Science.gov

Sample records for forensic botany potential

  1. [Application of DNA labeling technology in forensic botany].

    PubMed

    Znang, Xian; Li, Jing-Lin; Zhang, Xiang-Yu

    2008-12-01

    Forensic botany is a study of judicial plant evidence. Recently, researches on DNA labeling technology have been a mainstream of forensic botany. The article systematically reviews various types of DNA labeling techniques in forensic botany with enumerated practical cases, as well as the potential forensic application of each individual technique. The advantages of the DNA labeling technology over traditional morphological taxonomic methods are also summarized.

  2. Elderberry: Botany, Horticulture, Potential

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Horticultural Review allows extensive reviews of the state of the knowledge on certain topics or crops. Elderberry: Botany, Horticulture, Potential, is outlined with an Introduction, Botany, Horticulture, Propagation, Uses and Conclusion sections. This review compiles literature from around the w...

  3. Forensic Botany: Evidence and Analysis.

    PubMed

    Coyle, H M

    2009-01-01

    Forensic botany is the use of plant evidence in matters of law. While plant fragments are often collected as trace evidence, they are only occasionally identified using microscopy and are still more rarely assessed using molecular biology techniques for individualization and sourcing of a sample. There are many different methods useful for DNA typing of plants; this review focuses on those techniques (DNA sequencing, STR, AFLP, RAPD) most relevant to the forensic science community and on those methods currently in practice. Plant evidence is commonly associated with homicides, with clandestine graves, as trace pollen on clothing, vehicles, or packaging, or in the transport of illicit drugs. DNA can be especially useful for the identification of minute quantity of samples, for differentiation of plants that lack distinguishing morphological features, and for generating a unique identifier for associative forensic evidence.

  4. Forensic Botany: Potential Usefulness of Microsatellite-based Genotyping of Croatian Olive (Olea europaea L.) in Forensic Casework

    PubMed Central

    Štambuk, Snježana; Sutlović, Davorka; Bakarić, Pavle; Petričević, Sandra; Anđelinović, Šimun

    2007-01-01

    Aim To assess genotyping with microsatellite-based markers of the olive (Olea europaea L.) for potential application of olive as legal case evidence, with regard to the degree of variability within the Croatian olive genomic pool and to the effectiveness of the chosen set of microsatellite-based markers in revealing olive divergence. Methods The total of 44 autochthonous Croatian olive specimens were subjected to genotyping with 16 previously described and developed microsatellite-based markers. According to previous morphological analyses, 44 specimens were classified into 30 cultivars with the exception of an additional, previously unassigned specimen. Results Genotyping of 44 specimens distinguished a total of 44 different genotype profiles by 16 microsatellite-based loci. Average expected heterozigosity amounted to 0.758, which points to significant diversity of Croatian olives. Conclusion Croatian olive genotyping showed strong varietal discrimination up to the single tree and considerable potential application of olive as evidence in investigation of crime, accident, and suicide circumstances. PMID:17696311

  5. Plants & Perpetrators: Forensic Investigation in the Botany Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Amy E.

    2006-01-01

    Applying botanical knowledge to a simulated forensic investigation provides inquiry-based and problem-based learning in the botany classroom. This paper details one such forensic investigation in which students use what they have learned about plant morphology and anatomy to analyze evidence and solve a murder mystery. (Contains 1 table.)

  6. Plants & Perpetrators: Forensic Investigation in the Botany Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Amy E.

    2006-01-01

    Applying botanical knowledge to a simulated forensic investigation provides inquiry-based and problem-based learning in the botany classroom. This paper details one such forensic investigation in which students use what they have learned about plant morphology and anatomy to analyze evidence and solve a murder mystery. (Contains 1 table.)

  7. Forensic botany: usability of bryophyte material in forensic studies.

    PubMed

    Virtanen, Viivi; Korpelainen, Helena; Kostamo, Kirsi

    2007-10-25

    Two experiments were performed to test the relevance of bryophyte (Plantae, Bryophyta) material for forensic studies. The first experiment was conducted to reveal if, and how well, plant fragments attach to footwear in general. In the test, 16 persons walked outdoors wearing rubber boots or hiking boots. After 24h of use outdoors the boots were carefully cleaned, and all plant fragments were collected. Afterwards, all plant material was examined to identify the species. In the second experiment, fresh material of nine bryophyte species was kept in a shed in adverse conditions for 18 months, after which DNA was extracted and subjected to genotyping to test the quality of the material. Both experiments give support for the usability of bryophyte material in forensic studies. The bryophyte fragments become attached to shoes, where they remain even after the wearer walks on a dry road for several hours. Bryophyte DNA stays intact, allowing DNA profiling after lengthy periods following detachment from the original plant source. Based on these experiments, and considering the fact that many bryophytes are clonal plants, we propose that bryophytes are among the most usable plants to provide botanical evidence for forensic investigations.

  8. Forensic botany: using plant evidence to aid in forensic death investigation.

    PubMed

    Miller Coyle, Heather; Lee, Cheng-Lung; Lin, Wen-Yu; Lee, Henry C; Palmbach, Timothy M

    2005-08-01

    Forensic botany is still an under-utilized resource in forensic casework, although it has been used on occasion. It is an area of specialty science that could include traditional botanical classification of species, DNA, or materials evidence (trace and transfer evidence), crime mapping or geo-sourcing, all dependent on the specific case application under consideration. Critical to the evaluation of plant evidence is careful collection, documentation, and preservation for later scientific analysis. This article reviews proper procedures and recent cases where botanical evidence played a role in establishing either manner or time of death. Plant evidence can be useful for determining if a death was due to an accident, suicide, or homicide, or what time of year burial may have taken place. In addition, plant evidence can be used to determine if a crime scene is a primary or secondary scene and to locate missing bodies.

  9. [Recent advances of amplified fragment length polymorphism and its applications in forensic botany].

    PubMed

    Li, Cheng-Tao; Li, Li

    2008-10-01

    Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) is a new molecular marker to detect genomic polymorphism. This new technology has advantages of high resolution, good stability, and reproducibility. Great achievements have been derived in recent years in AFLP related technologies with several AFLP expanded methodologies available. AFLP technology has been widely used in the fields of plant, animal, and microbes. It has become one of the hotspots in Forensic Botany. This review focuses on the recent advances of AFLP and its applications in forensic biology.

  10. The role of forensic botany in crime scene investigation: case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Aquila, Isabella; Ausania, Francesco; Di Nunzio, Ciro; Serra, Arianna; Boca, Silvia; Capelli, Arnaldo; Magni, Paola; Ricci, Pietrantonio

    2014-05-01

    Management of a crime is the process of ensuring accurate and effective collection and preservation of physical evidence. Forensic botany can provide significant supporting evidences during criminal investigations. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the importance of forensic botany in the crime scene. We reported a case of a woman affected by dementia who had disappeared from nursing care and was found dead near the banks of a river that flowed under a railroad. Two possible ways of access to crime scene were identified and denominated "Path A" and "Path B." Both types of soil and plants were identified. Botanical survey was performed. Some samples of Xanthium Orientalis subsp. Italicum were identified. The fall of woman resulted in external injuries and vertebral fracture at autopsy. The botanical evidence is important when crime scene and autopsy findings are not sufficient to define the dynamics and the modality of death. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  11. A molecular identification system for grasses: a novel technology for forensic botany.

    PubMed

    Ward, J; Peakall, R; Gilmore, S R; Robertson, J

    2005-09-10

    Our present inability to rapidly, accurately and cost-effectively identify trace botanical evidence remains the major impediment to the routine application of forensic botany. Grasses are amongst the most likely plant species encountered as forensic trace evidence and have the potential to provide links between crime scenes and individuals or other vital crime scene information. We are designing a molecular DNA-based identification system for grasses consisting of several PCR assays that, like a traditional morphological taxonomic key, provide criteria that progressively identify an unknown grass sample to a given taxonomic rank. In a prior study of DNA sequences across 20 phylogenetically representative grass species, we identified a series of potentially informative indels in the grass mitochondrial genome. In this study we designed and tested five PCR assays spanning these indels and assessed the feasibility of these assays to aid identification of unknown grass samples. We confirmed that for our control set of 20 samples, on which the design of the PCR assays was based, the five primer combinations produced the expected results. Using these PCR assays in a 'blind test', we were able to identify 25 unknown grass samples with some restrictions. Species belonging to genera represented in our control set were all correctly identified to genus with one exception. Similarly, genera belonging to tribes in the control set were correctly identified to the tribal level. Finally, for those samples for which neither the tribal or genus specific PCR assays were designed, we could confidently exclude these samples from belonging to certain tribes and genera. The results confirmed the utility of the PCR assays and the feasibility of developing a robust full-scale usable grass identification system for forensic purposes.

  12. Forensic botany: species identification of botanical trace evidence using a multigene barcoding approach.

    PubMed

    Ferri, Gianmarco; Alù, Milena; Corradini, Beatrice; Beduschi, Giovanni

    2009-09-01

    Forensic botany can provide significant supporting evidence during criminal investigations. However, it is still an underutilized field of investigation with its most common application limited to identifying specific as well as suspected illegal plants. The ubiquitous presence of plant species can be useful in forensics, but the absence of an accurate identification system remains the major obstacle to the present inability to routinely and correctly identify trace botanical evidence. Many plant materials cannot be identified and differentiated to the species level by traditional morphological characteristics when botanical specimens are degraded and lack physical features. By taking advantage of a universal barcode system, DNA sequencing, and other biomolecular techniques used routinely in forensic investigations, two chloroplast DNA regions were evaluated for their use as "barcoding" markers for plant identification in the field of forensics. We therefore investigated the forensic use of two non-coding plastid regions, psbA-trnH and trnL-trnF, to create a multimarker system for species identification that could be useful throughout the plant kingdom. The sequences from 63 plants belonging to our local flora were submitted and registered on the GenBank database. Sequence comparison to set up the level of identification (species, genus, or family) through Blast algorithms allowed us to assess the suitability of this method. The results confirmed the effectiveness of our botanic universal multimarker assay in forensic investigations.

  13. Forensic botany as a useful tool in the crime scene: Report of a case.

    PubMed

    Margiotta, Gabriele; Bacaro, Giovanni; Carnevali, Eugenia; Severini, Simona; Bacci, Mauro; Gabbrielli, Mario

    2015-08-01

    The ubiquitous presence of plant species makes forensic botany useful for many criminal cases. Particularly, bryophytes are useful for forensic investigations because many of them are clonal and largely distributed. Bryophyte shoots can easily become attached to shoes and clothes and it is possible to be found on footwear, providing links between crime scene and individuals. We report a case of suicide of a young girl happened in Siena, Tuscany, Italia. The cause of traumatic injuries could be ascribed to suicide, to homicide, or to accident. In absence of eyewitnesses who could testify the dynamics of the event, the crime scene investigation was fundamental to clarify the accident. During the scene analysis, some fragments of Tortula muralis Hedw. and Bryum capillare Hedw were found. The fragments were analyzed by a bryologists in order to compare them with the moss present on the stairs that the victim used immediately before the death. The analysis of these bryophytes found at the crime scene allowed to reconstruct the accident. Even if this evidence, of course, is circumstantial, it can be useful in forensic cases, together with the other evidences, to reconstruct the dynamics of events. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  14. Forensic botany II, DNA barcode for land plants: Which markers after the international agreement?

    PubMed

    Ferri, G; Corradini, B; Ferrari, F; Santunione, A L; Palazzoli, F; Alu', M

    2015-03-01

    forensic botany. Based on obtained results, we recommend the adoption of a two-locus combination with rbcL+trnH-psbA plastid markers, which currently best satisfies forensic needs for botanical species identification. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The Role of Forensic Botany in Solving a Case: Scientific Evidence on the Falsification of a Crime Scene.

    PubMed

    Aquila, Isabella; Gratteri, Santo; Sacco, Matteo A; Ricci, Pietrantonio

    2017-09-08

    Forensic botany can provide useful information for pathologists, particularly on crime scene investigation. We report the case of a man who arrived at the hospital and died shortly afterward. The body showed widespread electrical lesions. The statements of his brother and wife about the incident aroused a large amount of suspicion in the investigators. A crime scene investigation was carried out, along with a botanical morphological survey on small vegetations found on the corpse. An autopsy was also performed. Botanical analysis showed some samples of Xanthium spinosum, thus leading to the discovery of the falsification of the crime scene although the location of the true crime scene remained a mystery. The botanical analysis, along with circumstantial data and autopsy findings, led to the discovery of the real crime scene and became crucial as part of the legal evidence regarding the falsity of the statements made to investigators. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  16. A grass molecular identification system for forensic botany: a critical evaluation of the strengths and limitations.

    PubMed

    Ward, Jodie; Gilmore, Simon R; Robertson, James; Peakall, Rod

    2009-11-01

    Plant material is frequently encountered in criminal investigations but often overlooked as potential evidence. We designed a DNA-based molecular identification system for 100 Australian grasses that consisted of a series of polymerase chain reaction assays that enabled the progressive identification of grasses to different taxonomic levels. The identification system was based on DNA sequence variation at four chloroplast and two mitochondrial loci. Seventeen informative indels and 68 single-nucleotide polymorphisms were utilized as molecular markers for subfamily to species-level identification. To identify an unknown sample to subfamily level required a minimum of four markers or nine markers for species identification. The accuracy of the system was confirmed by blind tests. We have demonstrated "proof of concept" of a molecular identification system for trace botanical samples. Our evaluation suggests that the adoption of a system that combines this approach with DNA sequencing could assist the morphological identification of grasses found as forensic evidence.

  17. Application of plant DNA markers in forensic botany: genetic comparison of Quercus evidence leaves to crime scene trees using microsatellites.

    PubMed

    Craft, Kathleen J; Owens, Jeffrey D; Ashley, Mary V

    2007-01-05

    As highly polymorphic DNA markers become increasingly available for a wide range of plant and animal species, there will be increasing opportunities for applications to forensic investigations. To date, however, relatively few studies have reported using DNA profiles of non-human species to place suspects at or near crime scenes. Here we describe an investigation of a double homicide of a female and her near-term fetus. Leaf material taken from a suspect's vehicle was identified to be that of sand live oak, Quercus geminata, the same tree species that occurred near a shallow grave where the victims were found. Quercus-specific DNA microsatellites were used to genotype both dried and fresh material from trees located near the burial site and from the material taken from the suspect's car. Samples from the local population of Q. geminata were also collected and genotyped in order to demonstrate that genetic variation at four microsatellite loci was sufficient to assign leaves to an individual tree with high statistical certainty. The cumulative average probability of identity for these four loci was 2.06x10(-6). DNA was successfully obtained from the dried leaf material although PCR amplification was more difficult than amplification of DNA from fresh leaves. The DNA profiles of the dried leaves from the suspect's car did not match those of the trees near the crime scene. Although this investigation did not provide evidence that could be used against the suspect, it does demonstrate the potential for plant microsatellite markers providing physical evidence that links plant materials to live plants at or near crime scenes.

  18. Supermarket Botany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrows, Geoff E.; Harper, John D. I.

    2009-01-01

    Supermarket Botany is a frequently-used teaching resource or strategy. It draws on a student's existing familiarity with plant-based foods to explore plant structure and life cycles. One of its strongest points is that it is adaptable to many age levels--from lower primary school to university and general interest groups. We have designed a unique…

  19. Supermarket Botany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrows, Geoff E.; Harper, John D. I.

    2009-01-01

    Supermarket Botany is a frequently-used teaching resource or strategy. It draws on a student's existing familiarity with plant-based foods to explore plant structure and life cycles. One of its strongest points is that it is adaptable to many age levels--from lower primary school to university and general interest groups. We have designed a unique…

  20. Plant genetics for forensic applications.

    PubMed

    Zaya, David N; Ashley, Mary V

    2012-01-01

    An emerging application for plant DNA fingerprinting and barcoding involves forensic investigations. Examples of DNA analysis of botanical evidence include crime scene analysis, identifying the source of commercial plant products, and investigation of trade in illicit drugs. Here, we review real and potential applications of DNA-based forensic botany and provide a protocol for microsatellite genotyping of leaf material, a protocol that could be used to link a suspect to a victim or to a crime scene.

  1. Botany, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and potential application of Polygonum cuspidatum Sieb.et Zucc.: a review.

    PubMed

    Peng, Wei; Qin, Rongxin; Li, Xiaoli; Zhou, Hong

    2013-07-30

    Polygonum cuspidatum Sieb. et Zucc. (Polygonum cuspidatum), also known as Reynoutria japonica Houtt and Huzhang in China, is a traditional and popular Chinese medicinal herb. Polygonum cuspidatum with a wide spectrum of pharmacological effects has been used for treatment of inflammation, favus, jaundice, scald, and hyperlipemia, etc. The present paper reviews the traditional applications as well as advances in botany, phytochemistry, pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics and toxicology of this plant. Finally, the tendency and perspective for future investigation of this plant are discussed, too. A systematic review of literature about Polygonum cuspidatum is carried out using resources including classic books about Chinese herbal medicine, and scientific databases including Pubmed, SciFinder, Scopus, the Web of Science and others. Polygonum cuspidatum is widely distributed in the world and has been used as a traditional medicine for a long history in China. Over 67 compounds including quinones, stilbenes, flavonoids, counmarins and ligans have been isolated and identified from this plant. The root of this plant is used as the effective agent in pre-clinical and clinical practice for regulating lipids, anti-endotoxic shock, anti-infection and anti-inflammation, anti-cancer and other diseases in China and Japan. As an important traditional Chinese medicine, Polygonum cuspidatum has been used for treatment of hyperlipemia, inflammation, infection and cancer, etc. Because there is no enough systemic data about the chemical constituents and their pharmacological effects or toxicities, it is important to investigate the pharmacological effects and molecular mechanisms of this plant based on modern realization of diseases' pathophysiology. Drug target-guided and bioactivity-guided isolation and purification of the chemical constituents from this plant and subsequent evaluation of their pharmacologic effects will promote the development of new drug and make sure which

  2. Micro-RNA - A potential for forensic science?

    PubMed

    Courts, Cornelius; Madea, Burkhard

    2010-12-15

    Micro-RNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small non-coding RNA (ncRNA) molecules with a length of 18 to 24 nucleotides which play an essential regulative role for many cellular processes. Whereas mRNA-analysis has become a well established technique in many forensic laboratories, micro-RNA has only recently been introduced to forensic science. Herein we provide a short outline of biogenesis, mode of function and regulation of miRNAs and take a look at tissue and cell specific miRNA expression. After recapitulating the role of mRNA analysis in forensic science we compare it to miRNA analysis and discuss the results of two recent studies applying miRNA analysis to a forensic research setting. We conclude that analysis of miRNA and perhaps small non-coding RNAs in general clearly has potential for forensic applications and merits attention of forensic scientists.

  3. [Potentials and prospects of forensic medical dermatoglyphics].

    PubMed

    Bozhchenko, A P; Tolmachev, I A; Moiseenko, S A; Kolkutin, V V; Rakitin, V A

    2009-01-01

    An overview of dermatoglyphic studies for the purpose of forensic medical expert examination is presented with special reference to their main aspects, such as topics and objects of the surveys, their scope and methods, relationships with other disciplines.

  4. The Visual in Botany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, Maura C., Ed.

    1995-01-01

    Presents a variety of writers who have published books that demonstrate the art of botany. The following sections are included: (1) Herbal; (2) Printed Books; (3) Flowers; (4) British Botany; (5) Printing Advances; and (6) Art and Science. Contains 23 references. (ZWH)

  5. The Visual in Botany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, Maura C., Ed.

    1995-01-01

    Presents a variety of writers who have published books that demonstrate the art of botany. The following sections are included: (1) Herbal; (2) Printed Books; (3) Flowers; (4) British Botany; (5) Printing Advances; and (6) Art and Science. Contains 23 references. (ZWH)

  6. Unlocking the potential of genomic technologies for wildlife forensics.

    PubMed

    Ogden, Rob

    2011-03-01

    Wildlife crime enforcement is increasingly relying on genetic techniques to deliver forensic evidence to investigators. Forensic DNA applications require robust molecular markers, informative at the level of the species, population and individual, in a wide range of taxa. Within species, single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have long been recognized as offering many potential advantages over traditional microsatellite markers; however, the best methods for their discovery, validation and genotyping in non-model species remain an area of novel research and much discussion. The potential availability to wildlife geneticists of deep sequencing platforms and high-density genotyping arrays appears to promise an almost infinite source of variable markers for determining the geographic or individual origin of a sample. This study examines the drivers for developing SNP genotyping panels in wildlife forensics and their potential as applied tools, before examining a range of strategies that are being employed to try to unlock this potential and address current questions in wildlife conservation and enforcement.

  7. Thermoluminescence: Potential Applications in Forensic Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingham, J. D.; Lawson, D. D.

    1973-01-01

    In crime laboratories one of the most difficult operations is to determine unequivocally whether or not two samples of evidence of the same type were originally part of the same thing or were from the same source. It has been found that high temperature thermoluminescence (room temperature to 723 K) can be used for comparisons of this type, although work to date indicates that there is generally a finite probability for coincidental matching of glass or soil samples. Further work is required to determine and attempt to minimize these probabilities for different types of materials, and to define more clearly the scope of applicability of thermoluminescence to actual forensic situations.

  8. Advanced Quantification of Plutonium Ionization Potential to Support Nuclear Forensic Evaluations by Resonance Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    QUANTIFICATION OF PLUTONIUM IONIZATION POTENTIAL TO SUPPORT NUCLEAR FORENSIC EVALUATIONS BY RESONANCE IONIZATION MASS SPECTROMETRY by Craig T...PLUTONIUM IONIZATION POTENTIAL TO SUPPORT NUCLEAR FORENSIC EVALUATIONS BY RESONANCE IONIZATION MASS SPECTROMETRY 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S...mass spectrometry (RIMS) to problems related to nuclear forensics and, in particular, to the analysis and quantification of the debris from nuclear

  9. Potential Applications of Scanning Probe Microscopy in Forensic Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, G. S.; Watson, J. A.

    2007-04-01

    The forensic community utilises a myriad of techniques to investigate a wide range of materials, from paint flakes to DNA. The various microscopic techniques have provided some of the greatest contributions, e.g., FT-IR (Fourier-transform infrared) microspectroscopy utilised in copy toner discrimination, multi-layer automobile paint fragment examination, etc, SEM-EDA (scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive analysis) used to investigate glass fragments, fibers, and explosives, and SEM in microsampling for elemental analysis, just to name a few. This study demonstrates the ability of the Scanning Probe Microscope (SPM) to analyse human fingerprints on surfaces utilising a step-and-scan feature, enabling analysis of a larger field-of-view. We also extend a line crossings study by incorporating height analysis and surface roughness measurements. The study demonstrates the potential for SPM techniques to be utilised for forensic analysis which could complement the more traditional methodologies used in such investigations.

  10. Locke and botany.

    PubMed

    Anstey, Peter R; Harris, Stephen A

    2006-06-01

    This paper argues that the English philosopher John Locke, who has normally been thought to have had only an amateurish interest in botany, was far more involved in the botanical science of his day than has previously been known. Through the presentation of new evidence deriving from Locke's own herbarium, his manuscript notes, journal and correspondence, it is established that Locke made a modest contribution to early modern botany. It is shown that Locke had close and ongoing relations with the Bobarts, keepers of the Oxford Botanic Garden, and that Locke distributed seeds and plant parts to other botanists, seeds of which the progeny almost certainly ended up in the most important herbaria of the period. Furthermore, it is claimed that the depth of Locke's interest in and practice of botany has a direct bearing on our understanding of his views on the correct method of natural philosophy and on the interpretation of his well known discussion of the nature of species in Book III of his Essay concerning human understanding.

  11. Forensic miRNA: potential biomarker for body fluids?

    PubMed

    Silva, Sarah S; Lopes, Cátia; Teixeira, A L; Carneiro de Sousa, M J; Medeiros, R

    2015-01-01

    In forensic investigation, body fluids represent an important support to professionals when detected, collected and correctly identified. Through many years, various approaches were used, namely serology-based methodologies however, their lack of sensitivity and specificity became difficult to set aside. In order to sidetrack the problem, miRNA profiling surged with a real potential to be used to identify evidences like urine, blood, menstrual blood, saliva, semen and vaginal secretions. MiRNAs are small RNA structures with 20-25 nt whose proprieties makes them less prone to degradation processes when compared to mRNA which is extremely important once, in a crime scene, biological evidences might be exposed to several unfavorable environmental factors. Recently, published studies were able to identify some specific miRNAs, however their results were not always reproducible by others which can possibly be the reflection of different workflow strategies for their profiling studies. Given the current blast of interest in miRNAs, it is important to acknowledge potential limitations of miRNA profiling, yet, the lack of such studies are evident. This review pretends to gather all the information to date and assessed a multitude of factors that have a potential aptitude to discrediting miRNA profiling, such as: methodological approaches, environmental factors, physiological conditions, gender, pathologies and samples storage. It can be asserted that much has yet to be made, but we pretend to highlight a potential answer for the ultimate question: Can miRNA profiling be used as the forensic biomarker for body fluids identification?

  12. Overview of potential forensic analysis of an android smartphone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sack, Stefan; Kröger, Knut; Creutzburg, Reiner

    2012-02-01

    This paper deals with the forensic examination of Android smartphones. The structure of the Android system was analyzed and a forensic guide was created. As an example this guide was used to examine a HTC Desire. The conclusion of this paper is the fact that all data stored on the smartphone can be examined. The main problem is that some of the used procedures lack forensic requirements.

  13. Stereolithography: a potential new tool in forensic medicine.

    PubMed

    Dolz, M S; Cina, S J; Smith, R

    2000-06-01

    Stereolithography is a computer-mediated method that can be used to quickly create anatomically correct three-dimensional epoxy and acrylic resin models from various types of medical data. Multiple imaging modalities can be exploited, including computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. The technology was first developed and used in 1986 to overcome limitations in previous computer-aided manufacturing/milling techniques. Stereolithography is presently used to accurately reproduce both the external and internal anatomy of body structures. Current medical uses of stereolithography include preoperative planning of orthopedic and maxillofacial surgeries, the fabrication of custom prosthetic devices; and the assessment of the degree of bony and soft-tissue injury caused by trauma. We propose that there is a useful, as yet untapped, potential for this technology in forensic medicine.

  14. Discrimination potential of root canal treated tooth in forensic dentistry.

    PubMed

    Khalid, K; Yousif, S; Satti, A

    2016-07-01

    Forensic Odontology is a vital component of forensic science and one branch involves the application of dental science to the identification of unknown human remains. The aim of this study is to investigate the discriminatory potential for identification of the radiographic morphology of obturated single root canals. Thirty periapical radiographs of patients having endodontic treatment of single rooted canals were selected randomly from the data bank of the digital X- ray system present in the restorative department, University of Science and Technology, Sudan. The post-operative radiographs were considered as an ant-mortem data "Set 1". Ten radiographs from the thirty were reprinted, labelled from (A-J) and considered as a post-mortem data "Set 2". This post-mortem group of 10 radiographs "Set 2" would be compared with the ante-mortem group of 30 radiographs comprising "Set 1". These two sets of radiographs would be examined by 40 dentally trained personnel. The thirty radiographs comprising "Set 1" and the 10 radiographs comprising "Set 2" were provided to each of the examiners who were asked to match the individual post-mortem radiographs ("Set 2") with the ante-mortem radiographs ("Set1"). The result demonstrated that 34 examiners achieved a success rate of 100%, 4 examiners achieved a success rate of 97.5% (1 mismatch) and 2 examiners achieved a success rate of 95% (2 mismatches). The radiographic images of obturated single-rooted teeth in this study were shown to have highly- specific morphological features. It is proposed that, in cases where the ante and post-mortem radiographs of a single-rooted obturated canal show similar morphology, this commonality of morphology can be used as a tool in the identification process.

  15. Antiquity, botany, origin and domestication of Jatropha curcas (Euphorbiaceae), a plant species with potential for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Dias, L A S; Missio, R F; Dias, D C F S

    2012-08-16

    Jatropha curcas is a multi-purpose plant species, with many advantages for biodiesel production. Its potential oil productivity is 1.9 t/ha, beginning the fourth year after planting. Nevertheless, limitations such as high harvest cost, lack of scientific konowledge and low profitability have prevented it from being utilized commercially. In order to provide information that could be useful to improve the status of this species as a bioenergy plant, we elucidated the center of origin and the center of domestication of J. curcas (Mexico). Evidence of the antiquity of knowledge of J. curcas by Olmeca people, who lived 3500-5000 years ago, reinforces its Mexican origin. The existence of non-toxic types, which only exist in that country, along with DNA studies, also strongly suggest that Mexico is the domestication center of this species. In Brazil, the Northern region of Minas Gerais State presents types with the highest oil content. Here we propose this region as a secondary center of diversity of J. curcas.

  16. Forensic Science and the Internet - Current Utilization and Future Potential.

    PubMed

    Chamakura, R P

    1997-12-01

    The Internet has become a very powerful and inexpensive tool for the free distribution of knowledge and information. It is a learning and research tool, a virtual library without borders and membership requirements, a help desk, and a publication house providing newspapers with current information and journals with instant publication. Very soon, when live audio and video transmission is perfected, the Internet (popularly referred to as the Net) also will be a live classroom and everyday conference site. This article provides a brief overview of the basic structure and essential components of the Internet. A limited number of home pages/Web sites that are already made available on the Net by scientists, laboratories, and colleges in the forensic science community are presented in table forms. Home pages/Web sites containing useful information pertinent to different disciplines of forensic science are also categorized in various tables. The ease and benefits of the Internet use are exemplified by the author's personal experience. Currently, only a few forensic scientists and institutions have made their presence felt. More participation and active contribution and the creation of on-line searchable databases in all specialties of forensic science are urgently needed. Leading forensic journals should take the lead and create on-line searchable indexes with abstracts. Creating Internet repositories of unpublished papers is an idea worth looking into. Leading forensic science institutions should also develop use of the Net to provide training and retraining opportunities for forensic scientists.

  17. Forensic DNA methylation profiling--potential opportunities and challenges.

    PubMed

    Vidaki, Athina; Daniel, Barbara; Court, Denise Syndercombe

    2013-09-01

    Investigating the DNA sequence is the most powerful tool that can be employed in forensic genetics for the identification of an individual, or to determine specific ethnic and phenotypic characteristics. However, there are also other heritable changes in gene function or cellular phenotype which are caused by mechanisms other than differences in the DNA sequence itself. Over the last decade it has become evident that epigenetic markers can be of substantial forensic significance. The determination of possible alterations in DNA methylation patterns could aid various forensic investigations, such as differentiating monozygotic twins, identifying the tissue source or determining the age of tissue donors. This review aims to give a brief overview of the possible advantages of forensic DNA methylation profiling and sheds light on the limitations of this approach.

  18. [Potentialities and limitations of biochemical examinations in forensic medicine].

    PubMed

    Kuznetsova, I Iu

    2004-01-01

    The advantages of and outlooks for the biochemistry examination methods in forensic medical expertise as well as reasons preventing such methods from being promoted in the above sphere are under discussion in the paper.

  19. Forensic art and crime solving: a potential role for dermatologists.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Lois

    2012-01-01

    This article suggests ways dermatologists can help solve crimes by sharing knowledge with detectives about abnormalities observed in forensic sketches of suspects. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Tongue prints: A novel biometric and potential forensic tool

    PubMed Central

    Radhika, T.; Jeddy, Nadeem; Nithya, S.

    2016-01-01

    Tongue is a vital internal organ well encased within the oral cavity and protected from the environment. It has unique features which differ from individual to individual and even between identical twins. The color, shape, and surface features are characteristic of every individual, and this serves as a tool for identification. Many modes of biometric systems have come into existence such as fingerprint, iris scan, skin color, signature verification, voice recognition, and face recognition. The search for a new personal identification method secure has led to the use of the lingual impression or the tongue print as a method of biometric authentication. Tongue characteristics exhibit sexual dimorphism thus aiding in the identification of the person. Emerging as a novel biometric tool, tongue prints also hold the promise of a potential forensic tool. This review highlights the uniqueness of tongue prints and its superiority over other biometric identification systems. The various methods of tongue print collection and the classification of tongue features are also elucidated. PMID:28123263

  1. Tongue prints: A novel biometric and potential forensic tool.

    PubMed

    Radhika, T; Jeddy, Nadeem; Nithya, S

    2016-01-01

    Tongue is a vital internal organ well encased within the oral cavity and protected from the environment. It has unique features which differ from individual to individual and even between identical twins. The color, shape, and surface features are characteristic of every individual, and this serves as a tool for identification. Many modes of biometric systems have come into existence such as fingerprint, iris scan, skin color, signature verification, voice recognition, and face recognition. The search for a new personal identification method secure has led to the use of the lingual impression or the tongue print as a method of biometric authentication. Tongue characteristics exhibit sexual dimorphism thus aiding in the identification of the person. Emerging as a novel biometric tool, tongue prints also hold the promise of a potential forensic tool. This review highlights the uniqueness of tongue prints and its superiority over other biometric identification systems. The various methods of tongue print collection and the classification of tongue features are also elucidated.

  2. [Lysenkoism in Polish botany].

    PubMed

    Köhler, Piotr

    2008-01-01

    Lysenkoism by PAN came with the Sixth General Assembly of its members on June 11-12, 1956. The second tier of propagating Lysenkoism consisted in activities aimed at the general public, including the teaching of creative Darwinism (obligatory for pupils of various levels of education), in the school years 1949/50-1956/57. There were few botanists who published studies in Lysenkoism: only 55 persons did so. Among them, there were only a few botanists who could boast of significant previous scientific achievements--they included Stefan Białobok (1909-1992), Władysław Kunicki-Goldfinger (1916-1995), Edmund Malinowski (1885-1979), Konstanty Moldenhawer (1889-1962), Józef Motyka (1900-1984), Szczepan Pieniazek. A majority of the authors of publication in Lysenkoism were young scientists or people who did publish anything later on. Basing on the available bibliographies, it is possible to ascertain that there were ca. 140 Lysenkoist botanical publications (out of the total of 3410), i.e. 4.1% (fig. 1) of all the botanist publications in Poland in that period. Their number in the years 1949-1953 was higher than in the next period, and oscillated between 15 and 24 publications annually (fig. 2). The percentage of Lysenkoist studies among all publications in botany published each year was highest in 1949 (11.5%), and decreased systematically in the following years (fig. 3). Lysenkoism was a marginal phenomenon in Polish botany. Among the Lysenkoist publications, most summarized papers delivered at successive conferences, or consisted in reprints of Soviet studies. A significant group was made up of publications popularizing the principles and achievements of Lysenkoism (on the basis of Soviet publications). There were relatively studies presenting the results of research conducted in Poland on the basis of Lysenko's theory. Botanists who remember those times recollect that topics connected with Michurinian-Lysenkoist biology were avoided. It is symptomatic that not a single

  3. Soil fungi: their potential use as a forensic tool.

    PubMed

    Tranchida, María C; Centeno, Néstor D; Cabello, Marta N

    2014-05-01

    As a grave is an anomalous environment and differs from its surroundings, criminal investigators employ different techniques for locating, recovering, and analyzing clandestine graves. In this study were identified the fungi found in the soil under corpses in decomposition with an aim at relating the copresence of human remains and different fungal species. Were isolated the fungi in three ways: soil washing, serial dilutions, and moist chamber growth. Dichotomomyces cejpii, Talaromyces trachyspermus, Talaromyces flavus, and Talaromyces sp. were the representative species found--with those belonging to the ammonia group, whose fungi are the first in the succession of cadaver decomposition directly in the ground. The mycobiota found at the present study area clearly differs to mycobiota identified in control sample and from previously described species for other areas of Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. Further forensic examples of this type are needed to develop fully the detailed use of mycology as a forensic tool. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  4. Geriatric forensics - Part 2 “Prevalence of elder abuse and their potential forensic markers among medical and dental patients”

    PubMed Central

    Mattoo, Khurshid A.; Garg, Rishabh; Kumar, Shalabh

    2015-01-01

    Context: This study is a continuation of the earlier studies and has been extended to investigate the potential forensic markers of elder abuse. Aims: To determine the prevalence of elder abuse in various outpatient departments (OPDs). To study the associated parameters related to the abuser and the abused. To determine the existence of potential forensic markers of elder abuse. Settings and Design: The subjects were randomly selected from the medical and the dental OPDs of the university. Materials and Methods: Eight hundred and thirty two elderly subjects in the age range 40-60 years were interviewed using a questionnaire to determine the existence of elder abuse. The subjects were investigated and examined for weight, nutrition and hydration, vital signs, habits, existing visual and auditory capabilities, medications, disclosure of wills/deeds, signs of depression, and documented cleanliness. The mini-mental state examination, the Geriatric Depression Scale, the Clock drawing test, and the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale were used to determine the potential forensic markers. Statistical Analysis Used: Mean values in percentage were determined by dividing the number of determined subjects by the total number of subjects for that parameter. Results: About 37% in medical and 41% in dental OPDs were found to have suffered from abuse, mostly in the age group 60-70 years. Females received more abuse and a combination of son and daughter-in-law constituted most abusers. Various potential markers of elder abuse and neglect investigated among the elder abuse victims included depression (89%), signs of improper feeding (83%), changes in personal hygiene (69%), need for medical/dental treatment (78%), medication misuse (67%), changes in wills/deeds (26%), decubiti (10%), bruises (17%), skin tears (27%), and confusion (23%). Conclusions: Elder abuse exists in one or more forms in both medical and dental OPDs among both males and females in all age groups. PMID:26816460

  5. Botany, Chemistry, and Tropical Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Headrick, Daniel R.

    1996-01-01

    Examines the role played by botany and chemistry in the development, exploitation, and later deterioration of tropical economies. Although near equals in 19th-century international trade, the development of synthetics by European scientists in the early 20th century crippled the tropical economies. Research, innovation, and investment protected…

  6. Botany, Chemistry, and Tropical Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Headrick, Daniel R.

    1996-01-01

    Examines the role played by botany and chemistry in the development, exploitation, and later deterioration of tropical economies. Although near equals in 19th-century international trade, the development of synthetics by European scientists in the early 20th century crippled the tropical economies. Research, innovation, and investment protected…

  7. Forensic anogenital exam interventions: potential contributions of cognitive appraisal theory.

    PubMed

    Waibel-Duncan, Mary Katherine; Sandier, Howard M

    2002-02-01

    This manuscript proposes that Smith and Lazarus's cognitive appraisal theory offers a useful conceptual guide for exploring the mechanisms underlying psychoeducation's apparent efficacy at reducing children's forensic anogenital exam distress. After presenting an overview of Smith and Lazarus's cognitive emotional relational theory of emotions, the authors suggest how this model of cognition-emotion associations might inform the refinement and evaluation of current preparatory interventions as well as the design of future patient/family education programs. Empirical evidence from the broader pediatric literature and direct observations of children's anogenital exam experiences suggest how cognitive appraisal theory translates into clinical research and practice. Avenues for future research are proposed.

  8. Lysenko affair and Polish botany.

    PubMed

    Köhler, Piotr

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the slight impact of Lysenkoism upon Polish botany. I begin with an account of the development of plant genetics in Poland, as well as the attitude of scientists and the Polish intelligentsia toward Marxist philosophy prior to the World War II. Next I provide a short history of the introduction and demise of Lysenkoism in Polish science, with a focus on events in botany, in context with key events in Polish science from 1939 to 1958. The article outlines the little effects of Lysenkoism upon botanists and their research, as well as how botanists for the most part rejected what was often termed the "new biology." My paper shows that though Lysenko's theories received political support, and were actively promoted by a small circle of scientists and Communist party activists, they were never accepted by most botanists. Once the political climate in Poland altered after the events of 1956, Lysenko's theories were immediately abandoned.

  9. Botany in Edinburgh's Medical Curriculum.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Hazel

    2012-01-01

    In the early 18th century, at the founding of Edinburgh University Medical School, the study of botany was regarded as an essential component of medical training. Botanical teaching began as basic instruction in the recognition of medical plants, considered a vital aspect of a physician's Materia Medica studies. Over the next hundred years growing importance was given to the study of botany as a science, its popularity peaking under John Hutton Balfour's tenure as Professor (1845-1879). The relevance of botanical study later declined in the undergraduate medical curriculum until its cessation in 1961 .This paper considers the history of botanical studies in Edinburgh, including the reasons for its introduction and its changing importance over time.

  10. Hodges' Health Career Model and its role and potential application in forensic mental health nursing.

    PubMed

    Doyle, M; Jones, P

    2013-09-01

    Forensic mental health nursing is increasingly recognized as a speciality of mental health nursing. Despite this, there are limited examples of theoretical models to underpin this specialism. This paper describes a conceptual framework known as the Hodges' Health Career - Care Domains - Model, hereafter referred to as the Health Career Model (HCM). Readers will learn of the model's origins, development, structure and content together with its application in forensic mental health nursing. Created in the 1980s, the model was developed in the North West of England by Brian E. Hodges. Overall, the purpose of the paper is to demonstrate the model's potential in forensic mental health nursing, its flexibility, adaptability and its increasing relevance to the problems of 21st century health, social care and well-being. Forensic nursing is discussed and the rationale for a nursing model is made. Hodges' model is introduced by explaining its original purposes, structure, its four knowledge (care) domains, its current status, publications and resources. The model's relevance and application in forensic nursing is explored, in particular the demands and unique constraints of this care environment as exercised upon service users, the multidisciplinary team, families, carers and other stakeholders. Future implications for research and recovery-orientated practice are discussed. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. INTRINSIC DOSIMETRY: A POTENTIAL NEW TOOL FOR NUCLEAR FORENSICS INVESTIGATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Richard A.; Miller, Steven D.; Robertson, Dave J.; Gregg, Roger A.; Murphy, Mark K.; Schwantes, Jon M.

    2010-08-11

    Thermoluminescence (TL) dosimetry was used to measure dose effects on the raw stock material of borosilicate container glass from different geographical locations. Effects were studied at times up to 60 days post-irradiation at doses from 0.15 to 20 Gy. The minimum detectable dose using this technique was estimated to be 0.15 Gy which is roughly equivalent to a 24 hr irradiation 1 cm from a 50 ng source of 60Co. Two peaks were identified in the TL glow curve, a relatively unstable peak around 125°C and a more stable peak around 225°C. Differences in TL glow curve shape and intensity were also observed for the glasses from different geographical origins. We investigate radiation induced defects in glass to further develop the technique of intrinsic dosimetry–the measurement of the total absorbed dose received by the walls of a container holding radioactive material. Intrinsic dosimetry is intended to be used as an interrogation tool to provide enhanced pathway information on interdicted or newly discovered waste containers of unknown origin or history by considering the total absorbed dose received by a container in tandem with the physical characteristics of the radioactive material housed within that container. One hypothetical scenario is presented to illustrate the application of intrinsic dosimetry to waste management and nuclear forensics.

  12. Use of forensic science in investigating crimes of sexual violence: contrasting its theoretical potential with empirical realities.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Donald; Peterson, Joseph; Sommers, Ira; Baskin, Deborah

    2012-02-01

    This article contrasts the theoretical potential of modern forensic science techniques in the investigation of sexual violence cases with empirical research that has assessed the role played by scientific evidence in the criminal justice processing of sexual assault cases. First, the potential of forensic scientific procedures (including DNA testing) are outlined and the sexual assault literature that examines the importance of physical and forensic evidence in resolving such cases is reviewed. Then, empirical data from a recent National Institute of Justice (NIJ) study of 602 rapes are presented that describe the forensic evidence collected and examined in such cases and its impact on decisions to arrest, prosecute, adjudicate, and sentence defendants. The article closes with a discussion of research and policy recommendations to enhance the role played by forensic science evidence in sexual assault investigations.

  13. Investigating CSI: portrayals of DNA testing on a forensic crime show and their potential effects.

    PubMed

    Ley, Barbara L; Jankowski, Natalie; Brewer, Paul R

    2012-01-01

    The popularity of forensic crime shows such as CSI has fueled debate about their potential social impact. This study considers CSI's potential effects on public understandings regarding DNA testing in the context of judicial processes, the policy debates surrounding crime laboratory procedures, and the forensic science profession, as well as an effect not discussed in previous accounts: namely, the show's potential impact on public understandings of DNA and genetics more generally. To develop a theoretical foundation for research on the "CSI effect," it draws on cultivation theory, social cognitive theory, and audience reception studies. It then uses content analysis and textual analysis to illuminate how the show depicts DNA testing. The results demonstrate that CSI tends to depict DNA testing as routine, swift, useful, and reliable and that it echoes broader discourses about genetics. At times, however, the show suggests more complex ways of thinking about DNA testing and genetics.

  14. A Historical Perspective on Problems in Botany Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershey, David R.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses how the many problems in botany teaching are interrelated and most have existed since at least the early 1900s. Considers botany teaching at both the precollege and introductory college levels. Discusses botany neglect in biology teaching, botanical illiteracy, uninteresting or irrelevant botany teaching, zoochauvinism, research…

  15. A Historical Perspective on Problems in Botany Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershey, David R.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses how the many problems in botany teaching are interrelated and most have existed since at least the early 1900s. Considers botany teaching at both the precollege and introductory college levels. Discusses botany neglect in biology teaching, botanical illiteracy, uninteresting or irrelevant botany teaching, zoochauvinism, research…

  16. Presence and potential of cell free DNA in different types of forensic samples.

    PubMed

    Vandewoestyne, Mado; Van Hoofstat, David; Franssen, Aimée; Van Nieuwerburgh, Filip; Deforce, Dieter

    2013-02-01

    Extracellular or cell free DNA has been found to exist in many biological media such as blood and saliva. To check whether cell free DNA is present in the supernatant which is normally discarded during several DNA extraction processes, such as Chelex(®) extraction, DNA profiles of cell pellet and concentrated supernatant from 30 artificial case like samples and from 100 real forensic samples were compared. Presence of cell free DNA was shown in all investigated sample types. Moreover, in some samples additional alleles, not detected during analysis of the cell pellet, were detected, offering valuable information which would normally have been discarded together with the supernatant. The results presented here indicate that cell free DNA deserves further consideration since it has the potential to increase the DNA yield in forensic casework samples in general and in contact traces in particular.

  17. Potential contamination of forensic entomology samples collected in the mortuary: a case report.

    PubMed

    Archer, M S; Ranson, D L

    2005-01-01

    Carrion insects originating from infested bodies may establish small mortuary populations. Two Victorian Institute of Forensic Medicine cases are presented to illustrate how these insects can potentially contaminate forensic entomology samples collected in the mortuary. The first case proves that bodies can be colonised in the mortuary: when a decomposed body in freezer storage was thawed for a procedure in the main mortuary, it was colonised within five minutes of exposure by the beetle Necrobia rufipes De Geer (Cleridae, Coleoptera). The second case illustrates that immobile juvenile insects can be transferred between bodies, and describes the transfer of an Eristalis sp. (Syrphidae, Diptera) pupa from a decomposed to a fresh body. While the contamination risk is slight, it can be further minimised by checking mortuary-collected samples against those taken from the body discovery site, by mortuary pest control, and by checking previous mortuary admittance records for possible contamination sources.

  18. Fly pupae and puparia as potential contaminants of forensic entomology samples from sites of body discovery.

    PubMed

    Archer, M S; Elgar, M A; Briggs, C A; Ranson, D L

    2006-11-01

    Fly pupae and puparia may contaminate forensic entomology samples at death scenes if they have originated not from human remains but from animal carcasses or other decomposing organic material. These contaminants may erroneously lengthen post-mortem interval estimates if no pupae or puparia are genuinely associated with the body. Three forensic entomology case studies are presented, in which contamination either occurred or was suspected. In the first case, blow fly puparia collected near the body were detected as contaminants because the species was inactive both when the body was found and when the deceased was last sighted reliably. The second case illustrates that contamination may be suspected at particularly squalid death scenes because of the likely presence of carcasses or organic material. The third case involves the presence at the body discovery site of numerous potentially contaminating animal carcasses. Soil samples were taken along transects to show that pupae and puparia were clustered around their probable sources.

  19. Experimental Garden Plots for Botany Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorodnicheva, V. V.; Vasil'eva, E. I.

    1976-01-01

    Discussion of the botany lessons used at two schools points out the need for fifth and sixth grade students to be taught the principles of plant life through observations made at an experimental garden plot at the school. (ND)

  20. Experimental Garden Plots for Botany Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorodnicheva, V. V.; Vasil'eva, E. I.

    1976-01-01

    Discussion of the botany lessons used at two schools points out the need for fifth and sixth grade students to be taught the principles of plant life through observations made at an experimental garden plot at the school. (ND)

  1. [Forensic radiology].

    PubMed

    Stein, K M; Grünberg, K

    2009-01-01

    Forensic radiology includes both clinical and postmortem forensic radiology. Clinical forensic radiology deals with imaging of healthy people from a legal point of view, such as for determining age or to prove and document injuries in victims of crime. Postmortem forensic radiology deals with the application of modern radiological methods in order to optimise post-mortem diagnosis. X-ray examination has for decades been routinely used in postmortem diagnosis. Newer developments include the application of postmortem computer tomography and magnetic resonance imaging; these are the methods with the greatest information potential but also with the greatest deviations from diagnostics in living persons. Application of radiological methods for securing evidence in criminal procedures is still in its infancy. Radiologists' technical understanding and forensic doctors' knowledge of postmortem changes in a corpse must be synergised.

  2. [Researches in forensic biomechanics].

    PubMed

    Xu, Yan; Fan, Yubo; Yu, Xiaojun

    2004-02-01

    Forensic biomechanics is the science of proof, which applies the biomechanical theory and technology to resolve problems related to mechanics in the process of expert witness. It belongs to the realm of a new subject combining biomechanics and forensics. Forensic biomechanics is a new branch of modern biomechanics and at the same time a new important branch of forensics, and it is one of the most potential research areas in forensics of injury. In this paper, the task of forensic biomechanics expert witness, the procedure of expert witness, and the forensic biomechanics research methods and cases are reviewed.

  3. Assessment of high resolution melting analysis as a potential SNP genotyping technique in forensic casework.

    PubMed

    Venables, Samantha J; Mehta, Bhavik; Daniel, Runa; Walsh, Simon J; van Oorschot, Roland A H; McNevin, Dennis

    2014-11-01

    High resolution melting (HRM) analysis is a simple, cost effective, closed tube SNP genotyping technique with high throughput potential. The effectiveness of HRM for forensic SNP genotyping was assessed with five commercially available HRM kits evaluated on the ViiA™ 7 Real Time PCR instrument. Four kits performed satisfactorily against forensically relevant criteria. One was further assessed to determine the sensitivity, reproducibility, and accuracy of HRM SNP genotyping. The manufacturer's protocol using 0.5 ng input DNA and 45 PCR cycles produced accurate and reproducible results for 17 of the 19 SNPs examined. Problematic SNPs had GC rich flanking regions which introduced additional melting domains into the melting curve (rs1800407) or included homozygotes that were difficult to distinguish reliably (rs16891982; a G to C SNP). A proof of concept multiplexing experiment revealed that multiplexing a small number of SNPs may be possible after further investigation. HRM enables genotyping of a number of SNPs in a large number of samples without extensive optimization. However, it requires more genomic DNA as template in comparison to SNaPshot®. Furthermore, suitably modifying pre-existing forensic intelligence SNP panels for HRM analysis may pose difficulties due to the properties of some SNPs.

  4. Soil DNA metabarcoding and high-throughput sequencing as a forensic tool: considerations, potential limitations and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Young, J M; Austin, J J; Weyrich, L S

    2017-02-01

    Analysis of physical evidence is typically a deciding factor in forensic casework by establishing what transpired at a scene or who was involved. Forensic geoscience is an emerging multi-disciplinary science that can offer significant benefits to forensic investigations. Soil is a powerful, nearly 'ideal' contact trace evidence, as it is highly individualistic, easy to characterise, has a high transfer and retention probability, and is often overlooked in attempts to conceal evidence. However, many real-life cases encounter close proximity soil samples or soils with low inorganic content, which cannot be easily discriminated based on current physical and chemical analysis techniques. The capability to improve forensic soil discrimination, and identify key indicator taxa from soil using the organic fraction is currently lacking. The development of new DNA sequencing technologies offers the ability to generate detailed genetic profiles from soils and enhance current forensic soil analyses. Here, we discuss the use of DNA metabarcoding combined with high-throughput sequencing (HTS) technology to distinguish between soils from different locations in a forensic context. Specifically, we provide recommendations for best practice, outline the potential limitations encountered in a forensic context and describe the future directions required to integrate soil DNA analysis into casework.

  5. Forensic entomology: a template for forensic acarology?

    PubMed

    Turner, Bryan

    2009-10-01

    Insects are used in a variety of ways in forensic science and the developing area of forensic acarology may have a similar range of potential. This short account summarises the main ways in which entomology currently contributes to forensic science and discusses to what extent acarology might also contribute in these areas.

  6. Analysis of plant soil seed banks and seed dispersal vectors: Its potential and limits for forensic investigations.

    PubMed

    Šumberová, Kateřina; Ducháček, Michal

    2017-01-01

    Plant seeds exhibit many species-specific traits, thus potentially being especially helpful for forensic investigations. Seeds of a broad range of plant species occur in soil seed banks of various habitats and may become attached in large quantities to moving objects. Although plant seeds are now routinely used as trace evidence in forensic practice, only scant information has been published on this topic in the scientific literature. Thus, the standard methods remain unknown to specialists in such botanical subjects as plant ecology and plant geography. These specialists, if made aware of the forensic uses of seeds, could help in development of new, more sophisticated approaches. We aim to bridge the gap between forensic analysts and botanists. Therefore, we explore the available literature and compare it with our own experiences to reveal both the potential and limits of soil seed bank and seed dispersal analysis in forensic investigations. We demonstrate that habitat-specific and thus relatively rare species are of the greatest forensic value. Overall species composition, in terms of species presence/absence and relative abundance can also provide important information. In particular, the ecological profiles of seeds found on any moving object can help us identify the types of environments through which the object had travelled. We discuss the applicability of this approach to various European environments, with the ability to compare seed samples with georeferenced vegetation databases being particularly promising for forensic investigations. We also explore the forensic limitations of soil seed bank and seed dispersal vector analyses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. [Forensic application of brainstem auditory evoked potential in patients with brain concussion].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xing-Bin; Li, Sheng-Yan; Huang, Si-Xing; Ma, Ke-Xin

    2008-12-01

    To investigate changes of brainstem auditory evoked potential (BAEP) in patients with brain concussion. Nineteen patients with brain concussion were studied with BAEP examination. The data was compared to the healthy persons reported in literatures. The abnormal rate of BAEP for patients with brain concussion was 89.5%. There was a statistically significant difference between the abnormal rate of patients and that of healthy persons (P<0.05). The abnormal rate of BAEP in the brainstem pathway for patients with brain concussion was 73.7%, indicating dysfunction of the brainstem in those patients. BAEP might be helpful in forensic diagnosis of brain concussion.

  8. Rib biomechanical properties exhibit diagnostic potential for accurate ageing in forensic investigations

    PubMed Central

    Bonicelli, Andrea; Xhemali, Bledar; Kranioti, Elena F.

    2017-01-01

    Age estimation remains one of the most challenging tasks in forensic practice when establishing a biological profile of unknown skeletonised remains. Morphological methods based on developmental markers of bones can provide accurate age estimates at a young age, but become highly unreliable for ages over 35 when all developmental markers disappear. This study explores the changes in the biomechanical properties of bone tissue and matrix, which continue to change with age even after skeletal maturity, and their potential value for age estimation. As a proof of concept we investigated the relationship of 28 variables at the macroscopic and microscopic level in rib autopsy samples from 24 individuals. Stepwise regression analysis produced a number of equations one of which with seven variables showed an R2 = 0.949; a mean residual error of 2.13 yrs ±0.4 (SD) and a maximum residual error value of 2.88 yrs. For forensic purposes, by using only bench top machines in tests which can be carried out within 36 hrs, a set of just 3 variables produced an equation with an R2 = 0.902 a mean residual error of 3.38 yrs ±2.6 (SD) and a maximum observed residual error 9.26yrs. This method outstrips all existing age-at-death methods based on ribs, thus providing a novel lab based accurate tool in the forensic investigation of human remains. The present application is optimised for fresh (uncompromised by taphonomic conditions) remains, but the potential of the principle and method is vast once the trends of the biomechanical variables are established for other environmental conditions and circumstances. PMID:28520764

  9. Raman spectroscopic signature of semen and its potential application to forensic body fluid identification.

    PubMed

    Virkler, Kelly; Lednev, Igor K

    2009-12-15

    A great potential of Raman spectroscopy for non-destructive, confirmatory identification of body fluids at the crime scene has been reported recently (Virkler and Lednev, Forensic Sci. Int. 2008). However, that analysis was carried out on only one sample of each body fluid and did not take into account any variations that might occur between different donors of the same fluid. This paper reports on the role of heterogeneity within a sample as well as among multiple donors for human semen. Near-infrared (NIR) Raman spectroscopy was used to measure spectra of pure dried human semen samples from multiple donors in a controlled laboratory environment. The major chemical components that contributed to the Raman spectrum of semen were determined and used to tentatively identify the principal spectral components. The issue of potential spectral variations that could arise between different donors of semen was also addressed. Advanced statistical analysis of spectra obtained from multiple spots on dry samples showed that dry semen is heterogeneous and its Raman spectra could be presented as a linear combination of a fluorescent background and three spectral components. The relative contribution of each of the three components varies with donor, so no single spectrum could effectively represent an experimental Raman spectrum of dry semen in a quantitative way. The combination of the three spectral components could be considered to be a spectroscopic signature for semen. This proof-of-concept approach shows the potential for Raman spectroscopy to identify an unknown substance to be semen during forensic analysis.

  10. Some advances in Fourier transform infrared transflection analysis and potential applications in forensic chemistry.

    PubMed

    Koçak, A; Lucania, J P; Berets, S L

    2009-05-01

    The transflection technique offers significant potential for both qualitative and quantitative analysis in the mid-infrared region. The higher sensitivity for bands in the mid-infrared provides a distinct advantage over the lower absorbance values typically encountered in the near-infrared region. Other advantages, such as small sample size and little sample preparation, make this technique a good candidate for the analysis of forensic substances. Small amounts of illegal drugs such as cocaine can be reliably and nondestructively identified with little or no sample preparation. With the approach to transflection described in this paper, single grains can be quickly identified by simply placing the sample on a specially designed substrate and recording the Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrum. Transflection was applied to the qualitative analysis of aqueous solutions and solid particles using relatively simple equipment in conjunction with a commercially available diffuse reflection accessory. Improvements in both equipment and technique are discussed. Extensions of the equipment into two new forms, with potential uses in proteomics and forensics, are introduced.

  11. Identification and evaluation of potential forensic marker proteins in vaginal fluid by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Igoh, Akihisa; Doi, Yusuke; Sakurada, Koichi

    2015-09-01

    Vaginal fluid is one of the most common body fluids found at crime scenes. Discriminating vaginal fluid from other body fluids is important in forensic science; however, few potential protein markers have been reported to date. Proteomic methods for identifying protein markers have gained attention, although few reports have applied this technology to forensic protein markers. Therefore, to identify characteristic vaginal proteins, we examined various body fluids (nasal secretions, saliva, urine, semen, vaginal fluids, and sweat) using liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and peptide mass fingerprinting. We identified three components (average molecular mass values 17,237 ± 2, 18,063 ± 2, and 15,075 ± 1) detectable only in vaginal samples: two human small proline-rich protein 3 (SPRR3) isoforms and a human fatty acid-binding protein 5 (FABP5) with an acetylated (+42) N-terminal region lacking the initiator methionine residue (-131). Using ELISA, these yielded markedly high average values in vaginal fluids. The mass spectra of these proteins were not detected in infant saliva but were detected in the vaginal fluid throughout the menstrual cycle. The results of forensic analysis (detection limit, mixed body fluid samples, casework samples, and blind samples) suggest that these proteins are potential forensic markers. In conclusion, high SPRR3 and FABP5 expression levels, which may be used as potential markers for vaginal fluid identification in forensic science, were detected in vaginal fluids from healthy adults.

  12. Evaluating the potential of the MegaSIMS for nuclear forensics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehnke, P.; McKeegan, K. D.; Coath, C. D.; Hutcheon, I. D.; Steele, R. C.; Harrison, M.

    2013-12-01

    Nuclear forensics investigates the illicit movement of nuclear materials. Measurements of uranium isotopic compositions are an important key as they permit provenance tracing and determination of intended use. Traditional secondary ion mass spectrometers (SIMS) are incapable of resolving 235UH from 236U due to the high mass resolving power (MRP ~38,000) needed, significantly limiting their ability to accurately measure 236U/235U, particularly for highly enriched uranium. This limitation can significantly inhibit the ability to establish details about enrichment processes. The MegaSIMS is a unique combination of SIMS and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and allows for molecular interference free measurements, while retaining the spatial resolution and ease of sample preparation common in SIMS analyses. The instrument was primarily designed to measure the oxygen isotope composition of the solar wind [1] and its capability for measuring high mass elements has not been evaluated previously. We evaluated the potential of the MegaSIMS by measuring 236U/235U without hydride interference. While preliminary results show abundance sensitivity of ~E-9 and an MRP of ~1,200 at the high mass side of 238 amu, precision is limited by the detector geometry and slow magnet switching. Future work will include developing electrostatic peak switching as well as refining the measurement precision and abundance sensitivity of the MegaSIMS for nuclear forensics. [1] McKeegan, Kallio, Heber, Jarzebinski, Mao, Coath, Kunihiro, Wiens, Nordholt, Moses Jr., Reisenfeld, Jurewicz, and Burnett, 2011. Science. 332, 1528-1532.

  13. Botany [Sahuarita High School Career Curriculum Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esser, Robert

    This course entitled "Botany" is one of a series of instructional guides prepared by teachers for the Sahuarita High School (Arizona) Career Curriculum Project. It consists of five units of study, and 20 behavioral objectives relating to these units are stated. The topics covered include the classification of plants, morphology, plant…

  14. Orange You Glad You Teach Botany?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cravats, Monroe

    1983-01-01

    Provides strategies and topics of study designed to enhance student interest in botany using both familiar and exotic plant material to illustrate genetics, plant propagation, disease, germination, hybrid vigor, anatomy, natural insecticides, and tropisms. The relationship between plants and society is also used to develop several topics. (JM)

  15. Orange You Glad You Teach Botany?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cravats, Monroe

    1983-01-01

    Provides strategies and topics of study designed to enhance student interest in botany using both familiar and exotic plant material to illustrate genetics, plant propagation, disease, germination, hybrid vigor, anatomy, natural insecticides, and tropisms. The relationship between plants and society is also used to develop several topics. (JM)

  16. The microscopic (optical and SEM) examination of putrefaction fluid deposits (PFD). Potential interest in forensic anthropology.

    PubMed

    Charlier, P; Georges, P; Bouchet, F; Huynh-Charlier, I; Carlier, R; Mazel, V; Richardin, P; Brun, L; Blondiaux, J; Lorin de la Grandmaison, G

    2008-10-01

    This article describes the potential interest in physical and forensic anthropology of the microscopic analysis of residues of putrefaction fluid, a calcified deposit frequently found associated with bone rests. Its sampling and analysis seem straightforward and relatively reproducible. Samples came from archeological material (Monterenzio Vecchia, an Etruscan necropolis from the north of Italy dated between the fifth and third century B.C.; body rests of Agnès Sorel, royal mistress died in 1450 A.D.; skull and grave of French King Louis the XI and Charlotte of Savoy dated from 1483 A.D.). All samples were studied by direct optical microscope and scanning electron microscopy. Many cytological, histological, and elemental analysis were possible, producing precious data for the identification of these remains and, in some cases, the cause of death.

  17. The potential use of bacterial community succession in forensics as described by high throughput metagenomic sequencing.

    PubMed

    Pechal, Jennifer L; Crippen, Tawni L; Benbow, M Eric; Tarone, Aaron M; Dowd, Scot; Tomberlin, Jeffery K

    2014-01-01

    Decomposition studies of vertebrate remains primarily focus on data that can be seen with the naked eye, such as arthropod or vertebrate scavenger activity, with little regard for what might be occurring with the microorganism community. Here, we discuss the necrobiome, or community of organisms associated with the decomposition of remains, specifically, the "epinecrotic" bacterial community succession throughout decomposition of vertebrate carrion. Pyrosequencing was used to (1) detect and identify bacterial community abundance patterns that described discrete time points of the decomposition process and (2) identify bacterial taxa important for estimating physiological time, a time-temperature metric that is often commensurate with minimum post-mortem interval estimates, via thermal summation models. There were significant bacterial community structure differences in taxon richness and relative abundance patterns through the decomposition process at both phylum and family taxonomic classification levels. We found a significant negative linear relationship for overall phylum and family taxon richness as decomposition progressed. Additionally, we developed a statistical model using high throughput sequencing data of epinecrotic bacterial communities on vertebrate remains that explained 94.4 % of the time since placement of remains in the field, which was within 2-3 h of death. These bacteria taxa are potentially useful for estimating the minimum post-mortem interval. Lastly, we provide a new framework and standard operating procedure of how this novel approach of using high throughput metagenomic sequencing has remarkable potential as a new forensic tool. Documenting and identifying differences in bacterial communities is key to advancing knowledge of the carrion necrobiome and its applicability in forensic science.

  18. Thinking forensics: Cognitive science for forensic practitioners.

    PubMed

    Edmond, Gary; Towler, Alice; Growns, Bethany; Ribeiro, Gianni; Found, Bryan; White, David; Ballantyne, Kaye; Searston, Rachel A; Thompson, Matthew B; Tangen, Jason M; Kemp, Richard I; Martire, Kristy

    2017-03-01

    Human factors and their implications for forensic science have attracted increasing levels of interest across criminal justice communities in recent years. Initial interest centred on cognitive biases, but has since expanded such that knowledge from psychology and cognitive science is slowly infiltrating forensic practices more broadly. This article highlights a series of important findings and insights of relevance to forensic practitioners. These include research on human perception, memory, context information, expertise, decision-making, communication, experience, verification, confidence, and feedback. The aim of this article is to sensitise forensic practitioners (and lawyers and judges) to a range of potentially significant issues, and encourage them to engage with research in these domains so that they may adapt procedures to improve performance, mitigate risks and reduce errors. Doing so will reduce the divide between forensic practitioners and research scientists as well as improve the value and utility of forensic science evidence.

  19. Discovery of potential DNA methylation markers for forensic tissue identification using bisulphite pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Vidaki, Athina; Giangasparo, Federica; Syndercombe Court, Denise

    2016-10-01

    The presence of specific body fluids at crime scenes could be linked with particular types of crime, therefore attributing a DNA profile to a specific tissue could increase the evidential significance of a match with a suspect. Current methodologies such as tissue-specific mRNA profiling are useful but drawbacks include low tissue specificity and applicability to degraded samples. In this study, the potential of 11 tissue-specific differentially methylated regions, initially identified following large-scale methylation analysis of whole blood, buccal cells and sperm, was explored in order to identify markers for blood, saliva and semen. Bisulphite pyrosequencing analysis supported previous findings, but tissue-specific differentially methylated regions for blood and buccal cells did not show enough specificity to be proposed as markers for blood and saliva, respectively. For some CpGs, a large inter-individual variation in methylation levels was also observed. Two of the semen markers (cg04382920 and cg11768416) were used for further validation on a large set of stains. These two semen-specific assays showed high sensitivity (as low as 50 pg) and stability. Future experiments will shed light on the usefulness of these markers in forensic casework. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Forensic Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brettell, T. A.; Saferstein, R.

    1989-01-01

    Presents a review of articles appealing to forensic practitioners. Topics include: drugs and poisons, forensic biochemistry, and trace evidence. Lists noteworthy books published on forensic science topics since 1986. (MVL)

  1. Forensic Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brettell, T. A.; Saferstein, R.

    1989-01-01

    Presents a review of articles appealing to forensic practitioners. Topics include: drugs and poisons, forensic biochemistry, and trace evidence. Lists noteworthy books published on forensic science topics since 1986. (MVL)

  2. Forensic scatology: preliminary experimental study of the preparation and potential for identification of captive carnivore scat.

    PubMed

    Gilmour, Rebecca J; Skinner, Mark F

    2012-01-01

    Carnivore scats recovered from animal attack and/or scavenging contexts frequently contain forensic evidence such as human bone fragments. Forensic cases with carnivore involvement are increasingly prevalent, necessitating a methodology for the recovery and analysis of scat evidence. This study proposes a method for the safe preparation of carnivore scat, recovery of bone inclusions, and quantification and comparison of scat variables. Fourteen scats (lion, jaguar, lynx, wolf, and coyote) were prepared with sodium-acetate-formalin fixative; analytical variables included carnivore individual, species, body size, and taxonomic family. Scat variables, particularly bone fragment inclusions, were found to vary among carnivore individuals, families, species, and sizes. The methods in this study facilitate safe scat processing, the complete recovery of digested evidence, and the preliminary identification of involved animals. This research demonstrates that scat collected from forensic contexts can yield valuable information concerning both the victim and the carnivore involved.

  3. 25. View of Botany Mills Lanolin Retrieval plant site looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. View of Botany Mills Lanolin Retrieval plant site looking northwest from Andrew McLean Company Textile Mill; Botany Worsted Mills and Dundee Canal at left - Dundee Canal Industrial Historic District, Beginning at George Street in Passaic & extending north along Dundee Canal approximately 1.2 miles to Canal headgates opposite East Clifton Avenue in Clifton, Passaic, Passaic County, NJ

  4. 26. View looking west; Botany Mills Lanolin Retrieval plant site ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. View looking west; Botany Mills Lanolin Retrieval plant site in foreground, Botany Worsted Mill in distance - Dundee Canal Industrial Historic District, Beginning at George Street in Passaic & extending north along Dundee Canal approximately 1.2 miles to Canal headgates opposite East Clifton Avenue in Clifton, Passaic, Passaic County, NJ

  5. The End of the Botany Degree in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drea, Sinead

    2011-01-01

    The last student enrolled in a pure "Botany" degree in the UK began in the University of Bristol this year, 2010. In recent years only the University of Reading also offered the Botany degree, before it was dropped there 3 years ago. This short article is written to draw attention to this fact and to a more general relative decline in…

  6. Montessori Botany Studies: Why It Is Time for a Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coe, Elisabeth; Spears, Priscilla

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the need to change the Montessori botany nomenclature cards to reflect the progress of the field over the past 55 years. Maintains that the materials used should reflect the goals of botany study for children. Provides a sample outline of lessons and nomenclature for the flowering plants. Discusses the need to use available reference…

  7. A Comparative Study of Students' Achievement in Botany and Zoology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamir, P.

    1974-01-01

    A comparative study of student achievement in botany and zoology based on data of 10 studies conducted in 20 countries. Up to age 14, students achieve better in zoology; after age 14, students achieve better in botany. Based on the findings, recommendations are suggested regarding curriculum planning, laboratory work and the need for specific…

  8. A Comparative Study of Students' Achievement in Botany and Zoology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamir, P.

    1974-01-01

    A comparative study of student achievement in botany and zoology based on data of 10 studies conducted in 20 countries. Up to age 14, students achieve better in zoology; after age 14, students achieve better in botany. Based on the findings, recommendations are suggested regarding curriculum planning, laboratory work and the need for specific…

  9. The End of the Botany Degree in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drea, Sinead

    2011-01-01

    The last student enrolled in a pure "Botany" degree in the UK began in the University of Bristol this year, 2010. In recent years only the University of Reading also offered the Botany degree, before it was dropped there 3 years ago. This short article is written to draw attention to this fact and to a more general relative decline in…

  10. Montessori Botany Studies: Why It Is Time for a Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coe, Elisabeth; Spears, Priscilla

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the need to change the Montessori botany nomenclature cards to reflect the progress of the field over the past 55 years. Maintains that the materials used should reflect the goals of botany study for children. Provides a sample outline of lessons and nomenclature for the flowering plants. Discusses the need to use available reference…

  11. Microbial forensics: the next forensic challenge.

    PubMed

    Budowle, Bruce; Murch, Randall; Chakraborty, Ranajit

    2005-11-01

    Pathogens and toxins can be converted to bioweapons and used to commit bioterrorism and biocrime. Because of the potential and relative ease of an attack using a bioweapon, forensic science needs to be prepared to assist in the investigation to bring perpetrators to justice and to deter future attacks. A new subfield of forensics--microbial forensics--has been created, which is focused on characterization of evidence from a bioterrorism act, biocrime, hoax, or an inadvertent release. Forensic microbiological investigations are essentially the same as any other forensic investigation regarding processing. They involve crime scene(s) investigation, chain of custody practices, evidence collection, handling and preservation, evidence shipping, analysis of evidence, interpretation of results, and court presentation. In addition to collecting and analyzing traditional forensic evidence, the forensic investigation will attempt to determine the etiology and identity of the causal agent, often in a similar fashion as in an epidemiologic investigation. However, for attribution, higher-resolution characterization is needed. The tools for attribution include genetic- and nongenetic-based assays and informatics to attempt to determine the unique source of a sample or at least eliminate some sources. In addition, chemical and physical assays may help determine the process used to prepare, store, or disseminate the bioweapon. An effective microbial forensics program will require development and/or validation of all aspects of the forensic investigative process, from sample collection to interpretation of results. Quality assurance (QA) and QC practices, comparable to those used by the forensic DNA science community, are being implemented. Lastly, partnerships with other laboratories will be requisite, because many of the necessary capabilities for analysis will not reside in the traditional forensic laboratory.

  12. Potential forensic application of DNA methylation profiling to body fluid identification.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hwan Young; Park, Myung Jin; Choi, Ajin; An, Ja Hyun; Yang, Woo Ick; Shin, Kyoung-Jin

    2012-01-01

    DNA analysis of various body fluid stains at crime scenes facilitates the identification of individuals but does not currently determine the type and origin of the biological material. Recent advances in whole genome epigenetic analysis indicate that chromosome pieces called tDMRs (tissue-specific differentially methylated regions) show different DNA methylation profiles according to the type of cell or tissue. We examined the potential of tissue-specific differential DNA methylation for body fluid identification. Five tDMRs for the genes DACT1, USP49, HOXA4, PFN3, and PRMT2 were selected, and DNA methylation profiles for these tDMRs were produced by bisulfite sequencing using pooled DNA from blood, saliva, semen, menstrual blood, and vaginal fluid. The tDMRs for DACT1 and USP49 showed semen-specific hypomethylation, and the tDMRs for HOXA4, PFN3, and PRMT2 displayed varying degrees of methylation according to the type of body fluid. Preliminary tests using methylation-specific PCR for the DACT1 and USP49 tDMRs showed that these two markers could be used successfully to identify semen samples including sperm cells. Body fluid-specific differential DNA methylation may be a promising indicator for body fluid identification. Because DNA methylation profiling uses the same biological source of DNA for individual identification profiling, the determination of more body fluid-specific tDMRs and the development of convenient tDMR analysis methods will facilitate the broad implementation of body fluid identification in forensic casework.

  13. Morphology of immature stages of blow fly, Lucilia sinensis Aubertin (Diptera: Calliphoridae), a potential species of forensic importance.

    PubMed

    Sanit, Sangob; Sukontason, Kom; Kurahashi, Hiromu; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Wannasan, Anchalee; Kraisittipanit, Rungroj; Sukontason, Kabkaew L

    2017-09-20

    Lucilia sinensis Aubertin (Diptera: Calliphoridae) is a blow fly species of potential forensic importance since adults are attracted to, and colonize, decomposing vertebrate remains. Blow fly larvae associated with human corpses can be useful evidence in forensic investigations; however, their use is dependent in most cases on proper species identification and availability of developmental data. For identification, morphological information on each life stage is traditionally used. We used scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to examine the ultrastructure of eggs, all instars, and puparia, of L. sinensis. The important characteristics used to differentiate L. sinensis from other species are provided. Distinctive features of the eggs are the slight widening median area extending almost the entire length. The last abdominal segment of the first instar bears elongated outer ventral tubercles along the rim of the last abdominal segment. These tubercles, as well as the well developed median and outer dorsal tubercles, are more prominent in the second and third instars. The surface integument of the tubercles is equipped with circular rows of microtrichia. Pairs of inner dorsal tubercle are absent. Each anterior spiracle is comprised of 9-12 papillae arrange in a single row in the second and third instars. As for the third instar, the dorsal spines between the first and second thoracic segments are delicate, narrow, small, and close together (as row or set). The peristigmatic tufts adjacent to the posterior spiracle of the third instar are moderately branches of short, fine hairs, but minute in puparia. In conclusion, the prominent outer ventral tubercle in all instars and puparia is a new diagnostic feature of L. sinensis and helpful in differentiating it from other Lucilia species that are forensically important. The description of immature L. sinensis in this study will be useful for forensic entomologists in countries where this species exists. Copyright © 2017

  14. Assessing the potential of bacterial DNA profiling for forensic soil comparisons.

    PubMed

    Heath, Lorraine E; Saunders, Venetia A

    2006-09-01

    A pilot study was undertaken to evaluate DNA profiling of the bacterial community in soil as an alternative to geological methods for forensic soil comparisons. Soil samples from three different ecosystems were compared, and the variation within and between ecologically different sites was determined by using terminal restriction fragment (TRF) analysis of 16S ribosomal DNA. Comparison of TRF profiles revealed that samples from within a specific ecosystem (e.g., a field) showed a significantly higher similarity to each other than to those from another ecosystem (e.g., a forest). In addition, some profile features were unique to specific ecosystems. These features may allow the determination of characteristic profiles that will facilitate identification of ecologically different sites, so that a given sample collected from a suspect could be identified as originating from, for example, a field, rather than a forest. The implications of these preliminary findings for forensic investigations are discussed.

  15. Investigating the Postmortem Molecular Biology of Cartilage and its Potential Forensic Applications.

    PubMed

    Bolton, Shawna N; Whitehead, Michael P; Dudhia, Jayesh; Baldwin, Timothy C; Sutton, Raul

    2015-07-01

    This study investigated the postmortem molecular changes that articular cartilage undergoes following burial. Fresh pig trotters were interred in 30-cm-deep graves at two distinct locations exhibiting dissimilar soil environments for up to 42 days. Extracts of the metacarpophalangeal (MCP) and metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint cartilage from trotters disinterred weekly over 6 weeks were analyzed by Western blot against the monoclonal antibody 2-B-6 to assess aggrecan degradation. In both soil conditions, aggrecan degradation by-products of decreasing molecular size and complexity were observed up to 21 days postmortem. Degradation products were undetected after this time and coincided with MCP/MTP joint exposure to the soil environment. These results show that cartilage proteoglycans undergo an ordered molecular breakdown, the analysis of which may have forensic applications. This model may prove useful for use as a human model and for forensic investigations concerning crimes against animals and the mortality of endangered species.

  16. Forensic psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Riordan, Daniel

    2017-06-01

    This paper describes the role forensic psychotherapy has in the assessment and treatment of mentally disordered offender patients, and its role in the supervision of individual therapists, staff groups or whole organisations which contain and manage this patient population. Forensic psychotherapy has a valuable role to play in the management of mentally disordered forensic patients. As forensic services continue to develop in Australia and New Zealand and interest in this field continues to grow, then the future of forensic psychotherapy looks bright.

  17. Deep-Sequencing Technologies and Potential Applications in Forensic DNA Testing.

    PubMed

    Zascavage, R R; Shewale, S J; Planz, J V

    2013-03-01

    Development of second- and third-generation DNA sequencing technologies have enabled an increasing number of applications in different areas such as molecular diagnostics, gene therapy, monitoring food and pharmaceutical products, biosecurity, and forensics. These technologies are based on different biochemical principles such as monitoring released pyrophosphate upon incorporation of a base (pyrosequencing), fluorescence detection subsequent to reversible incorporation of a fluorescently labeled terminator base, ligation based approach wherein fluorescence of cleaved nucleotide after ligation is measured, measuring the proton released after incorporation of a base (semiconductor-based sequencing), monitoring incorporation of a nucleotide by measuring the fluorescence of the fluorophore attached to the phosphate chain of the nucleotide, and by detecting the altered charge in a protein nanopore due to released nucleotide by exonuclease cleavage of a DNA strand. Analysis of multiple DNA fragments in parallel increases the depth of coverage while decreasing labor, cost, and time, highlighting some major advantages of deep-sequencing technologies. DNA sequencing has been routinely used in the forensic laboratories for mitochondrial DNA analysis. Fragment analysis, however, is the preferred method for Short Tandem Repeat genotyping due to the cumbersome and costly nature of fi rst-generation DNA sequencing methodologies. Deep-sequencing technologies have brought a new perspective to forensic DNA analysis. Studies include STR analysis to reveal hidden variation in the repeat regions, mtDNA sequencing, Single Nucleotide Polymorphism analysis, mixture resolution, and body fluid identification. Recent publications reveal that attempts are being made to expand the capability.

  18. Botany Bay and Cape York with Vertical Exaggeration

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-12-07

    This graphic combines a perspective view from NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter of the Botany Bay and Cape York areas of the rim of Endeavour Crater on Mars, and an inset with mapping-spectrometer data.

  19. 44. View of Botany Worsted Mills looking southeast along Dayton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. View of Botany Worsted Mills looking southeast along Dayton Avenue; building No. 2 at left, building No. 4 rising at center, building No. 68-69 at end of avenue; site of 95-97 Dayton Avenue and other former Botany buildings at right - Dundee Canal Industrial Historic District, Beginning at George Street in Passaic & extending north along Dundee Canal approximately 1.2 miles to Canal headgates opposite East Clifton Avenue in Clifton, Passaic, Passaic County, NJ

  20. 24. View of Botany Mills Lanolin Retrieval plant site looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. View of Botany Mills Lanolin Retrieval plant site looking north from Andrew McLean Company Textile Mill; Botany Worsted Mills and Dundee Canal at left, Passaic River at right - Dundee Canal Industrial Historic District, Beginning at George Street in Passaic & extending north along Dundee Canal approximately 1.2 miles to Canal headgates opposite East Clifton Avenue in Clifton, Passaic, Passaic County, NJ

  1. Forensic web watch--forensic podiatry.

    PubMed

    Brown, T; Rutty, G N

    2003-12-01

    A search for forensic podiatry sites on the Internet revealed thousands of 'hits', of which very few were of any educational merit. Following extensive sifting of these addresses, it was found that only a few of the associations for human identification included any information on forensic podiatry methods. The search was also made difficult by many websites failing to make the distinction between studies of footwear prints and forensic podiatry: the study of barefoot impressions. At present, the volume and quality of information on the World Wide Web does not reflect the potential importance of podiatry in forensic investigations. The need for improvement in the quality and available information this field is therefore recommended.

  2. The Botany Array Resource: e-Northerns, Expression Angling, and promoter analyses.

    PubMed

    Toufighi, Kiana; Brady, Siobhan M; Austin, Ryan; Ly, Eugene; Provart, Nicholas J

    2005-07-01

    The Botany Array Resource provides the means for obtaining and archiving microarray data for Arabidopsis thaliana as well as biologist-friendly tools for viewing and mining both our own and other's data, for example, from the AtGenExpress Consortium. All the data produced are publicly available through the web interface of the database at http://bbc.botany.utoronto.ca. The database has been designed in accordance with the Minimum Information About a Microarray Experiment convention -- all expression data are associated with the corresponding experimental details. The database is searchable and it also provides a set of useful and easy-to-use web-based data-mining tools for researchers with sophisticated yet understandable output graphics. These include Expression Browser for performing 'electronic Northerns', Expression Angler for identifying genes that are co-regulated with a gene of interest, and Promomer for identifying potential cis-elements in the promoters of individual or co-regulated genes.

  3. Evaluation of forensic and anthropological potential of D9S1120 in Mestizos and Amerindian populations from Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Rangel-Villalobos, Héctor; Sánchez-Gutiérrez, Viviana M; Botello-Ruiz, Miriam; Salazar-Flores, Joel; Martínez-Cortés, Gabriela; Muñoz-Valle, José F; Phillips, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Aim To carry out a deeper forensic and anthropological evaluation of the short tandem repeat (STR) D9S1120 in five Mestizo populations and eight Amerindian groups from Mexico. Methods We amplified the STR D9S1120 based on primers and conditions described by Phillips et al, followed by capillary electrophoresis in the genetic analyzer ABI Prism 310. Genotypes were analyzed with the GeneMapper ID software. In each population we estimated statistical parameters of forensic importance and Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Heterozygosity and FST-values were compared with those previously obtained with nine STRs of the Combined DNA Index System (CODIS-STRs). Results Amerindian and Mestizo populations showed high frequencies of the allele 9 and 16, respectively. Population structure analysis (AMOVA) showed a significant differentiation between Amerindian groups (FST = 2.81%; P < 0.0001), larger than between Mestizos (FST = 0.44%; P = 0.187). D9S1120 showed less genetic diversity but better population differentiation estimates than CODIS-STRs between Amerindian groups and between Amerindians and Mestizos, but not between Mestizo groups. Conclusion This study evaluated the ability of D9S1120 to be used for human identification purposes and demonstrated its anthropological potential to differentiate Mestizos and Amerindian populations. PMID:23100204

  4. Forensic Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, P. G. W.

    1973-01-01

    Summarizes the type of work carried out by forensic chemists and the minimum qualification needed for appointment. Indicates that there are eight Home Office regional forensic science laboratories in addition to the Central Research Establishment at Aldermaston. (CC)

  5. Forensic Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, P. G. W.

    1973-01-01

    Summarizes the type of work carried out by forensic chemists and the minimum qualification needed for appointment. Indicates that there are eight Home Office regional forensic science laboratories in addition to the Central Research Establishment at Aldermaston. (CC)

  6. Forensic odontology.

    PubMed

    Shamim, Thorakkal

    2012-04-01

    Forensic odontology is a specialized field of dentistry which analyses dental evidence in the interest of justice. Forensic odontology embraces all dental specialities and it is almost impossible to segregate this branch from other dental specialities. This review aims to discuss the utility of various dental specialities with forensic odontology.

  7. The Potential of Cosmetic Applicators as a Source of DNA for Forensic Analysis.

    PubMed

    Adamowicz, Michael S; Labonte, Renáe D; Schienman, John E

    2015-07-01

    Personal products, such as toothbrushes, have been used as both known reference and evidentiary samples for forensic DNA analysis. This study examined the viability of a broad selection of cosmetic applicators for use as targets for human DNA extraction and short tandem repeat (STR) analysis using standard polymerase chain reaction (PCR) conditions. Applicator types included eyeliner smudgers, pencils and crayons, eye shadow sponges, mascara wands, concealer wands, face makeup sponges, pads and brushes, lipsticks and balms, and lip gloss wands. The quantity and quality of DNA extracted from each type of applicator were examined by assessing the number of loci successfully amplified and the peak balance of the heterozygous alleles in each full STR profile. While degraded DNA, stochastic amplification, and PCR inhibition were observed for some items, full STR profiles were developed for 14 of 76 applicators. The face makeup sponge applicators yielded the highest proportional number of full STR profiles (4/7).

  8. Potential and pitfalls in establishing the provenance of Earth-related samples in forensic investigations.

    PubMed

    Rawlins, Barry G; Kemp, Simon J; Hodgkinson, Emily H; Riding, James B; Vane, Christopher H; Poulton, Catherine; Freeborough, Katy

    2006-07-01

    Earth scientists are often asked to establish or constrain the likely provenance of very small quantities of earth-related material as part of a forensic investigation. We tested the independent and collective interpretations of four experts with differing analytical skills in the prediction of sample provenance for three samples from different environmental settings. The methods used were X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, the assessment of pollen assemblages, and structural characterization of organic matter at the molecular level. Independent interpretations were less accurate than those where multiple techniques were combined. Collective interpretation was very effective in the assessment of provenance for two of the three sites where the mineralogy and plant communities were distinctive. At the other site, although the mineralogical analysis correctly identified the Triassic mudstone soil parent material, Carboniferous spores from domestic coal were initially interpreted as deriving directly from bedrock. Such an interpretation could be a common pitfall owing to anthropogenic redistribution of material such as coal.

  9. DNA transfer within forensic exhibit packaging: potential for DNA loss and relocation.

    PubMed

    Goray, Mariya; van Oorschot, Roland A H; Mitchell, John R

    2012-03-01

    Crime scene samples after their collection are packaged and transported to the laboratory for examination and DNA analysis. The amount and location of DNA-containing material retrieved from an exhibit can be critical in acquiring a profile for incrimination or exclusion purposes and for elucidating criminal events. This paper shows that significant quantities of DNA are frequently: (a) transferred from the exhibit to the inside of the packaging and (b) transferred from its area of initial deposit to other areas of the same exhibit and/or to other exhibits within the same package. There is a distinct possibility of failing to generate adequate profiles in instances where the DNA content may otherwise have been adequate, and for the misinterpretation of a result that could impact negatively on the criminal investigation and court outcome. These findings highlight the need for improvements in the collection and packaging of forensic casework exhibits for DNA analysis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Permutation Tests of Hierarchical Cluster Analyses of Carrion Communities and Their Potential Use in Forensic Entomology.

    PubMed

    van der Ham, Joris L

    2016-05-19

    Forensic entomologists can use carrion communities' ecological succession data to estimate the postmortem interval (PMI). Permutation tests of hierarchical cluster analyses of these data provide a conceptual method to estimate part of the PMI, the post-colonization interval (post-CI). This multivariate approach produces a baseline of statistically distinct clusters that reflect changes in the carrion community composition during the decomposition process. Carrion community samples of unknown post-CIs are compared with these baseline clusters to estimate the post-CI. In this short communication, I use data from previously published studies to demonstrate the conceptual feasibility of this multivariate approach. Analyses of these data produce series of significantly distinct clusters, which represent carrion communities during 1- to 20-day periods of the decomposition process. For 33 carrion community samples, collected over an 11-day period, this approach correctly estimated the post-CI within an average range of 3.1 days.

  11. Potential forensic use of a 33 X-InDel panel in the Argentinean population.

    PubMed

    Caputo, Mariela; Amador, M A; Santos, S; Corach, D

    2017-01-01

    Polymorphic genetic markers located on the X chromosome might become a complement in particular forensic identification when the biological kinship are deficient. We analyzed forensic statistical parameters of 33 X-chromosome InDel polymorphisms in a sample of 320 individuals from Argentina. The X-chromosome InDel polymorphism (X-InDel) panel was amplified in a single multiplex PCR reaction. Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium was determined in the female cohort, whereas the male cohort was used to calculate linkage disequilibrium (LD) tested by an extension of Fisher's exact test, D', and Chi-square values. Regarding LD, 15 markers were organized and grouped into six blocks containing two or three linked loci each, namely block I (MID356-MID357), block II (MID448804-MID3703-MID218), block III (MID3705-MID3706-MID304737), block IV (MID197147-MID3754), block V (MID3664-MID284601-MID103547), and block VI (MID3763-MID3728). The haplotype diversity was higher than 0.99 in all cases. Blocks III and VI showed the highest match probability in the studied population, whereas block II showed the lowest. The accumulated power of discrimination was 99.9999991 % in women and 99.9992925 % in men. The mean exclusion chance in trios and duos were 99.9891736 and 99.6099391 %, respectively. Since 15 markers are associated as haplotypic blocks, for a conservative treatment of the data, statistical evaluation should consider their haplotypic frequencies and the remaining 18 markers can be evaluated as independent loci.

  12. Elements of plant physiology in theophrastus' botany.

    PubMed

    Pennazio, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    For thousands of years the plants were considered only as a source of food and medicine, and as ornamental objects. Only from the fifth century BC, some philosophers of Ancient Greece realized that the plants were living organisms but, unfortunately, their works have come to us as fragments that we often know from the biological works of Aristotle. This eminent philosopher and man of science, however, did not give us a complete work on the plants, which he often promised to write. From scattered fragments of his conspicuous biological work, it emerges a concept of nutritive soul that, in the presence of heat and moisture, allows plants to grow and reproduce. The task of writing a comprehensive botanical work was delegated to his first pupil, Theophrastus, who left us two treatises over time translated into the various languages up to the current versions (Enquiry into plants, On the causes of plants). The plant life is described and interpreted on the basis of highly accurate observations. The physiological part of his botany is essentially the nutrition: According to Theophrastus, plants get matter and moisture from the soil through root uptake and process the absorbed substances transforming them into food, thanks to the heat. The processing (pepsis, coction) of matter into the food represents an extraordinary physiological intuition because individual organs of a plant appear to perform its specific transformation. Despite that Theophrastus did not do scientific experiments or use special methods other than the sharpness of his observations, he can be considered the forerunner of a plant physiology that would take rebirth only after two millennia.

  13. Forensic chemistry.

    PubMed

    Bell, Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    Forensic chemistry is unique among chemical sciences in that its research, practice, and presentation must meet the needs of both the scientific and the legal communities. As such, forensic chemistry research is applied and derivative by nature and design, and it emphasizes metrology (the science of measurement) and validation. Forensic chemistry has moved away from its analytical roots and is incorporating a broader spectrum of chemical sciences. Existing forensic practices are being revisited as the purview of forensic chemistry extends outward from drug analysis and toxicology into such diverse areas as combustion chemistry, materials science, and pattern evidence.

  14. Forensic Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, William D.; Jackson, Glen P.

    2015-07-01

    Developments in forensic mass spectrometry tend to follow, rather than lead, the developments in other disciplines. Examples of techniques having forensic potential born independently of forensic applications include ambient ionization, imaging mass spectrometry, isotope ratio mass spectrometry, portable mass spectrometers, and hyphenated chromatography-mass spectrometry instruments, to name a few. Forensic science has the potential to benefit enormously from developments that are funded by other means, if only the infrastructure and personnel existed to adopt, validate, and implement the new technologies into casework. Perhaps one unique area in which forensic science is at the cutting edge is in the area of chemometrics and the determination of likelihood ratios for the evaluation of the weight of evidence. Such statistical techniques have been developed most extensively for ignitable-liquid residue analyses and isotope ratio analysis. This review attempts to capture the trends, motivating forces, and likely impact of developing areas of forensic mass spectrometry, with the caveat that none of this research is likely to have any real impact in the forensic community unless: (a) The instruments developed are turned into robust black boxes with red and green lights for positives and negatives, respectively, or (b) there are PhD graduates in the workforce who can help adopt these sophisticated techniques.

  15. Forensic Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, William D; Jackson, Glen P

    2015-01-01

    Developments in forensic mass spectrometry tend to follow, rather than lead, the developments in other disciplines. Examples of techniques having forensic potential born independently of forensic applications include ambient ionization, imaging mass spectrometry, isotope ratio mass spectrometry, portable mass spectrometers, and hyphenated chromatography-mass spectrometry instruments, to name a few. Forensic science has the potential to benefit enormously from developments that are funded by other means, if only the infrastructure and personnel existed to adopt, validate, and implement the new technologies into casework. Perhaps one unique area in which forensic science is at the cutting edge is in the area of chemometrics and the determination of likelihood ratios for the evaluation of the weight of evidence. Such statistical techniques have been developed most extensively for ignitable-liquid residue analyses and isotope ratio analysis. This review attempts to capture the trends, motivating forces, and likely impact of developing areas of forensic mass spectrometry, with the caveat that none of this research is likely to have any real impact in the forensic community unless: (a) The instruments developed are turned into robust black boxes with red and green lights for positives and negatives, respectively, or (b) there are PhD graduates in the workforce who can help adopt these sophisticated techniques.

  16. The imported forensic expert

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, C.P.

    1980-09-01

    A review of the experiences of one of the pioneer forensic pathologists in the United States offers an interesting insight into the possibilities of private forensic pathology in America. The author's experience includes serving as President of the National Boxing Association and the International Boxing Association, during which time he made many improvements in ring safety. His research into several areas of cases of product liability offer an insight to the wide scope of the potential of the forensic expert. This presentation reviews his activities in realms widely afield from medicine.

  17. The imported forensic expert.

    PubMed

    Larson, C P

    1980-09-01

    A review of the experiences of one of the pioneer forensic pathologists in the United States offers an interesting insight into the possibilities of private forensic pathology in America. The author's experience includes serving as President of the National Boxing Association and the International Boxing Association, during which time he made many improvements in ring safety. His research into several areas of cases of product liability offer an insight to the wide scope of the potential of the forensic expert. This presentation reviews his activities in realms widely afield from medicine.

  18. The forensic nurse practitioner role (emergency nursing)--potential response to changing health needs in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Williams, Tracey; Richardson, Sandra; O'Donovan, Paul; Ardagh, Michael

    2005-03-01

    There is little existing policy related to Forensic Evidence collection in the Emergency Department environment within New Zealand (NZ). A case study based on the Christchurch Hospital Emergency Department (ChCh ED) environment is presented, which outlines the need to develop a specialised nursing role, that of Forensic Nurse Practitioner (emergency care). The role of nursing input in the field of Forensic Medicine in NZ is essentially limited to the psychiatric focus. While roles such as those of the Forensic Psychiatric Nurse are relatively well established, there is an apparent absence of other 'forensic' functions, in particular those related to victims or perpetrators of crime. It is an accepted feature of emergency care that serious injuries and deaths do occur despite intervention. In addition, there are significant numbers of patients who present as a result of assault or in suspicious circumstances. Awareness of the importance of forensic evidence collection, appropriate storage and disposal of material is growing. Legal implications have significance for nurses, in particular with the movement towards Advanced Nursing Practice with its focus on increasing autonomy, accountability and independent practice. In order to achieve holistic healthcare and to provide appropriate and effective interventions, forensic emergency nursing skills need to be developed.

  19. [Half century of botany publishing in Revista de Biologia Tropical].

    PubMed

    León, Jorge

    2002-01-01

    Over its first half century the Revista de Biología Tropical published many papers and supplements dealing with the botany. However, the Revista is not a primary botanical journal. A wide variety of topics and geographic sources have been included, taking into consideration species from the Neotropics, but also from India and Nigeria. A complete index of botanical papers is presented.

  20. Opportunity View Across Botany Bay and Endeavour on Sol 2678

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-01

    The foreground area is a portion of an area called Botany Bay between two ridges forming part of the western rim of Endeavour crater. NASA Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity recorded this mosaic view centered toward the southeast on Aug. 6, 2011.

  1. 40. View of Botany Worsted Mills looking southeast; building No. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. View of Botany Worsted Mills looking southeast; building No. 39 at right, building No. 38 behind, Dundee Canal at left - Dundee Canal Industrial Historic District, Beginning at George Street in Passaic & extending north along Dundee Canal approximately 1.2 miles to Canal headgates opposite East Clifton Avenue in Clifton, Passaic, Passaic County, NJ

  2. 48. View of Botany Worsted Mills looking east; building No. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. View of Botany Worsted Mills looking east; building No. 23 at left, building No. 17 at right, building No. 26 in center distance - Dundee Canal Industrial Historic District, Beginning at George Street in Passaic & extending north along Dundee Canal approximately 1.2 miles to Canal headgates opposite East Clifton Avenue in Clifton, Passaic, Passaic County, NJ

  3. 37. View of Botany Worsted Mills looking north; buildings No. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. View of Botany Worsted Mills looking north; buildings No. 38 and 39 at left, Dundee Canal at right - Dundee Canal Industrial Historic District, Beginning at George Street in Passaic & extending north along Dundee Canal approximately 1.2 miles to Canal headgates opposite East Clifton Avenue in Clifton, Passaic, Passaic County, NJ

  4. 36. View of Botany Worsted Mills looking north; building No. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. View of Botany Worsted Mills looking north; building No. 35 at left, Dundee Canal at right - Dundee Canal Industrial Historic District, Beginning at George Street in Passaic & extending north along Dundee Canal approximately 1.2 miles to Canal headgates opposite East Clifton Avenue in Clifton, Passaic, Passaic County, NJ

  5. 46. View of Botany Worsted Mills looking northeast; building No. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. View of Botany Worsted Mills looking northeast; building No. 68-69 at left, Mattimore Street houses (No. 66-67 through No. 54-55) at right - Dundee Canal Industrial Historic District, Beginning at George Street in Passaic & extending north along Dundee Canal approximately 1.2 miles to Canal headgates opposite East Clifton Avenue in Clifton, Passaic, Passaic County, NJ

  6. 33. View of Botany Worsted Mills looking northwest; footbridge (No. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. View of Botany Worsted Mills looking northwest; footbridge (No. 14A) at center, building No. 18 at left center, Dundee Canal in foreground - Dundee Canal Industrial Historic District, Beginning at George Street in Passaic & extending north along Dundee Canal approximately 1.2 miles to Canal headgates opposite East Clifton Avenue in Clifton, Passaic, Passaic County, NJ

  7. 29. View looking north; Botany Worsted Mills building No. 13 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. View looking north; Botany Worsted Mills building No. 13 at left and building No. 14 rising behind, Dundee Canal at right - Dundee Canal Industrial Historic District, Beginning at George Street in Passaic & extending north along Dundee Canal approximately 1.2 miles to Canal headgates opposite East Clifton Avenue in Clifton, Passaic, Passaic County, NJ

  8. 51. View of Botany Worsted Mills looking east; building No. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. View of Botany Worsted Mills looking east; building No. 43 at left, building No. 41 at center, building No. 40 at right, building No. 31 rising at right background - Dundee Canal Industrial Historic District, Beginning at George Street in Passaic & extending north along Dundee Canal approximately 1.2 miles to Canal headgates opposite East Clifton Avenue in Clifton, Passaic, Passaic County, NJ

  9. 35. View of Botany Worsted Mills looking east; building No. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. View of Botany Worsted Mills looking east; building No. 24 at left, building No. 35 across center, Dundee Canal and pipe in foreground - Dundee Canal Industrial Historic District, Beginning at George Street in Passaic & extending north along Dundee Canal approximately 1.2 miles to Canal headgates opposite East Clifton Avenue in Clifton, Passaic, Passaic County, NJ

  10. 34. View of Botany Worsted Mills looking north; building No. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. View of Botany Worsted Mills looking north; building No. 14 at left, building No. 18 at left background, Dundee Canal at right - Dundee Canal Industrial Historic District, Beginning at George Street in Passaic & extending north along Dundee Canal approximately 1.2 miles to Canal headgates opposite East Clifton Avenue in Clifton, Passaic, Passaic County, NJ

  11. 58. Aerial view looking east; Botany Worsted Mills at front, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    58. Aerial view looking east; Botany Worsted Mills at front, Andrew McLean Company Textile Mill at upper right, Passaic River at rear - Dundee Canal Industrial Historic District, Beginning at George Street in Passaic & extending north along Dundee Canal approximately 1.2 miles to Canal headgates opposite East Clifton Avenue in Clifton, Passaic, Passaic County, NJ

  12. 42. View of Botany Worsted Mills looking northeast along Sherman ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. View of Botany Worsted Mills looking northeast along Sherman Street; site of 95-97 Dayton Avenue in right distance, at end of Sherman Street - Dundee Canal Industrial Historic District, Beginning at George Street in Passaic & extending north along Dundee Canal approximately 1.2 miles to Canal headgates opposite East Clifton Avenue in Clifton, Passaic, Passaic County, NJ

  13. 49. View of Botany Worsted Mills looking southeast; building No. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    49. View of Botany Worsted Mills looking southeast; building No. 26 at left, building No. 18 at center, addition to building No. 17 at right foreground - Dundee Canal Industrial Historic District, Beginning at George Street in Passaic & extending north along Dundee Canal approximately 1.2 miles to Canal headgates opposite East Clifton Avenue in Clifton, Passaic, Passaic County, NJ

  14. 38. View looking west toward Botany Worsted Mills; railroad bridge ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. View looking west toward Botany Worsted Mills; railroad bridge (No.39A) at right, Dundee Canal at center - Dundee Canal Industrial Historic District, Beginning at George Street in Passaic & extending north along Dundee Canal approximately 1.2 miles to Canal headgates opposite East Clifton Avenue in Clifton, Passaic, Passaic County, NJ

  15. 39. View of Botany Worsted Mills looking southeast; buildings No. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. View of Botany Worsted Mills looking southeast; buildings No. 39 and 38 at right, Dundee Canal at left - Dundee Canal Industrial Historic District, Beginning at George Street in Passaic & extending north along Dundee Canal approximately 1.2 miles to Canal headgates opposite East Clifton Avenue in Clifton, Passaic, Passaic County, NJ

  16. 32. View looking south; Botany Worsted Mills building No. 15 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. View looking south; Botany Worsted Mills building No. 15 at right, Dundee Canal at center, Andrew McLean Company Textile Mill at left - Dundee Canal Industrial Historic District, Beginning at George Street in Passaic & extending north along Dundee Canal approximately 1.2 miles to Canal headgates opposite East Clifton Avenue in Clifton, Passaic, Passaic County, NJ

  17. 41. View of Botany Worsted Mills looking southeast from site ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. View of Botany Worsted Mills looking southeast from site of former Forstmann and Huffman textile mill; water tank (No. 43A) at center, Dundee Canal to left - Dundee Canal Industrial Historic District, Beginning at George Street in Passaic & extending north along Dundee Canal approximately 1.2 miles to Canal headgates opposite East Clifton Avenue in Clifton, Passaic, Passaic County, NJ

  18. 28. View looking north; Botany Worsted Mills building No. 15 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. View looking north; Botany Worsted Mills building No. 15 at left, Dundee Canal at right - Dundee Canal Industrial Historic District, Beginning at George Street in Passaic & extending north along Dundee Canal approximately 1.2 miles to Canal headgates opposite East Clifton Avenue in Clifton, Passaic, Passaic County, NJ

  19. 50. View of Botany Worsted Mills looking northwest; building No. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    50. View of Botany Worsted Mills looking northwest; building No. 43 at left center, building No. 42 at right center, water tank (No. 43A) at right - Dundee Canal Industrial Historic District, Beginning at George Street in Passaic & extending north along Dundee Canal approximately 1.2 miles to Canal headgates opposite East Clifton Avenue in Clifton, Passaic, Passaic County, NJ

  20. 27. View looking east; Botany Worsted Mills building No. 13 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. View looking east; Botany Worsted Mills building No. 13 at left, Dundee Canal at center, Andrew McLean Company Textile Mill at right - Dundee Canal Industrial Historic District, Beginning at George Street in Passaic & extending north along Dundee Canal approximately 1.2 miles to Canal headgates opposite East Clifton Avenue in Clifton, Passaic, Passaic County, NJ

  1. Improving Student Engagement in a Lower-Division Botany Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Nisse A.; Ingram, Kathleen W.

    2011-01-01

    Active-learning techniques have been advocated as a means to promote student engagement in lower-division biology courses. In this case study, mini-lectures in combination with active-learning activities were evaluated as strategies to promote a culture of learning and participation in a required botany course. These activities were designed to…

  2. Art Instruction in the Botany Lab: A Collaborative Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Lyn; Crawford, Ila

    2010-01-01

    Good observations are often fundamental to good science, and drawing has long been recognized as a tool to develop students' observation skills. Yet when drawing in illustrated journals was introduced into botany laboratories in an undergraduate, teaching-focused university, students reported feeling uncomfortable and intimidated by the required…

  3. 57. Aerial view looking northwest; Botany Worsted Mills at center, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    57. Aerial view looking northwest; Botany Worsted Mills at center, Dundee Canal at right - Dundee Canal Industrial Historic District, Beginning at George Street in Passaic & extending north along Dundee Canal approximately 1.2 miles to Canal headgates opposite East Clifton Avenue in Clifton, Passaic, Passaic County, NJ

  4. Advanced Botany (Sahuarita High School Career Curriculum Project].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esser, Robert

    This course entitled "Advanced Botany" is one of a series of instructional guides prepared by teachers for the Sahuarita High School (Arizona) Career Curriculum Project. It consists of three units of study, and eight behavioral objectives relating to these units are stated. The topics covered include plant cells and taxonomy, functions and…

  5. Education: Lichens in US Introductory Botany Textbooks, 1936-1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudolph, Emanuel D.

    1988-01-01

    This article reviews the treatment of lichens in 93 different introductory North American botany textbooks. Topics considered are questions of relationship, independent survival, reproduction, definition, and scientific name. The author reports that treatment is uneven and often includes incomplete or erroneous information which may persist…

  6. Education: Lichens in US Introductory Botany Textbooks, 1936-1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudolph, Emanuel D.

    1988-01-01

    This article reviews the treatment of lichens in 93 different introductory North American botany textbooks. Topics considered are questions of relationship, independent survival, reproduction, definition, and scientific name. The author reports that treatment is uneven and often includes incomplete or erroneous information which may persist…

  7. Illustrated Plant Identification Keys: An Interactive Tool to Learn Botany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Helena; Pinho, Rosa; Lopes, Lisia; Nogueira, Antonio J. A.; Silveira, Paulo

    2011-01-01

    An Interactive Dichotomous Key (IDK) for 390 "taxa" of vascular plants from the Ria de Aveiro, available on a website, was developed to help teach botany to school and universitary students. This multimedia tool includes several links to Descriptive and Illustrated Glossaries. Questionnaires answered by high-school and undergraduate students about…

  8. Illustrated Plant Identification Keys: An Interactive Tool to Learn Botany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Helena; Pinho, Rosa; Lopes, Lisia; Nogueira, Antonio J. A.; Silveira, Paulo

    2011-01-01

    An Interactive Dichotomous Key (IDK) for 390 "taxa" of vascular plants from the Ria de Aveiro, available on a website, was developed to help teach botany to school and universitary students. This multimedia tool includes several links to Descriptive and Illustrated Glossaries. Questionnaires answered by high-school and undergraduate students about…

  9. Art Instruction in the Botany Lab: A Collaborative Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Lyn; Crawford, Ila

    2010-01-01

    Good observations are often fundamental to good science, and drawing has long been recognized as a tool to develop students' observation skills. Yet when drawing in illustrated journals was introduced into botany laboratories in an undergraduate, teaching-focused university, students reported feeling uncomfortable and intimidated by the required…

  10. FORENSIC SCIENCE:

    PubMed Central

    Brkić, Hrvoje

    2014-01-01

    Data from available literature point to an early beginning of Forensic Dentistry in Croatia relating to a post-mortem examination of a female patient after a dental procedure in the 1930s. Later on, there were several mass casualties due to collisions and airplane crashes and a railway accident at the Zagreb Main Railway Station wherein the identity of the victims was established based on dental features. Foreign experts in forensics helped identify those victims, particularly forensic dentists because this specialty was almost unknown in our region at the time. During the twenty-year period of the development of Forensic Dentistry at the University of Zagreb, the School of Dental Medicine, the city of Zagreb and Croatia have become internationally recognised on the forensic map of the world. PMID:27688352

  11. High-resolution melt analysis of the minisatellite D1S80: a potential forensic screening tool.

    PubMed

    Pomeroy, Robert S; Balamurugan, Kuppareddi; Wong, Helena; Duncan, George

    2014-11-01

    High-resolution melt (HRM) analysis of the VNTR region of the human D1S80 locus, a 16-bp repeat minisatellite from approximately 400 to over 700 bp in length, was investigated. A Qiagen Rotor-Gene Q using the Type-it PCR HRM kit was used to acquire HRM curves for 14 single, and 16 biallelic, dsDNA samples. The HRM analysis was applicable over a range of DNA concentrations; however the characteristics of the melt curve did depend on the forward and reverse primer ratio. Despite the large amplicon size and the similarities of the repeat sequences, it was possible to discriminate different genotypes. Heterozygotes were clearly different from the homozygous variants and even small differences in the repeat sequence could be differentiated. However, the melt analysis requires a high-resolution system with temperature resolution of 0.02°C or better in order to sort out differences in these large amplicons of near identical GC content (in this case 56%). HRM analysis of amplicons with large repeat sequences can be used as a means of comparing DNA fragments. Examination of multiple sequences can be used to differentiate DNA samples and demonstrate the potential of HRM analysis as a rapid and inexpensive prescreening technique in forensic applications.

  12. The Green Revolution: botanical contributions to forensics and drug enforcement.

    PubMed

    Miller Coyle, H; Ladd, C; Palmbach, T; Lee, H C

    2001-06-01

    Forensic botany encompasses many sub-disciplines, including plant anatomy, plant ecology, plant systematics, plant molecular biology, palynology, and limnology. Although the field of forensic botany has been recognized since the mid-1900's, the use of trace plant material as physical evidence in criminal casework is still novel. A review of published forensic casework that used plant evidence is presented here. Cases include the analysis of wood evidence in the Charles Lindbergh baby kidnapping, the use of pollen in establishing the location of a sexual assault, and pollen analysis to determine the time of year for burial in a mass grave. Additional cases discuss the use of plant growth rates to determine the time of a body deposit in a field, the use of diatoms to link individuals to a crime scene, and plant DNA typing to match seedpods to a tree under which a body was discovered. New DNA methods in development for plant species identification and individualization for forensic applications are also discussed. These DNA methods may be useful for linking an individual to a crime scene or physical evidence to a geographic location, or tracking marijuana distribution patterns.

  13. Newspaper reports from the Coroners Court in Ireland are used to reveal the potential complexity and need for reform in forensic toxicology and medicine services.

    PubMed

    Tormey, William P

    2015-05-01

    Newspapers devote regular space to inquests in the public interest. Accuracy in determining the causes of death is important for public health. Expert opinion features prominently in press reports and is an important channel of public education. How expert are the experts and how complex are apparently simple cases? Toxicology cases involving cannabis and stroke, 'junk food' diet, unexplained sudden death, potential drug interactions, allergy during caesarean section, and ecstacy-type drugs are used to illustrate the complexities. A template for reform is suggested to reform the Coroners Laws in Ireland to recognise the complexity of forensic toxicology and medicine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  14. Forensics Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Grace

    This annotated bibliography lists and discusses 28 books on forensics, debate, argumentation, discussion, and public speaking. The books cover various topics in oral communication for secondary and college level study. (CH)

  15. Forensic Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Keith O.; Nigh, W. G.

    1973-01-01

    A course is described, which was given during an interim, with an enrollment of 41 students. The course involved an in-depth study of forensic science, involving students with the methodology of science. (DF)

  16. Forensic Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Keith O.; Nigh, W. G.

    1973-01-01

    A course is described, which was given during an interim, with an enrollment of 41 students. The course involved an in-depth study of forensic science, involving students with the methodology of science. (DF)

  17. 45. View of Botany Worsted Mills looking east; building No. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. View of Botany Worsted Mills looking east; building No. 4 at left, building No. 68-69 at right, chimney of Andrew McLean Company Textile Mill at center distance - Dundee Canal Industrial Historic District, Beginning at George Street in Passaic & extending north along Dundee Canal approximately 1.2 miles to Canal headgates opposite East Clifton Avenue in Clifton, Passaic, Passaic County, NJ

  18. 47. View of Botany Worsted Mills looking east; building No. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    47. View of Botany Worsted Mills looking east; building No. 16 at left, chimney (No. 17A) at left center, building No. 18 behind, building No. 7 at right center, building No. 1 at right - Dundee Canal Industrial Historic District, Beginning at George Street in Passaic & extending north along Dundee Canal approximately 1.2 miles to Canal headgates opposite East Clifton Avenue in Clifton, Passaic, Passaic County, NJ

  19. 43. View of Botany Worsted Mills looking north along Dayton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. View of Botany Worsted Mills looking north along Dayton Avenue; building No. 1 at right, building No. 53 at center, building No. 19 rising behind; chimney (No. 46A) at center distance, buildings No. 52, 51, and 50 at left - Dundee Canal Industrial Historic District, Beginning at George Street in Passaic & extending north along Dundee Canal approximately 1.2 miles to Canal headgates opposite East Clifton Avenue in Clifton, Passaic, Passaic County, NJ

  20. Botany meets archaeology: people and plants in the past.

    PubMed

    Day, Jo

    2013-12-01

    This paper explores the close links between botany and archaeology, using case studies from the ancient Mediterranean. It explains the kinds of palaeobotanical remains that archaeologists can recover and the methods used to analyse them. The importance of iconographic and textual evidence is also underlined. Examples of key research areas that focus on ancient plants are discussed: diet and palaeoeconomy; medicines, poisons, and psychotropics; perfumes, cosmetics, and dyes; and prestige.

  1. Fingerprint Ridge Density as a Potential Forensic Anthropological Tool for Sex Identification.

    PubMed

    Dhall, Jasmine Kaur; Kapoor, Anup Kumar

    2016-03-01

    In cases of partial or poor print recovery and lack of database/suspect print, fingerprint evidence is generally neglected. In light of such constraints, this study was designed to examine whether ridge density can aid in narrowing down the investigation for sex identification. The study was conducted on the right-hand index digit of 245 males and 246 females belonging to the Punjabis of Delhi region. Five ridge density count areas, namely upper radial, radial, ulnar, upper ulnar, and proximal, were selected and designated. Probability of sex origin was calculated, and stepwise discriminant function analysis was performed to determine the discriminating ability of the selected areas. Females were observed with a significantly higher ridge density than males in all the five areas. Discriminant function analysis and logistic regression exhibited 96.8% and 97.4% accuracy, respectively, in sex identification. Hence, fingerprint ridge density is a potential tool for sex identification, even from partial prints.

  2. LINE-1 DNA methylation: A potential forensic marker for discriminating monozygotic twins.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jie; Fu, Guangping; Yan, Lina; Craig, Jeffery M; Zhang, Xiaojing; Fu, Lihong; Ma, Chunling; Li, Shujin; Cong, Bin

    2015-11-01

    Discriminating individuals within a pair of monozygotic (MZ) twins using genetic markers remains unresolved. This inability causes problems in criminal or paternity cases involving MZ twins as suspects or alleged fathers. Our previous study showed DNA methylation differences in interspersed repeat sequences such as Alu and LINE-1 within pairs of newborn MZ twins. To further evaluate the possible value of LINE-1 DNA methylation for discriminating MZ twins, this study investigated the LINE-1 DNA methylation of a large number of twins. We collected blood samples and buccal cell samples from 119 pairs of MZ and 57 pairs of dizygotic (DZ) twins. Genomic DNA was extracted and LINE-1 methylation level was detected using bisulfite pyrosequencing. The mean methylation level of the three CpG sites in the blood sample among the 176 unrelated individuals was 76.60% and 70.08% in buccal samples. This difference was significant, indicating the tissue specificity of LINE-1 DNA methylation. Among 119 pairs of MZ twins, 15 pairs could be discriminated according to the difference of CpG methylation level between them, which accounted for 12.61% of total number of MZ pairs. As for DZ twins, 10 pairs had significant differences between two individuals, which accounted for 17.54% of the total 57 DZ pairs. In conclusion, there are global DNA methylation differences within some healthy concordant monozygotic (MZ) twin pairs. LINE-1 DNA methylation might be a potential marker for helping to discriminate individuals within MZ twin pairs, and the tissue specificity must be considered in practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Myiasis in pet animals in British Columbia: The potential of forensic entomology for determining duration of possible neglect

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Results of a survey of veterinarians in British Columbia included 25 past cases of myiasis and 10 active cases. Most respondents received at least 5 to 10 cases per year, with some as high as 30 per year. This study revealed some advantages and disadvantages of using forensic entomology in living animals. PMID:15646845

  4. Forensic pedology, forensic geology, forensic geoscience, geoforensics and soil forensics.

    PubMed

    Ruffell, Alastair

    2010-10-10

    We now have a confusing set of five commonly used terms for the application of Earth evidence in forensic science. This confusion is resulting in Earth scientists who use these methods mentioning different terms, sometimes for the same type of study. Likewise, forensic scientists, police/law enforcement officers and those employed by courts of law are becoming confused as to what each term means. A nomenclatural framework (based on the first use of each term) is proposed to encourage consistency in the use of terminology. Generally, the number of Earth science applications has grown through time, from soil and sediment analysis to remote sensing and GIS. The issue of where forensic biology and microbiology sits with these uses of Earth evidence is considered. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The use of forensic botany and geology in war crimes investigations in NE Bosnia.

    PubMed

    Brown, A G

    2006-11-22

    From 1997 to 2002 the United Nations International Criminal Tribune for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) undertook the exhumation of mass graves in NE Bosnia as part of the war crimes investigations aimed at providing evidence for the prosecution of war criminals in The Hague. This involved the location and exhumation of seven former mass graves (primary sites) dug following the fall of Srebrenica in July 1995. These primary mass graves were secretly and hurriedly exhumed three months later and most of the bodies or body parts transported and reburied in a large number of secondary sites many of which were subsequently exhumed by ICTY. The aim of the pollen and soil/sediment studies was to provide an 'environmental profile' of the original site of the samples and use this to match the relocated bodies to the original mass graves. This was part of completing the chain of evidence, providing evidence of the scale and organization of the original atrocities and the subsequent attempts to conceal the evidence related to them. All the primary sites were located in areas of contrasting geology, soils and vegetation, and this allowed matching of the sediment transported in intimate contact with the bodies to the original burial sites, which in some cases were also the execution sites. In all, over 24 sites were investigated, over 240 samples collected and analyzed under low power microscopy and 65 pollen sub-samples fully analyzed. The pollen and sediment descriptions were used in conjunction with the mineralogy (using XRD) of primary and secondary sites in order to provide matches. These matches were then compared with matching evidence from ballistic studies and clothing. The evidence has been used in court and is now in the public domain. It is believed this is the first time 'environmental profiling' techniques have been used in a systematic manner in a war crimes investigation.

  6. Geoethics and Forensic Geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnelly, Laurance

    2017-04-01

    is required. However, it draws attention to some of the relevant geoethical issues within forensic geology and forensic geoscience. This paper also highlights the need for the development of a set of resources; references and guidelines, standards and protocols, a code of conduct (including for example integrity, accountability, honesty, professional fairness, courtesy, trustworthiness), data sharing and information transparency, education and training, multi-disciplinary collaboration, development of research, fair debate, evaluating uncertainty and risk, regulation and accreditation, effective communication and diplomacy, attendance at crime scenes, presenting evidence in courts of law, dealing with the media and elimination of potential bias. The uptake of Forensic Geoscience brings with it considerable challenges arising from the direct and often very sensitive human interactions. By developing this ethical component to the work that the IUGS-IFG group does, combines technical approaches with sensitive solutions, and also in parallel helps define an ethical framework for forensic geoscientists' research and practice in addressing these challenges.

  7. Botany, Taxonomy and Cytology of Crocus sativus series

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, R. B.

    2010-01-01

    Saffron is produced from the dried styles of Crocus sativus L. (Iridaceae) which is unknown as wild plant, representing a sterile triploid. These belong to subgenus Crocus series Crocus sativus – series are closely related species; and are difficult to be separated taxonomically and have a complex cytology. Botany of C. sativus – series, taxonomy of their species and their infraspecific taxa are presented, and their distribution, ecology and phenology; full description and chromosome counts are provided with key to their identification. PMID:22131743

  8. Differentially methylated embryonal Fyn-associated substrate (EFS) gene as a blood-specific epigenetic marker and its potential application in forensic casework.

    PubMed

    Vidaki, Athina; Johansson, Cecilia; Giangasparo, Federica

    2017-07-01

    DNA methylation patterns have the ability to reveal the activities of genes within a certain tissue at a particular time point. Tissue-specific DNA methylation patterns have been previously investigated for their applicability in the identification of forensically relevant body fluids, however there is still a lack in robust markers. While following a genome-wide scale investigation has a great potential to reveal useful tissue-specific changes, a gene-targeted approach can also lead to significant outcomes, especially in genomic locations not included in the genome-wide experiments. In this study, the potential of the candidate embryonal Fyn-associated substrate (EFS) gene for the positive identification of whole blood was investigated. For this purpose, the methylation profile of a selected genomic region containing a total of 10 CpG sites was analysed in 124 individuals via bisulfite pyrosequencing. Volunteers donated various forensically relevant tissues, including whole blood, saliva, seminal fluid, vaginal fluid and menstrual secretion. Whole blood showed the highest levels of DNA methylation (mean=0.67), while semen samples were found to be very low methylated (mean=0.06). The remaining tissues demonstrated partial mean methylation levels; more specifically, saliva - 0.43, vaginal fluid - 0.22 and menstrual blood - 0.22. One out of the 10 analysed CpG sites, CpG4, showed to be more robust, resulting in not only the highest methylation difference between blood and the rest of the tissues, but also the lowest inter-individual methylation difference. The proposed pyrosequencing assay was found to be accurate, linear and reproducible. Lastly, the method's applicability to forensic casework was assessed via the analysis of very old bloodstains stored up to 18 years, blood DNA samples stored long-term up to 9 years, mixed stains as well as other 'forensic-like' samples. In the majority of cases the expected methylation ratios were obtained indicating a stable DNA

  9. [Forensic entomology].

    PubMed

    Açikgöz, Halide Nihal

    2010-01-01

    Odour of the animal or human corpses immediately after death is very attractive for insects and other invertebrates. Blue and green bottle flies from the Calliphoridae family are the first colonizers of cadaver and immediately later necrophagous Diptera from the Sarcophagidae family settle on the same corpse. It is essential to determine the time past after death for elucidating the event in case of the homicide or suspicious death, and it is directly proportional to the post mortem interval expected time, which is based upon the speed of the larval growth. In this article, we purposed to stress the special interest of forensic entomology for the scientists who will apply this science in their forensic researches and case studies, and also to provide information to our judges, prosecutors and law enforcement agents in order to consider the entomological samples to be reliable and applicable evidences as biological stains and hairs. We are of the opinion that if any forensic entomologist is called to the crime scene or if the evidences are collected and then delivered to an entomologist, the forensic cases will be elucidated faster and more accurately.

  10. Forensic microbiology.

    PubMed

    Lehman, Donald C

    2012-01-01

    The field of forensic microbiology is fairly new and still evolving. With a threat of bioterror and biocrime, the rapid identification and subtyping of infectious agents is of upmost importance. Microbial genetic analysis is a valuable tool in this arena. The cost to sequence a microbial genome has fallen dramatically in recent years making this method more widely available. Surveillance and vigilance are important as is further research. The United States Department of Homeland Security established the Bioforensics Analysis Center to become the foremost U.S. biodefense research institution involved with bioforensics. Many countries are better prepared for biologic events than ever before, but more work is needed. Most medical laboratory scientists are not familiar with forensic principles or testifying in court. Demonstrating chain of custody and quality assurance are critical so that test results will be admissible in a court of law. The Scientific Working Group on Microbial Genetics and Forensics has published guidelines for forensic microbiology laboratories. Incorporating these guidelines help to provide test results that are useful in legal proceedings. If a laboratory scientist suspects bioterror or biocrime, or other legal case, law enforcement agents must be notified and diagnostic samples preserved. Additional sample testing might be necessary in court cases.

  11. Life history data on the fly parasitoids Aleochara nigra Kraatz and A. asiatica Kraatz (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae), and their potential application in forensic entomology.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shou-Wang; Shiao, Shiuh-Feng

    2013-10-10

    Knowledge of the developmental time of the immature stages of necrophagous flies has been the main tool for estimating minimum post-mortem intervals (min PMIs) in forensic entomology. Many parasitic insects can alter the development of immature stages of flies and thus affect min PMI estimates. The larvae of most species of Aleochara rove beetles are ectoparasitoids of the pupae of cyclorrhapha flies. Among them, some species that parasitise necrophagous flies may have forensic importance. Two Taiwanese Aleochara species, A. nigra and A. asiatica, which visit carrion sites were studied herein. All five necrophagous (Hemipyrellia ligurriens, Lucilia cuprina, Chrysomya megacephala, C. rufifacies and sarcophagid sp.) and one non-necrophagous fly species (Bactrocera dorsalis) we examined have the potential to be parasitised by these two Aleochara species, but differences among the acceptability and suitability of these hosts to rove beetle species suggested that rove beetles may prefer specific hosts. Each stage of the beetle life history was recorded to estimate developmental durations at six different temperatures. The larval stage together with the pupal stage of both beetle species was longer than the pupal stages of their hosts, implying the possibility of elongating the min PMI estimation. In addition, the host weight and larval duration of these two Aleochara beetles were positively correlated; thus, potential applications can be expected when using parasitised fly pupae in min PMI estimations.

  12. Potential relationship between single nucleotide polymorphisms used in forensic genetics and diseases or other traits in European population.

    PubMed

    Pombar-Gomez, Maria; Lopez-Lopez, Elixabet; Martin-Guerrero, Idoia; Garcia-Orad Carles, Africa; de Pancorbo, Marian M

    2015-05-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are an interesting option to facilitate the analysis of highly degraded DNA by allowing the reduction of the size of the DNA amplicons. The SNPforID 52-plex panel is a clear example of the use of non-coding SNPs in forensic genetics. However, nonstop advances in studies of genetic polymorphisms are leading to the discovery of new associations between SNPs and diseases. The aim of this study was to perform a comprehensive review of the state of association between the 52 SNPs in the 52-plex panel and diseases or other traits related to their treatment, such as drug response characters. In order to achieve this goal, we have conducted a bioinformatic search for each SNP included in the panel and the SNPs in linkage disequilibrium (LD) with them in the European population (r (2)  > 0.8). A total of 424 SNPs (52 in the panel and 372 in LD) were investigated in PubMed, Scopus, and dbSNP databases. Our results show that three SNPs in the SNPforID 52-plex panel (rs2107612, rs1979255, rs1463729) have been associated with diseases such as hypertension or macular degeneration, as well as drug response. Similarly, three out of the 372 SNPs in LD (rs2107614, r (2)  = 0.859; rs765250, r (2)  = 0.858; rs11064560, r (2)  = 0,887) are also associated with various pathologies. In view of these results, we propose the need for a periodic review of the SNPs used in forensic genetics in order to keep their associations with diseases or related phenotypes updated and to evaluate their continuity in forensic panels for avoiding legal and ethical conflicts.

  13. Liability Implications of Forensics Program Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voight, Philip A.; Ward, Courtney E.

    Forensics program administration raises a number of troubling liability concerns. The potential liability exposure of forensics administrators may vastly exceed the litigation risks that arise as a result of ordinary teaching duties. Potential liability exposure may result from the failure of program directors to act in accordance with college or…

  14. [Forensic anthropology].

    PubMed

    Lynnerup, Niels

    2009-09-07

    Forensic anthropology is the application of biological or physical anthropology in the service of justice. One main area is the analysis of human remains. Such analyses involve person identification by assessment of age and sex of the deceased, and comparison with ante-mortem data. Another major area is the analysis of surveillance pictures and videos. Such analyses may comprise facial and bodily morphological comparisons, multi-angle photogrammetry and gait analysis. We also perform studies of human remains for archaeologists.

  15. Forensic historiography: narratives and science.

    PubMed

    Drukteinis, Albert M

    2014-01-01

    Psychiatrists function, in part, as historians who rely on patient narratives to help them understand presenting mental disorders and explain their causes. Forensic psychiatrists have been skeptical of using narratives, raising concerns about their lack of objectivity and potential for bias. They also have criticized narratives as being more performative than scientific. Recent authors, however, have pointed out that narratives may be helpful in forming forensic opinions and supporting oral testimony, while stressing that their use must be consistent with the ethics espoused by forensic psychiatry. This article reviews the role of narratives in understanding human events and the ubiquitous presence of narratives in the judicial process. It delves into the inescapability of using explicit or implicit narratives in the course of forensic practice, as well as how they may be meaningfully incorporated into evaluations and find expression alongside scientific principles. © 2014 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.

  16. The role of micro-computed tomography in forensic investigations.

    PubMed

    Rutty, G N; Brough, A; Biggs, M J P; Robinson, C; Lawes, S D A; Hainsworth, S V

    2013-02-10

    The use of micro-CT within forensic practice remains an emerging technology, principally due to its current limited availability to forensic practitioners. This review provides those with little or no previous experience of the potential roles of micro-CT in forensic practice with an illustrated overview of the technology, and the areas of practice in which micro-CT can potentially be applied to enhance forensic investigations.

  17. Forensic geomorphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruffell, Alastair; McKinley, Jennifer

    2014-02-01

    Geomorphology plays a critical role in two areas of geoforensics: searching the land for surface or buried objects and sampling scenes of crime and control locations as evidence. Associated geoscience disciplines have substantial bodies of work dedicated to their relevance in forensic investigations, yet geomorphology (specifically landforms, their mapping and evolution, soils and relationship to geology and biogeography) have not had similar public exposure. This is strange considering how fundamental to legal enquiries the location of a crime and its evolution are, as this article will demonstrate. This work aims to redress the balance by showing how geomorphology featured in one of the earliest works on forensic science methods, and has continued to play a role in the sociology, archaeology, criminalistics and geoforensics of crime. Traditional landscape interpretation from aerial photography is used to demonstrate how a geomorphological approach saved police time in the search for a clandestine grave. The application geomorphology has in military/humanitarian geography and environmental/engineering forensics is briefly discussed as these are also regularly reviewed in courts of law.

  18. Cognitive neuroscience in forensic science: understanding and utilizing the human element

    PubMed Central

    Dror, Itiel E.

    2015-01-01

    The human element plays a critical role in forensic science. It is not limited only to issues relating to forensic decision-making, such as bias, but also relates to most aspects of forensic work (some of which even take place before a crime is ever committed or long after the verification of the forensic conclusion). In this paper, I explicate many aspects of forensic work that involve the human element and therefore show the relevance (and potential contribution) of cognitive neuroscience to forensic science. The 10 aspects covered in this paper are proactive forensic science, selection during recruitment, training, crime scene investigation, forensic decision-making, verification and conflict resolution, reporting, the role of the forensic examiner, presentation in court and judicial decisions. As the forensic community is taking on the challenges introduced by the realization that the human element is critical for forensic work, new opportunities emerge that allow for considerable improvement and enhancement of the forensic science endeavour. PMID:26101281

  19. Cognitive neuroscience in forensic science: understanding and utilizing the human element.

    PubMed

    Dror, Itiel E

    2015-08-05

    The human element plays a critical role in forensic science. It is not limited only to issues relating to forensic decision-making, such as bias, but also relates to most aspects of forensic work (some of which even take place before a crime is ever committed or long after the verification of the forensic conclusion). In this paper, I explicate many aspects of forensic work that involve the human element and therefore show the relevance (and potential contribution) of cognitive neuroscience to forensic science. The 10 aspects covered in this paper are proactive forensic science, selection during recruitment, training, crime scene investigation, forensic decision-making, verification and conflict resolution, reporting, the role of the forensic examiner, presentation in court and judicial decisions. As the forensic community is taking on the challenges introduced by the realization that the human element is critical for forensic work, new opportunities emerge that allow for considerable improvement and enhancement of the forensic science endeavour.

  20. Multimedia Forensics Is Not Computer Forensics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böhme, Rainer; Freiling, Felix C.; Gloe, Thomas; Kirchner, Matthias

    The recent popularity of research on topics of multimedia forensics justifies reflections on the definition of the field. This paper devises an ontology that structures forensic disciplines by their primary domain of evidence. In this sense, both multimedia forensics and computer forensics belong to the class of digital forensics, but they differ notably in the underlying observer model that defines the forensic investigator’s view on (parts of) reality, which itself is not fully cognizable. Important consequences on the reliability of probative facts emerge with regard to available counter-forensic techniques: while perfect concealment of traces is possible for computer forensics, this level of certainty cannot be expected for manipulations of sensor data. We cite concrete examples and refer to established techniques to support our arguments.

  1. Specifying digital forensics: A forensics policy approach

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Carol Louise; Popovsky, Barbara; Frincke, Deborah A.

    2007-09-01

    In this paper we present an approach to digital forensics specification based on forensic policy definition. Our methodology borrows from computer security policy specification, which has accumulated a significant body of research over the past 30 years. We first define the process of specifying forensics properties through a forensics policy and then present an example application of the process. This approach lends itself to formal policy specification and verification, which would allow for more clarity and less ambiguity in the specification process

  2. Acanthopanax senticosus: review of botany, chemistry and pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Huang, Linzhang; Zhao, Hongfang; Huang, Baokang; Zheng, Chengjian; Peng, Wei; Qin, Luping

    2011-02-01

    Acanthopanax senticosus (Rupr. et Maxim) Harms (Araliaceae), also called Siberian Ginseng, Eleutherococcus senticosus, and Ciwujia in Chinese, is a widely used traditional Chinese herb that could invigorate qi, strengthen the spleen, and nourish kidney in the theory of Traditional Chinese Medicine. With high medicinal value, Acanthopanax senticosus (AS, thereafter) is popularly used as an "adaptogen" like Panax ginseng. In recent decades, a great number of chemical, pharmacological, and clinical studies on AS have been carried out worldwide. Several kinds of chemical compounds have been reported, including triterpenoid saponins, lignans, coumarins, and flavones, among which, phenolic compounds such as syringin and eleutheroside E, were considered to be the most active components. Considerable pharmacological experiments both in vitro and in vivo have persuasively demonstrated that AS possessed anti-stress, antiulcer, anti-irradiation, anticancer, anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective activities, etc. The present review is an up-to-date and comprehensive analysis of the botany, chemistry, pharmacology, toxicity and clinical trials of AS.

  3. World of Forensic Laboratory Testing

    MedlinePlus

    ... services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities The World of Forensic Laboratory Testing Share this page: Was this page helpful? Overview | Forensic Pathology | Forensic Toxicology | Genetic Tests and DNA Typing | ...

  4. Forensic toxicology.

    PubMed

    Drummer, Olaf H

    2010-01-01

    Forensic toxicology has developed as a forensic science in recent years and is now widely used to assist in death investigations, in civil and criminal matters involving drug use, in drugs of abuse testing in correctional settings and custodial medicine, in road and workplace safety, in matters involving environmental pollution, as well as in sports doping. Drugs most commonly targeted include amphetamines, benzodiazepines, cannabis, cocaine and the opiates, but can be any other illicit substance or almost any over-the-counter or prescribed drug, as well as poisons available to the community. The discipline requires high level skills in analytical techniques with a solid knowledge of pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. Modern techniques rely heavily on immunoassay screening analyses and mass spectrometry (MS) for confirmatory analyses using either high-performance liquid chromatography or gas chromatography as the separation technique. Tandem MS has become more and more popular compared to single-stage MS. It is essential that analytical systems are fully validated and fit for the purpose and the assay batches are monitored with quality controls. External proficiency programs monitor both the assay and the personnel performing the work. For a laboratory to perform optimally, it is vital that the circumstances and context of the case are known and the laboratory understands the limitations of the analytical systems used, including drug stability. Drugs and poisons can change concentration postmortem due to poor or unequal quality of blood and other specimens, anaerobic metabolism and redistribution. The latter provides the largest handicap in the interpretation of postmortem results.

  5. Forensic entomology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amendt, Jens; Krettek, Roman; Zehner, Richard

    Necrophagous insects are important in the decomposition of cadavers. The close association between insects and corpses and the use of insects in medicocriminal investigations is the subject of forensic entomology. The present paper reviews the historical background of this discipline, important postmortem processes, and discusses the scientific basis underlying attempts to determine the time interval since death. Using medical techniques, such as the measurement of body temperature or analysing livor and rigor mortis, time since death can only be accurately measured for the first two or three days after death. In contrast, by calculating the age of immature insect stages feeding on a corpse and analysing the necrophagous species present, postmortem intervals from the first day to several weeks can be estimated. These entomological methods may be hampered by difficulties associated with species identification, but modern DNA techniques are contributing to the rapid and authoritative identification of necrophagous insects. Other uses of entomological data include the toxicological examination of necrophagous larvae from a corpse to identify and estimate drugs and toxicants ingested by the person when alive and the proof of possible postmortem manipulations. Forensic entomology may even help in investigations dealing with people who are alive but in need of care, by revealing information about cases of neglect.

  6. Microbes as forensic indicators.

    PubMed

    Alan, G; Sarah, J P

    2012-09-01

    The forensic potential of microorganisms is becoming increasingly apparent as a consequence of advances in molecular sciences and genomics. This review discusses instances in which microbes, and in particular bacteria, can impact upon forensic investigations. There is increasing evidence that humans have an extremely diverse 'microbiome' that may prove useful in determining ethnicity, country of origin, and even personal identity. The human microbiome differs between regions of the body and may prove useful for determining the nature of stains such as those caused by saliva and vaginal fluid: it may even be possible to link the stains to the person responsible for them. Similarly, the composition of the microbiome present in a soil sample may prove a useful indicator of geographic origin or as a means of linking people, animals, or objects together or to a specific location. Microorganisms are important in the decay process and also influence the presence and concentration of alcohol, drugs, and other chemicals of forensic relevance. There is also a possibility that the entry of microorganisms into the body during the agonal period may prove useful for the diagnosis of drowning. The transmission of infectious diseases, and in particular sexually-transmitted diseases, can provide evidence linking a victim and a suspect. Microorganisms that cause fatal infections are not always identified at the time of death and may lead to the death being considered 'suspicious'. If a fatal infection can be linked to a hospital or medical procedure it can lead to prosecutions and therefore it is important to determine when and where an infection was acquired. Similarly, naturally acquired infections need to be distinguished from those that result from malicious transmission. Microorganisms can therefore provide evidence in many different forensic scenarios but most of the work is still at the experimental stage and there are therefore many opportunities for further research.

  7. The voice of American botanists: the founding and establishment of the American Journal of Botany, "American botany," and the Great War (1906-1935).

    PubMed

    Smocovitis, Vassiliki Betty

    2014-03-01

    This paper examines the crucial early history of the American Journal of Botany from the years following the founding of the Botanical Society of America in 1906 to the termination of the agreement for publication with the Brooklyn Botanic Garden in 1935. It examines the efforts of individuals like F. C. Newcombe, who did the most to raise support for the journal and became the first Editor-in-Chief, in the context of the growing numbers of professional botanists and plant scientists who were actively engaged in research requiring appropriate publication venues and in the process of forming an independent identity as "American botanists." It also examines the launching of the journal in the context of the Great War in Europe and the transition from German botany to American botany in the second decade of the 20th century.

  8. The discrimination potential of diffuse-reflectance ultraviolet-visible-near infrared spectrophotometry for the forensic analysis of paper.

    PubMed

    Causin, Valerio; Casamassima, Rosario; Marruncheddu, Gaia; Lenzoni, Gioia; Peluso, Giuseppe; Ripani, Luigi

    2012-03-10

    The application of diffuse reflectance UV-VIS-NIR spectroscopy is proposed to differentiate 20 office paper samples, which had been deemed similar by a preliminary visual examination under several different lighting sources. The samples were firstly screened on the basis of the qualitative appearance of their spectra. A further discrimination was obtained by taking into account three parameters: the average reflectivity of the paper samples in the range 680-900nm, and the integrated intensity of the absorption peak in the UV range at 272nm and at 360nm. The homogeneity of these parameters on both sides of the paper sheets was assessed, detecting a very uniform distribution of the optical brighteners. A special focus was posed on the determination of the discriminative power, in order to give a quantitative parameter on the proposed procedure, which is important when reporting results to the Court. The remarkable achievement of differentiating all the examined samples was obtained by UV-VIS spectroscopy, a very less expensive technique which is readily available in practically all forensic laboratories.

  9. Forensic potential of the STR DXYS156 in Mexican populations: inference of X-linked allele null.

    PubMed

    Torres-Rodríguez, M; Martínez-Cortes, G; Páez-Riberos, L A; Sandoval, L; Muñoz-Valle, J F; Ceballos-Quintal, J M; Pinto-Escalante, D; Rangel-Villalobos, H

    2006-01-01

    The pentanucleotide STR (TAAAA)n DXYS156 offers advantages for genetic identity testing. In addition to establish the gender, DXYS156 expands the DNA profile and is able to indicate the possible geographic origin of the individual. We analyzed DXYS156 in 757 individuals of both sexes from Mexican populations. We studied the cosmopolitan Mestizo population and six Mexican ethnic groups: Tarahumaras, Purépechas, Nahuas, Mayas, Huicholes and Mezcala Indians. The six shorter (4-10) and the three larger alleles (11-13) were specific for the X and Y-chromosomes, respectively. A random distribution of alleles into genotypes was observed in males and females from each population. We estimated the power of exclusion for paternity testing according to the son's gender, and the power of discrimination in forensic casework. In addition, we detected a relatively high frequency of an X-linked allele null, principally in Mexican-Mestizos (3.6%), which must be considered when DXYS156 be applied for identification purposes.

  10. Bright Veins in Botany Bay on rim of Endeavour Crater on Mars

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-01

    Bright veins cutting across outcrop in a section of Endeavour crater rim called Botany Bay are visible in the foreground and middle distance of this view from NASA Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity on sol 2,681 Aug. 9, 2011.

  11. Ethno – Medico – Botany of Chenchus of Mahaboobnagar District, Andhra Pradesh

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, T. Dharmachandra; Pullaiah, T.

    1999-01-01

    The present paper deals with the ethno-medico-botany of Chenchus of Mahaboobnagar district, Andhra Pradesh. About fourty four plants are enumerated with knowledge of the tribals for their medicinal uses in curing different diseases and ailments. PMID:22556915

  12. The Potential Use of Forensic DNA Methods Applied to Sand Fly Blood Meal Analysis to Identify the Infection Reservoirs of Anthroponotic Visceral Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Inbar, Ehud; Lawyer, Philip; Sacks, David; Podini, Daniele

    2016-01-01

    Background In the Indian sub-continent, visceral leishmaniasis (VL), also known as kala azar, is a fatal form of leishmaniasis caused by the kinetoplastid parasite Leishmania donovani and transmitted by the sand fly Phlebotomus argentipes. VL is prevalent in northeast India where it is believed to have an exclusive anthroponotic transmission cycle. There are four distinct cohorts of L. donovani exposed individuals who can potentially serve as infection reservoirs: patients with active disease, cured VL cases, patients with post kala azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL), and asymptomatic individuals. The relative contribution of each group to sustaining the transmission cycle of VL is not known. Methodology/Principal Findings To answer this critical epidemiological question, we have addressed the feasibility of an approach that would use forensic DNA methods to recover human DNA profiles from the blood meals of infected sand flies that would then be matched to reference DNA sampled from individuals living or working in the vicinity of the sand fly collections. We found that the ability to obtain readable human DNA fingerprints from sand flies depended entirely on the size of the blood meal and the kinetics of its digestion. Useable profiles were obtained from most flies within the first 24 hours post blood meal (PBM), with a sharp decline at 48 hours and no readable profiles at 72 hours. This early time frame necessitated development of a sensitive, nested-PCR method compatible with detecting L. donovani within a fresh, 24 hours blood meal in flies fed on infected hamsters. Conclusion/Significance Our findings establish the feasibility of the forensic DNA method to directly trace the human source of an infected blood meal, with constraints imposed by the requirement that the flies be recovered for analysis within 24 hours of their infective feed. PMID:27192489

  13. The Potential Use of Forensic DNA Methods Applied to Sand Fly Blood Meal Analysis to Identify the Infection Reservoirs of Anthroponotic Visceral Leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Inbar, Ehud; Lawyer, Philip; Sacks, David; Podini, Daniele

    2016-05-01

    In the Indian sub-continent, visceral leishmaniasis (VL), also known as kala azar, is a fatal form of leishmaniasis caused by the kinetoplastid parasite Leishmania donovani and transmitted by the sand fly Phlebotomus argentipes. VL is prevalent in northeast India where it is believed to have an exclusive anthroponotic transmission cycle. There are four distinct cohorts of L. donovani exposed individuals who can potentially serve as infection reservoirs: patients with active disease, cured VL cases, patients with post kala azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL), and asymptomatic individuals. The relative contribution of each group to sustaining the transmission cycle of VL is not known. To answer this critical epidemiological question, we have addressed the feasibility of an approach that would use forensic DNA methods to recover human DNA profiles from the blood meals of infected sand flies that would then be matched to reference DNA sampled from individuals living or working in the vicinity of the sand fly collections. We found that the ability to obtain readable human DNA fingerprints from sand flies depended entirely on the size of the blood meal and the kinetics of its digestion. Useable profiles were obtained from most flies within the first 24 hours post blood meal (PBM), with a sharp decline at 48 hours and no readable profiles at 72 hours. This early time frame necessitated development of a sensitive, nested-PCR method compatible with detecting L. donovani within a fresh, 24 hours blood meal in flies fed on infected hamsters. Our findings establish the feasibility of the forensic DNA method to directly trace the human source of an infected blood meal, with constraints imposed by the requirement that the flies be recovered for analysis within 24 hours of their infective feed.

  14. INTRINSIC DOSIMETRY OF GLASS CONTAINERS USED TO TRANSPORT NUCLEAR MATERIALS: Potential Implications to the Field of Nuclear Forensics

    SciTech Connect

    Schwantes, Jon M.; Miller, Steven D.; Piper, Roman K.; Murphy, Mark K.; Amonette, James E.; Bonde, Steven E.; Duckworth, Douglas C.

    2008-09-15

    Thermoluminescence (TL) and Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) dosimetry were used to measure dose effects in borosilicate glass with time, from 10 minutes to ~60 days following exposure to a dose of up to 10,000 Rad. TL and EPR results were consistent and performed similarly, with both techniques capable of achieving an estimated limit of detection of between 50-100 Rad. Three peaks were identified in the TL glow curve at roughly 110oC, 205oC, and 225oC. The intensity of the 205oC peak was the dominant peak over the time period of this study. The stability of all of the peaks with time since irradiation increased with their corresponding temperature and little or no variation was observed in the glow curve response to a specified total dose attained at different dose rates. The intensity of the 205oC peak decreased logarithmically with time regardless of total dose. Based upon a conservative limit of detection of 330 Rad, a 10,000 Rad dose would still be detected 2.7E3 years after exposure. This paper introduces the concept of intrinsic dosimetry, the consideration of a measured dose received to container walls in concert with the physical characteristics of the radioactive material contained inside those walls, as a method for gathering rather unique pathway information about the history of that sample. Three hypothetical scenarios are presented to introduce this method and to illustrate how intrinsic dosimetry might benefit the fields of nuclear forensics and waste management.

  15. A brief history of forensic odontology and disaster victim identification practices in Australia.

    PubMed

    Taylor, J

    2009-12-01

    Today we consider forensic odontology to be a specialised and reliable method of identification of the deceased, particularly in multiple fatality incidents. While this reputation has been gained from the application of forensic odontology in both single identification and disaster situations over a number of years, the professional nature of the discipline and its practices have evolved only recently. This paper summarises some of early uses of forensic odontology internationally and in Australia and discusses the development of both forensic odontology and Disaster Victim Identification (DVI) practices in each of the states and territories of Australia. The earliest accounts of the use of forensic odontology in Australia date to the 1920's and 30's, and were characterised by inexperienced practitioners and little procedural formality. An organised and semi-formal service commenced in most states during the 1960's although its use by police forces was spasmodic. Today the service provided by qualified and experienced forensic odontologists is highly professional and regularly utilised by police and coronial services. The development of DVI Practices in Australia began following the crash of a Vickers Viscount aircraft into Botany Bay in 1961 and, as with practices internationally, have evolved into an equally professional and reliable specialist discipline of policing in which forensic odontology plays a significant part.

  16. The plant microbiome explored: implications for experimental botany

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, Gabriele; Rybakova, Daria; Grube, Martin; Köberl, Martina

    2015-11-07

    The importance of microbial root inhabitants for plant growth and health was recognized as early as 100 years ago. Recent insights reveal a close symbiotic relationship between plants and their associated microorganisms, and high structural and functional diversity within plant microbiomes. Plants provide microbial communities with specific habitats, which can be broadly categorized as the rhizosphere, phyllosphere, and endosphere. Plant-associated microbes interact with their host in essential functional contexts. They can stimulate germination and growth, help plants fend off disease, promote stress resistance, and influence plant fitness. Therefore, plants have to be considered as metaorganisms within which the associated microbes usually outnumber the cells belonging to the plant host. The structure of the plant microbiome is determined by biotic and abiotic factors but follows ecological rules. Metaorganisms are coevolved species assemblages. The metabolism and morphology of plants and their microbiota are intensively connected with each other, and the interplay of both maintains the functioning and fitness of the holobiont. Our study of the current literature shows that analysis of plant microbiome data has brought about a paradigm shift in our understanding of the diverse structure and functioning of the plant microbiome with respect to the following: (i) the high interplay of bacteria, archaea, fungi, and protists; (ii) the high specificity even at cultivar level; (iii) the vertical transmission of core microbiomes; (iv) the extraordinary function of endophytes; and (v) several unexpected functions and metabolic interactions. The plant microbiome should be recognized as an additional factor in experimental botany and breeding strategies.

  17. Information Assurance and Forensic Readiness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pangalos, Georgios; Katos, Vasilios

    Egalitarianism and justice are amongst the core attributes of a democratic regime and should be also secured in an e-democratic setting. As such, the rise of computer related offenses pose a threat to the fundamental aspects of e-democracy and e-governance. Digital forensics are a key component for protecting and enabling the underlying (e-)democratic values and therefore forensic readiness should be considered in an e-democratic setting. This position paper commences from the observation that the density of compliance and potential litigation activities is monotonically increasing in modern organizations, as rules, legislative regulations and policies are being constantly added to the corporate environment. Forensic practices seem to be departing from the niche of law enforcement and are becoming a business function and infrastructural component, posing new challenges to the security professionals. Having no a priori knowledge on whether a security related event or corporate policy violation will lead to litigation, we advocate that computer forensics need to be applied to all investigatory, monitoring and auditing activities. This would result into an inflation of the responsibilities of the Information Security Officer. After exploring some commonalities and differences between IS audit and computer forensics, we present a list of strategic challenges the organization and, in effect, the IS security and audit practitioner will face.

  18. Terminology and forensic gait analysis.

    PubMed

    Birch, Ivan; Vernon, Wesley; Walker, Jeremy; Young, Maria

    2015-07-01

    The use of appropriate terminology is a fundamental aspect of forensic gait analysis. The language used in forensic gait analysis is an amalgam of that used in clinical practice, podiatric biomechanics and the wider field of biomechanics. The result can often be a lack of consistency in the language used, the definitions used and the clarity of the message given. Examples include the use of 'gait' and 'walking' as synonymous terms, confusion between 'step' and 'stride', the mixing of anatomical, positional and pathological descriptors, and inability to describe appropriately movements of major body segments such as the torso. The purpose of this paper is to share the well-established definitions of the fundamental parameters of gait, common to all professions, and advocate their use in forensic gait analysis to establish commonality. The paper provides guidance on the selection and use of appropriate terminology in the description of gait in the forensic context. This paper considers the established definitions of the terms commonly used, identifies those terms which have the potential to confuse readers, and suggests a framework of terminology which should be utilised in forensic gait analysis.

  19. Bayesian Integrated Microbial Forensics

    SciTech Connect

    Jarman, Kristin H.; Kreuzer-Martin, Helen W.; Wunschel, David S.; Valentine, Nancy B.; Cliff, John B.; Petersen, Catherine E.; Colburn, Heather A.; Wahl, Karen L.

    2008-06-01

    In the aftermath of the 2001 anthrax letters, researchers have been exploring ways to predict the production environment of unknown source microorganisms. Different mass spectral techniques are being developed to characterize components of a microbe’s culture medium including water, carbon and nitrogen sources, metal ions added, and the presence of agar. Individually, each technique has the potential to identify one or two ingredients in a culture medium recipe. However, by integrating data from multiple mass spectral techniques, a more complete characterization is possible. We present a Bayesian statistical approach to integrated microbial forensics and illustrate its application on spores grown in different culture media.

  20. Integrating Forensic Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Funkhouser, John; Deslich, Barbara J.

    2000-01-01

    Explains the implementation of forensic science in an integrated curriculum and discusses the advantages of this approach. Lists the forensic science course syllabi studied in three high schools. Discusses the unit on polymers in detail. (YDS)

  1. Integrating Forensic Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Funkhouser, John; Deslich, Barbara J.

    2000-01-01

    Explains the implementation of forensic science in an integrated curriculum and discusses the advantages of this approach. Lists the forensic science course syllabi studied in three high schools. Discusses the unit on polymers in detail. (YDS)

  2. Thematic Issue: Forensics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjamin, James B., Ed.

    1977-01-01

    The 18 essays in this journal issue provide insight into the theory, issues and practice of forensics. They consider the following topics: an agenda for forensics education; problems of forensics in the United States today; improvement of debate practice and teaching; rhetorical dimensions of argumentation; use of speeches as an instructional…

  3. The plant microbiome explored: implications for experimental botany

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Gabriele; Rybakova, Daria; Grube, Martin; Köberl, Martina

    2017-01-01

    The importance of microbial root inhabitants for plant growth and health was recognized as early as 100 years ago. Recent insights reveal a close symbiotic relationship between plants and their associated microorganisms, and high structural and functional diversity within plant microbiomes. Plants provide microbial communities with specific habitats, which can be broadly categorized as the rhizosphere, phyllosphere, and endosphere. Plant-associated microbes interact with their host in essential functional contexts. They can stimulate germination and growth, help plants fend off disease, promote stress resistance, and influence plant fitness. Therefore, plants have to be considered as metaorganisms within which the associated microbes usually outnumber the cells belonging to the plant host. The structure of the plant microbiome is determined by biotic and abiotic factors but follows ecological rules. Metaorganisms are co-evolved species assemblages. The metabolism and morphology of plants and their microbiota are intensively connected with each other, and the interplay of both maintains the functioning and fitness of the holobiont. Our study of the current literature shows that analysis of plant microbiome data has brought about a paradigm shift in our understanding of the diverse structure and functioning of the plant microbiome with respect to the following: (i) the high interplay of bacteria, archaea, fungi, and protists; (ii) the high specificity even at cultivar level; (iii) the vertical transmission of core microbiomes; (iv) the extraordinary function of endophytes; and (v) several unexpected functions and metabolic interactions. The plant microbiome should be recognized as an additional factor in experimental botany and breeding strategies. PMID:26547794

  4. Trace metals in oysters and sediments of Botany Bay, Sydney.

    PubMed

    Hayes, W J; Anderson, I J; Gaffoor, M Z; Hurtado, J

    1998-03-05

    Trace metal concentrations (Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn) in Sydney rock oysters (Sacostera commercialis) and sediments (< 53 microns fraction) were determined for six sites in the northern regions of Botany Bay. Levels for lead, cadmium, copper and zinc in oysters ranged (in microgram g-1) from 1.38 to 15.3, 1.81 to 16.3, 56.1 to 212 and 1806 to 2902, respectively. In sediments, levels ranged (in microgram g-1) from 599 to 4081, 3.57 to 91.0, 191 to 1113 and 227 to 1472, respectively. Such values indicated high levels of contamination, especially in the sediments. Indeed, high proportions of the samples displayed metal concentrations that exceeded the prescribed limits for oysters and sediments. No significant correlations in metal concentrations were found between oysters and sediments, suggesting that changes in the sediment metal loading are not solely influencing the levels of bioavailable metal. The results supported the conclusion that different rates and mechanisms of metal accumulation are taking place in the two types of samples. Variability between sites was high, particularly for oysters. Multidimensional scaling identified that the Cooks River (site 3) and La Perouse (site 6) sites were most dissimilar, both to each other as well as to the other four sites. This was a reflection of high contamination in the Cooks River and the generally low levels in the La Perouse reference sample. The configuration was mainly influenced by the sediment parameters, rather than the oyster metal concentrations, indicating the sediment data were better for identifying site similarities. These ordinations provide evidence of the usefulness of multidimensional scaling in elucidating the physico-chemical variability of the sampling sites.

  5. On New Spain and Mexican medicinal botany in cardiology.

    PubMed

    de Micheli-Serra, Alfredo Alessandro; Izaguirre-Ávila, Raúl

    2014-01-01

    Towards the middle of the XVI century, the empirical physician Martín de la Cruz, in New Spain, compiled a catalogue of the local medicinal herbs and plants, which was translated into Latin by Juan Badiano, professor at the Franciscan college of Tlatelolco. On his side, Dr. Francisco Hernández, the royal physician (protomédico) from 1571 until 1577, performed a systematic study of the flora and fauna in this period. His notes and designs were not published at that time, but two epitomes of Hernández' works appeared, respectively, in 1615 in Mexico and in 1651 in Rome. During the XVIII century, two Spanish scientific expeditions arrived to these lands. They were led, respectively, by the Spanish naturalist Martín Sessé and the Italian seaman, Alessandro Malaspina di Mulazzo, dependent from the Spanish Government. These expeditions collected and carried rich scientific material to Spain. At the end of that century, the Franciscan friar Juan Navarro depicted and described several Mexican medicinal plants in the fifth volume of his botanic work. In the last years of the colonial period, the fundamental works of Humboldt and Bonpland on the geographic distribution of the American plants were published. In the modern age, the first research about the Mexican medicinal botany was performed in the laboratory of the Instituto Médico Nacional [National Medical Institute] under the leadership of Dr. Fernando Altamirano, who started pharmacological studies in this country. Later, trials of cardiovascular pharmacology were performed in the small laboratories of the cardiological unit at the General Hospital of Mexico City, on Dr. Ignacio Chávez' initiative. The Mexican botanical-pharmacological tradition persists alive and vigorous at the Instituto Nacional de Cardiología and other scientific institutions of the country.

  6. The plant microbiome explored: implications for experimental botany.

    PubMed

    Berg, Gabriele; Rybakova, Daria; Grube, Martin; Köberl, Martina

    2016-02-01

    The importance of microbial root inhabitants for plant growth and health was recognized as early as 100 years ago. Recent insights reveal a close symbiotic relationship between plants and their associated microorganisms, and high structural and functional diversity within plant microbiomes. Plants provide microbial communities with specific habitats, which can be broadly categorized as the rhizosphere, phyllosphere, and endosphere. Plant-associated microbes interact with their host in essential functional contexts. They can stimulate germination and growth, help plants fend off disease, promote stress resistance, and influence plant fitness. Therefore, plants have to be considered as metaorganisms within which the associated microbes usually outnumber the cells belonging to the plant host. The structure of the plant microbiome is determined by biotic and abiotic factors but follows ecological rules. Metaorganisms are co-evolved species assemblages. The metabolism and morphology of plants and their microbiota are intensively connected with each other, and the interplay of both maintains the functioning and fitness of the holobiont. Our study of the current literature shows that analysis of plant microbiome data has brought about a paradigm shift in our understanding of the diverse structure and functioning of the plant microbiome with respect to the following: (i) the high interplay of bacteria, archaea, fungi, and protists; (ii) the high specificity even at cultivar level; (iii) the vertical transmission of core microbiomes; (iv) the extraordinary function of endophytes; and (v) several unexpected functions and metabolic interactions. The plant microbiome should be recognized as an additional factor in experimental botany and breeding strategies. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Expanding forensic science through forensic intelligence.

    PubMed

    Ribaux, Olivier; Talbot Wright, Benjamin

    2014-12-01

    Research and Development ('R&D') in forensic science currently focuses on innovative technologies improving the efficiency of existing forensic processes, from the detection of marks and traces at the scene, to their presentation in Court. R&D approached from this perspective provides no response to doubts raised by recent criminological studies, which question the effective contribution of forensic science to crime reduction, and to policing in general. Traces (i.e. forensic case data), as remnants of criminal activity are collected and used in various forms of crime monitoring and investigation. The aforementioned doubts therefore need to be addressed by expressing how information is conveyed by traces in these processes. Modelling from this standpoint expands the scope of forensic science and provides new R&D opportunities. Twelve propositions for R&D are stated in order to pave the way.

  8. An evaluation of sex and body weight determination from the proximal femur using DXA technology and its potential for forensic anthropology.

    PubMed

    Wheatley, Bruce P

    2005-01-29

    estimates are too wide to be of much forensic use. The second study examined ethnic differences, Blacks and Whites, and body weight relationships in a larger, all female data set. Statistically significant differences between Blacks and Whites of BMD were found at Ward's triangle. Multiple regression analyses were again run on body weight and various measures of the proximal femur. The results were also broken down by ethnicity. Some body weight relationships were again statistically significant such as between the BMC of the femoral neck and the BMD of the greater trochanter and the BMC of the neck and the minimum neck diameter, but again, the standard error of the estimate is too wide to be of much use. In addition, the square of the correlation coefficient (R2) is very low, for example, below 0.1 in all cases. Thus, there is very little variability in weight that can be accounted for with these variables. DXA technology offers the potential of a living skeletal data bank and of variables that are useful in cause-effect relationships between bone mineralization and skeletal loads.

  9. The microscopic (optical and SEM) examination of dental calculus deposits (DCD). Potential interest in forensic anthropology of a bio-archaeological method.

    PubMed

    Charlier, Philippe; Huynh-Charlier, Isabelle; Munoz, Olivia; Billard, Michel; Brun, Luc; de la Grandmaison, Geoffroy Lorin

    2010-07-01

    This article describes the potential interest in forensic anthropology of the microscopic analysis of dental calculus deposits (DCD), a calcified residue frequently found on the surface of teeth. Its sampling and analysis seem straightforward and relatively reproducible. Samples came from archaeological material (KHB-1 Ra's al-Khabbah and RH-5 Ra's al-Hamra, two Prehistoric graveyards located in the Sultanate of Oman, dated between the 5th and 4th millennium B.C.; Montenzio Vecchia, an Etruscan-Celtic necropolis from the north of Italy, dated between the 5th and 3rd century B.C.; body rests of Agnès Sorel, French royal mistress died in 1450 A.D.; skeleton of Pierre Hazard, French royal notary from the 15th century A.D.). Samples were studies by direct optical microscope (OM) or scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Many cytological, histological and elemental analyses were possible, producing precious data for the identification of these remains, the reconstitution of their alimentation and occupational habits, and propositions for manner of death. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Peer review in forensic science.

    PubMed

    Ballantyne, Kaye N; Edmond, Gary; Found, Bryan

    2017-08-01

    Peer review features prominently in the forensic sciences. Drawing on recent research and studies, this article examines different types of peer review, specifically: editorial peer review; peer review by the scientific community; technical and administrative review; and verification (and replication). The article reviews the different meanings of these quite disparate activities and their utility in relation to enhancing performance and reducing error. It explains how forensic practitioners should approach and use peer review, as well as how it should be described in expert reports and oral testimony. While peer review has considerable potential, and is a key component of modern quality management systems, its actual value in most forensic science settings has yet to be determined. In consequence, forensic practitioners should reflect on why they use specific review procedures and endeavour to make their actual practices and their potential value transparent to consumers; whether investigators, lawyers, jurors or judges. Claims that review increases the validity of a scientific technique or accuracy of opinions within a particular case should be avoided until empirical evidence is available to support such assertions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Caring potentials in the shadows of power, correction, and discipline—Forensic psychiatric care in the light of the work of Michel Foucault

    PubMed Central

    Hörberg, Ulrica; Dahlberg, Karin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to shed light on contemporary forensic psychiatric care through a philosophical examination of the empirical results from two lifeworld phenomenological studies from the perspective of patients and carers, by using the French philosopher Michel Foucault's historical–philosophical work. Both empirical studies were conducted in a forensic psychiatric setting. The essential results of the two empirical studies were reexamined in a phenomenological meaning analysis to form a new general structure in accordance with the methodological principles of Reflective Lifeworld Research. This general structure shows how the caring on the forensic psychiatric wards appears to be contradictory, in that it is characterized by an unreflective (non-)caring attitude and contributes to an inconsistent and insecure existence. The caring appears to have a corrective approach and thus lacks a clear caring structure, a basic caring approach that patients in forensic psychiatric services have a great need of. To gain a greater understanding of forensic psychiatric caring, the new empirical results were further examined in the light of Foucault's historical–philosophical work. The philosophical examination is presented in terms of the three meaning constituents: Caring as correction and discipline, The existence of power, and Structures and culture in care. The philosophical examination illustrates new meaning nuances of the corrective and disciplinary nature of forensic psychiatric care, its power, and how this is materialized in caring, and what this does to the patients. The examination reveals embedded difficulties in forensic psychiatric care and highlights a need to revisit the aim of such care. PMID:26319100

  12. Caring potentials in the shadows of power, correction, and discipline - Forensic psychiatric care in the light of the work of Michel Foucault.

    PubMed

    Hörberg, Ulrica; Dahlberg, Karin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to shed light on contemporary forensic psychiatric care through a philosophical examination of the empirical results from two lifeworld phenomenological studies from the perspective of patients and carers, by using the French philosopher Michel Foucault's historical-philosophical work. Both empirical studies were conducted in a forensic psychiatric setting. The essential results of the two empirical studies were reexamined in a phenomenological meaning analysis to form a new general structure in accordance with the methodological principles of Reflective Lifeworld Research. This general structure shows how the caring on the forensic psychiatric wards appears to be contradictory, in that it is characterized by an unreflective (non-)caring attitude and contributes to an inconsistent and insecure existence. The caring appears to have a corrective approach and thus lacks a clear caring structure, a basic caring approach that patients in forensic psychiatric services have a great need of. To gain a greater understanding of forensic psychiatric caring, the new empirical results were further examined in the light of Foucault's historical-philosophical work. The philosophical examination is presented in terms of the three meaning constituents: Caring as correction and discipline, The existence of power, and Structures and culture in care. The philosophical examination illustrates new meaning nuances of the corrective and disciplinary nature of forensic psychiatric care, its power, and how this is materialized in caring, and what this does to the patients. The examination reveals embedded difficulties in forensic psychiatric care and highlights a need to revisit the aim of such care.

  13. Caring potentials in the shadows of power, correction, and discipline-Forensic psychiatric care in the light of the work of Michel Foucault.

    PubMed

    Hörberg, Ulrica; Dahlberg, Karin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to shed light on contemporary forensic psychiatric care through a philosophical examination of the empirical results from two lifeworld phenomenological studies from the perspective of patients and carers, by using the French philosopher Michel Foucault's historical-philosophical work. Both empirical studies were conducted in a forensic psychiatric setting. The essential results of the two empirical studies were reexamined in a phenomenological meaning analysis to form a new general structure in accordance with the methodological principles of Reflective Lifeworld Research. This general structure shows how the caring on the forensic psychiatric wards appears to be contradictory, in that it is characterized by an unreflective (non-)caring attitude and contributes to an inconsistent and insecure existence. The caring appears to have a corrective approach and thus lacks a clear caring structure, a basic caring approach that patients in forensic psychiatric services have a great need of. To gain a greater understanding of forensic psychiatric caring, the new empirical results were further examined in the light of Foucault's historical-philosophical work. The philosophical examination is presented in terms of the three meaning constituents: Caring as correction and discipline, The existence of power, and Structures and culture in care. The philosophical examination illustrates new meaning nuances of the corrective and disciplinary nature of forensic psychiatric care, its power, and how this is materialized in caring, and what this does to the patients. The examination reveals embedded difficulties in forensic psychiatric care and highlights a need to revisit the aim of such care.

  14. The four faces of microbial forensics.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Jonathan B; Koblentz, Gregory D

    2009-12-01

    The emerging field of microbial forensics played a major role in the investigation of the 2001 anthrax mailings and has been closely associated with the process of attribution, or identifying the perpetrator of a biological attack for purposes of criminal prosecution or military retaliation. Nevertheless, microbial forensics has other potential applications in intelligence, nonproliferation, and verification. This article describes the relevance of microbial forensics for a variety of law enforcement and national security missions, examines the obstacles to its broader use, and concludes with some policy recommendations.

  15. Clinical forensic medicine introduction for healthcare providers.

    PubMed

    Recktenwald, Kathy; Hunsaker, Donna M; Corey, Tracey S; Weakley-Jones, Barbara

    2005-09-01

    Clinical forensic medicine (CFM) is "the application of appropriate forensic practices and principles, heretofore reserved for use by the pathologist at autopsy, to living patients in a clinical setting." "Living forensic" patients include survivors of trauma and potentially catastrophic experiences resulting in injury. CFM arose from "clinically" affirming that not all abuse or assault victims sustain fatal injuries. Appropriate medical documentation and interpretation of physical findings may aid law enforcement and/or social services in the legal evaluation of a case or situation. Additionally, timely collection of pertinent evidence may be performed as the case necessitates.

  16. Unsolicited E-mails to Forensic Psychiatrists.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Susan Hatters; Appel, Jacob M; Ash, Peter; Frierson, Richard L; Giorgi-Guarnieri, Deborah; Martinez, Richard; Newman, Alan W; Pinals, Debra A; Resnick, Phillip J; Simpson, Alexander I F

    2016-12-01

    E-mail communication is pervasive. Since many forensic psychiatrists have their e-mail addresses available online (either on personal websites, university websites, or articles they have authored), they are likely to receive unsolicited e-mails. Although there is an emerging body of literature about exchanging e-mail with patients, there is little guidance about how to respond to e-mails from nonpatients. Therefore, we used a Delphi technique to develop a consensus about salient points for the forensic psychiatrist to consider regarding responding to e-mails from nonpatients and the risks entailed. Four scenarios are described, including e-mails from nonpatients and unknown others requesting advice or help. The potential ethics-related, legal, moral, and practical concerns for forensic psychiatrists are discussed. Finally, potential pitfalls for forensic psychiatrists are described.

  17. Forensic Science Curriculum for High School Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgess, Christiana J.

    Over the last several decades, forensic science---the application of science to civil and criminal legal matters---has become of increasing popularity with the public. The range of disciplines within the field is immense, offering individuals the potential for a unique career, regardless of their specific interests or expertise. In response to this growth, many organizations, both public and private, have recognized the need to create forensic science programs that strive to maintain and enhance the quality of forensic science education. Unfortunately, most of the emphasis placed on developing these materials relates to post-secondary education, and creates a significant lack of forensic science educational materials available in the U.S., especially in Oklahoma. The purpose of this project was to create a high school curriculum that provides the foundation for building a broad, yet comprehensive, overview of the field of forensic science and its associated disciplines. The overall goal was to create and provide course materials to high school teachers in order to increase their knowledge of forensic science such that they are able to teach its disciplines effectively and with accuracy. The Forensic Science Curriculum for High School Students includes sample lesson plans, PowerPoint presentations, and lab activities with step-by-step instructions.

  18. Botany, traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Apocynum venetum L. (Luobuma): A review.

    PubMed

    Xie, Wenyan; Zhang, Xiaoying; Wang, Tian; Hu, Jianjun

    2012-05-07

    Apocynum venetum L. (Apocynaceae, Luobuma ) has a long history as a Chinese traditional medicine with uses to calm the liver, soothe the nerves, dissipate heat, and promote diuresis. Recently, Luobuma tea has been commercialized as a sedative and anti-aging supplement that has become increasingly popular in North American and East Asian health food markets. The aim of this review is to provide an up-to-date and comprehensive overview of the botany, chemical constituents, traditional uses, pharmacological activities and safety aspects of Apocynum venetum in order to assess its ethnopharmacological use and to explore its therapeutic potentials and future opportunities for research. The accessible literature on Apocynum venetum written in English, Chinese and Japanese were collected and analyzed. The literatures included ancient Chinese herbal classics, pharmacopoeias and articles that included in Pubmed, Web of Science, Google Scholar and Wanfang. Modern pharmacological studies demonstrated that Apocynum venetum possess wide pharmacological activities that include antihypertensive, cardiotonic, hepatoprotective, antioxidant, lipid-lowering, antidepressant and anxiolytic effects, which can be explained by the presence of various flavonoid compounds in this plant. The traditional (Lop Nor region) use of Apocynum venetum with tobacco as an agent to detoxify nicotine may receive interest as a possible therapeutic option to detoxify the body from smoking. Based on animal studies and clinical trials, Apocynum venetum causes no severe side effects, even in a stable daily dosage (50mg/person/day) for more than three years. Apocynum venetum potentially has therapeutic potential in the prevention and treatment for the cardiovascular and neurological diseases, especially for high blood pressure, high cholesterol, neurasthenia, depression and anxiety. Further investigations are needed to explore individual bioactive compounds responsible for these in vitro and in vivo

  19. The potential of using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma time of flight mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-TOF-MS) in the forensic analysis of micro debris.

    PubMed

    Scadding, Cameron J; Watling, R John; Thomas, Allen G

    2005-08-15

    The majority of crimes result in the generation of some form of physical evidence, which is available for collection by crime scene investigators or police. However, this debris is often limited in amount as modern criminals become more aware of its potential value to forensic scientists. The requirement to obtain robust evidence from increasingly smaller sized samples has required refinement and modification of old analytical techniques and the development of new ones. This paper describes a new method for the analysis of oxy-acetylene debris, left behind at a crime scene, and the establishment of its co-provenance with single particles of equivalent debris found on the clothing of persons of interest (POI). The ability to rapidly determine and match the elemental distribution patterns of debris collected from crime scenes to those recovered from persons of interest is essential in ensuring successful prosecution. Traditionally, relatively large amounts of sample (up to several milligrams) have been required to obtain a reliable elemental fingerprint of this type of material [R.J. Walting , B.F. Lynch, D. Herring, J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 12 (1997) 195]. However, this quantity of material is unlikely to be recovered from a POI. This paper describes the development and application of laser ablation inductively coupled plasma time of flight mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-TOF-MS), as an analytical protocol, which can be applied more appropriately to the analysis of micro-debris than conventional quadrupole based mass spectrometry. The resulting data, for debris as small as 70mum in diameter, was unambiguously matched between a single spherule recovered from a POI and a spherule recovered from the scene of crime, in an analytical procedure taking less than 5min.

  20. American Academy of Forensic Sciences

    MedlinePlus

    ... Want to Be a Forensic Scientist! Read More Forensic Science Education Programs Accreditation Commission (FEPAC) Read More ‹ › The American Academy of Forensic Sciences is a multi-disciplinary professional organization that provides ...

  1. Morphological features of the macerated cranial bones registered by the 3D vision system for potential use in forensic anthropology.

    PubMed

    Skrzat, Janusz; Sioma, Andrzej; Kozerska, Magdalena

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present potential usage of the 3D vision system for registering features of the macerated cranial bones. Applied 3D vision system collects height profiles of the object surface and from that data builds a three-dimensional image of the surface. This method appeared to be accurate enough to capture anatomical details of the macerated bones. With the aid of the 3D vision system we generated images of the surface of the human calvaria which was used for testing the system. Performed reconstruction visualized the imprints of the dural vascular system, cranial sutures, and the three-layer structure of the cranial bones observed in the cross-section. We figure out that the 3D vision system may deliver data which can enhance estimation of sex from the osteological material.

  2. Parallel digital forensics infrastructure.

    SciTech Connect

    Liebrock, Lorie M.; Duggan, David Patrick

    2009-10-01

    This report documents the architecture and implementation of a Parallel Digital Forensics infrastructure. This infrastructure is necessary for supporting the design, implementation, and testing of new classes of parallel digital forensics tools. Digital Forensics has become extremely difficult with data sets of one terabyte and larger. The only way to overcome the processing time of these large sets is to identify and develop new parallel algorithms for performing the analysis. To support algorithm research, a flexible base infrastructure is required. A candidate architecture for this base infrastructure was designed, instantiated, and tested by this project, in collaboration with New Mexico Tech. Previous infrastructures were not designed and built specifically for the development and testing of parallel algorithms. With the size of forensics data sets only expected to increase significantly, this type of infrastructure support is necessary for continued research in parallel digital forensics. This report documents the implementation of the parallel digital forensics (PDF) infrastructure architecture and implementation.

  3. PCR in forensic genetics.

    PubMed

    Morling, Niels

    2009-04-01

    Since the introduction in the mid-1980s of analyses of minisatellites for DNA analyses, a revolution has taken place in forensic genetics. The subsequent invention of the PCR made it possible to develop forensic genetics tools that allow both very informative routine investigations and still more and more advanced, special investigations in cases concerning crime, paternity, relationship, disaster victim identification etc. The present review gives an update on the use of DNA investigations in forensic genetics.

  4. Forensic odontology: an overview.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Duane E

    2014-06-01

    This article is an overview of the field of forensic odontology, highlighting historical cases, with an emphasis on California cases, and briefly discussing some of the current techniques and issues in the field. As with all fields of dentistry, forensic odontology is adapting to new methodologies, changes in techniques, research findings and legal issues. Today's dentist who works in the forensic arena must face and understand these changes and advancements.

  5. Utilizing Forensics Skills to Enrich Schools and Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fryar, Maridell

    In an era in which the credibility of public schools is falling with the general public, community forensics performances by students have the potential for cultivating public awareness of the effectiveness of the schools. Forensics is intrinsically related to basic speaking and listening skills, and since there is great potential for…

  6. Error and its meaning in forensic science.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Angi M; Crowder, Christian M; Ousley, Stephen D; Houck, Max M

    2014-01-01

    The discussion of "error" has gained momentum in forensic science in the wake of the Daubert guidelines and has intensified with the National Academy of Sciences' Report. Error has many different meanings, and too often, forensic practitioners themselves as well as the courts misunderstand scientific error and statistical error rates, often confusing them with practitioner error (or mistakes). Here, we present an overview of these concepts as they pertain to forensic science applications, discussing the difference between practitioner error (including mistakes), instrument error, statistical error, and method error. We urge forensic practitioners to ensure that potential sources of error and method limitations are understood and clearly communicated and advocate that the legal community be informed regarding the differences between interobserver errors, uncertainty, variation, and mistakes.

  7. Team Approach in the First Research Experience for Undergraduates in Botany/Zoology 152: Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Univ., Madison. LEAD Center.

    This document summarizes the findings of the Learning through Evaluation, Adaptation and Dissemination (LEAD) Center's report on the team approach to the first research experience for undergraduates in botany and zoology. Students (N=25) and faculty (N=12) were interviewed and a comparison was made between students who performed the research in…

  8. The History of Women in Botany and Science at the Herbarium Library: Evaluation for Historical Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wicker, Sandra J.

    Evaluating library collections by comparing them to bibliographies has a long history in research libraries. This evaluative study examined all 107 titles within the "Women in Botany" section of the Herbarium Library at The Ohio State University (OSU). The Herbarium is not part of the OSU Library system, but functions as a satellite to…

  9. Basic Botany On-Line: A Training Tool for the Master Gardener Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanDerZanden, Ann Marie; Rost, Bob; Eckel, Rick

    2002-01-01

    A noncredit, online training module on botany was offered to participants in the Oregon Master Gardener program. The 48 participants felt the module was a useful training tool. They also noted that the convenience of completing the material at their own pace and during a time that fit into their schedule. (SK)

  10. Field Botanist for a Day: A Group Exercise for the Introductory Botany Lab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbatt, Natalie M.

    2004-01-01

    A group exercise, suggested to be most effective when used near the semester-end, enables entry-level students to appreciate the application of plant biology and makes botany labs experimental. It is believed that this series of labs helps students to appreciate their own learning when they teach and explain things to others.

  11. [Herbalism, botany and components analysis study on original plants of frankincense].

    PubMed

    Sun, Lei; Xu, Jimin; Jin, Hongyu; Tian, Jingai; Lin, Ruichao

    2011-01-01

    In order to clarify original plants of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) frankincense, a GC method for determination essential oils and a HPLC method for determination boswellic acids were carried out together with analysis of herbalism, botany, components and pharmacology papers of frankincense. It was concluded that original plants of TCM frankincense include at least Boswellia sacra, B. papyrifera and B. serrata.

  12. Effects of the Teacher's Background on Teaching and Students' Achievement in Botany and Zoology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamir, P.

    1976-01-01

    The relationship of certain teacher background variables to their attitudes priorities, expectations, and instructional practices regarding botany and zoology was investigated. Teachers were grouped into three categories: botanists, zoologists, and neutrals; the academic achievement of the students of the teachers in the three categories was…

  13. Basic Botany On-Line: A Training Tool for the Master Gardener Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanDerZanden, Ann Marie; Rost, Bob; Eckel, Rick

    2002-01-01

    A noncredit, online training module on botany was offered to participants in the Oregon Master Gardener program. The 48 participants felt the module was a useful training tool. They also noted that the convenience of completing the material at their own pace and during a time that fit into their schedule. (SK)

  14. Field Botanist for a Day: A Group Exercise for the Introductory Botany Lab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbatt, Natalie M.

    2004-01-01

    A group exercise, suggested to be most effective when used near the semester-end, enables entry-level students to appreciate the application of plant biology and makes botany labs experimental. It is believed that this series of labs helps students to appreciate their own learning when they teach and explain things to others.

  15. Botany Instruction at the Military Academy Imeni S.M. Kirov - USSR -.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1960-05-16

    chair of pharmacy and pharmacognosy (Petrov, 1816; 3orodin, 1898). In 1931, the chairs of botany and zoology were united in connection with the...which replaced the former chair of pharmacy and pharmacognosy . All botanic materials were transferred to the chair of general biology.

  16. Effects of the Teacher's Background on Teaching and Students' Achievement in Botany and Zoology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamir, P.

    1976-01-01

    The relationship of certain teacher background variables to their attitudes priorities, expectations, and instructional practices regarding botany and zoology was investigated. Teachers were grouped into three categories: botanists, zoologists, and neutrals; the academic achievement of the students of the teachers in the three categories was…

  17. Traditional uses, botany, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of Panax notoginseng (Burk.) F.H. Chen: A review.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ting; Guo, Rixin; Zhou, Guohong; Zhou, Xidan; Kou, Zhenzhen; Sui, Feng; Li, Chun; Tang, Liying; Wang, Zhuju

    2016-07-21

    Panax notoginseng (Burk.) F.H. Chen is a widely used traditional Chinese medicine known as Sanqi or Tianqi in China. This plant, which is distributed primarily in the southwest of China, has wide-ranging pharmacological effects and can be used to treat cardiovascular diseases, pain, inflammation and trauma as well as internal and external bleeding due to injury. This paper provides up-to-date information on investigations of this plant, including its botany, ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology. The possible uses and perspectives for future investigation of this plant are also discussed. The relevant information on Panax notoginseng (Burk.) F.H. Chen was collected from numerous resources, including classic books about Chinese herbal medicine, and scientific databases, including Pubmed, SciFinder, ACS, Ebsco, Elsevier, Taylor, Wiley and CNKI. More than 200 chemical compounds have been isolated from Panax notoginseng (Burk.) F.H. Chen, including saponins, flavonoids and cyclopeptides. The plant has pharmacological effects on the cardiovascular system, immune system as well as anti-inflammatory, anti-atherosclerotic, haemostatic and anti-tumour activities, etc. Panax notoginseng is a valuable traditional Chinese medical herb with multiple pharmacological effects. This review summarizes the botany, ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of P. notoginseng, and presents the constituents and their corresponding chemical structures found in P. notoginseng comprehensively for the first time. Future research into its phytochemistry of bio-active components should be performed by using bioactivity-guided isolation strategies. Further work on elucidation of the structure-function relationship among saponins, understanding of multi-target network pharmacology of P. notoginseng, as well as developing its new clinical usage and comprehensive utilize will enhance the therapeutic potentials of P. notoginseng. Copyright © 2016

  18. [Benzodiazepines and forensic aspects].

    PubMed

    Michel, L; Lang, J-P

    2003-01-01

    Adverse effects of benzodiazepines are well known since the first one was used in 1958 (chlordiazepoxide). The literature collects study-cases or rarely controlled studies concerning side effects or paradoxical reactions to benzodiazepines. They mostly described drowsiness and behavioral disinhibition, including increased well-being feeling but also hostility, rage access with feeling of invulnerability, serious crimes and sometimes homicides. Delusional, manic, confusional or depressive states are also pointed out. Rate for aggressive behaviour is 0.3 to 0.7% but distinction should be done between accidental or "idiosyncratic" reaction and voluntary sought disinhibition, clearly more frequent. No benzodiazepine has any specificity for these adverse effects but pharmacology, doses, associated drugs (or alcohol) and psychopathology interact to produce hazardous psychic states. Pharmacology: GABA induces a decrease in serotonin compound and vigilance. Pharmacokinetic: first dose effect or over-dose effect, short half-life, lipophily, affinity, digestive absorption, active metabolites interact. Psychopathology: age, alcohol association, psychological status (high initial level of hostility, impulsivity, frustration, personality disorder and depressive status). External conditions: chronic illness, affective and professional frustrations, physical or psychic exhaustion contribute also. Some benzodiazepines (flunitrazepam, diazepam, clorazepate, triazolam, alprazolam, lorazepam, for example) are more often concerned for pharmacokinetics characteristics but also prescription habits. Forensic aspects should be considered in case of homicide. Especially, reality of benzodiazepines consumption and awareness of the potential paradoxical reaction should be precisely evaluated. Special focus on voluntary induced disinhibition has to be done for forensic considerations. Relationship but also crime facilitations are sometimes consciously sought. Some benzodiazepines have already

  19. Forensic Science Technician

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tech Directions, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Forensic science technicians, also called crime laboratory technicians or police science technicians, help solve crimes. They examine and identify physical evidence to reconstruct a crime scene. This article discusses everything students need to know about careers for forensic science technicians--wages, responsibilities, skills needed, career…

  20. Forensic video image analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Thomas R.

    1997-02-01

    Forensic video image analysis is a new scientific tool for perpetrator enhancement and identification in poorly recorded crime scene situations. Forensic video image analysis is emerging technology for law enforcement, industrial security and surveillance addressing the following problems often found in these poor quality video recorded incidences.

  1. Forensic Science Technician

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tech Directions, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Forensic science technicians, also called crime laboratory technicians or police science technicians, help solve crimes. They examine and identify physical evidence to reconstruct a crime scene. This article discusses everything students need to know about careers for forensic science technicians--wages, responsibilities, skills needed, career…

  2. Dental fluorescence: potential forensic use.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Ricarda Duarte; da Silva, Marcos André Duarte; de Oliveira, Osmir Batista; Melo, Ana Cláudia Moreira; de Oliveira, Rogério Nogueira

    2013-09-10

    In cases of identification of bones, skeletal segments or isolated bones, searching for biotypologic diagnostic data to estimate an individual's age enables comparing these data with those of missing individuals. Enamel, dentin and pulp undergo remarkable changes during an individual's life. The enamel becomes more mineralized, smoother and thinner, and deteriorates because of physiological and pathological factors. Dental pulp decreases in volume due to the deposition of secondary dentin; thus, the dentin becomes thicker with time. In natural teeth, the fluorescence phenomenon occurs in dentin and enamel and changes in those tissues may alter the expression of the natural tooth color. The aim of this study was to assess the correlation between age and teeth fluorescence for individuals from different age groups. The sample consisted of 66 randomly selected Brazilians of both genders aged 7-63 years old. They were divided into 6 groups: Group 1 - aged 7-12 years, Group 2 - aged 13-20 years, Group 3 - aged 21-30 years, Group 4 - aged 31-40 years, Group 5 - aged 41-50 years and Group 6 - aged between 51 and 63 years. Upper right or left central incisors were used for the study. Restored and aesthetic rehabilitated teeth were excluded from the sample. The measurement of tooth fluorescence was carried out via computer analysis of digital images using the software ScanWhite DMC/Darwin Systems - Brazil. It was observed that dental fluorescence decreases when comparing the age groups 21-30, 31-40, 41-50 and 51-63 years. The results also showed that there is a statistically significant difference between the groups 41-50 years and 21-30 years (p=0.005) and also among the group 51-63 years and all other groups (p<0.005). It can be concluded that dental fluorescence is correlated with age and has a similar and stable behavior from 7 to 20 years of age. It reaches its maximum expected value at the age of 26.5 years and thereafter decreases.

  3. Molecular Imprinting Applications in Forensic Science.

    PubMed

    Yılmaz, Erkut; Garipcan, Bora; Patra, Hirak K; Uzun, Lokman

    2017-03-28

    Producing molecular imprinting-based materials has received increasing attention due to recognition selectivity, stability, cast effectiveness, and ease of production in various forms for a wide range of applications. The molecular imprinting technique has a variety of applications in the areas of the food industry, environmental monitoring, and medicine for diverse purposes like sample pretreatment, sensing, and separation/purification. A versatile usage, stability and recognition capabilities also make them perfect candidates for use in forensic sciences. Forensic science is a demanding area and there is a growing interest in molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) in this field. In this review, recent molecular imprinting applications in the related areas of forensic sciences are discussed while considering the literature of last two decades. Not only direct forensic applications but also studies of possible forensic value were taken into account like illicit drugs, banned sport drugs, effective toxins and chemical warfare agents in a review of over 100 articles. The literature was classified according to targets, material shapes, production strategies, detection method, and instrumentation. We aimed to summarize the current applications of MIPs in forensic science and put forth a projection of their potential uses as promising alternatives for benchmark competitors.

  4. The DSM-5 and forensic psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Wortzel, Hal S

    2013-05-01

    In his first Law and Psychiatry column for the Journal of Psychiatric Practice, the author discusses potential forensic consequences of the publication of the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). While the transition to DSM-5 may prove challenging for both patients and clinicians, the scrutiny and adversarial process associated with forensic psychiatric practice will entail a unique set of challenges. The philosophy of innovation behind the DSM-5, and the attendant changes, could lead to some unintended consequences, particularly in medicolegal settings. This column highlights some of the major changes in DSM-5 and explores points of particular concern for forensic psychiatric practice, such as the move toward a non-multiaxial diagnostic system and dimensional severity ratings being superimposed on certain categorical diagnoses. The innovative changes featured in DSM-5, and the controversies surrounding some of them, could yield an environment of increased cynicism in courts of law, with renewed skepticism regarding mental health diagnoses and the forensic psychiatrists who testify about them. Fortunately, the best method for forensic psychiatric practice in this environment of change is to continue to adhere to a meticulous and transparent medicolegal process, with recognition that changes in the diagnostic manual will seldom alter essential medicolegal conclusions. Forensic psychiatrists may enhance their credibility and the strength of the opinions they offer by proactively illustrating how nuances in diagnosis do not change legally defined constructs such as insanity or incompetence.

  5. Molecular Imprinting Applications in Forensic Science

    PubMed Central

    Yılmaz, Erkut; Garipcan, Bora; Patra, Hirak K.; Uzun, Lokman

    2017-01-01

    Producing molecular imprinting-based materials has received increasing attention due to recognition selectivity, stability, cast effectiveness, and ease of production in various forms for a wide range of applications. The molecular imprinting technique has a variety of applications in the areas of the food industry, environmental monitoring, and medicine for diverse purposes like sample pretreatment, sensing, and separation/purification. A versatile usage, stability and recognition capabilities also make them perfect candidates for use in forensic sciences. Forensic science is a demanding area and there is a growing interest in molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) in this field. In this review, recent molecular imprinting applications in the related areas of forensic sciences are discussed while considering the literature of last two decades. Not only direct forensic applications but also studies of possible forensic value were taken into account like illicit drugs, banned sport drugs, effective toxins and chemical warfare agents in a review of over 100 articles. The literature was classified according to targets, material shapes, production strategies, detection method, and instrumentation. We aimed to summarize the current applications of MIPs in forensic science and put forth a projection of their potential uses as promising alternatives for benchmark competitors. PMID:28350333

  6. Soil Microbial Forensics.

    PubMed

    Santiago-Rodriguez, Tasha M; Cano, Raúl J

    2016-08-01

    Soil microbial forensics can be defined as the study of how microorganisms can be applied to forensic investigations. The field of soil microbial forensics is of increasing interest and applies techniques commonly used in diverse disciplines in order to identify microbes and determine their abundances, complexities, and interactions with soil and surrounding objects. Emerging new techniques are also providing insights into the complexity of microbes in soil. Soil may harbor unique microbes that may reflect specific physical and chemical characteristics indicating site specificity. While applications of some of these techniques in the field of soil microbial forensics are still in early stages, we are still gaining insight into how microorganisms may be more robustly used in forensic investigations.

  7. Forensic psychiatry in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Tariq; Nizami, Asad Tamizuddin; Hirji, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews existing forensic psychiatric services in Pakistan highlighting the role played by the judicial and the medical fraternity in managing the legal and forensic issues of the population of patients with mental illnesses. Until 2001, all legal and forensic issues were dealt with the mental health legislation of 1912, the Lunacy Act of 1912. This was inherited from the British rulers in the Sub-Continent at the time. The Mental Health Ordinance of 2001 could not sustain following the 18th constitutional amendment in 2010, whereby psychiatric healthcare was devolved to the provinces from the previous federal authority. The article also highlights the difficulties and the barriers in implementation of the forensic psychiatric services in Pakistan at various levels within the healthcare system. This article also delves into the current framework of training in forensic psychiatry for postgraduates as well as the assessments and management schedules for the mentally ill offenders at tertiary care institutions in Pakistan.

  8. Forensic Implications of Neuroscientific Advancements.

    PubMed

    Hauser, Lori L

    2016-06-01

    Im draws a parallel between the neurobiology of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and that of trauma survivors, to explain why individuals with ASD may be more vulnerable to trauma as a risk factor for violence. This commentary raises questions about how we use this information in a forensic context, including its potential misuses. It urges caution in not overstating the data before we have a more nuanced understanding of how our neural circuitry influences specific behaviors and mental states, while not allowing the science to advance faster than we can harness it, overstepping its bounds in decisions we make regarding fairness and justice. It raises these concerns against a backdrop of the diametrically opposed assumptions about human behavior embraced by the two disciplines, mental health and the law, that come together in the forensic arena.

  9. Microbiome Tools for Forensic Science.

    PubMed

    Metcalf, Jessica L; Xu, Zhenjiang Z; Bouslimani, Amina; Dorrestein, Pieter; Carter, David O; Knight, Rob

    2017-09-01

    Microbes are present at every crime scene and have been used as physical evidence for over a century. Advances in DNA sequencing and computational approaches have led to recent breakthroughs in the use of microbiome approaches for forensic science, particularly in the areas of estimating postmortem intervals (PMIs), locating clandestine graves, and obtaining soil and skin trace evidence. Low-cost, high-throughput technologies allow us to accumulate molecular data quickly and to apply sophisticated machine-learning algorithms, building generalizable predictive models that will be useful in the criminal justice system. In particular, integrating microbiome and metabolomic data has excellent potential to advance microbial forensics. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Collaboration: The Paradigm of Practice Approach between the Forensic Psychiatrist and the Forensic Psychologist

    PubMed Central

    Gbadebo-Goyea, Ernest Ayodele; Akpudo, Hilary; Jackson, Cynthia D.; Wassef, Tamer; Barker, Narviar C.; Cunningham-Burley, Rhonda; Ali, Shahid A.; Jabeen, Shagufta; Bailey, Rahn Kennedy

    2012-01-01

    The importance and relevance of forensic practice to societal evolution has increased exponentially in recent years. As society evolves in its understanding of the complex relationships between mankind and society, we rely more and more on the services of forensic experts. This article elucidates the professions of forensic psychiatry and forensic psychology. We examine the two distinct professions from the spectrum of collaboration, integration of services, differences, and similarities. We also compare and contrast the educational background and training requirements for these two professions; and present illustrative scenarios and real life examples of the daily functions of both professionals. Lastly, we present demographic data for the areas of employment, numbers, and geographic distribution of the two professions. Forensic psychiatry is the interface between medicine and law, while forensic psychology is the interface between psychology and law. As such, these professions are mired with complexities and challenged by vulnerabilities. Professionals from both fields can serve as expert witnesses in court and therefore face similar challenges in their course of professional practice. Collaboration between these two professions has the potential to increase both the credibility and utility of forensic services to the courts, the individuals served, and the general public. PMID:23162478

  11. Collaboration: The Paradigm of Practice Approach between the Forensic Psychiatrist and the Forensic Psychologist.

    PubMed

    Gbadebo-Goyea, Ernest Ayodele; Akpudo, Hilary; Jackson, Cynthia D; Wassef, Tamer; Barker, Narviar C; Cunningham-Burley, Rhonda; Ali, Shahid A; Jabeen, Shagufta; Bailey, Rahn Kennedy

    2012-01-01

    The importance and relevance of forensic practice to societal evolution has increased exponentially in recent years. As society evolves in its understanding of the complex relationships between mankind and society, we rely more and more on the services of forensic experts. This article elucidates the professions of forensic psychiatry and forensic psychology. We examine the two distinct professions from the spectrum of collaboration, integration of services, differences, and similarities. We also compare and contrast the educational background and training requirements for these two professions; and present illustrative scenarios and real life examples of the daily functions of both professionals. Lastly, we present demographic data for the areas of employment, numbers, and geographic distribution of the two professions. Forensic psychiatry is the interface between medicine and law, while forensic psychology is the interface between psychology and law. As such, these professions are mired with complexities and challenged by vulnerabilities. Professionals from both fields can serve as expert witnesses in court and therefore face similar challenges in their course of professional practice. Collaboration between these two professions has the potential to increase both the credibility and utility of forensic services to the courts, the individuals served, and the general public.

  12. [The concept of "forensic medicine"].

    PubMed

    Popov, V L

    2013-01-01

    The analysis of the definition of forensic medicine and its evolution during the past 300 years is presented. The special character of forensic medicine, its subject-matter, scope of research, procedures, goals and targeted application of forensic medical knowledge are discussed. The original definition of the notion of "forensic medicine" is proposed.

  13. Microbial Forensics: A Scientific Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Keim, Paul

    2003-02-17

    meet these initial challenges so as minimize disturbance of the evidence. While epidemiology and forensics are similar sciences with similar goals when applied to biocrimes, forensics has additional and more stringent requirements. Maintaining a chain of custody on evidentiary samples is one example of an extra requirement imposed on an investigation of a biocrime. Another issue is the intent in microbial forensics to identify a bioattack organism in greatest detail. If possible, forensic investigations will strive to identify the precise strain and substrain, rather than just to the species level, which might be sufficient in an epidemiological investigation. Although multiple groups have developed lists of bioterrorism target pathogens, these lists are too narrow. An expansion of microorganisms relevant to food and water threats should be considered. Computerized networks should be established to track infectious disease outbreaks in real time. These systems could alert public health and agricultural officials to the existence of a potential bioattack earlier than simply waiting for a report of a suspicious cluster of similar patients. Once a biocrime is suspected, a wide variety of methods are available to identify the microorganism used in the bioattack and to analyze features that might lead to the source of the event. A multi-pronged approach to such an investigation may be preferable, using many available methods-ranging from genomics to sequencing to physiology to analysis of substances in the sample. Microbial forensics will be most effective if there is sufficient basic scientific information concerning microbial genetics, evolution, physiology, and ecology. Strain subtyping analysis will be difficult to interpret if we do not understand some of the basic evolutionary mechanisms and population diversity of pathogens. Phenotypic features associated with evidentiary pathogens also may provide investigative leads, but full exploitation of these features can only

  14. The forensic psychiatric report.

    PubMed

    Norko, Michael A; Buchanan, Mar Alec

    2015-01-01

    The construction of a written forensic report is a core component of forensic practice, demonstrating the evaluator's skill in conducting the evaluation and in communicating relevant information to the legal audience in an effective manner. Although communication skills and quality of written documentation are important in clinical psychiatry generally, they form the sine qua non of successful forensic work, which consists in telling complex stories in a coherent and compelling fashion. High quality forensic reports require careful preparation from the earliest stages of work on a case. They generally follow an expected structure, which permits the evaluator to provide all the data necessary to form a carefully reasoned opinion that addresses the legal questions posed. Formats and content of reports vary according to the type of case and the circumstances of the evaluation and so require flexibility within customary frameworks. The style and quality of writing are critical to the crafting of forensic reports. The effects on legal decision-makers of various approaches to the presentation of information in reports has not been studied empirically, but guidance from experienced forensic psychiatrists is available. There is a small body of research on quality improvement in forensic writing, and further empiric study is warranted.

  15. Forensic DNA testing.

    PubMed

    Butler, John M

    2011-12-01

    Forensic DNA testing has a number of applications, including parentage testing, identifying human remains from natural or man-made disasters or terrorist attacks, and solving crimes. This article provides background information followed by an overview of the process of forensic DNA testing, including sample collection, DNA extraction, PCR amplification, short tandem repeat (STR) allele separation and sizing, typing and profile interpretation, statistical analysis, and quality assurance. The article concludes with discussions of possible problems with the data and other forensic DNA testing techniques.

  16. Expansion of Microbial Forensics

    PubMed Central

    Schmedes, Sarah E.; Sajantila, Antti

    2016-01-01

    Microbial forensics has been defined as the discipline of applying scientific methods to the analysis of evidence related to bioterrorism, biocrimes, hoaxes, or the accidental release of a biological agent or toxin for attribution purposes. Over the past 15 years, technology, particularly massively parallel sequencing, and bioinformatics advances now allow the characterization of microorganisms for a variety of human forensic applications, such as human identification, body fluid characterization, postmortem interval estimation, and biocrimes involving tracking of infectious agents. Thus, microbial forensics should be more broadly described as the discipline of applying scientific methods to the analysis of microbial evidence in criminal and civil cases for investigative purposes. PMID:26912746

  17. One hundred and twenty-five years of the Annals of Botany. Part 2: the years 1937 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Michael B

    2016-12-01

    Annals of Botany is a peer-reviewed plant biology journal. It was started in 1887, making it the oldest continuously published plant science title. A previous article [Jackson MB. 2015. One hundred and twenty-five years of the Annals of Botany Part 1: the first 50 years (1887-1936). Annals of Botany 115: : 1-18] summarized events leading to its founding, highlighted the individuals involved and examined the Journal's achievements and management practices over the first 50 years to 1937. This second article covers the next 75 years. The account draws principally on the Journal's own records, minute books, financial accounts, original letters and notes held by the Annals of Botany Company, the Journal's owners and managers. In 1937, its 51st year, the Journal was re-launched as Annals of Botany New Series and its volume numbers were reset to No. I. The present article evaluates the evolution of the New Series up to 2012, Annals of Botany's 125th anniversary year. The period includes a 2-year run-up to World War II, six war years and their immediate aftermath, and then on through increasingly competitive times. The ebb and flow of the Journal's fortunes are set against a roll-call of the often highly distinguished scientists who managed and edited the Journal. The article also examines an internal crisis in the 1980s that radically altered the Journal's organization in ways that were, ultimately, to its benefit. The narrative is set against changes to economic conditions in Great Britain over the period, to the evolving nature and geographical distribution of much experimental plant science and to the digital revolution that, from the late 20th century, transformed the workings of Annals of Botany and of scientific publishing more generally. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Forensic web watch.

    PubMed

    Rutty, G N

    1999-09-01

    Since the development of the Internet (Net) by the Americans in the 1970s as a potential means of communication following a future world war, it has evolved over the decades into the graphical format of the world-wide web (WWW, Web) that we know today. Anyone accessing the Net, be it from home or work, has access to information and resources on almost anything but with this comes the time-consuming and potentially expensive task of identifying those sites of use in one's professional work from those of purely interest or fun. These reviews will try and direct those working within forensic practice in all professions towards sites considered by the author to be practical resources. They are, by their very nature, a personal opinion and the author recognizes that the review of a site by one person may differ considerably from that of another user or the site designer. The articles will assume a basic knowledge of how to access and use the WWW using either Netscape or Microsoft Explorer. They will address groups of sites related to common areas of practice listing key web addresses to allow those interested to access sites reviewed. Because of the time between writing and publishing some sites may no longer be valid

  19. Forensic uses of research biobanks: should donors be informed?

    PubMed

    Dranseika, Vilius; Piasecki, Jan; Waligora, Marcin

    2016-03-01

    Occasional reports in the literature suggest that biological samples collected and stored for scientific research are sometimes accessed and used for a variety of forensic purposes. However, donors are almost never informed about this possibility. In this paper we argue that the possibility of forensic access may constitute a relevant consideration at least to some potential research subjects in deciding whether to participate in research. We make the suggestion that if some type of forensic access to research collections is likely to be perceived by the subjects as a reason against donating their biological materials, there are good ethical reasons to make this type of access impossible or at least severely restricted. We also provide an ethical argument for the claim that, if a total ban on this type of forensic access cannot be achieved, potential research subjects should be informed about the extent to which this type of forensic access is possible.

  20. Botany, traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Waltheria indica L. (syn. Waltheria americana): a review.

    PubMed

    Zongo, F; Ribuot, C; Boumendjel, A; Guissou, I

    2013-06-21

    Waltheria indica L. (syn. Waltheria americana) is commonly used in traditional medicine in Africa, South America and Hawaii, mainly against pain, inflammation, conditions of inflammation, diarrhea, dysentery, conjunctivitis, wounds, abscess, epilepsy, convulsions, anemia, erectile dysfunctions, bladder ailments and asthma. Aim of the review to provide an up-to-date overview of the botany, phytochemistry, traditional uses, pharmacological activities and toxicity data of Waltheria indica. Additionally, studies providing an evidence for local and traditional uses of Waltheria indica are discussed. Further phytochemical and pharmacological potential of this species are suggested for future investigations. The information was collected from scientific journals, books, theses and reports via academic libraries and electronic search. These sources include Pubmed, Web of Science, Portal de Portales-Latindex, Science Research.com and Google scholar. These studies about the medical botanical, traditional uses, chemical, pharmacological and toxicological data on Waltheria indica were published in English, Portuguese, Spanish, German and French. Crude extracts and isolated compounds from Waltheria indica were investigated and showed analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal, antimalarial, anti-anemic, anti-oxidant, sedative and anticonvulsant activities. The phytochemical investigations showed the presence of cyclopeptid alkaloids, flavonoids (e.g., (-)-epicatechin, quercetin, kaempferol, kaempferol-3-O-β-d-(6″-E-p-coumaryl)-glucopyranoside), tannins, sterols, terpenes, saponins, anthraquinones. Studies of acute toxicity in animal indicated that Waltheria indica can be toxic. Waltheria indica possess therapeutic potential in the treatment of inflammation, malaria, infectious diseases (e.g., lungs infection due to Klebsiella pneumoniae, diarrhea due to Candida albicans or Escherichia coli) and prevention of oxidative stress. Further studies are necessary to

  1. The development and practice of forensic podiatry.

    PubMed

    Vernon, Wesley

    2006-01-01

    Forensic podiatry is a small, but potentially useful specialty using clinical podiatric knowledge for the purpose of person identification. The practice of forensic podiatry began in the early 1970s in Canada and the UK, although supportive research commenced later in the 1990s. Techniques of forensic podiatry include identification from podiatry records, the human footprint, footwear, and the analysis of gait forms captured on Closed Circuit Television Cameras. The most valuable techniques relate to the comparison of the foot impressions inside shoes. Tools to describe, measure and compare foot impressions with footwear wear marks have been developed through research with potential for further development. The role of forensic podiatrists is of particular value when dealing with variable factors relating to the functioning and the shod foot. Case studies demonstrate the approach of podiatrists, in footwear identification, when comparing exemplar with questioned foot impressions. Forensic podiatry practice should be approached cautiously and it is essential for podiatrists undertaking this type of work to understand the context within which the process of person identification takes place.

  2. The future of forensic DNA analysis

    PubMed Central

    Butler, John M.

    2015-01-01

    The author's thoughts and opinions on where the field of forensic DNA testing is headed for the next decade are provided in the context of where the field has come over the past 30 years. Similar to the Olympic motto of ‘faster, higher, stronger’, forensic DNA protocols can be expected to become more rapid and sensitive and provide stronger investigative potential. New short tandem repeat (STR) loci have expanded the core set of genetic markers used for human identification in Europe and the USA. Rapid DNA testing is on the verge of enabling new applications. Next-generation sequencing has the potential to provide greater depth of coverage for information on STR alleles. Familial DNA searching has expanded capabilities of DNA databases in parts of the world where it is allowed. Challenges and opportunities that will impact the future of forensic DNA are explored including the need for education and training to improve interpretation of complex DNA profiles. PMID:26101278

  3. The future of forensic DNA analysis.

    PubMed

    Butler, John M

    2015-08-05

    The author's thoughts and opinions on where the field of forensic DNA testing is headed for the next decade are provided in the context of where the field has come over the past 30 years. Similar to the Olympic motto of 'faster, higher, stronger', forensic DNA protocols can be expected to become more rapid and sensitive and provide stronger investigative potential. New short tandem repeat (STR) loci have expanded the core set of genetic markers used for human identification in Europe and the USA. Rapid DNA testing is on the verge of enabling new applications. Next-generation sequencing has the potential to provide greater depth of coverage for information on STR alleles. Familial DNA searching has expanded capabilities of DNA databases in parts of the world where it is allowed. Challenges and opportunities that will impact the future of forensic DNA are explored including the need for education and training to improve interpretation of complex DNA profiles.

  4. Comparative study of the introduction of modern botany in Japan and China.

    PubMed

    Métailié, Georges

    2002-03-01

    Prior to the eighteenth-century, a similar approach towards the vegetable kingdom, mainly influenced by the tradition of the Chinese pharmacopoeias, could be observed in China and Japan. During the eighteenth-century, the interest for "Dutch learning" led some Japanese physicians and interpreters to be more and more interested in Western knowledge about medicinal plants. At the beginning of the nineteenth-century, a few scholars, through direct contact with foreigners or with foreign books, realised that there was a specific scientific field called "botany" and began to introduce the Japanese scholarly community to this new science which became one of the subjects taught at the "University of Tokyo" in 1877. In China, up to the middle of the nineteenth-century, no trace of modern botany can be found in any published document. In the second half of the century, a few botanical treatises were published, all being adaptations or translations of Western books, done by foreign-Chinese teams of translators. This situation began to change when Chinese students had the opportunity to go and study abroad, mainly to Japan, at the beginning of the twentieth-century, and, actually, it is between 20 and 30 years later that botany became a real scientific practice in China. We will analyse these two processes, their specificities and their interactions.

  5. Forensic odontology, historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Sansare, K

    1995-01-01

    According to the old testament Adam was convinced by eve to put a "Bite Mark" on the apple. Interest in Forensic Odontology was heightened in the latter part of 19th Century. The first formal instructional programme was given at the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, U.S. Since then the number of cases reported has played a significant role in expanding the role of Forensic Odontology. The earliest reported case was of Lollia Paulina in the year 49 A. D. One of the early reported case is also found in India in the year 1193. In the last few decades, the basic pattern of Forensic Odontology has changed quite a lot. Advances in dental material and laboratory techniques, with improvements in scientific and photographic technology, have made the proof of presentation much to forensic science.

  6. Forensic Science: Hair Identification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Elhannan L.

    1980-01-01

    Presented is an activity in which students use a microscope to do a forensic hair comparative study and a medullary classification. Mounting methods, medulla types, hair photographs, and activities are described. (DS)

  7. Physics and forensics

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkinson, T.J.; Perry, D.L.; Martin, M.C.; McKinney, W.R.

    2001-12-15

    This popular article in Physics World reviews the application of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectromicroscopy to Forensics, and predicts further applications due to the high inherent signal to noise available for FTIR microscopy at synchrotron sources.

  8. Forensic Science: Hair Identification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Elhannan L.

    1980-01-01

    Presented is an activity in which students use a microscope to do a forensic hair comparative study and a medullary classification. Mounting methods, medulla types, hair photographs, and activities are described. (DS)

  9. Professionalism in Computer Forensics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irons, Alastair D.; Konstadopoulou, Anastasia

    The paper seeks to address the need to consider issues regarding professionalism in computer forensics in order to allow the discipline to develop and to ensure the credibility of the discipline from the differing perspectives of practitioners, the criminal justice system and in the eyes of the public. There is a need to examine and develop professionalism in computer forensics in order to promote the discipline and maintain the credibility of the discipline.

  10. Atypical Forensic Dental Identifications.

    PubMed

    Cardoza, Anthony R; Wood, James D

    2015-06-01

    Forensic dental identification specialists are typically the last conventional option for postmortem identification. Forensic dental identification is most often accomplished by comparing radiographs of the decedent's teeth with the dental radiographs obtained from the dentist of the suspected victim. Unfortunately, antemortem dental radiographs are not always available. When presented with this challenge, the authors of this article have been successful in completing identifications using means other than dental radiographic comparison.

  11. [Forensic medicine and criminalistics].

    PubMed

    Schwerd, W

    1989-01-01

    The supplementary designation "criminalistics" in the title of certain forensic medical institutes in the first half of this century is to be regarded as a reaction to faulty developments in our specialty, which almost led to the elimination of forensic medicine as an independent scientific discipline in the 1960s. The ability to think in terms of criminalistics and the corresponding working procedures has always been a crucial precondition for the forensic physician, since forensic medicine is the application of medical knowledge for juridical purposes. Forensic medicine originated with the appraisal of cases of violent death by doctors, i.e., reconstruction of the facts in the case. To use the term "criminalistics" in the form of a supplementary designation is thus not required. An attempt is nevertheless made to define "medical criminalistics" as a small but important component of criminalistics. They are subdivided into two phases: the first part begins at the scene of the crime or the place of discovery (local evidence). Here, the trained eye of the forensic physician is indispensable to the criminal investigation department and the prosecutor. Medical criminalistic thinking and working procedures continue at the autopsy. Here, forensic autopsy differs from that practiced by the pathologist. Without knowledge of the situation at the discovery location, the forensic physician runs the risk of not recognizing facts that are important for reconstruction and thus becoming a "destroyer of clues". The second part of medical criminalistics is the actual detection of medical clues, i.e., the investigation of medical clues with special methods, including histological and toxicological investigations.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Internet and forensic science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamakura, Reddy P.

    1997-02-01

    The Internet is a very powerful and inexpensive tool that was created for the free distribution of knowledge and information. The Internet is a learning tool, a research tool, a virtual library without borders and membership requirements, a journal with instant publication, a help desk, and a newspaper/journal with current information. Very soon, when live audio and video transmission is perfected, the Internet also will be a live classroom and everyday conference. Forensic scientists, laboratories and colleges should make use of information already available on the Internet. They also should actively participate and contribute. Very few forensic scientists and laboratories have made their presence felt by setting up their home pages/web pages. But, there is tremendous growth during the past year. Immense benefits from Internet to forensic community are discussed along with the author's personal experience. Creating on-line searchable data bases in all specialties of forensic science is an urgent need. Leading forensic journals should take a lead and create on-line searchable indexes with abstracts. On line electronic publishing, collaborative research/paper publishing or editing is easy, fast, economical and convenient through the use of the Internet. Creation of Internet repositories of unpublished papers is an idea worth looking into. Internet also can be used to give training, re-training or advanced training to students/forensic scientists.

  13. Specialty guidelines for forensic psychology.

    PubMed

    2013-01-01

    In the past 50 years forensic psychological practice has expanded dramatically. Because the practice of forensic psychology differs in important ways from more traditional practice areas (Monahan, 1980) the "Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychologists" were developed and published in 1991 (Committee on Ethical Guidelines for Forensic Psychologists, 1991). These Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychology were developed by the American Psychology-Law Society (Division 41 of the American Psychological Association [APA]) and the American Academy of Forensic Psychology. They were adopted by the APA Council of Representatives on August 3, 2011.

  14. Traditional usages, botany, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb.: a review.

    PubMed

    Lin, Longfei; Ni, Boran; Lin, Hongmei; Zhang, Miao; Li, Xuechun; Yin, Xingbin; Qu, Changhai; Ni, Jian

    2015-01-15

    Polygonum multiflorum Thunb., which is known as Heshouwu ( in Chinese) in China. It is traditionally valued and reported for hair-blacking, liver and kidney-tonifying and anti-aging effects as well as low toxicity. The aim of this review is to provide comprehensive information on the botany, traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacological research and toxicology of Polygonum multiflorum, based on the scientific literature. Moreover, trends and perspectives for future investigation of this plant are discussed. It will build up a new foundation for further study on Polygonum multiflorum. A systematic review of the literature on Polygonum multiflorum was performed using several resources, including classic books on Chinese herbal medicine and various scientific databases, such as PubMed, SciFinder, the Web of Science, Science Direct, China Knowledge Resource Integrated (CNKI). Polygonum multiflorum is widely distributed throughout the world and has been used as a traditional medicine for centuries in China. The ethnomedical uses of Polygonum multiflorum have been recorded in many provinces of China and Japan for nine species of adulterants in six families. More than 100 chemical compounds have been isolated from this plant, and the major components have been determined to be stilbenes, quinones, flavonoids and others. Crude extracts and pure compounds of this plant are used as effective agents in pre-clinical and clinical practice due to their anti-aging, anti-hyperlipidaemia, anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory effects and to promote immunomodulation, neuroprotection, and the curing of other diseases. However, these extracts can also lead to hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity and embryonic toxicity. Pharmacokinetic studies have demonstrated that the main components of Polygonum multiflorum, such as 2,3,5,4'-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-d-glucopyranoside and emodin are distributed among many organs and tissues. Therapeutic potential of Polygonum multiflorum has been

  15. Areca catechu L. (Arecaceae): a review of its traditional uses, botany, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology.

    PubMed

    Peng, Wei; Liu, Yu-Jie; Wu, Na; Sun, Tao; He, Xiao-Yan; Gao, Yong-Xiang; Wu, Chun-Jie

    2015-04-22

    Areca catechu L. (Arecaceae), widely distributed in South and Southeast Asia, is a popular traditional herbal medicine that can be chewed for the purpose of dispersing accumulated fluid in the abdominal cavity and killing worms. The present paper aims to provide an up-to-date review on the traditional uses and advances in the botany, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of this plant. Furthermore, the possible trends and a perspective for future research of this plant are also discussed. A literature search was performed on A. catechu based on classic books of herbal medicine, PhD. and MSc. dissertations, government reports, the state and local drug standards, scientific databases including Pubmed, SciFinder, Scopus, the Web of Science, Google Scholar, and others. Various types of information regarding this plant are discussed in corresponding parts of this paper. In addition, perspectives for possible future studies of A. catechu are discussed. The seeds of A. catechu (areca nut) have been widely used in clinical practice in China, India and other South and Southeast Asian Countries. Currently, over 59 compounds have been isolated and identified from A. catechu, including alkaloids, tannins, flavones, triterpenes, steroids, and fatty acids. The extracts and compounds isolated from A. catechu have many pharmacological activities. These include antiparasitic effects, anti-depressive effects, anti-fatigue effects, antioxidant effects, antibacterial and antifungal effects, antihypertensive effects, anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects, anti-allergic effects, the promotion of digestive functions, suppression of platelet aggregation, regulatory effects on blood glucose and lipids, etc. Although arecoline is the primary active constituent of A. catechu, it is also the primary toxic compound. The main toxicities of arecoline are the promotion of oral submucosal fibrosis (OSF) and cytotoxic effects on normal human cells, which involve inducing apoptosis. As an

  16. Economic botany collections: A source of material evidence for exploring historical changes in Chinese medicinal materials.

    PubMed

    Brand, Eric; Leon, Christine; Nesbitt, Mark; Guo, Ping; Huang, Ran; Chen, Hubiao; Liang, Li; Zhao, Zhongzhen

    2017-03-22

    Many Chinese medicinal materials (CMMs) have changed over centuries of use, particularly in terms of their botanical identity and processing methods. In some cases, these changes have important implications for safety and efficacy in modern clinical practice. As most previous research has focused on clarifying the evolution of CMMs by analyzing traditional Chinese materia medica ("bencao") literature, assessments of historical collections are needed to validate these conclusions with material evidence. Historical collections of Chinese medicines reveal the market materials in circulation at a given moment in time, and represent an underexploited resource for analyzing the evolution of Chinese herbal medicines. This study compares specimens from a rare collection of CMMs from the 1920s with contemporary market materials; by highlighting examples of changes in botanical identity and processing that remain relevant for safe clinical practice in the modern era, this work aims to stimulate further research into previously unexplored historical collections of Chinese medicines. 620 specimens of CMMs that were collected from Chinese pharmacies in the Malay peninsula in the 1920s were examined macroscopically and compared with current pharmacopoeia specifications and authentic contemporary samples. These historical specimens, which are stored in the UK in the Economic Botany Collections (EBC) of Royal Botanic Gardens Kew, were morphologically examined, photographed, and compared to authentic CMMs stored at the Bank of China (Hong Kong) Chinese Medicines Center at Hong Kong Baptist University, as well as authentic herbarium-vouchered specimens from the Leon Collection (LC) at the Kew EBC. Case studies were selected to illustrate examples of historical changes in botanical identity, used plant parts, and processing methods. This investigation confirmed that confusion due to shared common names and regional variations in the botanical identity of certain CMMs has been a

  17. Forensic Analysis using Geological and Geochemical Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoogewerff, J.

    2009-04-01

    Due to the globalisation of legal (and illegal) trade there is an increasing demand for techniques which can verify the geographical origin and transfer routes of many legal and illegal commodities and products. Although geological techniques have been used in forensic investigations since the emergence of forensics as a science in the late eighteen hundreds, the last decade has seen a marked increase in geo-scientists initiating concept studies using the latest analytical techniques, including studying natural abundance isotope variations, micro analysis with laser ablation ICPMS and geochemical mapping. Most of the concept studies have shown a good potential but uptake by the law enforcement and legal community has been limited due to concerns about the admissibility of the new methods. As an introduction to the UGU2009 session "Forensic Provenancing using Geological and Geochemical Techniques" I will give an overview of the state of the art of forensic geology and the issues that concern the admissibility of geological forensic evidence. I will use examples from the NITECRIME and FIRMS networks, the EU TRACE project and other projects and literature to illustrate the important issues at hand.

  18. Organ procurement in forensic deaths: French developments.

    PubMed

    Delannoy, Yann; Jousset, Nathalie; Averland, Benoit; Hedouin, Valéry; Ludes, Bertrand; Gosset, Didier

    2016-01-01

    Organ procurement and transplantation have grown steadily, and the need for organs will only rise in the future. Increasing the number of potential donors is therefore paramount. However, transplant coordination teams face refusals that can be linked to the contexts of the deaths, especially when they involve legal issues. In France, deaths involving legal proceedings are not uncommon (7-10%). In these cases, the prosecutor is immediately contacted, and makes the decision of whether to remove the involved organs. Refusals of this type represent 4% (approximately 30 cases per year) of obstacles to organ removals, and are governed by specific legislation. Thus, the prosecutor must arrange contact with a forensic pathologist and with the organ transplant teams to assemble all of the necessary elements for him to take the decision. To assist prosecutors in their decision making and to ensure them scientific rigour, the French Society of Forensic Medicine sought to develop a national recommendation to harmonise practices; it emerged in early 2013. The guideline makes practical recommendations, including among others: nominating local referents; writing regional protocols between judicial authorities, forensic pathologists and transplant teams; establishing terms for the forensic pathologist's intervention on the donor's body before and after a procurement. This recommendation by the French Society of Forensic Medicine aimed to combine two interests: addressing the shortage of organs, and fulfilling the requisites of a criminal investigation by standardising practices and encouraging communication. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Forensic drug analysis and microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Al-Hetlani, Entesar

    2013-05-01

    The analysis of drugs of abuse in microfluidic devices has the potential to provide solutions to today's on-site analysis challenges. The use of such devices has not been limited to miniaturising conventional analytical methods used routinely in forensic laboratories; new and interesting approaches have been implemented in microfluidics and benefit from the ability to control minute amounts of liquids in the small channels. The microfluidic platforms developed so far have been used successfully to carry out single or multiple analytical processes and offer a great opportunity for new technologies for on-site drug testing. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Computer-aided forensics: metal object detection.

    PubMed

    Kelliher, Timothy; Leue, Bill; Lorensen, Bill; Lauric, Alexandra

    2006-01-01

    Recently, forensic investigators1 have started using diagnostic radiology devices (MRI, CT) to acquire image data from cadavers. This new technology, called the virtual autopsy, has the potential to provide a low cost, non-invasive alternative or supplement to conventional autopsies. New image processing techniques are being developed to highlight forensically relevant information in the images. One such technique is the detection and characterization of metal objects embedded in the cadaver. Analysis of this information across a population with similar causes of death can lead to developing improved safety and protection devices with a corresponding reduction in deaths.

  1. Three-dimensional computer visualization of forensic pathology data.

    PubMed

    March, Jack; Schofield, Damian; Evison, Martin; Woodford, Noel

    2004-03-01

    Despite a decade of use in US courtrooms, it is only recently that forensic computer animations have become an increasingly important form of communication in legal spheres within the United Kingdom. Aims Research at the University of Nottingham has been influential in the critical investigation of forensic computer graphics reconstruction methodologies and techniques and in raising the profile of this novel form of data visualization within the United Kingdom. The case study presented demonstrates research undertaken by Aims Research and the Department of Forensic Pathology at the University of Sheffield, which aims to apply, evaluate, and develop novel 3-dimensional computer graphics (CG) visualization and virtual reality (VR) techniques in the presentation and investigation of forensic information concerning the human body. The inclusion of such visualizations within other CG or VR environments may ultimately provide the potential for alternative exploratory directions, processes, and results within forensic pathology investigations.

  2. Application of next-generation sequencing technology in forensic science.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yaran; Xie, Bingbing; Yan, Jiangwei

    2014-10-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology, with its high-throughput capacity and low cost, has developed rapidly in recent years and become an important analytical tool for many genomics researchers. New opportunities in the research domain of the forensic studies emerge by harnessing the power of NGS technology, which can be applied to simultaneously analyzing multiple loci of forensic interest in different genetic contexts, such as autosomes, mitochondrial and sex chromosomes. Furthermore, NGS technology can also have potential applications in many other aspects of research. These include DNA database construction, ancestry and phenotypic inference, monozygotic twin studies, body fluid and species identification, and forensic animal, plant and microbiological analyses. Here we review the application of NGS technology in the field of forensic science with the aim of providing a reference for future forensics studies and practice. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Ethics and forensic psychiatry: translating principles into practice.

    PubMed

    Appelbaum, Paul S

    2008-01-01

    Twenty-five years ago, Alan Stone expressed his skepticism that forensic psychiatry could be practiced ethically. His remarks have proven a useful goad to the field, focusing attention on the importance of an ethics framework for forensic practice. But Stone remains dubious that any system of ethics--including the "Standard Position" on which he focuses his critique--could be of much value in practice. In contrast, I suggest that Stone's pessimism is not well founded. Immanent in forensic practice itself is a reasonable set of ethics principles, based on truth-telling and respect for persons. Psychiatrists can offer reliable and valid testimony, while resisting seduction into an advocacy role. Indeed, with new structured approaches to assessment, the potential utility of forensic testimony is probably greater than ever. Though problematic behavior still exists, forensic psychiatry offers the factual background and interpretive context to allow legal decision-makers to make better choices than they otherwise would.

  4. Application of Next-generation Sequencing Technology in Forensic Science

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yaran; Xie, Bingbing; Yan, Jiangwei

    2014-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology, with its high-throughput capacity and low cost, has developed rapidly in recent years and become an important analytical tool for many genomics researchers. New opportunities in the research domain of the forensic studies emerge by harnessing the power of NGS technology, which can be applied to simultaneously analyzing multiple loci of forensic interest in different genetic contexts, such as autosomes, mitochondrial and sex chromosomes. Furthermore, NGS technology can also have potential applications in many other aspects of research. These include DNA database construction, ancestry and phenotypic inference, monozygotic twin studies, body fluid and species identification, and forensic animal, plant and microbiological analyses. Here we review the application of NGS technology in the field of forensic science with the aim of providing a reference for future forensics studies and practice. PMID:25462152

  5. The interface between forensic science and technology: how technology could cause a paradigm shift in the role of forensic institutes in the criminal justice system.

    PubMed

    Kloosterman, Ate; Mapes, Anna; Geradts, Zeno; van Eijk, Erwin; Koper, Carola; van den Berg, Jorrit; Verheij, Saskia; van der Steen, Marcel; van Asten, Arian

    2015-08-05

    In this paper, the importance of modern technology in forensic investigations is discussed. Recent technological developments are creating new possibilities to perform robust scientific measurements and studies outside the controlled laboratory environment. The benefits of real-time, on-site forensic investigations are manifold and such technology has the potential to strongly increase the speed and efficacy of the criminal justice system. However, such benefits are only realized when quality can be guaranteed at all times and findings can be used as forensic evidence in court. At the Netherlands Forensic Institute, innovation efforts are currently undertaken to develop integrated forensic platform solutions that allow for the forensic investigation of human biological traces, the chemical identification of illicit drugs and the study of large amounts of digital evidence. These platforms enable field investigations, yield robust and validated evidence and allow for forensic intelligence and targeted use of expert capacity at the forensic institutes. This technological revolution in forensic science could ultimately lead to a paradigm shift in which a new role of the forensic expert emerges as developer and custodian of integrated forensic platforms.

  6. The interface between forensic science and technology: how technology could cause a paradigm shift in the role of forensic institutes in the criminal justice system

    PubMed Central

    Kloosterman, Ate; Mapes, Anna; Geradts, Zeno; van Eijk, Erwin; Koper, Carola; van den Berg, Jorrit; Verheij, Saskia; van der Steen, Marcel; van Asten, Arian

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the importance of modern technology in forensic investigations is discussed. Recent technological developments are creating new possibilities to perform robust scientific measurements and studies outside the controlled laboratory environment. The benefits of real-time, on-site forensic investigations are manifold and such technology has the potential to strongly increase the speed and efficacy of the criminal justice system. However, such benefits are only realized when quality can be guaranteed at all times and findings can be used as forensic evidence in court. At the Netherlands Forensic Institute, innovation efforts are currently undertaken to develop integrated forensic platform solutions that allow for the forensic investigation of human biological traces, the chemical identification of illicit drugs and the study of large amounts of digital evidence. These platforms enable field investigations, yield robust and validated evidence and allow for forensic intelligence and targeted use of expert capacity at the forensic institutes. This technological revolution in forensic science could ultimately lead to a paradigm shift in which a new role of the forensic expert emerges as developer and custodian of integrated forensic platforms. PMID:26101289

  7. Digital Forensics in the Cloud

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    Birmingham Abstract. Today’s cloud computing architectures often lack support for computer forensic investigations. Besides this, the existing digital... forensics tools cannot cope with the dynamic nature of the cloud. This paper explores the challenges of digital forensics in the cloud, possible...attacks on cloud-evidence, and mitigation strategies against those challenges. Digital Forensics in the Cloud To identify the actual attacker in the

  8. Forensic psychiatry in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Chan, Lai Gwen; Tomita, Todd

    2013-12-01

    Singapore is a geographically small nation-state that has transformed itself from a third-world country to a developed nation after attaining political independence 46 years ago. The pace of change has been tremendous and mental health care is no exception. This paper provides an overview of mental health care and a review of key mental health legislation, including a National Mental Health Blueprint that was rolled out in 2007. On this background, the paper focuses on a description of forensic psychiatric services in Singapore. The role of the Department of Forensic Psychiatry at the Institute of Mental Health, which is the only forensic psychiatry department in the country, will be highlighted. Civil commitment and the treatment of unfit accused persons and insanity acquittees is reviewed. The role of forensic psychiatric assessments in the Singapore courts is examined. The application of the insanity and diminished responsibility defenses are reviewed. A trend is identified in the Singapore courts towards a more rehabilitation-focused sentencing approach and the role that forensic psychiatric assessments play in cases involving mentally disordered offenders is highlighted. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  9. Eponyms in forensic pathology.

    PubMed

    Nečas, Pavel; Hejna, Petr

    2012-12-01

    The phenomenon of eponymous terms in forensic pathology is described in this paper. The authors analyzed representative textbooks (monographs) dealing with forensic pathology in both English and German and identified several eponymous terms. The paper aims to present to the reader the most important eponymous terms in forensic pathology. Included in the paper are the following terms: Beckwith's Sign, Casper's Rule, Krönlein's Shot, Lichtenberg's Figures, Nysten's Law, Paltauf's Spots, Puppe's Rule, Sehrt's Sign, Simon's Sign, Sveshnikov's Sign, Tardieu's Spots, Wischnewski Spots, Wydler's Sign. The spread of eponymous terms throughout various languages is mentioned. The linguistic basis of such terms as well as their advantages and disadvantages in specialist fields, and indeed in even wider circles, is discussed. The authors state that the main function of these terms is to facilitate the open flow of unambiguous information among scholars. Eponymous terms in forensic pathology are characteristic for the German speaking countries and for all countries influenced by the German school of forensic pathology. Their usage in the Anglo-Saxon world is much less widespread, meaning they do not occur very often in English monographs and textbooks.

  10. Forensics on a Shoestring Budget

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greco, Joseph A.

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, forensic science has gained popularity thanks in part to high-profile court cases and television programs. Although the cost of forensic equipment and supplies may initially seem too expensive for the typical high school classroom, the author developed an activity that incorporates forensics into her 10th-grade biology curriculum…

  11. Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2013

    2013-01-01

    In the past 50 years forensic psychological practice has expanded dramatically. Because the practice of forensic psychology differs in important ways from more traditional practice areas (Monahan, 1980) the "Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychologists" were developed and published in 1991 (Committee on Ethical Guidelines for Forensic…

  12. Forensics on a Shoestring Budget

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greco, Joseph A.

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, forensic science has gained popularity thanks in part to high-profile court cases and television programs. Although the cost of forensic equipment and supplies may initially seem too expensive for the typical high school classroom, the author developed an activity that incorporates forensics into her 10th-grade biology curriculum…

  13. Forensic applications of DNA profiling.

    PubMed

    Chow, S T; Ng, T L; Chao, T C

    1996-01-01

    Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) profiling is a powerful forensic tool to identify and individualise biological evidence recovered at crime scenes. Its discriminating power and evidential value are exemplified by many actual forensic cases. Development of new DNA typing techniques, such as the amplification of fluorescently tagged short tandem repeats, would further enhance this capability in forensic investigation.

  14. Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2013

    2013-01-01

    In the past 50 years forensic psychological practice has expanded dramatically. Because the practice of forensic psychology differs in important ways from more traditional practice areas (Monahan, 1980) the "Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychologists" were developed and published in 1991 (Committee on Ethical Guidelines for Forensic…

  15. Forensic geology exhumed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Joseph Didier

    Forensic geology binds applied geology to the world of legal controversy and action. However, the term “forensic” is often misconstrued. Although even some attorneys apply it only to the marshalling of evidence in criminal cases, it has a much broader definition. One dictionary defines it as “pertaining to, connected with, or used in courts of law or public discussion and debate.” The American Geological Institute's Glossary of Geology defines forensic geology as “the application of the Earth sciences to the law.” The cited reference to Murray and Tedrow [1975], however, deals mostly if not exclusively with the gathering and use of evidence in criminal cases, despite the widespread involvement of geologists in more general legal matters. It seems appropriate to “exhume” geology's wider application to the law, which is encompassed by forensic geology.

  16. Expansion of Microbial Forensics.

    PubMed

    Schmedes, Sarah E; Sajantila, Antti; Budowle, Bruce

    2016-08-01

    Microbial forensics has been defined as the discipline of applying scientific methods to the analysis of evidence related to bioterrorism, biocrimes, hoaxes, or the accidental release of a biological agent or toxin for attribution purposes. Over the past 15 years, technology, particularly massively parallel sequencing, and bioinformatics advances now allow the characterization of microorganisms for a variety of human forensic applications, such as human identification, body fluid characterization, postmortem interval estimation, and biocrimes involving tracking of infectious agents. Thus, microbial forensics should be more broadly described as the discipline of applying scientific methods to the analysis of microbial evidence in criminal and civil cases for investigative purposes. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  17. Forensic Proteomics of Poxvirus Production

    SciTech Connect

    Wunschel, David S.; Tulman, Edan; Engelmann, Heather E.; Clowers, Brian H.; Geary, Steven J.; Robinson, Aaron C.; Liao, Xiaofen

    2013-08-27

    The field of microbial forensics has recently sought to develop methods to discern biological signatures to indicate production methods for biological agents. Viral agents have received less attention to date. Their obligate propagation in living cells makes purification from cellular material a challenge. This leads to potential carryover of protein-rich signature of their production system. Here we have explored a proteomic analysis of Vaccinia virus as a model poxvirus system in which to compare samples of virus propagated in different cell lines and subjected to different purification schemes. The proteomic data sets indicated viral, host cell and culture medium proteins, and several layers of data analysis were applied to build confidence in the peptide identification and capture information on the taxonomic utility of each. The analysis showed clear shifts in protein profiles with virus purification, with successive gradient purification steps showing different levels of viral protein enrichment. Peptides from cellular proteins, including those present in purified virus preparations, provided signatures which enabled discrimination of cell line substrates, including distinguishing between cells derived from different primate species. The ability to discern multiple aspects of viral production demonstrates the potential value of proteomic analysis as tool for microbial forensics.

  18. Our battle with hexachlorobenzene: citizen perspectives on toxic waste in Botany.

    PubMed

    Hillier Oam, Nancy; Gennissen, Julia; Pickering, Beverley; Smolenski, Richard; Brown, Paul

    2009-04-01

    The perspectives of residents are brought together in this assembly of statements concerning the management of hexachlorobenzene waste in Botany, a southeastern suburb of Sydney. The paper indicates how residents have responded as participants in public participation exercises, and the contribution made by lay experts in the search for a negotiated solution to the problems of legacy wastes. Resident comments on the role of independent scientific experts, on legal liability, and on the State Government sponsored Commission of Inquiry, indicate the deficit of resources faced by the local community. The paper provides insights into the status of citizen knowledge in environmental controversies and the pitfalls of participatory processes.

  19. Research in forensic odontology.

    PubMed Central

    Whittaker, D. K.

    1982-01-01

    Forensic odontology has established itself as an important and often indispensable science in medicolegal matters and in particular in identification of the dead. Much of its expertise is drawn from clinical experience based on basic research and advances in knowledge in dentistry in general. There has also been, particularly during the past two decades, an increasing body of research in specifically forensic dental matters and these studies form the subject of this review. Progress in this field, as in others, will depend upon development of training pathways and research facilities in our dental schools. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 PMID:7044254

  20. Forensic analysis of uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Stoyer, N.J.; Moody, K.J.

    1996-10-01

    As more and more offers for illicit {open_quotes}Black Market{close_quotes} radioactive materials are found, the forensic information contained within the radioactive material itself becomes more important. Many {open_quotes}Black Market{close_quotes} offers are for uranium in various forms and enrichments. Although most are scams, some countries have actually interdicted enriched uranium. We will discuss the forensic information that can be obtained from materials containing uranium along with examples of data that has been determined from analysis of uranium samples obtained from legitimate sources.

  1. Forensic Science Center

    SciTech Connect

    Andresen, B.; Grant, P.M.

    1994-03-01

    Since 1991, the Laboratory's Forensic Science Center has focused a comprehensive range of analytical expertise on issues related to non proliferation, counterterrorism, and domestic law enforcement. During this short period, LLNL's singular combination of human and technological resources has made the Center among the best of its kind in the world. The Forensic Science Center houses a variety of state-of-the-art analytical tools ranging from gas chromatograph/mass spectrometers to ultratrace DNA detection techniques. The Center's multidisciplinary staff provides expertise in organic and inorganic analytical chemistry, nuclear science, biochemistry, and genetics useful for supporting law enforcement and for verifying compliance with international treaties and agreements.

  2. Complexity and forensic pathology.

    PubMed

    Jones, Richard Martin

    2015-12-01

    It has become increasingly apparent that nonlinearity and complexity are the norm in human physiological systems, the relevance of which is informing an enhanced understanding of basic pathological processes such as inflammation, the host response to severe trauma, and critical illness. This article will explore how an understanding of nonlinear systems and complexity might inform the study of the pathophysiology of deaths of medicolegal interest, and how 'complexity thinking' might usefully be incorporated into modern forensic medicine and forensic pathology research, education and practice.

  3. The future of forensic and crime scene science. Part II. A UK perspective on forensic science education.

    PubMed

    Mennell, Julie

    2006-03-14

    This paper builds on the views presented by the author at 'The Future of Forensic and Crime Scene Science Conference'. Forensic science has become an increasingly prominent area of science within the last 10 years. This increasing prominence together with popularity in the subject has seen the number of undergraduate students studying forensic science related courses at UK Universities increase rapidly in just 5 years and there are no short term signs of this trend reducing. In 2005, there were 450 courses with forensic in the title offered by higher education institutes. Although the forensic community has expressed its concern that job prospects for these students wishing to pursue careers as forensic scientists will be limited numbers of students undertaking science courses have still increased. The increase in students studying forensic science comes in an era of decreasing science numbers in higher education with the potential to produce high calibre science graduates with sought after skills in critical thinking, analysis, interpretation and communication. Technology has continued to advance at a similar pace providing those responsible for managing crime with a need and opportunity to identify and predict new and future applications of science and technology; not just in reducing and detecting crime but also in predicting how technology will be used by criminals in the future. There is therefore a need for forensic science users, providers and educators to identify the knowledge and skills required by forensic scientists and crime investigators of the future to ensure that technology continues to be used and applied to its full advantage. This provides universities an opportunity to contribute to the development of both the practice and practitioners of forensic science. This paper outlines the current issues facing universities in relation to forensic science and identifies their future role in providing high quality relevant courses for future forensic

  4. 3D imaging in forensic odontology.

    PubMed

    Evans, Sam; Jones, Carl; Plassmann, Peter

    2010-06-16

    This paper describes the investigation of a new 3D capture method for acquiring and subsequent forensic analysis of bite mark injuries on human skin. When documenting bite marks with standard 2D cameras errors in photographic technique can occur if best practice is not followed. Subsequent forensic analysis of the mark is problematic when a 3D structure is recorded into a 2D space. Although strict guidelines (BAFO) exist, these are time-consuming to follow and, due to their complexity, may produce errors. A 3D image capture and processing system might avoid the problems resulting from the 2D reduction process, simplifying the guidelines and reducing errors. Proposed Solution: a series of experiments are described in this paper to demonstrate that the potential of a 3D system might produce suitable results. The experiments tested precision and accuracy of the traditional 2D and 3D methods. A 3D image capture device minimises the amount of angular distortion, therefore such a system has the potential to create more robust forensic evidence for use in courts. A first set of experiments tested and demonstrated which method of forensic analysis creates the least amount of intra-operator error. A second set tested and demonstrated which method of image capture creates the least amount of inter-operator error and visual distortion. In a third set the effects of angular distortion on 2D and 3D methods of image capture were evaluated.

  5. Chemical and Physical Signatures for Microbial Forensics

    SciTech Connect

    Cliff, John B.; Kreuzer, Helen W.; Ehrhardt, Christopher J.; Wunschel, David S.

    2012-01-03

    Chemical and physical signatures for microbial forensics John Cliff and Helen Kreuzer-Martin, eds. Humana Press Chapter 1. Introduction: Review of history and statement of need. Randy Murch, Virginia Tech Chapter 2. The Microbe: Structure, morphology, and physiology of the microbe as they relate to potential signatures of growth conditions. Joany Jackman, Johns Hopkins University Chapter 3. Science for Forensics: Special considerations for the forensic arena - quality control, sample integrity, etc. Mark Wilson (retired FBI): Western Carolina University Chapter 4. Physical signatures: Light and electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, gravimetry etc. Joseph Michael, Sandia National Laboratory Chapter 5. Lipids: FAME, PLFA, steroids, LPS, etc. James Robertson, Federal Bureau of Investigation Chapter 6. Carbohydrates: Cell wall components, cytoplasm components, methods Alvin Fox, University of South Carolina School of Medicine David Wunschel, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Chapter 7. Peptides: Peptides, proteins, lipoproteins David Wunschel, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Chapter 8. Elemental content: CNOHPS (treated in passing), metals, prospective cell types John Cliff, International Atomic Energy Agency Chapter 9. Isotopic signatures: Stable isotopes C,N,H,O,S, 14C dating, potential for heavy elements. Helen Kreuzer-Martin, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Michaele Kashgarian, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Chapter 10. Extracellular signatures: Cellular debris, heme, agar, headspace, spent media, etc Karen Wahl, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Chapter 11. Data Reduction and Integrated Microbial Forensics: Statistical concepts, parametric and multivariate statistics, integrating signatures Kristin Jarman, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

  6. Exploring Trends in Forensic Odontology

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Narendra Nath; Ain, Tasneem S.; Sultan, Saima

    2014-01-01

    Background: Forensic odontology nowadays has become a developing science and is of great importance to society. It is important that dental practitioners should have a proper knowledge of forensics as the need has increased greatly over the last decades due to the unprecedented demand from the criminal justice including terrorism in Kashmir valley (J&K India). Materials and Methods: Data was collected based on questionnaire survey among qualified dental practitioners related to their awareness of forensic odontology. Results: A total number of 235 dental practitioners responded to the questionnaire. Results showed that there was a low confidence, in handling of forensic odontology related cases among dental practitioners and majority of dental practitioners were not having any formal training in forensic odontology. Conclusion: Each dental practitioner has a responsibility to understand the forensic implications associated with the practice of his profession and thus he should work sincerely enough so to ensure his contribution in the field of forensic odontology. PMID:25654026

  7. Exploring trends in forensic odontology.

    PubMed

    Singh, Narendra Nath; Gowhar, Owais; Ain, Tasneem S; Sultan, Saima

    2014-12-01

    Forensic odontology nowadays has become a developing science and is of great importance to society. It is important that dental practitioners should have a proper knowledge of forensics as the need has increased greatly over the last decades due to the unprecedented demand from the criminal justice including terrorism in Kashmir valley (J&K India). Data was collected based on questionnaire survey among qualified dental practitioners related to their awareness of forensic odontology. A total number of 235 dental practitioners responded to the questionnaire. RESULTS showed that there was a low confidence, in handling of forensic odontology related cases among dental practitioners and majority of dental practitioners were not having any formal training in forensic odontology. Each dental practitioner has a responsibility to understand the forensic implications associated with the practice of his profession and thus he should work sincerely enough so to ensure his contribution in the field of forensic odontology.

  8. [Application of confocal laser scanning microscope in forensic pathology].

    PubMed

    Zhuo, Luo; Hu, Le-Sheng; Zhou, Lan; Zheng, Na; Liang, Man; Yang, Fan; Liu, Liang

    2009-12-01

    Confocal laser scanning microscopy(CLSM) is a new technique for microscopic imaging, which can collect the transverse section image of the samples and produce three-dimensional reconstruction and present higher spatial resolution than the conventional light microscope. As a precision instrument for the microscopic image, it plays an important role in forensic pathology. The article reviews the recent research achievements from sudden cardiac death, bullet wound and nervous system damage, etc, and explores the potential applications of the forensic pathology research and forensic practice.

  9. Forensic Applications of LIBS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hark, Richard R.; East, Lucille J.

    Forensic science is broadly defined as the application of science to matters of the law. Practitioners typically use multidisciplinary scientific techniques for the analysis of physical evidence in an attempt to establish or exclude an association between a suspect and the scene of a crime.

  10. Forensic medicine in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Islam, Muhammad Nurul; Islam, Mohammed Nasimul

    2003-03-01

    In this paper, we discuss the current medico-legal practice and future plan to improve the medico-legal service of Bangladesh which is rooted in the remnants of British medical jurisprudence. It includes clinical forensic medicine and forensic pathology. In Bangladesh all unnatural deaths are to be reported at the nearest police station and an appointed police officer should visit the scene of crime for investigation and to arrange postmortem if required. The forensic services of the country are delivered partly by academic staffs of Government Medical Colleges and the rest by the Civil Surgeons. Sometimes, residential medical officers in the district hospitals perform the medico-legal work. Most of them have no forensic qualifications except a long exposure in the medico-legal field. Currently academic and professional postgraduate courses are available. The chemical examiner's laboratory is situated at Dhaka with the facility of quantitative tests only. The Government of Bangladesh is trying to standardize the existing system. A Workshop on medico-legal services has been organized regularly by The Medico-legal Society of Bangladesh. A DNA profiling laboratory at the Dhaka Medical College is in the process of being set up. Such progress will be a milestone in the development of the medico-legal service in Bangladesh. However, with a few exceptions, teaching and training facilities are still lacking.

  11. Forensic radiology in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Manigandan, T; Sumathy, C; Elumalai, M; Sathasivasubramanian, S; Kannan, A

    2015-04-01

    Radiography can play an important part in forensic odontology, mainly to establish identification. This may take the precise form of comparison between antemortem and postmortem radiographs. Radiographs may also be taken to determine the age of a minor victim and even help in the assessment of the sex and ethnic group. Comparable radiographs are an essential factor to confirm identification in a mass disaster.

  12. Forensic entomology in Germany.

    PubMed

    Amendt, J; Krettek, R; Niess, C; Zehner, R; Bratzke, H

    2000-09-11

    Forensic entomology (FE) is increasingly gaining international recognition. In Germany, however, the development of FE has been stagnating, mainly because of the lack of cooperation between police, forensic medicine and entomology. In 1997 a co-operative research project 'Forensic Entomology' was started in Frankfurt/Main at the Center of Legal Medicine and the Research Institute Senckenberg. The aim of this project is to establish FE in Germany as a firmly integrated component of the securing of evidence from human cadavers in cases of suspected homicide. For this purpose we developed a forensic insect collecting kit, and policemen are educated for greater acceptance and better application of FE. The scientific programme focuses on the investigation of the insect succession on cadavers in urban and rural habitats. This also includes new indicator groups (e.g. parasitic wasps) for a more precise calculation of the late post mortem interval. Recently a DNA-based reliable and fast identification method especially for the immature stages of necrophagous insects became part of the project. Preliminary results are reported and two case studies presented.

  13. Forensics and Speech Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBath, James H.

    1975-01-01

    Focuses on the importance of integrating forensics programs into the speech communication curriculum. Maintains that debating and argumentation skills increase the probability of academic success. Published by the Association for Communication Administration Bulletin, Staff Coordinator, ACA 5205 Leesburg Pike, Falls Church, VA 22041, $25.00 annual…

  14. A segment of rbcL gene as a potential tool for forensic discrimination of Cannabis sativa seized at Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mello, I C T; Ribeiro, A S D; Dias, V H G; Silva, R; Sabino, B D; Garrido, R G; Seldin, L; de Moura Neto, Rodrigo Soares

    2016-03-01

    Cannabis sativa, known by the common name marijuana, is the psychoactive drug most widely distributed in the world. Identification of Cannabis cultivars may be useful for association to illegal crops, which may reveal trafficking routes and related criminal groups. This study provides evidence for the performance of a segment of the rbcL gene, through genetic signature, as a tool for identification for C. sativa samples apprehended by the Rio de Janeiro Police, Brazil. The PCR amplified and further sequenced the fragment of approximately 561 bp of 24 samples of C. sativa rbcL gene and showed the same nucleotide sequences, suggesting a possible genetic similarity or identical varieties. Comparing with other Cannabaceae family sequences, we have found 99% of similarity between the Rio de Janeiro sequence and three other C. sativa rbcL genes. These findings suggest that the fragment utilized at this study is efficient in identifying C. sativa samples, therefore, useful in genetic discrimination of samples seized in forensic cases.

  15. 13C-Isotope ratio mass spectrometry as a potential tool for the forensic analysis of white architectural paint: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Reidy, L J; Meier-Augenstein, W; Kalin, R M

    2005-01-01

    Paints have a dual role in society, to protect materials from environmental agents such as ultraviolet light, moisture and oxygen, and to make painted materials look more attractive. Variability in paint samples is often due to binder and pigment type within the sample. The most common resin used in decorative paints is drying oil alkyd resin, which incorporates soybean oil and vinyl acrylic based latexes. Traditional analytical methods used by forensic scientists may be able to say whether two paint samples are indistinguishable but cannot conclusively say that they both originate from the same source. To find out if isotopic composition can provide an added dimension of information, 28 different white architectural paints were analysed for (13)C abundance using isotope ratio mass spectrometry. In addition, variations in application, drying time and thickness were also investigated to assess the discriminatory power of (13)C data from white paints with an unknown history. Preliminary results indicate that this method could aid screening of paint samples. Copyright (c) 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Synthetic Botany.

    PubMed

    Boehm, Christian R; Pollak, Bernardo; Purswani, Nuri; Patron, Nicola; Haseloff, Jim

    2017-07-05

    Plants are attractive platforms for synthetic biology and metabolic engineering. Plants' modular and plastic body plans, capacity for photosynthesis, extensive secondary metabolism, and agronomic systems for large-scale production make them ideal targets for genetic reprogramming. However, efforts in this area have been constrained by slow growth, long life cycles, the requirement for specialized facilities, a paucity of efficient tools for genetic manipulation, and the complexity of multicellularity. There is a need for better experimental and theoretical frameworks to understand the way genetic networks, cellular populations, and tissue-wide physical processes interact at different scales. We highlight new approaches to the DNA-based manipulation of plants and the use of advanced quantitative imaging techniques in simple plant models such as Marchantia polymorpha. These offer the prospects of improved understanding of plant dynamics and new approaches to rational engineering of plant traits. Copyright © 2017 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  17. Root (Botany)

    Treesearch

    Robert R. Ziemer

    1981-01-01

    Plant roots can contribute significantly to the stability of steep slopes. They can anchor through the soil mass into fractures in bedrock, can cross zones of weakness to more stable soil, and can provide interlocking long fibrous binders within a weak soil mass. In deep soil, anchoring to bedrock becomes negligible, and lateral reinforcement predominates

  18. Platycladus orientalis leaves: a systemic review on botany, phytochemistry and pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Shan, Ming-Qiu; Shang, Jing; Ding, An-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Platycladus orientalis leaves (Cebaiye) have been used for thousands of years as traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). According to the theory of TCM, they are categorized as a blood-cooling and hematostatic herb. In clinical practice, they were usually prescribed with heat-clearing herbs to reinforce the efficacy of hemostasis. The review provides the up-to-date information from 1980 to present that is available on the botany, processing research, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of the leaves. The information is collected from scientific journals, books, theses and reports via library and electronic search (Google Scholar, Pubmed and CNKI). Through literature reports, we can find that the leaves show a wide spectrum of pharmacological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial, disinsection, anticancer, diuretic, hair growth-promoting, neuroprotective and antifibrotic activities. Diterpene and flavonoids would be active constituents in P. orientalis leaves. Many studies have provided evidence for various traditional uses. However, there is a great need for additional studies to elucidate the mechanism of blood-cooling and hematostatic activity of the leaves. Therefore, the present review on the botany, traditional uses, phytochemistry and toxicity has provided preliminary information for further studies of this herb.

  19. The correspondence of Thomas Dale (1700-1750): Botany in the transatlantic Republic of Letters.

    PubMed

    Cook, William J

    2012-03-01

    This paper seeks to provide a full account of the life and career of Dr. Thomas Dale (1700-1750), with particular reference to his botanical works and correspondence. Born in Hoxton, London, Dale studied medicine at Leiden and engaged fully in the social, literary and epistolary network in which botany was practised in eighteenth-century England. In 1730, however, Dale relocated to the British colonial port of Charles Town, South Carolina. Here he continued to engage in a transatlantic network of botanical exchange and discussion, corresponding on equal and reciprocal terms with his former colleagues in England. Where Dale differs from naturalists in South Carolina before him is that his motives for pursuing botany and for corresponding with English naturalists were located firmly in the New World. Such a conclusion forms a valuable, albeit small contribution to models for the development of national scientific cultures in the imperial world. Similarly, Dale's pursuit of botanical information in South Carolina provides a small amount of material with which to illustrate currently fashionable models for the mediated exchange and circulation of scientific knowledge. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. [Forensic psychiatry problems in depression].

    PubMed

    Frank, C; Harrer, G

    1985-02-15

    Forensic complications involving criminal or civil law are generally rare in depressive disorders, but are of varied nature and of great consequence to the person concerned. Suicide, which is the problem of greatest practical importance may have far-reaching consequences with regard to legal insurance, apart from the medical responsibility or liability. From the point of view of civil law, moreover, the effects of depression on thought and action, as well as on free will with respect to legal capacity, testifiability, marriageability, actionability and potential considerations of interdiction ought to be examined. Last, but not least, consequences of a socio-legal nature may ensue. The spectrum of possible crimes by depressed subjects essentially comprises disease-characteristic offences, amongst which the desperate deed of extended suicide is foremost, as well as other criminal acts with a less direct connection to the depressive syndrome. Additional factors such as alcohol and medication may further complicate the relationship and also the assessment of culpability. In the forensic judgment of depressed subjects diagnostic classification is not alone decisive, but depends to a greater extent on the nature and severity of the psychopathological state and its influence on motivational aspects.

  1. Forensic learning disability nursing skills and competencies: a study of forensic and non-forensic nurses.

    PubMed

    Mason, Tom; Phipps, Dianne

    2010-11-01

    This paper reports on an investigation into the skills and competencies of forensic learning disability nurses in the United Kingdom. The two sample populations were forensic learning disability nurses from the high, medium, and low secure psychiatric services and non-forensic learning disability nurses from generic services. An information gathering schedule was used to collect the data; of 1200 schedules, 643 were returned for a response rate of 53.5%. The data identified the "top ten" problems that forensic learning disability nurses may encounter, the skills and competencies necessary to overcome them, and the areas that need to be developed in the future. The results indicated that the forensic learning disability nurses tended to focus on the physical aspects to the role whilst the non-forensic learning disability nurses tended to perceive the forensic role in relational terms. This has implications for practice, policy, and procedures.

  2. Quantitative filter forensics for indoor particle sampling.

    PubMed

    Haaland, D; Siegel, J A

    2017-03-01

    Filter forensics is a promising indoor air investigation technique involving the analysis of dust which has collected on filters in central forced-air heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) or portable systems to determine the presence of indoor particle-bound contaminants. In this study, we summarize past filter forensics research to explore what it reveals about the sampling technique and the indoor environment. There are 60 investigations in the literature that have used this sampling technique for a variety of biotic and abiotic contaminants. Many studies identified differences between contaminant concentrations in different buildings using this technique. Based on this literature review, we identified a lack of quantification as a gap in the past literature. Accordingly, we propose an approach to quantitatively link contaminants extracted from HVAC filter dust to time-averaged integrated air concentrations. This quantitative filter forensics approach has great potential to measure indoor air concentrations of a wide variety of particle-bound contaminants. Future studies directly comparing quantitative filter forensics to alternative sampling techniques are required to fully assess this approach, but analysis of past research suggests the enormous possibility of this approach. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. A Cost-Effective Model for Digital Forensic Investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overill, Richard; Kwan, Michael; Chow, Kam-Pui; Lai, Pierre; Law, Frank

    Because of the way computers operate, every discrete event potentially leaves a digital trace. These digital traces must be retrieved during a digital forensic investigation to prove or refute an alleged crime. Given resource constraints, it is not always feasible (or necessary) for law enforcement to retrieve all the related digital traces and to conduct comprehensive investigations. This paper attempts to address the issue by proposing a model for conducting swift, practical and cost-effective digital forensic investigations.

  4. Forensic Odontology: The New Dimension in Dental Analysis.

    PubMed

    Divakar, K P

    2017-03-01

    Forensic Odontology a branch of Forensic sciences uses the skill of the dentist in personal identification during mass calamities, sexual assault and child abuse to name a few. This branch not stranger to many has been growing tenfold in its potential and its ability to bring the forlorn to justice where a dental remains is the only available evidence. It's role and importance in the judiciary is fast growing and hence in depth knowledge in this field seems more than justified.

  5. Identification and persistence of Pinus pollen DNA on cotton fabrics: A forensic application.

    PubMed

    Schield, Cassandra; Campelli, Cassandra; Sycalik, Jennifer; Randle, Christopher; Hughes-Stamm, Sheree; Gangitano, David

    2016-01-01

    Advances in plant genomics have had an impact on the field of forensic botany. However, the use of pollen DNA profiling in forensic investigations has yet to be applied. Five volunteers wore a jacket with Pinus echinata pollen-containing cotton swatches for a 14-day period. Pollen decay was evaluated at days 0, 3, 6, 9 and 14 by microscopy. Pollen grains were then transferred to slides using a portable forensic vacuum handle. Ten single grains per swatch were isolated for DNA analysis. DNA was extracted using a high throughput extraction method. A nine-locus short tandem repeat (STR) multiplex system, including previously published primers from Pinus taeda, was developed. DNA was amplified by PCR using fluorescent dyes and analyzed by capillary electrophoresis. Pollen counts from cotton swatches in a 14-day period exhibited an exponential decay from 100% to 17%. The success rate of PCR amplification was 81.2%. Complete and partial STR profiles were generated from 250 pollen grains analyzed (44% and 37%, respectively). Due to the limited amount of DNA, drop-in events were observed (1.87%). However, the rate of contamination with pollen from other pine individuals originating from environmental sources was 4.4%. In conclusion, this study has shown that pollen can be a stable source of forensic DNA evidence, as a proof-of-principle, and that may persist on cotton clothing for at least 14 days of wear. This method can be applied in forensic cases where pollen grains larger than 10 μm (e.g., from herbs or trees) may be transferred to clothing (worn by suspect or victim) by primary contact.

  6. Intrinsic dosimetry of glass containers used to transport nuclear materials: Potential implications to the fields of waste management and nuclear forensics

    SciTech Connect

    Schwantes, Jon M.; Miller, Steve D.; Piper, Roman K.; Murphy, Mark K.; Amonette, James E.; Bonde, Steven E.; Duckworth, Douglas C.

    2009-04-12

    Thermoluminescence (TL) and Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) dosimetry were used to measure dose effects in borosilicate glass with time, from 10 min to w60 days following exposure to a dose of up to 100 Gy. TL and EPR results were consistent and performed similarly, with both techniques capable of achieving an estimated limit of detection of between 0.5 and 1 Gy. Three peaks were identified in the TL glow curve at roughly 110 C, 205 C, and 225 C. The intensity of the 205 C peak was the dominant peak over the time period of this study. The stability of all of the peaks with time since irradiation increased with their corresponding temperature and no significant variation was observed in the glow curve response to a specified total dose attained at different dose rates. The intensity of the 205 C peak decreased logarithmically with time regardless of total dose. Based upon a conservative limit of detection of 3.3 Gy, a 100 Gy dose would still be detected 2.7E3 years after exposure. Here, we introduce the concept of intrinsic dosimetry, the measurement of the total absorbed dose received by the walls of a container containing radioactive material. The foreseen advantage of intrinsic dosimetry comes from considering the measured absorbed dose received by containers in concert with the characteristics (amount, type) of the source of that dose, the radioactive material contained within the walls of the container, in order to provide enhanced information about the history of an unknown sample in question. Three hypothetical scenarios are presented to introduce this method and to illustrate how intrinsic dosimetry might benefit the fields of nuclear forensics and waste management.

  7. Analytical and Radiochemistry for Nuclear Forensics

    SciTech Connect

    Steiner, Robert Ernest; Dry, Donald E.; Kinman, William Scott; Podlesak, David; Tandon, Lav

    2015-05-26

    Information about nonproliferation nuclear forensics, activities in forensics at Los Alamos National Laboratory, radio analytical work at LANL, radiochemical characterization capabilities, bulk chemical and materials analysis capabilities, and future interests in forensics interactions.

  8. Molecular Advancements in Forensic Odontology.

    PubMed

    Babu Rs, A; Rose, D

    2015-05-11

    Forensic odontology explores the field of human identification through dental tissues in cases where there is the destruction of body tissues in criminal investigations and mass disasters. Forensic odontology involves dentists participating in legal and criminal issues. Parameters such as age and gender identification are important in identifying the person or persons. Over the last two decades, the molecular aspect of forensic sciences has increased, and these molecular techniques now provide a novel approach to forensic odontology. Molecular advancements in science like DNA analysis have extended the range of forensic dentistry, as teeth possess the character of resistance toward physical or chemical aggressions. Teeth provide the abundant space for DNA, and hence teeth represent an excellent source of genomic DNA. The present paper focusses on molecular advancements in the field of forensic odontology.

  9. Forensics in dermatology: part I.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Kalpana; Lowenstein, Eve J

    2011-05-01

    Examination of the skin and adnexae is a critical part of the forensic examination. Little information on forensic sciences has been published in the dermatologic literature. Correct forensic terminology and documentation of dermatologic findings is of critical importance in forensic investigations. The skin may reveal clues to the identity of an individual and the time and method of death or injury. Normal postmortem changes in the skin are described along with pseudopathology and damage from postmortem animal activity. The forensic classification of types of injuries is introduced in this first of a two-part paper on forensics in dermatology. Copyright © 2010 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Forensic radiography: an overview.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, April

    2010-01-01

    Perhaps the first instance of forensic radiography occurred in the 1890s when Professor AW Wright of Yale University tested Wilhelm Roentgen's newly discovered x-ray photography on a deceased rabbit. Of interest were small, round objects inside the rabbit that appeared as dark spots on the positive film. The objects were extracted and identified as bullets, thereby helping to determine the cause of the rabbit's death. In the years since Roentgen's discovery, the use of radiography and other medical imaging specialties to aid in investigating civil and criminal matters has increased as investigators realize how radiologic technology can yield information that otherwise is unavailable. Radiologic technologists can play a key role in forensic investigations.

  11. [Gunshot wounds: forensic pathology].

    PubMed

    Lorin de la Grandmaison, Geoffroy

    2012-02-01

    Gunshot wounds are among the most complex traumatic lesions encountered in forensic pathology. At the time of autopsy, careful scrutiny of the wounds is essential for correct interpretation of the lesions. Complementary pathological analysis has many interests: differentiation between entrance and exit wounds, estimation of firing distance, differentiation between vital and post mortem wounds and wounds dating. In case of multiple headshots, neuropathological examination can provide arguments for or against suicide. Sampling of gunshot wounds at autopsy must be systematic. Pathological data should be confronted respectively to autopsy and death scene investigation data and also ballistic studies. Forensic pathologist must be aware of the limits of optic microscopy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. The scope of forensic radiology.

    PubMed

    Brogdon, B G

    1998-06-01

    The use of x-ray in the solution of forensic problems commenced within days of Röntgen's discovery; indeed, most of the applications of radiology to the forensic sciences were accomplished or anticipated within the next two years. The scope of forensic radiology ranges widely and includes determination of identity, evaluation of injury and death, applications in both criminal and civil litigation and in administrative proceedings, detection of abuse, investigation of gunshot wounds, medical education and research. Newer modalities and techniques afford opportunity for the expansion of forensic radiology if problems of accessibility and cost can be resolved along with improvement in interdisciplinary cooperation and understanding.

  13. [Forensic medicine experiences in Kosovo].

    PubMed

    Schäfer, A T

    2000-01-01

    In summer 1999, a German forensic team of CID officers and forensic pathologists was sent to Kosovo on request of the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) to investigate possible war crimes. For this purpose, witnesses had to be found and interrogated and graves of victims had to be located and the bodies exhumed and examined forensically. Roughly 200 bodies have been found and examined during the campaign that were predominantly of male sex and showed mainly gunshot wounds. A high percentage of all bodies could be identified. The article deals with different forensic-pathologic aspects of such an investigation.

  14. Commentary: forensic psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Altshul, Victor A

    2013-01-01

    Yakeley and Adshead present a broad view of the increasing influence of psychodynamically informed thought and practice on the British criminal justice system, adumbrating a model they call forensic psychotherapy. They explore such topics as mitigating factors, influences on recidivism, and psychotherapy with incarcerated inmates. While I am sympathetic with their overall aims, I outline some theoretical and practical difficulties in attempting to wed two very different systems of thought and the limitations that these difficulties impose.

  15. Forensic radiology in dentistry

    PubMed Central

    Manigandan, T.; Sumathy, C.; Elumalai, M.; Sathasivasubramanian, S.; Kannan, A.

    2015-01-01

    Radiography can play an important part in forensic odontology, mainly to establish identification. This may take the precise form of comparison between antemortem and postmortem radiographs. Radiographs may also be taken to determine the age of a minor victim and even help in the assessment of the sex and ethnic group. Comparable radiographs are an essential factor to confirm identification in a mass disaster. PMID:26015728

  16. Research in Computer Forensics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-06-01

    mails . Forged Email Trusted MTA Mails with Spoofed Sender Identity Forged Emails 491 Email Forgery Forging an email on SMTP (Simple Mail Transport...As such, the discipline of computer forensic analysis has emerged to meet such needs. Computers can contain evidence in many ways, in electronic mail ...shortcut files, registry entries, printer spool and operating system logs for the system events, internet information server, Exchange mail server

  17. Hyperspectral imaging for non-contact analysis of forensic traces.

    PubMed

    Edelman, G J; Gaston, E; van Leeuwen, T G; Cullen, P J; Aalders, M C G

    2012-11-30

    Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) integrates conventional imaging and spectroscopy, to obtain both spatial and spectral information from a specimen. This technique enables investigators to analyze the chemical composition of traces and simultaneously visualize their spatial distribution. HSI offers significant potential for the detection, visualization, identification and age estimation of forensic traces. The rapid, non-destructive and non-contact features of HSI mark its suitability as an analytical tool for forensic science. This paper provides an overview of the principles, instrumentation and analytical techniques involved in hyperspectral imaging. We describe recent advances in HSI technology motivating forensic science applications, e.g. the development of portable and fast image acquisition systems. Reported forensic science applications are reviewed. Challenges are addressed, such as the analysis of traces on backgrounds encountered in casework, concluded by a summary of possible future applications.

  18. The relationship between deprivation and forensic opportunities with stolen vehicles.

    PubMed

    Smith, Lisa L; Bond, John W

    2009-09-01

    Collection and interpretation of forensic intelligence (primarily through DNA and fingerprint identifications) is an integral part of the investigation of criminal offenses ranging from burglary and vehicle crime to major crime. The forensic contribution depends not only on the successful recovery of material, but also the ability to identify potential offenders and apply this intelligence to solve the crime. This study examines burglary and vehicle crimes investigated by Northamptonshire Police (U.K.) by analyzing relationships between deprivation of a crime location and the recovery and identification of DNA and fingerprint material. The results show that, for stolen vehicles, although significantly more forensic material (both DNA and fingerprints) is recovered and identified in more deprived neighborhoods, this does not lead to a corresponding increase in solved cases. These findings are considered in relation to previous studies, which have advocated the prioritization of resources at crime scenes most likely to yield forensic material.

  19. Challenge Paper: Validation of Forensic Techniques for Criminal Prosecution

    SciTech Connect

    Erbacher, Robert F.; Endicott-Popovsky, Barbara E.; Frincke, Deborah A.

    2007-04-10

    Abstract: As in many domains, there is increasing agreement in the user and research community that digital forensics analysts would benefit from the extension, development and application of advanced techniques in performing large scale and heterogeneous data analysis. Modern digital forensics analysis of cyber-crimes and cyber-enabled crimes often requires scrutiny of massive amounts of data. For example, a case involving network compromise across multiple enterprises might require forensic analysis of numerous sets of network logs and computer hard drives, potentially involving 100?s of gigabytes of heterogeneous data, or even terabytes or petabytes of data. Also, the goal for forensic analysis is to not only determine whether the illicit activity being considered is taking place, but also to identify the source of the activity and the full extent of the compromise or impact on the local network. Even after this analysis, there remains the challenge of using the results in subsequent criminal and civil processes.

  20. Visualizing Digital Forensic Datasets: A Proof of Concept.

    PubMed

    Tassone, Christopher F R; Martini, Ben; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond

    2017-09-01

    Digital forensic visualization is an understudied area despite its potential to achieve significant improvements in the efficiency of an investigation, criminal or civil. In this study, a three-stage forensic data storage and visualization life cycle is presented. The first stage is the decoding of data, which involves preparing both structured and unstructured data for storage. In the storage stage, data are stored within our proposed database schema designed for ensuring data integrity and speed of storage and retrieval. The final stage is the visualization of stored data in a manner that facilitates user interaction. These functionalities are implemented in a proof of concept to demonstrate the utility of the proposed life cycle. The proof of concept demonstrates the utility of the proposed approach for the storage and visualization of digital forensic data. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  1. Forensic Data Carving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Povar, Digambar; Bhadran, V. K.

    File or data carving is a term used in the field of Cyber forensics. Cyber forensics is the process of acquisition, authentication, analysis and documentation of evidence extracted from and/or contained in a computer system, computer network and digital media. Extracting data (file) out of undifferentiated blocks (raw data) is called as carving. Identifying and recovering files based on analysis of file formats is known as file carving. In Cyber Forensics, carving is a helpful technique in finding hidden or deleted files from digital media. A file can be hidden in areas like lost clusters, unallocated clusters and slack space of the disk or digital media. To use this method of extraction, a file should have a standard file signature called a file header (start of the file). A search is performed to locate the file header and continued until the file footer (end of the file) is reached. The data between these two points will be extracted and analyzed to validate the file. The extraction algorithm uses different methods of carving depending on the file formats.

  2. Tattoos: forensic considerations.

    PubMed

    Byard, Roger W

    2013-12-01

    Tattooing refers to marking of the skin by puncturing and introducing pigmented material. Although it derives from a Polynesian word, tautau, decorative tattooing has been found in most societies over many centuries. The purpose of tattooing has varied from simple decoration, to a marker of social rank, criminal and noncriminal group membership, or a particular rite of passage in tribal communities. Tattooing may be used in medicine to mark areas for radiotherapy, and may occur inadvertently associated with certain occupations such as coal mining. Forensically, tattoos may be very useful in assisting with body identification if facial features or fingers have been damaged or removed. Aspects of a decedent's history may also be deduced from certain tattoos such as military tattoos in service personnel, rudimentary line tattoos with antisocial and anti-police messages in ex-prisoners, and syringes, marihuana leaves or mushrooms in illicit drug users. Tattoos have become more common in recent years in younger individuals in the West and so should be expected to be found with increasing incidence at the time of forensic autopsy examinations. Increasing population movements also mean that less common tattoos may be encountered during forensic evaluations.

  3. Forensic web watch 4.

    PubMed

    Lumb, P; Rutty, G N

    2000-06-01

    Finding dedicated sites on the World Wide Web (WWW) touching upon issues related to the autopsy which could be of use to forensic practitioners is, as with other areas of forensic medicine and science, a time-consuming task. Unfortunately, one has to wade through lists related to 'Alien autopsy' sites and even 'Furby autopsy' sites that are generated by the most commonly used web search engines, which have been featured in earlier web reviews. Numerous sites containing large archives of autopsy photographs are available on the web. However, many of these sites represent the darker side of the WWW as they are often presented purely for titillation. Unfortunately, one can equate these sites to the modern-day version of the Victorian 'freak show'--Typically, these sites ask for your Visa card number to view their contents, and several have links to pornography sites; one even links to a Satanist site. Luckily a few of these sites do now require age confirmation codes. As many of these sites show autopsy photographs from real cases one has to ask how these were obtained and who is placing them on the WWW. This review does not list any of these sites for obvious reasons, but it does draw the reader's attention to sites touching upon issues related to autopsies which forensic practitioners may wish to visit or use.

  4. Parricide: a forensic approach.

    PubMed

    Dantas, Soraia; Santos, Agostinho; Dias, Isabel; Dinis-Oliveira, Ricardo Jorge; Magalhães, Teresa

    2014-02-01

    Parricide is the act of murdering one's father (patricide), mother (matricide) or other close relative, but usually not children (infanticide). It is a rare event and little information is available on this topic. This study aims to increase knowledge about this phenomenon, promoting the timely detection of problematic cases and avoiding fatalities. A retrospective study based on the autopsy reports of parricide victims performed by the North Services of the National Institute of Legal Medicine and Forensic Sciences of Portugal between 2003 and 2011, as well as on the judicial outcome of each case, was performed. Seven cases of parricide were found, corresponding to 1.7% of all the homicides undergoing forensic evaluated. Victims and perpetrators were typically males. The assaults occurred all at home, in the presence of witnesses, and the perpetrator remained at the scene after the crime. The main alleged reasons were untreated psychiatric illness and financial conflicts in the cases of adult parricide, and attempts to protect the mother from intimate partner violence in younger ones. The judicial outcomes ranged from acquittal for nonimputability to conviction for murder, manslaughter or involuntary manslaughter. This study was carried out on a forensic sample and it is useful to implement strategies to prevent parricide.

  5. Improving Performance in Constructing specific Web Directory using Focused Crawler: An Experiment on Botany Domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalilian, Madjid; Boroujeni, Farsad Zamani; Mustapha, Norwati

    Nowadays the growth of the web causes some difficulties to search and browse useful information especially in specific domains. However, some portion of the web remains largely underdeveloped, as shown in lack of high quality contents. An example is the botany specific web directory, in which lack of well-structured web directories have limited user's ability to browse required information. In this research we propose an improved framework for constructing a specific web directory. In this framework we use an anchor directory as a foundation for primary web directory. This web directory is completed by information which is gathered with automatic component and filtered by experts. We conduct an experiment for evaluating effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction.

  6. Radix Bupleuri: A Review of Traditional Uses, Botany, Phytochemistry, Pharmacology, and Toxicology.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fude; Dong, Xiaoxv; Yin, Xingbin; Wang, Wenping; You, Longtai; Ni, Jian

    2017-01-01

    Radix Bupleuri (Chaihu) has been used as a traditional medicine for more than 2000 years in China, Japan, Korea, and other Asian countries. Phytochemical studies demonstrated that this plant contains essential oils, triterpenoid saponins, polyacetylenes, flavonoids, lignans, fatty acids, and sterols. Crude extracts and pure compounds isolated from Radix Bupleuri exhibited various biological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antipyretic, antimicrobial, antiviral, hepatoprotective, neuroprotective, and immunomodulatory effects. However, Radix Bupleuri could also lead to hepatotoxicity, particularly in high doses and with long-term use. Pharmacokinetic studies have demonstrated that the major bioactive compounds (saikosaponins a, b2, c, and d) were absorbed rapidly in rats after oral administration of the extract of Radix Bupleuri. This review aims to comprehensively summarize the traditional uses, botany, phytochemistry, pharmacology, toxicology, and pharmacokinetics of Radix Bupleuri reported to date with an emphasis on its biological properties and mechanisms of action.

  7. New categories for traditional medicine in the Economic Botany Data Collection Standard.

    PubMed

    Gruca, Marta; Cámara-Leret, Rodrigo; Macía, Manuel J; Balslev, Henrik

    2014-09-11

    The Economic Botany Data Collection Standard (EBDCS) has been successfully followed by ethnobotanists investigating plant uses in many parts of the world. However, we have encountered some cases in our study of traditional medicine where the standard seems incomplete and inaccurate when it is applied to plant uses of rural or indigenous societies in developing countries. We propose two categories to be added to the EBDCS: Cultural Diseases and Disorders, and Ritual/Magical Uses. Adding these categories, we believe will give a more accurate insight into traditional medicine and will contribute to developing an integrative ethnomedicinal data collection protocol, which will make ethnomedicinal studies more comparable. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Radix Bupleuri: A Review of Traditional Uses, Botany, Phytochemistry, Pharmacology, and Toxicology

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Fude; Dong, Xiaoxv; Yin, Xingbin; Wang, Wenping; You, Longtai

    2017-01-01

    Radix Bupleuri (Chaihu) has been used as a traditional medicine for more than 2000 years in China, Japan, Korea, and other Asian countries. Phytochemical studies demonstrated that this plant contains essential oils, triterpenoid saponins, polyacetylenes, flavonoids, lignans, fatty acids, and sterols. Crude extracts and pure compounds isolated from Radix Bupleuri exhibited various biological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antipyretic, antimicrobial, antiviral, hepatoprotective, neuroprotective, and immunomodulatory effects. However, Radix Bupleuri could also lead to hepatotoxicity, particularly in high doses and with long-term use. Pharmacokinetic studies have demonstrated that the major bioactive compounds (saikosaponins a, b2, c, and d) were absorbed rapidly in rats after oral administration of the extract of Radix Bupleuri. This review aims to comprehensively summarize the traditional uses, botany, phytochemistry, pharmacology, toxicology, and pharmacokinetics of Radix Bupleuri reported to date with an emphasis on its biological properties and mechanisms of action. PMID:28593176

  9. Rheum australe D. Don: a review of its botany, ethnobotany, phytochemistry and pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Rokaya, Maan Bahadur; Münzbergová, Zuzana; Timsina, Binu; Bhattarai, Krishna Ram

    2012-06-14

    Rheum australe D. Don (Polygonaceae) has been commonly used in traditional medicine for a wide range of ailments related to the circulatory, digestive, endocrine, respiratory and skeletal systems as well as to infectious diseases. To provide the up-to-date information that is available on the botany, traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of Rheum australe. Additionally, to highlight the possible uses of this species to treat different diseases and to provide a basis for future research. The present review covers the literature available from 1980 to 2011. The information was collected from scientific journals, books, theses and reports via a library and electronic search (Google Scholar, Web of Science and ScienceDirect). Ethnomedical uses of Rheum australe have been recorded from China, India, Nepal and Pakistan for 57 different types of ailments. The phytochemical studies have shown the presence of many secondary metabolites belonging to anthraquinones, stilbenes, anthrones, oxantrone ethers and esters, chromones, flavonoids, carbohydrate, lignans, phenols and sterols. Crude extracts and isolated compounds from Rheum australe show a wide spectrum of pharmacological activities, such as antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, antifungal, antimicrobial, antioxidant, anticancer, hepatoprotective and immune-enhancing activities, as well as a usefulness for improving renal function. Rheum australe has been widely used source of medicine for years without any adverse effects. Many studies have provided evidence for various traditional uses. However, there is a need for additional studies of the isolated compounds to validate the traditional uses in human models. The present review on the botany, traditional uses, phytochemistry and toxicity has provided preliminary information for further studies and commercial exploitations of the plant. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. New perspectives in forensic anthropology.

    PubMed

    Dirkmaat, Dennis C; Cabo, Luis L; Ousley, Stephen D; Symes, Steven A

    2008-01-01

    A critical review of the conceptual and practical evolution of forensic anthropology during the last two decades serves to identify two key external factors and four tightly inter-related internal methodological advances that have significantly affected the discipline. These key developments have not only altered the current practice of forensic anthropology, but also its goals, objectives, scope, and definition. The development of DNA analysis techniques served to undermine the classic role of forensic anthropology as a field almost exclusively focused on victim identification. The introduction of the Daubert criteria in the courtroom presentation of scientific testimony accompanied the development of new human comparative samples and tools for data analysis and sharing, resulting in a vastly enhanced role for quantitative methods in human skeletal analysis. Additionally, new questions asked of forensic anthropologists, beyond identity, required sound scientific bases and expanded the scope of the field. This environment favored the incipient development of the interrelated fields of forensic taphonomy, forensic archaeology, and forensic trauma analysis, fields concerned with the reconstruction of events surrounding death. Far from representing the mere addition of new methodological techniques, these disciplines (especially, forensic taphonomy) provide forensic anthropology with a new conceptual framework, which is broader, deeper, and more solidly entrenched in the natural sciences. It is argued that this new framework represents a true paradigm shift, as it modifies not only the way in which classic forensic anthropological questions are answered, but also the goals and tasks of forensic anthropologists, and their perception of what can be considered a legitimate question or problem to be answered within the field.

  11. Forensic archaeology and anthropology : An Australian perspective.

    PubMed

    Oakley, Kate

    2005-09-01

    Forensic archaeology is an extremely powerful investigative discipline and, in combination with forensic anthropology, can provide a wealth of evidentiary information to police investigators and the forensic community. The re-emergence of forensic archaeology and anthropology within Australia relies on its diversification and cooperation with established forensic medical organizations, law enforcement forensic service divisions, and national forensic boards. This presents a unique opportunity to develop a new multidisciplinary approach to forensic archaeology/anthropology within Australia as we hold a unique set of environmental, social, and cultural conditions that diverge from overseas models and require different methodological approaches. In the current world political climate, more forensic techniques are being applied at scenes of mass disasters, genocide, and terrorism. This provides Australian forensic archaeology/anthropology with a unique opportunity to develop multidisciplinary models with contributions from psychological profiling, ballistics, sociopolitics, cultural anthropology, mortuary technicians, post-blast analysis, fire analysis, and other disciplines from the world of forensic science.

  12. [Characteristics of forensic patients assigned to forensic outpatient treatment].

    PubMed

    Bulla, Jan; Ross, T; Hoffmann, K; Querengässer, J

    2015-01-01

    In the Federal State of Baden-Württemberg an administrative regulation specifies which patients should be assigned to forensic outpatient treatment. Empirically, little is known about the clinical and criminological factors supporting these decisions. A complete survey of forensic inpatients in Baden-Württemberg was undertaken. From 476 patients released from unlimited detention (§ 63 StGB) 235 (45.6 %) received a court order for forensic aftercare between 2009 and 2012. Social, forensic, and psychiatric history differed only slightly compared with patients not assigned. Schizophrenia as diagnosis was overrepresented, personality disorder and paraphilia underrepresented. Both groups differed most with respect to the duration of detention. The decision for forensic outpatient treatment seems to be determined by process variables of inpatient treatment but not by criminological risk factors. This contradicts the R-N-R principles by Andrews and Bonta. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Popular press and forensic genetics in Portugal: expectations and disappointments regarding two cases of missing children.

    PubMed

    Machado, Helena; Santos, Filipe

    2011-05-01

    Two cases of missing children in Portugal (Joana and Maddie) have recently highlighted the dilemmas and contingencies associated with the technology of "genetic fingerprinting" for forensic purposes in the context of criminal investigations. The purpose of this article is to analyze the popular press's discourses and representations around forensic genetics in the context of those two highly mediatized criminal investigation cases. The symbolical construction and representation of forensic genetics by the media presents a form of public exposure to beliefs on forensic genetics' characteristics and potential. These are blended with popular cultural contexts that are constructed with reference to images of a super-science which may carry consequences in the public understanding of forensic science. The media coverage of both cases and their actual disclosure resembles the patterns ofa CSI effect, insofar as real science's capabilities and limitations are placed against fictionalized representations of forensic science.

  14. [Biochemical indicators of anaphylactic shock and the application in forensic medicine].

    PubMed

    Mi, Li; Chen, Jie; Gao, Wei-Min; Du, Zhong-Bo; Cao, Zhi-Peng; Zhang, Yuan; Zhu, Bao-Li

    2014-04-01

    Fatal anaphylactic shock is common in forensic practice. However, it is difficult to diagnose for lacking specific pathological and morphologic changes in forensic autopsy. The application of some biochemical indicators is of great significance. This paper reviews the biological characteristics of some biochemical indicators and detection methods. The forensic application, problems and prospects of these indicators are also introduced in details. The stable biochemical indicators, IgE, tryptase and chymase, show great potential and advantages in the identification of fatal anaphylactic shock in forensic medicine.

  15. Forensic Epidemiology: a systematic approach to probabilistic determinations in disputed matters.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Michael D; Rossignol, Annette M; Hand, Michael L

    2008-07-01

    Forensic medicine testimony often relies upon terms of probability to enhance the strength of the testimony. Such terms must have a demonstrably reliable and accurate basis; otherwise their use is speculative, unjustified, and potentially harmful. Forensic Epidemiology is introduced as a framework from which probabilistic testimony can be assessed in settings in which it is either proffered or encountered. In this paper, common forensic uses of probability are reviewed, appropriate methods for presenting such testimony are proposed, and inappropriate uses of probability and epidemiologic concepts and data, as well as a logical fallacies commonly observed in forensic settings are presented. A previously unpublished logical fallacy, the "Prior Odds" Fallacy, is also introduced.

  16. Improving human forensics through advances in genetics, genomics and molecular biology.

    PubMed

    Kayser, Manfred; de Knijff, Peter

    2011-03-01

    Forensic DNA profiling currently allows the identification of persons already known to investigating authorities. Recent advances have produced new types of genetic markers with the potential to overcome some important limitations of current DNA profiling methods. Moreover, other developments are enabling completely new kinds of forensically relevant information to be extracted from biological samples. These include new molecular approaches for finding individuals previously unknown to investigators, and new molecular methods to support links between forensic sample donors and criminal acts. Such advances in genetics, genomics and molecular biology are likely to improve human forensic case work in the near future.

  17. Nuclear Forensic Field Exercise #1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    and the forensic science community is required in order to develop solutions to deal with such contaminated evidence. Until a solution is found, our...radiological scientific community and the forensic science community in order to develop solutions to fill this gap. Overall, this exercise

  18. Windows Memory Forensic Data Visualization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-12

    WINDOWS MEMORY FORENSIC DATA VISUALIZATION THESIS J. Brendan Baum, Civilian, USAF AFIT...DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A: APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED The views expressed in this thesis are those of the author...WINDOWS MEMORY FORENSIC DATA VISUALIZATION THESIS Presented to the Faculty Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Graduate School of

  19. Increasing the reach of forensic genetics with massively parallel sequencing.

    PubMed

    Budowle, Bruce; Schmedes, Sarah E; Wendt, Frank R

    2017-06-19

    The field of forensic genetics has made great strides in the analysis of biological evidence related to criminal and civil matters. More so, the discipline has set a standard of performance and quality in the forensic sciences. The advent of massively parallel sequencing will allow the field to expand its capabilities substantially. This review describes the salient features of massively parallel sequencing and how it can impact forensic genetics. The features of this technology offer increased number and types of genetic markers that can be analyzed, higher throughput of samples, and the capability of targeting different organisms, all by one unifying methodology. While there are many applications, three are described where massively parallel sequencing will have immediate impact: molecular autopsy, microbial forensics and differentiation of monozygotic twins. The intent of this review is to expose the forensic science community to the potential enhancements that have or are soon to arrive and demonstrate the continued expansion the field of forensic genetics and its service in the investigation of legal matters.

  20. Commentary: Coming Full Circle--Psychoanalysis, Psychodynamics, and Forensic Psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Hegarty, Angela M

    2015-12-01

    Drs. Simopoulos and Cohen argue that knowledge of one's unconscious processes improves the forensic psychiatrist's capacity to manage complex forensic situations and to generate forensic formulations and opinions that are demonstrably more valid and reliable, much like competence in cultural assessment and formulation. In practice, the challenges posed by the application of these principles in forensic settings are far outweighed by the potential benefit. Forensic practice is informed by many specialties. Forensic psychiatrists do not have to complete full training in these disciplines to make use of the knowledge and perspectives they offer. The same may not be true of psychodynamic assessment and formulation. Although much can be learned from supervision, case seminars, conferences, and reading, such knowledge does little to foster awareness of one's unconscious processes that by definition operate outside awareness and thus contribute to the vitiating effect of bias. To date, the only method whereby psychiatrists can effectively come to appreciate their own unconscious processes in action is arguably through their own analysis conducted in the course of training in analysis or psychodynamic psychotherapy. © 2015 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.

  1. An introduction to computer forensics.

    PubMed

    Furneaux, Nick

    2006-07-01

    This paper provides an introduction to the discipline of Computer Forensics. With computers being involved in an increasing number, and type, of crimes the trace data left on electronic media can play a vital part in the legal process. To ensure acceptance by the courts, accepted processes and procedures have to be adopted and demonstrated which are not dissimilar to the issues surrounding traditional forensic investigations. This paper provides a straightforward overview of the three steps involved in the examination of digital media: Acquisition of data. Investigation of evidence. Reporting and presentation of evidence. Although many of the traditional readers of Medicine, Science and the Law are those involved in the biological aspects of forensics, I believe that both disciplines can learn from each other, with electronic evidence being more readily sought and considered by the legal community and the long, tried and tested scientific methods of the forensic community being shared and adopted by the computer forensic world.

  2. [Forensic psychiatry and behavioural analysis].

    PubMed

    Nitschke, J; Schinke, D; Ottermann, B; Thomas, J; Osterheider, M

    2011-07-01

    A case report shows that a patient could make a progress in his therapy with the help of professional behavioural analysis after a 14-year period of stagnating forensic therapy. The method of behavioural analysis represents a criminalistic tool to reconstruct and to analyse an offence on the basis of objective data. Nowadays this method is also used successfully in individual cases in the field of forensic psychiatry. The article shows and discusses the methodology and the current use of behavioural analysis in forensic psychiatry. professional behavioural analysis of offences of certain forensic patients provides an additional benefit for their therapy and their risk assessment. This kind of approach should be intensified by increasing cooperation with behavioural analysis units and by further training for forensic therapists.

  3. The forensic importance of frontal sinus radiographs.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Rhonan Ferreira; Prado, Felippe Bevilacqua; Caputo, Isamara Geandra Cavalcanti; Devito, Karina Lopes; Botelho, Tessa de Luscena; Daruge Júnior, Eduardo

    2009-01-01

    The identification of unidentified human remains through the comparison of antemortem and postmortem radiographs has found wide acceptance in recent years. Reported here is the forensic case of an unidentified adult male who had died as the result of a traffic accident, after which the body was identified by matching images of ante- and postmortem radiographs of the frontal sinus. A general discussion on identification using frontal sinus radiographs is presented, highlighting the reliability of this method, in reference to the uniqueness of the frontal sinus in humans. However, it also notes a few difficulties, especially in reference to the X-ray technique in cases where antemortem radiographs are available and a potentially larger number of anatomical, pathological or traumatic features are present. The comparison of frontal sinus outlines is recommended when it may become necessary to provide quantitative substantiation for forensic identification based on these structures.

  4. Careers in Forensics: Analysis, Evidence, and Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torpey, Elka Maria

    2009-01-01

    In legal proceedings, a case is only as strong as its evidence. And whether that evidence is strong depends, in large part, on the work of forensic specialists. The field of forensics is broad and involves many kinds of workers. Some of them are involved in crimesolving. Others, such as forensic social workers or forensic economists, help to…

  5. National Security Forensics

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, B. M.; Perry, N. C.

    2011-10-12

    The objective of this effort is to research and develop inversion methods for mapping observations to the input parameters of the underlying physical system that could have generated these observations. This report describes our FY11 progress in developing a surrogate model of the forward model, using this surrogate forward model to develop inversion capabilities, and partitioning the input-output space to facilitate assessment and implementation of our inversion capabilities, as well as adaptively propose new computer code runs to enhance our training data. This work was funded by NA22/SAM in the NN2001- 06 area, under project number LL10-Forensics-PD06.

  6. Introduction to forensic science.

    PubMed

    O'Shaughnessy, P E

    2001-04-01

    Modern day criminal investigation has reached a point of sophistication requiring the involvement of many different disciplines to solve a crime. Each discipline inserts a part of the puzzle until it is complete. It is important to understand what each forensic expert has to offer. The coroner or medical examiner, asking for input from the various experts until enough information is received to determine the cause and manner of death, is usually the keystone to a death investigation. This information is then shared with the police investigators and prosecutor. This calls for the utmost cooperation and communication among those involved.

  7. Bio-forensics

    SciTech Connect

    Trewhella, J.

    2004-01-01

    Bioforensics presents significant technical challenges. Determining if an outbreak is natural or not, and then providing evidence to trace an outbreak to its origin is very complex. Los Alamos scientists pioneered research and development that has generated leading edge strain identification methods based on sequence data. Molecular characterization of environmental background samples enable development of highly specific pathogen signatures. Economic impacts of not knowing the relationships at the molecular level Many different kinds of data are needed for DNA-based bio-forensics.

  8. Forensic culture as epistemic culture: the sociology of forensic science.

    PubMed

    Cole, Simon A

    2013-03-01

    This paper explores whether we can interpret the notion of 'forensic culture' as something akin to what Knorr-Cetina called an 'epistemic culture'. Can we speak of a 'forensic culture', and, if so, how is it similar to, or different from, other epistemic cultures that exist in what is conventionally called 'science'? This question has important policy implications given the National Academy Science's (NAS) recent identification of 'culture' as one of the problems at the root of what it identified as 'serious deficiencies' in U.S. forensic science and 'scientific culture' as an antidote to those problems. Finding the NAS's characterisation of 'scientific culture' overly general and naïve, this paper offers a preliminary exploration of what might be called a 'forensic culture'. Specifically, the paper explores the way in which few of the empirical findings accumulated by sociologists of science about research science seem to apply to forensic science. Instead, forensic science seems to have developed a distinct culture for which a sociological analysis will require new explanatory tools. Faithful sociological analysis of 'forensic culture' will be a necessary prerequisite for the kind of culture change prescribed by external reformist bodies like the NAS. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Trace Analytical Techniques for Nuclear Forensics

    SciTech Connect

    Halverson, J.E.

    1999-04-28

    Over the history of the Savannah River Site, the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) has developed high sensitivity analytical capabilities in support of the Site's Environmental Monitoring Program and nuclear material protection process. Many of these techniques are applicable to the developing need for nuclear forensic analysis capabilities. Radiological and critically control procedures are in place at the SRTC, as well as clean room practices, to minimize the potential for a radiological evidentiary sample to contaminate personnel and the facility, as well as to minimize contaminating the sample thus rendering it useless by law enforcement agencies. Some of the trace analytical techniques available at the SRTC include ultra-low-level gamma and alpha spectrometry, high-sensitivity thermal ionization mass spectrometry, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and trace organic analyses. These techniques have been tested during a planned domestic smuggling exercise and in the analysis of an unknown sample.In the event of an interdiction involving the illegal use or movement of radioactive material by U.S. law enforcement agencies (local, state or federal) forensic analyses will be used in developing and building a legal case against the perpetrators. The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) at the U.S. Department of Energy's Savannah River Site, a former nuclear production site currently conducting nuclear material stabilization missions, located in Aiken South Carolina, has a long history of performing trace analytical analyses for environmental monitoring. Many of these techniques are also applicable to nuclear forensic analyses. A summary of the trace analytical techniques used at the SRTC, which are applicable to Nuclear Forensics, is presented in this paper.Contamination control, of facilities and personnel involved in the analytical analyses, as well as preventing contamination of the sample, is a unique challenge for nuclear forensic analyses

  10. [The reconstruction of gunshot circumstances by means of situational forensic medical expertise].

    PubMed

    Kolkutin, V V; Makarov, I Iu; Evteeva, I A

    2012-01-01

    The authors discuss the objective potential of situational forensic medical expertise for the determination of the direction and the distance of a gunshot as well as the position of the gun in the shooter's hand. The use of fundamental theoretical propositions determining the essence of the form of expertise being considered is illustrated by an example from forensic medical practice.

  11. An Interdisciplinary Guided Inquiry Laboratory for First Year Undergraduate Forensic Science Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cresswell, Sarah L.; Loughlin, Wendy A.

    2015-01-01

    An effective guided inquiry forensic case study (a pharmacy break-in) is described for first-year students. Four robust introductory forensic chemistry and biology experiments are used to analyze potential drug samples and determine the identity of a possible suspect. Students perform presumptive tests for blood on a "point of entry…

  12. An Interdisciplinary Guided Inquiry Laboratory for First Year Undergraduate Forensic Science Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cresswell, Sarah L.; Loughlin, Wendy A.

    2015-01-01

    An effective guided inquiry forensic case study (a pharmacy break-in) is described for first-year students. Four robust introductory forensic chemistry and biology experiments are used to analyze potential drug samples and determine the identity of a possible suspect. Students perform presumptive tests for blood on a "point of entry…

  13. Forensic Stable Isotope Biogeochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerling, Thure E.; Barnette, Janet E.; Bowen, Gabriel J.; Chesson, Lesley A.; Ehleringer, James R.; Remien, Christopher H.; Shea, Patrick; Tipple, Brett J.; West, Jason B.

    2016-06-01

    Stable isotopes are being used for forensic science studies, with applications to both natural and manufactured products. In this review we discuss how scientific evidence can be used in the legal context and where the scientific progress of hypothesis revisions can be in tension with the legal expectations of widely used methods for measurements. Although this review is written in the context of US law, many of the considerations of scientific reproducibility and acceptance of relevant scientific data span other legal systems that might apply different legal principles and therefore reach different conclusions. Stable isotopes are used in legal situations for comparing samples for authenticity or evidentiary considerations, in understanding trade patterns of illegal materials, and in understanding the origins of unknown decedents. Isotope evidence is particularly useful when considered in the broad framework of physiochemical processes and in recognizing regional to global patterns found in many materials, including foods and food products, drugs, and humans. Stable isotopes considered in the larger spatial context add an important dimension to forensic science.

  14. Nuclear forensics: Soil content

    SciTech Connect

    Beebe, Merilyn Amy

    2015-08-31

    Nuclear Forensics is a growing field that is concerned with all stages of the process of creating and detonating a nuclear weapon. The main goal is to prevent nuclear attack by locating and securing nuclear material before it can be used in an aggressive manner. This stage of the process is mostly paperwork; laws, regulations, treaties, and declarations made by individual countries or by the UN Security Council. There is some preliminary leg work done in the form of field testing detection equipment and tracking down orphan materials; however, none of these have yielded any spectacular or useful results. In the event of a nuclear attack, the first step is to analyze the post detonation debris to aid in the identification of the responsible party. This aspect of the nuclear forensics process, while reactive in nature, is more scientific. A rock sample taken from the detonation site can be dissolved into liquid form and analyzed to determine its chemical composition. The chemical analysis of spent nuclear material can provide valuable information if properly processed and analyzed. In order to accurately evaluate the results, scientists require information on the natural occurring elements in the detonation zone. From this information, scientists can determine what percentage of the element originated in the bomb itself rather than the environment. To this end, element concentrations in soils from sixty-nine different cities are given, along with activity concentrations for uranium, thorium, potassium, and radium in various building materials. These data are used in the analysis program Python.

  15. Forensic DNA analysis.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Jessica; Lehman, Donald C

    2012-01-01

    Before the routine use of DNA profiling, blood typing was an important forensic tool. However, blood typing was not very discriminating. For example, roughly 30% of the United States population has type A-positive blood. Therefore, if A-positive blood were found at a crime scene, it could have come from 30% of the population. DNA profiling has a much better ability for discrimination. Forensic laboratories no longer routinely determine blood type. If blood is found at a crime scene, DNA profiling is performed. From Jeffrey's discovery of DNA fingerprinting to the development of PCR of STRs to the formation of DNA databases, our knowledge of DNA and DNA profiling have expanded greatly. Also, the applications for which we use DNA profiling have increased. DNA profiling is not just used for criminal case work, but it has expanded to encompass paternity testing, disaster victim identification, monitoring bone marrow transplants, detecting fetal cells in a mother's blood, tracing human history, and a multitude of other areas. The future of DNA profiling looks expansive with the development of newer instrumentation and techniques.

  16. Nanoparticles in forensic science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantu, Antonio A.

    2008-10-01

    Nanoparticles appear in several areas of forensic science including security documents, paints, inks, and reagents that develop latent prints. One reagent (known as the silver physical developer) that visualizes the water insoluble components of latent print residue is based on the formation of highly charged silver nanoparticles. These attach to and grow on the residue and generate a silver image. Another such reagent involves highly charged gold nanoparticles. These attach to the residue forming a weak gold image which can be amplified with a silver physical developer. Nanoparaticles are also used in items such as paints, printing inks, and writing inks. Paints and most printing inks consist of nano-sized pigments in a vehicle. However, certain modern ink jet printing inks now contain nano-sized pigments to improve their light fastness and most gel inks are also based on nano scale pigments. These nanoparticlecontaining materials often appear as evidence and are thus subject to forensic characterization. Both luminescent (quantum dots), up-converting nano scale phosphors, and non luminescent nanoparticles are used as security tags to label product, add security to documents, and as anti counterfeiting measures. These assist in determining if an item is fraudulently made.

  17. Forensic Analysis of Cathinones.

    PubMed

    Gautam, L; Shanmuganathan, A; Cole, M D

    2013-03-01

    In the past decade there has been a significant increase in the popularity of synthetic cathinones in the illegal drug market. They have been easily available from Internet-based vendors as well as at "head shops" and "smart shops". The recent prominence of synthetic cathinones can be attributed to their stimulatory properties similar to those of amphetamines. This paper provides a review on the current popular cathinone derivatives, their history and prevalence in the illegal drug market, legislation of these drugs in various countries, pharmacology, toxicology, and metabolism studies, analysis of toxicology samples (blood, urine, and hair) and criminalistic samples (seized, purchased via the Internet, and synthesized). From the reviewed literature, it is concluded that the products sold as "legal highs" do not only contain cathinone but also cathinone derivatives, and adulterants such as caffeine, lidocaine, and inorganic materials. Full toxicity data is currently unavailable for this drug class and hence more research is required with regard to their analysis and metabolism. Moreover, clandestine chemists are constantly synthesizing new derivatives and hence forensic chemists often need to synthesize and characterize these drugs to confirm the identity of the seized samples. This is expensive as well as time-consuming. Therefore, there is a need for national and international collaboration among forensic chemists to overcome this difficulty.

  18. The state of nuclear forensics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristo, Michael J.; Tumey, Scott J.

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear terrorism has been identified as one of the most serious security threats facing the world today. Many countries, including the United States, have incorporated nuclear forensic analysis as a component of their strategy to prevent nuclear terrorism. Nuclear forensics involves the laboratory analysis of seized illicit nuclear materials or debris from a nuclear detonation to identify the origins of the material or weapon. Over the years, a number of forensic signatures have been developed to improve the confidence with which forensic analysts can draw conclusions. These signatures are validated and new signatures are discovered through research and development programs and in round-robin exercises among nuclear forensic laboratories. The recent Nuclear Smuggling International Technical Working Group Third Round Robin Exercise and an on-going program focused on attribution of uranium ore concentrate provide prime examples of the current state of nuclear forensics. These case studies will be examined and the opportunities for accelerator mass spectrometry to play a role in nuclear forensics will be discussed.

  19. Changing techniques in crop plant classification: molecularization at the National Institute of Agricultural Botany during the 1980s.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Matthew

    2017-04-01

    Modern methods of analysing biological materials, including protein and DNA sequencing, are increasingly the objects of historical study. Yet twentieth-century taxonomic techniques have been overlooked in one of their most important contexts: agricultural botany. This paper addresses this omission by harnessing unexamined archival material from the National Institute of Agricultural Botany (NIAB), a British plant science organization. During the 1980s the NIAB carried out three overlapping research programmes in crop identification and analysis: electrophoresis, near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and machine vision systems. For each of these three programmes, contemporary economic, statutory and scientific factors behind their uptake by the NIAB are discussed. This approach reveals significant links between taxonomic practice at the NIAB and historical questions around agricultural research, intellectual property and scientific values. Such links are of further importance given that the techniques developed by researchers at the NIAB during the 1980s remain part of crop classification guidelines issued by international bodies today.

  20. Psychiatric/ psychological forensic report writing.

    PubMed

    Young, Gerald

    Approaches to forensic report writing in psychiatry, psychology, and related mental health disciplines have moved from an organization, content, and stylistic framework to considering ethical and other codes, evidentiary standards, and practice considerations. The first part of the article surveys different approaches to forensic report writing, including that of forensic mental health assessment and psychiatric ethics. The second part deals especially with psychological ethical approaches. The American Psychological Association's Ethical Principles and Code of Conduct (2002) provide one set of principles on which to base forensic report writing. The U.S. Federal Rules of Evidence (2014) and related state rules provide another basis. The American Psychological Association's Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychology (2013) provide a third source. Some work has expanded the principles in ethics codes; and, in the third part of this article, these additions are applied to forensic report writing. Other work that could help with the question of forensic report writing concerns the 4 Ds in psychological injury assessments (e.g., conduct oneself with Dignity, avoid the adversary Divide, get the needed reliable Data, Determine interpretations and conclusions judiciously). One overarching ethical principle that is especially applicable in forensic report writing is to be comprehensive, scientific, and impartial. As applied to forensic report writing, the overall principle that applies is that the work process and product should reflect integrity in its ethics, law, and science. Four principles that derive from this meta-principle concern: Competency and Communication; Procedure and Protection; Dignity and Distance; and Data Collection and Determination. The standards or rules associated with each of these principles are reviewed. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Nuclear Forensics: Report of the AAAS/APS Working Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tannenbaum, Benn

    2008-04-01

    This report was produced by a Working Group of the American Physical Society's Program on Public Affairs in conjunction with the American Association for the Advancement of Science Center for Science, Technology and Security Policy. The primary purpose of this report is to provide the Congress, U.S. government agencies and other institutions involved in nuclear forensics with a clear unclassified statement of the state of the art of nuclear forensics; an assessment of its potential for preventing and identifying unattributed nuclear attacks; and identification of the policies, resources and human talent to fulfill that potential. In the course of its work, the Working Group observed that nuclear forensics was an essential part of the overall nuclear attribution process, which aims at identifying the origin of unidentified nuclear weapon material and, in the event, an unidentified nuclear explosion. A credible nuclear attribution capability and in particular nuclear forensics capability could deter essential participants in the chain of actors needed to smuggle nuclear weapon material or carry out a nuclear terrorist act and could also encourage states to better secure such materials and weapons. The Working Group also noted that nuclear forensics result would take some time to obtain and that neither internal coordination, nor international arrangements, nor the state of qualified personnel and needed equipment were currently enough to minimize the time needed to reach reliable results in an emergency such as would be caused by a nuclear detonation or the intercept of a weapon-size quantity of material. The Working Group assesses international cooperation to be crucial for forensics to work, since the material would likely come from inadequately documented foreign sources. In addition, international participation, if properly managed, could enhance the credibility of the deterrent effect of attribution. Finally the Working Group notes that the U.S. forensics

  2. Individual Identifiability Predicts Population Identifiability in Forensic Microsatellite Markers.

    PubMed

    Algee-Hewitt, Bridget F B; Edge, Michael D; Kim, Jaehee; Li, Jun Z; Rosenberg, Noah A

    2016-04-04

    Highly polymorphic genetic markers with significant potential for distinguishing individual identity are used as a standard tool in forensic testing [1, 2]. At the same time, population-genetic studies have suggested that genetically diverse markers with high individual identifiability also confer information about genetic ancestry [3-6]. The dual influence of polymorphism levels on ancestry inference and forensic desirability suggests that forensically useful marker sets with high levels of individual identifiability might also possess substantial ancestry information. We study a standard forensic marker set-the 13 CODIS loci used in the United States and elsewhere [2, 7-9]-together with 779 additional microsatellites [10], using direct population structure inference to test whether markers with substantial individual identifiability also produce considerable information about ancestry. Despite having been selected for individual identification and not for ancestry inference [11], the CODIS markers generate nontrivial model-based clustering patterns similar to those of other sets of 13 tetranucleotide microsatellites. Although the CODIS markers have relatively low values of the F(ST) divergence statistic, their high heterozygosities produce greater ancestry inference potential than is possessed by less heterozygous marker sets. More generally, we observe that marker sets with greater individual identifiability also tend toward greater population identifiability. We conclude that population identifiability regularly follows as a byproduct of the use of highly polymorphic forensic markers. Our findings have implications for the design of new forensic marker sets and for evaluations of the extent to which individual characteristics beyond identification might be predicted from current and future forensic data.

  3. The medicolegal and forensic aspects of fires.

    PubMed

    Eckert, W G

    1981-12-01

    Fires, their consequences and their investigations, continue to provide forensic scientists, especially those involved in medicolegal investigation (the medical examiner or forensic pathologist), with constant work and variations in problems. The recent history of mass disasters involving high-rise buildings, transport accidents, and arson-related accidents in nightclubs and prisons has emphasized the necessity for corrective and preventive means to ensure safety to the occupants of any of these areas. Problems presented by fires include the determination of the cause of the fire, the identification of the victims, and the cause and manner of their deaths. The motivation of the fire setter and the settlement by the insurance company or legal means are also aspects to be considered. The imperceptible effects of the fires include many other aspects, among which loss of loved ones and family providers and loss of industrial revenue and job potential are all felt. The most frightening development of all, however, is the insidious surfacing of arson as a possible factor in many major fires. The most recent tragedies involving the Stouffer Inn fire and the Hilton International Hotel fire were both related to arsonous acts. The scope of this article is to review the subject as it affects the forensic medical practitioner directly or indirectly so that his or her investigation may be brought to completion in conjunction with other authorities involved in the case.

  4. Advances in forensic DNA quantification: a review.

    PubMed

    Lee, Steven B; McCord, Bruce; Buel, Eric

    2014-11-01

    This review focuses upon a critical step in forensic biology: detection and quantification of human DNA from biological samples. Determination of the quantity and quality of human DNA extracted from biological evidence is important for several reasons. Firstly, depending on the source and extraction method, the quality (purity and length), and quantity of the resultant DNA extract can vary greatly. This affects the downstream method as the quantity of input DNA and its relative length can determine which genotyping procedure to use-standard short-tandem repeat (STR) typing, mini-STR typing or mitochondrial DNA sequencing. Secondly, because it is important in forensic analysis to preserve as much of the evidence as possible for retesting, it is important to determine the total DNA amount available prior to utilizing any destructive analytical method. Lastly, results from initial quantitative and qualitative evaluations permit a more informed interpretation of downstream analytical results. Newer quantitative techniques involving real-time PCR can reveal the presence of degraded DNA and PCR inhibitors, that provide potential reasons for poor genotyping results and may indicate methods to use for downstream typing success. In general, the more information available, the easier it is to interpret and process the sample resulting in a higher likelihood of successful DNA typing. The history of the development of quantitative methods has involved two main goals-improving precision of the analysis and increasing the information content of the result. This review covers advances in forensic DNA quantification methods and recent developments in RNA quantification.

  5. Digital Forensics as a Surreal Narrative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollitt, Mark

    Digital forensics is traditionally approached either as a computer science problem or as an investigative problem. In both cases, the goal is usually the same: attempt to locate discrete pieces of information that are probative. In the computer science approach, characteristics of the data are utilized to include or exclude objects, data or metadata. The investigative approach reviews the content of the evidence to interpret the data in the light of known facts and elements of the crime in order to determine probative information or information of lead value. This paper explores two literary theories, narrative theory and surrealism, for potential application to the digital forensic process. Narrative theory focuses on the “story” that is represented by text. At some level, a storage device may be viewed as a series of interweaving, possibly multi-dimensional, narratives. Furthermore, the narratives themselves, coupled with the metadata from the file system and applications, may form a meta-narrative. The literary theory of surrealism, the notion of disjointed elements, can be utilized to derive meaning from forensic evidence. This paper uses a technique known as surrealist games to illustrate the point.

  6. Cost-effective forensic image enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalrymple, Brian E.

    1998-12-01

    In 1977, a paper was presented at the SPIE conference in Reston, Virginia, detailing the computer enhancement of the Zapruder film. The forensic value of this examination in a major homicide investigation was apparent to the viewer. Equally clear was the potential for extracting evidence which is beyond the reach of conventional detection techniques. The cost of this technology in 1976, however, was prohibitive, and well beyond the means of most police agencies. Twenty-two years later, a highly efficient means of image enhancement is easily within the grasp of most police agencies, not only for homicides but for any case application. A PC workstation combined with an enhancement software package allows a forensic investigator to fully exploit digital technology. The goal of this approach is the optimization of the signal to noise ratio in images. Obstructive backgrounds may be diminished or eliminated while weak signals are optimized by the use of algorithms including Fast Fourier Transform, Histogram Equalization and Image Subtraction. An added benefit is the speed with which these processes are completed and the results known. The efficacy of forensic image enhancement is illustrated through case applications.

  7. [Genetic investigations in forensic medicine].

    PubMed

    Lászik, András; Szakács, Orsolya; Sótonyi, Péter

    2002-05-26

    Scientific research of the last decade including the introduction of new molecular biological methods and mapping of the human genome allowed the development of a revolutionary new molecular biological approach in forensic medicine. The traditional serological methods study proteins, the new DNA analysis goes further down to study DNA structures to analyze unique individual features. The two main areas of DNA application in forensic medicine are inheritance studies and personal identification in criminal cases using biological traces. Using this new, reliable and reproducible method we can answer questions they were almost impossible in the past. This article reviews how molecular techniques used to detect genetic polymorphism in forensic medicine.

  8. [Research Progress on Forensic Entomotoxicology].

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhi-jiang; Zhai, Xian-dun; Guan, Ling; Mo, Yao-nan

    2015-06-01

    Forensic entomotoxicology is a branch of forensic medicine, which applies entomology, toxicology and other related studies to solve the poisoning cases. It has an obvious advantage in the investigation on poisoning death. Based on the expounding definition and research of entomotoxicology, this paper reviews research progress and application value in some aspects of forensic medicine, such as the effects of drugs/toxins on the growth and development of sarcosaphagous insects and the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the drugs/toxins in the poisoned body tissue.

  9. Importance of the Hungarian phytosociological school established at the University of Debrecen in development of current field botany.

    PubMed

    Borhidi, A; Salamon-Albert, Eva

    2010-01-01

    The paper gives a short panoramic historical survey about the main activities of the Hungarian phytosociology, their chief protagonists, the fundamental role of professor Rezső Soó in the creation and development of the phytosociological school of Debrecen established by him in the Botanical Department of the University of Debrecen, which is celebrating the 80 anniversary of its existence and has played a determinant role in the Hungarian botany.

  10. Forensic Science Education and Educational Requirements for Forensic Scientists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaensslen, Robert E.

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on criminalistics, which can be understood to mean the activities and specialty areas characteristic of most municipal, county, or state forensic science laboratories in the United States. (DDR)

  11. NUCLEAR FORENSICS ANALYSIS CENTER FORENSIC ANALYSIS TO DATA INTERPRETATION

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, T.

    2011-02-07

    The Nuclear Forensics Analysis Center (NFAC) is part of Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and is one of only two USG National Laboratories accredited to perform nuclear forensic analyses to the requirements of ISO 17025. SRNL NFAC is capable of analyzing nuclear and radiological samples from bulk material to ultra-trace samples. NFAC provides analytical support to the FBI's Radiological Evidence Examination Facility (REEF), which is located within SRNL. REEF gives the FBI the capability to perform traditional forensics on material that is radiological and/or is contaminated. SRNL is engaged in research and development efforts to improve the USG technical nuclear forensics capabilities. Research includes improving predictive signatures and developing a database containing comparative samples.

  12. Forensic Science Education and Educational Requirements for Forensic Scientists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaensslen, Robert E.

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on criminalistics, which can be understood to mean the activities and specialty areas characteristic of most municipal, county, or state forensic science laboratories in the United States. (DDR)

  13. [Use of virtual reality in forensic psychiatry. A new paradigm?].

    PubMed

    Fromberger, P; Jordan, K; Müller, J L

    2014-03-01

    For more than 20 years virtual realities (VR) have been successfully used in the assessment and treatment of psychiatric disorders. The most important advantages of VR are the high ecological validity of virtual environments, the entire controllability of virtual stimuli in the virtual environment and the capability to induce the sensation of being in the virtual environment instead of the physical environment. VRs provide the opportunity to face the user with stimuli and situations which are not available or too risky in reality. Despite these advantages VR-based applications have not yet been applied in forensic psychiatry. On the basis of an overview of the recent state-of-the-art in VR-based applications in general psychiatry, the article demonstrates the advantages and possibilities of VR-based applications in forensic psychiatry. Up to now only preliminary studies regarding the VR-based assessment of pedophilic interests exist. These studies demonstrate the potential of ecologically valid VR-based applications for the assessment of forensically relevant disorders. One of the most important advantages is the possibility of VR to assess the behavior of forensic inpatients in crime-related situations without endangering others. This provides completely new possibilities not only regarding the assessment but also for the treatment of forensic inpatients. Before utilizing these possibilities in the clinical practice exhaustive research and development will be necessary. Given the high potential of VR-based applications, this effort would be worth it.

  14. Forensic DNA methylation profiling from evidence material for investigative leads.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hwan Young; Lee, Soong Deok; Shin, Kyoung-Jin

    2016-07-01

    DNA methylation is emerging as an attractive marker providing investigative leads to solve crimes in forensic genetics. The identification of body fluids that utilizes tissue-specific DNA methylation can contribute to solving crimes by predicting activity related to the evidence material. The age estimation based on DNA methylation is expected to reduce the number of potential suspects, when the DNA profile from the evidence does not match with any known person, including those stored in the forensic database. Moreover, the variation in DNA implicates environmental exposure, such as cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption, thereby suggesting the possibility to be used as a marker for predicting the lifestyle of potential suspect. In this review, we describe recent advances in our understanding of DNA methylation variations and the utility of DNA methylation as a forensic marker for advanced investigative leads from evidence materials. [BMB Reports 2016; 49(7): 359-369].

  15. Context effects and observer bias--implications for forensic odontology.

    PubMed

    Page, Mark; Taylor, Jane; Blenkin, Matt

    2012-01-01

    Psychologists have long recognized the effects of contextual and extraneous information on decision making. Such information renders the subject susceptible to both motivational and cognitive bias; yet, it is difficult to assess the extent to which these influence forensic odontologists opinions as there have been no studies to date on this subject. This article explores the various types of contextual effects and biasing influences that potentially impact on the analysis of bitemarks in forensic odontology. It appears that the current practice of bitemark analysis is rich in sources of potentially biasing influences. In addition to the fundamental recognition that some form of bias is likely to exist, ways in which these should be minimized include: separation of the collection and analysis phases; limiting the amount of contextual information available to the odontologist responsible for the analysis; and ensuring that evidence that is ambiguous or of poor quality is identified as such prior to analysis. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  16. Forensic DNA methylation profiling from evidence material for investigative leads

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hwan Young; Lee, Soong Deok; Shin, Kyoung-Jin

    2016-01-01

    DNA methylation is emerging as an attractive marker providing investigative leads to solve crimes in forensic genetics. The identification of body fluids that utilizes tissue-specific DNA methylation can contribute to solving crimes by predicting activity related to the evidence material. The age estimation based on DNA methylation is expected to reduce the number of potential suspects, when the DNA profile from the evidence does not match with any known person, including those stored in the forensic database. Moreover, the variation in DNA implicates environmental exposure, such as cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption, thereby suggesting the possibility to be used as a marker for predicting the lifestyle of potential suspect. In this review, we describe recent advances in our understanding of DNA methylation variations and the utility of DNA methylation as a forensic marker for advanced investigative leads from evidence materials. [BMB Reports 2016; 49(7): 359-369] PMID:27099236

  17. Infrared spectroscopy and spectroscopic imaging in forensic science.

    PubMed

    Ewing, Andrew V; Kazarian, Sergei G

    2017-01-16

    Infrared spectroscopy and spectroscopic imaging, are robust, label free and inherently non-destructive methods with a high chemical specificity and sensitivity that are frequently employed in forensic science research and practices. This review aims to discuss the applications and recent developments of these methodologies in this field. Furthermore, the use of recently emerged Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic imaging in transmission, external reflection and Attenuated Total Reflection (ATR) modes are summarised with relevance and potential for forensic science applications. This spectroscopic imaging approach provides the opportunity to obtain the chemical composition of fingermarks and information about possible contaminants deposited at a crime scene. Research that demonstrates the great potential of these techniques for analysis of fingerprint residues, explosive materials and counterfeit drugs will be reviewed. The implications of this research for the examination of different materials are considered, along with an outlook of possible future research avenues for the application of vibrational spectroscopic methods to the analysis of forensic samples.

  18. The plant breeding industry after pure line theory: Lessons from the National Institute of Agricultural Botany.

    PubMed

    Berry, Dominic

    2014-06-01

    In the early twentieth century, Wilhelm Johannsen proposed his pure line theory and the genotype/phenotype distinction, work that is prized as one of the most important founding contributions to genetics and Mendelian plant breeding. Most historians have already concluded that pure line theory did not change breeding practices directly. Instead, breeding became more orderly as a consequence of pure line theory, which structured breeding programmes and eliminated external heritable influences. This incremental change then explains how and why the large multi-national seed companies that we know today were created; pure lines invited standardisation and economies of scale that the latter were designed to exploit. Rather than focus on breeding practice, this paper examines the plant varietal market itself. It focusses upon work conducted by the National Institute of Agricultural Botany (NIAB) during the interwar years, and in doing so demonstrates that, on the contrary, the pure line was actually only partially accepted by the industry. Moreover, claims that contradicted the logic of the pure line were not merely tolerated by the agricultural geneticists affiliated with NIAB, but were acknowledged and legitimised by them. The history of how and why the plant breeding industry was transformed remains to be written. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Euphorbia neriifolia L.: Review on botany, ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemistry and biological activities.

    PubMed

    Mali, Prashant Y; Panchal, Shital S

    2017-05-01

    The present review is intended to provide information on botany, ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemistry and biological activities of various parts of Euphorbia neriifolia (E. neriifolia). E. neriifolia has several ethnomedicinal uses. The latex of E. neriifolia is used as laxative, purgative, rubefacient, carminative and expectorant as well as in treatment of whooping cough, gonorrhoea, leprosy, asthma, dyspepsia, jaundice, enlargement of the spleen, tumours, stone in the bladder, abdominal troubles and leucoderma. Leaves are brittle, heating, carminative, and good for improving the appetite and treatment of tumours, pains, inflammations, abdominal swellings and bronchial infections. Roots are used as symptomatic treatment of snake bite, scorpion sting and antispasmodic. Various plant parts or whole E. neriifolia extract and its isolates have been reported scientifically using various in-vivo and in-vitro experimental methods for anaesthetic, analgesic, anti-anxiety, anti-convulsant, anti-psychotic, anti-arthritis, anti-carcinogenic, antidiabetic, anti-diarrhoeal, anti-inflammatory, anti-thrombotic, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiulcer, cytotoxic, death-receptor expression enhancing, dermal irritation, diuretic, haemolytic, immunomodulatory, radioprotective, scorpion venom and wound healing properties. It is reported to have chemical constituents like, neriifolin-S, neriifolin, neriifoliene, euphol, neriifolione, cycloartenol, nerifoliol, lectin, euphonerins A-G, 3-O-acetyl-8-O-tigloylingol, taraxerol, antiquorin, etc. Identified chemical constituents are still required to be explored for their advanced isolation techniques and biological activities. Copyright © 2017 Hainan Medical University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A Review of the Botany, Phytochemistry, Pharmacology and Toxicology of Rubiae Radix et Rhizoma.

    PubMed

    Shan, Mingqiu; Yu, Sheng; Yan, Hui; Chen, Peidong; Zhang, Li; Ding, Anwei

    2016-12-20

    Rubia cordifolia Linn (Rubiaceae) is a climbing perennial herbal plant, which is widely distributed in China and India. Its root and rhizome, Rubiae Radix et Rhizoma (called Qiancao in China and Indian madder in India), is a well known phytomedicine used for hematemesis, epistaxis, flooding, spotting, traumatic bleeding, amenorrhea caused by obstruction, joint impediment pain, swelling and pain caused by injuries from falls. In addition, it is a kind of pigment utilized as a food additive and a dye for wool or fiber. This review mainly concentrates on studies of the botany, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of this Traditional Chinese Medicine. The phytochemical evidences indicated that over a hundred chemical components have been found and isolated from the medicine, such as anthraquinones, naphthoquinones, triterpenoids, cyclic hexapeptides and others. These components are considered responsible for the various bioactivities of the herbal drug, including anti-oxidation, anti-inflammation, immunomodulation, antitumor, effects on coagulation-fibrinolysis system, neuroprotection and other effects. Additionally, based on these existing results, we also propose some interesting future research directions. Consequently, this review should help us to more comprehensively understand and to more fully utilize the herbal medicine Rubiae Radix et Rhizoma.

  1. Illicium verum: a review on its botany, traditional use, chemistry and pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guo-Wei; Hu, Wen-Ting; Huang, Bao-Kang; Qin, Lu-Ping

    2011-06-14

    The fruit of Illicium verum Hook. f. (Chinese star anise) has long been used in traditional Chinese medicine and food industry with the actions of dispelling cold, regulating the flow of Qi and relieving pain. A bibliographic investigation was carried out by analyzing recognized books including Chinese herbal classic, and worldwide accepted scientific databases (Pubmed, SciFinder, Scopus and Web of Science) were searched for the available information on I. verum. I. verum is an aromatic evergreen tree of the family Illiciaceae. It is sometimes contaminated with highly toxic Japanese star anise (I. anisatum L.) and poisonous star anise (I. lanceolatum A. C. Smith), which contain several neurotoxic sesquiterpenes. Traditional uses of I. verum are recorded throughout Asia and Northern America, where it has been used for more than 10 types of disorders. Numerous compounds including volatiles, seco-prezizaane-type sesquiterpenes, phenylpropanoids, lignans, flavonoids and other constituents have been identified from I. verum. Modern pharmacology studies demonstrated that its crude extracts and active compounds possess wide pharmacological actions, especially in antimicrobial, antioxidant, insecticidal, analgesic, sedative and convulsive activities. In addition, it is the major source of shikimic acid, a primary ingredient in the antiflu drug (Tamiflu). This review summarizes the up-to-date and comprehensive information concerning the botany, traditional use, phytochemistry and pharmacology of I. verum together with the toxicology, and discusses the possible trend and scope for future research of I. verum. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Information, power and environmental justice in Botany: the role of community information systems.

    PubMed

    Lloyd-Smith, Mariann

    2009-04-01

    In the environmental conflict that surrounds the sighting of hazardous waste facilities there is usually a volatile mix of disparities in power, expertise and information access as well as differing views on risk, which are all played out amidst commercial arrangements and environmental justice concerns. In recent times, the volatility of this mix has been further compounded by the growing climate of public concern and distrust surrounding scientific developments and technology. While there is no 'quick fix' to the complex conflict that this entails, community information systems (CISs) based on participatory models can help address the outstanding issues of capacity, information access, power inequities and environmental justice. CISs are an effective response to the five crucial elements of a toxic dispute, that is, the dialogue, capacity building, information access, evaluation of hazards and risk, and expertise. This paper will review the role of community accessible information systems in the dispute in Botany over the management and destruction of Orica Australia's stockpile of the persistent organic pollutant, hexachlorobenzene (HCB). It will focus on the role of CIS in responding to the challenges for expert information delivery, and in addressing the disparity of informational power within the toxic dispute.

  3. Capsicum production, technology, chemistry, and quality. Part 1: History, botany, cultivation, and primary processing.

    PubMed

    Govindarajan, V S

    1985-01-01

    The genus Capsicum (Fam. Solanaceae) was known to ancient cultures and was more recently historically associated with the discovery of the New World. This genus provides many species and varieties used in flavoring foods popular in the cuisines of many parts of the world. From the pungent chilli to the colorful paprika and the bell pepper, with its remarkable aroma, the genus is of great interest for its chemistry, sensory attributes, and physiological action. The Capsicums, among the spices, are second only to black pepper in trade both in volume and value. The production of the different pungency forms, the processed seasonings, and the concentrated oleoresins, through technologically advanced processes and in specified standard grades, are critically reviewed. The pungency of Capsicum fruits, its evaluation, chemical structure relationship, its increasing acceptance and preference by a variety of populations are of great research interest. The wide traditional use in the growing regions and its intense physiological effects have attracted the attention of researchers of many different disciplines. These aspects are reviewed in four sequential parts. Part I deals with history, botany, cultivation, and primary processing.

  4. Forensic Science--A Proposal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geesaman, Donald P.; Abrahamson, Dean E.

    1973-01-01

    Forensic science is an approach to study desirability of specific technologies in the context of value objectives and biological imperatives of society. Such groups should be formed with people from various physical and social sciences. (PS)

  5. Integration initiatives for forensic services

    PubMed Central

    ARBOLEDA-FLÓREZ, JULIO

    2003-01-01

    Poorly implemented mental health reform policies are often given as reasons for the growth in demands for forensic psychiatric services and the steady increase of mental patients in prison systems. However, in this paper, additional reasons are advanced to explain the growth of forensic psychiatry, such as an expansion in the types of "psychiatric defences" in courts of law; public concerns about violent behaviour attributed to the mentally ill; the community management of paraphilias, especially pedophilia; the development of risk assessment methodologies and the halo of super-specialization. The net result of these developments is that patients who receive a label of "forensic" enter into a mental health ghetto with little connectivity or integration with the general mental health system. The forensic label increases the stigma and decreases opportunities for reintegration and full social recovery. The paper provides guidelines to reverse these trends. PMID:16946932

  6. Handwriting Classification in Forensic Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ansell, Michael

    1979-01-01

    Considers systems for the classification of handwriting features, discusses computer storage of information about handwriting features, and summarizes recent studies that give an idea of the range of forensic handwriting research. (GT)

  7. Evidentiary standards for forensic anthropology.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Angi M; Crowder, Christian M

    2009-11-01

    As issues of professional standards and error rates continue to be addressed in the courts, forensic anthropologists should be proactive by developing and adhering to professional standards of best practice. There has been recent increased awareness and interest in critically assessing some of the techniques used by forensic anthropologists, but issues such as validation, error rates, and professional standards have seldom been addressed. Here we explore the legal impetus for this trend and identify areas where we can improve regarding these issues. We also discuss the recent formation of a Scientific Working Group for Forensic Anthropology (SWGANTH), which was created with the purposes of encouraging discourse among anthropologists and developing and disseminating consensus guidelines for the practice of forensic anthropology. We believe it is possible and advisable for anthropologists to seek and espouse research and methodological techniques that meet higher standards to ensure quality and consistency in our field.

  8. Case histories in forensic medicine.

    PubMed

    Madea, Burkhard

    2007-01-17

    Case histories make up a great part of publications in forensic medicine, especially forensic pathology, although considered low on the hierarchy of evidence based medicine because of its inherent anecdotal nature. Meanwhile some journals exclude case histories categorically from publication. The boom of case histories in forensic medicine has not only opportunity reasons (easily [even mental] and cheap to do) but also structural reasons: due to its tasks in case work many items of forensic medicine can not be simulated experimentally for ethical reasons (violent death, traumatic injuries, sexual assault, poisonings, influence of alcohol and drugs on driving ability and legal responsibility, medical malpractice, adverse events during medical care). In these fields the role of case histories is mainly the augmentation of experience based knowledge. However, quality aspects have to be considered and case histories should be the basis for systematic or hypothesis based research.

  9. Forensic Science--A Proposal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geesaman, Donald P.; Abrahamson, Dean E.

    1973-01-01

    Forensic science is an approach to study desirability of specific technologies in the context of value objectives and biological imperatives of society. Such groups should be formed with people from various physical and social sciences. (PS)

  10. Handwriting Classification in Forensic Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ansell, Michael

    1979-01-01

    Considers systems for the classification of handwriting features, discusses computer storage of information about handwriting features, and summarizes recent studies that give an idea of the range of forensic handwriting research. (GT)

  11. Issues in forensic voice.

    PubMed

    Hollien, Harry; Huntley Bahr, Ruth; Harnsberger, James D

    2014-03-01

    The following article provides a general review of an area that can be referred to as Forensic Voice. Its goals will be outlined and that discussion will be followed by a description of its major elements. Considered are (1) the processing and analysis of spoken utterances, (2) distorted speech, (3) enhancement of speech intelligibility (re: surveillance and other recordings), (4) transcripts, (5) authentication of recordings, (6) speaker identification, and (7) the detection of deception, intoxication, and emotions in speech. Stress in speech and the psychological stress evaluation systems (that some individuals attempt to use as lie detectors) also will be considered. Points of entry will be suggested for individuals with the kinds of backgrounds possessed by professionals already working in the voice area.

  12. Forensics in dermatology: part II.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Kalpana; Lowenstein, Eve J

    2011-05-01

    The evaluation of skin findings is critical in identifying many types of injury, whether self- inflicted or accidentally or intentionally inflicted. Specific causes of injury include homicide, abuse, neglect, assault, self-inflicted injury, suicide, torture, poisoning, and bioterrorism. Forensic findings in hair and nails are also discussed. This overview of dermatologic findings in forensic pathology highlights the significance of the cutaneous manifestations of injury. Copyright © 2010 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Forensic hash for multimedia information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Wenjun; Varna, Avinash L.; Wu, Min

    2010-01-01

    Digital multimedia such as images and videos are prevalent on today's internet and cause significant social impact, which can be evidenced by the proliferation of social networking sites with user generated contents. Due to the ease of generating and modifying images and videos, it is critical to establish trustworthiness for online multimedia information. In this paper, we propose novel approaches to perform multimedia forensics using compact side information to reconstruct the processing history of a document. We refer to this as FASHION, standing for Forensic hASH for informatION assurance. Based on the Radon transform and scale space theory, the proposed forensic hash is compact and can effectively estimate the parameters of geometric transforms and detect local tampering that an image may have undergone. Forensic hash is designed to answer a broader range of questions regarding the processing history of multimedia data than the simple binary decision from traditional robust image hashing, and also offers more efficient and accurate forensic analysis than multimedia forensic techniques that do not use any side information.

  14. The broad field of forensic pharmacy.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Peter D

    2012-02-01

    Forensic pharmacy is application of the sciences of drugs to legal issues. Forensic pharmacists engage in work relating to litigation, the regulatory process, and the criminal justice system. Forensic pharmacy overlaps with many other forensic fields. Pharmacists hold a variety of positions with local, state, and federal governments. Many pharmacists do freelance work as forensic litigation consultants. A forensic pharmacist can be a valuable resource in legal cases relating to malpractice, adverse drug reactions, drunk and drugged driving, health care fraud, poisoning, and numerous other types of civil and criminal cases.

  15. [Two anniversaries in Czech forensic medicine].

    PubMed

    Nečas, P; Hejna, P

    2012-10-01

    The authors commemorate the 100th anniversary of the publication of Slavíks textbook Forensic Pathology for Medical and Legal Students and the 125th anniversary of the 1st Czech forensic autopsy. They introduce professor V. Slavík and describe his personal qualities and expertise. The content of the textbook is described. The topicality of Slavíks explanations and the tradition of Czech forensic pathology are discussed. Key words: forensic pathology - history of Czech forensic pathology - textbooks of forensic pathology.

  16. The role of forensic anthropology in Disaster Victim Identification (DVI).

    PubMed

    Blau, Soren; Briggs, Christopher A

    2011-02-25

    This paper briefly describes Disaster Victim Identification (DVI) and reviews the history of the use of forensic anthropology in the identification process. The potential contributions made by forensic anthropology are illustrated through the presentation of a case study. In February 2009 the state of Victoria in south-eastern Australia experienced the most devastating bushfires in its history, resulting in catastrophic loss of life and public and private property. Within 48h of the disaster, forensic teams including pathologists, odontologists and anthropologists assembled at the Victorian Institute of Forensic Medicine in Melbourne to begin the task of identifying the deceased. This paper reviews the part played by forensic anthropologists in the identification process and outlines the important contribution anthropologists can make to DVI, especially at the scene, in the mortuary and in the reconciliation process. The anthropologist's experience with differentially preserved human remains meant they played an important role identifying and recovering heavily fragmentary human skeletal remains, differentiating human from non-human remains, establishing basic biological information such as the sex and age of the individuals and confirming or denying the possibility of re-associating body parts for release to families.

  17. Forensic fictions: science, television production, and modern storytelling.

    PubMed

    Kirby, David A

    2013-03-01

    This essay uses interviews with television creators, writers, and producers to examine how media practitioners utilise, negotiate and transform forensic science in the production of televisual stories including the creation of unique visuals, character exploration, narrative progression, plot complication, thematic development, and adding a sense of authenticity. Television as a medium has its own structures and conventions, including adherence to a show's franchise, which put constraints on how stories are told. I demonstrate how television writers find forensic science to be an ideal tool in navigating television's narrative constraints by using forensics to create conflicts, new obstacles, potential solutions, and final solutions in their stories. I show how television writers utilise forensic science to provide the scientific certainty their characters require to catch the criminal, but also how uncertainty is introduced in a story through the interpretation of the forensics by the show's characters. I also argue that televisual storytellers maintain a flexible notion of scientific realism based on the notion of possibility that puts them at odds with scientists who take a more demanding conception of scientific accuracy based on the concept of probability. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Forensic applications of isotope ratio mass spectrometry--a review.

    PubMed

    Benson, Sarah; Lennard, Chris; Maynard, Philip; Roux, Claude

    2006-02-10

    The key role of a forensic scientist is to assist in determining whether a crime has been committed, and if so, assist in the identification of the offender. Many people hold the belief that a particular item can be conclusively linked to a specific person, place or object. Unfortunately, this is often not achievable in forensic science. In performing their role, scientists develop and test hypotheses. The significance of those hypotheses that cannot be rejected upon completion of all available examinations/analyses is then evaluated. Although one can generally identify the substances present using available techniques, it is generally not possible to distinguish one source of the same substance from another. In such circumstances, although a particular hypothesis cannot be rejected, it cannot be conclusively proven, i.e. the samples could still have originated from different sources. This limitation of not being able to distinguish between sources currently extends to the analysis of other forensic samples including, but not limited to, ignitable liquids, paints, adhesives, textile fibres, plastics, and illicit drugs. Stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) is an additional technique that can be utilised to test a given hypothesis. This technique shows the potential to be able to individualise a range of materials of forensic interest. This paper provides a brief description of the technique, followed by a review of the various applications of IRMS in different scientific fields. The focus of this summary is on forensic applications of IRMS, in particular the analysis of explosives, ignitable liquids and illicit drugs.

  19. Neglect of the elderly: forensic entomology cases and considerations.

    PubMed

    Benecke, Mark; Josephi, Eberhard; Zweihoff, Ralf

    2004-12-02

    Wounds of living persons are a potential target for the same flies that live, or feed early on corpses. This can lead to complications in estimation of PMI but also allows to determine additional information that might be valuable in a trial, or during the investigations [e.g., M. Benecke, R. Lessig, Child neglect and forensic entomology, Forensic Sci. Int. 120 (2001) 155-159]. With forensic entomology, and forensic entomologists being more and more present, even lower profile cases like the neglect of elderly people (without violence being used against them; i.e., natural death) comes to our attention. Furthermore, much more people grow older than in the past years which leads to increased awareness of malpractice of caregivers in the professional, and personal environment [DPA (German Press Agency), Studie an 17000 Leichen: Jeder Siebte vor Tod falsch gepflegt (Every seventh elderly person not cared for sufficiently), German Press Agency dpa # 051402, Jan 3, Jan 5, 2003] . We briefly sketch three cases in which forensic entomology helped to better understand the circumstances of death, and the type and intensity of neglect before death.

  20. Palynology: its position in the field of forensic science.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Kevan A J; Horrocks, Mark

    2008-09-01

    Here we examine the current state of palynology in the field of forensic science. Forensic palynology is discussed with reference to other forensic disciplines to help understand what is required for its progress. Emerging developments are also discussed. Palynomorphs potentially deliver excellent trace evidence, fulfilling the requirements relating to the transfer, persistence, and detection of such evidence. Palynological evidence can provide very powerful investigative and associative evidence. Despite this, the application of palynology to forensic science has had mixed success. There are many anecdotal stories where pollen evidence has had spectacular successes. But it is extremely underutilized in most countries because it is labor-intensive and requires considerable expertise and experience, there is a lack of control over sample collection and inadequate resourcing and funding, and its crime-solving power is not well known. Palynology has been applied to forensic problems in an unstructured way, resulting in a lack of formalized discussion of the underlying principles. As there is renewed questioning of the acceptability of most evidence types in the current legal environment, there is a need for the establishment of palynological evidence through validation-type studies and experimentation, and the implementation of independent proficiency testing.

  1. Experiencing Seclusion in a Forensic Psychiatric Setting: A Phenomenological Study.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Dave; Murray, Stuart J; Knack, Natasha

    2015-01-01

    In hospital settings, and especially in forensic psychiatric ones, restlessness, aggression, and even violence are familiar issues to healthcare workers. Under these circumstances, the need for restrictive measures (seclusion, mechanical/chemical restraints) is sometimes needed. Although such measures should be considered as exceptional interventions, they continue to be widespread in general, psychiatric, and forensic psychiatric settings. Although there is a great deal of literature on a myriad of issues associated with the use of seclusion, very little research has focused on the lived experience of the seclusion room in forensic psychiatric settings, whether from the patient's perspective or from the perspective of nursing staff responsible for these patients. Such an examination could help ameliorate the experience of secluded forensic psychiatric patients while informing nursing staff about the impacts of seclusion. This article reports the results of a federally funded qualitative, phenomenological research study conducted in a Canadian forensic psychiatric environment. Our results show that the "structure of place" matters for both patients who experience seclusion and nursing staff who work therapeutically in these settings. "Place" is irreducible to the physical "space" in which bodies find themselves; this study of place took into consideration the ways the lived body experiences seclusion and interrelates with others. Although there can be no doubt that many patients who experience seclusion are oftentimes objectively at risk, with a heightened potential to self-harm and to harm other inpatients and nursing staff as well, as our study participants attested, the bodies secluded in this space are not "objects."

  2. One hundred and twenty-five years of the Annals of Botany. Part 1: the first 50 years (1887-1936).

    PubMed

    Jackson, Michael B

    2015-01-01

    The Annals of Botany is a peer-reviewed scientific journal publishing papers on a wide range of topics in plant biology. It first appeared in 1887, making it the oldest continuously published botanical title. The present article gives a historical account of events leading to the founding of the Journal and of its development over the first 50 years. Much of the content is drawn from the Journal's own records and from extensive Minutes, financial accounts, personal letters and notes relating to the Annals of Botany that were repatriated from University College, University of London in 1999. Documents held at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew and at the Oxford University Press Museum were also consulted. Emphasis is placed on the individuals who instigated, edited and managed the Annals of Botany up to 1937, especially the nine founding members of the Journal and the background that brought them together and motivated them to start the Annals of Botany. A falling out between two of the founders in 1899 is highlighted since not only did this threaten the Journal's future but also gives much insight into the personalities of those most closely involved in the Journal during its formative years. The article also examines the way the Journal was funded and how it dealt with its publisher (the University of Oxford's Clarendon Press), turned itself into a registered company (the Annals of Botany Company) and coped with the travails of the First World War, currency inflation and the Great Depression. Plans to re-start the Journal as a New Series, beginning in 1937, are discussed in the context of the competition the Annals of Botany then faced from younger journals. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. [The progressive models of educational activities as a basis for the training of forensic medical experts of the new generation].

    PubMed

    Smirnova, S A; Yastrebov, O A

    The authors interpret forensic expertology as a synthetic science and propose the models for the training of professionals in the field of forensic medical expertise. They provide a rationale for the realization of such systematic training in the framework of the model of the three-level system based at the educational institutions of higher professional education. Characteristic features of the existing standards of professional training in the sphere of forensic medical expertise are considered with special reference to the organization of education of future forensic medical experts based at the many-level programs adopted in the Russian University of People's Friendship. The authors maintain that the integration of the activities of the Russian University of People's Friendship in the sphere of training of highly qualified forensic medical professionals and the potential of other leading Russian and foreign educational institutions in the close collaboration with the practical forensic medical facilities would provide a solid basis for the long-term fruitful cooperation for the modernization of the existing system of the training of forensic experts, its harmonization with the most sophisticated international programs, innovative scientific and educational technologies integrated into the system of management of the quality of modern laboratories of forensic medical expertise. It is concluded that the modification of the system of professional education in the field of forensic medical education constitutes the strategic approach to the solution of the problem of professional competence in the sphere of forensic expert activities.

  4. DNA test--a forensic boon.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Nayan Kishore; Haldar, Swaraj

    2006-02-01

    DNA fingerprinting (DNAFP) profiles can be applied to identify an individual in criminal as well as in civil cases. The main advantage of the technique is its ability to analyse small and environmentally challenged samples and to accurately establish their origins with a high degree of certainty: DNAFP can identify an individual in criminal and civil cases eg, rape, kidnapping, assassination and so on. The forensic DNA analysis can be stored in a data bank. It can help in crime prevention by giving the information of potential criminals. Reliability of DNA technique is very important. In paternity and maternity identification, when called for, DNA testing plays very much positive role.

  5. Forensic dentistry in a terrorist world.

    PubMed

    Glass, R Thomas

    2005-04-01

    While body identification by dental means has not changed substantially since 9/11, or even since the bombing of the Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City in 1995, the conditions and potential risks of a bioterrorism action to the dental personnel is new. The purpose of this article is to review general forensic dentistry disaster responses and to address the impact a bioterrorism action might have on primary, secondary and tertiary dental responders. It will also examine the triage role that dental offices might play in the event of such a disaster.

  6. Nuclear forensic analysis of a non-traditional actinide sample

    DOE PAGES

    Doyle, Jamie L.; Kuhn, Kevin John; Byerly, Benjamin; ...

    2016-06-15

    Nuclear forensic publications, performance tests, and research and development efforts typically target the bulk global inventory of intentionally safeguarded materials, such as plutonium (Pu) and uranium (U). Other materials, such as neptunium (Np), pose a nuclear security risk as well. Trafficking leading to recovery of an interdicted Np sample is a realistic concern especially for materials originating in countries that reprocesses fuel. Using complementary forensic methods, potential signatures for an unknown Np oxide sample were investigated. Measurement results were assessed against published Np processes to present hypotheses as to the original intended use, method of production, and origin for thismore » Np oxide.« less

  7. Nuclear forensic analysis of a non-traditional actinide sample

    SciTech Connect

    Doyle, Jamie L.; Kuhn, Kevin John; Byerly, Benjamin; Colletti, Lisa Michelle; Fulwyler, James Brent; Garduno, Katherine; Keller, Russell; Lujan, Elmer J. W.; Martinez, Alexander; Myers, Steve Charles; Porterfield, Donivan R.; Spencer, Khalil J.; Stanley, Floyd E.; Townsend, Lisa Ellen; Thomas, Mariam; Walker, Laurie F.; Xu, Ning; Tandon, Lav

    2016-06-15

    Nuclear forensic publications, performance tests, and research and development efforts typically target the bulk global inventory of intentionally safeguarded materials, such as plutonium (Pu) and uranium (U). Other materials, such as neptunium (Np), pose a nuclear security risk as well. Trafficking leading to recovery of an interdicted Np sample is a realistic concern especially for materials originating in countries that reprocesses fuel. Using complementary forensic methods, potential signatures for an unknown Np oxide sample were investigated. Measurement results were assessed against published Np processes to present hypotheses as to the original intended use, method of production, and origin for this Np oxide.

  8. [Development of Chinese forensic Y-STR DNA database].

    PubMed

    Ge, Jian-Ye; Yan, Jiang-Wei; Xie, Qun; Sun, Hong-Yu; Zhou, Huai-Gu; Li, Bin

    2013-06-01

    Y chromosome is a male-specific paternal inherited chromosome. The STR markers on Y chromosome have been widely used in forensic practices. This article summarizes the characteristics of Y-STR and some factors are considered of selecting appropriate Y-STR markers for Chinese population. The prospects of existing and potential forensic applications of Y-STR profiles are discussed including familial excluding, familial searching, crowd source deducing, mixture sample testing, and kinship identifying. The research, development, verification of Y-STR kit, Y-STR mutation rate, and search software are explored and some suggestions are given.

  9. Nuclear forensic analysis of a non-traditional actinide sample

    SciTech Connect

    Doyle, Jamie L.; Kuhn, Kevin John; Byerly, Benjamin; Colletti, Lisa Michelle; Fulwyler, James Brent; Garduno, Katherine; Keller, Russell; Lujan, Elmer J. W.; Martinez, Alexander; Myers, Steve Charles; Porterfield, Donivan R.; Spencer, Khalil J.; Stanley, Floyd E.; Townsend, Lisa Ellen; Thomas, Mariam; Walker, Laurie F.; Xu, Ning; Tandon, Lav

    2016-06-15

    Nuclear forensic publications, performance tests, and research and development efforts typically target the bulk global inventory of intentionally safeguarded materials, such as plutonium (Pu) and uranium (U). Other materials, such as neptunium (Np), pose a nuclear security risk as well. Trafficking leading to recovery of an interdicted Np sample is a realistic concern especially for materials originating in countries that reprocesses fuel. Using complementary forensic methods, potential signatures for an unknown Np oxide sample were investigated. Measurement results were assessed against published Np processes to present hypotheses as to the original intended use, method of production, and origin for this Np oxide.

  10. Skipping clues: forensic importance of the family Piophilidae (Diptera).

    PubMed

    Martín-Vega, Daniel

    2011-10-10

    Among the insects which are typically considered of forensic interest, the family Piophilidae (Diptera) is frequently cited because of its common occurrence on carcasses in different stages of decay. Piophilids are mainly known from the cosmopolitan species Piophila casei, which can be also a major pest for the food industry and an agent of myiasis. However, many other species of Piophilidae occur frequently on carrion, including human corpses; hence, it is essential to ensure a careful identification of specimens. Reviews of relevant published information about the Piophilidae species of potential forensic use, including recent interesting records, are presented.

  11. Forensic Evaluation of Deaf Individuals: Challenges and Strategies.

    PubMed

    Pollard, Robert Q; Berlinski, Brian T

    2017-10-04

    Forensic evaluation of deaf individuals presents unique challenges due to many examinees' fund of information deficits, potential for language deprivation, and examiners' frequent lack of creativity regarding communication methods. This article describes challenges most frequently encountered in competency to stand trial and criminal responsibility evaluations and offers strategies for overcoming them. The value of employing multiple communication methods, especially the use of illustrations, is emphasized. Suggestions also are offered regarding preparing evaluation reports and effectively communicating "key deaf fundamentals" to legal personnel. Encouragement is offered for qualified, sign-fluent professionals to engage in forensic work.

  12. Forensic Odontology: The New Dimension in Dental Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Divakar, K. P.

    2017-01-01

    Forensic Odontology a branch of Forensic sciences uses the skill of the dentist in personal identification during mass calamities, sexual assault and child abuse to name a few. This branch not stranger to many has been growing tenfold in its potential and its ability to bring the forlorn to justice where a dental remains is the only available evidence. It’s role and importance in the judiciary is fast growing and hence in depth knowledge in this field seems more than justified. PMID:28533730

  13. Nuclear forensic analysis of a non-traditional actinide sample.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Jamie L; Kuhn, Kevin; Byerly, Benjamin; Colletti, Lisa; Fulwyler, James; Garduno, Katherine; Keller, Russell; Lujan, Elmer; Martinez, Alexander; Myers, Steve; Porterfield, Donivan; Spencer, Khalil; Stanley, Floyd; Townsend, Lisa; Thomas, Mariam; Walker, Laurie; Xu, Ning; Tandon, Lav

    2016-10-01

    Nuclear forensic publications, performance tests, and research and development efforts typically target the bulk global inventory of intentionally safeguarded materials, such as plutonium (Pu) and uranium (U). Other materials, such as neptunium (Np), pose a nuclear security risk as well. Trafficking leading to recovery of an interdicted Np sample is a realistic concern especially for materials originating in countries that reprocesses fuel. Using complementary forensic methods, potential signatures for an unknown Np oxide sample were investigated. Measurement results were assessed against published Np processes to present hypotheses as to the original intended use, method of production, and origin for this Np oxide. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Context Effects in Forensic Entomology and Use of Sequential Unmasking in Casework.

    PubMed

    Archer, Melanie S; Wallman, James F

    2016-09-01

    Context effects are pervasive in forensic science, and are being recognized by a growing number of disciplines as a threat to objectivity. Cognitive processes can be affected by extraneous context information, and many proactive scientists are therefore introducing context-minimizing systems into their laboratories. Forensic entomologists are also subject to context effects, both in the processes they undertake (e.g., evidence collection) and decisions they make (e.g., whether an invertebrate taxon is found in a certain geographic area). We stratify the risk of bias into low, medium, and high for the decisions and processes undertaken by forensic entomologists, and propose that knowledge of the time the deceased was last seen alive is the most potentially biasing piece of information for forensic entomologists. Sequential unmasking is identified as the best system for minimizing context information, illustrated with the results of a casework trial (n = 19) using this approach in Victoria, Australia. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  15. A tale of two cultures: examining patient-centered care in a forensic mental health hospital

    PubMed Central

    Livingston, James D.; Nijdam-Jones, Alicia; Brink, Johann

    2012-01-01

    Several questions remain unanswered regarding the extent to which the principles and practices of patient-centered care are achievable in the context of a forensic mental health hospital. This study examined patient-centered care from the perspectives of patients and providers in a forensic mental health hospital. Patient-centered care was assessed using several measures of complementary constructs. Interviews were conducted with 30 patients and surveys were completed by 28 service providers in a forensic mental health hospital. Patients and providers shared similar views of the therapeutic milieu and recovery orientation of services; however, providers were more likely to perceive the hospital as being potentially unsafe. Overall, the findings indicated that characteristics of patient-centered care may be found within a forensic mental health hospital. The principles of patient-centered care can be integrated into service delivery in forensic mental health hospitals, though special attention to providers’ perceptions of safety is needed. PMID:22815648

  16. Commentary: Female forensic worker sexual misconduct--who is the captive?

    PubMed

    Hackett, Maureen

    2011-01-01

    The risk of sexual misconduct by forensic professionals appears at first glance to be far less than the risk of sexual misconduct by other clinical professionals. Yet, Faulkner and Regehr's article draws our attention to the unique and intriguing situation of females working in forensic settings and the very real risk of their engaging in sexual misconduct with male prisoners. The female workers described are professionals: nurses, prison staff, and security officers. Analogies are made between Gabbard's proposed categories of professionals who commit sexual boundary violations and groups of female forensic workers' sexual misconduct with male prisoners. Faulkner and Regehr detail the characteristics of prisoners and the prison setting and how they relate to detrimental interpersonal behavior by female forensic workers. The role of security officers is discussed along with the need for policy-makers to minimize the risks inherent in working with incarcerated populations. The potential for gender-biased explanations of misconduct among female forensic workers is also considered.

  17. Nuclear forensics of a non-traditional sample: Neptunium

    DOE PAGES

    Doyle, Jamie L.; Schwartz, Daniel; Tandon, Lav

    2016-05-16

    Recent nuclear forensics cases have focused primarily on plutonium (Pu) and uranium (U) materials. By definition however, nuclear forensics can apply to any diverted nuclear material. This includes neptunium (Np), an internationally safeguarded material like Pu and U, that could offer a nuclear security concern if significant quantities were found outside of regulatory control. This case study couples scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with quantitative analysis using newly developed specialized software, to evaluate a non-traditional nuclear forensic sample of Np. Here, the results of the morphological analyses were compared with another Np sample of known pedigree, as well as other traditionalmore » actinide materials in order to determine potential processing and point-of-origin.« less

  18. Nuclear forensics of a non-traditional sample: Neptunium

    SciTech Connect

    Doyle, Jamie L.; Schwartz, Daniel; Tandon, Lav

    2016-05-16

    Recent nuclear forensics cases have focused primarily on plutonium (Pu) and uranium (U) materials. By definition however, nuclear forensics can apply to any diverted nuclear material. This includes neptunium (Np), an internationally safeguarded material like Pu and U, that could offer a nuclear security concern if significant quantities were found outside of regulatory control. This case study couples scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with quantitative analysis using newly developed specialized software, to evaluate a non-traditional nuclear forensic sample of Np. Here, the results of the morphological analyses were compared with another Np sample of known pedigree, as well as other traditional actinide materials in order to determine potential processing and point-of-origin.

  19. Virtual Machine for Computer Forensics - the Open Source Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bem, Derek

    In this paper we discuss the potential role of virtual environments in the analysis phase of computer forensics investigations. We argue that commercial closed source computer forensics software has certain limitations, and we propose a method which may lead to gradual shift to open source software (OSS). A brief overview of virtual environments and open source software tools is presented and discussed. Further we identify current limitations of virtual environments leading to the conclusion that the method is very promising, but at this point in time it can not replace conventional techniques of computer forensics analysis. We demonstrate that using Virtual Machines (VM) in Linux environments can complement the conventional techniques, and often can bring faster and verifiable results not dependent on proprietary, close source tools.

  20. Children in foster care: what forensic nurses need to know.

    PubMed

    Hornor, Gail

    2014-01-01

    Children living in foster care are a unique population with specialized healthcare needs. This article will assist forensic nurses and advanced practice forensic nurses, particularly those working in pediatrics, in understanding the needs of children in foster care and implementing a practice plan to better meet their healthcare needs. To that end, a basic understanding of the foster care system is crucial and involves an appreciation of the interface between the legal system and the child welfare system. Most important to providing care to children in foster care is a true understanding of trauma exposure and its potential effects on the lives of children: physically, developmentally, emotionally, and psychologically. This article will assist forensic nurses working with pediatric populations to more fully understand the needs of children in foster care and to develop innovative interventions to appropriately meet their unique needs.

  1. Nuclear forensics of a non-traditional sample: Neptunium

    SciTech Connect

    Doyle, Jamie L.; Schwartz, Daniel; Tandon, Lav

    2016-05-16

    Recent nuclear forensics cases have focused primarily on plutonium (Pu) and uranium (U) materials. By definition however, nuclear forensics can apply to any diverted nuclear material. This includes neptunium (Np), an internationally safeguarded material like Pu and U, that could offer a nuclear security concern if significant quantities were found outside of regulatory control. This case study couples scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with quantitative analysis using newly developed specialized software, to evaluate a non-traditional nuclear forensic sample of Np. Here, the results of the morphological analyses were compared with another Np sample of known pedigree, as well as other traditional actinide materials in order to determine potential processing and point-of-origin.

  2. Psychiatric comorbidity in forensic psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Palijan, Tija Zarković; Muzinić, Lana; Radeljak, Sanja

    2009-09-01

    For the past several years a numerous studies in the field of forensic psychiatry confirmed a close relationship between violent offenders and comorbid substance abuse. The comorbid substance abuse in violent offenders was usually unrecognized and misdiagnosed. Furthermore, comorbidity in forensic psychiatry describes the co-occurrence of two or more conditions or psychiatric disorder known in the literature as dual diagnosis and defined by World Health Organization (WHO). In fact, many violent offenders have multiple psychiatric diagnoses. Recent studies have confirmed causal relationship between major psychiatric disorders and concomitant substance abuse (comorbidity) in 50-80% of forensic cases. In general, there is a high level of psychiatric comorbidity in forensic patients with prevalence of personality disorders (50-90%), mood disorders (20-60%) and psychotic disorders (15-20%) coupled with substance abuse disorders. Moreover, the high prevalence of psychiatric comorbidities could be found in mentally retarded individuals, as well as, in epileptic patients. Drugs and alcohol abuse can produce serious psychotoxic effects that may lead to extreme violent behavior and consequently to serious criminal offence such as physical assault, rape, armed robbery, attempted murder and homicide, all due to an altered brain function and generating psychotic-like symptoms. Studies have confirmed a significant statistical relevance in causal relationship between substance abuse and violent offences. In terms of forensic psychiatry, the comorbidity strongly contributes in the process of establishing psychiatric diagnosis of diminished mental capacity or insanity at the time of the offence in the course of clinical assessment and evaluation of violent offenders. Today, the primary focus of forensic psychiatry treatment services (in-patient or community) is management of the violent offenders with psychiatric comorbidity which requires a multilevel, evidence based approach to

  3. Forensic seismology revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglas, A.

    2007-01-01

    The first technical discussions, held in 1958, on methods of verifying compliance with a treaty banning nuclear explosions, concluded that a monitoring system could be set up to detect and identify such explosions anywhere except underground: the difficulty with underground explosions was that there would be some earthquakes that could not be distinguished from an explosion. The development of adequate ways of discriminating between earthquakes and underground explosions proved to be difficult so that only in 1996 was a Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) finally negotiated. Some of the important improvements in the detection and identification of underground tests—that is in forensic seismology—have been made by the UK through a research group at the Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE). The paper describes some of the advances made in identification since 1958, particularly by the AWE Group, and the main features of the International Monitoring System (IMS), being set up to verify the Test Ban. Once the Treaty enters into force, then should a suspicious disturbance be detected the State under suspicion of testing will have to demonstrate that the disturbance was not a test. If this cannot be done satisfactorily the Treaty has provisions for on-site inspections (OSIs): for a suspicious seismic disturbance for example, an international team of inspectors will search the area around the estimated epicentre of the disturbance for evidence that a nuclear test really took place. Early observations made at epicentral distances out to 2,000 km from the Nevada Test Site showed that there is little to distinguish explosion seismograms from those of nearby earthquakes: for both source types the short-period (SP: ˜1 Hz) seismograms are complex showing multiple arrivals. At long range, say 3,000 10,000 km, loosely called teleseismic distances, the AWE Group noted that SP P waves—the most widely and well-recorded waves from underground explosions—were in

  4. A model for forensic dental education in the predoctoral dental school curriculum.

    PubMed

    Hermsen, Kenneth P; Johnson, J Dane

    2012-05-01

    Forensic odontologists play an important role locally and nationally in assisting in the identification of the victims of mass fatality incidents, whether natural or human-made. With the recent passage of legislation by Congress identifying dentists as a first-responder resource, knowledge of their expanding role in disaster response is particularly important. The purpose of this article is to describe the forensic dental course being taught at Creighton University School of Dentistry in Omaha, Nebraska, as a model for providing a fundamental education in forensic dentistry and disaster preparedness at the predoctoral dental level. This model is designed to 1) provide students with a broad view of forensic odontology; 2) give them a functional knowledge of the tools and techniques of the modern forensic dentist; 3) provide basic knowledge of their potential role in disaster preparedness and response; and 4) encourage students to pursue further forensic education, become active in national forensic organizations, and get involved in disaster preparedness/response in their home communities following graduation. This article includes lecture topics, demonstrations, and hands-on exercises being used at Creighton to teach students the fundamentals of forensic odontology and disaster preparedness.

  5. Vitamin D Deficiency in an Inpatient Forensic Intellectual Disability Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chester, Verity; Simmons, Hayley; Henriksen, Marie; Alexander, Regi T.

    2017-01-01

    No research has examined vitamin D deficiency among inpatients within forensic intellectual disability services, despite their potentially increased risk. Tests of serum 25(OHD) concentration in blood are routinely offered to patients within the service as part of the admission and annual physical health check. Results were classified as deficient…

  6. Drawbacks in the scientification of forensic science.

    PubMed

    Biedermann, A; Curran, J

    2014-12-01

    This letter to the Editor comments on the article On the limitations of probability in conceptualizing pattern matches in forensic science by P. T. Jayaprakash (Forensic Science International, [10]). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Nuclear Forensics at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Kinman, William Scott; Steiner, Robert Ernest; Lamont, Stephen Philip

    2016-09-30

    Nuclear forensics assists in responding to any event where nuclear material is found outside of regulatory control; a response plan is presented and a nuclear forensics program is undergoing further development so that smugglers are sufficiently deterred.

  8. DBT in an outpatient forensic setting.

    PubMed

    van den Bosch, L M C; Hysaj, M; Jacobs, P

    2012-01-01

    Literature shows that effective treatment of borderline personality disorder (BPD) has become possible. However, borderline patients in forensic psychiatry do not seem to benefit from this development. In forensic psychiatry, prevention of criminal recidivism is the main focus of treatment, not core borderline problems like parasuicidal and self-destructive behavior. A dialectical behavioral treatment program for BPD was implemented in an outpatient forensic clinic in The Netherlands. Sociodemographic, clinical, and treatment data were collected from ten male, and nineteen female forensic BPD patients, and compared with corresponding data from fifty-eight non-forensic BPD patients. The results show that it is possible to implement dialectical behavior therapy in an outpatient forensic clinic. The data indicate that the exclusion of forensic patients, and especially female forensic patients, from evidence-based treatment is unjustified given the highly comparable clinical and etiological characteristics they share with female BPD patients from general mental health settings.

  9. The Relative Utility of the Forensic Disciplines.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-03-01

    The efficacy of the forensic disciplines in felony criminal investigations was assessed. Reports and investigations of the findings of 1,069 forensic ...solve rate was achieved for USACIDC when multiple forensic disciplines were utilized. The PDD discipline was the most utilized and effective of the...individual disciplines, but all forensic disciplines demonstrated a high degree of utility in specific criminal offense categories. Of the 1,069

  10. [Troponin in forensic medicine].

    PubMed

    Nowak, Agnieszka; Nowak, Seweryn; Chowaniec, Czesław; Wojnicz, Romuald

    2012-01-01

    In this review we try to answer the question whether and to what degree contemporary forensic pathology takes advantage of quantitative and qualitative troponin determinations. The report is simultaneously an introduction to discussing our results in this area. To perform this review we used the database "PubMed". Polish literature, concurrent with the objective of the study and not included in "PubMed" or included in "OLDMEDLINE" was also analyzed. The identified publications, which were concurrent with the aim of the study, were read and citations were checked. If among the cited papers we found one that was concurrent with the subject of the review, it was also included. While several studies support the use of post-mortem blood and body fluid levels of cardiac troponin T and I as a marker of sudden cardiac death, in our opinion, further research is required to determine the effects of post-mortem autolysis, microbial activity, metabolic derangement and the use of different sample matrices in autopsy cases.

  11. Forensic science and the law.

    PubMed

    Jayewardene, C H

    1988-01-01

    Forensic Science today makes an important contribution to the operation of the Criminal Justice System providing evidence which could help decide the guilt of a suspect. Forensic Science is able to do so because it has developed to operate within the reality determined by the Criminal Justice System. Changes that are occurring today seem to upset the relationship between Forensic Sciences and the Criminal Justice System by the creation of communication problems. Examples of these problems exist in the changes occurring in the concept of death made necessary by organ transplants. These changes have shifted the focus from the quantity of life to the quality of life and make it impossible for the Forensic Scientist to answer honestly the questions that might be put him. The need for reforms in the law in view of social changes has been recognized and in many countries attempts at such changes are afoot. With these changes a new reality is being defined. Forensic Science, being a discipline that comes first in contact with a multitude of emergent problems, has a part to play in the definition of this reality.

  12. Comparative Microbial Genomics and Forensics.

    PubMed

    Massey, Steven E

    2016-08-01

    Forensic science concerns the application of scientific techniques to questions of a legal nature and may also be used to address questions of historical importance. Forensic techniques are often used in legal cases that involve crimes against persons or property, and they increasingly may involve cases of bioterrorism, crimes against nature, medical negligence, or tracing the origin of food- and crop-borne disease. Given the rapid advance of genome sequencing and comparative genomics techniques, we ask how these might be used to address cases of a forensic nature, focusing on the use of microbial genome sequence analysis. Such analyses rely on the increasingly large numbers of microbial genomes present in public databases, the ability of individual investigators to rapidly sequence whole microbial genomes, and an increasing depth of understanding of their evolution and function. Suggestions are made as to how comparative microbial genomics might be applied forensically and may represent possibilities for the future development of forensic techniques. A particular emphasis is on the nascent field of genomic epidemiology, which utilizes rapid whole-genome sequencing to identify the source and spread of infectious outbreaks. Also discussed is the application of comparative microbial genomics to the study of historical epidemics and deaths and how the approaches developed may also be applicable to more recent and actionable cases.

  13. The Forensic Potential of Flash Memory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    use of some APIs. The presentation compares MIAT to the Paraben Device Seizure, a proprietary tool that also utilizes logical acquisition methods...The data recovery coverage is better than the Paraben system; is equal in integrity, but is slower in acquisition time [23]. 4. Remnant Data In

  14. DoD Forensic Science Committee,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-10-10

    This Instruction, issued under the authority of DoD Directive 5106.1, establishes the DoD Forensic Science Committee as a joint DoD committee under...resolution of forensic science issues of concern to the DoD forensic science community and its customers, the Defense Criminal Investigative Organizations

  15. Forensic Chemistry--A Symposium Collection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Chemical Education, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Presents a collection of articles to provide chemistry teachers with resource materials to add forensic chemistry units to their chemistry courses. Topics range from development of forensic science laboratory courses and mock-crime scenes to forensic serology and analytical techniques. (JN)

  16. Forensic Chemistry--A Symposium Collection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Chemical Education, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Presents a collection of articles to provide chemistry teachers with resource materials to add forensic chemistry units to their chemistry courses. Topics range from development of forensic science laboratory courses and mock-crime scenes to forensic serology and analytical techniques. (JN)

  17. System Support for Forensic Inference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehani, Ashish; Kirchner, Florent; Shankar, Natarajan

    Digital evidence is playing an increasingly important role in prosecuting crimes. The reasons are manifold: financially lucrative targets are now connected online, systems are so complex that vulnerabilities abound and strong digital identities are being adopted, making audit trails more useful. If the discoveries of forensic analysts are to hold up to scrutiny in court, they must meet the standard for scientific evidence. Software systems are currently developed without consideration of this fact. This paper argues for the development of a formal framework for constructing “digital artifacts” that can serve as proxies for physical evidence; a system so imbued would facilitate sound digital forensic inference. A case study involving a filesystem augmentation that provides transparent support for forensic inference is described.

  18. Recent advances in forensic genetics.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Simon J

    2004-01-01

    Like many applications of molecular diagnostics, the field of forensic biology is undergoing a phase of expansion and diversification. The growth of forensic DNA databases and adoption of sophisticated analytical methods have catalyzed this increasing role. The range of molecular markers exploited in the fight against crime is beginning to increase too, and genes implying personal or physical characteristics are emerging in the research literature. However, the operational context of forensic biology is unlike many other fields of science. Harmonizing technological breakthroughs with the requirements of law enforcement agencies and the complexities of the legal system is an added challenge and one which evokes ongoing debate. This review examines the current status of this dynamic and important application of modern genetics.

  19. High Performance Proactive Digital Forensics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alharbi, Soltan; Moa, Belaid; Weber-Jahnke, Jens; Traore, Issa

    2012-10-01

    With the increase in the number of digital crimes and in their sophistication, High Performance Computing (HPC) is becoming a must in Digital Forensics (DF). According to the FBI annual report, the size of data processed during the 2010 fiscal year reached 3,086 TB (compared to 2,334 TB in 2009) and the number of agencies that requested Regional Computer Forensics Laboratory assistance increasing from 689 in 2009 to 722 in 2010. Since most investigation tools are both I/O and CPU bound, the next-generation DF tools are required to be distributed and offer HPC capabilities. The need for HPC is even more evident in investigating crimes on clouds or when proactive DF analysis and on-site investigation, requiring semi-real time processing, are performed. Although overcoming the performance challenge is a major goal in DF, as far as we know, there is almost no research on HPC-DF except for few papers. As such, in this work, we extend our work on the need of a proactive system and present a high performance automated proactive digital forensic system. The most expensive phase of the system, namely proactive analysis and detection, uses a parallel extension of the iterative z algorithm. It also implements new parallel information-based outlier detection algorithms to proactively and forensically handle suspicious activities. To analyse a large number of targets and events and continuously do so (to capture the dynamics of the system), we rely on a multi-resolution approach to explore the digital forensic space. Data set from the Honeynet Forensic Challenge in 2001 is used to evaluate the system from DF and HPC perspectives.

  20. Forensic Psychiatry, A Brief Introduction.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-01-01

    RD-A151 971 FORENSIC PSYCHIATRY A BRIEF INTRODUCTION(U) NAVAL 1/1 JUSTICE SCHOOL NEWIPORT R I JAN 85 D95UNCLA-lSSIFIEDjF654 N mmmhhm7hh MENOMONEEmhh...L. Q28 125 * 13.211111 M 111 2.2_ IIJfL25 111__V MICROCOPY’ RESOLUTION TEST CHART NATIONAL HRFAII Of .TANDARO, l6’ NA FORENSIC PSYCHIATRY A BRIEF...any discernible 0 3 problems with nervous system. Many and varied. I. Psychological tests - Designed to isolate the abnormal by ccparison to others

  1. The Clinician and Forensic Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Root, Irving; Scott, Wayne

    1973-01-01

    Although it is an intrinsic part of all medical practice forensic medicine often is either unrecognized as such or is consciously or subconsciously evaded. The failure to apply some rather basic and simple forensic principles that only the physician is capable of doing may result in problems to the patient ranging from frustration to near catastrophe. For physicians who are reasonably well equipped to understand the legal system, the successful conclusion of a legal case, including, sometimes, an appearance in court, can be stimulating and interesting. PMID:4733272

  2. [Professional confidentiality and forensic medicine].

    PubMed

    Das, C; van der Wal, G

    2003-10-18

    Medical confidentiality is a complex subject. The legal position of a physician depends on his or her role (medical advisor, attending physician, official, or medical examiner) as well as the physician's task and commission. In common with all physicians, the forensic physician has a duty to provide confidentiality. As a medical examiner, he or she has a limited professional confidentiality: there is an oath of secrecy, but not a right of refusal to testify with respect to the information obtained in carrying out the commission. When the forensic physician assumes the role of the attending physician, the professional confidentiality applies in full.

  3. Clinical forensics for perioperative nurses.

    PubMed

    Muro, G A; Easter, C R

    1994-10-01

    Perioperative nurses frequently care for victims and suspected perpetrators of violent crimes. Nurses often are the first health care providers to assess the trauma patient and collect crucial evidence for future legal action. Informational evidence includes observations about patients' behavior and appearance and documentation of their comments. Nurses also must protect the chain of evidence so that evidence can be admissible in court. To function in this role, perioperative nurses must understand the concepts of clinical forensics, which is the application of the principles and practices of forensic science to questions of law in the investigation of violent crime.

  4. Forensic entomology and climatic change.

    PubMed

    Turchetto, Margherita; Vanin, Stefano

    2004-12-02

    Forensic entomology establishes the postmortem interval (PMI) by studying cadaveric fauna. The PMI today is still largely based on tables of insect succession on human cadavers compiled in the late 19th- or mid-20th centuries. In the last few years, however, the gradual warming of the climate has been changing faunal communities by favouring the presence of thermophilous species. To demonstrate how globalization and climate change are overcoming geographic barriers, we present some cases of southern and allochthonous species found in north-east Italy during our entomo-forensic investigations.

  5. A Review of Forensic Science Management Literature.

    PubMed

    Houck, M M; McAndrew, W P; Porter, M; Davies, B

    2015-01-01

    The science in forensic science has received increased scrutiny in recent years, but interest in how forensic science is managed is a relatively new line of research. This paper summarizes the literature in forensic science management generally from 2009 to 2013, with some recent additions, to provide an overview of the growth of topics, results, and improvements in the management of forensic services in the public and private sectors. This review covers only the last three years or so and a version of this paper was originally produced for the 2013 Interpol Forensic Science Managers Symposium and is available at interpol.int.

  6. [National organization of forensic medicine in France].

    PubMed

    Chariot, Patrick

    2012-06-01

    Forensic medicine has long been characterized, in France, by diverse medical practices, which affected its recognition and development. A change was needed, Harmonization procedure includes the development of professional guidelines and allows forensic medicine to look at itself. However, the implementation of the recommendations is still far from complete. A national reform came into effect on 15 January 2011 and has defined a national reform of forensic medicine which includes funding by global budgets instead of fee-for-service. This reform allows easier organization and identification of forensic medicine units. One year later, tangible results are mixed. Forensic medicine is now more clearly identified but properly defined funding criteria are still lacking.

  7. Towards a Formalization of Digital Forensics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slay, Jill; Lin, Yi-Chi; Turnbull, Benjamin; Beckett, Jason; Lin, Paul

    While some individuals have referred to digital forensics as an art, the literature of the discipline suggests a trend toward the formalization of digital forensics as a forensic science. Questions about the quality of digital evidence and forensic soundness continue to be raised by researchers and practitioners in order to ensure the trustworthiness of digital evidence and its value to the courts. This paper reviews the development of digital forensic models, procedures and standards to lay a foundation for the discipline. It also points to new work that provides validation models through a complete mapping of the discipline.

  8. [Advances of forensic entomology in China].

    PubMed

    Lan, Ling-mei; Liao, Zhi-gang; Chen, Yao-qing; Yao, Yue; Li, Jian-bo; Li, Mao-yang; Cai, Ji-feng

    2006-12-01

    Forensic entomology is a branch of forensic medicine, which applies studies of insects and arthropods to getting evidence for court and has an analogous advantage in the estimation of the postmortem interval (PMI) and other questions of forensic relevance. The paper expounds its definition and contents and reviews some progress of the studies in some aspects in China such as the constitution and succession of insect community on the different cadavers, the applications of morphological features of insects and the technology of analysis of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in forensic entomology, and forensic entomological toxicology etc.

  9. 9649 forensic web watch--DNA in forensic science.

    PubMed

    Bowyer, V L; Graham, E A M; Rutty, G N

    2004-10-01

    In 1923, within the Manual of Police technique, Edmond Locard published what is commonly known as the Doctrine of Exchange; a series of rules related to the exchange of trace evidence between the victim and offender. Although at the time of publication these rules principally applied to trace evidence related to print (for exchange finger print or shoeprint), fibre and blood, today one can add the very substance that defines each human being -- DNA. Since th first use of DNA evidence to help identify an offender in the Pitchfork Murders of 1986, the use of DNA within forensic science has developed from its humble days within a single experimental laboratory at the University of Leicester to a multi-million pound industry. It thus seams fitting that this forensic web watch should originate from the very University where the use of DNA in forensic science was conceived, drawing the readers attention to a number of sites which can be used as an introduction to the concept of the use of DNA in forensic science today.

  10. Forensic Loci Allele Database (FLAD): Automatically generated, permanent identifiers for sequenced forensic alleles.

    PubMed

    Van Neste, Christophe; Van Criekinge, Wim; Deforce, Dieter; Van Nieuwerburgh, Filip

    2016-01-01

    It is difficult to predict if and when massively parallel sequencing of forensic STR loci will replace capillary electrophoresis as the new standard technology in forensic genetics. The main benefits of sequencing are increased multiplexing scales and SNP detection. There is not yet a consensus on how sequenced profiles should be reported. We present the Forensic Loci Allele Database (FLAD) service, made freely available on http://forensic.ugent.be/FLAD/. It offers permanent identifiers for sequenced forensic alleles (STR or SNP) and their microvariants for use in forensic allele nomenclature. Analogous to Genbank, its aim is to provide permanent identifiers for forensically relevant allele sequences. Researchers that are developing forensic sequencing kits or are performing population studies, can register on http://forensic.ugent.be/FLAD/ and add loci and allele sequences with a short and simple application interface (API). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Veterinary Forensic Pathology: The Search for Truth.

    PubMed

    McDonough, S P; McEwen, B J

    2016-09-01

    Veterinary forensic pathology is emerging as a distinct discipline, and this special issue is a major step forward in establishing the scientific basis of the discipline. A forensic necropsy uses the same skill set needed for investigations of natural disease, but the analytical framework and purpose of forensic pathology differ significantly. The requirement of legal credibility and all that it entails distinguishes the forensic from routine diagnostic cases. Despite the extraordinary depth and breadth of knowledge afforded by their training, almost 75% of veterinary pathologists report that their training has not adequately prepared them to handle forensic cases. Many veterinary pathologists, however, are interested and willing to develop expertise in the discipline. Lessons learned from tragic examples of wrongful convictions in medical forensic pathology indicate that a solid foundation for the evolving discipline of veterinary forensic pathology requires a commitment to education, training, and certification. The overarching theme of this issue is that the forensic necropsy is just one aspect in the investigation of a case of suspected animal abuse or neglect. As veterinary pathologists, we must be aware of the roles filled by other veterinary forensic experts involved in these cases and how our findings are an integral part of an investigation. We hope that the outcome of this special issue of the journal is that veterinary pathologists begin to familiarize themselves with not only forensic pathology but also all aspects of veterinary forensic science.

  12. Concepts and possibilities in forensic intelligence.

    PubMed

    Bell, Chris

    2006-10-16

    Forensic intelligence can be viewed as comprising two parts, one directly concerning intelligence delivery in forensic casework, the other considering performance aspects of forensic work, loosely termed here as business intelligence. Forensic casework can be viewed as processes that produce an intelligence product useful to police investigations. Traditionally, forensic intelligence production has been confined to discipline-specific activity. This paper examines the concepts, processes and intelligence products delivered in forensic casework, the information repositories available from forensic examinations, and ways to produce within- and across-discipline casework correlations by using information technology to capitalise on the information sets available. Such analysis presents opportunities to improve forensic intelligence services as well as challenges for technical solutions to deliver appropriate data-mining capabilities for available information sets, such as digital photographs. Business intelligence refers primarily to examination of efficiency and effectiveness of forensic service delivery. This paper discusses measures of forensic activity and their relationship to crime outcomes as a measure of forensic effectiveness.

  13. On the added value of forensic science and grand innovation challenges for the forensic community.

    PubMed

    van Asten, Arian C

    2014-03-01

    In this paper the insights and results are presented of a long term and ongoing improvement effort within the Netherlands Forensic Institute (NFI) to establish a valuable innovation programme. From the overall perspective of the role and use of forensic science in the criminal justice system, the concepts of Forensic Information Value Added (FIVA) and Forensic Information Value Efficiency (FIVE) are introduced. From these concepts the key factors determining the added value of forensic investigations are discussed; Evidential Value, Relevance, Quality, Speed and Cost. By unravelling the added value of forensic science and combining this with the future needs and scientific and technological developments, six forensic grand challenges are introduced: i) Molecular Photo-fitting; ii) chemical imaging, profiling and age estimation of finger marks; iii) Advancing Forensic Medicine; iv) Objective Forensic Evaluation; v) the Digital Forensic Service Centre and vi) Real time In-Situ Chemical Identification. Finally, models for forensic innovation are presented that could lead to major international breakthroughs on all these six themes within a five year time span. This could cause a step change in the added value of forensic science and would make forensic investigative methods even more valuable than they already are today. © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd on behalf of Forensic Science Society. All rights reserved.

  14. One hundred and twenty-five years of the Annals of Botany. Part 1: the first 50 years (1887–1936)

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Michael B.

    2015-01-01

    Background The Annals of Botany is a peer-reviewed scientific journal publishing papers on a wide range of topics in plant biology. It first appeared in 1887, making it the oldest continuously published botanical title. The present article gives a historical account of events leading to the founding of the Journal and of its development over the first 50 years. Sources of Information Much of the content is drawn from the Journal’s own records and from extensive Minutes, financial accounts, personal letters and notes relating to the Annals of Botany that were repatriated from University College, University of London in 1999. Documents held at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew and at the Oxford University Press Museum were also consulted. Content Emphasis is placed on the individuals who instigated, edited and managed the Annals of Botany up to 1937, especially the nine founding members of the Journal and the background that brought them together and motivated them to start the Annals of Botany. A falling out between two of the founders in 1899 is highlighted since not only did this threaten the Journal’s future but also gives much insight into the personalities of those most closely involved in the Journal during its formative years. The article also examines the way the Journal was funded and how it dealt with its publisher (the University of Oxford’s Clarendon Press), turned itself into a registered company (the Annals of Botany Company) and coped with the travails of the First World War, currency inflation and the Great Depression. Plans to re-start the Journal as a New Series, beginning in 1937, are discussed in the context of the competition the Annals of Botany then faced from younger journals. PMID:25561090

  15. Can clinical CT data improve forensic reconstruction?

    PubMed

    Schuh, P; Scheurer, E; Fritz, K; Pavlic, M; Hassler, E; Rienmüller, R; Yen, K

    2013-05-01

    In accidents resulting in severe injuries, a clinical forensic examination is generally abandoned in the initial phase due to high-priority clinical needs. However, in many cases, data from clinical computed tomography (CT) examinations are available. The goals of this prospective study were (a) to evaluate clinical CT data as a basis for forensic reconstruction of the sequence of events, (b) to assess if forensic radiological follow-up reading improves the forensic diagnostic benefit compared to the written clinical radiological reports, and (c) to evaluate if full data storage including additional reconstructed 0.6-mm slices enhances forensic analysis. Clinical CT data of 15 living individuals with imaging of at least the head, thorax, and abdomen following polytrauma were examined regarding the forensic evaluation of the sequence of events. Additionally, 0.6-mm slices and 3D images were reconstructed for forensic purposes and used for the evaluation. At the forensic radiological readings, additional traumatic findings were observed in ten of the 15 patients. The main weakness of the clinical reports was that they were not detailed enough, particularly regarding the localization of injuries and description of wound morphology. In seven cases, however, forensic conclusions were possible on the basis of the written clinical reports, whereas in five cases forensic reconstruction required specific follow-up reading. The additional 0.6-mm slices were easily available and with improved 3D image quality and forensic diagnostics. In conclusion, the use of clinical CT data can considerably support forensic expertise regarding reconstruction issues. Forensic follow-up reading as well as the use of additional thin slices for 3D analysis can further improve its benefit for forensic reconstruction purposes.

  16. Poetic Interventions with Forensic Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Art; Giovan, Marti

    1990-01-01

    Describes the use of poetry, music, and creative writing with forensic patients at a state mental health institute. Demonstrates that expressive interventions were helpful in group treatment by promoting verbalization, decision making, and the recognition of personal responsibility for incarceration. (SR)

  17. Incorporating Argumentation through Forensic Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Lindsay B.; Maeng, Jennifer L.; Smetana, Lara K.

    2014-01-01

    This article outlines how to incorporate argumentation into a forensic science unit using a mock trial. Practical details of the mock trial include: (1) a method of scaffolding students' development of their argument for the trial, (2) a clearly outlined set of expectations for students during the planning and implementation of the mock…

  18. Forensics: Enhancing Civic Literacy & Democracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briscoe, Shawn F.

    2009-01-01

    Forensics--interpretation, speech, and debate--can and should be a meaningful part of every school's curriculum. To put it simply, the course of study, alongside cocurricular competition, promotes civic education and enhances the standard curriculum by helping students explore myriad topics from multiple angles and find the truth in each,…

  19. Forensic Palynology as Classroom Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babcock, Steven L.; Warny, Sophie

    2014-01-01

    This activity introduces the science of "forensic palynology": the use of microscopic pollen and spores (also called "palynomorphs") to solve criminal cases. Plants produce large amounts of pollen or spores during reproductive cycles. Because of their chemical resistance, small size, and morphology, pollen and spores can be…

  20. Incorporating Argumentation through Forensic Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Lindsay B.; Maeng, Jennifer L.; Smetana, Lara K.

    2014-01-01

    This article outlines how to incorporate argumentation into a forensic science unit using a mock trial. Practical details of the mock trial include: (1) a method of scaffolding students' development of their argument for the trial, (2) a clearly outlined set of expectations for students during the planning and implementation of the mock…

  1. Forensics: Enhancing Civic Literacy & Democracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briscoe, Shawn F.

    2009-01-01

    Forensics--interpretation, speech, and debate--can and should be a meaningful part of every school's curriculum. To put it simply, the course of study, alongside cocurricular competition, promotes civic education and enhances the standard curriculum by helping students explore myriad topics from multiple angles and find the truth in each,…

  2. Forensic Analysis of Parachute Deaths.

    PubMed

    Burke, Michael Philip; Chitty, Johannes

    2017-03-01

    Deaths associated with parachuting are very uncommon. However, these deaths do tend to be "high profile" in the traditional and social media. When forensic pathologists examine the deceased after a fatal parachuting incident, the anatomical cause of death is usually not in question. For most forensic pathologists, it is usually the case that we will have very limited knowledge of parachuting equipment or the mechanics of a typical successful parachute jump. As such, the investigation of the death should involve a multidisciplinary approach with an appropriate expert providing the formal forensic examination of the parachuting equipment. We have endeavored to describe, in simple terms, the usual components of a typical parachute rig, a précis of the sequence of events in a routine skydive and BASE jump, and the various types of malfunctions that may occur. Last, we present a case report of a BASE jump fatality to illustrate how an expert examination of the BASE jumper's gear aided the medicolegal investigation of the death with some important aspects in the forensic examination of the jumper's equipment.

  3. Curriculum Guidelines on Forensic Dentistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Dental Education, 1990

    1990-01-01

    The American Association of Dental Schools' guidelines for curriculum design explain the scope of forensic dentistry and interrelationships with other fields, give an overview of the curriculum, and outline suggested primary educational goals, prerequisites, core content, specific behavioral objectives, sequencing, faculty and facility…

  4. Forensic Palynology as Classroom Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babcock, Steven L.; Warny, Sophie

    2014-01-01

    This activity introduces the science of "forensic palynology": the use of microscopic pollen and spores (also called "palynomorphs") to solve criminal cases. Plants produce large amounts of pollen or spores during reproductive cycles. Because of their chemical resistance, small size, and morphology, pollen and spores can be…

  5. Forensic nursing in secure environments.

    PubMed

    Shelton, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    There are few well-designed studies of corrections or prison nursing roles. This study seeks to describe the corrections or prison role of forensic nurses in the United States who provide care in secure environments. National data detailing the scope of practice in secure environments are limited. This pencil and paper survey describes the roles of 180 forensic nurses from 14 states who work in secure environments. Descriptive statistics are utilized. A repeated measures ANOVA with post hoc analyses was implemented. These nurses were older than average in age, but had 10 years or less experience in forensic nursing practice. Two significant roles emerged to "promote and implement principles that underpin effective quality and practice" and to "assess, develop, implement, and improve programs of care for individuals." Significant roles varied based upon the security classification of the unit or institution in which the nurses were employed. Access to information about these nurses and their nursing practice was difficult in these closed systems. Minimal data are available nationally, indicating a need for collection of additional data over time to examine changes in role. It is through such developments that forensic nursing provided in secure environments will define its specialization and attract the attention it deserves.

  6. Forensic Information Warfare Requirement Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-06-01

    5 2.2.3 JMac Enterprises... JMac Enterprises John B. McElhatton Voice: (703) 938-0724 http://www.jmacent.com Typically, computer forensic examinations by JMac are structured...www.geocities.com/CapitolHill/ 5244/time0002.html 18. http://www.jmacent.com, JMac Enterprises 19. http://www.secure-data.com/art7.html Computer Evidence

  7. Embedding Forensic Capabilities into Networks: Addressing Inefficiencies in Digital Forensics Investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Endicott-Popovsky, Barbara; Frincke, Deb A.

    2006-08-01

    A typical incident response pits technicians against networks that aren't prepared forensically. [1, 2] If practitioners do consider collecting network forensic data, they face a choice between expending extraordinary effort (time and money) collecting forensically sound data, or simply restoring the network as quickly as possible. In this context, the concept of organizational network forensic readiness has emerged. This paper proposes a methodology for "operationalizing" organizational network forensic readiness. The methodology, and the theoretical analysis that led to its development, are offered as a conceptual framework for thinking about more efficient, proactive approaches to digital forensics on networks.

  8. Forensic anthropology in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Işcan, M Y; Olivera, H E

    2000-03-13

    Forensic anthropology has been one of the fastest growing medico-legal disciplines both in its contribution to the practical needs of the legal system and research accomplishments. New anthropological standards were developed to apply to a specific population of a region. The purpose of this paper is to analyze a large sample of anthropological forensic cases and to review pertinent literature that deals with anthropological standards developed for the population of the continent of Central and South America. Using Uruguay as an example, there was not a single office or anthropologist assigned to analyze human skeletal remains in Uruguay. In 1991 the Laboratorio de Antropología Forense at the Morgue Judicial of Montevideo was created. A total of 189 forensic anthropological cases (276 individuals) were analyzed since this date. Twenty six percent of cases involving human remains were positively identified. The majority came from the Departamento de Montevideo, the largest population district of the country. Most of the cases fell into the 60 to 69 years old age range (35%). Females represented 32% of the total. Since the establishment of the laboratory, the number of forensic cases increased considerably from 20 in 1991 to 40 in 1997. The case studies were accompanied with skull-photo superimposition and facial reconstruction when no other evidence for positive identification was available. This service provided by the laboratory was quickly known to coroners, law enforcement agencies, and other legal authorities and thus utilized not only in Uruguay but also in several other countries in the continent. Because of the obvious need for an anthropologist, there are now university programs to provide forensic anthropological education. Yet, research has lagged behind considerably. Deficiencies are obvious in basic osteological standards of estimating age, calculating stature, determining sex and assessing race that can be applied to populations of the continent

  9. Constructing and Classifying Email Networks from Raw Forensic Images

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    average 1 hour per response , including the time for reviewing instruction, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and...provide insight into the user’s social network and help identify other potential persons of interest. However, a large portion of the email addresses from...forensic analyst when conducting an investigation. They can provide insight into the user’s social network and help identify other potential persons of

  10. Forensic intelligence for medicine anti-counterfeiting.

    PubMed

    Dégardin, Klara; Roggo, Yves; Margot, Pierre

    2015-03-01

    Medicine counterfeiting is a crime that has increased in recent years and now involves the whole world. Health and economic repercussions have led pharmaceutical industries and agencies to develop many measures to protect genuine medicines and differentiate them from counterfeits. Detecting counterfeit is chemically relatively simple for the specialists, but much more information can be gained from the analyses in a forensic intelligence perspective. Analytical data can feed criminal investigation and law enforcement by detecting and understanding the criminal phenomenon. Profiling seizures using chemical and packaging data constitutes a strong way to detect organised production and industrialised forms of criminality, and is the focus of this paper. Thirty-three seizures of a commonly counterfeited type of capsule have been studied. The results of the packaging and chemical analyses were gathered within an organised database. Strong linkage was found between the seizures at the different production steps, indicating the presence of a main counterfeit network dominating the market. The interpretation of the links with circumstantial data provided information about the production and the distribution of counterfeits coming from this network. This forensic intelligence perspective has the potential to be generalised to other types of products. This may be the only reliable approach to help the understanding of the organised crime phenomenon behind counterfeiting and to enable efficient strategic and operational decision making in an attempt to dismantle counterfeit network.

  11. An Update on the Hazards and Risks of Forensic Anthropology, Part II: Field and Laboratory Considerations.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Lindsey G; Dabbs, Gretchen R; Spencer, Jessica R

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on potential hazards and risks to forensic anthropologists while working in the field and laboratory in North America. Much has changed since Galloway and Snodgrass published their seminal article addressing these issues. The increased number of forensic practitioners combined with new information about potential hazards calls for an updated review of these pathogens and chemicals. Discussion of pathogen hazards (Brucella, Borrelia burgdorferi, Yersinia pestis, Clostridium tetani and West Nile virus) includes important history, exposure routes, environmental survivability, early symptoms, treatments with corresponding morbidity and mortality rates, and decontamination measures. Additionally, data pertaining to the use of formaldehyde in the laboratory environment have resulted in updated safety regulations, and these are highlighted. These data should inform field and laboratory protocols. The hazards of working directly with human remains are discussed in a companion article, "An Update on the Hazards and Risks of Forensic Anthropology, Part I: Human Remains." © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  12. The use of an alternative light source to detect semen in clinical forensic medical practice.

    PubMed

    Lincoln, C A; McBride, P M; Turbett, G R; Garbin, C D; MacDonald, E J

    2006-05-01

    One of the primary aims of forensic examination in sexual offences is to detect and recover biological material that will link the offender with the complainant. One potentially valuable method by which trace biological evidence may be identified in other forensic settings is via the use of an Alternate Light Source (ALS). The aim of this study was to determine whether or not there was any potential benefit in using an ALS as an adjunct in sexual assault examinations to aid the detection of forensically relevant areas on the body which are not identifiable on visual inspection for sampling. We present two case reports, which illustrate the potential value of using an ALS in clinical forensic medical practice as an adjunct in sexual assault examinations to detect potentially forensically useful areas of skin to sample for semen. Prior to introducing the ALS into our clinical forensic medical practice, we undertook a number of simple laboratory studies to determine a protocol for its use. Semen is known to fluoresce using an ALS at a wavelength of 450 nm. Although we did not conduct a rigorous scientific evaluation of the technique, we evaluated the use of an ALS to detect semen on a range of inanimate surfaces as well as human skin. On all surfaces, visibility of fluorescence was increased by reduced distance of light source from the surface and increased concentration of semen on the surface, but was not noticeably affected by the angle at which the light source was held in relation to the surface.

  13. Effective use of forensic science in volume crime investigations: identifying recurring themes in the literature.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, Anika; Fraser, Jim

    2014-01-01

    New scientific, technological and legal developments, particularly the introduction of national databases for DNA and fingerprints, have led to increased use of forensic science in the investigation of crime. There is an assumption, and in some instances specific assertions, that such developments bring improvements either in broad criminal justice terms or more narrowly in terms of economic or practical efficiencies. The underlying presumption is that the new technological opportunities will be understood and effectively implemented. This research investigates whether such increases in activity have also been accompanied by improvements in the effective use of forensic science. A systematic review of thirty-six reports published (predominantly in England and Wales) since the 1980s, which have considered the use of forensic science in the investigation of volume crimes, was carried out. These reports have identified a number of recurrent themes that influenced how effectively forensic science was used in investigations. The themes identified included forensic knowledge and training of investigators, communication and information exchange between specialists and investigators, timeliness of forensic results, interagency relationships and deployment of crime scene examiner resources. The research findings suggest that these factors continue to hinder the effective use of forensic science despite technological advances and this paper considers their potential causes. © 2013.

  14. Legal perceptions of forensic DNA profiling part I: a review of the legal literature.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Simon J

    2005-12-01

    A forensic biologist is usually involved in the criminal justice system process somewhere between the police and the legal system, interacting in a practical context regularly and extensively with both. Forensic DNA research and development commonly involves initiatives that encroach into the neighbouring domains of the law enforcement or legal agencies. Despite this level of association, establishing meaningful cross-disciplinary communication and understanding within the justice system remains a challenge. As an example, there is an abundance of literature relating to forensic DNA profiling in legal and criminological periodicals. Such journals are perhaps outside the regular reading of forensic scientists and much of the legal discussion appears to go unnoticed. This situation is understandable; however, it is also undesirable particularly as forensic DNA developments are intertwined with significant changes in legislation and contentious issues of privacy, civil liberty and social justice. This paper attempts to address this shortcoming directly by summarising - from the viewpoint of a forensic scientist - some of the discussion in the legal literature. In particular the review focuses on discussion raising ideological and ethical concerns. Awareness of these views is of relevance to forensic science. It assists us to accurately place DNA evidence into context and to develop its role in achieving the broader criminal justice system objectives. Understanding the discussion also provides a way to enter the debate and communicate at an appropriate level the true potential of DNA to the legal community.

  15. Forensic radiology and personal identification of unidentified bodies: a review.

    PubMed

    Ciaffi, R; Gibelli, D; Cattaneo, C

    2011-09-01

    Personal identification of unidentified bodies is crucial for ethical, juridical and civil reasons and is performed through comparison between biological data obtained from the cadaver and antemortem material from one or more missing persons to whom the body may have belonged in life. The increasing applications of forensic radiology and the wide use of conventional radiography and computed tomography (CT) in routine clinical practice demonstrate the potential of these technologies as tools for verifying the correspondence between an unidentified body and an identity suspect. This paper reviews the literature concerning the application of forensic radiology to the difficult issue of personal identification. Despite the increasing importance of the comparison between radiographic and CT findings, numerous limitations still need to be overcome, including the fact that few forensic centres have access to sophisticated X-ray technologies and that the reliability of those technologies for detecting specific morphological traits and bone lesions is a matter of intense debate. In addition, as with other morphological methods for identification, comparisons between antemortem and postmortem data require standardisation and statistical analysis, especially in Europe where there are very few indications concerning the admission in court of evidence obtained by anthropological and radiological methods. In the future, with developments in radiographic technologies and increasing numbers of studies on their application to the forensic setting, radiology will become one of the most useful tools in the field of personal identification.

  16. Elliptical Fourier analysis: fundamentals, applications, and value for forensic anthropology.

    PubMed

    Caple, Jodi; Byrd, John; Stephan, Carl N

    2017-02-17

    The numerical description of skeletal morphology enables forensic anthropologists to conduct objective, reproducible, and structured tests, with the added capability of verifying morphoscopic-based analyses. One technique that permits comprehensive quantification of outline shape is elliptical Fourier analysis. This curve fitting technique allows a form's outline to be approximated via the sum of multiple sine and cosine waves, permitting the profile perimeter of an object to be described in a dense (continuous) manner at a user-defined level of precision. A large amount of shape information (the entire perimeter) can thereby be collected in contrast to other methods relying on sparsely located landmarks where information falling in between the landmarks fails to be acquired. First published in 1982, elliptical Fourier analysis employment in forensic anthropology from 2000 onwards reflects a slow uptake despite large computing power that makes its calculations easy to conduct. Without hurdles arising from calculation speed or quantity, the slow uptake may partly reside with the underlying mathematics that on first glance is extensive and potentially intimidating. In this paper, we aim to bridge this gap by pictorially illustrating how elliptical Fourier harmonics work in a simple step-by-step visual fashion to facilitate universal understanding and as geared towards increased use in forensic anthropology. We additionally provide a short review of the method's utility for osteology, a summary of past uses in forensic anthropology, and software options for calculations that largely save the user the trouble of coding customized routines.

  17. The role of spatial aggregation in forensic entomology.

    PubMed

    Fiene, Justin G; Sword, Gregory A; Van Laerhoven, Sherah L; Tarone, Aaron M

    2014-01-01

    A central concept in forensic entomology is that arthropod succession on carrion is predictable and can be used to estimate the postmortem interval (PMI) of human remains. However, most studies have reported significant variation in successional patterns, particularly among replicate carcasses, which has complicated estimates of PMIs. Several forensic entomology researchers have proposed that further integration of ecological and evolutionary theory in forensic entomology could help advance the application of succession data for producing PMI estimates. The purpose of this essay is to draw attention to the role of spatial aggregation of arthropods among carrion resources as a potentially important aspect to consider for understanding and predicting the assembly of arthropods on carrion over time. We review ecological literature related to spatial aggregation of arthropods among patchy and ephemeral resources, such as carrion, and when possible integrate these results with published forensic literature. We show that spatial aggregation of arthropods across resources is commonly reported and has been used to provide fundamental insight for understanding regional and local patterns of arthropod diversity and coexistence. Moreover, two suggestions are made for conducting future research. First, because intraspecific aggregation affects species frequency distributions across carcasses, data from replicate carcasses should not be combined, but rather statistically quantified to generate occurrence probabilities. Second, we identify a need for studies that tease apart the degree to which community assembly on carrion is spatially versus temporally structured, which will aid in developing mechanistic hypotheses on the ecological factors shaping community assembly on carcasses.

  18. Image processing of false identity documents for forensic intelligence.

    PubMed

    Talbot-Wright, Benjamin; Baechler, Simon; Morelato, Marie; Ribaux, Olivier; Roux, Claude

    2016-06-01

    Forensic intelligence has recently gathered increasing attention as a potential expansion of forensic science that may contribute in a wider policing and security context. Whilst the new avenue is certainly promising, relatively few attempts to incorporate models, methods and techniques into practical projects are reported. This work reports a practical application of a generalised and transversal framework for developing forensic intelligence processes referred to here as the Transversal model adapted from previous work. Visual features present in the images of four datasets of false identity documents were systematically profiled and compared using image processing for the detection of a series of modus operandi (M.O.) actions. The nature of these series and their relation to the notion of common source was evaluated with respect to alternative known information and inferences drawn regarding respective crime systems. 439 documents seized by police and border guard authorities across 10 jurisdictions in Switzerland with known and unknown source level links formed the datasets for this study. Training sets were developed based on both known source level data, and visually supported relationships. Performance was evaluated through the use of intra-variability and inter-variability scores drawn from over 48,000 comparisons. The optimised method exhibited significant sensitivity combined with strong specificity and demonstrates its ability to support forensic intelligence efforts.

  19. Mobile markerless augmented reality and its application in forensic medicine.

    PubMed

    Kilgus, Thomas; Heim, Eric; Haase, Sven; Prüfer, Sabine; Müller, Michael; Seitel, Alexander; Fangerau, Markus; Wiebe, Tamara; Iszatt, Justin; Schlemmer, Heinz-Peter; Hornegger, Joachim; Yen, Kathrin; Maier-Hein, Lena

    2015-05-01

    During autopsy, forensic pathologists today mostly rely on visible indication, tactile perception and experience to determine the cause of death. Although computed tomography (CT) data is often available for the bodies under examination, these data are rarely used due to the lack of radiological workstations in the pathological suite. The data may prevent the forensic pathologist from damaging evidence by allowing him to associate, for example, external wounds to internal injuries. To facilitate this, we propose a new multimodal approach for intuitive visualization of forensic data and evaluate its feasibility. A range camera is mounted on a tablet computer and positioned in a way such that the camera simultaneously captures depth and color information of the body. A server estimates the camera pose based on surface registration of CT and depth data to allow for augmented reality visualization of the internal anatomy directly on the tablet. Additionally, projection of color information onto the CT surface is implemented. We validated the system in a postmortem pilot study using fiducials attached to the skin for quantification of a mean target registration error of [Formula: see text] mm. The system is mobile, markerless, intuitive and real-time capable with sufficient accuracy. It can support the forensic pathologist during autopsy with augmented reality and textured surfaces. Furthermore, the system enables multimodal documentation for presentation in court. Despite its preliminary prototype status, it has high potential due to its low price and simplicity.

  20. Saussurea involucrata: A review of the botany, phytochemistry and ethnopharmacology of a rare traditional herbal medicine.

    PubMed

    Chik, Wai-I; Zhu, Lin; Fan, Lan-Lan; Yi, Tao; Zhu, Guo-Yuan; Gou, Xiao-Jun; Tang, Yi-Na; Xu, Jun; Yeung, Wing-Ping; Zhao, Zhong-Zhen; Yu, Zhi-Ling; Chen, Hu-Biao

    2015-08-22

    Saussurea involucrata Matsum. & Koidz. is an endangered species of the Asteraceae family, growing in the high mountains of central Asia. It has been, and is, widely used in traditional Uyghur, Mongolian and Kazakhstan medicine as well as in Traditional Chinese Medicine as Tianshan Snow Lotus (Chinese: ). In traditional medical theory, S. involucrata can promote blood circulation, thereby alleviating all symptoms associated with poor circulation. It also reputedly eliminates cold and dampness from the body, diminishes inflammation, invigorates, and strengthens Yin and Yang. It has long been used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, cough with cold, stomach ache, dysmenorrhea, and altitude sickness in Uyghur and Chinese medicine. To comprehensively summarize the miscellaneous research that has been done regarding the botany, ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, biological activity, and toxicology of S. involucrata. An extensive review of the literature was carried out. Apart from different electronic databases including SciFinder, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), ScienceDirect that were sourced for information, abstracts, full-text articles and books written in English and Chinese, including those traditional records tracing back to the Qing Dynasty. Pharmacopoeia of China and other local herbal records in Uighur, Mongolian and Kazakhstan ethnomedicines were investigated and compared for pertinent information. The phytochemistry of S. involucrata has been comprehensively investigated. More than 70 compounds have been isolated and identified; they include phenylpropanoids, flavonoids, coumarins, lignans, sesquiterpenes, steroids, ceramides, polysaccharides. Scientific studies on the biological activity of S. involucrata are equally numerous. The herb has been shown to have anti-neoplastic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-oxidative, anti-fatigue, anti-aging, anti-hypoxic, neuroprotective and immunomodulating effects. Many have shown correlations to the