH 133 were attenuated by acute injection of both non-effective dose of AM 251, as well as AM 630. Among the all CB compounds used, only the combination of non-effective dose of oleamide (2.5 mg/kg) with non-effective dose of nicotine (0.5 mg/kg) caused an antidepressant effect. However, none of the CB receptor ligands, had influence on the antidepressant effects provoked by nicotine (0.2 mg/kg) injection. In turn, the combination of non-effective dose of oleamide (2.5 mg/kg); JWH (2 mg/kg) or AM 630 (2 mg/kg), but not of AM 251 (0.25 mg/kg), with non-effective dose of scopolamine (0.1 mg/kg), exhibited antidepressant properties. Indeed, all of the CB compounds used, intensified the antidepressant-like effects induced by an acute injection of scopolamine (0.3 mg/kg). Our results provide clear evidence that the endocannabinoid system participates in the depression-related behavior and through interactions with cholinergic system modulate these kind of responses.

  13. Changes in electrocortical power and coherence in response to the selective cholinergic immunotoxin 192 IgG-saporin

    PubMed Central

    Holschneider, Daniel P.; Waite, Jerene J.; Leuchter, Andrew F.; Walton, Nancy Y.; Scremin, Oscar U.

    2014-01-01

    Changes in brain electrical activity in response to cholinergic agonists, antagonists, or excitotoxic lesions of the basal forebrain may not be reflective entirely of changes in cholinergic tone, in so far as these interventions also involve noncholinergic neurons. We examined electrocortical activity in rats following bilateral intracerebroventricular administration of 192 IgG-saporin (1.8 μg/ventricle), a selective cholinergic immunotoxin directed to the low-affinity nerve growth factor receptor p75. The immunotoxin resulted in extensive loss of choline acetyl transferase (ChAT) activity in neocortex (80%–84%) and hippocampus (93%), with relative sparing of entorhinal-piriform cortex (42%) and amygdala (28%). Electrocortical activity demonstrated modest increases in 1- to 4-Hz power, decreases in 20- to 44-Hz power, and decreases in 4- to 8-Hz intra- and interhemispheric coherence. Rhythmic slow activity (RSA) occurred robustly in toxin-treated animals during voluntary movement and in response to physostigmine, with no significant differences seen in power and peak frequency in comparison with controls. Physostigmine significantly increased intrahemispheric coherence in lesioned and intact animals, with minor increases seen in interhemispheric coherence. Our study suggests that: (1) electrocortical changes in response to selective cholinergic deafferentation are more modest than those previously reported following excitotoxic lesions; (2) changes in cholinergic tone affect primarily brain electrical transmission within, in contrast to between hemispheres; and (3) a substantial cholinergic reserve remains following administration of 192 IgG-saporin, despite dramatic losses of ChAT in cortex and hippocampus. Persistence of a cholinergically modulated RSA suggests that such activity may be mediated through cholinergic neurons which, because they lack the p75 receptor, remain unaffected by the immunotoxin. PMID:10369149

  14. Brain cholinergic impairment in liver failure

    PubMed Central

    García-Ayllón, María-Salud; Cauli, Omar; Silveyra, María-Ximena; Rodrigo, Regina; Candela, Asunción; Compañ, Antonio; Jover, Rodrigo; Pérez-Mateo, Miguel; Martínez, Salvador; Felipo, Vicente

    2008-01-01

    The cholinergic system is involved in specific behavioural responses and cognitive processes. Here, we examined potential alterations in the brain levels of key cholinergic enzymes in cirrhotic patients and animal models with liver failure. An increase (∼30%) in the activity of the acetylcholine-hydrolyzing enzyme, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is observed in the brain cortex from patients deceased from hepatic coma, while the activity of the acetylcholine-synthesizing enzyme, choline acetyltransferase, remains unaffected. In agreement with the human data, AChE activity in brain cortical extracts of bile duct ligated (BDL) rats was increased (∼20%) compared to controls. A hyperammonemic diet did not result in any further increase of AChE levels in the BDL model, and no change was observed in hyperammonemic diet rats without liver disease. Portacaval shunted rats which display increased levels of cerebral ammonia did not show any brain cholinergic abnormalities, confirming that high ammonia levels do not play a role in brain AChE changes. A selective increase of tetrameric AChE, the major AChE species involved in hydrolysis of acetylcholine in the brain, was detected in both cirrhotic humans and BDL rats. Histological examination of BDL and non-ligated rat brains shows that the subcellular localization of both AChE and choline acetyltransferase, and thus the accessibility to their substrates, appears unaltered by the pathological condition. The BDL-induced increase in AChE activity was not parallelled by an increase in mRNA levels. Increased AChE in BDL cirrhotic rats leads to a pronounced decrease (∼50–60%) in the levels of acetylcholine. Finally, we demonstrate that the AChE inhibitor rivastigmine is able to improve memory deficits in BDL rats. One week treatment with rivastigmine (0.6 mg/kg; once a day, orally, for a week) resulted in a 25% of inhibition in the enzymatic activity of AChE with no change in protein composition, as assessed by sucrose density

  15. The role of the cholinergic system of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis on the cardiovascular responses and the baroreflex modulation in rats.

    PubMed

    Nasimi, Ali; Hatam, Masoumeh

    2011-04-22

    The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) is a limbic structure involved in cardiovascular regulation and modulation of responses to stress. The BST contains high levels of muscarinic receptors. This study was performed to find the effects of cholinergic system of the BST on the cardiovascular regulation and the baroreflex modulation in rats. Drugs (50-100nl) were microinjected into the BST of 53 urethane anesthetized male rats. The mean arterial pressure and heart rate changes were measured. The baroreflex gain was evaluated by finding the slope of the reflex bradycardia in response to increases in mean arterial pressure due to phenylephrine injection (i.v.). We found that microinjection of acetylcholine (3 and 6nmol/50nl) into the BST increased mean arterial pressure and had no effect on heart rate. Local microinjection of homatropine abolished the effect of Ach on the cardiovascular responses indicating involvement of muscarinic receptors. Local injection of homatropine did not affect the reflexive bradycardia. Local injection of acetylcholine decreased the slope of the reflexive bradycardia indicating that Ach system of the BST inhibits the baroreflex. Acute ablation of the BST by cobalt chloride also significantly decreased the slope, indicating the excitatory action of the BST on the baroreflex parasympathetic component. In conclusion, we showed for the first time that microinjection of acetylcholine into the BST evokes a pressor response by activating the local muscarinic receptors. Release of Ach into the BST, probably during stress, inhibits the baroreflex, but with no stress, the BST facilitates the baroreflex. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Differential involvement of cholinergic and beta-adrenergic systems during acquisition, consolidation, and retrieval of long-term memory of social and neutral odors.

    PubMed

    Miranda, María Isabel; Ortiz-Godina, Fatima; García, Dafne

    2009-08-24

    Acetylcholine and norepinephrine have been implicated during different kinds of social recognition that involves olfactory memory formation. For example, blockade of muscarinic and beta-adrenergic receptors has been shown to impair short-term memory of both socially relevant as well as of neutral odors. However, previous studies have not explicitly compared the role of cholinergic and adrenergic modulation in long-term memory for socially relevant odor vs. incidental odor stimuli. In this work, we studied the function of muscarinic and beta-adrenergic receptors during acquisition and/or consolidation of a novel odor and during the retrieval of a familiar odor. The effects of systemic injections of scopolamine and propranolol, before and after presentation of estrous urine odor or mint odor, were evaluated by a long-term odor habituation task. The results demonstrated that scopolamine disrupts memory acquisition and/or consolidation of mint odor, and did not have any effect during retrieval of mint odor memory. Conversely, scopolamine disrupts memory consolidation and retrieval of estrous odor, depending on the dose applied. Propranolol injections have no effect on acquisition or consolidation for mint or estrous odor, but disrupt memory retrieval of familiar odor regarding their social/sexual or neutral content. These results demonstrate that muscarinic receptors are required differentially during long-term odor memory formation and for familiar odor recognition depending on the socially relevant content of the stimulus. Furthermore, the beta-adrenergic system could play an important role in memory recognition for familiar odors, regardless of the sexual/social or neutral content of the stimuli.

  17. Extrinsic Sources of Cholinergic Innervation of the Striatal Complex: A Whole-Brain Mapping Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Dautan, Daniel; Hacioğlu Bay, Husniye; Bolam, J. Paul; Gerdjikov, Todor V.; Mena-Segovia, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Acetylcholine in the striatal complex plays an important role in normal behavior and is affected in a number of neurological disorders. Although early studies suggested that acetylcholine in the striatum (STR) is derived almost exclusively from cholinergic interneurons (CIN), recent axonal mapping studies using conditional anterograde tracing have revealed the existence of a prominent direct cholinergic pathway from the pedunculopontine and laterodorsal tegmental nuclei to the dorsal striatum and nucleus accumbens. The identification of the importance of this pathway is essential for creating a complete model of cholinergic modulation in the striatum, and it opens the question as to whether other populations of cholinergic neurons may also contribute to such modulation. Here, using novel viral tracing technologies based on phenotype-specific fluorescent reporter expression in combination with retrograde tracing, we aimed to define other sources of cholinergic innervation of the striatum. Systematic mapping of the projections of all cholinergic structures in the brain (Ch1 to Ch8) by means of conditional tracing of cholinergic axons, revealed that the only extrinsic source of cholinergic innervation arises in the brainstem pedunculopontine and laterodorsal tegmental nuclei. Our results thus place the pedunculopontine and laterodorsal nuclei in a key and exclusive position to provide extrinsic cholinergic modulation of the activity of the striatal systems. PMID:26834571

  18. Development of myenteric cholinergic neurons in ChAT-Cre;R26R-YFP mice.

    PubMed

    Hao, Marlene M; Bornstein, Joel C; Young, Heather M

    2013-10-01

    Cholinergic neurons are the major excitatory neurons of the enteric nervous system (ENS), and include intrinsic sensory neurons, interneurons, and excitatory motor neurons. Cholinergic neurons have been detected in the embryonic ENS; however, the development of these neurons has been difficult to study as they are difficult to detect prior to birth using conventional immunohistochemistry. In this study we used ChAT-Cre;R26R-YFP mice to examine the development of cholinergic neurons in the gut of embryonic and postnatal mice. Cholinergic (YFP+) neurons were first detected at embryonic day (E)11.5, and the proportion of cholinergic neurons gradually increased during pre- and postnatal development. At birth, myenteric cholinergic neurons comprised less than half of their adult proportions in the small intestine (25% of myenteric neurons were YFP+ at P0 compared to 62% in adults). The earliest cholinergic neurons appear to mainly project anally. Projections into the presumptive circular muscle were first observed at E14.5. A subpopulation of cholinergic neurons coexpress calbindin through embryonic and postnatal development, but only a small proportion coexpressed neuronal nitric oxide synthase. Our study shows that cholinergic neurons in the ENS develop over a protracted period of time.

  19. Persisting cholinergic erythema: a variant of cholinergic urticaria.

    PubMed

    Murphy, G M; Black, A K; Greaves, M W

    1983-09-01

    A new variant of cholinergic urticaria is described. Four patients each had a similar persistent macular skin rash distributed maximally over the upper limbs and upper trunk. Though the rash was persistent, individual macules were of short duration but new macules continually appeared at adjacent sites. Exercise and hot baths exacerbated pruritus and provoked lesions in previously unaffected areas. Topically applied benzoyl scopolamine blocked the appearance of the lesions after challenge. Tests of cholinergic function were normal, apart from an exaggerated pupillary response to arecoline in one patient.

  20. Endogenous Cholinergic Neurotransmission Contributes to Behavioral Sensitization to Morphine

    PubMed Central

    Bajic, Dusica; Soiza-Reilly, Mariano; Spalding, Allegra L.; Berde, Charles B.; Commons, Kathryn G.

    2015-01-01

    Neuroplasticity in the mesolimbic dopaminergic system is critical for behavioral adaptations associated with opioid reward and addiction. These processes may be influenced by cholinergic transmission arising from the laterodorsal tegmental nucleus (LDTg), a main source of acetylcholine to mesolimbic dopaminergic neurons. To examine this possibility we asked if chronic systemic morphine administration affects expression of genes in ventral and ventrolateral periaqueductal gray at the level of the LDTg using rtPCR. Specifically, we examined gene expression changes in the area of interest using Neurotransmitters and Receptors PCR array between chronic morphine and saline control groups. Analysis suggested that chronic morphine administration led to changes in expression of genes associated, in part, with cholinergic neurotransmission. Furthermore, using a quantitative immunofluorescent technique, we found that chronic morphine treatment produced a significant increase in immunolabeling of the cholinergic marker (vesicular acetylcholine transporter) in neurons of the LDTg. Finally, systemic administration of the nonselective and noncompetitive neuronal nicotinic antagonist mecamylamine (0.5 or 2 mg/kg) dose-dependently blocked the expression, and to a lesser extent the development, of locomotor sensitization. The same treatment had no effect on acute morphine antinociception, antinociceptive tolerance or dependence to chronic morphine. Taken together, the results suggest that endogenous nicotinic cholinergic neurotransmission selectively contributes to behavioral sensitization to morphine and this process may, in part, involve cholinergic neurons within the LDTg. PMID:25647082

  1. Effect of Ginger and Turmeric Rhizomes on Inflammatory Cytokines Levels and Enzyme Activities of Cholinergic and Purinergic Systems in Hypertensive Rats.

    PubMed

    Akinyemi, Ayodele Jacob; Thomé, Gustavo Roberto; Morsch, Vera Maria; Bottari, Nathieli B; Baldissarelli, Jucimara; de Oliveira, Lizielle Souza; Goularte, Jeferson Ferraz; Belló-Klein, Adriane; Duarte, Thiago; Duarte, Marta; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Athayde, Margareth Linde; Akindahunsi, Akintunde Afolabi; Oboh, Ganiyu; Schetinger, Maria Rosa Chitolina

    2016-05-01

    Inflammation exerts a crucial pathogenic role in the development of hypertension. Hence, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of ginger (Zingiber officinale) and turmeric (Curcuma longa) on enzyme activities of purinergic and cholinergic systems as well as inflammatory cytokine levels in Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride-induced hypertensive rats. The rats were divided into seven groups (n = 10); groups 1-3 included normotensive control rats, hypertensive (Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride) rats, and hypertensive control rats treated with atenolol (an antihypertensive drug), while groups 4 and 5 included normotensive and hypertensive (Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride) rats treated with 4 % supplementation of turmeric, respectively, and groups 6 and 7 included normotensive and hypertensive rats treated with 4 % supplementation of ginger, respectively. The animals were induced with hypertension by oral administration of Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride, 40 mg/kg body weight. The results revealed a significant increase in ATP and ADP hydrolysis, adenosine deaminase, and acetylcholinesterase activities in lymphocytes from Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride hypertensive rats when compared with the control rats. In addition, an increase in serum butyrylcholinesterase activity and proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1 and - 6, interferon-γ, and tumor necrosis factor-α) with a concomitant decrease in anti-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-10) was observed in Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride hypertensive rats. However, dietary supplementation of both rhizomes was efficient in preventing these alterations in hypertensive rats by decreasing ATP hydrolysis, acetylcholinesterase, and butyrylcholinesterase activities and proinflammatory cytokines in hypertensive rats. Thus, these activities could suggest a possible insight about the protective

  2. Cholinergic Targets in Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Spindel, Eliot R

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancers express an autocrine cholinergic loop in which secreted acetylcholine can stimulate tumor growth through both nicotinic and muscarinic receptors. Because activation of mAChR and nAChR stimulates growth; tumor growth can be stimulated by both locally synthesized acetylcholine as well as acetylcholine from distal sources and from nicotine in the high percentage of lung cancer patients who are smokers. The stimulation of lung cancer growth by cholinergic agonists offers many potential new targets for lung cancer therapy. Cholinergic signaling can be targeted at the level of choline transport; acetylcholine synthesis, secretion and degradation; and nicotinic and muscarinic receptors. In addition, the newly describe family of ly-6 allosteric modulators of nicotinic signaling such as lynx1 and lynx2 offers yet another new approach to novel lung cancer therapeutics. Each of these targets has their potential advantages and disadvantages for the development of new lung cancer therapies which are discussed in this review.

  3. Localisation of GABA(A) receptor epsilon-subunit in cholinergic and aminergic neurones and evidence for co-distribution with the theta-subunit in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Moragues, N; Ciofi, P; Tramu, G; Garret, M

    2002-01-01

    In situ hybridisation and immunohistochemical methodologies suggest the existence of a large diversity of GABA(A) receptor subtypes in the brain. These are hetero-oligomeric proteins modulated by a number of clinically important drugs, depending on their subunit composition. We recently cloned and localised the rat GABA(A) receptor epsilon-subunit by in situ hybridisation and immunohistochemical procedures. Here, in a dual-labelling immunohistochemical study in the rat brain, we used our affinity-purified antiserum to epsilon with antisera to markers of cholinergic, catecholaminergic, and serotonergic neurones. As far as cholinergic systems were concerned, epsilon-immunoreactivity was expressed in all forebrain cell-groups, as well as in the caudal lateral pontine tegmentum and dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve. As far as dopaminergic systems were concerned, epsilon-immunoreactivity was found to be expressed in a great number of hypothalamic cell-groups (A15, A14 and A12) and in the substantia nigra pars compacta. The noradrenergic, and to a lesser extent, adrenergic cell-groups were all epsilon-immunoreactive. Also, epsilon-immunoreactivity was detected in all serotonergic cell-groups. We also revealed by in situ hybridisation in a monkey brain that epsilon mRNA was expressed in the locus coeruleus, as previously observed in rats. Finally, by using in situ hybridisation in rat brains, we compared the distribution of the mRNA of epsilon with that of the recently cloned theta-subunit of the GABA(A) receptor. Both subunits showed strikingly overlapping expression patterns throughout the brain, especially in the septum, preoptic areas, various hypothalamic nuclei, amygdala, and thalamus, as well as the aforementioned monoaminergic cell-groups. No theta-mRNA signals were detected in cholinergic cell-groups. Taken together with previously published evidence of the presence of the alpha3-subunit in monoamine- or acetylcholine-containing systems, our data suggest

  4. POSTSYNAPTIC TARGETS OF GABAERGIC BASAL FOREBRAIN PROJECTIONS TO THE BASOLATERAL AMYGDALA

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, A. J.; Muller, J. F.; Mascagni, F.

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that the basolateral amygdala, like the neocortex and hippocampus, receives GABAergic inputs from the basal forebrain in addition to the well-established cholinergic inputs. Since the neuronal targets of these inputs have yet to be determined, it is difficult to predict the functional significance of this innervation. The present study addressed this question in the rat by employing anterograde tract tracing combined with immunohistochemistry at the light and electron microscopic levels of analysis. Amygdalopetal axons from the basal forebrain mainly targeted the basolateral nucleus (BL) of the amygdala. The morphology of these axons was heterogeneous and included GABAergic axons that contained vesicular GABA transporter protein (VGAT). These axons, designated type 1, exhibited distinctive large axonal varicosities that were typically clustered along the length of the axon. Type 1 axons formed multiple contacts with the cell bodies and dendrites of parvalbumin-containing (PV+) interneurons, but relatively few contacts with calretinin-containing and somatostatin-containing interneurons. At the ultrastructural level of analysis, the large terminals of type 1 axons exhibited numerous mitochondria and were densely packed with synaptic vesicles. Individual terminals formed broad symmetrical synapses with BL PV+ interneurons, and often formed additional symmetrical synapses with BL pyramidal cells. Some solitary type 1 terminals formed symmetrical synapses solely with BL pyramidal cells. These results suggest that GABAergic neurons of the basal forebrain provide indirect disinhibition, as well as direct inhibition, of BL pyramidal neurons. The possible involvement of these circuits in rhythmic oscillations related to emotional learning, attention, and arousal is discussed. PMID:21435381

  5. Physiology and immunology of the cholinergic antiinflammatory pathway

    PubMed Central

    Tracey, Kevin J.

    2007-01-01

    Cytokine production by the immune system contributes importantly to both health and disease. The nervous system, via an inflammatory reflex of the vagus nerve, can inhibit cytokine release and thereby prevent tissue injury and death. The efferent neural signaling pathway is termed the cholinergic antiinflammatory pathway. Cholinergic agonists inhibit cytokine synthesis and protect against cytokine-mediated diseases. Stimulation of the vagus nerve prevents the damaging effects of cytokine release in experimental sepsis, endotoxemia, ischemia/reperfusion injury, hemorrhagic shock, arthritis, and other inflammatory syndromes. Herein is a review of this physiological, functional anatomical mechanism for neurological regulation of cytokine-dependent disease that begins to define an immunological homunculus. PMID:17273548

  6. The interrelationship between cholinergic pathway in the magnocellular paraventricular nucleus and natriuresis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chun Y; Wang, Min; Zhang, Heng A; Deng, Xi J; Wang, Peng X; Mao, Hui Z; Lin, Yuan; Jiang, Chun L

    2015-07-01

    The central nervous system is known to play important roles in the regulation of renal sodium excretion. The present study was designed to reveal the interrelationship between cholinergic pathway in the magnocellular paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and the natriuresis induced by brain cholinergic stimuli. The results indicated that urinary sodium excretion was significantly increased at 40 min after intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of carbachol (CBC). Immunohistochemical studies showed that CBC increased choline acetyltransferase-immunoreactivity (ChAT-IR) in the magnocellular PVN and renal proximal convoluted tubule (PCT), respectively. After pretreatment with atropine, urinary sodium excretion was significantly reduced, and carbachol-increased ChAT-IR in the magnocellular PVN and PCT was also significantly decreased. These results suggested that brain cholinergic stimuli induced the natriuresis and increased the activity of cholinergic neurons in the magnocellular PVN and cholinergic system in the PCT. The blockade of muscarinic receptor completely abolished the natriuresis and partially inhibited carbachol-exerted stimulatory effects in the magnocellular PVN and PCT. To summarize, brain cholinergic pathway and peripheral cholinergic system in kidney were found to contribute to the natriuresis following brain cholinergic stimulation. Our findings revealed novel evidence that PVN was involved in the natriuresis via humoral mechanisms.

  7. Postnatal development of nestin positive neurons in rat basal forebrain: different onset and topography with choline acetyltransferase and parvalbumin expression.

    PubMed

    Guo, Kai-Hua; Li, Dong-Pei; Gu, Huai-Yu; Jie-Xu; Yao, Zhi-Bin

    2014-06-01

    Our previous studies identified a sub-population of cholinergic neurons which express nestin in the rostral part of the basal forebrain (BF) in normal adult rats. In the present study, the postnatal developmental patterns of nestin, choline acetyl transferase (ChAT) and parvalbumin (PV) positive neurons were explored by means of immunohistochemistry combined with immunofluorescence double label methods. Compared with early onset of ChAT expression (from P1) and delayed onset of PV expression (from P16), nestin positive activity was detected in the BF from P9 and co-expressed by parts of the ChAT positive neurons within the same region during the whole postnatal development process. However, ChAT and PV were not coexpressed by the neurons within the medial septum-diagonal band of Broca (MS-DBB) of BF. These results might imply a composite of separate development patterns displayed by different subpopulations of cholinergic neurons (nestin positive cholinergic neurons and nestin negative cholinergic neurons) within this region. Moreover, the topographic distribution of nestin, ChAT and PV positive neurons also showed different characteristics. In summary, our present study revealed a remarkable timing and topographic difference on the postnatal development of the nestin expression within the MS-DBB of BF compared with ChAT and PV expression. It is further suggested that nestin is re-expressed by cholinergic neurons in the BF after differentiation but not persisted from neuronal precursor cells. Copyright © 2014 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Cholinergic modulation of food and drug satiety and withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Avena, Nicole M; Rada, Pedro V

    2012-06-06

    Although they comprise only a small portion of the neurons in the region, cholinergic interneurons in the dorsal striatum appear to play an important role in the regulation of various appetitive behaviors, in part, through their interactions with mesolimbic dopamine (DA) systems. In this review, we describe studies that suggest that the activity of cholinergic interneurons in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and cholinergic projections to the ventral tegmental area (VTA) affect feeding behavior. In vivo microdialysis studies in rats have revealed that the cessation of a meal is associated with a rise in acetylcholine (ACh) levels in the NAc. ACh activation will suppress feeding, and this is also associated with an increase in synaptic accumulation of ACh. Further, we discuss how, in addition to their role in the ending of a meal, cholinergic interneurons in the NAc play an integral role in the cessation of drug use. Another cholinergic system involved in different aspects of appetitive behavior is the projection from the pedunculpontine nuclei directly to the VTA. Activation of this system enhances behaviors through activation of the mesolimbic DA system, and antagonism of ACh receptors in the VTA can reduce drug self-administration. Finally, we discuss the role of accumbens ACh in both drug and palatable food withdrawal. Studies reveal that accumbens ACh is increased during withdrawal from several different drugs of abuse (including cocaine, nicotine and morphine). This rise in extracellular levels of ACh, coupled with a decrease in extracellular levels of DA, is believed to contribute to an aversive state, which can manifest as behaviors associated with drug withdrawal. This theory has also been applied to studies of overeating and/or "food addiction," and the findings suggest a similar imbalance in DA/ACh levels, which is associated with behavioral indications of drug-like withdrawal. In summary, cholinergic neurons play an important role in the modulation of both

  9. Forebrain neurogenesis: From embryo to adult

    PubMed Central

    Dennis, Daniel; Picketts, David; Slack, Ruth S.; Schuurmans, Carol

    2017-01-01

    A satellite symposium to the Canadian Developmental Biology Conference 2016 was held on March 16–17, 2016 in Banff, Alberta, Canada, entitled Forebrain Neurogenesis: From embryo to adult. The Forebrain Neurogenesis symposium was a focused, high-intensity meeting, bringing together the top Canadian and international researchers in the field. This symposium reported the latest breaking news, along with ‘state of the art’ techniques to answer fundamental questions in developmental neurobiology. Topics covered ranged from stem cell regulation to neurocircuitry development, culminating with a session focused on neuropsychiatric disorders. Understanding the underlying causes of neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is of great interest as diagnoses of these conditions are climbing at alarming rates. For instance, in 2012, the Centers for Disease Control reported that the prevalence rate of ASD in the U.S. was 1 in 88; while more recent data indicate that the number is as high as 1 in 68 (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention MMWR Surveillance Summaries. Vol. 63. No. 2). Similarly, the incidence of ASD is on the rise in Canada, increasing from 1 in 150 in 2000 to 1 in 63 in 2012 in southeastern Ontario (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). Currently very little is known regarding the deficits underlying these neurodevelopmental conditions. Moreover, the development of effective therapies is further limited by major gaps in our understanding of the fundamental processes that regulate forebrain development and adult neurogenesis. The Forebrain Neurogenesis satellite symposium was thus timely, and it played a key role in advancing research in this important field, while also fostering collaborations between international leaders, and inspiring young researchers.

  10. Cell type-specific long-range connections of basal forebrain circuit

    PubMed Central

    Do, Johnny Phong; Xu, Min; Lee, Seung-Hee; Chang, Wei-Cheng; Zhang, Siyu; Chung, Shinjae; Yung, Tyler J; Fan, Jiang Lan; Miyamichi, Kazunari; Luo, Liqun; Dan, Yang

    2016-01-01

    The basal forebrain (BF) plays key roles in multiple brain functions, including sleep-wake regulation, attention, and learning/memory, but the long-range connections mediating these functions remain poorly characterized. Here we performed whole-brain mapping of both inputs and outputs of four BF cell types – cholinergic, glutamatergic, and parvalbumin-positive (PV+) and somatostatin-positive (SOM+) GABAergic neurons – in the mouse brain. Using rabies virus -mediated monosynaptic retrograde tracing to label the inputs and adeno-associated virus to trace axonal projections, we identified numerous brain areas connected to the BF. The inputs to different cell types were qualitatively similar, but the output projections showed marked differences. The connections to glutamatergic and SOM+ neurons were strongly reciprocal, while those to cholinergic and PV+ neurons were more unidirectional. These results reveal the long-range wiring diagram of the BF circuit with highly convergent inputs and divergent outputs and point to both functional commonality and specialization of different BF cell types. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13214.001 PMID:27642784

  11. Descending projections from the basal forebrain to the orexin neurons in mice.

    PubMed

    Agostinelli, Lindsay J; Ferrari, Loris L; Mahoney, Carrie E; Mochizuki, Takatoshi; Lowell, Bradford B; Arrigoni, Elda; Scammell, Thomas E

    2017-05-01

    The orexin (hypocretin) neurons play an essential role in promoting arousal, and loss of the orexin neurons results in narcolepsy, a condition characterized by chronic sleepiness and cataplexy. The orexin neurons excite wake-promoting neurons in the basal forebrain (BF), and a reciprocal projection from the BF back to the orexin neurons may help promote arousal and motivation. The BF contains at least three different cell types (cholinergic, glutamatergic, and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic neurons) across its different regions (medial septum, diagonal band, magnocellular preoptic area, and substantia innominata). Given the neurochemical and anatomical heterogeneity of the BF, we mapped the pattern of BF projections to the orexin neurons across multiple BF regions and neuronal types. We performed conditional anterograde tracing using mice that express Cre recombinase only in neurons producing acetylcholine, glutamate, or GABA. We found that the orexin neurons are heavily apposed by axon terminals of glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons of the substantia innominata (SI) and magnocellular preoptic area, but there was no innervation by the cholinergic neurons. Channelrhodopsin-assisted circuit mapping (CRACM) demonstrated that glutamatergic SI neurons frequently form functional synapses with the orexin neurons, but, surprisingly, functional synapses from SI GABAergic neurons were rare. Considering their strong reciprocal connections, BF and orexin neurons likely work in concert to promote arousal, motivation, and other behaviors. J. Comp. Neurol. 525:1668-1684, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Development of myelination and cholinergic innervation in the central auditory system of a prosimian primate (Otolemur garnetti).

    PubMed

    Miller, Daniel J; Lackey, Elizabeth P; Hackett, Troy A; Kaas, Jon H

    2013-11-01

    Change in the timeline of neurobiological growth is an important source of biological variation, and thus phenotypic evolution. However, no study has to date investigated sensory system development in any of the prosimian primates that are thought to most closely resemble our earliest primate ancestors. Acetylcholine (ACh) is a neurotransmitter critical to normal brain function by regulating synaptic plasticity associated with attention and learning. Myelination is an important structural component of the brain because it facilitates rapid neuronal communication. In this work we investigated the expression of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and the density of myelinated axons throughout postnatal development in the inferior colliculus (IC), medial geniculate complex (MGC), and auditory cortex (auditory core, belt, and parabelt) in Garnett's greater galago (Otolemur garnetti). We found that the IC and MGC exhibit relatively high myelinated fiber length density (MFLD) values at birth and attain adult-like values by the species-typical age at weaning. In contrast, neocortical auditory fields are relatively unmyelinated at birth and only attain adult-like MFLD values by the species-typical age at puberty. Analysis of AChE expression indicated that, in contrast to evidence from rodent samples, the adult-like distribution of AChE in the core area of auditory cortex, dense bands in layers I, IIIb/IV, and Vb/VI, is present at birth. These data indicate the differential developmental trajectory of central auditory system structures and demonstrate the early onset of adult-like AChE expression in primary auditory cortex in O. garnetti, suggesting the auditory system is more developed at birth in primates compared to rodents. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Involvement of dopaminergic and cholinergic systems in social isolation-induced deficits in social affiliation and conditional fear memory in mice.

    PubMed

    Okada, R; Fujiwara, H; Mizuki, D; Araki, R; Yabe, T; Matsumoto, K

    2015-07-23

    , when analyzed 30 min after the administration of the test drugs, tacrine significantly attenuated the SI-induced decrease in p-CaMKII, p-CREB, and Egr-1 in a manner reversible by scopolamine. Our results suggest that SI-induced deficits in social affiliation and conditioned fear memory were mediated by functional alterations to central dopaminergic and cholinergic systems, respectively.

  14. Organization of the sleep-related neural systems in the brain of the river hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius): A most unusual cetartiodactyl species.

    PubMed

    Dell, Leigh-Anne; Patzke, Nina; Spocter, Muhammad A; Bertelsen, Mads F; Siegel, Jerome M; Manger, Paul R

    2016-07-01

    This study provides the first systematic analysis of the nuclear organization of the neural systems related to sleep and wake in the basal forebrain, diencephalon, midbrain, and pons of the river hippopotamus, one of the closest extant terrestrial relatives of the cetaceans. All nuclei involved in sleep regulation and control found in other mammals, including cetaceans, were present in the river hippopotamus, with no specific nuclei being absent, but novel features of the cholinergic system, including novel nuclei, were present. This qualitative similarity relates to the cholinergic, noradrenergic, serotonergic, and orexinergic systems and is extended to the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic elements of these nuclei. Quantitative analysis reveals that the numbers of pontine cholinergic (259,578) and noradrenergic (127,752) neurons, and hypothalamic orexinergic neurons (68,398) are markedly higher than in other large-brained mammals. These features, along with novel cholinergic nuclei in the intralaminar nuclei of the dorsal thalamus and the ventral tegmental area of the midbrain, as well as a major expansion of the hypothalamic cholinergic nuclei and a large laterodorsal tegmental nucleus of the pons that has both parvocellular and magnocellular cholinergic neurons, indicates an unusual sleep phenomenology for the hippopotamus. Our observations indicate that the hippopotamus is likely to be a bihemispheric sleeper that expresses REM sleep. The novel features of the cholinergic system suggest the presence of an undescribed sleep state in the hippopotamus, as well as the possibility that this animal could, more rapidly than other mammals, switch cortical electroencephalographic activity from one state to another. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:2036-2058, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. BMP9 ameliorates amyloidosis and the cholinergic defect in a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Rebecca M.; Norman, Timothy A.; Haydar, Tarik F.; Slack, Barbara E.; Leeman, Susan E.; Blusztajn, Jan Krzysztof; Mellott, Tiffany J.

    2013-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein 9 (BMP9) promotes the acquisition of the cholinergic phenotype in basal forebrain cholinergic neurons (BFCN) during development and protects these neurons from cholinergic dedifferentiation following axotomy when administered in vivo. A decline in BFCN function occurs in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and contributes to the AD-associated memory deficits. We infused BMP9 intracerebroventricularly for 7 d in transgenic AD model mice expressing green fluorescent protein specifically in cholinergic neurons (APP.PS1/CHGFP) and in wild-type littermate controls (WT/CHGFP). We used 5-mo-old mice, an age when the AD transgenics display early amyloid deposition and few cholinergic defects, and 10-mo-old mice, by which time these mice exhibit established disease. BMP9 infusion reduced the number of Aβ42-positive amyloid plaques in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex of 5- and 10-mo-old APP.PS1/CHGFP mice and reversed the reductions in choline acetyltransferase protein levels in the hippocampus of 10-mo-old APP.PS1/CHGFP mice. The treatment increased cholinergic fiber density in the hippocampus of both WT/CHGFP and APP.PS1/CHGFP mice at both ages. BMP9 infusion also increased hippocampal levels of neurotrophin 3, insulin-like growth factor 1, and nerve growth factor and of the nerve growth factor receptors, tyrosine kinase receptor A and p75/NGFR, irrespective of the genotype of the mice. These data show that BMP9 administration is effective in reducing the Aβ42 amyloid plaque burden, reversing cholinergic neuron abnormalities, and generating a neurotrophic milieu for BFCN in a mouse model of AD and provide evidence that the BMP9-signaling pathway may constitute a therapeutic target for AD. PMID:24218590

  16. Medial Forebrain Bundle Deep Brain Stimulation has Symptom-specific Anti-depressant Effects in Rats and as Opposed to Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex Stimulation Interacts With the Reward System.

    PubMed

    Edemann-Callesen, Henriette; Voget, Mareike; Empl, Laura; Vogel, Martin; Wieske, Franziska; Rummel, Julia; Heinz, Andreas; Mathé, Aleksander A; Hadar, Ravit; Winter, Christine

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, deep brain stimulation (DBS) has emerged as a promising treatment option for patients suffering from treatment-resistant depression (TRD). Several stimulation targets have successfully been tested in clinical settings, including the subgenual cingulum (Cg25) and the medial forebrain bundle (MFB). MFB-DBS has led to remarkable results, surpassing the effect of previous targets in terms of response latency and number of responders. However, the question remains as to which mechanisms underlie this difference. The aim of the present study was to thoroughly study the anti-depressant effect of MFB-DBS in the Flinders sensitive line (FSL) rat model of depression as well as to investigate whether MFB-DBS and Cg25-DBS operate through the same neurobiological circuits. FSL and control rats received bilateral high-frequency stimulation to the MFB at the level of the lateral hypothalamus, while being subjected to a variety of depression- and anxiety-related behavioral paradigms. To further compare the effects of MFB-DBS and Cg25-DBS on reward-related behavior, animals were stimulated in either the MFB or ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC, rodent analog to Cg25), while being tested in the intra-cranial self-stimulation paradigm. A marked symptom-specific anti-depressant effect of MFB-DBS was demonstrated. The ICSS-paradigm revealed that MFB-DBS, as opposed to vmPFC-DBS interacts with the reward system. Our data suggest that MFB-DBS and Cg25-DBS do not operate via the same neurobiological circuits. This differentiation might be of interest when selecting patients for either Cg25- or MFB-DBS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Local cholinergic and non-cholinergic neural pathways to the rat supraoptic nucleus

    SciTech Connect

    Meeker, M.L.

    1986-01-01

    An estimated two thirds of the input to the supraoptic nucleus of the rat hypothalamus (SON) including a functionally significant cholinergic innervation, arise from local sources of unknown origin. The sources of these inputs were identified utilizing Golgi-Cox, retrograde tracing, choline acetyltransferase immunocytochemistry and anterograde tracing methodologies. Multipolar Golgi impregnated neurons located dorsal and lateral to the SON extend spiney processes into the nucleus. Injections of the retrograde tracers, wheat germ agglutinin or wheat germ agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase, into the SON labeled cells bilaterally in the arcuate nucleus, and ipsilaterally in the lateral hypothalamus, anterior hypothalamus, nucleus of the diagonal band, subfornical organ, medial preoptic area, lateral preoptic area and in the region dorsolateral to the nucleus. Immunocytochemistry for choline acetyltransferase revealed cells within the ventro-caudal portion of cholinergic cell group, Ch4, which cluster dorsolateral to the SON, and extend axon- and dendrite-like processes into the SON. Cells double-labeled by choline acetyltransferase immunocytochemistry and retrograde tracer injections into the SON are localized within the same cholinergic cell group dorsolateral to the SON. Injections of the anterograde tracer, Phaseolus vulgaris-leucoagglutinin, deposited dorsolateral to the SON results in labeled pre-and post-synaptic processes within the SON. The identification and characterization of endogenous immunoglobulin within the SON and other neurons innervating areas lacking a blood-brain barrier established a novel and potentially important system for direct communication of the supraoptic cells with blood-borne constitutents.

  18. Down regulation of the muscarinic cholinergic receptor of the rat prostate following castration

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, E.; Miller, A.R.; Lepor, H.

    1985-07-01

    Prostatic secretion is dependent upon the integrity of the endocrine and autonomic nervous systems and is dramatically influenced by muscarinic cholinergic analogs. In this study, the authors have used radioligand receptor binding methods on whole tissue homogenates and slide mounted tissue sections of rat prostate to determine whether androgens regulate the density of muscarinic cholinergic receptors in the prostate. The muscarinic cholinergic receptor binding affinities (Kd) of (/sup 3/H) N-methylscopolamine in prostatic homogenates obtained from intact, castrate, and castrate rats receiving testosterone replacement (castrate + T) were similar (0.07 to 0.10 nM). The muscarinic cholinergic receptor binding capacity decreased 73 per cent following castration. Testosterone administration restored the density of muscarinic cholinergic receptors in castrate rats to intact levels. In order to ensure that the loss of receptor density was not due to a decrease in the epithelial: stromal cell ratio, the number of muscarinic cholinergic receptors per unit area of epithelium was determined in the 3 treatment groups using autoradiography on slide mounted tissue sections. The density of muscarinic cholinergic receptors in a unit area of epithelium was decreased 91 per cent following castration. Testosterone administration restored the density of muscarinic cholinergic receptors in the castrate rats to intact levels. The modulation of neurotransmitter receptors by steroid hormones may be a mechanism by which sex steroids regulate biological responsiveness of target tissues.

  19. Cholinergic Pathway Suppresses Pulmonary Innate Immunity Facilitating Pneumonia After Stroke.

    PubMed

    Engel, Odilo; Akyüz, Levent; da Costa Goncalves, Andrey C; Winek, Katarzyna; Dames, Claudia; Thielke, Mareike; Herold, Susanne; Böttcher, Chotima; Priller, Josef; Volk, Hans Dieter; Dirnagl, Ulrich; Meisel, Christian; Meisel, Andreas

    2015-11-01

    Temporary immunosuppression has been identified as a major risk factor for the development of pneumonia after acute central nervous system injury. Although overactivation of the sympathetic nervous system was previously shown to mediate suppression of systemic cellular immune responses after stroke, the role of the parasympathetic cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway in the antibacterial defense in lung remains largely elusive. The middle cerebral artery occlusion model in mice was used to examine the influence of the parasympathetic nervous system on poststroke immunosuppression. We used heart rate variability measurement by telemetry, vagotomy, α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor-deficient mice, and parasympathomimetics (nicotine, PNU282987) to measure and modulate parasympathetic activity. Here, we demonstrate a rapidly increased parasympathetic activity in mice after experimental stroke. Inhibition of cholinergic signaling by either vagotomy or by using α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor-deficient mice reversed pulmonary immune hyporesponsiveness and prevented pneumonia after stroke. In vivo and ex vivo studies on the role of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor on different lung cells using bone marrow chimeric mice and isolated primary cells indicated that not only macrophages but also alveolar epithelial cells are a major cellular target of cholinergic anti-inflammatory signaling in the lung. Thus, cholinergic pathways play a pivotal role in the development of pulmonary infections after acute central nervous system injury. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. Cholinergic neuronal defect without cell loss in Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Smith, Ruben; Chung, Hinfan; Rundquist, Sara; Maat-Schieman, Marion L C; Colgan, Lesley; Englund, Elisabet; Liu, Yong-Jian; Roos, Raymund A C; Faull, Richard L M; Brundin, Patrik; Li, Jia-Yi

    2006-11-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by a CAG-repeat expansion in the huntingtin (IT15) gene. The striatum is one of the regions most affected by neurodegeneration, resulting in the loss of the medium-sized spiny neurons. Traditionally, the large cholinergic striatal interneurons are believed to be spared. Recent studies demonstrate that neuronal dysfunction without cell death also plays an important role in early and mid-stages of the disease. Here, we report that cholinergic transmission is affected in a HD transgenic mouse model (R6/1) and in tissues from HD patients. Stereological analysis shows no loss of cholinergic neurons in the striatum or septum in R6/1 mice. In contrast, the levels of mRNA and protein for vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) are decreased in the striatum and cortex, and acetylcholine esterase activity is lowered in the striatum of R6/1 mice already at young ages. Accordingly, VAChT is also reduced in striatal tissue from patients with HD. The decrease of VAChT in the patient samples studied is restricted to the striatum and does not occur in the hippocampus or the spinal cord. The expression and localization of REST/NRSF, a transcriptional regulator for the VAChT and ChAT genes, are not altered in cholinergic neurons. We show that the R6/1 mice exhibit severe deficits in learning and reference memory. Taken together, our data show that the cholinergic system is dysfunctional in R6/1 and HD patients. Consequently, they provide a rationale for testing of pro-cholinergic drugs in this disease.

  1. Cholinergic Signaling Exerts Protective Effects in Models of Sympathetic Hyperactivity-Induced Cardiac Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Gavioli, Mariana; Lara, Aline; Almeida, Pedro W. M.; Lima, Augusto Martins; Damasceno, Denis D.; Rocha-Resende, Cibele; Ladeira, Marina; Resende, Rodrigo R.; Martinelli, Patricia M.; Melo, Marcos Barrouin; Brum, Patricia C.; Fontes, Marco Antonio Peliky; Souza Santos, Robson A.; Prado, Marco A. M.; Guatimosim, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Cholinergic control of the heart is exerted by two distinct branches; the autonomic component represented by the parasympathetic nervous system, and the recently described non-neuronal cardiomyocyte cholinergic machinery. Previous evidence has shown that reduced cholinergic function leads to deleterious effects on the myocardium. Yet, whether conditions of increased cholinergic signaling can offset the pathological remodeling induced by sympathetic hyperactivity, and its consequences for these two cholinergic axes are unknown. Here, we investigated two models of sympathetic hyperactivity: i) the chronic beta-adrenergic receptor stimulation evoked by isoproterenol (ISO), and ii) the α2A/α2C-adrenergic receptor knockout (KO) mice that lack pre-synaptic adrenergic receptors. In both models, cholinergic signaling was increased by administration of the cholinesterase inhibitor, pyridostigmine. First, we observed that isoproterenol produces an autonomic imbalance characterized by increased sympathetic and reduced parasympathetic tone. Under this condition transcripts for cholinergic proteins were upregulated in ventricular myocytes, indicating that non-neuronal cholinergic machinery is activated during adrenergic overdrive. Pyridostigmine treatment prevented the effects of ISO on autonomic function and on the ventricular cholinergic machinery, and inhibited cardiac remodeling. α2A/α2C-KO mice presented reduced ventricular contraction when compared to wild-type mice, and this dysfunction was also reversed by cholinesterase inhibition. Thus, the cardiac parasympathetic system and non-neuronal cardiomyocyte cholinergic machinery are modulated in opposite directions under conditions of increased sympathetic drive or ACh availability. Moreover, our data support the idea that pyridostigmine by restoring ACh availability is beneficial in heart disease. PMID:24992197

  2. Construction of the human forebrain.

    PubMed

    Jernigan, Terry L; Stiles, Joan

    2017-01-01

    The adult human brain is arguably the most complex of biological systems. It contains 86 billion neurons (the information processing cells of the brain) and many more support cells. The neurons, with the assistance of the support cells, form trillions of connections creating complex, interconnected neural networks that support all human thought, feeling, and action. A challenge for modern neuroscience is to provide a model that accounts for this exquisitely complex and dynamic system. One fundamental part of this model is an account of how the human brain develops. This essay describes two important aspects of this developmental story. The first part of the story focuses on the remarkable and dynamic set of events that unfold during the prenatal period to give rise to cell lineage that form the essential substance of the brain, particularly the structures of the cerebral hemispheres. The second part of the story focuses on the formation of the major brain pathways of the cerebrum, the intricate fiber bundles that connect different populations of neurons to form the information processing systems that support all human thought and action. These two aspects of early brain development provide an essential foundation for understanding how the structure, organization, and functioning of the human brain emerge. WIREs Cogn Sci 2017, 8:e1409. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1409 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  3. Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome Affect the Cholinergic Transmission a nd Cognitive Functions.

    PubMed

    Martinelli, Ilenia; Tomassoni, Daniele; Moruzzi, Michele; Traini, Enea; Amenta, Francesco; Tayebati, Seyed Khosrow

    2017-01-01

    Worldwide, at least 2.8 million people die each year as a result of being overweight or obese. Obesity leads to metabolic syndrome, a pathological condition characterized by adverse metabolic effects on blood pressure, cholesterol, triglycerides and insulin resistance. Population- based investigations have suggested that obesity and metabolic syndrome may be associated with poorer cognitive performance. A structured search of bibliographic source (PubMed) was undertaken. The following terms "inflammation and obesity and brain", "cholinergic system and obesity", "cholinergic system and metabolic syndrome", "Cognitive impairment and obesity" and "metabolic syndrome and brain" were used as search strings. Over 200 papers, mainly published in the past 10 years were analysed. The major results regarded keyword "metabolic syndrome and brain" followed by, "Cognitive impairment and obesity", "inflammation and obesity and brain", "cholinergic system and obesity" and "cholinergic system and metabolic syndrome". Most papers were pre-clinical but, in general, they were inhomogeneous. Therefore, the results were cited according their contribution to clarify the molecular involvement of obesity and/or metabolic syndrome in cholinergic impairment. This review focuses on the correlation between brain cholinergic system alterations and high-fat diet, describing the involvement of cholinergic system in inflammatory processes related to metabolic syndrome and obesity, which may lead to cognitive decline. Metabolic syndrome has been suggested as a risk factor for cerebrovascular diseases and has been associated with cognitive impairment in different functional brain domains. Preclinical and clinical studies have identified the cholinergic system as a specific target of metabolic syndrome and obesity. The modifications of cholinergic neurotransmission and its involvement in neuro-inflammation may be related to cognitive impairment that affects obese patients. Copyright© Bentham

  4. Protection of cholinergic and antioxidant system contributes to the effect of berberine ameliorating memory dysfunction in rat model of streptozotocin-induced diabetes.

    PubMed

    Bhutada, Pravinkumar; Mundhada, Yogita; Bansod, Kuldeep; Tawari, Santosh; Patil, Shaktipal; Dixit, Pankaj; Umathe, Sudhir; Mundhada, Dharmendra

    2011-06-20

    Memory impairment induced by streptozotocin in rats is a consequence of changes in CNS that are secondary to chronic hyperglycemia, impaired oxidative stress, cholinergic dysfunction, and changes in glucagon-like peptide (GLP). Treatment with antihyperglycemics, antioxidants, and cholinergic agonists are reported to produce beneficial effect in this model. Berberine, an isoquinoline alkaloid is reported to exhibit anti-diabetic and antioxidant effect, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor, and increases GLP release. However, no report is available on influence of berberine on streptozotocin-induced memory impairment. Therefore, we tested its influence against cognitive dysfunction in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats using Morris water maze paradigm. Lipid peroxidation and glutathione levels as parameters of oxidative stress and choline esterase (ChE) activity as marker of cholinergic function were assessed in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. Thirty days after diabetes induction rats showed a severe deficit in learning and memory associated with increased lipid peroxidation, decreased reduced glutathione, and elevated ChE activity. In contrast, chronic treatment with berberine (25-100mg/kg, p.o., twice daily, 30 days) improved cognitive performance, lowered hyperglycemia, oxidative stress, and ChE activity in diabetic rats. In another set of experiment, berberine (100mg/kg) treatment during training trials also improved learning and memory, lowered hyperglycemia, oxidative stress, and ChE activity. Chronic treatment (30 days) with vitamin C or metformin, and donepezil during training trials also improved diabetes-induced memory impairment and reduced oxidative stress and/or choline esterase activity. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates treatment with berberine prevents the changes in oxidative stress and ChE activity, and consequently memory impairment in diabetic rats.

  5. Cholinergic modulation of hippocampal network function

    PubMed Central

    Teles-Grilo Ruivo, Leonor M.; Mellor, Jack R.

    2013-01-01

    Cholinergic septohippocampal projections from the medial septal area to the hippocampus are proposed to have important roles in cognition by modulating properties of the hippocampal network. However, the precise spatial and temporal profile of acetylcholine release in the hippocampus remains unclear making it difficult to define specific roles for cholinergic transmission in hippocampal dependent behaviors. This is partly due to a lack of tools enabling specific intervention in, and recording of, cholinergic transmission. Here, we review the organization of septohippocampal cholinergic projections and hippocampal acetylcholine receptors as well as the role of cholinergic transmission in modulating cellular excitability, synaptic plasticity, and rhythmic network oscillations. We point to a number of open questions that remain unanswered and discuss the potential for recently developed techniques to provide a radical reappraisal of the function of cholinergic inputs to the hippocampus. PMID:23908628

  6. Cholinergic modulation of event-related oscillations (ERO)

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez-Alavez, Manuel; Robledo, Patricia; Wills, Derek N.; Havstad, James; Ehlers, Cindy L.

    2014-01-01

    The cholinergic system in the brain modulates patterns of activity involved in general arousal, attention processing, memory and consciousness. In the present study we determined the effects of selective cholinergic lesions of the medial septum area (MS) or nucleus basalis magnocellularis (NBM) on amplitude and phase characteristics of event related oscillations (EROs). A time–frequency based representation was used to determine ERO energy, phase synchronization across trials, recorded within a structure (phase lock index, PLI), and phase synchronization across trials, recorded between brain structures (phase difference lock index, PDLI), in the frontal cortex (Fctx), dorsal hippocampus (DHPC) and central amygdala (Amyg). Lesions in MS produced: (1) decreases in ERO energy in delta, theta, alpha, beta and gamma frequencies in Amyg, (2) reductions in gamma ERO energy and PLI in Fctx, (3) decreases in PDLI between the Fctx–Amyg in the theta, alpha, beta and gamma frequencies, and (4) decreases in PDLI between the DHPC–Amyg and Fctx–DHPC in the theta frequency bands. Lesions in NBM resulted in: (1) increased ERO energy in delta and theta frequency bands in Fctx, (2) reduced gamma ERO energy in Fctx and Amyg, (3) reductions in PLI in the theta, beta and gamma frequency ranges in Fctx, (4) reductions in gamma PLI in DHPC and (5) reduced beta PLI in Amyg. These studies suggest that the MS cholinergic system can alter phase synchronization between brain areas whereas the NBM cholinergic system modifies phase synchronization/phase resetting within a brain area. PMID:24594019

  7. Cholinergic modulation of periaqueductal grey neurons: does it contribute to epileptogenesis after organophosphorus nerve agent intoxication?

    PubMed

    Sanada, Mitsuru; Zheng, Fang; Huth, Tobias; Alzheimer, Christian

    2007-04-20

    Previous work has shown that a single focal microinjection of the unselective cholinergic agonist, carbachol, into the periaqueductal grey (PAG) of the midbrain is sufficient to induce forebrain seizures in rats. In order to determine the cholinergic mechanisms underlying epileptogenesis at the cellular and network level of the PAG, we performed whole-cell recordings from rat PAG neurons in vitro and examined how the activation of muscarinic and nicotinic receptors modulates cellular excitability and synaptic responses. Stimulation of muscarinic receptors produced either a pirenzepine-sensitive depolarization (40% of PAG neurons), or a gallamine-sensitive hyperpolarization (20%), suggesting the involvement of M1 and M2 receptors, respectively. In the remaining neurons (40%), no change was observed. Voltage-clamp recordings showed that muscarinic depolarization resulted from the inhibition of a resting K(+) current, in part accompanied by simultaneous activation of a presumed non-selective cation current. Muscarinic hyperpolarization was caused by the activation of a G protein-coupled, inwardly rectifying K(+) current. Stimulation of muscarinic receptors enhanced the frequency of spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs), but strongly suppressed evoked IPSCs. In addition, nicotine almost doubled the frequency of miniature IPSCs. Based on our findings and the network properties of the PAG, we advance a scenario in which excessive stimulation of cholinergic receptors would substantially contribute to generalized seizures after organophosphorus nerve agent poisoning.

  8. Agonist-induced restoration of hippocampal neurogenesis and cognitive improvement in a model of cholinergic denervation.

    PubMed

    Van Kampen, Jackalina M; Eckman, Christopher B

    2010-05-01

    Loss of basal forebrain cholinergic innervation of the hippocampus and severe neuronal loss within the hippocampal CA1 region are early hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease, and are strongly correlated with cognitive status. Various therapeutic approaches involve attempts to enhance neurotransmission or to provide some level of neuroprotection for remaining cells. An alternative approach may involve the generation of new cells to replace those lost in AD. Indeed, a simple shift in the balance between cell generation and cell loss may slow disease progression and possibly even reverse existing cognitive deficits. One potential neurogenic regulator might be acetylcholine, itself, which has been shown to play a critical role in hippocampal development. Here, we report the effects of various cholinergic compounds on indices of hippocampal neurogenesis, demonstrating a significant induction following pharmacological activation of muscarinic M1 receptors, located on hippocampal progenitors in the adult brain. This is the first report that a small-molecule agonist may induce neurogenesis in the hippocampal CA1 region. Furthermore, such treatment reversed deficits in markers of neurogenesis and spatial working memory triggered by cholinergic denervation in a rodent model. This study suggests the use of small molecule, receptor agonists may represent a novel means to trigger the restoration of specific neuronal populations lost to a variety of neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, Huntington's and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

  9. [Cholinergic hypothesis in psychosis following traumatic brain injury and cholinergic hypothesis in schizophrenia: a link?].

    PubMed

    Bennouna, M; Greene, V B; Defranoux, L

    2007-09-01

    While traumatic brain injury is a major public health issue, schizophrenia-like psychosis following traumatic brain injury is relatively rare and poorly studied. Yet the risk of developing schizophrenia-like psychosis after traumatic brain injury is 3 times more important than in the general population. Risk factors associated with onset of psychosis after traumatic brain injury include: left hemispheric lesions, closed head injury and coma of duration superior to 24 hours. Most patients develop symptoms of psychosis after a moderate to severe traumatic brain injury and often have lesions of the frontal and temporal lobes. CHOLINERGIC HYPOTHESIS: Neuropathologic, electrophysiological and pharmacologic evidence show that cognitive impairment including attention, memory and executive functioning impairment may be related with cholinergic dysfunction in patients with traumatic brain injury. The cholinergic hypothesis is also incriminated in the genesis of schizophrenia. The same biochemical disorders found in schizophrenia which imply many neurotransmitters are often present immediately after traumatic brain injury. However in chronic cognitive disorders secondary to traumatic brain injury, the cholinergic system alone seems to be specifically implied. This is due to the fragility of the cholinergic fibres and a chronic yet reversible reduction of the cholinergic reserves after traumatic brain injury. Cholinergic function can be studied by the P50 evoked response to paired auditory stimuli.While this is disturbed in patients presenting with cognitive impairment after traumatic brain injury its normalisation can be obtained after administration of an acetylcholine esterase inhibitor. In schizophrenic patients there is also an abnormal P50 evoked response due in part to a low number of alpha 7 nicotinic receptors which are implicated in sensory filtering in the frontal lobe. Moreover in schizophrenia, post-mortem studies show a negative correlation between the activity

  10. Neurotrophin-3 promotes the cholinergic differentiation of sympathetic neurons

    PubMed Central

    Brodski, Claude; Schnürch, Harald; Dechant, Georg

    2000-01-01

    Neurotrophins influence the epigenetic shaping of the vertebrate nervous system by regulating neuronal numbers during development and synaptic plasticity. Here we attempt to determine whether these growth factors can also regulate neurotransmitter plasticity. As a model system we used the selection between noradrenergic and cholinergic neurotransmission by paravertebral sympathetic neurons. Developing sympathetic neurons express the neurotrophin receptors TrkA and TrkC, two highly related receptor tyrosine kinases. Whereas the TrkA ligand nerve growth factor (NGF) has long been known to regulate both the survival and the expression of noradrenergic traits in sympathetic neurons, the role of TrkC and of its ligand neurotrophin-3 (NT3) has remained unclear. We found that TrkC expression in the avian sympathetic chain overlaps substantially with that of choline acetyltransferase. In sympathetic chain explants, transcripts of the cholinergic marker genes choline acetyltransferase and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide were strongly enriched in the presence of NT3 compared with NGF, whereas the noradrenergic markers tyrosine hydroxylase and norepinephrine transporter were reduced. The transcription factor chicken achaete scute homolog 1 was coexpressed with cholinergic markers. The effects of NT3 are reversed and antagonized by NGF. They are independent of neuronal survival and developmentally regulated. These results suggest a role for NT3 as a differentiation factor for cholinergic neurons and establish a link between neurotrophins and neurotransmitter plasticity. PMID:10931939

  11. Loss of the tailless gene affects forebrain development and emotional behavior

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Kristine; Thiels, Edda; Monaghan, A. Paula

    2009-01-01

    We are studying the role of the evolutionarily conserved tlx gene in forebrain development in mice. Tlx is expressed in the ventricular zone that gives rise to neurons and glia of the forebrain. We have shown by mutating the tlx gene in mice, that in the absence of this transcription factor, mutant animals survive, but suffer specific anatomical defects in the limbic system. Because of these developmentally induced structural changes, mice with a mutation in the tlx gene can function, but exhibit extreme behavioral pathology. Mice show heightened aggressiveness, excitability, and poor cognition. In this article, we present a summary of our findings on the cellular and behavioral changes in the forebrain of mutant animals. We show that absence of the tlx gene leads to abnormal proliferation and differentiation of progenitor cells (PCs) in the forebrain from embryonic day 9 (E9). These abnormalities lead to hypoplasia of superficial cortical layers and subsets of GABAergic interneurons in the neocortex. We examined the behavior of mutant animals in three tests for anxiety/fear: the open field, the elevated plus maze, and fear conditioning. Mutant animals are less anxious and less fearful when assessed in the elevated plus and open-field paradigm. In addition, mutant animals do not condition to either the tone or the context in the fear-conditioning paradigm. These animals, therefore, provide a genetic tool to delineate structure/function relationships in defined regions of the brain and decipher how their disruption leads to behavioral abnormalities. PMID:12527005

  12. Modulation of learning and memory by the targeted deletion of the circadian clock gene Bmal1 in forebrain circuits.

    PubMed

    Snider, Kaitlin H; Dziema, Heather; Aten, Sydney; Loeser, Jacob; Norona, Frances E; Hoyt, Kari; Obrietan, Karl

    2016-07-15

    A large body of literature has shown that the disruption of circadian clock timing has profound effects on mood, memory and complex thinking. Central to this time keeping process is the master circadian pacemaker located within the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Of note, within the central nervous system, clock timing is not exclusive to the SCN, but rather, ancillary oscillatory capacity has been detected in a wide range of cell types and brain regions, including forebrain circuits that underlie complex cognitive processes. These observations raise questions about the hierarchical and functional relationship between the SCN and forebrain oscillators, and, relatedly, about the underlying clock-gated synaptic circuitry that modulates cognition. Here, we utilized a clock knockout strategy in which the essential circadian timing gene Bmal1 was selectively deleted from excitatory forebrain neurons, whilst the SCN clock remained intact, to test the role of forebrain clock timing in learning, memory, anxiety, and behavioral despair. With this model system, we observed numerous effects on hippocampus-dependent measures of cognition. Mice lacking forebrain Bmal1 exhibited deficits in both acquisition and recall on the Barnes maze. Notably, loss of forebrain Bmal1 abrogated time-of-day dependent novel object location memory. However, the loss of Bmal1 did not alter performance on the elevated plus maze, open field assay, and tail suspension test, indicating that this phenotype specifically impairs cognition but not affect. Together, these data suggest that forebrain clock timing plays a critical role in shaping the efficiency of learning and memory retrieval over the circadian day.

  13. Sex differences in brain cholinergic activity in MSG-obese rats submitted to exercise.

    PubMed

    Sagae, Sara Cristina; Grassiolli, Sabrina; Raineki, Charlis; Balbo, Sandra Lucinei; Marques da Silva, Ana Carla

    2011-11-01

    Obesity is an epidemic disease most commonly caused by a combination of increased energy intake and lack of physical activity. The cholinergic system has been shown to be involved in the regulation of food intake and energy expenditure. Moreover, physical exercise promotes a reduction of fat pads and body mass by increasing energy expenditure, but also influences the cholinergic system. The aim of this study is to evaluate the interaction between physical exercise (swimming) and central cholinergic activity in rats treated with monosodium glutamate (MSG, a model for obesity) during infancy. Our results show that MSG treatment is able to induce obesity in male and female rats. Specifically, MSG-treated rats presented a reduced body mass and nasoanal length, and increased perigonadal and retroperitoneal fat pads in relation to the body mass. Physical exercise was able to reduce body mass in both male and female rats, but did not change the fat pads in MSG-treated rats. Increased food intake was only seen in MSG-treated females submitted to exercise. Cholinergic activity was increased in the cortex of MSG-treated females and physical exercise was able to reduce this activity. Thalamic cholinergic activity was higher in sedentary MSG-treated females and exercised MSG-treated males. Hypothalamic cholinergic activity was higher in male and female MSG-treated rats, and was not reduced by exercise in the 2 sexes. Taken together, these results show that MSG treatment and physical exercise have different effects in the cholinergic activity of males and females.

  14. Time to pay attention: attentional performance time-stamped prefrontal cholinergic activation, diurnality, and performance.

    PubMed

    Paolone, Giovanna; Lee, Theresa M; Sarter, Martin

    2012-08-29

    Although the impairments in cognitive performance that result from shifting or disrupting daily rhythms have been demonstrated, the neuronal mechanisms that optimize fixed-time daily performance are poorly understood. We previously demonstrated that daily practice of a sustained attention task (SAT) evokes a diurnal activity pattern in rats. Here, we report that SAT practice at a fixed time produced practice time-stamped increases in prefrontal cholinergic neurotransmission that persisted after SAT practice was terminated and in a different environment. SAT time-stamped cholinergic activation occurred regardless of whether the SAT was practiced during the light or dark phase or in constant-light conditions. In contrast, prior daily practice of an operant schedule of reinforcement, albeit generating more rewards and lever presses per session than the SAT, neither activated the cholinergic system nor affected the animals' nocturnal activity pattern. Likewise, food-restricted animals exhibited strong food anticipatory activity (FAA) and attenuated activity during the dark phase but FAA was not associated with increases in prefrontal cholinergic activity. Removal of cholinergic neurons impaired SAT performance and facilitated the reemergence of nocturnality. Shifting SAT practice away from a fixed time resulted in significantly lower performance. In conclusion, these experiments demonstrated that fixed-time, daily practice of a task assessing attention generates a precisely practice time-stamped activation of the cortical cholinergic input system. Time-stamped cholinergic activation benefits fixed-time performance and, if practiced during the light phase, contributes to a diurnal activity pattern.

  15. Recognition of novel objects and their location in rats with selective cholinergic lesion of the medial septum.

    PubMed

    Cai, Li; Gibbs, Robert B; Johnson, David A

    2012-01-11

    The importance of cholinergic neurons projecting from the medial septum (MS) of the basal forebrain to the hippocampus in memory function has been controversial. The aim of this study was to determine whether loss of cholinergic neurons in the MS disrupts object and/or object location recognition in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Animals received intraseptal injections of either vehicle, or the selective cholinergic immunotoxin 192 IgG-saporin (SAP). 14 days later, rats were tested for novel object recognition (NOR). Twenty-four hours later, these same rats were tested for object location recognition (OLR) (recognition of a familiar object moved to a novel location). Intraseptal injections of SAP produced an 86% decrease in choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) activity in the hippocampus, and a 31% decrease in ChAT activity in the frontal cortex. SAP lesion had no significant effect on NOR, but produced a significant impairment in OLR in these same rats. The results support a role for septo-hippocampal cholinergic projections in memory for the location of objects, but not for novel object recognition.

  16. Selective optogenetic stimulation of cholinergic axons in neocortex.

    PubMed

    Kalmbach, Abigail; Hedrick, Tristan; Waters, Jack

    2012-04-01

    Acetylcholine profoundly affects neocortical function, being involved in arousal, attention, learning, memory, sensory and motor function, and plasticity. The majority of cholinergic afferents to neocortex are from neurons in nucleus basalis. Nucleus basalis also contains projecting neurons that release other transmitters, including GABA and possibly glutamate. Hence, electrical stimulation of nucleus basalis evokes the release of a mixture of neurotransmitters in neocortex, and this lack of selectivity has impeded research on cholinergic signaling in neocortex. We describe a method for the selective stimulation of cholinergic axons in neocortex. We used the Cre-lox system and a viral vector to express the light-activated protein channelrhodopsin-2 in cholinergic neurons in nucleus basalis and their axons in neocortex. Labeled neurons depolarized on illumination with blue light but were otherwise unchanged. In anesthetized mice, illumination of neocortex desynchronized the local field potential, indicating that light evoked release of ACh. This novel technique will enable many new studies of the cellular, network, and behavioral physiology of ACh in neocortex.

  17. The catecholaminergic-cholinergic balance hypothesis of bipolar disorder revisited

    PubMed Central

    van Enkhuizen, Jordy; Janowsky, David S; Olivier, Berend; Minassian, Arpi; Perry, William; Young, Jared W; Geyer, Mark A

    2014-01-01

    Bipolar disorder is a unique illness characterized by fluctuations between mood states of depression and mania. Originally, an adrenergic-cholinergic balance hypothesis was postulated to underlie these different affective states. In this review, we update this hypothesis with recent findings from human and animal studies, suggesting that a catecholaminergic-cholinergic hypothesis may be more relevant. Evidence from neuroimaging studies, neuropharmacological interventions, and genetic associations support the notion that increased cholinergic functioning underlies depression, whereas increased activations of the catecholamines (dopamine and norepinephrine) underlie mania. Elevated functional acetylcholine during depression may affect both muscarinic and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in a compensatory fashion. Increased functional dopamine and norepinephrine during mania on the other hand may affect receptor expression and functioning of dopamine reuptake transporters. Despite increasing evidence supporting this hypothesis, a relationship between these two neurotransmitter systems that could explain cycling between states of depression and mania is missing. Future studies should focus on the influence of environmental stimuli and genetic susceptibilities that may affect the catecholaminergic-cholinergic balance underlying cycling between the affective states. Overall, observations from recent studies add important data to this revised balance theory of bipolar disorder, renewing interest in this field of research. PMID:25107282

  18. Subpopulations of somatostatin-immunoreactive non-pyramidal neurons in the amygdala and adjacent external capsule project to the basal forebrain: evidence for the existence of GABAergic projection neurons in the cortical nuclei and basolateral nuclear complex

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Alexander J.; Mascagni, Franco; Zaric, Violeta

    2012-01-01

    The hippocampus and amygdala are key structures of the limbic system whose connections include reciprocal interactions with the basal forebrain (BF). The hippocampus receives both cholinergic and GABAergic afferents from the medial septal area of the BF. Hippocampal projections back to the medial septal area arise from non-pyramidal GABAergic neurons that express somatostatin (SOM), calbindin (CB), and neuropeptide Y (NPY). Recent experiments in our lab have demonstrated that the basolateral amygdala, like the hippocampus, receives both cholinergic and GABAergic afferents from the BF. These projections arise from neurons in the substantia innominata (SI) and ventral pallidum (VP). It remained to be determined, however, whether the amygdala has projections back to the BF that arise from GABAergic non-pyramidal neurons. This question was investigated in the present study by combining Fluorogold (FG) retrograde tract tracing with immunohistochemistry for GABAergic non-pyramidal cell markers, including SOM, CB, NPY, parvalbumin, calretinin, and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD). FG injections into the BF produced a diffuse array of retrogradely labeled neurons in many nuclei of the amygdala. The great majority of amygdalar FG+ neurons did not express non-pyramidal cell markers. However, a subpopulation of non-pyramidal SOM+ neurons, termed “long-range non-pyramidal neurons” (LRNP neurons), in the external capsule, basolateral amygdala, and cortical and medial amygdalar nuclei were FG+. About one-third of the SOM+ LRNP neurons were CB+ or NPY+, and one-half were GAD+. It remains to be determined if these inhibitory amygdalar projections to the BF, like those from the hippocampus, are important for regulating synchronous oscillations in the amygdalar-BF network. PMID:22837739

  19. Different cholinergic synapses converging onto neurons in Aplysia produce the same synaptic action.

    PubMed

    Segal, M; Koester, J

    1980-10-20

    We have investigated neurons that receive inputs from more than one cholinergic interneuron, to see whether one cholinergic input can depolarize and the other hyperpolarize by virtue of activating different ACh receptors. We have examined synapses made in the abdominal ganglion of Aplysia californica by 3 cholinergic interneurons. Two of those interneurons have previously been shown to be cholinergic. Using both biochemical and pharmacological tests we have shown a third interneuron to be cholinergic. For 7 postsynaptic cells, we compared 6 new connections that we have identified from cholinergic interneurons, and 12 previously known connections. In each case we found that different cholinergic inputs onto any given cell produced the same synaptic action. This finding held even for L7, a cell known to have two types of ACh receptors. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that a postsynaptic cell does not segregate different types of ACh receptors. If generally true, this lack of segregation may help explain why a nervous system uses more than one neurotransmitter as well as why certain interneurons are needed in neural networks.

  20. Cholinergic enhancement of visual attention and neural oscillations in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Markus; Kluge, Christian; Bach, Dominik; Bradbury, David; Heinze, Hans Jochen; Dolan, Raymond J; Driver, Jon

    2012-03-06

    Cognitive processes such as visual perception and selective attention induce specific patterns of brain oscillations. The neurochemical bases of these spectral changes in neural activity are largely unknown, but neuromodulators are thought to regulate processing. The cholinergic system is linked to attentional function in vivo, whereas separate in vitro studies show that cholinergic agonists induce high-frequency oscillations in slice preparations. This has led to theoretical proposals that cholinergic enhancement of visual attention might operate via gamma oscillations in visual cortex, although low-frequency alpha/beta modulation may also play a key role. Here we used MEG to record cortical oscillations in the context of administration of a cholinergic agonist (physostigmine) during a spatial visual attention task in humans. This cholinergic agonist enhanced spatial attention effects on low-frequency alpha/beta oscillations in visual cortex, an effect correlating with a drug-induced speeding of performance. By contrast, the cholinergic agonist did not alter high-frequency gamma oscillations in visual cortex. Thus, our findings show that cholinergic neuromodulation enhances attentional selection via an impact on oscillatory synchrony in visual cortex, for low rather than high frequencies. We discuss this dissociation between high- and low-frequency oscillations in relation to proposals that lower-frequency oscillations are generated by feedback pathways within visual cortex.

  1. Single-Cell Gene Expression Analysis of Cholinergic Neurons in the Arcuate Nucleus of the Hypothalamus

    PubMed Central

    Chua, Streamson; Jo, Young-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    The cholinoceptive system in the hypothalamus, in particular in the arcuate nucleus (ARC), plays a role in regulating food intake. Neurons in the ARC contain multiple neuropeptides, amines, and neurotransmitters. To study molecular and neurochemical heterogeneity of ARC neurons, we combine single-cell qRT-PCR and single-cell whole transcriptome amplification methods to analyze expression patterns of our hand-picked 60 genes in individual neurons in the ARC. Immunohistochemical and single-cell qRT-PCR analyses show choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-expressing neurons in the ARC. Gene expression patterns are remarkably distinct in each individual cholinergic neuron. Two-thirds of cholinergic neurons express tyrosine hydroxylase (Th) mRNA. A large subset of these Th-positive cholinergic neurons is GABAergic as they express the GABA synthesizing enzyme glutamate decarboxylase and vesicular GABA transporter transcripts. Some cholinergic neurons also express the vesicular glutamate transporter transcript gene. POMC and POMC-processing enzyme transcripts are found in a subpopulation of cholinergic neurons. Despite this heterogeneity, gene expression patterns in individual cholinergic cells appear to be highly regulated in a cell-specific manner. In fact, membrane receptor transcripts are clustered with their respective intracellular signaling and downstream targets. This novel population of cholinergic neurons may be part of the neural circuitries that detect homeostatic need for food and control the drive to eat. PMID:27611685

  2. TDP-43 pathology in the basal forebrain and hypothalamus of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Cykowski, Matthew D; Takei, Hidehiro; Schulz, Paul E; Appel, Stanley H; Powell, Suzanne Z

    2014-12-24

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a neurodegenerative disease characterized clinically by motor symptoms including limb weakness, dysarthria, dysphagia, and respiratory compromise, and pathologically by inclusions of transactive response DNA-binding protein 43 kDa (TDP-43). Patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis also may demonstrate non-motor symptoms and signs of autonomic and energy dysfunction as hypermetabolism and weight loss that suggest the possibility of pathology in the forebrain, including hypothalamus. However, this region has received little investigation in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. In this study, the frequency, topography, and clinical associations of TDP-43 inclusion pathology in the basal forebrain and hypothalamus were examined in 33 patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: 25 men and 8 women; mean age at death of 62.7 years, median disease duration of 3.1 years (range of 1.3 to 9.8 years). TDP-43 pathology was present in 11 patients (33.3%), including components in both basal forebrain (n=10) and hypothalamus (n=7). This pathology was associated with non-motor system TDP-43 pathology (Χ2=17.5, p=0.00003) and bulbar symptoms at onset (Χ2=4.04, p=0.044), but not age or disease duration. Furthermore, TDP-43 pathology in the lateral hypothalamic area was associated with reduced body mass index (W=11, p=0.023). This is the first systematic demonstration of pathologic involvement of the basal forebrain and hypothalamus in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Furthermore, the findings suggest that involvement of the basal forebrain and hypothalamus has significant phenotypic associations in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, including site of symptom onset, as well as deficits in energy metabolism with loss of body mass index.

  3. Nicotine-induced plasticity during development: modulation of the cholinergic system and long-term consequences for circuits involved in attention and sensory processing

    PubMed Central

    Heath, Christopher J.; Picciotto, Marina R.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Despite a great deal of progress, more than 10% of pregnant women in the USA smoke. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated correlations between developmental tobacco smoke exposure and sensory processing deficits, as well as a number of neuropsychiatric conditions, including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Significantly, data from animal models of developmental nicotine exposure have suggested that the nicotine in tobacco contributes significantly to the effects of developmental smoke exposure. Consequently, we hypothesize that nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are critical for setting and refining the strength of corticothalamic-thalamocortical loops during critical periods of development and that disruption of this process by developmental nicotine exposure can result in long-lasting dysregulation of sensory processing. The ability of nAChR activation to modulate synaptic plasticity is likely to underlie the effects of both endogenous cholinergic signaling and pharmacologically-administered nicotine to alter cellular, physiological and behavioral processes during critical periods of development. PMID:18692078

  4. A Small Molecule p75NTR Ligand, LM11A-31, Reverses Cholinergic Neurite Dystrophy in Alzheimer's Disease Mouse Models with Mid- to Late-Stage Disease Progression

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, Danielle A.; Knowles, Juliet K.; Belichenko, Nadia P.; Banerjee, Gargi; Finkle, Carly; Massa, Stephen M.; Longo, Frank M.

    2014-01-01

    Degeneration of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons contributes significantly to the cognitive deficits associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and has been attributed to aberrant signaling through the neurotrophin receptor p75 (p75NTR). Thus, modulating p75NTR signaling is considered a promising therapeutic strategy for AD. Accordingly, our laboratory has developed small molecule p75NTR ligands that increase survival signaling and inhibit amyloid-β-induced degenerative signaling in in vitro studies. Previous work found that a lead p75NTR ligand, LM11A-31, prevents degeneration of cholinergic neurites when given to an AD mouse model in the early stages of disease pathology. To extend its potential clinical applications, we sought to determine whether LM11A-31 could reverse cholinergic neurite atrophy when treatment begins in AD mouse models having mid- to late stages of pathology. Reversing pathology may have particular clinical relevance as most AD studies involve patients that are at an advanced pathological stage. In this study, LM11A-31 (50 or 75 mg/kg) was administered orally to two AD mouse models, Thy-1 hAPPLond/Swe (APPL/S) and Tg2576, at age ranges during which marked AD-like pathology manifests. In mid-stage male APPL/S mice, LM11A-31 administered for 3 months starting at 6–8 months of age prevented and/or reversed atrophy of basal forebrain cholinergic neurites and cortical dystrophic neurites. Importantly, a 1 month LM11A-31 treatment given to male APPL/S mice (12–13 months old) with late-stage pathology reversed the degeneration of cholinergic neurites in basal forebrain, ameliorated cortical dystrophic neurites, and normalized increased basal forebrain levels of p75NTR. Similar results were seen in female Tg2576 mice. These findings suggest that LM11A-31 can reduce and/or reverse fundamental AD pathologies in late-stage AD mice. Thus, targeting p75NTR is a promising approach to reducing AD-related degenerative processes that have progressed

  5. Cholinergic Degeneration and Alterations in the TrkA and p75NTR Balance as a Result of Pro-NGF Injection into Aged Rats

    PubMed Central

    Fortress, Ashley M.; Buhusi, Mona; Helke, Kris L.; Granholm, Ann-Charlotte E.

    2011-01-01

    Learning and memory impairments occurring with Alzheimer's disease (AD) are associated with degeneration of the basal forebrain cholinergic neurons (BFCNs). BFCNs extend their axons to the hippocampus where they bind nerve growth factor (NGF) which is retrogradely transported to the cell body. While NGF is necessary for BFCN survival and function via binding to the high-affinity receptor TrkA, its uncleaved precursor, pro-NGF has been proposed to induce neurodegeneration via binding to the p75NTR and its coreceptor sortilin. Basal forebrain TrkA and NGF are downregulated with aging while pro-NGF is increased. Given these data, the focus of this paper was to determine a mechanism for how pro-NGF accumulation may induce BFCN degeneration. Twenty-four hours after a single injection of pro-NGF into hippocampus, we found increased hippocampal p75NTR levels, decreased hippocampal TrkA levels, and cholinergic degeneration. The data suggest that the increase in p75NTR with AD may be mediated by elevated pro-NGF levels as a result of decreased cleavage, and that pro-NGF may be partially responsible for age-related degenerative changes observed in the basal forebrain. This paper is the first in vivo evidence that pro-NGF can affect BFCNs and may do so by regulating expression of p75NTR neurotrophin receptors. PMID:21785728

  6. Genomic Perspectives of Transcriptional Regulation in Forebrain Development

    PubMed Central

    Nord, Alex S.; Pattabiraman, Kartik; Visel, Axel; Rubenstein, John L. R.

    2015-01-01

    The forebrain is the seat of higher order brain functions, and many human neuropsychiatric disorders are due to genetic defects affecting forebrain development, making it imperative to understand the underlying genetic circuitry. Recent progress now makes it possible to begin fully elucidating the genomic regulatory mechanisms that control forebrain gene expression. Herein, we discuss the current knowledge of how transcription factors drive gene expression programs through their interactions with cis-acting genomic elements, such as enhancers; how analyses of chromatin and DNA modifications provide insights into gene expression states; and how these approaches yield insights into the evolution of the human brain. PMID:25569346

  7. Genomic perspectives of transcriptional regulation in forebrain development.

    PubMed

    Nord, Alex S; Pattabiraman, Kartik; Visel, Axel; Rubenstein, John L R

    2015-01-07

    The forebrain is the seat of higher-order brain functions, and many human neuropsychiatric disorders are due to genetic defects affecting forebrain development, making it imperative to understand the underlying genetic circuitry. Recent progress now makes it possible to begin fully elucidating the genomic regulatory mechanisms that control forebrain gene expression. Herein, we discuss the current knowledge of how transcription factors drive gene expression programs through their interactions with cis-acting genomic elements, such as enhancers; how analyses of chromatin and DNA modifications provide insights into gene expression states; and how these approaches yield insights into the evolution of the human brain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Presence of a non-neuronal cholinergic system and occurrence of up- and down-regulation in expression of M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors: new aspects of importance regarding Achilles tendon tendinosis (tendinopathy).

    PubMed

    Bjur, Dennis; Danielson, Patrik; Alfredson, Håkan; Forsgren, Sture

    2008-02-01

    Limited information is available concerning the existence of a cholinergic system in the human Achilles tendon. We have studied pain-free normal Achilles tendons and chronically painful Achilles tendinosis tendons with regard to immunohistochemical expression patterns of the M(2) muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (M(2)R), choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), and vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT). M(2)R immunoreactivity was detected in the walls of blood vessels. As evidenced via parallel staining for CD31 and alpha-smooth muscle actin, most M(2)R immunoreactivity was present in the endothelium. M(2)R immunoreactivity also occured in tenocytes, which regularly immunoreact for vimentin. The degree of M(2)R immunoreactivity was highly variable, tendinosis tendons that exhibit hypercellularity and hypervascularity showing the highest levels of immunostaining. Immunoreaction for ChAT and VAChT was detected in tenocytes in tendinosis specimens, particularly in aberrant cells. In situ hybridization revealed that mRNA for ChAT is present in tenocytes in tendinosis specimens. Our results suggest that autocrine/paracrine effects occur concerning the tenocytes in tendinosis. Up-regulation/down-regulation in the levels of M(2)R immunoreactivity possibly take place in tenocytes and blood vessel cells during the various stages of tendinosis. The presumed local production of acetylcholine (ACh), as evidenced by immunoreactivity for ChAT and VAChT and the detection of ChAT mRNA, appears to evolve in response to tendinosis. These observations are of importance because of the well-known vasoactive, trophic, and pain-modulating effects that ACh is known to have and do unexpectedly establish the presence of a non-neuronal cholinergic system in the Achilles tendon.

  9. Evidence for neuroprotective effects of endogenous brain-derived neurotrophic factor after global forebrain ischemia in rats.

    PubMed

    Larsson, E; Nanobashvili, A; Kokaia, Z; Lindvall, O

    1999-11-01

    The levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) vary between different forebrain areas and show region-specific changes after cerebral ischemia. The present study explores the possibility that the levels of endogenous BDNF determine the susceptibility to ischemic neuronal death. To block BDNF activity the authors used the TrkB-Fc fusion protein, which was infused intraventricularly in rats during 1 week before and 1 week after 5 or 30 minutes of global forebrain ischemia. Ischemic damage was quantified in the striatum and hippocampal formation after 1 week of reperfusion using immunocytochemistry and stereological procedures. After the 30-minute insult, there was a significantly lower number of surviving CA4 pyramidal neurons, neuropeptide Y-immunoreactive dentate hilar neurons, and choline acetyltransferase- and TrkA-positive, cholinergic striatal interneurons in the TrkB-Fc-infused rats as compared to controls. In contrast, the TrkB-Fc treatment did not influence survival of CA1 or CA3 pyramidal neurons or striatal projection neurons. Also, after the mild ischemic insult (5 minutes), neuronal death in the CA1 region was similar in the TrkB-Fc-treated and control groups. These results indicate that endogenous BDNF can protect certain neuronal populations against ischemic damage. It is conceivable, though, that efficient neuroprotection after brain insults is dependent not only on this factor but on the concerted action of a large number of neurotrophic molecules.

  10. Distribution of sup 125 I-neurotensin binding sites in human forebrain: Comparison with the localization of acetylcholinesterase

    SciTech Connect

    Szigethy, E.; Quirion, R.; Beaudet, A. )

    1990-07-22

    The distribution of 125I-neurotensin binding sites was compared with that of acetylcholinesterase reactivity in the human basal forebrain by using combined light microscopic radioautography/histochemistry. High 125I-neurotensin binding densities were observed in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, islands of Calleja, claustrum, olfactory tubercle, and central nucleus of the amygdala; lower levels were seen in the caudate, putamen, medial septum, diagonal band nucleus, and nucleus basalis of Meynert. Adjacent sections processed for cholinesterase histochemistry demonstrated a regional overlap between the distribution of labeled neurotensin binding sites and that of intense acetylcholinesterase staining in all of the above regions, except in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, claustrum, and central amygdaloid nucleus, where dense 125I-neurotensin labeling was detected over areas containing only weak to moderate cholinesterase staining. At higher magnification, 125I-neurotensin-labeled binding sites in the islands of Calleja, supraoptic nucleus of the hypothalamus, medial septum, diagonal band nucleus, and nucleus basalis of Meynert were selectively associated with neuronal perikarya found to be cholinesterase-positive in adjacent sections. Moderate 125I-neurotensin binding was also apparent over the cholinesterase-reactive neuropil of these latter three regions. These data suggest that neurotensin (NT) may directly influence the activity of magnocellular cholinergic neurons in the human basal forebrain, and may be involved in the physiopathology of dementing disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, in which these neurons have been shown to be affected.

  11. Cholinergic innervation of human mesenteric lymphatic vessels.

    PubMed

    D'Andrea, V; Bianchi, E; Taurone, S; Mignini, F; Cavallotti, C; Artico, M

    2013-11-01

    The cholinergic neurotransmission within the human mesenteric lymphatic vessels has been poorly studied. Therefore, our aim is to analyse the cholinergic nerve fibres of lymphatic vessels using the traditional enzymatic techniques of staining, plus the biochemical modifications of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity. Specimens obtained from human mesenteric lymphatic vessels were subjected to the following experimental procedures: 1) drawing, cutting and staining of tissues; 2) staining of total nerve fibres; 3) enzymatic staining of cholinergic nerve fibres; 4) homogenisation of tissues; 5) biochemical amount of proteins; 6) biochemical amount of AChE activity; 6) quantitative analysis of images; 7) statistical analysis of data. The mesenteric lymphatic vessels show many AChE positive nerve fibres around their wall with an almost plexiform distribution. The incubation time was performed at 1 h (partial activity) and 6 h (total activity). Moreover, biochemical dosage of the same enzymatic activity confirms the results obtained with morphological methods. The homogenates of the studied tissues contain strong AChE activity. In our study, the lymphatic vessels appeared to contain few cholinergic nerve fibres. Therefore, it is expected that perivascular nerve stimulation stimulates cholinergic nerves innervating the mesenteric arteries to release the neurotransmitter AChE, which activates muscarinic or nicotinic receptors to modulate adrenergic neurotransmission. These results strongly suggest, that perivascular cholinergic nerves have little or no effect on the adrenergic nerve function in mesenteric arteries. The cholinergic nerves innervating mesenteric arteries do not mediate direct vascular responses.

  12. Mental stress in atopic dermatitis--neuronal plasticity and the cholinergic system are affected in atopic dermatitis and in response to acute experimental mental stress in a randomized controlled pilot study.

    PubMed

    Peters, Eva Milena Johanne; Michenko, Anna; Kupfer, Jörg; Kummer, Wolfgang; Wiegand, Silke; Niemeier, Volker; Potekaev, Nikolay; Lvov, Andrey; Gieler, Uwe

    2014-01-01

    In mouse models for atopic dermatitis (AD) hypothalamus pituitary adrenal axis (HPA) dysfunction and neuropeptide-dependent neurogenic inflammation explain stress-aggravated flares to some extent. Lately, cholinergic signaling has emerged as a link between innate and adaptive immunity as well as stress responses in chronic inflammatory diseases. Here we aim to determine in humans the impact of acute stress on neuro-immune interaction as well as on the non-neuronal cholinergic system (NNCS). Skin biopsies were obtained from 22 individuals (AD patients and matched healthy control subjects) before and after the Trier social stress test (TSST). To assess neuro-immune interaction, nerve fiber (NF)-density, NF-mast cell contacts and mast cell activation were determined by immunohistomorphometry. To evaluate NNCS effects, expression of secreted mammal Ly-6/urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor-related protein (SLURP) 1 and 2 (endogenous nicotinic acetylcholine receptor ligands) and their main corresponding receptors were assessed by quantitative RT-PCR. With respect to neuro-immune interaction we found higher numbers of NGF+ dermal NF in lesional compared to non-lesional AD but lower numbers of Gap43+ growing NF at baseline. Mast cell-NF contacts correlated with SCORAD and itch in lesional skin. With respect to the NNCS, nicotinic acetylcholine receptor α7 (α7nAChR) mRNA was significantly lower in lesional AD skin at baseline. After TSST, PGP 9.5+ NF numbers dropped in lesional AD as did their contacts with mast cells. NGF+ NF now correlated with SCORAD and mast cell-NF contacts with itch in non-lesional skin. At the same time, SLURP-2 levels increased in lesional AD skin. In humans chronic inflammatory and highly acute psycho-emotional stress interact to modulate cutaneous neuro-immune communication and NNCS marker expression. These findings may have consequences for understanding and treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases in the future.

  13. Cortical afferent inhibition abnormalities reveal cholinergic dysfunction in Parkinson's disease: a reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Nardone, Raffaele; Brigo, Francesco; Versace, Viviana; Höller, Yvonne; Tezzon, Frediano; Saltuari, Leopold; Trinka, Eugen; Sebastianelli, Luca

    2017-08-12

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a multisystem neurodegenerative disorder affecting, besides the dopaminergic function, multiple neurotransmission systems, including the cholinergic system. Central cholinergic circuits of human brain can be tested non-invasively by coupling peripheral nerve stimulation with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of motor cortex; this test is named short latency afferent inhibition (SAI). SAI abnormalities have been reported in PD patients with gait disturbances and many non-motor symptoms, such as visual hallucinations (VHs), REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD), dysphagia, and olfactory impairment. The findings of these TMS studies strongly suggest that cholinergic degeneration is an important contributor to a number of clinical features of PD. TMS and neuropsychological raise the possibility that the presence of RBD, VHs and olfactory dysfunction indicate increased risk of cognitive impairment in patients with PD. Longitudinal studies of the patients are required to verify whether SAI abnormalities can predict a future severe cognitive decline. TMS can provide simple measures that may represent suitable biomarkers of cholinergic neurotransmission in PD. SAI studies enable an early recognition of PD patients with cholinergic system degeneration, and this might allow future targeted cholinergic treatment approaches, in addition to dopaminergic therapy, to ameliorate non-motor and motor clinical symptoms in PD patients.

  14. Cholinergic inhibition of adrenergic neurosecretion in the rabbit iris-ciliary body

    SciTech Connect

    Jumblatt, J.E.; North, G.T.

    1988-04-01

    The prejunctional effects of cholinergic agents on release of norepinephrine from sympathetic nerve endings were investigated in the isolated, superfused rabbit iris-ciliary body. Stimulation-evoked release of /sup 3/H-norepinephrine was inhibited by the cholinergic agonists methacholine, oxotremorine, muscarine, carbamylcholine and acetylcholine (plus eserine), but was unmodified by pilocarpine or nicotine. Agonist-induced inhibition was antagonized selectively by atropine, indicating a muscarinic response. Atropine alone markedly enhanced norepinephrine release, revealing considerable tonic activation of prejunctional cholinergic receptors in this system. Prejunctional inhibition by carbamylcholine was found to completely override the facilitative action of forskolin or 8-bromo-cyclic AMP on neurotransmitter release. Cholinergic and alpha 2-adrenergic effects on neurosecretion were non-additive, suggesting that the underlying receptors coexist at neurotransmitter release sites.

  15. Donepezil plus estradiol treatment enhances learning and delay-dependent memory performance by young ovariectomized rats with partial loss of septal cholinergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, R B; Chipman, A M; Nelson, D

    2011-04-01

    Effects of estrogen therapy on cognitive performance appear to diminish with age and time following the loss of ovarian function. We hypothesize that this is due to a reduction in basal forebrain cholinergic function and that treatment with a cholinergic enhancer can reverse the effect. This study tested whether combining the cholinesterase inhibitor donepezil with estradiol treatment can enhance/restore estradiol effects on cognitive performance in young ovariectomized rats with selective lesions of septal cholinergic neurons. 192IgG-saporin was injected directly into the medial septum to produce selective cholinergic lesions. Rats were then treated with donepezil (Don, daily injections of 3mg/kg/day, i.p.) or vehicle, and then with 17β-estradiol (E2, administered by silastic capsule implanted s.c.) or an empty capsule. Rats were trained on a delayed matching-to-position (DMP) T-maze task which previous studies have shown is sensitive to ovariectomy and estrogen replacement. Results show that neither estradiol nor donepezil alone significantly enhanced acquisition of the DMP task in rats with cholinergic lesions. Combination therapy was effective, however, depending on the severity of the lesion. Don+E2 significantly enhanced acquisition of the task in rats with partial lesions (<50% loss of cholinergic neurons), but not in rats with severe lesions. This effect was due largely to a reduction in perseverative behavior. Don+E2 also improved working memory in rats with partial lesions, as evidenced by significantly better performance than controls during increased intertrial delays. These findings suggest that even partial loss of septal cholinergic neurons can reduce effects of estrogen therapy on cognitive performance, and demonstrate that combining a cholinesterase inhibitor with estrogen therapy can help to restore beneficial effects on performance. We propose that combination therapy may have similar beneficial effects in women, particularly in older women who

  16. Cholinergic lesions produce task-selective effects on delayed matching to position and configural association learning related to response pattern and strategy.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, R B; Johnson, D A

    2007-07-01

    192IgG-saporin (SAP) was used to selectively destroy cholinergic neurons in the rostral basal forebrain (e.g., medial septum (MS) and vertical limb of the diagonal band of Broca (VDB)) and/or the caudal basal forebrain (e.g., nucleus basalis magnocellularis (NBM)) of ovariectomized Sprague-Dawley rats. The effects of these lesions on two different cognitive tasks, a delayed matching to position (DMP) T-maze task, and a configural association (CA) operant conditioning task, were evaluated and compared. Injecting SAP into either the MS or NBM significantly impaired acquisition of the DMP task. Analysis showed that the effects were due largely to an affect on response patterns adopted by the rats during training, as opposed to an effect on working memory performance. Notably, the impairment in DMP acquisition did not correlate with the degree of cholinergic denervation of the hippocampus. Despite the deficit, most animals eventually learned the task and reached criterion; however by the end of training, controls and animals that received SAP into either the MS or NBM appeared more likely to use an allocentric place strategy to solve the task, whereas animals that received SAP into both the MS and NBM were more likely to use an egocentric response strategy. Cholinergic lesions also produced a small but significant affect on acquisition of the CA task, but only with respect to response time, and only in the SAP-NBM-treated animals. SAP-NBM lesions also produced small but significant impairments in both the number of responses and response time during the acquisition of simple associations, possibly reflecting an effect on alertness or attention. Notably, the effects on CA acquisition were small, and like the effects on DMP acquisition did not correlate with the degree of cholinergic denervation of the hippocampus. We conclude that selective basal forebrain cholinergic lesions produce learning deficits that are task specific, and that cholinergic denervation of either

  17. Impaired NGF/TrkA Signaling Causes Early AD-Linked Presynaptic Dysfunction in Cholinergic Primary Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Latina, Valentina; Caioli, Silvia; Zona, Cristina; Ciotti, Maria T.; Amadoro, Giuseppina; Calissano, Pietro

    2017-01-01

    Alterations in NGF/TrkA signaling have been suggested to underlie the selective degeneration of the cholinergic basal forebrain neurons occurring in vivo in AD (Counts and Mufson, 2005; Mufson et al., 2008; Niewiadomska et al., 2011) and significant reduction of cognitive decline along with an improvement of cholinergic hypofunction have been found in phase I clinical trial in humans affected from mild AD following therapeutic NGF gene therapy (Tuszynski et al., 2005, 2015). Here, we show that the chronic (10–12 D.I.V.) in vitro treatment with NGF (100 ng/ml) under conditions of low supplementation (0.2%) with the culturing serum-substitute B27 selectively enriches the basal forebrain cholinergic neurons (+36.36%) at the expense of other non-cholinergic, mainly GABAergic (−38.45%) and glutamatergic (−56.25%), populations. By taking advantage of this newly-developed septo-hippocampal neuronal cultures, our biochemical and electrophysiological investigations demonstrate that the early failure in excitatory neurotransmission following NGF withdrawal is paralleled by concomitant and progressive loss in selected presynaptic and vesicles trafficking proteins including synapsin I, SNAP-25 and α-synuclein. This rapid presynaptic dysfunction: (i) precedes the commitment to cell death and is reversible in a time-dependent manner, being suppressed by de novo external administration of NGF within 6 hr from its initial withdrawal; (ii) is specific because it is not accompanied by contextual changes in expression levels of non-synaptic proteins from other subcellular compartments; (ii) is not secondary to axonal degeneration because it is insensible to pharmacological treatment with known microtubule-stabilizing drug such paclitaxel; (iv) involves TrkA-dependent mechanisms because the effects of NGF reapplication are blocked by acute exposure to specific and cell-permeable inhibitor of its high-affinity receptor. Taken together, this study may have important clinical

  18. Hypocretins, Neural Systems, Physiology, and Psychiatric Disorders.

    PubMed

    Li, Shi-Bin; Jones, Jeff R; de Lecea, Luis

    2016-01-01

    The hypocretins (Hcrts), also known as orexins, have been among the most intensely studied neuropeptide systems since their discovery about two decades ago. Anatomical evidence shows that the hypothalamic neurons that produce hypocretins/orexins project widely throughout the entire brain, innervating the noradrenergic locus coeruleus, the cholinergic basal forebrain, the dopaminergic ventral tegmental area, the serotonergic raphe nuclei, the histaminergic tuberomammillary nucleus, and many other brain regions. By interacting with other neural systems, the Hcrt system profoundly modulates versatile physiological processes including arousal, food intake, emotion, attention, and reward. Importantly, interruption of the interactions between these systems has the potential to cause neurological and psychiatric diseases. Here, we review the modulation of diverse neural systems by Hcrts and summarize potential therapeutic strategies based on our understanding of the Hcrt system's role in physiology and pathophysiological processes.

  19. Estrogen modulates cognitive and cholinergic processes in surgically menopausal monkeys.

    PubMed

    Tinkler, Gregory Paul; Voytko, Mary Lou

    2005-03-01

    Estrogen deficiency in postmenopausal women is associated with changes in physiological processes. The extent to which estrogen loss is associated with cognitive changes noted by postmenopausal women has been more difficult to determine for a variety of reasons. Primate models of menopause are now being used to determine the effects of estrogen loss and replacement on cognitive abilities and to investigate the neural mechanisms by which estrogen may influence cognitive function. The present report presents data from cognitive and neurobiological studies in surgically menopausal monkeys that have examined how estrogen loss and replacement may be affecting cognitive abilities and the cholinergic system; a neural system that is known to influence memory and attention function. These studies are indicating that visuospatial attention function is especially sensitive to estrogen states in young monkeys, but that multiple cognitive domains are sensitive to estrogen states in middle-aged monkeys. In addition, anatomical and functional imaging studies indicate that the primate cholinergic system is modulated by estrogen, and pharmacological studies demonstrate that estrogen uses cholinergic muscarinic receptors to influence visuospatial attention. These studies demonstrate that estrogen influences cognitive abilities in monkey models of menopause and the cholinergic system may be one of the mechanisms by which estrogen modulates cognitive function. Given the current unknowns and concerns regarding the use of hormone replacement therapy in postmenopausal women, continued studies in monkey models of menopause are especially needed to further elucidate the effects of estrogen on cognitive and neurobiological processes, with particular emphasis on studies in middle-aged monkeys, determining the optimal aspects of ERT regimens, and identifying the relationships between estrogen effects on cognitive and neurobiological function.

  20. Amyloid-beta expression in retrosplenial cortex of triple transgenic mice: relationship to cholinergic axonal afferents from medial septum.

    PubMed

    Robertson, R T; Baratta, J; Yu, J; LaFerla, F M

    2009-12-15

    Triple transgenic (3xTg-AD) mice harboring the presenilin 1, amyloid precursor protein, and tau transgenes (Oddo et al., 2003b) display prominent levels of amyloid-beta (Abeta) immunoreactivity in forebrain regions. The Abeta immunoreactivity is first seen intracellularly in neurons and later as extracellular plaque deposits. The present study examined Abeta immunoreactivity that occurs in layer III of the granular division of retrosplenial cortex (RSg). This pattern of Abeta immunoreactivity in layer III of RSg develops relatively late, and is seen in animals older than 14 months. The appearance of the Abeta immunoreactivity is similar to an axonal terminal field and thus may offer a unique opportunity to study the relationship between afferent projections and the formation of Abeta deposits. Axonal tract tracing techniques demonstrated that the pattern of axon terminal labeling in layer III of RSg, following placement of DiI in medial septum, is remarkably similar to the pattern of cholinergic axons in RSg, as detected by acetylcholinesterase histochemical staining, choline acetyltransferase immunoreactivity, or p75 receptor immunoreactivity; this pattern also is strikingly similar to the band of Abeta immunoreactivity. In animals sustaining early damage to the medial septal nucleus (prior to the advent of Abeta immunoreactivity), the band of Abeta in layer III of RSg does not develop; the corresponding band of cholinergic markers also is eliminated. In older animals (after the appearance of the Abeta immunoreactivity) damage to cholinergic afferents by electrolytic lesions, immunotoxin lesions, or cutting the cingulate bundle, result in a rapid loss of the cholinergic markers and a slower reduction of Abeta immunoreactivity. These results suggest that the septal cholinergic axonal projections transport Abeta or amyloid precursor protein (APP) to layer