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Sample records for forensic psychology

  1. Specialty guidelines for forensic psychology.

    PubMed

    2013-01-01

    In the past 50 years forensic psychological practice has expanded dramatically. Because the practice of forensic psychology differs in important ways from more traditional practice areas (Monahan, 1980) the "Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychologists" were developed and published in 1991 (Committee on Ethical Guidelines for Forensic Psychologists, 1991). These Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychology were developed by the American Psychology-Law Society (Division 41 of the American Psychological Association [APA]) and the American Academy of Forensic Psychology. They were adopted by the APA Council of Representatives on August 3, 2011.

  2. Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2013

    2013-01-01

    In the past 50 years forensic psychological practice has expanded dramatically. Because the practice of forensic psychology differs in important ways from more traditional practice areas (Monahan, 1980) the "Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychologists" were developed and published in 1991 (Committee on Ethical Guidelines for Forensic…

  3. Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2013

    2013-01-01

    In the past 50 years forensic psychological practice has expanded dramatically. Because the practice of forensic psychology differs in important ways from more traditional practice areas (Monahan, 1980) the "Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychologists" were developed and published in 1991 (Committee on Ethical Guidelines for Forensic…

  4. Psychiatric/ psychological forensic report writing.

    PubMed

    Young, Gerald

    Approaches to forensic report writing in psychiatry, psychology, and related mental health disciplines have moved from an organization, content, and stylistic framework to considering ethical and other codes, evidentiary standards, and practice considerations. The first part of the article surveys different approaches to forensic report writing, including that of forensic mental health assessment and psychiatric ethics. The second part deals especially with psychological ethical approaches. The American Psychological Association's Ethical Principles and Code of Conduct (2002) provide one set of principles on which to base forensic report writing. The U.S. Federal Rules of Evidence (2014) and related state rules provide another basis. The American Psychological Association's Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychology (2013) provide a third source. Some work has expanded the principles in ethics codes; and, in the third part of this article, these additions are applied to forensic report writing. Other work that could help with the question of forensic report writing concerns the 4 Ds in psychological injury assessments (e.g., conduct oneself with Dignity, avoid the adversary Divide, get the needed reliable Data, Determine interpretations and conclusions judiciously). One overarching ethical principle that is especially applicable in forensic report writing is to be comprehensive, scientific, and impartial. As applied to forensic report writing, the overall principle that applies is that the work process and product should reflect integrity in its ethics, law, and science. Four principles that derive from this meta-principle concern: Competency and Communication; Procedure and Protection; Dignity and Distance; and Data Collection and Determination. The standards or rules associated with each of these principles are reviewed. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Frequently cited journals in forensic psychology.

    PubMed

    Black, Steve

    2012-02-01

    Works cited in six forensic psychology journals published 2008-2010 were counted to identify the most frequently cited journals. The sample of works cited (N = 21,776) was not a definitive ranked list of important journals in forensic psychology, but was large enough to indicate high-impact journals. The list of frequently cited publications included more general psychiatry and psychology journals than titles specific to forensic psychology. The implications of the proportion of general versus specific titles for collections supporting research in forensic psychology were discussed.

  6. A Model for a Doctor of Psychology Program in Forensic Psychology: Curriculum and Rationale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenster, C. Abraham; And Others

    1976-01-01

    An overview of the objectives and courses of a doctoral program in forensic psychology is provided. Forensic psychology is the application of psychological methods, principles, and skills to the relevant needs of the legal system. (DE)

  7. A Model for a Doctor of Psychology Program in Forensic Psychology: Curriculum and Rationale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenster, C. Abraham; And Others

    1976-01-01

    An overview of the objectives and courses of a doctoral program in forensic psychology is provided. Forensic psychology is the application of psychological methods, principles, and skills to the relevant needs of the legal system. (DE)

  8. Multi-Database Searching in Forensic Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piotrowski, Chris; Perdue, Robert W.

    Traditional library skills have been augmented since the introduction of online computerized database services. Because of the complexity of the field, forensic psychology can benefit enormously from the application of comprehensive bibliographic search strategies. The study reported here demonstrated the bibliographic results obtained when a…

  9. Multi-Database Searching in Forensic Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piotrowski, Chris; Perdue, Robert W.

    Traditional library skills have been augmented since the introduction of online computerized database services. Because of the complexity of the field, forensic psychology can benefit enormously from the application of comprehensive bibliographic search strategies. The study reported here demonstrated the bibliographic results obtained when a…

  10. Forensic Psychology: An Empirical Review of Experimental Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Lisa R.; Finn, Paul E.

    1986-01-01

    Evaluated the first eleven years of experimental research (1973-1983) publications, with a focus on forensic psychology, that were cited in Psychological Abstracts. Results indicate: a paucity of experimental research; a significant difference between empirical and nonempirical publications; and a transition from descriptive to correlational and…

  11. Forensic Psychology: An Empirical Review of Experimental Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Lisa R.; Finn, Paul E.

    1986-01-01

    Evaluated the first eleven years of experimental research (1973-1983) publications, with a focus on forensic psychology, that were cited in Psychological Abstracts. Results indicate: a paucity of experimental research; a significant difference between empirical and nonempirical publications; and a transition from descriptive to correlational and…

  12. A Proposal for Training in Forensic Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poythress, Norman G., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Graduate programs are lagging behind in developing courses to prepare psychologists to function with expertise in forensic (law-related) matters. Paradoxically, the courts are now finding increasing use for the forensic psychologist, while current journals express wide skepticism about the quality of available expertise. (Author/RLV)

  13. A Proposal for Training in Forensic Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poythress, Norman G., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Graduate programs are lagging behind in developing courses to prepare psychologists to function with expertise in forensic (law-related) matters. Paradoxically, the courts are now finding increasing use for the forensic psychologist, while current journals express wide skepticism about the quality of available expertise. (Author/RLV)

  14. A Forensic Psychology Exercise: Role Playing and the Insanity Defense.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fass, Michael E.

    1999-01-01

    Presents a role playing exercise that provides students with an introduction to forensic psychology and the insanity defense. Reports that 87% of the students found this exercise to be an enjoyable teaching technique and useful in providing an understanding of the insanity defense. Concludes that the exercise increases student interest and…

  15. A Forensic Psychology Exercise: Role Playing and the Insanity Defense.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fass, Michael E.

    1999-01-01

    Presents a role playing exercise that provides students with an introduction to forensic psychology and the insanity defense. Reports that 87% of the students found this exercise to be an enjoyable teaching technique and useful in providing an understanding of the insanity defense. Concludes that the exercise increases student interest and…

  16. A Survey of Graduate Training Programs and Coursework in Forensic Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burl, Jeffrey; Shah, Sanjay; Filone, Sarah; Foster, Elizabeth; DeMatteo, David

    2012-01-01

    An increasing number of graduate programs are available to students interested in the study of forensic psychology. The growth of forensic training opportunities is reflective of the wider development of forensic psychology as a discrete specialty area. An Internet-based survey was conducted to provide descriptive information to academic advisors…

  17. A Survey of Graduate Training Programs and Coursework in Forensic Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burl, Jeffrey; Shah, Sanjay; Filone, Sarah; Foster, Elizabeth; DeMatteo, David

    2012-01-01

    An increasing number of graduate programs are available to students interested in the study of forensic psychology. The growth of forensic training opportunities is reflective of the wider development of forensic psychology as a discrete specialty area. An Internet-based survey was conducted to provide descriptive information to academic advisors…

  18. Using Forensic Psychology to Teach Basic Psychological Processes: Eyewitness Memory and Lie Detection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costanzo, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    Teachers can incorporate topics in forensic psychology into lower level courses to increase student interest and to show how psychological processes influence outcomes in high-stakes applied contexts. One such topic is eyewitness identification, which teachers can use to show how stress affects memory and how memories can become distorted during…

  19. Using Forensic Psychology to Teach Basic Psychological Processes: Eyewitness Memory and Lie Detection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costanzo, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    Teachers can incorporate topics in forensic psychology into lower level courses to increase student interest and to show how psychological processes influence outcomes in high-stakes applied contexts. One such topic is eyewitness identification, which teachers can use to show how stress affects memory and how memories can become distorted during…

  20. [Psychological aspects of public activity of a forensic medical examiner].

    PubMed

    Bashkireva, E A; Buromskiĭ, I V

    2009-01-01

    In the recent years, professional activity of forensic medical examiners has been gaining publicity which necessitates knowledge of individual psychologic personality traits, the ability to effectively communicate, and high vocational culture on the part of each specialist. The specific character of professional contacts of a forensic medical expert is self-evident taking into consideration that he (she) has to deal with a great variety of persons including law enforcement officials, law breakers and criminal offence victims, men and women, young and aged people, representatives of different social groups, subjects in a specific emotional state, etc. In order to organize efficacious cooperation with all these individuals, the expert must develop high communicative competence, possess knowledge of psychology of communication, abilities and skills necessary for the establishment and maintenance of professional and business contacts.

  1. Students' Physical and Psychological Reactions to Forensic Dissection: Are There Risk Factors?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sergentanis, Theodoros N.; Papadodima, Stavroula A.; Evaggelakos, Christos I.; Mytilinaios, Dimitrios G.; Goutas, Nikolaos D.; Spiliopoulou, Chara A.

    2010-01-01

    The reactions of students to forensic dissection encompass psychologico-emotional and physical components. This exploratory study aimed to determine risk factors for students' adverse physical and psychological reactions to forensic dissection. All sixth-year medical students (n = 304) attending the compulsory practical course in forensic medicine…

  2. Students' Physical and Psychological Reactions to Forensic Dissection: Are There Risk Factors?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sergentanis, Theodoros N.; Papadodima, Stavroula A.; Evaggelakos, Christos I.; Mytilinaios, Dimitrios G.; Goutas, Nikolaos D.; Spiliopoulou, Chara A.

    2010-01-01

    The reactions of students to forensic dissection encompass psychologico-emotional and physical components. This exploratory study aimed to determine risk factors for students' adverse physical and psychological reactions to forensic dissection. All sixth-year medical students (n = 304) attending the compulsory practical course in forensic medicine…

  3. Psychological processes and paranoia: implications for forensic behavioural science.

    PubMed

    Bentall, Richard P; Taylor, Jayne L

    2006-01-01

    Paranoid delusions have recently become the focus of empirical research. In this article, we review studies of the psychological mechanisms that might be involved in paranoid thinking and discuss their implications for forensic behaviour science. Paranoia has not been consistently associated with any specific neuropsychological abnormality. However, evidence supports three broad types of mechanism that might be involved in delusional thinking in general and paranoia in particular: anomalous perceptual experiences, abnormal reasoning, and motivational factors. There is some evidence that paranoia may be associated with hearing loss, and good evidence that paranoid patients attend excessively to threatening information. Although general reasoning ability seems to be unaffected, there is strong evidence that a jumping- to-conclusions style of reasoning about data is implicated in delusions in general, but less consistent evidence specifically linking paranoia to impaired theory of mind. Finally, there appears to be a strong association between paranoia and negative self-esteem, and some evidence that attempts to protect self-esteem by attributing negative events to external causes are implicated. Some of these processes have recently been implicated in violent behaviour, and they therefore have the potential to explain the apparent association between paranoid delusions and offending.

  4. Formal training in forensic mental health: psychiatry and psychology.

    PubMed

    Sadoff, Robert L; Dattilio, Frank M

    2012-01-01

    The field of forensic mental health has grown exponentially in the past decades to include forensic psychiatrists and psychologists serving as the primary experts to the court systems. However, many colleagues have chosen to pursue the avenue of serving as forensic experts without obtaining formal training and experience. This article discusses the importance of formal education, training and experience for psychiatrists and psychologists working in forensic settings and the ethical implications that befall those who fail to obtain such credentials. Specific aspects of training and supervised experience are discussed in detail.

  5. The field of forensic psychology in Israel--the state of the discipline.

    PubMed

    Zaki, Moshe

    2009-12-01

    The process of the establishment of forensic psychology in Israel begins in the eighties; while at the past 6 years after the creation of the Department of Psychology, Law and Ethics--The International Center for Health, Law and Ethics at Haifa University, the field continues to grow rapidly. Today, the development of forensic psychology is reflected in the scientific practice at Haifa University as at others (academic courses for different graduate levels and research concerning professional and ethical issues); as well as in the practical professional development of professional organizations, practice standards and training programs. Now as a specialty, forensic psychology must continue to make an effort to enrich in science and in professional practice, its aid in the administration of justice by assisting legal decision-makers.

  6. Students' physical and psychological reactions to forensic dissection: Are there risk factors?

    PubMed

    Sergentanis, Theodoros N; Papadodima, Stavroula A; Evaggelakos, Christos I; Mytilinaios, Dimitrios G; Goutas, Nikolaos D; Spiliopoulou, Chara A

    2010-01-01

    The reactions of students to forensic dissection encompass psychologico-emotional and physical components. This exploratory study aimed to determine risk factors for students' adverse physical and psychological reactions to forensic dissection. All sixth-year medical students (n = 304) attending the compulsory practical course in forensic medicine in the 2005-2006 academic year were asked to complete a questionnaire at the conclusion of the five-day course. The questionnaire surveyed physical and psychological reactions (outcomes) and 47 student traits, beliefs, and behaviors (risk factors) that might predispose to adverse reactions. Multivariate ordinal logistic regression yielded five independent risk factors for negative psychological reactions: female gender, stereotypic beliefs about forensic pathologists, a less cognitive and more emotional frame of mind relative to forensic dissection, more passive coping strategies, and greater fear of death. The sole independent risk factor for physical symptoms was a less cognitive/more emotional approach to dissection. Students' reactions to forensic dissection integrate a host of inherent and dissection-related risk factors, and future interventions to improve this aspect of medical education will need to take into account the complexities underlying students' experiences with dissection.

  7. The Relationship between Self-Appraisal, Professional Training, and Diversity Awareness among Forensic Psychology Students: A Pilot Formative Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, Donald S., Jr.; Chandler, Michele D.; Clark, Quelanda C.

    2009-01-01

    Currently, there is a growing need for formal training in forensic psychology. This pilot study examines the relational-behavior model (RBM) as a method of intrinsic motivational instruction, perceived academic competence, and program competency among a sample of forensic psychology students. In theory, the RBM suggests that self-appraisal,…

  8. A Forensic and Ethics-Based View of Carter's "Racism and Psychological and Emotional Injury"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Ezra E. H.

    2007-01-01

    The psychological effect that racism has on individuals is of significant interest to mental health professionals. But it is of particular interest to those professionals who treat the clinical dimensions of the trauma to those who are involved in the assessment of the trauma for forensic purposes. Robert T. Carter provides a systematic,…

  9. A Forensic and Ethics-Based View of Carter's "Racism and Psychological and Emotional Injury"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Ezra E. H.

    2007-01-01

    The psychological effect that racism has on individuals is of significant interest to mental health professionals. But it is of particular interest to those professionals who treat the clinical dimensions of the trauma to those who are involved in the assessment of the trauma for forensic purposes. Robert T. Carter provides a systematic,…

  10. [Forensic assessments from the Netherlands Institute of Forensic Psychiatry and Psychology in retrospect; applications of genetics and neuroscience, in 2000 and 2009].

    PubMed

    Ter Harmsel, J F; Molendijk, T; van El, C G; M'charek, A; Kempes, M; Rinne, T; Pieters, T

    2016-01-01

    Developments in neurosciences and genetics are relevant for forensic psychiatry. To find out whether and how genetic and neuroscientific applications are being used in forensic psychiatric assessments, and, if they are, to estimate to what extent new applications will fit in with these uses. We analysed 60 forensic psychiatric assessments from the Netherlands Institute of Forensic Psychiatry and Psychology, Pieter Baan Center, and 30 non-clinical assessments from 2000 and 2009. We found that (behavioral) genetic, neurological and neuropsychological applications played only a modest role in forensic psychiatric assessment and they represent different phases of the implementation process. Neuropsychological assessment already occupied a position of some importance, but needed to be better integrated. Applications from neurology were still being developed. Clinical genetic assessment was being used occasionally in order to diagnose a genetic syndrome with behavioral consequences. If further validated information becomes available in the future, it should be possible to integrate new research methods more fully into current clinical practice.

  11. Transformations of self and sexuality: psychologically modified experiences in the context of forensic mental health.

    PubMed

    Brown, Steven D; Reavey, Paula; Kanyeredzi, Ava; Batty, Richard

    2014-05-01

    Forensic mental health inpatients in medium-secure settings have a limited capacity for sexual expression during their stay in hospital. This is due to a number of factors, including a lack of willingness on behalf of staff to engage with sexual issues, as a result of safety fears and ambiguity regarding the ability of the patient to consent. Furthermore, UK forensic medium-secure units do not provide conjugal suites for patients to have sexual relations, with their spouse or other patients. To date, there is no empirical research on how forensic psychiatric patients (or service users) manage their sexuality, while in hospital and when released into the community. Here, we present an analysis of semi-structured interviews with patients at a UK medium forensic unit, in order to explore these issues further. More specifically, we examine how the public exclusion of sexuality from these units results in sexuality being experienced as sectioned off or amputated, such that a new form of sexuality emerges, one that has been cultivated by the psychologically informed practices operating within the unit. This process, we argue, produces a psychologically modified experience, a new form of self-relation that continues to modify when released into the broader ecology of the community.

  12. Causality in criminal forensic and in civil disability cases: Legal and psychological comparison.

    PubMed

    Young, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    Causality (or causation) is central to every legal case, yet its underlying philosophical, legal, and psychological definitions and conceptions vary. In the criminal context, it refers to establishing the responsibility of the perpetrator of the criminal act at issue in terms of the person's mental state (mens rea), and whether the insanity defense applies. In the forensic disability and related context, it refers to whether the index event is a material or contributing cause in the multifactorial array that led to the psychological condition at issue. In both the criminal and tort contexts, the legal test is a counterfactual one. For the former, it refers to whether the outcome involved would have resulted absent the act (e.g., in cases of simultaneous criminal lethal action, which one is the but-for responsible one). For the latter, it concerns whether the claimed psychological condition would be present only because of the incident at issue. The latter event at issue is distinguished from the criminal one by its negligence compared to the voluntary intent in the criminal case. The psychological state of the perpetrator of criminal conduct can be analyzed from a biopsychosocial perspective as much as the civil one. In this regard, in the civil case, such as in forensic disability and related assessments, pre-existing, precipitating, and perpetuating factors need to be considered causally, with personal and social resilience and protective factors added, as well. In the criminal context, the same biopsychosocial model applies, but with mental competence and voluntariness added as a critical factor. The advent of neurolaw has led to use of neuroscience in court, but it risks reducing the complexity of criminal cases to unifactorial, biological models. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Tablet computers and forensic and correctional psychological assessment: A randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    King, Christopher M; Heilbrun, Kirk; Kim, Na Young; McWilliams, Kellie; Phillips, Sarah; Barbera, Jessie; Fretz, Ralph

    2017-10-01

    Mobile computing technology presents various possibilities and challenges for psychological assessment. Within forensic and correctional psychology, assessment of justice-involved persons facilitated by such technology has not been empirically examined. Accordingly, this randomized controlled experiment involved administering questionnaires about risk-needs, treatment readiness, and computerized technology opinions to a large (N = 212) and diverse sample of individuals under custodial correctional supervision using either a tablet computer or traditional paper-and-pencil materials. Results revealed that participants in the paper-and-pencil condition completed the packet of questionnaires faster but omitted items more frequently. Older participants and those with lower levels of education tended to take longer to complete the tablet-administrated measures. The tablet format was rated as more usable irrespective of demographic and personal characteristics, and most participants across the 2 conditions indicated that they would prefer to use computerized technology to complete psychological testing. Administration format did not have a clear effect on attitudes toward correctional rehabilitation services. Noteworthy for researchers is the substantial time saved and absence of practical problems with the tablet condition. Implications for practitioners include the general usability of the devices, their appeal to incarcerated persons, and the potential for tablets to facilitate clinical and administrative tasks with corrections clients. Considering the novel nature of this study, its promising results, and its limitations, future research in this area is warranted. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Assessment of the standard forensic procedure for the evaluation of psychological injury in intimate-partner violence.

    PubMed

    Fariña, Francisca; Arce, Ramón; Vilariño, Manuel; Novo, Mercedes

    2014-01-01

    In judicial terms, a victim refers to any person who has suffered injury arising from an action or omission of an action that constitutes an offence, and the burden of proof lies with the prosecution. A review of Spanish judicial judgements underscored that the lack of evidence of psychological injury in cases of intimate-partner violence (IPV) accounted for approximately 40% of acquittals. Thus, the Spanish standard of proof for the forensic evaluation of psychological injury i.e., the MMPI-2 and the unstructured interview were assessed in order to determine if they met the statutory requirement for the assessment of psychological injury and the differential diagnosis of feigning. The results of the comparison of 51 women victims of IPV with firm convictions against their aggressors, and 54 women mock victims of IPV showed that the F, K, Fb, Fp and Ds scales, and the F-K index discriminated significantly and with medium and large effect sizes, between adjudicated and mock victims. However, the results did not provide a valid decision criterion for forensic settings i.e., false negatives (identifying feigner as honest protocols) were not classified correctly. In conclusion, the standard forensic procedure for the evaluation of psychological injury in cases of IPV did not constitute valid proof for judges who acquitted defendants on the grounds of not proven due to the lack of evidence of psychological injury.

  15. The non-problem of free will in forensic psychiatry and psychology.

    PubMed

    Morse, Stephen J

    2007-01-01

    This article demonstrates that there is no free will problem in forensic psychiatry by showing that free will or its lack is not a criterion for any legal doctrine and it is not an underlying general foundation for legal responsibility doctrines and practices. There is a genuine metaphysical free will problem, but the article explains why it is not relevant to forensic practice. Forensic practitioners are urged to avoid all usage of free will in their forensic thinking and work product because it is irrelevant and spawns confusion. Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Examining the effect of childhood trauma on psychological distress, risk of violence and engagement, in forensic mental health.

    PubMed

    Macinnes, Marlene; Macpherson, Gary; Austin, Jessica; Schwannauer, Matthias

    2016-12-30

    Previous research has found an association between childhood trauma and insecure attachment and psychological distress, risk of violence and engagement in therapy. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between these factors in a forensic population. Sixty-four participants from three secure psychiatric hospitals completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), the Relationship Scales Questionnaire (RSQ) and the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation - Outcome Measure (CORE-OM). Overall scores from participants' Historical Clinical Risk Management Violence Risk Assessment Scheme, (HCR-20) were calculated. Staff evaluated participants' engagement in therapy via completion of the Service Engagement Scale (SES). This retrospective study found childhood trauma and insecure attachment significantly predicted psychological distress and risk of violence. No associations with engagement were found, but methodological reasons for this outcome were acknowledged. The importance of routinely assessing for a history of childhood trauma and insecure attachment was highlighted.

  17. The Psychological Evaluation of Patients with Chronic Pain: a Review of BHI 2 Clinical and Forensic Interpretive Considerations.

    PubMed

    Bruns, Daniel; Disorbio, John Mark

    2014-01-01

    Pain is the most common reason why patients see a physician. Within the USA, it has been estimated that at least 116 million US adults suffer from chronic pain, with an estimated annual national economic cost of $560-635 billion. While pain is in part a sensory process, like sight, touch, or smell, pain is also in part an emotional experience, like depression, anxiety, or anger. Thus, chronic pain is arguably the quintessential biopsychosocial condition. Due to the overwhelming evidence of the biopsychosocial nature of pain and the value of psychological assessments, the majority of chronic pain guidelines recommend a psychological evaluation as an integral part of the diagnostic workup. One biopsychosocial inventory designed for the assessment of patients with chronic pain is the Battery for Health Improvement 2 (BHI 2). The BHI 2 is a standardized psychometric measure, with three validity measures, 16 clinical scales, and a multidimensional assessment of pain. This article will review how the BHI 2 was developed, BHI 2 concepts, validation research, and an overview of the description and interpretation of its scales. Like all measures, the BHI 2 has strengths and weaknesses of which the forensic psychologist should be aware, and particular purposes for which it is best suited. Guided by that knowledge, the BHI 2 can play a useful role in the forensic psychologist's toolbox.

  18. Psychological interventions for women with intellectual disabilities and forensic care needs: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Hellenbach, M; Brown, M; Karatzias, T; Robinson, R

    2015-04-01

    Research evidence to date concerning offending by people with intellectual disabilities (ID) has concentrated on male perpetrators and little is known about their female counterparts. This systematic literature review examines evidence on psycho-social therapies for the female intellectually disabled population within healthcare forensic facilities. A search of health, psychology and social science databases was conducted, using a varying combination of search words to detect relevant literature for this review. Four studies published between 2001 and 2012 were identified for inclusion. Articles were organised and compared in relation to study characteristics, sample, kind of treatment, instruments used to measure treatment impact, and study findings. In total, four studies were identified that met the inclusion criteria. A range of Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT)-orientated group interventions for people with learning disabilities were evaluated and in most studies improvements were reported in relation to reducing problem behaviour. Evidence that has been generated by the studies is, however, limited in its explanatory value because of study design and related methodological issues. This review has identified a significant gap in relation to research-based therapies for women with ID and forensic care needs. In particular, more research is needed focusing on women with a dual diagnosis of ID and psychiatric disorder who present challenging or criminal behaviour. © 2014 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. "God save us from psychologists as expert witnesses": the battle for forensic psychology in early twentieth-century Germany.

    PubMed

    Wolffram, Heather

    2015-11-01

    This article is focused on the jurisdictional battle between psychiatrists and psychologists over psychological expertise in legal contexts that took place during the first decades of the 20th century. Using, as an example, the debate between the psychologist William Stern, the psychiatrist Albert Moll, and the jurist Albert Hellwig, which occurred at the International Congress for Sexual Research held in Berlin in 1926, it aims to demonstrate the manner in which psychiatrists' responses to psychologists' attempts to gain admittance to Germany's courtrooms were shaped not only by epistemological and methodological objections, but also by changes to expert witnessing that had already encroached on psychiatrists' professional territory. Building upon recent work examining the relationship between psychologists and jurists prior to the First World War, this article also seeks to examine the role of judges and lawyers in the contest over forensic psychology in the mid-1920s, arguing that they ultimately became referees in the increasingly public disputes between psychiatrists and psychologists. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Thinking forensics: Cognitive science for forensic practitioners.

    PubMed

    Edmond, Gary; Towler, Alice; Growns, Bethany; Ribeiro, Gianni; Found, Bryan; White, David; Ballantyne, Kaye; Searston, Rachel A; Thompson, Matthew B; Tangen, Jason M; Kemp, Richard I; Martire, Kristy

    2017-03-01

    Human factors and their implications for forensic science have attracted increasing levels of interest across criminal justice communities in recent years. Initial interest centred on cognitive biases, but has since expanded such that knowledge from psychology and cognitive science is slowly infiltrating forensic practices more broadly. This article highlights a series of important findings and insights of relevance to forensic practitioners. These include research on human perception, memory, context information, expertise, decision-making, communication, experience, verification, confidence, and feedback. The aim of this article is to sensitise forensic practitioners (and lawyers and judges) to a range of potentially significant issues, and encourage them to engage with research in these domains so that they may adapt procedures to improve performance, mitigate risks and reduce errors. Doing so will reduce the divide between forensic practitioners and research scientists as well as improve the value and utility of forensic science evidence.

  1. [New penal law from the point of forensic psychiatry and psychology].

    PubMed

    Gierowski, J K; Szymusik, A

    1998-01-01

    The article discusses selected psychiatric and psychological problems in the new Penal Code in Poland. The authors focussed on the issues like definition of inaccountability and highly limited accountability, the principles of determining and realizing preventive measures, problems regarding competence of experts issuing opinions on mental health state of a perpetrator as well as the necessity of detention. The presented attempt at evaluation of the new penal regulations is a selection performed in a subjective way in accord with the authors' preferences, convictions and views.

  2. Regulations governing the out-of-state practice of psychology: implications for forensic neuropsychologists.

    PubMed

    Yantz, Christine L; Bauer, Lyndsey; McCaffrey, Robert J

    2006-01-01

    Many states allow psychologists licensed in other jurisdictions to practice temporarily without obtaining a full license. However, both the restrictions of practice and the procedures required before practice is allowed vary extensively among states. This article examines the regulations of U.S. and Canadian territories governing temporary practice of nonresident psychologists. Current licensing laws were obtained from each state's respective psychological board or related Web sites from May to July 2004. Results highlighted vast regulatory and procedural differences for temporary practice among jurisdictions. Due to the degree of variability in each jurisdiction's regulations governing, caution must be taken so that psychologists comply with up-to-date guidelines before practicing outside of the regions in which they are licensed. The out-of-state psychologist must contact the appropriate state or provincial licensing board for guidelines and pertinent regulation.

  3. Forensic archaeology and anthropology : An Australian perspective.

    PubMed

    Oakley, Kate

    2005-09-01

    Forensic archaeology is an extremely powerful investigative discipline and, in combination with forensic anthropology, can provide a wealth of evidentiary information to police investigators and the forensic community. The re-emergence of forensic archaeology and anthropology within Australia relies on its diversification and cooperation with established forensic medical organizations, law enforcement forensic service divisions, and national forensic boards. This presents a unique opportunity to develop a new multidisciplinary approach to forensic archaeology/anthropology within Australia as we hold a unique set of environmental, social, and cultural conditions that diverge from overseas models and require different methodological approaches. In the current world political climate, more forensic techniques are being applied at scenes of mass disasters, genocide, and terrorism. This provides Australian forensic archaeology/anthropology with a unique opportunity to develop multidisciplinary models with contributions from psychological profiling, ballistics, sociopolitics, cultural anthropology, mortuary technicians, post-blast analysis, fire analysis, and other disciplines from the world of forensic science.

  4. Failings of trauma-specific and related psychological tests in detecting post-traumatic stress disorder in forensic settings.

    PubMed

    Kleinman, Stuart B; Martell, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Judges and juries tend to be particularly impressed by test data, especially quantitative test data. Psychometric tests specific for assessing the presence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are commonly employed by forensic mental health evaluators. Most of these instruments, however, have been designed to detect PTSD in treatment or research, and not forensic, settings. Those who rely on these measures without adequate awareness of their often significant limits in correctly identifying malingering may induce finders of fact to inordinately confidently accept the presence of PTSD. This article reviews problematic structural and content components of trauma-specific and related instruments used to evaluate PTSD and discusses the utility of specific techniques liable to be used in forensic settings to "fool" these measures.

  5. Forensic Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brettell, T. A.; Saferstein, R.

    1989-01-01

    Presents a review of articles appealing to forensic practitioners. Topics include: drugs and poisons, forensic biochemistry, and trace evidence. Lists noteworthy books published on forensic science topics since 1986. (MVL)

  6. Forensic Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brettell, T. A.; Saferstein, R.

    1989-01-01

    Presents a review of articles appealing to forensic practitioners. Topics include: drugs and poisons, forensic biochemistry, and trace evidence. Lists noteworthy books published on forensic science topics since 1986. (MVL)

  7. Forensic psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Riordan, Daniel

    2017-06-01

    This paper describes the role forensic psychotherapy has in the assessment and treatment of mentally disordered offender patients, and its role in the supervision of individual therapists, staff groups or whole organisations which contain and manage this patient population. Forensic psychotherapy has a valuable role to play in the management of mentally disordered forensic patients. As forensic services continue to develop in Australia and New Zealand and interest in this field continues to grow, then the future of forensic psychotherapy looks bright.

  8. Forensic Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, P. G. W.

    1973-01-01

    Summarizes the type of work carried out by forensic chemists and the minimum qualification needed for appointment. Indicates that there are eight Home Office regional forensic science laboratories in addition to the Central Research Establishment at Aldermaston. (CC)

  9. Forensic Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, P. G. W.

    1973-01-01

    Summarizes the type of work carried out by forensic chemists and the minimum qualification needed for appointment. Indicates that there are eight Home Office regional forensic science laboratories in addition to the Central Research Establishment at Aldermaston. (CC)

  10. Forensic odontology.

    PubMed

    Shamim, Thorakkal

    2012-04-01

    Forensic odontology is a specialized field of dentistry which analyses dental evidence in the interest of justice. Forensic odontology embraces all dental specialities and it is almost impossible to segregate this branch from other dental specialities. This review aims to discuss the utility of various dental specialities with forensic odontology.

  11. Forensic chemistry.

    PubMed

    Bell, Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    Forensic chemistry is unique among chemical sciences in that its research, practice, and presentation must meet the needs of both the scientific and the legal communities. As such, forensic chemistry research is applied and derivative by nature and design, and it emphasizes metrology (the science of measurement) and validation. Forensic chemistry has moved away from its analytical roots and is incorporating a broader spectrum of chemical sciences. Existing forensic practices are being revisited as the purview of forensic chemistry extends outward from drug analysis and toxicology into such diverse areas as combustion chemistry, materials science, and pattern evidence.

  12. Do the Low Levels of Reading Course Material Continue? An Examination in a Forensic Psychology Graduate Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clump, Michael A.; Doll, Jason

    2007-01-01

    Clump, Bauer, and Bradley (2004) and Burchfield and Sappington (2000) previously found extremely low levels of reading in undergraduate psychology courses. The current study investigated whether these low levels of reading are also found with graduate students, or if this value is altered by only investigating individuals who show continued…

  13. Do the Low Levels of Reading Course Material Continue? An Examination in a Forensic Psychology Graduate Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clump, Michael A.; Doll, Jason

    2007-01-01

    Clump, Bauer, and Bradley (2004) and Burchfield and Sappington (2000) previously found extremely low levels of reading in undergraduate psychology courses. The current study investigated whether these low levels of reading are also found with graduate students, or if this value is altered by only investigating individuals who show continued…

  14. AMEDD Forensic Psychology Short Course: Microcomputer Use in Support of Clinical Psychology in Peace and War Time Environments Held in San Antonio, Texas on 4-8 November 1985,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    MEDICAL COMPUTER APPLICATIONS, * PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS, *CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY , ARMY, ARMY PERSONNEL, CLINICAL MEDICINE, BEHAVIOR, COGNITION, COMPUTER... PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS, PSYCHOLOGY , QUALITY ASSURANCE, REHABILITATION, SECURITY, TEST AND EVALUATION, TEST METHODS, WARFARE

  15. [Forensic radiology].

    PubMed

    Stein, K M; Grünberg, K

    2009-01-01

    Forensic radiology includes both clinical and postmortem forensic radiology. Clinical forensic radiology deals with imaging of healthy people from a legal point of view, such as for determining age or to prove and document injuries in victims of crime. Postmortem forensic radiology deals with the application of modern radiological methods in order to optimise post-mortem diagnosis. X-ray examination has for decades been routinely used in postmortem diagnosis. Newer developments include the application of postmortem computer tomography and magnetic resonance imaging; these are the methods with the greatest information potential but also with the greatest deviations from diagnostics in living persons. Application of radiological methods for securing evidence in criminal procedures is still in its infancy. Radiologists' technical understanding and forensic doctors' knowledge of postmortem changes in a corpse must be synergised.

  16. FORENSIC SCIENCE:

    PubMed Central

    Brkić, Hrvoje

    2014-01-01

    Data from available literature point to an early beginning of Forensic Dentistry in Croatia relating to a post-mortem examination of a female patient after a dental procedure in the 1930s. Later on, there were several mass casualties due to collisions and airplane crashes and a railway accident at the Zagreb Main Railway Station wherein the identity of the victims was established based on dental features. Foreign experts in forensics helped identify those victims, particularly forensic dentists because this specialty was almost unknown in our region at the time. During the twenty-year period of the development of Forensic Dentistry at the University of Zagreb, the School of Dental Medicine, the city of Zagreb and Croatia have become internationally recognised on the forensic map of the world. PMID:27688352

  17. Forensic child abuse evaluation: a review.

    PubMed

    Laraque, Danielle; DeMattia, Amy; Low, Christine

    2006-12-01

    This review discusses the forensic medical and psychological assessments of children and adolescents suspected of being victims of sexual or physical abuse/neglect. Evaluation of the whole child and the need to minimize trauma during the investigative and assessment processes are stressed. The forensic medical examination is reviewed, including the specifics of the pediatric anogenital examination. The key components of the forensic medical examination in sexual assault cases are also reviewed, with particular attention to maintaining the integrity of the process. Special emphasis is placed on the forensic interview in child sexual abuse cases, the best evidence available and areas in need of further research.

  18. Forensics Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Grace

    This annotated bibliography lists and discusses 28 books on forensics, debate, argumentation, discussion, and public speaking. The books cover various topics in oral communication for secondary and college level study. (CH)

  19. Forensic Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Keith O.; Nigh, W. G.

    1973-01-01

    A course is described, which was given during an interim, with an enrollment of 41 students. The course involved an in-depth study of forensic science, involving students with the methodology of science. (DF)

  20. Forensic Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Keith O.; Nigh, W. G.

    1973-01-01

    A course is described, which was given during an interim, with an enrollment of 41 students. The course involved an in-depth study of forensic science, involving students with the methodology of science. (DF)

  1. Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackmore, Susan; Fouad, Nadya; Kagan, Jerome; Kosslyn, Stephen; Posner, Michael; Sternburg, Robert; Driscoll, Marcy; Ge, Xun; Parrish, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Scholars representing the field of psychology were asked to identify what they considered to be the most exciting and imaginative work currently being done in their field, as well as how that work might change our understanding. The scholars included Susan Blackmore, Nadya Fouad, Jerome Kagan, Stephen Kosslyn, Michael Posner, and Robert Sternberg.…

  2. Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackmore, Susan; Fouad, Nadya; Kagan, Jerome; Kosslyn, Stephen; Posner, Michael; Sternburg, Robert; Driscoll, Marcy; Ge, Xun; Parrish, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Scholars representing the field of psychology were asked to identify what they considered to be the most exciting and imaginative work currently being done in their field, as well as how that work might change our understanding. The scholars included Susan Blackmore, Nadya Fouad, Jerome Kagan, Stephen Kosslyn, Michael Posner, and Robert Sternberg.…

  3. Forensic pedology, forensic geology, forensic geoscience, geoforensics and soil forensics.

    PubMed

    Ruffell, Alastair

    2010-10-10

    We now have a confusing set of five commonly used terms for the application of Earth evidence in forensic science. This confusion is resulting in Earth scientists who use these methods mentioning different terms, sometimes for the same type of study. Likewise, forensic scientists, police/law enforcement officers and those employed by courts of law are becoming confused as to what each term means. A nomenclatural framework (based on the first use of each term) is proposed to encourage consistency in the use of terminology. Generally, the number of Earth science applications has grown through time, from soil and sediment analysis to remote sensing and GIS. The issue of where forensic biology and microbiology sits with these uses of Earth evidence is considered. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Forensic Psychiatry, A Brief Introduction.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-01-01

    RD-A151 971 FORENSIC PSYCHIATRY A BRIEF INTRODUCTION(U) NAVAL 1/1 JUSTICE SCHOOL NEWIPORT R I JAN 85 D95UNCLA-lSSIFIEDjF654 N mmmhhm7hh MENOMONEEmhh...L. Q28 125 * 13.211111 M 111 2.2_ IIJfL25 111__V MICROCOPY’ RESOLUTION TEST CHART NATIONAL HRFAII Of .TANDARO, l6’ NA FORENSIC PSYCHIATRY A BRIEF...any discernible 0 3 problems with nervous system. Many and varied. I. Psychological tests - Designed to isolate the abnormal by ccparison to others

  5. [Forensic entomology].

    PubMed

    Açikgöz, Halide Nihal

    2010-01-01

    Odour of the animal or human corpses immediately after death is very attractive for insects and other invertebrates. Blue and green bottle flies from the Calliphoridae family are the first colonizers of cadaver and immediately later necrophagous Diptera from the Sarcophagidae family settle on the same corpse. It is essential to determine the time past after death for elucidating the event in case of the homicide or suspicious death, and it is directly proportional to the post mortem interval expected time, which is based upon the speed of the larval growth. In this article, we purposed to stress the special interest of forensic entomology for the scientists who will apply this science in their forensic researches and case studies, and also to provide information to our judges, prosecutors and law enforcement agents in order to consider the entomological samples to be reliable and applicable evidences as biological stains and hairs. We are of the opinion that if any forensic entomologist is called to the crime scene or if the evidences are collected and then delivered to an entomologist, the forensic cases will be elucidated faster and more accurately.

  6. Forensic microbiology.

    PubMed

    Lehman, Donald C

    2012-01-01

    The field of forensic microbiology is fairly new and still evolving. With a threat of bioterror and biocrime, the rapid identification and subtyping of infectious agents is of upmost importance. Microbial genetic analysis is a valuable tool in this arena. The cost to sequence a microbial genome has fallen dramatically in recent years making this method more widely available. Surveillance and vigilance are important as is further research. The United States Department of Homeland Security established the Bioforensics Analysis Center to become the foremost U.S. biodefense research institution involved with bioforensics. Many countries are better prepared for biologic events than ever before, but more work is needed. Most medical laboratory scientists are not familiar with forensic principles or testifying in court. Demonstrating chain of custody and quality assurance are critical so that test results will be admissible in a court of law. The Scientific Working Group on Microbial Genetics and Forensics has published guidelines for forensic microbiology laboratories. Incorporating these guidelines help to provide test results that are useful in legal proceedings. If a laboratory scientist suspects bioterror or biocrime, or other legal case, law enforcement agents must be notified and diagnostic samples preserved. Additional sample testing might be necessary in court cases.

  7. Child murder committed by severely mentally III mothers: an examination of mothers found not guilty by reason of insanity. 2005 Honorable Mention/Richard Rosner Award for the best paper by a fellow in forensic psychiatry or forensic psychology.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Susan Hatters; Hrouda, Debra R; Holden, Carol E; Noffsinger, Stephen G; Resnick, Phillip J

    2005-11-01

    Forensic hospital records of 39 severely mentally ill mothers adjudicated Not Guilty by Reason of Insanity for filicide (child murder by parents) were analyzed to describe characteristics preceding this tragedy and to suggest prevention strategies. Almost three-quarters of the mothers (72%) had previous mental health treatment. Over two thirds (69%) of the mothers were experiencing auditory hallucinations, most frequently command hallucinations, and half (49%) were depressed at the time of the offense. Over one third (38%) of the filicides occurred during pregnancy or the postpartum period, and many had a history of postpartum psychosis. Almost three-quarters (72%) of the mothers had experienced considerable developmental stressors, such as death of their own mother or incest. Maternal motives for filicide were predominantly "altruistic" (meaning murder out of love) or "acutely psychotic" (occurring in the throes of psychosis, without rational motive). Psychiatrists should perform careful risk assessments for filicide in mothers with mental illnesses.

  8. Collaboration: The Paradigm of Practice Approach between the Forensic Psychiatrist and the Forensic Psychologist

    PubMed Central

    Gbadebo-Goyea, Ernest Ayodele; Akpudo, Hilary; Jackson, Cynthia D.; Wassef, Tamer; Barker, Narviar C.; Cunningham-Burley, Rhonda; Ali, Shahid A.; Jabeen, Shagufta; Bailey, Rahn Kennedy

    2012-01-01

    The importance and relevance of forensic practice to societal evolution has increased exponentially in recent years. As society evolves in its understanding of the complex relationships between mankind and society, we rely more and more on the services of forensic experts. This article elucidates the professions of forensic psychiatry and forensic psychology. We examine the two distinct professions from the spectrum of collaboration, integration of services, differences, and similarities. We also compare and contrast the educational background and training requirements for these two professions; and present illustrative scenarios and real life examples of the daily functions of both professionals. Lastly, we present demographic data for the areas of employment, numbers, and geographic distribution of the two professions. Forensic psychiatry is the interface between medicine and law, while forensic psychology is the interface between psychology and law. As such, these professions are mired with complexities and challenged by vulnerabilities. Professionals from both fields can serve as expert witnesses in court and therefore face similar challenges in their course of professional practice. Collaboration between these two professions has the potential to increase both the credibility and utility of forensic services to the courts, the individuals served, and the general public. PMID:23162478

  9. Collaboration: The Paradigm of Practice Approach between the Forensic Psychiatrist and the Forensic Psychologist.

    PubMed

    Gbadebo-Goyea, Ernest Ayodele; Akpudo, Hilary; Jackson, Cynthia D; Wassef, Tamer; Barker, Narviar C; Cunningham-Burley, Rhonda; Ali, Shahid A; Jabeen, Shagufta; Bailey, Rahn Kennedy

    2012-01-01

    The importance and relevance of forensic practice to societal evolution has increased exponentially in recent years. As society evolves in its understanding of the complex relationships between mankind and society, we rely more and more on the services of forensic experts. This article elucidates the professions of forensic psychiatry and forensic psychology. We examine the two distinct professions from the spectrum of collaboration, integration of services, differences, and similarities. We also compare and contrast the educational background and training requirements for these two professions; and present illustrative scenarios and real life examples of the daily functions of both professionals. Lastly, we present demographic data for the areas of employment, numbers, and geographic distribution of the two professions. Forensic psychiatry is the interface between medicine and law, while forensic psychology is the interface between psychology and law. As such, these professions are mired with complexities and challenged by vulnerabilities. Professionals from both fields can serve as expert witnesses in court and therefore face similar challenges in their course of professional practice. Collaboration between these two professions has the potential to increase both the credibility and utility of forensic services to the courts, the individuals served, and the general public.

  10. Human resources and their possible forensic meanings.

    PubMed

    Russo, Andrea; Urlić, Ivan; Kasum, Josip

    2015-09-01

    Forensics (forensic--before the Forum) means the application of knowledge from different scientific fields in order to define facts in judicial and/or administrative procedures. Nowadays forensics, besides this, finds its application even in different economic processes. For example, forensics enters the commercial areas of business intelligence and of different security areas. The European Commission recognized the importance of forensics, and underscored the importance of development of its scientific infrastructure in member States. We are witnessing the rise of various tragedies in economic and other kinds of processes. Undoubtedly, the world is increasingly exposed to various forms of threats whose occurrences regularly involve people. In this paper we are proposing the development of a new approach in the forensic assessment of the state of human resources. We are suggesting that in the focus should be the forensic approach in the psychological assessment of awareness of the individual and of the critical infrastructure sector operator (CISO) in determining the level of actual practical, rather than formal knowledge of an individual in a particular field of expertise, or in a specific scientific field, and possible forensic meanings.

  11. [Forensic anthropology].

    PubMed

    Lynnerup, Niels

    2009-09-07

    Forensic anthropology is the application of biological or physical anthropology in the service of justice. One main area is the analysis of human remains. Such analyses involve person identification by assessment of age and sex of the deceased, and comparison with ante-mortem data. Another major area is the analysis of surveillance pictures and videos. Such analyses may comprise facial and bodily morphological comparisons, multi-angle photogrammetry and gait analysis. We also perform studies of human remains for archaeologists.

  12. Forensic geomorphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruffell, Alastair; McKinley, Jennifer

    2014-02-01

    Geomorphology plays a critical role in two areas of geoforensics: searching the land for surface or buried objects and sampling scenes of crime and control locations as evidence. Associated geoscience disciplines have substantial bodies of work dedicated to their relevance in forensic investigations, yet geomorphology (specifically landforms, their mapping and evolution, soils and relationship to geology and biogeography) have not had similar public exposure. This is strange considering how fundamental to legal enquiries the location of a crime and its evolution are, as this article will demonstrate. This work aims to redress the balance by showing how geomorphology featured in one of the earliest works on forensic science methods, and has continued to play a role in the sociology, archaeology, criminalistics and geoforensics of crime. Traditional landscape interpretation from aerial photography is used to demonstrate how a geomorphological approach saved police time in the search for a clandestine grave. The application geomorphology has in military/humanitarian geography and environmental/engineering forensics is briefly discussed as these are also regularly reviewed in courts of law.

  13. Multimedia Forensics Is Not Computer Forensics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böhme, Rainer; Freiling, Felix C.; Gloe, Thomas; Kirchner, Matthias

    The recent popularity of research on topics of multimedia forensics justifies reflections on the definition of the field. This paper devises an ontology that structures forensic disciplines by their primary domain of evidence. In this sense, both multimedia forensics and computer forensics belong to the class of digital forensics, but they differ notably in the underlying observer model that defines the forensic investigator’s view on (parts of) reality, which itself is not fully cognizable. Important consequences on the reliability of probative facts emerge with regard to available counter-forensic techniques: while perfect concealment of traces is possible for computer forensics, this level of certainty cannot be expected for manipulations of sensor data. We cite concrete examples and refer to established techniques to support our arguments.

  14. The role of university-based forensic clinics.

    PubMed

    Heilbrun, Kirk; Kelley, Sharon Messenheimer; Koller, Julie Present; Giallella, Christy; Peterson, Lindsey

    2013-01-01

    As forensic psychiatry and forensic psychology have grown and matured, the range of specialized services provided by each has expanded. In addition to traditional services such as forensic mental health assessments in criminal, family, and civil contexts, forensic specialists are now involved in delivering services in the community that include (in the criminal justice context) assessment for diversion into specialized probation or problem-solving courts, rehabilitation needs upon reentry (including specialized parole), and risk assessment for particular populations such as sexual offenders. Specialized forensic treatment services include those provided to clients under the jurisdiction of problem-solving courts or parole/probation. Similar specialized assessment and treatment services may be provided for juveniles. The nature of such service needs underscores the importance of the university-based forensic clinic as one source of specialized forensic services in the community. Such clinics are based in universities, directed by supervising faculty, and offer services provided in part by forensic trainees (psychiatric residents and forensic fellows; psychology doctoral students, interns, and post-doctoral fellows). The structure and operations of such clinics are described, with different models provided. Implications for specialized training, forensic practice, and research are discussed.

  15. Specifying digital forensics: A forensics policy approach

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Carol Louise; Popovsky, Barbara; Frincke, Deborah A.

    2007-09-01

    In this paper we present an approach to digital forensics specification based on forensic policy definition. Our methodology borrows from computer security policy specification, which has accumulated a significant body of research over the past 30 years. We first define the process of specifying forensics properties through a forensics policy and then present an example application of the process. This approach lends itself to formal policy specification and verification, which would allow for more clarity and less ambiguity in the specification process

  16. Forensic entomology: a template for forensic acarology?

    PubMed

    Turner, Bryan

    2009-10-01

    Insects are used in a variety of ways in forensic science and the developing area of forensic acarology may have a similar range of potential. This short account summarises the main ways in which entomology currently contributes to forensic science and discusses to what extent acarology might also contribute in these areas.

  17. [Role of forensic medicine and forensic psychiatry in solving the problem of organized crime].

    PubMed

    Kokavec, M; Dobrotka, G

    2001-01-01

    Term--organized crime is not satisfactorily defined todate neither in forensic sciences, nor in lexical formulations. It is necessary to come to grips with the criminalistic and social pathological meaning of three terms--individual crime, grouped and organized crime as well as participation of forensic sciences including forensic medicine on solving problems of organized crime. Forensic medicine and forensic psychology can help to solve this acute problem of present development of social life. It can help in criminalistic expertize and insider activity in profiliation of perpetrators and victims. Mainly it will be about searching and improving of methodical approaches in solving of incriminated cases and its analysis for investigative organs and courts. Important asset in this problem must be also preventive portion in preclusion of criminality.

  18. [Researches in forensic biomechanics].

    PubMed

    Xu, Yan; Fan, Yubo; Yu, Xiaojun

    2004-02-01

    Forensic biomechanics is the science of proof, which applies the biomechanical theory and technology to resolve problems related to mechanics in the process of expert witness. It belongs to the realm of a new subject combining biomechanics and forensics. Forensic biomechanics is a new branch of modern biomechanics and at the same time a new important branch of forensics, and it is one of the most potential research areas in forensics of injury. In this paper, the task of forensic biomechanics expert witness, the procedure of expert witness, and the forensic biomechanics research methods and cases are reviewed.

  19. World of Forensic Laboratory Testing

    MedlinePlus

    ... services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities The World of Forensic Laboratory Testing Share this page: Was this page helpful? Overview | Forensic Pathology | Forensic Toxicology | Genetic Tests and DNA Typing | ...

  20. Forensic toxicology.

    PubMed

    Drummer, Olaf H

    2010-01-01

    Forensic toxicology has developed as a forensic science in recent years and is now widely used to assist in death investigations, in civil and criminal matters involving drug use, in drugs of abuse testing in correctional settings and custodial medicine, in road and workplace safety, in matters involving environmental pollution, as well as in sports doping. Drugs most commonly targeted include amphetamines, benzodiazepines, cannabis, cocaine and the opiates, but can be any other illicit substance or almost any over-the-counter or prescribed drug, as well as poisons available to the community. The discipline requires high level skills in analytical techniques with a solid knowledge of pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. Modern techniques rely heavily on immunoassay screening analyses and mass spectrometry (MS) for confirmatory analyses using either high-performance liquid chromatography or gas chromatography as the separation technique. Tandem MS has become more and more popular compared to single-stage MS. It is essential that analytical systems are fully validated and fit for the purpose and the assay batches are monitored with quality controls. External proficiency programs monitor both the assay and the personnel performing the work. For a laboratory to perform optimally, it is vital that the circumstances and context of the case are known and the laboratory understands the limitations of the analytical systems used, including drug stability. Drugs and poisons can change concentration postmortem due to poor or unequal quality of blood and other specimens, anaerobic metabolism and redistribution. The latter provides the largest handicap in the interpretation of postmortem results.

  1. Forensic entomology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amendt, Jens; Krettek, Roman; Zehner, Richard

    Necrophagous insects are important in the decomposition of cadavers. The close association between insects and corpses and the use of insects in medicocriminal investigations is the subject of forensic entomology. The present paper reviews the historical background of this discipline, important postmortem processes, and discusses the scientific basis underlying attempts to determine the time interval since death. Using medical techniques, such as the measurement of body temperature or analysing livor and rigor mortis, time since death can only be accurately measured for the first two or three days after death. In contrast, by calculating the age of immature insect stages feeding on a corpse and analysing the necrophagous species present, postmortem intervals from the first day to several weeks can be estimated. These entomological methods may be hampered by difficulties associated with species identification, but modern DNA techniques are contributing to the rapid and authoritative identification of necrophagous insects. Other uses of entomological data include the toxicological examination of necrophagous larvae from a corpse to identify and estimate drugs and toxicants ingested by the person when alive and the proof of possible postmortem manipulations. Forensic entomology may even help in investigations dealing with people who are alive but in need of care, by revealing information about cases of neglect.

  2. Issues in forensic voice.

    PubMed

    Hollien, Harry; Huntley Bahr, Ruth; Harnsberger, James D

    2014-03-01

    The following article provides a general review of an area that can be referred to as Forensic Voice. Its goals will be outlined and that discussion will be followed by a description of its major elements. Considered are (1) the processing and analysis of spoken utterances, (2) distorted speech, (3) enhancement of speech intelligibility (re: surveillance and other recordings), (4) transcripts, (5) authentication of recordings, (6) speaker identification, and (7) the detection of deception, intoxication, and emotions in speech. Stress in speech and the psychological stress evaluation systems (that some individuals attempt to use as lie detectors) also will be considered. Points of entry will be suggested for individuals with the kinds of backgrounds possessed by professionals already working in the voice area.

  3. Teaching forensic medicine in the University of Porto.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, Teresa; Dinis-Oliveira, Ricardo Jorge; Santos, Agostinho

    2014-07-01

    The University of Porto (UP) provides education in Forensic Medicine (FM) through the 1st, 2nd and 3rd cycle of studies, post-graduation and continuing education courses. This education is related to forensic pathology, clinical forensic medicine (including forensic psychology and psychiatry), forensic chemistry and toxicology, forensic genetics and biology, and criminalistics. With this work we intent to reflect on how we are currently teaching FM in the UP, at all levels of university graduation. We will present our models, regarding the educational objectives, curricular program and teaching/learning methodologies of each cycle of studies as well as in post-graduate and continuing education courses. Historically, and besides related administratively to the Ministry of Justice, the Portuguese Medico-Legal Institutes (since 1918) and more recently the National Institute of Legal Medicine and Forensic Sciences (INMLCF) also have educational and research responsibilities. Thus, it lends space and cooperates with academic institutions and this contribution, namely regarding teaching forensic sciences in Portugal has been judged as an example for other Countries. This contribution is so important that in UP, the Department of Legal Medicine and Forensic Sciences of the Faculty of Medicine (FMUP) shares, until now, the same physical space with North Branch of the INMLCF, which represents a notorious advantage, since it makes possible the "learning by doing". Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  4. Assessing Student Interest and Familiarity with Professional Psychology Specialty Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark-Wroblewski, Kimberly; Wiggins, Tina L.; Ryan, Joseph J.

    2006-01-01

    The present study examined undergraduate psychology students' (N = 83) self-reported interest in and familiarity with five specialty areas in professional psychology: counseling psychology, clinical psychology, school psychology, forensic psychology, and criminal profiling. Results suggest that although students are quite interested in careers…

  5. Assessing Student Interest and Familiarity with Professional Psychology Specialty Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark-Wroblewski, Kimberly; Wiggins, Tina L.; Ryan, Joseph J.

    2006-01-01

    The present study examined undergraduate psychology students' (N = 83) self-reported interest in and familiarity with five specialty areas in professional psychology: counseling psychology, clinical psychology, school psychology, forensic psychology, and criminal profiling. Results suggest that although students are quite interested in careers…

  6. Neurobehavioral assessment in forensic practice

    PubMed Central

    Woods, George W.; Freedman, David; Greenspan, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing awareness among mental health practitioners that many mental disorders previously believed to be primarily behavioral in nature, reflecting character and environment, are actually grounded in brain mal-development or brain disorder. This growing awareness, influenced by the advent of new diagnostic procedures and measures, is also found among forensic practitioners. In this paper, we describe some of the elements involved in conducting a neurobehavioral assessment of cognitive functioning, particularly in capital cases, organizing this material in terms of the professional disciplines – social work, mitigation investigation, psychological, and medical – with which these methods are mainly identified. The paper concludes with a brief discussion of how to integrate the multiple areas of expertise to create an accurate understanding of the neurobehavioral functioning and capacity of the subject. This is the basis from which civil and criminal forensic opinions must emanate. PMID:23059206

  7. Integrating Forensic Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Funkhouser, John; Deslich, Barbara J.

    2000-01-01

    Explains the implementation of forensic science in an integrated curriculum and discusses the advantages of this approach. Lists the forensic science course syllabi studied in three high schools. Discusses the unit on polymers in detail. (YDS)

  8. Integrating Forensic Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Funkhouser, John; Deslich, Barbara J.

    2000-01-01

    Explains the implementation of forensic science in an integrated curriculum and discusses the advantages of this approach. Lists the forensic science course syllabi studied in three high schools. Discusses the unit on polymers in detail. (YDS)

  9. Microbial forensics: the next forensic challenge.

    PubMed

    Budowle, Bruce; Murch, Randall; Chakraborty, Ranajit

    2005-11-01

    Pathogens and toxins can be converted to bioweapons and used to commit bioterrorism and biocrime. Because of the potential and relative ease of an attack using a bioweapon, forensic science needs to be prepared to assist in the investigation to bring perpetrators to justice and to deter future attacks. A new subfield of forensics--microbial forensics--has been created, which is focused on characterization of evidence from a bioterrorism act, biocrime, hoax, or an inadvertent release. Forensic microbiological investigations are essentially the same as any other forensic investigation regarding processing. They involve crime scene(s) investigation, chain of custody practices, evidence collection, handling and preservation, evidence shipping, analysis of evidence, interpretation of results, and court presentation. In addition to collecting and analyzing traditional forensic evidence, the forensic investigation will attempt to determine the etiology and identity of the causal agent, often in a similar fashion as in an epidemiologic investigation. However, for attribution, higher-resolution characterization is needed. The tools for attribution include genetic- and nongenetic-based assays and informatics to attempt to determine the unique source of a sample or at least eliminate some sources. In addition, chemical and physical assays may help determine the process used to prepare, store, or disseminate the bioweapon. An effective microbial forensics program will require development and/or validation of all aspects of the forensic investigative process, from sample collection to interpretation of results. Quality assurance (QA) and QC practices, comparable to those used by the forensic DNA science community, are being implemented. Lastly, partnerships with other laboratories will be requisite, because many of the necessary capabilities for analysis will not reside in the traditional forensic laboratory.

  10. Forensic nursing - Global scenario and Indian perspective.

    PubMed

    Dash, Shreemanta Kumar; Patel, Shailendra; Chavali, Krishnadutt

    2016-08-01

    Sexual violence is a significant cause of physical and psychological harm and suffering for women and children. Although sexual violence mostly affects women and girls, boys are also subject to child sexual abuse. Nurse is the person who attends the victim first. In order to meet the rigid and ever-changing demands of providing care to the victim and complying with our confusing system of laws, the nursing should has been forced to expand into a Forensic nursing, specialty of its own. Nursing roles in the criminal justice service known by many names worldwide-Custody nursing, Prison/Correctional nursing, Immigration centre nursing, Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) or Sexual Assault Forensic Examiner (SAFE), SARTs (Sexual assault response team), SARCs (Sexual assault referral centre) and FNDIs (Forensic nurse death investigator). In India the premier institutes like AIIMS New Delhi and The PGI Chandigarh, do not have forensic content in their nursing curriculum manuals. The WHO and IAFN have urged inclusion of forensic content in both undergraduate and postgraduate nursing programs. Forensic Nurse Specialist can provide direct services to individual clients, consultation services to nursing, medical and law-related agencies, as well as providing expert court testimony in areas dealing with trauma and/or questioned death investigative processes, adequacy of services delivered, and specialized diagnoses of specific medical conditions. Research Findings on the Effectiveness of Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) Programs suggests various improvements in each and every step in care of victim of sexual assault.

  11. Thematic Issue: Forensics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjamin, James B., Ed.

    1977-01-01

    The 18 essays in this journal issue provide insight into the theory, issues and practice of forensics. They consider the following topics: an agenda for forensics education; problems of forensics in the United States today; improvement of debate practice and teaching; rhetorical dimensions of argumentation; use of speeches as an instructional…

  12. [Benzodiazepines and forensic aspects].

    PubMed

    Michel, L; Lang, J-P

    2003-01-01

    Adverse effects of benzodiazepines are well known since the first one was used in 1958 (chlordiazepoxide). The literature collects study-cases or rarely controlled studies concerning side effects or paradoxical reactions to benzodiazepines. They mostly described drowsiness and behavioral disinhibition, including increased well-being feeling but also hostility, rage access with feeling of invulnerability, serious crimes and sometimes homicides. Delusional, manic, confusional or depressive states are also pointed out. Rate for aggressive behaviour is 0.3 to 0.7% but distinction should be done between accidental or "idiosyncratic" reaction and voluntary sought disinhibition, clearly more frequent. No benzodiazepine has any specificity for these adverse effects but pharmacology, doses, associated drugs (or alcohol) and psychopathology interact to produce hazardous psychic states. Pharmacology: GABA induces a decrease in serotonin compound and vigilance. Pharmacokinetic: first dose effect or over-dose effect, short half-life, lipophily, affinity, digestive absorption, active metabolites interact. Psychopathology: age, alcohol association, psychological status (high initial level of hostility, impulsivity, frustration, personality disorder and depressive status). External conditions: chronic illness, affective and professional frustrations, physical or psychic exhaustion contribute also. Some benzodiazepines (flunitrazepam, diazepam, clorazepate, triazolam, alprazolam, lorazepam, for example) are more often concerned for pharmacokinetics characteristics but also prescription habits. Forensic aspects should be considered in case of homicide. Especially, reality of benzodiazepines consumption and awareness of the potential paradoxical reaction should be precisely evaluated. Special focus on voluntary induced disinhibition has to be done for forensic considerations. Relationship but also crime facilitations are sometimes consciously sought. Some benzodiazepines have already

  13. Expanding forensic science through forensic intelligence.

    PubMed

    Ribaux, Olivier; Talbot Wright, Benjamin

    2014-12-01

    Research and Development ('R&D') in forensic science currently focuses on innovative technologies improving the efficiency of existing forensic processes, from the detection of marks and traces at the scene, to their presentation in Court. R&D approached from this perspective provides no response to doubts raised by recent criminological studies, which question the effective contribution of forensic science to crime reduction, and to policing in general. Traces (i.e. forensic case data), as remnants of criminal activity are collected and used in various forms of crime monitoring and investigation. The aforementioned doubts therefore need to be addressed by expressing how information is conveyed by traces in these processes. Modelling from this standpoint expands the scope of forensic science and provides new R&D opportunities. Twelve propositions for R&D are stated in order to pave the way.

  14. Ethical issues across different fields of forensic science.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Praveen Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Many commentators have acknowledged the fact that the usual courtroom maxim to "tell the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth" is not so easy to apply in practicality. In any given situation, what does the whole truth include? In case, the whole truth includes all the possible alternatives for a given situation, what should a forensic expert witness do when an important question is not asked by the prosecutor? Does the obligation to tell the whole truth mean that all possible, all probable, all reasonably probable, all highly probable, or only the most probable alternatives must be given in response to a question? In this paper, an attempt has been made to review the various ethical issues in different fields of forensic science, forensic psychology, and forensic DNA databases. Some of the ethical issues are common to all fields whereas some are field specific. These ethical issues are mandatory for ensuring high levels of reliability and credibility of forensic scientists.

  15. Hugo Munsterberg's Attack on the Application of Scientific Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjamin, Ludy T., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    No individual in the early history of American psychology is more identified with the promotion of applied psychology than Hugo Munsterberg, whose books and articles on applied topics such as industrial psychology, forensic psychology, psychotherapy, and educational psychology made him one of the most visible psychologists of his day. But there is…

  16. Hugo Munsterberg's Attack on the Application of Scientific Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjamin, Ludy T., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    No individual in the early history of American psychology is more identified with the promotion of applied psychology than Hugo Munsterberg, whose books and articles on applied topics such as industrial psychology, forensic psychology, psychotherapy, and educational psychology made him one of the most visible psychologists of his day. But there is…

  17. Forensic web watch--forensic podiatry.

    PubMed

    Brown, T; Rutty, G N

    2003-12-01

    A search for forensic podiatry sites on the Internet revealed thousands of 'hits', of which very few were of any educational merit. Following extensive sifting of these addresses, it was found that only a few of the associations for human identification included any information on forensic podiatry methods. The search was also made difficult by many websites failing to make the distinction between studies of footwear prints and forensic podiatry: the study of barefoot impressions. At present, the volume and quality of information on the World Wide Web does not reflect the potential importance of podiatry in forensic investigations. The need for improvement in the quality and available information this field is therefore recommended.

  18. American Academy of Forensic Sciences

    MedlinePlus

    ... Want to Be a Forensic Scientist! Read More Forensic Science Education Programs Accreditation Commission (FEPAC) Read More ‹ › The American Academy of Forensic Sciences is a multi-disciplinary professional organization that provides ...

  19. Parallel digital forensics infrastructure.

    SciTech Connect

    Liebrock, Lorie M.; Duggan, David Patrick

    2009-10-01

    This report documents the architecture and implementation of a Parallel Digital Forensics infrastructure. This infrastructure is necessary for supporting the design, implementation, and testing of new classes of parallel digital forensics tools. Digital Forensics has become extremely difficult with data sets of one terabyte and larger. The only way to overcome the processing time of these large sets is to identify and develop new parallel algorithms for performing the analysis. To support algorithm research, a flexible base infrastructure is required. A candidate architecture for this base infrastructure was designed, instantiated, and tested by this project, in collaboration with New Mexico Tech. Previous infrastructures were not designed and built specifically for the development and testing of parallel algorithms. With the size of forensics data sets only expected to increase significantly, this type of infrastructure support is necessary for continued research in parallel digital forensics. This report documents the implementation of the parallel digital forensics (PDF) infrastructure architecture and implementation.

  20. PCR in forensic genetics.

    PubMed

    Morling, Niels

    2009-04-01

    Since the introduction in the mid-1980s of analyses of minisatellites for DNA analyses, a revolution has taken place in forensic genetics. The subsequent invention of the PCR made it possible to develop forensic genetics tools that allow both very informative routine investigations and still more and more advanced, special investigations in cases concerning crime, paternity, relationship, disaster victim identification etc. The present review gives an update on the use of DNA investigations in forensic genetics.

  1. Forensic odontology: an overview.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Duane E

    2014-06-01

    This article is an overview of the field of forensic odontology, highlighting historical cases, with an emphasis on California cases, and briefly discussing some of the current techniques and issues in the field. As with all fields of dentistry, forensic odontology is adapting to new methodologies, changes in techniques, research findings and legal issues. Today's dentist who works in the forensic arena must face and understand these changes and advancements.

  2. A status report on the practice of forensic neuropsychology.

    PubMed

    Heilbronner, Robert L

    2004-05-01

    The practice of forensic neuropsychology has experienced tremendous growth over the past two decades, becoming perhaps the most rapidly expanding area of practice within the field of clinical neuropsychology. Indeed, there have been many important advancements in the field that have helped to position neuropsychologists as instrumental participants within the forensic arena. Yet, there is currently no consensus in our field regarding what constitutes competency in forensic neuropsychology and also no specific guidelines or standards of practice to inform neuropsychologists about how to operate in the forensic arena. There are even fewer safeguards to protect the public from questionable methods of practice. This article provides a status report on the practice of forensic neuropsychology. It employs a framework emphasized by Otto and Heilbrun (2002) in their assessment of the field of forensic psychology. Emphasis is directed toward identifying recent advances in the field and documenting some of the inherent flaws and weaknesses in forensic practice to help advance the practice of forensic neuropsychology toward a more established specialty area.

  3. Forensic Science Technician

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tech Directions, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Forensic science technicians, also called crime laboratory technicians or police science technicians, help solve crimes. They examine and identify physical evidence to reconstruct a crime scene. This article discusses everything students need to know about careers for forensic science technicians--wages, responsibilities, skills needed, career…

  4. Forensic video image analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Thomas R.

    1997-02-01

    Forensic video image analysis is a new scientific tool for perpetrator enhancement and identification in poorly recorded crime scene situations. Forensic video image analysis is emerging technology for law enforcement, industrial security and surveillance addressing the following problems often found in these poor quality video recorded incidences.

  5. Forensic Science Technician

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tech Directions, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Forensic science technicians, also called crime laboratory technicians or police science technicians, help solve crimes. They examine and identify physical evidence to reconstruct a crime scene. This article discusses everything students need to know about careers for forensic science technicians--wages, responsibilities, skills needed, career…

  6. Soil Microbial Forensics.

    PubMed

    Santiago-Rodriguez, Tasha M; Cano, Raúl J

    2016-08-01

    Soil microbial forensics can be defined as the study of how microorganisms can be applied to forensic investigations. The field of soil microbial forensics is of increasing interest and applies techniques commonly used in diverse disciplines in order to identify microbes and determine their abundances, complexities, and interactions with soil and surrounding objects. Emerging new techniques are also providing insights into the complexity of microbes in soil. Soil may harbor unique microbes that may reflect specific physical and chemical characteristics indicating site specificity. While applications of some of these techniques in the field of soil microbial forensics are still in early stages, we are still gaining insight into how microorganisms may be more robustly used in forensic investigations.

  7. Forensic psychiatry in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Tariq; Nizami, Asad Tamizuddin; Hirji, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews existing forensic psychiatric services in Pakistan highlighting the role played by the judicial and the medical fraternity in managing the legal and forensic issues of the population of patients with mental illnesses. Until 2001, all legal and forensic issues were dealt with the mental health legislation of 1912, the Lunacy Act of 1912. This was inherited from the British rulers in the Sub-Continent at the time. The Mental Health Ordinance of 2001 could not sustain following the 18th constitutional amendment in 2010, whereby psychiatric healthcare was devolved to the provinces from the previous federal authority. The article also highlights the difficulties and the barriers in implementation of the forensic psychiatric services in Pakistan at various levels within the healthcare system. This article also delves into the current framework of training in forensic psychiatry for postgraduates as well as the assessments and management schedules for the mentally ill offenders at tertiary care institutions in Pakistan.

  8. [The concept of "forensic medicine"].

    PubMed

    Popov, V L

    2013-01-01

    The analysis of the definition of forensic medicine and its evolution during the past 300 years is presented. The special character of forensic medicine, its subject-matter, scope of research, procedures, goals and targeted application of forensic medical knowledge are discussed. The original definition of the notion of "forensic medicine" is proposed.

  9. Forensic Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, William D.; Jackson, Glen P.

    2015-07-01

    Developments in forensic mass spectrometry tend to follow, rather than lead, the developments in other disciplines. Examples of techniques having forensic potential born independently of forensic applications include ambient ionization, imaging mass spectrometry, isotope ratio mass spectrometry, portable mass spectrometers, and hyphenated chromatography-mass spectrometry instruments, to name a few. Forensic science has the potential to benefit enormously from developments that are funded by other means, if only the infrastructure and personnel existed to adopt, validate, and implement the new technologies into casework. Perhaps one unique area in which forensic science is at the cutting edge is in the area of chemometrics and the determination of likelihood ratios for the evaluation of the weight of evidence. Such statistical techniques have been developed most extensively for ignitable-liquid residue analyses and isotope ratio analysis. This review attempts to capture the trends, motivating forces, and likely impact of developing areas of forensic mass spectrometry, with the caveat that none of this research is likely to have any real impact in the forensic community unless: (a) The instruments developed are turned into robust black boxes with red and green lights for positives and negatives, respectively, or (b) there are PhD graduates in the workforce who can help adopt these sophisticated techniques.

  10. The forensic psychiatric report.

    PubMed

    Norko, Michael A; Buchanan, Mar Alec

    2015-01-01

    The construction of a written forensic report is a core component of forensic practice, demonstrating the evaluator's skill in conducting the evaluation and in communicating relevant information to the legal audience in an effective manner. Although communication skills and quality of written documentation are important in clinical psychiatry generally, they form the sine qua non of successful forensic work, which consists in telling complex stories in a coherent and compelling fashion. High quality forensic reports require careful preparation from the earliest stages of work on a case. They generally follow an expected structure, which permits the evaluator to provide all the data necessary to form a carefully reasoned opinion that addresses the legal questions posed. Formats and content of reports vary according to the type of case and the circumstances of the evaluation and so require flexibility within customary frameworks. The style and quality of writing are critical to the crafting of forensic reports. The effects on legal decision-makers of various approaches to the presentation of information in reports has not been studied empirically, but guidance from experienced forensic psychiatrists is available. There is a small body of research on quality improvement in forensic writing, and further empiric study is warranted.

  11. Forensic Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, William D; Jackson, Glen P

    2015-01-01

    Developments in forensic mass spectrometry tend to follow, rather than lead, the developments in other disciplines. Examples of techniques having forensic potential born independently of forensic applications include ambient ionization, imaging mass spectrometry, isotope ratio mass spectrometry, portable mass spectrometers, and hyphenated chromatography-mass spectrometry instruments, to name a few. Forensic science has the potential to benefit enormously from developments that are funded by other means, if only the infrastructure and personnel existed to adopt, validate, and implement the new technologies into casework. Perhaps one unique area in which forensic science is at the cutting edge is in the area of chemometrics and the determination of likelihood ratios for the evaluation of the weight of evidence. Such statistical techniques have been developed most extensively for ignitable-liquid residue analyses and isotope ratio analysis. This review attempts to capture the trends, motivating forces, and likely impact of developing areas of forensic mass spectrometry, with the caveat that none of this research is likely to have any real impact in the forensic community unless: (a) The instruments developed are turned into robust black boxes with red and green lights for positives and negatives, respectively, or (b) there are PhD graduates in the workforce who can help adopt these sophisticated techniques.

  12. Forensic DNA testing.

    PubMed

    Butler, John M

    2011-12-01

    Forensic DNA testing has a number of applications, including parentage testing, identifying human remains from natural or man-made disasters or terrorist attacks, and solving crimes. This article provides background information followed by an overview of the process of forensic DNA testing, including sample collection, DNA extraction, PCR amplification, short tandem repeat (STR) allele separation and sizing, typing and profile interpretation, statistical analysis, and quality assurance. The article concludes with discussions of possible problems with the data and other forensic DNA testing techniques.

  13. The imported forensic expert

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, C.P.

    1980-09-01

    A review of the experiences of one of the pioneer forensic pathologists in the United States offers an interesting insight into the possibilities of private forensic pathology in America. The author's experience includes serving as President of the National Boxing Association and the International Boxing Association, during which time he made many improvements in ring safety. His research into several areas of cases of product liability offer an insight to the wide scope of the potential of the forensic expert. This presentation reviews his activities in realms widely afield from medicine.

  14. The imported forensic expert.

    PubMed

    Larson, C P

    1980-09-01

    A review of the experiences of one of the pioneer forensic pathologists in the United States offers an interesting insight into the possibilities of private forensic pathology in America. The author's experience includes serving as President of the National Boxing Association and the International Boxing Association, during which time he made many improvements in ring safety. His research into several areas of cases of product liability offer an insight to the wide scope of the potential of the forensic expert. This presentation reviews his activities in realms widely afield from medicine.

  15. Expansion of Microbial Forensics

    PubMed Central

    Schmedes, Sarah E.; Sajantila, Antti

    2016-01-01

    Microbial forensics has been defined as the discipline of applying scientific methods to the analysis of evidence related to bioterrorism, biocrimes, hoaxes, or the accidental release of a biological agent or toxin for attribution purposes. Over the past 15 years, technology, particularly massively parallel sequencing, and bioinformatics advances now allow the characterization of microorganisms for a variety of human forensic applications, such as human identification, body fluid characterization, postmortem interval estimation, and biocrimes involving tracking of infectious agents. Thus, microbial forensics should be more broadly described as the discipline of applying scientific methods to the analysis of microbial evidence in criminal and civil cases for investigative purposes. PMID:26912746

  16. Forensic odontology, historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Sansare, K

    1995-01-01

    According to the old testament Adam was convinced by eve to put a "Bite Mark" on the apple. Interest in Forensic Odontology was heightened in the latter part of 19th Century. The first formal instructional programme was given at the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, U.S. Since then the number of cases reported has played a significant role in expanding the role of Forensic Odontology. The earliest reported case was of Lollia Paulina in the year 49 A. D. One of the early reported case is also found in India in the year 1193. In the last few decades, the basic pattern of Forensic Odontology has changed quite a lot. Advances in dental material and laboratory techniques, with improvements in scientific and photographic technology, have made the proof of presentation much to forensic science.

  17. Forensic Science: Hair Identification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Elhannan L.

    1980-01-01

    Presented is an activity in which students use a microscope to do a forensic hair comparative study and a medullary classification. Mounting methods, medulla types, hair photographs, and activities are described. (DS)

  18. Physics and forensics

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkinson, T.J.; Perry, D.L.; Martin, M.C.; McKinney, W.R.

    2001-12-15

    This popular article in Physics World reviews the application of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectromicroscopy to Forensics, and predicts further applications due to the high inherent signal to noise available for FTIR microscopy at synchrotron sources.

  19. Forensic Science: Hair Identification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Elhannan L.

    1980-01-01

    Presented is an activity in which students use a microscope to do a forensic hair comparative study and a medullary classification. Mounting methods, medulla types, hair photographs, and activities are described. (DS)

  20. Professionalism in Computer Forensics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irons, Alastair D.; Konstadopoulou, Anastasia

    The paper seeks to address the need to consider issues regarding professionalism in computer forensics in order to allow the discipline to develop and to ensure the credibility of the discipline from the differing perspectives of practitioners, the criminal justice system and in the eyes of the public. There is a need to examine and develop professionalism in computer forensics in order to promote the discipline and maintain the credibility of the discipline.

  1. Atypical Forensic Dental Identifications.

    PubMed

    Cardoza, Anthony R; Wood, James D

    2015-06-01

    Forensic dental identification specialists are typically the last conventional option for postmortem identification. Forensic dental identification is most often accomplished by comparing radiographs of the decedent's teeth with the dental radiographs obtained from the dentist of the suspected victim. Unfortunately, antemortem dental radiographs are not always available. When presented with this challenge, the authors of this article have been successful in completing identifications using means other than dental radiographic comparison.

  2. [Forensic medicine and criminalistics].

    PubMed

    Schwerd, W

    1989-01-01

    The supplementary designation "criminalistics" in the title of certain forensic medical institutes in the first half of this century is to be regarded as a reaction to faulty developments in our specialty, which almost led to the elimination of forensic medicine as an independent scientific discipline in the 1960s. The ability to think in terms of criminalistics and the corresponding working procedures has always been a crucial precondition for the forensic physician, since forensic medicine is the application of medical knowledge for juridical purposes. Forensic medicine originated with the appraisal of cases of violent death by doctors, i.e., reconstruction of the facts in the case. To use the term "criminalistics" in the form of a supplementary designation is thus not required. An attempt is nevertheless made to define "medical criminalistics" as a small but important component of criminalistics. They are subdivided into two phases: the first part begins at the scene of the crime or the place of discovery (local evidence). Here, the trained eye of the forensic physician is indispensable to the criminal investigation department and the prosecutor. Medical criminalistic thinking and working procedures continue at the autopsy. Here, forensic autopsy differs from that practiced by the pathologist. Without knowledge of the situation at the discovery location, the forensic physician runs the risk of not recognizing facts that are important for reconstruction and thus becoming a "destroyer of clues". The second part of medical criminalistics is the actual detection of medical clues, i.e., the investigation of medical clues with special methods, including histological and toxicological investigations.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. A psychosocial approach in humanitarian forensic action: The Latin American perspective.

    PubMed

    Hofmeister, Ute; Navarro, Susana

    2017-09-01

    Forensic humanitarian action is aimed at alleviating suffering and maintaining human dignity, with the victims and their families at the core. International recommendations emphasize the importance of psychological support and psychosocial work as an integral part of forensic investigations into missing persons. Psychosocial action does not simply refer to emotional support but is based on the idea of the individual being the holder of rights, encouraging decision taking, affirming actions, and elaborating personal and collective histories. In this framework, forensics and psychosocial sciences need to work in complementary and coordinated interaction for the benefit of the families and communities. For forensic investigations to be restorative - their ultimate humanitarian objective - there are certain additional conditions apart from those of scientific quality and ethics: respect, information and coordination are among the main pillars for forensic action with a psychosocial approach, taking into account the need to treat on an individual and collective level the continuous psychological affectations caused by the disappearance of a loved one. On this basis, psychological and psychosocial accompaniment of the victims can contribute to the victims' healing process and also improve the forensic investigations themselves. This article, which is based on the experience of two decades of practical forensic and psychosocial work in the field, explains the main psychological effects of disappearances and the resulting needs. It gives a short historical overview of the origins and developments in psychosocial support and a perspective in relation to the search for missing persons and forensic interventions in Latin America. It goes on to demonstrate how coordinated interaction among the forensic and psychosocial fields strengthens both of them to the benefit of the affected families, groups and communities. Finally, it takes up some of the international recommendations

  4. Internet and forensic science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamakura, Reddy P.

    1997-02-01

    The Internet is a very powerful and inexpensive tool that was created for the free distribution of knowledge and information. The Internet is a learning tool, a research tool, a virtual library without borders and membership requirements, a journal with instant publication, a help desk, and a newspaper/journal with current information. Very soon, when live audio and video transmission is perfected, the Internet also will be a live classroom and everyday conference. Forensic scientists, laboratories and colleges should make use of information already available on the Internet. They also should actively participate and contribute. Very few forensic scientists and laboratories have made their presence felt by setting up their home pages/web pages. But, there is tremendous growth during the past year. Immense benefits from Internet to forensic community are discussed along with the author's personal experience. Creating on-line searchable data bases in all specialties of forensic science is an urgent need. Leading forensic journals should take a lead and create on-line searchable indexes with abstracts. On line electronic publishing, collaborative research/paper publishing or editing is easy, fast, economical and convenient through the use of the Internet. Creation of Internet repositories of unpublished papers is an idea worth looking into. Internet also can be used to give training, re-training or advanced training to students/forensic scientists.

  5. Forensic mental health assessment in France: recommendations for quality improvement.

    PubMed

    Combalbert, Nicolas; Andronikof, Anne; Armand, Marine; Robin, Cécile; Bazex, Hélène

    2014-01-01

    The quality of forensic mental health assessment has been a growing concern in various countries on both sides of the Atlantic, but the legal systems are not always comparable and some aspects of forensic assessment are specific to a given country. This paper describes the legal context of forensic psychological assessment in France (i.e. pre-trial investigation phase entrusted to a judge, with mental health assessment performed by preselected professionals called "experts" in French), its advantages and its pitfalls. Forensic psychiatric or psychological assessment is often an essential and decisive element in criminal cases, but since a judiciary scandal which was made public in 2005 (the Outreau case) there has been increasing criticism from the public and the legal profession regarding the reliability of clinical conclusions. Several academic studies and a parliamentary report have highlighted various faulty aspects in both the judiciary process and the mental health assessments. The heterogeneity of expert practices in France appears to be mainly related to a lack of consensus on several core notions such as mental health diagnosis or assessment methods, poor working conditions, lack of specialized training, and insufficient familiarity with the Code of Ethics. In this article we describe and analyze the French practice of forensic psychologists and psychiatrists in criminal cases and propose steps that could be taken to improve its quality, such as setting up specialized training courses, enforcing the Code of Ethics for psychologists, and calling for consensus on diagnostic and assessment methods.

  6. Digital Forensics in the Cloud

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    Birmingham Abstract. Today’s cloud computing architectures often lack support for computer forensic investigations. Besides this, the existing digital... forensics tools cannot cope with the dynamic nature of the cloud. This paper explores the challenges of digital forensics in the cloud, possible...attacks on cloud-evidence, and mitigation strategies against those challenges. Digital Forensics in the Cloud To identify the actual attacker in the

  7. Forensic psychiatry in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Chan, Lai Gwen; Tomita, Todd

    2013-12-01

    Singapore is a geographically small nation-state that has transformed itself from a third-world country to a developed nation after attaining political independence 46 years ago. The pace of change has been tremendous and mental health care is no exception. This paper provides an overview of mental health care and a review of key mental health legislation, including a National Mental Health Blueprint that was rolled out in 2007. On this background, the paper focuses on a description of forensic psychiatric services in Singapore. The role of the Department of Forensic Psychiatry at the Institute of Mental Health, which is the only forensic psychiatry department in the country, will be highlighted. Civil commitment and the treatment of unfit accused persons and insanity acquittees is reviewed. The role of forensic psychiatric assessments in the Singapore courts is examined. The application of the insanity and diminished responsibility defenses are reviewed. A trend is identified in the Singapore courts towards a more rehabilitation-focused sentencing approach and the role that forensic psychiatric assessments play in cases involving mentally disordered offenders is highlighted. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  8. Eponyms in forensic pathology.

    PubMed

    Nečas, Pavel; Hejna, Petr

    2012-12-01

    The phenomenon of eponymous terms in forensic pathology is described in this paper. The authors analyzed representative textbooks (monographs) dealing with forensic pathology in both English and German and identified several eponymous terms. The paper aims to present to the reader the most important eponymous terms in forensic pathology. Included in the paper are the following terms: Beckwith's Sign, Casper's Rule, Krönlein's Shot, Lichtenberg's Figures, Nysten's Law, Paltauf's Spots, Puppe's Rule, Sehrt's Sign, Simon's Sign, Sveshnikov's Sign, Tardieu's Spots, Wischnewski Spots, Wydler's Sign. The spread of eponymous terms throughout various languages is mentioned. The linguistic basis of such terms as well as their advantages and disadvantages in specialist fields, and indeed in even wider circles, is discussed. The authors state that the main function of these terms is to facilitate the open flow of unambiguous information among scholars. Eponymous terms in forensic pathology are characteristic for the German speaking countries and for all countries influenced by the German school of forensic pathology. Their usage in the Anglo-Saxon world is much less widespread, meaning they do not occur very often in English monographs and textbooks.

  9. Forensics on a Shoestring Budget

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greco, Joseph A.

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, forensic science has gained popularity thanks in part to high-profile court cases and television programs. Although the cost of forensic equipment and supplies may initially seem too expensive for the typical high school classroom, the author developed an activity that incorporates forensics into her 10th-grade biology curriculum…

  10. Forensics on a Shoestring Budget

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greco, Joseph A.

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, forensic science has gained popularity thanks in part to high-profile court cases and television programs. Although the cost of forensic equipment and supplies may initially seem too expensive for the typical high school classroom, the author developed an activity that incorporates forensics into her 10th-grade biology curriculum…

  11. Forensic applications of DNA profiling.

    PubMed

    Chow, S T; Ng, T L; Chao, T C

    1996-01-01

    Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) profiling is a powerful forensic tool to identify and individualise biological evidence recovered at crime scenes. Its discriminating power and evidential value are exemplified by many actual forensic cases. Development of new DNA typing techniques, such as the amplification of fluorescently tagged short tandem repeats, would further enhance this capability in forensic investigation.

  12. Forensic geology exhumed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Joseph Didier

    Forensic geology binds applied geology to the world of legal controversy and action. However, the term “forensic” is often misconstrued. Although even some attorneys apply it only to the marshalling of evidence in criminal cases, it has a much broader definition. One dictionary defines it as “pertaining to, connected with, or used in courts of law or public discussion and debate.” The American Geological Institute's Glossary of Geology defines forensic geology as “the application of the Earth sciences to the law.” The cited reference to Murray and Tedrow [1975], however, deals mostly if not exclusively with the gathering and use of evidence in criminal cases, despite the widespread involvement of geologists in more general legal matters. It seems appropriate to “exhume” geology's wider application to the law, which is encompassed by forensic geology.

  13. Expansion of Microbial Forensics.

    PubMed

    Schmedes, Sarah E; Sajantila, Antti; Budowle, Bruce

    2016-08-01

    Microbial forensics has been defined as the discipline of applying scientific methods to the analysis of evidence related to bioterrorism, biocrimes, hoaxes, or the accidental release of a biological agent or toxin for attribution purposes. Over the past 15 years, technology, particularly massively parallel sequencing, and bioinformatics advances now allow the characterization of microorganisms for a variety of human forensic applications, such as human identification, body fluid characterization, postmortem interval estimation, and biocrimes involving tracking of infectious agents. Thus, microbial forensics should be more broadly described as the discipline of applying scientific methods to the analysis of microbial evidence in criminal and civil cases for investigative purposes. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  14. Geoethics and Forensic Geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnelly, Laurance

    2017-04-01

    The International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS), Initiative on Forensic Geology (IFG) was set up in 2011 to promote and develop the applications of geology to policing and law enforcement throughout the world. This includes the provision of crime scene examinations, searches to locate graves or items of interest that have been buried beneath the ground surface as part of a criminal act and geological trace analysis and evidence. Forensic geologists may assist the police and law enforcement in a range of ways including for example; homicide, sexual assaults, counter terrorism, kidnapping, humanitarian incidents, environmental crimes, precious minerals theft, fakes and fraudulent crimes. The objective of this paper is to consider the geoethical aspects of forensic geology. This includes both delivery to research and teaching, and contribution to the practical applications of forensic geology in case work. The case examples cited are based on the personal experiences of the authors. Often, the technical and scientific aspect of forensic geology investigation may be the most straightforward, after all, this is what the forensic geologist has been trained to do. The associated geoethical issues can be the most challenging and complex to manage. Generally, forensic geologists are driven to carry-out their research or case work with integrity, honesty and in a manner that is law abiding, professional, socially acceptable and highly responsible. This is necessary in advising law enforcement organisations, society and the scientific community that they represent. As the science of forensic geology begins to advance around the world it is desirable to establish a standard set of principles, values and to provide an agreed ethical a framework. But what are these core values? Who is responsible for producing these? How may these become enforced? What happens when geoethical standards are breached? This paper does not attempt to provide all of the answers, as further work

  15. Research in forensic odontology.

    PubMed Central

    Whittaker, D. K.

    1982-01-01

    Forensic odontology has established itself as an important and often indispensable science in medicolegal matters and in particular in identification of the dead. Much of its expertise is drawn from clinical experience based on basic research and advances in knowledge in dentistry in general. There has also been, particularly during the past two decades, an increasing body of research in specifically forensic dental matters and these studies form the subject of this review. Progress in this field, as in others, will depend upon development of training pathways and research facilities in our dental schools. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 PMID:7044254

  16. Forensic analysis of uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Stoyer, N.J.; Moody, K.J.

    1996-10-01

    As more and more offers for illicit {open_quotes}Black Market{close_quotes} radioactive materials are found, the forensic information contained within the radioactive material itself becomes more important. Many {open_quotes}Black Market{close_quotes} offers are for uranium in various forms and enrichments. Although most are scams, some countries have actually interdicted enriched uranium. We will discuss the forensic information that can be obtained from materials containing uranium along with examples of data that has been determined from analysis of uranium samples obtained from legitimate sources.

  17. Forensic Science Center

    SciTech Connect

    Andresen, B.; Grant, P.M.

    1994-03-01

    Since 1991, the Laboratory's Forensic Science Center has focused a comprehensive range of analytical expertise on issues related to non proliferation, counterterrorism, and domestic law enforcement. During this short period, LLNL's singular combination of human and technological resources has made the Center among the best of its kind in the world. The Forensic Science Center houses a variety of state-of-the-art analytical tools ranging from gas chromatograph/mass spectrometers to ultratrace DNA detection techniques. The Center's multidisciplinary staff provides expertise in organic and inorganic analytical chemistry, nuclear science, biochemistry, and genetics useful for supporting law enforcement and for verifying compliance with international treaties and agreements.

  18. Complexity and forensic pathology.

    PubMed

    Jones, Richard Martin

    2015-12-01

    It has become increasingly apparent that nonlinearity and complexity are the norm in human physiological systems, the relevance of which is informing an enhanced understanding of basic pathological processes such as inflammation, the host response to severe trauma, and critical illness. This article will explore how an understanding of nonlinear systems and complexity might inform the study of the pathophysiology of deaths of medicolegal interest, and how 'complexity thinking' might usefully be incorporated into modern forensic medicine and forensic pathology research, education and practice.

  19. Exploring Trends in Forensic Odontology

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Narendra Nath; Ain, Tasneem S.; Sultan, Saima

    2014-01-01

    Background: Forensic odontology nowadays has become a developing science and is of great importance to society. It is important that dental practitioners should have a proper knowledge of forensics as the need has increased greatly over the last decades due to the unprecedented demand from the criminal justice including terrorism in Kashmir valley (J&K India). Materials and Methods: Data was collected based on questionnaire survey among qualified dental practitioners related to their awareness of forensic odontology. Results: A total number of 235 dental practitioners responded to the questionnaire. Results showed that there was a low confidence, in handling of forensic odontology related cases among dental practitioners and majority of dental practitioners were not having any formal training in forensic odontology. Conclusion: Each dental practitioner has a responsibility to understand the forensic implications associated with the practice of his profession and thus he should work sincerely enough so to ensure his contribution in the field of forensic odontology. PMID:25654026

  20. Exploring trends in forensic odontology.

    PubMed

    Singh, Narendra Nath; Gowhar, Owais; Ain, Tasneem S; Sultan, Saima

    2014-12-01

    Forensic odontology nowadays has become a developing science and is of great importance to society. It is important that dental practitioners should have a proper knowledge of forensics as the need has increased greatly over the last decades due to the unprecedented demand from the criminal justice including terrorism in Kashmir valley (J&K India). Data was collected based on questionnaire survey among qualified dental practitioners related to their awareness of forensic odontology. A total number of 235 dental practitioners responded to the questionnaire. RESULTS showed that there was a low confidence, in handling of forensic odontology related cases among dental practitioners and majority of dental practitioners were not having any formal training in forensic odontology. Each dental practitioner has a responsibility to understand the forensic implications associated with the practice of his profession and thus he should work sincerely enough so to ensure his contribution in the field of forensic odontology.

  1. Forensic Applications of LIBS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hark, Richard R.; East, Lucille J.

    Forensic science is broadly defined as the application of science to matters of the law. Practitioners typically use multidisciplinary scientific techniques for the analysis of physical evidence in an attempt to establish or exclude an association between a suspect and the scene of a crime.

  2. Forensic medicine in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Islam, Muhammad Nurul; Islam, Mohammed Nasimul

    2003-03-01

    In this paper, we discuss the current medico-legal practice and future plan to improve the medico-legal service of Bangladesh which is rooted in the remnants of British medical jurisprudence. It includes clinical forensic medicine and forensic pathology. In Bangladesh all unnatural deaths are to be reported at the nearest police station and an appointed police officer should visit the scene of crime for investigation and to arrange postmortem if required. The forensic services of the country are delivered partly by academic staffs of Government Medical Colleges and the rest by the Civil Surgeons. Sometimes, residential medical officers in the district hospitals perform the medico-legal work. Most of them have no forensic qualifications except a long exposure in the medico-legal field. Currently academic and professional postgraduate courses are available. The chemical examiner's laboratory is situated at Dhaka with the facility of quantitative tests only. The Government of Bangladesh is trying to standardize the existing system. A Workshop on medico-legal services has been organized regularly by The Medico-legal Society of Bangladesh. A DNA profiling laboratory at the Dhaka Medical College is in the process of being set up. Such progress will be a milestone in the development of the medico-legal service in Bangladesh. However, with a few exceptions, teaching and training facilities are still lacking.

  3. Forensic radiology in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Manigandan, T; Sumathy, C; Elumalai, M; Sathasivasubramanian, S; Kannan, A

    2015-04-01

    Radiography can play an important part in forensic odontology, mainly to establish identification. This may take the precise form of comparison between antemortem and postmortem radiographs. Radiographs may also be taken to determine the age of a minor victim and even help in the assessment of the sex and ethnic group. Comparable radiographs are an essential factor to confirm identification in a mass disaster.

  4. Forensic entomology in Germany.

    PubMed

    Amendt, J; Krettek, R; Niess, C; Zehner, R; Bratzke, H

    2000-09-11

    Forensic entomology (FE) is increasingly gaining international recognition. In Germany, however, the development of FE has been stagnating, mainly because of the lack of cooperation between police, forensic medicine and entomology. In 1997 a co-operative research project 'Forensic Entomology' was started in Frankfurt/Main at the Center of Legal Medicine and the Research Institute Senckenberg. The aim of this project is to establish FE in Germany as a firmly integrated component of the securing of evidence from human cadavers in cases of suspected homicide. For this purpose we developed a forensic insect collecting kit, and policemen are educated for greater acceptance and better application of FE. The scientific programme focuses on the investigation of the insect succession on cadavers in urban and rural habitats. This also includes new indicator groups (e.g. parasitic wasps) for a more precise calculation of the late post mortem interval. Recently a DNA-based reliable and fast identification method especially for the immature stages of necrophagous insects became part of the project. Preliminary results are reported and two case studies presented.

  5. Forensics and Speech Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBath, James H.

    1975-01-01

    Focuses on the importance of integrating forensics programs into the speech communication curriculum. Maintains that debating and argumentation skills increase the probability of academic success. Published by the Association for Communication Administration Bulletin, Staff Coordinator, ACA 5205 Leesburg Pike, Falls Church, VA 22041, $25.00 annual…

  6. Forensic learning disability nursing skills and competencies: a study of forensic and non-forensic nurses.

    PubMed

    Mason, Tom; Phipps, Dianne

    2010-11-01

    This paper reports on an investigation into the skills and competencies of forensic learning disability nurses in the United Kingdom. The two sample populations were forensic learning disability nurses from the high, medium, and low secure psychiatric services and non-forensic learning disability nurses from generic services. An information gathering schedule was used to collect the data; of 1200 schedules, 643 were returned for a response rate of 53.5%. The data identified the "top ten" problems that forensic learning disability nurses may encounter, the skills and competencies necessary to overcome them, and the areas that need to be developed in the future. The results indicated that the forensic learning disability nurses tended to focus on the physical aspects to the role whilst the non-forensic learning disability nurses tended to perceive the forensic role in relational terms. This has implications for practice, policy, and procedures.

  7. The rise and fall of forensic hypnosis.

    PubMed

    Winter, Alison

    2013-03-01

    This paper examines the fortunes of the controversial use of hypnosis to 'enhance' autobiographical memories in postwar America. From the 1950s through the early 1980s, hypnosis became increasingly popular as a means to exhume information thought to be buried within the mind. This practice was encouraged by lay understandings of memory drawn from a material culture full of new recording devices (motion pictures, tape and then video recorders); and during the years when the practice was becoming most popular and accepted, academic psychologists developed a contrary, reconstructive, account of memory that was put to use in a series of battles meant to put an end to hypnotic recall. But popular commitment to the idea of permanent memory 'recordings' sustained the practice and the assumptions about memory and self that were associated with it, and in the face of a culture of academic psychology fully committed to the idea of 'reconstructive', malleable memory, a tidal wave of 'enhanced' memories swept America in the late 1980s and 1990s, in the so-called 'memory wars'. These, in turn, provoked academic psychologists to research the claims and counter claims central to the memory wars. The paper will also make an argument about the importance of lay knowledge in the psychological sciences explored in this paper: that popular psychological beliefs played a significant, even formative role in defining the nature of forensic psychological expertise, and also the framing of elite academic psychological research. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Children in foster care: what forensic nurses need to know.

    PubMed

    Hornor, Gail

    2014-01-01

    Children living in foster care are a unique population with specialized healthcare needs. This article will assist forensic nurses and advanced practice forensic nurses, particularly those working in pediatrics, in understanding the needs of children in foster care and implementing a practice plan to better meet their healthcare needs. To that end, a basic understanding of the foster care system is crucial and involves an appreciation of the interface between the legal system and the child welfare system. Most important to providing care to children in foster care is a true understanding of trauma exposure and its potential effects on the lives of children: physically, developmentally, emotionally, and psychologically. This article will assist forensic nurses working with pediatric populations to more fully understand the needs of children in foster care and to develop innovative interventions to appropriately meet their unique needs.

  9. The psychological and legal aftermath of false arrest and imprisonment.

    PubMed

    Simon, R I

    1993-01-01

    False arrest and imprisonment can be an extraordinarily stressful psychological trauma. This is clearly demonstrated in the evaluation of forensic cases alleging false arrest and imprisonment, a review of the recent forensic psychiatric literature and reported legal cases. A clinical vignette is presented that illustrates the psychological trauma and sequelae associated with false arrest and imprisonment. Psychiatric treatment of these individuals is discussed. A number of these cases are litigated.

  10. [Views of forensic medicine and criminology on the pathodynamics of homicide].

    PubMed

    Kokavec, M; Dobrotka, G

    2000-01-01

    Trauma and violence represent the domains of forensic medical expertise. The objective finding on the victim of the homicide makes it possible to reconstruct the way and mechanism of the injury connected with it and thus to determine the cause of death. The traces of violence contain many indices pointing at specific personal characteristics of the culprit, his motivation to the crime and his state of mind at the time of the homicide. To judge the penal responsibility and the guilt of the culprit it is important for the court to have the analysis of the dynamics and of the causal background of the crime, especially the synthetic evaluation of subjective, situation, or eventually psychological factors of violence with the mortal effect. The interdisciplinary forensic-medical, forensic-psychological and psychophytological approach will make it possible to provide the court with a complex forensic expertise.

  11. Analytical and Radiochemistry for Nuclear Forensics

    SciTech Connect

    Steiner, Robert Ernest; Dry, Donald E.; Kinman, William Scott; Podlesak, David; Tandon, Lav

    2015-05-26

    Information about nonproliferation nuclear forensics, activities in forensics at Los Alamos National Laboratory, radio analytical work at LANL, radiochemical characterization capabilities, bulk chemical and materials analysis capabilities, and future interests in forensics interactions.

  12. Molecular Advancements in Forensic Odontology.

    PubMed

    Babu Rs, A; Rose, D

    2015-05-11

    Forensic odontology explores the field of human identification through dental tissues in cases where there is the destruction of body tissues in criminal investigations and mass disasters. Forensic odontology involves dentists participating in legal and criminal issues. Parameters such as age and gender identification are important in identifying the person or persons. Over the last two decades, the molecular aspect of forensic sciences has increased, and these molecular techniques now provide a novel approach to forensic odontology. Molecular advancements in science like DNA analysis have extended the range of forensic dentistry, as teeth possess the character of resistance toward physical or chemical aggressions. Teeth provide the abundant space for DNA, and hence teeth represent an excellent source of genomic DNA. The present paper focusses on molecular advancements in the field of forensic odontology.

  13. Forensics in dermatology: part I.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Kalpana; Lowenstein, Eve J

    2011-05-01

    Examination of the skin and adnexae is a critical part of the forensic examination. Little information on forensic sciences has been published in the dermatologic literature. Correct forensic terminology and documentation of dermatologic findings is of critical importance in forensic investigations. The skin may reveal clues to the identity of an individual and the time and method of death or injury. Normal postmortem changes in the skin are described along with pseudopathology and damage from postmortem animal activity. The forensic classification of types of injuries is introduced in this first of a two-part paper on forensics in dermatology. Copyright © 2010 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Forensic radiography: an overview.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, April

    2010-01-01

    Perhaps the first instance of forensic radiography occurred in the 1890s when Professor AW Wright of Yale University tested Wilhelm Roentgen's newly discovered x-ray photography on a deceased rabbit. Of interest were small, round objects inside the rabbit that appeared as dark spots on the positive film. The objects were extracted and identified as bullets, thereby helping to determine the cause of the rabbit's death. In the years since Roentgen's discovery, the use of radiography and other medical imaging specialties to aid in investigating civil and criminal matters has increased as investigators realize how radiologic technology can yield information that otherwise is unavailable. Radiologic technologists can play a key role in forensic investigations.

  15. [Gunshot wounds: forensic pathology].

    PubMed

    Lorin de la Grandmaison, Geoffroy

    2012-02-01

    Gunshot wounds are among the most complex traumatic lesions encountered in forensic pathology. At the time of autopsy, careful scrutiny of the wounds is essential for correct interpretation of the lesions. Complementary pathological analysis has many interests: differentiation between entrance and exit wounds, estimation of firing distance, differentiation between vital and post mortem wounds and wounds dating. In case of multiple headshots, neuropathological examination can provide arguments for or against suicide. Sampling of gunshot wounds at autopsy must be systematic. Pathological data should be confronted respectively to autopsy and death scene investigation data and also ballistic studies. Forensic pathologist must be aware of the limits of optic microscopy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. The scope of forensic radiology.

    PubMed

    Brogdon, B G

    1998-06-01

    The use of x-ray in the solution of forensic problems commenced within days of Röntgen's discovery; indeed, most of the applications of radiology to the forensic sciences were accomplished or anticipated within the next two years. The scope of forensic radiology ranges widely and includes determination of identity, evaluation of injury and death, applications in both criminal and civil litigation and in administrative proceedings, detection of abuse, investigation of gunshot wounds, medical education and research. Newer modalities and techniques afford opportunity for the expansion of forensic radiology if problems of accessibility and cost can be resolved along with improvement in interdisciplinary cooperation and understanding.

  17. [Forensic medicine experiences in Kosovo].

    PubMed

    Schäfer, A T

    2000-01-01

    In summer 1999, a German forensic team of CID officers and forensic pathologists was sent to Kosovo on request of the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) to investigate possible war crimes. For this purpose, witnesses had to be found and interrogated and graves of victims had to be located and the bodies exhumed and examined forensically. Roughly 200 bodies have been found and examined during the campaign that were predominantly of male sex and showed mainly gunshot wounds. A high percentage of all bodies could be identified. The article deals with different forensic-pathologic aspects of such an investigation.

  18. Commentary: forensic psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Altshul, Victor A

    2013-01-01

    Yakeley and Adshead present a broad view of the increasing influence of psychodynamically informed thought and practice on the British criminal justice system, adumbrating a model they call forensic psychotherapy. They explore such topics as mitigating factors, influences on recidivism, and psychotherapy with incarcerated inmates. While I am sympathetic with their overall aims, I outline some theoretical and practical difficulties in attempting to wed two very different systems of thought and the limitations that these difficulties impose.

  19. Microbes as forensic indicators.

    PubMed

    Alan, G; Sarah, J P

    2012-09-01

    The forensic potential of microorganisms is becoming increasingly apparent as a consequence of advances in molecular sciences and genomics. This review discusses instances in which microbes, and in particular bacteria, can impact upon forensic investigations. There is increasing evidence that humans have an extremely diverse 'microbiome' that may prove useful in determining ethnicity, country of origin, and even personal identity. The human microbiome differs between regions of the body and may prove useful for determining the nature of stains such as those caused by saliva and vaginal fluid: it may even be possible to link the stains to the person responsible for them. Similarly, the composition of the microbiome present in a soil sample may prove a useful indicator of geographic origin or as a means of linking people, animals, or objects together or to a specific location. Microorganisms are important in the decay process and also influence the presence and concentration of alcohol, drugs, and other chemicals of forensic relevance. There is also a possibility that the entry of microorganisms into the body during the agonal period may prove useful for the diagnosis of drowning. The transmission of infectious diseases, and in particular sexually-transmitted diseases, can provide evidence linking a victim and a suspect. Microorganisms that cause fatal infections are not always identified at the time of death and may lead to the death being considered 'suspicious'. If a fatal infection can be linked to a hospital or medical procedure it can lead to prosecutions and therefore it is important to determine when and where an infection was acquired. Similarly, naturally acquired infections need to be distinguished from those that result from malicious transmission. Microorganisms can therefore provide evidence in many different forensic scenarios but most of the work is still at the experimental stage and there are therefore many opportunities for further research.

  20. Forensic radiology in dentistry

    PubMed Central

    Manigandan, T.; Sumathy, C.; Elumalai, M.; Sathasivasubramanian, S.; Kannan, A.

    2015-01-01

    Radiography can play an important part in forensic odontology, mainly to establish identification. This may take the precise form of comparison between antemortem and postmortem radiographs. Radiographs may also be taken to determine the age of a minor victim and even help in the assessment of the sex and ethnic group. Comparable radiographs are an essential factor to confirm identification in a mass disaster. PMID:26015728

  1. Research in Computer Forensics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-06-01

    mails . Forged Email Trusted MTA Mails with Spoofed Sender Identity Forged Emails 491 Email Forgery Forging an email on SMTP (Simple Mail Transport...As such, the discipline of computer forensic analysis has emerged to meet such needs. Computers can contain evidence in many ways, in electronic mail ...shortcut files, registry entries, printer spool and operating system logs for the system events, internet information server, Exchange mail server

  2. [Clinical forensic valuation of school violence].

    PubMed

    Delannoy, Y; Tournel, G; Tonnel, C; Turck, D; Hedouin, V; Gosset, D

    2014-08-01

    In recent years, the National Education in France has developed tools to identify acts of violence in schools. This has allowed adjusting government policies for the care of victims. School violence can also be measured from the perspective of clinical forensic medicine, a special discipline for observing a society's violence. This study summarized and compared three similar single-center, prospective, and descriptive studies conducted in 1992, 2002, and 2012 in the Department of Forensic Medicine, University Hospital of Lille, via an evaluation form completed during consultations requested by victims in cases of school violence. The purpose was to identify the characteristics of victims, those of their perpetrators, the circumstances and reasons for school assaults, as well as their medical and administrative consequences. Each study had identified about 160 such attacks annually. The victims were younger, especially boys (the average age decreased from 14.8 to 13.6). The gender distribution showed an increase in female victims (the sex ratio decreased from 2.9/1 to 2.3/1). The location of attacks changed, with a marked increase of attacks on the way to school (from 10% to 27%). Recurrence of attacks also rose: victims with a previous history of attacks increased from 18.5% to 32.2% with a high proportion of violence resulting in a strong psychological impact, increasingly requiring psychological support (from 9 to 16%). The duration of school cases rose sharply, from 20 to 53% in 2012. The grade level of the perpetrator showed a significant increase in cases of violence at junior high school (from 40 to 67%), with a relative stability of violence in elementary and high schools. The parameters measured to characterize the aggressors remained stable: they were known to their victims in approximately 80% of cases and these attacks were for the most part related to previous disagreements. Since the 1990s, government policies for the prevention, measurement, and

  3. Forensic Data Carving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Povar, Digambar; Bhadran, V. K.

    File or data carving is a term used in the field of Cyber forensics. Cyber forensics is the process of acquisition, authentication, analysis and documentation of evidence extracted from and/or contained in a computer system, computer network and digital media. Extracting data (file) out of undifferentiated blocks (raw data) is called as carving. Identifying and recovering files based on analysis of file formats is known as file carving. In Cyber Forensics, carving is a helpful technique in finding hidden or deleted files from digital media. A file can be hidden in areas like lost clusters, unallocated clusters and slack space of the disk or digital media. To use this method of extraction, a file should have a standard file signature called a file header (start of the file). A search is performed to locate the file header and continued until the file footer (end of the file) is reached. The data between these two points will be extracted and analyzed to validate the file. The extraction algorithm uses different methods of carving depending on the file formats.

  4. Tattoos: forensic considerations.

    PubMed

    Byard, Roger W

    2013-12-01

    Tattooing refers to marking of the skin by puncturing and introducing pigmented material. Although it derives from a Polynesian word, tautau, decorative tattooing has been found in most societies over many centuries. The purpose of tattooing has varied from simple decoration, to a marker of social rank, criminal and noncriminal group membership, or a particular rite of passage in tribal communities. Tattooing may be used in medicine to mark areas for radiotherapy, and may occur inadvertently associated with certain occupations such as coal mining. Forensically, tattoos may be very useful in assisting with body identification if facial features or fingers have been damaged or removed. Aspects of a decedent's history may also be deduced from certain tattoos such as military tattoos in service personnel, rudimentary line tattoos with antisocial and anti-police messages in ex-prisoners, and syringes, marihuana leaves or mushrooms in illicit drug users. Tattoos have become more common in recent years in younger individuals in the West and so should be expected to be found with increasing incidence at the time of forensic autopsy examinations. Increasing population movements also mean that less common tattoos may be encountered during forensic evaluations.

  5. Forensic web watch 4.

    PubMed

    Lumb, P; Rutty, G N

    2000-06-01

    Finding dedicated sites on the World Wide Web (WWW) touching upon issues related to the autopsy which could be of use to forensic practitioners is, as with other areas of forensic medicine and science, a time-consuming task. Unfortunately, one has to wade through lists related to 'Alien autopsy' sites and even 'Furby autopsy' sites that are generated by the most commonly used web search engines, which have been featured in earlier web reviews. Numerous sites containing large archives of autopsy photographs are available on the web. However, many of these sites represent the darker side of the WWW as they are often presented purely for titillation. Unfortunately, one can equate these sites to the modern-day version of the Victorian 'freak show'--Typically, these sites ask for your Visa card number to view their contents, and several have links to pornography sites; one even links to a Satanist site. Luckily a few of these sites do now require age confirmation codes. As many of these sites show autopsy photographs from real cases one has to ask how these were obtained and who is placing them on the WWW. This review does not list any of these sites for obvious reasons, but it does draw the reader's attention to sites touching upon issues related to autopsies which forensic practitioners may wish to visit or use.

  6. Parricide: a forensic approach.

    PubMed

    Dantas, Soraia; Santos, Agostinho; Dias, Isabel; Dinis-Oliveira, Ricardo Jorge; Magalhães, Teresa

    2014-02-01

    Parricide is the act of murdering one's father (patricide), mother (matricide) or other close relative, but usually not children (infanticide). It is a rare event and little information is available on this topic. This study aims to increase knowledge about this phenomenon, promoting the timely detection of problematic cases and avoiding fatalities. A retrospective study based on the autopsy reports of parricide victims performed by the North Services of the National Institute of Legal Medicine and Forensic Sciences of Portugal between 2003 and 2011, as well as on the judicial outcome of each case, was performed. Seven cases of parricide were found, corresponding to 1.7% of all the homicides undergoing forensic evaluated. Victims and perpetrators were typically males. The assaults occurred all at home, in the presence of witnesses, and the perpetrator remained at the scene after the crime. The main alleged reasons were untreated psychiatric illness and financial conflicts in the cases of adult parricide, and attempts to protect the mother from intimate partner violence in younger ones. The judicial outcomes ranged from acquittal for nonimputability to conviction for murder, manslaughter or involuntary manslaughter. This study was carried out on a forensic sample and it is useful to implement strategies to prevent parricide.

  7. New perspectives in forensic anthropology.

    PubMed

    Dirkmaat, Dennis C; Cabo, Luis L; Ousley, Stephen D; Symes, Steven A

    2008-01-01

    A critical review of the conceptual and practical evolution of forensic anthropology during the last two decades serves to identify two key external factors and four tightly inter-related internal methodological advances that have significantly affected the discipline. These key developments have not only altered the current practice of forensic anthropology, but also its goals, objectives, scope, and definition. The development of DNA analysis techniques served to undermine the classic role of forensic anthropology as a field almost exclusively focused on victim identification. The introduction of the Daubert criteria in the courtroom presentation of scientific testimony accompanied the development of new human comparative samples and tools for data analysis and sharing, resulting in a vastly enhanced role for quantitative methods in human skeletal analysis. Additionally, new questions asked of forensic anthropologists, beyond identity, required sound scientific bases and expanded the scope of the field. This environment favored the incipient development of the interrelated fields of forensic taphonomy, forensic archaeology, and forensic trauma analysis, fields concerned with the reconstruction of events surrounding death. Far from representing the mere addition of new methodological techniques, these disciplines (especially, forensic taphonomy) provide forensic anthropology with a new conceptual framework, which is broader, deeper, and more solidly entrenched in the natural sciences. It is argued that this new framework represents a true paradigm shift, as it modifies not only the way in which classic forensic anthropological questions are answered, but also the goals and tasks of forensic anthropologists, and their perception of what can be considered a legitimate question or problem to be answered within the field.

  8. [Characteristics of forensic patients assigned to forensic outpatient treatment].

    PubMed

    Bulla, Jan; Ross, T; Hoffmann, K; Querengässer, J

    2015-01-01

    In the Federal State of Baden-Württemberg an administrative regulation specifies which patients should be assigned to forensic outpatient treatment. Empirically, little is known about the clinical and criminological factors supporting these decisions. A complete survey of forensic inpatients in Baden-Württemberg was undertaken. From 476 patients released from unlimited detention (§ 63 StGB) 235 (45.6 %) received a court order for forensic aftercare between 2009 and 2012. Social, forensic, and psychiatric history differed only slightly compared with patients not assigned. Schizophrenia as diagnosis was overrepresented, personality disorder and paraphilia underrepresented. Both groups differed most with respect to the duration of detention. The decision for forensic outpatient treatment seems to be determined by process variables of inpatient treatment but not by criminological risk factors. This contradicts the R-N-R principles by Andrews and Bonta. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Nuclear Forensic Field Exercise #1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    and the forensic science community is required in order to develop solutions to deal with such contaminated evidence. Until a solution is found, our...radiological scientific community and the forensic science community in order to develop solutions to fill this gap. Overall, this exercise

  10. Windows Memory Forensic Data Visualization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-12

    WINDOWS MEMORY FORENSIC DATA VISUALIZATION THESIS J. Brendan Baum, Civilian, USAF AFIT...DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A: APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED The views expressed in this thesis are those of the author...WINDOWS MEMORY FORENSIC DATA VISUALIZATION THESIS Presented to the Faculty Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Graduate School of

  11. An introduction to computer forensics.

    PubMed

    Furneaux, Nick

    2006-07-01

    This paper provides an introduction to the discipline of Computer Forensics. With computers being involved in an increasing number, and type, of crimes the trace data left on electronic media can play a vital part in the legal process. To ensure acceptance by the courts, accepted processes and procedures have to be adopted and demonstrated which are not dissimilar to the issues surrounding traditional forensic investigations. This paper provides a straightforward overview of the three steps involved in the examination of digital media: Acquisition of data. Investigation of evidence. Reporting and presentation of evidence. Although many of the traditional readers of Medicine, Science and the Law are those involved in the biological aspects of forensics, I believe that both disciplines can learn from each other, with electronic evidence being more readily sought and considered by the legal community and the long, tried and tested scientific methods of the forensic community being shared and adopted by the computer forensic world.

  12. [Forensic psychiatry and behavioural analysis].

    PubMed

    Nitschke, J; Schinke, D; Ottermann, B; Thomas, J; Osterheider, M

    2011-07-01

    A case report shows that a patient could make a progress in his therapy with the help of professional behavioural analysis after a 14-year period of stagnating forensic therapy. The method of behavioural analysis represents a criminalistic tool to reconstruct and to analyse an offence on the basis of objective data. Nowadays this method is also used successfully in individual cases in the field of forensic psychiatry. The article shows and discusses the methodology and the current use of behavioural analysis in forensic psychiatry. professional behavioural analysis of offences of certain forensic patients provides an additional benefit for their therapy and their risk assessment. This kind of approach should be intensified by increasing cooperation with behavioural analysis units and by further training for forensic therapists.

  13. Careers in Forensics: Analysis, Evidence, and Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torpey, Elka Maria

    2009-01-01

    In legal proceedings, a case is only as strong as its evidence. And whether that evidence is strong depends, in large part, on the work of forensic specialists. The field of forensics is broad and involves many kinds of workers. Some of them are involved in crimesolving. Others, such as forensic social workers or forensic economists, help to…

  14. National Security Forensics

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, B. M.; Perry, N. C.

    2011-10-12

    The objective of this effort is to research and develop inversion methods for mapping observations to the input parameters of the underlying physical system that could have generated these observations. This report describes our FY11 progress in developing a surrogate model of the forward model, using this surrogate forward model to develop inversion capabilities, and partitioning the input-output space to facilitate assessment and implementation of our inversion capabilities, as well as adaptively propose new computer code runs to enhance our training data. This work was funded by NA22/SAM in the NN2001- 06 area, under project number LL10-Forensics-PD06.

  15. Introduction to forensic science.

    PubMed

    O'Shaughnessy, P E

    2001-04-01

    Modern day criminal investigation has reached a point of sophistication requiring the involvement of many different disciplines to solve a crime. Each discipline inserts a part of the puzzle until it is complete. It is important to understand what each forensic expert has to offer. The coroner or medical examiner, asking for input from the various experts until enough information is received to determine the cause and manner of death, is usually the keystone to a death investigation. This information is then shared with the police investigators and prosecutor. This calls for the utmost cooperation and communication among those involved.

  16. Bayesian Integrated Microbial Forensics

    SciTech Connect

    Jarman, Kristin H.; Kreuzer-Martin, Helen W.; Wunschel, David S.; Valentine, Nancy B.; Cliff, John B.; Petersen, Catherine E.; Colburn, Heather A.; Wahl, Karen L.

    2008-06-01

    In the aftermath of the 2001 anthrax letters, researchers have been exploring ways to predict the production environment of unknown source microorganisms. Different mass spectral techniques are being developed to characterize components of a microbe’s culture medium including water, carbon and nitrogen sources, metal ions added, and the presence of agar. Individually, each technique has the potential to identify one or two ingredients in a culture medium recipe. However, by integrating data from multiple mass spectral techniques, a more complete characterization is possible. We present a Bayesian statistical approach to integrated microbial forensics and illustrate its application on spores grown in different culture media.

  17. Bio-forensics

    SciTech Connect

    Trewhella, J.

    2004-01-01

    Bioforensics presents significant technical challenges. Determining if an outbreak is natural or not, and then providing evidence to trace an outbreak to its origin is very complex. Los Alamos scientists pioneered research and development that has generated leading edge strain identification methods based on sequence data. Molecular characterization of environmental background samples enable development of highly specific pathogen signatures. Economic impacts of not knowing the relationships at the molecular level Many different kinds of data are needed for DNA-based bio-forensics.

  18. Forensic culture as epistemic culture: the sociology of forensic science.

    PubMed

    Cole, Simon A

    2013-03-01

    This paper explores whether we can interpret the notion of 'forensic culture' as something akin to what Knorr-Cetina called an 'epistemic culture'. Can we speak of a 'forensic culture', and, if so, how is it similar to, or different from, other epistemic cultures that exist in what is conventionally called 'science'? This question has important policy implications given the National Academy Science's (NAS) recent identification of 'culture' as one of the problems at the root of what it identified as 'serious deficiencies' in U.S. forensic science and 'scientific culture' as an antidote to those problems. Finding the NAS's characterisation of 'scientific culture' overly general and naïve, this paper offers a preliminary exploration of what might be called a 'forensic culture'. Specifically, the paper explores the way in which few of the empirical findings accumulated by sociologists of science about research science seem to apply to forensic science. Instead, forensic science seems to have developed a distinct culture for which a sociological analysis will require new explanatory tools. Faithful sociological analysis of 'forensic culture' will be a necessary prerequisite for the kind of culture change prescribed by external reformist bodies like the NAS. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. AVIATION PSYCHOLOGY,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    PSYCHOLOGY , AERONAUTICS, FLIGHT, PILOTS, PERCEPTION, ATTENTION, READING, MEMORY( PSYCHOLOGY ), PERSONALITY , EMOTIONS, FATIGUE(PHYSIOLOGY), AVIATION SAFETY, AVIATION ACCIDENTS, PSYCHOMOTOR TESTS, PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS, TRAINING.

  20. Forensic Stable Isotope Biogeochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerling, Thure E.; Barnette, Janet E.; Bowen, Gabriel J.; Chesson, Lesley A.; Ehleringer, James R.; Remien, Christopher H.; Shea, Patrick; Tipple, Brett J.; West, Jason B.

    2016-06-01

    Stable isotopes are being used for forensic science studies, with applications to both natural and manufactured products. In this review we discuss how scientific evidence can be used in the legal context and where the scientific progress of hypothesis revisions can be in tension with the legal expectations of widely used methods for measurements. Although this review is written in the context of US law, many of the considerations of scientific reproducibility and acceptance of relevant scientific data span other legal systems that might apply different legal principles and therefore reach different conclusions. Stable isotopes are used in legal situations for comparing samples for authenticity or evidentiary considerations, in understanding trade patterns of illegal materials, and in understanding the origins of unknown decedents. Isotope evidence is particularly useful when considered in the broad framework of physiochemical processes and in recognizing regional to global patterns found in many materials, including foods and food products, drugs, and humans. Stable isotopes considered in the larger spatial context add an important dimension to forensic science.

  1. Nuclear forensics: Soil content

    SciTech Connect

    Beebe, Merilyn Amy

    2015-08-31

    Nuclear Forensics is a growing field that is concerned with all stages of the process of creating and detonating a nuclear weapon. The main goal is to prevent nuclear attack by locating and securing nuclear material before it can be used in an aggressive manner. This stage of the process is mostly paperwork; laws, regulations, treaties, and declarations made by individual countries or by the UN Security Council. There is some preliminary leg work done in the form of field testing detection equipment and tracking down orphan materials; however, none of these have yielded any spectacular or useful results. In the event of a nuclear attack, the first step is to analyze the post detonation debris to aid in the identification of the responsible party. This aspect of the nuclear forensics process, while reactive in nature, is more scientific. A rock sample taken from the detonation site can be dissolved into liquid form and analyzed to determine its chemical composition. The chemical analysis of spent nuclear material can provide valuable information if properly processed and analyzed. In order to accurately evaluate the results, scientists require information on the natural occurring elements in the detonation zone. From this information, scientists can determine what percentage of the element originated in the bomb itself rather than the environment. To this end, element concentrations in soils from sixty-nine different cities are given, along with activity concentrations for uranium, thorium, potassium, and radium in various building materials. These data are used in the analysis program Python.

  2. Forensic DNA analysis.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Jessica; Lehman, Donald C

    2012-01-01

    Before the routine use of DNA profiling, blood typing was an important forensic tool. However, blood typing was not very discriminating. For example, roughly 30% of the United States population has type A-positive blood. Therefore, if A-positive blood were found at a crime scene, it could have come from 30% of the population. DNA profiling has a much better ability for discrimination. Forensic laboratories no longer routinely determine blood type. If blood is found at a crime scene, DNA profiling is performed. From Jeffrey's discovery of DNA fingerprinting to the development of PCR of STRs to the formation of DNA databases, our knowledge of DNA and DNA profiling have expanded greatly. Also, the applications for which we use DNA profiling have increased. DNA profiling is not just used for criminal case work, but it has expanded to encompass paternity testing, disaster victim identification, monitoring bone marrow transplants, detecting fetal cells in a mother's blood, tracing human history, and a multitude of other areas. The future of DNA profiling looks expansive with the development of newer instrumentation and techniques.

  3. Nanoparticles in forensic science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantu, Antonio A.

    2008-10-01

    Nanoparticles appear in several areas of forensic science including security documents, paints, inks, and reagents that develop latent prints. One reagent (known as the silver physical developer) that visualizes the water insoluble components of latent print residue is based on the formation of highly charged silver nanoparticles. These attach to and grow on the residue and generate a silver image. Another such reagent involves highly charged gold nanoparticles. These attach to the residue forming a weak gold image which can be amplified with a silver physical developer. Nanoparaticles are also used in items such as paints, printing inks, and writing inks. Paints and most printing inks consist of nano-sized pigments in a vehicle. However, certain modern ink jet printing inks now contain nano-sized pigments to improve their light fastness and most gel inks are also based on nano scale pigments. These nanoparticlecontaining materials often appear as evidence and are thus subject to forensic characterization. Both luminescent (quantum dots), up-converting nano scale phosphors, and non luminescent nanoparticles are used as security tags to label product, add security to documents, and as anti counterfeiting measures. These assist in determining if an item is fraudulently made.

  4. Forensic Analysis of Cathinones.

    PubMed

    Gautam, L; Shanmuganathan, A; Cole, M D

    2013-03-01

    In the past decade there has been a significant increase in the popularity of synthetic cathinones in the illegal drug market. They have been easily available from Internet-based vendors as well as at "head shops" and "smart shops". The recent prominence of synthetic cathinones can be attributed to their stimulatory properties similar to those of amphetamines. This paper provides a review on the current popular cathinone derivatives, their history and prevalence in the illegal drug market, legislation of these drugs in various countries, pharmacology, toxicology, and metabolism studies, analysis of toxicology samples (blood, urine, and hair) and criminalistic samples (seized, purchased via the Internet, and synthesized). From the reviewed literature, it is concluded that the products sold as "legal highs" do not only contain cathinone but also cathinone derivatives, and adulterants such as caffeine, lidocaine, and inorganic materials. Full toxicity data is currently unavailable for this drug class and hence more research is required with regard to their analysis and metabolism. Moreover, clandestine chemists are constantly synthesizing new derivatives and hence forensic chemists often need to synthesize and characterize these drugs to confirm the identity of the seized samples. This is expensive as well as time-consuming. Therefore, there is a need for national and international collaboration among forensic chemists to overcome this difficulty.

  5. The state of nuclear forensics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristo, Michael J.; Tumey, Scott J.

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear terrorism has been identified as one of the most serious security threats facing the world today. Many countries, including the United States, have incorporated nuclear forensic analysis as a component of their strategy to prevent nuclear terrorism. Nuclear forensics involves the laboratory analysis of seized illicit nuclear materials or debris from a nuclear detonation to identify the origins of the material or weapon. Over the years, a number of forensic signatures have been developed to improve the confidence with which forensic analysts can draw conclusions. These signatures are validated and new signatures are discovered through research and development programs and in round-robin exercises among nuclear forensic laboratories. The recent Nuclear Smuggling International Technical Working Group Third Round Robin Exercise and an on-going program focused on attribution of uranium ore concentrate provide prime examples of the current state of nuclear forensics. These case studies will be examined and the opportunities for accelerator mass spectrometry to play a role in nuclear forensics will be discussed.

  6. Minimising bias in the forensic evaluation of suspicious paediatric injury.

    PubMed

    Skellern, Catherine

    2015-08-01

    In the rules of evidence in all legal jurisdictions, medical experts are required to maintain objectivity when providing opinions. When interpreting medical evidence, doctors must recognise, acknowledge and manage uncertainties to ensure their evidence is reliable to legal decision-makers. Even in the forensic sciences such as DNA analysis, implicit bias has been shown to influence how results are interpreted from cognitive and contextual biases unconsciously operating. In cases involving allegations of child abuse there has been significant exposure in the media, popular magazines, legal journals and in the published medical literature debating the reliability of medical evidence given in these proceedings. In these cases judges have historically been critical of experts they perceived had sacrificed objectivity for advocacy by having an investment in a 'side'. This paper firstly discusses the issue of bias then describes types of cognitive biases identified from psychological research applied to forensic evidence including adversarial bias, context bias, confirmation bias and explains how terminology can influence the communication of opinion. It follows with previously published guidelines of how to reduce the risk of bias compromising objectivity in forensic practices then concludes with my own recommendations of practices that can be used by child protection paediatricians and within an organisation when conducting forensic evaluations of suspicious childhood injury to improve objectivity in formulation of opinion evidence.

  7. [Genetic investigations in forensic medicine].

    PubMed

    Lászik, András; Szakács, Orsolya; Sótonyi, Péter

    2002-05-26

    Scientific research of the last decade including the introduction of new molecular biological methods and mapping of the human genome allowed the development of a revolutionary new molecular biological approach in forensic medicine. The traditional serological methods study proteins, the new DNA analysis goes further down to study DNA structures to analyze unique individual features. The two main areas of DNA application in forensic medicine are inheritance studies and personal identification in criminal cases using biological traces. Using this new, reliable and reproducible method we can answer questions they were almost impossible in the past. This article reviews how molecular techniques used to detect genetic polymorphism in forensic medicine.

  8. [Research Progress on Forensic Entomotoxicology].

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhi-jiang; Zhai, Xian-dun; Guan, Ling; Mo, Yao-nan

    2015-06-01

    Forensic entomotoxicology is a branch of forensic medicine, which applies entomology, toxicology and other related studies to solve the poisoning cases. It has an obvious advantage in the investigation on poisoning death. Based on the expounding definition and research of entomotoxicology, this paper reviews research progress and application value in some aspects of forensic medicine, such as the effects of drugs/toxins on the growth and development of sarcosaphagous insects and the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the drugs/toxins in the poisoned body tissue.

  9. Forensic Science Education and Educational Requirements for Forensic Scientists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaensslen, Robert E.

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on criminalistics, which can be understood to mean the activities and specialty areas characteristic of most municipal, county, or state forensic science laboratories in the United States. (DDR)

  10. NUCLEAR FORENSICS ANALYSIS CENTER FORENSIC ANALYSIS TO DATA INTERPRETATION

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, T.

    2011-02-07

    The Nuclear Forensics Analysis Center (NFAC) is part of Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and is one of only two USG National Laboratories accredited to perform nuclear forensic analyses to the requirements of ISO 17025. SRNL NFAC is capable of analyzing nuclear and radiological samples from bulk material to ultra-trace samples. NFAC provides analytical support to the FBI's Radiological Evidence Examination Facility (REEF), which is located within SRNL. REEF gives the FBI the capability to perform traditional forensics on material that is radiological and/or is contaminated. SRNL is engaged in research and development efforts to improve the USG technical nuclear forensics capabilities. Research includes improving predictive signatures and developing a database containing comparative samples.

  11. Forensic Science Education and Educational Requirements for Forensic Scientists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaensslen, Robert E.

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on criminalistics, which can be understood to mean the activities and specialty areas characteristic of most municipal, county, or state forensic science laboratories in the United States. (DDR)

  12. Forensic Science--A Proposal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geesaman, Donald P.; Abrahamson, Dean E.

    1973-01-01

    Forensic science is an approach to study desirability of specific technologies in the context of value objectives and biological imperatives of society. Such groups should be formed with people from various physical and social sciences. (PS)

  13. Forensic historiography: narratives and science.

    PubMed

    Drukteinis, Albert M

    2014-01-01

    Psychiatrists function, in part, as historians who rely on patient narratives to help them understand presenting mental disorders and explain their causes. Forensic psychiatrists have been skeptical of using narratives, raising concerns about their lack of objectivity and potential for bias. They also have criticized narratives as being more performative than scientific. Recent authors, however, have pointed out that narratives may be helpful in forming forensic opinions and supporting oral testimony, while stressing that their use must be consistent with the ethics espoused by forensic psychiatry. This article reviews the role of narratives in understanding human events and the ubiquitous presence of narratives in the judicial process. It delves into the inescapability of using explicit or implicit narratives in the course of forensic practice, as well as how they may be meaningfully incorporated into evaluations and find expression alongside scientific principles. © 2014 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.

  14. Integration initiatives for forensic services

    PubMed Central

    ARBOLEDA-FLÓREZ, JULIO

    2003-01-01

    Poorly implemented mental health reform policies are often given as reasons for the growth in demands for forensic psychiatric services and the steady increase of mental patients in prison systems. However, in this paper, additional reasons are advanced to explain the growth of forensic psychiatry, such as an expansion in the types of "psychiatric defences" in courts of law; public concerns about violent behaviour attributed to the mentally ill; the community management of paraphilias, especially pedophilia; the development of risk assessment methodologies and the halo of super-specialization. The net result of these developments is that patients who receive a label of "forensic" enter into a mental health ghetto with little connectivity or integration with the general mental health system. The forensic label increases the stigma and decreases opportunities for reintegration and full social recovery. The paper provides guidelines to reverse these trends. PMID:16946932

  15. Handwriting Classification in Forensic Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ansell, Michael

    1979-01-01

    Considers systems for the classification of handwriting features, discusses computer storage of information about handwriting features, and summarizes recent studies that give an idea of the range of forensic handwriting research. (GT)

  16. Evidentiary standards for forensic anthropology.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Angi M; Crowder, Christian M

    2009-11-01

    As issues of professional standards and error rates continue to be addressed in the courts, forensic anthropologists should be proactive by developing and adhering to professional standards of best practice. There has been recent increased awareness and interest in critically assessing some of the techniques used by forensic anthropologists, but issues such as validation, error rates, and professional standards have seldom been addressed. Here we explore the legal impetus for this trend and identify areas where we can improve regarding these issues. We also discuss the recent formation of a Scientific Working Group for Forensic Anthropology (SWGANTH), which was created with the purposes of encouraging discourse among anthropologists and developing and disseminating consensus guidelines for the practice of forensic anthropology. We believe it is possible and advisable for anthropologists to seek and espouse research and methodological techniques that meet higher standards to ensure quality and consistency in our field.

  17. Case histories in forensic medicine.

    PubMed

    Madea, Burkhard

    2007-01-17

    Case histories make up a great part of publications in forensic medicine, especially forensic pathology, although considered low on the hierarchy of evidence based medicine because of its inherent anecdotal nature. Meanwhile some journals exclude case histories categorically from publication. The boom of case histories in forensic medicine has not only opportunity reasons (easily [even mental] and cheap to do) but also structural reasons: due to its tasks in case work many items of forensic medicine can not be simulated experimentally for ethical reasons (violent death, traumatic injuries, sexual assault, poisonings, influence of alcohol and drugs on driving ability and legal responsibility, medical malpractice, adverse events during medical care). In these fields the role of case histories is mainly the augmentation of experience based knowledge. However, quality aspects have to be considered and case histories should be the basis for systematic or hypothesis based research.

  18. Forensic Science--A Proposal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geesaman, Donald P.; Abrahamson, Dean E.

    1973-01-01

    Forensic science is an approach to study desirability of specific technologies in the context of value objectives and biological imperatives of society. Such groups should be formed with people from various physical and social sciences. (PS)

  19. Handwriting Classification in Forensic Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ansell, Michael

    1979-01-01

    Considers systems for the classification of handwriting features, discusses computer storage of information about handwriting features, and summarizes recent studies that give an idea of the range of forensic handwriting research. (GT)

  20. Plant genetics for forensic applications.

    PubMed

    Zaya, David N; Ashley, Mary V

    2012-01-01

    An emerging application for plant DNA fingerprinting and barcoding involves forensic investigations. Examples of DNA analysis of botanical evidence include crime scene analysis, identifying the source of commercial plant products, and investigation of trade in illicit drugs. Here, we review real and potential applications of DNA-based forensic botany and provide a protocol for microsatellite genotyping of leaf material, a protocol that could be used to link a suspect to a victim or to a crime scene.

  1. Forensics in dermatology: part II.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Kalpana; Lowenstein, Eve J

    2011-05-01

    The evaluation of skin findings is critical in identifying many types of injury, whether self- inflicted or accidentally or intentionally inflicted. Specific causes of injury include homicide, abuse, neglect, assault, self-inflicted injury, suicide, torture, poisoning, and bioterrorism. Forensic findings in hair and nails are also discussed. This overview of dermatologic findings in forensic pathology highlights the significance of the cutaneous manifestations of injury. Copyright © 2010 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Forensic hash for multimedia information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Wenjun; Varna, Avinash L.; Wu, Min

    2010-01-01

    Digital multimedia such as images and videos are prevalent on today's internet and cause significant social impact, which can be evidenced by the proliferation of social networking sites with user generated contents. Due to the ease of generating and modifying images and videos, it is critical to establish trustworthiness for online multimedia information. In this paper, we propose novel approaches to perform multimedia forensics using compact side information to reconstruct the processing history of a document. We refer to this as FASHION, standing for Forensic hASH for informatION assurance. Based on the Radon transform and scale space theory, the proposed forensic hash is compact and can effectively estimate the parameters of geometric transforms and detect local tampering that an image may have undergone. Forensic hash is designed to answer a broader range of questions regarding the processing history of multimedia data than the simple binary decision from traditional robust image hashing, and also offers more efficient and accurate forensic analysis than multimedia forensic techniques that do not use any side information.

  3. The broad field of forensic pharmacy.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Peter D

    2012-02-01

    Forensic pharmacy is application of the sciences of drugs to legal issues. Forensic pharmacists engage in work relating to litigation, the regulatory process, and the criminal justice system. Forensic pharmacy overlaps with many other forensic fields. Pharmacists hold a variety of positions with local, state, and federal governments. Many pharmacists do freelance work as forensic litigation consultants. A forensic pharmacist can be a valuable resource in legal cases relating to malpractice, adverse drug reactions, drunk and drugged driving, health care fraud, poisoning, and numerous other types of civil and criminal cases.

  4. [Two anniversaries in Czech forensic medicine].

    PubMed

    Nečas, P; Hejna, P

    2012-10-01

    The authors commemorate the 100th anniversary of the publication of Slavíks textbook Forensic Pathology for Medical and Legal Students and the 125th anniversary of the 1st Czech forensic autopsy. They introduce professor V. Slavík and describe his personal qualities and expertise. The content of the textbook is described. The topicality of Slavíks explanations and the tradition of Czech forensic pathology are discussed. Key words: forensic pathology - history of Czech forensic pathology - textbooks of forensic pathology.

  5. Forensic medical examination of victims of trafficking in human beings.

    PubMed

    Alempijevic, Djordie; Jecmenica, Dragan; Pavlekic, Snezana; Savic, Slobodan; Aleksandric, Branimir

    2007-01-01

    Trafficking in human beigns (THB) is recognized as a global public health issue as well as a violation of human rights. Trafficking has been identified to be associated with several health risks including psychological trauma, injuries from violence, and substance misuse. Public and media reports suggest that the morbidity and mortality associated with trafficking are substantial. The need of medico-legal healthcare for THB victims is being neglected. Forensic medical examination, as specific intervention, is a highly desirable element of ermegency health care provided for victims of tracking. Acting in such a way, the investigation should establish the facts related to the allegatation of trafficking, thereby assisting in identifying those responsible, but also contributing to the procedures designed to obtain redress for the victims. Local anti-trafficking policies and interventions, however, have not acknowledged these needs. Therefore, the agenda of anti-trafficking policies needs to be redrawn to include forensic medical assessment of victims for legal purposes.

  6. A United States forensic sample for the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scales.

    PubMed

    Frumkin, I Bruce; Lally, Stephen J; Sexton, James E

    2012-01-01

    The Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scales (GSS) is a valuable test to use as part of a comprehensive assessment of psychological and interrogative factors relevant to a defendant's vulnerability to giving a false or involuntary confession. One limitation of the test is that the manual only provides information for samples from Iceland and Great Britain. This report describes the results of 334 individuals in the United States, who were administered the tests as part of an evaluation to assess confession-related issues in a forensic context (i.e., capacity to waive Miranda rights or vulnerability in providing a false or involuntary confession). This forensic sample includes both juveniles and adults. Results are consistent with Gudjonsson's British and Icelandic samples, in which the Yield 1 score is more affected by intellectual and cognitive variables, but Shift and, to a lesser extent, Yield 2 scores are more related to emotional and personality characteristics.

  7. Why we do what we do: a theoretical evaluation of the integrated practice model for forensic nursing science.

    PubMed

    Valentine, Julie L

    2014-01-01

    An evaluation of the Integrated Practice Model for Forensic Nursing Science () is presented utilizing methods outlined by . A brief review of nursing theory basics and evaluation methods by Meleis is provided to enhance understanding of the ensuing theoretical evaluation and critique. The Integrated Practice Model for Forensic Nursing Science, created by forensic nursing pioneer Virginia Lynch, captures the theories, assumptions, concepts, and propositions inherent in forensic nursing practice and science. The historical background of the theory is explored as Lynch's model launched the role development of forensic nursing practice as both a nursing and forensic science specialty. It is derived from a combination of nursing, sociological, and philosophical theories to reflect the grounding of forensic nursing in the nursing, legal, psychological, and scientific communities. As Lynch's model is the first inception of forensic nursing theory, it is representative of a conceptual framework although the title implies a practice theory. The clarity and consistency displayed in the theory's structural components of assumptions, concepts, and propositions are analyzed. The model is described and evaluated. A summary of the strengths and limitations of the model is compiled followed by application to practice, education, and research with suggestions for ongoing theory development.

  8. Selling forensic psychiatry: recruiting for the future, establishing services.

    PubMed

    Goethals, Kris; Gunn, John; Calcedo-Barba, Alfredo

    2012-10-01

    The Ghent Group - a group of European forensic psychiatrists - has discussed ways of informing fellow professionals and the wider public about their difficult and frequently misunderstood discipline, agreeing that the specialty may have to be 'sold' to those who pay for it and use it. Our aim was to consider the areas where this commonly occurs and the strengths and pitfalls of such promotion. Forensic psychiatrists need to be effective, accurate communicators. For court work, they need special training. High standards of work are the best selling technique. Outside court, the greatest challenge for forensic psychiatry is to reduce its stigma - it can easily be construed, wrongly, as excusing serious anti-social behaviour. Special attention should be given to writing for a wider audience, not just the inner circle of practitioners. Electronic social media should also be deployed for this task. Those who provide funds for academic work should be specifically but differently targeted. They need to be persuaded of the scientific merit of the subject. Temptation to claim more for the discipline than can be justified have to be resisted. An English case that led to a miscarriage of justice illustrates this. The limitations of science here have to be understood. Philosophical questions relating to responsibility and culpability cannot be resolved by physical science alone. Misuse neuroimaging in court, for example, can lead to miscarriages of justice. Selling forensic psychiatry to public and professionals is difficult but essential to counter anti-forensic psychiatry movements that have emerged. The discipline needs to persuade others of its unique skills and embrace good science, compassion, public duty and ethical practice. It needs to treat with politicians and funders as well as the medical, psychological and legal professions. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. How Do Forensic Clinicians Decide? A Delphi Approach to Identify Domains Commonly Used in Forensic Juvenile Treatment Planning.

    PubMed

    Hillege, Sanne L; van Domburgh, Lieke; Mulder, Eva A; Jansen, Lucres M C; Vermeiren, Robert R J M

    2016-07-11

    Adolescents in forensic care display wide varieties of complex psychiatric, psychological, and contextual problems. Based on large amounts of information, clinicians need to consider, integrate, and prioritize these offender characteristics to construct individual treatment trajectories. So far, scientific knowledge on how these treatment decisions take place is scarce. Current study uses a qualitative design for detecting implicit knowledge of clinicians on which offender characteristics they consider while making treatment decisions. Using the Delphi method, 34 experienced clinicians working in forensic care facilities in the Netherlands were asked about the most important domains of offender characteristics that influence their treatment planning. Eight domains were identified as being crucial in treatment planning: Mental health problems, Personal characteristics, Family, Offense, Motivation, Treatment, School/Work/Housing, and Peers/Spare time Based on current results, focus on a broad spectrum of individual and contextual characteristics is recommended. Moreover, protective factors and comorbid problems on multiple domains should be considered. © The Author(s) 2016.

  10. The Clinical Assessment in the Legal Field: An Empirical Study of Bias and Limitations in Forensic Expertise.

    PubMed

    Iudici, Antonio; Salvini, Alessandro; Faccio, Elena; Castelnuovo, Gianluca

    2015-01-01

    According to the literature, psychological assessment in forensic contexts is one of the most controversial application areas for clinical psychology. This paper presents a review of systematic judgment errors in the forensic field. Forty-six psychological reports written by psychologists, court consultants, have been analyzed with content analysis to identify typical judgment errors related to the following areas: (a) distortions in the attribution of causality, (b) inferential errors, and (c) epistemological inconsistencies. Results indicated that systematic errors of judgment, usually referred also as "the man in the street," are widely present in the forensic evaluations of specialist consultants. Clinical and practical implications are taken into account. This article could lead to significant benefits for clinical psychologists who want to deal with this sensitive issue and are interested in improving the quality of their contribution to the justice system.

  11. The Clinical Assessment in the Legal Field: An Empirical Study of Bias and Limitations in Forensic Expertise

    PubMed Central

    Iudici, Antonio; Salvini, Alessandro; Faccio, Elena; Castelnuovo, Gianluca

    2015-01-01

    According to the literature, psychological assessment in forensic contexts is one of the most controversial application areas for clinical psychology. This paper presents a review of systematic judgment errors in the forensic field. Forty-six psychological reports written by psychologists, court consultants, have been analyzed with content analysis to identify typical judgment errors related to the following areas: (a) distortions in the attribution of causality, (b) inferential errors, and (c) epistemological inconsistencies. Results indicated that systematic errors of judgment, usually referred also as “the man in the street,” are widely present in the forensic evaluations of specialist consultants. Clinical and practical implications are taken into account. This article could lead to significant benefits for clinical psychologists who want to deal with this sensitive issue and are interested in improving the quality of their contribution to the justice system. PMID:26648892

  12. Psychiatric comorbidity in forensic psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Palijan, Tija Zarković; Muzinić, Lana; Radeljak, Sanja

    2009-09-01

    For the past several years a numerous studies in the field of forensic psychiatry confirmed a close relationship between violent offenders and comorbid substance abuse. The comorbid substance abuse in violent offenders was usually unrecognized and misdiagnosed. Furthermore, comorbidity in forensic psychiatry describes the co-occurrence of two or more conditions or psychiatric disorder known in the literature as dual diagnosis and defined by World Health Organization (WHO). In fact, many violent offenders have multiple psychiatric diagnoses. Recent studies have confirmed causal relationship between major psychiatric disorders and concomitant substance abuse (comorbidity) in 50-80% of forensic cases. In general, there is a high level of psychiatric comorbidity in forensic patients with prevalence of personality disorders (50-90%), mood disorders (20-60%) and psychotic disorders (15-20%) coupled with substance abuse disorders. Moreover, the high prevalence of psychiatric comorbidities could be found in mentally retarded individuals, as well as, in epileptic patients. Drugs and alcohol abuse can produce serious psychotoxic effects that may lead to extreme violent behavior and consequently to serious criminal offence such as physical assault, rape, armed robbery, attempted murder and homicide, all due to an altered brain function and generating psychotic-like symptoms. Studies have confirmed a significant statistical relevance in causal relationship between substance abuse and violent offences. In terms of forensic psychiatry, the comorbidity strongly contributes in the process of establishing psychiatric diagnosis of diminished mental capacity or insanity at the time of the offence in the course of clinical assessment and evaluation of violent offenders. Today, the primary focus of forensic psychiatry treatment services (in-patient or community) is management of the violent offenders with psychiatric comorbidity which requires a multilevel, evidence based approach to

  13. Forensic seismology revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglas, A.

    2007-01-01

    The first technical discussions, held in 1958, on methods of verifying compliance with a treaty banning nuclear explosions, concluded that a monitoring system could be set up to detect and identify such explosions anywhere except underground: the difficulty with underground explosions was that there would be some earthquakes that could not be distinguished from an explosion. The development of adequate ways of discriminating between earthquakes and underground explosions proved to be difficult so that only in 1996 was a Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) finally negotiated. Some of the important improvements in the detection and identification of underground tests—that is in forensic seismology—have been made by the UK through a research group at the Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE). The paper describes some of the advances made in identification since 1958, particularly by the AWE Group, and the main features of the International Monitoring System (IMS), being set up to verify the Test Ban. Once the Treaty enters into force, then should a suspicious disturbance be detected the State under suspicion of testing will have to demonstrate that the disturbance was not a test. If this cannot be done satisfactorily the Treaty has provisions for on-site inspections (OSIs): for a suspicious seismic disturbance for example, an international team of inspectors will search the area around the estimated epicentre of the disturbance for evidence that a nuclear test really took place. Early observations made at epicentral distances out to 2,000 km from the Nevada Test Site showed that there is little to distinguish explosion seismograms from those of nearby earthquakes: for both source types the short-period (SP: ˜1 Hz) seismograms are complex showing multiple arrivals. At long range, say 3,000 10,000 km, loosely called teleseismic distances, the AWE Group noted that SP P waves—the most widely and well-recorded waves from underground explosions—were in

  14. Drawbacks in the scientification of forensic science.

    PubMed

    Biedermann, A; Curran, J

    2014-12-01

    This letter to the Editor comments on the article On the limitations of probability in conceptualizing pattern matches in forensic science by P. T. Jayaprakash (Forensic Science International, [10]). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Nuclear Forensics at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Kinman, William Scott; Steiner, Robert Ernest; Lamont, Stephen Philip

    2016-09-30

    Nuclear forensics assists in responding to any event where nuclear material is found outside of regulatory control; a response plan is presented and a nuclear forensics program is undergoing further development so that smugglers are sufficiently deterred.

  16. DBT in an outpatient forensic setting.

    PubMed

    van den Bosch, L M C; Hysaj, M; Jacobs, P

    2012-01-01

    Literature shows that effective treatment of borderline personality disorder (BPD) has become possible. However, borderline patients in forensic psychiatry do not seem to benefit from this development. In forensic psychiatry, prevention of criminal recidivism is the main focus of treatment, not core borderline problems like parasuicidal and self-destructive behavior. A dialectical behavioral treatment program for BPD was implemented in an outpatient forensic clinic in The Netherlands. Sociodemographic, clinical, and treatment data were collected from ten male, and nineteen female forensic BPD patients, and compared with corresponding data from fifty-eight non-forensic BPD patients. The results show that it is possible to implement dialectical behavior therapy in an outpatient forensic clinic. The data indicate that the exclusion of forensic patients, and especially female forensic patients, from evidence-based treatment is unjustified given the highly comparable clinical and etiological characteristics they share with female BPD patients from general mental health settings.

  17. The development of counselling psychology in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Connolly, Allison; O'Callaghan, Dermot; O'Brien, Owen; Broderick, John; Long, Catherine; O'Grady, Ian

    2014-03-01

    This paper discusses the distinctive nature of the specialism of counselling psychology and outlines the development of the discipline in Ireland in the context of international developments and its recognition as a professional branch of applied psychology. Today, counselling psychologists are employed in varied clinical and non-clinical settings including health and mental health services (statutory, private and voluntary sector) along with education, forensic, justice, industry and private practices. Counselling psychologist is the primary professional identity of many practising psychologists in Ireland and the Psychological Society of Ireland's Division of Counselling Psychology is the main affiliation of at least 179 members. With its focus on facilitating personal and interpersonal functioning across the life span and its emphasis on the therapeutic process, the specialism continues to bridge the disciplines of psychology, counselling and psychotherapy. In this article, some of the challenges still faced by counselling psychology are explored as it navigates its way through the changing landscape of further development and evolution.

  18. The Relative Utility of the Forensic Disciplines.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-03-01

    The efficacy of the forensic disciplines in felony criminal investigations was assessed. Reports and investigations of the findings of 1,069 forensic ...solve rate was achieved for USACIDC when multiple forensic disciplines were utilized. The PDD discipline was the most utilized and effective of the...individual disciplines, but all forensic disciplines demonstrated a high degree of utility in specific criminal offense categories. Of the 1,069

  19. Forensic web watch.

    PubMed

    Rutty, G N

    1999-09-01

    Since the development of the Internet (Net) by the Americans in the 1970s as a potential means of communication following a future world war, it has evolved over the decades into the graphical format of the world-wide web (WWW, Web) that we know today. Anyone accessing the Net, be it from home or work, has access to information and resources on almost anything but with this comes the time-consuming and potentially expensive task of identifying those sites of use in one's professional work from those of purely interest or fun. These reviews will try and direct those working within forensic practice in all professions towards sites considered by the author to be practical resources. They are, by their very nature, a personal opinion and the author recognizes that the review of a site by one person may differ considerably from that of another user or the site designer. The articles will assume a basic knowledge of how to access and use the WWW using either Netscape or Microsoft Explorer. They will address groups of sites related to common areas of practice listing key web addresses to allow those interested to access sites reviewed. Because of the time between writing and publishing some sites may no longer be valid

  20. [Troponin in forensic medicine].

    PubMed

    Nowak, Agnieszka; Nowak, Seweryn; Chowaniec, Czesław; Wojnicz, Romuald

    2012-01-01

    In this review we try to answer the question whether and to what degree contemporary forensic pathology takes advantage of quantitative and qualitative troponin determinations. The report is simultaneously an introduction to discussing our results in this area. To perform this review we used the database "PubMed". Polish literature, concurrent with the objective of the study and not included in "PubMed" or included in "OLDMEDLINE" was also analyzed. The identified publications, which were concurrent with the aim of the study, were read and citations were checked. If among the cited papers we found one that was concurrent with the subject of the review, it was also included. While several studies support the use of post-mortem blood and body fluid levels of cardiac troponin T and I as a marker of sudden cardiac death, in our opinion, further research is required to determine the effects of post-mortem autolysis, microbial activity, metabolic derangement and the use of different sample matrices in autopsy cases.

  1. Information Assurance and Forensic Readiness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pangalos, Georgios; Katos, Vasilios

    Egalitarianism and justice are amongst the core attributes of a democratic regime and should be also secured in an e-democratic setting. As such, the rise of computer related offenses pose a threat to the fundamental aspects of e-democracy and e-governance. Digital forensics are a key component for protecting and enabling the underlying (e-)democratic values and therefore forensic readiness should be considered in an e-democratic setting. This position paper commences from the observation that the density of compliance and potential litigation activities is monotonically increasing in modern organizations, as rules, legislative regulations and policies are being constantly added to the corporate environment. Forensic practices seem to be departing from the niche of law enforcement and are becoming a business function and infrastructural component, posing new challenges to the security professionals. Having no a priori knowledge on whether a security related event or corporate policy violation will lead to litigation, we advocate that computer forensics need to be applied to all investigatory, monitoring and auditing activities. This would result into an inflation of the responsibilities of the Information Security Officer. After exploring some commonalities and differences between IS audit and computer forensics, we present a list of strategic challenges the organization and, in effect, the IS security and audit practitioner will face.

  2. Terminology and forensic gait analysis.

    PubMed

    Birch, Ivan; Vernon, Wesley; Walker, Jeremy; Young, Maria

    2015-07-01

    The use of appropriate terminology is a fundamental aspect of forensic gait analysis. The language used in forensic gait analysis is an amalgam of that used in clinical practice, podiatric biomechanics and the wider field of biomechanics. The result can often be a lack of consistency in the language used, the definitions used and the clarity of the message given. Examples include the use of 'gait' and 'walking' as synonymous terms, confusion between 'step' and 'stride', the mixing of anatomical, positional and pathological descriptors, and inability to describe appropriately movements of major body segments such as the torso. The purpose of this paper is to share the well-established definitions of the fundamental parameters of gait, common to all professions, and advocate their use in forensic gait analysis to establish commonality. The paper provides guidance on the selection and use of appropriate terminology in the description of gait in the forensic context. This paper considers the established definitions of the terms commonly used, identifies those terms which have the potential to confuse readers, and suggests a framework of terminology which should be utilised in forensic gait analysis.

  3. Forensic science and the law.

    PubMed

    Jayewardene, C H

    1988-01-01

    Forensic Science today makes an important contribution to the operation of the Criminal Justice System providing evidence which could help decide the guilt of a suspect. Forensic Science is able to do so because it has developed to operate within the reality determined by the Criminal Justice System. Changes that are occurring today seem to upset the relationship between Forensic Sciences and the Criminal Justice System by the creation of communication problems. Examples of these problems exist in the changes occurring in the concept of death made necessary by organ transplants. These changes have shifted the focus from the quantity of life to the quality of life and make it impossible for the Forensic Scientist to answer honestly the questions that might be put him. The need for reforms in the law in view of social changes has been recognized and in many countries attempts at such changes are afoot. With these changes a new reality is being defined. Forensic Science, being a discipline that comes first in contact with a multitude of emergent problems, has a part to play in the definition of this reality.

  4. Comparative Microbial Genomics and Forensics.

    PubMed

    Massey, Steven E

    2016-08-01

    Forensic science concerns the application of scientific techniques to questions of a legal nature and may also be used to address questions of historical importance. Forensic techniques are often used in legal cases that involve crimes against persons or property, and they increasingly may involve cases of bioterrorism, crimes against nature, medical negligence, or tracing the origin of food- and crop-borne disease. Given the rapid advance of genome sequencing and comparative genomics techniques, we ask how these might be used to address cases of a forensic nature, focusing on the use of microbial genome sequence analysis. Such analyses rely on the increasingly large numbers of microbial genomes present in public databases, the ability of individual investigators to rapidly sequence whole microbial genomes, and an increasing depth of understanding of their evolution and function. Suggestions are made as to how comparative microbial genomics might be applied forensically and may represent possibilities for the future development of forensic techniques. A particular emphasis is on the nascent field of genomic epidemiology, which utilizes rapid whole-genome sequencing to identify the source and spread of infectious outbreaks. Also discussed is the application of comparative microbial genomics to the study of historical epidemics and deaths and how the approaches developed may also be applicable to more recent and actionable cases.

  5. DoD Forensic Science Committee,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-10-10

    This Instruction, issued under the authority of DoD Directive 5106.1, establishes the DoD Forensic Science Committee as a joint DoD committee under...resolution of forensic science issues of concern to the DoD forensic science community and its customers, the Defense Criminal Investigative Organizations

  6. Forensic Chemistry--A Symposium Collection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Chemical Education, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Presents a collection of articles to provide chemistry teachers with resource materials to add forensic chemistry units to their chemistry courses. Topics range from development of forensic science laboratory courses and mock-crime scenes to forensic serology and analytical techniques. (JN)

  7. Forensic Chemistry--A Symposium Collection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Chemical Education, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Presents a collection of articles to provide chemistry teachers with resource materials to add forensic chemistry units to their chemistry courses. Topics range from development of forensic science laboratory courses and mock-crime scenes to forensic serology and analytical techniques. (JN)

  8. ENGINEERING PSYCHOLOGY,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    MAN MACHINE SYSTEMS, APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY ), INFORMATION THEORY, ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY, HUMAN FACTORS ENGINEERING, PERCEPTION( PSYCHOLOGY ...PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY, AUTOMATION, BRAIN, AUDITORY PERCEPTION, VISUAL PERCEPTION, MEMORY( PSYCHOLOGY ), MOTOR REACTIONS, NOISE, PERFORMANCE(HUMAN), USSR

  9. Forensic Botany: Evidence and Analysis.

    PubMed

    Coyle, H M

    2009-01-01

    Forensic botany is the use of plant evidence in matters of law. While plant fragments are often collected as trace evidence, they are only occasionally identified using microscopy and are still more rarely assessed using molecular biology techniques for individualization and sourcing of a sample. There are many different methods useful for DNA typing of plants; this review focuses on those techniques (DNA sequencing, STR, AFLP, RAPD) most relevant to the forensic science community and on those methods currently in practice. Plant evidence is commonly associated with homicides, with clandestine graves, as trace pollen on clothing, vehicles, or packaging, or in the transport of illicit drugs. DNA can be especially useful for the identification of minute quantity of samples, for differentiation of plants that lack distinguishing morphological features, and for generating a unique identifier for associative forensic evidence.

  10. System Support for Forensic Inference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehani, Ashish; Kirchner, Florent; Shankar, Natarajan

    Digital evidence is playing an increasingly important role in prosecuting crimes. The reasons are manifold: financially lucrative targets are now connected online, systems are so complex that vulnerabilities abound and strong digital identities are being adopted, making audit trails more useful. If the discoveries of forensic analysts are to hold up to scrutiny in court, they must meet the standard for scientific evidence. Software systems are currently developed without consideration of this fact. This paper argues for the development of a formal framework for constructing “digital artifacts” that can serve as proxies for physical evidence; a system so imbued would facilitate sound digital forensic inference. A case study involving a filesystem augmentation that provides transparent support for forensic inference is described.

  11. Recent advances in forensic genetics.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Simon J

    2004-01-01

    Like many applications of molecular diagnostics, the field of forensic biology is undergoing a phase of expansion and diversification. The growth of forensic DNA databases and adoption of sophisticated analytical methods have catalyzed this increasing role. The range of molecular markers exploited in the fight against crime is beginning to increase too, and genes implying personal or physical characteristics are emerging in the research literature. However, the operational context of forensic biology is unlike many other fields of science. Harmonizing technological breakthroughs with the requirements of law enforcement agencies and the complexities of the legal system is an added challenge and one which evokes ongoing debate. This review examines the current status of this dynamic and important application of modern genetics.

  12. Patterns of practice with the TAT in juvenile forensic settings.

    PubMed

    Haynes, J P; Peltier, J

    1985-02-01

    Psychologists in juvenile forensic psychological clinics were surveyed about usage of the TAT. A clear majority uses the TAT as part of their assessment battery, the majority using between six and ten cards. Administration and scoring methods were examined. Selection of cards was harmonious with prior research on theme productivity. Many respondents were found not to use the TAT because of time constraints, a finding discussed in terms of appropriate standards of care. Additional research needs to establish representative as well as expected standards of ethical practice for the TAT among general clinical groups, both adult and adolescent.

  13. ENGINEERING PSYCHOLOGY.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    MAN MACHINE SYSTEMS, *HUMAN FACTORS ENGINEERING, APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY , EDUCATION, TRAINING, SCIENTISTS, TECHNICIANS, PERFORMANCE(HUMAN...INSTRUMENTATION, GROUP DYNAMICS, SELECTION, PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS, PROGRAMMED INSTRUCTION, SIMULATION, TRAINING DEVICES, ABSTRACTS, USSR.

  14. Military Psychology.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    TRANSLATIONS, MILITARY TRAINING, OFFICER PERSONNEL, PERCEPTION( PSYCHOLOGY ), PERSONALITY , COMMUNISM, INTERPERSONAL RELATIONS, EMOTIONS....MILITARY FORCES(FOREIGN), *MILITARY PSYCHOLOGY , *TEXTBOOKS, USSR, ORGANIZATIONS, COMBAT READINESS, PSYCHOMOTOR FUNCTION, REASONING, SURVEYS

  15. High Performance Proactive Digital Forensics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alharbi, Soltan; Moa, Belaid; Weber-Jahnke, Jens; Traore, Issa

    2012-10-01

    With the increase in the number of digital crimes and in their sophistication, High Performance Computing (HPC) is becoming a must in Digital Forensics (DF). According to the FBI annual report, the size of data processed during the 2010 fiscal year reached 3,086 TB (compared to 2,334 TB in 2009) and the number of agencies that requested Regional Computer Forensics Laboratory assistance increasing from 689 in 2009 to 722 in 2010. Since most investigation tools are both I/O and CPU bound, the next-generation DF tools are required to be distributed and offer HPC capabilities. The need for HPC is even more evident in investigating crimes on clouds or when proactive DF analysis and on-site investigation, requiring semi-real time processing, are performed. Although overcoming the performance challenge is a major goal in DF, as far as we know, there is almost no research on HPC-DF except for few papers. As such, in this work, we extend our work on the need of a proactive system and present a high performance automated proactive digital forensic system. The most expensive phase of the system, namely proactive analysis and detection, uses a parallel extension of the iterative z algorithm. It also implements new parallel information-based outlier detection algorithms to proactively and forensically handle suspicious activities. To analyse a large number of targets and events and continuously do so (to capture the dynamics of the system), we rely on a multi-resolution approach to explore the digital forensic space. Data set from the Honeynet Forensic Challenge in 2001 is used to evaluate the system from DF and HPC perspectives.

  16. The Clinician and Forensic Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Root, Irving; Scott, Wayne

    1973-01-01

    Although it is an intrinsic part of all medical practice forensic medicine often is either unrecognized as such or is consciously or subconsciously evaded. The failure to apply some rather basic and simple forensic principles that only the physician is capable of doing may result in problems to the patient ranging from frustration to near catastrophe. For physicians who are reasonably well equipped to understand the legal system, the successful conclusion of a legal case, including, sometimes, an appearance in court, can be stimulating and interesting. PMID:4733272

  17. [Professional confidentiality and forensic medicine].

    PubMed

    Das, C; van der Wal, G

    2003-10-18

    Medical confidentiality is a complex subject. The legal position of a physician depends on his or her role (medical advisor, attending physician, official, or medical examiner) as well as the physician's task and commission. In common with all physicians, the forensic physician has a duty to provide confidentiality. As a medical examiner, he or she has a limited professional confidentiality: there is an oath of secrecy, but not a right of refusal to testify with respect to the information obtained in carrying out the commission. When the forensic physician assumes the role of the attending physician, the professional confidentiality applies in full.

  18. Clinical forensics for perioperative nurses.

    PubMed

    Muro, G A; Easter, C R

    1994-10-01

    Perioperative nurses frequently care for victims and suspected perpetrators of violent crimes. Nurses often are the first health care providers to assess the trauma patient and collect crucial evidence for future legal action. Informational evidence includes observations about patients' behavior and appearance and documentation of their comments. Nurses also must protect the chain of evidence so that evidence can be admissible in court. To function in this role, perioperative nurses must understand the concepts of clinical forensics, which is the application of the principles and practices of forensic science to questions of law in the investigation of violent crime.

  19. Forensic entomology and climatic change.

    PubMed

    Turchetto, Margherita; Vanin, Stefano

    2004-12-02

    Forensic entomology establishes the postmortem interval (PMI) by studying cadaveric fauna. The PMI today is still largely based on tables of insect succession on human cadavers compiled in the late 19th- or mid-20th centuries. In the last few years, however, the gradual warming of the climate has been changing faunal communities by favouring the presence of thermophilous species. To demonstrate how globalization and climate change are overcoming geographic barriers, we present some cases of southern and allochthonous species found in north-east Italy during our entomo-forensic investigations.

  20. A Review of Forensic Science Management Literature.

    PubMed

    Houck, M M; McAndrew, W P; Porter, M; Davies, B

    2015-01-01

    The science in forensic science has received increased scrutiny in recent years, but interest in how forensic science is managed is a relatively new line of research. This paper summarizes the literature in forensic science management generally from 2009 to 2013, with some recent additions, to provide an overview of the growth of topics, results, and improvements in the management of forensic services in the public and private sectors. This review covers only the last three years or so and a version of this paper was originally produced for the 2013 Interpol Forensic Science Managers Symposium and is available at interpol.int.

  1. [National organization of forensic medicine in France].

    PubMed

    Chariot, Patrick

    2012-06-01

    Forensic medicine has long been characterized, in France, by diverse medical practices, which affected its recognition and development. A change was needed, Harmonization procedure includes the development of professional guidelines and allows forensic medicine to look at itself. However, the implementation of the recommendations is still far from complete. A national reform came into effect on 15 January 2011 and has defined a national reform of forensic medicine which includes funding by global budgets instead of fee-for-service. This reform allows easier organization and identification of forensic medicine units. One year later, tangible results are mixed. Forensic medicine is now more clearly identified but properly defined funding criteria are still lacking.

  2. Towards a Formalization of Digital Forensics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slay, Jill; Lin, Yi-Chi; Turnbull, Benjamin; Beckett, Jason; Lin, Paul

    While some individuals have referred to digital forensics as an art, the literature of the discipline suggests a trend toward the formalization of digital forensics as a forensic science. Questions about the quality of digital evidence and forensic soundness continue to be raised by researchers and practitioners in order to ensure the trustworthiness of digital evidence and its value to the courts. This paper reviews the development of digital forensic models, procedures and standards to lay a foundation for the discipline. It also points to new work that provides validation models through a complete mapping of the discipline.

  3. [Advances of forensic entomology in China].

    PubMed

    Lan, Ling-mei; Liao, Zhi-gang; Chen, Yao-qing; Yao, Yue; Li, Jian-bo; Li, Mao-yang; Cai, Ji-feng

    2006-12-01

    Forensic entomology is a branch of forensic medicine, which applies studies of insects and arthropods to getting evidence for court and has an analogous advantage in the estimation of the postmortem interval (PMI) and other questions of forensic relevance. The paper expounds its definition and contents and reviews some progress of the studies in some aspects in China such as the constitution and succession of insect community on the different cadavers, the applications of morphological features of insects and the technology of analysis of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in forensic entomology, and forensic entomological toxicology etc.

  4. 9649 forensic web watch--DNA in forensic science.

    PubMed

    Bowyer, V L; Graham, E A M; Rutty, G N

    2004-10-01

    In 1923, within the Manual of Police technique, Edmond Locard published what is commonly known as the Doctrine of Exchange; a series of rules related to the exchange of trace evidence between the victim and offender. Although at the time of publication these rules principally applied to trace evidence related to print (for exchange finger print or shoeprint), fibre and blood, today one can add the very substance that defines each human being -- DNA. Since th first use of DNA evidence to help identify an offender in the Pitchfork Murders of 1986, the use of DNA within forensic science has developed from its humble days within a single experimental laboratory at the University of Leicester to a multi-million pound industry. It thus seams fitting that this forensic web watch should originate from the very University where the use of DNA in forensic science was conceived, drawing the readers attention to a number of sites which can be used as an introduction to the concept of the use of DNA in forensic science today.

  5. Forensic Loci Allele Database (FLAD): Automatically generated, permanent identifiers for sequenced forensic alleles.

    PubMed

    Van Neste, Christophe; Van Criekinge, Wim; Deforce, Dieter; Van Nieuwerburgh, Filip

    2016-01-01

    It is difficult to predict if and when massively parallel sequencing of forensic STR loci will replace capillary electrophoresis as the new standard technology in forensic genetics. The main benefits of sequencing are increased multiplexing scales and SNP detection. There is not yet a consensus on how sequenced profiles should be reported. We present the Forensic Loci Allele Database (FLAD) service, made freely available on http://forensic.ugent.be/FLAD/. It offers permanent identifiers for sequenced forensic alleles (STR or SNP) and their microvariants for use in forensic allele nomenclature. Analogous to Genbank, its aim is to provide permanent identifiers for forensically relevant allele sequences. Researchers that are developing forensic sequencing kits or are performing population studies, can register on http://forensic.ugent.be/FLAD/ and add loci and allele sequences with a short and simple application interface (API). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Veterinary Forensic Pathology: The Search for Truth.

    PubMed

    McDonough, S P; McEwen, B J

    2016-09-01

    Veterinary forensic pathology is emerging as a distinct discipline, and this special issue is a major step forward in establishing the scientific basis of the discipline. A forensic necropsy uses the same skill set needed for investigations of natural disease, but the analytical framework and purpose of forensic pathology differ significantly. The requirement of legal credibility and all that it entails distinguishes the forensic from routine diagnostic cases. Despite the extraordinary depth and breadth of knowledge afforded by their training, almost 75% of veterinary pathologists report that their training has not adequately prepared them to handle forensic cases. Many veterinary pathologists, however, are interested and willing to develop expertise in the discipline. Lessons learned from tragic examples of wrongful convictions in medical forensic pathology indicate that a solid foundation for the evolving discipline of veterinary forensic pathology requires a commitment to education, training, and certification. The overarching theme of this issue is that the forensic necropsy is just one aspect in the investigation of a case of suspected animal abuse or neglect. As veterinary pathologists, we must be aware of the roles filled by other veterinary forensic experts involved in these cases and how our findings are an integral part of an investigation. We hope that the outcome of this special issue of the journal is that veterinary pathologists begin to familiarize themselves with not only forensic pathology but also all aspects of veterinary forensic science.

  7. Concepts and possibilities in forensic intelligence.

    PubMed

    Bell, Chris

    2006-10-16

    Forensic intelligence can be viewed as comprising two parts, one directly concerning intelligence delivery in forensic casework, the other considering performance aspects of forensic work, loosely termed here as business intelligence. Forensic casework can be viewed as processes that produce an intelligence product useful to police investigations. Traditionally, forensic intelligence production has been confined to discipline-specific activity. This paper examines the concepts, processes and intelligence products delivered in forensic casework, the information repositories available from forensic examinations, and ways to produce within- and across-discipline casework correlations by using information technology to capitalise on the information sets available. Such analysis presents opportunities to improve forensic intelligence services as well as challenges for technical solutions to deliver appropriate data-mining capabilities for available information sets, such as digital photographs. Business intelligence refers primarily to examination of efficiency and effectiveness of forensic service delivery. This paper discusses measures of forensic activity and their relationship to crime outcomes as a measure of forensic effectiveness.

  8. On the added value of forensic science and grand innovation challenges for the forensic community.

    PubMed

    van Asten, Arian C

    2014-03-01

    In this paper the insights and results are presented of a long term and ongoing improvement effort within the Netherlands Forensic Institute (NFI) to establish a valuable innovation programme. From the overall perspective of the role and use of forensic science in the criminal justice system, the concepts of Forensic Information Value Added (FIVA) and Forensic Information Value Efficiency (FIVE) are introduced. From these concepts the key factors determining the added value of forensic investigations are discussed; Evidential Value, Relevance, Quality, Speed and Cost. By unravelling the added value of forensic science and combining this with the future needs and scientific and technological developments, six forensic grand challenges are introduced: i) Molecular Photo-fitting; ii) chemical imaging, profiling and age estimation of finger marks; iii) Advancing Forensic Medicine; iv) Objective Forensic Evaluation; v) the Digital Forensic Service Centre and vi) Real time In-Situ Chemical Identification. Finally, models for forensic innovation are presented that could lead to major international breakthroughs on all these six themes within a five year time span. This could cause a step change in the added value of forensic science and would make forensic investigative methods even more valuable than they already are today. © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd on behalf of Forensic Science Society. All rights reserved.

  9. Forensic sexology: paraphilic serial rape (biastophilia) and lust murder (erotophonophilia).

    PubMed

    Money, J

    1990-01-01

    Forensic sexology is not synonymous with either forensic psychiatry or forensic psychology. It is a specialty in its own right, and is needed in the courtroom. Paraphilic sex offenders on trial are misrepresented as being, by their own choice, psychopathic or sociopathic deviates. They are unable to explain their paraphilic criminality to either themselves or society. In a case of serial rape and serial lust murder here presented, the contributory causes are examined and differentiated as hereditary predisposition, hormonal functioning; pathological relationships, sexual abuse; and syndrome overlap with bipolar disorder, schizoid disorder, antisocial personality disorder, epilepsy, and multiple personality. The precipitating causes were differentiated as childhood head injuries, and adult head injury at age 20. Left impact trauma and sexological trauma were sequelae of the adult injury. The full range of diagnostic resources was not available for a prisoner on death row. Capital punishment has not prevented the reemergence in each new generation of serial rape and serial lust murder as an epidemiological, public health problem. Punishment is an ineffectual substitute for epidemiological research into cause, effect, and prevention.

  10. Can clinical CT data improve forensic reconstruction?

    PubMed

    Schuh, P; Scheurer, E; Fritz, K; Pavlic, M; Hassler, E; Rienmüller, R; Yen, K

    2013-05-01

    In accidents resulting in severe injuries, a clinical forensic examination is generally abandoned in the initial phase due to high-priority clinical needs. However, in many cases, data from clinical computed tomography (CT) examinations are available. The goals of this prospective study were (a) to evaluate clinical CT data as a basis for forensic reconstruction of the sequence of events, (b) to assess if forensic radiological follow-up reading improves the forensic diagnostic benefit compared to the written clinical radiological reports, and (c) to evaluate if full data storage including additional reconstructed 0.6-mm slices enhances forensic analysis. Clinical CT data of 15 living individuals with imaging of at least the head, thorax, and abdomen following polytrauma were examined regarding the forensic evaluation of the sequence of events. Additionally, 0.6-mm slices and 3D images were reconstructed for forensic purposes and used for the evaluation. At the forensic radiological readings, additional traumatic findings were observed in ten of the 15 patients. The main weakness of the clinical reports was that they were not detailed enough, particularly regarding the localization of injuries and description of wound morphology. In seven cases, however, forensic conclusions were possible on the basis of the written clinical reports, whereas in five cases forensic reconstruction required specific follow-up reading. The additional 0.6-mm slices were easily available and with improved 3D image quality and forensic diagnostics. In conclusion, the use of clinical CT data can considerably support forensic expertise regarding reconstruction issues. Forensic follow-up reading as well as the use of additional thin slices for 3D analysis can further improve its benefit for forensic reconstruction purposes.

  11. Neuropsychological Impairment and Its Association with Violence Risk in Japanese Forensic Psychiatric Patients: A Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Nishinaka, Hirofumi; Nakane, Jun; Nagata, Takako; Imai, Atsushi; Kuroki, Noriomi; Sakikawa, Noriko; Omori, Mayu; Kuroda, Osamu; Hirabayashi, Naotsugu; Igarashi, Yoshito; Hashimoto, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    In Japan, the legislation directing treatment of offenders with psychiatric disorders was enacted in 2005. Neuropsychological impairment is highly related to functional outcomes in patients with psychiatric disorders, and several studies have suggested an association between neuropsychological impairment and violent behaviors. However, there have been no studies of neuropsychological impairment in forensic patients covered by the Japanese legislation. This study is designed to examine the neuropsychological characteristics of forensic patients in comparison to healthy controls and to assess the relationship between neuropsychological impairment and violence risk. Seventy-one forensic patients with psychiatric disorders and 54 healthy controls (matched by age, gender, and education) were enrolled. The CogState Battery (CSB) consisting of eight cognitive domains, the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) to test emotion-based decision making, and psychological measures of violence risk including psychopathy were used. Forensic patients exhibited poorer performances on all CSB subtests and the IGT than controls. For each group, partial correlational analyses indicated that poor IGT performance was related to psychopathy, especially antisocial behavior. In forensic patients, the CSB composite score was associated with risk factors for future violent behavior, including stress and noncompliance with remediation attempts. Forensic patients with psychiatric disorders exhibit a wide range of neuropsychological impairments, and these findings suggest that neuropsychological impairment may increase the risk of violent behavior. Therefore, the treatment of neuropsychological impairment in forensic patients with psychiatric disorders is necessary to improve functional outcomes as well as to prevent violence.

  12. Neuropsychological Impairment and Its Association with Violence Risk in Japanese Forensic Psychiatric Patients: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Nishinaka, Hirofumi; Nakane, Jun; Nagata, Takako; Imai, Atsushi; Kuroki, Noriomi; Sakikawa, Noriko; Omori, Mayu; Kuroda, Osamu; Hirabayashi, Naotsugu; Igarashi, Yoshito; Hashimoto, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Background In Japan, the legislation directing treatment of offenders with psychiatric disorders was enacted in 2005. Neuropsychological impairment is highly related to functional outcomes in patients with psychiatric disorders, and several studies have suggested an association between neuropsychological impairment and violent behaviors. However, there have been no studies of neuropsychological impairment in forensic patients covered by the Japanese legislation. This study is designed to examine the neuropsychological characteristics of forensic patients in comparison to healthy controls and to assess the relationship between neuropsychological impairment and violence risk. Methods Seventy-one forensic patients with psychiatric disorders and 54 healthy controls (matched by age, gender, and education) were enrolled. The CogState Battery (CSB) consisting of eight cognitive domains, the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) to test emotion-based decision making, and psychological measures of violence risk including psychopathy were used. Results Forensic patients exhibited poorer performances on all CSB subtests and the IGT than controls. For each group, partial correlational analyses indicated that poor IGT performance was related to psychopathy, especially antisocial behavior. In forensic patients, the CSB composite score was associated with risk factors for future violent behavior, including stress and noncompliance with remediation attempts. Conclusion Forensic patients with psychiatric disorders exhibit a wide range of neuropsychological impairments, and these findings suggest that neuropsychological impairment may increase the risk of violent behavior. Therefore, the treatment of neuropsychological impairment in forensic patients with psychiatric disorders is necessary to improve functional outcomes as well as to prevent violence. PMID:26824701

  13. Working with people who have killed: the experience and attitudes of forensic mental health clinicians working with forensic patients.

    PubMed

    Harris, Derith M; Happell, Brenda; Manias, Elizabeth

    2015-04-01

    Forensic mental health (FMH) clinicians sometimes feel unsupported and unprepared for their work. This article explores their experiences of working in a FMH setting in Australia. The research examined the clinical context of clinicians working with forensic patients (FP), particularly those individuals who have killed while experiencing a mental illness. A qualitative, exploratory design was selected. Data were collected through focus groups and individual interviews with hospital and community-based forensic clinicians from all professional groups: psychiatric medicine, social work, psychology, mental health nursing, occupational therapy, and psychiatric service officers. The main themes identified were orientation and adjustment to FMH, training in FMH, vicarious traumatization, clinical debriefing and clinical supervision, and therapeutic relationships. Participants described being frustrated and unsupported in making the transition to working with FP and felt conflicted by the emotional response that was generated when developing therapeutic relationships. Recommendations include the development of programmes that might assist clinicians and address gaps in service delivery, such as clinical governance, targeted orientation programmes, and clinical supervision. © 2014 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  14. Peer review in forensic science.

    PubMed

    Ballantyne, Kaye N; Edmond, Gary; Found, Bryan

    2017-08-01

    Peer review features prominently in the forensic sciences. Drawing on recent research and studies, this article examines different types of peer review, specifically: editorial peer review; peer review by the scientific community; technical and administrative review; and verification (and replication). The article reviews the different meanings of these quite disparate activities and their utility in relation to enhancing performance and reducing error. It explains how forensic practitioners should approach and use peer review, as well as how it should be described in expert reports and oral testimony. While peer review has considerable potential, and is a key component of modern quality management systems, its actual value in most forensic science settings has yet to be determined. In consequence, forensic practitioners should reflect on why they use specific review procedures and endeavour to make their actual practices and their potential value transparent to consumers; whether investigators, lawyers, jurors or judges. Claims that review increases the validity of a scientific technique or accuracy of opinions within a particular case should be avoided until empirical evidence is available to support such assertions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Poetic Interventions with Forensic Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Art; Giovan, Marti

    1990-01-01

    Describes the use of poetry, music, and creative writing with forensic patients at a state mental health institute. Demonstrates that expressive interventions were helpful in group treatment by promoting verbalization, decision making, and the recognition of personal responsibility for incarceration. (SR)

  16. Incorporating Argumentation through Forensic Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Lindsay B.; Maeng, Jennifer L.; Smetana, Lara K.

    2014-01-01

    This article outlines how to incorporate argumentation into a forensic science unit using a mock trial. Practical details of the mock trial include: (1) a method of scaffolding students' development of their argument for the trial, (2) a clearly outlined set of expectations for students during the planning and implementation of the mock…

  17. Forensics: Enhancing Civic Literacy & Democracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briscoe, Shawn F.

    2009-01-01

    Forensics--interpretation, speech, and debate--can and should be a meaningful part of every school's curriculum. To put it simply, the course of study, alongside cocurricular competition, promotes civic education and enhances the standard curriculum by helping students explore myriad topics from multiple angles and find the truth in each,…

  18. Forensic Palynology as Classroom Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babcock, Steven L.; Warny, Sophie

    2014-01-01

    This activity introduces the science of "forensic palynology": the use of microscopic pollen and spores (also called "palynomorphs") to solve criminal cases. Plants produce large amounts of pollen or spores during reproductive cycles. Because of their chemical resistance, small size, and morphology, pollen and spores can be…

  19. Incorporating Argumentation through Forensic Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Lindsay B.; Maeng, Jennifer L.; Smetana, Lara K.

    2014-01-01

    This article outlines how to incorporate argumentation into a forensic science unit using a mock trial. Practical details of the mock trial include: (1) a method of scaffolding students' development of their argument for the trial, (2) a clearly outlined set of expectations for students during the planning and implementation of the mock…

  20. Forensics: Enhancing Civic Literacy & Democracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briscoe, Shawn F.

    2009-01-01

    Forensics--interpretation, speech, and debate--can and should be a meaningful part of every school's curriculum. To put it simply, the course of study, alongside cocurricular competition, promotes civic education and enhances the standard curriculum by helping students explore myriad topics from multiple angles and find the truth in each,…

  1. Forensic Analysis of Parachute Deaths.

    PubMed

    Burke, Michael Philip; Chitty, Johannes

    2017-03-01

    Deaths associated with parachuting are very uncommon. However, these deaths do tend to be "high profile" in the traditional and social media. When forensic pathologists examine the deceased after a fatal parachuting incident, the anatomical cause of death is usually not in question. For most forensic pathologists, it is usually the case that we will have very limited knowledge of parachuting equipment or the mechanics of a typical successful parachute jump. As such, the investigation of the death should involve a multidisciplinary approach with an appropriate expert providing the formal forensic examination of the parachuting equipment. We have endeavored to describe, in simple terms, the usual components of a typical parachute rig, a précis of the sequence of events in a routine skydive and BASE jump, and the various types of malfunctions that may occur. Last, we present a case report of a BASE jump fatality to illustrate how an expert examination of the BASE jumper's gear aided the medicolegal investigation of the death with some important aspects in the forensic examination of the jumper's equipment.

  2. Curriculum Guidelines on Forensic Dentistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Dental Education, 1990

    1990-01-01

    The American Association of Dental Schools' guidelines for curriculum design explain the scope of forensic dentistry and interrelationships with other fields, give an overview of the curriculum, and outline suggested primary educational goals, prerequisites, core content, specific behavioral objectives, sequencing, faculty and facility…

  3. Forensic Palynology as Classroom Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babcock, Steven L.; Warny, Sophie

    2014-01-01

    This activity introduces the science of "forensic palynology": the use of microscopic pollen and spores (also called "palynomorphs") to solve criminal cases. Plants produce large amounts of pollen or spores during reproductive cycles. Because of their chemical resistance, small size, and morphology, pollen and spores can be…

  4. Forensic nursing in secure environments.

    PubMed

    Shelton, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    There are few well-designed studies of corrections or prison nursing roles. This study seeks to describe the corrections or prison role of forensic nurses in the United States who provide care in secure environments. National data detailing the scope of practice in secure environments are limited. This pencil and paper survey describes the roles of 180 forensic nurses from 14 states who work in secure environments. Descriptive statistics are utilized. A repeated measures ANOVA with post hoc analyses was implemented. These nurses were older than average in age, but had 10 years or less experience in forensic nursing practice. Two significant roles emerged to "promote and implement principles that underpin effective quality and practice" and to "assess, develop, implement, and improve programs of care for individuals." Significant roles varied based upon the security classification of the unit or institution in which the nurses were employed. Access to information about these nurses and their nursing practice was difficult in these closed systems. Minimal data are available nationally, indicating a need for collection of additional data over time to examine changes in role. It is through such developments that forensic nursing provided in secure environments will define its specialization and attract the attention it deserves.

  5. Forensic Information Warfare Requirement Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-06-01

    5 2.2.3 JMac Enterprises... JMac Enterprises John B. McElhatton Voice: (703) 938-0724 http://www.jmacent.com Typically, computer forensic examinations by JMac are structured...www.geocities.com/CapitolHill/ 5244/time0002.html 18. http://www.jmacent.com, JMac Enterprises 19. http://www.secure-data.com/art7.html Computer Evidence

  6. Embedding Forensic Capabilities into Networks: Addressing Inefficiencies in Digital Forensics Investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Endicott-Popovsky, Barbara; Frincke, Deb A.

    2006-08-01

    A typical incident response pits technicians against networks that aren't prepared forensically. [1, 2] If practitioners do consider collecting network forensic data, they face a choice between expending extraordinary effort (time and money) collecting forensically sound data, or simply restoring the network as quickly as possible. In this context, the concept of organizational network forensic readiness has emerged. This paper proposes a methodology for "operationalizing" organizational network forensic readiness. The methodology, and the theoretical analysis that led to its development, are offered as a conceptual framework for thinking about more efficient, proactive approaches to digital forensics on networks.

  7. Forensic anthropology in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Işcan, M Y; Olivera, H E

    2000-03-13

    Forensic anthropology has been one of the fastest growing medico-legal disciplines both in its contribution to the practical needs of the legal system and research accomplishments. New anthropological standards were developed to apply to a specific population of a region. The purpose of this paper is to analyze a large sample of anthropological forensic cases and to review pertinent literature that deals with anthropological standards developed for the population of the continent of Central and South America. Using Uruguay as an example, there was not a single office or anthropologist assigned to analyze human skeletal remains in Uruguay. In 1991 the Laboratorio de Antropología Forense at the Morgue Judicial of Montevideo was created. A total of 189 forensic anthropological cases (276 individuals) were analyzed since this date. Twenty six percent of cases involving human remains were positively identified. The majority came from the Departamento de Montevideo, the largest population district of the country. Most of the cases fell into the 60 to 69 years old age range (35%). Females represented 32% of the total. Since the establishment of the laboratory, the number of forensic cases increased considerably from 20 in 1991 to 40 in 1997. The case studies were accompanied with skull-photo superimposition and facial reconstruction when no other evidence for positive identification was available. This service provided by the laboratory was quickly known to coroners, law enforcement agencies, and other legal authorities and thus utilized not only in Uruguay but also in several other countries in the continent. Because of the obvious need for an anthropologist, there are now university programs to provide forensic anthropological education. Yet, research has lagged behind considerably. Deficiencies are obvious in basic osteological standards of estimating age, calculating stature, determining sex and assessing race that can be applied to populations of the continent

  8. [Forensic entomology and globalisation].

    PubMed

    Turchetto, M; Vanin, S

    2004-06-01

    The main aim of Forensic Entomology has always been, and is today, to establish the time of death (P.M.I.: Postmortem Period) or, more exactly, how long a carrion has been exposed in the environment. Most of the invertebrate fauna occurring on corpses consists of insects (mostly Diptera and Coleoptera). They are selectively attracted by the decomposing status of the carrion, and form complex communities or biocenosis within necrophagous or sarcophagous species and their predators, parasites and parasitoids, competing each one another. The rapid and continuos changes of the micro-ecosystem (the body), until its breakdown, does not permit the achievement of a steady state or an equilibrium in the animal communities. These continuous modifications give us the possibility to estimate when (and where) the death has occurred, by the identification of the species feeding on the corpse, the knowledge of their life history, and the length of each stage of their cycle at varying the temperature and the other abiotic factors, external to the carrion ecosystem. The P.M.I. today is still largely based on the tables of faunal succession on human cadavers recognised by Mégin in 1894, with few changes proposed by Authors from other countries. In the last years, however, it happens more and more often, that the natural communities are subverted by the presence of allocton species, which can compete, predate or parasite the most common local sarcophagous insects, modifying, this way, the succession waves and the trophic nets. The immission in the environment of foreign species may be voluntary or casual, but in any case is due to anthropic activities. The voluntary immission happens when some species, employed in the biological struggle against pest or dangerous insects, for pollination of allocton plants, or for other commercial utilities, are beyond man's control and swarm onto the environment; the casual spread is due to the globalisation phenomenon, that distributes the "little

  9. Foundations of Forensic Meteoritics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treiman, A. H.

    1992-07-01

    , soil) adhering to a meteorite are samples of the actual physical environment in which the meteorite rested. Adhesion may derive from chemical cementation (incl. rust from the meteorite), biologic activity (incl. desert varnish?), or impact processes [2]. Given the wide diversity of geological materials and processes on the Earth, adhering geological materials may be useful forensic tools. For instance, fall in a volcanic terrane may be inconsistent with adhering sediments of clean quartz sand. Biologic matter on meteorites includes animal and vegetable matter mixed with the adhering geological materials, lichens and other plants growing in place, and purposefully attached animal matter (e.g. insect eggs). The most useful biological data may be provided by pollen, which can often be referred unambiguously to genera and species of plants. For example, sediments adhering to meteorites from the central Nullabor Plain (W. Australia) are different from sediments from the Plain's margin in S. Australia. Sediment on meteorites from the central Nullabor (e.g. Mundrabilla) lacks quartz sand and consists almost entirely of clay-sized particles, consistent with derivation from the local saprolitic soil. Sediment on meteorites from the eastern Nullabor (e.g. Hughes and Cook, S.A.) contains a significant fraction of quartz sand, 1/4- to 1/2-mm grains, probably blown from the Great Victoria Desert to the north and northwest. However, sedimentologic data alone may be misleading. For instance, sediments adhering to Nuevo Mercurio stones (H5; Zacatecas, Mexico) are clay-sized and lack coarser material. But sediment on Nuevo Mercurio (b), a ureilite found in the Nuevo Mercurio strewn field, consists of quartz sand and clay pellets, 1/4 to 1/2 mm diameter. Clearly, local environments may affect the character of sediment adhering to a meteorite, and careful detailed study may be required to determine whether a meteorite has been transported. I am grateful to R. Farrell and D. New for

  10. Microbial Forensics: A Scientific Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Keim, Paul

    2003-02-17

    Microorganisms have been used as weapons in criminal acts, most recently highlighted by the terrorist attack using anthrax in the fall of 2001. Although such ''biocrimes'' are few compared with other crimes, these acts raise questions about the ability to provide forensic evidence for criminal prosecution that can be used to identify the source of the microorganisms used as a weapon and, more importantly, the perpetrator of the crime. Microbiologists traditionally investigate the sources of microorganisms in epidemiological investigations, but rarely have been asked to assist in criminal investigations. A colloquium was convened by the American Academy of Microbiology in Burlington, Vermont, on June 7-9, 2002, in which 25 interdisciplinary, expert scientists representing evolutionary microbiology, ecology, genomics, genetics, bioinformatics, forensics, chemistry, and clinical microbiology, deliberated on issues in microbial forensics. The colloquium's purpose was to consider issues relating to microbial forensics, which included a detailed identification of a microorganism used in a bioattack and analysis of such a microorganism and related materials to identify its forensically meaningful source--the perpetrators of the bioattack. The colloquium examined the application of microbial forensics to assist in resolving biocrimes with a focus on what research and education are needed to facilitate the use of microbial forensics in criminal investigations and the subsequent prosecution of biocrimes, including acts of bioterrorism. First responders must consider forensic issues, such as proper collection of samples to allow for optimal laboratory testing, along with maintaining a chain of custody that will support eventual prosecution. Because a biocrime may not be immediately apparent, a linkage must be made between routine diagnosis, epidemiological investigation, and criminal investigation. There is a need for establishing standard operating procedures and training to

  11. Veterinary Forensic Pathology of Animal Sexual Abuse.

    PubMed

    Stern, A W; Smith-Blackmore, M

    2016-09-01

    Animal sexual abuse (ASA) involves harm inflicted on animals for the purposes of human sexual gratification and includes such terms as bestiality, zoophilia, zoosadism, animal sexual assault, and others. The prevalence of ASA is not known, although it may be more common than is currently perceived. Veterinarians have the skills required to identify and document cases of ASA. This article reviews the terminology, legal definitions and forms of ASA, and its social and psychological context. An investigative approach is outlined, including an alternate light source examination; collection of swabs for DNA analysis; sampling vaginal washes, rectal washes, and toenails for trace evidence and biologic analyses; radiographic studies; and a complete forensic necropsy, including histopathology. Gross lesions identified in ASA victims include injuries to the anus, rectum, penis, scrotum, nipples, and vagina; the presence of foreign bodies; and abrasions, bruising, and other evidence of nonaccidental injury. Specialized procedures, including examination using alternate light sources and screening tests to identify human seminal fluid within samples from ASA victims, are of potential value but have not been validated for use in animals.

  12. Bringing Science to Digital Forensics with Standardized Forensic Corpora

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    made available for unrestricted access. For example , the Enron Email Dataset (Klimt and Yang, 2004) is a corpus of 619,446 real email messages from...results can be reproduced by anyonedthere are no privileged experimenters or observers (given sufficient training and financial resources, of course...Sadly, much of today’s digital forensic research results are not reproducible. For example , techniques developed and tested by one set of researchers

  13. Posttraumatic Stress and Burnout Symptoms in Forensic Doctors and Staff in a Mortuary.

    PubMed

    Kömür, İlhami; Ozdemirel, Rifat O; Ozver, İsmail; Başpinar, Bünyamin; Demir, Muhammet; Gönen, Fatih; Kandemir, Eyüp; Emul, Murat

    2017-09-01

    We aimed to investigate burnout and posttraumatic stress symptoms in mortuary staff members who work for the Council of Forensic Medicine where more than 4500 autopsies are annually performed.The data were collected from 142 mortuary staff members from the Council of Forensic Medicine, Turkey. The participants were divided into the following 4 groups: forensic medicine specialists (n = 40, 28.2%), forensic medicine residents (n = 54, 38.0%), autopsy technicians (n = 24, 16.9%), and other staff members (n = 24, 16.9%). All of the participants completed a brief sociodemographic form and standardized questionnaires to assess health symptoms, such as the Maslach Burnout Inventory and Posttraumatic Symptom Screening Scale.Forensic medicine staff members are at risk for developing psychological health symptoms, such as burnout or posttraumatic stress, due to work-related stressors. We observed that autopsy technicians seemed to have more emotional exhaustion and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, whereas resident doctors had a lower sense of personal accomplishment.

  14. Forensic botany: usability of bryophyte material in forensic studies.

    PubMed

    Virtanen, Viivi; Korpelainen, Helena; Kostamo, Kirsi

    2007-10-25

    Two experiments were performed to test the relevance of bryophyte (Plantae, Bryophyta) material for forensic studies. The first experiment was conducted to reveal if, and how well, plant fragments attach to footwear in general. In the test, 16 persons walked outdoors wearing rubber boots or hiking boots. After 24h of use outdoors the boots were carefully cleaned, and all plant fragments were collected. Afterwards, all plant material was examined to identify the species. In the second experiment, fresh material of nine bryophyte species was kept in a shed in adverse conditions for 18 months, after which DNA was extracted and subjected to genotyping to test the quality of the material. Both experiments give support for the usability of bryophyte material in forensic studies. The bryophyte fragments become attached to shoes, where they remain even after the wearer walks on a dry road for several hours. Bryophyte DNA stays intact, allowing DNA profiling after lengthy periods following detachment from the original plant source. Based on these experiments, and considering the fact that many bryophytes are clonal plants, we propose that bryophytes are among the most usable plants to provide botanical evidence for forensic investigations.

  15. Forensic Taxonomy of Android Social Apps.

    PubMed

    Azfar, Abdullah; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond; Liu, Lin

    2017-03-01

    An Android social app taxonomy incorporating artifacts that are of forensic interest will enable users and forensic investigators to identify the personally identifiable information (PII) stored by the apps. In this study, 30 popular Android social apps were examined. Artifacts of forensic interest (e.g., contacts lists, chronology of messages, and timestamp of an added contact) were recovered. In addition, images were located, and Facebook token strings used to tie account identities and gain access to information entered into Facebook by a user were identified. Based on the findings, a two-dimensional taxonomy of the forensic artifacts of the social apps is proposed. A comparative summary of existing forensic taxonomies of different categories of Android apps, designed to facilitate timely collection and analysis of evidentiary materials from Android devices, is presented. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  16. Advances in American forensic sciences. California's role.

    PubMed

    Eckert, W G

    1981-06-01

    The forensic sciences in the United States, specifically forensic medicine, have benefited primarily from the advances made by the New York Medical Examiner Office pioneers and the philosophy developed in the Massachusetts medicolegal structure as begun in 1877. California's pioneering role is directly related to the development of criminalistics which in turn served as a stimulus for the improvement and development of forensic medicine in that state. Historically many private practitioners were involved in general criminalistics in California before the system of state criminalistic laboratories and criminal investigations was well established. Any report on the growth of the forensic sciences must include mention of the earlier pioneers including Heinrich, Kirk, Kytka, Crossman, Abernethy, Pinker, Helsel, and Noxley. A review of the current state of the art in the forensic sciences is presented, as is a review of the contributions of California to the development of American forensic sciences.

  17. Implementing Istanbul Protocol standards for forensic evidence of torture in Kyrgyzstan.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Alejandro; Crosby, Sondra; Xenakis, Stephen; Iacopino, Vincent

    2015-02-01

    The Kyrgyz government declared a policy of "zero tolerance" for torture and began reforms to stop such practice, a regular occurrence in the country's daily life. This study presents the results of 10 forensic evaluations of individuals alleging torture; they represent 35% of all criminal investigations into torture for the January 2011-July 2012 period. All individuals evaluated were male with an average age of 34 years. Police officers were implicated as perpetrators in all cases. All individuals reported being subjected to threats and blunt force trauma from punches, kicks, and blows with objects such as police batons. The most common conditions documented during the evaluations were traumatic brain injury and chronic seizures. Psychological sequelae included post-traumatic stress disorder and major depressive disorder, which was diagnosed in seven individuals. In all cases, the physical and psychological evidence was highly consistent with individual allegations of abuse. These forensic evaluations, which represent the first ever to be conducted in Kyrgyzstan in accordance with Istanbul Protocol standards, provide critical insight into torture practices in the country. The evaluations indicate a pattern of brutal torture practices and inadequate governmental and nongovernmental forensic evaluations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  18. [The application of radiological image in forensic medicine].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ji-Zong; Che, Hong-Min; Xu, Li-Xiang

    2006-04-01

    Personal identification is an important work in forensic investigation included sex discrimination, age and stature estimation. Human identification depended on radiological image technique analysis is a practice and proper method in forensic science field. This paper intended to understand the advantage and defect by reviewed the employing of forensic radiology in forensic science field broadly and provide a reference to perfect the application of forensic radiology in forensic science field.

  19. The Forensic Widow: Reflections on Living with and Assisting a Forensic Director.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Gina

    A number of unique challenges face the spouse of a forensic educator, including the possibility of becoming a forensic widow/widower. The job of a forensics coach is all-encompassing and requires endless hours of dedication, drive, and driving. Trying to keep up on all of the required duties is very time consuming and leaves little time for…

  20. Forensic experience of Saudi nurses; an emerging need for forensic qualifications.

    PubMed

    Alsaif, Dalia M; Alfaraidy, Maram; Alsowayigh, Kholoud; Alhusain, Awal; Almadani, Osama M

    2014-10-01

    Forensic nursing was recognized as a nursing subspecialty after the perceived need for forensic nurses to bring about their nursing duties while at the same time helping legal authorities to deliver justice. With the increased rate of cases that are presenting to the forensic centers in Saudi Arabia, there was a need for the presence of nurses to work side by side to physicians. This study was aimed at determining the forensic qualifications of nurses working in emergency departments in the area of Dammam and their knowledge about principles of forensic nursing. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to registered nurses who are working in Emergency departments of secondary hospitals in the area of Dammam. Questions included knowledge, awareness and attitude toward forensic nursing. A total of 96 participants responded to the questionnaire with females representing 78% (n: 75). Diploma was the highest earned nursing degree in 95% (n: 91) of participants. Only 33% (n: 32) were aware of the term forensic nursing and the majority of the respondents gave invalid or didn't know the answers to knowledge questions. A total of 77% (n: 74) agreed that they are not adequately trained for handling forensic cases. Saudi nurses need forensic education. The presence of qualified forensic nurses would help delivering optimal forensic services and would assist in bringing justice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  1. Diversity in United States Forensics: A Report of Research Conducted for the American Forensic Association.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Mike; Ulrich, Tammie; Trejo, Mary; Bartanen, Michael; Schroeder, Anthony

    This study investigated the participation of women and minorities in the United States forensic community. Surveys sent to a large cross-section of the college and university forensic community examined such issues as: academic mission; funding sources for the forensic program; program evaluation; program size; program activities; program records…

  2. Cited Author Searching: Implications for Instruction in Forensic Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perdue, Bob; Piotrowski, Chris

    2004-01-01

    Cited author database searches are an effective means of identifying a list of references that have "cited" the works of a particular author. Yet graduate-level instruction on the efficacy of search strategies, when commentary on a specific author are needed, has been largely ignored. This paper presents a framework for cited author searching with…

  3. Cited Author Searching: Implications for Instruction in Forensic Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perdue, Bob; Piotrowski, Chris

    2004-01-01

    Cited author database searches are an effective means of identifying a list of references that have "cited" the works of a particular author. Yet graduate-level instruction on the efficacy of search strategies, when commentary on a specific author are needed, has been largely ignored. This paper presents a framework for cited author searching with…

  4. Client-side Skype forensics: an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meißner, Tina; Kröger, Knut; Creutzburg, Reiner

    2013-03-01

    IT security and computer forensics are important components in the information technology. In the present study, a client-side Skype forensics is performed. It is designed to explain which kind of user data are stored on a computer and which tools allow the extraction of those data for a forensic investigation. There are described both methods - a manual analysis and an analysis with (mainly) open source tools, respectively.

  5. Guidelines in forensic odontology: legal aspects.

    PubMed

    Vermylen, Y

    2006-05-15

    The task of the forensic dentist is ruled by an obligation to be diligent and prudent. If guidelines should exist which are recognised by the dental forensic community, they will probably be used to judge his work, even if guidelines are only considered as recommendations. The questions to be answered are: who issued these guidelines and are they conform to evidence-based forensic odontology.

  6. Distinction between forensic evidence and dermatological findings.

    PubMed

    Hammer, U; Boy, D; Rothaupt, D; Büttner, A

    2015-07-01

    The external examination after death requires knowledge in forensics/pathology, dermatology, as well as associated diseases and age-related alterations of the skin. This article highlights some findings with forensic evidence versus dermatological findings. The lectures in forensic medicine should be structured interdisciplinarily, especially to dermatology, internal medicine, surgery, pathology, and toxicology in order to train the overlapping skills required for external and internal postmortem examinations.

  7. Sex determination in forensic odontology: A review.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishnan, K; Sharma, Subramanya; Sreeja, C; Pratima, D Bhavani; Aesha, I; Vijayabanu, B

    2015-08-01

    Forensic odontology is the application of dental principles to legal issues. Sex determination is a subdivision of forensic odontology and it is very important especially when information relating to the deceased is unavailable. Sex determination becomes the first priority in the process of identification of a person by a forensic investigator in the case of mishaps, chemical and nuclear bomb explosions, natural disasters crime investigations, and ethnic studies. This article reviews upon the various methods used in sex determination.

  8. Forensic Pathology Education in Pathology Residency

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Wayne K.; Domen, Ronald E.

    2017-01-01

    Forensic pathology is a fundamental part of anatomic pathology training during pathology residency. However, the lack of information on forensic teaching suggests the highly variable nature of forensic education. A survey of pathology residency program directors was performed to determine key aspects of their respective forensic rotations and curriculum. A total of 38.3% of programs from across the country responded, and the survey results show 5.6% don’t require a forensic pathology rotation. In those that do, most forensic pathology rotations are 4 weeks long, are done at a medical examiner’s office, and require set prerequisites. A total of 21.1% of responding programs have residents who are not receiving documented evaluations for this rotation. While 39.6% of programs have a defined forensics curriculum, as many as 15% do not. Furthermore, nearly 43% of programs place no limit on counting forensic autopsies when applying for pathology board examinations. Our survey confirmed the inconsistent nature of forensic pathology training in resident education. Additionally, our curriculum was reorganized to create a more robust educational experience. A pre- and post-forensic lecture quiz and Resident In-Service Examination scores were analyzed to determine our curriculum’s impact and effectiveness. Analysis of our pre- and post-lecture quiz showed an improved overall average as well as an increase in Resident In-Service Examination scores, indicating improved general forensic pathology knowledge. Using this knowledge, along with changes in our curriculum, we generated a number of recommendations for improving forensic pathology education in pathology residency. PMID:28913415

  9. Sex determination in forensic odontology: A review

    PubMed Central

    Ramakrishnan, K.; Sharma, Subramanya; Sreeja, C.; Pratima, D. Bhavani; Aesha, I.; Vijayabanu, B.

    2015-01-01

    Forensic odontology is the application of dental principles to legal issues. Sex determination is a subdivision of forensic odontology and it is very important especially when information relating to the deceased is unavailable. Sex determination becomes the first priority in the process of identification of a person by a forensic investigator in the case of mishaps, chemical and nuclear bomb explosions, natural disasters crime investigations, and ethnic studies. This article reviews upon the various methods used in sex determination. PMID:26538886

  10. Artefact in forensic medicine: scrotal mummification.

    PubMed

    Patel, F

    2003-12-01

    Misinterpretation of postmortem artefacts in forensic medical practice may result in a misdiagnosis of criminal activity. Forensic physicians at the scene can liaise with forensic pathologists and visit the mortuary in the company of the crime scene investigators or scenes-of-crime officers to ensure all relevant facts are identified. In this case a postmortem change created by partial dessication of the scrotal skin was misinterpreted as a suspicious injury.

  11. Forensic Implications of Neuroscientific Advancements.

    PubMed

    Hauser, Lori L

    2016-06-01

    Im draws a parallel between the neurobiology of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and that of trauma survivors, to explain why individuals with ASD may be more vulnerable to trauma as a risk factor for violence. This commentary raises questions about how we use this information in a forensic context, including its potential misuses. It urges caution in not overstating the data before we have a more nuanced understanding of how our neural circuitry influences specific behaviors and mental states, while not allowing the science to advance faster than we can harness it, overstepping its bounds in decisions we make regarding fairness and justice. It raises these concerns against a backdrop of the diametrically opposed assumptions about human behavior embraced by the two disciplines, mental health and the law, that come together in the forensic arena.

  12. Microbiome Tools for Forensic Science.

    PubMed

    Metcalf, Jessica L; Xu, Zhenjiang Z; Bouslimani, Amina; Dorrestein, Pieter; Carter, David O; Knight, Rob

    2017-09-01

    Microbes are present at every crime scene and have been used as physical evidence for over a century. Advances in DNA sequencing and computational approaches have led to recent breakthroughs in the use of microbiome approaches for forensic science, particularly in the areas of estimating postmortem intervals (PMIs), locating clandestine graves, and obtaining soil and skin trace evidence. Low-cost, high-throughput technologies allow us to accumulate molecular data quickly and to apply sophisticated machine-learning algorithms, building generalizable predictive models that will be useful in the criminal justice system. In particular, integrating microbiome and metabolomic data has excellent potential to advance microbial forensics. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Eugen Bleuler and forensic psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Möller, Arnulf; Hell, Daniel

    2002-01-01

    The list of Eugen Bleuler's writings shows that he grappled with forensic issues quite early, even before he became a full professor in 1898. Bleuler regularly prepared forensic criminal expert's reports himself until emeritus status was conferred on him in 1927. Analysis of his writings indicates that his position remained explicitly deterministic. In Bleuler's later work, that position was integrated into the natural philosophy vitalistic theory of mnemism, itself part of a more comprehensive theory, without any corrections to its content. Eugen Bleuler always remained a critic of criminal law, although it can be seen from later expert's reports that he for the most part accepted the existing system for the administration of justice for practical reasons. However, Bleuler always defended the idea that punishment should not be based on the moral guilt of the perpetrator but rather on the prospect of curing him.

  14. Psychological Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Print Jump to Topic Psychological Treatments Understanding Stress Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Relaxation Techniques for IBS The cause of irritable ... used to treat IBS include psychotherapy (dynamic and cognitive-behavioral therapy ), ... hypnotherapy , and biofeedback therapy . Psychological treatments ...

  15. The forensic aspects of sexual violence.

    PubMed

    Newton, Mary

    2013-02-01

    Complainants of sexual assault may disclose to different agencies, the police and health professionals being the most likely. It is possible for certain evidence types to be collected before a clinical forensic assessment takes place that do not require the need for a Forensic Medical Practitioner. If the time frames after the incident and the nature of assault warrant the need for a forensic medical examination of either a complainant or a suspect, this should only be conducted by doctors and nurses who have received relevant, up-to-date specialist theoretical and practical training. Clear evidence shows that few other criminal offences require as extensive an examination and collection of forensic evidence as that of a sexual assault. The forensic evidence in a case may identify an assailant, eliminate a nominated suspect(s), and assist in the prosecution of a case. The elements of forensic medical examination, reviewed in this chapter, are those that are the most varied across jurisdictions around the world currently. Key focus points of this chapter are considerations for early evidence collection, utilising dedicated medical examination facilities for sample collection, contamination issues associated with evidence collection and certain practical aspects of forensic sampling methods which have evolved given results identified by Forensic Scientists processing evidential samples in sexual assault cases, Some of the problems encountered by the forensic science provider will also be discussed.

  16. DNA fingerprinting in forensics: past, present, future.

    PubMed

    Roewer, Lutz

    2013-11-18

    DNA fingerprinting, one of the great discoveries of the late 20th century, has revolutionized forensic investigations. This review briefly recapitulates 30 years of progress in forensic DNA analysis which helps to convict criminals, exonerate the wrongly accused, and identify victims of crime, disasters, and war. Current standard methods based on short tandem repeats (STRs) as well as lineage markers (Y chromosome, mitochondrial DNA) are covered and applications are illustrated by casework examples. Benefits and risks of expanding forensic DNA databases are discussed and we ask what the future holds for forensic DNA fingerprinting.

  17. Forensic documentation of battered pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Sheridan, D J

    1996-01-01

    Patients hurt during intimate partner abuse are crime victims who may seek legal relief and protection from one or more court systems. What the health care provider documents or does not document may have tremendous forensic implications; yet, most health care providers have received little formal training in clinical forensics. Being subpoenaed to court as a witness can trigger fear and anxiety. This article reviews the basic principles of clinical forensic documentation, evidence collection and preservation, forensic photography, and accurate wound identification, as well as tips on working with police and on testifying in court.

  18. Evolution of forensic odontology: An overview.

    PubMed

    Balachander, N; Babu, N Aravindha; Jimson, Sudha; Priyadharsini, C; Masthan, K M K

    2015-04-01

    Forensic dentistry or forensic odontology admits dentists' participation or identification of the victim and assisting legal and criminal issues. It refers to the proper handling, examination, identification and evaluation of dental evidence. This article summarizes the evolution of forensic odontology that started right from Garden of Eden to the modern scenario in identification of the gang rape case which happened in the state capital. Forensic dentistry plays a significant role in identifying the victims of crime, deceased individuals through the examination of anatomical structures, dental appliances and dental restorations.

  19. An Android Communication App Forensic Taxonomy.

    PubMed

    Azfar, Abdullah; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond; Liu, Lin

    2016-09-01

    Due to the popularity of Android devices and applications (apps), Android forensics is one of the most studied topics within mobile forensics. Communication apps, such as instant messaging and Voice over IP (VoIP), are one popular app category used by mobile device users, including criminals. Therefore, a taxonomy outlining artifacts of forensic interest involving the use of Android communication apps will facilitate the timely collection and analysis of evidentiary materials from such apps. In this paper, 30 popular Android communication apps were examined, where a logical extraction of the Android phone images was collected using XRY, a widely used mobile forensic tool. Various information of forensic interest, such as contact lists and chronology of messages, was recovered. Based on the findings, a two-dimensional taxonomy of the forensic artifacts of the communication apps is proposed, with the app categories in one dimension and the classes of artifacts in the other dimension. Finally, the artifacts identified in the study of the 30 communication apps are summarized using the taxonomy. It is expected that the proposed taxonomy and the forensic findings in this paper will assist forensic investigations involving Android communication apps. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  20. DNA fingerprinting in forensics: past, present, future

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    DNA fingerprinting, one of the great discoveries of the late 20th century, has revolutionized forensic investigations. This review briefly recapitulates 30 years of progress in forensic DNA analysis which helps to convict criminals, exonerate the wrongly accused, and identify victims of crime, disasters, and war. Current standard methods based on short tandem repeats (STRs) as well as lineage markers (Y chromosome, mitochondrial DNA) are covered and applications are illustrated by casework examples. Benefits and risks of expanding forensic DNA databases are discussed and we ask what the future holds for forensic DNA fingerprinting. PMID:24245688

  1. Use of DNA technology in forensic dentistry.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Ricardo Henrique Alves; Sales-Peres, Arsenio; de Oliveira, Rogério Nogueira; de Oliveira, Fernando Toledo; Sales-Peres, Sílvia Helena de Carvalho

    2007-06-01

    The established importance of Forensic Dentistry for human identification, mainly when there is little remaining material to perform such identification (e.g., in fires, explosions, decomposing bodies or skeletonized bodies), has led dentists working with forensic investigation to become more familiar with the new molecular biology techniques. The currently available DNA tests have high reliability and are accepted as legal proofs in courts. This article presents a literature review referring to the main studies on Forensic Dentistry that involve the use of DNA for human identification, and makes an overview of the evolution of this technology in the last years, highlighting the importance of molecular biology in forensic sciences.

  2. A metamodel for mobile forensics investigation domain.

    PubMed

    Ali, Abdulalem; Abd Razak, Shukor; Othman, Siti Hajar; Mohammed, Arafat; Saeed, Faisal

    2017-01-01

    With the rapid development of technology, mobile phones have become an essential tool in terms of crime fighting and criminal investigation. However, many mobile forensics investigators face difficulties with the investigation process in their domain. These difficulties are due to the heavy reliance of the forensics field on knowledge which, although a valuable resource, is scattered and widely dispersed. The wide dispersion of mobile forensics knowledge not only makes investigation difficult for new investigators, resulting in substantial waste of time, but also leads to ambiguity in the concepts and terminologies of the mobile forensics domain. This paper developed an approach for mobile forensics domain based on metamodeling. The developed approach contributes to identify common concepts of mobile forensics through a development of the Mobile Forensics Metamodel (MFM). In addion, it contributes to simplifying the investigation process and enables investigation teams to capture and reuse specialized forensic knowledge, thereby supporting the training and knowledge management activities. Furthermore, it reduces the difficulty and ambiguity in the mobile forensics domain. A validation process was performed to ensure the completeness and correctness of the MFM. The validation was conducted using two techniques for improvements and adjustments to the metamodel. The last version of the adjusted metamodel was named MFM 1.2.

  3. A metamodel for mobile forensics investigation domain

    PubMed Central

    Abd Razak, Shukor; Othman, Siti Hajar; Mohammed, Arafat; Saeed, Faisal

    2017-01-01

    With the rapid development of technology, mobile phones have become an essential tool in terms of crime fighting and criminal investigation. However, many mobile forensics investigators face difficulties with the investigation process in their domain. These difficulties are due to the heavy reliance of the forensics field on knowledge which, although a valuable resource, is scattered and widely dispersed. The wide dispersion of mobile forensics knowledge not only makes investigation difficult for new investigators, resulting in substantial waste of time, but also leads to ambiguity in the concepts and terminologies of the mobile forensics domain. This paper developed an approach for mobile forensics domain based on metamodeling. The developed approach contributes to identify common concepts of mobile forensics through a development of the Mobile Forensics Metamodel (MFM). In addion, it contributes to simplifying the investigation process and enables investigation teams to capture and reuse specialized forensic knowledge, thereby supporting the training and knowledge management activities. Furthermore, it reduces the difficulty and ambiguity in the mobile forensics domain. A validation process was performed to ensure the completeness and correctness of the MFM. The validation was conducted using two techniques for improvements and adjustments to the metamodel. The last version of the adjusted metamodel was named MFM 1.2. PMID:28445486

  4. Forensic medicine in the German Democratic Republic.

    PubMed

    Strauch, H; Wirth, I; Geserick, G

    2004-09-10

    Forensic medicine services were resumed in the territory of the Soviet occupation zone in early summer 1945. One coherent legal system was established, following the foundation of the German Democratic Republic (GDR), 7 October 1949. Forensic medicine was subject of teaching and examinations from the very outset. Sub-specialisation (fellowship) was introduced in 1955. The Gesellschaft für Gerichtliche Medizin der DDR (GDR Society of Forensic Medicine) was established in 1967 and began to organise with high continuity a wide-ranging variety of scientific events. Almost all administrative districts had their own institute of forensic medicine by 1990.

  5. USE OF DNA TECHNOLOGY IN FORENSIC DENTISTRY

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Ricardo Henrique Alves; Sales-Peres, Arsenio; de Oliveira, Rogério Nogueira; de Oliveira, Fernando Toledo; Sales-Peres, Sílvia Helena de Carvalho

    2007-01-01

    The established importance of Forensic Dentistry for human identification, mainly when there is little remaining material to perform such identification (e.g., in fires, explosions, decomposing bodies or skeletonized bodies), has led dentists working with forensic investigation to become more familiar with the new molecular biology techniques. The currently available DNA tests have high reliability and are accepted as legal proofs in courts. This article presents a literature review referring to the main studies on Forensic Dentistry that involve the use of DNA for human identification, and makes an overview of the evolution of this technology in the last years, highlighting the importance of molecular biology in forensic sciences. PMID:19089123

  6. Humanitarian forensic action - Its origins and future.

    PubMed

    Cordner, Stephen; Tidball-Binz, Morris

    2017-10-01

    Humanitarian forensic action is the application of the knowledge and skills of forensic medicine and science to humanitarian action, especially following conflicts or disasters. It has its early roots in the experience of the Argentine Forensic Anthropology Team and that of the Grandmothers of Plaza de Mayo in Argentina, is moulded by International Humanitarian and Human Rights Law and was developed by the International Committee of the Red Cross. Having demonstrated its worth, this new field of application of forensic medicine and science needs further development, integration and research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. [Neurolaw: its relevance for forensic psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Meynen, G

    2014-01-01

    Neurolaw is a new interdisciplinary area of research which investigates, from different perspectives, the significance of the neurosciences for law. To clarify the relevance of neurolaw for forensic psychiatry. The importance of neurolaw developments for forensic psychiatry was analysed on the basis of recent literature. Some of the developments in the field of neurolaw research concern issues that are currently evaluated by forensic psychiatrists, such as risk of recidivism and legal insanity. Developments in neurolaw are relevant for forensic psychiatry in a number of ways. An important problem, not yet resolved, is to what extent psychiatry will be prepared to help in shaping these developments.

  8. Evolution of forensic odontology: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Balachander, N.; Babu, N. Aravindha; Jimson, Sudha; Priyadharsini, C.; Masthan, K. M. K.

    2015-01-01

    Forensic dentistry or forensic odontology admits dentists’ participation or identification of the victim and assisting legal and criminal issues. It refers to the proper handling, examination, identification and evaluation of dental evidence. This article summarizes the evolution of forensic odontology that started right from Garden of Eden to the modern scenario in identification of the gang rape case which happened in the state capital. Forensic dentistry plays a significant role in identifying the victims of crime, deceased individuals through the examination of anatomical structures, dental appliances and dental restorations. PMID:26015703

  9. Forensic Analysis of BIOS Chips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gershteyn, Pavel; Davis, Mark; Shenoi, Sujeet

    Data can be hidden in BIOS chips without hindering computer performance. This feature has been exploited by virus writers and computer game enthusiasts. Unused BIOS storage can also be used by criminals, terrorists and intelligence agents to conceal secrets. However, BIOS chips are largely ignored in digital forensic investigations. Few techniques exist for imaging BIOS chips and no tools are available specifically for analyzing BIOS data.

  10. Nuclear Forensic Materials and Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutcheon, I. D.; Grant, P. M.; Moody, K. J.

    A short history and treatment of the various aspects of nuclear forensic analysis is followed by a discussion of the most common chemical procedures, including applications of tracers, radioisotopic generators, and sample chronometry. Analytic methodology discussed includes sample preparation, radiation detection, various forms of microscopy, and mass-spectrometric techniques. The chapter concludes with methods for the production and treatment of special nuclear materials and with a description of several actual case studies conducted at Livermore.

  11. Audit Log for Forensic Photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neville, Timothy; Sorell, Matthew

    We propose an architecture for an audit log system for forensic photography, which ensures that the chain of evidence of a photograph taken by a photographer at a crime scene is maintained from the point of image capture to its end application at trial. The requirements for such a system are specified and the results of experiments are presented which demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed approach.

  12. Particle Analysis in Forensic Science.

    PubMed

    Bisbing, R E; Schneck, W M

    2006-07-01

    Microscopic trace evidence includes particles from many sources such as biologicals, soil, building materials, metals, explosives, gunshot residues, and cosmetics. The particles are identified by morphological analysis, microscopy, and chemical analysis. Their identity is confirmed by comparison with reference materials or other comparison samples. The probative value of particles of forensic interest depends on their nature and the circumstances of their presence. Copyright © 2006 Central Police University.

  13. Forensic DNA Profiling and Database

    PubMed Central

    Panneerchelvam, S.; Norazmi, M.N.

    2003-01-01

    The incredible power of DNA technology as an identification tool had brought a tremendous change in crimnal justice . DNA data base is an information resource for the forensic DNA typing community with details on commonly used short tandem repeat (STR) DNA markers. This article discusses the essential steps in compilation of COmbined DNA Index System (CODIS) on validated polymerase chain amplified STRs and their use in crime detection. PMID:23386793

  14. Some New Facets of the Psychology-Law Interface.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, James T.

    While the field of forensic psychology has emerged as a recognized discipline, psychologists who work within institutional settings frequently feel frustration in dealing with inmates for whom they have had no responsibility or input during the critical pre-trial, trial and sentencing decision-making process. The roles and ways in which psychology…

  15. Some New Facets of the Psychology-Law Interface.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, James T.

    While the field of forensic psychology has emerged as a recognized discipline, psychologists who work within institutional settings frequently feel frustration in dealing with inmates for whom they have had no responsibility or input during the critical pre-trial, trial and sentencing decision-making process. The roles and ways in which psychology…

  16. Forensic application of optical correction.

    PubMed

    Collins, Randall S; Berg, Gregory E

    2008-04-01

    Prescription eyewear can be used to aid in forensic investigations. Until now, investigators and consulted eye professionals have been limited to a simple "match" or "no match" judgment. This article introduces optometry to a Web-based tool that can be used to assess the strength of a match between spectacle prescriptions and recorded patient information. Three databases with more than 385,000 individual prescriptions were used to create the Web tool that calculates the frequency with which a prescription occurs in various U.S. populations. A search for any prescription in the tool's database will result in a report of the number of times a given prescription occurred in the queried database(s) as well as the calculated frequency with which the combination of the given sphere power, cylinder power and axis are likely to occur. Practical application of the Web tool in 2 published cases has shown matches with frequency of occurrence of 5.33 x 10(-6) and 2.66 x 10(-6), respectively. This application currently is being used by the Joint POW/MIA Accounting Command Central Identification Laboratory (JPAC-CIL) and other agencies when optical materials are available in forensic settings. Further, this application currently is contributing evidence in an active murder case. The creation of this easy-to-use Web tool allows eye care professionals to provide strong statistical assessments when serving as consultants to forensic investigators.

  17. Forensic entomology: applications and limitations.

    PubMed

    Amendt, J; Richards, C S; Campobasso, C P; Zehner, R; Hall, M J R

    2011-12-01

    Forensic entomology is the science of collecting and analysing insect evidence to aid in forensic investigations. Its main application is in the determination of the minimum time since death in cases of suspicious death, either by estimating the age of the oldest necrophagous insects that developed on the corpse, or by analysing the insect species composition on the corpse. In addition, toxicological and molecular examinations of these insects may help reveal the cause of death or even the identity of a victim, by associating a larva with its last meal, for example, in cases where insect evidence is left at a scene after human remains have been deliberately removed. Some fly species can develop not only on corpses but on living bodies too, causing myiasis. Analysis of larvae in such cases can demonstrate the period of neglect of humans or animals. Without the appropriate professional collection of insect evidence, an accurate and convincing presentation of such evidence in court will be hampered or even impossible. The present paper describes the principles and methods of forensic entomology and the optimal techniques for collecting insect evidence.

  18. Body fluid identification in forensics.

    PubMed

    An, Ja Hyun; Shin, Kyoung-Jin; Yang, Woo Ick; Lee, Hwan Young

    2012-10-01

    Determination of the type and origin of the body fluids found at a crime scene can give important insights into crime scene reconstruction by supporting a link between sample donors and actual criminal acts. For more than a century, numerous types of body fluid identification methods have been developed, such as chemical tests, immunological tests, protein catalytic activity tests, spectroscopic methods and microscopy. However, these conventional body fluid identification methods are mostly presumptive, and are carried out for only one body fluid at a time. Therefore, the use of a molecular genetics-based approach using RNA profiling or DNA methylation detection has been recently proposed to supplant conventional body fluid identification methods. Several RNA markers and tDMRs (tissue-specific differentially methylated regions) which are specific to forensically relevant body fluids have been identified, and their specificities and sensitivities have been tested using various samples. In this review, we provide an overview of the present knowledge and the most recent developments in forensic body fluid identification and discuss its possible practical application to forensic casework.

  19. The need for an interdisciplinary approach in forensic sciences: perspectives from a peculiar case of mummification.

    PubMed

    Ventura, Francesco; Portunato, Federica; Pizzorno, Enrico; Mazzone, Silvana; Verde, Alfredo; Rocca, Gabriele

    2013-05-01

    The finding of a mummified body raises many problems, also because of the limits of the medico-legal investigations in case of mummification. Psychological autopsy and behavioral analysis have demonstrated a significant impact in case of equivocal death. The mummified corpse of a woman was found sealed in a wardrobe during the death investigation of a 36-year-old man, later discovered to be the woman's son. The woman's corpse was well preserved and no external injuries were found. Autopsy could not ascertain the cause of death. The state of the premises and the writings on the walls offered an opportunity to investigate the man's psychological profile and to better understand how the events might have taken place. The role of an accurate investigative analysis of the crime scene is a cornerstone of forensic pathology and the case presented underlies the importance of an interdisciplinary approach in forensic sciences.

  20. Child murder by parents and evolutionary psychology.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Susan Hatters; Cavney, James; Resnick, Phillip J

    2012-12-01

    This article explores the contribution of evolutionary theory to the understanding of causation and motive in filicide cases and also reviews special issues in the forensic evaluation of alleged perpetrators of filicide. Evolutionary social psychology seeks to understand the context in which our brains evolved, to understand human behaviors. The authors propose evolutionary theory as a framework theory to meaningfully appreciate research about filicide. Using evolutionary psychology as a theoretical lens, this article reviews the research on filicide over the past 40 years, and describes epidemiologic and typologic studies of filicide, and theoretical analyses from a range of disciplines. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Pharmaceutical Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolinsky, Donna

    1979-01-01

    Defines areas that could comprise pharmaceutical psychology. The discussion includes a review of literature, outline of areas in pharmacy in which psychologists could become involved, description of a project involving the application of psychology to pharmacy, and analysis of the concept of pharmaceutical psychology. A 99-item bibliography is…

  2. Psychological Treatments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barlow, David H.

    2004-01-01

    Psychology has recently identified itself as a health care profession and codified this change in the bylaws of the American Psychological Association. Although psychologists make a number of contributions to the nation's health-and mental health-the most identifiable activity focuses on treating physical or psychological pathology with…

  3. Positive Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Positive psychology is a deliberate correction to the focus of psychology on problems. Positive psychology does not deny the difficulties that people may experience but does suggest that sole attention to disorder leads to an incomplete view of the human condition. Positive psychologists concern themselves with four major topics: (1) positive…

  4. Positive Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Positive psychology is a deliberate correction to the focus of psychology on problems. Positive psychology does not deny the difficulties that people may experience but does suggest that sole attention to disorder leads to an incomplete view of the human condition. Positive psychologists concern themselves with four major topics: (1) positive…

  5. The use of insects in forensic investigations: An overview on the scope of forensic entomology.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Isaac; Mathew, Deepu G; Sathyan, Pradeesh; Vargheese, Geetha

    2011-07-01

    Forensic entomology is the study of insects/arthropods in criminal investigation. Right from the early stages insects are attracted to the decomposing body and may lay eggs in it. By studying the insect population and the developing larval stages, forensic scientists can estimate the postmortem index, any change in position of the corpse as well as the cause of death. Forensic odontologists are called upon more frequently to collaborate in criminal investigations and hence should be aware of the possibilities that forensic entomology have to offer and use it as an adjunct to the conventional means of forensic investigation.

  6. Tasks of research in forensic medicine - different study types in clinical research and forensic medicine.

    PubMed

    Madea, Burkhard; Saukko, Pekka; Musshoff, Frank

    2007-01-17

    In the last years the research output of forensic medicine has sometimes been regarded as insufficient and as of poor quality, especially when parameters as impact factors and external funding were taken into account. However, forensic medicine has different tasks compared to clinical medicine. The main difference between basic subjects, clinical and forensic medicine is not a lack of scientific efficiency in forensic medicine but is a result of the questions asked, the available methods and specific aims. In contrast to natural-scientific research, forensic science has furthermore important intersections with arts and socio-scientific disciplines. Etiologic and pathogenetic research is of only limited relevance in forensic medicine. Thus, forensic medicine is excluded from these research fields, which are mainly supported by external funding. In forensic medicine research mainly means applied research regarding findings, the probative value and reconstruction as well as examination at different points of intersection between medicine and law. Clinical types of research such as controlled randomised, prospective cross-sectional, cohort or case-control studies can only rarely be applied in forensic medicine due to the area specific research fields (e.g. thantatology, violent death, vitality, traffic medicine, analytical toxicology, hemogenetics and stain analysis). The types of studies which are successfully established in forensic medicine are comparison of methods, sensitivity studies, validation of methods, kinetic examinations etc. Tasks of research in forensic medicine and study types, which may be applied will be addressed.

  7. Research issues in forensic pathology: a survey of academic institutions employing forensic pathologists.

    PubMed

    Nolte, Kurt B

    2004-05-01

    In an effort to characterize research efforts in forensic pathology, a questionnaire was sent to a representative of each of the 14 academic medical centers that employ full-time faculty forensic pathologists. Responses were received from all 14 (100%) of the institutions queried, representing a total of 39 forensic pathology faculty positions; 21 positions were tenure track and 18 positions were clinical or other tracks. Of the 39 positions, 25 positions (64%) at 10 institutions required some degree of research or scholarly output. Of the 25 forensic pathologists with a research imperative, only 3 (12%) were principal investigators or co-investigators on funded forensic pathology-based projects. The major limitation cited by respondents on the performance of forensic pathology research was the lack of protected time from service responsibilities. Fellowship training in forensic pathology was available at 6 of the 14 respondent institutions. Of these institutions, 4 (67%) had a research requirement for trainees, and 4 (67%) provided research training. In conclusion, very few US medical schools currently employ full-time faculty forensic pathologists. Of these, only a small number of institutions prioritize research by these faculty members. Scant federal funds are available to support research in forensic pathology. Few forensic pathology fellowship programs provide research training. To achieve a robust research agenda in forensic pathology that is sufficient to support the needs of the criminal justice and public health systems will require a paradigm shift in the medicolegal death investigative system and investment by federal agencies.

  8. Forensic focused treatment planning: a new standard for forensic mental health systems.

    PubMed

    Schaufenbil, Robert J; Kornbluh, Rebecca; Stahl, Stephen M; Warburton, Katherine D

    2015-06-01

    Almost no literature addresses treatment planning for the forensic psychiatric patient. In the absence of such guidance, recovery-oriented multifocal treatment planning has been imported into forensic mental health systems from community psychiatric settings, despite the fact that conditions of admission and discharge are vastly different for forensic psychiatry inpatients. We propose that instead of focusing on recovery, forensic treatment planning should prioritize forensic outcomes, such as restoration of trial competence or mitigation of violence risk, as the first steps in a continuum of care that eventually leads to the patient's ability to resolve forensic issues and return to the community for recovery-oriented care. Here we offer a model for treatment planning in the forensic setting.

  9. Forensic Journal, Volume VI, January 1984.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forensic Journal, 1984

    1984-01-01

    While covering various English language forensics activities in Japan, this special journal issue is heavily devoted to debate. The 22 articles in the journal are divided into five sections as follows: (1) general information on the Japan English Forensics Association (JEFA); (2) debate, including reports on debate tournaments around the world, a…

  10. Liability Implications of Forensics Program Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voight, Philip A.; Ward, Courtney E.

    Forensics program administration raises a number of troubling liability concerns. The potential liability exposure of forensics administrators may vastly exceed the litigation risks that arise as a result of ordinary teaching duties. Potential liability exposure may result from the failure of program directors to act in accordance with college or…

  11. Taxonomy of Challenges for Digital Forensics.

    PubMed

    Karie, Nickson M; Venter, Hein S

    2015-07-01

    Since its inception, over a decade ago, the field of digital forensics has faced numerous challenges. Despite different researchers and digital forensic practitioners having studied and analysed various known digital forensic challenges, as of 2013, there still exists a need for a formal classification of these challenges. This article therefore reviews existing research literature and highlights the various challenges that digital forensics has faced for the last 10 years. In conducting this research study, however, it was difficult for the authors to review all the existing research literature in the digital forensic domain; hence, sampling and randomization techniques were employed to facilitate the review of the gathered literature. Taxonomy of the various challenges is subsequently proposed in this paper based on our review of the literature. The taxonomy classifies the large number of digital forensic challenges into four well-defined and easily understood categories. The proposed taxonomy can be useful, for example, in future developments of automated digital forensic tools by explicitly describing processes and procedures that focus on addressing specific challenges identified in this paper. However, it should also be noted that the purpose of this paper was not to propose any solutions to the individual challenges that digital forensics face, but to serve as a survey of the state of the art of the research area.

  12. Forensic Learning Disability Nursing Role Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Tom; Phipps, Dianne; Melling, Kat

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on a study carried out on the role constructs of forensic and nonforensic Learning Disability Nursing in relation to six binary themes. The aims were to identify if there were differences in perceptions of forensic learning disability nurses and nonforensic learning disability nurses in relation to the six binary themes of the…

  13. [Presentation of eponymous terms in forensic medicine].

    PubMed

    Nečas, P; Hejna, P

    2012-04-01

    The phenomenon of eponymous terms used in forensic medicine is described in the paper. Their linguistic basis, advantages and disadvantages for specialists or wider circles is discussed. Their spread in various language discourses is mentioned. A list of the most important eponymous terms in forensic medicine is the papers focus.

  14. Forensic Learning Disability Nursing Role Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Tom; Phipps, Dianne; Melling, Kat

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on a study carried out on the role constructs of forensic and nonforensic Learning Disability Nursing in relation to six binary themes. The aims were to identify if there were differences in perceptions of forensic learning disability nurses and nonforensic learning disability nurses in relation to the six binary themes of the…

  15. Teaching Forensic Psychiatry to General Psychiatry Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Catherine F.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The Accreditation Council on Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) requires that general psychiatry residency training programs provide trainees with exposure to forensic psychiatry. Limited information is available on how to develop a core curriculum in forensic psychiatry for general psychiatry residents and few articles have been…

  16. Digital Forensics Research: The Next 10 Years

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    Kreibich Christian, Levchenko Kirill, Enright Brandon, Voelker Geoffrey M, Paxson Vern, Savage Stefan. Spamalytics: an empirical analysis of spam... Kara , Hay Brian, Bishop Matt. Digital forensics: defining a research agenda. In: Proceedings of the 42nd Hawaii international conference on system...Nance Kara , Hay Brian, Dodge Ronald C, p Craiger Phili, Burke Paul, Marberry Chris, Brubaker Bryan. Virtualization and digital forensics: a research

  17. Forensic Journal, Volume VI, January 1984.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forensic Journal, 1984

    1984-01-01

    While covering various English language forensics activities in Japan, this special journal issue is heavily devoted to debate. The 22 articles in the journal are divided into five sections as follows: (1) general information on the Japan English Forensics Association (JEFA); (2) debate, including reports on debate tournaments around the world, a…

  18. Teaching Forensic Psychiatry to General Psychiatry Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Catherine F.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The Accreditation Council on Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) requires that general psychiatry residency training programs provide trainees with exposure to forensic psychiatry. Limited information is available on how to develop a core curriculum in forensic psychiatry for general psychiatry residents and few articles have been…

  19. Forensic nursing in Bolu, Turkey: a survey.

    PubMed

    Gökdoğan, M R; Erkol, Zerrin

    2005-02-01

    Forensic nursing is generally considered to be the application of the forensic aspect of health care combined with the bio-psychosocial education of the registered nurse in the scientific investigation and treatment of trauma and violence. In 1990 the term forensic nursing was established in the USA and has been developing in many countries as a subdivision of forensic sciences a nursing since. The first masters thesis with the subject of forensic nursing was written in 1997 at Istanbul University, Institute of Forensic Sciences. The aim of this survey is to outline the approach to forensic nursing by nurses in the province of Bolu, Turkey, and to determine the influence of education at undergraduate level and continuing education programs lectured in Istanbul. In this study, a questionnaire has been applied at random to clinical nurses and nursing educators, a total of 101 participants. 11 out of 18 questions, has also been compared with results acquired from Istanbul in 2002. The results were defined using SPSS and Primer statistics software. The results of this research revealed, that no formal training/education in clinical forensics has been received. It is suggested that formal education programs have to be developed at both, undergraduate and postgraduate levels, providing initial and continuing education.

  20. Forensic voice comparison and the paradigm shift.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Geoffrey Stewart

    2009-12-01

    We are in the midst of a paradigm shift in the forensic comparison sciences. The new paradigm can be characterised as quantitative data-based implementation of the likelihood-ratio framework with quantitative evaluation of the reliability of results. The new paradigm was widely adopted for DNA profile comparison in the 1990s, and is gradually spreading to other branches of forensic science, including forensic voice comparison. The present paper first describes the new paradigm, then describes the history of its adoption for forensic voice comparison over approximately the last decade. The paradigm shift is incomplete and those working in the new paradigm still represent a minority within the forensic-voice-comparison community.

  1. Development of forensic assay signatures for ebolaviruses.

    PubMed

    Song, Jian; Doggett, Norman; Wren, Melinda; Burr, Tom; Fenimore, P W; Hatcher, Eneida L; Bruno, William J; Li, Po-E; Stubben, Chris; Wolinsky, Murray

    2015-03-01

    Ebolaviruses are a diverse group of RNA viruses comprising five different species, four of which cause fatal hemorrhagic fever in humans. Because of their high infectivity and lethality, ebolaviruses are considered major biothreat agents. Although detection assays exist, no forensic assays are currently available. Here, we report the development of forensic assays that differentiate ebolaviruses. We performed phylogenetic analyses and identified canonical SNPs for all species, major clades and isolates. TaqMan-MGB allelic discrimination assays based on these SNPs were designed, screened against synthetic RNA templates, and validated against ebolavirus genomic RNAs. A total of 45 assays were validated to provide 100% coverage of the species and variants with additional resolution at the isolate level. These assays enabled accurate forensic analysis on 4 "unknown" ebolaviruses. Unknowns were correctly classified to species and variant. A goal of providing resolution below the isolate level was not successful. These high-resolution forensic assays allow rapid and accurate genotyping of ebolaviruses for forensic investigations.

  2. [Forensic psychiatry determination of mental capacity].

    PubMed

    2011-01-01

    Forensic psychiatry determination is, ordered by a court, the analysis and interpretation of medical facts with important legal implications. In that sense, psychiatrists (or neuropsychiatrists), apart from their professional expertise, must be familiar with legal, economical and social significance of medical data, so that their forensic reports are clear and useful in the context of legal procedure. This review deals with forensic psychiatry aspects of mental capacity. In the introduction of the article, the explanation of relevant concepts such as mental capacity, contractual and testamentary capacity, informed consent, undue influence and forensic determination in light of Serbian statutory law is presented. Further, the authors present basic principles of making forensic reports on mental capacity as well as contractual and testamentary capacity, and informed consent for eventual medical examination and treatment.

  3. Criminalistics and the forensic nursing process.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Ann Wolbert; Piatelli, Michael J; Pasqualone, Georgia

    2011-06-01

    Students learn science by actually performing science activities. The 12 laboratories described in this article assist students in applying the fundamental techniques germane to the field of forensic science to "solve" contrived cases and present "evidence" in a mock trial. Moreover, students are also confronted with some of the legal and ethical issues concerning the validity, reliability, and application of some forensic techniques. The pedagogical design of the laboratory course provides a rich, challenging, and interdisciplinary academic experience intended to augment and compliment the didactic forensic lecture portion of the course. This laboratory course was designed to engender, embody, and articulate one of the University's directive goals to support interdisciplinary teaching, research, and programming. Because we developed the laboratories on minimal funds, we demonstrated that it could be cost-effective. And thus, we recommend a laboratory science course be included as part of the curriculum of all forensic nursing students and practitioners. © 2011 International Association of Forensic Nurses.

  4. Accreditation standards for undergraduate forensic science programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Marilyn Tebbs

    Undergraduate forensic science programs are experiencing unprecedented growth in numbers of programs offered and, as a result, student enrollments are increasing. Currently, however, these programs are not subject to professional specialized accreditation. This study sought to identify desirable student outcome measures for undergraduate forensic science programs that should be incorporated into such an accreditation process. To determine desirable student outcomes, three types of data were collected and analyzed. All the existing undergraduate forensic science programs in the United States were examined with regard to the input measures of degree requirements and curriculum content, and for the output measures of mission statements and student competencies. Accreditation procedures and guidelines for three other science-based disciplines, computer science, dietetics, and nursing, were examined to provide guidance on accreditation processes for forensic science education programs. Expert opinion on outcomes for program graduates was solicited from the major stakeholders of undergraduate forensic science programs-forensic science educators, crime laboratory directors, and recent graduates. Opinions were gathered by using a structured Internet-based survey; the total response rate was 48%. Examination of the existing undergraduate forensic science programs revealed that these programs do not use outcome measures. Of the accreditation processes for other science-based programs, nursing education provided the best model for forensic science education, due primarily to the balance between the generality and the specificity of the outcome measures. From the analysis of the questionnaire data, preliminary student outcomes, both general and discipline-specific, suitable for use in the accreditation of undergraduate forensic science programs were determined. The preliminary results were reviewed by a panel of experts and, based on their recommendations, the outcomes

  5. Authentication of forensic DNA samples.

    PubMed

    Frumkin, Dan; Wasserstrom, Adam; Davidson, Ariane; Grafit, Arnon

    2010-02-01

    Over the past twenty years, DNA analysis has revolutionized forensic science, and has become a dominant tool in law enforcement. Today, DNA evidence is key to the conviction or exoneration of suspects of various types of crime, from theft to rape and murder. However, the disturbing possibility that DNA evidence can be faked has been overlooked. It turns out that standard molecular biology techniques such as PCR, molecular cloning, and recently developed whole genome amplification (WGA), enable anyone with basic equipment and know-how to produce practically unlimited amounts of in vitro synthesized (artificial) DNA with any desired genetic profile. This artificial DNA can then be applied to surfaces of objects or incorporated into genuine human tissues and planted in crime scenes. Here we show that the current forensic procedure fails to distinguish between such samples of blood, saliva, and touched surfaces with artificial DNA, and corresponding samples with in vivo generated (natural) DNA. Furthermore, genotyping of both artificial and natural samples with Profiler Plus((R)) yielded full profiles with no anomalies. In order to effectively deal with this problem, we developed an authentication assay, which distinguishes between natural and artificial DNA based on methylation analysis of a set of genomic loci: in natural DNA, some loci are methylated and others are unmethylated, while in artificial DNA all loci are unmethylated. The assay was tested on natural and artificial samples of blood, saliva, and touched surfaces, with complete success. Adopting an authentication assay for casework samples as part of the forensic procedure is necessary for maintaining the high credibility of DNA evidence in the judiciary system.

  6. An Empirical Investigation of the Relevant Skills of Forensic Accountants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiGabriele, James A.

    2008-01-01

    The author investigated whether views of the relevant skills of forensic accountants differ among forensic accounting practitioners, accounting academics, and users of forensic accounting services. Universities and colleges are currently considering adding forensic accounting courses to their curriculum. The results of the present study provide…

  7. An Empirical Investigation of the Relevant Skills of Forensic Accountants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiGabriele, James A.

    2008-01-01

    The author investigated whether views of the relevant skills of forensic accountants differ among forensic accounting practitioners, accounting academics, and users of forensic accounting services. Universities and colleges are currently considering adding forensic accounting courses to their curriculum. The results of the present study provide…

  8. International forensic automotive paint database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishea, Gregory A.; Buckle, Joe L.; Ryland, Scott G.

    1999-02-01

    The Technical Working Group for Materials Analysis (TWGMAT) is supporting an international forensic automotive paint database. The Federal Bureau of Investigation and the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) are collaborating on this effort through TWGMAT. This paper outlines the support and further development of the RCMP's Automotive Paint Database, `Paint Data Query'. This cooperative agreement augments and supports a current, validated, searchable, automotive paint database that is used to identify make(s), model(s), and year(s) of questioned paint samples in hit-and-run fatalities and other associated investigations involving automotive paint.

  9. [Incest--forensic genetic approach].

    PubMed

    Raczek, Ewa

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents intimate relationships between biologically and legally close relatives, complicated in the social, culture and religion perspective. (art. 201 of the Penal Code), but it chiefly addresses problems associated with giving opinion on the fatherhood towards the incestuous child. The report calls for a broader interest in this issue from expert witnesses in forensic genetics, as well as encourages them to publish examples taken from their own professional experience that may unquestionably be helpful to other practitioners in this field and above all will lead to extending educational methods related to widely understood DNA analysis in giving an opinion on arguable fatherhood.

  10. Clinical myths of forensic neuropsychology.

    PubMed

    Greiffenstein, Manfred F

    2009-02-01

    Clinical myths and lore are unfounded beliefs that still influence practice decisions. I examine the validity of six beliefs commonly encountered in forensic neuropsychology practice: the admissibility of test batteries; avoidance of practice effects; forewarning insures good effort; average deficits in bright persons; 15% chronic impairment in mild brain injury; and examiner bias causing malingering. I show these beliefs are invalid because of material misunderstandings of case law and literature, falsification by empirical findings, and lack of authoritative sources. The benefits, costs, and persistence of clinical myths are discussed.

  11. Forensic drug analysis and microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Al-Hetlani, Entesar

    2013-05-01

    The analysis of drugs of abuse in microfluidic devices has the potential to provide solutions to today's on-site analysis challenges. The use of such devices has not been limited to miniaturising conventional analytical methods used routinely in forensic laboratories; new and interesting approaches have been implemented in microfluidics and benefit from the ability to control minute amounts of liquids in the small channels. The microfluidic platforms developed so far have been used successfully to carry out single or multiple analytical processes and offer a great opportunity for new technologies for on-site drug testing. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Examination of mobile phones in a university forensic lab environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luttenberger, Silas; Kröger, Knut; Creutzburg, Reiner

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this article is to show forensic investigation methods for mobile phones to students in a university forensic lab environment. Students have to learn the usefulness of forensic procedures to ensure evidence collection, evidence preservation, forensic analysis, and reporting. Open source tools as well as commercial forensic tools for forensic investigation of modern mobile (smart) phones are used. It is demonstrated how important data stored in the mobile device are investigated. Different scenarios of investigations are presented that are well-suited for forensics lab work in university.

  13. [Political psychology].

    PubMed

    Resch, Mária; Bella, Tamás

    2013-04-21

    In Hungary one can mostly find references to the psychological processes of politics in the writings of publicists, public opinion pollsters, philosophers, social psychologists, and political analysts. It would be still important if not only legal scientists focusing on political institutions or sociologist-politologists concentrating on social structures could analyse the psychological aspects of political processes; but one could also do so through the application of the methods of political psychology. The authors review the history of political psychology, its position vis-à-vis other fields of science and the essential interfaces through which this field of science, which is still to be discovered in Hungary, connects to other social sciences. As far as its methodology comprising psycho-biographical analyses, questionnaire-based queries, cognitive mapping of interviews and statements are concerned, it is identical with the psychiatric tools of medical sciences. In the next part of this paper, the focus is shifted to the essence and contents of political psychology. Group dynamics properties, voters' attitudes, leaders' personalities and the behavioural patterns demonstrated by them in different political situations, authoritativeness, games, and charisma are all essential components of political psychology, which mostly analyses psychological-psychiatric processes and also involves medical sciences by relying on cognitive and behavioural sciences. This paper describes political psychology, which is basically part of social sciences, still, being an interdisciplinary science, has several ties to medical sciences through psychological and psychiatric aspects.

  14. Tetrahydrocannabinols in clinical and forensic toxicology.

    PubMed

    Kochanowski, Maciej; Kała, Maria

    2005-01-01

    Cannabinoids are the natural constituents of marihuana (cannabis). The main of them are delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (9THC)--psychoactive agent, cannabinol (CBN) and cannabidiol (CBD). Cannabis is administered either by smoking or orally. 9THC potency and duration of action as well as its and two of its major metabolites concentrations in organism highly depend on the route of administration. A single active dose of 9THC is estimated on 520 mg. 9THC is rapidly metabolised. It is hydroxylated to an active metabolite, I1 -hydroxy-delta9-tetrahydro-cannabinol (11-OH-THC), then oxidised to an inactive 11-nor-9-carboxy-delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THCCOOH), which is conjugated with glucuronic acid and predominantly excreted in the urine. The maximum psychological effect persists for 4-6 h after administration despite of very low 9THC blood concentrations. 9THC plasma concentration declined to values of 2-3 ng/ml during 3-4 h after smoking. Such a low concentration of the active compound in human organism create a demand for use of sensitive analytical methods for detection and determination of 9THC and its metabolites. The most effective techniques for 9THC and related compounds determination in biological material are chromatographic ones (gas and liquid) with mass spectrometric detection and different ionization modes. 9THC and its two metabolites (11-OH-THC and THCCOOH) are present in blood and hair, 9THC in saliva, and THCCOOH in urine. 9THC and related compounds are determined in autopsy material, although deaths by overdose of cannabis are exceptionally rare. Fatalities happen most often after intravenous injection of hashish oil. 9THC and its metabolites determination in different biological materials gives the basis for a wide interpretation of analytical results for clinical and forensic toxicology purposes.

  15. Forensic Science--Where Scientific Methods Are Utilized to Fight the Crime.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Henry C.

    1980-01-01

    Describes various scientific techniques used to analyze physical evidence, ten areas of specialization in forensic science, courses needed by forensic scientists, and the future of forensic science. (DS)

  16. Forensic Science--Where Scientific Methods Are Utilized to Fight the Crime.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Henry C.

    1980-01-01

    Describes various scientific techniques used to analyze physical evidence, ten areas of specialization in forensic science, courses needed by forensic scientists, and the future of forensic science. (DS)

  17. A psychological profile of a serial killer: a case report.

    PubMed

    Dogra, T D; Leenaars, Antoon A; Chadha, R K; Manju, Mehta; Lalwani, Sanjeev; Sood, Mamta; Lester, David; Raina, Anupuma; Behera, C

    2012-01-01

    Serial killers have always fascinated society. A serial killer is typically defined as a perpetrator who murders three or more people over a period of time. Most reported cases of serial killers come from the United States and Canada. In India, there are few reported cases. We present, to the best of our knowledge, the first Indian case in the literature. The present case is of a 28-year-old man, Surinder Koli. The Department of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delphi handled the forensic study. We present a most unique psychological investigation into the mind of a serial killer.

  18. Quality assurance in forensic pathology.

    PubMed

    Ong, Beng Beng; Milne, Nathan

    2009-06-01

    One of the requirements for proper running of a pathology laboratory is implementation of a quality assurance programme. Forensic pathology is not exempted, especially so when cases are increasing in complexity. It is not difficult to introduce a quality assurance programme even in a small forensic centre. Among the steps that can be implemented including introduction of a set of minimal standards in performance of the autopsy, timeliness and report writing, a vigorous peer review process either internally or externally and participation in external quality programmes. Proper documentation of the post-mortem process (photography, slides and blocks and various imaging modalities) is to be encouraged. There should be limits set on workload of pathologists as overburden is known to lower standards. A pleasant work environment is also essential. Personal continuous medical education should be made mandatory. Introduction of a quality assurance programme will not only improve standards but minimise possible negligence. The post-mortem reports will be seen to carry more weight in court.

  19. Forensic Analysis of Compromised Computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    Directory Tree Analysis File Generator is a Practical Extraction and Reporting Language (PERL) script that simplifies and automates the collection of information for forensic analysis of compromised computer systems. During such an analysis, it is sometimes necessary to collect and analyze information about files on a specific directory tree. Directory Tree Analysis File Generator collects information of this type (except information about directories) and writes it to a text file. In particular, the script asks the user for the root of the directory tree to be processed, the name of the output file, and the number of subtree levels to process. The script then processes the directory tree and puts out the aforementioned text file. The format of the text file is designed to enable the submission of the file as input to a spreadsheet program, wherein the forensic analysis is performed. The analysis usually consists of sorting files and examination of such characteristics of files as ownership, time of creation, and time of most recent access, all of which characteristics are among the data included in the text file.

  20. [Forensic psychiatry problems in depression].

    PubMed

    Frank, C; Harrer, G

    1985-02-15

    Forensic complications involving criminal or civil law are generally rare in depressive disorders, but are of varied nature and of great consequence to the person concerned. Suicide, which is the problem of greatest practical importance may have far-reaching consequences with regard to legal insurance, apart from the medical responsibility or liability. From the point of view of civil law, moreover, the effects of depression on thought and action, as well as on free will with respect to legal capacity, testifiability, marriageability, actionability and potential considerations of interdiction ought to be examined. Last, but not least, consequences of a socio-legal nature may ensue. The spectrum of possible crimes by depressed subjects essentially comprises disease-characteristic offences, amongst which the desperate deed of extended suicide is foremost, as well as other criminal acts with a less direct connection to the depressive syndrome. Additional factors such as alcohol and medication may further complicate the relationship and also the assessment of culpability. In the forensic judgment of depressed subjects diagnostic classification is not alone decisive, but depends to a greater extent on the nature and severity of the psychopathological state and its influence on motivational aspects.

  1. Forensic Proteomics of Poxvirus Production

    SciTech Connect

    Wunschel, David S.; Tulman, Edan; Engelmann, Heather E.; Clowers, Brian H.; Geary, Steven J.; Robinson, Aaron C.; Liao, Xiaofen

    2013-08-27

    The field of microbial forensics has recently sought to develop methods to discern biological signatures to indicate production methods for biological agents. Viral agents have received less attention to date. Their obligate propagation in living cells makes purification from cellular material a challenge. This leads to potential carryover of protein-rich signature of their production system. Here we have explored a proteomic analysis of Vaccinia virus as a model poxvirus system in which to compare samples of virus propagated in different cell lines and subjected to different purification schemes. The proteomic data sets indicated viral, host cell and culture medium proteins, and several layers of data analysis were applied to build confidence in the peptide identification and capture information on the taxonomic utility of each. The analysis showed clear shifts in protein profiles with virus purification, with successive gradient purification steps showing different levels of viral protein enrichment. Peptides from cellular proteins, including those present in purified virus preparations, provided signatures which enabled discrimination of cell line substrates, including distinguishing between cells derived from different primate species. The ability to discern multiple aspects of viral production demonstrates the potential value of proteomic analysis as tool for microbial forensics.

  2. Electron microscopy and forensic practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotrlý, Marek; Turková, Ivana

    2013-05-01

    Electron microanalysis in forensic practice ranks among basic applications used in investigation of traces (latents, stains, etc.) from crime scenes. Applying electron microscope allows for rapid screening and receiving initial information for a wide range of traces. SEM with EDS/WDS makes it possible to observe topography surface and morphology samples and examination of chemical components. Physical laboratory of the Institute of Criminalistics Prague use SEM especially for examination of inorganic samples, rarely for biology and other material. Recently, possibilities of electron microscopy have been extended considerably using dual systems with focused ion beam. These systems are applied mainly in study of inner micro and nanoparticles , thin layers (intersecting lines in graphical forensic examinations, analysis of layers of functional glass, etc.), study of alloys microdefects, creating 3D particles and aggregates models, etc. Automated mineralogical analyses are a great asset to analysis of mineral phases, particularly soils, similarly it holds for cathode luminescence, predominantly colour one and precise quantitative measurement of their spectral characteristics. Among latest innovations that are becoming to appear also at ordinary laboratories are TOF - SIMS systems and micro Raman spectroscopy with a resolution comparable to EDS/WDS analysis (capable of achieving similar level as through EDS/WDS analysis).

  3. PSYCHOLOGICAL ADVANTAGES IN GAMBLING.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    GROUP DYNAMICS, *DECISION MAKING, *SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY , PERFORMANCE(HUMAN), GAME THEORY, MOTIVATION, PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS, BEHAVIOR, ATTITUDES( PSYCHOLOGY ), PERCEPTION( PSYCHOLOGY ), RECALL, PROBABILITY, SOCIOMETRICS.

  4. History of forensic medicine in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Oguz, Polat; Cem, Uysal

    2009-05-01

    Turkey has a short history of forensic medicine compared to the developed countries. Sultan Mahmud II established the first medical school of the Ottoman Empire named as Mekteb-i Tibbiye-i Sahane to provide health services to the army in 1839 [Gok S. Tomorrow, today and yesterday of the forensic medicine. 1st ed. Istanbul: Temel printing office; 1995]. It is also accepted as an important milestone of both medical education and forensic medicine in Turkey [Gok S and Ozen C. History and organization of forensic. 1st ed. Istanbul: Istanbul University Cerrahpasa Medical School Publications; 1982]. The first lecturer of forensic medicine at Mekteb-i Tibbiye-i Sahane was Dr. Charles Ambroise Bernard (C.A.). and he was also the first to perform autopsy in the history of Ottoman Empire [Gok, 1995]. Approximately 40 years after the first forensic medicine lecture in 1879, the Department of Medical Jurisprudence was established as a division of Zabita Tababet-i Adliye (Law Enforcement Office) in Istanbul [Sehsuvaroğlu and Ozen. History and development of forensic medicine in the world and in our country. Mag Istanbul Univ Med Fac 1974;36(60)]. This paper documents the first two cases of autopsies performed in Turkey with the original papers from the National Library.

  5. Forensic Science Curriculum for High School Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgess, Christiana J.

    Over the last several decades, forensic science---the application of science to civil and criminal legal matters---has become of increasing popularity with the public. The range of disciplines within the field is immense, offering individuals the potential for a unique career, regardless of their specific interests or expertise. In response to this growth, many organizations, both public and private, have recognized the need to create forensic science programs that strive to maintain and enhance the quality of forensic science education. Unfortunately, most of the emphasis placed on developing these materials relates to post-secondary education, and creates a significant lack of forensic science educational materials available in the U.S., especially in Oklahoma. The purpose of this project was to create a high school curriculum that provides the foundation for building a broad, yet comprehensive, overview of the field of forensic science and its associated disciplines. The overall goal was to create and provide course materials to high school teachers in order to increase their knowledge of forensic science such that they are able to teach its disciplines effectively and with accuracy. The Forensic Science Curriculum for High School Students includes sample lesson plans, PowerPoint presentations, and lab activities with step-by-step instructions.

  6. Forensic Entomologists: An Evaluation of their Status

    PubMed Central

    Magni, Paola; Guercini, Silvia; Leighton, Angela; Dadour, Ian

    2013-01-01

    The National Academy of Sciences (2009) published a review charting several key recommendations on strengthening the forensic sciences as an entity as part of an initiative put forth by the USA Congress to streamline and improve the quality of the forensic sciences and their impact on the judiciary process. Although the review was not totally inclusive, many of its sentiments have permeated into all the forensic sciences. The following paper is designed to determine who is practicing the science of forensic entomology, and in what capacity, by questioning practicing forensic entomologists about the type of education obtained, their countries' standards and accreditation processes, as well as general demographic information such as age and gender. A 28-question survey was sent out to 300 forensic entomologists worldwide in 2009. Of the 70 respondents, 80% had a formal education (either Masters or PhD), and 66% published their research. Approximately 50% of respondents were involved in the delivery of expert evidence and writing up case reports, and countries were actively involved with accrediting personnel, facilities, and entomology kits. Many discrepancies within the reported practices and accreditation processes highlight the need for the adoption of a standard code of practice among forensic entomologists. PMID:24219583

  7. Forensic entomologists: an evaluation of their status.

    PubMed

    Magni, Paola; Guercini, Silvia; Leighton, Angela; Dadour, Ian

    2013-01-01

    The National Academy of Sciences ( 2009 ) published a review charting several key recommendations on strengthening the forensic sciences as an entity as part of an initiative put forth by the USA Congress to streamline and improve the quality of the forensic sciences and their impact on the judiciary process. Although the review was not totally inclusive, many of its sentiments have permeated into all the forensic sciences. The following paper is designed to determine who is practicing the science of forensic entomology, and in what capacity, by questioning practicing forensic entomologists about the type of education obtained, their countries' standards and accreditation processes, as well as general demographic information such as age and gender. A 28-question survey was sent out to 300 forensic entomologists worldwide in 2009. Of the 70 respondents, 80% had a formal education (either Masters or PhD), and 66% published their research. Approximately 50% of respondents were involved in the delivery of expert evidence and writing up case reports, and countries were actively involved with accrediting personnel, facilities, and entomology kits. Many discrepancies within the reported practices and accreditation processes highlight the need for the adoption of a standard code of practice among forensic entomologists.

  8. [Forensic pediatric autopsy and medical responsibility].

    PubMed

    Rambaud, Caroline; Mireau, Etienne; Durigon, Michel

    2005-06-01

    The integrity of the human body is an intangible human right acknowledged to persist after death. Violating the integrity of the human corpse is a penal act sanctioned by the 1994 version of the French Penal Code. There are only three exceptions: for science (medical autopsy), for public health (organ removal for graft), and for justice (forensic autopsy). The parents' written agreement is needed to perform a pediatric medical autopsy but not for a forensic autopsy. For the forensic pathologist, taking oath does not imply an authorization to override the precepts of humanity nor the Hippocratic Oath. The forensic pathologist remains subject to civil and penal law. This is why forensic pathologists have an obligation of excellence besides their obligation of means. A pediatric autopsy is a specific procedure compared with an adult autopsy and requires specific training. Forensic pathologists, like all pathologists, who does not have sufficient expertise should not perform pediatric autopsy but rather call in a qualified pediatric pathologist. Tissues or organs removed during a forensic autopsy can be used only for diagnostic purposes, and the parents' agreement must be obtained for any other use.

  9. An exploratory study of forensic nursing education in North America: constructed definitions of forensic nursing.

    PubMed

    Kent-Wilkinson, Arlene

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore forensic nursing knowledge as a specialty area of study, and factors influencing its educational development. A purposeful sample of nurse educators who had established some of the earliest forensic nursing programs in North America were sought for their perspective to answer predominantly qualitative questions. Unexpected findings from this study resulted in the concept of forensic nursing being described, differentiated, and defined. Since the inception of forensic nursing, numerous definitions have been written to articulate the knowledge of the specialty. The constructed definitions of forensic nursing from this study not only validated prior definitions developed by individuals and associations by nonresearchable methods, but also led to a discussion of what concepts are important to include in definitions of forensic nursing.

  10. Psychological behaviorism and behaviorizing psychology

    PubMed Central

    Staats, Arthur W.

    1994-01-01

    Paradigmatic or psychological behaviorism (PB), in a four-decade history of development, has been shaped by its goal, the establishment of a behaviorism that can also serve as the approach in psychology (Watson's original goal). In the process, PB has become a new generation of behaviorism with abundant heuristic avenues for development in theory, philosophy, methodology, and research. Psychology has resources, purview and problem areas, and nascent developments of many kinds, gathered in chaotic diversity, needing unification (and other things) that cognitivism cannot provide. Behaviorism can, within PB's multilevel framework for connecting and advancing both psychology and behaviorism. PMID:22478175

  11. Psychological behaviorism and behaviorizing psychology.

    PubMed

    Staats, A W

    1994-01-01

    Paradigmatic or psychological behaviorism (PB), in a four-decade history of development, has been shaped by its goal, the establishment of a behaviorism that can also serve as the approach in psychology (Watson's original goal). In the process, PB has become a new generation of behaviorism with abundant heuristic avenues for development in theory, philosophy, methodology, and research. Psychology has resources, purview and problem areas, and nascent developments of many kinds, gathered in chaotic diversity, needing unification (and other things) that cognitivism cannot provide. Behaviorism can, within PB's multilevel framework for connecting and advancing both psychology and behaviorism.

  12. Taking a toy gun to school: a consideration of the determinants of adolescent forensic behavior in the aftermath of the Sandy Hook shooting.

    PubMed

    Rice, Timothy R; Hoffman, Leon

    2015-05-01

    Adolescent forensic behavior can have a variety of meanings. A consideration of the range of meanings can inform the practice of the psychiatric forensic evaluation. This case report describes the history of an adolescent in individual treatment for disruptive and self-defeating behaviors who brought a concealed toy gun into his high school in the aftermath of the Sandy Hook shooting. The overdetermined nature of this act, as well as a consideration of its multiple meanings in the context of the young man's psychology, his educational and family systems, and his relationship with his treatment provider, will be described and developed. The discussion will broaden to consider the parameters of indicated therapeutic programs to address this subset of adolescent forensic behaviors. The role of deficient implicit emotion regulation capacities in adolescents and the corrective measures to target these neurobehavioral deficits will be described. The report concludes with implications for primary prevention of future adolescent forensic behaviors.

  13. [The development and application of lie detection in forensic science].

    PubMed

    Wang, Lu; Yang, Ling; Ge, Yan; Cai, Ji-Feng; Chang, Yun-Feng; Lan, Ling-Mei

    2008-10-01

    Lie detection technology has been applied increasingly to investigate and solve criminal cases. This article explores the evolvement of lie detection technology in the ancient times and the application of the psychological and physiological parameters which have become more accurate with the introduction of modern polygraph. The cognitive exploration and the application of Event Related Potentials (ERPs), functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI), and Event-Related functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (E-R fMRI) have made detection technology focus on the brain activities, which produce more objective results by tracing the original state of lying. In summary, this article describes different types of lie detections, simple and complex, their working principles, the latest development, and the prospect of their application in forensic science.

  14. The effects of cognitive-behavioral treatment for forensic inpatients.

    PubMed

    Timmerman, Irma G H; Emmelkamp, Paul M G

    2005-10-01

    The effects of an intramural cognitive-behavioral treatment for forensic inpatients with personality disorders in a high-security hospital were examined. Treatment was aimed at modifying maladaptive coping and social skills, at enhancing social awareness, at reducing egoistic and oppositional behaviors, and at reducing psychological complaints. The patients, who all had committed serious crimes (violence, arson, sexual offences), participated voluntarily in the study. A total of 39 patients started the study, but during the course of the study, several patients dropped out because of several reasons. Patients as a group showed significant improvements over time on psychopathological symptoms, personality traits, and coping. A significant decrease of oppositional behaviors was reported by the staff. Though the patients improved well at the group level, only a minority of patients showed reliable change over time at the individual level. The meaning of the results in relation to treatment are discussed.

  15. The relationship between the detection of acquisitive crime by forensic science and drug-dependent offenders.

    PubMed

    Bond, John W; Sheridan, Lorraine

    2007-09-01

    Drug- and nondrug-related acquisitive crime offences such as burglary, theft, and motor vehicle theft, were compared to assess whether drug abusers were more likely to be apprehended via forensic science techniques. Data were all acquisitive offences committed over a 6-year period within a police force area in England. Drug-dependent offenders committed a wider range of offence types than nondependent offenders, and they were significantly more likely to be detected via their DNA or fingerprints (p < 0.01). A logistic regression (n > 14,000) revealed a number of predictors that influence the detection of the crime by forensic techniques. The results indicate that a number of these predictors are of statistical significance; the most significant of these being drug use by the offender with sex, ethnicity, and employment status also being relevant. Age of the offender and number of offences committed were found not to be significant. Of the four hypotheses considered to explain this, the most likely was thought to be the physical and mental impact of drug use on crime scene behavior. Consideration is given to the disciplines of forensic science and forensic psychology working closely together to distinguish factors that influence crime scene behavior.

  16. Open Source Live Distributions for Computer Forensics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giustini, Giancarlo; Andreolini, Mauro; Colajanni, Michele

    Current distributions of open source forensic software provide digital investigators with a large set of heterogeneous tools. Their use is not always focused on the target and requires high technical expertise. We present a new GNU/Linux live distribution, named CAINE (Computer Aided INvestigative Environment) that contains a collection of tools wrapped up into a user friendly environment. The CAINE forensic framework introduces novel important features, aimed at filling the interoperability gap across different forensic tools. Moreover, it provides a homogeneous graphical interface that drives digital investigators during the acquisition and analysis of electronic evidence, and it offers a semi-automatic mechanism for the creation of the final report.

  17. Forensic Applications Of Copper Laser Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    German, Edward R.

    1987-04-01

    Copper vapor lasers are being used in forensic applications at more than thirty regional, state and national level forensic science laboratories (crime labs) in the United States, Israel and Japan. These high gain lasing medium systems provide desirable operational and maintenance features. The green line produced by copper vapor lasers allows use of latent fingerprint inherent and chemically induced luminescence techniques developed for argon ion lasers. The yellow line has developed latent fingerprints which would not luminesce at blue-green wavelengths, and is better suited for some forensic examinations such as ink differentiation involving forgeries and document alterations.

  18. National Nuclear Forensics Expertise Development Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kentis, Samantha E.; Ulicny, William D.

    2009-08-01

    Over the course of the 2009 Federal Fiscal Year the United States (U.S.) Department of Homeland Security (DHS), in partnership with the Departments of Defense (DoD) and Energy (DOE), is continuing existing programs and introducing new programs designed to maintain a highly qualified, enduring workforce capable of performing the technical nuclear forensics mission. These student and university programs are designed to recruit the best and brightest students, develop university faculty and research capabilities, and engage the national laboratories in fields of study with application in nuclear forensics. This comprehensive effort constitutes the National Nuclear Forensics Expertise Development Program.

  19. [The application of palynology in forensic medicine].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dan-Yan; Zhang, Dan-Mei; Hou, Yi-Ping

    2007-12-01

    Palynology, one science of plant's pollen and spores, has been proven to be a new frontier discipline. Because of the characteristics of pollen and spores, such as small size, light weight, large amount, and difficult to be found, they can leave physical evidence and provide new clues to solve a case. Therefore palynology has a good prospect for practical application in forensic medicine. The paper intends to analyze the advantage and limitation of palynology in forensic medicine by reviewing its general characteristics, classification, morphology, and disseminating circadian rhythm. We hope to provide some reference to apply palynology in forensic medicine.

  20. The four faces of microbial forensics.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Jonathan B; Koblentz, Gregory D

    2009-12-01

    The emerging field of microbial forensics played a major role in the investigation of the 2001 anthrax mailings and has been closely associated with the process of attribution, or identifying the perpetrator of a biological attack for purposes of criminal prosecution or military retaliation. Nevertheless, microbial forensics has other potential applications in intelligence, nonproliferation, and verification. This article describes the relevance of microbial forensics for a variety of law enforcement and national security missions, examines the obstacles to its broader use, and concludes with some policy recommendations.

  1. Clinical forensic medicine introduction for healthcare providers.

    PubMed

    Recktenwald, Kathy; Hunsaker, Donna M; Corey, Tracey S; Weakley-Jones, Barbara

    2005-09-01

    Clinical forensic medicine (CFM) is "the application of appropriate forensic practices and principles, heretofore reserved for use by the pathologist at autopsy, to living patients in a clinical setting." "Living forensic" patients include survivors of trauma and potentially catastrophic experiences resulting in injury. CFM arose from "clinically" affirming that not all abuse or assault victims sustain fatal injuries. Appropriate medical documentation and interpretation of physical findings may aid law enforcement and/or social services in the legal evaluation of a case or situation. Additionally, timely collection of pertinent evidence may be performed as the case necessitates.

  2. Forensic Nursing Provides Closure in Workplace Fatality.

    PubMed

    Harris, Colin

    The Workers' Compensation Board of British Columbia in Canada is the provincial agency mandated to investigate workplace injuries and fatalities. In 2012, the Fatal and Serious Injuries Investigation section of this organization initiated the integration of forensic nursing expertise into the investigation of workplace incidents. The goals were to improve investigative outcomes and aid in prevention initiatives by achieving a more accurate understanding of incident causation through the application of forensic nursing science. An unexpected outcome of the use of forensic nursing expertise was providing closure for families through a deeper understanding of their loved one's tragic workplace incident.

  3. [Forensic Psychiatric Assessment with the Claim of Incitement, Solicitation, Assistance to Suicide, and Reinforcement of Suicide Decision: A Case Report].

    PubMed

    Eşsizoğlu, Altan; Sercan, Mustafa

    2017-01-01

    Although the act of suicide is not considered a crime in Turkish Criminal Law, any contribution (incitement, solicitation, assistance and reinforcement of suicide decision) to the commitment of suicide is a crime according to the 84th item. However, the number of cases opened with respect to this item as well as request for forensic psychiatric expertise is very rare. In these cases, forensic psychiatric expertise depends on the psychiatric evaluation of the individual that committed suicide and the analysis of his/her relationship with the person that incited the suicide. If the suicide is completed, then the psychiatric process gains the qualification of a "psychological autopsy". In this paper, we examined a reporting process prepared for an individual that died as a result of suicide and the person accused of inciting him to suicide.Evidence and forensic aspects are discussed.

  4. [Common paths of psychiatry and forensic medicine--history and evolution of insanity defense concept from antiquity to modern times].

    PubMed

    Bolechała, Filip

    2009-01-01

    Forensic psychiatry and psychology were in their beginnings inseparably associated with the forensic medicine, constituting one of its related branches of knowledge. Progress and development of these disciplines, education and the practical application for the purposes of the law were a contribution of a several generations of forensic pathologists in the 19th and 20th centuries. One of the major issues of common interest was opinionating on the sanity of offenders. However, the problem of criminal responsibility of the mentally ill perpetrators dates back to much earlier times and has its roots in the distant beginnings of human civilization. In this paper, the history and evolution of the insanity concept (as a circumstance excluding the guilt of the offender) were presented, from the oldest theories to ideas underlying modern codifications.

  5. Awareness of forensic odontology among police personnel: A new ray of hope in forensic odontology.

    PubMed

    Pandit, Siddharth; Desai, Dinkar; Jeergal, Prabhakar; Venkatesh, Sowmya

    2016-01-01

    Police personnel play an important role in collecting and producing evidence. Knowledge about the various aspects of forensic as well as dental sciences and related evidence in them provide a golden opportunity to forensic odontologists to actively participate in the identification of the accused or victim. They can also act as an expert witness in court to produce forensic dental evidence. To evaluate the awareness and knowledge about the utilization of forensic odontology during evidence collection by the crime scene investigation (CSI) officers. Four hundred police officers were included in this survey. A questionnaire was designed to assess the awareness and knowledge about forensic odontology and application of the known knowledge in identifying and considering the dental evidences. Data were analyzed using the software Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS, Chicago, Il, USA) version 17.0 by comparing the overall awareness of forensic odontology among the trained SI officers and trainee police personnel. The collected results showed that there is a requirement for changes in the current practice of evidence collection and highlighted the need for better communication between the police personnel and forensic odontologists. A significantly higher number of police officers in both the trained and trainee groups reported knowledge about the subject (P < 0.001) through newspapers and mass media as the sources of knowledge. Even though the respondents have knowledge about forensic odontology, there is a lack of communication and facilities in their system; hence, steps must be taken to educate the police personnel about the application of forensic odontology.

  6. An Improved Forensic Science Information Search.

    PubMed

    Teitelbaum, J

    2015-01-01

    Although thousands of search engines and databases are available online, finding answers to specific forensic science questions can be a challenge even to experienced Internet users. Because there is no central repository for forensic science information, and because of the sheer number of disciplines under the forensic science umbrella, forensic scientists are often unable to locate material that is relevant to their needs. The author contends that using six publicly accessible search engines and databases can produce high-quality search results. The six resources are Google, PubMed, Google Scholar, Google Books, WorldCat, and the National Criminal Justice Reference Service. Carefully selected keywords and keyword combinations, designating a keyword phrase so that the search engine will search on the phrase and not individual keywords, and prompting search engines to retrieve PDF files are among the techniques discussed. Copyright © 2015 Central Police University.

  7. [Potentials and prospects of forensic medical dermatoglyphics].

    PubMed

    Bozhchenko, A P; Tolmachev, I A; Moiseenko, S A; Kolkutin, V V; Rakitin, V A

    2009-01-01

    An overview of dermatoglyphic studies for the purpose of forensic medical expert examination is presented with special reference to their main aspects, such as topics and objects of the surveys, their scope and methods, relationships with other disciplines.

  8. Scientific standards for studies in forensic genetics.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Peter M

    2007-01-17

    Forensic molecular genetics has evolved from a rapidly developing field with changing technologies into a highly recognized and generally accepted forensic science, leading to the establishment of national DNA databases with DNA profiles from suspects and convicted offenders. DNA evidence has taken a central role by carrying a significant weight for convictions, as well as by excluding innocent suspects early on in a criminal investigation. Due to this impact on the criminal justice system, guidelines for research in forensic genetics have been introduced already since many years. The most important issues regarding the selection and definition of typing systems both for paternity testing and for forensic identification, the criteria for technical and biostatistical validation, as well as the use of mitochondrial DNA analysis are summarized and discussed.

  9. Unsolicited E-mails to Forensic Psychiatrists.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Susan Hatters; Appel, Jacob M; Ash, Peter; Frierson, Richard L; Giorgi-Guarnieri, Deborah; Martinez, Richard; Newman, Alan W; Pinals, Debra A; Resnick, Phillip J; Simpson, Alexander I F

    2016-12-01

    E-mail communication is pervasive. Since many forensic psychiatrists have their e-mail addresses available online (either on personal websites, university websites, or articles they have authored), they are likely to receive unsolicited e-mails. Although there is an emerging body of literature about exchanging e-mail with patients, there is little guidance about how to respond to e-mails from nonpatients. Therefore, we used a Delphi technique to develop a consensus about salient points for the forensic psychiatrist to consider regarding responding to e-mails from nonpatients and the risks entailed. Four scenarios are described, including e-mails from nonpatients and unknown others requesting advice or help. The potential ethics-related, legal, moral, and practical concerns for forensic psychiatrists are discussed. Finally, potential pitfalls for forensic psychiatrists are described.

  10. Role of dental expert in forensic odontology

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Anoop K.; Kumar, Sachil; Rathore, Shiuli; Pandey, Abhishek

    2014-01-01

    Forensic dentistry has become an integral part of forensic science over the past 100 years that utilizes dental or oro-facial findings to serve the judicial system. This has been due to the dedication of people like Gustafson's, Keiser-Nielson, and Suzuki for this field. They established the essential role which forensic dentistry plays mainly in the identification of human remains. The tooth has been used as weapons and under certain circumstances, may leave information about the identity of the biter. Dental professionals have a major role to play in keeping accurate dental records and providing all necessary information so that legal authorities may recognize mal practice, negligence, fraud or abuse, and identity of unknown individuals. This paper will try to summarize the various roles of dental experts in forensic medicine. PMID:25298709

  11. Role of dental expert in forensic odontology.

    PubMed

    Verma, Anoop K; Kumar, Sachil; Rathore, Shiuli; Pandey, Abhishek

    2014-01-01

    Forensic dentistry has become an integral part of forensic science over the past 100 years that utilizes dental or oro-facial findings to serve the judicial system. This has been due to the dedication of people like Gustafson's, Keiser-Nielson, and Suzuki for this field. They established the essential role which forensic dentistry plays mainly in the identification of human remains. The tooth has been used as weapons and under certain circumstances, may leave information about the identity of the biter. Dental professionals have a major role to play in keeping accurate dental records and providing all necessary information so that legal authorities may recognize mal practice, negligence, fraud or abuse, and identity of unknown individuals. This paper will try to summarize the various roles of dental experts in forensic medicine.

  12. [Substance use disorder. Forensic issues in Argentina].

    PubMed

    Toro Martínez, Esteban

    2008-01-01

    This article is a review of the main legal issues in illegal drug traffic in Argentina. The penal law includes corrective punishment, educational activities and forced treatment. Forensic issues and legal controversies are discussed.

  13. Case reports: Publication standards in forensic psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Annette; Martinez, Richard; Candilis, Philip J

    2014-01-01

    Psychiatrists who publish case reports are required to seek informed consent from their subjects on the basis of the ethics-related obligation to maintain patient confidentiality. Academic journals have developed editorial standards to fulfill this obligation. Forensic evaluations do not create a doctor-patient relationship in the traditional sense, and information obtained through a forensic evaluation may also be found in the public domain. This public exposure is particularly likely, given the development of open access publishing standards, online journals, and increasing professional involvement in social media. This article outlines the ethics of informed consent in published case reports for general and forensic psychiatry and offers recommendations for forensic case study publishing. The authors suggest changes in the current requirements stated in The Journal for publication of case reports.

  14. Forensic Medicine: An Aid to Criminal Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Deadman, William J.

    1965-01-01

    Forensic medicine is medicine as applied to the problems of the law. The origins of both are hidden in the mists of antiquity, dating from the beginnings of family and tribal life. Recorded human history goes back for 6000 years. Sumeria, Babylon and Egypt all contributed to the development of forensic medicine. Imhotep was probably the first real medicolegal expert. Hippocrates, the Greek physician, and Galen, the Roman, made considerable contributions. Little advance was made during the millenium of the Dark Ages. But Renaissance medicine gave this branch of medicine an impetus in the seventeenth, eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, and in the twentieth, interest in forensic medicine is worldwide. The physician, the coroner, the pathologist, the medical specialist and the forensic laboratory contribute to the investigation of crimes against the person, and to the solution of such problems as identification, untoward deaths, apparent drowning and many others. PMID:14269437

  15. [Forensic medicine and the overlap with pathology].

    PubMed

    Riepert, T

    2010-07-01

    Forensic medicine incorporates research, teaching and professional service. In the routine practice this encompasses interdisciplinary cooperation with physicians, natural scientists and the legal profession. Lectures in forensic medicine include the correct performance of an external examination of corpses, which every physician must be capable of, just as medical questions and the evidential documentation of injuries. Clinical forensic medicine encompasses the examination and documentation of living victims of physical and/or sexual violence. For further training to become a specialist for forensic medicine it is mandatory to undertake a 6-month training period in pathology. Fatalities with an unclear or unnatural manner of death must be registered with the police. On suspicion of third party involvement the public prosecutor will request a legal autopsy, which is carried out and documented by two physicians in accordance with the penal code. Imaging procedures are standard for an autopsy. Extensive samples are taken for additional testing, such as toxicological and molecular biological investigations.

  16. Development of a forensic evidence protection kit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acton, Brian; Kelly, Roy

    1999-02-01

    A kit has been developed for the preservation of vital forensic evidence on a suspect following a serious assault, murder or other offense where contamination may occur. This also includes the handling of firearms, explosives and/or drugs.

  17. Role of forensic pathologists in mass disasters.

    PubMed

    Schuliar, Yves; Knudsen, Peter Juel Thiis

    2012-06-01

    The forensic pathologist has always had a central role in the identification of the dead in every day practice, in accidents, and in disasters involving hundreds or thousands of victims. This role has changed in recent years, as advances in forensic odontology, genetics and anthropology have improved the chances of identifying victims beyond recognition. According to the Interpol DVI Guide, fingerprints, dental examination and DNA are the primary identifiers, and this has given new emphasis to the role of the forensic pathologist as the leader of a multidisciplinary team of experts in a disaster situation, based on his or her qualifications and the experience gained from doing the same work in the everyday situation of an institute of forensic medicine.

  18. Spectroscopic Sleuthing. An Introduction to Forensic Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zdravkovich, Vera; Cunniff, Patricia A.

    1991-01-01

    Described is a program in which students learn about spectroscopy and instrumentation to solve a chemical forensic mystery. Infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, refractometry, and chromatographic techniques were used. An example of a mystery case is included. (KR)

  19. Forensic patients--who is watching them?

    PubMed

    White, John M

    2012-01-01

    Does your hospital security department have the right and/or responsibility for checking out the qualifications and practices of private contractors hired by law enforcement to guard forensic patients? In this article, the author explains why you should.

  20. Emerging issues in forensic mental health.

    PubMed

    Petrila, John

    2004-01-01

    Forensic mental health traditionally was considered the backwater of forensic practice. However, because of advances in knowledge regarding the core issues of capacity and risk, and because of changes in the location of forensic assessment and treatment, "forensic" issues now permeate mental health practice and policy. While these advances have been important, there are a number of new issues that will occupy the attention of practitioners, researchers, and policymakers in the future. This article explores these issues and their implications, including the need to better integrate treatment and risk; the need to address the emergence of special jurisdiction courts and their impact on systems design issues; the need to address the impact of conservative social policies, particularly in the areas of juvenile justice and sexual predator legislation; and the need to better understand the use of coercion in the context of community treatment.

  1. Forensic veterinary pathology, today's situation and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Ottinger, T; Rasmusson, B; Segerstad, C H A; Merck, M; Goot, F V D; Olsén, L; Gavier-Widén, D

    2014-11-08

    To investigate the current status of forensic veterinary pathology, a survey was composed directed at pathology laboratories and institutes, mostly in Europe. The questions included number of and type of cases, resources available, level of special training of the investigating pathologists and the general view on the current status and future of the discipline. The surveys were sent to 134 laboratories and were returned by 72 respondents of which 93 per cent work on forensic pathology cases. The results indicate scarcity of training opportunities and special education, and insufficient veterinary-specific reference data and information on forensic analyses. More cooperation with human forensic pathology was desired by many respondents, as was more interaction across country borders.

  2. Spectroscopic Sleuthing. An Introduction to Forensic Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zdravkovich, Vera; Cunniff, Patricia A.

    1991-01-01

    Described is a program in which students learn about spectroscopy and instrumentation to solve a chemical forensic mystery. Infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, refractometry, and chromatographic techniques were used. An example of a mystery case is included. (KR)

  3. Error and its meaning in forensic science.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Angi M; Crowder, Christian M; Ousley, Stephen D; Houck, Max M

    2014-01-01

    The discussion of "error" has gained momentum in forensic science in the wake of the Daubert guidelines and has intensified with the National Academy of Sciences' Report. Error has many different meanings, and too often, forensic practitioners themselves as well as the courts misunderstand scientific error and statistical error rates, often confusing them with practitioner error (or mistakes). Here, we present an overview of these concepts as they pertain to forensic science applications, discussing the difference between practitioner error (including mistakes), instrument error, statistical error, and method error. We urge forensic practitioners to ensure that potential sources of error and method limitations are understood and clearly communicated and advocate that the legal community be informed regarding the differences between interobserver errors, uncertainty, variation, and mistakes.

  4. Contemporary practice in forensic odontology

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Shalini; Agnihotri, Archana; Chandra, Akhilesh; Gupta, Om Prakash

    2014-01-01

    Forensic odontology plays a major role in the identification of those individuals who cannot be identified visually or by other means. The unique nature of dental anatomy and placement of custom restorations ensure accuracy when the techniques are correctly employed. It is evident that identification of victims in accidents and natural calamities is of utmost importance and is a challenging task. The teeth may also be used as weapons and under certain circumstances; they may provide information regarding the identity of the biter. Dental professionals play a major role in keeping accurate dental records and providing all necessary information so that legal authorities may recognize malpractices, negligence, fraud child abuse and also, identify an individual. In this article, we will discuss such evolvement of the subject. PMID:25328306

  5. Forensic 3D scene reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Little, Charles Q.; Small, Daniel E.; Peters, Ralph R.; Rigdon, J. B.

    2000-05-01

    Traditionally law enforcement agencies have relied on basic measurement and imaging tools, such as tape measures and cameras, in recording a crime scene. A disadvantage of these methods is that they are slow and cumbersome. The development of a portable system that can rapidly record a crime scene with current camera imaging, 3D geometric surface maps, and contribute quantitative measurements such as accurate relative positioning of crime scene objects, would be an asset to law enforcement agents in collecting and recording significant forensic data. The purpose of this project is to develop a fieldable prototype of a fast, accurate, 3D measurement and imaging system that would support law enforcement agents to quickly document and accurately record a crime scene.

  6. Forensic trace DNA: a review

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    DNA analysis is frequently used to acquire information from biological material to aid enquiries associated with criminal offences, disaster victim identification and missing persons investigations. As the relevance and value of DNA profiling to forensic investigations has increased, so too has the desire to generate this information from smaller amounts of DNA. Trace DNA samples may be defined as any sample which falls below recommended thresholds at any stage of the analysis, from sample detection through to profile interpretation, and can not be defined by a precise picogram amount. Here we review aspects associated with the collection, DNA extraction, amplification, profiling and interpretation of trace DNA samples. Contamination and transfer issues are also briefly discussed within the context of trace DNA analysis. Whilst several methodological changes have facilitated profiling from trace samples in recent years it is also clear that many opportunities exist for further improvements. PMID:21122102

  7. Contemporary practice in forensic odontology.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Shalini; Agnihotri, Archana; Chandra, Akhilesh; Gupta, Om Prakash

    2014-05-01

    Forensic odontology plays a major role in the identification of those individuals who cannot be identified visually or by other means. The unique nature of dental anatomy and placement of custom restorations ensure accuracy when the techniques are correctly employed. It is evident that identification of victims in accidents and natural calamities is of utmost importance and is a challenging task. The teeth may also be used as weapons and under certain circumstances; they may provide information regarding the identity of the biter. Dental professionals play a major role in keeping accurate dental records and providing all necessary information so that legal authorities may recognize malpractices, negligence, fraud child abuse and also, identify an individual. In this article, we will discuss such evolvement of the subject.

  8. Forensic 3D Scene Reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    LITTLE,CHARLES Q.; PETERS,RALPH R.; RIGDON,J. BRIAN; SMALL,DANIEL E.

    1999-10-12

    Traditionally law enforcement agencies have relied on basic measurement and imaging tools, such as tape measures and cameras, in recording a crime scene. A disadvantage of these methods is that they are slow and cumbersome. The development of a portable system that can rapidly record a crime scene with current camera imaging, 3D geometric surface maps, and contribute quantitative measurements such as accurate relative positioning of crime scene objects, would be an asset to law enforcement agents in collecting and recording significant forensic data. The purpose of this project is to develop a feasible prototype of a fast, accurate, 3D measurement and imaging system that would support law enforcement agents to quickly document and accurately record a crime scene.

  9. Resolution in forensic microbial genotyping

    SciTech Connect

    Velsko, S P

    2005-08-30

    Resolution is a key parameter for differentiating among the large number of strain typing methods that could be applied to pathogens involved in bioterror events or biocrimes. In this report we develop a first-principles analysis of strain typing resolution using a simple mathematical model to provide a basis for the rational design of microbial typing systems for forensic applications. We derive two figures of merit that describe the resolving power and phylogenetic depth of a strain typing system. Rough estimates of these figures-of-merit for MLVA, MLST, IS element, AFLP, hybridization microarrays, and other bacterial typing methods are derived from mutation rate data reported in the literature. We also discuss the general problem of how to construct a ''universal'' practical typing system that has the highest possible resolution short of whole-genome sequencing, and that is applicable with minimal modification to a wide range of pathogens.

  10. Molecular pathology in forensic medicine--Introduction.

    PubMed

    Madea, Burkhard; Saukko, Pekka; Oliva, Antonio; Musshoff, Frank

    2010-12-15

    Techniques of molecular biology have improved diagnostic sensitivity, accuracy and validity in forensic medicine very much, especially in the field of identification (paternity testing, stain analysis). Since more than 10 years these techniques - meanwhile well established in clinical disciplines - are used also for other applications in forensic medicine: determination of cause and manner of death, tissue identification by mRNA and microRNA, examination of gene expression levels (survival time, time since death, cause of death), toxicogenetics.

  11. Modern Instrumental Methods in Forensic Toxicology*

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Michael L.; Vorce, Shawn P.; Holler, Justin M.; Shimomura, Eric; Magluilo, Joe; Jacobs, Aaron J.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews modern analytical instrumentation in forensic toxicology for identification and quantification of drugs and toxins in biological fluids and tissues. A brief description of the theory and inherent strengths and limitations of each methodology is included. The focus is on new technologies that address current analytical limitations. A goal of this review is to encourage innovations to improve our technological capabilities and to encourage use of these analytical techniques in forensic toxicology practice. PMID:17579968

  12. Pushing the limit: forensic nursing in Germany.

    PubMed

    Lambe, Andrea; Gage-Lindner, Nancy

    2007-01-01

    Violence remains a public health challenge and the nursing profession accepts this challenge by expanding its field. Although countries such as the United States, Great Britain, and Canada have employed forensic nurses for decades in different capacities, Germany has yet to follow their lead. This report discusses the German health care and legal systems and challenges Germany to develop an innovative, cost-efficient, and competent profession of forensic nursing.

  13. Documenting the prominence of forensic neuropsychology at national meetings and in relevant professional journals from 1990 to 2000.

    PubMed

    Sweet, Jerry J; King, John H; Malina, Aaron C; Bergman, Maria A; Simmons, Alan

    2002-12-01

    Numerous authors have opined that forensic activities have become more prominent within clinical neuropsychology. To investigate the merits of these claims, the entire contents of Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology (ACN), Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology (JCEN), and The Clinical Neuropsychologist (TCN) from 1990 through 2000 were reviewed and cataloged. These three journals were selected because they are the highest-ranking clinical subscription journals according to surveys of neuropsychology practitioners. Prior to rating journal content, various categories of interest were delineated and practice ratings were obtained until the two raters reached 92% agreement. Each of the raters read the journal contents and recorded content ratings for half of the journal issues under review. Results of the 8323 ratings demonstrated increases across time in the absolute numbers of articles related to forensic neuropsychology, although variable and different for each journal. Published articles that were partially or substantially forensic in nature in the three journals combined increased from 4% in 1990 to 14% in 2000. An annual peak in absolute number (n=32;16%) of forensic journal articles occurred in 1997. The most common topic of 139 articles published in ACN, JCEN, and TCN from 1990 to 2000 was malingering, which appeared in 86% of the general forensic articles. Forensic presentations at annual NAN meetings ranged from 3.9 to 11.3% (M=8%) of the convention programs, whereas within Division 40's programs at the American Psychological Association meeting, the average percentage ranged from 2.3 to 11.7% (M=6%). Results pertaining to each journal and to specific forensic topics are presented and implications of these and other results are discussed.

  14. Mortality among forensic psychiatric patients in Finland.

    PubMed

    Ojansuu, Ilkka; Putkonen, Hanna; Tiihonen, Jari

    2015-01-01

    Both mental illness and criminality are associated with higher risk of early death, yet the mortality among forensic psychiatric patients who are affected by both mental illness and criminal behaviour has scarcely been studied. To analyse the mortality among all patients who were committed to a compulsory forensic psychiatric hospital treatment in Finland between 1980 and 2009. Mortality was analysed according to the age when the patient was committed to forensic treatment. A total of 1253 patients were included, of which 153 were females and 1100 were males. The mean follow-up time in this study was 15.1 years, and 351 (28%) had died during the follow-up period. The standardized mortality rate (SMR) for the whole study group was 2.97 (95% CI 2.67-3.29). Among females the SMR was 3.62 (95% CI 2.57-5.09), and among males 2.91 (95% CI 2.61-3.25). The SMRs were higher when patients were committed to forensic treatment before the age of 40 years. This study showed an increased mortality among forensic psychiatric patients compared with the general population and the mortality was inversely proportional to the age when the treatment had begun. In contrast to the earlier studies, the mortality in this study was lower indicating that prolonged treatment may have an overall protective effect on forensic psychiatric patients.

  15. Computer Forensics Education - the Open Source Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huebner, Ewa; Bem, Derek; Cheung, Hon

    In this chapter we discuss the application of the open source software tools in computer forensics education at tertiary level. We argue that open source tools are more suitable than commercial tools, as they provide the opportunity for students to gain in-depth understanding and appreciation of the computer forensic process as opposed to familiarity with one software product, however complex and multi-functional. With the access to all source programs the students become more than just the consumers of the tools as future forensic investigators. They can also examine the code, understand the relationship between the binary images and relevant data structures, and in the process gain necessary background to become the future creators of new and improved forensic software tools. As a case study we present an advanced subject, Computer Forensics Workshop, which we designed for the Bachelor's degree in computer science at the University of Western Sydney. We based all laboratory work and the main take-home project in this subject on open source software tools. We found that without exception more than one suitable tool can be found to cover each topic in the curriculum adequately. We argue that this approach prepares students better for forensic field work, as they gain confidence to use a variety of tools, not just a single product they are familiar with.

  16. Molecular Imprinting Applications in Forensic Science.

    PubMed

    Yılmaz, Erkut; Garipcan, Bora; Patra, Hirak K; Uzun, Lokman

    2017-03-28

    Producing molecular imprinting-based materials has received increasing attention due to recognition selectivity, stability, cast effectiveness, and ease of production in various forms for a wide range of applications. The molecular imprinting technique has a variety of applications in the areas of the food industry, environmental monitoring, and medicine for diverse purposes like sample pretreatment, sensing, and separation/purification. A versatile usage, stability and recognition capabilities also make them perfect candidates for use in forensic sciences. Forensic science is a demanding area and there is a growing interest in molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) in this field. In this review, recent molecular imprinting applications in the related areas of forensic sciences are discussed while considering the literature of last two decades. Not only direct forensic applications but also studies of possible forensic value were taken into account like illicit drugs, banned sport drugs, effective toxins and chemical warfare agents in a review of over 100 articles. The literature was classified according to targets, material shapes, production strategies, detection method, and instrumentation. We aimed to summarize the current applications of MIPs in forensic science and put forth a projection of their potential uses as promising alternatives for benchmark competitors.

  17. Molecular DNA Analysis in Forensic Identification.

    PubMed

    Dumache, Raluca; Ciocan, Veronica; Muresan, Camelia; Enache, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Serological and biochemical identification methods used in forensics have several major disadvantages, such as: long time in processing biological sample and lack of sensitivity and specificity. In the last 30 years, DNA molecular analysis has become an important tool in forensic investigations. DNA profiling is based on the short tandem repeats (STR) and aids in human identification from biological samples. Forensic genetics, can provide information on the events which occurred at the crime scene or to supplement other methods of forensic identification. Currently, the methods used in identification are based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses. This method analyses the autosomal STRs, the Y-chromosome, and the mitochondrial DNA. Correlation of biological samples present at the crime scene with identification, selection, and the probative value factor is therefore the first aspect to be taken into consideration in the forensic genetic analysis. In the last decade, because of the advances in the field of molecular biology, new biomarkers such as: microRNAs (miR), messenger RNA (mRNA), and DNA methylation have been studied and proposed to be used in the forensic identifications of body fluids.

  18. The DSM-5 and forensic psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Wortzel, Hal S

    2013-05-01

    In his first Law and Psychiatry column for the Journal of Psychiatric Practice, the author discusses potential forensic consequences of the publication of the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). While the transition to DSM-5 may prove challenging for both patients and clinicians, the scrutiny and adversarial process associated with forensic psychiatric practice will entail a unique set of challenges. The philosophy of innovation behind the DSM-5, and the attendant changes, could lead to some unintended consequences, particularly in medicolegal settings. This column highlights some of the major changes in DSM-5 and explores points of particular concern for forensic psychiatric practice, such as the move toward a non-multiaxial diagnostic system and dimensional severity ratings being superimposed on certain categorical diagnoses. The innovative changes featured in DSM-5, and the controversies surrounding some of them, could yield an environment of increased cynicism in courts of law, with renewed skepticism regarding mental health diagnoses and the forensic psychiatrists who testify about them. Fortunately, the best method for forensic psychiatric practice in this environment of change is to continue to adhere to a meticulous and transparent medicolegal process, with recognition that changes in the diagnostic manual will seldom alter essential medicolegal conclusions. Forensic psychiatrists may enhance their credibility and the strength of the opinions they offer by proactively illustrating how nuances in diagnosis do not change legally defined constructs such as insanity or incompetence.

  19. Molecular Imprinting Applications in Forensic Science

    PubMed Central

    Yılmaz, Erkut; Garipcan, Bora; Patra, Hirak K.; Uzun, Lokman

    2017-01-01

    Producing molecular imprinting-based materials has received increasing attention due to recognition selectivity, stability, cast effectiveness, and ease of production in various forms for a wide range of applications. The molecular imprinting technique has a variety of applications in the areas of the food industry, environmental monitoring, and medicine for diverse purposes like sample pretreatment, sensing, and separation/purification. A versatile usage, stability and recognition capabilities also make them perfect candidates for use in forensic sciences. Forensic science is a demanding area and there is a growing interest in molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) in this field. In this review, recent molecular imprinting applications in the related areas of forensic sciences are discussed while considering the literature of last two decades. Not only direct forensic applications but also studies of possible forensic value were taken into account like illicit drugs, banned sport drugs, effective toxins and chemical warfare agents in a review of over 100 articles. The literature was classified according to targets, material shapes, production strategies, detection method, and instrumentation. We aimed to summarize the current applications of MIPs in forensic science and put forth a projection of their potential uses as promising alternatives for benchmark competitors. PMID:28350333

  20. HIV legal precedent useful for microbial forensics.

    PubMed

    Budowle, Bruce; Harmon, Rockne

    2005-08-01

    The field of microbial forensics was formalized because of the need for attribution in events where a bioweapon has been used. Microbial forensics has its origins in traditional forensics, microbiology, and epidemiology. Microbial forensics can be defined as a scientific discipline dedicated to analyzing evidence for attribution purposes from a bioterrorism act, biocrime, hoax, or inadvertent microorganism/toxin release. This is a very challenging task, since there are myriad microorganisms that can pose a threat, and analytical methods need to be used reliably. The Scientific Working Group on Microbial Genetics and Forensics (SWGMGF) has addressed some quality assurance and control issues, and particularly validation criteria (focusing on preliminary validation) due to the dynamic nature of evolving investigations. Unique identification of a microorganism may never be possible. Yet, qualitative and/or quantitative assessments of the evidence can be made. One approach to provide direction on gaps in the microbial forensics effort is to perform an end-to-end retrospective analysis of past cases. As an example, the case of a gastroenterologist who was accused of second degree attempted murder of his paramour using HIV as the weapon was reviewed. The scientific evaluation involves epidemiology, molecular biology, phylogenetics, and legal deliberations.

  1. Sport Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krotee, March L.

    1980-01-01

    Sport psychology is defined in terms of human behavior in athletic situations. The psychosocial cross-cultural setting provides a model for studying trait and state psychosocial attributes and suggests issues and concerns for further study. (JMF)

  2. Commentary: general residency training--the first forensic stage.

    PubMed

    Rotter, Merrill; Preven, David

    2005-01-01

    Training in Forensic Psychiatry, as described by Dr. Pinals, requires the gaining of knowledge, expertise, and confidence as part of a process of professional transformation and identification with a new psychiatric role. Training in General Psychiatry does, however, include placing the resident in situations and roles that are either formally forensic in nature, or at least, forensic-like. We will argue that these experiences from general training can be used by forensic supervisors to help ease the resident into the forensic role by building on the resident's existing expertise and making the forensic environment less foreign.

  3. [Psychological harassment].

    PubMed

    Puech, Paloma; Pitcho, Benjamin

    2013-04-01

    Two types of harassment are distinguished: sexual and psychological. In the private sector, according to French labour laws and the penal code, psychological harassment is actionable. It is up to the employer to prove the absence of harassment. The sanctions incurred can be up to 5 years imprisonment and a 150,000 euro fine and various measures of compensation for damages can be envisaged.

  4. Whither Psychology.

    PubMed

    Halpern, Diane F

    2017-07-01

    Contemporary psychology is experiencing tremendous growth in neuroscience, and there is every indication that it will continue to gain in popularity notwithstanding the scarcity of academic positions for newly minted Ph.Ds. Despite the general perception that brain correlates "explain" or "cause" the mind and behavior, these correlates have not yet proven useful in understanding psychological processes, although they offer the possibility of early identification of some disorders. Other recent developments in psychology include increased emphasis on applications and more global representation among researchers and participants. In thinking about the way we want psychology to evolve, psychologists need to pay more than lip service to the idea that complex questions in psychology require multiple levels of analysis with contributions from biological (brain, hormones, and genetics), individual differences and social and cultural perspectives. Early career psychologists who can attain a breadth of knowledge will be well-positioned for a team approach to psychological inquiry. Finally, I offer the belief that an emphasis on enhancing critical thinking skills at all levels of education offers the best hope for the future.

  5. Performance of Hispanic inmates on the Spanish Miller Forensic Assessment of Symptoms Test (M-FAST).

    PubMed

    Montes, Orbelin; Guyton, Michelle R

    2014-10-01

    The few psychological assessment measures commercially available for the assessment of Spanish-speaking populations lack strong empirical foundation. This is concerning given the rising numbers of Spanish speakers entering the forensic and correctional systems for whom valid assessment is difficult without linguistically and culturally appropriate measures. In this study, we translated and adapted the Miller Forensic Assessment of Symptoms Test (M-FAST) into Spanish. The general purpose of this study was to investigate the psychometric, linguistic, and conceptual equivalence of the English- and Spanish-language versions of the M-FAST in a sample of 102 bilingual Hispanic incarcerated males. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three feigning conditions (honest, uncoached, or coached) and completed the M-FAST in both English and Spanish on two separate occasions. Both language versions were psychometrically, linguistically, and conceptually equivalent.

  6. Assessment of the Forensic Sciences Profession: A Legal Study Concerning the Forensic Sciences Personnel. Volume III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, Oliver, Jr.

    The place and function of forensic sciences personnel in American criminal law and court procedure, and the criteria used by criminal trial judges and lawyers to assess the value of forensic sciences personnel were investigated. Federal, state, Virgin Island, and Puerto Rican laws were examined, and a search of the medical and legal literature…

  7. Assessment of the Forensic Sciences Profession: A Legal Study Concerning the Forensic Sciences Personnel. Volume III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, Oliver, Jr.

    The place and function of forensic sciences personnel in American criminal law and court procedure, and the criteria used by criminal trial judges and lawyers to assess the value of forensic sciences personnel were investigated. Federal, state, Virgin Island, and Puerto Rican laws were examined, and a search of the medical and legal literature…

  8. FORENSIC SCIENCE:: 20 YEARS OF FORENSIC DENTISTRY AT THE UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB, 1994 - 2014.

    PubMed

    Brkić, Hrvoje

    2014-06-01

    Data from available literature point to an early beginning of Forensic Dentistry in Croatia relating to a post-mortem examination of a female patient after a dental procedure in the 1930s. Later on, there were several mass casualties due to collisions and airplane crashes and a railway accident at the Zagreb Main Railway Station wherein the identity of the victims was established based on dental features. Foreign experts in forensics helped identify those victims, particularly forensic dentists because this specialty was almost unknown in our region at the time. During the twenty-year period of the development of Forensic Dentistry at the University of Zagreb, the School of Dental Medicine, the city of Zagreb and Croatia have become internationally recognised on the forensic map of the world.

  9. Forensic odontology in India, an oral pathologist's perspective

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Pushparaja; Raviprakash, A

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Oral pathologists have major responsibilities in the development of forensic science. We conducted a survey to evaluate the degree of involvement of oral pathologists in forensic investigations in India and the difficulties faced by them. Materials and Methods: Data was collected during 2007–2009 by means of a questionnaire survey among qualified oral pathologists related to confidence in handling forensic cases, knowledge and awareness, training in forensic odontology, practical exposure to forensic cases, and difficulties faced. Results: A total of 120 oral pathologists responded to the questionnaire. Of these, 28% expressed confidence in handling forensic cases, 7% had been exposed to formal training in forensic odontology, and 6% had handled forensic cases earlier. Only two participants said that they were part of the forensic team in their respective cities. Forty-eight percent of the participants said that they read forensic journals regularly. Conclusion: Oral pathologists are generally not very confident about handling forensic cases mainly because of inadequate formal training in the field of forensic dentistry, inadequate exposure to the subject, minimal importance given to the subject in the undergraduate and postgraduate curriculum, and no practical exposure to forensic cases. PMID:22022135

  10. Forensic odontology in India, an oral pathologist's perspective.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Pushparaja; Raviprakash, A

    2011-01-01

    Oral pathologists have major responsibilities in the development of forensic science. We conducted a survey to evaluate the degree of involvement of oral pathologists in forensic investigations in India and the difficulties faced by them. Data was collected during 2007-2009 by means of a questionnaire survey among qualified oral pathologists related to confidence in handling forensic cases, knowledge and awareness, training in forensic odontology, practical exposure to forensic cases, and difficulties faced. A total of 120 oral pathologists responded to the questionnaire. Of these, 28% expressed confidence in handling forensic cases, 7% had been exposed to formal training in forensic odontology, and 6% had handled forensic cases earlier. Only two participants said that they were part of the forensic team in their respective cities. Forty-eight percent of the participants said that they read forensic journals regularly. Oral pathologists are generally not very confident about handling forensic cases mainly because of inadequate formal training in the field of forensic dentistry, inadequate exposure to the subject, minimal importance given to the subject in the undergraduate and postgraduate curriculum, and no practical exposure to forensic cases.

  11. CHARACTERISTICS OF THE VOLUNTEER FOR PSYCHOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS, ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY ), (*ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY , PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS), PERSONALITY , MOTIVATION, ATTITUDES( PSYCHOLOGY ), NEUROSES, FEAR, ANXIETY, BEHAVIOR, SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY , GROUP DYNAMICS

  12. Forensic and non-forensic psychiatric nursing skills and competencies for psychopathic and personality disordered patients.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Matt; Mason, Tom

    2012-12-01

    To understand better the skills and competencies for forensic and non-forensic nursing of psychopathic and personality disordered patients. In the UK, there has been growing interest in service provision for this client group, but with little research to support the nursing skills required. A non-experimental design, using a postal survey to 990 forensic and 500 non-forensic nurses. An information gathering schedule was used to generate data about the most desirable skills and competencies and least desirable weaknesses and nursing attributes to nurse this group. The results for the forensic nurses. Main strengths and skills: being firm, setting limits and defining boundaries. Main weaknesses: inability to engage, inability to resolve conflict and impatience. Main skills and competencies: being non-threatening, non-judgemental and able to expect anything. Least desirable qualities: over-reacting, being judgemental and over-confrontational. The results for the non-forensic nurses. Main strengths and skills: being non-judgemental, listening skills and good risk assessment. Main weaknesses: frustration with the system, a fear of aggression and no skills to engage. Main skills and competencies: being open-minded, non-judgemental and forming relationships. Least desirable qualities: a supercilious attitude, cynicism and being judgemental. The results highlight the importance of forming therapeutic relationships as the bedrock of both forensic and non-forensic nursing, and they also highlight the important differences with regard to the significance of therapeutic action and therapeutic verbal interaction. The provision of better care for this client group will rely on appropriate training for nurses. This research highlights the need for training that supports the development of engagement skills, communication skills and an ability to use reflection in action as a means of providing therapeutic care. It also highlights the different emphasis on the use of these skills

  13. The development of counselling psychology in Ireland

    PubMed Central

    Connolly, Allison; O'Callaghan, Dermot; O'Brien, Owen; Broderick, John; Long, Catherine; O'Grady, Ian

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the distinctive nature of the specialism of counselling psychology and outlines the development of the discipline in Ireland in the context of international developments and its recognition as a professional branch of applied psychology. Today, counselling psychologists are employed in varied clinical and non-clinical settings including health and mental health services (statutory, private and voluntary sector) along with education, forensic, justice, industry and private practices. Counselling psychologist is the primary professional identity of many practising psychologists in Ireland and the Psychological Society of Ireland's Division of Counselling Psychology is the main affiliation of at least 179 members. With its focus on facilitating personal and interpersonal functioning across the life span and its emphasis on the therapeutic process, the specialism continues to bridge the disciplines of psychology, counselling and psychotherapy. In this article, some of the challenges still faced by counselling psychology are explored as it navigates its way through the changing landscape of further development and evolution. PMID:26494940

  14. Forensic anthropology and mortuary archaeology in Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Jankauskas, Rimantas

    2009-12-01

    Forensic anthropology (in Lithuania, as everywhere in Eastern Europe, traditionally considered as a narrower field--forensic osteology) has a long history, experience being gained both during exhumations of mass killings during the Second World War and the subsequent totalitarian regime, investigations of historical mass graves, identification of historical personalities and routine forensic work. Experts of this field (usually a branch of forensic medicine) routinely are solving "technical" questions of crime investigation, particularly identification of (usually dead) individuals. Practical implementation of the mission of forensic anthropology is not an easy task due to interdisciplinary character of the field. On one hand, physical anthropology has in its disposition numerous scientifically tested methods, however, their practical value in particular legal processes is limited. Reasons for these discrepancies can be related both to insufficient understanding of possibilities and limitations of forensic anthropology and archaeology by officials representing legal institutions that perform investigations, and sometimes too "academic" research, that is conducted at anthropological laboratories, when methods developed are not completely relevant to practical needs. Besides of answering to direct questions (number of individuals, sex, age, stature, population affinity, individual traits, evidence of violence), important humanitarian aspects--the individual's right for identity, the right of the relatives to know the fate of their beloved ones--should not be neglected. Practical use of other identification methods faces difficulties of their own (e.g., odontology--lack of regular dental registration system and compatible database). Two examples of forensic anthropological work of mass graves, even when the results were much influenced by the questions raised by investigators, can serve as an illustration of the above-mentioned issues.

  15. European Council of Legal Medicine (ECLM) accreditation of forensic pathology services in Europe.

    PubMed

    Mangin, P; Bonbled, F; Väli, M; Luna, A; Bajanowski, T; Hougen, H P; Ludes, B; Ferrara, D; Cusack, D; Keller, E; Vieira, N

    2015-03-01

    Forensic experts play a major role in the legal process as they offer professional expert opinion and evidence within the criminal justice system adjudicating on the innocence or alleged guilt of an accused person. In this respect, medico-legal examination is an essential part of the investigation process, determining in a scientific way the cause(s) and manner of unexpected and/or unnatural death or bringing clinical evidence in case of physical, psychological, or sexual abuse in living people. From a legal perspective, these types of investigation must meet international standards, i.e., it should be independent, effective, and prompt. Ideally, the investigations should be conducted by board-certified experts in forensic medicine, endowed with a solid experience in this field, without any hierarchical relationship with the prosecuting authorities and having access to appropriate facilities in order to provide forensic reports of high quality. In this respect, there is a need for any private or public national or international authority including non-governmental organizations seeking experts qualified in forensic medicine to have at disposal a list of specialists working in accordance with high standards of professional performance within forensic pathology services that have been successfully submitted to an official accreditation/certification process using valid and acceptable criteria. To reach this goal, the National Association of Medical Examiners (NAME) has elaborated an accreditation/certification checklist which should be served as decision-making support to assist inspectors appointed to evaluate applicants. In the same spirit than NAME Accreditation Standards, European Council of Legal Medicine (ECLM) board decided to set up an ad hoc working group with the mission to elaborate an accreditation/certification procedure similar to the NAME's one but taking into account the realities of forensic medicine practices in Europe and restricted to post

  16. Psychological maltreatment.

    PubMed

    Hibbard, Roberta; Barlow, Jane; Macmillan, Harriet

    2012-08-01

    Psychological or emotional maltreatment of children may be the most challenging and prevalent form of child abuse and neglect. Caregiver behaviors include acts of omission (ignoring need for social interactions) or commission (spurning, terrorizing); may be verbal or nonverbal, active or passive, and with or without intent to harm; and negatively affect the child's cognitive, social, emotional, and/or physical development. Psychological maltreatment has been linked with disorders of attachment, developmental and educational problems, socialization problems, disruptive behavior, and later psychopathology. Although no evidence-based interventions that can prevent psychological maltreatment have been identified to date, it is possible that interventions shown to be effective in reducing overall types of child maltreatment, such as the Nurse Family Partnership, may have a role to play. Furthermore, prevention before occurrence will require both the use of universal interventions aimed at promoting the type of parenting that is now recognized to be necessary for optimal child development, alongside the use of targeted interventions directed at improving parental sensitivity to a child's cues during infancy and later parent-child interactions. Intervention should, first and foremost, focus on a thorough assessment and ensuring the child's safety. Potentially effective treatments include cognitive behavioral parenting programs and other psychotherapeutic interventions. The high prevalence of psychological abuse in advanced Western societies, along with the serious consequences, point to the importance of effective management. Pediatricians should be alert to the occurrence of psychological maltreatment and identify ways to support families who have risk indicators for, or evidence of, this problem.

  17. Political psychology.

    PubMed

    Stone, Susanna; Johnson, Kate M; Beall, Erica; Meindl, Peter; Smith, Benjamin; Graham, Jesse

    2014-07-01

    Political psychology is a dynamic field of research that offers a unique blend of approaches and methods in the social and cognitive sciences. Political psychologists explore the interactions between macrolevel political structures and microlevel factors such as decision-making processes, motivations, and perceptions. In this article, we provide a broad overview of the field, beginning with a brief history of political psychology research and a summary of the primary methodological approaches in the field. We then give a more detailed account of research on ideology and social justice, two topics experiencing a resurgence of interest in current political psychology. Finally, we cover research on political persuasion and voting behavior. By summarizing these major areas of political psychology research, we hope to highlight the wide variety of theoretical and methodological approaches of cognitive scientists working at the intersection of psychology and political science. WIREs Cogn Sci 2014, 5:373-385. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1293 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. The authors have declared no conflicts of interest for this article. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. VALIDATION GUIDELINES FOR LABORATORIES PERFORMING FORENSIC ANALYSIS OF CHEMICAL TERRORISM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Scientific Working Group on Forensic Analysis of Chemical Terrorism (SWGFACT) has developed the following guidelines for laboratories engaged in the forensic analysis of chemical evidence associated with terrorism. This document provides a baseline framework and guidance for...

  19. Teaching forensic odontology: an opinion on its content and format*.

    PubMed

    Acharya, A B

    2006-08-01

    Forensic odontology involves dentists' participation in assisting legal and criminal issues. Formal teaching in forensic odontology has existed for over a 100 years. Over the last century, forensic odontology has evolved and, today, it is an integral part of undergraduate dental training in many countries. Dentists have been trained in the specialty, and dedicated departments established in institutes and universities around the world. A survey undertaken at five universities revealed that these centres have developed detailed curricula in forensic odontology, and a general standard exists in teaching forensic odontology, however, coverage of recent advances in forensic science may be lacking. While recognising that these programmes are not representative of teaching in forensic odontology worldwide, suggestions are made for an alternative approach to teaching the subject. Moreover, it is stressed that teaching be undertaken by qualified forensic odontologists.

  20. VALIDATION GUIDELINES FOR LABORATORIES PERFORMING FORENSIC ANALYSIS OF CHEMICAL TERRORISM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Scientific Working Group on Forensic Analysis of Chemical Terrorism (SWGFACT) has developed the following guidelines for laboratories engaged in the forensic analysis of chemical evidence associated with terrorism. This document provides a baseline framework and guidance for...

  1. A short account of forensic dentistry in France.

    PubMed

    Riaud, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    The earliest records and more recent cases where forensic dentistry has been used to identify bodies in France are described. The establishment of the French Society of Forensic Odontology is detailed.

  2. Forensic psychiatric/mental health nursing: responsive to social need.

    PubMed

    Kent-Wilkinson, Arlene E

    2010-06-01

    Forensic nursing is an emerging global nursing specialty, with subspecialties that focus on nursing practice at the clinical-legal interface of tending to victims and offenders, living and deceased. An integrated review of the literature provides an overview of the role development of forensic nursing subspecialties. The subspecialties of forensic nursing that deal with the mental health care of victims and offenders are the focus of this paper. Forensic nursing, like all forensic specialties, developed from a need in society for a medico-legal role. This paper discusses the global role of forensic nursing and argues that role development has been both proactive and responsive to vital needs of victims and offenders in society. Advanced practice forensic nurses have taken leadership roles in the role development of this nursing specialty. A future challenge for forensic psychiatric/mental health nurses with advanced education is to take leadership roles in all areas of psychiatric assessment, intervention, and evaluation of clients.

  3. [Low template DNA profiling and its application in forensic science].

    PubMed

    Ma, Yan; Kuang, Jin-zhi; Hou, Yi-ping

    2010-04-01

    Low template DNA (LTDNA) has been widely applied in the field of forensic science in recent years. However, the application of low copy number(LCN) analysis is still controversial in certain forensic. This paper focus on the definition of LCN and LTDNA, casework because of its inherent limiting factors. the validity and application of LCN in forensic science, methods of typing, quality control, replicate analysis, detection thresholds and then reviews the latest development of LCN in forensic science.

  4. [Application of DNA labeling technology in forensic botany].

    PubMed

    Znang, Xian; Li, Jing-Lin; Zhang, Xiang-Yu

    2008-12-01

    Forensic botany is a study of judicial plant evidence. Recently, researches on DNA labeling technology have been a mainstream of forensic botany. The article systematically reviews various types of DNA labeling techniques in forensic botany with enumerated practical cases, as well as the potential forensic application of each individual technique. The advantages of the DNA labeling technology over traditional morphological taxonomic methods are also summarized.

  5. The role of micro-computed tomography in forensic investigations.

    PubMed

    Rutty, G N; Brough, A; Biggs, M J P; Robinson, C; Lawes, S D A; Hainsworth, S V

    2013-02-10

    The use of micro-CT within forensic practice remains an emerging technology, principally due to its current limited availability to forensic practitioners. This review provides those with little or no previous experience of the potential roles of micro-CT in forensic practice with an illustrated overview of the technology, and the areas of practice in which micro-CT can potentially be applied to enhance forensic investigations.

  6. Cyber-Forensic Research Experimentation and Test Environment (CREATE)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-10-01

    Evidence will be a key conduit in this process. An article in the first issue written by Carrie Whitcomb, National Center for Forensic Science , entitled...Examining Computer Forensic Evidence. Forensic Science Communication, Vol. 1, Num. 4. Retrieved June 2001, from http://www.fbi.gov/hq/lab/fsc/backissu...information from a much greater pool of diverse pieces of information. Finally, because computer forensic science is market driven, it must be able to adapt

  7. [Research & development on computer expert system for forensic bones estimation].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jun-ji; Zhang, Jan-zheng; Liu, Nin-guo

    2005-08-01

    To build an expert system for forensic bones estimation. By using the object oriented method, employing statistical data of forensic anthropology, combining the statistical data frame knowledge representation with productions and also using the fuzzy matching and DS evidence theory method. Software for forensic estimation of sex, age and height with opened knowledge base was designed. This system is reliable and effective, and it would be a good assistant of the forensic technician.

  8. The forensic expert witness--an issue of competency.

    PubMed

    Hiss, Jehuda; Freund, Maya; Kahana, Tzipi

    2007-05-24

    Scientists submitting expert opinions within the legal system are expected to be knowledgeable in the forensic aspects of their particular science, as well as to be ethical and unbiased. Scientists are seldom able to decline a request to provide an expert opinion in their field, even when their forensic expertise is minimal. The competence of scientists providing expert opinions in forensic cases is reviewed here. Three examples of the perils of uninformed "expertise" in forensic biology, medicine and anthropology are presented.

  9. Forensic odontology: A prosthodontic view.

    PubMed

    Gosavi, Sulekha; Gosavi, Siddharth

    2012-01-01

    The most common role of the forensic dentist is the identification of deceased individuals. Dental identifications have always played a key role in natural and manmade disaster situations, and in particular, the mass casualties normally associated with aviation disasters. Because of the lack of a comprehensive fingerprint database, dental identification continues to be crucial in the world. An all-acrylic resin appliance such as a full denture or an all-acrylic partial denture (or orthodontic appliance), prior to delivery, could be inscribed with the patient's full name on a substrate (paper, metal) and sealed inconspicuously into the surface of a denture by various processes. It has been noted by several authors that in many cases of air disaster where the limbs are completely burnt off, some denture materials survive, especially the posterior part of acrylic dentures and metal-based dentures. Thus, marked dental prostheses (full and partial dentures, mouthguards and removal orthodontic appliances) would lead to rapid identification in the event of accidents and disaster.

  10. [Forensic psychiatry and Islamic law].

    PubMed

    Geferakos, G; Lykouras, L; Douzenis, A

    2014-01-01

    Islam is the second most popular monotheistic religion in the world. Its followers, the Muslims, are about 1.2 billion people and are the majority in 56 countries around the globe. Islam is an holistic way and model of life and its rules, according to a large proportion of Muslims, should have more power than the laws deriving from any secular authority. This means that the divine laws, as depicted from Islam's holy scripts, should be the laws of the land. In the strict Islamic states, as Saudi Arabia, the Islamic law or the Shari'ah prevails. Shari'ah means the path, the road each faithful Muslim should follow according to the rules of God. The Islamic views on mental health have some interesting characteristics: on the one hand, the moral necessity for the protection and care of the vulnerable individuals is very strong, but on the other hand superstitions and stigmatization influence the peoples' attitude against mental health patients. At the beginning of its historical course, Islamic world was a pioneer concerning mental health care. Unfortunately, as time passed by, we have observed considerable regression. In our days mental health services provided in most of the Islamic states cannot be considered adequate according to modern Western standards. The same course characterizes the Forensic Psychiatric services and the relevant legislation in the Islamic world.

  11. Uncertainty propagation in nuclear forensics.

    PubMed

    Pommé, S; Jerome, S M; Venchiarutti, C

    2014-07-01

    Uncertainty propagation formulae are presented for age dating in support of nuclear forensics. The age of radioactive material in this context refers to the time elapsed since a particular radionuclide was chemically separated from its decay product(s). The decay of the parent radionuclide and ingrowth of the daughter nuclide are governed by statistical decay laws. Mathematical equations allow calculation of the age of specific nuclear material through the atom ratio between parent and daughter nuclides, or through the activity ratio provided that the daughter nuclide is also unstable. The derivation of the uncertainty formulae of the age may present some difficulty to the user community and so the exact solutions, some approximations, a graphical representation and their interpretation are presented in this work. Typical nuclides of interest are actinides in the context of non-proliferation commitments. The uncertainty analysis is applied to a set of important parent-daughter pairs and the need for more precise half-life data is examined.

  12. Nuclear Forensics: A Holistic Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Luksic, Andrzej T.; Friese, Judah I.; Schwantes, Jon M.; Starner, Jason R.; Wacker, John F.

    2010-08-11

    Discussions of nuclear forensics are often restricted to work performed by radio-chemists measuring nuclear material attributes in the laboratory. However, this represents only one portion of the work required to answer critical questions. Laboratory analysis results in measurements that need to be evaluated. The results of those evaluations must be put into their proper context in order for them to be useful to others and often require merging those results with additional information. This may contribute to attribution, by virtue of inclusion or exclusion. Finally, the end product must be presented such that appropriate actions can be taken. This could include prosecution by law enforcement, policy initiatives on the part of legislative bodies, or military action in the case of nuclear attack (whether that attack is preempted or not). Using the discovery of a sample of plutonium during cleanup activities at Hanford in 2004, we will step through the process of discovery (representing an interdiction), initial field analysis, laboratory analysis, data evaluation and merging with additional data (similar to law enforcement and/or all source), thereby providing an example of an integrated approach.

  13. Forensic odontology: A prosthodontic view

    PubMed Central

    Gosavi, Sulekha; Gosavi, Siddharth

    2012-01-01

    The most common role of the forensic dentist is the identification of deceased individuals. Dental identifications have always played a key role in natural and manmade disaster situations, and in particular, the mass casualties normally associated with aviation disasters. Because of the lack of a comprehensive fingerprint database, dental identification continues to be crucial in the world. An all-acrylic resin appliance such as a full denture or an all-acrylic partial denture (or orthodontic appliance), prior to delivery, could be inscribed with the patient's full name on a substrate (paper, metal) and sealed inconspicuously into the surface of a denture by various processes. It has been noted by several authors that in many cases of air disaster where the limbs are completely burnt off, some denture materials survive, especially the posterior part of acrylic dentures and metal-based dentures. Thus, marked dental prostheses (full and partial dentures, mouthguards and removal orthodontic appliances) would lead to rapid identification in the event of accidents and disaster. PMID:23087581

  14. PSYCHOLOGICAL MEASUREMENT AND PREDICTION. PART I. BACKGROUND FOR PSYCHOLOGICAL MEASUREMENT,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    PSYCHOLOGY , PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS, BEHAVIOR, INDUSTRIAL PSYCHOLOGY , INTELLIGENCE TESTS, MENTAL DISORDERS, MILITARY PSYCHOLOGY , PERSONALITY , PSYCHIATRY...PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY, SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY , VERBAL BEHAVIOR, STATISTICAL ANALYSIS, CRIMINOLOGY, DIAGNOSIS(MEDICINE).

  15. Forensic bitemark identification: weak foundations, exaggerated claims.

    PubMed

    Saks, Michael J; Albright, Thomas; Bohan, Thomas L; Bierer, Barbara E; Bowers, C Michael; Bush, Mary A; Bush, Peter J; Casadevall, Arturo; Cole, Simon A; Denton, M Bonner; Diamond, Shari Seidman; Dioso-Villa, Rachel; Epstein, Jules; Faigman, David; Faigman, Lisa; Fienberg, Stephen E; Garrett, Brandon L; Giannelli, Paul C; Greely, Henry T; Imwinkelried, Edward; Jamieson, Allan; Kafadar, Karen; Kassirer, Jerome P; Koehler, Jonathan 'Jay'; Korn, David; Mnookin, Jennifer; Morrison, Alan B; Murphy, Erin; Peerwani, Nizam; Peterson, Joseph L; Risinger, D Michael; Sensabaugh, George F; Spiegelman, Clifford; Stern, Hal; Thompson, William C; Wayman, James L; Zabell, Sandy; Zumwalt, Ross E

    2016-12-01

    Several forensic sciences, especially of the pattern-matching kind, are increasingly seen to lack the scientific foundation needed to justify continuing admission as trial evidence. Indeed, several have been abolished in the recent past. A likely next candidate for elimination is bitemark identification. A number of DNA exonerations have occurred in recent years for individuals convicted based on erroneous bitemark identifications. Intense scientific and legal scrutiny has resulted. An important National Academies review found little scientific support for the field. The Texas Forensic Science Commission recently recommended a moratorium on the admission of bitemark expert testimony. The California Supreme Court has a case before it that could start a national dismantling of forensic odontology. This article describes the (legal) basis for the rise of bitemark identification and the (scientific) basis for its impending fall. The article explains the general logic of forensic identification, the claims of bitemark identification, and reviews relevant empirical research on bitemark identification-highlighting both the lack of research and the lack of support provided by what research does exist. The rise and possible fall of bitemark identification evidence has broader implications-highlighting the weak scientific culture of forensic science and the law's difficulty in evaluating and responding to unreliable and unscientific evidence.

  16. Training of Forensic DNA Scientists - A Commentary.

    PubMed

    Turnbough, M; Eisenberg, A; Shade, L L; Shewale, J G

    2012-07-01

    For the past two decades, forensic DNA analysis has rapidly expanded in both utility and value to criminal investigations. As the number of crime scene and convict/arrestee samples has continued to grow, many forensic DNA laboratories find themselves struggling to test samples in a timely fashion. Agencies employ various methods for calculating their sample intake and processing capacity, yet database and casework sample backlogs continue to present a major challenge. One issue many forensic laboratories face is limited availability of resources for training new analysts. High-quality training enables analysts to effectively perform various aspects of DNA profiling, and as such, it is essential to ensuring consistent, high-quality results. This is well documented in the guidelines established in the FBI's Quality Assurance Standards for Forensic DNA Testing Laboratories in the United States as well as internationally by agencies like INTERPOL. A facility dedicated to training analysts on both theoretical and practical aspects of automated sample processing accelerates the establishment and expansion of high-throughput forensic DNA laboratories. The present article will discuss various aspects of training and agencies that provide such training programs.

  17. Forensic Analysis using Geological and Geochemical Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoogewerff, J.

    2009-04-01

    Due to the globalisation of legal (and illegal) trade there is an increasing demand for techniques which can verify the geographical origin and transfer routes of many legal and illegal commodities and products. Although geological techniques have been used in forensic investigations since the emergence of forensics as a science in the late eighteen hundreds, the last decade has seen a marked increase in geo-scientists initiating concept studies using the latest analytical techniques, including studying natural abundance isotope variations, micro analysis with laser ablation ICPMS and geochemical mapping. Most of the concept studies have shown a good potential but uptake by the law enforcement and legal community has been limited due to concerns about the admissibility of the new methods. As an introduction to the UGU2009 session "Forensic Provenancing using Geological and Geochemical Techniques" I will give an overview of the state of the art of forensic geology and the issues that concern the admissibility of geological forensic evidence. I will use examples from the NITECRIME and FIRMS networks, the EU TRACE project and other projects and literature to illustrate the important issues at hand.

  18. Matching forensic sketches to mug shot photos.

    PubMed

    Klare, Brendan F; Li, Zhifeng; Jain, Anil K

    2011-03-01

    The problem of matching a forensic sketch to a gallery of mug shot images is addressed in this paper. Previous research in sketch matching only offered solutions to matching highly accurate sketches that were drawn while looking at the subject (viewed sketches). Forensic sketches differ from viewed sketches in that they are drawn by a police sketch artist using the description of the subject provided by an eyewitness. To identify forensic sketches, we present a framework called local feature-based discriminant analysis (LFDA). In LFDA, we individually represent both sketches and photos using SIFT feature descriptors and multiscale local binary patterns (MLBP). Multiple discriminant projections are then used on partitioned vectors of the feature-based representation for minimum distance matching. We apply this method to match a data set of 159 forensic sketches against a mug shot gallery containing 10,159 images. Compared to a leading commercial face recognition system, LFDA offers substantial improvements in matching forensic sketches to the corresponding face images. We were able to further improve the matching performance using race and gender information to reduce the target gallery size. Additional experiments demonstrate that the proposed framework leads to state-of-the-art accuracys when matching viewed sketches.

  19. Forensic bitemark identification: weak foundations, exaggerated claims

    PubMed Central

    Saks, Michael J.; Albright, Thomas; Bohan, Thomas L.; Bierer, Barbara E.; Bowers, C. Michael; Bush, Mary A.; Bush, Peter J.; Casadevall, Arturo; Cole, Simon A.; Denton, M. Bonner; Diamond, Shari Seidman; Dioso-Villa, Rachel; Epstein, Jules; Faigman, David; Faigman, Lisa; Fienberg, Stephen E.; Garrett, Brandon L.; Giannelli, Paul C.; Greely, Henry T.; Imwinkelried, Edward; Jamieson, Allan; Kafadar, Karen; Kassirer, Jerome P.; Koehler, Jonathan ‘Jay’; Korn, David; Mnookin, Jennifer; Morrison, Alan B.; Murphy, Erin; Peerwani, Nizam; Peterson, Joseph L.; Risinger, D. Michael; Sensabaugh, George F.; Spiegelman, Clifford; Stern, Hal; Thompson, William C.; Wayman, James L.; Zabell, Sandy; Zumwalt, Ross E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Several forensic sciences, especially of the pattern-matching kind, are increasingly seen to lack the scientific foundation needed to justify continuing admission as trial evidence. Indeed, several have been abolished in the recent past. A likely next candidate for elimination is bitemark identification. A number of DNA exonerations have occurred in recent years for individuals convicted based on erroneous bitemark identifications. Intense scientific and legal scrutiny has resulted. An important National Academies review found little scientific support for the field. The Texas Forensic Science Commission recently recommended a moratorium on the admission of bitemark expert testimony. The California Supreme Court has a case before it that could start a national dismantling of forensic odontology. This article describes the (legal) basis for the rise of bitemark identification and the (scientific) basis for its impending fall. The article explains the general logic of forensic identification, the claims of bitemark identification, and reviews relevant empirical research on bitemark identification—highlighting both the lack of research and the lack of support provided by what research does exist. The rise and possible fall of bitemark identification evidence has broader implications—highlighting the weak scientific culture of forensic science and the law's difficulty in evaluating and responding to unreliable and unscientific evidence. PMID:28852538

  20. Anti-forensics of chromatic aberration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, Owen; Stamm, Matthew C.

    2015-03-01

    Over the past decade, a number of information forensic techniques have been developed to identify digital image manipulation and falsification. Recent research has shown, however, that an intelligent forger can use anti-forensic countermeasures to disguise their forgeries. In this paper, an anti-forensic technique is proposed to falsify the lateral chromatic aberration present in a digital image. Lateral chromatic aberration corresponds to the relative contraction or expansion between an image's color channels that occurs due to a lens's inability to focus all wavelengths of light on the same point. Previous work has used localized inconsistencies in an image's chromatic aberration to expose cut-and-paste image forgeries. The anti-forensic technique presented in this paper operates by estimating the expected lateral chromatic aberration at an image location, then removing deviations from this estimate caused by tampering or falsification. Experimental results are presented that demonstrate that our anti-forensic technique can be used to effectively disguise evidence of an image forgery.

  1. Organ procurement in forensic deaths: French developments.

    PubMed

    Delannoy, Yann; Jousset, Nathalie; Averland, Benoit; Hedouin, Valéry; Ludes, Bertrand; Gosset, Didier

    2016-01-01

    Organ procurement and transplantation have grown steadily, and the need for organs will only rise in the future. Increasing the number of potential donors is therefore paramount. However, transplant coordination teams face refusals that can be linked to the contexts of the deaths, especially when they involve legal issues. In France, deaths involving legal proceedings are not uncommon (7-10%). In these cases, the prosecutor is immediately contacted, and makes the decision of whether to remove the involved organs. Refusals of this type represent 4% (approximately 30 cases per year) of obstacles to organ removals, and are governed by specific legislation. Thus, the prosecutor must arrange contact with a forensic pathologist and with the organ transplant teams to assemble all of the necessary elements for him to take the decision. To assist prosecutors in their decision making and to ensure them scientific rigour, the French Society of Forensic Medicine sought to develop a national recommendation to harmonise practices; it emerged in early 2013. The guideline makes practical recommendations, including among others: nominating local referents; writing regional protocols between judicial authorities, forensic pathologists and transplant teams; establishing terms for the forensic pathologist's intervention on the donor's body before and after a procurement. This recommendation by the French Society of Forensic Medicine aimed to combine two interests: addressing the shortage of organs, and fulfilling the requisites of a criminal investigation by standardising practices and encouraging communication. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. Forensic entomology and main challenges in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Leonardo; Von Zuben, Cláudio J

    2006-01-01

    Apart from an early case report from China (13th century), the first observations on insects and other arthropods as forensic indicators were documented in Germany and France during mass exhumations in the 1880s by Reinhard, who is considered a co-founder of the discipline. After the French publication of Mégnin's popular book on the applied aspects of forensic entomology, the concept quickly spread to Canada and United States. At that time, researchers recognized that the lack of systematic observations of insects of forensic importance jeopardized their use as indicators of postmortem interval. General advances in insect taxonomy and ecology helped to fill this gap over the following decades. After World Wars, few forensic entomology cases were reported in the scientific literature. From 1960s to the 1980s, Leclercq and Nuorteva were primarily responsible for maintaining the method in Central Europe, reporting isolated cases. Since then, basic research in the USA, Russia and Canada opened the way to the routine use of Entomology in forensic investigations. Identifications of insects associated with human cadavers are relatively few in the literature of the Neotropical region and have received little attention in Brazil. This article brings an overview of historic developments in this field, the recent studies and the main problems and challenges in South America and mainly in Brazil.

  3. Molecular forensic science analysis of nuclear materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reilly, Dallas David

    Concerns over the proliferation and instances of nuclear material in the environment have increased interest in the expansion of nuclear forensics analysis and attribution programs. A new related field, molecular forensic science (MFS) has helped meet this expansion by applying common scientific analyses to nuclear forensics scenarios. In this work, MFS was applied to three scenarios related to nuclear forensics analysis. In the first, uranium dioxide was synthesized and aged at four sets of static environmental conditions and studied for changes in chemical speciation. The second highlighted the importance of bulk versus particle characterizations by analyzing a heterogeneous industrially prepared sample with similar techniques. In the third, mixed uranium/plutonium hot particles were collected from the McGuire Air Force Base BOMARC Site and analyzed for chemical speciation and elemental surface composition. This work has identified new signatures and has indicated unexpected chemical behavior under various conditions. These findings have lead to an expansion of basic actinide understanding, proof of MFS as a tool for nuclear forensic science, and new areas for expansion in these fields.

  4. The development and practice of forensic podiatry.

    PubMed

    Vernon, Wesley

    2006-01-01

    Forensic podiatry is a small, but potentially useful specialty using clinical podiatric knowledge for the purpose of person identification. The practice of forensic podiatry began in the early 1970s in Canada and the UK, although supportive research commenced later in the 1990s. Techniques of forensic podiatry include identification from podiatry records, the human footprint, footwear, and the analysis of gait forms captured on Closed Circuit Television Cameras. The most valuable techniques relate to the comparison of the foot impressions inside shoes. Tools to describe, measure and compare foot impressions with footwear wear marks have been developed through research with potential for further development. The role of forensic podiatrists is of particular value when dealing with variable factors relating to the functioning and the shod foot. Case studies demonstrate the approach of podiatrists, in footwear identification, when comparing exemplar with questioned foot impressions. Forensic podiatry practice should be approached cautiously and it is essential for podiatrists undertaking this type of work to understand the context within which the process of person identification takes place.

  5. Forensic sciences and forensic odontology: issues for dental hygienists and therapists.

    PubMed

    Nuzzolese, E; Lepore, M M; Cukovic-Bagic, I; Montagna, F; Di Vella, G

    2008-12-01

    The scientific literature contains very little about the role of the dental hygienist/therapist in the specific areas of forensic investigations and collection of evidence. The authors examine how the contribution of a highly qualified dental hygienist can be particularly helpful during human forensic identification operations and non-accidental traumas like domestic violence, child abuse, neglect and bitemarks. Forensic dental identification of human remains is a highly complex multidisciplinary challenge. It requires the involvement of several professionals who are expert in forensic science. Among these, one or more adequately trained dental hygienists could be involved. Dental hygienists/therapists may also be asked to record cutaneous lesions in two different situations. The first may be the dental office where she/he may detect oval, elliptic, or semicircular lesions on the skin of the uncovered neck, shoulder and arms of a patient. The second is the crime scene or the morgue (if one is involved), which may require a visit by the forensic odontologist called by the medical examiner or the coroner to perform an odontological autopsy. The purpose of our study is to highlight procedures that should be followed by the dental hygienist/therapist in collecting forensic information in the above-mentioned scenarios. As a valuable resource, the authors recommend training of dental hygienists in the area of forensic sciences, with particular attention to information technology and photography.

  6. Forensic science, genetics and wildlife biology: getting the right mix for a wildlife DNA forensics lab.

    PubMed

    Ogden, Rob

    2010-09-01

    Wildlife DNA forensics is receiving increasing coverage in the popular press and has begun to appear in the scientific literature in relation to several different fields. Recognized as an applied subject, it rests on top of very diverse scientific pillars ranging from biochemistry through to evolutionary genetics, all embedded within the context of modern forensic science. This breadth of scope, combined with typically limited resources, has often left wildlife DNA forensics hanging precariously between human DNA forensics and academics keen to seek novel applications for biological research. How best to bridge this gap is a matter for regular debate among the relatively few full-time practitioners in the field. The decisions involved in establishing forensic genetic services to investigate wildlife crime can be complex, particularly where crimes involve a wide range of species and evidential questions. This paper examines some of the issues relevant to setting up a wildlife DNA forensics laboratory based on experiences of working in this area over the past 7 years. It includes a discussion of various models for operating individual laboratories as well as options for organizing forensic testing at higher national and international levels.

  7. Computer Forensics: Is It the Next Hot IT Subject?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Victor G.; Revels, Ken

    2006-01-01

    Digital Forensics is not just the recovery of data or information from computer systems and their networks. It is not a procedure that can be accomplished by software alone, and most important, it is not something that can be accomplished by other than a trained IT forensic professional. Digital Forensics is an emerging science and was developed…

  8. Forensic Analysis Demonstration via Hawaii Five-O

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shmaefsky, Brian R.

    2006-01-01

    "Forensics," in its most universal sense, is defined as the use of science or technology in the investigation and establishment of facts or evidence for determining identity or relatedness. Most forensic reasoning is used for arguing legal matters. However, forensic studies are also used in agronomy, biology, chemistry, geology, and…

  9. Remarks on forensically interesting Microsoft XBox 360 console features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luttenberger, Silas; Kröger, Knut; Creutzburg, Reiner

    2012-02-01

    This paper deals with forensically interesting features of the Microsoft Xbox 360 game console. The construction and the internal structure are analysed more precisely. One of the main aspects of the study is to analyse the used file system which was examined for forensic features. Possible difficulties that might be of importance to the forensic investigator are discussed.

  10. Factors Predicting Organizational Identification with Intercollegiate Forensics Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croucher, Stephen M.; Long, Bridget L.; Meredith, Michael J.; Oommen, Deepa; Steele, Emily L.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between intercollegiate forensics competitors' organizational identification and organizational culture. Through a survey analysis of 314 intercollegiate forensics students, this study reports three major findings. First, this study found male competitors identify with forensics programs more than female…

  11. Practice Parameter for Child and Adolescent Forensic Evaluations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This Parameter addresses the key concepts that differentiate the forensic evaluation of children and adolescents from a clinical assessment. There are ethical issues unique to the forensic evaluation, because the forensic evaluator's duty is to the person, court, or agency requesting the evaluation, rather than to the patient. The forensic…

  12. Setting Course: The Case for the Credentialing of Forensic Interviewers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haney, Mike; Vieth, Victor I.; Campos, Hector M.

    2010-01-01

    The article provides a history of efforts to develop a credentialing or certification process for forensic interviewers and reviews the multitiered credentialing process offered by the National Association of Certified Child Forensic Interviewers. The authors argue the benefits of a credentialing process for forensic interviewers and respond to…

  13. Factors Predicting Organizational Identification with Intercollegiate Forensics Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croucher, Stephen M.; Long, Bridget L.; Meredith, Michael J.; Oommen, Deepa; Steele, Emily L.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between intercollegiate forensics competitors' organizational identification and organizational culture. Through a survey analysis of 314 intercollegiate forensics students, this study reports three major findings. First, this study found male competitors identify with forensics programs more than female…

  14. Setting Course: The Case for the Credentialing of Forensic Interviewers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haney, Mike; Vieth, Victor I.; Campos, Hector M.

    2010-01-01

    The article provides a history of efforts to develop a credentialing or certification process for forensic interviewers and reviews the multitiered credentialing process offered by the National Association of Certified Child Forensic Interviewers. The authors argue the benefits of a credentialing process for forensic interviewers and respond to…

  15. Practice Parameter for Child and Adolescent Forensic Evaluations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This Parameter addresses the key concepts that differentiate the forensic evaluation of children and adolescents from a clinical assessment. There are ethical issues unique to the forensic evaluation, because the forensic evaluator's duty is to the person, court, or agency requesting the evaluation, rather than to the patient. The forensic…

  16. Exploring the Forensics Community: The Need for Stronger Basic Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worth, David S.

    This paper surveys forensics research broadly over the last 26 years and argues for research that more comprehensively accounts for forensics in its full range of activity. Forensics research has historically tended to focus on one area of competition. The paper argues for more research that conceptualizes the activity across these practices and…

  17. Forensic Analysis Demonstration via Hawaii Five-O

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shmaefsky, Brian R.

    2006-01-01

    "Forensics," in its most universal sense, is defined as the use of science or technology in the investigation and establishment of facts or evidence for determining identity or relatedness. Most forensic reasoning is used for arguing legal matters. However, forensic studies are also used in agronomy, biology, chemistry, geology, and…

  18. Remarks on forensically interesting Sony Playstation 3 console features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daugs, Gunnar; Kröger, Knut; Creutzburg, Reiner

    2012-02-01

    This paper deals with forensically interesting features of the Sony Playstation 3 game console. The construction and the internal structure are analyzed more precisely. Interesting forensic features of the operating system and the file system are presented. Differences between a PS3 with and without jailbreak are introduced and possible forensic attempts when using an installed Linux are discussed.

  19. Awareness of forensic odontology among police personnel: A new ray of hope in forensic odontology

    PubMed Central

    Pandit, Siddharth; Desai, Dinkar; Jeergal, Prabhakar; Venkatesh, Sowmya

    2016-01-01

    Background: Police personnel play an important role in collecting and producing evidence. Knowledge about the various aspects of forensic as well as dental sciences and related evidence in them provide a golden opportunity to forensic odontologists to actively participate in the identification of the accused or victim. They can also act as an expert witness in court to produce forensic dental evidence. Aim: To evaluate the awareness and knowledge about the utilization of forensic odontology during evidence collection by the crime scene investigation (CSI) officers. Materials and Methods: Four hundred police officers were included in this survey. A questionnaire was designed to assess the awareness and knowledge about forensic odontology and application of the known knowledge in identifying and considering the dental evidences. Data were analyzed using the software Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS, Chicago, Il, USA) version 17.0 by comparing the overall awareness of forensic odontology among the trained SI officers and trainee police personnel. Results: The collected results showed that there is a requirement for changes in the current practice of evidence collection and highlighted the need for better communication between the police personnel and forensic odontologists. A significantly higher number of police officers in both the trained and trainee groups reported knowledge about the subject (P < 0.001) through newspapers and mass media as the sources of knowledge. Conclusion: Even though the respondents have knowledge about forensic odontology, there is a lack of communication and facilities in their system; hence, steps must be taken to educate the police personnel about the application of forensic odontology. PMID:27051225

  20. LEARNING THEORY AND CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY , *ADJUSTMENT( PSYCHOLOGY ), LEARNING, LEARNING, BEHAVIOR, PERSONALITY , ANXIETY, ATTITUDES( PSYCHOLOGY ), NEUROSES, MENTAL DISORDERS...PERCEPTION( PSYCHOLOGY ), VERBAL BEHAVIOR, SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY , DIAGNOSIS(MEDICINE), THERAPY.

  1. Forensic neuropsychology and expert witness testimony: An overview of forensic practice.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Elizabeth L

    2015-01-01

    Neuropsychologists are frequently asked to serve as expert witnesses in an increasing number of legal contexts for civil and criminal proceedings. The skills required to practice forensic neuropsychology expand upon the knowledge, skills, and abilities developed by clinical neuropsychologists. Forensic neuropsychologists acquire expertise in understanding the roles and various functions of the legal system, as well as their role in addressing psycholegal questions to assist fact finders in making legal decisions. The required skills and the unique circumstances for clinical neuropsychologists pursing forensic work are reviewed.

  2. Applying Machine Trust Models to Forensic Investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojcik, Marika; Venter, Hein; Eloff, Jan; Olivier, Martin

    Digital forensics involves the identification, preservation, analysis and presentation of electronic evidence for use in legal proceedings. In the presence of contradictory evidence, forensic investigators need a means to determine which evidence can be trusted. This is particularly true in a trust model environment where computerised agents may make trust-based decisions that influence interactions within the system. This paper focuses on the analysis of evidence in trust-based environments and the determination of the degree to which evidence can be trusted. The trust model proposed in this work may be implemented in a tool for conducting trust-based forensic investigations. The model takes into account the trust environment and parameters that influence interactions in a computer network being investigated. Also, it allows for crimes to be reenacted to create more substantial evidentiary proof.

  3. The future of forensic DNA analysis

    PubMed Central

    Butler, John M.

    2015-01-01

    The author's thoughts and opinions on where the field of forensic DNA testing is headed for the next decade are provided in the context of where the field has come over the past 30 years. Similar to the Olympic motto of ‘faster, higher, stronger’, forensic DNA protocols can be expected to become more rapid and sensitive and provide stronger investigative potential. New short tandem repeat (STR) loci have expanded the core set of genetic markers used for human identification in Europe and the USA. Rapid DNA testing is on the verge of enabling new applications. Next-generation sequencing has the potential to provide greater depth of coverage for information on STR alleles. Familial DNA searching has expanded capabilities of DNA databases in parts of the world where it is allowed. Challenges and opportunities that will impact the future of forensic DNA are explored including the need for education and training to improve interpretation of complex DNA profiles. PMID:26101278

  4. Clinical criminology: a bridge between forensic professionals.

    PubMed

    Silfen, P; Ben-David, S

    1993-01-01

    In recent decades a new profession has developed--clinical criminology. The purpose of this article is to highlight its development. Criminology is defined as a interdisciplinary super-profession. We tend to view criminology as a basic profession with a number of specializations. Clinical criminology is one of these specializations. Forensic psychiatry and clinical criminology have common roots in psychiatry, law and behavioural sciences. They overlap in some fields. Members of both professions work in the same setting and share some of the tasks, but the formal and professional responsibilities differ significantly. We perceive clinical criminology and forensic psychiatry as complementary professions belonging to medicine. The multidisciplinary educated clinical criminologist is the only professional in the forensic system who is qualified to moderate between the mental health and legal expert.

  5. The future of forensic DNA analysis.

    PubMed

    Butler, John M

    2015-08-05

    The author's thoughts and opinions on where the field of forensic DNA testing is headed for the next decade are provided in the context of where the field has come over the past 30 years. Similar to the Olympic motto of 'faster, higher, stronger', forensic DNA protocols can be expected to become more rapid and sensitive and provide stronger investigative potential. New short tandem repeat (STR) loci have expanded the core set of genetic markers used for human identification in Europe and the USA. Rapid DNA testing is on the verge of enabling new applications. Next-generation sequencing has the potential to provide greater depth of coverage for information on STR alleles. Familial DNA searching has expanded capabilities of DNA databases in parts of the world where it is allowed. Challenges and opportunities that will impact the future of forensic DNA are explored including the need for education and training to improve interpretation of complex DNA profiles.

  6. Plant Pathogen Forensics: Capabilities, Needs, and Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, J.; Bender, C.; Budowle, B.; Cobb, W. T.; Gold, S. E.; Ishimaru, C. A.; Luster, D.; Melcher, U.; Murch, R.; Scherm, H.; Seem, R. C.; Sherwood, J. L.; Sobral, B. W.; Tolin, S. A.

    2006-01-01

    A biological attack on U.S. crops, rangelands, or forests could reduce yield and quality, erode consumer confidence, affect economic health and the environment, and possibly impact human nutrition and international relations. Preparedness for a crop bioterror event requires a strong national security plan that includes steps for microbial forensics and criminal attribution. However, U.S. crop producers, consultants, and agricultural scientists have traditionally focused primarily on strategies for prevention and management of diseases introduced naturally or unintentionally rather than on responding appropriately to an intentional pathogen introduction. We assess currently available information, technologies, and resources that were developed originally to ensure plant health but also could be utilized for postintroduction plant pathogen forensics. Recommendations for prioritization of efforts and resource expenditures needed to enhance our plant pathogen forensics capabilities are presented. PMID:16760310

  7. Topographies of forensic practice in Imperial Germany.

    PubMed

    Engstrom, Eric J

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the topography and "cultural machinery" of forensic jurisdictions in Imperial Germany. It locates the sites at which boundary disputes between psychiatric and legal professionals arose and explores the strategies and practices that governed the division of expert labor between them. It argues that the over-determined paradigms of 'medicalization' and 'biologization' have lost much of their explanatory force and that historians need to refocus their attention on the institutional and administrative configuration of forensic practices in Germany. After first sketching the statutory context of those practices, the article explores how contentious jurisdictional negotiations pitted various administrative, financial, public security, and scientific interests against one another. The article also assesses the contested status of psychiatric expertise in the courtroom, as well as post-graduate forensic psychiatric training courses and joint professional organizations, which drew the two professional communities closer together and mediated their jurisdictional disputes.

  8. Saliva in forensic odontology: A comprehensive update.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Susmita; Kumar, Sanjeev

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, saliva has attracted much interest among researchers especially in the field of forensic sciences. This complex body fluid is gaining popularity due to its ease of collection, safety in handling and its close relationship with plasma. Analysis of saliva for serological testing and cellular content has proved to be of wide use in crime detection, drug and alcohol abuse, hormone identification, cases of poisoning and animal bites. There is a need for forensic laboratories to automate the settings specific for saliva as routinely done for blood or urine in order to consider saliva as the primary investigating tool in the absence of other body fluids. This update is aimed at highlighting the many uses of saliva in the practice of forensic odontology.

  9. Forensic odontology involvement in disaster victim identification.

    PubMed

    Berketa, John William; James, Helen; Lake, Anthony W

    2012-06-01

    Forensic odontology is one of three primary identifiers designated by Interpol to identify victims of mass casualty events. Forensic odontology is involved in all five phases-Scene, Postmortem, Antemortem, Reconciliation and Debrief. Forward planning, adequate funding, international cooperation and standardization are essential to guarantee an effective response. A Standard Operation Procedure should be utilized to maximize quality, facilitate occupation and health issues, maintain security and form a structure to the relief program. Issues that must be considered in the management of the forensic odontology component of disaster victim identification are given in "Appendix 1". Each stage of the disaster, from initial notification to debrief, is analyzed and a comprehensive checklist of actions suggested.

  10. Forensic psychiatry: contemporary scope, challenges and controversies

    PubMed Central

    ARBOLEDA-FLÓREZ, JULIO

    2006-01-01

    Forensic psychiatry is the branch of psychiatry that deals with issues arising in the interface between psychiatry and the law, and with the flow of mentally disordered offenders along a continuum of social systems. Modern forensic psychiatry has benefited from four key developments: the evolution in the understanding and appreciation of the relationship between mental illness and criminality; the evolution of the legal tests to define legal insanity; the new methodologies for the treatment of mental conditions providing alternatives to custodial care; and the changes in attitudes and perceptions of mental illness among the public. This paper reviews the current scope of forensic psychiatry and the ethical dilemmas that this subspecialty is facing worldwide. PMID:16946941

  11. [Forensic analysis of injuries in dentistry].

    PubMed

    Heltai, Nóra; Baráth, Zoltán; Kereszty, Éva M

    2016-03-13

    Documentation and evaluation of dental injuries in forensic medicine are rather problematic. It needs a professional work up why dental injuries are out of focus, and how the diagnosis, pattern and treatment are influenced by novel approaches of dentistry. The aims of the authors were to characterize dental injuries, to compare their own findings to literature data concerning the type and characteristics of injuries, and propose a diagnostic workflow. Expert's reports between 2009 and 2013 at the Department of Forensic Medicine, University of Szeged were reviewed. Review of about 7000 reports revealed only 20 cases with dental injury, which is in contrast with literature data indicating a significantly higher frequency of dental injuries. Although the number of "dental cases" was low, there were several additional cases where the trauma probably affected the teeth but the injury was not documented. In future more attention is needed in forensic evaluation of the mechanism, therapeutic strategy and prognosis of dental injuries.

  12. A CONCEPT FOR NATIONAL NUCLEAR FORENSIC LIBRARIES

    SciTech Connect

    Wacker, John F.; Curry, Michael

    2010-08-11

    The interpretation of data from the nuclear forensic analysis of illicit nuclear material of unknown origin requires comparative data from samples of known origin. One way to provide such comparative data is to create a system of national nuclear forensics libraries, in which each participating country stores information about nuclear or other radioactive material that either resides in or was manufactured by that country. Such national libraries could provide an authoritative record of the material located in or produced by a particular country, and thus forms an essential prerequisite for a government to investigate illicit uses of nuclear or other radioactive material within its borders. We describe the concept of the national nuclear forensic library, recommendations for content and structure, and suggested querying methods for utilizing the information for addressing nuclear smuggling.

  13. Forensic terrestrial photogrammetry from a single image.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Aguilera, Diego; Gomez-Lahoz, Javier

    2009-11-01

    Forensic terrestrial photogrammetry is one of the most valuable and low-cost resources of spatial data available today. Due to the ephemeral crime scene characteristics, these photographs can often capture information that is never to be seen again. This paper presents a novelty approach for the documentation, analysis, and visualization of crime scenes for which only a single perspective image is available. The photogrammetric process consists of a few well-known steps in close-range photogrammetry: features extraction, vanishing points computation, camera self-calibration, 3D metric reconstruction, dimensional analysis, and interactive visualization. Likewise, the method incorporates a quality control of the different steps accomplished sequentially. As a result, several cases of study are presented in the experimental results section in order to test their viability. The full approach can be applied easily through the free software, sv3DVision, which has been evaluated by a number of police officers, forensic scientists, and forensic educators satisfactorily.

  14. Saliva in forensic odontology: A comprehensive update

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Susmita; Kumar, Sanjeev

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, saliva has attracted much interest among researchers especially in the field of forensic sciences. This complex body fluid is gaining popularity due to its ease of collection, safety in handling and its close relationship with plasma. Analysis of saliva for serological testing and cellular content has proved to be of wide use in crime detection, drug and alcohol abuse, hormone identification, cases of poisoning and animal bites. There is a need for forensic laboratories to automate the settings specific for saliva as routinely done for blood or urine in order to consider saliva as the primary investigating tool in the absence of other body fluids. This update is aimed at highlighting the many uses of saliva in the practice of forensic odontology. PMID:26604508

  15. Usefulness: forensic photo documentation after sexual assault.

    PubMed

    Ernst, E J; Speck, P M; Fitzpatrick, J J

    2011-01-01

    The forensic medical legal evaluation following sexual assault establishes evidence for law enforcement's investigation and criminal prosecution by the legal system. The sexual assault nurse examiner performs the forensic evaluation and uses digital photography to document physical injuries after sexual assault. Photographs have varying degrees of usefulness, but for a photograph to be useful, it must exhibit technical elements for the viewer. There was no tool available to evaluate the usefulness of digital photographs taken during forensic evaluation of genital injuries after sexual assault. The Photo Documentation Image Quality Scoring System (PDIQSS) tool was developed to rate photographic technical elements for usefulness. Using this tool, three experts on two separate occasions evaluated a series of digital photographs taken following sexual assault. The PDIQSS tool predicted usefulness in digital photography of female genital injuries following sexual assault when measured in all dimensions.

  16. Combination of Face Regions in Forensic Scenarios.

    PubMed

    Tome, Pedro; Fierrez, Julian; Vera-Rodriguez, Ruben; Ortega-Garcia, Javier

    2015-07-01

    This article presents an experimental analysis of the combination of different regions of the human face on various forensic scenarios to generate scientific knowledge useful for the forensic experts. Three scenarios of interest at different distances are considered comparing mugshot and CCTV face images using MORPH and SC face databases. One of the main findings is that inner facial regions combine better in mugshot and close CCTV scenarios and outer facial regions combine better in far CCTV scenarios. This means, that depending of the acquisition distance, the discriminative power of the facial regions change, having in some cases better performance than the full face. This effect can be exploited by considering the fusion of facial regions which results in a very significant improvement of the discriminative performance compared to just using the full face. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  17. Biosensors in forensic analysis. A review.

    PubMed

    Yáñez-Sedeño, P; Agüí, L; Villalonga, R; Pingarrón, J M

    2014-05-01

    Forensic analysis is an important branch of modern Analytical Chemistry with many legal and socially relevant implications. Biosensors can play an important role as efficient tools in this field considering their well known advantages of sensitivity, selectivity, easy functioning, affordability and capability of miniaturization and automation. This article reviews the latest advances in the use of biosensors for forensic analysis. The different methodologies for the transduction of the produced biological events are considered and the applications to forensic toxicological analysis, classified by the nature of the target analytes, as well as those related with chemical and biological weapons critically commented. The article provides several Tables where the more relevant analytical characteristics of the selected reported methods are gathered. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Nuclear Forensics for High School Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mader, Catherine; Doss, Heide; Plisch, Monica; Isola, Drew; Mirakovitz, Kathy

    2011-04-01

    We developed an education module on nuclear forensics, designed for high school science classrooms. The lessons include a mix of hands-on activities, computer simulations, and written exercises. Students are presented with realistic scenarios designed to develop their knowledge of nuclear science and its application to nuclear forensics. A two-day teacher workshop offered at Hope College attracted 20 teachers. They were loaned kits to implement activities with their students, and each teacher spent 3--7 days on the lessons. All who reported back said they would do it again and would share the lessons with colleagues. Many said that access to equipment and ready-made lessons enabled them to expand what they taught about nuclear science and introduce nuclear forensics. A few teachers invited guest speakers to their classroom, which provided an excellent opportunity to share career information with students. We acknowledge generous support from the Department of Homeland Security and the AIP Meggars Award.

  19. Black Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Reginald L., Ed.

    The contents of the present volume, designed to bring together in a single place writings by the new black psychologists and other black social and behavioral scientists, are organized in seven parts, as follows: Part I, "Black Psychology: Perspectives," includes articles by Cedric Clark, Wade W. Nobles, Doris P. Mosby, Joseph White, and William…

  20. Adult Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bischof, Ledford J.

    This volume comprehensively reviews the research on the psychology of the middle aged (ages 40-65). Topics include the concept of maturity and maturation models, the measurement and influences of adult self image; marriage and sexual patterns; intergenerational relationships between and children; vocations and avocations (work, retirement, play,…