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Sample records for forensic science research

  1. Forensic Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, P. G. W.

    1973-01-01

    Summarizes the type of work carried out by forensic chemists and the minimum qualification needed for appointment. Indicates that there are eight Home Office regional forensic science laboratories in addition to the Central Research Establishment at Aldermaston. (CC)

  2. Forensic Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brettell, T. A.; Saferstein, R.

    1989-01-01

    Presents a review of articles appealing to forensic practitioners. Topics include: drugs and poisons, forensic biochemistry, and trace evidence. Lists noteworthy books published on forensic science topics since 1986. (MVL)

  3. [Research progress on the phenotype informative SNP in forensic science].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu-Xuan; Hu, Qing-Qing; Ma, Hong-Du; Huang, Dai-Xin

    2014-10-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) refers to the single base sequence variation in specific location of the human genome. Phenotype informative SNP has gradually become one of the research hot spots in forensic science. In this paper, the forensic research situation and application prospect of phenotype informative SNP in the characteristics of hair, eye and skin color, height, and facial feature are reviewed.

  4. American Academy of Forensic Sciences

    MedlinePlus

    ... University Listings FEPAC Accredited Programs Courses in Forensic Odontology Choosing a Career What is Forensic Science? What ... Corner Forensic Sciences Foundation American Society of Forensic Odontology Research Grants Academy Standards Board (ASB) Account Portal ...

  5. Forensic Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Keith O.; Nigh, W. G.

    1973-01-01

    A course is described, which was given during an interim, with an enrollment of 41 students. The course involved an in-depth study of forensic science, involving students with the methodology of science. (DF)

  6. [Researches in forensic biomechanics].

    PubMed

    Xu, Yan; Fan, Yubo; Yu, Xiaojun

    2004-02-01

    Forensic biomechanics is the science of proof, which applies the biomechanical theory and technology to resolve problems related to mechanics in the process of expert witness. It belongs to the realm of a new subject combining biomechanics and forensics. Forensic biomechanics is a new branch of modern biomechanics and at the same time a new important branch of forensics, and it is one of the most potential research areas in forensics of injury. In this paper, the task of forensic biomechanics expert witness, the procedure of expert witness, and the forensic biomechanics research methods and cases are reviewed.

  7. Thinking forensics: Cognitive science for forensic practitioners.

    PubMed

    Edmond, Gary; Towler, Alice; Growns, Bethany; Ribeiro, Gianni; Found, Bryan; White, David; Ballantyne, Kaye; Searston, Rachel A; Thompson, Matthew B; Tangen, Jason M; Kemp, Richard I; Martire, Kristy

    2017-03-01

    Human factors and their implications for forensic science have attracted increasing levels of interest across criminal justice communities in recent years. Initial interest centred on cognitive biases, but has since expanded such that knowledge from psychology and cognitive science is slowly infiltrating forensic practices more broadly. This article highlights a series of important findings and insights of relevance to forensic practitioners. These include research on human perception, memory, context information, expertise, decision-making, communication, experience, verification, confidence, and feedback. The aim of this article is to sensitise forensic practitioners (and lawyers and judges) to a range of potentially significant issues, and encourage them to engage with research in these domains so that they may adapt procedures to improve performance, mitigate risks and reduce errors. Doing so will reduce the divide between forensic practitioners and research scientists as well as improve the value and utility of forensic science evidence.

  8. Expanding forensic science through forensic intelligence.

    PubMed

    Ribaux, Olivier; Talbot Wright, Benjamin

    2014-12-01

    Research and Development ('R&D') in forensic science currently focuses on innovative technologies improving the efficiency of existing forensic processes, from the detection of marks and traces at the scene, to their presentation in Court. R&D approached from this perspective provides no response to doubts raised by recent criminological studies, which question the effective contribution of forensic science to crime reduction, and to policing in general. Traces (i.e. forensic case data), as remnants of criminal activity are collected and used in various forms of crime monitoring and investigation. The aforementioned doubts therefore need to be addressed by expressing how information is conveyed by traces in these processes. Modelling from this standpoint expands the scope of forensic science and provides new R&D opportunities. Twelve propositions for R&D are stated in order to pave the way.

  9. Integrating Forensic Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Funkhouser, John; Deslich, Barbara J.

    2000-01-01

    Explains the implementation of forensic science in an integrated curriculum and discusses the advantages of this approach. Lists the forensic science course syllabi studied in three high schools. Discusses the unit on polymers in detail. (YDS)

  10. Internet and forensic science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamakura, Reddy P.

    1997-02-01

    The Internet is a very powerful and inexpensive tool that was created for the free distribution of knowledge and information. The Internet is a learning tool, a research tool, a virtual library without borders and membership requirements, a journal with instant publication, a help desk, and a newspaper/journal with current information. Very soon, when live audio and video transmission is perfected, the Internet also will be a live classroom and everyday conference. Forensic scientists, laboratories and colleges should make use of information already available on the Internet. They also should actively participate and contribute. Very few forensic scientists and laboratories have made their presence felt by setting up their home pages/web pages. But, there is tremendous growth during the past year. Immense benefits from Internet to forensic community are discussed along with the author's personal experience. Creating on-line searchable data bases in all specialties of forensic science is an urgent need. Leading forensic journals should take a lead and create on-line searchable indexes with abstracts. On line electronic publishing, collaborative research/paper publishing or editing is easy, fast, economical and convenient through the use of the Internet. Creation of Internet repositories of unpublished papers is an idea worth looking into. Internet also can be used to give training, re-training or advanced training to students/forensic scientists.

  11. Forensic Science Technician

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tech Directions, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Forensic science technicians, also called crime laboratory technicians or police science technicians, help solve crimes. They examine and identify physical evidence to reconstruct a crime scene. This article discusses everything students need to know about careers for forensic science technicians--wages, responsibilities, skills needed, career…

  12. A Review of Forensic Science Management Literature.

    PubMed

    Houck, M M; McAndrew, W P; Porter, M; Davies, B

    2015-01-01

    The science in forensic science has received increased scrutiny in recent years, but interest in how forensic science is managed is a relatively new line of research. This paper summarizes the literature in forensic science management generally from 2009 to 2013, with some recent additions, to provide an overview of the growth of topics, results, and improvements in the management of forensic services in the public and private sectors. This review covers only the last three years or so and a version of this paper was originally produced for the 2013 Interpol Forensic Science Managers Symposium and is available at interpol.int.

  13. Research in forensic odontology.

    PubMed Central

    Whittaker, D. K.

    1982-01-01

    Forensic odontology has established itself as an important and often indispensable science in medicolegal matters and in particular in identification of the dead. Much of its expertise is drawn from clinical experience based on basic research and advances in knowledge in dentistry in general. There has also been, particularly during the past two decades, an increasing body of research in specifically forensic dental matters and these studies form the subject of this review. Progress in this field, as in others, will depend upon development of training pathways and research facilities in our dental schools. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 PMID:7044254

  14. Forensic Science Center

    SciTech Connect

    Andresen, B.; Grant, P.M.

    1994-03-01

    Since 1991, the Laboratory's Forensic Science Center has focused a comprehensive range of analytical expertise on issues related to non proliferation, counterterrorism, and domestic law enforcement. During this short period, LLNL's singular combination of human and technological resources has made the Center among the best of its kind in the world. The Forensic Science Center houses a variety of state-of-the-art analytical tools ranging from gas chromatograph/mass spectrometers to ultratrace DNA detection techniques. The Center's multidisciplinary staff provides expertise in organic and inorganic analytical chemistry, nuclear science, biochemistry, and genetics useful for supporting law enforcement and for verifying compliance with international treaties and agreements.

  15. The communication of forensic science in the criminal justice system: A review of theory and proposed directions for research.

    PubMed

    Howes, Loene M

    2015-03-01

    Clear communication about forensic science is essential to the effectiveness and perceived trustworthiness of the criminal justice system. Communication can be seen as a meaning-making process that involves different components such as the sender of a message, the message itself, the channel in which a message is sent, and the receiver of the message. Research conducted to date on the communication between forensic scientists and non-scientists in the criminal justice system has focused on different components of the communication process as objects of study. The purpose of this paper is to bring together communication theory and past research on the communication of forensic science to contribute to a deeper understanding of it, and to provide a coherent view of it overall. The paper first outlines the broader context of communication theory and science communication as a backdrop to forensic science communication. Then it presents a conceptual framework as a way to organise past research and, using the framework, reviews recent examples of empirical research and commentary on the communication of forensic science. Finally the paper identifies aspects of the communication of forensic science that may be addressed by future research to enhance the effectiveness of communication between scientists and non-scientists in this multidisciplinary arena.

  16. Forensic culture as epistemic culture: the sociology of forensic science.

    PubMed

    Cole, Simon A

    2013-03-01

    This paper explores whether we can interpret the notion of 'forensic culture' as something akin to what Knorr-Cetina called an 'epistemic culture'. Can we speak of a 'forensic culture', and, if so, how is it similar to, or different from, other epistemic cultures that exist in what is conventionally called 'science'? This question has important policy implications given the National Academy Science's (NAS) recent identification of 'culture' as one of the problems at the root of what it identified as 'serious deficiencies' in U.S. forensic science and 'scientific culture' as an antidote to those problems. Finding the NAS's characterisation of 'scientific culture' overly general and naïve, this paper offers a preliminary exploration of what might be called a 'forensic culture'. Specifically, the paper explores the way in which few of the empirical findings accumulated by sociologists of science about research science seem to apply to forensic science. Instead, forensic science seems to have developed a distinct culture for which a sociological analysis will require new explanatory tools. Faithful sociological analysis of 'forensic culture' will be a necessary prerequisite for the kind of culture change prescribed by external reformist bodies like the NAS.

  17. Forensic Science--A Proposal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geesaman, Donald P.; Abrahamson, Dean E.

    1973-01-01

    Forensic science is an approach to study desirability of specific technologies in the context of value objectives and biological imperatives of society. Such groups should be formed with people from various physical and social sciences. (PS)

  18. Nanoparticles in forensic science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantu, Antonio A.

    2008-10-01

    Nanoparticles appear in several areas of forensic science including security documents, paints, inks, and reagents that develop latent prints. One reagent (known as the silver physical developer) that visualizes the water insoluble components of latent print residue is based on the formation of highly charged silver nanoparticles. These attach to and grow on the residue and generate a silver image. Another such reagent involves highly charged gold nanoparticles. These attach to the residue forming a weak gold image which can be amplified with a silver physical developer. Nanoparaticles are also used in items such as paints, printing inks, and writing inks. Paints and most printing inks consist of nano-sized pigments in a vehicle. However, certain modern ink jet printing inks now contain nano-sized pigments to improve their light fastness and most gel inks are also based on nano scale pigments. These nanoparticlecontaining materials often appear as evidence and are thus subject to forensic characterization. Both luminescent (quantum dots), up-converting nano scale phosphors, and non luminescent nanoparticles are used as security tags to label product, add security to documents, and as anti counterfeiting measures. These assist in determining if an item is fraudulently made.

  19. A review of the literature on the aging adult skull and face: implications for forensic science research and applications.

    PubMed

    Albert, A Midori; Ricanek, Karl; Patterson, Eric

    2007-10-02

    This paper is a summary of findings of adult age-related craniofacial morphological changes. Our aims are two-fold: (1) through a review of the literature we address the factors influencing craniofacial aging, and (2) the general ways in which a head and face age in adulthood. We present findings on environmental and innate influences on face aging, facial soft tissue age changes, and bony changes in the craniofacial and dentoalveolar skeleton. We then briefly address the relevance of this information to forensic science research and applications, such as the development of computer facial age-progression and face recognition technologies, and contributions to forensic sketch artistry.

  20. Are UK undergraduate Forensic Science degrees fit for purpose?

    PubMed

    Welsh, Charles; Hannis, Marc

    2011-09-01

    In October 2009 Skills for Justice published the social research paper 'Fit for purpose?: Research into the provision of Forensic Science degree programmes in UK Higher Education Institutions.' The research engaged employers representing 95% of UK Forensic Science providers and 79% of UK universities offering Forensic Science or Crime Scene degree programmes. In addition to this, the research collected the views of 430 students studying these degrees. In 2008 there were approximately 9000 people working in the Forensic Science sector in the UK. The research found that the numbers of students studying Forensic Science or Crime Scene degrees in the UK have more than doubled since 2002-03, from 2191 in to 5664 in 2007-08. Over the same period there were twice as many females as males studying for these degrees. The research concluded that Forensic Science degree programmes offered by UK universities were of a good quality and they provided the student with a positive learning experience but the content was not relevant for Forensic Science employers. This echoed similar research by the former Government Department for Innovation, Universities and Skills on graduates from wider science, technology, engineering and mathematics degree programmes. The research also found that 75% of students studying Forensic Science or Crime Scene degrees expected to have a career in the Forensic Science sector, meaning that ensuring these courses are relevant for employers is a key challenge for universities. This paper reflects on the original research and discusses the implications in light of recent government policy.

  1. [Research Progress of circRNA and Its Significance in Forensic Science].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ya-qi; Shao, Cheng-chen; Li, Cheng-tao; Zhao, Zi-qin; Xie, Jian-hui

    2016-04-01

    RNA has received more attention in the field of forensic medicine and the development of the new biological markers based on RNA shows great significance in the analysis of complex cases. circular RNA (circRNA) is a kind of non-coding RNA which is widely reported recently. Although the regulatory mechanisms of generation and expression are not fully clear, the existing research indicates that circRNA has important biological functions. CircRNA has a cell-type-specific expression with great stability and a high expression level, which makes it meaningful in forensic applications potentially. In this paper, the research progress, the generation and regulation of circRNA as well as its biological characteristics and functions are summarized, which will provide references for related studies and forensic applications.

  2. Forensic Science: Hair Identification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Elhannan L.

    1980-01-01

    Presented is an activity in which students use a microscope to do a forensic hair comparative study and a medullary classification. Mounting methods, medulla types, hair photographs, and activities are described. (DS)

  3. Handwriting Classification in Forensic Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ansell, Michael

    1979-01-01

    Considers systems for the classification of handwriting features, discusses computer storage of information about handwriting features, and summarizes recent studies that give an idea of the range of forensic handwriting research. (GT)

  4. Tasks of research in forensic medicine - different study types in clinical research and forensic medicine.

    PubMed

    Madea, Burkhard; Saukko, Pekka; Musshoff, Frank

    2007-01-17

    In the last years the research output of forensic medicine has sometimes been regarded as insufficient and as of poor quality, especially when parameters as impact factors and external funding were taken into account. However, forensic medicine has different tasks compared to clinical medicine. The main difference between basic subjects, clinical and forensic medicine is not a lack of scientific efficiency in forensic medicine but is a result of the questions asked, the available methods and specific aims. In contrast to natural-scientific research, forensic science has furthermore important intersections with arts and socio-scientific disciplines. Etiologic and pathogenetic research is of only limited relevance in forensic medicine. Thus, forensic medicine is excluded from these research fields, which are mainly supported by external funding. In forensic medicine research mainly means applied research regarding findings, the probative value and reconstruction as well as examination at different points of intersection between medicine and law. Clinical types of research such as controlled randomised, prospective cross-sectional, cohort or case-control studies can only rarely be applied in forensic medicine due to the area specific research fields (e.g. thantatology, violent death, vitality, traffic medicine, analytical toxicology, hemogenetics and stain analysis). The types of studies which are successfully established in forensic medicine are comparison of methods, sensitivity studies, validation of methods, kinetic examinations etc. Tasks of research in forensic medicine and study types, which may be applied will be addressed.

  5. Incorporating Argumentation through Forensic Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Lindsay B.; Maeng, Jennifer L.; Smetana, Lara K.

    2014-01-01

    This article outlines how to incorporate argumentation into a forensic science unit using a mock trial. Practical details of the mock trial include: (1) a method of scaffolding students' development of their argument for the trial, (2) a clearly outlined set of expectations for students during the planning and implementation of the mock…

  6. Microbiome Tools for Forensic Science.

    PubMed

    Metcalf, Jessica L; Xu, Zhenjiang Z; Bouslimani, Amina; Dorrestein, Pieter; Carter, David O; Knight, Rob

    2017-03-30

    Microbes are present at every crime scene and have been used as physical evidence for over a century. Advances in DNA sequencing and computational approaches have led to recent breakthroughs in the use of microbiome approaches for forensic science, particularly in the areas of estimating postmortem intervals (PMIs), locating clandestine graves, and obtaining soil and skin trace evidence. Low-cost, high-throughput technologies allow us to accumulate molecular data quickly and to apply sophisticated machine-learning algorithms, building generalizable predictive models that will be useful in the criminal justice system. In particular, integrating microbiome and metabolomic data has excellent potential to advance microbial forensics.

  7. Introduction to forensic science.

    PubMed

    O'Shaughnessy, P E

    2001-04-01

    Modern day criminal investigation has reached a point of sophistication requiring the involvement of many different disciplines to solve a crime. Each discipline inserts a part of the puzzle until it is complete. It is important to understand what each forensic expert has to offer. The coroner or medical examiner, asking for input from the various experts until enough information is received to determine the cause and manner of death, is usually the keystone to a death investigation. This information is then shared with the police investigators and prosecutor. This calls for the utmost cooperation and communication among those involved.

  8. Postgraduate forensic science education in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Atasoy, S; Cologlu, A S; Abaci-Kalfoglu, E; Polat, O

    1996-03-01

    Legal medicine in Turkey, has an educational background that goes back to 1839 and the first autopsy in modern terms was performed in 1841. In the early days, it was common practice for those involved in this work to extend their investigative knowledge into areas not directly concerned with medical matters. However forensic medical investigations cannot be entrusted in the hands of single investigators, but should rather be dealt with by cooperative groups of experts nowadays. This need was the major force for the establishment of the Institute of Legal Medicine and Forensic Sciences by a special article of the law (section 2547) as a training and research center in 1982. The Institute being the first and only institution giving master's and doctorate degrees in Forensic Sciences, has 3 major departments: 1) Medical Sciences Department, 2) Basic Sciences Department and 3) Social Sciences Department. Graduates of various fields ranging from medical doctors specialized in any field, biologists, chemists to lawyers, district attorneys, psychologists and other related fields are composing the multidisciplinary structure of the institute. The main research fields of the Institute are: population genetics, paternity investigation, child abuse, and identification of human remains.

  9. Forensic Science Education and Educational Requirements for Forensic Scientists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaensslen, Robert E.

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on criminalistics, which can be understood to mean the activities and specialty areas characteristic of most municipal, county, or state forensic science laboratories in the United States. (DDR)

  10. New psychoactive substances: catalysing a shift in forensic science practice?

    PubMed

    Tettey, Justice; Crean, Conor

    2015-08-05

    The analysis of substances of abuse remains one of the most matured areas in forensic science with a strong scientific basis, namely analytical chemistry. The current evolving drug markets, characterized by the global emergence of new psychoactive substances (NPS) and the need for forensic scientists to identify an unprecedented and ever-increasing number of NPS, presents a unique challenge to this discipline. This article looks at the current situation with NPS at the global level, and the challenges posed to the otherwise technically robust forensic science discipline of analysis of substances of abuse. It discusses the preparedness of forensic science to deal with the current situation and identifies the need for a shift in forensic science practice, especially one which embraces research and looks beyond normal casework in order to provide the much needed data for developing effective policy responses to the NPS problem.

  11. Micro-RNA - A potential for forensic science?

    PubMed

    Courts, Cornelius; Madea, Burkhard

    2010-12-15

    Micro-RNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small non-coding RNA (ncRNA) molecules with a length of 18 to 24 nucleotides which play an essential regulative role for many cellular processes. Whereas mRNA-analysis has become a well established technique in many forensic laboratories, micro-RNA has only recently been introduced to forensic science. Herein we provide a short outline of biogenesis, mode of function and regulation of miRNAs and take a look at tissue and cell specific miRNA expression. After recapitulating the role of mRNA analysis in forensic science we compare it to miRNA analysis and discuss the results of two recent studies applying miRNA analysis to a forensic research setting. We conclude that analysis of miRNA and perhaps small non-coding RNAs in general clearly has potential for forensic applications and merits attention of forensic scientists.

  12. Accreditation standards for undergraduate forensic science programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Marilyn Tebbs

    Undergraduate forensic science programs are experiencing unprecedented growth in numbers of programs offered and, as a result, student enrollments are increasing. Currently, however, these programs are not subject to professional specialized accreditation. This study sought to identify desirable student outcome measures for undergraduate forensic science programs that should be incorporated into such an accreditation process. To determine desirable student outcomes, three types of data were collected and analyzed. All the existing undergraduate forensic science programs in the United States were examined with regard to the input measures of degree requirements and curriculum content, and for the output measures of mission statements and student competencies. Accreditation procedures and guidelines for three other science-based disciplines, computer science, dietetics, and nursing, were examined to provide guidance on accreditation processes for forensic science education programs. Expert opinion on outcomes for program graduates was solicited from the major stakeholders of undergraduate forensic science programs-forensic science educators, crime laboratory directors, and recent graduates. Opinions were gathered by using a structured Internet-based survey; the total response rate was 48%. Examination of the existing undergraduate forensic science programs revealed that these programs do not use outcome measures. Of the accreditation processes for other science-based programs, nursing education provided the best model for forensic science education, due primarily to the balance between the generality and the specificity of the outcome measures. From the analysis of the questionnaire data, preliminary student outcomes, both general and discipline-specific, suitable for use in the accreditation of undergraduate forensic science programs were determined. The preliminary results were reviewed by a panel of experts and, based on their recommendations, the outcomes

  13. Current and future directions of DNA in wildlife forensic science.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Rebecca N; Wilson-Wilde, Linzi; Linacre, Adrian

    2014-05-01

    Wildlife forensic science may not have attained the profile of human identification, yet the scale of criminal activity related to wildlife is extensive by any measure. Service delivery in the arena of wildlife forensic science is often ad hoc, unco-ordinated and unregulated, yet many of those currently dedicated to wildlife conservation and the protection of endangered species are striving to ensure that the highest standards are met. The genetic markers and software used to evaluate data in wildlife forensic science are more varied than those in human forensic identification and are rarely standardised between species. The time and resources required to characterise and validate each genetic maker is considerable and in some cases prohibitive. Further, issues are regularly encountered in the construction of allelic databases and allelic ladders; essential in human identification studies, but also applicable to wildlife criminal investigations. Accreditation and certification are essential in human identification and are currently being strived for in the forensic wildlife community. Examples are provided as to how best practice can be demonstrated in all areas of wildlife crime analysis and ensure that this field of forensic science gains and maintains the respect it deserves. This review is aimed at those conducting human identification to illustrate how research concepts in wildlife forensic science can be used in the criminal justice system, as well as describing the real importance of this type of forensic analysis.

  14. U.S. initiatives to strengthen forensic science & international standards in forensic DNA

    PubMed Central

    Butler, John M.

    2015-01-01

    A number of initiatives are underway in the United States in response to the 2009 critique of forensic science by a National Academy of Sciences committee. This article provides a broad review of activities including efforts of the White House National Science and Technology Council Subcommittee on Forensic Science and a partnership between the Department of Justice (DOJ) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to create the National Commission on Forensic Science and the Organization of Scientific Area Committees. These initiatives are seeking to improve policies and practices of forensic science. Efforts to fund research activities and aid technology transition and training in forensic science are also covered. The second portion of the article reviews standards in place or in development around the world for forensic DNA. Documentary standards are used to help define written procedures to perform testing. Physical standards serve as reference materials for calibration and traceability purposes when testing is performed. Both documentary and physical standards enable reliable data comparison, and standard data formats and common markers or testing regions are crucial for effective data sharing. Core DNA markers provide a common framework and currency for constructing DNA databases with compatible data. Recent developments in expanding core DNA markers in Europe and the United States are discussed. PMID:26164236

  15. U.S. initiatives to strengthen forensic science & international standards in forensic DNA.

    PubMed

    Butler, John M

    2015-09-01

    A number of initiatives are underway in the United States in response to the 2009 critique of forensic science by a National Academy of Sciences committee. This article provides a broad review of activities including efforts of the White House National Science and Technology Council Subcommittee on Forensic Science and a partnership between the Department of Justice (DOJ) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to create the National Commission on Forensic Science and the Organization of Scientific Area Committees. These initiatives are seeking to improve policies and practices of forensic science. Efforts to fund research activities and aid technology transition and training in forensic science are also covered. The second portion of the article reviews standards in place or in development around the world for forensic DNA. Documentary standards are used to help define written procedures to perform testing. Physical standards serve as reference materials for calibration and traceability purposes when testing is performed. Both documentary and physical standards enable reliable data comparison, and standard data formats and common markers or testing regions are crucial for effective data sharing. Core DNA markers provide a common framework and currency for constructing DNA databases with compatible data. Recent developments in expanding core DNA markers in Europe and the United States are discussed.

  16. Forensic identification: From a faith-based "Science" to a scientific science.

    PubMed

    Saks, Michael J

    2010-09-10

    This article reviews the fundamental assumptions of forensic identification ("individualization") science and notes the lack of empirical evidence or theory supporting its typical strong claims. The article then discusses three general research strategies for placing these fields on firmer scientific ground. It concludes by suggesting what forensic identification science experts can do while awaiting that scientific foundation.

  17. [Research Progress on Forensic Entomotoxicology].

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhi-jiang; Zhai, Xian-dun; Guan, Ling; Mo, Yao-nan

    2015-06-01

    Forensic entomotoxicology is a branch of forensic medicine, which applies entomology, toxicology and other related studies to solve the poisoning cases. It has an obvious advantage in the investigation on poisoning death. Based on the expounding definition and research of entomotoxicology, this paper reviews research progress and application value in some aspects of forensic medicine, such as the effects of drugs/toxins on the growth and development of sarcosaphagous insects and the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the drugs/toxins in the poisoned body tissue.

  18. Forensic Science Curriculum for High School Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgess, Christiana J.

    Over the last several decades, forensic science---the application of science to civil and criminal legal matters---has become of increasing popularity with the public. The range of disciplines within the field is immense, offering individuals the potential for a unique career, regardless of their specific interests or expertise. In response to this growth, many organizations, both public and private, have recognized the need to create forensic science programs that strive to maintain and enhance the quality of forensic science education. Unfortunately, most of the emphasis placed on developing these materials relates to post-secondary education, and creates a significant lack of forensic science educational materials available in the U.S., especially in Oklahoma. The purpose of this project was to create a high school curriculum that provides the foundation for building a broad, yet comprehensive, overview of the field of forensic science and its associated disciplines. The overall goal was to create and provide course materials to high school teachers in order to increase their knowledge of forensic science such that they are able to teach its disciplines effectively and with accuracy. The Forensic Science Curriculum for High School Students includes sample lesson plans, PowerPoint presentations, and lab activities with step-by-step instructions.

  19. Application of next-generation sequencing technology in forensic science.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yaran; Xie, Bingbing; Yan, Jiangwei

    2014-10-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology, with its high-throughput capacity and low cost, has developed rapidly in recent years and become an important analytical tool for many genomics researchers. New opportunities in the research domain of the forensic studies emerge by harnessing the power of NGS technology, which can be applied to simultaneously analyzing multiple loci of forensic interest in different genetic contexts, such as autosomes, mitochondrial and sex chromosomes. Furthermore, NGS technology can also have potential applications in many other aspects of research. These include DNA database construction, ancestry and phenotypic inference, monozygotic twin studies, body fluid and species identification, and forensic animal, plant and microbiological analyses. Here we review the application of NGS technology in the field of forensic science with the aim of providing a reference for future forensics studies and practice.

  20. Application of Next-generation Sequencing Technology in Forensic Science

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yaran; Xie, Bingbing; Yan, Jiangwei

    2014-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology, with its high-throughput capacity and low cost, has developed rapidly in recent years and become an important analytical tool for many genomics researchers. New opportunities in the research domain of the forensic studies emerge by harnessing the power of NGS technology, which can be applied to simultaneously analyzing multiple loci of forensic interest in different genetic contexts, such as autosomes, mitochondrial and sex chromosomes. Furthermore, NGS technology can also have potential applications in many other aspects of research. These include DNA database construction, ancestry and phenotypic inference, monozygotic twin studies, body fluid and species identification, and forensic animal, plant and microbiological analyses. Here we review the application of NGS technology in the field of forensic science with the aim of providing a reference for future forensics studies and practice. PMID:25462152

  1. Forensic Science and the Internet - Current Utilization and Future Potential.

    PubMed

    Chamakura, R P

    1997-12-01

    The Internet has become a very powerful and inexpensive tool for the free distribution of knowledge and information. It is a learning and research tool, a virtual library without borders and membership requirements, a help desk, and a publication house providing newspapers with current information and journals with instant publication. Very soon, when live audio and video transmission is perfected, the Internet (popularly referred to as the Net) also will be a live classroom and everyday conference site. This article provides a brief overview of the basic structure and essential components of the Internet. A limited number of home pages/Web sites that are already made available on the Net by scientists, laboratories, and colleges in the forensic science community are presented in table forms. Home pages/Web sites containing useful information pertinent to different disciplines of forensic science are also categorized in various tables. The ease and benefits of the Internet use are exemplified by the author's personal experience. Currently, only a few forensic scientists and institutions have made their presence felt. More participation and active contribution and the creation of on-line searchable databases in all specialties of forensic science are urgently needed. Leading forensic journals should take the lead and create on-line searchable indexes with abstracts. Creating Internet repositories of unpublished papers is an idea worth looking into. Leading forensic science institutions should also develop use of the Net to provide training and retraining opportunities for forensic scientists.

  2. DNA methylation and application in forensic sciences.

    PubMed

    Kader, Farzeen; Ghai, Meenu

    2015-04-01

    DNA methylation of cytosine residues is a stable epigenetic alteration, beginning as early as foetal development in the uterus and continuously evolving throughout life. DNA methylation as well as other epigenetic modifications such as chromatin remodelling and histone modifications are indispensable in mammalian development. Methylation is to a large extent influenced by the ageing process, diets and lifestyle choices. Our understanding of this crucial modification may even contribute to the treatment and prevention of age-related illnesses in the very near future. Genome-wide methylation analysis using high throughput DNA technologies has discovered numerous differentially methylated regions (tDMRs) which differ in levels of methylation in various cell types and tissues. TDMRs have been useful in various applications, particularly medicine and forensic sciences. Forensic scientists are constantly seeking exciting and novel methods to aid in the reconstruction of crime scenes, and the analysis of tDMRs represents a new and reliable technique to identify biological fluids and tissues found at the scene of a violent act. Not only has research been able to unequivocally identify various fluids and tissues, but methods to determine the sex, age and phenotype of donors has been developed. New tDMRs in genes are being searched for consistently to serve as novel markers in forensic DNA analysis.

  3. 76 FR 38430 - Subcommittee on Forensic Science; Committee on Science; National Science and Technology Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-30

    ... TECHNOLOGY POLICY Subcommittee on Forensic Science; Committee on Science; National Science and Technology... interoperability issues identified in the National Academy of Sciences 2009 report: ``Strengthening Forensic... ). SUMMARY: The Subcommittee on Forensic Science (SoFS) of the National Science and Technology...

  4. 9649 forensic web watch--DNA in forensic science.

    PubMed

    Bowyer, V L; Graham, E A M; Rutty, G N

    2004-10-01

    In 1923, within the Manual of Police technique, Edmond Locard published what is commonly known as the Doctrine of Exchange; a series of rules related to the exchange of trace evidence between the victim and offender. Although at the time of publication these rules principally applied to trace evidence related to print (for exchange finger print or shoeprint), fibre and blood, today one can add the very substance that defines each human being -- DNA. Since th first use of DNA evidence to help identify an offender in the Pitchfork Murders of 1986, the use of DNA within forensic science has developed from its humble days within a single experimental laboratory at the University of Leicester to a multi-million pound industry. It thus seams fitting that this forensic web watch should originate from the very University where the use of DNA in forensic science was conceived, drawing the readers attention to a number of sites which can be used as an introduction to the concept of the use of DNA in forensic science today.

  5. An Improved Forensic Science Information Search.

    PubMed

    Teitelbaum, J

    2015-01-01

    Although thousands of search engines and databases are available online, finding answers to specific forensic science questions can be a challenge even to experienced Internet users. Because there is no central repository for forensic science information, and because of the sheer number of disciplines under the forensic science umbrella, forensic scientists are often unable to locate material that is relevant to their needs. The author contends that using six publicly accessible search engines and databases can produce high-quality search results. The six resources are Google, PubMed, Google Scholar, Google Books, WorldCat, and the National Criminal Justice Reference Service. Carefully selected keywords and keyword combinations, designating a keyword phrase so that the search engine will search on the phrase and not individual keywords, and prompting search engines to retrieve PDF files are among the techniques discussed.

  6. Error and its meaning in forensic science.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Angi M; Crowder, Christian M; Ousley, Stephen D; Houck, Max M

    2014-01-01

    The discussion of "error" has gained momentum in forensic science in the wake of the Daubert guidelines and has intensified with the National Academy of Sciences' Report. Error has many different meanings, and too often, forensic practitioners themselves as well as the courts misunderstand scientific error and statistical error rates, often confusing them with practitioner error (or mistakes). Here, we present an overview of these concepts as they pertain to forensic science applications, discussing the difference between practitioner error (including mistakes), instrument error, statistical error, and method error. We urge forensic practitioners to ensure that potential sources of error and method limitations are understood and clearly communicated and advocate that the legal community be informed regarding the differences between interobserver errors, uncertainty, variation, and mistakes.

  7. Animal experimentation in forensic sciences: How far have we come?

    PubMed

    Cattaneo, C; Maderna, E; Rendinelli, A; Gibelli, D

    2015-09-01

    In the third millennium where ethical, ethological and cultural evolution seem to be leading more and more towards an inter-species society, the issue of animal experimentation is a moral dilemma. Speaking from a self-interested human perspective, avoiding all animal testing where human disease and therapy are concerned may be very difficult or even impossible; such testing may not be so easily justifiable when suffering-or killing-of non human animals is inflicted for forensic research. In order to verify how forensic scientists are evolving in this ethical issue, we undertook a systematic review of the current literature. We investigated the frequency of animal experimentation in forensic studies in the past 15 years and trends in publication in the main forensic science journals. Types of species, lesions inflicted, manner of sedation or anesthesia and euthanasia were examined in a total of 404 articles reviewed, among which 279 (69.1%) concerned studies involving animals sacrificed exclusively for the sake of the experiment. Killing still frequently includes painful methods such as blunt trauma, electrocution, mechanical asphyxia, hypothermia, and even exsanguination; of all these animals, apparently only 60.8% were anesthetized. The most recent call for a severe reduction if not a total halt to the use of animals in forensic sciences was made by Bernard Knight in 1992. In fact the principle of reduction and replacement, frequently respected in clinical research, must be considered the basis for forensic science research needing animals.

  8. Research in Computer Forensics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-06-01

    mails . Forged Email Trusted MTA Mails with Spoofed Sender Identity Forged Emails 491 Email Forgery Forging an email on SMTP (Simple Mail Transport...As such, the discipline of computer forensic analysis has emerged to meet such needs. Computers can contain evidence in many ways, in electronic mail ...shortcut files, registry entries, printer spool and operating system logs for the system events, internet information server, Exchange mail server

  9. Assessment of the Forensic Sciences Profession: A Legal Study Concerning the Forensic Sciences Personnel. Volume III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, Oliver, Jr.

    The place and function of forensic sciences personnel in American criminal law and court procedure, and the criteria used by criminal trial judges and lawyers to assess the value of forensic sciences personnel were investigated. Federal, state, Virgin Island, and Puerto Rican laws were examined, and a search of the medical and legal literature…

  10. Molecular Imprinting Applications in Forensic Science.

    PubMed

    Yılmaz, Erkut; Garipcan, Bora; Patra, Hirak K; Uzun, Lokman

    2017-03-28

    Producing molecular imprinting-based materials has received increasing attention due to recognition selectivity, stability, cast effectiveness, and ease of production in various forms for a wide range of applications. The molecular imprinting technique has a variety of applications in the areas of the food industry, environmental monitoring, and medicine for diverse purposes like sample pretreatment, sensing, and separation/purification. A versatile usage, stability and recognition capabilities also make them perfect candidates for use in forensic sciences. Forensic science is a demanding area and there is a growing interest in molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) in this field. In this review, recent molecular imprinting applications in the related areas of forensic sciences are discussed while considering the literature of last two decades. Not only direct forensic applications but also studies of possible forensic value were taken into account like illicit drugs, banned sport drugs, effective toxins and chemical warfare agents in a review of over 100 articles. The literature was classified according to targets, material shapes, production strategies, detection method, and instrumentation. We aimed to summarize the current applications of MIPs in forensic science and put forth a projection of their potential uses as promising alternatives for benchmark competitors.

  11. Forensic science, genetics and wildlife biology: getting the right mix for a wildlife DNA forensics lab.

    PubMed

    Ogden, Rob

    2010-09-01

    Wildlife DNA forensics is receiving increasing coverage in the popular press and has begun to appear in the scientific literature in relation to several different fields. Recognized as an applied subject, it rests on top of very diverse scientific pillars ranging from biochemistry through to evolutionary genetics, all embedded within the context of modern forensic science. This breadth of scope, combined with typically limited resources, has often left wildlife DNA forensics hanging precariously between human DNA forensics and academics keen to seek novel applications for biological research. How best to bridge this gap is a matter for regular debate among the relatively few full-time practitioners in the field. The decisions involved in establishing forensic genetic services to investigate wildlife crime can be complex, particularly where crimes involve a wide range of species and evidential questions. This paper examines some of the issues relevant to setting up a wildlife DNA forensics laboratory based on experiences of working in this area over the past 7 years. It includes a discussion of various models for operating individual laboratories as well as options for organizing forensic testing at higher national and international levels.

  12. Forensic historiography: narratives and science.

    PubMed

    Drukteinis, Albert M

    2014-01-01

    Psychiatrists function, in part, as historians who rely on patient narratives to help them understand presenting mental disorders and explain their causes. Forensic psychiatrists have been skeptical of using narratives, raising concerns about their lack of objectivity and potential for bias. They also have criticized narratives as being more performative than scientific. Recent authors, however, have pointed out that narratives may be helpful in forming forensic opinions and supporting oral testimony, while stressing that their use must be consistent with the ethics espoused by forensic psychiatry. This article reviews the role of narratives in understanding human events and the ubiquitous presence of narratives in the judicial process. It delves into the inescapability of using explicit or implicit narratives in the course of forensic practice, as well as how they may be meaningfully incorporated into evaluations and find expression alongside scientific principles.

  13. Infrared spectroscopy and spectroscopic imaging in forensic science.

    PubMed

    Ewing, Andrew V; Kazarian, Sergei G

    2017-01-16

    Infrared spectroscopy and spectroscopic imaging, are robust, label free and inherently non-destructive methods with a high chemical specificity and sensitivity that are frequently employed in forensic science research and practices. This review aims to discuss the applications and recent developments of these methodologies in this field. Furthermore, the use of recently emerged Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic imaging in transmission, external reflection and Attenuated Total Reflection (ATR) modes are summarised with relevance and potential for forensic science applications. This spectroscopic imaging approach provides the opportunity to obtain the chemical composition of fingermarks and information about possible contaminants deposited at a crime scene. Research that demonstrates the great potential of these techniques for analysis of fingerprint residues, explosive materials and counterfeit drugs will be reviewed. The implications of this research for the examination of different materials are considered, along with an outlook of possible future research avenues for the application of vibrational spectroscopic methods to the analysis of forensic samples.

  14. Forensic Science--Where Scientific Methods Are Utilized to Fight the Crime.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Henry C.

    1980-01-01

    Describes various scientific techniques used to analyze physical evidence, ten areas of specialization in forensic science, courses needed by forensic scientists, and the future of forensic science. (DS)

  15. Nuclear Forensics for High School Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mader, Catherine; Doss, Heide; Plisch, Monica; Isola, Drew; Mirakovitz, Kathy

    2011-04-01

    We developed an education module on nuclear forensics, designed for high school science classrooms. The lessons include a mix of hands-on activities, computer simulations, and written exercises. Students are presented with realistic scenarios designed to develop their knowledge of nuclear science and its application to nuclear forensics. A two-day teacher workshop offered at Hope College attracted 20 teachers. They were loaned kits to implement activities with their students, and each teacher spent 3--7 days on the lessons. All who reported back said they would do it again and would share the lessons with colleagues. Many said that access to equipment and ready-made lessons enabled them to expand what they taught about nuclear science and introduce nuclear forensics. A few teachers invited guest speakers to their classroom, which provided an excellent opportunity to share career information with students. We acknowledge generous support from the Department of Homeland Security and the AIP Meggars Award.

  16. Forensic entomology: application, education and research in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Dadour, I R; Cook, D F; Fissioli, J N; Bailey, W J

    2001-08-15

    Forensic entomology as a science and a tool for investigation has had slow beginnings in Australia. A number of small animal decomposition trials have been recorded in the literature but mostly from an ecological rather than a forensic entomology perspective. In the last 20 years, a number of more forensically orientated field trials on small pigs and some fly developmental trials in the laboratory have been conducted but lack any replication. The following article was presented at an international seminar to detail the current research in forensic entomology, the applications of forensic entomology in scene of crime (SOC) and homicide investigations and the education of police and judiciary in the discipline of forensic entomology in Western Australia over the last 10 years.

  17. Bringing Science to Digital Forensics with Standardized Forensic Corpora

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    made available for unrestricted access. For example , the Enron Email Dataset (Klimt and Yang, 2004) is a corpus of 619,446 real email messages from...results can be reproduced by anyonedthere are no privileged experimenters or observers (given sufficient training and financial resources, of course...Sadly, much of today’s digital forensic research results are not reproducible. For example , techniques developed and tested by one set of researchers

  18. Particle Analysis in Forensic Science.

    PubMed

    Bisbing, R E; Schneck, W M

    2006-07-01

    Microscopic trace evidence includes particles from many sources such as biologicals, soil, building materials, metals, explosives, gunshot residues, and cosmetics. The particles are identified by morphological analysis, microscopy, and chemical analysis. Their identity is confirmed by comparison with reference materials or other comparison samples. The probative value of particles of forensic interest depends on their nature and the circumstances of their presence.

  19. Assessment of the Forensic Sciences Profession. A Survey of Educational Offerings in the Forensic Sciences. Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Kenneth S.; And Others

    This survey of the educational offerings in the Forensic Sciences was initiated to identify institutions and agencies offering educational courses and/or programs in the forensic sciences and to evaluate the availability of these programs. The information gathered by surveying members of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences reveals that…

  20. [Low template DNA profiling and its application in forensic science].

    PubMed

    Ma, Yan; Kuang, Jin-zhi; Hou, Yi-ping

    2010-04-01

    Low template DNA (LTDNA) has been widely applied in the field of forensic science in recent years. However, the application of low copy number(LCN) analysis is still controversial in certain forensic. This paper focus on the definition of LCN and LTDNA, casework because of its inherent limiting factors. the validity and application of LCN in forensic science, methods of typing, quality control, replicate analysis, detection thresholds and then reviews the latest development of LCN in forensic science.

  1. Molecular forensic science analysis of nuclear materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reilly, Dallas David

    Concerns over the proliferation and instances of nuclear material in the environment have increased interest in the expansion of nuclear forensics analysis and attribution programs. A new related field, molecular forensic science (MFS) has helped meet this expansion by applying common scientific analyses to nuclear forensics scenarios. In this work, MFS was applied to three scenarios related to nuclear forensics analysis. In the first, uranium dioxide was synthesized and aged at four sets of static environmental conditions and studied for changes in chemical speciation. The second highlighted the importance of bulk versus particle characterizations by analyzing a heterogeneous industrially prepared sample with similar techniques. In the third, mixed uranium/plutonium hot particles were collected from the McGuire Air Force Base BOMARC Site and analyzed for chemical speciation and elemental surface composition. This work has identified new signatures and has indicated unexpected chemical behavior under various conditions. These findings have lead to an expansion of basic actinide understanding, proof of MFS as a tool for nuclear forensic science, and new areas for expansion in these fields.

  2. 75 FR 10845 - Subcommittee on Forensic Science; Committee on Science; National Science and Technology Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY Subcommittee on Forensic Science; Committee on Science; National Science and Technology... Subcommittee on Forensic Science of the National Science and Technology Council's (NSTC's) Committee on...

  3. 76 FR 6163 - Subcommittee on Forensic Science; Committee on Science; National Science and Technology Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-03

    ... No: 2011-2440] OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY Subcommittee on Forensic Science; Committee on Science; National Science and Technology Council ACTION: Notice of meeting. Public input is requested... Sciences 2009 report: ``Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States: A Path Forward'' (...

  4. On the added value of forensic science and grand innovation challenges for the forensic community.

    PubMed

    van Asten, Arian C

    2014-03-01

    In this paper the insights and results are presented of a long term and ongoing improvement effort within the Netherlands Forensic Institute (NFI) to establish a valuable innovation programme. From the overall perspective of the role and use of forensic science in the criminal justice system, the concepts of Forensic Information Value Added (FIVA) and Forensic Information Value Efficiency (FIVE) are introduced. From these concepts the key factors determining the added value of forensic investigations are discussed; Evidential Value, Relevance, Quality, Speed and Cost. By unravelling the added value of forensic science and combining this with the future needs and scientific and technological developments, six forensic grand challenges are introduced: i) Molecular Photo-fitting; ii) chemical imaging, profiling and age estimation of finger marks; iii) Advancing Forensic Medicine; iv) Objective Forensic Evaluation; v) the Digital Forensic Service Centre and vi) Real time In-Situ Chemical Identification. Finally, models for forensic innovation are presented that could lead to major international breakthroughs on all these six themes within a five year time span. This could cause a step change in the added value of forensic science and would make forensic investigative methods even more valuable than they already are today.

  5. Forensic science: the truth is out there

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herold, Lynne D.

    2002-06-01

    Criminalistics, one of the many sub-divisions of forensic science, is an applied science in which items of evidence are analyzed to provide investigative information and scientific evidence to be used in courts of law. Laboratories associated with governmental public agencies are typically involved in criminal cases as opposed to civil cases, and those types of cases that fall within the jurisdiction of the particular agency. Common analytical divisions within criminalistics laboratories include blood alcohol testing, toxicology, narcotics, questioned documents, biology, firearms, latent fingerprints, physical and trace evidence sections. Specialized field investigative services may be provided in the areas of clandestine drug laboratories and major crimes (firearms, biology, trace, arson/explosives). Forensic science best practice requires the use of non-destructive testing whenever reasonably possible. Several technically difficult situations (bodies and evidence encased in cement and metal) are presented as a challenge to audience.

  6. Paradigms of forensic science and legal process: a critical diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Paul

    2015-01-01

    This article reconsiders the relationship between criminal adjudication and forensic expertise in the light of ‘new paradigms' of forensic practice and recent law reform. It briefly summarizes conventional wisdom on the typical shortcomings of forensic science and other expert evidence, as a springboard for a more searching critical diagnosis of longstanding maladies. The fundamentally jurisdictional nature of law is emphasized, and some implications for expert testimony noted. English law's traditionally adversarial model of criminal procedure is then reassessed, taking account of a proper understanding of its normative structure and modern development, and drawing on comparative legal research and theorizing to obtain a more rounded second opinion. In conclusion, some avenues for intelligent prescription are canvassed, highlighting the importance of promoting and facilitating effective communication between experts, lawyers and courts, and prioritizing modest practical remedies over radical surgery. PMID:26101282

  7. Paradigms of forensic science and legal process: a critical diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Paul

    2015-08-05

    This article reconsiders the relationship between criminal adjudication and forensic expertise in the light of 'new paradigms' of forensic practice and recent law reform. It briefly summarizes conventional wisdom on the typical shortcomings of forensic science and other expert evidence, as a springboard for a more searching critical diagnosis of longstanding maladies. The fundamentally jurisdictional nature of law is emphasized, and some implications for expert testimony noted. English law's traditionally adversarial model of criminal procedure is then reassessed, taking account of a proper understanding of its normative structure and modern development, and drawing on comparative legal research and theorizing to obtain a more rounded second opinion. In conclusion, some avenues for intelligent prescription are canvassed, highlighting the importance of promoting and facilitating effective communication between experts, lawyers and courts, and prioritizing modest practical remedies over radical surgery.

  8. Digital Forensics Research: The Next 10 Years

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    Kreibich Christian, Levchenko Kirill, Enright Brandon, Voelker Geoffrey M, Paxson Vern, Savage Stefan. Spamalytics: an empirical analysis of spam... Kara , Hay Brian, Bishop Matt. Digital forensics: defining a research agenda. In: Proceedings of the 42nd Hawaii international conference on system...Nance Kara , Hay Brian, Dodge Ronald C, p Craiger Phili, Burke Paul, Marberry Chris, Brubaker Bryan. Virtualization and digital forensics: a research

  9. Forensic chemistry.

    PubMed

    Bell, Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    Forensic chemistry is unique among chemical sciences in that its research, practice, and presentation must meet the needs of both the scientific and the legal communities. As such, forensic chemistry research is applied and derivative by nature and design, and it emphasizes metrology (the science of measurement) and validation. Forensic chemistry has moved away from its analytical roots and is incorporating a broader spectrum of chemical sciences. Existing forensic practices are being revisited as the purview of forensic chemistry extends outward from drug analysis and toxicology into such diverse areas as combustion chemistry, materials science, and pattern evidence.

  10. Age Estimation in Forensic Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Alkass, Kanar; Buchholz, Bruce A.; Ohtani, Susumu; Yamamoto, Toshiharu; Druid, Henrik; Spalding, Kirsty L.

    2010-01-01

    Age determination of unknown human bodies is important in the setting of a crime investigation or a mass disaster because the age at death, birth date, and year of death as well as gender can guide investigators to the correct identity among a large number of possible matches. Traditional morphological methods used by anthropologists to determine age are often imprecise, whereas chemical analysis of tooth dentin, such as aspartic acid racemization, has shown reproducible and more precise results. In this study, we analyzed teeth from Swedish individuals using both aspartic acid racemization and radiocarbon methodologies. The rationale behind using radiocarbon analysis is that aboveground testing of nuclear weapons during the cold war (1955–1963) caused an extreme increase in global levels of carbon-14 (14C), which has been carefully recorded over time. Forty-four teeth from 41 individuals were analyzed using aspartic acid racemization analysis of tooth crown dentin or radiocarbon analysis of enamel, and 10 of these were split and subjected to both radiocarbon and racemization analysis. Combined analysis showed that the two methods correlated well (R2 = 0.66, p < 0.05). Radiocarbon analysis showed an excellent precision with an overall absolute error of 1.0 ± 0.6 years. Aspartic acid racemization also showed a good precision with an overall absolute error of 5.4 ± 4.2 years. Whereas radiocarbon analysis gives an estimated year of birth, racemization analysis indicates the chronological age of the individual at the time of death. We show how these methods in combination can also assist in the estimation of date of death of an unidentified victim. This strategy can be of significant assistance in forensic casework involving dead victim identification. PMID:19965905

  11. Molecular forensic science of nuclear materials

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkerson, Marianne Perry

    2010-01-01

    We are interested in applying our understanding of actinide chemical structure and bonding to broaden the suite of analytical tools available for nuclear forensic analyses. Uranium- and plutonium-oxide systems form under a variety of conditions, and these chemical species exhibit some of the most complex behavior of metal oxide systems known. No less intriguing is the ability of AnO{sub 2} (An: U, Pu) to form non-stoichiometric species described as AnO{sub 2+x}. Environmental studies have shown the value of utilizing the chemical signatures of these actinide oxides materials to understand transport following release into the environment. Chemical speciation of actinide-oxide samples may also provide clues as to the age, source, process history, or transport of the material. The scientific challenge is to identify, measure and understand those aspects of speciation of actinide analytes that carry information about material origin and history most relevant to forensics. Here, we will describe our efforts in material synthesis and analytical methods development that we will use to provide the fundamental science required to characterize actinide oxide molecular structures for forensics science. Structural properties and initial results to measure structural variability of uranium oxide samples using synchrotron-based X-ray Absorption Fine Structure will be discussed.

  12. The testimony of forensic identification science: what expert witnesses say and what factfinders hear.

    PubMed

    McQuiston-Surrett, Dawn; Saks, Michael J

    2009-10-01

    This research examined how variations in the presentation of forensic science information affect factfinders' judgments in a trial. Participants read a summary of a murder case, the critical testimony being the results of a microscopic hair comparison given by a forensic expert. Across two experiments we manipulated how the expert expressed his results, whether he gave an explicit conclusion concerning identity of the hair, and whether the limitations of forensic science were expressed during trial. Qualitative testimony was more damaging to the defense than quantitative testimony, conclusion testimony increased the defendant's culpability ratings when findings were presented quantitatively, and expressing limitations of forensic science had no appreciable effect. Results are discussed in terms of factfinders' interpretation of forensic identification evidence.

  13. Partners in Crime: Integrating Forensic Science and Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hein, Erik

    2006-01-01

    Forensic science lends itself to many academic areas. Aside from the science itself, writing plays a major role in the investigation process as well as in the courtroom. It is paramount that students learn how to write proficiently when recording results or writing evaluations and reports, just as forensic scientists do. This can also be done…

  14. DNA Fingerprinting Using PCR: A Practical Forensic Science Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Hyun-Jung; Ahn, Jung Hoon; Ko, Minsu

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a forensic science simulation programme applicable for use in colleges. Students were asked to find a putative suspect by DNA fingerprinting using a simple protocol developed in this study. DNA samples were obtained from a hair root and a drop of blood, common sources of DNA in forensic science. The DNA fingerprinting protocol…

  15. Uniqueness in the forensic identification sciences--fact or fiction?

    PubMed

    Page, Mark; Taylor, Jane; Blenkin, Matt

    2011-03-20

    Fingerprint analysts, firearms and toolmark examiners, and forensic odontologists often rely on the uniqueness proposition in order to support their theory of identification. However, much of the literature claiming to have proven uniqueness in the forensic identification sciences is methodologically weak, and suffers flaws that negate any such conclusion being drawn. The finding of uniqueness in any study appears to be an overstatement of the significance of its results, and in several instances, this claim is made despite contrary data being presented. The mathematical and philosophical viewpoint regarding this topic is that obtaining definitive proof of uniqueness is considered impossible by modern scientific methods. More importantly, there appears to be no logical reason to pursue such research, as commentators have established that uniqueness is not the essential requirement for forming forensic conclusions. The courts have also accepted this in several recent cases in the United States, and have dismissed the concept of uniqueness as irrelevant to the more fundamental question of the reliability of the forensic analysis.

  16. Education and Training in Forensic Science: A Guide for Forensic Science Laboratories, Educational Institutions, and Students. Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Justice, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Forensic science provides scientific and foundational information for investigators and courts, and thus plays a crucial role in the criminal justice system. This guide was developed through the work of the Technical Working Group on Education and Training in Forensic Science (TWGED) to serve as a reference on best education and training practices…

  17. Effective use of forensic science in volume crime investigations: identifying recurring themes in the literature.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, Anika; Fraser, Jim

    2014-01-01

    New scientific, technological and legal developments, particularly the introduction of national databases for DNA and fingerprints, have led to increased use of forensic science in the investigation of crime. There is an assumption, and in some instances specific assertions, that such developments bring improvements either in broad criminal justice terms or more narrowly in terms of economic or practical efficiencies. The underlying presumption is that the new technological opportunities will be understood and effectively implemented. This research investigates whether such increases in activity have also been accompanied by improvements in the effective use of forensic science. A systematic review of thirty-six reports published (predominantly in England and Wales) since the 1980s, which have considered the use of forensic science in the investigation of volume crimes, was carried out. These reports have identified a number of recurrent themes that influenced how effectively forensic science was used in investigations. The themes identified included forensic knowledge and training of investigators, communication and information exchange between specialists and investigators, timeliness of forensic results, interagency relationships and deployment of crime scene examiner resources. The research findings suggest that these factors continue to hinder the effective use of forensic science despite technological advances and this paper considers their potential causes.

  18. Forensic Science in Support of Wildlife Conservation Efforts - Genetic Approaches (Global Trends).

    PubMed

    Linacre, A

    2011-01-01

    Wildlife forensic science is a relatively recent development to meet the increasing need of the criminal justice system where there are investigations in alleged transgressions of either international or national legislation. This application of science draws on conservation genetics and forensic geneticists from mainstream forensic science. This review is a broad overview of the history of forensic wildlife science and some of the recent developments in forensic wildlife genetics with the application of DNA developments to nonhuman samples encountered in a forensic science investigation. The review will move from methods to look at the entire genome, when there is no previous knowledge of the species studied, through methods of species identification, using DNA to determine a possible geographic origin, through to assigning samples to a particular individual or a close genetic relative of this individual. The transfer of research methods into the criminal justice system for the investigation of wildlife crimes has been largely successful as is illustrated in the review. The review concludes with comments on the need for standardization and regulation in wildlife forensic science.

  19. Forensic identification science evidence since Daubert: Part II--judicial reasoning in decisions to exclude forensic identification evidence on grounds of reliability.

    PubMed

    Page, Mark; Taylor, Jane; Blenkin, Matt

    2011-07-01

    Many studies regarding the legal status of forensic science have relied on the U.S. Supreme Court's mandate in Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals Inc., and its progeny in order to make subsequent recommendations or rebuttals. This paper focuses on a more pragmatic approach to analyzing forensic science's immediate deficiencies by considering a qualitative analysis of actual judicial reasoning where forensic identification evidence has been excluded on reliability grounds since the Daubert precedent. Reliance on general acceptance is becoming insufficient as proof of the admissibility of forensic evidence. The citation of unfounded statistics, error rates and certainties, a failure to document the analytical process or follow standardized procedures, and the existence of observe bias represent some of the concerns that have lead to the exclusion or limitation of forensic identification evidence. Analysis of these reasons may serve to refocus forensic practitioners' testimony, resources, and research toward rectifying shortfalls in these areas.

  20. The current status of forensic science laboratory accreditation in Europe.

    PubMed

    Malkoc, Ekrem; Neuteboom, Wim

    2007-04-11

    Forensic science is gaining some solid ground in the area of effective crime prevention, especially in the areas where more sophisticated use of available technology is prevalent. All it takes is high-level cooperation among nations that can help them deal with criminality that adopts a cross-border nature more and more. It is apparent that cooperation will not be enough on its own and this development will require a network of qualified forensic laboratories spread over Europe. It is argued in this paper that forensic science laboratories play an important role in the fight against crime. Another, complimentary argument is that forensic science laboratories need to be better involved in the fight against crime. For this to be achieved, a good level of cooperation should be established and maintained. It is also noted that harmonization is required for such cooperation and seeking accreditation according to an internationally acceptable standard, such as ISO/IEC 17025, will eventually bring harmonization as an end result. Because, ISO/IEC 17025 as an international standard, has been a tool that helps forensic science laboratories in the current trend towards accreditation that can be observed not only in Europe, but also in the rest of the world of forensic science. In the introduction part, ISO/IEC 17025 states that "the acceptance of testing and calibration results between countries should be facilitated if laboratories comply with this international standard and if they obtain accreditation from bodies which have entered into mutual recognition agreements with equivalent bodies in other countries using this international standard." Furthermore, it is emphasized that the use of this international standard will assist in the harmonization of standards and procedures. The background of forensic science cooperation in Europe will be explained by using an existing European forensic science network, i.e. ENFSI, in order to understand the current status of forensic

  1. Forensic identification science evidence since Daubert: Part I--A quantitative analysis of the exclusion of forensic identification science evidence.

    PubMed

    Page, Mark; Taylor, Jane; Blenkin, Matt

    2011-09-01

    The U.S. Supreme Court decisions in Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals Inc. and Kumho Tire Co. Ltd. v. Carmichael transformed the way scientific expert evidence was reviewed in courts across the United States. To gauge the impact of these rulings on the admission of forensic identification evidence, the authors analyzed 548 judicial opinions from cases where admission of such evidence was challenged. Eighty-one cases (15%) involved exclusion or limitation of identification evidence, with 50 (65.7%) of these failing to meet the "reliability" threshold. This was largely because of a failure to demonstrate a sufficient scientific foundation for either the technique (27 cases) or the expert's conclusions (17 cases). The incidence of exclusion/limitation because of a lack of demonstrable reliability suggests that there is a continuing need for the forensic sciences to pursue research validating their underlying theories and techniques of identification to ensure their continued acceptance by the courts.

  2. Forensic medicine: a forgotten world of opportunities and challenges for research.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, Teresa; Santos, Agostinho; Dinis-Oliveira, Ricardo Jorge

    2013-08-01

    Forensic medicine deals with a wide variety of cases. To accomplish the main objectives, this professional field needs to adopt and apply findings from other sciences, namely, different medical specialties and other forensic sciences. The opposite is not yet entirely true due to the fact that forensic medicine deals with cases that are very far away from other medical and scientific interests. It is obvious that this forgotten world of forensic medicine … is also a new world of opportunities and challenges to research in all scientific areas.

  3. [Progress on epigenetics applications in forensic science].

    PubMed

    Yang, Ya-ran; Wang, Peng-xiang; Fang, Xiang-dong; Yan, Jiang-wei

    2012-10-01

    Epigenetics is the study of heritable changes in gene expression other than changes in the underlying DNA sequence. Such changes include DNA methylation, histone modification, chromatin remodeling, genomic imprinting, X chromosome inactivation and non-coding RNA regulation. Recent progresses on epigenetics open new possibilities in tackling these challenging problems in forensic science, including identification of fetal paternity testing in embryonic period, determination of the necessary allele in paternity testing, discrimination of identical twins, origination analysis of micro tissue, verification of forged DNA. This review focuses on epigenetics concept and its latest application in the field of paternity testing, age estimation, discrimination between the twins, identification of tissue of origin, and estimation of postmortem interval.

  4. Forensic science in the context of Islamic law: A review.

    PubMed

    Alkahtani, Theeb; Aljerian, Khaldoon; Golding, Bartholomew; Alqahtani, Sakher

    2015-08-01

    Even though it is still in its nascent phase, forensic science has already encountered strong resistance in Saudi Arabia due to its incompatibility with their present legal system. What follow is a review on the status of forensic medicine and its future in terms of acceptance and use in legal action.

  5. Multifarious applications of atomic force microscopy in forensic science investigations.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Gaurav; Tharmavaram, Maithri; Rawtani, Deepak; Kumar, Sumit; Agrawal, Y

    2017-04-01

    Forensic science is a wide field comprising of several subspecialties and uses methods derived from natural sciences for finding criminals and other evidence valid in a legal court. A relatively new area; Nano-forensics brings a new era of investigation in forensic science in which instantaneous results can be produced that determine various agents such as explosive gasses, biological agents and residues in different crime scenes and terrorist activity investigations. This can be achieved by applying Nanotechnology and its associated characterization techniques in forensic sciences. Several characterization techniques exist in Nanotechnology and nano-analysis is one such technique that is used in forensic science which includes Electron microscopes (EM) like Transmission (TEM) and Scanning (SEM), Raman microscopy (Micro -Raman) and Scanning Probe Microscopes (SPMs) like Atomic Force Microscope (AFM). Atomic force microscopy enables surface characterization of different materials by examining their morphology and mechanical properties. Materials that are immeasurable such as hair, body fluids, textile fibers, documents, polymers, pressure sensitive adhesives (PSAs), etc. are often encountered during forensic investigations. This review article will mainly focus on the use of AFM in the examination of different evidence such as blood stains, forged documents, human hair samples, ammunitions, explosives, and other such applications in the field of Forensic Science.

  6. Historical Trends in Graduate Research and Training of Diplomates of the American Board of Forensic Anthropology.

    PubMed

    Bethard, Jonathan D

    2017-01-01

    The history of forensic anthropology has been documented by numerous scholars. These contributions have described the work of early pioneers in the field and have described important milestones, such as the founding of the Physical Anthropology Section of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences (AAFS) in 1972 and the American Board of Forensic Anthropology (ABFA) in 1977. This paper contributes to the growing literature on the history of forensic anthropology by documenting the academic training of all individuals who have been granted diplomate status by the ABFA (n = 115). Doctoral dissertation titles were queried to discern broad patterns of research foci. A total of 39 doctoral granting institutions have trained diplomates and 77.3% of board-certified forensic anthropologists wrote dissertations involving skeletal biology, bioarchaeology, or forensic anthropology. Board-certified forensic anthropologists are a broadly trained group of professionals with far-reaching anthropological interests and expertise.

  7. Students' conceptions of evidence during a university introductory forensic science course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeshion, Theodore Elliot

    Students' Conceptions of Science, Scientific Evidence, and Forensic Evidence during a University Introductory Forensic Science Course This study was designed to examine and understand what conceptions undergraduate students taking an introductory forensic science course had about scientific evidence. Because the relationships between the nature of science, the nature of evidence, and the nature of forensic evidence are not well understood in the science education literature, this study sought to understand how these concepts interact and affect students' understanding of scientific evidence. Four participants were purposefully selected for this study from among 89 students enrolled in two sections of an introductory forensic science course taught during the fall 2005 semester. Of the 89 students, 84 were criminal justice majors with minimal science background and five were chemistry majors with academic backgrounds in the natural and physical sciences. All 89 students completed a biographical data sheet and a pre-instruction Likert scale survey consisting of twenty questions relating to the nature of scientific evidence. An evaluation of these two documents resulted in a purposeful selection of four varied student participants, each of whom was interviewed three times throughout the semester about the nature of science, the nature of evidence, and the nature of forensic evidence. The same survey was administered to the participants again at the end of the semester-long course. This study examined students' assumptions, prior knowledge, their understanding of scientific inference, scientific theory, and methodology. Examination of the data found few differences with regard to how the criminal justice majors and the chemistry majors responded to interview questions about forensic evidence. There were qualitative differences, however, when the same participants answered interview questions relating to traditional scientific evidence. Furthermore, suggestions are

  8. Research issues in forensic pathology: a survey of academic institutions employing forensic pathologists.

    PubMed

    Nolte, Kurt B

    2004-05-01

    In an effort to characterize research efforts in forensic pathology, a questionnaire was sent to a representative of each of the 14 academic medical centers that employ full-time faculty forensic pathologists. Responses were received from all 14 (100%) of the institutions queried, representing a total of 39 forensic pathology faculty positions; 21 positions were tenure track and 18 positions were clinical or other tracks. Of the 39 positions, 25 positions (64%) at 10 institutions required some degree of research or scholarly output. Of the 25 forensic pathologists with a research imperative, only 3 (12%) were principal investigators or co-investigators on funded forensic pathology-based projects. The major limitation cited by respondents on the performance of forensic pathology research was the lack of protected time from service responsibilities. Fellowship training in forensic pathology was available at 6 of the 14 respondent institutions. Of these institutions, 4 (67%) had a research requirement for trainees, and 4 (67%) provided research training. In conclusion, very few US medical schools currently employ full-time faculty forensic pathologists. Of these, only a small number of institutions prioritize research by these faculty members. Scant federal funds are available to support research in forensic pathology. Few forensic pathology fellowship programs provide research training. To achieve a robust research agenda in forensic pathology that is sufficient to support the needs of the criminal justice and public health systems will require a paradigm shift in the medicolegal death investigative system and investment by federal agencies.

  9. Dental diagnostic radiology in the forensic sciences: two case presentations.

    PubMed

    Nicopoulou-Karayianni, K; Mitsea, A G; Horner, K

    2007-06-01

    Dentomaxillofacial radiology is a useful tool in forensic science to reveal characteristics of the structures of the dentomaxillofacial region. Postmortem radiographs are valuable to the forensic odontologist for comparison with antemortem radiographs, which are the most consistent part of the antemortem records that can be transmitted during forensic examination procedures. By using dentomaxillofacial radiology we can, therefore, give answers to problems dealing with identification cases, mass disasters and dental age estimation. We present the contribution of dentomaxillofacial radiology to the forensic sciences through two cases of deceased persons, where identification was based on information provided by radiographs. The right performance, interpretation and reportage of dentomaxillofacial radiological examination and procedures can be extremely valuable in solving forensic problems.

  10. [The undergraduate program in forensic science: a national challenge].

    PubMed

    García Castillo, Zoraida; Graue Wiechers, Enrique; Durante Montiel, Irene; Herrera Saint Leu, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    The challenge in achieving an ideal state of justice is that each "proof" has the highest degree of reliability. This is the main responsibility of the forensic scientist. Up to now, criminal investigations in Mexico have been supported by forensic work from a wide variety of disciplinary backgrounds that give testimony in a particular area, even though they may have become forensic witnesses in a complementary and experiential manner. In January 2013, the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM) approved the "Forensic Science" undergraduate program that, in collaboration with various academic entities and government institutions, will develop forensic scientists trained in science, law, and criminology. This is focused on contributing to the national demand that the justice system has more elements to procure and administer justice in dealing with crime.

  11. Exploring the Forensics Community: The Need for Stronger Basic Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worth, David S.

    This paper surveys forensics research broadly over the last 26 years and argues for research that more comprehensively accounts for forensics in its full range of activity. Forensics research has historically tended to focus on one area of competition. The paper argues for more research that conceptualizes the activity across these practices and…

  12. Cognitive neuroscience in forensic science: understanding and utilizing the human element

    PubMed Central

    Dror, Itiel E.

    2015-01-01

    The human element plays a critical role in forensic science. It is not limited only to issues relating to forensic decision-making, such as bias, but also relates to most aspects of forensic work (some of which even take place before a crime is ever committed or long after the verification of the forensic conclusion). In this paper, I explicate many aspects of forensic work that involve the human element and therefore show the relevance (and potential contribution) of cognitive neuroscience to forensic science. The 10 aspects covered in this paper are proactive forensic science, selection during recruitment, training, crime scene investigation, forensic decision-making, verification and conflict resolution, reporting, the role of the forensic examiner, presentation in court and judicial decisions. As the forensic community is taking on the challenges introduced by the realization that the human element is critical for forensic work, new opportunities emerge that allow for considerable improvement and enhancement of the forensic science endeavour. PMID:26101281

  13. Cognitive neuroscience in forensic science: understanding and utilizing the human element.

    PubMed

    Dror, Itiel E

    2015-08-05

    The human element plays a critical role in forensic science. It is not limited only to issues relating to forensic decision-making, such as bias, but also relates to most aspects of forensic work (some of which even take place before a crime is ever committed or long after the verification of the forensic conclusion). In this paper, I explicate many aspects of forensic work that involve the human element and therefore show the relevance (and potential contribution) of cognitive neuroscience to forensic science. The 10 aspects covered in this paper are proactive forensic science, selection during recruitment, training, crime scene investigation, forensic decision-making, verification and conflict resolution, reporting, the role of the forensic examiner, presentation in court and judicial decisions. As the forensic community is taking on the challenges introduced by the realization that the human element is critical for forensic work, new opportunities emerge that allow for considerable improvement and enhancement of the forensic science endeavour.

  14. [Application and progress of RNA in forensic science].

    PubMed

    Gao, Lin-Lin; Li, You-Ying; Yan, Jiang-Wei; Liu, Ya-Cheng

    2011-12-01

    With the development of molecular biology, the evidences of genetics has been used widely in forensic sciences. DNA technology has played an important role in individual identification and paternity testing, RNA technology is showing more and more wide application in prospect. This article reviews the application and progress of RNA in forensic science including estimation of postmortem interval, bloodstain age, wound age, as well as determination of cause of death and the source of body fluids.

  15. Nuclear Forensic Science: Analysis of Nuclear Material Out of Regulatory Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristo, Michael J.; Gaffney, Amy M.; Marks, Naomi; Knight, Kim; Cassata, William S.; Hutcheon, Ian D.

    2016-06-01

    Nuclear forensic science seeks to identify the origin of nuclear materials found outside regulatory control. It is increasingly recognized as an integral part of a robust nuclear security program. This review highlights areas of active, evolving research in nuclear forensics, with a focus on analytical techniques commonly employed in Earth and planetary sciences. Applications of nuclear forensics to uranium ore concentrates (UOCs) are discussed first. UOCs have become an attractive target for nuclear forensic researchers because of the richness in impurities compared to materials produced later in the fuel cycle. The development of chronometric methods for age dating nuclear materials is then discussed, with an emphasis on improvements in accuracy that have been gained from measurements of multiple radioisotopic systems. Finally, papers that report on casework are reviewed, to provide a window into current scientific practice.

  16. Forensic sciences and forensic odontology: issues for dental hygienists and therapists.

    PubMed

    Nuzzolese, E; Lepore, M M; Cukovic-Bagic, I; Montagna, F; Di Vella, G

    2008-12-01

    The scientific literature contains very little about the role of the dental hygienist/therapist in the specific areas of forensic investigations and collection of evidence. The authors examine how the contribution of a highly qualified dental hygienist can be particularly helpful during human forensic identification operations and non-accidental traumas like domestic violence, child abuse, neglect and bitemarks. Forensic dental identification of human remains is a highly complex multidisciplinary challenge. It requires the involvement of several professionals who are expert in forensic science. Among these, one or more adequately trained dental hygienists could be involved. Dental hygienists/therapists may also be asked to record cutaneous lesions in two different situations. The first may be the dental office where she/he may detect oval, elliptic, or semicircular lesions on the skin of the uncovered neck, shoulder and arms of a patient. The second is the crime scene or the morgue (if one is involved), which may require a visit by the forensic odontologist called by the medical examiner or the coroner to perform an odontological autopsy. The purpose of our study is to highlight procedures that should be followed by the dental hygienist/therapist in collecting forensic information in the above-mentioned scenarios. As a valuable resource, the authors recommend training of dental hygienists in the area of forensic sciences, with particular attention to information technology and photography.

  17. Imaging using synchrotron radiation for forensic science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cervelli, F.; Carrato, S.; Mattei, A.; Jerian, M.; Benevoli, L.; Mancini, L.; Zanini, F.; Vaccari, L.; Perucchi, A.; Aquilanti, G.

    2011-03-01

    Forensic science is already taking benefits from synchrotron radiation (SR) sources in trace evidence analysis. In this contribution we show a multi-technique approach to study fingerprints from the morphological and chemical point of view using SR based techniques such as Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (FTIRMS), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray absorption structure (XAS), and phase contrast microradiography. Both uncontaminated and gunshot residue contaminated human fingerprints were deposited on lightly doped silicon wafers and on poly-ethylene-terephthalate foils. For the uncontaminated fingerprints an univariate approach of functional groups mapping to model FT-IRMS data was used to get the morphology and the organic compounds map. For the gunshot residue contaminated fingerprints, after a preliminary elemental analysis using XRF, microradiography just below and above the absorption edge of the elements of interest has been used to map the contaminants within the fingerprint. Finally, XAS allowed us to determine the chemical state of the different elements. The next step will be fusing the above information in order to produce an exhaustive and easily understandable evidence.

  18. Spectroscopic Sleuthing. An Introduction to Forensic Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zdravkovich, Vera; Cunniff, Patricia A.

    1991-01-01

    Described is a program in which students learn about spectroscopy and instrumentation to solve a chemical forensic mystery. Infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, refractometry, and chromatographic techniques were used. An example of a mystery case is included. (KR)

  19. 75 FR 4882 - Subcommittee on Forensic Science; Committee on Science; National Science and Technology Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-29

    ... (NSTC's) Committee on Science will host a public forum in collaboration with the annual scientific... with an update on the Subcommittee's work and provide an opportunity for the public to ask questions... Annual Scientific Meeting of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences, at the Washington...

  20. Science and the Detective: Selected Reading in Forensic Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaye, Brian H.

    1996-12-01

    Who killed Napoleon? Were the witches of Salem high on LSD? What do maggots on a body tell us about the time of death? In his unique, engaging style, Brian Kaye tells the story of some spectacular cases in which forensic evidence played a key role. You'll also read about the fascinating ways in which scientific evidence can be used to establish guilt or innocence in today's courtroom. The use of voice analysis, methods for developing fingerprints and for uncovering art forgeries, and the examination of bullet wounds are just a few topics considered. In a special section on fraud, the author takes you into the world of counterfeit money. There's no solving crime without science. Written for everyone interested in whodunnits, this book explains the basis of the analytical techniques available for studying evidence in offenses ranging from doping in sports to first-degree murder.

  1. Why a "dental surgeon" for identification in forensic science?

    PubMed

    Sukul, Biswajit; Deb, Uttam; Ghosh, Supratim

    2010-11-01

    Dentistry has much to offer law enforcement in the detection and solution of crime or in civil proceedings. Forensic dental fieldwork requires an interdisciplinary knowledge of dental science and forensic science. Most often the role of the forensic odontologist is to establish a person's identity. Teeth, with their physiologic variations, pathoses and effects of therapy, record information that remains throughout life and beyond. The teeth may also be used as weapons and, under certain circumstances, may leave information about the identity of the culprit. Forensic odontology has an important role in the recognition of abuse among persons of all ages. Dental professionals have a major role to play in keeping accurate dental records and providing all necessary information so that legal authorities may recognise malpractice, negligence, fraud or abuse, and identify unknown human. Forensic odontology involves the management, examination, evaluation and presentation of dental evidence in criminal or civil proceedings, all in the interest of justice. The forensic odontologist assists legal authorities by examining dental evidence in different situations.

  2. Forensic nursing science knowledge and competency: the use of simulation.

    PubMed

    Drake, Stacy A; Langford, Rae; Young, Anne; Ayers, Constance

    2015-01-01

    Forensic nursing is a nursing specialty that provides services to a variety of patient populations who have experienced violence, including interpersonal violence, sudden or unexpected death, and motor vehicle collisions. However, many critical care nurses have received the background knowledge or practical skills required to provide the level of care required by many forensic patients. The purpose of this study was to determine whether differences in knowledge or practical competence exist between participants using 2 different learning modalities: medium fidelity simulation versus face-to-face lecture. Participants who were enrolled in an elective online forensic nursing science course were randomly assigned to an intervention or control group. The 18 intervention group participants were given three 2-hour forensic simulation sessions in the laboratory. The 17 control group participants attended 3 face-to-face lectures covering forensic science topics. All study participants also received the same forensic course content via the online Blackboard platform. No significant differences were found between the 2 groups in either knowledge or practical competency. The lack of results may have been heavily influenced by the small sample size, which resulted in insufficient power to detect possible differences.

  3. A call for mtDNA data quality control in forensic science.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yong-Gang; Bravi, Claudio M; Bandelt, Hans-Jürgen

    2004-04-20

    There is increasing evidence that many of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) databases published in the fields of forensic science and molecular anthropology are flawed. An a posteriori phylogenetic analysis of the sequences could help to eliminate most of the errors and thus greatly improve data quality. However, previously published caveats and recommendations along these lines were not yet picked up by all researchers. Here we call for stringent quality control of mtDNA data by haplogroup-directed database comparisons. We take some problematic databases of East Asian mtDNAs, published in the Journal of Forensic Sciences and Forensic Science International, as examples to demonstrate the process of pinpointing obvious errors. Our results show that data sets are not only notoriously plagued by base shifts and artificial recombination but also by lab-specific phantom mutations, especially in the second hypervariable region (HVR-II).

  4. Use of forensic science in investigating crimes of sexual violence: contrasting its theoretical potential with empirical realities.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Donald; Peterson, Joseph; Sommers, Ira; Baskin, Deborah

    2012-02-01

    This article contrasts the theoretical potential of modern forensic science techniques in the investigation of sexual violence cases with empirical research that has assessed the role played by scientific evidence in the criminal justice processing of sexual assault cases. First, the potential of forensic scientific procedures (including DNA testing) are outlined and the sexual assault literature that examines the importance of physical and forensic evidence in resolving such cases is reviewed. Then, empirical data from a recent National Institute of Justice (NIJ) study of 602 rapes are presented that describe the forensic evidence collected and examined in such cases and its impact on decisions to arrest, prosecute, adjudicate, and sentence defendants. The article closes with a discussion of research and policy recommendations to enhance the role played by forensic science evidence in sexual assault investigations.

  5. Enhancing forensic science with spectroscopic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricci, Camilla; Kazarian, Sergei G.

    2006-09-01

    This presentation outlines the research we are developing in the area of Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic imaging with the focus on materials of forensic interest. FTIR spectroscopic imaging has recently emerged as a powerful tool for characterisation of heterogeneous materials. FTIR imaging relies on the ability of the military-developed infrared array detector to simultaneously measure spectra from thousands of different locations in a sample. Recently developed application of FTIR imaging using an ATR (Attenuated Total Reflection) mode has demonstrated the ability of this method to achieve spatial resolution beyond the diffraction limit of infrared light in air. Chemical visualisation with enhanced spatial resolution in micro-ATR mode broadens the range of materials studied with FTIR imaging with applications to pharmaceutical formulations or biological samples. Macro-ATR imaging has also been developed for chemical imaging analysis of large surface area samples and was applied to analyse the surface of human skin (e.g. finger), counterfeit tablets, textile materials (clothing), etc. This approach demonstrated the ability of this imaging method to detect trace materials attached to the surface of the skin. This may also prove as a valuable tool in detection of traces of explosives left or trapped on the surfaces of different materials. This FTIR imaging method is substantially superior to many of the other imaging methods due to inherent chemical specificity of infrared spectroscopy and fast acquisition times of this technique. Our preliminary data demonstrated that this methodology will provide the means to non-destructive detection method that could relate evidence to its source. This will be important in a wider crime prevention programme. In summary, intrinsic chemical specificity and enhanced visualising capability of FTIR spectroscopic imaging open a window of opportunities for counter-terrorism and crime-fighting, with applications ranging

  6. Forensic fictions: science, television production, and modern storytelling.

    PubMed

    Kirby, David A

    2013-03-01

    This essay uses interviews with television creators, writers, and producers to examine how media practitioners utilise, negotiate and transform forensic science in the production of televisual stories including the creation of unique visuals, character exploration, narrative progression, plot complication, thematic development, and adding a sense of authenticity. Television as a medium has its own structures and conventions, including adherence to a show's franchise, which put constraints on how stories are told. I demonstrate how television writers find forensic science to be an ideal tool in navigating television's narrative constraints by using forensics to create conflicts, new obstacles, potential solutions, and final solutions in their stories. I show how television writers utilise forensic science to provide the scientific certainty their characters require to catch the criminal, but also how uncertainty is introduced in a story through the interpretation of the forensics by the show's characters. I also argue that televisual storytellers maintain a flexible notion of scientific realism based on the notion of possibility that puts them at odds with scientists who take a more demanding conception of scientific accuracy based on the concept of probability.

  7. Why we do what we do: a theoretical evaluation of the integrated practice model for forensic nursing science.

    PubMed

    Valentine, Julie L

    2014-01-01

    An evaluation of the Integrated Practice Model for Forensic Nursing Science () is presented utilizing methods outlined by . A brief review of nursing theory basics and evaluation methods by Meleis is provided to enhance understanding of the ensuing theoretical evaluation and critique. The Integrated Practice Model for Forensic Nursing Science, created by forensic nursing pioneer Virginia Lynch, captures the theories, assumptions, concepts, and propositions inherent in forensic nursing practice and science. The historical background of the theory is explored as Lynch's model launched the role development of forensic nursing practice as both a nursing and forensic science specialty. It is derived from a combination of nursing, sociological, and philosophical theories to reflect the grounding of forensic nursing in the nursing, legal, psychological, and scientific communities. As Lynch's model is the first inception of forensic nursing theory, it is representative of a conceptual framework although the title implies a practice theory. The clarity and consistency displayed in the theory's structural components of assumptions, concepts, and propositions are analyzed. The model is described and evaluated. A summary of the strengths and limitations of the model is compiled followed by application to practice, education, and research with suggestions for ongoing theory development.

  8. Palynology: its position in the field of forensic science.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Kevan A J; Horrocks, Mark

    2008-09-01

    Here we examine the current state of palynology in the field of forensic science. Forensic palynology is discussed with reference to other forensic disciplines to help understand what is required for its progress. Emerging developments are also discussed. Palynomorphs potentially deliver excellent trace evidence, fulfilling the requirements relating to the transfer, persistence, and detection of such evidence. Palynological evidence can provide very powerful investigative and associative evidence. Despite this, the application of palynology to forensic science has had mixed success. There are many anecdotal stories where pollen evidence has had spectacular successes. But it is extremely underutilized in most countries because it is labor-intensive and requires considerable expertise and experience, there is a lack of control over sample collection and inadequate resourcing and funding, and its crime-solving power is not well known. Palynology has been applied to forensic problems in an unstructured way, resulting in a lack of formalized discussion of the underlying principles. As there is renewed questioning of the acceptability of most evidence types in the current legal environment, there is a need for the establishment of palynological evidence through validation-type studies and experimentation, and the implementation of independent proficiency testing.

  9. Distinguishing between forensic science and forensic pseudoscience: testing of validity and reliability, and approaches to forensic voice comparison.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Geoffrey Stewart

    2014-05-01

    In this paper it is argued that one should not attempt to directly assess whether a forensic analysis technique is scientifically acceptable. Rather one should first specify what one considers to be appropriate principles governing acceptable practice, then consider any particular approach in light of those principles. This paper focuses on one principle: the validity and reliability of an approach should be empirically tested under conditions reflecting those of the case under investigation using test data drawn from the relevant population. Versions of this principle have been key elements in several reports on forensic science, including forensic voice comparison, published over the last four-and-a-half decades. The aural-spectrographic approach to forensic voice comparison (also known as "voiceprint" or "voicegram" examination) and the currently widely practiced auditory-acoustic-phonetic approach are considered in light of this principle (these two approaches do not appear to be mutually exclusive). Approaches based on data, quantitative measurements, and statistical models are also considered in light of this principle.

  10. Advances in chemistry applied to forensic science.

    PubMed

    Rendle, David F

    2005-12-01

    Acts of terrorism, an increase in the use of firearms, drug abuse, the use of so-called date-rape drugs, and driving whilst under the influence of drugs, are just some of the subjects frequently in the news. In the absence of fingermarks and of material leading to the recovery of DNA, the forensic scientist has to rely upon chemical analysis of trace amounts of materials including explosives, drugs, toxicological specimens, firearms discharge residues, fibres, glass, paint, soil etc., in order to establish or eliminate links between suspect and victim and/or scene. This tutorial review describes analytical problems facing the forensic chemist, and the current methods and techniques employed to tackle them.

  11. An Organic Chemistry Experiment for Forensic Science Majors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothchild, Robert

    1979-01-01

    The laboratory experiment described here is intended to be of use to the forensic science major enrolled in a course in organic chemistry. The experiment is the use of thin-layer chromotography for qualitative analysis, specifically for the identification of drugs. (Author/SA)

  12. A roadmap for bridging basic and applied research in forensic entomology.

    PubMed

    Tomberlin, J K; Mohr, R; Benbow, M E; Tarone, A M; VanLaerhoven, S

    2011-01-01

    The National Research Council issued a report in 2009 that heavily criticized the forensic sciences. The report made several recommendations that if addressed would allow the forensic sciences to develop a stronger scientific foundation. We suggest a roadmap for decomposition ecology and forensic entomology hinging on a framework built on basic research concepts in ecology, evolution, and genetics. Unifying both basic and applied research fields under a common umbrella of terminology and structure would facilitate communication in the field and the production of scientific results. It would also help to identify novel research areas leading to a better understanding of principal underpinnings governing ecosystem structure, function, and evolution while increasing the accuracy of and ability to interpret entomological evidence collected from crime scenes. By following the proposed roadmap, a bridge can be built between basic and applied decomposition ecology research, culminating in science that could withstand the rigors of emerging legal and cultural expectations.

  13. Statistical hypothesis testing and common misinterpretations: Should we abandon p-value in forensic science applications?

    PubMed

    Taroni, F; Biedermann, A; Bozza, S

    2016-02-01

    Many people regard the concept of hypothesis testing as fundamental to inferential statistics. Various schools of thought, in particular frequentist and Bayesian, have promoted radically different solutions for taking a decision about the plausibility of competing hypotheses. Comprehensive philosophical comparisons about their advantages and drawbacks are widely available and continue to span over large debates in the literature. More recently, controversial discussion was initiated by an editorial decision of a scientific journal [1] to refuse any paper submitted for publication containing null hypothesis testing procedures. Since the large majority of papers published in forensic journals propose the evaluation of statistical evidence based on the so called p-values, it is of interest to expose the discussion of this journal's decision within the forensic science community. This paper aims to provide forensic science researchers with a primer on the main concepts and their implications for making informed methodological choices.

  14. Advancing the science of forensic data management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naughton, Timothy S.

    2002-07-01

    Many individual elements comprise a typical forensics process. Collecting evidence, analyzing it, and using results to draw conclusions are all mutually distinct endeavors. Different physical locations and personnel are involved, juxtaposed against an acute need for security and data integrity. Using digital technologies and the Internet's ubiquity, these diverse elements can be conjoined using digital data as the common element. This result is a new data management process that can be applied to serve all elements of the community. The first step is recognition of a forensics lifecycle. Evidence gathering, analysis, storage, and use in legal proceedings are actually just distinct parts of a single end-to-end process, and thus, it is hypothesized that a single data system that can also accommodate each constituent phase using common network and security protocols. This paper introduces the idea of web-based Central Data Repository. Its cornerstone is anywhere, anytime Internet upload, viewing, and report distribution. Archives exist indefinitely after being created, and high-strength security and encryption protect data and ensure subsequent case file additions do not violate chain-of-custody or other handling provisions. Several legal precedents have been established for using digital information in courts of law, and in fact, effective prosecution of cyber crimes absolutely relies on its use. An example is a US Department of Agriculture division's use of digital images to back up its inspection process, with pictures and information retained on secure servers to enforce the Perishable Agricultural Commodities Act. Forensics is a cumulative process. Secure, web-based data management solutions, such as the Central Data Repository postulated here, can support each process step. Logically marrying digital technologies with Internet accessibility should help nurture a thought process to explore alternatives that make forensics data accessible to authorized individuals

  15. Personalized Medicine applied to Forensic Sciences: new advances and perspectives for a tailored forensic approach.

    PubMed

    Santurro, Alessandro; Vullo, Anna Maria; Borro, Marina; Gentile, Giovanna; Russa, Raffaele La; Simmaco, Maurizio; Frati, Paola; Fineschi, Vittorio

    2017-02-07

    Personalized medicine (PM), included in P5 medicine (Personalized, Predictive, Preventive, Participative and Precision medicine) is an innovative approach to the patient, emerging from the need to tailor and to fit the profile of each individual. PM promises to dramatically impact also on forensic sciences and justice system in ways we are only beginning to understand. The application of omics (genomic, transcriptomics, epigenetics/imprintomics, proteomic and metabolomics) is ever more fundamental in the so called "molecular autopsy". Emerging fields of interest in forensic pathology are represented by diagnosis and detection of predisposing conditions to fatal thromboembolic and hypertensive events, determination of genetic variants related to sudden death, such as congenital long QT syndromes, demonstration of lesions vitality, identification of biological matrices and species diagnosis of a forensic trace on crime scenes without destruction of the DNA. The aim of this paper is to describe the state-of-art in the application of personalized medicine in forensic sciences, to understand the possibilities of integration in routine investigation of these procedures with classical post-mortem studies and to underline the importance of these new updates in medical examiners' armamentarium in determining cause of death or contributing factors to death.

  16. Renegotiating forensic cultures: between law, science and criminal justice.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Paul

    2013-03-01

    This article challenges stereotypical conceptions of Law and Science as cultural opposites, arguing that English criminal trial practice is fundamentally congruent with modern science's basic epistemological assumptions, values and methods of inquiry. Although practical tensions undeniably exist, they are explicable-and may be neutralised-by paying closer attention to criminal adjudication's normative ideals and their institutional expression in familiar aspects of common law trial procedure, including evidentiary rules of admissibility, trial by jury, adversarial fact-finding, cross-examination and the ethical duties of expert witnesses. Effective partnerships between lawyers and forensic scientists are indispensable for integrating scientific evidence into criminal proceedings, and must be renegotiated between individual practitioners on an on-going basis. Fruitful interdisciplinary collaboration between scholars with a shared interest in forensic science should dispense with reductive cultural stereotypes of Science and Law.

  17. Thermoluminescence: Potential Applications in Forensic Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingham, J. D.; Lawson, D. D.

    1973-01-01

    In crime laboratories one of the most difficult operations is to determine unequivocally whether or not two samples of evidence of the same type were originally part of the same thing or were from the same source. It has been found that high temperature thermoluminescence (room temperature to 723 K) can be used for comparisons of this type, although work to date indicates that there is generally a finite probability for coincidental matching of glass or soil samples. Further work is required to determine and attempt to minimize these probabilities for different types of materials, and to define more clearly the scope of applicability of thermoluminescence to actual forensic situations.

  18. Emergence of forensic podiatry--A novel sub-discipline of forensic sciences.

    PubMed

    Krishan, Kewal; Kanchan, Tanuj; DiMaggio, John A

    2015-10-01

    "Forensic podiatry is defined as the application of sound and researched podiatric knowledge and experience in forensic investigations; to show the association of an individual with a scene of crime, or to answer any other legal question concerned with the foot or footwear that requires knowledge of the functioning foot". Forensic podiatrists can contribute to forensic identification by associating the pedal evidence with the criminal or crime scene. The most common pedal evidence collected from the crime scene is in the form of footprints, shoeprints and their tracks and trails. Forensic podiatrists can establish identity of the individuals from the footprints in many ways. The analysis of bare footprints involves the identification based on the individualistic features like flat footedness, ridges, humps, creases, an extra toe, missing toe, corns, cuts, cracks, pits, deformities, and various features of the toe and heel region. All these individualistic features can link the criminal with the crime. In addition to these, parameters of body size like stature and body weight as well as sex can also be estimated by using anthropometric methods. If a series of footprints are recovered from the crime scene, then parameters of the gait analysis such as stride/step length and general movement of the criminal can be traced. Apart from these, a newly established biometric parameter of the footprints i.e. footprint ridge density can also be evaluated for personal identification. Careful analysis of the footprint ridge density can give an idea about the sex of the criminal whose footprints are recovered at the scene which can further help to reduce the burden of the investigating officer as the investigations then may be directed toward either a male suspect or a female suspect accordingly. This paper highlights various aspects of Forensic Podiatry and discusses the different methods of personal identification related to pedal evidence.

  19. Forensic uses of research biobanks: should donors be informed?

    PubMed

    Dranseika, Vilius; Piasecki, Jan; Waligora, Marcin

    2016-03-01

    Occasional reports in the literature suggest that biological samples collected and stored for scientific research are sometimes accessed and used for a variety of forensic purposes. However, donors are almost never informed about this possibility. In this paper we argue that the possibility of forensic access may constitute a relevant consideration at least to some potential research subjects in deciding whether to participate in research. We make the suggestion that if some type of forensic access to research collections is likely to be perceived by the subjects as a reason against donating their biological materials, there are good ethical reasons to make this type of access impossible or at least severely restricted. We also provide an ethical argument for the claim that, if a total ban on this type of forensic access cannot be achieved, potential research subjects should be informed about the extent to which this type of forensic access is possible.

  20. A forensic science perspective on the role of images in crime investigation and reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Milliet, Quentin; Delémont, Olivier; Margot, Pierre

    2014-12-01

    This article presents a global vision of images in forensic science. The proliferation of perspectives on the use of images throughout criminal investigations and the increasing demand for research on this topic seem to demand a forensic science-based analysis. In this study, the definitions of and concepts related to material traces are revisited and applied to images, and a structured approach is used to persuade the scientific community to extend and improve the use of images as traces in criminal investigations. Current research efforts focus on technical issues and evidence assessment. This article provides a sound foundation for rationalising and explaining the processes involved in the production of clues from trace images. For example, the mechanisms through which these visual traces become clues of presence or action are described. An extensive literature review of forensic image analysis emphasises the existing guidelines and knowledge available for answering investigative questions (who, what, where, when and how). However, complementary developments are still necessary to demystify many aspects of image analysis in forensic science, including how to review and select images or use them to reconstruct an event or assist intelligence efforts. The hypothetico-deductive reasoning pathway used to discover unknown elements of an event or crime can also help scientists understand the underlying processes involved in their decision making. An analysis of a single image in an investigative or probative context is used to demonstrate the highly informative potential of images as traces and/or clues. Research efforts should be directed toward formalising the extraction and combination of clues from images. An appropriate methodology is key to expanding the use of images in forensic science.

  1. Mycology in palaeoecology and forensic science.

    PubMed

    Wiltshire, Patricia E J

    2016-11-01

    Palynology (including mycology) is widely used in palaeoecological and bioarchaeological studies. Lake and mire sediments, soils, and the deposits accumulating in archaeological features, invariably contain plant and fungal remains, particularly pollen and spores. These serve as proxy indicators of ancient environmental conditions and events. Forensic palynology has been successfully employed in criminal investigations for more than two decades. In recent years, it has included fungal palynomorphs in profiling samples from crime scenes, and from exhibits obtained from suspects and victims. This contribution outlines the main features of palynology, and gives examples of case studies where fungal spores, pollen, and plant spores, have enhanced the interpretation of ancient landscapes and land-use, and provided pivotal intelligence, and probative evidence, in criminal investigations.

  2. Practical relevance of pattern uniqueness in forensic science.

    PubMed

    Jayaprakash, Paul T

    2013-09-10

    Uniqueness being unprovable, it has recently been argued that individualization in forensic science is irrelevant and, probability, as applied for DNA profiles, should be applied for all identifications. Critiques against uniqueness have omitted physical matching, a realistic and tangible individualization that supports uniqueness. Describing case examples illustrating pattern matches including physical matching, it is indicated that individualizations are practically relevant for forensic science as they establish facts on a definitive basis providing firm leads benefitting criminal investigation. As a tenet of forensic identification, uniqueness forms a fundamental paradigm relevant for individualization. Evidence on the indeterministic and stochastic causal pathways of characteristics in patterns available in the related fields of science sufficiently supports the proposition of uniqueness. Characteristics involved in physical matching and matching achieved in patterned evidence existing in the state of nature are not events amenable for counting; instead these are ensemble of visible units occupying the entire pattern area stretching the probability of re-occurrence of a verisimilitude pattern into infinity offering epistemic support to uniqueness. Observational methods are as respectable as instrumental or statistical methods since they are capable of generating results that are tangible and obviously valid as in physical matching. Applying the probabilistic interpretation used for DNA profiles to the other patterns would be unbefitting since these two are disparate, the causal pathways of the events, the loci, in the manipulated DNA profiles being determinable. While uniqueness enables individualizations, it does not vouch for eliminating errors. Instead of dismissing uniqueness and individualization, accepting errors as human or system failures and seeking remedial measures would benefit forensic science practice and criminal investigation.

  3. Psychological processes and paranoia: implications for forensic behavioural science.

    PubMed

    Bentall, Richard P; Taylor, Jayne L

    2006-01-01

    Paranoid delusions have recently become the focus of empirical research. In this article, we review studies of the psychological mechanisms that might be involved in paranoid thinking and discuss their implications for forensic behaviour science. Paranoia has not been consistently associated with any specific neuropsychological abnormality. However, evidence supports three broad types of mechanism that might be involved in delusional thinking in general and paranoia in particular: anomalous perceptual experiences, abnormal reasoning, and motivational factors. There is some evidence that paranoia may be associated with hearing loss, and good evidence that paranoid patients attend excessively to threatening information. Although general reasoning ability seems to be unaffected, there is strong evidence that a jumping- to-conclusions style of reasoning about data is implicated in delusions in general, but less consistent evidence specifically linking paranoia to impaired theory of mind. Finally, there appears to be a strong association between paranoia and negative self-esteem, and some evidence that attempts to protect self-esteem by attributing negative events to external causes are implicated. Some of these processes have recently been implicated in violent behaviour, and they therefore have the potential to explain the apparent association between paranoid delusions and offending.

  4. Forensic Science and Standards Act of 2014

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Rockefeller, John D., IV [D-WV

    2014-02-12

    12/12/2014 By Senator Rockefeller from Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation filed written report. Report No. 113-320. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  5. History, research and practice of forensic anthropology in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Traithepchanapai, Pongpon; Mahakkanukrauh, Pasuk; Kranioti, Elena F

    2016-04-01

    Forensic anthropology is an increasingly developing discipline born about a century ago in the United States with the objective to contribute the knowledge of bone biology and physical anthropology to the emerging needs of the court of law. The development of research in biological and forensic anthropology has made rapid progress worldwide in the past few years, however, in most countries--with the exception of the United States--forensic anthropology work is still considered within the duties of the forensic pathologist. This paper attempts to summarise the history and development of forensic anthropology in Thailand by providing information on past and current research and practice that can help forensic practitioners to apply existing methods in forensic cases and mass disasters. It is hoped that the lessons learned from the tsunami catastrophe and the emerging need for positive identification in medicolegal settings will lead to rapid advances in education, training and professional engagement of anthropologists from the forensic departments and the law enforcement agencies in Thailand.

  6. The logical foundations of forensic science: towards reliable knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Evett, Ian

    2015-01-01

    The generation of observations is a technical process and the advances that have been made in forensic science techniques over the last 50 years have been staggering. But science is about reasoning—about making sense from observations. For the forensic scientist, this is the challenge of interpreting a pattern of observations within the context of a legal trial. Here too, there have been major advances over recent years and there is a broad consensus among serious thinkers, both scientific and legal, that the logical framework is furnished by Bayesian inference (Aitken et al. Fundamentals of Probability and Statistical Evidence in Criminal Proceedings). This paper shows how the paradigm has matured, centred on the notion of the balanced scientist. Progress through the courts has not been always smooth and difficulties arising from recent judgments are discussed. Nevertheless, the future holds exciting prospects, in particular the opportunities for managing and calibrating the knowledge of the forensic scientists who assign the probabilities that are at the foundation of logical inference in the courtroom. PMID:26101288

  7. The logical foundations of forensic science: towards reliable knowledge.

    PubMed

    Evett, Ian

    2015-08-05

    The generation of observations is a technical process and the advances that have been made in forensic science techniques over the last 50 years have been staggering. But science is about reasoning-about making sense from observations. For the forensic scientist, this is the challenge of interpreting a pattern of observations within the context of a legal trial. Here too, there have been major advances over recent years and there is a broad consensus among serious thinkers, both scientific and legal, that the logical framework is furnished by Bayesian inference (Aitken et al. Fundamentals of Probability and Statistical Evidence in Criminal Proceedings). This paper shows how the paradigm has matured, centred on the notion of the balanced scientist. Progress through the courts has not been always smooth and difficulties arising from recent judgments are discussed. Nevertheless, the future holds exciting prospects, in particular the opportunities for managing and calibrating the knowledge of the forensic scientists who assign the probabilities that are at the foundation of logical inference in the courtroom.

  8. Race and genetics: controversies in biomedical, behavioral, and forensic sciences.

    PubMed

    Ossorio, Pilar; Duster, Troy

    2005-01-01

    Among biomedical scientists, there is a great deal of controversy over the nature of race, the relevance of racial categories for research, and the proper methods of using racial variables. This article argues that researchers and scholars should avoid a binary-type argument, in which the question is whether to use race always or never. Researchers should instead focus on developing standards for when and how to use racial variables. The article then discusses 1 context, criminology, in which the use of racial variables in behavioral genetics research could be particularly problematic. If genetic studies of criminalized behavior use forensic DNA databanks or forensic genetic profiles, they will be confounded by the many racial biases of the law enforcement and penal system.

  9. Forensic Science and Standards Act of 2012

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Rockefeller, John D., IV [D-WV

    2012-07-12

    07/12/2012 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation. (text of measure as introduce: CR S4952-4954) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  10. Using Forensic Science Problems as Teaching Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Kanesa; Daly-Engel, Toby

    2006-01-01

    The desire to observe and understand the natural world is strong in young children, but high school students often consider science irrelevant to their daily lives. Therefore, as teachers of older age groups, the authors constantly struggle to engage students in scientific exploration so they can master concepts and appreciate the nature of…

  11. The impact of Māori cultural values on forensic science practice in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Maui L; Allan, Christine A; Bedford, Keith R; Buckleton, John S; Stuart, Keriata

    2008-03-01

    Forensic science aims to serve society by advancing justice. It is accepted that some actions taken by the state in the interests of advancing justice, such as postmortem examinations, may impinge on values held by members of groups within society. Such actions have the potential to cause cultural offense. It is important that forensic scientists are aware of these issues and that as a profession we should take actions, where possible, to reduce any potential offense and consequently reduce unnecessary distress. This paper examines the impact of these issues on forensic practice in New Zealand, and, in particular, in relation to the cultural values of Māori, the indigenous people of New Zealand. Interviews and workshops were used to identify forensic practices involving a risk of cultural offense. Particular issues were identified in regard to crime scene attendance and examination, postmortem attendance and sample storage, disposal, and return. This paper describes the response developed by the Institute of Environmental Science and Research Limited (ESR) to address these issues, including a cultural awareness training package and reference brochure.

  12. Offering a Forensic Science Camp to Introduce and Engage High School Students in Interdisciplinary Science Topics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahrenkiel, Linda; Worm-Leonhard, Martin

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we present details of a one-week interdisciplinary science camp for high school students in Denmark, "Criminal Camp". We describe the use of forensic science and simulated crimes as a common foundation for teaching the theory and practice of concepts in chemistry, physics, and medicine or biology. The main goal of the…

  13. Science and the Nonscience Major: Addressing the Fear Factor in the Chemical Arena Using Forensic Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labianca, Dominick A.

    2007-01-01

    This article describes an approach to minimizing the "fear factor" in a chemistry course for the nonscience major, and also addresses relevant applications to other science courses, including biology, geology, and physics. The approach emphasizes forensic science and affords students the opportunity to hone their analytical skills in an…

  14. [Progress in application of microbeam X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy in forensic science].

    PubMed

    Su, Hui-Fang; Liu, Chao; Hu, Sun-Lin; Wang, Song-Cai; Sun, Li-Min; Huang, Wei; Zhang, Xiao-Ting; Li, Shuang-Lin

    2013-02-01

    Microbeam X-ray fluorescence (micro-XRF) spectrometry has been raised as an analytical technique of microbeam during the recent years. With its advantages of high sensitivity, small sample requirement, high testing accuracy and non-destruction, the technique is widely utilized in forensic science. This review bases on recent researches at home and abroad, describes its applications including identification of gunshot residue, visualization of fingerprints, discrimination of drug source, production process, and other material evidences of analysis in crime scene. Thanks to the advances in technology, intelligent and portable micro-XRF equipment has appeared to be applied. It is believed that it may be more popular and frequent in administration of forensic science in the near future.

  15. Naturalistic decision making in forensic science: toward a better understanding of decision making by forensic team leaders.

    PubMed

    Helsloot, Ira; Groenendaal, Jelle

    2011-07-01

    This study uses the naturalistic decision-making (NDM) perspective to examine how Dutch forensic team leaders (i.e., the officers in charge of criminal forensic research from the crime scene until the use of laboratory assistance) make decisions in real-life settings and identifies the contextual factors that might influence those decisions. First, a focus group interview was conducted to identify four NDM mechanisms in day-to-day forensic decision making. Second, a serious game was conducted to examine the influence of three of these contextual mechanisms. The results uncovered that forensic team leaders (i) were attracted to obtain further information when more information was initially made available, (ii) were likely to devote more attention to emotionally charged cases, and (iii) used not only forensic evidence in the decision making but also tactical, unverified information of the police inquiry. Interestingly, the measured contextual influences did not deviate significantly from a control group of laypeople.

  16. "Who Dunnit?": Learning Chemistry and Critical Thinking through Hands-On Forensic Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demetry, Chrysanthe; Nicoletti, Denise; Mix, Kimberlee; O'Connor, Kerri; Martin, Andrea

    2002-01-01

    Demonstrates how forensic science can be used as a framework for generating student interest and learning in chemistry and promoting critical thinking. The "Who Dunnit?" forensic science workshop was developed by undergraduate students and is one element of a two-week residential summer outreach program that seeks to develop interest in…

  17. 78 FR 12355 - Notice of Establishment of the National Commission on Forensic Science and Solicitation of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-22

    ... of Establishment of the National Commission on Forensic Science and Solicitation of Applications for... General will be establishing the National Commission on Forensic Science. This notice establishes criteria... (5 U.S.C. Appendix 2), the Attorney General will be establishing the National Commission on...

  18. Which articles and which topics in the forensic sciences are most highly cited?

    PubMed

    Jones, A W

    2005-01-01

    Forensic science is a multidisciplinary field, which covers many branches of the pure, the applied and the biomedical sciences. Writing-up and publishing research findings helps to enhance the reputation of the investigators and the laboratories where the work was done. The number of times an article is cited in the reference lists of other articles is generally accepted as a mark of distinction. Indeed, citation analysis has become widely used in research assessment of individual scientists, university departments and entire nations. This article concerns the most highly cited papers published in the Journal of Forensic Sciences (JFS) between 1956 and 2005. These were identified with the help of Web-of-Science, which is the on-line version of Science Citation Index, produced by Thomson Institute for Scientific Information (Thomson ISI) with head offices in Philadelphia, USA. This database tracks, among other things, the annual citation records of articles published in several thousand scientific journals worldwide. Those JFS articles accumulating 50 or more citations were identified and rank-ordered according to the total number of citations. These articles were also evaluated according to the name of first author, the subject category of the article, the country of origin and the pattern of co-authorship. This search strategy located 46 articles cited between 50 and 292 times since they first appeared in print. The most highly cited paper by far was by Kasai, Nakamura and White (USA and Japan) concerning DNA profiling and the application of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in forensic science. Some forensic scientists appeared as first author on two to three highly cited articles, namely Wetli (USA), Budowle (USA) and Comey (USA). When the highly cited articles were sub-divided into subject category, 15 were identified as coming from toxicology, closely followed by criminalistics (14 articles), pathology (nine articles), physical anthropology (five articles

  19. Forensic aspects of digital evidence: contributions and initiatives by the National Center for Forensic Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitcomb, Carrie M.

    2002-08-01

    Digital evidence is information of probative value that is either stored or transmitted in a digital form. Digital evidence can exist as words (text), sound (audio), or images (video or still pictures). Law enforcement and forensic scientists are faced with collecting and analyzing these new forms of evidence that previously existed on paper or on magnetic tapes. They must apply the law and science to the processes they use. Extrapolating the old processes into the new formats has been proceeding since the 1980's. Regardless of the output format, all digital evidence has a certain commonality. One would assume that the rules of evidence and the scientific approach would also have some common characteristics. Obviously, there is also a divergence due to the differences in outputs. It is time to approach the issues regarding digital evidence in a more deliberate, organized, and scientific manner. The program outlined by the NCFS would explore these various formats, their features common to traditional types of forensic evidence, and their divergent features and explore the scientific basis for handling of digital evidence. Our web site, www.ncfs.org, describes our programs.

  20. Forensic aspects of digital evidence: contributions and initiatives by the National Center for Forensic Science (NCFS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitcomb, Carrie M.

    2002-07-01

    Digital evidence is information of probative value that is either stored or transmitted in a digital form. Digital evidence can exist as words (text), sound (audio), or images (video or still pictures). Law enforcement and forensic scientists are faced with collecting and analyzing these new forms of evidence that previously existed on paper or on magnetic tapes. They must apply the law and science to the processes they use. Extrapolating the old processes into the new formats has been proceeding since the 1980's. Regardless of the output format, all digital evidence has a certain commonality. One would assume that the rules of evidence and the scientific approach would also have some common characteristics. Obviously, there is also a divergence due to the differences in outputs. It is time to approach the issues regarding digital evidence in a more deliberate, organized, and scientific manner. The program outlined by the NCFS would explore these various formats, the features common to traditional types of forensic evidence, and their divergent features and explore the scientific basis for handling of digital evidence. Our web site, www.ncfs.org, describes our programs.

  1. A review of forensic science higher education programs in the United States: bachelor's and master's degrees.

    PubMed

    Tregar, Kristen L; Proni, Gloria

    2010-11-01

    As the number of forensic science programs offered at higher education institutions rises, and more students express an interest in them, it is important to gain information regarding the offerings in terms of courses, equipment available to students, degree requirements, and other important aspects of the programs. A survey was conducted examining the existing bachelor's and master's forensic science programs in the U.S. Of the responding institutions, relatively few were, at the time of the survey, accredited by the forensic science Education Programs Accreditation Commission (FEPAC). In general, the standards of the responding programs vary considerably primarily in terms of their size and subjects coverage. While it is clear that the standards for the forensic science programs investigated are not homogeneous, the majority of the programs provide a strong science curriculum, faculties with advanced degrees, and interesting forensic-oriented courses.

  2. Wildlife forensic science: A review of genetic geographic origin assignment.

    PubMed

    Ogden, Rob; Linacre, Adrian

    2015-09-01

    Wildlife forensic science has become a key means of enforcing legislation surrounding the illegal trade in protected and endangered species. A relatively new dimension to this area of forensic science is to determine the geographic origin of a seized sample. This review focuses on DNA testing, which relies on assignment of an unknown sample to its genetic population of origin. Key examples of this are the trade in timber, fish and ivory and these are used only to illustrate the large number of species for which this type of testing is potentially available. The role of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA markers is discussed, alongside a comparison of neutral markers with those exhibiting signatures of selection, which potentially offer much higher levels of assignment power to address specific questions. A review of assignment tests is presented along with detailed methods for evaluating error rates and considerations for marker selection. The availability and quality of reference data are of paramount importance to support assignment applications and ensure reliability of any conclusions drawn. The genetic methods discussed have been developed initially as investigative tools but comment is made regarding their use in courts. The potential to compliment DNA markers with elemental assays for greater assignment power is considered and finally recommendations are made for the future of this type of testing.

  3. The end of the (forensic science) world as we know it? The example of trace evidence

    PubMed Central

    Roux, Claude; Talbot-Wright, Benjamin; Robertson, James; Crispino, Frank; Ribaux, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    The dominant conception of forensic science as a patchwork of disciplines primarily assisting the criminal justice system (i.e. forensics) is in crisis or at least shows a series of anomalies and serious limitations. In recent years, symptoms of the crisis have been discussed in a number of reports by various commentators, without a doubt epitomized by the 2009 report by the US National Academies of Sciences (NAS 2009 Strengthening forensic science in the United States: a path forward). Although needed, but viewed as the solution to these drawbacks, the almost generalized adoption of stricter business models in forensic science casework compounded with ever-increasing normative and compliance processes not only place additional pressures on a discipline that already appears in difficulty, but also induce more fragmentation of the different forensic science tasks, a tenet many times denounced by the same NAS report and other similar reviews. One may ask whether these issues are not simply the result of an unfit paradigm. If this is the case, the current problems faced by forensic science may indicate future significant changes for the discipline. To facilitate broader discussion this presentation focuses on trace evidence, an area that is seminal to forensic science both for epistemological and historical reasons. There is, however, little doubt that this area is currently under siege worldwide. Current and future challenges faced by trace evidence are discussed along with some possible answers. The current situation ultimately presents some significant opportunities to re-invent not only trace evidence but also forensic science. Ultimately, a distinctive, more robust and more reliable science may emerge through rethinking the forensics paradigm built on specialisms, revisiting fundamental forensic science principles and adapting them to the twenty-first century. PMID:26101285

  4. The end of the (forensic science) world as we know it? The example of trace evidence.

    PubMed

    Roux, Claude; Talbot-Wright, Benjamin; Robertson, James; Crispino, Frank; Ribaux, Olivier

    2015-08-05

    The dominant conception of forensic science as a patchwork of disciplines primarily assisting the criminal justice system (i.e. forensics) is in crisis or at least shows a series of anomalies and serious limitations. In recent years, symptoms of the crisis have been discussed in a number of reports by various commentators, without a doubt epitomized by the 2009 report by the US National Academies of Sciences (NAS 2009 Strengthening forensic science in the United States: a path forward). Although needed, but viewed as the solution to these drawbacks, the almost generalized adoption of stricter business models in forensic science casework compounded with ever-increasing normative and compliance processes not only place additional pressures on a discipline that already appears in difficulty, but also induce more fragmentation of the different forensic science tasks, a tenet many times denounced by the same NAS report and other similar reviews. One may ask whether these issues are not simply the result of an unfit paradigm. If this is the case, the current problems faced by forensic science may indicate future significant changes for the discipline. To facilitate broader discussion this presentation focuses on trace evidence, an area that is seminal to forensic science both for epistemological and historical reasons. There is, however, little doubt that this area is currently under siege worldwide. Current and future challenges faced by trace evidence are discussed along with some possible answers. The current situation ultimately presents some significant opportunities to re-invent not only trace evidence but also forensic science. Ultimately, a distinctive, more robust and more reliable science may emerge through rethinking the forensics paradigm built on specialisms, revisiting fundamental forensic science principles and adapting them to the twenty-first century.

  5. Forensic psychiatry and the forensic sciences: in memory of Peter J. Batten, MD.

    PubMed

    Bloom, Joseph D

    2009-01-01

    This commentary is dedicated to the memory of Peter J. Batten, MD. He was a public health physician, a psychiatrist, and a medical examiner who spent his entire career in Salem, the capital of the State of Oregon. Salem was a unique place to work because, early in the history of Oregon, the state elected to build all of its original public institutions in the environs of the city. As the county medical examiner, Dr. Batten reviewed all questionable deaths that occurred within the county and in particular within the public institutions. Many of his findings were subsequently published, and these reports influenced the direction of mental health policy in these same institutions. He also used his position as county medical examiner to examine deaths in road rage incidents and those occurring at railroad crossings in Salem. The commentary also emphasizes the benefits of collaboration within the forensic sciences.

  6. New science, old convictions - Texas Senate Bill 344: identifying further necessary reform in forensic science.

    PubMed

    Soni, Naina

    2015-02-01

    In June 2013, Texas Senate Bill 344 (SB 344) was signed into law after strong Innocence Project support. SB 344 has since transformed the Texan judicial landscape. Known as the 'Junk Science Writ', SB 344 enables the court to grant habeas corpus relief based on scientific evidence that '(1) was not available to be offered by a convicted person at the convicted person's trial; or (2) contradicts scientific evidence relied on by the state at trial'. Inmates, such as the 'San Antonio Four', whose convictions were based upon what is now considered 'faulty' medical and forensic testimony, have been released under SB 344. Yet, science, as a field dependent on innovation, is inherently prone to debunking the scientific and forensic methods the law has relied upon to convict individuals. This commentary identifies policy behind SB 344, how SB 344 may influence the perception of science in the courtroom, and how 'junk science' is defined and/or limited. Furthermore, this commentary concludes that to achieve justice in the legal system through habeas relief based on 'junk science', it is necessary to revitalize and standardize forensic science.

  7. Lip outline: A new paradigm in forensic sciences

    PubMed Central

    Maloth, Aruna Kumari; Dorankula, Shyam Prasad Reddy; Pasupula, Ajay Prakash

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Personal identification is becoming increasingly important not only in legal medicine but also in crime/criminal investigation and identification. Sometimes establishing a person's identity can be a very difficult process. Dental, fingerprint, and DNA comparisons are probably the most common technique used. However, there are many well-known implanted methods of human identification, one of the most interesting emerging methods of human identification which originates from the criminal and forensic practice, is human lips recognition. Cheiloscopy is a forensic investigation technique that deals with the identification based on lip traces. The lip outline of every person is unique and can be used to fix the personal identity. Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the distribution of lip outline patterns among males and females, and to evaluate the uniqueness of lip outline pattern. Materials and Methods: The study group comprised of 200 individuals from Kamineni Institute of Dental Sciences. Lip outline patterns were obtained and were transferred to the proforma sheet for analysis. Results: The results of the study revealed that the lip outline patterns for each individual were unique. Conclusion: This study showed that lip outline patterns are unique to each individual and can be used for personal identification. PMID:28123282

  8. Mitochondrial genome interrogation for forensic casework and research studies.

    PubMed

    Roby, Rhonda K; Sprouse, Marc; Phillips, Nicole; Alicea-Centeno, Alessandra; Shewale, Shantanu; Shore, Sabrina; Paul, Natasha

    2014-04-24

    This unit describes methods used in the analysis of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) for forensic and research applications. UNIT describes procedures specifically for forensic casework where the DNA from evidentiary material is often degraded or inhibited. In this unit, protocols are described for quantification of mtDNA before amplification; amplification of the entire control region from high-quality samples as well as procedures for interrogating the whole mitochondrial genome (mtGenome); quantification of mtDNA post-amplification; and, post-PCR cleanup and sequencing. The protocols for amplification were developed for high-throughput databasing applications for forensic DNA testing such as reference samples and population studies. However, these same protocols can be applied to biomedical research such as age-related disease and health disparities research.

  9. Forensic Psychology: An Empirical Review of Experimental Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Lisa R.; Finn, Paul E.

    1986-01-01

    Evaluated the first eleven years of experimental research (1973-1983) publications, with a focus on forensic psychology, that were cited in Psychological Abstracts. Results indicate: a paucity of experimental research; a significant difference between empirical and nonempirical publications; and a transition from descriptive to correlational and…

  10. [The development and application of lie detection in forensic science].

    PubMed

    Wang, Lu; Yang, Ling; Ge, Yan; Cai, Ji-Feng; Chang, Yun-Feng; Lan, Ling-Mei

    2008-10-01

    Lie detection technology has been applied increasingly to investigate and solve criminal cases. This article explores the evolvement of lie detection technology in the ancient times and the application of the psychological and physiological parameters which have become more accurate with the introduction of modern polygraph. The cognitive exploration and the application of Event Related Potentials (ERPs), functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI), and Event-Related functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (E-R fMRI) have made detection technology focus on the brain activities, which produce more objective results by tracing the original state of lying. In summary, this article describes different types of lie detections, simple and complex, their working principles, the latest development, and the prospect of their application in forensic science.

  11. DNA, Drugs, and Detectives: An Interdisciplinary Special Topics Course for Undergraduate Students in Forensic Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coticone, Sulekha Rao; Van Houten, Lora Bailey

    2015-01-01

    A special topics course combining two relevant and contemporary themes (forensic DNA analysis and illicit drug detection) was developed to stimulate student enthusiasm and enhance understanding of forensic science. Building on the interest of popular television shows such as "CSI" and "Breaking Bad," this course connects…

  12. Occupational injury and fatality investigations: the application of forensic nursing science.

    PubMed

    Harris, Colin

    2013-01-01

    The forensic evaluation of trauma in occupational injuries and fatalities can provide the benefit of a more thorough analysis of incident causation. Forensic nursing science applied during workplace investigations can assist investigators to determine otherwise unknown crucial aspects of the incident circumstances that are important to event reconstruction, the enforcement of occupational health and safety requirements, and the direction of workplace prevention initiatives. Currently, a medical and forensic medical knowledge gap exists in the subject-matter expertise associated with occupational accident investigations. This gap can be bridged with the integration of forensic nursing in the investigation of workplace fatalities and serious injuries.

  13. New science, old convictions − Texas Senate Bill 344: identifying further necessary reform in forensic science

    PubMed Central

    Soni, Naina

    2015-01-01

    In June 2013, Texas Senate Bill 344 (SB 344) was signed into law after strong Innocence Project support. SB 344 has since transformed the Texan judicial landscape. Known as the ‘Junk Science Writ’, SB 344 enables the court to grant habeas corpus relief based on scientific evidence that ‘(1) was not available to be offered by a convicted person at the convicted person's trial; or (2) contradicts scientific evidence relied on by the state at trial’. Inmates, such as the ‘San Antonio Four’, whose convictions were based upon what is now considered ‘faulty’ medical and forensic testimony, have been released under SB 344. Yet, science, as a field dependent on innovation, is inherently prone to debunking the scientific and forensic methods the law has relied upon to convict individuals. This commentary identifies policy behind SB 344, how SB 344 may influence the perception of science in the courtroom, and how ‘junk science’ is defined and/or limited. Furthermore, this commentary concludes that to achieve justice in the legal system through habeas relief based on ‘junk science’, it is necessary to revitalize and standardize forensic science. PMID:27774192

  14. Present and Future of Forensics in the Research Based Communication Department.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Craig R.; Birkholt, Marty J.

    The social scientific research focus of major United States universities places the forensics programs at these institutions in a unique position. Three areas of tension between forensics and research based communication departments are as follows: research quality/utility, applicability of forensic training, and resource conflicts. Solutions to…

  15. FORENSIC SCIENCE:: 20 YEARS OF FORENSIC DENTISTRY AT THE UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB, 1994 - 2014.

    PubMed

    Brkić, Hrvoje

    2014-06-01

    Data from available literature point to an early beginning of Forensic Dentistry in Croatia relating to a post-mortem examination of a female patient after a dental procedure in the 1930s. Later on, there were several mass casualties due to collisions and airplane crashes and a railway accident at the Zagreb Main Railway Station wherein the identity of the victims was established based on dental features. Foreign experts in forensics helped identify those victims, particularly forensic dentists because this specialty was almost unknown in our region at the time. During the twenty-year period of the development of Forensic Dentistry at the University of Zagreb, the School of Dental Medicine, the city of Zagreb and Croatia have become internationally recognised on the forensic map of the world.

  16. The Development of Interactive World Wide Web Based Teaching Material in Forensic Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daeid, Niamh Nic

    2001-01-01

    Describes the development of a Web-based tutorial in the forensic science teaching program at the University of Strathclyde (Scotland). Highlights include the theoretical basis for course development; objectives; Web site design; student feedback; and staff feedback. (LRW)

  17. The interface between forensic science and technology: how technology could cause a paradigm shift in the role of forensic institutes in the criminal justice system.

    PubMed

    Kloosterman, Ate; Mapes, Anna; Geradts, Zeno; van Eijk, Erwin; Koper, Carola; van den Berg, Jorrit; Verheij, Saskia; van der Steen, Marcel; van Asten, Arian

    2015-08-05

    In this paper, the importance of modern technology in forensic investigations is discussed. Recent technological developments are creating new possibilities to perform robust scientific measurements and studies outside the controlled laboratory environment. The benefits of real-time, on-site forensic investigations are manifold and such technology has the potential to strongly increase the speed and efficacy of the criminal justice system. However, such benefits are only realized when quality can be guaranteed at all times and findings can be used as forensic evidence in court. At the Netherlands Forensic Institute, innovation efforts are currently undertaken to develop integrated forensic platform solutions that allow for the forensic investigation of human biological traces, the chemical identification of illicit drugs and the study of large amounts of digital evidence. These platforms enable field investigations, yield robust and validated evidence and allow for forensic intelligence and targeted use of expert capacity at the forensic institutes. This technological revolution in forensic science could ultimately lead to a paradigm shift in which a new role of the forensic expert emerges as developer and custodian of integrated forensic platforms.

  18. The interface between forensic science and technology: how technology could cause a paradigm shift in the role of forensic institutes in the criminal justice system

    PubMed Central

    Kloosterman, Ate; Mapes, Anna; Geradts, Zeno; van Eijk, Erwin; Koper, Carola; van den Berg, Jorrit; Verheij, Saskia; van der Steen, Marcel; van Asten, Arian

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the importance of modern technology in forensic investigations is discussed. Recent technological developments are creating new possibilities to perform robust scientific measurements and studies outside the controlled laboratory environment. The benefits of real-time, on-site forensic investigations are manifold and such technology has the potential to strongly increase the speed and efficacy of the criminal justice system. However, such benefits are only realized when quality can be guaranteed at all times and findings can be used as forensic evidence in court. At the Netherlands Forensic Institute, innovation efforts are currently undertaken to develop integrated forensic platform solutions that allow for the forensic investigation of human biological traces, the chemical identification of illicit drugs and the study of large amounts of digital evidence. These platforms enable field investigations, yield robust and validated evidence and allow for forensic intelligence and targeted use of expert capacity at the forensic institutes. This technological revolution in forensic science could ultimately lead to a paradigm shift in which a new role of the forensic expert emerges as developer and custodian of integrated forensic platforms. PMID:26101289

  19. [The history of Polish criminalistics and forensic medicine and their links to Austrian science].

    PubMed

    Widacki, Jan

    2012-01-01

    The institution of the medical expert was already known in the early Polish courts. The first Chair of Forensic Medicine on Polish soil was established in 1805 at the Jagiellonian University in Cracow and has existed until today. Among its most prominent forensic scientists are Prof. Fryderyk Hechell (1795-1851), Prof. Leon Blumenstock (1838-1895), who was the first to give regular lectures on forensic medicine for law students, and Prof. Leon Wachholz (1867-1941), who was a student of both Prof. Blumenstock and Prof. Eduard von Hofmann (1837-1897), under whose supervision he worked in Vienna. Under his guidance and supervision, he started to collect material for his habilitation. At that time, Hofmann was considered the pioneer of experimental research in forensic medicine. In Vienna, Wachholz was a guest scientist not only with Prof. von Hofmann, but also in the Psychiatric Hospital of Prof. Richard von Krafft-Ebing. After his return to Cracow, he was head of the Institute of Forensic Medicine of the Jagiellonian University for several decades. Apart from forensic medicine in the strict sense of the word, he also worked in the fields now known as criminalistics, forensic psychiatry and criminology. In these latter fields, the influence of Krafft-Ebing was still noticeable. Three students of Wachholz became professors of forensic medicine: Jan Olbrycht, Stanislaw Horoszkiewicz and Włodzimierz Sieradzki. Their students founded a whole generation of forensic scientists. Today, all Polish forensic scientists are either directly or indirectly students of Professor Wachholz' successors.

  20. Hooked on Science: How an Ohio Teacher is Training Students to Be Linked in to Forensics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology & Learning, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This article features Ohio teacher Carol Fleck's use of videoconferencing in teaching Contemporary BioScience and Genetics. Fleck, who says her initial vision for the class was "science without classroom walls," covers such topics as emerging diseases, bioterrorism, and forensic science. Collaboration between schools is a key part of the…

  1. Bodies of science and law: forensic DNA profiling, biological bodies, and biopower.

    PubMed

    Toom, Victor

    2012-01-01

    How is jurisdiction transferred from an individual's biological body to agents of power such as the police, public prosecutors, and the judiciary, and what happens to these biological bodies when transformed from private into public objects? These questions are examined by analysing bodies situated at the intersection of science and law. More specifically, the transformation of ‘private bodies’ into ‘public bodies’ is analysed by going into the details of forensic DNA profiling in the Dutch jurisdiction. It will be argued that various ‘forensic genetic practices’ enact different forensic genetic bodies'. These enacted forensic genetic bodies are connected with various infringements of civil rights, which become articulated in exploring these forensic genetic bodies’‘normative registers’.

  2. Detangling complex relationships in forensic data: principles and use of causal networks and their application to clinical forensic science.

    PubMed

    Lefèvre, Thomas; Lepresle, Aude; Chariot, Patrick

    2015-09-01

    The search for complex, nonlinear relationships and causality in data is hindered by the availability of techniques in many domains, including forensic science. Linear multivariable techniques are useful but present some shortcomings. In the past decade, Bayesian approaches have been introduced in forensic science. To date, authors have mainly focused on providing an alternative to classical techniques for quantifying effects and dealing with uncertainty. Causal networks, including Bayesian networks, can help detangle complex relationships in data. A Bayesian network estimates the joint probability distribution of data and graphically displays dependencies between variables and the circulation of information between these variables. In this study, we illustrate the interest in utilizing Bayesian networks for dealing with complex data through an application in clinical forensic science. Evaluating the functional impairment of assault survivors is a complex task for which few determinants are known. As routinely estimated in France, the duration of this impairment can be quantified by days of 'Total Incapacity to Work' ('Incapacité totale de travail,' ITT). In this study, we used a Bayesian network approach to identify the injury type, victim category and time to evaluation as the main determinants of the 'Total Incapacity to Work' (TIW). We computed the conditional probabilities associated with the TIW node and its parents. We compared this approach with a multivariable analysis, and the results of both techniques were converging. Thus, Bayesian networks should be considered a reliable means to detangle complex relationships in data.

  3. Opportunities for Fluid Dynamics Research in the Forensic Discipline of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attinger, Daniel; Moore, Craig; Donaldson, Adam; Jafari, Arian; Stone, Howard

    2013-11-01

    This review [Forensic Science International, vol. 231, pp. 375-396, 2013] highlights research opportunities for fluid dynamics (FD) studies related to the forensic discipline of bloodstain pattern analysis (BPA). The need for better integrating FD and BPA is mentioned in a 2009 report by the US National Research Council, entitled ``Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States: A Path Forward''. BPA aims for practical answers to specific questions of the kind: ``How did a bloodletting incident happen?'' FD, on the other hand, aims to quantitatively describe the transport of fluids and the related causes, with general equations. BPA typically solves the indirect problem of inspecting stains in a crime scene to infer the most probable bloodletting incident that produced these patterns. FD typically defines the initial and boundary conditions of a fluid system and from there describe how the system evolves in time and space, most often in a deterministic manner. We review four topics in BPA with strong connections to FD: the generation of drops, their flight, their impact and the formation of stains. Future research on these topics would deliver new quantitative tools and methods for BPA, and present new multiphase flow problems for FD.

  4. Colombian forensic genetics as a form of public science: The role of race, nation and common sense in the stabilization of DNA populations

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz-Marín, Ernesto; Wade, Peter; Cruz-Santiago, Arely; Cárdenas, Roosbelinda

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the role that vernacular notions of racialized-regional difference play in the constitution and stabilization of DNA populations in Colombian forensic science, in what we frame as a process of public science. In public science, the imaginations of the scientific world and common-sense public knowledge are integral to the production and circulation of science itself. We explore the origins and circulation of a scientific object – ‘La Tabla’, published in Paredes et al. and used in genetic forensic identification procedures – among genetic research institutes, forensic genetics laboratories and courtrooms in Bogotá. We unveil the double life of this central object of forensic genetics. On the one hand, La Tabla enjoys an indisputable public place in the processing of forensic genetic evidence in Colombia (paternity cases, identification of bodies, etc.). On the other hand, the relations it establishes between ‘race’, geography and genetics are questioned among population geneticists in Colombia. Although forensic technicians are aware of the disputes among population geneticists, they use and endorse the relations established between genetics, ‘race’ and geography because these fit with common-sense notions of visible bodily difference and the regionalization of race in the Colombian nation. PMID:27480000

  5. Colombian forensic genetics as a form of public science: The role of race, nation and common sense in the stabilization of DNA populations.

    PubMed

    Schwartz-Marín, Ernesto; Wade, Peter; Cruz-Santiago, Arely; Cárdenas, Roosbelinda

    2015-12-01

    Abstract This article examines the role that vernacular notions of racialized-regional difference play in the constitution and stabilization of DNA populations in Colombian forensic science, in what we frame as a process of public science. In public science, the imaginations of the scientific world and common-sense public knowledge are integral to the production and circulation of science itself. We explore the origins and circulation of a scientific object--'La Tabla', published in Paredes et al. and used in genetic forensic identification procedures--among genetic research institutes, forensic genetics laboratories and courtrooms in Bogotá. We unveil the double life of this central object of forensic genetics. On the one hand, La Tabla enjoys an indisputable public place in the processing of forensic genetic evidence in Colombia (paternity cases, identification of bodies, etc.). On the other hand, the relations it establishes between 'race', geography and genetics are questioned among population geneticists in Colombia. Although forensic technicians are aware of the disputes among population geneticists, they use and endorse the relations established between genetics, 'race' and geography because these fit with common-sense notions of visible bodily difference and the regionalization of race in the Colombian nation.

  6. Researching Undergraduate Social Science Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rand, Jane

    2016-01-01

    The experience(s) of undergraduate research students in the social sciences is under-represented in the literature in comparison to the natural sciences or science, technology, engineering and maths (STEM). The strength of STEM undergraduate research learning environments is understood to be related to an apprenticeship-mode of learning supported…

  7. The Implementation and Growth of an International Online Forensic Science Graduate Program at the University of Florida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grundmann, Oliver; Wielbo, Donna; Tebbett, Ian

    2010-01-01

    Forensic science education has evolved as an interdisciplinary science that includes medicine, chemistry, biology, and criminal justice. Therefore, multiple paths can lead to a career in forensic science. A formal education usually requires the student to attend a college or university to obtain a bachelor's or master's degree. In many cases,…

  8. Assessment of the Forensic Sciences Profession: Assessment of the Personnel of the Forensic Sciences Profession. Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Kenneth S.; And Others

    A state-of-the-art assessment is presented of the number, training, and experience of scientific and paraprofessional personnel serving the criminal justice system as expert witnesses. The study concentrated on the following disciplines: criminalists, coroner/medical examiner personnel (especially forensic pathologists), forensic anthropologists,…

  9. Forensic hair morphology comparison--a dying art or junk science?

    PubMed

    Taupin, J M

    2004-01-01

    There has been debate in both the judicial and forensic fields concerning the admissibility and reliability of the so-called forensic comparison sciences such as handwriting, tool mark analyses, and hair analysis. In particular, there has been increasing controversy over the use and interpretation of hair comparison evidence and it has been held partly responsible for miscarriages of justice. There has also been a perceived devaluation of the worth of microscopic human hair analysis particularly since the advent of DNA profiling. This article will attempt to initiate discussion on the past, current and future role of forensic human hair analysis and comparison.

  10. New perspectives in the use of ink evidence in forensic science: Part III: Operational applications and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Cedric; Margot, Pierre

    2009-11-20

    The research reported in this series of article aimed at (1) automating the search of questioned ink specimens in ink reference collections and (2) at evaluating the strength of ink evidence in a transparent and balanced manner. These aims require that ink samples are analysed in an accurate and reproducible way and that they are compared in an objective and automated way. This latter requirement is due to the large number of comparisons that are necessary in both scenarios. A research programme was designed to (a) develop a standard methodology for analysing ink samples in a reproducible way, (b) comparing automatically and objectively ink samples and (c) evaluate the proposed methodology in forensic contexts. This report focuses on the last of the three stages of the research programme. The calibration and acquisition process and the mathematical comparison algorithms were described in previous papers [C. Neumann, P. Margot, New perspectives in the use of ink evidence in forensic science-Part I: Development of a quality assurance process for forensic ink analysis by HPTLC, Forensic Sci. Int. 185 (2009) 29-37; C. Neumann, P. Margot, New perspectives in the use of ink evidence in forensic science-Part II: Development and testing of mathematical algorithms for the automatic comparison of ink samples analysed by HPTLC, Forensic Sci. Int. 185 (2009) 38-50]. In this paper, the benefits and challenges of the proposed concepts are tested in two forensic contexts: (1) ink identification and (2) ink evidential value assessment. The results show that different algorithms are better suited for different tasks. This research shows that it is possible to build digital ink libraries using the most commonly used ink analytical technique, i.e. high-performance thin layer chromatography, despite its reputation of lacking reproducibility. More importantly, it is possible to assign evidential value to ink evidence in a transparent way using a probabilistic model. It is therefore

  11. CSI Web Adventures: A Forensics Virtual Apprenticeship for Teaching Science and Inspiring STEM Careers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Leslie; Chang, Ching-I; Hoyt, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    CSI: The Experience, a traveling museum exhibit and a companion web adventure, was created through a grant from the National Science Foundation as a potential model for informal learning. The website was designed to enrich and complement the exhibit by modeling the forensic process. Substantive science, real-world lab techniques, and higher-level…

  12. [The CSI effect and its impact on the perceptions of forensic science experts' work].

    PubMed

    Stojer, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    The issue that has been analyzed in this work is the potential effect of crime films and TV series on people's perceptions of forensic medicine and science, and especially on the forming of expectations towards forensic science experts. This syndrome is being called the "CSI effect" after the popular franchise Crime Scene Investigation (CSI). Questionnaire surveys that have been conducted included "experts": 50 experts in various specialities, 77 prosecutors, 119 judges, 64 lay judges, 161 police staff and 80 members of general public. In-depth interviews have been conducted with 20 police staff, and also a focus group has been carried out with 15 law students. In the opinion of the respondents, people's perceptions and expectations of forensic science--as it can be observed during criminal trials--are largely inflated by the entertainment media. Among the surveyed persons, the category that declares watching crime series most rarely, is forensic science experts. Around half of the surveyed experts pointed out to excessive expectations towards they work instigated by TV crime series. The most common expectations towards forensic medicine experts are: immediate conclusiveness of post mortem examinations (going as far as indicating the cause of death at the crime scene), precision of death time estimation and a routine use of sophisticated methods known from TV.

  13. An innovative and shared methodology for event reconstruction using images in forensic science.

    PubMed

    Milliet, Quentin; Jendly, Manon; Delémont, Olivier

    2015-09-01

    This study presents an innovative methodology for forensic science image analysis for event reconstruction. The methodology is based on experiences from real cases. It provides real added value to technical guidelines such as standard operating procedures (SOPs) and enriches the community of practices at stake in this field. This bottom-up solution outlines the many facets of analysis and the complexity of the decision-making process. Additionally, the methodology provides a backbone for articulating more detailed and technical procedures and SOPs. It emerged from a grounded theory approach; data from individual and collective interviews with eight Swiss and nine European forensic image analysis experts were collected and interpreted in a continuous, circular and reflexive manner. Throughout the process of conducting interviews and panel discussions, similarities and discrepancies were discussed in detail to provide a comprehensive picture of practices and points of view and to ultimately formalise shared know-how. Our contribution sheds light on the complexity of the choices, actions and interactions along the path of data collection and analysis, enhancing both the researchers' and participants' reflexivity.

  14. Isotope ratio mass spectrometry as a tool for source inference in forensic science: A critical review.

    PubMed

    Gentile, Natacha; Siegwolf, Rolf T W; Esseiva, Pierre; Doyle, Sean; Zollinger, Kurt; Delémont, Olivier

    2015-06-01

    Isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) has been used in numerous fields of forensic science in a source inference perspective. This review compiles the studies published on the application of isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) to the traditional fields of forensic science so far. It completes the review of Benson et al. [1] and synthesises the extent of knowledge already gathered in the following fields: illicit drugs, flammable liquids, human provenancing, microtraces, explosives and other specific materials (packaging tapes, safety matches, plastics, etc.). For each field, a discussion assesses the state of science and highlights the relevance of the information in a forensic context. Through the different discussions which mark out the review, the potential and limitations of IRMS, as well as the needs and challenges of future studies are emphasized. The paper elicits the various dimensions of the source which can be obtained from the isotope information and demonstrates the transversal nature of IRMS as a tool for source inference.

  15. Infection Management and Health Practices Among Forensic Science Investigators in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Cha, Kyeong-Sook; Cho, Ok-Hee; Yoo, Yang-Sook

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated the current status of infection management for forensic science investigators in South Korea. This study included 104 forensic science investigators, of which 97.1% were exposed to the blood or body fluids of corpses during handling. Of these investigators, 98% claimed they wore gloves, and 12.9% used double-layered gloves. A total of 70.6% of the participants with relevant work experience wore masks to reduce infection risk; 43% wore gowns and goggles when at risk of contracting an infection. Furthermore, 59.8% of the investigators with pertinent work experience sought appropriate first aid and treatment when they experienced contaminated skin cuts or stab wounds. Working conditions and other problems should be analyzed consistently with the cooperation of employees, occupational health practitioners, and relevant organizations to prevent work-associated infections among forensic science investigators.

  16. Integrating forensic science into nursing processes in the ICU.

    PubMed

    Hoyt, Constance A

    2006-01-01

    The critical care nurse is in an ideal position to assume responsibilities related to the identification of forensic cases and the preservation of associated evidence. Victims of child and elder abuse and neglect, individuals involved in vehicular or industrial accidents, substance abusers, and incarcerated populations are among the several types of patients that are likely to managed in the intensive care unit (ICU). Hospitals and their personnel assume considerable liability in such cases for detecting, collecting, and preserving evidence, as well as for reporting and referring the cases to appropriate law enforcement or judicial authorities. The Joint Commission for the Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations has published specific regulatory guidance to ensure that all healthcare personnel are properly educated to assume certain forensic responsibilities. The orientation and in-service programs of the ICU nurse should include specific guidance regarding forensic principles, practices, and procedures.

  17. Forensic medical evaluations of child maltreatment: a proposed research agenda.

    PubMed

    Dubowitz, Howard; Christian, Cindy W; Hymel, Kent; Kellogg, Nancy D

    2014-11-01

    Physicians play an important role in the forensic evaluation of suspected child abuse and neglect. There has been considerable progress in the medical field, helping distinguish findings related to maltreatment from other conditions or circumstances. Nevertheless, important questions remain. This article covers several of these questions and proposes a research agenda concerning five main topics: sexual abuse, neglect, fractures, abusive head trauma, and physicians work in interdisciplinary settings. The suggestions are hardly inclusive, but offer suggestions the authors think are priorities, and ones that research could reasonably address. By providing some background to gaps in our knowledge, this paper should be of interest to a broader audience than just medical professionals.

  18. An overview to the investigative approach to species testing in wildlife forensic science

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The extent of wildlife crime is unknown but it is on the increase and has observable effects with the dramatic decline in many species of flora and fauna. The growing awareness of this area of criminal activity is reflected in the increase in research papers on animal DNA testing, either for the identification of species or for the genetic linkage of a sample to a particular organism. This review focuses on the use of species testing in wildlife crime investigations. Species identification relies primarily on genetic loci within the mitochondrial genome; focusing on the cytochrome b and cytochrome oxidase 1 genes. The use of cytochrome b gained early prominence in species identification through its use in taxonomic and phylogenetic studies, while the gene sequence for cytochrome oxidase was adopted by the Barcode for Life research group. This review compares how these two loci are used in species identification with respect to wildlife crime investigations. As more forensic science laboratories undertake work in the wildlife area, it is important that the quality of work is of the highest standard and that the conclusions reached are based on scientific principles. A key issue in reporting on the identification of a particular species is a knowledge of both the intraspecies variation and the possible overlap of sequence variation from one species to that of a closely related species. Recent data showing this degree of genetic separation in mammalian species will allow greater confidence when preparing a report on an alleged event where the identification of the species is of prime importance. The aim of this review is to illustrate aspects of species testing in wildlife forensic science and to explain how a knowledge of genetic variation at the genus and species level can aid in the reporting of results. PMID:21232099

  19. Human Blood Typing: A Forensic Science Approach. Part I: Background.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobilinsky, Lawrence; Sheehan, Francis X.

    1988-01-01

    In this article, part I of a series, the forensic methods used in "typing" human blood, which as physical evidence is often found in the dried state, are outlined. Background information about individualization, antibody typing, fresh blood, dried blood, and additional systems is provided. (CW)

  20. Human Blood Typing: A Forensic Science Approach: Part II. Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobilinsky, Lawrence; Sheehan, Francis X.

    1988-01-01

    Describes several experiments that explore the methodology available to the forensic serologist for typing a human bloodstain in the ABH grouping system. Presents ABO blood group of wet blood, Lattes Crust test procedure, and the absorption-elution procedure. Uses outdated blood; equipment requirements are minimal. (ML)

  1. Educating Jurors about Forensic Evidence: Using an Expert Witness and Judicial Instructions to Mitigate the Impact of Invalid Forensic Science Testimony.

    PubMed

    Eastwood, Joseph; Caldwell, Jiana

    2015-11-01

    Invalid expert witness testimony that overstated the precision and accuracy of forensic science procedures has been highlighted as a common factor in many wrongful conviction cases. This study assessed the ability of an opposing expert witness and judicial instructions to mitigate the impact of invalid forensic science testimony. Participants (N = 155) acted as mock jurors in a sexual assault trial that contained both invalid forensic testimony regarding hair comparison evidence, and countering testimony from either a defense expert witness or judicial instructions. Results showed that the defense expert witness was successful in educating jurors regarding limitations in the initial expert's conclusions, leading to a greater number of not-guilty verdicts. The judicial instructions were shown to have no impact on verdict decisions. These findings suggest that providing opposing expert witnesses may be an effective safeguard against invalid forensic testimony in criminal trials.

  2. Postmortem bone marrow analysis in forensic science: study of 73 cases and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Tattoli, Lucia; Tsokos, Michael; Sautter, Julia; Anagnostopoulos, Joannis; Maselli, Eloisa; Ingravallo, Giuseppe; Delia, Mario; Solarino, Biagio

    2014-01-01

    In forensic sciences, bone marrow (BM) is an alternative matrix in postmortem toxicology because of its good resistance to autolysis and contaminations. Nevertheless, few studies have been focused on postmortem BM morphological changes after pathological stimuli. We examined 73 BM samples from forensic autopsies; causes of death were both natural and traumatic. BM samples were collected from the sternum by needle aspiration and biopsy; in selected cases, immunohistochemistry was performed. Few autolytic changes were found; BM cellularity decreased with increasing age and postmortem interval. Notable cell changes were detected in 45 cases (61.64%): neoplastic (n=4), and non-neoplastic BM findings (n=41), including multiorgan failure/sepsis (n=26), myelodisplastic-like conditions (n=11), and anaphylactic reactions (n=4). The results showed that BM cellularity supported circumstantial and autopsy findings, suggesting that BM samples could be a useful tool in forensic science applications.

  3. Potential Applications of Scanning Probe Microscopy in Forensic Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, G. S.; Watson, J. A.

    2007-04-01

    The forensic community utilises a myriad of techniques to investigate a wide range of materials, from paint flakes to DNA. The various microscopic techniques have provided some of the greatest contributions, e.g., FT-IR (Fourier-transform infrared) microspectroscopy utilised in copy toner discrimination, multi-layer automobile paint fragment examination, etc, SEM-EDA (scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive analysis) used to investigate glass fragments, fibers, and explosives, and SEM in microsampling for elemental analysis, just to name a few. This study demonstrates the ability of the Scanning Probe Microscope (SPM) to analyse human fingerprints on surfaces utilising a step-and-scan feature, enabling analysis of a larger field-of-view. We also extend a line crossings study by incorporating height analysis and surface roughness measurements. The study demonstrates the potential for SPM techniques to be utilised for forensic analysis which could complement the more traditional methodologies used in such investigations.

  4. Medium Velocity Spatter Creation by Mousetraps in a Forensic Science Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oller, Anna R.

    2006-01-01

    Forensic science courses encompasses the disciplines of biology, chemistry, mathematics, and physics, which provides an opportunity for students to become engaged in all content areas within one course. The inquiry-based learning environment allows visualization of results almost immediately, facilitating student interest. The laboratory…

  5. Mendel Meets CSI: Forensic Genotyping as a Method to Teach Genetics & DNA Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurowski, Scotia; Reiss, Rebecca

    2007-01-01

    This article describes a forensic DNA science laboratory exercise for advanced high school and introductory college level biology courses. Students use a commercial genotyping kit and genetic analyzer or gene sequencer to analyze DNA recovered from a fictitious crime scene. DNA profiling and STR genotyping are outlined. DNA extraction, PCR, and…

  6. [Authentication of Trace Material Evidence in Forensic Science Field with Infrared Microscopic Technique].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhi-quan; Hu, Ke-liang

    2016-03-01

    In the field of forensic science, conventional infrared spectral analysis technique is usually unable to meet the detection requirements, because only very a few trace material evidence with diverse shapes and complex compositions, can be extracted from the crime scene. Infrared microscopic technique is developed based on a combination of Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopic technique and microscopic technique. Infrared microscopic technique has a lot of advantages over conventional infrared spectroscopic technique, such as high detection sensitivity, micro-area analysisand nondestructive examination. It has effectively solved the problem of authentication of trace material evidence in the field of forensic science. Additionally, almost no external interference is introduced during measurements by infrared microscopic technique. It can satisfy the special need that the trace material evidence must be reserved for witness in court. It is illustrated in detail through real case analysis in this experimental center that, infrared microscopic technique has advantages in authentication of trace material evidence in forensic science field. In this paper, the vibration features in infrared spectra of material evidences, including paints, plastics, rubbers, fibers, drugs and toxicants, can be comparatively analyzed by means of infrared microscopic technique, in an attempt to provide powerful spectroscopic evidence for qualitative diagnosis of various criminal and traffic accident cases. The experimental results clearly suggest that infrared microscopic technique has an incomparable advantage and it has become an effective method for authentication of trace material evidence in the field of forensic science.

  7. Using Harry Potter to Introduce Students to DNA Fingerprinting & Forensic Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Laura K.

    2010-01-01

    This lesson uses characters from the Harry Potter series of novels as a "hook" to stimulate students' interest in introductory forensic science. Students are guided through RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) analysis using inexpensive materials and asked to interpret data from a mock crime scene. Importantly, the lesson provides an…

  8. Haptics in forensics: the possibilities and advantages in using the haptic device for reconstruction approaches in forensic science.

    PubMed

    Buck, Ursula; Naether, Silvio; Braun, Marcel; Thali, Michael

    2008-09-18

    Non-invasive documentation methods such as surface scanning and radiological imaging are gaining in importance in the forensic field. These three-dimensional technologies provide digital 3D data, which are processed and handled in the computer. However, the sense of touch gets lost using the virtual approach. The haptic device enables the use of the sense of touch to handle and feel digital 3D data. The multifunctional application of a haptic device for forensic approaches is evaluated and illustrated in three different cases: the representation of bone fractures of the lower extremities, by traffic accidents, in a non-invasive manner; the comparison of bone injuries with the presumed injury-inflicting instrument; and in a gunshot case, the identification of the gun by the muzzle imprint, and the reconstruction of the holding position of the gun. The 3D models of the bones are generated from the Computed Tomography (CT) images. The 3D models of the exterior injuries, the injury-inflicting tools and the bone injuries, where a higher resolution is necessary, are created by the optical surface scan. The haptic device is used in combination with the software FreeForm Modelling Plus for touching the surface of the 3D models to feel the minute injuries and the surface of tools, to reposition displaced bone parts and to compare an injury-causing instrument with an injury. The repositioning of 3D models in a reconstruction is easier, faster and more precisely executed by means of using the sense of touch and with the user-friendly movement in the 3D space. For representation purposes, the fracture lines of bones are coloured. This work demonstrates that the haptic device is a suitable and efficient application in forensic science. The haptic device offers a new way in the handling of digital data in the virtual 3D space.

  9. The scope of forensic radiology.

    PubMed

    Brogdon, B G

    1998-06-01

    The use of x-ray in the solution of forensic problems commenced within days of Röntgen's discovery; indeed, most of the applications of radiology to the forensic sciences were accomplished or anticipated within the next two years. The scope of forensic radiology ranges widely and includes determination of identity, evaluation of injury and death, applications in both criminal and civil litigation and in administrative proceedings, detection of abuse, investigation of gunshot wounds, medical education and research. Newer modalities and techniques afford opportunity for the expansion of forensic radiology if problems of accessibility and cost can be resolved along with improvement in interdisciplinary cooperation and understanding.

  10. Forensics Investigator

    MedlinePlus

    ... year degree, a four-year degree in forensics science is usually necessary to work in the field. Knowledge and understanding of legal procedures also can be helpful. Certification & Licensing: N/A Other ... of Forensic Sciences http://www.aafs.org salary.com http://hrsalarycenter. ...

  11. Diagnosing Crime and Diagnosing Disease: Bias Reduction Strategies in the Forensic and Clinical Sciences.

    PubMed

    Lockhart, Joseph J; Satya-Murti, Saty

    2017-02-23

    Cognitive effort is an essential part of both forensic and clinical decision-making. Errors occur in both fields because the cognitive process is complex and prone to bias. We performed a selective review of full-text English language literature on cognitive bias leading to diagnostic and forensic errors. Earlier work (1970-2000) concentrated on classifying and raising bias awareness. Recently (2000-2016), the emphasis has shifted toward strategies for "debiasing." While the forensic sciences have focused on the control of misleading contextual cues, clinical debiasing efforts have relied on checklists and hypothetical scenarios. No single generally applicable and effective bias reduction strategy has emerged so far. Generalized attempts at bias elimination have not been particularly successful. It is time to shift focus to the study of errors within specific domains, and how to best communicate uncertainty in order to improve decision making on the part of both the expert and the trier-of-fact.

  12. [Forensic entomology].

    PubMed

    Açikgöz, Halide Nihal

    2010-01-01

    Odour of the animal or human corpses immediately after death is very attractive for insects and other invertebrates. Blue and green bottle flies from the Calliphoridae family are the first colonizers of cadaver and immediately later necrophagous Diptera from the Sarcophagidae family settle on the same corpse. It is essential to determine the time past after death for elucidating the event in case of the homicide or suspicious death, and it is directly proportional to the post mortem interval expected time, which is based upon the speed of the larval growth. In this article, we purposed to stress the special interest of forensic entomology for the scientists who will apply this science in their forensic researches and case studies, and also to provide information to our judges, prosecutors and law enforcement agents in order to consider the entomological samples to be reliable and applicable evidences as biological stains and hairs. We are of the opinion that if any forensic entomologist is called to the crime scene or if the evidences are collected and then delivered to an entomologist, the forensic cases will be elucidated faster and more accurately.

  13. Forensic Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, William D.; Jackson, Glen P.

    2015-07-01

    Developments in forensic mass spectrometry tend to follow, rather than lead, the developments in other disciplines. Examples of techniques having forensic potential born independently of forensic applications include ambient ionization, imaging mass spectrometry, isotope ratio mass spectrometry, portable mass spectrometers, and hyphenated chromatography-mass spectrometry instruments, to name a few. Forensic science has the potential to benefit enormously from developments that are funded by other means, if only the infrastructure and personnel existed to adopt, validate, and implement the new technologies into casework. Perhaps one unique area in which forensic science is at the cutting edge is in the area of chemometrics and the determination of likelihood ratios for the evaluation of the weight of evidence. Such statistical techniques have been developed most extensively for ignitable-liquid residue analyses and isotope ratio analysis. This review attempts to capture the trends, motivating forces, and likely impact of developing areas of forensic mass spectrometry, with the caveat that none of this research is likely to have any real impact in the forensic community unless: (a) The instruments developed are turned into robust black boxes with red and green lights for positives and negatives, respectively, or (b) there are PhD graduates in the workforce who can help adopt these sophisticated techniques.

  14. Forensic Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, William D; Jackson, Glen P

    2015-01-01

    Developments in forensic mass spectrometry tend to follow, rather than lead, the developments in other disciplines. Examples of techniques having forensic potential born independently of forensic applications include ambient ionization, imaging mass spectrometry, isotope ratio mass spectrometry, portable mass spectrometers, and hyphenated chromatography-mass spectrometry instruments, to name a few. Forensic science has the potential to benefit enormously from developments that are funded by other means, if only the infrastructure and personnel existed to adopt, validate, and implement the new technologies into casework. Perhaps one unique area in which forensic science is at the cutting edge is in the area of chemometrics and the determination of likelihood ratios for the evaluation of the weight of evidence. Such statistical techniques have been developed most extensively for ignitable-liquid residue analyses and isotope ratio analysis. This review attempts to capture the trends, motivating forces, and likely impact of developing areas of forensic mass spectrometry, with the caveat that none of this research is likely to have any real impact in the forensic community unless: (a) The instruments developed are turned into robust black boxes with red and green lights for positives and negatives, respectively, or (b) there are PhD graduates in the workforce who can help adopt these sophisticated techniques.

  15. Cyber-Forensic Research Experimentation and Test Environment (CREATE)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-10-01

    for support. Depending on the officer’s need, the information could include what steganography is, data hiding tools and methods , how to conduct an...objective of this effort was to develop methodologies and standards for cyber forensics methods and tools. The current cyber forensic certification...and incorporation of the recent history of cyber forensics: lessons learned from both the successes and failures of past investigative methods

  16. The relationship between the detection of acquisitive crime by forensic science and drug-dependent offenders.

    PubMed

    Bond, John W; Sheridan, Lorraine

    2007-09-01

    Drug- and nondrug-related acquisitive crime offences such as burglary, theft, and motor vehicle theft, were compared to assess whether drug abusers were more likely to be apprehended via forensic science techniques. Data were all acquisitive offences committed over a 6-year period within a police force area in England. Drug-dependent offenders committed a wider range of offence types than nondependent offenders, and they were significantly more likely to be detected via their DNA or fingerprints (p < 0.01). A logistic regression (n > 14,000) revealed a number of predictors that influence the detection of the crime by forensic techniques. The results indicate that a number of these predictors are of statistical significance; the most significant of these being drug use by the offender with sex, ethnicity, and employment status also being relevant. Age of the offender and number of offences committed were found not to be significant. Of the four hypotheses considered to explain this, the most likely was thought to be the physical and mental impact of drug use on crime scene behavior. Consideration is given to the disciplines of forensic science and forensic psychology working closely together to distinguish factors that influence crime scene behavior.

  17. Quantitative Phase Analysis by the Rietveld Method for Forensic Science.

    PubMed

    Deng, Fei; Lin, Xiaodong; He, Yonghong; Li, Shu; Zi, Run; Lai, Shijun

    2015-07-01

    Quantitative phase analysis (QPA) is helpful to determine the type attribute of the object because it could present the content of the constituents. QPA by Rietveld method requires neither measurement of calibration data nor the use of an internal standard; however, the approximate crystal structure of each phase in a mixture is necessary. In this study, 8 synthetic mixtures composed of potassium nitrate and sulfur were analyzed by Rietveld QPA method. The Rietveld refinement was accomplished with a material analysis using diffraction program and evaluated by three agreement indices. Results showed that Rietveld QPA yielded precise results, with errors generally less than 2.0% absolute. In addition, a criminal case which was broken successfully with the help of Rietveld QPA method was also introduced. This method will allow forensic investigators to acquire detailed information of the material evidence, which could point out the direction for case detection and court proceedings.

  18. mtDNA Mutations and Their Role in Aging, Diseases and Forensic Sciences.

    PubMed

    Zapico, Sara C; Ubelaker, Douglas H

    2013-10-03

    Mitochondria are independent organelles with their own DNA. As a primary function, mitochondria produce the energy for the cell through Oxidative Phosphorylation (OXPHOS) in the Electron Transport Chain (ETC). One of the toxic products of this process is Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), which can induce oxidative damage in macromolecules like lipids, proteins and DNA. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is less protected and has fewer reparation mechanisms than nuclear DNA (nDNA), and as such is more exposed to oxidative, mutation-inducing damage. This review analyzes the causes and consequences of mtDNA mutations and their relationship with the aging process. Neurodegenerative diseases, related with the aging, are consequences of mtDNA mutations resulting in a decrease in mitochondrial function. Also described are "mitochondrial diseases", pathologies produced by mtDNA mutations and whose symptoms are related with mitochondrial dysfunction. Finally, mtDNA haplogroups are defined in this review; these groups are important for determination of geographical origin of an individual. Additionally, different haplogroups exhibit variably longevity and risk of certain diseases. mtDNA mutations in aging and haplogroups are of special interest to forensic science research. Therefore this review will help to clarify the key role of mtDNA mutations in these processes and support further research in this area.

  19. mtDNA Mutations and Their Role in Aging, Diseases and Forensic Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Zapico, Sara C.; Ubelaker, Douglas H.

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondria are independent organelles with their own DNA. As a primary function, mitochondria produce the energy for the cell through Oxidative Phosphorylation (OXPHOS) in the Electron Transport Chain (ETC). One of the toxic products of this process is Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), which can induce oxidative damage in macromolecules like lipids, proteins and DNA. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is less protected and has fewer reparation mechanisms than nuclear DNA (nDNA), and as such is more exposed to oxidative, mutation-inducing damage. This review analyzes the causes and consequences of mtDNA mutations and their relationship with the aging process. Neurodegenerative diseases, related with the aging, are consequences of mtDNA mutations resulting in a decrease in mitochondrial function. Also described are “mitochondrial diseases”, pathologies produced by mtDNA mutations and whose symptoms are related with mitochondrial dysfunction. Finally, mtDNA haplogroups are defined in this review; these groups are important for determination of geographical origin of an individual. Additionally, different haplogroups exhibit variably longevity and risk of certain diseases. mtDNA mutations in aging and haplogroups are of special interest to forensic science research. Therefore this review will help to clarify the key role of mtDNA mutations in these processes and support further research in this area. PMID:24307969

  20. Research: Soft Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viadero, Debra

    2001-01-01

    Describes the Interagency Education Research Initiative, which joins specialists from many areas of science, medicine, and education in a common crusade to improve learning. Projects include brain research on people with reading disabilities, development of an automated reading tutor, and a cross-cultural study of how young students in three…

  1. Portable XRF and principal component analysis for bill characterization in forensic science.

    PubMed

    Appoloni, C R; Melquiades, F L

    2014-02-01

    Several modern techniques have been applied to prevent counterfeiting of money bills. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the potential of Portable X-ray Fluorescence (PXRF) technique and the multivariate analysis method of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) for classification of bills in order to use it in forensic science. Bills of Dollar, Euro and Real (Brazilian currency) were measured directly at different colored regions, without any previous preparation. Spectra interpretation allowed the identification of Ca, Ti, Fe, Cu, Sr, Y, Zr and Pb. PCA analysis separated the bills in three groups and subgroups among Brazilian currency. In conclusion, the samples were classified according to its origin identifying the elements responsible for differentiation and basic pigment composition. PXRF allied to multivariate discriminate methods is a promising technique for rapid and no destructive identification of false bills in forensic science.

  2. Weakening forensic science in Spain: from expert evidence to documentary evidence.

    PubMed

    Lucena-Molina, Jose-Juan; Pardo-Iranzo, Virginia; Gonzalez-Rodriguez, Joaquin

    2012-07-01

    An amendment in 2002 to the Spanish Code of Criminal Procedure converted into documentary evidence the expert reports prepared by official laboratories aimed at determining the nature, weight, and purity of seized drugs. In most cases, experts are spared from appearance before the courts. This is likely to be extended to other forensic fields. After an overview of criminalistic identification in current forensic science, the objectivity and reliability concepts used by jurists and scientists are considered by comparing the paradigm of individualization with that of likelihood. Subsequently, a detailed critical study is made on the above-mentioned Spanish legal reform, and a comparison is made with the decision on the Melendez-Diaz v. Massachusetts case as ruled by the Supreme Court of the United States. Although the reform is in compliance with the Spanish Constitution, it is at odds with science, in particular regarding the logic underpinning the scientific evaluation of evidence.

  3. Brownfield Action Online - An Interactive Undergraduate Science Course in Environmental Forensics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liddicoat, Joseph; Bower, Peter

    2014-05-01

    Brownfield Action (BA) is a web-based, interactive, three dimensional digital space and learning simulation in which students form geotechnical consulting companies and work collectively to explore problems in environmental forensics. Created at Barnard College (BC) in conjunction with the Center for New Media Teaching and Learning at Columbia University, BA has a 12-year history at BC of use in one semester of a two-semester Introduction to Environmental Science course that is taken by more than 100 female undergraduate non-science majors to satisfy their science requirement. The pedagogical methods and design of the BA model are grounded in a substantial research literature focused on the design, use, and effectiveness of games and simulation in education. The successful use of the BA simulation at BC and 14 other institutions in the U.S. is described in Bower et al. (2011 and 2014). Soon to be taught online to non-traditional undergraduate students, BA has 15 modules that include a reconnaissance survey; scale; topographic, bedrock, and water table maps; oral and written reports from residents and the municipal government; porosity and permeability measurements of the regolith (sand) in the area of interest; hydrocarbon chemistry; direction and velocity of groundwater flow; and methods of geophysical exploration (soil gas, ground penetrating radar, magnetic metal detection, excavation, and drilling). Student performance is assessed by weekly exercises and a semester ending Environmental Site Assessment Phase I Report that summarizes the individual and collective discoveries about a contaminated subsurface plume that emanates from a leaking underground storage tank at a gasoline station upgrade from the water well that serves the surrounding community. Texts for the course are Jonathan Harr's A Civil Action and Rachel Carson's Silent Spring, which are accompanied by questions that direct the reading.

  4. Applications of Fourier transform Raman and infrared spectroscopy in forensic sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuptsov, Albert N.

    2000-02-01

    First in the world literature comprehensive digital complementary vibrational spectra collection of polymer materials and search system was developed. Non-destructive combined analysis using complementary FT-Raman and FTIR spectra followed by cross-parallel searching on digital spectral libraries, was applied in different fields of forensic sciences. Some unique possibilities of Raman spectroscopy has been shown in the fields of examination of questioned documents, paper, paints, polymer materials, gemstones and other physical evidences.

  5. The utilization of forensic science and criminal profiling for capturing serial killers.

    PubMed

    White, John H; Lester, David; Gentile, Matthew; Rosenbleeth, Juliana

    2011-06-15

    Movies and nightly television shows appear to emphasize highly efficient regimens in forensic science and criminal investigative analysis (profiling) that result in capturing serial killers and other perpetrators of homicide. Although some of the shows are apocryphal and unrealistic, they reflect major advancements that have been made in the fields of forensic science and criminal psychology during the past two decades that have helped police capture serial killers. Some of the advancements are outlined in this paper. In a study of 200 serial killers, we examined the variables that led to police focusing their attention on specific suspects. We developed 12 categories that describe how serial killers come to the attention of the police. The results of the present study indicate that most serial killers are captured as a result of citizens and surviving victims contributing information that resulted in police investigations that led to an arrest. The role of forensic science appears to be important in convicting the perpetrator, but not necessarily in identifying the perpetrator.

  6. Application of the proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique to the study of problems in forensic science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen, S.; Varier, K. M.; Mehta, G. K.; Rao, M. S.; Sen, P.; Panigrahi, N.

    1981-03-01

    The PIXE technique has been successfully applied to study crime related problems in forensic science. The experimental arrangements and various practical problems involved are discussed. Consistency and reproducibility checks are presented. The results from the gun-shot residue profiles of the associated elements about the bullet hole obtained for various firing distances showed that the sensitivity of the PIXE technique could play a vital role in forensic science in assigning the distance from the gun to the victim and identifying the type of bullet used. PIXE runs on other forensic related specimens demonstrate its usefulness in identification and evaluation of vital parameters related to a crime. The reliability and the importance of the PIXE method in solving criminal and related problems in forensic science are discussed.

  7. Odontology as a forensic science, the North American experience.

    PubMed

    Barsley, Robert E

    2010-09-10

    This chapter discusses the North American situation, primarily that of the United States judicial system. The United States was established as neither a monarchy nor a theocracy. An unofficial motto of the country has always been - the rule of laws, not of men (or deities). The primary source of law in the United States is the US Constitution. However, each of the 50 states has as its primary source of law a state constitution. In order to become a state, that constitution must conform to US Constitution. In the United States the US Congress, consisting of duly elected Representatives and Senators from the 50 states draft and pass Acts that establish (or direct to be established by officers of the Executive Branch following prescribed administrative procedures) federal law. Each state too, has its own legislative bodies and process for making law. Each state also has its own system of courts. In order to discuss the role of the odontologist within these systems, a primer on how these systems function and interact is crucial. This article discusses the functioning of those systems in relation to the practice of forensic odontology.

  8. Forensic entomology: a template for forensic acarology?

    PubMed

    Turner, Bryan

    2009-10-01

    Insects are used in a variety of ways in forensic science and the developing area of forensic acarology may have a similar range of potential. This short account summarises the main ways in which entomology currently contributes to forensic science and discusses to what extent acarology might also contribute in these areas.

  9. Present and foreseeable future of metabolomics in forensic analysis.

    PubMed

    Castillo-Peinado, L S; Luque de Castro, M D

    2016-06-21

    The revulsive publications during the last years on the precariousness of forensic sciences worldwide have promoted the move of major steps towards improvement of this science. One of the steps (viz. a higher involvement of metabolomics in the new era of forensic analysis) deserves to be discussed under different angles. Thus, the characteristics of metabolomics that make it a useful tool in forensic analysis, the aspects in which this omics is so far implicit, but not mentioned in forensic analyses, and how typical forensic parameters such as the post-mortem interval or fingerprints take benefits from metabolomics are critically discussed in this review. The way in which the metabolomics-forensic binomial succeeds when either conventional or less frequent samples are used is highlighted here. Finally, the pillars that should support future developments involving metabolomics and forensic analysis, and the research required for a fruitful in-depth involvement of metabolomics in forensic analysis are critically discussed.

  10. Mass spectrometry-based proteomics as a tool to identify biological matrices in forensic science.

    PubMed

    Van Steendam, Katleen; De Ceuleneer, Marlies; Dhaenens, Maarten; Van Hoofstat, David; Deforce, Dieter

    2013-03-01

    In forensic casework analysis, identification of the biological matrix and the species of a forensic trace, preferably without loss of DNA, is of major importance. The biological matrices that can be encountered in a forensic context are blood (human or non-human), saliva, semen, vaginal fluid, and to a lesser extent nasal secretions, feces, and urine. All these matrices were applied on swabs and digested with trypsin in order to obtain peptides. These peptides were injected on a mass spectrometer (ESI Q-TOF) resulting in the detection of several biomarkers that were used to build a decision tree for matrix identification. Saliva and blood were characterized by the presence of alpha-amylase 1 and hemoglobin, respectively. In vaginal fluid, cornulin, cornifin, and/or involucrin were found as biomarkers while semenogelin, prostate-specific antigen, and/or acid phosphatase were characteristic proteins for semen. Uromodulin or AMBP protein imply the presence of urine, while plunc protein is present in nasal secretions. Feces could be determined by the presence of immunoglobulins without hemoglobin. The biomarkers for the most frequently encountered biological matrices (saliva, blood, vaginal fluid, and semen) were validated in blind experiments and on real forensic samples. Additionally, by means of this proteomic approach, species identification was possible. This approach has the advantage that the analysis is performed on the first "washing" step of the chelex DNA extraction, a solution which is normally discarded, and that one single test is sufficient to determine the identity and the species of the biological matrix, while the conventional methods require cascade testing. This technique can be considered as a useful additional tool for biological matrix identification in forensic science and holds the promise of further automation.

  11. Teaching Science through Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hugerat, Muhamad; Zidani, Saleem; Kurtam, Naji

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the objectives of the science curriculum and the teacher's responsibility of passing through not only the required material, but also skills. Suggests that in order to improve teaching and learning skills, new strategies, such as teaching and learning through research must be utilized. Presents four examples of teaching and learning…

  12. The forensic evaluation and report: an agenda for research.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, Alec; Norko, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The written report is a central component of forensic psychiatric practice. In the report, an evaluator assembles and organizes data, interprets results of an evaluation, and offers an opinion in response to legal questions. The past 30 years have seen substantial development in principles and practice of forensic report writing. Drawing on recent advances in the psychiatric report, the authors explore topics including narrative, forensic ethics, coercion within the justice system, and implications of limitations on data in forming forensic opinions. They offer an analysis of unanswered questions in these areas, suggesting opportunities for further empirical study and theoretical development. This proposed agenda is important in training, in the development of policy, and in establishing professional guidelines.

  13. Application of chemical structure and bonding of actinide oxide materials for forensic science

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkerson, Marianne Perry

    2010-01-01

    We are interested in applying our understanding of actinide chemical structure and bonding to broaden the suite of analytical tools available for nuclear forensic analyses. Uranium- and plutonium-oxide systems form under a variety of conditions, and these chemical species exhibit some of the most complex behavior of metal oxide systems known. No less intriguing is the ability of AnO{sub 2} (An: U, Pu) to form non-stoichiometric species described as AnO{sub 2+x}. Environmental studies have shown the value of utilizing the chemical signatures of these actinide oxide materials to understand transport following release into the environment. Chemical speciation of actinide-oxide samples may also provide clues as to the age, source, or process history of the material. The scientific challenge is to identify, measure and understand those aspects of speciation of actinide analytes that carry information about material origin and history most relevant to forensics. Here, we will describe our efforts in material synthesis and analytical methods development that we will use to provide the fundamental science to characterize actinide oxide molecular structures for forensic science. Structural properties and initial results to measure structural variability of uranium oxide samples using synchrotron-based X-ray Absorption Fine Structure will be discussed.

  14. Trichobezoar in Vagina: Assessment for Child Sexual Abuse and Diagnostic Result of Forensic Science.

    PubMed

    Bağ, Özlem; Acar, Buğra Han; Öztürk, Şenol; Alşen, Sevay; Ecevit, Çiğdem

    2017-03-01

    Vaginal discharge and bleeding in children require a through and thoughtful evaluation to diagnose the underlying problem including infections, sexual abuse, and vaginal foreign bodies. We report a 6-year-old girl presenting with bloody vaginal discharge, carefully evaluated for sexual abuse, and finally diagnosed as a vaginal foreign body after vaginoscopy. A rolling hair ball was extracted from the vagina and was diagnosed as trichobezoar pathologically without any endo-ecto-mesodermal residual tissue. The hair ball was genetically detected and diagnosed to belong herself by containing no foreign structure. Child sexual abuse was ruled out by forensic interview at CAC and report of forensic science that reported genetic structure belonging to the child. Medicolegal assessment helped in final diagnosis to exclude child sexual abuse.

  15. The need for an interdisciplinary approach in forensic sciences: perspectives from a peculiar case of mummification.

    PubMed

    Ventura, Francesco; Portunato, Federica; Pizzorno, Enrico; Mazzone, Silvana; Verde, Alfredo; Rocca, Gabriele

    2013-05-01

    The finding of a mummified body raises many problems, also because of the limits of the medico-legal investigations in case of mummification. Psychological autopsy and behavioral analysis have demonstrated a significant impact in case of equivocal death. The mummified corpse of a woman was found sealed in a wardrobe during the death investigation of a 36-year-old man, later discovered to be the woman's son. The woman's corpse was well preserved and no external injuries were found. Autopsy could not ascertain the cause of death. The state of the premises and the writings on the walls offered an opportunity to investigate the man's psychological profile and to better understand how the events might have taken place. The role of an accurate investigative analysis of the crime scene is a cornerstone of forensic pathology and the case presented underlies the importance of an interdisciplinary approach in forensic sciences.

  16. Spinning a Web Around Forensic Science and Senior Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Colin R.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses a project that was established to integrate computer technology, especially the Internet, into the science classroom. Argues for the importance of providing students with a program of study that exposes them to the widest possible range of ways of gathering information for problem solving. (Author/WRM)

  17. A brief history of the formation of DNA databases in forensic science within Europe.

    PubMed

    Martin, P D; Schmitter, H; Schneider, P M

    2001-06-15

    The introduction of DNA analysis to forensic science brought with it a number of choices for analysis, not all of which were compatible. As laboratories throughout Europe were eager to use the new technology different systems became routine in different laboratories and consequently, there was no basis for the exchange of results. A period of co-operation then started in which a nucleus of forensic scientists agreed on an uniform system. This collaboration spread to incorporate most of the established forensic science laboratories in Europe and continued through two major changes in the technology. At each step agreement was reached on which systems to use. From the beginning it was realised that DNA databases would provide the criminal justice systems with an efficient way of crime solving and consequently some local databases were created. It was not until the introduction of the amplification technology linked to the analysis of short tandem repeats that a sufficiently sensitive and robust system was available for the formation of efficient and effective DNA databases. Comprehensive legislation enacted in the UK in 1995 enabled forensic scientists to set up the first national DNA database which would hold both personal DNA profiles together with results obtained from crime scenes. Other countries quickly followed but in some the legislation has severely restricted the amount and type of data which can be retained and, therefore, effectiveness of the databases is limited. The widespread use of commercially produced multiplex kits has produced a situation in which nearly all European laboratories are using compatible systems and there is, therefore, the potential for the introduction of a pan-European DNA database. However, the exchange of results between countries is hampered by the various legislations which currently exist.

  18. Identification of body fluid-specific DNA methylation markers for use in forensic science.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong-Lyul; Kwon, Oh-Hyung; Kim, Jong Hwan; Yoo, Hyang-Sook; Lee, Han-Chul; Woo, Kwang-Man; Kim, Seon-Young; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Kim, Yong Sung

    2014-11-01

    DNA methylation, which occurs at the 5'-position of the cytosine in CpG dinucleotides, has great potential for forensic identification of body fluids, because tissue-specific patterns of DNA methylation have been demonstrated, and DNA is less prone to degradation than proteins or RNA. Previous studies have reported several body fluid-specific DNA methylation markers, but DNA methylation differences are sometimes low in saliva and vaginal secretions. Moreover, specific DNA methylation markers in four types of body fluids (blood, saliva, semen, and vaginal secretions) have not been investigated with genome-wide profiling. Here, we investigated novel DNA methylation markers for identification of body fluids for use in forensic science using the Illumina HumanMethylation 450K bead array, which contains over 450,000 CpG sites. Using methylome data from 16 samples of blood, saliva, semen, and vaginal secretions, we first selected 2986 hypermethylated or hypomethylated regions that were specific for each type of body fluid. We then selected eight CpG sites as novel, forensically relevant DNA methylation markers: cg06379435 and cg08792630 for blood, cg26107890 and cg20691722 for saliva, cg23521140 and cg17610929 for semen, and cg01774894 and cg14991487 for vaginal secretions. These eight selected markers were evaluated in 80 body fluid samples using pyrosequencing, and all showed high sensitivity and specificity for identification of the target body fluid. We suggest that these eight DNA methylation markers may be good candidates for developing an effective molecular assay for identification of body fluids in forensic science.

  19. Does Science Education Research Count?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lock, Roger

    2002-01-01

    Speculates on the value of science education research and outlines various factors underlying the dissemination of research. Makes some suggestions for better implementation of research results. (DDR)

  20. Research in computer science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ortega, J. M.

    1986-01-01

    Various graduate research activities in the field of computer science are reported. Among the topics discussed are: (1) failure probabilities in multi-version software; (2) Gaussian Elimination on parallel computers; (3) three dimensional Poisson solvers on parallel/vector computers; (4) automated task decomposition for multiple robot arms; (5) multi-color incomplete cholesky conjugate gradient methods on the Cyber 205; and (6) parallel implementation of iterative methods for solving linear equations.

  1. Research in computer science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ortega, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    Synopses are given for NASA supported work in computer science at the University of Virginia. Some areas of research include: error seeding as a testing method; knowledge representation for engineering design; analysis of faults in a multi-version software experiment; implementation of a parallel programming environment; two computer graphics systems for visualization of pressure distribution and convective density particles; task decomposition for multiple robot arms; vectorized incomplete conjugate gradient; and iterative methods for solving linear equations on the Flex/32.

  2. Race and Genetics: Controversies in Biomedical, Behavioral, and Forensic Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ossorio, Pilar; Duster, Troy

    2005-01-01

    Among biomedical scientists, there is a great deal of controversy over the nature of race, the relevance of racial categories for research, and the proper methods of using racial variables. This article argues that researchers and scholars should avoid a binary-type argument, in which the question is whether to use race always or never.…

  3. Measurement science and manufacturing science research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, D. Howard

    1987-01-01

    The research program of Semiconductor Research Corp. is managed as three overlapping areas: Manufacturing Sciences, Design Sciences and Microstructure Sciences. A total of 40 universities are participating in the performance of over 200 research tasks. The goals and direction of Manufacturing Sciences research became more clearly focused through the efforts of the Manufacturing Sciences Committee of the SRC Technical Advisory Board (TAB). The mission of the SRC Manufacturing Research is the quantification, control, and understanding of semiconductor manufacturing process necessary to achieve a predictable and profitable product output in the competitive environment of the next decade. The 1994 integrated circuit factory must demonstrate a three level hierarchy of control: (1) operation control, (2) process control, and (3) process design. These levels of control are briefly discussed.

  4. Microbial soil community analyses for forensic science: Application to a blind test.

    PubMed

    Demanèche, Sandrine; Schauser, Leif; Dawson, Lorna; Franqueville, Laure; Simonet, Pascal

    2017-01-01

    Soil complexity, heterogeneity and transferability make it valuable in forensic investigations to help obtain clues as to the origin of an unknown sample, or to compare samples from a suspect or object with samples collected at a crime scene. In a few countries, soil analysis is used in matters from site verification to estimates of time after death. However, up to date the application or use of soil information in criminal investigations has been limited. In particular, comparing bacterial communities in soil samples could be a useful tool for forensic science. To evaluate the relevance of this approach, a blind test was performed to determine the origin of two questioned samples (one from the mock crime scene and the other from a 50:50 mixture of the crime scene and the alibi site) compared to three control samples (soil samples from the crime scene, from a context site 25m away from the crime scene and from the alibi site which was the suspect's home). Two biological methods were used, Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer Analysis (RISA), and 16S rRNA gene sequencing with Illumina Miseq, to evaluate the discriminating power of soil bacterial communities. Both techniques discriminated well between soils from a single source, but a combination of both techniques was necessary to show that the origin was a mixture of soils. This study illustrates the potential of applying microbial ecology methodologies in soil as an evaluative forensic tool.

  5. 'In camera': photographing forensic medicine and science c. 1920-1940.

    PubMed

    Summerly, Paula

    2007-03-01

    This article outlines the photographic sources held in the historical case file generated by the University of Glasgow's Department of Forensic Medicine and Science and by two of its former Regius Professors, John Glaister Senior (1856-1932) and John Glaister Juniour (1892-1971). The contexts in which photographs were taken circulated and used, from scenes of crime, to the laboratory and the courtroom will be explored in relation to some of the Glaisters' individual cases to some of Scotland's most notorious crimes.

  6. Use of non-human DNA analysis in forensic science: a mini review.

    PubMed

    Iyengar, Arati; Hadi, Sibte

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of non-human DNA in forensic science, first reported about two decades ago, is now commonplace. Results have been used as evidence in court in a variety of cases ranging from abduction and murder to patent infringement and dog attack. DNA from diverse species, including commonly encountered pets such as dogs and cats, to plants, viruses and bacteria has been used and the sheer potential offered by such analyses has been proven. In this review, using case examples throughout, we detail the considerable literature in this field.

  7. Assessing the quantified impact of a hybrid POGIL methodology on student averages in a forensic science survey course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meeks, Tyna L.

    A causal-comparative/quasi experimental study examined the effect of incorporating a hybrid teaching methodology that blended lecture with Process Oriented Guided Inquiry Lessons (POGILs) on the overall academic achievement of a diverse student body in a large lecture setting. Additional considerations included student gender, ethnicity, declared major (STEM or non-STEM), and SAT scores. An evaluation of the effect that these characteristics had on student achievement due to differentiating import placed on the use of POGILs as a learning tool was included. This study used data obtained from a longitudinal examination of eight years of student data from an introductory forensic science survey course offered in a R1 northeastern university. This study addressed the effectiveness of applying a proscribed active learning methodology, one proposed effective in collegiate education, to a new environment, forensic science. The methodology employed combined fourteen POGILs, created specifically for the chosen course, with didactic lecture during the entire semester of a forensic science survey course. This quasi-experimental design used the manipulation of the independent variable, the use of a hybrid lecture instead of exclusive use of traditional didactic lectures, on the students' academic achievement on exams given during the course. Participants in this study (N=1436) were undergraduate students enrolled in the single semester introductory science course. A longitudinal study that incorporated eight years of data was completed, 4 years pre-intervention (2007-2010) and 4 years post-intervention (2011-2014). The forensic science survey course, taught by only one professor during the eight-year period, was a science discipline that had yet to integrate an active learning educational model. Findings indicate four variables significantly contributed to explaining nearly 28% of the variation seen in the student class averages earned during the eight-year period: the

  8. Computer Science Research in India.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-10-07

    This paper begins with a discussion of the nature of Computer Science Research in India. The type of institutions in which Computer Science research...Finally we study the influence on Indian Computer Science research of the phenomenal growth in exports by the Indian software industry and the arrival

  9. Digital radiological research in forensic dental investigation: case studies.

    PubMed

    Nuzzolese, E; Di Vella, G

    2012-04-01

    The advent of dental digital radiology and new portable X-ray devices allows the execution of periapical X-ray images not only in the dental surgery but also in hitherto difficult locations such as field military hospitals, archaeological excavation sites, morgues and in cases of house arrest. In this work authors evaluated the feasibility of Nomad Examiner (Aribex inc.) handheld X-ray device combined with a digital sensor and a portable pc in forensic odontology applications. Employed for the first time forensically during the 2004 Tsunami victim identification process, the Nomad Examiner has now passed all security and conformity requirements of US and EU regulations. Examples of the practical use and the technical features of this device are seen when employed in odontological assessment of skeletonised and carbonized individuals and the assessment of individuals under house arrest complaining dental lesions. Results from the use this portable device demonstrate the benefits of a dental radiological assessment during an autopsy with the aim of human identification and the importance of a complete dental assessment (clinical and radiological) when evaluating dental traumatic lesions of individuals who cannot visit a dental surgery. In the first example forensic dentist would work alongside a forensic pathologist. On the other hand in the second example an odontologist - dentist could be appointed as an expert witness directly by a Court.

  10. Utility of the clue - From assessing the investigative contribution of forensic science to supporting the decision to use traces.

    PubMed

    Bitzer, Sonja; Albertini, Nicola; Lock, Eric; Ribaux, Olivier; Delémont, Olivier

    2015-12-01

    In an attempt to grasp the effectiveness of forensic science in the criminal justice process, a number of studies introduced some form of performance indicator. However, most of these indicators suffer from different weaknesses, from the definition of forensic science itself to problems of reliability and validity. We suggest the introduction of the concept of utility of the clue as an internal evaluation indicator of forensic science in the investigation. Utility of the clue is defined as added value of information, gained by the use of traces. This concept could be used to assess the contribution of the trace in the context of the case. By extension, a second application of this concept is suggested. By formalising and considering, a priori, the perceived utility of using traces, we introduce the notion of expected utility that could be used as decision factor when choosing which traces to use, once they have been collected at the crime scene or from an object in the laboratory. In a case-based approach, utility can be assessed in the light of the available information to evaluate the investigative contribution of forensic science. In the decision-making process, the projection or estimation of the utility of the clue is proposed to be a factor to take into account when triaging the set of traces.

  11. Forensic entomologists: an evaluation of their status.

    PubMed

    Magni, Paola; Guercini, Silvia; Leighton, Angela; Dadour, Ian

    2013-01-01

    The National Academy of Sciences ( 2009 ) published a review charting several key recommendations on strengthening the forensic sciences as an entity as part of an initiative put forth by the USA Congress to streamline and improve the quality of the forensic sciences and their impact on the judiciary process. Although the review was not totally inclusive, many of its sentiments have permeated into all the forensic sciences. The following paper is designed to determine who is practicing the science of forensic entomology, and in what capacity, by questioning practicing forensic entomologists about the type of education obtained, their countries' standards and accreditation processes, as well as general demographic information such as age and gender. A 28-question survey was sent out to 300 forensic entomologists worldwide in 2009. Of the 70 respondents, 80% had a formal education (either Masters or PhD), and 66% published their research. Approximately 50% of respondents were involved in the delivery of expert evidence and writing up case reports, and countries were actively involved with accrediting personnel, facilities, and entomology kits. Many discrepancies within the reported practices and accreditation processes highlight the need for the adoption of a standard code of practice among forensic entomologists.

  12. Forensic Entomologists: An Evaluation of their Status

    PubMed Central

    Magni, Paola; Guercini, Silvia; Leighton, Angela; Dadour, Ian

    2013-01-01

    The National Academy of Sciences (2009) published a review charting several key recommendations on strengthening the forensic sciences as an entity as part of an initiative put forth by the USA Congress to streamline and improve the quality of the forensic sciences and their impact on the judiciary process. Although the review was not totally inclusive, many of its sentiments have permeated into all the forensic sciences. The following paper is designed to determine who is practicing the science of forensic entomology, and in what capacity, by questioning practicing forensic entomologists about the type of education obtained, their countries' standards and accreditation processes, as well as general demographic information such as age and gender. A 28-question survey was sent out to 300 forensic entomologists worldwide in 2009. Of the 70 respondents, 80% had a formal education (either Masters or PhD), and 66% published their research. Approximately 50% of respondents were involved in the delivery of expert evidence and writing up case reports, and countries were actively involved with accrediting personnel, facilities, and entomology kits. Many discrepancies within the reported practices and accreditation processes highlight the need for the adoption of a standard code of practice among forensic entomologists. PMID:24219583

  13. Teaching and learning based on peer review: a realistic approach in forensic sciences.

    PubMed

    Dinis-Oliveira, Ricardo Jorge; Magalhães, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Teaching and learning methods need a continuous upgrade in higher education. However it is also true that some of the modern methodologies do not reduce or prevent school failure. Perhaps the real limitation is the inability to identify the true reasons that may explain it or ignore/undervalue the problem. In our opinion, one of the current constraints of the teaching/learning process is the excess of and inadequate bibliography recommended by the teacher, which results in continuous student difficulties and waste of time in searching and selecting useful information. The need to change the paradigm of the teaching/learning process comes also from employers. They claim forensic experts armed with useful knowledge to face professional life. It is therefore mandatory to identify the new needs and opportunities regarding pedagogical methodologies. This article reflects on the recent importance of peer review in teaching/learning forensic sciences based on the last 10 years of pedagogical experience inseparably from the scientific activity.

  14. Teaching and learning based on peer review: a realistic approach in forensic sciences

    PubMed Central

    Dinis-Oliveira, Ricardo Jorge; Magalhães, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Teaching and learning methods need a continuous upgrade in higher education. However it is also true that some of the modern methodologies do not reduce or prevent school failure. Perhaps the real limitation is the inability to identify the true reasons that may explain it or ignore/undervalue the problem. In our opinion, one of the current constraints of the teaching/learning process is the excess of and inadequate bibliography recommended by the teacher, which results in continuous student difficulties and waste of time in searching and selecting useful information. The need to change the paradigm of the teaching/learning process comes also from employers. They claim forensic experts armed with useful knowledge to face professional life. It is therefore mandatory to identify the new needs and opportunities regarding pedagogical methodologies. This article reflects on the recent importance of peer review in teaching/learning forensic sciences based on the last 10 years of pedagogical experience inseparably from the scientific activity. PMID:27547377

  15. Science, truth, and forensic cultures: the exceptional legal status of DNA evidence.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Michael

    2013-03-01

    Many epistemological terms, such as investigation, inquiry, argument, evidence, and fact were established in law well before being associated with science. However, while legal proof remained qualified by standards of 'moral certainty', scientific proof attained a reputation for objectivity. Although most forms of legal evidence (including expert evidence) continue to be treated as fallible 'opinions' rather than objective 'facts', forensic DNA evidence increasingly is being granted an exceptional factual status. It did not always enjoy such status. Two decades ago, the scientific status of forensic DNA evidence was challenged in the scientific literature and in courts of law, but by the late 1990s it was being granted exceptional legal status. This paper reviews the ascendancy of DNA profiling, and argues that its widely-heralded objective status is bound up with systems of administrative accountability. The 'administrative objectivity' of DNA evidence rests upon observable and reportable bureaucratic rules, records, recording devices, protocols, and architectural arrangements. By highlighting administrative sources of objectivity, this paper suggests that DNA evidence remains bound within the context of ordinary organisational and practical routines, and is not a transcendent source of 'truth' in the criminal justice system.

  16. Forensic science does not start in the lab: the concept of diagnostic field tests.

    PubMed

    Almog, Joseph

    2006-11-01

    An attempt to improve an analytical system can focus either on the actual processing or on the input. In forensic science, much emphasis has been placed on improving laboratory procedures, as though the input is already the best that can be obtained. Means of improving the basic input have gained much less attention. Yet, it must be agreed that even the best laboratory cannot gain from an item more than has been contained in it when it arrived from the field. The detection of latent materials at the crime scene by physical or chemical techniques and the diagnostic examination of material already discovered belong to the concept of diagnostic field tests. This group also includes "mapping" for the presence of certain materials, such as latent fingerprints through the distribution of amino acids on the surface. These tests are conducted outside the laboratory, without sophisticated instrumentation, at the crime scene, the suspect's home, or elsewhere. A significant advantage of the use of diagnostic field tests is the ability to deal with "dissipating evidence" such as gunshot residue or explosive traces on the hands of suspects. If time is lost, there is a risk of losing such evidence, which is liable to deteriorate rapidly. In my presentation, I will discuss older and some newly developed forensic field tests, with specific emphasis on the Israeli experience.

  17. Analysis of cases of forensic veterinary opinions produced in a research and teaching unit.

    PubMed

    Listos, Piotr; Gryzinska, Magdalena; Kowalczyk, Marek

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the study was to present the results of necropsies carried out in the years 2000-2014 in the Department of Pathological Anatomy, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Life Sciences in Lublin. The material used for the analysis consisted of expert opinions prepared on the basis of a decision by a judicial body to admit an expert opinion as evidence. An increase was observed in the demand for the services of veterinary forensic experts, beginning in 2006 and persisting through 2014. The response to the growing popularity of veterinary forensic examinations should be systematization of knowledge and exchange of experience, which would enable the further development of this interdisciplinary science.

  18. Future in forensic medicine as an academic discipline--focussing on research.

    PubMed

    Madea, Burkhard; Saukko, Pekka

    2007-01-17

    Based on a short description of the areas of operation and competence of forensic medicine, current problems, structural deficits of the speciality and possible solutions are discussed. To give future to legal medicine as an academic discipline, research must be given priority over routine casework.

  19. The development and application of a diatom-based quantitative reconstruction technique in forensic science.

    PubMed

    Horton, Benjamin P; Boreham, Steve; Hillier, Caroline

    2006-05-01

    Diatoms are a group of unicellular algae that have been recorded and classified for over 200 years and have been used in a range of applications in forensic science. We have developed a quantitative diatom-based reconstruction technique to confirm drowning as a cause of death and localize the site of drowning in two recent, high-profile, case studies. In both case studies we collected diatom samples from the local and/or regional area to act as a control in the examination of diatom assemblages associated with lungs and clothing. In Case Study 1 the modern analog technique suggested that all lung and clothing samples have statistically significant similarities to control samples from shallow water habitats. In Case Study 2, the analog matching suggested that the majority of lung samples show a statistically significant relationship to samples from a pond, indicating that this was the drowning medium.

  20. [Paternity exclusion tests in the Department of Forensic Medicine, University of Medical Sciences in Poznan].

    PubMed

    Koralewska-Kordel, Małgorzata; Kordel, Krzysztof; Przybylski, Zygmunt; Wiśniewski, Sławomir A

    2006-01-01

    The study comprises the analysis of expert's hemogenetic reports carried out in the Department of Forensic Medicine, University of Medical Sciences in Poznan, in the years 1980-2004 and associated with paternity determination or exclusion. In the analyzed period, the authors established 1064 cases of paternity exclusion in serological tests, 97 paternity exclusions in the HLA examinations, and 129 cases of paternity exclusions processed in DNA testing. On the base of gene frequencies, the theoretical chance of paternity exclusion was determined for every test. The significant usefulness of DNA testing in legal processes did not cause an increase in the percentage of paternity exclusions. Moreover, the authors observed a significant decrease in the number of paternity exclusions in comparison with results of serological tests (from 24.25% to 19.43%). With the drop in the number of births, the number of expert's reports significantly decreased.

  1. Current issues in species identification for forensic science and the validity of using the cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene.

    PubMed

    Wilson-Wilde, Linzi; Norman, Janette; Robertson, James; Sarre, Stephen; Georges, Arthur

    2010-09-01

    Species identification techniques commonly utilized in Australian Forensic Science laboratories are gel immunodifussion antigen antibody reactions and hair comparison analysis. Both of these techniques have significant limitations and should be considered indicative opinion based tests. The Barcode of Life Initiative aims to sequence a section of DNA (~648 base pairs) for the Cytochrome Oxidase I mitochondrial gene (COI) in all living species on Earth, with the data generated being uploaded to the Barcode of Life Database (BOLD) which can then be used for species identification. The COI gene therefore offers forensics scientists an opportunity to use the marker to analyze unknown samples and compare sequences generated in BOLD. Once sequences from enough species are on the database, it is anticipated that routine identification of an unknown species may be possible. However, most forensic laboratories are not yet suited to this type of analysis and do not have the expertise to fully interpret the implications of matches and non matches involving a poorly sampled taxa (for example where there are cryptic species) and in providing the required opinion evidence. Currently, the use of BOLD is limited by the number of relevant species held in the database and the quality assurance and regulation of sequences that are there. In this paper, the COI methodology and BOLD are tested on a selection of introduced and Australian mammals in a forensic environment as the first step necessary in the implementation of this approach in the Australian context. Our data indicates that the COI methodology performs well on distinct species but needs further exploration when identifying more closely related species. It is evident from our study that changes will be required to implement DNA based wildlife forensics using the BOLD approach for forensic applications and recommendations are made for the future adoption of this technology into forensic laboratories.

  2. Teaching To Avoid the "CSI Effect". Keeping the Science in Forensic Science 690 Elisa Bergslien Ask the Historian The Origin of Pyrex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, William B.

    2006-05-01

    Because of the popularity of shows such as CSI and Cold Case there has been a documented increase in student interest in the sciences. This has been a boon to all of the sciences and brought new life into many programs. Along with the positive effects, however, there have also been some serious negative effects. One of these negatives, called the " CSI effect" by many, is that potential jurors have increased—and sometimes wholly unrealistic—expectations of science presented in the courtroom. Unfortunately, the way that forensic science is sometimes presented in the classroom can exacerbate the " CSI effect". In some cases, forensic science gets reduced to the equivalent of a standard laboratory exercise: follow these steps to perform this test, compare the results, match one of your results to "the culprit". The result is that students may also be getting an unrealistic set of expectations about how real forensic science is performed and a very skewed understanding of scientific methodology. Rather than simply catering to a current trend, this re-awakening of interest in science should be seen as an opportunity to advance understanding of the basic principles of science and critical thinking.

  3. Recent advances in the applications of forensic science to fire debris analysis.

    PubMed

    Dolan, J

    2003-08-01

    The forensic discipline of ignitable liquid and fire debris analysis is rapidly changing. Refinements in existing methods as well as development of new techniques are changing the routine methods of analysis. Optimization of existing extraction techniques and research into novel methods of extracting debris have improved the recovery of ignitable liquids from debris samples. The application of highly specialized instrumentation to problems of sensitivity and matrix interference has resulted in new ways of performing chemical analyses, allowing for improved limits of detection. Preliminary research in novel approaches to ignitable liquid comparisons is being evaluated, with the hopes of providing more detailed information to the field investigators. Research into a variety of areas related to fire debris analysis is ongoing, and will continue to improve the quality of ignitable liquid residue analysis.

  4. Specifying digital forensics: A forensics policy approach

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Carol Louise; Popovsky, Barbara; Frincke, Deborah A.

    2007-09-01

    In this paper we present an approach to digital forensics specification based on forensic policy definition. Our methodology borrows from computer security policy specification, which has accumulated a significant body of research over the past 30 years. We first define the process of specifying forensics properties through a forensics policy and then present an example application of the process. This approach lends itself to formal policy specification and verification, which would allow for more clarity and less ambiguity in the specification process

  5. Virtual tool mark generation for efficient striation analysis in forensic science

    SciTech Connect

    Ekstrand, Laura

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, a National Academy of Sciences report called for investigation into the scienti c basis behind tool mark comparisons (National Academy of Sciences, 2009). Answering this call, Chumbley et al. (2010) attempted to prove or disprove the hypothesis that tool marks are unique to a single tool. They developed a statistical algorithm that could, in most cases, discern matching and non-matching tool marks made at di erent angles by sequentially numbered screwdriver tips. Moreover, in the cases where the algorithm misinterpreted a pair of marks, an experienced forensics examiner could discern the correct outcome. While this research served to con rm the basic assumptions behind tool mark analysis, it also suggested that statistical analysis software could help to reduce the examiner's workload. This led to a new tool mark analysis approach, introduced in this thesis, that relies on 3D scans of screwdriver tip and marked plate surfaces at the micrometer scale from an optical microscope. These scans are carefully cleaned to remove noise from the data acquisition process and assigned a coordinate system that mathematically de nes angles and twists in a natural way. The marking process is then simulated by using a 3D graphics software package to impart rotations to the tip and take the projection of the tip's geometry in the direction of tool travel. The edge of this projection, retrieved from the 3D graphics software, becomes a virtual tool mark. Using this method, virtual marks are made at increments of 5 and compared to a scan of the evidence mark. The previously developed statistical package from Chumbley et al. (2010) performs the comparison, comparing the similarity of the geometry of both marks to the similarity that would occur due to random chance. The resulting statistical measure of the likelihood of the match informs the examiner of the angle of the best matching virtual mark, allowing the examiner to focus his/her mark analysis on a smaller range of angles

  6. Multimedia Forensics Is Not Computer Forensics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böhme, Rainer; Freiling, Felix C.; Gloe, Thomas; Kirchner, Matthias

    The recent popularity of research on topics of multimedia forensics justifies reflections on the definition of the field. This paper devises an ontology that structures forensic disciplines by their primary domain of evidence. In this sense, both multimedia forensics and computer forensics belong to the class of digital forensics, but they differ notably in the underlying observer model that defines the forensic investigator’s view on (parts of) reality, which itself is not fully cognizable. Important consequences on the reliability of probative facts emerge with regard to available counter-forensic techniques: while perfect concealment of traces is possible for computer forensics, this level of certainty cannot be expected for manipulations of sensor data. We cite concrete examples and refer to established techniques to support our arguments.

  7. Forensic pedology, forensic geology, forensic geoscience, geoforensics and soil forensics.

    PubMed

    Ruffell, Alastair

    2010-10-10

    We now have a confusing set of five commonly used terms for the application of Earth evidence in forensic science. This confusion is resulting in Earth scientists who use these methods mentioning different terms, sometimes for the same type of study. Likewise, forensic scientists, police/law enforcement officers and those employed by courts of law are becoming confused as to what each term means. A nomenclatural framework (based on the first use of each term) is proposed to encourage consistency in the use of terminology. Generally, the number of Earth science applications has grown through time, from soil and sediment analysis to remote sensing and GIS. The issue of where forensic biology and microbiology sits with these uses of Earth evidence is considered.

  8. NASA's Microgravity Science Research Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The ongoing challenge faced by NASA's Microgravity Science Research Program is to work with the scientific and engineering communities to secure the maximum return from our Nation's investments by: assuring that the best possible science emerges from the science community for microgravity investigations; ensuring the maximum scientific return from each investigation in the most timely and cost-effective manner; and enhancing the distribution of data and applications of results acquired through completed investigations to maximize their benefits.

  9. Interdisciplinary Science Research and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKinnon, P. J.; Hine, D.; Barnard, R. T.

    2013-01-01

    Science history shows us that interdisciplinarity is a spontaneous process that is intrinsic to, and engendered by, research activity. It is an activity that is done rather than an object to be designed and constructed. We examine three vignettes from the history of science that display the interdisciplinary process at work and consider the…

  10. Using a forensic science approach to minimize environmental contamination and to identify microfibres in marine sediments.

    PubMed

    Woodall, Lucy C; Gwinnett, Claire; Packer, Margaret; Thompson, Richard C; Robinson, Laura F; Paterson, Gordon L J

    2015-06-15

    There is growing evidence of extensive pollution of the environment by microplastic, with microfibres representing a large proportion of the microplastics seen in marine sediments. Since microfibres are ubiquitous in the environment, present in the laboratory air and water, evaluating microplastic pollution is difficult. Incidental contamination is highly likely unless strict control measures are employed. Here we describe methods developed to minimize the amount of incidental post-sampling contamination when quantifying marine microfibre pollution. We show that our protocol, adapted from the field of forensic fibre examination, reduces fibre abundance by 90% and enables the quick screening of fibre populations. These methods therefore allow an accurate estimate of microplastics polluting marine sediments. In a case study from a series of samples collected on a research vessel, we use these methods to highlight the prevalence of microfibres as marine microplastics.

  11. Cooperative research in space sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This grant covered the period from July 1989 through September 30, 1995. The research covered a number of topics in the general area of space science. Specific research topics included: (1) Solar astronomy - largely in support of the Ulysses project; (2) Space Science - largely in support of instrumentation for several NASA satellite projects; (3) Cometary astronomy; and (4) Planetary Astronomy - largely supporting the NASA Infrared Heterodyne instrument.

  12. The expression and interpretation of uncertain forensic science evidence: verbal equivalence, evidence strength, and the weak evidence effect.

    PubMed

    Martire, Kristy A; Kemp, Richard I; Watkins, Ian; Sayle, Malindi A; Newell, Ben R

    2013-06-01

    Standards published by the Association of Forensic Science Providers (2009, Standards for the formulation of evaluative forensic science expert opinion, Science & Justice, Vol. 49, pp. 161-164) encourage forensic scientists to express their conclusions in the form of a likelihood ratio (LR), in which the value of the evidence is conveyed verbally or numerically. In this article, we report two experiments (using undergraduates and Mechanical Turk recruits) designed to investigate how much decision makers change their beliefs when presented with evidence in the form of verbal or numeric LRs. In Experiment 1 (N = 494), participants read a summary of a larceny trial containing inculpatory expert testimony in which evidence strength (low, moderate, high) and presentation method (verbal, numerical) varied. In Experiment 2 (N = 411), participants read the same larceny trial, this time including either exculpatory or inculpatory expert evidence that varied in strength (low, high) and presentation method (verbal, numerical). Both studies found a reasonable degree of correspondence in observed belief change resulting from verbal and numeric formats. However, belief change was considerably smaller than Bayesian calculations would predict. In addition, participants presented with evidence weakly supporting guilt tended to "invert" the evidence, thereby counterintuitively reducing their belief in the guilt of the accused. This "weak evidence effect" was most apparent in the verbal presentation conditions of both experiments, but only when the evidence was inculpatory. These findings raise questions about the interpretability of LRs by jurors and appear to support an expectancy-based account of the weak evidence effect.

  13. Research opportunities in photochemical sciences

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    The workshop entitled {open_quotes}Research Opportunities in Photochemical Sciences{close_quotes} was initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Research (ER), Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES), Division of Chemical Sciences. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in Golden, Colorado was requested by ER to host the workshop. It was held February 5-8, 1996 at the Estes Park Conference Center, Estes Park, CO, and attended by about 115 leading scientists and engineers from the U.S., Japan, and Europe; program managers for the DOE ER and Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) programs also attended. The purpose of the workshop was to bridge the communication gap between the practioneers and supporters of basic research in photochemical science and the practioneers and supporters of applied research and development in technologies related to photochemical science. For the purposes of the workshop the definition of the term {open_quotes}photochemical science{close_quotes} was broadened to include homogeneous photochemistry, heterogeneous photochemistry, photoelectrochemistry, photocatalysis, photobiology (for example, the light-driven processes of biological photosynthesis and proton pumping), artificial photosynthesis, solid state photochemistry, and solar photochemistry. The technologies under development through DOE support that are most closely related to photochemical science, as defined above, are the renewable energy technologies of photovoltaics, biofuels, hydrogen energy, carbon dioxide reduction and utilization, and photocatalysis for environmental cleanup of water and air. Individual papers were processed separately for the United states Department of Energy databases.

  14. [On the problem of informational support of scientific research in the field of forensic (toxicological) chemistry].

    PubMed

    Gorbacheva, N A; Orlova, A M

    2011-01-01

    The present work was designed for the analysis of informational support of scientific research in the field of forensic (toxicological) chemistry in this country during the period preceding the collapse of the Soviet Union and in present-day Russia. The established channels of transmission of relevant information are characterized. Recommendations for the further development of the work in this sphere and its improvement are proposed.

  15. Research in computer science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ortega, J. M.

    1984-01-01

    The research efforts of University of Virginia students under a NASA sponsored program are summarized and the status of the program is reported. The research includes: testing method evaluations for N version programming; a representation scheme for modeling three dimensional objects; fault tolerant protocols for real time local area networks; performance investigation of Cyber network; XFEM implementation; and vectorizing incomplete Cholesky conjugate gradients.

  16. Multivariate methods for the analysis of complex and big data in forensic sciences. Application to age estimation in living persons.

    PubMed

    Lefèvre, Thomas; Chariot, Patrick; Chauvin, Pierre

    2016-09-01

    Researchers handle increasingly higher dimensional datasets, with many variables to explore. Such datasets pose several problems, since they are difficult to handle and present unexpected features. As dimensionality increases, classical statistical analysis becomes inoperative. Variables can present redundancy, and the reduction of dataset dimensionality to its lowest possible value is often needed. Principal components analysis (PCA) has proven useful to reduce dimensionality but present several shortcomings. As others, forensic sciences will face the issues specific related to an evergrowing quantity of data to be integrated. Age estimation in living persons, an unsolved problem so far, could benefit from the integration of various sources of data, e.g., clinical, dental and radiological data. We present here novel multivariate techniques (nonlinear dimensionality reduction techniques, NLDR), applied to a theoretical example. Results were compared to those of PCA. NLDR techniques were then applied to clinical, dental and radiological data (13 variables) used for age estimation. The correlation dimension of these data was estimated. NLDR techniques outperformed PCA results. They showed that two living persons sharing similar characteristics may present rather different estimated ages. Moreover, data presented a very high informational redundancy, i.e., a correlation dimension of 2. NLDR techniques should be used with or preferred to PCA techniques to analyze complex and big data. Data routinely used for age estimation may not be considered suitable for this purpose. How integrating other data or approaches could improve age estimation in living persons is still uncertain.

  17. Teaching forensic medicine in the University of Porto.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, Teresa; Dinis-Oliveira, Ricardo Jorge; Santos, Agostinho

    2014-07-01

    The University of Porto (UP) provides education in Forensic Medicine (FM) through the 1st, 2nd and 3rd cycle of studies, post-graduation and continuing education courses. This education is related to forensic pathology, clinical forensic medicine (including forensic psychology and psychiatry), forensic chemistry and toxicology, forensic genetics and biology, and criminalistics. With this work we intent to reflect on how we are currently teaching FM in the UP, at all levels of university graduation. We will present our models, regarding the educational objectives, curricular program and teaching/learning methodologies of each cycle of studies as well as in post-graduate and continuing education courses. Historically, and besides related administratively to the Ministry of Justice, the Portuguese Medico-Legal Institutes (since 1918) and more recently the National Institute of Legal Medicine and Forensic Sciences (INMLCF) also have educational and research responsibilities. Thus, it lends space and cooperates with academic institutions and this contribution, namely regarding teaching forensic sciences in Portugal has been judged as an example for other Countries. This contribution is so important that in UP, the Department of Legal Medicine and Forensic Sciences of the Faculty of Medicine (FMUP) shares, until now, the same physical space with North Branch of the INMLCF, which represents a notorious advantage, since it makes possible the "learning by doing".

  18. Founding editorial--forensics and TheScientificWorld.

    PubMed

    Rowe, W

    2001-10-30

    At the beginning of a new millennium it seems a good idea to stop for a moment and take stock of the current state of forensic science. As a field of scientific research and scientific application, forensic science is a little more than a century old. Forensic science may be said to have begun in 1887 with the simultaneous publication of A. Conan Doyle's A Study in Scarlet and Hans Gross's Handbuch f1/4r Untersuchungsrichter. Conan Doyle's novel introduced to the world the character of Sherlock Holmes, whose literary career would popularize the use of physical evidence in criminal investigations. Gross's manual for examining magistrates suggests ways in which the expertise of chemists, biologists, geologists, and other natural scientists could contribute to investigations. Gross's book was translated into a number of languages and went through various updated editions during the course of the century. The intervening century saw the development and application of fingerprinting, firearm and tool mark identification, forensic chemistry, forensic biology, forensic toxicology, forensic odontology, forensic pathology, and forensic engineering. Increasingly, the judicial systems of the industrial nations of the world have come to rely upon the expertise of scientists in a variety of disciplines. In most advanced countries, virtually all criminal prosecutions now involve the presentation of scientific testimony. This has had the beneficial effect of diminishing the reliance of courts on eyewitness testimony and defendant confessions.

  19. An Interdisciplinary Guided Inquiry Laboratory for First Year Undergraduate Forensic Science Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cresswell, Sarah L.; Loughlin, Wendy A.

    2015-01-01

    An effective guided inquiry forensic case study (a pharmacy break-in) is described for first-year students. Four robust introductory forensic chemistry and biology experiments are used to analyze potential drug samples and determine the identity of a possible suspect. Students perform presumptive tests for blood on a "point of entry…

  20. Organic Chemistry Course Development in a Forensic Science Program: Use of FT-NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callahan, Ronald; Kobilinsky, Lawrence; Rothchild, Robert

    1999-10-01

    The acquisition of a modern, multinuclear, medium-field (7 tesla) FT-NMR, with partial support from NSF-ILI, has made possible the introduction of a major special project for second-semester organic chemistry laboratory, within a forensic science program. The eight-week special project focuses on microscale syntheses of Diels-Alder adducts of phencyclone. Students synthesize a wide range of different N-substituted maleimides for use as dienophiles. The corresponding phencyclone adducts permit studies of: a) unusual hindered rotations of unsubsituted bridgehead phenyls, b) striking examples of magnetic anisotropic effects, and c) modern one- and two-dimensional NMR methods for structural characterization. Use of fluorine-containing dienophiles provides a basis for examining NMR spectra of three different NMR-active nuclei: proton, carbon-13, and fluorine-19. Variable-temperature NMR is also applicable to these compounds. Molecular modeling software has been introduced in the organic laboratory course for students to examine the geometry of these adducts, precursors, and simplified model compounds, and to evaluate geometric parameters in structures that are optimized by semi-empirical and ab initio calculations. References are included with the article and can be accessed via its PDF file.

  1. Science Content as an Important Consideration in Science Education Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, James; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Science education researchers have not used conceptual content of science (with some exceptions) as an important variable in their research. Suggestions are offered as to what kinds of science education research could be done in which conceptual content of science is important. (Author/SK)

  2. NASA's computer science research program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larsen, R. L.

    1983-01-01

    Following a major assessment of NASA's computing technology needs, a new program of computer science research has been initiated by the Agency. The program includes work in concurrent processing, management of large scale scientific databases, software engineering, reliable computing, and artificial intelligence. The program is driven by applications requirements in computational fluid dynamics, image processing, sensor data management, real-time mission control and autonomous systems. It consists of university research, in-house NASA research, and NASA's Research Institute for Advanced Computer Science (RIACS) and Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering (ICASE). The overall goal is to provide the technical foundation within NASA to exploit advancing computing technology in aerospace applications.

  3. Just truth? Carefully applying history, philosophy and sociology of science to the forensic use of CCTV images.

    PubMed

    Edmond, Gary

    2013-03-01

    Using as a case study the forensic comparison of images for purposes of identification, this essay considers how the history, philosophy and sociology of science might help courts to improve their responses to scientific and technical forms of expert opinion evidence in ways that are more consistent with legal system goals and values. It places an emphasis on the need for more sophisticated models of science and expertise that are capable of helping judges to identify sufficiently reliable types of expert evidence and to reflexively incorporate the weakness of trial safeguards and personnel into their admissibility decision making.

  4. Wide-field time-resolved luminescence imaging and spectroscopy to decipher obliterated documents in forensic science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Mototsugu; Akiba, Norimitsu; Kurosawa, Kenji; Kuroki, Kenro; Akao, Yoshinori; Higashikawa, Yoshiyasu

    2016-01-01

    We applied a wide-field time-resolved luminescence (TRL) method with a pulsed laser and a gated intensified charge coupled device (ICCD) for deciphering obliterated documents for use in forensic science. The TRL method can nondestructively measure the dynamics of luminescence, including fluorescence and phosphorescence lifetimes, which prove to be useful parameters for image detection. First, we measured the TRL spectra of four brands of black porous-tip pen inks on paper to estimate their luminescence lifetimes. Next, we acquired the TRL images of 12 obliterated documents at various delay times and gate times of the ICCD. The obliterated contents were revealed in the TRL images because of the difference in the luminescence lifetimes of the inks. This method requires no pretreatment, is nondestructive, and has the advantage of wide-field imaging, which makes it is easy to control the gate timing. This demonstration proves that TRL imaging and spectroscopy are powerful tools for forensic document examination.

  5. [The concept of "forensic medicine"].

    PubMed

    Popov, V L

    2013-01-01

    The analysis of the definition of forensic medicine and its evolution during the past 300 years is presented. The special character of forensic medicine, its subject-matter, scope of research, procedures, goals and targeted application of forensic medical knowledge are discussed. The original definition of the notion of "forensic medicine" is proposed.

  6. Earth science research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Botkin, Daniel B.

    1987-01-01

    The analysis of ground-truth data from the boreal forest plots in the Superior National Forest, Minnesota, was completed. Development of statistical methods was completed for dimension analysis (equations to estimate the biomass of trees from measurements of diameter and height). The dimension-analysis equations were applied to the data obtained from ground-truth plots, to estimate the biomass. Classification and analyses of remote sensing images of the Superior National Forest were done as a test of the technique to determine forest biomass and ecological state by remote sensing. Data was archived on diskette and tape and transferred to UCSB to be used in subsequent research.

  7. Materials Science Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, Gary L.; Rathz, Tom

    1995-01-01

    Microgravity materials processing experiments provide an opportunity to perform scientific research in an environment which allows one to observe various phenomena without the masking effects of gravity-driven convective flows, buoyancy, or contaminating influences of walled containers. Even for the most experienced scientists, it is still difficult to predict beforehand, whether or not microgravity experimentation can be successfully performed in space and achieve solutions to problems which are not attainable in 1 g. Consequently, experimentation in ground based facilities which are capable of simulating, in somewhat lesser time frames and to a lesser degree of microgravity, provides a unique low-cost approach to determine the feasibility of continuing research in a particular experiment. The utilization of these facilities in developing the full requirements for a space experiment does present a very cost-effective approach to microgravity experimentation. The Drop Tube Facility at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) provides an excellent test bed for containerless processing experiments such as described here. These facilities have demonstrated for a number of years the capability to develop insight into space experiments involving containerless processing, rapid solidification, and wetting phenomena through the use of lower-cost ground facilities. Once sufficient data has been obtained, then a space-based experiment can be better defined.

  8. Twitter and Health Science Research.

    PubMed

    Finfgeld-Connett, Deborah

    2015-10-01

    Twitter is a communication platform that can be used to conduct health science research, but a full understanding of its use remains unclear. The purpose of this narrative literature review was to examine how Twitter is currently being used to conduct research in the health sciences and to consider how it might be used in the future. A time-limited search of the health-related research was conducted, which resulted in 31 peer-reviewed articles for review. Information relating to how Twitter is being used to conduct research was extracted and categorized, and an explanatory narrative was developed. To date, Twitter is largely being used to conduct large-scale studies, but this research is complicated by challenges relating to collecting and analyzing big data. Conversely, the use of Twitter to conduct small-scale investigations appears to be relatively unexplored.

  9. The Defense Threat Reduction Agency's Technical Nuclear Forensics Research and Development Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franks, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) Technical Nuclear Forensics (TNF) Research and Development (R&D) Program's overarching goal is to design, develop, demonstrate, and transition advanced technologies and methodologies that improve the interagency operational capability to provide forensics conclusions after the detonation of a nuclear device. This goal is attained through the execution of three focus areas covering the span of the TNF process to enable strategic decision-making (attribution): Nuclear Forensic Materials Exploitation - Development of targeted technologies, methodologies and tools enabling the timely collection, analysis and interpretation of detonation materials.Prompt Nuclear Effects Exploitation - Improve ground-based capabilities to collect prompt nuclear device outputs and effects data for rapid, complementary and corroborative information.Nuclear Forensics Device Characterization - Development of a validated and verified capability to reverse model a nuclear device with high confidence from observables (e.g., prompt diagnostics, sample analysis, etc.) seen after an attack. This presentation will outline DTRA's TNF R&D strategy and current investments, with efforts focusing on: (1) introducing new technical data collection capabilities (e.g., ground-based prompt diagnostics sensor systems; innovative debris collection and analysis); (2) developing new TNF process paradigms and concepts of operations to decrease timelines and uncertainties, and increase results confidence; (3) enhanced validation and verification (V&V) of capabilities through technology evaluations and demonstrations; and (4) updated weapon output predictions to account for the modern threat environment. A key challenge to expanding these efforts to a global capability is the need for increased post-detonation TNF international cooperation, collaboration and peer reviews.

  10. Earth System Science Research Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leck, J. P.

    2005-12-01

    The Earth System Science Research Course is a unique class implemented by Frederick County Public Schools. The course (ESSR) was designed in conjunction with NASA Education Specialists and is supported by the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. Students in this course have the opportunity to use data from cutting edge earth science experiments while researching their own topics and answering research questions. The course culminates with a group of the students presenting their findings to NASA scientists and touring the Goddard Space Flight Center. The Earth System Science Research course provides eleventh and twelfth grade students an opportunity to study Earth System Science using the most up-to-date data developed through current technologies. The systems approach to this course helps students understand the complexity and interrelatedness of the Earth system. This course is an elective offering designed to engage students in the study of the Atmosphere, Biosphere, Cryosphere, Geosphere, and Hydrosphere. This course allows students to utilize research skills and processes gained from previous science courses to study the physical, chemical, and biological aspects of the Earth system. The main goal of this course is to teach the students how to do original, independent research about the Earth system. At the conclusions of the course the students will have gathered and interpreted scientific data to answer a question that they have constructed, and design a presentation to reflect their results. Course Objectives: Describe the Earth as a dynamic and complex system. Describe the components of the Earth system. Describe how the system responds to natural and human induced changes. Access and process information from readings, investigations, and communications. Create and/or interpret graphics to analyze data and evaluate hypotheses. Analyze appropriate data to classify, identify trends and identify similarities and differences to form conclusions and apply what has

  11. Recent advances in forensic genetics.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Simon J

    2004-01-01

    Like many applications of molecular diagnostics, the field of forensic biology is undergoing a phase of expansion and diversification. The growth of forensic DNA databases and adoption of sophisticated analytical methods have catalyzed this increasing role. The range of molecular markers exploited in the fight against crime is beginning to increase too, and genes implying personal or physical characteristics are emerging in the research literature. However, the operational context of forensic biology is unlike many other fields of science. Harmonizing technological breakthroughs with the requirements of law enforcement agencies and the complexities of the legal system is an added challenge and one which evokes ongoing debate. This review examines the current status of this dynamic and important application of modern genetics.

  12. Open Science and Research Reproducibility

    PubMed Central

    Munafò, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    Many scientists, journals and funders are concerned about the low reproducibility of many scientific findings. One approach that may serve to improve the reliability and robustness of research is open science. Here I argue that the process of pre-registering study protocols, sharing study materials and data, and posting preprints of manuscripts may serve to improve quality control procedures at every stage of the research pipeline, and in turn improve the reproducibility of published work. PMID:27350794

  13. Microbial forensics: the next forensic challenge.

    PubMed

    Budowle, Bruce; Murch, Randall; Chakraborty, Ranajit

    2005-11-01

    Pathogens and toxins can be converted to bioweapons and used to commit bioterrorism and biocrime. Because of the potential and relative ease of an attack using a bioweapon, forensic science needs to be prepared to assist in the investigation to bring perpetrators to justice and to deter future attacks. A new subfield of forensics--microbial forensics--has been created, which is focused on characterization of evidence from a bioterrorism act, biocrime, hoax, or an inadvertent release. Forensic microbiological investigations are essentially the same as any other forensic investigation regarding processing. They involve crime scene(s) investigation, chain of custody practices, evidence collection, handling and preservation, evidence shipping, analysis of evidence, interpretation of results, and court presentation. In addition to collecting and analyzing traditional forensic evidence, the forensic investigation will attempt to determine the etiology and identity of the causal agent, often in a similar fashion as in an epidemiologic investigation. However, for attribution, higher-resolution characterization is needed. The tools for attribution include genetic- and nongenetic-based assays and informatics to attempt to determine the unique source of a sample or at least eliminate some sources. In addition, chemical and physical assays may help determine the process used to prepare, store, or disseminate the bioweapon. An effective microbial forensics program will require development and/or validation of all aspects of the forensic investigative process, from sample collection to interpretation of results. Quality assurance (QA) and QC practices, comparable to those used by the forensic DNA science community, are being implemented. Lastly, partnerships with other laboratories will be requisite, because many of the necessary capabilities for analysis will not reside in the traditional forensic laboratory.

  14. Decomposition and dipteran succession in pig carrion in central Argentina: ecological aspects and their importance in forensic science.

    PubMed

    Horenstein, M Battán; Linhares, A Xavier; De Ferradas, B Rosso; García, D

    2010-03-01

    Data on the insect species associated with corpse decomposition are particularly important for estimation of the post-mortem interval (PMI) in forensic science because the PMI is based on the lifecycle and behaviour of necrophagous insects, among other measures. To determine the dipteran succession on pig carrion, four experiments, one in each season, were carried out during 2004 in a rural area of Córdoba, central Argentina. Two pigs (Sus scrofa L.) were used in each of the four experiments. At each time-point one pig was placed in the shade and the other under direct sunlight. Insects were collected daily during the first 4 weeks and thereafter every 2 or 3 days. Five stages of decomposition were observed and a total of 24 710 adult specimens were collected, belonging to the following eight families of Diptera: Calliphoridae; Muscidae; Sarcophagidae; Phoridae; Piophilidae; Fanniidae; Sphaeroceridae, and Anthomyiidae. All Calliphoridae collected in this study were considered to be of potential forensic importance because of their necrophagous behaviour and because their immature stages use carrion as a food source. Other species, such as Musca domestica L. and Ophyra aenescens (Wiedemann), were also considered to represent potential forensic indicators.

  15. REACTOR PHYSICS MODELING OF SPENT RESEARCH REACTOR FUEL FOR TECHNICAL NUCLEAR FORENSICS

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, T.; Beals, D.; Sternat, M.

    2011-07-18

    Technical nuclear forensics (TNF) refers to the collection, analysis and evaluation of pre- and post-detonation radiological or nuclear materials, devices, and/or debris. TNF is an integral component, complementing traditional forensics and investigative work, to help enable the attribution of discovered radiological or nuclear material. Research is needed to improve the capabilities of TNF. One research area of interest is determining the isotopic signatures of research reactors. Research reactors are a potential source of both radiological and nuclear material. Research reactors are often the least safeguarded type of reactor; they vary greatly in size, fuel type, enrichment, power, and burn-up. Many research reactors are fueled with highly-enriched uranium (HEU), up to {approx}93% {sup 235}U, which could potentially be used as weapons material. All of them have significant amounts of radiological material with which a radioactive dispersal device (RDD) could be built. Therefore, the ability to attribute if material originated from or was produced in a specific research reactor is an important tool in providing for the security of the United States. Currently there are approximately 237 operating research reactors worldwide, another 12 are in temporary shutdown and 224 research reactors are reported as shut down. Little is currently known about the isotopic signatures of spent research reactor fuel. An effort is underway at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to analyze spent research reactor fuel to determine these signatures. Computer models, using reactor physics codes, are being compared to the measured analytes in the spent fuel. This allows for improving the reactor physics codes in modeling research reactors for the purpose of nuclear forensics. Currently the Oak Ridge Research reactor (ORR) is being modeled and fuel samples are being analyzed for comparison. Samples of an ORR spent fuel assembly were taken by SRNL for analytical and radiochemical

  16. Computer Science Research at Langley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voigt, S. J. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    A workshop was held at Langley Research Center, November 2-5, 1981, to highlight ongoing computer science research at Langley and to identify additional areas of research based upon the computer user requirements. A panel discussion was held in each of nine application areas, and these are summarized in the proceedings. Slides presented by the invited speakers are also included. A survey of scientific, business, data reduction, and microprocessor computer users helped identify areas of focus for the workshop. Several areas of computer science which are of most concern to the Langley computer users were identified during the workshop discussions. These include graphics, distributed processing, programmer support systems and tools, database management, and numerical methods.

  17. On the use and misuse of genomic and neuroimaging science in forensic psychiatry: current roles and future directions.

    PubMed

    Treadway, Michael T; Buckholtz, Joshua W

    2011-07-01

    Dramatic advances in the understanding of the neurobiological bases of human behavior have prompted excitement and controversy surrounding the ethical, legal, and social applications of this knowledge. The authors critically examine the promise and challenges of integrating genomic and neuroimaging techniques into legal settings. They suggest criteria for enhancing the viability of incorporating these data within a legal context and highlight several recent developments that may eventually allow genetic and neuroimaging evidence to meet these criteria and play a more prominent role in forensic science and law.

  18. Forensics on a Shoestring Budget

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greco, Joseph A.

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, forensic science has gained popularity thanks in part to high-profile court cases and television programs. Although the cost of forensic equipment and supplies may initially seem too expensive for the typical high school classroom, the author developed an activity that incorporates forensics into her 10th-grade biology curriculum…

  19. Scientific standards for studies in forensic genetics.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Peter M

    2007-01-17

    Forensic molecular genetics has evolved from a rapidly developing field with changing technologies into a highly recognized and generally accepted forensic science, leading to the establishment of national DNA databases with DNA profiles from suspects and convicted offenders. DNA evidence has taken a central role by carrying a significant weight for convictions, as well as by excluding innocent suspects early on in a criminal investigation. Due to this impact on the criminal justice system, guidelines for research in forensic genetics have been introduced already since many years. The most important issues regarding the selection and definition of typing systems both for paternity testing and for forensic identification, the criteria for technical and biostatistical validation, as well as the use of mitochondrial DNA analysis are summarized and discussed.

  20. [The application of radiological image in forensic medicine].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ji-Zong; Che, Hong-Min; Xu, Li-Xiang

    2006-04-01

    Personal identification is an important work in forensic investigation included sex discrimination, age and stature estimation. Human identification depended on radiological image technique analysis is a practice and proper method in forensic science field. This paper intended to understand the advantage and defect by reviewed the employing of forensic radiology in forensic science field broadly and provide a reference to perfect the application of forensic radiology in forensic science field.

  1. Network Science Research Laboratory (NSRL) Telemetry Warehouse

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-01

    ARL-TR-7710 ● JUNE 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Network Science Research Laboratory (NSRL) Telemetry Warehouse by Theron...longer needed. Do not return it to the originator. ARL-TR-7710 ● JUNE 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Network Science Research...Laboratory (NSRL) Telemetry Warehouse by Andrew J Toth Computational and Information Sciences Directorate, ARL and Theron Trout Stormfish

  2. CSI Helsinki: Swli in Forensic Science: Comparing Toolmarks of Diagonal Cutting Pliers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahvenainen, P.; Kassamakov, I.; Hanhijärvi, K.; Aaltonen, J.; Lehto, S.; Reinikainen, T.; Hæggström, E.

    2010-02-01

    Scanning White Light Interferometry provides sub-micron depth resolution and is therefore an ideal data acquisition method for forensic toolmark comparison in which such resolution is required. We imaged toolmarks made on ten copper wires with a preselected part of the jaws of a pair of diagonal cutting pliers. The common pattern found in the surface depth profiles comparison indicated a common source. The application of white light interferometry provides a quantitative method for forensic toolmark study through high-resolution 3D profiles.

  3. REACTOR PHYSICS MODELING OF SPENT NUCLEAR RESEARCH REACTOR FUEL FOR SNM ATTRIBUTION AND NUCLEAR FORENSICS

    SciTech Connect

    Sternat, M.; Beals, D.; Webb, R.; Nichols, T.

    2010-06-09

    Nuclear research reactors are the least safeguarded type of reactor; in some cases this may be attributed to low risk and in most cases it is due to difficulty from dynamic operation. Research reactors vary greatly in size, fuel type, enrichment, power and burnup providing a significant challenge to any standardized safeguard system. If a whole fuel assembly was interdicted, based on geometry and other traditional forensics work, one could identify the material's origin fairly accurately. If the material has been dispersed or reprocessed, in-depth reactor physics models may be used to help with the identification. Should there be a need to attribute research reactor fuel material, the Savannah River National Laboratory would perform radiochemical analysis of samples of the material as well as other non-destructive measurements. In depth reactor physics modeling would then be performed to compare to these measured results in an attempt to associate the measured results with various reactor parameters. Several reactor physics codes are being used and considered for this purpose, including: MONTEBURNS/ORIGEN/MCNP5, CINDER/MCNPX and WIMS. In attempt to identify reactor characteristics, such as time since shutdown, burnup, or power, various isotopes are used. Complexities arise when the inherent assumptions embedded in different reactor physics codes handle the isotopes differently and may quantify them to different levels of accuracy. A technical approach to modeling spent research reactor fuel begins at the assembly level upon acquiring detailed information of the reactor to be modeled. A single assembly is run using periodic boundary conditions to simulate an infinite lattice which may be repeatedly burned to produce input fuel isotopic vectors of various burnups for a core level model. A core level model will then be constructed using the assembly level results as inputs for the specific fuel shuffling pattern in an attempt to establish an equilibrium cycle. The

  4. Forensic microbiology.

    PubMed

    Lehman, Donald C

    2012-01-01

    The field of forensic microbiology is fairly new and still evolving. With a threat of bioterror and biocrime, the rapid identification and subtyping of infectious agents is of upmost importance. Microbial genetic analysis is a valuable tool in this arena. The cost to sequence a microbial genome has fallen dramatically in recent years making this method more widely available. Surveillance and vigilance are important as is further research. The United States Department of Homeland Security established the Bioforensics Analysis Center to become the foremost U.S. biodefense research institution involved with bioforensics. Many countries are better prepared for biologic events than ever before, but more work is needed. Most medical laboratory scientists are not familiar with forensic principles or testifying in court. Demonstrating chain of custody and quality assurance are critical so that test results will be admissible in a court of law. The Scientific Working Group on Microbial Genetics and Forensics has published guidelines for forensic microbiology laboratories. Incorporating these guidelines help to provide test results that are useful in legal proceedings. If a laboratory scientist suspects bioterror or biocrime, or other legal case, law enforcement agents must be notified and diagnostic samples preserved. Additional sample testing might be necessary in court cases.

  5. 22q11 deletion syndrome and forensic research: can we go there?

    PubMed

    Harris, Victoria

    2005-01-01

    Chromosome 22q11 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) encompasses velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS), DiGeorge syndrome (DGS), and conotruncal anomaly face syndrome (CTAFS). The disorder may represent the interface between genetics and brain-behavior relationships. As there is a strong relationship between the genetic syndrome and schizophrenia, individuals with the disorder are likely to be disproportionately represented in the criminal justice system. The purpose of this article is to review the 22q11DS in the context of forensic research. The existing literature regarding the syndrome and its relationship to schizophrenia is reviewed. A study design is presented to determine the prevalence of the syndrome in correctional facilities compared with expected community prevalence rates. Finally, a brief history of genetic research in correctional facilities is reviewed as a potential model to determine the feasibility of research involving 22q11DS.

  6. A Forensic Science Laboratory Experiment: Molecular Weights of Drugs and Diluents by Osmometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothchild, Robert

    1982-01-01

    An Osmette A model 5002 automatic osmometer is used to characterize different drugs, diluents, and adulterants commonly encountered in samples of forensic interest, permitting rapid determinations with good reproducibility and use by large numbers of students with little training. Includes background information, procedures, and typical students…

  7. Reliability of Professional Judgments in Forensic Child Sexual Abuse Evaluations: Unsettled or Unsettling Science?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everson, Mark D.; Sandoval, Jose Miguel; Berson, Nancy; Crowson, Mary; Robinson, Harriet

    2012-01-01

    In the absence of photographic or DNA evidence, a credible eyewitness, or perpetrator confession, forensic evaluators in cases of alleged child sexual abuse must rely on psychosocial or "soft" evidence, often requiring substantial professional judgment for case determination. This article offers a three-part rebuttal to Herman's (2009) argument…

  8. Forensic science. 1964-May 1981 (citations from the NTIS data base). Report for 1964-May 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-06-01

    The two major areas covered are forensic medicine and chemistry. Applications include breath alcohol tests, blood analyses, explosives identification, drug detection, pathology, and chemical analytical techniques, especially neutron activation analysis. The use of these techniques in the field and in the courts is discussed. (This updated bibliography contains 166 citations, 9 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  9. A Skeleton Tells Its Own Story: Forensic Analyses of Skeletal Elements for the Science Classroom Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naples, Virginia L.; Breed, David; Miller, Jon S.

    2010-01-01

    The techniques of forensic anthropology and pathology can provide new information to increase student interest in studying the structural details of the human skeleton. We present a simplified methodology for assessing skeletal ethnicity, sex, age, and stature. An inexpensive method has been devised for constructing an osteometric board to allow…

  10. Forensic Analysis of Human DNA from Samples Contamined with Bioweapons Agents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-01

    Forensic analysis of human DNA from samples contaminated with bioweapons agents Jason Timbers Kathryn Wright Royal Canadian Mounted...Police Forensic Science and Identification Service Prepared By: Royal Canadian Mounted Police RCMP Forensic Science Identification Services... Royal Canadian Mounted Police Forensic Science and Identification Service Prepared By: Royal Canadian Mounted Police RCMP Forensic Science

  11. Virtual autopsy using imaging: bridging radiologic and forensic sciences. A review of the Virtopsy and similar projects.

    PubMed

    Bolliger, Stephan A; Thali, Michael J; Ross, Steffen; Buck, Ursula; Naether, Silvio; Vock, Peter

    2008-02-01

    The transdisciplinary research project Virtopsy is dedicated to implementing modern imaging techniques into forensic medicine and pathology in order to augment current examination techniques or even to offer alternative methods. Our project relies on three pillars: three-dimensional (3D) surface scanning for the documentation of body surfaces, and both multislice computed tomography (MSCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to visualise the internal body. Three-dimensional surface scanning has delivered remarkable results in the past in the 3D documentation of patterned injuries and of objects of forensic interest as well as whole crime scenes. Imaging of the interior of corpses is performed using MSCT and/or MRI. MRI, in addition, is also well suited to the examination of surviving victims of assault, especially choking, and helps visualise internal injuries not seen at external examination of the victim. Apart from the accuracy and three-dimensionality that conventional documentations lack, these techniques allow for the re-examination of the corpse and the crime scene even decades later, after burial of the corpse and liberation of the crime scene. We believe that this virtual, non-invasive or minimally invasive approach will improve forensic medicine in the near future.

  12. Parallel digital forensics infrastructure.

    SciTech Connect

    Liebrock, Lorie M.; Duggan, David Patrick

    2009-10-01

    This report documents the architecture and implementation of a Parallel Digital Forensics infrastructure. This infrastructure is necessary for supporting the design, implementation, and testing of new classes of parallel digital forensics tools. Digital Forensics has become extremely difficult with data sets of one terabyte and larger. The only way to overcome the processing time of these large sets is to identify and develop new parallel algorithms for performing the analysis. To support algorithm research, a flexible base infrastructure is required. A candidate architecture for this base infrastructure was designed, instantiated, and tested by this project, in collaboration with New Mexico Tech. Previous infrastructures were not designed and built specifically for the development and testing of parallel algorithms. With the size of forensics data sets only expected to increase significantly, this type of infrastructure support is necessary for continued research in parallel digital forensics. This report documents the implementation of the parallel digital forensics (PDF) infrastructure architecture and implementation.

  13. Remote Sensing Information Science Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, Keith C.; Scepan, Joseph; Hemphill, Jeffrey; Herold, Martin; Husak, Gregory; Kline, Karen; Knight, Kevin

    2002-01-01

    This document is the final report summarizing research conducted by the Remote Sensing Research Unit, Department of Geography, University of California, Santa Barbara under National Aeronautics and Space Administration Research Grant NAG5-10457. This document describes work performed during the period of 1 March 2001 thorough 30 September 2002. This report includes a survey of research proposed and performed within RSRU and the UCSB Geography Department during the past 25 years. A broad suite of RSRU research conducted under NAG5-10457 is also described under themes of Applied Research Activities and Information Science Research. This research includes: 1. NASA ESA Research Grant Performance Metrics Reporting. 2. Global Data Set Thematic Accuracy Analysis. 3. ISCGM/Global Map Project Support. 4. Cooperative International Activities. 5. User Model Study of Global Environmental Data Sets. 6. Global Spatial Data Infrastructure. 7. CIESIN Collaboration. 8. On the Value of Coordinating Landsat Operations. 10. The California Marine Protected Areas Database: Compilation and Accuracy Issues. 11. Assessing Landslide Hazard Over a 130-Year Period for La Conchita, California Remote Sensing and Spatial Metrics for Applied Urban Area Analysis, including: (1) IKONOS Data Processing for Urban Analysis. (2) Image Segmentation and Object Oriented Classification. (3) Spectral Properties of Urban Materials. (4) Spatial Scale in Urban Mapping. (5) Variable Scale Spatial and Temporal Urban Growth Signatures. (6) Interpretation and Verification of SLEUTH Modeling Results. (7) Spatial Land Cover Pattern Analysis for Representing Urban Land Use and Socioeconomic Structures. 12. Colorado River Flood Plain Remote Sensing Study Support. 13. African Rainfall Modeling and Assessment. 14. Remote Sensing and GIS Integration.

  14. Forensic odontology: an overview.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Duane E

    2014-06-01

    This article is an overview of the field of forensic odontology, highlighting historical cases, with an emphasis on California cases, and briefly discussing some of the current techniques and issues in the field. As with all fields of dentistry, forensic odontology is adapting to new methodologies, changes in techniques, research findings and legal issues. Today's dentist who works in the forensic arena must face and understand these changes and advancements.

  15. Forensic archaeology and anthropology : An Australian perspective.

    PubMed

    Oakley, Kate

    2005-09-01

    Forensic archaeology is an extremely powerful investigative discipline and, in combination with forensic anthropology, can provide a wealth of evidentiary information to police investigators and the forensic community. The re-emergence of forensic archaeology and anthropology within Australia relies on its diversification and cooperation with established forensic medical organizations, law enforcement forensic service divisions, and national forensic boards. This presents a unique opportunity to develop a new multidisciplinary approach to forensic archaeology/anthropology within Australia as we hold a unique set of environmental, social, and cultural conditions that diverge from overseas models and require different methodological approaches. In the current world political climate, more forensic techniques are being applied at scenes of mass disasters, genocide, and terrorism. This provides Australian forensic archaeology/anthropology with a unique opportunity to develop multidisciplinary models with contributions from psychological profiling, ballistics, sociopolitics, cultural anthropology, mortuary technicians, post-blast analysis, fire analysis, and other disciplines from the world of forensic science.

  16. Microbes as forensic indicators.

    PubMed

    Alan, G; Sarah, J P

    2012-09-01

    The forensic potential of microorganisms is becoming increasingly apparent as a consequence of advances in molecular sciences and genomics. This review discusses instances in which microbes, and in particular bacteria, can impact upon forensic investigations. There is increasing evidence that humans have an extremely diverse 'microbiome' that may prove useful in determining ethnicity, country of origin, and even personal identity. The human microbiome differs between regions of the body and may prove useful for determining the nature of stains such as those caused by saliva and vaginal fluid: it may even be possible to link the stains to the person responsible for them. Similarly, the composition of the microbiome present in a soil sample may prove a useful indicator of geographic origin or as a means of linking people, animals, or objects together or to a specific location. Microorganisms are important in the decay process and also influence the presence and concentration of alcohol, drugs, and other chemicals of forensic relevance. There is also a possibility that the entry of microorganisms into the body during the agonal period may prove useful for the diagnosis of drowning. The transmission of infectious diseases, and in particular sexually-transmitted diseases, can provide evidence linking a victim and a suspect. Microorganisms that cause fatal infections are not always identified at the time of death and may lead to the death being considered 'suspicious'. If a fatal infection can be linked to a hospital or medical procedure it can lead to prosecutions and therefore it is important to determine when and where an infection was acquired. Similarly, naturally acquired infections need to be distinguished from those that result from malicious transmission. Microorganisms can therefore provide evidence in many different forensic scenarios but most of the work is still at the experimental stage and there are therefore many opportunities for further research.

  17. 20% Research & Design Science Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spear, Beth A.

    2015-04-01

    A project allowing employees to use 15 % of their time on independent projects was established at 3M in the 1950's. The result of this project included products like post it notes and masking tape. Google allows its employees to use 20% of their time on independently pursued projects. The company values creativity and innovation. Employees are allowed to explore projects of interest to them one day out of the week, 20 % of their work week. Products like AdSense, Gmail, Google Transit, Google News, and Google Talk are the result of this 20 % program. My school is implementing the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) as part of our regularly scheduled curriculum review. These new standards focus on the process of learning by doing and designing. The NGSS are very hands on and active. The new standards emphasize learning how to define, understand and solve problems in science and technology. In today's society everyone needs to be familiar with science and technology. This project allows students to develop and practice skills to help them be more comfortable and confident with science and technology while exploring something of interest to them. This project includes three major parts: research, design, and presentation. Students will spend approximately 2-4 weeks defining a project proposal and educating themselves by researching a science and technology topic that is of interest to them. In the next phase, 2-4 weeks, students design a product or plan to collect data for something related to their topic. The time spent on research and design will be dependant on the topic students select. Projects should be ambitious enough to encompass about six weeks. Lastly a presentation or demonstration incorporating the research and design of the project is created, peer reviewed and presented to the class. There are some problems anticipated or already experienced with this project. It is difficult for all students to choose a unique topic when you have large class sizes

  18. [Virtual autopsy (virtopsy) in forensic science: from the scalpel to the scanner].

    PubMed

    Thali, M

    2011-11-01

    The aim of "virtopsy" is to utilize modern imaging technology to optimize classical autopsy documentation. The benefits of virtopsy include examiner-independent, objective 3D documentation and its non-invasive approach. Virtopsy is an option in cases where autopsy is rejected by family members or for religious reasons. It is also suitable as a rapid identification and examination tool in large-scale disasters. Forensic findings can be presented to prosecutors and courts in 3D and without bloody images.

  19. Forensic anthropology in Europe: an assessment of current status and application.

    PubMed

    Kranioti, Elena; Paine, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Forensic anthropology is the discipline that traditionally deals with the examination of human remains for legal purposes and it derives from the fields of anatomy, physical anthropology and forensic medicine. For more than a century, forensic anthropologists in the United States have been offering their services in the court of law complementing the medico-legal investigation of other forensic professionals. The current status in European countries is presented here. The development of forensic anthropology varies significantly among the countries of Europe. Whereas some countries show a long history of research activity in the forensic sciences, including forensic anthropology (i.e. France, Germany and Spain), others are exhibiting a recent, rapid development (i.e. United Kingdom). In some cases, forensic anthropologists are employed within the academic realm (i.e. U.K., Denmark, Portugal, Turkey), forensic institutions (Netherlands) or government organizations (Spain, Hungary), although the vast majority of them remain limited to freelance activities on a sporadic basis. Often, European scientists that deal with skeletal remains come from nonphysical anthropology disciplines such as archaeology, forensic medicine and biology. In many cases they do not have adequate training equivalent to the forensic anthropologists in the USA. Naturally, without common training and a common legal system, an accreditation system for Europe will be difficult to implement.

  20. Forensic geomorphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruffell, Alastair; McKinley, Jennifer

    2014-02-01

    Geomorphology plays a critical role in two areas of geoforensics: searching the land for surface or buried objects and sampling scenes of crime and control locations as evidence. Associated geoscience disciplines have substantial bodies of work dedicated to their relevance in forensic investigations, yet geomorphology (specifically landforms, their mapping and evolution, soils and relationship to geology and biogeography) have not had similar public exposure. This is strange considering how fundamental to legal enquiries the location of a crime and its evolution are, as this article will demonstrate. This work aims to redress the balance by showing how geomorphology featured in one of the earliest works on forensic science methods, and has continued to play a role in the sociology, archaeology, criminalistics and geoforensics of crime. Traditional landscape interpretation from aerial photography is used to demonstrate how a geomorphological approach saved police time in the search for a clandestine grave. The application geomorphology has in military/humanitarian geography and environmental/engineering forensics is briefly discussed as these are also regularly reviewed in courts of law.

  1. Defense Biometric and Forensic Office Research, Development, Test and Evaluation Strategy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-06

    DEFENSE 3030 DEFENSE PENTAGON WASHINGTON, DC 20301-3030 6 January 2015 I am pleased to present the Defense Biometric and Forensic Office’s (DBFO... biometric and forensic RDT &E. It anticipates that other organizations that fund projects across these enterprises will develop their own priorities and...view of biometric and forensic RDT &E investments across the Department of Defense. I look forward to advancing our common efforts to achieve the

  2. Enhancing Research in Networking & System Security, and Forensics, in Puerto Rico

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-03

    Cloud Forensics, Digital Forensics, Network Security REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER(S) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S...other than abstracts): 28.00 20.00 08/26/2013 08/28/2012 Received Paper Dr. Aury M. Curbelo, Dr. Alfredo Cruz. Faculty Attitudes Toward Teaching Ethical ...Rico for the Graduate Certificate in Digital Forensics (GCDF). With this accreditation we will be integrating new developments in IA allowing us to

  3. Basic Energy Sciences FY 2012 Research Summaries

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-01

    This report provides a collection of research abstracts and highlights for more than 1,400 research projects funded by the Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) in Fiscal Year 2012 at some 180 institutions across the U.S. This volume is organized along the three BES Divisions: Materials Sciences and Engineering; Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences; and Scientific User Facilities.

  4. Basic Energy Sciences FY 2011 Research Summaries

    SciTech Connect

    2011-01-01

    This report provides a collection of research abstracts for more than 1,300 research projects funded by the Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) in Fiscal Year 2011 at some 180 institutions across the U.S. This volume is organized along the three BES divisions: Materials Sciences and Engineering; Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences; and Scientific User Facilities.

  5. Basic Energy Sciences FY 2014 Research Summaries

    SciTech Connect

    2014-01-01

    This report provides a collection of research abstracts and highlights for more than 1,200 research projects funded by the Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) in Fiscal Year 2014 at some 200 institutions across the U.S. This volume is organized along the three BES Divisions: Materials Sciences and Engineering; Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences; and Scientific User Facilities.

  6. The problem with medical research on tissue and organ samples taken in connection with forensic autopsies in France.

    PubMed

    Rougé-Maillart, C; Dupont, V; Jousset, N

    2016-02-01

    Currently, in France, it is legally impossible to conduct scientific research on tissue and organ samples taken from forensic autopsies. In fact, the law schedules the destruction of such samples at the end of the judicial investigation, and the common law rules governing cadaver research cannot be applied to the forensic context. However, nothing seems in itself to stand in the way of such research since, despite their specific nature, these samples from forensic autopsies could be subject, following legislative amendments, to common law relating to medical research on samples taken from deceased persons. But an essential legislative amendment, firstly to allow the Biomedicine Agency to become authorized to issue a research permit and secondly, to change the research conditions in terms of the non-opposition of the deceased to said research. Such an amendment would be a true breakthrough because it would allow teams to continue to move forward calmly in research, and allow this research to be placed within a legal framework, which would promote international exchanges.

  7. Dismantling the Justice Silos: avoiding the pitfalls and reaping the benefits of information-sharing between forensic science, medicine and law.

    PubMed

    Kelty, Sally F; Julian, Roberta; Ross, Alastair

    2013-07-10

    Forensic science is increasingly relied on by police and the courts to exonerate the innocent and to establish links to crime. With this increased reliance the potential for unjust outcomes increases, especially in serious matters for two reasons. The more serious the matter, the more likely that evidence mishandling can lead to wrongful imprisonment, and the more likely the personnel involved will be multi-disciplinary (police, medicine, law, forensic science), and multi-organisational (Health, Justice, private legal/medical, police). The importance of identifying effective multi-organisational interactions was highlighted in the recent wrongful imprisonment of an Australian male for a sexual assault he did not commit. One factor that led to this unjust outcome was the justice silo effect: where forensic practitioners from different agencies operate in isolation (rarely communicating or sharing information/knowledge). In this paper we discuss findings from the Interfaces Project designed to assess the extent of the justice silos within Australia. We interviewed 103 police, forensic scientists, lawyers, judges, coroners, pathologists and forensic physicians Australian-wide. Five main themes were identified in the data: the silo effect was only partial and in each jurisdiction some form of inter-agency communication was actively occurring; inter-agency meetings were more common in homicide than sexual assault cases; forensic physicians were semi-invisible; there had been considerable momentum over the past ten years for practice improvement groups, and; practitioners gain more benefits than pitfalls from inter-agency information-sharing. Based on these findings, five recommendations are made for improving practice.

  8. Arctic Social Sciences: Opportunities in Arctic Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arctic Research Consortium of the United States, Fairbanks, AK.

    The U.S. Congress passed the Arctic Research and Policy Act in 1984 and designated the National Science Foundation (NSF) the lead agency in implementing arctic research policy. In 1989, the parameters of arctic social science research were outlined, emphasizing three themes: human-environment interactions, community viability, and rapid social…

  9. Mixed Methods Approaches in Family Science Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plano Clark, Vicki L.; Huddleston-Casas, Catherine A.; Churchill, Susan L.; Green, Denise O'Neil; Garrett, Amanda L.

    2008-01-01

    The complex phenomena of interest to family scientists require the use of quantitative and qualitative approaches. Researchers across the social sciences are now turning to mixed methods designs that combine these two approaches. Mixed methods research has great promise for addressing family science topics, but only if researchers understand the…

  10. Research facility access & science education

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, S.P.; Teplitz, V.L.

    1994-10-01

    As Congress voted to terminate the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) Laboratory in October of 1993, the Department of Energy was encouraged to maximize the benefits to the nation of approximately $2 billion which had already been expended to date on its evolution. Having been recruited to Texas from other intellectually challenging enclaves around the world, many regional scientists, especially physicists, of course, also began to look for viable ways to preserve some of the potentially short-lived gains made by Texas higher education in anticipation of {open_quotes}the SSC era.{close_quotes} In fact, by November, 1993, approximately 150 physicists and engineers from thirteen Texas universities and the SSC itself, had gathered on the SMU campus to discuss possible re-uses of the SSC assets. Participants at that meeting drew up a petition addressed to the state and federal governments requesting the creation of a joint Texas Facility for Science Education and Research. The idea was to create a facility, open to universities and industry alike, which would preserve the research and development infrastructure and continue the educational mission of the SSC.

  11. Bridging the gap: from biometrics to forensics.

    PubMed

    Jain, Anil K; Ross, Arun

    2015-08-05

    Biometric recognition, or simply biometrics, refers to automated recognition of individuals based on their behavioural and biological characteristics. The success of fingerprints in forensic science and law enforcement applications, coupled with growing concerns related to border control, financial fraud and cyber security, has generated a huge interest in using fingerprints, as well as other biological traits, for automated person recognition. It is, therefore, not surprising to see biometrics permeating various segments of our society. Applications include smartphone security, mobile payment, border crossing, national civil registry and access to restricted facilities. Despite these successful deployments in various fields, there are several existing challenges and new opportunities for person recognition using biometrics. In particular, when biometric data is acquired in an unconstrained environment or if the subject is uncooperative, the quality of the ensuing biometric data may not be amenable for automated person recognition. This is particularly true in crime-scene investigations, where the biological evidence gleaned from a scene may be of poor quality. In this article, we first discuss how biometrics evolved from forensic science and how its focus is shifting back to its origin in order to address some challenging problems. Next, we enumerate the similarities and differences between biometrics and forensics. We then present some applications where the principles of biometrics are being successfully leveraged into forensics in order to solve critical problems in the law enforcement domain. Finally, we discuss new collaborative opportunities for researchers in biometrics and forensics, in order to address hitherto unsolved problems that can benefit society at large.

  12. Personal Identification in Forensic Science Using Uniqueness of Radiographic Image of Frontal Sinus.

    PubMed

    Nikam, Shital Sudhakar; Gadgil, Rajeev Madhusudan; Bhoosreddy, Ajay Ramesh; Shah, Karan Rajendra; Shirsekar, Vinayak Umesh

    2015-07-01

    Frontal sinus pattern matching is a useful means of forensic identification. By the use of radiographs forensic scientists have recognized that there are diverse anatomical variations in the structure of the frontal sinus. Radiographs are a diagnostic tool, widely used in dental practices, hospitals and other health disciplines. Most health institutions possess the facility to store radiographs over long periods of time. Frontal sinus pattern matching technique can be applied in cases where ante mortem frontal sinus radiographs are available and dental matching cannot be carried out. Frontal sinus pattern matching technique may also be used to corroborate identifications based on other techniques such as fingerprints, teeth, or circumstantial evidence. The present study was carried out to assess the effectiveness of using the radiographic image of the frontal sinus for personal identification in studied population group. The results concluded that the appearance of the radiographic image of the frontal sinus is unique for each individual. On this evidence it is proposed that frontal sinus pattern matching can be used for personal identification when other methods have failed.

  13. God's signature: DNA profiling, the new gold standard in forensic science.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Michael

    2003-06-01

    In the mid-1980s, when the first DNA profiling techniques were developed, the name DNA 'fingerprinting' was widely used. At the time, fingerprinting was a well-established forensic method, and it was rarely questioned in the courts. Fingerprint examiners were permitted to describe matching prints as evidence of individual identity, and they were not required to give probability estimates. Despite its nominal association with the older technique, DNA 'fingerprinting' went through a period of controversy, especially in the US courts. The association with fingerprinting was questioned, and experts were required to qualify their testimony with probability figures. Heated debate occurred in scientific publications and law courts about the statistical and population genetic assumptions that went into the probability calculations presented in court cases. However, by the late 1990s DNA profiling was so widely accepted that it became a basis for invidious comparison with all other forms of forensic evidence, including fingerprinting. In the past three years, the admissibility of fingerprint evidence has been challenged in several US federal and state courts. This article discusses the socio-legal and socio-technical issues that led to the inversion of credibility that characterized the intertwined history of the two techniques.

  14. Application possibilities of several modern methods of microscopy and microanalysis in forensic science field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotrly, Marek; Turkova, Ivana

    2011-06-01

    The methods of optical and electron microscopy and microanalysis are the linchpin of forensic inorganic analysis. However, their capacity is limited as for the exact identification of pigments and colour layers, and therefore it is essential that they be complemented by other methods of phase microanalysis - powder X-ray microdiffraction (micro pXRD) and FTIR in transmission mode. The classic way of sample division for different methods is not suitable with regard to the inhomogeneity of the sequence of strata. That is why a method was tested that would allow performance of optical microscopy, SEM/EDS(WDS), micro pXRD and FTIR in a nondestructive manner, from an identical spot of a single fragment. The solution can be polished sections - embedded samples and microtome sections. Conductive zerobackground single-crystal silicon plates were developed and tested for sample fixation in SEM, micro pXRD and transmission FTIR. Methods using a focused ion beam - FIB have recently gained importance in the field of electron microscopy. In the forensic sphere they can be employed in examinations of metal materials, technical analyses of documents, post-blast and gunshot residues.

  15. A 21-locus autosomal SNP multiplex and its application in forensic science.

    PubMed

    Hou, Guangwei; Jiang, Xianhua; Yang, Yanyan; Jia, Fei; Li, Qiang; Zhao, Jinling; Guo, Fei; Liu, Limin

    2014-01-01

    To develop a cost-effective technique for single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping and improve the efficiency to analyze degraded DNA, we have established a novel multiplex system including 21-locus autosomal SNPs and amelogenin locus, which was based on allele-specific amplification (ASA) and universal reporter primers (URP). The target amplicons for each of the 21 SNPs arranged from 63 base pair (bp) to 192 bp. The system was tested in 539 samples from three ethnic groups (Han, Mongolian, and Zhuang population) in China, and the total power of discrimination (TPD) and cumulative probability of exclusion (CPE) were more than 0.99999999 and 0.98, respectively. The system was further validated with forensic samples and full profiles could be achieved from degraded DNA and 63 case-type samples. In summary, the multiplex system offers an effective technique for individual identification of forensic samples and is much more efficient in the analysis of degraded DNA compared with standard STR typing.

  16. Exhumation research concerning the victims of political repressions in 1945-1956 in Poland: A new direction in forensic medicine.

    PubMed

    Szleszkowski, Lukasz; Thannhäuser, Agata; Szwagrzyk, Krzysztof; Konczewski, Paweł; Kawecki, Jerzy; Swiątek, Barbara

    2014-02-01

    In 2011 in Wroclaw (Poland), the bodies of 223 prisoners were exhumed, including the victims of political repressions and prosecutions in the period 1949-1954, during which people fighting for the independence of Poland were executed and buried in unidentified graves in various graveyards. It was the first exhumation conducted in Poland on such a large scale. The aim of the present publication is to describe the new direction in forensic medicine employed in these exhumations, which resulted from the new opportunities created by the opening of the state archives after the political transformation of 1989. The authors describe the difficulties they encountered during their exploration of prisoners' burial grounds. The graveyards included in the investigation bear the marks of an intentional policy of confusion and secret burial methods. First, significant disorder in the logical (based on time of death) sequence of burials was observed. This made identification difficult. A substantial time lapse between death and burial in each case, along with the unavailability of comparative data, limited the use of identification methods widely employed in forensic medicine. For this reason, initial analysis had to be based on observations and confirmations made by forensic medicine about the sequence of burials as compared to cemetery documentation. Situations such as this clearly call for the cooperation of historians, archaeologists, anthropologists and forensic pathologists. Political transformations in Eastern Europe in the 1990s gave rise to hopes of exchanging experiences in this type of research as conducted in other countries of the former Eastern Bloc.

  17. Science Selections. Accounts of Ongoing Scientific Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kornberg, Warren, Ed.

    This publication is intended to present science teachers with an opportunity to communicate to students the idea that science is an ongoing and never-ending process. The booklet contains supplemental materials, valuable as enrichment materials. A selection of ongoing research in the biological sciences, physics and astronomy, oceanography,…

  18. Exploring Trends in Forensic Odontology

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Narendra Nath; Ain, Tasneem S.; Sultan, Saima

    2014-01-01

    Background: Forensic odontology nowadays has become a developing science and is of great importance to society. It is important that dental practitioners should have a proper knowledge of forensics as the need has increased greatly over the last decades due to the unprecedented demand from the criminal justice including terrorism in Kashmir valley (J&K India). Materials and Methods: Data was collected based on questionnaire survey among qualified dental practitioners related to their awareness of forensic odontology. Results: A total number of 235 dental practitioners responded to the questionnaire. Results showed that there was a low confidence, in handling of forensic odontology related cases among dental practitioners and majority of dental practitioners were not having any formal training in forensic odontology. Conclusion: Each dental practitioner has a responsibility to understand the forensic implications associated with the practice of his profession and thus he should work sincerely enough so to ensure his contribution in the field of forensic odontology. PMID:25654026

  19. Mapping a research agenda for the science of team science.

    PubMed

    Falk-Krzesinski, Holly J; Contractor, Noshir; Fiore, Stephen M; Hall, Kara L; Kane, Cathleen; Keyton, Joann; Klein, Julie Thompson; Spring, Bonnie; Stokols, Daniel; Trochim, William

    2011-06-01

    An increase in cross-disciplinary, collaborative team science initiatives over the last few decades has spurred interest by multiple stakeholder groups in empirical research on scientific teams, giving rise to an emergent field referred to as the science of team science (SciTS). This study employed a collaborative team science concept-mapping evaluation methodology to develop a comprehensive research agenda for the SciTS field. Its integrative mixed-methods approach combined group process with statistical analysis to derive a conceptual framework that identifies research areas of team science and their relative importance to the emerging SciTS field. The findings from this concept-mapping project constitute a lever for moving SciTS forward at theoretical, empirical, and translational levels.

  20. New perspectives in the use of ink evidence in forensic science Part II. Development and testing of mathematical algorithms for the automatic comparison of ink samples analysed by HPTLC.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Cedric; Margot, Pierre

    2009-03-10

    In the first part of this research, three stages were stated for a program to increase the information extracted from ink evidence and maximise its usefulness to the criminal and civil justice system. These stages are (a) develop a standard methodology for analysing ink samples by high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) in reproducible way, when ink samples are analysed at different time, locations and by different examiners; (b) compare automatically and objectively ink samples; and (c) define and evaluate theoretical framework for the use of ink evidence in forensic context. This report focuses on the second of the three stages. Using the calibration and acquisition process described in the previous report, mathematical algorithms are proposed to automatically and objectively compare ink samples. The performances of these algorithms are systematically studied for various chemical and forensic conditions using standard performance tests commonly used in biometrics studies. The results show that different algorithms are best suited for different tasks. Finally, this report demonstrates how modern analytical and computer technology can be used in the field of ink examination and how tools developed and successfully applied in other fields of forensic science can help maximising its impact within the field of questioned documents.

  1. The ParaDNA® Screening System - a case study in bringing forensic R&D to market.

    PubMed

    Dawnay, Nick; Ahmed, Romana; Naif, Sarah

    2014-12-01

    The creation of new technologies and their application to forensic science is key to the field's development. Rapid DNA profiling is one such area of research which has grown in response to a desire from enforcement authorities for in-house forensic DNA processing and rapid access to forensic genetic intelligence. However, introducing novel technologies into the forensics market must be carefully monitored and controlled as the success or failure of any technology ultimately has long standing implications for victims, suspects, and also to Police and forensic practitioners. This article outlines the research, development, validation and implementation of the ParaDNA® Screening System as a case study in taking forensic research and development to market.

  2. Science Education Research vs. Physics Education Research: A Structural Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akarsu, Bayram

    2010-01-01

    The main goal of this article is to introduce physics education research (PER) to researchers in other fields. Topics include discussion of differences between science education research (SER) and physics education research (PER), physics educators, research design and methodology in physics education research and current research traditions and…

  3. Understanding Variations of Soil Mapping Units and Associated Data for Forensic Science.

    PubMed

    Suarez, Melissa D; Southard, Randal J; Parikh, Sanjai J

    2015-07-01

    Soil samples have potential to be useful in forensic investigations, but their utility may be limited due to the inherent variability of soil properties, the wide array of analytical methods, and complexity of data analysis. This study examined the differentiation of similar soils based on both gross (texture, color, mineralogy) and explicit soil properties (elemental composition, cation exchange, Fe-oxyhydroxides). Soils were collected from Fallbrook and adjacent map units from Riverside and San Diego Counties in California. Samples were characterized using multiple techniques, including chemical extracts, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Results were analyzed using multiple analytical approaches to compare counties and land uses. Some analyses (XRD, extractions) were better at distinguishing among samples than others (color, texture). Ratios of rare earth elements were particularly useful for distinguishing samples between counties. This potential to "fingerprint" soils illustrates the usefulness of a comprehensive soil database for criminal investigators.

  4. [Professor Kazimierz Jaegermann--forensic pathologist--scientist--thinker].

    PubMed

    Nasiłowski, Władysław

    2009-01-01

    Professor Kazimierz Jaegermann, a founder of the theory of medico-legal opinionating, passed away 20 years ago. Numerous specialists in forensic medicine and an ever increasing number of lawyers substantiate the importance and value of the creative thought and the entire research work of Professor Jaegermann that have been an inspiration of progress in forensic medicine and in the science of applied law. His unique ability to perform a scientific synthesis leading to recognizing forensic medicine as an applied bridging knowledge points to the eminently creative role played by Professor Jaegermann in development of forensic medicine. There is an urgent need to recall his research activities and to publish a complete collection of his articles and publications. With this idea in mind, I present below an article based on the text published in No. 1 of the Zeszyty Naukowe Katedry Medycyny Sadowej Slaskiej Akademii Medycznej in 1995.

  5. Molecular Advancements in Forensic Odontology.

    PubMed

    Babu Rs, A; Rose, D

    2015-05-11

    Forensic odontology explores the field of human identification through dental tissues in cases where there is destruction of body tissues in criminal investigations and mass disasters. Forensic odontology involves dentists participating in legal and criminal issues. Parameters such as age and gender identification are important in identifying the person or persons. Over the last two decades, the molecular aspect of forensic sciences has increased, and these molecular techniques now provide a novel approach to forensic odontology. Molecular advancements in science like DNA analysis has extended the range of forensic dentistry as teeth possess the character of resistance toward physical or chemical aggressions. Teeth provide the abundant space for DNA, and hence teeth represent an excellent source of genomic DNA. The present paper focusses on molecular advancements in the field of forensic odontology.

  6. Developing Rapport with Children in Forensic Interviews: Systematic Review of Experimental Research.

    PubMed

    Saywitz, Karen J; Larson, Rakel P; Hobbs, Sue D; Wells, Christine R

    2015-08-01

    The vast majority of guidelines recommend that developing rapport with children is essential for successful forensic child interviewing; however, the question remains as to whether there is a sufficient body of scientific research to generate evidence-based guidelines for developing rapport with children in legal contexts. To answer this question, we conducted a systematic review of the literature to identify experimental studies of the effects of rapport-building methods on the reliability of children's reports. Independent raters applied 12 exclusion criteria to the 2,761 potentially relevant articles located by electronic and hand searches of the literature. Experimental studies were few. Although studies to date are a beginning, the overall scientific base is weak regarding even basic issues such as how to best define rapport and the efficacy of common rapport-building techniques. This systematic review highlights what we know, what we do not know, and how much more we need to know to create evidence-based best practice. Recommendations for reshaping the research agenda are discussed.

  7. Recent Research in Science Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    This article features recent research in science teaching and learning. It presents three current articles of interest in life sciences education, as well as more general and noteworthy publications in education research. URLs are provided for the abstracts or full text of articles. For articles listed as "Abstract available," full text may be…

  8. The ICPSR and Social Science Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Wendell G.

    2008-01-01

    The Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research (ICPSR), a unit within the Institute for Social Research at the University of Michigan, is the world's largest social science data archive. The data sets in the ICPRS database give the social sciences librarian/subject specialist an opportunity of providing value-added bibliographic…

  9. Researchers warn of neglect to basic science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Michael

    2010-03-01

    Russia is losing its standing as a scientific powerhouse and its science is in a state of decline, according to a new report by the information-services provider Thomson Reuters. Entitled "The New Geography of Science: Research and Collaboration in Russia", the report warns that the country's research base "has a problem, and it shows little sign of a solution".

  10. Research and Curriculum Development in Science Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butts, David P., Ed.

    This is the second in a series of reports of research and curriculum development in science education. This monograph contains 16 papers reporting on research studies related to curriculum implementation in elementary school science. The reports are titled as follows: The Educational Experience: Toward a Paradigm of Teacher Education; Development…

  11. Science Graduation Requirements. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muir, Mike

    2004-01-01

    According to the National Center for Education Statistics (Table 153), there are almost as many states that require a minimum of 2 credits of science for graduation (22) as there are those that require 3 credits (21). According to the "2000 High School Transcript Study," between 1990 and 2000, not only did the average number of science credits…

  12. Forensic DNA phenotyping in criminal investigations and criminal courts: assessing and mitigating the dilemmas inherent in the science.

    PubMed

    MacLean, Charles E; Lamparello, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Forensic DNA Phenotyping ("FDP"), estimating the externally visible characteristics ("EVCs") of the source of human DNA left at a crime scene, is evolving from science fiction toward science fact. FDP can already identify a source's gender with 100% accuracy, and likely hair color, iris color, adult height, and a number of other EVCs with accuracy rates approaching 70%. Patent applications have been filed for approaches to generating 3D likenesses of DNA sources based on the DNA alone. Nonetheless, criminal investigators, particularly in the United States, have been reticent to apply FDP in their casework. The reticence is likely related to a number of perceived and real dilemmas associated with FDP: is FDP racial profiling, should we test unknown and unseen physical conditions, does testing for behavioral characteristics impermissibly violate the source's privacy, ought testing be permitted for samples from known sources or DNA databases, and should FDP be limited to use in investigations only or is FDP appropriate for use in a criminal court. As this article explains, although those dilemmas are substantive, they are not insurmountable, and can be quite easily managed with appropriate regulation and protocols. As FDP continues to develop, there will be less need for criminal investigators to shy away from FDP. Cold cases, missing persons, and victims in crimes without other evidence will one day soon all be well served by FDP.

  13. Saliva in forensic odontology: A comprehensive update

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Susmita; Kumar, Sanjeev

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, saliva has attracted much interest among researchers especially in the field of forensic sciences. This complex body fluid is gaining popularity due to its ease of collection, safety in handling and its close relationship with plasma. Analysis of saliva for serological testing and cellular content has proved to be of wide use in crime detection, drug and alcohol abuse, hormone identification, cases of poisoning and animal bites. There is a need for forensic laboratories to automate the settings specific for saliva as routinely done for blood or urine in order to consider saliva as the primary investigating tool in the absence of other body fluids. This update is aimed at highlighting the many uses of saliva in the practice of forensic odontology. PMID:26604508

  14. Saliva in forensic odontology: A comprehensive update.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Susmita; Kumar, Sanjeev

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, saliva has attracted much interest among researchers especially in the field of forensic sciences. This complex body fluid is gaining popularity due to its ease of collection, safety in handling and its close relationship with plasma. Analysis of saliva for serological testing and cellular content has proved to be of wide use in crime detection, drug and alcohol abuse, hormone identification, cases of poisoning and animal bites. There is a need for forensic laboratories to automate the settings specific for saliva as routinely done for blood or urine in order to consider saliva as the primary investigating tool in the absence of other body fluids. This update is aimed at highlighting the many uses of saliva in the practice of forensic odontology.

  15. Applied Science and Research Applications: Recent Research Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, Washington, DC. Directorate for Applied Science and Research Applications.

    This report contains abstracts of new technical reports and other documents resulting from research supported by the directorate for Applied Science and Research Applications of the National Science Foundation. Research reports from current programs include work in the areas of public policy and regulation; public service delivery and urban…

  16. Space Life Sciences Research and Education Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coats, Alfred C.

    2001-01-01

    Since 1969, the Universities Space Research Association (USRA), a private, nonprofit corporation, has worked closely with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to advance space science and technology and to promote education in those areas. USRA's Division of Space Life Sciences (DSLS) has been NASA's life sciences research partner for the past 18 years. For the last six years, our Cooperative Agreement NCC9-41 for the 'Space Life Sciences Research and Education Program' has stimulated and assisted life sciences research and education at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC) - both at the Center and in collaboration with outside academic institutions. To accomplish our objectives, the DSLS has facilitated extramural research, developed and managed educational programs, recruited and employed visiting and staff scientists, and managed scientific meetings.

  17. The current status of research in forensic psychophysiology and its application in the psychophysiological detection of deception.

    PubMed

    Yankee, W J

    1995-01-01

    Since 1986 there have been unparalleled advances in the psychophysiological detection of deception (PDD) processes and procedures. This paper traces the emergence of a new emphasis in PDD research; the development of forensic psychophysiology as an academic discipline; provides an overview of computerized polygraphs now in use for collecting physiological data; introduces new sensors and transducers currently under study; and describes a new instrument now under development.

  18. Forensic Applications of LIBS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hark, Richard R.; East, Lucille J.

    Forensic science is broadly defined as the application of science to matters of the law. Practitioners typically use multidisciplinary scientific techniques for the analysis of physical evidence in an attempt to establish or exclude an association between a suspect and the scene of a crime.

  19. Capturing and displaying microscopic images used in medical diagnostics and forensic science using 4K video resolution - an application in higher education.

    PubMed

    Maier, Hans; de Heer, Gert; Ortac, Ajda; Kuijten, Jan

    2015-11-01

    To analyze, interpret and evaluate microscopic images, used in medical diagnostics and forensic science, video images for educational purposes were made with a very high resolution of 4096 × 2160 pixels (4K), which is four times as many pixels as High-Definition Video (1920 × 1080 pixels). The unprecedented high resolution makes it possible to see details that remain invisible to any other video format. The images of the specimens (blood cells, tissue sections, hair, fibre, etc.) are recorded using a 4K video camera which is attached to a light microscope. After processing, this resulted in very sharp and highly detailed images. This material was then used in education for classroom discussion. Spoken explanation by experts in the field of medical diagnostics and forensic science was also added to the high-resolution video images to make it suitable for self-study.

  20. Strategic Research Directions In Microgravity Materials Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clinton, Raymond G., Jr.; Wargo, Michael J.; Marzwell, Neville L.; Sanders, Gerald; Schlagheck, Ron; Semmes, Ed; Bassler, Julie; Cook, Beth

    2004-01-01

    The Office of Biological and Physical Research (OBPR) is moving aggressively to align programs, projects, and products with the vision for space exploration. Research in advanced materials is a critical element in meeting exploration goals. Research in low gravity materials science in OBPR is being focused on top priority needs in support of exploration: 1) Space Radiation Shielding; 2) In Situ Resource Utilization; 3) In Situ Fabrication and Repair; 4) Materials Science for Spacecraft and Propulsion Systems; 5) Materials Science for Advanced Life Support Systems. Roles and responsibilities in low gravity materials research for exploration between OBPR and the Office of Exploration Systems are evolving.

  1. Believing doesn't make it so: forensic education and the search for truth.

    PubMed

    Scott, Charles L

    2013-01-01

    The American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law (AAPL) was organized in 1969, in large part through the efforts of Dr. Jonas Rappeport. The founders of AAPL emphasized that an important purpose of the organization was to advance knowledge in the area of psychiatry and the law. The science of forensic psychiatry has since been vigorously debated. In 2005, Congress enacted a statute authorizing the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) to conduct a study on the state of the forensic sciences in the United States. As a result of this legislation, a forensic science committee was formed, and the report, "Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States: A Path Forward," was produced, emphasizing the need for research in the forensic disciplines, particularly those that rely on more subjective assessments. The committee also identified two important factors relevant to standards of evidence admissibility: the scientific methodology used and the impact of bias on the interpretation of data. In this article, I apply the NAS committee's findings to the field of forensic psychiatry, with specific recommendations to assist educators in achieving more objective assessment methodologies, critical in forensic education and the search for truth.

  2. Forensic toxicology.

    PubMed

    Drummer, Olaf H

    2010-01-01

    Forensic toxicology has developed as a forensic science in recent years and is now widely used to assist in death investigations, in civil and criminal matters involving drug use, in drugs of abuse testing in correctional settings and custodial medicine, in road and workplace safety, in matters involving environmental pollution, as well as in sports doping. Drugs most commonly targeted include amphetamines, benzodiazepines, cannabis, cocaine and the opiates, but can be any other illicit substance or almost any over-the-counter or prescribed drug, as well as poisons available to the community. The discipline requires high level skills in analytical techniques with a solid knowledge of pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. Modern techniques rely heavily on immunoassay screening analyses and mass spectrometry (MS) for confirmatory analyses using either high-performance liquid chromatography or gas chromatography as the separation technique. Tandem MS has become more and more popular compared to single-stage MS. It is essential that analytical systems are fully validated and fit for the purpose and the assay batches are monitored with quality controls. External proficiency programs monitor both the assay and the personnel performing the work. For a laboratory to perform optimally, it is vital that the circumstances and context of the case are known and the laboratory understands the limitations of the analytical systems used, including drug stability. Drugs and poisons can change concentration postmortem due to poor or unequal quality of blood and other specimens, anaerobic metabolism and redistribution. The latter provides the largest handicap in the interpretation of postmortem results.

  3. The Science of Science Policy: A Federal Research Roadmap

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-11-01

    surveys, research cita ons in regulatory and other documents, and bibliometric analyses to inform their broader program reviews that assess research...selected research projects.24 The CDC has also used retrospec ve bibliometric analysis in the past, and is now moving to an internet-based informa...standard approaches for using bibliometrics to assess • science impact. The academic research community should con nue to be supported to perform

  4. Analysis of the Maternal Filicide in Terms of Forensic Medicine in Turkey: A Clinical Research

    PubMed Central

    EKE, Salih Murat; BAŞOĞLU, Saba; TAKTAK, Şafak; ORAL, Gökhan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In the literature, 15% of the victims of homicide consists of children under 16 years of age; children under the age has been proved that they have the maximum risk. The vast majority of the victims were killed by their mothers. Thus, if mothers are the perpetrators of crime child murders are discussed in different ways, so it is conceptualized under the name of maternal filicide in the literature. This study has been performed for, in Turkey, women who killed their own children between 0–6 years old, victims of crimes, and to determine features of crime regarding on forensic medicine, eventually in order to provide a basis for taking necessary precautions and measures. Methods This research includes 74 reports of maternal filicide cases came to IV. Board of Specialization at the Council of Forensic Medicine in Istanbul, Ministry of Justice of Republic of Turkey between 1996–2006 years. In the light of data came from these reports, the socio-demographic characteristics of mothers who attempted filicide and children who were killed, and crime occurrence methods and mothers’ criminal legal responsibility were examined. Results Mothers, suspected of the filicide crime, are often at a young age, and did not desire pregnancy, 73 of mother’s do not have criminal history, and 48 of mothers confessed the crime. Found that 71 of child victims are biological kids, 38 of them were killed around age, and 20 of them were girls, 35 of them were boys. The study group, seven of defendants killed or attempted to kill more than one child at the same time. The majority of mothers committed the crime during the daylight. When filicide methods were examined strangling or throwing up the child from higher were seen the most. The majority of mothers committed crime wiıthout weapon or other objects, just by their hands. Based on decisions of IV. Board of Specialization, no significant difference was observed between the the mothers with criminal liability and mothers

  5. Strategic research in the social sciences

    SciTech Connect

    Bainbridge, W.S.

    1995-12-31

    The federal government has identified a number of multi-agency funding initiatives for science in strategic areas, such as the initiatives on global environmental change and high performance computing, that give some role to the social sciences. Seven strategic areas for social science research are given with potential for federal funding: (1) Democratization. (2) Human Capital. (3) Administrative Science. (4) Cognitive Science. (5) High Performance Computing and Digital Libraries. (6) Human Dimensions of Environmental Change. and (7) Human Genetic Diversity. The first two are addressed in detail and the remainder as a group. 10 refs.

  6. Forensic science information needs of patrol officers: The perceptions of the patrol officers, their supervisors and administrators, detectives, and crime scene technicians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aydogdu, Eyup

    Thanks to the rapid developments in science and technology in recent decades, especially in the past two decades, forensic sciences have been making invaluable contributions to criminal justice systems. With scientific evaluation of physical evidence, policing has become more effective in fighting crime and criminals. On the other hand, law enforcement personnel have made mistakes during the detection, protection, collection, and evaluation of physical evidence. Law enforcement personnel, especially patrol officers, have been criticized for ignoring or overlooking physical evidence at crime scenes. This study, conducted in a large American police department, was aimed to determine the perceptions of patrol officers, their supervisors and administrators, detectives, and crime scene technicians about the forensic science needs of patrol officers. The results showed no statistically significant difference among the perceptions of the said groups. More than half of the respondents perceived that 14 out of 16 areas of knowledge were important for patrol officers to have: crime scene documentation, evidence collection, interviewing techniques, firearm evidence, latent and fingerprint evidence, blood evidence, death investigation information, DNA evidence, document evidence, electronically recorded evidence, trace evidence, biological fluid evidence, arson and explosive evidence, and impression evidence. Less than half of the respondents perceived forensic entomology and plant evidence as important for patrol officers.

  7. The broad field of forensic pharmacy.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Peter D

    2012-02-01

    Forensic pharmacy is application of the sciences of drugs to legal issues. Forensic pharmacists engage in work relating to litigation, the regulatory process, and the criminal justice system. Forensic pharmacy overlaps with many other forensic fields. Pharmacists hold a variety of positions with local, state, and federal governments. Many pharmacists do freelance work as forensic litigation consultants. A forensic pharmacist can be a valuable resource in legal cases relating to malpractice, adverse drug reactions, drunk and drugged driving, health care fraud, poisoning, and numerous other types of civil and criminal cases.

  8. High school science fair and research integrity

    PubMed Central

    Dalley, Simon; Shepherd, Karen; Reisch, Joan

    2017-01-01

    Research misconduct has become an important matter of concern in the scientific community. The extent to which such behavior occurs early in science education has received little attention. In the current study, using the web-based data collection program REDCap, we obtained responses to an anonymous and voluntary survey about science fair from 65 high school students who recently competed in the Dallas Regional Science and Engineering Fair and from 237 STEM-track, post-high school students (undergraduates, 1st year medical students, and 1st year biomedical graduate students) doing research at UT Southwestern Medical Center. Of the post-high school students, 24% had competed in science fair during their high school education. Science fair experience was similar overall for the local cohort of Dallas regional students and the more diverse state/national cohort of post-high school students. Only one student out of 122 reported research misconduct, in his case making up the data. Unexpectedly, post-high school students who did not participate in science fair anticipated that carrying out science fair would be much more difficult than actually was the case, and 22% of the post-high school students anticipated that science fair participants would resort to research misconduct to overcome obstacles. No gender-based differences between students’ science fair experiences or expectations were evident. PMID:28328976

  9. High school science fair and research integrity.

    PubMed

    Grinnell, Frederick; Dalley, Simon; Shepherd, Karen; Reisch, Joan

    2017-01-01

    Research misconduct has become an important matter of concern in the scientific community. The extent to which such behavior occurs early in science education has received little attention. In the current study, using the web-based data collection program REDCap, we obtained responses to an anonymous and voluntary survey about science fair from 65 high school students who recently competed in the Dallas Regional Science and Engineering Fair and from 237 STEM-track, post-high school students (undergraduates, 1st year medical students, and 1st year biomedical graduate students) doing research at UT Southwestern Medical Center. Of the post-high school students, 24% had competed in science fair during their high school education. Science fair experience was similar overall for the local cohort of Dallas regional students and the more diverse state/national cohort of post-high school students. Only one student out of 122 reported research misconduct, in his case making up the data. Unexpectedly, post-high school students who did not participate in science fair anticipated that carrying out science fair would be much more difficult than actually was the case, and 22% of the post-high school students anticipated that science fair participants would resort to research misconduct to overcome obstacles. No gender-based differences between students' science fair experiences or expectations were evident.

  10. The Optimization of Electrophoresis on a Glass Microfluidic Chip and its Application in Forensic Science.

    PubMed

    Han, Jun P; Sun, Jing; Wang, Le; Liu, Peng; Zhuang, Bin; Zhao, Lei; Liu, Yao; Li, Cai X

    2017-02-07

    Microfluidic chips offer significant speed, cost, and sensitivity advantages, but numerous parameters must be optimized to provide microchip electrophoresis detection. Experiments were conducted to study the factors, including sieving matrices (the concentration and type), surface modification, analysis temperature, and electric field strengths, which all impact the effectiveness of microchip electrophoresis detection of DNA samples. Our results showed that the best resolution for ssDNA was observed using 4.5% w/v (7 M urea) lab-fabricated LPA gel, dynamic wall coating of the microchannel, electrophoresis temperatures between 55 and 60°C, and electrical fields between 350 and 450 V/cm on the microchip-based capillary electrophoresis (μCE) system. One base-pair resolution could be achieved in the 19-cm-length microchannel. Furthermore, both 9947A standard genomic DNA and DNA extracted from blood spots were demonstrated to be successfully separated with well-resolved DNA peaks in 8 min. Therefore, the microchip electrophoresis system demonstrated good potential for rapid forensic DNA analysis.

  11. Forensic odontology.

    PubMed

    Shamim, Thorakkal

    2012-04-01

    Forensic odontology is a specialized field of dentistry which analyses dental evidence in the interest of justice. Forensic odontology embraces all dental specialities and it is almost impossible to segregate this branch from other dental specialities. This review aims to discuss the utility of various dental specialities with forensic odontology.

  12. Forensic Chemistry--A Symposium Collection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Chemical Education, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Presents a collection of articles to provide chemistry teachers with resource materials to add forensic chemistry units to their chemistry courses. Topics range from development of forensic science laboratory courses and mock-crime scenes to forensic serology and analytical techniques. (JN)

  13. Forensic odontology, historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Sansare, K

    1995-01-01

    According to the old testament Adam was convinced by eve to put a "Bite Mark" on the apple. Interest in Forensic Odontology was heightened in the latter part of 19th Century. The first formal instructional programme was given at the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, U.S. Since then the number of cases reported has played a significant role in expanding the role of Forensic Odontology. The earliest reported case was of Lollia Paulina in the year 49 A. D. One of the early reported case is also found in India in the year 1193. In the last few decades, the basic pattern of Forensic Odontology has changed quite a lot. Advances in dental material and laboratory techniques, with improvements in scientific and photographic technology, have made the proof of presentation much to forensic science.

  14. NSF losing Earth sciences research funds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Peter M.

    The Earth Sciences Division (EAR) of the National Science Foundation (NSF) faces a diminishing financial base from which to award grants for research, while the proposal pressure increases. Robin Brett, director of the division stated, ‘Now that the Ocean Drilling Division has become a separate entity [within the Foundation] the Division of Earth Sciences has no major facility, and with the exception of COCORP, at $2.8 million per year, we are a small science division, consisting of four programs—geology, geophysics, geochemistry, and petrology.’Brett noted, however, that the field of earth sciences research, which the NSF attempts to support, has grown rapidly in the past decade. Growth (in terms of people employed in the field) is predicted to increase markedly, as the following quotation from Science and Engineering Education for the 1980s and Beyond (NSF publication, 1980) attests:

  15. Remote Science Operation Center research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, P. M.

    1986-01-01

    Progress in the following areas is discussed: the design, planning and operation of a remote science payload operations control center; design and planning of a data link via satellite; and the design and prototyping of an advanced workstation environment for multi-media (3-D computer aided design/computer aided engineering, voice, video, text) communications and operations.

  16. Reproducible research in computational science.

    PubMed

    Peng, Roger D

    2011-12-02

    Computational science has led to exciting new developments, but the nature of the work has exposed limitations in our ability to evaluate published findings. Reproducibility has the potential to serve as a minimum standard for judging scientific claims when full independent replication of a study is not possible.

  17. DNA fingerprint analysis of three short tandem repeat (STR) loci for biochemistry and forensic science laboratory courses.

    PubMed

    McNamara-Schroeder, Kathleen; Olonan, Cheryl; Chu, Simon; Montoya, Maria C; Alviri, Mahta; Ginty, Shannon; Love, John J

    2006-09-01

    We have devised and implemented a DNA fingerprinting module for an upper division undergraduate laboratory based on the amplification and analysis of three of the 13 short tandem repeat loci that are required by the Federal Bureau of Investigation Combined DNA Index System (FBI CODIS) data base. Students first collect human epithelial (cheek) cells using sterile buccal swabs and then utilize commercially available kits and materials to extract genomic DNA. This is followed by the PCR amplification of three specific short tandem repeat loci (i.e. CSF1PO, TPOX, THO1). Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis is used to resolve the allelic bands associated with the three short tandem repeat loci, and the results are statistically analyzed in the context of human population genetics. In addition, DNA was collected from a family, and the children's allele sets were compared with those of the parents to help illustrate paternal and maternal relatedness. This module enables students to use the materials and methods employed by actual law enforcement agencies and therefore can be used for laboratory exercises in traditional biochemistry curricula as well as for the growing field of forensic science and education.

  18. Women's rights in Pakistan: a forensic perspective.

    PubMed

    Hadi, Sibte

    2003-04-01

    Pakistan is a large and an important West Asian country which came into being in the name of Islam and therefore Islamic tenets remain the core of its constitution. The laws of the state have to conform to Islamic law so that they can have a positive impact on the society. Unfortunately, in Pakistan today not all men enjoy the rights and facilities to which they are entitled and women are doubly disadvantaged by poverty and gender. With their own political agendas, various governments have promulgated laws which affect the society in various ways. The laws which directly influence women's rights merit mention, as women comprise more than 50% of the population of Pakistan and are still kept on the sidelines by the male dominant society. The Muslim Family Law Ordinance, 1961, and the Hudood Ordinance, 1979 were both promulgated by military dictators with different visions. The former codified the rights of women bestowed by Islamic law; the latter repealed laws for sexual offences according to the injunctions of Islam and had a negative impact. Both laws need the assistance of forensic medicine as age estimation and medical examinations are necessary if they are to be followed in the right perspective. However, a legal need for an examination by an expert in forensic medicine is sadly lacking in both laws. This has happened due to lack of training of forensic physicians and therefore a lack of research in important areas of forensic medicine in the country. This paper examines these laws and the interaction they have with forensic medicine and proposes that the laws need revision in accordance with modern science, incorporating forensic sciences as well as the injunctions of Islam.

  19. Recent Research in Science Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    This article is designed to point "CBE-Life Sciences Education" readers to current articles of interest in life sciences education as well as more general and noteworthy publications in education research. URLs are provided for the abstracts or full text of articles. For articles listed as "Abstract available," full text may be…

  20. Recent Research in Science Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    This feature is designed to point "CBE - Life Sciences Education" readers to current articles of interest in life sciences education as well as more general and noteworthy publications in education research. URLs are provided for the abstracts or full text of articles. For articles listed as "Abstract available," full text may…

  1. Recent Research in Science Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    This feature is designed to point "CBE-Life Sciences Education" readers to current articles of interest in life sciences education, as well as more general and noteworthy publications in education research. URLs are provided for the abstracts or full text of articles. This themed issue focuses on recent studies of concepts and…

  2. Social Science Research Serving Rural America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miron, Mary, Ed.

    This collection of articles provides an overview of some of the recent social science research projects performed by state agricultural experiment stations. The examples highlight social science's contribution to problem-solving in rural business, industry, farming, communities, government, education, and families. The following programs are…

  3. Age estimation in forensic sciences: Application of combined aspartic acid racemization and radiocarbon analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Alkass, K; Buchholz, B A; Ohtani, S; Yamamoto, T; Druid, H; Spalding, S L

    2009-11-02

    Age determination of unknown human bodies is important in the setting of a crime investigation or a mass disaster, since the age at death, birth date and year of death, as well as gender, can guide investigators to the correct identity among a large number of possible matches. Traditional morphological methods used by anthropologists to determine age are often imprecise, whereas chemical analysis of tooth dentin, such as aspartic acid racemization has shown reproducible and more precise results. In this paper we analyze teeth from Swedish individuals using both aspartic acid racemization and radiocarbon methodologies. The rationale behind using radiocarbon analysis is that above-ground testing of nuclear weapons during the cold war (1955-1963) caused an extreme increase in global levels of carbon-14 ({sup 14}C) which have been carefully recorded over time. Forty-four teeth from 41 individuals were analyzed using aspartic acid racemization analysis of tooth crown dentin or radiocarbon analysis of enamel and ten of these were split and subjected to both radiocarbon and racemization analysis. Combined analysis showed that the two methods correlated well (R2=0.66, p < 0.05). Radiocarbon analysis showed an excellent precision with an overall absolute error of 0.6 {+-} 04 years. Aspartic acid racemization also showed a good precision with an overall absolute error of 5.4 {+-} 4.2 years. Whereas radiocarbon analysis gives an estimated year of birth, racemization analysis indicates the chronological age of the individual at the time of death. We show how these methods in combination can also assist in the estimation of date of death of an unidentified victim. This strategy can be of significant assistance in forensic casework involving dead victim identification.

  4. Age estimation in forensic sciences: application of combined aspartic acid racemization and radiocarbon analysis.

    PubMed

    Alkass, Kanar; Buchholz, Bruce A; Ohtani, Susumu; Yamamoto, Toshiharu; Druid, Henrik; Spalding, Kirsty L

    2010-05-01

    Age determination of unknown human bodies is important in the setting of a crime investigation or a mass disaster because the age at death, birth date, and year of death as well as gender can guide investigators to the correct identity among a large number of possible matches. Traditional morphological methods used by anthropologists to determine age are often imprecise, whereas chemical analysis of tooth dentin, such as aspartic acid racemization, has shown reproducible and more precise results. In this study, we analyzed teeth from Swedish individuals using both aspartic acid racemization and radiocarbon methodologies. The rationale behind using radiocarbon analysis is that aboveground testing of nuclear weapons during the cold war (1955-1963) caused an extreme increase in global levels of carbon-14 ((14)C), which has been carefully recorded over time. Forty-four teeth from 41 individuals were analyzed using aspartic acid racemization analysis of tooth crown dentin or radiocarbon analysis of enamel, and 10 of these were split and subjected to both radiocarbon and racemization analysis. Combined analysis showed that the two methods correlated well (R(2) = 0.66, p < 0.05). Radiocarbon analysis showed an excellent precision with an overall absolute error of 1.0 +/- 0.6 years. Aspartic acid racemization also showed a good precision with an overall absolute error of 5.4 +/- 4.2 years. Whereas radiocarbon analysis gives an estimated year of birth, racemization analysis indicates the chronological age of the individual at the time of death. We show how these methods in combination can also assist in the estimation of date of death of an unidentified victim. This strategy can be of significant assistance in forensic casework involving dead victim identification.

  5. Survey Nonresponse Bias in Social Science Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reio, Thomas G., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Surveys continue to be one of the primary research methods in social science research, as they have been useful for exploring subjects ranging from attitudes and intentions to motivations and behaviors, to name but a few. Notwithstanding, response rates in survey research continue to decline despite the development of more systematic procedures to…

  6. Reproducible research in vadose zone sciences

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A significant portion of present-day soil and Earth science research is computational, involving complex data analysis pipelines, advanced mathematical and statistical models, and sophisticated computer codes. Opportunities for scientific progress are greatly diminished if reproducing and building o...

  7. The imported forensic expert.

    PubMed

    Larson, C P

    1980-09-01

    A review of the experiences of one of the pioneer forensic pathologists in the United States offers an interesting insight into the possibilities of private forensic pathology in America. The author's experience includes serving as President of the National Boxing Association and the International Boxing Association, during which time he made many improvements in ring safety. His research into several areas of cases of product liability offer an insight to the wide scope of the potential of the forensic expert. This presentation reviews his activities in realms widely afield from medicine.

  8. The imported forensic expert

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, C.P.

    1980-09-01

    A review of the experiences of one of the pioneer forensic pathologists in the United States offers an interesting insight into the possibilities of private forensic pathology in America. The author's experience includes serving as President of the National Boxing Association and the International Boxing Association, during which time he made many improvements in ring safety. His research into several areas of cases of product liability offer an insight to the wide scope of the potential of the forensic expert. This presentation reviews his activities in realms widely afield from medicine.

  9. Carbon and Hydrogen Isotopic Composition of Plant Wax n-Alkanes: A Tool for Characterizing Soil Provenance in Forensic Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedentchouk, N.; Wagner, T.; Jones, M.

    2009-04-01

    Forensic science is an integrative discipline that requires material evidence from diverse sources. Geochemical evidence derived from inorganic and organic substances is becoming increasingly popular among law enforcement agencies in industrialized countries. Previous investigations indicate that the relative distributions of individual plant-derived biomarkers found in soils are linked to the biomarker patterns found in the overlying vegetation. However, identification of soil provenance based on the distribution of plant-derived biomarkers for forensic purposes is inhibited by the fact that a significant number of terrestrial plant species have overlapping biomarker distributions. In order to enhance the resolving power of plant-derived biomarker signal, we propose to enhance the molecular approach by adding a stable isotope component, i.e. the delta13C/deltaD values of individual biomarkers. The first objective of this project is to determine the delta13C/deltaD signatures of n-alkanes derived from various higher plant types commonly growing in the UK. The second objective is to investigate whether the same species/plant types differ isotopically between two locations affected by different weather patterns in the UK: a relatively warmer and drier Norwich, Norfolk and a cooler and wetter Newcastle-upon-Tyne in NE England. The n-C29 alkane data from 14 tree species sampled during July 2007 and August 2008 in Newcastle show a clear negative trend between delta13C and deltaD values. When these data are plotted against each other, the six deciduous angiosperms (delta13C: c. -39 to -35 per mil; deltaD: c. -155 to -130 per mil) are completely separated from four evergreen angiosperms (delta13C: c. -33 to -28 per mil; deltaD: c. -195 to -165 per mil). The four gymnosperm species data plot between those of the deciduous and evergreen angiosperms. Because all 14 species in Newcastle experience the same environmental conditions, we suggest that the observed isotopic

  10. The forensic psychiatric report.

    PubMed

    Norko, Michael A; Buchanan, Mar Alec

    2015-01-01

    The construction of a written forensic report is a core component of forensic practice, demonstrating the evaluator's skill in conducting the evaluation and in communicating relevant information to the legal audience in an effective manner. Although communication skills and quality of written documentation are important in clinical psychiatry generally, they form the sine qua non of successful forensic work, which consists in telling complex stories in a coherent and compelling fashion. High quality forensic reports require careful preparation from the earliest stages of work on a case. They generally follow an expected structure, which permits the evaluator to provide all the data necessary to form a carefully reasoned opinion that addresses the legal questions posed. Formats and content of reports vary according to the type of case and the circumstances of the evaluation and so require flexibility within customary frameworks. The style and quality of writing are critical to the crafting of forensic reports. The effects on legal decision-makers of various approaches to the presentation of information in reports has not been studied empirically, but guidance from experienced forensic psychiatrists is available. There is a small body of research on quality improvement in forensic writing, and further empiric study is warranted.

  11. Networking and Information Technology Research and Development. Supplement of the President’s Budget for Fiscal Year 2006

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-02-01

    in biology, chemistry , environmental sciences, materials science, nanoscale science and technology, physics, and many other fields. In HEC I&A...networking research; network security (intrusion/attack detection and prevention, network forensics , critical systems protection, survivable designs...computational capabilities. NIST: Continue work in e-commerce, e-health, computer forensics , test method research, security technologies, systems and network

  12. Nanotechnology research: applications in nutritional sciences.

    PubMed

    Srinivas, Pothur R; Philbert, Martin; Vu, Tania Q; Huang, Qingrong; Kokini, Josef L; Saltos, Etta; Saos, Etta; Chen, Hongda; Peterson, Charles M; Friedl, Karl E; McDade-Ngutter, Crystal; Hubbard, Van; Starke-Reed, Pamela; Miller, Nancy; Betz, Joseph M; Dwyer, Johanna; Milner, John; Ross, Sharon A

    2010-01-01

    The tantalizing potential of nanotechnology is to fabricate and combine nanoscale approaches and building blocks to make useful tools and, ultimately, interventions for medical science, including nutritional science, at the scale of approximately 1-100 nm. In the past few years, tools and techniques that facilitate studies and interventions in the nanoscale range have become widely available and have drawn widespread attention. Recently, investigators in the food and nutrition sciences have been applying the tools of nanotechnology in their research. The Experimental Biology 2009 symposium entitled "Nanotechnology Research: Applications in Nutritional Sciences" was organized to highlight emerging applications of nanotechnology to the food and nutrition sciences, as well as to suggest ways for further integration of these emerging technologies into nutrition research. Speakers focused on topics that included the problems and possibilities of introducing nanoparticles in clinical or nutrition settings, nanotechnology applications for increasing bioavailability of bioactive food components in new food products, nanotechnology opportunities in food science, as well as emerging safety and regulatory issues in this area, and the basic research applications such as the use of quantum dots to visualize cellular processes and protein-protein interactions. The session highlighted several emerging areas of potential utility in nutrition research. Nutrition scientists are encouraged to leverage ongoing efforts in nanomedicine through collaborations. These efforts could facilitate exploration of previously inaccessible cellular compartments and intracellular pathways and thus uncover strategies for new prevention and therapeutic modalities.

  13. Nanoscale Science, Engineering and Technology Research Directions

    SciTech Connect

    Lowndes, D. H.; Alivisatos, A. P.; Alper, M.; Averback, R. S.; Jacob Barhen, J.; Eastman, J. A.; Imre, D.; Lowndes, D. H.; McNulty, I.; Michalske, T. A.; Ho, K-M; Nozik, A. J.; Russell, T. P.; Valentin, R. A.; Welch, D. O.; Barhen, J.; Agnew, S. R.; Bellon, P.; Blair, J.; Boatner, L. A.; Braiman, Y.; Budai, J. D.; Crabtree, G. W.; Feldman, L. C.; Flynn, C. P.; Geohegan, D. B.; George, E. P.; Greenbaum, E.; Grigoropoulos, C.; Haynes, T. E.; Heberlein, J.; Hichman, J.; Holland, O. W.; Honda, S.; Horton, J. A.; Hu, M. Z.-C.; Jesson, D. E.; Joy, D. C.; Krauss, A.; Kwok, W.-K.; Larson, B. C.; Larson, D. J.; Likharev, K.; Liu, C. T.; Majumdar, A.; Maziasz, P. J.; Meldrum, A.; Miller, J. C.; Modine, F. A.; Pennycook, S. J.; Pharr, G. M.; Phillpot, S.; Price, D. L.; Protopopescu, V.; Poker, D. B.; Pui, D.; Ramsey, J. M.; Rao, N.; Reichl, L.; Roberto, J.; Saboungi, M-L; Simpson, M.; Strieffer, S.; Thundat, T.; Wambsganss, M.; Wendleken, J.; White, C. W.; Wilemski, G.; Withrow, S. P.; Wolf, D.; Zhu, J. H.; Zuhr, R. A.; Zunger, A.; Lowe, S.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes important future research directions in nanoscale science, engineering and technology. It was prepared in connection with an anticipated national research initiative on nanotechnology for the twenty-first century. The research directions described are not expected to be inclusive but illustrate the wide range of research opportunities and challenges that could be undertaken through the national laboratories and their major national scientific user facilities with the support of universities and industry.

  14. A Call for Field-Relevant Research about Child Forensic Interviewing for Child Protection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olafson, Erna

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews some sensitivity versus specificity imbalances in forensic investigations of child sexual abuse. It then proposes the development or further testing of additional approaches for those children who do not respond to the current, single-interview National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) protocol. Although…

  15. Science education research interests of elementary teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabel, Dorothy; Samuel, K. V.; Helgeson, Stanley; McGuire, Saundra; Novak, Joseph; Butzow, John

    Science education researchers have always sought to improve the quality of our nation's schools. One way of doing this is to make research findings on the teaching of science available to teachers. Perhaps an even more effective way is to plan research studies with teachers' interests in mind. The purpose of this study was to determine the science education research interests of elementary teachers and to examine the data according to certain demographic variables. The sample consisted of 553 elementary teachers in 98 schools from across the nation. The survey instrument contained 28 items, 16 of which were included on a survey instrument prepared by White et al. The data collected using the Likert-type questionnaire were dichotomized as 1 important and O not important and were analyzed using the Cochran Test and the McNemar Test for post hoc comparisons. Results of the study indicate that the top five research interests of teachers in the order of preference are: hands-on experiences, science content of the curriculum, cognitive development and learning styles, problem solving, and teaching strategies. The area of lowest interest was research on sex differences.Results of the survey have several important implications for science education. First, they can be used to help science educators plan research that may be of interest to elementary teachers. Second, they can be used by groups such as NSTA who publish research reviews, and by colleges and universities that prepare elementary teachers, as a guide to not only what is of interest to elementary teachers, but to identify those areas of research for which dissemination has been lacking.

  16. The "Science of HRD Research": Reshaping HRD Research through Scientometrics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Greg G.; Gilley, Jerry W.; Sun, Judy Y.

    2012-01-01

    We explore opportunities for assessing and advancing Human Resource Development (HRD) research through an integrative literature review of scientometric theories and methods. Known as the "science of science," scientometrics is concerned with the quantitative study of scholarly communications, disciplinary structure and assessment and measurement…

  17. 78 FR 22622 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-16

    ... AFFAIRS Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development... Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development Services Scientific Merit... medical specialties within the general areas of biomedical, behavioral and clinical science research....

  18. 76 FR 19188 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-06

    ... AFFAIRS Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development... Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development Services Scientific Merit... medical specialties within the general areas of biomedical, behavioral and clinical science research....

  19. 77 FR 23810 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-20

    ... AFFAIRS Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development... Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development Services... areas of biomedical, behavioral and clinical science research. The panel meetings will be open to...

  20. 76 FR 66367 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-26

    ... AFFAIRS Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development... Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development Services Scientific Merit... medical specialties within the general areas of biomedical, behavioral and clinical science research....

  1. 78 FR 66992 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-07

    ... AFFAIRS Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development... Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development Services Scientific Merit... specialties within the general areas of biomedical, behavioral, and clinical science research. The...

  2. Environmental Research Puts Science into Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaikowski, Lori; Lichtman, Paul

    2007-01-01

    The new paradigm for student research should be articulations and collaborations with local governmental, academic, and civic entities. This will enable students to make lasting contributions to bettering their communities through scientific research, and to better understand the practical relevance of science. This article presents two such…

  3. Major Federal Regulations Governing Social Science Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gandara, Arturo

    This report provides administrators, project leaders, and researchers with information about major federal regulations governing research in the social sciences. The report is presented in five major chapters. Chapter I identifies the report's limitations. For example, it describes only statutory and regulatory provisions and covers only domestic…

  4. Engineering and Applied Science, Recent Research Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, Washington, DC. Directorate of Engineering and Applied Science.

    This collection contains abstracts of technical reports and journal articles resulting from research funded by the National Science Foundation. Included in the collection are abstracts arranged in several categories: (1) electrical, computer, and systems engineering; (2) civil and mechanical engineering; (3) applied research; (4) problem-focused…

  5. Science, democracy, and the right to research.

    PubMed

    Brown, Mark B; Guston, David H

    2009-09-01

    Debates over the politicization of science have led some to claim that scientists have or should have a "right to research." This article examines the political meaning and implications of the right to research with respect to different historical conceptions of rights. The more common "liberal" view sees rights as protections against social and political interference. The "republican" view, in contrast, conceives rights as claims to civic membership. Building on the republican view of rights, this article conceives the right to research as embedding science more firmly and explicitly within society, rather than sheltering science from society. From this perspective, all citizens should enjoy a general right to free inquiry, but this right to inquiry does not necessarily encompass all scientific research. Because rights are most reliably protected when embedded within democratic culture and institutions, claims for a right to research should be considered in light of how the research in question contributes to democracy. By putting both research and rights in a social context, this article shows that the claim for a right to research is best understood, not as a guarantee for public support of science, but as a way to initiate public deliberation and debate about which sorts of inquiry deserve public support.

  6. Research Methods in the Social Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somekh, Bridget, Ed.; Lewin, Cathy, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    This book is intended as a resource and an indispensable companion to welcome educators into the community of social science research. While it is recognized that some methodological frameworks are incompatible with others, the overarching premise of the book is to indicate how a wide range of researchers choose a methodology and methods which are…

  7. Evaluation of mixed-source, low-template DNA profiles in forensic science.

    PubMed

    Balding, David J

    2013-07-23

    Enhancements in sensitivity now allow DNA profiles to be obtained from only tens of picograms of DNA, corresponding to a few cells, even for samples subject to degradation from environmental exposure. However, low-template DNA (LTDNA) profiles are subject to stochastic effects, such as "dropout" and "dropin" of alleles, and highly variable stutter peak heights. Although the sensitivity of the newly developed methods is highly appealing to crime investigators, courts are concerned about the reliability of the underlying science. High-profile cases relying on LTDNA evidence have collapsed amid controversy, including the case of Hoey in the United Kingdom and the case of Knox and Sollecito in Italy. I argue that rather than the reliability of the science, courts and commentators should focus on the validity of the statistical methods of evaluation of the evidence. Even noisy DNA evidence can be more powerful than many traditional types of evidence, and it can be helpful to a court as long as its strength is not overstated. There have been serious shortcomings in statistical methods for the evaluation of LTDNA profile evidence, however. Here, I propose a method that allows for multiple replicates with different rates of dropout, sporadic dropins, different amounts of DNA from different contributors, relatedness of suspected and alternate contributors, "uncertain" allele designations, and degradation. R code implementing the method is open source, facilitating wide scrutiny. I illustrate its good performance using real cases and simulated crime scene profiles.

  8. Evaluation of mixed-source, low-template DNA profiles in forensic science

    PubMed Central

    Balding, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Enhancements in sensitivity now allow DNA profiles to be obtained from only tens of picograms of DNA, corresponding to a few cells, even for samples subject to degradation from environmental exposure. However, low-template DNA (LTDNA) profiles are subject to stochastic effects, such as “dropout” and “dropin” of alleles, and highly variable stutter peak heights. Although the sensitivity of the newly developed methods is highly appealing to crime investigators, courts are concerned about the reliability of the underlying science. High-profile cases relying on LTDNA evidence have collapsed amid controversy, including the case of Hoey in the United Kingdom and the case of Knox and Sollecito in Italy. I argue that rather than the reliability of the science, courts and commentators should focus on the validity of the statistical methods of evaluation of the evidence. Even noisy DNA evidence can be more powerful than many traditional types of evidence, and it can be helpful to a court as long as its strength is not overstated. There have been serious shortcomings in statistical methods for the evaluation of LTDNA profile evidence, however. Here, I propose a method that allows for multiple replicates with different rates of dropout, sporadic dropins, different amounts of DNA from different contributors, relatedness of suspected and alternate contributors, “uncertain” allele designations, and degradation. R code implementing the method is open source, facilitating wide scrutiny. I illustrate its good performance using real cases and simulated crime scene profiles. PMID:23818643

  9. Trends of Science Education Research: An Automatic Content Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Yueh-Hsia; Chang, Chun-Yen; Tseng, Yuen-Hsien

    2010-01-01

    This study used scientometric methods to conduct an automatic content analysis on the development trends of science education research from the published articles in the four journals of "International Journal of Science Education, Journal of Research in Science Teaching, Research in Science Education, and Science Education" from 1990 to 2007. The…

  10. Science Research Facilities - Versatility for Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giannovario, J. A.; Schelkopf, J. D.; Massey, K.; Solly, M.

    1986-01-01

    The Space Station Science Lab Module (SLM) and its interfaces are designed to minimize complexity and maximize user accommodations. The facilities provided encompass life sciences research, the control of external payloads, the servicing of customer equipment, and general scientific investigations. The SLM will have the unprecedented ability to diagnose, service, and replace equipment while in orbit. In addition, the SLM will have significant operational advantages over previous spacecraft in terms of available volume, power, and crew interaction possibilities.

  11. Global change research: Science and policy

    SciTech Connect

    Rayner, S.

    1993-05-01

    This report characterizes certain aspects of the Global Change Research Program of the US Government, and its relevance to the short and medium term needs of policy makers in the public and private sectors. It addresses some of the difficulties inherent in the science and policy interface on the issues of global change. Finally, this report offers some proposals for improving the science for policy process in the context of global environmental change.

  12. Molecular Science Research Center 1992 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Knotek, M.L.

    1994-01-01

    The Molecular Science Research Center is a designated national user facility, available to scientists from universities, industry, and other national laboratories. After an opening section, which includes conferences hosted, appointments, and projects, this document presents progress in the following fields: chemical structure and dynamics; environmental dynamics and simulation; macromolecular structure and dynamics; materials and interfaces; theory, modeling, and simulation; and computing and information sciences. Appendices are included: MSRC staff and associates, 1992 publications and presentations, activities, and acronyms and abbreviations.

  13. Integrating research into operational practice.

    PubMed

    Ross, Alastair

    2015-08-05

    Research and development can be classified into three categories: technology adoption, technology extension, and knowledge and technology creation. In general, technology adoption is embedded in operational forensic science laboratory practice but the latter two categories require partnerships with industry and/or academia both to conduct the research and implement the outcomes. In a 2012 survey, Australian and New Zealand forensic science laboratories identified a number of 'roadblocks' to undertaking research and operationalizing research outcomes. These included insufficient time and funding, a lack of in-house research experience and the absence of a tangible research culture. Allied to this is that, increasingly, forensic science research is conducted in a 'commercial in confidence' environment and the outcomes are not readily or cost-effectively available to be integrated into operational forensic science laboratories. The paper is predominantly reflective of the current situation in Australia and New Zealand.

  14. Integrating research into operational practice

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Alastair

    2015-01-01

    Research and development can be classified into three categories: technology adoption, technology extension, and knowledge and technology creation. In general, technology adoption is embedded in operational forensic science laboratory practice but the latter two categories require partnerships with industry and/or academia both to conduct the research and implement the outcomes. In a 2012 survey, Australian and New Zealand forensic science laboratories identified a number of ‘roadblocks’ to undertaking research and operationalizing research outcomes. These included insufficient time and funding, a lack of in-house research experience and the absence of a tangible research culture. Allied to this is that, increasingly, forensic science research is conducted in a ‘commercial in confidence’ environment and the outcomes are not readily or cost-effectively available to be integrated into operational forensic science laboratories. The paper is predominantly reflective of the current situation in Australia and New Zealand PMID:26101286

  15. Research in the Optical Sciences

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-02-01

    Semiconductor Structures D. Sarid , M. Gallagher and T. Ruskell ....................................... 49 Propagation of Short Optical Pulses in Passive...optical microscope was developed and tested. High quality single-crystal layers of beryllium were grown on germanium by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE...exam February 12. RESEARCH FINDINGS "This year we continued our study of epitaxial beryllium growth using molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). We were

  16. Basic Research in Computer Science

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-10-01

    report has been reviewed and is approved for publication. 72 , +_ CHAHIRA M. HOPPER, Project Engineer ’JERRY L. COVERT, Chief Advanced Systems Research...relationships. Finally, operators are defined graphically by pre- state and post -state specifications. From these graphical images the corresponding...cities. Packages are carried within the same city in trucks and between cities in airplanes. At each city there are several locations, e.g., post

  17. Basic Research in Computer Science

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-12-22

    from Observation. Annual Research Review 1990{):37-53, 1991. [Ikeuchi et al. 93a] Ikeuchi, K., Kawade, M., and Suehiro, T. Assembly Task Recognition...proposal. In [Tygar 92] we review new developments in computer security architectures, including zero-knowledge proofs, secure coprocessors, and high...States are represented graphically by building multiple objects and relationships. Finally, operators are defined graphically by pre- state and post

  18. Microbial Forensics: A Scientific Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Keim, Paul

    2003-02-17

    Microorganisms have been used as weapons in criminal acts, most recently highlighted by the terrorist attack using anthrax in the fall of 2001. Although such ''biocrimes'' are few compared with other crimes, these acts raise questions about the ability to provide forensic evidence for criminal prosecution that can be used to identify the source of the microorganisms used as a weapon and, more importantly, the perpetrator of the crime. Microbiologists traditionally investigate the sources of microorganisms in epidemiological investigations, but rarely have been asked to assist in criminal investigations. A colloquium was convened by the American Academy of Microbiology in Burlington, Vermont, on June 7-9, 2002, in which 25 interdisciplinary, expert scientists representing evolutionary microbiology, ecology, genomics, genetics, bioinformatics, forensics, chemistry, and clinical microbiology, deliberated on issues in microbial forensics. The colloquium's purpose was to consider issues relating to microbial forensics, which included a detailed identification of a microorganism used in a bioattack and analysis of such a microorganism and related materials to identify its forensically meaningful source--the perpetrators of the bioattack. The colloquium examined the application of microbial forensics to assist in resolving biocrimes with a focus on what research and education are needed to facilitate the use of microbial forensics in criminal investigations and the subsequent prosecution of biocrimes, including acts of bioterrorism. First responders must consider forensic issues, such as proper collection of samples to allow for optimal laboratory testing, along with maintaining a chain of custody that will support eventual prosecution. Because a biocrime may not be immediately apparent, a linkage must be made between routine diagnosis, epidemiological investigation, and criminal investigation. There is a need for establishing standard operating procedures and training to

  19. University Science Research and Education Beyond 2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleury, Paul

    1998-03-01

    The American university system has become the envy of the world over the past five decades for its leadership in scientific research and graduate education. Today, the environment and circumstances underlying that leadership are experiencing dramatic change, posing serious challenges to the role and indeed the future of the research university. In this talk we will discuss these changes - end of the Cold War, globalization of industrial operations, outsourcing of R&D, US budget deficits, reexamination of National Laboratory and funding agency missions, reductions in industrial basic research efforts, etc.- in terms of new modes of research support and execution that they are engendering. Numerous studies and government programs have encouraged formation of inter-organization partnerships to enable more efficient use of research dollars. The results have thus far been mixed at best. While much research has thus been brought 'closer to the customer', concerns about long-term and idea-driven research remain, particularly in the case of small science. We will discuss 'pro's and con's' of research partnering. Also even as undergraduate enrollments in science and engineering have declined, career opportunities for graduates have expanded. However, university curricula and research programs have tended to follow rather than drive, those opportunities. Some examples of and suggestions for evolving university science research and education together will be discussed. References: "Driving Innovation Through Materials Research"-Proceedings of the 1996 Solid State Sciences Forum, National Academy Press, Washington D.C.,1996 "Endless Frontier, Limited Resources", Council on Competitiveness, Washington, D.C., April 1996 http://nii.nist.gov/pubs/coc_rd/

  20. Instructing high school students in forensic environmental science using Brownfield Action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bower, Peter; Liddicoat, Joseph; Patterson, Angelica; Kelsey, Ryan; Cox, Alice; Tynes, Nicholas

    2010-05-01

    Barnard College and Columbia University's Center for New Media Teaching and Learning's Brownfield Action is a digital web-based, interactive simulation that combines lecture, laboratory exercises, and individual and collaborative out-of-classroom assignments. The objective of the instruction is to locate and define a subsurface plume of gasoline whose point source is a leaking underground storage tank (LUST) at a gas station. In the fall of 2009, fifteen pre-college high school students from the five boroughs of New York City used Brownfield Action in a 12-week after-school enrichment program at Barnard to investigate the gasoline plume using a variety of geophysical methods - excavation, ground penetrating radar, magnetic metal detection, soil gas, and drilling. The investigation resulted in individual Phase One Site Assessment Reports about the LUST. As coordinators and instructors of the program, we will share our experience teaching the students and the advantages and challenges of using a digital simulation as an instructional centerpiece. Such instruction is intended to include civic engagement and responsibility as part of science education and to create a curriculum that, instead of relying on fragmented and abstract instruction, provides students with a realistic, inquiry-based, and interdisciplinary construction of knowledge.

  1. Community centrality and social science research.

    PubMed

    Allman, Dan

    2015-12-01

    Community centrality is a growing requirement of social science. The field's research practices are increasingly expected to conform to prescribed relationships with the people studied. Expectations about community centrality influence scholarly activities. These expectations can pressure social scientists to adhere to models of community involvement that are immediate and that include community-based co-investigators, advisory boards, and liaisons. In this context, disregarding community centrality can be interpreted as failure. This paper considers evolving norms about the centrality of community in social science. It problematises community inclusion and discusses concerns about the impact of community centrality on incremental theory development, academic integrity, freedom of speech, and the value of liberal versus communitarian knowledge. Through the application of a constructivist approach, this paper argues that social science in which community is omitted or on the periphery is not failed science, because not all social science requires a community base to make a genuine and valuable contribution. The utility of community centrality is not necessarily universal across all social science pursuits. The practices of knowing within social science disciplines may be difficult to transfer to a community. These practices of knowing require degrees of specialisation and interest that not all communities may want or have.

  2. Community centrality and social science research

    PubMed Central

    Allman, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Community centrality is a growing requirement of social science. The field's research practices are increasingly expected to conform to prescribed relationships with the people studied. Expectations about community centrality influence scholarly activities. These expectations can pressure social scientists to adhere to models of community involvement that are immediate and that include community-based co-investigators, advisory boards, and liaisons. In this context, disregarding community centrality can be interpreted as failure. This paper considers evolving norms about the centrality of community in social science. It problematises community inclusion and discusses concerns about the impact of community centrality on incremental theory development, academic integrity, freedom of speech, and the value of liberal versus communitarian knowledge. Through the application of a constructivist approach, this paper argues that social science in which community is omitted or on the periphery is not failed science, because not all social science requires a community base to make a genuine and valuable contribution. The utility of community centrality is not necessarily universal across all social science pursuits. The practices of knowing within social science disciplines may be difficult to transfer to a community. These practices of knowing require degrees of specialisation and interest that not all communities may want or have. PMID:26440071

  3. Materials science research in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perepezko, John H.

    1992-01-01

    There are several important attributes of an extended duration microgravity environment that offer a new dimension in the control of the microstructure, processing, and properties of materials. First, when gravitational effects are minimized, buoyancy driven convection flows are also minimized. The flows due to density differences, brought about either by composition or temperature gradients will then be reduced or eliminated to permit a more precise control of the temperature and the composition of a melt which is critical in achieving high quality crystal growth of electronic materials or alloy structures. Secondly, body force effects such as sedimentation, hydrostatic pressure, and deformation are similarly reduced. These effects may interfere with attempts to produce uniformly dispersed or aligned second phases during melt solidification. Thirdly, operating in a microgravity environment will facilitate the containerless processing of melts to eliminate the limitations of containment for reactive melts. The noncontacting forces such as those developed from electromagnet, electrostatic, or acoustic fields can be used to position samples. With this mode of operation, contamination can be minimized to enable the study of reactive melts and to eliminate extraneous crystal nucleation so that novel crystalline structures and new glass compositions may be produced. In order to take advantage of the microgravity environment for materials research, it has become clear that reliable processing models based on a sound ground based experimental experience and an established thermophysical property data base are essential.

  4. Bridging the gap: from biometrics to forensics

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Anil K.; Ross, Arun

    2015-01-01

    Biometric recognition, or simply biometrics, refers to automated recognition of individuals based on their behavioural and biological characteristics. The success of fingerprints in forensic science and law enforcement applications, coupled with growing concerns related to border control, financial fraud and cyber security, has generated a huge interest in using fingerprints, as well as other biological traits, for automated person recognition. It is, therefore, not surprising to see biometrics permeating various segments of our society. Applications include smartphone security, mobile payment, border crossing, national civil registry and access to restricted facilities. Despite these successful deployments in various fields, there are several existing challenges and new opportunities for person recognition using biometrics. In particular, when biometric data is acquired in an unconstrained environment or if the subject is uncooperative, the quality of the ensuing biometric data may not be amenable for automated person recognition. This is particularly true in crime-scene investigations, where the biological evidence gleaned from a scene may be of poor quality. In this article, we first discuss how biometrics evolved from forensic science and how its focus is shifting back to its origin in order to address some challenging problems. Next, we enumerate the similarities and differences between biometrics and forensics. We then present some applications where the principles of biometrics are being successfully leveraged into forensics in order to solve critical problems in the law enforcement domain. Finally, we discuss new collaborative opportunities for researchers in biometrics and forensics, in order to address hitherto unsolved problems that can benefit society at large. PMID:26101280

  5. An introduction to computer forensics.

    PubMed

    Furneaux, Nick

    2006-07-01

    This paper provides an introduction to the discipline of Computer Forensics. With computers being involved in an increasing number, and type, of crimes the trace data left on electronic media can play a vital part in the legal process. To ensure acceptance by the courts, accepted processes and procedures have to be adopted and demonstrated which are not dissimilar to the issues surrounding traditional forensic investigations. This paper provides a straightforward overview of the three steps involved in the examination of digital media: Acquisition of data. Investigation of evidence. Reporting and presentation of evidence. Although many of the traditional readers of Medicine, Science and the Law are those involved in the biological aspects of forensics, I believe that both disciplines can learn from each other, with electronic evidence being more readily sought and considered by the legal community and the long, tried and tested scientific methods of the forensic community being shared and adopted by the computer forensic world.

  6. Hispanic Behavioral Science Research: Recommendations for Future Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padilla, Amado M.; Lindholm, Kathryn J.

    1984-01-01

    Presents major developments in Hispanic behavioral science research over the past decade, and provides recommendations for future research, organized into three broad categories: life span issues (childhood, adolescence, adulthood, and elderly, all including some education-related issues), delivery of mental health services, and prevention and…

  7. [Forensic radiology].

    PubMed

    Stein, K M; Grünberg, K

    2009-01-01

    Forensic radiology includes both clinical and postmortem forensic radiology. Clinical forensic radiology deals with imaging of healthy people from a legal point of view, such as for determining age or to prove and document injuries in victims of crime. Postmortem forensic radiology deals with the application of modern radiological methods in order to optimise post-mortem diagnosis. X-ray examination has for decades been routinely used in postmortem diagnosis. Newer developments include the application of postmortem computer tomography and magnetic resonance imaging; these are the methods with the greatest information potential but also with the greatest deviations from diagnostics in living persons. Application of radiological methods for securing evidence in criminal procedures is still in its infancy. Radiologists' technical understanding and forensic doctors' knowledge of postmortem changes in a corpse must be synergised.

  8. Fieldwork and social science research ethics.

    PubMed

    Contractor, Qudsiya

    2008-01-01

    Fieldwork as a part of social science research brings the researcher closest to the subject of research. It is a dynamic process where there is an exchange between the researcher, participants, stakeholders, gatekeepers, the community and the larger sociopolitical context in which the research problem is located. Ethical dilemmas that surface during fieldwork often pose a unique challenge to the researcher. This paper is based on field experiences during an action research study conducted with a human rights perspective. It discusses the role conflict that researchers face during fieldwork in a situation of humanitarian crisis. It raises issues pertaining to the need to extend the ethical decision-making paradigm to address ethical dilemmas arising during the course of fieldwork.

  9. Forensic geology exhumed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Joseph Didier

    Forensic geology binds applied geology to the world of legal controversy and action. However, the term “forensic” is often misconstrued. Although even some attorneys apply it only to the marshalling of evidence in criminal cases, it has a much broader definition. One dictionary defines it as “pertaining to, connected with, or used in courts of law or public discussion and debate.” The American Geological Institute's Glossary of Geology defines forensic geology as “the application of the Earth sciences to the law.” The cited reference to Murray and Tedrow [1975], however, deals mostly if not exclusively with the gathering and use of evidence in criminal cases, despite the widespread involvement of geologists in more general legal matters. It seems appropriate to “exhume” geology's wider application to the law, which is encompassed by forensic geology.

  10. Recent Research in Science Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolan, Erin

    2010-01-01

    This feature is designed to point readers of this journal to current articles of interest in life sciences education as well as more general and noteworthy publications in education research. URLs are provided for the abstracts or full text of articles. For articles listed as "Abstract available," full text may be accessible at the indicated URL…

  11. Undergraduate Research in Social Sciences. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pusey, William W., III; Watt, William J.

    Ten seniors at Washington and Lee University participated in an undergraduate educational training program during the 1967-1968 school year. The program provided research training in education and the social sciences, and opportunities to work closely with experienced faculty in order to effectively formulate and clarify problems. The projects…

  12. New perspectives in forensic anthropology.

    PubMed

    Dirkmaat, Dennis C; Cabo, Luis L; Ousley, Stephen D; Symes, Steven A

    2008-01-01

    A critical review of the conceptual and practical evolution of forensic anthropology during the last two decades serves to identify two key external factors and four tightly inter-related internal methodological advances that have significantly affected the discipline. These key developments have not only altered the current practice of forensic anthropology, but also its goals, objectives, scope, and definition. The development of DNA analysis techniques served to undermine the classic role of forensic anthropology as a field almost exclusively focused on victim identification. The introduction of the Daubert criteria in the courtroom presentation of scientific testimony accompanied the development of new human comparative samples and tools for data analysis and sharing, resulting in a vastly enhanced role for quantitative methods in human skeletal analysis. Additionally, new questions asked of forensic anthropologists, beyond identity, required sound scientific bases and expanded the scope of the field. This environment favored the incipient development of the interrelated fields of forensic taphonomy, forensic archaeology, and forensic trauma analysis, fields concerned with the reconstruction of events surrounding death. Far from representing the mere addition of new methodological techniques, these disciplines (especially, forensic taphonomy) provide forensic anthropology with a new conceptual framework, which is broader, deeper, and more solidly entrenched in the natural sciences. It is argued that this new framework represents a true paradigm shift, as it modifies not only the way in which classic forensic anthropological questions are answered, but also the goals and tasks of forensic anthropologists, and their perception of what can be considered a legitimate question or problem to be answered within the field.

  13. Science Education Research Internationally: Conceptions, Research Methods, Domains of Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duit, Reinders

    2007-01-01

    Disappointing results of international monitoring studies such as TIMSS (Third International Mathematics and Science Study) and PISA (Programme for International Student Assessment) have fuelled another general debate on the need for a sufficient level of scientific literacy and the necessity to improve the quality of science instruction in…

  14. Application of soil in forensic science: residual odor and HRD dogs.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Michael B; Hodges, Theresa K; Bytheway, Joan; Aitkenhead-Peterson, Jacqueline A

    2015-04-01

    Decomposing human remains alter the environment through deposition of various compounds comprised of a variety of chemical constituents. Human remains detection (HRD) dogs are trained to indicate the odor of human remains. Residual odor from previously decomposing human remains may remain in the soil and on surfaces long after the remains are gone. This study examined the ability of eight nationally certified HRD dogs (four dual purpose and four single purpose) to detect human remains odor in soil from under decomposing human remains as well as soils which no longer contained human remains, soils which had been cold water extracted and even the extraction fluid itself. The HRD dogs were able to detect the odor of human remains successfully above the level of chance for each soil ranging between 75% and 100% accurate up to 667 days post body removal from soil surface. No significant performance accuracy was found between the dual and single purpose dogs. This finding indicates that even though there may not be anything visually observable to the human eye, residual odor of human remains in soil can be very recalcitrant and therefore detectible by properly trained and credentialed HRD dogs. Further research is warranted to determine the parameters of the HRD dogs capabilities and in determining exactly what they are smelling.

  15. Forensic geoscience: applications of geology, geomorphology and geophysics to criminal investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruffell, Alastair; McKinley, Jennifer

    2005-03-01

    One hundred years ago Georg Popp became the first scientist to present in court a case where the geological makeup of soils was used to secure a criminal conviction. Subsequently there have been significant advances in the theory and practice of forensic geoscience: many of them subsequent to the seminal publication of "Forensic Geology" by Murray and Tedrow [Murray, R., Tedrow, J.C.F. 1975 (republished 1986). Forensic Geology: Earth Sciences and Criminal Investigation. Rutgers University Press, New York, 240 pp.]. Our review places historical development in the modern context of how the allied disciplines of geology (mineralogy, sedimentology, microscopy), geophysics, soil science, microbiology, anthropology and geomorphology have been used as tool to aid forensic (domestic, serious, terrorist and international) crime investigations. The latter half of this paper uses the concept of scales of investigation, from large-scale landforms through to microscopic particles as a method of categorising the large number of geoscience applications to criminal investigation. Forensic geoscience has traditionally used established non-forensic techniques: 100 years after Popp's seminal work, research into forensic geoscience is beginning to lead, as opposed to follow other scientific disciplines.

  16. Experimental evidence shows no fractionation of strontium isotopes ((87)Sr/(86)Sr) among soil, plants, and herbivores: implications for tracking wildlife and forensic science.

    PubMed

    Flockhart, D T Tyler; Kyser, T Kurt; Chipley, Don; Miller, Nathan G; Norris, D Ryan

    2015-01-01

    Strontium isotopes ((87)Sr/(86)Sr) can be useful biological markers for a wide range of forensic science applications, including wildlife tracking. However, one of the main advantages of using (87)Sr/(86)Sr values, that there is no fractionation from geological bedrock sources through the food web, also happens to be a critical assumption that has never been tested experimentally. We test this assumption by measuring (87)Sr/(86)Sr values across three trophic levels in a controlled greenhouse experiment. Adult monarch butterflies were raised on obligate larval host milkweed plants that were, in turn, grown on seven different soil types collected across Canada. We found no significant differences between (87)Sr/(86)Sr values in leachable Sr from soil minerals, organic soil, milkweed leaves, and monarch butterfly wings. Our results suggest that strontium isoscapes developed from (87)Sr/(86)Sr values in bedrock or soil may serve as a reliable biological marker in forensic science for a range of taxa and across large geographic areas.

  17. Research on extraction of outlines of mandible in forensic individual recognitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Lu; Xing, Yu; Shan, Gaixian; He, Xiangqian

    2013-07-01

    There are fractures in local regions after extracting outlines of cone beam CT(CBCT) mandible images by conventional segmentation algorithm in the forensic test, therefore, this paper proposes a new method to avoid negative impact of fractures by the Erosion-reconstruction and Dilation- reconstruction of mathematics morphology (ERDR) algorithm to improve the accuracy of auto-extracting mandible outlines. The experiments show that the ERDR had a higher success rate (82.3%) in the processing of extracting the outlines of 300 mandible images than that of conventional segmentation method(24.0%).

  18. Policy Sciences in Water Resources Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cummings, Ronald G.

    1984-07-01

    As the newly appointed Policy Sciences Editor for this journal, I would like to take this opportunity to introduce myself to WRR's readership as well as to offer a few comments concerning my views of policy sciences in water resources research. I am an economist working in the area of natural resources and environmental management. As such, I've spent a good part of my research career working with noneconomists. During 1969-1972, I worked in Mexico with hydrologists and engineers from Mexico's Water Resources Ministry in efforts to assess management/investment programs for reservoir systems and systems for interbasin water transfers. Between 1972 and 1975, while serving as Chairman of the Department of Resource Economics at the University of Rhode Island, my research involved collaborative efforts with biologists and soil scientists in studies concerning the conjunctive management of reservoirs for agricultural and lagoon systems and the control of salinity levels in soils and aquifers. Since 1975, at which time I joined the faculty at the University of New Mexico, I have worked with engineers at the Los Alamos National Laboratory in developing operation/management models for hot, dry rock geothermal systems and, more recently, with legal scholars and hydrologists in analyses of water rights issues. Thus I am comfortable with and appreciative of research conducted by my colleagues in systems engineering, operations research, and hydrology, as well as those in economics, law, and other social sciences.

  19. Research Misconduct and the Physical Sciences

    SciTech Connect

    HM Kerch; JJ Dooley

    1999-10-11

    Research misconduct includes the fabrication, falsification, and plagiarism (FFP) of concepts or ideas; some institutions have expanded this concept to include ''other serious deviations (OSD) from accepted research practice.'' An action can be evaluated as research misconduct if it involves activities unique to the practice of science and could negatively affect the scientific record. Although the number of cases of research misconduct is uncertain (formal records are kept only by the NIH and the NSF), the costs are high in integrity of the scientific record, diversions from research to investigate allegations, ruined careers of those eventually exonerated, and erosion of public confidence in science. Currently, research misconduct policies vary from institution to institution and from government agency to government agency; some have highly developed guidelines that include OSD, others have no guidelines at ail. One result has been that the federal False Claims Act has been used to pursue allegations of research misconduct and have them adjudicated in the federal court, rather than being judged by scientific peers. The federal government will soon establish a first-ever research misconduct policy that would apply to all research funded by the federal government regardless of what agency funded the research or whether the research was carried out in a government, industrial or university laboratory. Physical scientists, who up to now have only infrequently been the subject or research misconduct allegations, must none-the-less become active in the debate over research misconduct policies and how they are implemented since they will now be explicitly covered by this new federal wide policy.

  20. Forensic Loci Allele Database (FLAD): Automatically generated, permanent identifiers for sequenced forensic alleles.

    PubMed

    Van Neste, Christophe; Van Criekinge, Wim; Deforce, Dieter; Van Nieuwerburgh, Filip

    2016-01-01

    It is difficult to predict if and when massively parallel sequencing of forensic STR loci will replace capillary electrophoresis as the new standard technology in forensic genetics. The main benefits of sequencing are increased multiplexing scales and SNP detection. There is not yet a consensus on how sequenced profiles should be reported. We present the Forensic Loci Allele Database (FLAD) service, made freely available on http://forensic.ugent.be/FLAD/. It offers permanent identifiers for sequenced forensic alleles (STR or SNP) and their microvariants for use in forensic allele nomenclature. Analogous to Genbank, its aim is to provide permanent identifiers for forensically relevant allele sequences. Researchers that are developing forensic sequencing kits or are performing population studies, can register on http://forensic.ugent.be/FLAD/ and add loci and allele sequences with a short and simple application interface (API).

  1. What kind of research in psychoanalytic science?

    PubMed

    Wallerstein, Robert S

    2009-02-01

    The kind of science that psychoanalysis is (can be), and the kind of research appropriate to it, qualitative and/or quantitative, have been divisive issues from the very inception of the discipline. I explore in detail the complexity of these issues, definitional and semantic, as well as methodological and substantive. A plea is made for the application of qualitative (idiographic)and quantitative (nomothetic) research methods, each to the extent that is appropriate, separately or in conjunction, across the entire spectrum of research domains in psychoanalysis, empirical, clinical, conceptual, historical, and interdisciplinary.

  2. Launch vouchers for space science research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macauley, Molly K.

    1989-01-01

    Recent national space policy proposes the use of space transportation vouchers to increase opportunities for space-based science research and to support the U.S. space transportation industry. Vouchers issued and financially backed by the government would be given to researchers for redemption on any mode of space transportation. This paper examines the economic costs and benefits of vouchers; incentive-based strategies for effective program design; and areas where the voucher scheme is weak. It is concluded that, under plausible assumptions, vouchers may well be a cost-effective way to achieve near-term space transportation for space research payloads.

  3. The Role of Public Policy in K-12 Science Education. Research in Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBoer, George E., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this volume of "Research in Science Education" is to examine the relationship between science education policy and practice and the special role that science education researchers play in influencing policy. It has been suggested that the science education research community is isolated from the political process, pays little attention…

  4. Messenger RNA profiling for forensic body fluid identification: research and applications.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zheng; Zhang, Su-hua; Di, Zhou; Zhao, Shu-min; Li, Cheng-tao

    2013-10-01

    Identifying the origin of body fluids left at a crime scene can give a significant insight into crime scene reconstruction by supporting a link between sample donors and actual criminal acts. However, the conventional body fluid identification methods are prone to various limitations, such as time consumption, intensive labor, nonparallel manner, varying degrees of sensitivity and limited specificity. Recently, the analysis of cell-specific messenger RNA expression (mRNA profiling) has been proposed to supplant conventional methods for body fluid identification. Since 2011, the collaborative exercises have been organized by the European DNA Profiling Group (EDNAP) in order to evaluate the robustness and reproducibility of mRNA profiling for body fluid identification. The major advantages of mRNA profiling, compared to the conventional methods, include higher sensitivity, greater specificity, the ability of detecting several body fluids in one multiplex reaction, and compatibility with current DNA extraction and analysis procedure. In the current review, we provided an overview of the present knowledge and detection methodologies of mRNA profiling for forensic body fluid identification and discussed its possible practical application to forensic casework.

  5. Remote Sensing Information Sciences Research Group: Santa Barbara Information Sciences Research Group, year 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, John E.; Smith, Terence; Star, Jeffrey L.

    1987-01-01

    Information Sciences Research Group (ISRG) research continues to focus on improving the type, quantity, and quality of information which can be derived from remotely sensed data. Particular focus in on the needs of the remote sensing research and application science community which will be served by the Earth Observing System (EOS) and Space Station, including associated polar and co-orbiting platforms. The areas of georeferenced information systems, machine assisted information extraction from image data, artificial intelligence and both natural and cultural vegetation analysis and modeling research will be expanded.

  6. The Culture of Translational Science Research

    PubMed Central

    Kotarba, Joseph A.; Wooten, Kevin; Freeman, Jean; Brasier, Allan R.

    2014-01-01

    We apply a symbolic interactionist framework and a qualitative methodology to the examination of the everyday reality of translational science research (TSR). This is a growing scientific movement that aims to facilitate the efficient application of basic research to clinical service design and delivery. We describe the emerging culture of translational research at a mid-size medical center that received a Clinical and Translational Science Award from the National Institutes of Health. The stories related by scientists, clinicians, and students in interviews indicate that they make sense of the emerging inter- and cross-disciplinary, team-oriented culture of TSR through the refinement and redefinition of the significant symbols that inform their work while they attempt to master translational research by addressing the dilemmas it produces for them and their work. We see the strength, currency, adaptability, and energy of the core self-definition of “scientist” to be significant in shaping the emerging culture of translational research. We conclude by celebrating the value of interpretive ethnography for evaluation research. PMID:25685253

  7. DOE - BES Nanoscale Science Research Centers (NSRCs)

    SciTech Connect

    Beecher, Cathy Jo

    2016-11-14

    These are slides from a powerpoint shown to guests during tours of Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies (CINT) at Los Alamos National Laboratory. It shows the five DOE-BES nanoscale science research centers (NSRCs), which are located at different national laboratories throughout the country. Then it goes into detail specifically about the Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies at LANL, including statistics on its user community and CINT's New Mexico industrial users.

  8. Computer Science Research Review 1974-75

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-08-01

    mwmmmimmm^m^mmmrm. : i i 1 Faculty and Visitors Mario Barbaccl Research Associate B.S., Universidad Nacional de Ingenieria , Lima, Peru (1966...Engineer, Universidad Nacional de Ingenieria , Lima, Peru (1968) Ph.D., Carnegie-Mellon University (1974) Carnegie. 1969: Design Automation...Compitational Complexity Jack R Buchanan Assistant Professor of Computer Science and Industrial Administration B.S., University of Utah (1965) M.A

  9. 2016 LLNL Nuclear Forensics Summer Program

    SciTech Connect

    Zavarin, Mavrik

    2016-11-15

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Nuclear Forensics Summer Program is designed to give graduate students an opportunity to come to LLNL for 8–10 weeks for a hands-on research experience. Students conduct research under the supervision of a staff scientist, attend a weekly lecture series, interact with other students, and present their work in poster format at the end of the program. Students also have the opportunity to meet staff scientists one-on-one, participate in LLNL facility tours (e.g., the National Ignition Facility and Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry), and gain a better understanding of the various science programs at LLNL.

  10. An open science cloud for scientific research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Bob

    2016-04-01

    The Helix Nebula initiative was presented at EGU 2013 (http://meetingorganizer.copernicus.org/EGU2013/EGU2013-1510-2.pdf) and has continued to expand with more research organisations, providers and services. The hybrid cloud model deployed by Helix Nebula has grown to become a viable approach for provisioning ICT services for research communities from both public and commercial service providers (http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.16001). The relevance of this approach for all those communities facing societal challenges in explained in a recent EIROforum publication (http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.34264). This presentation will describe how this model brings together a range of stakeholders to implement a common platform for data intensive services that builds upon existing public funded e-infrastructures and commercial cloud services to promote open science. It explores the essential characteristics of a European Open Science Cloud if it is to address the big data needs of the latest generation of Research Infrastructures. The high-level architecture and key services as well as the role of standards is described. A governance and financial model together with the roles of the stakeholders, including commercial service providers and downstream business sectors, that will ensure a European Open Science Cloud can innovate, grow and be sustained beyond the current project cycles is described.

  11. Identification of Emerging Science Competencies in Agriculture. Vocational Education Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge. School of Vocational Education.

    A research project identified new and emerging science concepts that should be taught in high school vocational agriculture. Agricultural scientists on an advisory panel identified the emerging science concepts. The majority were in the areas of plant science and animal science. Animal science was completely reorganized with greater emphasis on…

  12. Research Institute for Advanced Computer Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, Anthony R. (Technical Monitor); Leiner, Barry M.

    2000-01-01

    The Research Institute for Advanced Computer Science (RIACS) carries out basic research and technology development in computer science, in support of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's missions. RIACS is located at the NASA Ames Research Center. It currently operates under a multiple year grant/cooperative agreement that began on October 1, 1997 and is up for renewal in the year 2002. Ames has been designated NASA's Center of Excellence in Information Technology. In this capacity, Ames is charged with the responsibility to build an Information Technology Research Program that is preeminent within NASA. RIACS serves as a bridge between NASA Ames and the academic community, and RIACS scientists and visitors work in close collaboration with NASA scientists. RIACS has the additional goal of broadening the base of researchers in these areas of importance to the nation's space and aeronautics enterprises. RIACS research focuses on the three cornerstones of information technology research necessary to meet the future challenges of NASA missions: (1) Automated Reasoning for Autonomous Systems. Techniques are being developed enabling spacecraft that will be self-guiding and self-correcting to the extent that they will require little or no human intervention. Such craft will be equipped to independently solve problems as they arise, and fulfill their missions with minimum direction from Earth; (2) Human-Centered Computing. Many NASA missions require synergy between humans and computers, with sophisticated computational aids amplifying human cognitive and perceptual abilities; (3) High Performance Computing and Networking. Advances in the performance of computing and networking continue to have major impact on a variety of NASA endeavors, ranging from modeling and simulation to data analysis of large datasets to collaborative engineering, planning and execution. In addition, RIACS collaborates with NASA scientists to apply information technology research to a

  13. [Research groups in biomedical sciences. Some recommendations].

    PubMed

    Cardona, Ricardo; Sánchez, Jorge; Sánchez, Andrés

    2015-01-01

    Despite the growing number of scientific publications reflecting a greater number of people interested in the biomedical sciences, many research groups disappear secondary to poor internal organization. From the review of the available literature, we generate a series of recommendations that may be useful for the creation of a research group or to improve the productivity of an existing group. Fluid communication between its members with a common overall policy framework allows the creation of a good foundation that will lead to the consolidation of the group.

  14. Veterinary Forensic Pathology: The Search for Truth.

    PubMed

    McDonough, S P; McEwen, B J

    2016-09-01

    Veterinary forensic pathology is emerging as a distinct discipline, and this special issue is a major step forward in establishing the scientific basis of the discipline. A forensic necropsy uses the same skill set needed for investigations of natural disease, but the analytical framework and purpose of forensic pathology differ significantly. The requirement of legal credibility and all that it entails distinguishes the forensic from routine diagnostic cases. Despite the extraordinary depth and breadth of knowledge afforded by their training, almost 75% of veterinary pathologists report that their training has not adequately prepared them to handle forensic cases. Many veterinary pathologists, however, are interested and willing to develop expertise in the discipline. Lessons learned from tragic examples of wrongful convictions in medical forensic pathology indicate that a solid foundation for the evolving discipline of veterinary forensic pathology requires a commitment to education, training, and certification. The overarching theme of this issue is that the forensic necropsy is just one aspect in the investigation of a case of suspected animal abuse or neglect. As veterinary pathologists, we must be aware of the roles filled by other veterinary forensic experts involved in these cases and how our findings are an integral part of an investigation. We hope that the outcome of this special issue of the journal is that veterinary pathologists begin to familiarize themselves with not only forensic pathology but also all aspects of veterinary forensic science.

  15. Pupils' Attitudes to Science. A Review of Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ormerod, M. B.; Duckworth, D.

    This review of research into pupils' attitudes toward science cites significant British and American studies. Research studies appear under one of nine headings: (1) Attitude measurement in science education, (2) Differences between biology and the physical sciences, (3) The difficulty of the physical sciences and its causes, (4) The early age of…

  16. Effective Science Instruction: What Does Research Tell Us? Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banilower, Eric; Cohen, Kim; Pasley, Joan; Weiss, Iris

    2010-01-01

    This brief distills the research on science learning to inform a common vision of science instruction and to describe the extent to which K-12 science education currently reflects this vision. A final section on implications for policy makers and science education practitioners describes actions that could integrate the findings from research into…

  17. Physical Sciences Research Priorities and Plans in OBPR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trinh, Eugene

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs of physical sciences research priorities and plans at the Office of Biological and Physical Sciences Research (OBPR). The topics include: 1) Sixth Microgravity Fluid Physics and Transport Phenomena Conference; 2) Beneficial Characteristics of the Space Environment; 3) Windows of Opportunity for Research Derived from Microgravity; 4) Physical Sciences Research Program; 5) Fundamental Research: Space-based Results and Ground-based Applications; 6) Nonlinear Oscillations; and 7) Fundamental Research: Applications to Mission-Oriented Research.

  18. Chemistry and materials science research report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-05-31

    The research reported here in summary form was conducted under the auspices of Weapons-Supporting Research (WSR) and Institutional Research and Development (IR D). The period covered is the first half of FY90. The results reported here are for work in progress; thus, they may be preliminary, fragmentary, or incomplete. Research in the following areas are briefly described: energetic materials, tritium, high-Tc superconductors, interfaces, adhesion, bonding, fundamental aspects of metal processing, plutonium, synchrotron-radiation-based materials science, photocatalysis on doped aerogels, laser-induced chemistry, laser-produced molecular plasmas, chemistry of defects, dta equipment development, electronic structure study of the thermodynamic and mechanical properties of Al-Li Alloys, and the structure-property link in sub-nanometer materials.

  19. Research Experiences in Community College Science Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beauregard, A.

    2011-12-01

    The benefits of student access to scientific research opportunities and the use of data in curriculum and student inquiry-driven approaches to teaching as effective tools in science instruction are compelling (i.e., Ledley, et al., 2008; Gawel & Greengrove, 2005; Macdonald, et al., 2005; Harnik & Ross. 2003). Unfortunately, these experiences are traditionally limited at community colleges due to heavy faculty teaching loads, a focus on teaching over research, and scarce departmental funds. Without such hands-on learning activities, instructors may find it difficult to stimulate excitement about science in their students, who are typically non-major and nontraditional. I present two different approaches for effectively incorporating research into the community college setting that each rely on partnerships with other institutions. The first of these is a more traditional approach for providing research experiences to undergraduate students, though such experiences are limited at community colleges, and involves student interns working on a research project under the supervision of a faculty member. Specifically, students participate in a water quality assessment study of two local bayous. Students work on different aspects of the project, including water sample collection, bio-assay incubation experiments, water quality sample analysis, and collection and identification of phytoplankton. Over the past four years, nine community college students, as well as two undergraduate students and four graduate students from the local four-year university have participated in this research project. Aligning student and faculty research provides community college students with the unique opportunity to participate in the process of active science and contribute to "real" scientific research. Because students are working in a local watershed, these field experiences provide a valuable "place-based" educational opportunity. The second approach links cutting-edge oceanographic

  20. Unique life sciences research facilities at NASA Ames Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulenburg, G. M.; Vasques, M.; Caldwell, W. F.; Tucker, J.

    1994-01-01

    The Life Science Division at NASA's Ames Research Center has a suite of specialized facilities that enable scientists to study the effects of gravity on living systems. This paper describes some of these facilities and their use in research. Seven centrifuges, each with its own unique abilities, allow testing of a variety of parameters on test subjects ranging from single cells through hardware to humans. The Vestibular Research Facility allows the study of both centrifugation and linear acceleration on animals and humans. The Biocomputation Center uses computers for 3D reconstruction of physiological systems, and interactive research tools for virtual reality modeling. Psycophysiological, cardiovascular, exercise physiology, and biomechanical studies are conducted in the 12 bed Human Research Facility and samples are analyzed in the certified Central Clinical Laboratory and other laboratories at Ames. Human bedrest, water immersion and lower body negative pressure equipment are also available to study physiological changes associated with weightlessness. These and other weightlessness models are used in specialized laboratories for the study of basic physiological mechanisms, metabolism and cell biology. Visual-motor performance, perception, and adaptation are studied using ground-based models as well as short term weightlessness experiments (parabolic flights). The unique combination of Life Science research facilities, laboratories, and equipment at Ames Research Center are described in detail in relation to their research contributions.

  1. New Earth Science Research Opportunities: Committee Seeks Input

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, Mark

    2010-07-01

    In 2001, the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) published Basic Research Opportunities in the Earth Sciences, which helped define the priorities for the National Science Foundation's (NSF) Division of Earth Sciences (EAR) over the past decade. Motivated by this report, EAR funded key components of the EarthScope initiative, established a network of Critical Zone Observatories, and expanded its post-doctoral fellowship programs. Ten years later, again at the behest of NSF, NAS has assembled the Committee on New Research Opportunities in the Earth Sciences at the National Science Foundation. The committee will, among other things, identify high-priority new and emerging research opportunities in the Earth sciences over the next decade, including surface and deep Earth processes and interdisciplinary research with fields such as ocean and atmospheric sciences, biology, engineering, computer science, and social and behavioral sciences. The committee also will identify key instrumentation and facilities needed to support these new and emerging research opportunities.

  2. Complexity and forensic pathology.

    PubMed

    Jones, Richard Martin

    2015-12-01

    It has become increasingly apparent that nonlinearity and complexity are the norm in human physiological systems, the relevance of which is informing an enhanced understanding of basic pathological processes such as inflammation, the host response to severe trauma, and critical illness. This article will explore how an understanding of nonlinear systems and complexity might inform the study of the pathophysiology of deaths of medicolegal interest, and how 'complexity thinking' might usefully be incorporated into modern forensic medicine and forensic pathology research, education and practice.

  3. Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle and Interpretive Research in Science Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Wolff-Michael

    1993-01-01

    Heisenberg's uncertainty principle and the derivative notions of interdeterminacy, uncertainty, precision, and observer-observed interaction are discussed and their applications to social science research examined. Implications are drawn for research in science education. (PR)

  4. Nuclear Forensics International Technical Working Group (ITWG): a collaboration of scientists, law enforcement officials, and regulators working to combat nuclear terrorism and proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Schwantes, Jon M.

    2013-10-25

    Founded in 1996 upon the initiative of the “Group of 8” governments (G8), the Nuclear Forensics International Technical Working Group (ITWG) is an ad hoc organization of official Nuclear Forensics practitioners (scientists, law enforcement, and regulators) that can be called upon to provide technical assistance to the global community in the event of a seizure of nuclear or radiological materials. The ITWG is supported by and is affiliated with nearly 40 countries and international partner organizations including the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), EURATOM, INTERPOL, EUROPOL, and the United Nations Interregional Crime and Justice Research Institute (UNICRI) (Figure 1). Besides providing a network of nuclear forensics laboratories that are able to assist the global community during a nuclear smuggling event, the ITWG is also committed to the advancement of the science of nuclear forensic analysis, largely through participation in periodic table top and Collaborative Materials Exercises (CMXs). Exercise scenarios use “real world” samples with realistic forensics investigation time constraints and reporting requirements. These exercises are designed to promote best practices in the field and test, evaluate, and improve new technical capabilities, methods and techniques in order to advance the science of nuclear forensics. Past efforts to advance nuclear forensic science have also included scenarios that asked laboratories to adapt conventional forensics methods (e.g. DNA, fingerprints, tool marks, and document comparisons) for collecting and preserving evidence comingled with radioactive materials.

  5. Accelerator R&D: Research for Science - Science for Society

    SciTech Connect

    The HEP Accelerator R&D Task Force: N.R. Holtkamp,S. Biedron, S.V. Milton, L. Boeh, J.E. Clayton, G. Zdasiuk, S.A. Gourlay, M.S. Zisman,R.W. Hamm, S. Henderson, G.H. Hoffstaetter, L. Merminga, S. Ozaki, F.C. Pilat, M. White

    2012-07-01

    In September 2011 the US Senate Appropriations Committee requested a ten-year strategic plan from the Department of Energy (DOE) that would describe how accelerator R&D today could advance applications directly relevant to society. Based on the 2009 workshop 'Accelerators for America's Future' an assessment was made on how accelerator technology developed by the nation's laboratories and universities could directly translate into a competitive strength for industrial partners and a variety of government agencies in the research, defense and national security sectors. The Office of High Energy Physics, traditionally the steward for advanced accelerator R&D within DOE, commissioned a task force under its auspices to generate and compile ideas on how best to implement strategies that would help fulfill the needs of industry and other agencies, while maintaining focus on its core mission of fundamental science investigation.

  6. A Science Educator's and a Psychologists' Perspective on Research about Science Anxiety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westerback, Mary E.; Primavera, Louis H.

    This document reviews the research related to students' and teachers' anxiety related to science and the teaching of science in order to better understand the relationships between the variables that can predict this phenomenon. The research reports reviewed used either the Science State Trait Anxiety Inventory or the Science Teaching State Trait…

  7. A research program in empirical computer science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, J. C.

    1991-01-01

    During the grant reporting period our primary activities have been to begin preparation for the establishment of a research program in experimental computer science. The focus of research in this program will be safety-critical systems. Many questions that arise in the effort to improve software dependability can only be addressed empirically. For example, there is no way to predict the performance of the various proposed approaches to building fault-tolerant software. Performance models, though valuable, are parameterized and cannot be used to make quantitative predictions without experimental determination of underlying distributions. In the past, experimentation has been able to shed some light on the practical benefits and limitations of software fault tolerance. It is common, also, for experimentation to reveal new questions or new aspects of problems that were previously unknown. A good example is the Consistent Comparison Problem that was revealed by experimentation and subsequently studied in depth. The result was a clear understanding of a previously unknown problem with software fault tolerance. The purpose of a research program in empirical computer science is to perform controlled experiments in the area of real-time, embedded control systems. The goal of the various experiments will be to determine better approaches to the construction of the software for computing systems that have to be relied upon. As such it will validate research concepts from other sources, provide new research results, and facilitate the transition of research results from concepts to practical procedures that can be applied with low risk to NASA flight projects. The target of experimentation will be the production software development activities undertaken by any organization prepared to contribute to the research program. Experimental goals, procedures, data analysis and result reporting will be performed for the most part by the University of Virginia.

  8. Molecular Science Research Center, 1991 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Knotek, M.L.

    1992-03-01

    During 1991, the Molecular Science Research Center (MSRC) experienced solid growth and accomplishment and the Environmental, and Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL) construction project moved forward. We began with strong programs in chemical structure and dynamics and theory, modeling, and simulation, and both these programs continued to thrive. We also made significant advances in the development of programs in materials and interfaces and macromolecular structure and dynamics, largely as a result of the key staff recruited to lead these efforts. If there was one pervasive activity for the past year, however, it was to strengthen the role of the EMSL in the overall environmental restoration and waste management (ER/WM) mission at Hanford. These extended activities involved not only MSRC and EMSL staff but all PNL scientific and technical staff engaged in ER/WM programs.

  9. Suborbital Science Program: Dryden Flight Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DelFrate, John

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the suborbital science program at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. The Program Objectives are given in various areas: (1) Satellite Calibration and Validation (Cal/val)--Provide methods to perform the cal/val requirements for Earth Observing System satellites; (2) New Sensor Development -- Provide methods to reduce risk for new sensor concepts and algorithm development prior to committing sensors to operations; (3) Process Studies -- Facilitate the acquisition of high spatial/temporal resolution focused measurements that are required to understand small atmospheric and surface structures which generate powerful Earth system effects; and (4) Airborne Networking -- Develop disruption-tolerant networking to enable integrated multiple scale measurements of critical environmental features. Dryden supports the NASA Airborne Science Program and the nation in several elements: ER-2, G-3, DC-8, Ikhana (Predator B) & Global Hawk and Reveal. These are reviewed in detail in the presentation.

  10. Research frontiers in the physical sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, J. M. T.

    2002-12-01

    As a prestigious generalist journal with a high scholarly reputation and a long influential history, the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society (Series A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences), is an ideal vehicle for charting research frontiers across the physical sciences. It is the world's longest running scientific journal, and all issues since its foundation in 1665 are archived electronically by JSTOR in the USA (see http://www.jstor.org/) and are accessible through most university libraries. This archive gives facsimile access, and search facilities, to the works of many famous scientists. In this brief editorial I give first an introduction to the special Christmas issues by young scientists, followed by an overview of the fields covered.

  11. Research and Practical Trends in Geospatial Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpik, A. P.; Musikhin, I. A.

    2016-06-01

    In recent years professional societies have been undergoing fundamental restructuring brought on by extensive technological change and rapid evolution of geospatial science. Almost all professional communities have been affected. Communities are embracing digital techniques, modern equipment, software and new technological solutions at a staggering pace. In this situation, when planning financial investments and intellectual resource management, it is crucial to have a clear understanding of those trends that will be in great demand in 3-7 years. This paper reviews current scientific and practical activities of such non-governmental international organizations as International Federation of Surveyors, International Cartographic Association, and International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, analyzes and groups most relevant topics brought up at their scientific events, forecasts most probable research and practical trends in geospatial sciences, outlines topmost leading countries and emerging markets for further detailed analysis of their activities, types of scientific cooperation and joint implementation projects.

  12. Ames Research Center life sciences payload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, P. X.; Tremor, J. W.

    1982-01-01

    In response to a recognized need for an in-flight animal housing facility to support Spacelab life sciences investigators, a rack and system compatible Research Animal Holding Facility (RAHF) has been developed. A series of ground tests is planned to insure its satisfactory performance under certain simulated conditions of flight exposure and use. However, even under the best conditions of simulation, confidence gained in ground testing will not approach that resulting from actual spaceflight operation. The Spacelab Mission 3 provides an opportunity to perform an inflight Verification Test (VT) of the RAHF. Lessons learned from the RAHF-VT and baseline performance data will be invaluable in preparation for subsequent dedicated life sciences missions.

  13. Seeking New Bases for SLA Research: Looking to Cognitive Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Block, David

    1990-01-01

    Suggests that cognitive science, a field that draws on research in linguistics, psychology, anthropology, and computer science, might provide better explanations of student behavior in the classroom than mainstream second-language acquisition research. An attempt is made to show how research from cognitive science might offer explanations for what…

  14. Bridging the Gap between Research and Practice: Implementation Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olswang, Lesley B.; Prelock, Patricia A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This article introduces implementation science, which focuses on research methods that promote the systematic application of research findings to practice. Method: The narrative defines implementation science and highlights the importance of moving research along the pipeline from basic science to practice as one way to facilitate…

  15. Undergraduate Research in the Human Sciences: Three Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Nina; Mitstifer, Dorothy I.; Nelson Goff, Briana S.; Hymon-Parker, Shirley

    2009-01-01

    Undergraduate research in the sciences has been shown by numerous studies to enhance the educational experience. The Undergraduate Research Community (URC) founded in 2001 supports several initiatives that promote research in human sciences/family and consumer sciences including an online peer-reviewed journal specifically for undergraduate work,…

  16. Interdisciplinary research in climate and energy sciences

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Xiaofeng; Goswami, Santonu; Gulledge, Jay; Wullschleger, Stan D.; Thornton, Peter E.

    2015-09-12

    Due to the complex nature of climate change, interdisciplinary research approaches involving knowledge and skills from a broad range of disciplines have been adopted for studying changes in the climate system as well as strategies for mitigating climate change (i.e., greenhouse gas emissions reductions) and adapting to its impacts on society and natural systems. Harnessing of renewable energy sources to replace fossil fuels is widely regarded as a long-term mitigation strategy that requires the synthesis of knowledge from engineering, technology, and natural and social sciences. In this study, we examine how the adoption of interdisciplinary approaches has evolved over time and in different geographic regions. We conducted a comprehensive literature survey using an evaluation matrix of keywords, in combination with a word cloud analysis, to evaluate the spatiotemporal dynamics of scholarly discourse about interdisciplinary approaches to climate change and renewable energy research and development (R&D). Publications that discuss interdisciplinary approaches to climate change and renewable energy have substantially increased over the last 60 years; it appears, however, that the nature, timing, and focus of these publications vary across countries and through time. Over the most recent three decades, the country-level contribution to interdisciplinary research for climate change has become more evenly distributed, but this was not true for renewable energy research, which remained dominated by the United Sates and a few other major economies. The research topics have also evolved: Water resource management was emphasized from 1990s to 2000s, policy and adaptation were emphasized from the 2000s to 2010 – 2013, while vulnerability became prominent during the most recent years (2010 – 2013). Lastly, our analysis indicates that the rate of growth of interdisciplinary research for renewable energy lags behind that for climate change, possibly because knowledge

  17. Interdisciplinary research in climate and energy sciences

    DOE PAGES

    Xu, Xiaofeng; Goswami, Santonu; Gulledge, Jay; ...

    2015-09-12

    Due to the complex nature of climate change, interdisciplinary research approaches involving knowledge and skills from a broad range of disciplines have been adopted for studying changes in the climate system as well as strategies for mitigating climate change (i.e., greenhouse gas emissions reductions) and adapting to its impacts on society and natural systems. Harnessing of renewable energy sources to replace fossil fuels is widely regarded as a long-term mitigation strategy that requires the synthesis of knowledge from engineering, technology, and natural and social sciences. In this study, we examine how the adoption of interdisciplinary approaches has evolved over timemore » and in different geographic regions. We conducted a comprehensive literature survey using an evaluation matrix of keywords, in combination with a word cloud analysis, to evaluate the spatiotemporal dynamics of scholarly discourse about interdisciplinary approaches to climate change and renewable energy research and development (R&D). Publications that discuss interdisciplinary approaches to climate change and renewable energy have substantially increased over the last 60 years; it appears, however, that the nature, timing, and focus of these publications vary across countries and through time. Over the most recent three decades, the country-level contribution to interdisciplinary research for climate change has become more evenly distributed, but this was not true for renewable energy research, which remained dominated by the United Sates and a few other major economies. The research topics have also evolved: Water resource management was emphasized from 1990s to 2000s, policy and adaptation were emphasized from the 2000s to 2010 – 2013, while vulnerability became prominent during the most recent years (2010 – 2013). Lastly, our analysis indicates that the rate of growth of interdisciplinary research for renewable energy lags behind that for climate change, possibly because knowledge

  18. Forensic Analysis Demonstration via Hawaii Five-O

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shmaefsky, Brian R.

    2006-01-01

    "Forensics," in its most universal sense, is defined as the use of science or technology in the investigation and establishment of facts or evidence for determining identity or relatedness. Most forensic reasoning is used for arguing legal matters. However, forensic studies are also used in agronomy, biology, chemistry, geology, and…

  19. Computer Forensics: Is It the Next Hot IT Subject?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Victor G.; Revels, Ken

    2006-01-01

    Digital Forensics is not just the recovery of data or information from computer systems and their networks. It is not a procedure that can be accomplished by software alone, and most important, it is not something that can be accomplished by other than a trained IT forensic professional. Digital Forensics is an emerging science and was developed…

  20. Basic Science Research and the Protection of Human Research Participants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eiseman, Elisa

    2001-03-01

    Technological advances in basic biological research have been instrumental in recent biomedical discoveries, such as in the understanding and treatment of cancer, HIV/AIDS, and heart disease. However, many of these advances also raise several new ethical challenges. For example, genetic research may pose no physical risk beyond that of obtaining the initial blood sample, yet it can pose significant psychological and economic risks to research participants, such as stigmatization, discrimination in insurance and employment, invasion of privacy, or breach of confidentiality. These harms may occur even when investigators do not directly interact with the person whose DNA they are studying. Moreover, this type of basic research also raises broader questions, such as what is the definition of a human subject, and what kinds of expertise do Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) need to review the increasingly diverse types of research made possible by these advances in technology. The National Bioethics Advisory Commission (NBAC), a presidentially appointed federal advisory committee, has addressed these and other ethical, scientific and policy issues that arise in basic science research involving human participants. Two of its six reports, in particular, have proposed recommendations in this regard. "Research Involving Human Biological Materials: Ethical and Policy Guidance" addresses the basic research use of human tissues, cells and DNA and the protection of human participants in this type of research. In "Ethical and Policy Issues in the Oversight of Human Research" NBAC proposes a definition of research involving human participants that would apply to all scientific disciplines, including physical, biological, and social sciences, as well as the humanities and related professions, such as business and law. Both of these reports make it clear that the protection of research participants is key to conducting ethically sound research. By ensuring that all participants in

  1. Legal perceptions of forensic DNA profiling part I: a review of the legal literature.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Simon J

    2005-12-01

    A forensic biologist is usually involved in the criminal justice system process somewhere between the police and the legal system, interacting in a practical context regularly and extensively with both. Forensic DNA research and development commonly involves initiatives that encroach into the neighbouring domains of the law enforcement or legal agencies. Despite this level of association, establishing meaningful cross-disciplinary communication and understanding within the justice system remains a challenge. As an example, there is an abundance of literature relating to forensic DNA profiling in legal and criminological periodicals. Such journals are perhaps outside the regular reading of forensic scientists and much of the legal discussion appears to go unnoticed. This situation is understandable; however, it is also undesirable particularly as forensic DNA developments are intertwined with significant changes in legislation and contentious issues of privacy, civil liberty and social justice. This paper attempts to address this shortcoming directly by summarising - from the viewpoint of a forensic scientist - some of the discussion in the legal literature. In particular the review focuses on discussion raising ideological and ethical concerns. Awareness of these views is of relevance to forensic science. It assists us to accurately place DNA evidence into context and to develop its role in achieving the broader criminal justice system objectives. Understanding the discussion also provides a way to enter the debate and communicate at an appropriate level the true potential of DNA to the legal community.

  2. [Occurrence of psychoactive substance in driver's blood samples in the materials of Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Department of Forensic Medicine].

    PubMed

    Tezyk, Artur; Geppert, Bogna; Florek, Ewa; Zaba, Czesław

    2010-01-01

    Recently it has been observed increasing number of drugged drivers in Wielkopolska region. In the period from 2006 to 2009 a total number of 2473 blood samples collected from drivers (2141 from alive suspects and 332 from deceased) and examined for psychoactive agents in the Department of Forensic Medicine Poznan University of Medical Sciences. Positive results were obtained in 68.8% and 22.3% of blood samples taken from living men and women respectively. In the group of deceased 7.3% (male) and 8.4% (female) were found positive. The most frequently detected substance were cannabinoids - 57.8%, then amphetamines and its analogues 18.8%, benzodiazepines 5.8%, opiates 3.4% and cocaine benzoiloecgonine 0.9%. In 13.0% concomitant use of amphetamine and cannabinoids were reported.

  3. European Network of Forensic Science Institutes (ENFSI): Evaluation of new commercial STR multiplexes that include the European Standard Set (ESS) of markers.

    PubMed

    Welch, L A; Gill, P; Phillips, C; Ansell, R; Morling, N; Parson, W; Palo, J U; Bastisch, I

    2012-12-01

    To support and to underpin the European initiative to increase the European set of standard markers (ESS), by the addition of five new loci, a collaborative project was organised by the European Network of Forensic Science Institutes (ENFSI) DNA working group in order to assess the new multiplex kits available. We have prepared allele frequency databases from 26 EU populations. Concordance studies were carried out to verify that genotyping results were consistent between kits. Population genetics studies were conducted and it was estimated that F(ST)<0.001. The results showed that the kits were comparable to each other in terms of performance and major discrepancy issues were highlighted. We provide details of allele frequencies for each of the populations analysed per laboratory.

  4. Psychiatric/ psychological forensic report writing.

    PubMed

    Young, Gerald

    2016-10-28

    Approaches to forensic report writing in psychiatry, psychology, and related mental health disciplines have moved from an organization, content, and stylistic framework to considering ethical and other codes, evidentiary standards, and practice considerations. The first part of the article surveys different approaches to forensic report writing, including that of forensic mental health assessment and psychiatric ethics. The second part deals especially with psychological ethical approaches. The American Psychological Association's Ethical Principles and Code of Conduct (2002) provide one set of principles on which to base forensic report writing. The U.S. Federal Rules of Evidence (2014) and related state rules provide another basis. The American Psychological Association's Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychology (2013) provide a third source. Some work has expanded the principles in ethics codes; and, in the third part of this article, these additions are applied to forensic report writing. Other work that could help with the question of forensic report writing concerns the 4 Ds in psychological injury assessments (e.g., conduct oneself with Dignity, avoid the adversary Divide, get the needed reliable Data, Determine interpretations and conclusions judiciously). One overarching ethical principle that is especially applicable in forensic report writing is to be comprehensive, scientific, and impartial. As applied to forensic report writing, the overall principle that applies is that the work process and product should reflect integrity in its ethics, law, and science. Four principles that derive from this meta-principle concern: Competency and Communication; Procedure and Protection; Dignity and Distance; and Data Collection and Determination. The standards or rules associated with each of these principles are reviewed.

  5. Applying spatial thinking in social science research

    PubMed Central

    Logan, John R.; Zhang, Weiwei; Xu, Hongwei

    2010-01-01

    Spatial methods that build upon Geographic Information Systems are spreading quickly across the social sciences. This essay points out that the appropriate use of spatial tools requires more careful thinking about spatial concepts. As easy as it is now to measure distance, it is increasingly important to understand what we think it represents. To interpret spatial patterns, we need spatial theories. We review here a number of key concepts as well as some of the methodological approaches that are now at the disposal of researchers, and illustrate them with studies that reflect the very wide range of problems that use these tools. PMID:20431703

  6. USE OF DNA TECHNOLOGY IN FORENSIC DENTISTRY

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Ricardo Henrique Alves; Sales-Peres, Arsenio; de Oliveira, Rogério Nogueira; de Oliveira, Fernando Toledo; Sales-Peres, Sílvia Helena de Carvalho

    2007-01-01

    The established importance of Forensic Dentistry for human identification, mainly when there is little remaining material to perform such identification (e.g., in fires, explosions, decomposing bodies or skeletonized bodies), has led dentists working with forensic investigation to become more familiar with the new molecular biology techniques. The currently available DNA tests have high reliability and are accepted as legal proofs in courts. This article presents a literature review referring to the main studies on Forensic Dentistry that involve the use of DNA for human identification, and makes an overview of the evolution of this technology in the last years, highlighting the importance of molecular biology in forensic sciences. PMID:19089123

  7. Use of DNA technology in forensic dentistry.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Ricardo Henrique Alves; Sales-Peres, Arsenio; de Oliveira, Rogério Nogueira; de Oliveira, Fernando Toledo; Sales-Peres, Sílvia Helena de Carvalho

    2007-06-01

    The established importance of Forensic Dentistry for human identification, mainly when there is little remaining material to perform such identification (e.g., in fires, explosions, decomposing bodies or skeletonized bodies), has led dentists working with forensic investigation to become more familiar with the new molecular biology techniques. The currently available DNA tests have high reliability and are accepted as legal proofs in courts. This article presents a literature review referring to the main studies on Forensic Dentistry that involve the use of DNA for human identification, and makes an overview of the evolution of this technology in the last years, highlighting the importance of molecular biology in forensic sciences.

  8. The impact of DNA contamination of bone samples in forensic case analysis and anthropological research.

    PubMed

    von Wurmb-Schwark, Nicole; Heinrich, Anke; Freudenberg, Mechthild; Gebühr, Michael; Schwark, Thorsten

    2008-05-01

    Contamination precautions and quality control are great issues when human bones are investigated genetically. This is especially true for historical samples with only minute amounts of usually highly degraded DNA. But also in forensic routine analysis, sometimes DNA has to be isolated from bones in equally bad conditions, e.g. from burned victims. In such cases, there are several eventualities to contaminate the sample with foreign DNA, for example caused by the recovery of the bones, by trace investigation on a crime scene, or - of course - during handling in the lab. We present the investigation of artificially contaminated historical bone samples which contained no original DNA. Three different kind of contamination were studied: (1) touching of the samples, (2) application of saliva, and (3) application of pure DNA. The samples were genetically investigated without and with the employment of a defined cleaning protocol of the bones. The results show that pure DNA can usually not be removed from the bones and that saliva is a similar thread for subsequent DNA analysis. After the cleaning procedure about 70% of saliva contaminated samples still yielded reproducible STR profiles implicating severe problems for the investigation of highly degraded bone fragments. Simple touching of the specimens seems not to be a real problem for genetic investigations since the obtained signals were not reproducible.

  9. The forensic expert witness--an issue of competency.

    PubMed

    Hiss, Jehuda; Freund, Maya; Kahana, Tzipi

    2007-05-24

    Scientists submitting expert opinions within the legal system are expected to be knowledgeable in the forensic aspects of their particular science, as well as to be ethical and unbiased. Scientists are seldom able to decline a request to provide an expert opinion in their field, even when their forensic expertise is minimal. The competence of scientists providing expert opinions in forensic cases is reviewed here. Three examples of the perils of uninformed "expertise" in forensic biology, medicine and anthropology are presented.

  10. Using Brain Imaging for Lie Detection: Where Science, Law and Research Policy Collide.

    PubMed

    Langleben, Daniel D; Moriarty, Jane Campbell

    2013-05-01

    Progress in the use of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of the brain to evaluate deception and differentiate lying from truth-telling has created anticipation of a breakthrough in the search for technology-based methods of lie detection. In the last few years, litigants have attempted to introduce fMRI lie detection evidence in courts. This article weighs in on the interdisciplinary debate about the admissibility of such evidence, identifying the missing pieces of the scientific puzzle that need to be completed if fMRI-based lie detection is to meet the standards of either legal reliability or general acceptance. We believe that the Daubert's "known error rate" is the key concept linking the legal and scientific standards. We posit that properly-controlled clinical trials are the most convincing means to determine the error rates of fMRI-based lie detection and confirm or disprove the relevance of the promising laboratory research on this topic. This article explains the current state of the science and provides an analysis of the case law in which litigants have sought to introduce fMRI lie detection. Analyzing the myriad issues related to fMRI lie detection, the article identifies the key limitations of the current neuroimaging of deception science as expert evidence and explores the problems that arise from using scientific evidence before it is proven scientifically valid and reliable. We suggest that courts continue excluding fMRI lie detection evidence until this potentially useful form of forensic science meets the scientific standards currently required for adoption of a medical test or device. Given a multitude of stakeholders and, the charged and controversial nature and the potential societal impact of this technology, goodwill and collaboration of several government agencies may be required to sponsor impartial and comprehensive clinical trials that will guide the development of forensic fMRI technology.

  11. Using Brain Imaging for Lie Detection: Where Science, Law and Research Policy Collide

    PubMed Central

    Langleben, Daniel D.; Moriarty, Jane Campbell

    2012-01-01

    Progress in the use of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of the brain to evaluate deception and differentiate lying from truth-telling has created anticipation of a breakthrough in the search for technology-based methods of lie detection. In the last few years, litigants have attempted to introduce fMRI lie detection evidence in courts. This article weighs in on the interdisciplinary debate about the admissibility of such evidence, identifying the missing pieces of the scientific puzzle that need to be completed if fMRI-based lie detection is to meet the standards of either legal reliability or general acceptance. We believe that the Daubert’s “known error rate” is the key concept linking the legal and scientific standards. We posit that properly-controlled clinical trials are the most convincing means to determine the error rates of fMRI-based lie detection and confirm or disprove the relevance of the promising laboratory research on this topic. This article explains the current state of the science and provides an analysis of the case law in which litigants have sought to introduce fMRI lie detection. Analyzing the myriad issues related to fMRI lie detection, the article identifies the key limitations of the current neuroimaging of deception science as expert evidence and explores the problems that arise from using scientific evidence before it is proven scientifically valid and reliable. We suggest that courts continue excluding fMRI lie detection evidence until this potentially useful form of forensic science meets the scientific standards currently required for adoption of a medical test or device. Given a multitude of stakeholders and, the charged and controversial nature and the potential societal impact of this technology, goodwill and collaboration of several government agencies may be required to sponsor impartial and comprehensive clinical trials that will guide the development of forensic fMRI technology. PMID:23772173

  12. Network science and oral health research.

    PubMed

    Maupome, Gerardo; McCranie, Ann

    2015-01-01

    The present overview of research methods describes a scientific enquiry paradigm that is well established in other disciplines, including health research, but that is fairly new to oral health research. Social networks analysis (SNA) or network science research is a set of relational methods purporting to identify and characterize the connections between members of a system or network, as well as the structure of the network. Persons and communities making up the members of networks have commonly been the focus of SNA studies but corporations or living organisms might just as well be organized in networks. SNA is grounded in both graphic imagery and computational models. SNA is based on the assumptions that features and structure of networks are amenable to characterization, that such information sheds light on the ways members of the network relate to each other (sharing information, diseases, norms, and so on), and that through these connections between members the overall network structure and characteristics are shaped. The overview resorts to examples specific to oral health themes and proposes a few general avenues for population-based research.

  13. What Is "Agency"? Perspectives in Science Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Jenny; Clarke, David John

    2014-01-01

    The contemporary interest in researching student agency in science education reflects concerns about the relevance of schooling and a shift in science education towards understanding learning in science as a complex social activity. The purpose of this article is to identify problems confronting the science education community in the development…

  14. [Genetic investigations in forensic medicine].

    PubMed

    Lászik, András; Szakács, Orsolya; Sótonyi, Péter

    2002-05-26

    Scientific research of the last decade including the introduction of new molecular biological methods and mapping of the human genome allowed the development of a revolutionary new molecular biological approach in forensic medicine. The traditional serological methods study proteins, the new DNA analysis goes further down to study DNA structures to analyze unique individual features. The two main areas of DNA application in forensic medicine are inheritance studies and personal identification in criminal cases using biological traces. Using this new, reliable and reproducible method we can answer questions they were almost impossible in the past. This article reviews how molecular techniques used to detect genetic polymorphism in forensic medicine.

  15. NUCLEAR FORENSICS ANALYSIS CENTER FORENSIC ANALYSIS TO DATA INTERPRETATION

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, T.

    2011-02-07

    The Nuclear Forensics Analysis Center (NFAC) is part of Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and is one of only two USG National Laboratories accredited to perform nuclear forensic analyses to the requirements of ISO 17025. SRNL NFAC is capable of analyzing nuclear and radiological samples from bulk material to ultra-trace samples. NFAC provides analytical support to the FBI's Radiological Evidence Examination Facility (REEF), which is located within SRNL. REEF gives the FBI the capability to perform traditional forensics on material that is radiological and/or is contaminated. SRNL is engaged in research and development efforts to improve the USG technical nuclear forensics capabilities. Research includes improving predictive signatures and developing a database containing comparative samples.

  16. Nuclear Forensics: Scientific Analysis Supporting Law Enforcement and Nuclear Security Investigations.

    PubMed

    Keegan, Elizabeth; Kristo, Michael J; Toole, Kaitlyn; Kips, Ruth; Young, Emma

    2016-02-02

    Nuclear forensic science, or "nuclear forensic", aims to answer questions about nuclear material found outside of regulatory control. In this Feature, we provide a general overview of nuclear forensics, selecting examples of key "nuclear forensic signatures" which have allowed investigators to determine the identity of unknown nuclear material in real investigations.

  17. Formulation and communication of evaluative forensic science expert opinion-A GHEP-ISFG contribution to the establishment of standards.

    PubMed

    Amorim, António; Crespillo, Manuel; Luque, Juan A; Prieto, Lourdes; Garcia, Oscar; Gusmão, Leonor; Aler, Mercedes; Barrio, Pedro A; Saragoni, Victor G; Pinto, Nadia

    2016-11-01

    Communicating and interpreting genetic evidence in the administration of justice is currently a matter of great concern, due to the theoretical and technical complexity of the evaluative reporting and large difference in expertise between forensic experts and law professionals. A large number of initiatives have been taken trying to bridge this gap, contributing to the education of both parties. Results however have not been very encouraging, as most of these initiatives try to cope globally with the problem, addressing simultaneously theoretical and technical approaches which are in a quite heterogeneous state of development and validation. In consequence, the extension and complexity of the resulting documents disheartens their study by professionals (both jurists and geneticists) and makes a consensus very hard to reach even among the genetic experts' community. Here we propose a 'back-to-basics', example-driven approach, in which a model report for the two most common situations faced by forensic laboratories is presented. We do hope that this strategy will provide a solid basis for a stepwise generalisation.

  18. Curriculum and Course Materials for a Forensic DNA Biology Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkins, Kelly M.

    2014-01-01

    The Forensic Science Education Programs Accreditation Commission (FEPAC) requires accredited programs offer a "coherent curriculum" to ensure each student gains a "thorough grounding of the natural…sciences." Part of this curriculum includes completion of a minimum of 15 semester-hours forensic science coursework, nine of which…

  19. [Forensic evidence-based medicine in computer communication networks].

    PubMed

    Qiu, Yun-Liang; Peng, Ming-Qi

    2013-12-01

    As an important component of judicial expertise, forensic science is broad and highly specialized. With development of network technology, increasement of information resources, and improvement of people's legal consciousness, forensic scientists encounter many new problems, and have been required to meet higher evidentiary standards in litigation. In view of this, evidence-based concept should be established in forensic medicine. We should find the most suitable method in forensic science field and other related area to solve specific problems in the evidence-based mode. Evidence-based practice can solve the problems in legal medical field, and it will play a great role in promoting the progress and development of forensic science. This article reviews the basic theory of evidence-based medicine and its effect, way, method, and evaluation in the forensic medicine in order to discuss the application value of forensic evidence-based medicine in computer communication networks.

  20. Entering the Community of Practitioners: A Science Research Workshop Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Streitwieser, Bernhard; Light, Gregory; Pazos, Pilar

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the Science Research Workshop Program (SRW) and discusses how it provides students a legitimate science experience. SRW, which is funded by the National Science Foundation, is an apprenticeship-style program in which students write proposals requesting resources to research an original question. The program creates a…

  1. Experimental and Investigative Science: Support from the Pupil Researcher Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Bill; Mannion, Ken

    1996-01-01

    Describes the Pupil Researcher Initiative, a group of educators attempting to provide science teachers with resources aimed at supporting experimental and investigative science as defined in England's GCSE syllabi. Units were developed to reflect the different ways that real science research is carried out. (MKR)

  2. Remote Sensing Information Sciences Research Group, Santa Barbara Information Sciences Research Group, year 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, J. E.; Smith, T.; Star, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    Research continues to focus on improving the type, quantity, and quality of information which can be derived from remotely sensed data. The focus is on remote sensing and application for the Earth Observing System (Eos) and Space Station, including associated polar and co-orbiting platforms. The remote sensing research activities are being expanded, integrated, and extended into the areas of global science, georeferenced information systems, machine assissted information extraction from image data, and artificial intelligence. The accomplishments in these areas are examined.

  3. Earth Science Research as IPY Priority

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotlyakov, V.; Leonov, Y.; Coakley, B.; Grikurov, G.; Johnson, L.; Kaminsky, V.; Kristoffersen, Y.; Leitchenkov, G.; Pavlenko, V.

    2004-05-01

    The preparations for IPY 2007/2008 are evolving from conceptual to implementation planning. Many earth scientists are concerned that the emerging plans for IPY are too narrowly focused on environmental processes and therefore appear discriminatory with respect to other fundamental sciences. National/international efforts such as USGCRP (U.S. Global Change Research program) and IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) are also involved in the multitude of climate change issues, and just how the proposed IPY program could augment and complement these ongoing activities without reproducing them requires careful analysis and coordination. In particular, the polar research is unthinkable without study of the geological history of the Arctic and the Southern Oceans as a clue to tectonic evolution of the entire planet and test of the current geodynamic paradigm. In addition to these fundamental objectives, the circum-polar continental margins of the Arctic and Antarctica are likely to become the scenes of geopolitical intrigue provoked by implementation of the provisions of the Law of the Sea that require acquisition of specific earth science knowledge at internationally recognized levels of credibility. Interdisciplinary international programs (e. g. JEODI), based on geophysical data acquisition and analysis that would lead, where appropriate, to scientific drilling, had independently been proposed for studying the coupled tectonic and oceanographic history of the polar regions. Admitting the importance of identifying fundamental constraints for paleooceanography and climatic history of the high latitudes, and acknowledging the progress achieved so far in promoting IPY activities, the international earth science community has suggested developing the proposed approach into a major IPY endeavor - to examine the Polar Ocean Gateway Evolution (POGE). Such study would enable linking the geological history of the Polar Regions during the last 100 Ma and related

  4. 77 FR 64598 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-22

    ... AFFAIRS Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development... Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development Services..., behavioral and clinical science research. The panel meetings will be open to the public for approximately...

  5. 75 FR 57833 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-22

    ... AFFAIRS Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development... Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development Services Scientific Merit..., behavioral and clinical science research. The panel meetings will be open to the public for approximately...

  6. 76 FR 79273 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-21

    ... AFFAIRS Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development... Eligibility of the Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and... biomedical, behavioral, and clinical science research. The panel meeting will be open to the public...

  7. 77 FR 20489 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-04

    ... AFFAIRS Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development... Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development Services... science research. The panel meetings will be open to the public for approximately one-half hour at...

  8. 76 FR 1212 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-07

    ... AFFAIRS Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development... Eligibility of the Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and... areas of biomedical, behavioral and clinical science research. The panel meeting will be open to...

  9. 78 FR 28292 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ... AFFAIRS Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development... Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development Services Scientific Merit Review... areas of biomedical, behavioral and clinical science research. The panel meetings will be open to...

  10. Open Science Project in White Dwarf Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vornanen, T.

    2013-01-01

    I will propose a new way of advancing white dwarf research. Open science is a method of doing research that lets everyone who has something to say about the subject take part in the problem solving process. Already now, the amount of information we gather from observations, theory and modeling is too vast for any one individual to comprehend and turn into knowledge. And the amount of information just keeps growing in the future. A platform that promotes sharing of thoughts and ideas allows us to pool our collective knowledge of white dwarfs and get a clear picture of our research field. It will also make it possible for researchers in fields closely related to ours (AGB stars, planetary nebulae etc.) to join the scientific discourse. In the first stage this project would allow us to summarize what we know and what we don't, and what we should search for next. Later, it could grow into a large collaboration that would have the impact to, for example, suggest instrument requirements for future telescopes to satisfy the needs of the white dwarf community, or propose large surveys. A simple implementation would be a wiki page for collecting knowledge combined with a forum for more extensive discussions. These would be simple and cheap to maintain. A large community effort on the whole would be needed for the project to succeed, but individual workload should stay at a low level.

  11. Library and Information Science Research: Perspectives and Strategies for Improvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClure, Charles R., Ed.; Hernon, Peter, Ed.

    The 28 essays in this collection provide an overview of research in library/information science (LIS), present a practical context of such research, and consider related issues and concerns. The essays are: (1) "The Elusive Nature of Research in LIS" (Peter Hernon); (2) "Guides to Conducting Research in Library and Information Science" (Ronald R.…

  12. Science against Crime.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooke, Julia

    2002-01-01

    Describes a project involving students in forensic science and crime prevention to improve their investigative skills using a DNA fingerprinting workshop and designing burglar alarms, investigating blood splatter patterns, investigating vehicle collisions, and researching crime prevention advice on the Internet. (YDS)

  13. The state of nuclear forensics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristo, Michael J.; Tumey, Scott J.

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear terrorism has been identified as one of the most serious security threats facing the world today. Many countries, including the United States, have incorporated nuclear forensic analysis as a component of their strategy to prevent nuclear terrorism. Nuclear forensics involves the laboratory analysis of seized illicit nuclear materials or debris from a nuclear detonation to identify the origins of the material or weapon. Over the years, a number of forensic signatures have been developed to improve the confidence with which forensic analysts can draw conclusions. These signatures are validated and new signatures are discovered through research and development programs and in round-robin exercises among nuclear forensic laboratories. The recent Nuclear Smuggling International Technical Working Group Third Round Robin Exercise and an on-going program focused on attribution of uranium ore concentrate provide prime examples of the current state of nuclear forensics. These case studies will be examined and the opportunities for accelerator mass spectrometry to play a role in nuclear forensics will be discussed.

  14. COOPEUS - connecting research infrastructures in environmental sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koop-Jakobsen, Ketil; Waldmann, Christoph; Huber, Robert

    2015-04-01

    The COOPEUS project was initiated in 2012 bringing together 10 research infrastructures (RIs) in environmental sciences from the EU and US in order to improve the discovery, access, and use of environmental information and data across scientific disciplines and across geographical borders. The COOPEUS mission is to facilitate readily accessible research infrastructure data to advance our understanding of Earth systems through an international community-driven effort, by: Bringing together both user communities and top-down directives to address evolving societal and scientific needs; Removing technical, scientific, cultural and geopolitical barriers for data use; and Coordinating the flow, integrity and preservation of information. A survey of data availability was conducted among the COOPEUS research infrastructures for the purpose of discovering impediments for open international and cross-disciplinary sharing of environmental data. The survey showed that the majority of data offered by the COOPEUS research infrastructures is available via the internet (>90%), but the accessibility to these data differ significantly among research infrastructures; only 45% offer open access on their data, whereas the remaining infrastructures offer restricted access e.g. do not release raw data or sensible data, demand user registration or require permission prior to release of data. These rules and regulations are often installed as a form of standard practice, whereas formal data policies are lacking in 40% of the infrastructures, primarily in the EU. In order to improve this situation COOPEUS has installed a common data-sharing policy, which is agreed upon by all the COOPEUS research infrastructures. To investigate the existing opportunities for improving interoperability among environmental research infrastructures, COOPEUS explored the opportunities with the GEOSS common infrastructure (GCI) by holding a hands-on workshop. Through exercises directly registering resources

  15. Forensic voice comparison and the paradigm shift.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Geoffrey Stewart

    2009-12-01

    We are in the midst of a paradigm shift in the forensic comparison sciences. The new paradigm can be characterised as quantitative data-based implementation of the likelihood-ratio framework with quantitative evaluation of the reliability of results. The new paradigm was widely adopted for DNA profile comparison in the 1990s, and is gradually spreading to other branches of forensic science, including forensic voice comparison. The present paper first describes the new paradigm, then describes the history of its adoption for forensic voice comparison over approximately the last decade. The paradigm shift is incomplete and those working in the new paradigm still represent a minority within the forensic-voice-comparison community.

  16. [Research activities in applied mathematics, fluid mechanics, and computer science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes research conducted at the Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering in applied mathematics, fluid mechanics, and computer science during the period April 1, 1995 through September 30, 1995.

  17. Research in Applied Mathematics, Fluid Mechanics and Computer Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This report summarizes research conducted at the Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering in applied mathematics, fluid mechanics, and computer science during the period October 1, 1998 through March 31, 1999.

  18. Science in the Preschool Classroom: A Programmatic Research Agenda to Improve Science Readiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenfield, Daryl B.; Jirout, Jamie; Dominguez, Ximena; Greenberg, Ariela; Maier, Michelle; Fuccillo, Janna

    2009-01-01

    Research Findings: This article focuses on preschool science, an important but under-researched school readiness domain. There is considerable activity surrounding quality science in early childhood classroom practices, including state standards, curricula with science activities, and an extensive literature on potential best practices. However,…

  19. Using CAI To Improve Participation and Achievement in Science Research Projects in Middle School Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Suzanne M.

    The high percentage of students not participating in or completing a science research project has been a recurring problem for science teachers. In this project, three variables influencing the problem are identified: (1) students' failure to engage in an active search for science research topics; (2) inadequate resource materials at the middle…

  20. Citizen Science on Your Smartphone: An ELSI Research Agenda.

    PubMed

    Rothstein, Mark A; Wilbanks, John T; Brothers, Kyle B

    2015-01-01

    The prospect of newly-emerging, technology-enabled, unregulated citizen science health research poses a substantial challenge for traditional research ethics. Unquestionably, a significant amount of research ethics study is needed to prepare for the inevitable, widespread introduction of citizen science health research. Using the case study of mobile health (mHealth) research, this article provides an ethical, legal, and social implications (ELSI) research agenda for citizen science health research conducted outside conventional research institutions. The issues for detailed analysis include the role of IRBs, recruitment, inclusion and exclusion criteria, informed consent, confidentiality and security, vulnerable participants, incidental findings, and publication and data sharing.