Science.gov

Sample records for forest based land

  1. Land-Base Changes in the United States: Long-Term Assessments of Forest Land Condition

    Treesearch

    Ralph J. Alig

    2006-01-01

    Forest land conditions affect the potential of U.S. forests to sustain a wide array of forest goods and environmental services (e.g., biodiversity) that society demands. Forest survey data collected by U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) units are being used in long-term assessments of U.S. forest land conditions at large...

  2. Mapping Forest Inventory and Analysis forest land use: timberland, reserved forest land, and other forest land

    Treesearch

    Mark D. Nelson; John Vissage

    2007-01-01

    The Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program produces area estimates of forest land use within three subcategories: timberland, reserved forest land, and other forest land. Mapping these subcategories of forest land requires the ability to spatially distinguish productive from unproductive land, and reserved from nonreserved land. FIA field data were spatially...

  3. The forest-land owners of Delaware

    Treesearch

    Neal P. Kingsley; James C. Finley

    1975-01-01

    A statistical-analytical report on a mail canvass of the owners of privately owned forest land in Delaware, based on a study made in conjunction with the second forest survey of Delaware by the USDA Forest Service. Statistical findings are based on responses supplied by owners to a questionnaire. Trends in forest-land ownership and the attitudes and intentions of...

  4. Outlook on forest service lands

    Treesearch

    H. Ken Cordell; Floyd Thompson

    2002-01-01

    In the world, and in the United States there is growing concern about the future of natural land and water, including forests. A part of this concern is to assure a continued source of opportunity for outdoor recreation and forest-based tourism. In 1994, 12 countries assembled to conceptualize a set of indicators for monitoring the conservation and sustainable...

  5. Approaches to Ecologically Based Forest Management on Private Lands

    Treesearch

    John Kotar

    1997-01-01

    The management philosophy advocated by many public agencies today has become known as "ecosystem management." Under this philosophy, maintenance of ecosystem structure and functions becomes the primary goal, while production of commodities and services is viewed as a useful byproduct. However, any effort to assure sustainability and health of American forests...

  6. Carbon dynamics of Oregon and Northern California forests and potential land-based carbon storage.

    PubMed

    Hudiburg, Tara; Law, Beverly; Turner, David P; Campbell, John; Donato, Dan; Duane, Maureen

    2009-01-01

    Net uptake of carbon from the atmosphere (net ecosystem production, NEP) is dependent on climate, disturbance history, management practices, forest age, and forest type. To improve understanding of the influence of these factors on forest carbon stocks and flux in the western United States, federal inventory data and supplemental field measurements at additional plots were used to estimate several important components of the carbon balance in forests in Oregon and Northern California during the 1990s. Species- and ecoregion-specific allometric equations were used to estimate live and dead biomass stores, net primary productivity (NPP), and mortality. In the semiarid East Cascades and mesic Coast Range, mean total biomass was 8 and 24 kg C/m2, and mean NPP was 0.30 and 0.78 kg C.m(-2).yr(-1), respectively. Maximum NPP and dead biomass stores were most influenced by climate, whereas maximum live biomass stores and mortality were most influenced by forest type. Within ecoregions, mean live and dead biomass were usually higher on public lands, primarily because of the younger age class distribution on private lands. Decrease in NPP with age was not general across ecoregions, with no marked decline in old stands (>200 years old) in some ecoregions. In the absence of stand-replacing disturbance, total landscape carbon stocks could theoretically increase from 3.2 +/- 0.34 Pg C to 5.9 +/- 1.34 Pg C (a 46% increase) if forests were managed for maximum carbon storage. Although the theoretical limit is probably unattainable, given the timber-based economy and fire regimes in some ecoregions, there is still potential to significantly increase the land-based carbon storage by increasing rotation age and reducing harvest rates.

  7. Land cover classification using random forest with genetic algorithm-based parameter optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ming, Dongping; Zhou, Tianning; Wang, Min; Tan, Tian

    2016-07-01

    Land cover classification based on remote sensing imagery is an important means to monitor, evaluate, and manage land resources. However, it requires robust classification methods that allow accurate mapping of complex land cover categories. Random forest (RF) is a powerful machine-learning classifier that can be used in land remote sensing. However, two important parameters of RF classification, namely, the number of trees and the number of variables tried at each split, affect classification accuracy. Thus, optimal parameter selection is an inevitable problem in RF-based image classification. This study uses the genetic algorithm (GA) to optimize the two parameters of RF to produce optimal land cover classification accuracy. HJ-1B CCD2 image data are used to classify six different land cover categories in Changping, Beijing, China. Experimental results show that GA-RF can avoid arbitrariness in the selection of parameters. The experiments also compare land cover classification results by using GA-RF method, traditional RF method (with default parameters), and support vector machine method. When the GA-RF method is used, classification accuracies, respectively, improved by 1.02% and 6.64%. The comparison results show that GA-RF is a feasible solution for land cover classification without compromising accuracy or incurring excessive time.

  8. Random Forests-Based Feature Selection for Land-Use Classification Using LIDAR Data and Orthoimagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, H.; Yu, J.; Li, J.; Luo, L.

    2012-07-01

    The development of lidar system, especially incorporated with high-resolution camera components, has shown great potential for urban classification. However, how to automatically select the best features for land-use classification is challenging. Random Forests, a newly developed machine learning algorithm, is receiving considerable attention in the field of image classification and pattern recognition. Especially, it can provide the measure of variable importance. Thus, in this study the performance of the Random Forests-based feature selection for urban areas was explored. First, we extract features from lidar data, including height-based, intensity-based GLCM measures; other spectral features can be obtained from imagery, such as Red, Blue and Green three bands, and GLCM-based measures. Finally, Random Forests is used to automatically select the optimal and uncorrelated features for landuse classification. 0.5-meter resolution lidar data and aerial imagery are used to assess the feature selection performance of Random Forests in the study area located in Mannheim, Germany. The results clearly demonstrate that the use of Random Forests-based feature selection can improve the classification performance by the selected features.

  9. Major forest changes and land cover transitions based on plant functional types derived from the ESA CCI Land Cover product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei; Ciais, Philippe; MacBean, Natasha; Peng, Shushi; Defourny, Pierre; Bontemps, Sophie

    2016-05-01

    Land use and land cover change are of prime concern due to their impacts on CO2 emissions, climate change and ecological services. New global land cover products at 300 m resolution from the European Space Agency (ESA) Climate Change Initiative Land Cover (CCI LC) project for epochs centered around 2000, 2005 and 2010 were analyzed to investigate forest area change and land cover transitions. Plant functional types (PFTs) fractions were derived from these land cover products according to a conversion table. The gross global forest loss between 2000 and 2010 is 172,171 km2, accounting for 0.6% of the global forest area in year 2000. The forest changes are mainly distributed in tropical areas such as Brazil and Indonesia. Forest gains were only observed between 2005 and 2010 with a global area of 9844 km2, mostly from crops in Southeast Asia and South America. The predominant PFT transition is deforestation from forest to crop, accounting for four-fifths of the total increase of cropland area between 2000 and 2010. The transitions from forest to bare soil, shrub, and grass also contributed strongly to the total areal change in PFTs. Different PFT transition matrices and composition patterns were found in different regions. The highest fractions of forest to bare soil transitions were found in the United States and Canada, reflecting forest management practices. Most of the degradation from grassland and shrubland to bare soil occurred in boreal regions. The areal percentage of forest loss and land cover transitions generally decreased from 2000-2005 to 2005-2010. Different data sources and uncertainty in the conversion factors (converting from original LC classes to PFTs) contribute to the discrepancy in the values of change in absolute forest area.

  10. Detection of smoke plume for a land-based early forest fire detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saghri, John; Jacobs, John; Davenport, Tim; Garges, David

    2015-09-01

    A promising daytime smoke plume detection for a land-based early forest fire detection system is proposed. The visible video imagery from a land-based monitoring camera is processed to detect the smoke which likely rises in an early stage of a forest fire. Unlike the fire core and its surrounding heat which are detected via day/night infrared imaging, the relatively cold smoke plume can only be captured in the visible spectrum of light. The smoke plume is detected via exploitation of its temporal signature. This is accomplished via Principal Component Transformation (PCT) operations on consecutive sequences of visible video frames followed by spatial filtering of one of the resulting low-order Principal Component (PC) images. It is shown that the blue channel of the Red, Green, Blue (RGB) color camera is most effective in detecting the smoke plume. Smoke plume is clearly detected and isolated via simple blurring, thresholding, and median filtering of one of the resulting low-order principle component (PC) images. The robustness of this PCA-based method relative to simple temporal frame differencing and use of color, i.e., visible spectral signature of smoke, are discussed. Various parameters of the system including the required observation time and number of frames to retain for PCT, selection of which low-order PC to use, and types and sizes of the filters applied to the selected PC image to detect and isolate the smoke plume, are discussed.

  11. Study on Spatial Model of Land Use Based on CA - Markov Model after Returning Cropland to Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Chun-xia; Han, Dong; Dong, Qian-kun; Mao, Qin-qin

    2017-07-01

    At present, the frontier of global environmental change research is land use / cover change, and an important way to understand global land change is to analyze and study typical areas. In order to study the law and the driving mechanism of land use change in the loess hilly and gully region, this paper takes the county south ditch watershed as an example, takes the remote sensing image of the basin in 1995, 2005 and 2015 as the data source, combined with the topographic data, And the spatial and temporal dynamics of land use before and after returning farmland to forest in Nangou watershed was analyzed. Finally, based on the land use situation in 2015, a variety of CA criteria were used to carry out modeling analysis to predict the land use in 2025 Type of purpose. And thus hope for the region to implement the scientific implementation of the project of returning farmland to forest.

  12. Land cover mapping based on random forest classification of multitemporal spectral and thermal images.

    PubMed

    Eisavi, Vahid; Homayouni, Saeid; Yazdi, Ahmad Maleknezhad; Alimohammadi, Abbas

    2015-05-01

    Thematic mapping of complex landscapes, with various phenological patterns from satellite imagery, is a particularly challenging task. However, supplementary information, such as multitemporal data and/or land surface temperature (LST), has the potential to improve the land cover classification accuracy and efficiency. In this paper, in order to map land covers, we evaluated the potential of multitemporal Landsat 8's spectral and thermal imageries using a random forest (RF) classifier. We used a grid search approach based on the out-of-bag (OOB) estimate of error to optimize the RF parameters. Four different scenarios were considered in this research: (1) RF classification of multitemporal spectral images, (2) RF classification of multitemporal LST images, (3) RF classification of all multitemporal LST and spectral images, and (4) RF classification of selected important or optimum features. The study area in this research was Naghadeh city and its surrounding region, located in West Azerbaijan Province, northwest of Iran. The overall accuracies of first, second, third, and fourth scenarios were equal to 86.48, 82.26, 90.63, and 91.82%, respectively. The quantitative assessments of the results demonstrated that the most important or optimum features increase the class separability, while the spectral and thermal features produced a more moderate increase in the land cover mapping accuracy. In addition, the contribution of the multitemporal thermal information led to a considerable increase in the user and producer accuracies of classes with a rapid temporal change behavior, such as crops and vegetation.

  13. Land Covers Classification Based on Random Forest Method Using Features from Full-Waveform LIDAR Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, L.; Zhou, M.; Li, C.

    2017-09-01

    In this study, a Random Forest (RF) based land covers classification method is presented to predict the types of land covers in Miyun area. The returned full-waveforms which were acquired by a LiteMapper 5600 airborne LiDAR system were processed, including waveform filtering, waveform decomposition and features extraction. The commonly used features that were distance, intensity, Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM), skewness and kurtosis were extracted. These waveform features were used as attributes of training data for generating the RF prediction model. The RF prediction model was applied to predict the types of land covers in Miyun area as trees, buildings, farmland and ground. The classification results of these four types of land covers were obtained according to the ground truth information acquired from CCD image data of the same region. The RF classification results were compared with that of SVM method and show better results. The RF classification accuracy reached 89.73% and the classification Kappa was 0.8631.

  14. Typology of land and forest fire in South Sumatra, Indonesia Based on Assessment of MODIS Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ardiansyah, M.; Boer, R.; Situmorang, A. P.

    2017-01-01

    In 2015, Sumatera and Kalimantan, in particular, has undergone dramatic fires. The fires were particularly bad in 2015 because of a prolonged dry season caused by the El Nino weather pattern and creating a lot of greenhouse gas emissions. Between about July and December, more than a million hectares of forest were burned. South Sumatra is one of the provinces with the highest of hotspots number and of fire area on this period. The aim of the study was to find burned area that caused by fire activity in 2015 and to identify a typology of land and forest fire the South Sumatera. In our study showed that between July and December 2015 the estimated burned area during El Nino in South Sumatra was 422,718 ha, of which 163,143 ha in mineral soil and 260,575 ha in peat soil. The majority of burned area occurred outside concession and inside concession with following typology: the fire activity in the HTI on non-forested land (26%), in the HTI on forested land (24%), in oil palm on non-forested land (17%), and in oil palm on forested land (2%).

  15. Assessing naturalness in northern great lakes forests based on historical land-cover and vegetation changes.

    PubMed

    Gimmi, Urs; Radeloff, Volker C

    2013-08-01

    The concept of naturalness was developed to assess to what degree landscapes represent a natural state. Protected areas are often regarded as the remnants of untouched landscapes although many landscapes commonly perceived as pristine have a long history of human impact. Here, we introduced a historical perspective into the concept of naturalness and the analysis of the effectiveness of protected areas by analyzing historical trajectories in land-cover and forest communities for the Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore on Michigan's Upper Peninsula (USA). Distribution of land-cover and forest community types was reconstructed for pre-settlement time (around 1850), the height of agricultural expansion (1928), and modern conditions (2000). Naturalness of the landscape was assessed by analyzing similarity between pre-settlement and current conditions and by assessing landscape continuity (1850-1928-2000). We compared changes in the strictly protected park core zone with those in the inland buffer zone with ongoing sustainable logging, and a not protected area adjacent to the park. Forest was the dominant land-cover type over the entire study period. We detected a gradient in land-cover continuity from the core zone (81 % continuity) to the inland buffer zone (74 %) and the area outside the park (66 %). Northern hardwood was the dominating forest type in all time points with high continuity (76 %). In contrast, pine forests show a more dynamic pattern with more than 50 % of the initial forests switching to non-forest or early succession forest types by 1928. More than half of the study area was considered as "natural virgin" (no changes in land-cover and forest community type) with a higher portion within the park than in the adjacent area. In contrast, areas with low naturalness are more abundant outside the park. Our study demonstrates the value of integrating historical information into naturalness assessments and the results provide useful information for future

  16. Greenhouse gas and air pollutant emissions from land and forest fire in Indonesia during 2015 based on satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pribadi, A.; Kurata, G.

    2017-01-01

    Land and forest fire still become a major problem in environmental management in Indonesia. In this study, we conducted quantitatively assessment of land and forest fire emissions in Indonesia during 2015. We applied methodology of emission inventory based on burned area, biomass density, combustion factor and emission factor for each land cover type using several satellite data such as MODIS burned area, Pantropical National Level Carbon Stock Dataset, as well as Vegetation Condition Index. The greenhouse gases emissions from land and forest fire in Indonesia during 2015 were (in Gg) 806,406 CO2, 8,002 CH4, 96 N2O, while pollutants emissions were (in Gg) 85,268 CO, 1,168 NOx, 340 SO2, 3,093 NMVOC, 1,041 NH3, 259 BC, 1,957 OC, 4,118 PM2.5 and 5,468 PM10. September was the peak of fire season that generate 58% (species average) of total emissions for this year. The largest contribution was from shrubland/savanna burning which account for 66% (species average) of the total emissions, while about 81% of the total emissions were generated from peatland fire. The results of this study emphasizethe importance of proper peatland management in Indonesia as land and forest fire countermeasures strategy.

  17. European Holocene landscape change: a comparison of pollen-based approaches to reconstructing land use shifts and forest decline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodbridge, Jessie; Roberts, Neil; Fyfe, Ralph; Gaillard, Marie-José; Trondman, Anna-Kari; Davis, Basil; Kaplan, Jed

    2016-04-01

    Europe's primaeval forests have been progressively cleared and fragmented since the first appearance of Neolithic farming activities around 6000 years ago. Understanding spatial and temporal changes in forest cover is valuable to researchers interested in past human-environment interactions. Here we present a comparison of reconstructed Holocene forest cover across Europe from three different transformed fossil pollen-based datasets, an extensive modern surface pollen data set, and modern forest cover from remote sensing. The REVEALS approach (Trondman et al., 2015) provides a quantified and validated reconstruction of vegetation incorporating plant productivity estimates, but is currently only available for a limited number of grid cells in mid-latitude and northern Europe for a limited number of time windows. The pseudobiomization (PBM) (Fyfe et al., 2015) and plant functional type (PFT) (Davis et al., 2015) based approaches provide continuous semi-quantitative records of land use change for temperate and Northern Europe spanning the Holocene, but do not provide truly quantified vegetation reconstructions. Estimated modern forest cover based on the various approaches ranges between ~29 and 54%. However, the Holocene estimates of vegetation change show broadly similar trends, with a forest maximum from ~8.2 to ~6 ka BP, and a decline in forest cover after 6 ka BP, accelerating after ~1.2 ka BP. The reconstructions, when broadly disaggregated into northern and mid-latitude Europe, confirm that mid-latitude forest cover has declined more than that in northern Europe over the last 6 ka. The continuous record provided by the PBM has been used to establish a 'half forest loss' date for each grid cell in temperate and northern Europe, which has identified that the timing of forest loss varied spatially with certain regions remaining forested for longer. References Davis BAS, Collins PM, Kaplan JO (2015) The age and post-glacial development of the modern European

  18. Harmonizing estimates of forest land area from national-level forest inventory and satellite imagery

    Treesearch

    Bonnie Ruefenacht; Mark D. Nelson; Mark Finco; Ken Brewer

    2009-01-01

    Estimates of forest land area are derived both from national-level forest inventories and satellite image-based map products. These estimates can differ substantially within subregional extents (e.g., states or provinces) primarily due to differences in definitions of forest land between inventory- and image-based approaches. We present a geospatial modeling approach...

  19. US forest carbon calculation tool: forest-land carbon stocks and net annual stock change

    Treesearch

    James E. Smith; Linda S. Heath; Michael C. Nichols

    2007-01-01

    The Carbon Calculation Tool 4.0, CCTv40.exe, is a computer application that reads publicly available forest inventory data collected by the U.S. Forest Service's Forest Inventory and Analysis Program (FIA) and generates state-level annualized estimates of carbon stocks on forest land based on FORCARB2 estimators. Estimates can be recalculated as...

  20. Mitigating greenhouse gases: the importance of land base interactions between forests, agriculture, and residential development in the face of changes in bioenergy and carbon prices

    Treesearch

    Ralph Alig; Greg Latta; Darius Adams; Bruce. McCarl

    2009-01-01

    The forest sector can contribute to atmospheric greenhouse gas reduction, while also providing other environmental, economic, and social benefits. Policy tools for climate change mitigation include carbon-related payment programs as well as laws and programs to impede the loss of agricultural and forest lands to development. Policy makers will base their expectations...

  1. Characterizing Virginia's private forest owners and their forest lands.

    Treesearch

    Thomas W. Birch; Sandra S. Hodge; Michael T. Thompson

    1998-01-01

    A recently completed forest inventory and two woodland owner surveys have given us insight about the owners of private forest lands in Virginia. There is increasing parcelization of forested lands and an increase in the number of nonindustrial private (NIPF) landowners in Virginia. More than half of the private owners have harvested timber from their holdings at some...

  2. Characterizing Virginia's Private Forest Owners and Their Forest Lands

    Treesearch

    Thomas W. Birch; Sandra S. Hodge; Michael T. Thompson

    1998-01-01

    A recently completed forest inventory and two woodland owner surveys have given us insight about the owners of private forest lands in Virginia. There is increasing parcelization of forested lands and an increase in the number of nonindustrial private (NIPF) landowners in Virginia. More than half of the private owners have harvested timber from their holdings at some...

  3. Forest Land In Indiana Counties, 1967

    Treesearch

    Burton L. Essex

    1968-01-01

    Commercial forest land has declined slightly from 4.1 million acres in 1950 to 3.9 million acres in 1967. The more heavily forested counties are in the southern half of the State where forest land has been increasing

  4. The private forest-land owners of the United States

    Treesearch

    Thomas W. Birch; Douglas G. Lewis; H. Fred Kaiser

    1982-01-01

    A report on a 1978 survey of private forest-land owners, based on 11,076 questionnaires. About 7.8 million ownership units hold 333 million acres of privately owned forest land in the United States. Regional and subregional breakdowns are included for such important variables as form of ownership; owner's occupation, age, sex, race, residence, and education; size...

  5. Spatial disparities of regional forest land change based on ESDA and GIS at the county level in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Hualin; Kung, Chih-Chun; Zhao, Yuluan

    2012-12-01

    Forest land is the essential and important natural resource that provides strong support for human survival and development. Research on forest land changes at the county level about its characteristics, rules, and spatial patterns is, therefore, important for regional resource protection and the sustainable development of the social economy. In this study we selected the GIS and Geoda software package to explore the spatial disparities of forest land changes at the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei area county level, based on the global and local spatial autocorrelation analyses of exploratory spatial data. The results show that: 1) during 1985-2000, the global spatial autocorrelation of forest land change is significant in the study area. The global Moran's I value is 0.3122 for the entire time period and indicates significant positive spatial correlation ( p < 0.05). Moran's I value of forest land change decreases from 0.3084 at the time stage I to 0.3024 at the time stage II; 2) the spatial clustering characteristics of forest land changes appear on the whole in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei area. Moran's I value decreases from the time stage I to time stage II, which means that trend of spatial clustering of forest land change is weakened in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei area; 3) the grid map of the local Moran's I for each county reflects local spatial homogeneity of forest land change, which means that spatial clustering about regions of high value and low value is especially significant. The regions with "High-High" correlation are mainly located in the north hilly area. However, the regions with "Low-Low" correlation were distributed in the middle of the study area. Therefore, protection strategies and concrete measures should be put in place for each regional cluster in the study area.

  6. Availability of forest and associated land resources in Illinois

    Treesearch

    John H. III Burde; David C. Baumgartner

    1978-01-01

    Describes the extent of forest land resources in Illinois and estimates their availability for timber and recreational uses using both conventional definitions of forest land and the broader concept of forest and associated land.

  7. History of forests and land-use

    Treesearch

    Todd F. Hutchinson; Darrin Rubino; Brian C. McCarthy; Elaine Kennedy Sutherland

    2003-01-01

    Oaks (Quercus) have been a dominant component of eastern forests, including the forests of southeastern Ohio, for more than 5,000 years. Prior to Euro-American settlement, written accounts (1700s) described open, park-like forests and the use of fire by Native Americans for hunting and land management. In seven townships encompassing the four study...

  8. Effects of changing forest land definitions on forest inventory on the West Coast, USA.

    PubMed

    Azuma, David L; Gray, Andrew

    2014-02-01

    A key function of forest inventory is to detect changes in the area of forest land over time, yet different definitions of forest land are used in different regions of the world. Changes in the definition of forest intended to improve international consistency can affect the ability to quantify true changes over time. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of a definitional change from relative stocking to canopy cover on the area classified as forest land and its relationship to species and forest density in California, Oregon, and Washington. Both western Juniper and ponderosa pine will yield higher estimates of forest land area using a canopy cover definition in comparison to a stocking-based definition, with the difference being most pronounced where land is marginally forested. The change in definition may result in an additional 146,000 ha of forest land identified on the West Coast. Measuring marginal forest lands with both metrics for the first cycle after implementation should make it possible to distinguish real change from definitional change.

  9. Applying object-based image analysis and knowledge-based classification to ADS-40 digital aerial photographs to facilitate complex forest land cover classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Yi-Ta; Chen, Chaur-Tzuhn; Chen, Jan-Chang

    2017-01-01

    In general, considerable human and material resources are required for performing a forest inventory survey. Using remote sensing technologies to save forest inventory costs has thus become an important topic in forest inventory-related studies. Leica ADS-40 digital aerial photographs feature advantages such as high spatial resolution, high radiometric resolution, and a wealth of spectral information. As a result, they have been widely used to perform forest inventories. We classified ADS-40 digital aerial photographs according to the complex forest land cover types listed in the Fourth Forest Resource Survey in an effort to establish a classification method for categorizing ADS-40 digital aerial photographs. Subsequently, we classified the images using the knowledge-based classification method in combination with object-based analysis techniques, decision tree classification techniques, classification parameters such as object texture, shape, and spectral characteristics, a class-based classification method, and geographic information system mapping information. Finally, the results were compared with manually interpreted aerial photographs. Images were classified using a hierarchical classification method comprised of four classification levels (levels 1 to 4). The classification overall accuracy (OA) of levels 1 to 4 is within a range of 64.29% to 98.50%. The final result comparisons showed that the proposed classification method achieved an OA of 78.20% and a kappa coefficient of 0.7597. On the basis of the image classification results, classification errors occurred mostly in images of sunlit crowns because the image values for individual trees varied. Such a variance was caused by the crown structure and the incident angle of the sun. These errors lowered image classification accuracy and warrant further studies. This study corroborates the high feasibility for mapping complex forest land cover types using ADS-40 digital aerial photographs.

  10. 75 FR 52716 - Transfer of Land to Forest Service

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-27

    ... Forest Service Transfer of Land to Forest Service AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of land.... Department of Agriculture, and on March 16, 2010, the Deputy Chief of the Forest Service, U.S. Department of... Federally owned lands in the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico from the Farm Service Agency to the Forest Service...

  11. Land grants and the U.S. Forest Service

    Treesearch

    Carol Raish; Alice M. McSweeney

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Forest Service (Forest Service) has a long, shared history with the land grants of northern New Mexico. During the land grant adjudication process after U.S. conquest, much common land from both Spanish and Mexican land grants was declared public domain, eventually becoming part of the northern and central New Mexico National Forests. These forests were...

  12. Mapping Martinique's forests and other natural lands for land planning and development

    Treesearch

    Remi Teissier du Cros; Claude Vidal

    2009-01-01

    The Regional Council of Martinique has chosen the French national forest inventory to realize Martinique's forest and other natural lands map. The project is divided into the three following steps: (1) nomenclature proposal and study area delineation; (2) mapping of the vegetation based on 2005 airborne orthophotographs, Geographic Information System-based slope...

  13. Model Optimization Planting Pattern Agroforestry Forest Land Based on Pine Tree

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajati, Tati

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to determine cropping patterns in class slopes 0 - <15% and the grade slope slopes 15% - <30% and the slopes> 30%. The method used in this study is a description of the dynamic system approach using a software power sim. Forest areas where the research, which is a type of plant that is cultivated by the people in the study…

  14. The forest-land owners of Pennsylvania

    Treesearch

    Thomas W. Birch; Donald F. Dennis

    1980-01-01

    Seventy-eight percent of Pennsylvania's 15.9 million acres of commercial forest land is in the hands of 490,100 private owners. Landowner information is, therefore, an essential component in obtaining a thorough understanding of Pennsylvania's forest resources. Eighty-six percent of these owners are individuals. A large majority, 63 percent of these owners,...

  15. Forest-land owners of Maine, 1982

    Treesearch

    Thomas W. Birch

    1986-01-01

    Information about the attitudes and objectives of the private forest-land owners is essential to understanding Maine's forest resources. Ninety-six percent of Maine's 17 million acres of timberland is in 180,900 private ownerships. Ninety-two percent of these ownerships are individual and joint ownerships. A majority, 66 percent of the owners, live within a...

  16. 43 CFR 2650.4-5 - National forest lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false National forest lands. 2650.4-5 Section... Selections: Generally § 2650.4-5 National forest lands. Every conveyance which includes lands within the boundaries of a national forest shall, as to such lands, contain reservations that: (a) Until December 18...

  17. Forest land application of municipal sludge.

    Treesearch

    D.G. Brockway

    1988-01-01

    In Michigan, 199 municipal and numerous industrial wastewater treatment facilities annually generate 222,750 dry tons of sludge, most of which is recycled on farmland. Substantial potential exists, however, to increase application on forest land in the northern two-thirds of the state (Brockway and Nguyen 1986). Although sludge application on agricultural land has...

  18. Using interpreted large scale aerial photo data to enhance satellite-based mapping and explore forest land definitions

    Treesearch

    Tracey S. Frescino; Gretchen G. Moisen

    2009-01-01

    The Interior-West, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA), Nevada Photo-Based Inventory Pilot (NPIP), launched in 2004, involved acquisition, processing, and interpretation of large scale aerial photographs on a subset of FIA plots (both forest and nonforest) throughout the state of Nevada. Two objectives of the pilot were to use the interpreted photo data to enhance...

  19. Utilization of Pisar L-2 Data for Land Cover Classification in Forest Area Using Pixel-Based and Object-Based Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trisakti, B.; Sutanto, A.; Noviar, H.; Kustiyo

    2015-04-01

    Polarimetric and Interferometric Airborne SAR in L-band 2 (PiSAR-L2) program is an experimental program of PALSAR-2 sensor in ALOS-2 satellite. Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) and Indonesian National Institute of Aeronautics and Space (LAPAN) have a research collaboration to explore the utilization of PiSAR-L2 data for forestry, agriculture, and disaster applications in Indonesia. The research explored the utilization of PiSAR-L2 data for land cover classification in forest area using the pixel-based and object-based methods. The PiSAR-L2 data in the 2.1 level with full polarization bands were selected over part of forest area in Riau Province. Field data collected by JAXA team was used for both training samples and verification data. Preprocessing data was carried out by backscatter (Sigma naught) conversion and Lee filtering. Beside full polarization images (HH, HV, VV), texture imagess (HH deviation, HV deviation, and VV deviation) were also added as the input bands for the classification processes. These processes were conducted for 2.5 meter and 10 meter spatial resolution data applying two methods of the maximum likelihood classifier for pixel-based classification and the support vector machine classifier for the object-based classification. Moreover, the average overall accuracy was calculated for each classification result. The results show that the use of texture images could improve the accuracy of land cover classification, particularly to differentiate between forest and acacia plantation. The pixelbased method showed a more detail information of the objects, but has "salt and pepper". In the other hand, the object-based method showed a good accuracy and clearer border line among objects, but has often some misinterpretations in object identification.

  20. Constraining the process-based land surface model ORCHIDEE by nutrient enrichment and forest management experiments in Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sofie Lansø, Anne; Resovsky, Alex; Guenet, Bertrand; Peylin, Philippe; Vuichard, Nicolas; Messina, Palmira; Smith, Benjamin; Ryder, James; Naudts, Kim; Chen, Yiying; Otto, Juliane; McGrath, Matthew; Valade, Aude; Luyssaert, Sebastiaan

    2017-04-01

    Understanding the coupling between carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling in terrestrial ecosystems is key to predicting global change. While numerous experimental studies have demonstrated the positive response of stand-level photosynthesis and net primary production (NPP) to atmospheric CO2 enrichment, N availability has been shown to exert an important control on the timing and magnitude of such responses. Forest management is also a key driver of C storage in such ecosystems but interactions between forest management and the N cycle as a C storage driver are not well known. In this study, we use data from N-fertilization experiments at two long-term forest manipulation sites in Sweden to inform and improve the representation of C and N interaction in the ORCHIDEE land surface model. Our version of the model represents the union of two ORCHIDEE branches; 1) ORCHIDEE-CN, which resolves processes related to terrestrial C and N cycling, and 2) ORCHIDEE-CAN, which integrates a multi-layer canopy structure and includes representation of forest management practices. Using this new model branch, referred to as ORCHIDEE-CN-CAN, we simulate the growth patterns of managed forests both with and without N limitations. Combining our simulated results with measurements of various ecosystem parameters (such as soil N) will aid in ecosystem model development, reducing structural uncertainty and optimizing parameter settings in global change simulations.

  1. 43 CFR 3811.2-4 - Lands in national forests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Lands in national forests. 3811.2-4... Lands Subject to Location and Purchase § 3811.2-4 Lands in national forests. For mining claims in national forests, see § 3811.1. ...

  2. 43 CFR 3811.2-4 - Lands in national forests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Lands in national forests. 3811.2-4... Lands Subject to Location and Purchase § 3811.2-4 Lands in national forests. For mining claims in national forests, see § 3811.1. ...

  3. 43 CFR 3811.2-4 - Lands in national forests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Lands in national forests. 3811.2-4... Lands Subject to Location and Purchase § 3811.2-4 Lands in national forests. For mining claims in national forests, see § 3811.1....

  4. Alterations in land uses based on amendments to the Brazilian Forest Law and their influences on water quality of a watershed.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues-Filho, J L; Degani, R M; Soares, F S; Periotto, N A; Blanco, F P; Abe, D S; Matsumura-Tundisi, T; Tundisi, J E; Tundisi, J G

    2015-01-01

    The amendments to the Forest Law proposed by the Brazilian government that allow partial substitution of forested areas by agricultural activities raised deep concern about the integrity of aquatic ecosystems. To assess the impacts of this alteration in land uses on the watershed, diffuse loads of total nitrogen (Nt) and total phosphorus (Pt) were estimated in Lobo Stream watershed, southeastern Brazil, based on export coefficients of the Model of Correlation between Land Use and Water Quality (MQUAL). Three scenarios were generated: scenario 1 (present scenario), with 30-meter-wide permanent preservation areas along the shore of water bodies and 50-meter-radius in springs; scenario 2, conservative, with 100-meter-wide permanent preservation areas along water bodies; and scenario 3, with the substitution of 20% of natural forest by agricultural activities. Results indicate that a suppression of 20% of forest cover would cause an increase in nutrient loads as well as in the trophic state of aquatic ecosystems of the watershed. This could result in losses of ecosystem services and compromise the quality of water and its supply for the basin. This study underlines the importance of forest cover for the maintenance of water quality in Lobo Stream watershed.

  5. Exploring the relationship between parcelization metrics and natural resource managers' perceptions of forest land parcelization intensity

    Treesearch

    Michael A. Kilgore; Stephanie A. Snyder

    2016-01-01

    A major challenge associated with forest land parcelization, defined as the subdivision of forest land holdings into smaller ownership parcels, is that little information exists on how to measure its severity and judge its impacts across forest landscapes. To address this information gap, an on-line survey presented field-based public natural resource managers in the...

  6. The forest-land owners of Maryland

    Treesearch

    Neal P. Kingsley; Thomas W. Birch

    1980-01-01

    Ninety perrent of the commercial forest land in Maryland--2,280,000 acres-is in the hands of some 95,800 owners. Eighty-seven percent of these owners are individuals. The average individual owner is middle aged, well educated, relatively affluent, and from a rural or farm background. Twenty-two percent of the private owners have harvested timber from their land. These...

  7. Impacts of forest and land management on biodiversity and carbon

    Treesearch

    Valerie Kapos; Werner A. Kurz; Toby Gardner; Joice Ferreira; Manuel Guariguata; Lian Pin Koh; Stephanie Mansourian; John A. Parrotta; Nokea Sasaki; Christine B. Schmitt; Jos Barlow; Markku Kanninen; Kimiko Okabe; Yude Pan; Ian D. Thompson; Nathalie. van Vliet

    2012-01-01

    Changes in the management of forest and non-forest land can contribute significantly to reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation. Such changes can include both forest management actions - such as improving the protection and restoration of existing forests, introducing ecologically responsible logging practices and regenerating forest on degraded...

  8. Land use and carbon storage in Georgia forests

    SciTech Connect

    Sharpe, D.M.; Johnson, W.C.

    1981-05-01

    Disparate estimates of trends in carbon storage in the major forest regions of the earth have focused attention on: (1) possible roles of forests in the global carbon budget, and in potential climatic change, and (2) the need for detailed regional studies of the impact of forest growth, exploitation, land use change, reforestation and storage of forest products on their carbon budgets as a preliminary for determining their aggregate impact on the global budgets as a preliminary for determining their aggregate impact on the global carbon budget. The carbon budget of the forests of the Upper Piedmont of Georgia is reconstructed from presettlement to the present, and the impact of alternative futures on the region's carbon budget modeled for the next three decades and for the next century. Historic trends are based on US Bureau of the Census and USDA Forest Service records. Alternative futures are assessed using a compartment model (each compartment is a forest type-biomass class) whose transfer coefficients were systematically altered to account for plausible changes in forest exploitation, management and area. Carbon storage declined from a presettlement value of 386 x 10/sup 6/ tonnes to about 40 x 10/sup 6/ tonnes during the height of agriculture. Post World War II reforestation increased it to 112 x 10/sup 6/ tonnes by 1972. Further increases are expected in the next several decades in spite of reductions in the forest land base. However, the impact on the global carbon cycle of a region undergoing agricultural development is five times that of a region in agricultural decline. Long-term projections suggest that the managed forests of a region may continue to be modest carbon sinks (increased carbon storage) largely through the storage of forest biomass and carbon in forest products.

  9. Taxation of forest and associated land in Illinois.

    Treesearch

    David C. Baumgartner; Ronald I. Beazley

    1979-01-01

    Analyzes the operation and impact of the property tax on forest and associated land in Illinois and evaluates the potential of adjustments in the tax as an incentive to better management of forest and associated land.

  10. Inyo National Forest Land Exchange Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Feinstein, Dianne [D-CA

    2013-12-20

    07/30/2014 Committee on Energy and Natural Resources Senate Subcommittee on Public Lands, Forests, and Mining. Hearings held. With printed Hearing: S.Hrg. 113-433. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  11. Inyo National Forest Land Exchange Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Feinstein, Dianne [D-CA

    2013-12-20

    Senate - 07/30/2014 Committee on Energy and Natural Resources Senate Subcommittee on Public Lands, Forests, and Mining. Hearings held. With printed Hearing: S.Hrg. 113-433. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  12. Inyo National Forest Land Exchange Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Feinstein, Dianne [D-CA

    2013-12-20

    07/30/2014 Committee on Energy and Natural Resources Senate Subcommittee on Public Lands, Forests, and Mining. Hearings held. With printed Hearing: S.Hrg. 113-433. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  13. Summary and findings of the 2006 BLM Forest Lands Report

    Treesearch

    Tim Bottomley; Jim Menlove

    2009-01-01

    In 2006, the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) contracted with the Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis Program (FIA) to assist in the preparation of a report specific to all forest lands under the administration of the BLM. The BLM requested that the FIA provide information on the extent and general conditions of BLM- managed forests and woodlands, within...

  14. The forest-land owners of southern New England

    Treesearch

    Neal P. Kingsley

    1976-01-01

    A statistical-analytical report of a mail canvass of the owners of privately owned commercial forest land in the three Southern New England States-Connecticut, Massachusetts, and Rhode Island. The study was conducted in conjunction with the second forest survey of Southern New England by the USDA Forest Service. Trends in forest-land ownership and the attitudes and...

  15. Rehabilitation of fire-damaged forest lands in southwestern Maine

    Treesearch

    A. D. Nutting; James C. Rettie; Wayne G. Banks

    1949-01-01

    Recognizing that it can ill afford the loss of timber productivity on the large acreage of forest land burned over by the 1947 fires, the state of Maine requested assistance of the Northeastern Forest Experiment Station of the United States Forest Service in a program of research that would aid in the rehabilitation of the burned-over forest land.

  16. Forest-land clearing and wood recovery in Maryland

    Treesearch

    James T. Bones

    1980-01-01

    Changing land use often results in removal of the existing forest cover. During a resurvey of Maryland's timber resources, a study was conducted to measure the losses of wood fiber attributable to forest-land clearing. An estimated 107 million cubic feet of growing stock were destroyed on 164,000 acres of commercial forest land cleared between 1961 and 1972. For...

  17. 78 FR 13316 - National Forest System Land Management Planning Directives

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-27

    ... Forest Service RIN 0596-AD06 National Forest System Land Management Planning Directives AGENCY: Forest...) land management planning regulation. Issuance of these proposed directives will provide consistent... land management plans for units of the NFS. Public comment is invited and will be considered in...

  18. 25 CFR 163.10 - Management of Indian forest land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Management of Indian forest land. 163.10 Section 163.10 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.10 Management of Indian forest land. (a) The Secretary shall...

  19. 25 CFR 163.10 - Management of Indian forest land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Management of Indian forest land. 163.10 Section 163.10 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.10 Management of Indian forest land. (a) The Secretary shall...

  20. 25 CFR 163.10 - Management of Indian forest land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Management of Indian forest land. 163.10 Section 163.10 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.10 Management of Indian forest land. (a) The Secretary shall...

  1. 25 CFR 163.10 - Management of Indian forest land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Management of Indian forest land. 163.10 Section 163.10 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.10 Management of Indian forest land. (a) The Secretary shall...

  2. 25 CFR 163.10 - Management of Indian forest land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Management of Indian forest land. 163.10 Section 163.10 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.10 Management of Indian forest land. (a) The Secretary shall...

  3. Long-term continuous GIS-based modeling of forest land use changes in Mica Creek watershed in northern Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boll, J.; Brooks, E. S.; Hubbart, J. A.; Link, T. E.; Cundy, T. W.; Elliot, W. J.; Gravelle, J. A.

    2005-12-01

    Long-term effects of land use change on watershed hydrology are difficult to determine experimentally. Usually, many different disturbances occur that may mask the land use changes of interest. In forested watersheds, these disturbances include clear cutting, road building and fires. In this study, we use an extensive data set from the 28 km2Mica Creek Experimental Watershed (MCEW). This watershed was developed in 1990 by Potlatch Corporation to evaluate the effects of modern forest practices on stream resources. The Mica Creek watershed is a large 97 km2 tributary watershed to the St. Joe River near St. Maries, Idaho. The MCEW has a nested study design, which allows for the analysis of cumulative effects as well as the traditional comparison of treatment versus control. Treatments include road building in 1996, and clearcut and partial-cut logging in 2001. Periods of two to five years were included for pre-treatment and post-treatment monitoring. The MCEW has been instrumented since 1990 for discharge, flow proportional suspended sediment sampling, bedload sampling (during events), water temperature, particle size distribution, channel shape, canopy cover, and channel gradients at 32 stream cross-sections, and precipitation at 4 locations and a cooperative SNOTEL site. We applied the Soil Moisture Routing model, and CCHE1D, a channel routing model for water and sediment, to the MCEW data set. Our results include the simulation of a control period (calibration), road building, and logging. Simulation results are evaluated using spatial patterns, stream flow records at seven flumes, and water yield data. After model simulation, we selected several land use change scenarios for further model runs. In these model runs, we analyzed model output for water yield changes and associated hydrologic variables such as evapotranspiration, runoff, and interflow.

  4. Forest conservation and land development in Puerto Rico.

    Treesearch

    E.H. Helmer

    2004-01-01

    In the Caribbean island of Puerto Rico, rapid land-use changes over the past century have included recent landcover conversion to urban/built-up lands. Observations of this land development adjacent to reserves or replacing dense forest call into question how the changes relate to forests or reserved lands. Using existing maps, this study first summarizes island-wide...

  5. 43 CFR 2650.4-5 - National forest lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false National forest lands. 2650.4-5 Section 2650.4-5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) ALASKA NATIVE SELECTIONS Alaska Native...

  6. 43 CFR 2650.4-5 - National forest lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false National forest lands. 2650.4-5 Section 2650.4-5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) ALASKA NATIVE SELECTIONS Alaska Native...

  7. 43 CFR 3811.2-4 - Lands in national forests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Lands in national forests. 3811.2-4 Section 3811.2-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LANDS AND MINERALS SUBJECT TO LOCATION...

  8. 43 CFR 2650.4-5 - National forest lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false National forest lands. 2650.4-5 Section 2650.4-5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) ALASKA NATIVE SELECTIONS Alaska Native...

  9. Forest management manual for Crown lands 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    The forest management plan describes the objectives for which Crown lands and the resources of Crown lands are used by the licensee and sublicensees. The operating plan describes all the proposed activities of the licensee, constituting an implementation plan for the management plan. This document describes the contents of the operating plan in relation to roads, harvest, silviculture, fish and wildlife habitat, recreation, required letters of agreement, and DNR amendments; operating plan approval and maintenance; and annual report requirements for each operating plan element.

  10. The forest-land owners of Kentucky

    Treesearch

    Thomas W. Birch; Douglas S. Powell

    1978-01-01

    Ninety-two percent of the commercial forest land in Kentucky--11 million acres--is in the hands of some 455,600 private owners. Ninety-four percent of these owners are individuals. The "average" individual owner is in late middle age, has little formal education, receives a modest income, has a farm or rural background, has owned his woodland more than 10...

  11. Microscale photo interpretation of forest and nonforest land classes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aldrich, R. C.; Greentree, W. J.

    1972-01-01

    Remote sensing of forest and nonforest land classes are discussed, using microscale photointerpretation. Results include: (1.) Microscale IR color photography can be interpreted within reasonable limits of error to estimate forest area. (2.) Forest interpretation is best on winter photography with 97 percent or better accuracy. (3.) Broad forest types can be classified on microscale photography. (4.) Active agricultural land is classified most accurately on early summer photography. (5.) Six percent of all nonforest observations were misclassified as forest.

  12. Effects of changing forest land definitions on forest inventory on the West Coast, USA

    Treesearch

    David L. Azuma; Andrew Gray

    2014-01-01

    A key function of forest inventory is to detect changes in the area of forest land over time, yet different definitions of forest land are used in different regions of the world. Changes in the definition of forest intended to improve international consistency can affect the ability to quantify true changes over time. The objective of this study was to evaluate the...

  13. Tennessee's forest land area was stable 1999-2005 but early successional forest area declined

    Treesearch

    Christopher M. Oswalt

    2008-01-01

    A new analysis of the most recent (2005) annualized moving average data for Tennessee indicates that the area of forest land in the State remained stable between 1999 and 2005. Although trends in forest land area vary from region to region within the State, Tennessee neither lost nor gained forest land between 1999 and 2005. However, Tennessee had more than 2.5 times...

  14. National forest economic clusters: a new model for assessing national-forest-based natural resources products and services.

    Treesearch

    Thomas D. Rojas

    2007-01-01

    National forest lands encompass numerous rural and urban communities. Some national-forest-based communities lie embedded within national forests, and others reside just outside the official boundaries of national forests. The urban and rural communities within or near national forest lands include a wide variety of historical traditions and cultural values that affect...

  15. Monitoring forest/non-forest land use conversion rates with annual inventory data

    Treesearch

    Francis A. Roesch; Paul C. Van Deusen

    2012-01-01

    The transitioning of land from forest to other uses is of increasing interest as urban areas expand and the world’s population continues to grow. Also of interest, but less recognized, is the transitioning of land from other uses into forest. In this paper, we show how rates of conversion from forest to non-forest and non-forest to forest can be estimated in the US...

  16. Inventory of oaks on California's national forest lands

    Treesearch

    Thomas Gaman; Kevin Casey

    2002-01-01

    California has 18+ million acres of land owned by the USDA Forest Service. This is almost 20 percent of the area of the state. From 1994-2000 the Region 5 Remote Sensing Lab collected forest, vegetation and fuels inventory data from thousands of permanent monitoring plots established on diverse sites on Forest Service lands throughout the region. The plots are...

  17. The forest-land owners of New York

    Treesearch

    Thomas W. Birch

    1983-01-01

    Information about the attitudes and objectives of the private forest-land owners is essential to understanding New York's forest resources. Ninety-four percent of New York's 15.4 million acres of commercial forest land is in 506,500 private ownerships. Eighty-nine percent of these ownerships are individual and joint ownerships. A majority, 66 percent of these...

  18. Effects land surface type, land use, and land use change on aquatic-atmosphere fluxes of carbon dioxide from tropical forests and peat lands of Borneo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oechel, W. C.; Abelleira Martínez, O.; Anshari, G.; Ikawa, H.; Lawrence, W. T.; Metz, M.; Neteler, M.; Nuriman, M.; Rocchini, D.; Zona, D.

    2011-12-01

    Tropical peat lands appear to be loosing huge amounts of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere due to patterns of land use and land use change including conversion of tropical forest peat lands to palm oil production and other agricultural endeavors and forest exploitation. Here, we look at the effect of land use patterns on the export of carbon to tropical river systems and the efflux from tropical rivers to the atmosphere. Levels of pcarbon dioxide, DOC and POC were measured in the Kapuas River, the longest river in Borneo. Patterns of land use and land use change were correlated with export rates of organic matter to the river as well as the vertical fluxes of carbon dioxide from the river and delta to the atmosphere. Land conversion of tropical forests on peat land soils to agriculture, including palm oil production, had some of the highest rates of lateral fluxes of organic carbon to the river system, and among the highest fluxes of carbon dioxide from the river to the atmosphere. This approach illustrates the utility of using a combination of methods: pcarbon dioxide measurement, water chemistry, temporal remote sensing, and modeling to understand and quantify the impact of land use change on GHG emissions from tropical peat lands. Boat based eddy covariance, developed and tested in the coastal zones of the Pacific Ocean, promises to provide a powerful addition to these approaches.

  19. What explains the demand for collective forest rights amidst land use conflicts?

    PubMed

    Kashwan, Prakash

    2016-12-01

    This article presents one of the first empirical studies of the demand for collective forest rights by forest-dependent groups locked in longstanding conflicts with government forestry agencies, which is a common feature of forested regions in the Global South. This analysis shows that (1) past engagements with community-based forest protection help foster demand for collective forest management rights despite the longstanding land use conflicts; (2) large areas of forest land affected by land use conflicts undermine the propensity of community groups to demand collective forest rights; (3) after the area affected by land use conflicts is controlled for, a larger number of land rights claimants is associated with a greater probability that a village group will claim collective forest rights; and (4) micro-institutional variables, particularly financial autonomy of village groups engaged in forest protection efforts, are likely to be among the main drivers of the local demand for collective forest management rights. The main finding is that community-based forest management is not merely an agenda that is imposed from the top by donors. Rather, recognizing the agency of rural residents in the process of adjudication of land use conflicts and providing them with autonomous spaces for management of local resources is likely to significantly boost the local demand for environmental stewardship. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. 78 FR 23491 - National Forest System Land Management Planning; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-19

    ... Forest Service 36 CFR Part 219 RIN 0596-AB86 National Forest System Land Management Planning; Correction...) published a final rule setting forth directions for developing, amending, revising, and monitoring land...) requires planning regulations to specify guidelines for land management plans which ``permit increases in...

  1. Society's choices: land use changes, forest fragmentation, and conservation.

    Treesearch

    Jonathan. Thompson

    2006-01-01

    Changing patterns of land use are at the heart of many environmental concerns regarding U.S. forest lands. Of all the human impacts to forests, development is one of the most significant because of the severity and permanency of the change. Concern about the effects of development on America’s forests has risen sharply since the 1990s, when the conversion of forest...

  2. The forest-land owners of West Virginia

    Treesearch

    Thomas W. Birch; Neal P. Kingsley

    1978-01-01

    There are an estimated 207,500 owners of private commercial forest land in West Virginia. They own an average of 49.8 acres each. However, fewer than 500 owners own 30 percent of the private commercial forest land. Corporations hold 25 percent of the privately owned commercial forest land in the State. Seventy-seven percent of the owners intend to harvest timber from...

  3. Private forest-land owners of the United States, 1994

    Treesearch

    Thomas W. Birch; Thomas W. Birch

    1996-01-01

    A statistical analytical report on mail canvass of private forest-land owners in the United States. It discusses landowner characteristics, attitudes, harvesting experience, tenure, and management planning.

  4. 76 FR 1629 - Public Land Order No. 7757; Withdrawal of National Forest System Land for the Big Ice Cave; Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-11

    ... remain open to such forms of disposition as may by law be made of National Forest System land and to... public land laws governing the use of National Forest System land under lease, license, or permit, or... Bureau of Land Management Public Land Order No. 7757; Withdrawal of National Forest System Land for...

  5. A United States view on changes in land use and land values affecting sustainable forest management.

    Treesearch

    R.J. Alig

    2007-01-01

    With increasing opportunity costs of keeping land in forests because of increasing values for other land uses, such as for developed uses, forest ownership may become less attractive for some landowners and the return on investment less viable for both private and public landowners. This raises the question of what will become of the forests and the resources the...

  6. Effects of parcelization and land divestiture on forest sustainability in simulated forest landscapes

    Treesearch

    Eric J. Gustafson; Craig Loehle

    2006-01-01

    Ownership parcelization of forest land and divestiture of industrial forest land is increasing throughout the U.S. This may affect (positively or negatively) the ability of forested landscapes to produce benefits that society values, such as fiber, biodiversity and recreation. We used a timber harvest simulator and neutral model landscapes to systematically study how...

  7. International trade, and land use intensification and spatial reorganization explain Costa Rica’s forest transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jadin, I.; Meyfroidt, P.; Lambin, E. F.

    2016-03-01

    While tropical deforestation remains widespread, some countries experienced a forest transition—a shift from net deforestation to net reforestation. Costa Rica had one of the highest deforestation rates in the 1980s and is now considered as a model of environmental sustainability, despite being a major producer of bananas and pineapples. We tested three land use processes that are thought to facilitate forest transitions. First, forest transitions may be accompanied by land use displacement through international trade of land-based products, which may undermine the global-scale environmental benefits of national forest protection. Second, reforestation is often associated with land use intensification in agriculture and forestry, allowing for land sparing. Third, this intensification may partly result from a geographical redistribution of land use at the sub-national scale to better match land use with land suitability. These hypotheses were verified for Costa Rica’s forest transition. We also tested whether forest increased mainly in regions with a low ecological value and agriculture expanded in regions with a high ecological value. Intensification and land use redistribution accounted for 76% of land spared during the forest transition, with 32% of this spared area corresponding to net reforestation. Decreasing meat exports led to a contraction of pastures, freeing an area equivalent to 80% of the reforested area. The forest transition in Costa Rica was environmentally beneficial at the global scale, with the reforested area over 1989-2013 corresponding to 130% of the land use displaced abroad through imports of agricultural products. However, expansion of export-oriented cropland caused deforestation in the most ecologically valuable regions of Costa Rica. Moreover, wood extraction from forest plantations increased to produce the pallets needed to export fruits. This highlights the importance of a multi-scale analysis when evaluating causes and impacts of

  8. Does land use planning slow the conversion of forest and farm lands?

    Treesearch

    Jeffrey D. Kline; Ralph J. Alig

    1999-01-01

    Land use planning often is implemented to control development on forests and farmland, but its impact on land use remains untested. Previous studies evaluating such programs have relied on anecdotal evidence rather than on data describing actual land use change. A model of land use is specified as a function of socioeconomic factors, land rent, and landowners'...

  9. Postfire management in forested public lands of the western USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beschta, R.L.; Rhodes, J.J.; Kauffman, J.B.; Gresswell, Robert E.; Minshall, G.W.; Frissell, C.A.; Perry, D.A.; Hauer, R.

    2004-01-01

    Forest ecosystems in the western United States evolved over many millennia in response to disturbances such as wildfires. Land use and management practices have altered these ecosystems, however, including fire regimes in some areas. Forest ecosystems are especially vulnerable to postfire management practices because such practices may influence forest dynamics and aquatic systems for decades to centuries. Thus, there is an increasing need to evaluate the effect of postfire treatments from the perspective of ecosystem recovery. We examined, via the published literature and our collective experience, the ecological effects of some common postfire treatments. Based on this examination, promising postfire restoration measures include retention of large trees, rehabilitation of firelines and roads, and, in some cases, planting of native species. The following practices are generally inconsistent with efforts to restore ecosystem functions after fire: seeding exotic species, livestock grazing, placement of physical structures in and near stream channels, ground-based postfire logging, removal of large trees, and road construction. Practices that adversely affect soil integrity, persistence or recovery of native species, riparian functions, or water quality generally impede ecological recovery after fire. Although research provides a basis for evaluating the efficacy of postfire treatments, there is a continuing need to increase our understanding of the effects of such treatments within the context of societal and ecological goals for forested public lands of the western United States.

  10. Conversions of forest land: trends, determinants, projections, and policy considerations

    Treesearch

    Ralph Alig; Susan Stewart; David Wear; Susan Stein; David Nowak

    2010-01-01

    Forest land conversion leads to ecological effects (e.g., changes in water quality and wildlife habitat) and socioeconomic effects (e.g., expanding urban-forest interface, reduced long-term timber production possibilities and loss of open space). Socioeconomic drivers of land use change such as population totals and personal income levels have increased substantially...

  11. Effects of climate, land management, and sulfur deposition on soil base cation supply in national forests of the southern Appalachian mountains

    Treesearch

    T.C. McDonnell; T.J. Sullivan; B.J. Cosby; W.A. Jackson; K.J. Elliott

    2013-01-01

    Forest soils having low exchangeable calcium (Ca) and other nutrient base cation (BC) reserves may induce nutrient deficiencies in acid-sensitive plants and impact commercially important tree species. Past and future depletion of soil BC in response to acidic sulfur (S) deposition, forest management, and climate change alter the health and productivity of forest trees...

  12. 77 FR 64310 - Shoshone National Forest, WY, Revised Land and Resource Management Plan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Shoshone National Forest, WY, Revised Land and Resource Management Plan AGENCY: Forest... the Shoshone National Forest Land Management Plan Revision Draft Environmental Impact Statement....

  13. Forest Vegetation Simulator translocation techniques with the Bureau of Land Management's Forest Vegetation Information system database

    Treesearch

    Timothy A. Bottomley

    2008-01-01

    The BLM uses a database, called the Forest Vegetation Information System (FORVIS), to store, retrieve, and analyze forest resource information on a majority of their forested lands. FORVIS also has the capability of easily transferring appropriate data electronically into Forest Vegetation Simulator (FVS) for simulation runs. Only minor additional data inputs or...

  14. The forest-land owners of New Hampshire and Vermont

    Treesearch

    Neal P. Kingsley; Thomas W. Birch

    1977-01-01

    The recently completed forest surveys of New Hampshire and Vermont provided estimates of forest area and timber volume by broad owner categories (Kingsley 1976 and 1977). However, these reports did not provide estimates of the volume of timber or the acreage of commercial forest land that is currently available for harvesting. Nor did they provide descriptions of...

  15. The forest-land owners of Ohio -- 1979

    Treesearch

    Thomas W. Birch; Thomas W. Birch

    1982-01-01

    A statistical analytical report on a mail canvass of private commercial forest-land owners in Ohio. The study was conducted in conjunction with the third forest survey of Ohio by the USDA Forest Service. It discusses landowner characteristics, attitudes, and intentions of owners regarding reasons for owning, recreational use, timber management, and harvesting.

  16. Forest-land owners of New Hampshire, 1983

    Treesearch

    Thomas W. Birch; Thomas W. Birch

    1989-01-01

    A statistical analytical report on a mail canvass of private timberland owners in New Hampshire. The study was conducted in conjunction with the forest survey of New Hampshire by the USDA Forest Service. It discusses forest-land owner characteristics, attitudes, and intentions of owners regarding reasons for owning, recreational use, timber management, and timber...

  17. The forest-land owners of New Jersey

    Treesearch

    Neal P. Kingsley

    1975-01-01

    Results of a mail canvass of forest-land owners in New Jersey, conducted in conjunction with the second forest survey of the State, show that there are 63,600 owners of the 1,537,900 acres of privately owned commercial forest land in the State. These owners hold an average of 24.2 acres each. However, more than half of the ownerships are of less than 10 acres, so the...

  18. Forest dynamics in the U.S. indicate disproportionate attrition in western forests, rural areas and public lands

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Forests are experiencing significant changes; studying geographic patterns in forests is critical in understanding the impact of forest dynamics to biodiversity, soil erosion, water chemistry and climate. Few studies have examined forest geographic pattern changes other than fragmentation; however, other spatial processes of forest dynamics are of equal importance. Here, we study forest attrition, the complete removal of forest patches, that can result in complete habitat loss, severe decline of population sizes and species richness, and shifts of local and regional environmental conditions. We aim to develop a simple yet insightful proximity-based spatial indicator capturing forest attrition that is independent of spatial scale and boundaries with worldwide application potential. Using this proximity indicator, we evaluate forest attrition across ecoregions, land ownership and urbanization stratifications across continental United States of America. Nationally, the total forest cover loss was approximately 90,400 km2, roughly the size of the state of Maine, constituting a decline of 2.96%. Examining the spatial arrangement of this change the average FAD was 3674m in 1992 and increased by 514m or 14.0% in 2001. Simulations of forest cover loss indicate only a 10m FAD increase suggesting that the observed FAD increase was more than an order of magnitude higher than expected. Furthermore, forest attrition is considerably higher in the western United States, in rural areas and in public lands. Our mathematical model (R2 = 0.93) supports estimation of attrition for a given forest cover. The FAD metric quantifies forest attrition across spatial scales and geographic boundaries and assesses unambiguously changes over time. The metric is applicable to any landscape and offers a new complementary insight on forest landscape patterns from local to global scales, improving future exploration of drivers and repercussions of forest cover changes and supporting more informative

  19. Forest dynamics in the U.S. indicate disproportionate attrition in western forests, rural areas and public lands.

    PubMed

    Yang, Sheng; Mountrakis, Giorgos

    2017-01-01

    Forests are experiencing significant changes; studying geographic patterns in forests is critical in understanding the impact of forest dynamics to biodiversity, soil erosion, water chemistry and climate. Few studies have examined forest geographic pattern changes other than fragmentation; however, other spatial processes of forest dynamics are of equal importance. Here, we study forest attrition, the complete removal of forest patches, that can result in complete habitat loss, severe decline of population sizes and species richness, and shifts of local and regional environmental conditions. We aim to develop a simple yet insightful proximity-based spatial indicator capturing forest attrition that is independent of spatial scale and boundaries with worldwide application potential. Using this proximity indicator, we evaluate forest attrition across ecoregions, land ownership and urbanization stratifications across continental United States of America. Nationally, the total forest cover loss was approximately 90,400 km2, roughly the size of the state of Maine, constituting a decline of 2.96%. Examining the spatial arrangement of this change the average FAD was 3674m in 1992 and increased by 514m or 14.0% in 2001. Simulations of forest cover loss indicate only a 10m FAD increase suggesting that the observed FAD increase was more than an order of magnitude higher than expected. Furthermore, forest attrition is considerably higher in the western United States, in rural areas and in public lands. Our mathematical model (R2 = 0.93) supports estimation of attrition for a given forest cover. The FAD metric quantifies forest attrition across spatial scales and geographic boundaries and assesses unambiguously changes over time. The metric is applicable to any landscape and offers a new complementary insight on forest landscape patterns from local to global scales, improving future exploration of drivers and repercussions of forest cover changes and supporting more informative

  20. Forest ecosystem carbon on public lands of the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Heath, L.S.

    1995-06-01

    Increasing concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere has prompted nations to investigate strategies to mitigate emissions. One set of strategies involves sequestering carbon in forests, and this requires a way to estimate and project the forest ecosystem carbon budget for all forestland under a range of potential policy options. Carbon was estimated and projected using the FORCARB model, linked to ATLAS, the Aggregate Timberland Assessment System. FORCARB estimates carbon in live trees, detrital wood, forest floor, and soil, and ATLAS tracks timber inventory in terms of volume and land area. Together, these models account for the effects of existing forest inventories, forest growth, land use changes, and harvesting on carbon sequestered on public lands. Forests on both federal and non-federal public lands comprise at least 40% of the forests in the U.S. by land area, and contain a significant portion of the forest carbon budget. Changes in harvesting and fire suppression strategies on public lands noticeably affect the forest carbon budget of the U.S.

  1. 75 FR 58348 - Revision of the Shoshone National Forest Land and Resource Management Plan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ... Forest Service Revision of the Shoshone National Forest Land and Resource Management Plan AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of Intent to revise the Shoshone National Forest Land and Resource... Management Act (NFMA), the USDA Forest Service is preparing the Shoshone National Forest's revised land...

  2. Remote sensing of forest dynamics and land use in Amazonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toomey, Michael Paul

    The rich, vast Amazonian ecosystem is directly and indirectly threatened by human activities; remote sensing serves as an essential tool for monitoring, understanding and mitigating these threats. A multi-faceted body of work is described here, addressing three major issues that employ and advance remote sensing techniques for the study of Amazonia and other tropical rainforest regions. In Chapter 2, canopy reflectance modeling and satellite observations were used to quantify the effect of epiphylls on remote sensing of humid forests. Modeling simulations demonstrated sensitivity of canopy-level near infrared and green reflectance to epiphylls on leaves. Time series of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) data corroborated the modeling results, suggesting a degree of coupling between epiphyll cover and vegetation indices which must be accounted for when using optical remote sensing in humid forests. In Chapter 4, 11 years (2000--2010) of MODIS land surface temperature (LST) data covering the entire Amazon basin were used to ascertain the role of heat stress during droughts in 2005 and 2010. Preliminary accuracy assessments showed that LST data provided reasonably accurate estimates of daytime air temperatures (RMSE = 1.45°C; Chapter 3). There were moderate to strong correlations between LST-based air temperature estimates and tower measurements (mean r = 0.64), illustrating a sensitivity to temporal variability. During both droughts, MODIS LST data detected anomalously high daytime and nighttime canopy temperatures throughout drought-affected regions. Multivariate linear models of LST and precipitation anomalies explained 65.1% of the variability in forest biomass losses, as determined from a wide network of forest inventory plots. These results suggest that models should incorporate both heat and moisture to predict drought effects on tropical forests. In Chapter 5, I performed high spatial and temporal resolution modeling of carbon stocks and fluxes

  3. 77 FR 21161 - National Forest System Land Management Planning

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-09

    ...The U.S. Department of Agriculture is adopting a new National Forest System land management planning rule (planning rule). The new planning rule guides the development, amendment, and revision of land management plans for all units of the National Forest System (NFS), consisting of 155 national forests, 20 grasslands, and 1 prairie. This planning rule sets forth process and content requirements to guide the development, amendment, and revision of land management plans to maintain and restore NFS land and water ecosystems while providing for ecosystem services and multiple uses. The planning rule is designed to ensure that plans provide for the sustainability of ecosystems and resources; meet the need for forest restoration and conservation, watershed protection, and species diversity and conservation; and assist the Agency in providing a sustainable flow of benefits, services, and uses of NFS lands that provide jobs and contribute to the economic and social sustainability of communities.

  4. Classification of forest land attributes using multi-source remotely sensed data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pippuri, Inka; Suvanto, Aki; Maltamo, Matti; Korhonen, Kari T.; Pitkänen, Juho; Packalen, Petteri

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the study was to (1) examine the classification of forest land using airborne laser scanning (ALS) data, satellite images and sample plots of the Finnish National Forest Inventory (NFI) as training data and to (2) identify best performing metrics for classifying forest land attributes. Six different schemes of forest land classification were studied: land use/land cover (LU/LC) classification using both national classes and FAO (Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations) classes, main type, site type, peat land type and drainage status. Special interest was to test different ALS-based surface metrics in classification of forest land attributes. Field data consisted of 828 NFI plots collected in 2008-2012 in southern Finland and remotely sensed data was from summer 2010. Multinomial logistic regression was used as the classification method. Classification of LU/LC classes were highly accurate (kappa-values 0.90 and 0.91) but also the classification of site type, peat land type and drainage status succeeded moderately well (kappa-values 0.51, 0.69 and 0.52). ALS-based surface metrics were found to be the most important predictor variables in classification of LU/LC class, main type and drainage status. In best classification models of forest site types both spectral metrics from satellite data and point cloud metrics from ALS were used. In turn, in the classification of peat land types ALS point cloud metrics played the most important role. Results indicated that the prediction of site type and forest land category could be incorporated into stand level forest management inventory system in Finland.

  5. 77 FR 8895 - Public Land Order No. 7788; Withdrawal of National Forest System Land for the Red Cloud...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-15

    ... general land laws governing the use of National Forest System land under lease, license, or permit, or... Bureau of Land Management Public Land Order No. 7788; Withdrawal of National Forest System Land for the Red Cloud Campground; New Mexico AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Public...

  6. Chapter 3: Selecting materials for mine soil construction when establishing forests on Appalachian mined lands

    Treesearch

    Jeff Skousen; Carl Zipper; Jim Burger; Christopher Barton; Patrick. Angel

    2017-01-01

    The Forestry Reclamation Approach (FRA), a method for reclaiming coal-mined land to forest (Chapter 2, this volume), is based on research, knowledge, and experience of forest soil scientists and reclamation practitioners. Step 1 of the FRA is to create a suitable rooting medium for good tree growth that is no less than 4 feet deep and consists of topsoil, weathered...

  7. Summary estimates of forest resources on unreserved lands of the Stikine inventory unit, Tongass National Forest, southeast Alaska, 1998.

    Treesearch

    Willem W.S. van Hees

    2001-01-01

    Summary estimates are presented of forest resource area, timber volume, and growth and mortality of timber on unreserved national forest land in the Stikine inventory unit of the Tongass National Forest. Pacific Northwest Research Station, Forest Inventory and Analysis, crews collected inventory data from 1995 to 1998. Productive forest land area (timberland) was...

  8. Timber resource statistics for all forest land, except national forests, in eastern Oregon.

    Treesearch

    Donald R. Gedney; Patricia M. Bassett; Mary A. Mei

    1989-01-01

    This report summarizes a 1987 timber resource inventory of all forest land, except National Forests, in the 17 counties (Baker, Crook, Deschutes, Gilliam, Grant, Harney, Jefferson, Klamath, Lake, Malheur, Morrow, Sherman, Umatilla, Union, Wallowa, Wasco, and Wheeler Counties) in eastern Oregon. Detailed tables of forest area, timber volume, growth, mortality, and...

  9. Forests on the edge: evaluating contributions of and threats to America's private forest lands

    Treesearch

    Susan M. Stein; Mark Hatfield; Ronald E. McRoberts; Dacia M. Meneguzzo; Mike Dechter; < i> et al< /i>

    2007-01-01

    The Forests on the Edge project, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, uses geographic information systems to construct and analyze maps depicting ecological, social, and economic contributions of America's private forest lands and threats to those contributions. Watersheds across the conterminous United States are ranked relative to the...

  10. Land and resource management plan: Huron-Manistee national forests

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The document represents one integrated plan for the Huron-Manistee National Forests, which will guide all natural resource management activities. The purpose of the Forests' Plan is to provide direction for multiple use management and the sustained yield of goods and services from National Forest System lands in an environmentally sound manner. The Forests' Plan covers management actions for the next 10-year period. The Plan will be revised at that time or earlier if the Forest Supervisor determines that planning area conditions have changed significantly.

  11. Monitoring forest land from high altitude and from space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The significant findings are reported for remote sensing of forest lands conducted during the period October 1, 1965 to December 31, 1972. Forest inventory research included the use of aircraft and space imagery for forest and nonforest land classification, and land use classification by automated procedures, multispectral scanning, and computerized mapping. Forest stress studies involved previsual detection of ponderosa pine under stress from insects and disease, bark bettle infestations in the Black Hills, and root disease impacts on forest stands. Standardization and calibration studies were made to develop a field test of an ERTS-matched four-channel spectrometer. Calibration of focal plane shutters and mathematical modeling of film characteristic curves were also studied. Documents published as a result of all forestry studies funded by NASA for the Earth Resources Survey Program from 1965 through 1972 are listed.

  12. Forest inventory with LiDAR and stereo DSM on Washington department of natural resources lands

    Treesearch

    Jacob L. Strunk; Peter J. Gould

    2015-01-01

    DNR’s forest inventory group has completed its first version of a new remote-sensing based forest inventory system covering 1.4 million acres of DNR forest lands. We use a combination of field plots, lidar, NAIP, and a NAIP-derived canopy surface DSM. Given that height drives many key inventory variables (e.g. height, volume, biomass, carbon), remote-sensing derived...

  13. Linking land-use projections and forest fragmentation analysis.

    Treesearch

    Andrew J. Plantinga; Ralph J. Alig; Henry Eichman; David J. Lewis

    2007-01-01

    An econometric model of private land-use decisions is used to project land use to 2030 for each county in the continental United States. On a national scale, forest area is projected to increase overall between 0.1 and 0.2 percent per year between now and 2030. However, forest area is projected to decrease in a majority of regions, including the key forestry regions of...

  14. Sludge fertilization of State Forest land in northern Michigan

    Treesearch

    D.G. Brockway

    1991-01-01

    A five-year research-demonstration project to examine the logistic, economic, environmental and sociological aspects of municipal wastewater sludge application was conducted on State Forest land occupied by forest types of major commercial importance in northern Michigan. The procedures utilized for site preparation, sludge transportation and sludge application proved...

  15. Forest Landscape Assessment Tool (FLAT): rapid assessment for land management

    Treesearch

    Lisa Ciecko; David Kimmett; Jesse Saunders; Rachael Katz; Kathleen L. Wolf; Oliver Bazinet; Jeffrey Richardson; Weston Brinkley; Dale J. Blahna

    2016-01-01

    The Forest Landscape Assessment Tool (FLAT) is a set of procedures and tools used to rapidly determine forest ecological conditions and potential threats. FLAT enables planners and managers to understand baseline conditions, determine and prioritize restoration needs across a landscape system, and conduct ongoing monitoring to achieve land management goals. The rapid...

  16. Considering Forest and Grassland Carbon in Land Management

    Treesearch

    M. Janowiak; W.J. Connelly;   K. Dante-Wood; G.M. Domke; C. Giardina; Z. Kayler; K. Marcinkowski; T. Ontl;   C. Rodriguez-Franco; C. Swanston; C.W. Woodall; M. Buford

    2017-01-01

    Forest and grassland ecosystems in the United States play a critical role in the global carbon cycle, and land management activities influence their ability to absorb and sequester carbon. These ecosystems provide a critical regulating function, offsetting about 12 to 19 percent of the Nation’s annual greenhouse gas emissions. Forests and grasslands are managed for...

  17. A method for examining the impacts of Oregon land use laws on forest lands and farmlands

    Treesearch

    David L. Azuma; Gary Lettman; Erica Hanson

    2009-01-01

    Over the past 8 years, the Pacific Northwest Research Station Forest Inventory and Analysis unit, in conjunction with the Oregon Department of Forestry, Oregon Department of Agriculture, and Oregon Department of Land Conservation and Development, has researched the effect of Oregon's land use laws on the conversion and development of land. The studies have used...

  18. BLM forest lands report -- 2006 status and condition

    Treesearch

    Tim Bottomley; Jim Menlove

    2006-01-01

    The Bureau of Land Management (BLM), an agency within the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI), administers over 261 million surface acres of public land in the western United States, including Alaska. Approximately 69 million acres, or 26 percent, are classified as forested.

  19. Integrating remotely sensed land cover observations and a biogeochemical model for estimating forest ecosystem carbon dynamics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liu, J.; Liu, S.; Loveland, T.R.; Tieszen, L.L.

    2008-01-01

    Land cover change is one of the key driving forces for ecosystem carbon (C) dynamics. We present an approach for using sequential remotely sensed land cover observations and a biogeochemical model to estimate contemporary and future ecosystem carbon trends. We applied the General Ensemble Biogeochemical Modelling System (GEMS) for the Laurentian Plains and Hills ecoregion in the northeastern United States for the period of 1975-2025. The land cover changes, especially forest stand-replacing events, were detected on 30 randomly located 10-km by 10-km sample blocks, and were assimilated by GEMS for biogeochemical simulations. In GEMS, each unique combination of major controlling variables (including land cover change history) forms a geo-referenced simulation unit. For a forest simulation unit, a Monte Carlo process is used to determine forest type, forest age, forest biomass, and soil C, based on the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) data and the U.S. General Soil Map (STATSGO) data. Ensemble simulations are performed for each simulation unit to incorporate input data uncertainty. Results show that on average forests of the Laurentian Plains and Hills ecoregion have been sequestrating 4.2 Tg C (1 teragram = 1012 gram) per year, including 1.9 Tg C removed from the ecosystem as the consequences of land cover change. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V.

  20. Coronado National Forest Draft Land and Resource Management Plan: Cochise, Graham, Pima, Pinal, and Santa Cruz Counties, Arizona, and Hidalgo County, New Mexico

    Treesearch

    Terry Austin; Yolynda Begay; Sharon Biedenbender; Rachael Biggs; Erin Boyle; Eli Curiel; Sarah Davis; Sara Dechter; Tami Emmett; Mary Farrell; Richard Gerhart; William Gillespie; Polly Haessig; Ed Holloway; Melissa Jenkins; Larry Jones; Debby Kriegel; Robert Lefevre; Mark Stamer; Mindi Lehew; Ann Lynch; George McKay; Linda Peery; Albert Peralta; Jennifer Ruyle; Jeremy Sautter; Kenna Schoenle; Salek Shafiqullah; Christopher Stetson; Mindi Sue Vogel; Laura White; Craig Wilcox; Judy York

    2013-01-01

    The Coronado National Forest is an administrative component of the National Forest System. It administers 1,783,639 acres of National Forest System lands. National forests across the United States were established to provide natural resource-based goods and services to American citizens, and to protect timber and watershed resources. Management of national forests is...

  1. Land crabs as key drivers in tropical coastal forest recruitment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindquist, E.S.; Krauss, K.W.; Green, P.T.; O'Dowd, D. J.; Sherman, P.M.; Smith, T. J.

    2009-01-01

    Plant populations are regulated by a diverse assortment of abiotic and biotic factors that influence seed dispersal and viability, and seedling establishment and growth at the microsite. Rarely does one animal guild exert as significant an influence on different plant assemblages as land crabs. We review three tropical coastal ecosystems-mangroves, island maritime forests, and mainland coastal terrestrial forests-where land crabs directly influence forest composition by limiting tree establishment and recruitment. Land crabs differentially prey on seeds, propagules and seedlings along nutrient, chemical and physical environmental gradients. In all of these ecosystems, but especially mangroves, abiotic gradients are well studied, strong and influence plant species distributions. However, we suggest that crab predation has primacy over many of these environmental factors by acting as the first limiting factor of tropical tree recruitment to drive the potential structural and compositional organisation of coastal forests. We show that the influence of crabs varies relative to tidal gradient, shoreline distance, canopy position, time, season, tree species and fruiting periodicity. Crabs also facilitate forest growth and development through such activities as excavation of burrows, creation of soil mounds, aeration of soils, removal of leaf litter into burrows and creation of carbon-rich soil microhabitats. For all three systems, land crabs influence the distribution, density and size-class structure of tree populations. Indeed, crabs are among the major drivers of tree recruitment in tropical coastal forest ecosystems, and their conservation should be included in management plans of these forests. ?? 2009 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  2. ERTS-1 data applications to Minnesota forest land use classification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sizer, J. E. (Principal Investigator); Eller, R. G.; Meyer, M. P.; Ulliman, J. J.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Color-combined ERTS-1 MSS spectral slices were analyzed to determine the maximum (repeatable) level of meaningful forest resource classification data visually attainable by skilled forest photointerpreters for the following purposes: (1) periodic updating of the Minnesota Land Management Information System (MLMIS) statewide computerized land use data bank, and (2) to provide first-stage forest resources survey data for large area forest land management planning. Controlled tests were made of two forest classification schemes by experienced professional foresters with special photointerpretation training and experience. The test results indicate it is possible to discriminate the MLMIS forest class from the MLMIS nonforest classes, but that it is not possible, under average circumstances, to further stratify the forest classification into species components with any degree of reliability with ERTS-1 imagery. An ongoing test of the resulting classification scheme involves the interpretation, and mapping, of the south half of Itasca County, Minnesota, with ERTS-1 imagery. This map is undergoing field checking by on the ground field cooperators, whose evaluation will be completed in the fall of 1973.

  3. Monitoring forest land from high altitude and from space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Forest inventory, forest stress, and standardization and calibration studies are presented. These include microscale photointerpretation of forest and nonforest land classes, multiseasonal film densities for automated forest and nonforest land classification, trend and spread of bark beetle infestations from 1968 through 1971, aerial photography for determining optimum levels of stand density to reduce such infestations, use of airborne spectrometers and multispectral scanners for previsual detection of Ponderosa pine trees under stress from insects and diseases, establishment of an earth resources technology satellite test site in the Black Hills and the identification of natural resolution targets, detection of root disease impact on forest stands by sequential orbital and suborbital multispectral photography, and calibration of color aerial photography.

  4. Comparison of U.S. Forest Land AreaEstimates From Forest Inventory and Analysis, National Resources Inventory, and Four Satellite Image-Derived Land Cover Data Sets

    Treesearch

    Mark D. Nelson; Ronald E. McRoberts; Veronica C. Lessard

    2005-01-01

    Our objective was to test one application of remote sensing technology for complementing forest resource assessments by comparing a variety of existing satellite image-derived land cover maps with national inventory-derived estimates of United States forest land area. National Resources Inventory (NRI) 1997 estimates of non-Federal forest land area differed by 7.5...

  5. Forests, land use change, and water

    Treesearch

    Devendra M. Amatya; Ge Sun; Cole Green Rossi; Herbert S. Ssegane; Jamie E. Nettles; Sudhanshu. Panda

    2015-01-01

    A forest is a biotic community predominated by trees and woody vegetation types that are significantly taller, greater, thicker, and deeper than other vegetation types and generally covers a large area (Chang, 2003). Forests cover approximately 26.2% of the world, with 45.7% of Latin American and the Caribbean being covered, 35% of East Asia and the Pacific, and 35% of...

  6. Forest-land owners of Vermont--1983

    Treesearch

    Richard H. Widmann; Thomas W. Birch; Thomas W. Birch

    1988-01-01

    A statistical analytical report on a mail canvass of private timberland owners in Vermont. The study was conducted in conjunction with the third forest survey of Vermont by the USDA Forest Service. It discusses landowner characteristics, attitudes, and intentions of owners regarding reasons for owning, recreational use, timber management, and harvesting.

  7. Threats to private forest lands in the U.S.A.: a forests on the edge study

    Treesearch

    Susan M. Stein; Mark H. Hatfield; Ronald E. McRoberts; Dacia M. Meneguzzo; Sara. Comas

    2010-01-01

    The Forests on the Edge project, sponsored by the USDA Forest Service, uses geographic information systems to construct and analyze maps depicting threats to the contributions of America’s private forest lands. For this study, watersheds across the conterminous United States are evaluated with respect to the amount of their private forest land. Watersheds with at least...

  8. Candidate old-growth on national forest system administered lands in California since the initiation of national forest management

    Treesearch

    William F. Laudenslayer

    1985-01-01

    The following is a report on the status of Candidate Old-growth (hereafter identified as COG) on National Forest System administered lands in California in the past, a t present, and in the immediate fhture. These r e s u l t s are based on information that may be speculative and contain inconsistencies, and therefore must be treated with caution. COG on these lands...

  9. Assessing the Potential for Renewable Energy on National Forest System Lands

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2005-01-01

    This technical report and CD for the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service (USFS), evaluates the potential for renewable energy resource development on National Forest System (NFS) lands. USFS can use the report findings to consider potential for development of solar and wind energy resources on NFS lands, in land management decisions. The Geographical Information System (GIS) based analysis resulted in the following findings: (1) Ninety-nine National Forest Units have high potential for power production from one or more of these solar and wind energy sources; and (2) Twenty National Forest Units in nine states have high potential for power production from two or more of these solar and wind energy sources.

  10. Lake States natural resource managers' perspectives on forest land parcelization and its implications for public land management

    Treesearch

    Michael A. Kilgore; Stephanie A. Snyder

    2016-01-01

    Field-based public natural resource managers in the Lake States (MI, MN, WI) were surveyed for theirperspectives on various aspects of private forest land parcelization. This includes their perceptions ofrecent changes in parcelization activity, drivers and impacts, mitigation strategies, and ability to influenceparcelization. Their perspectives on the implications...

  11. Changing Forest Land Use in the Pacific Northwest and Implications for Ecosystem Processes (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Law, B. E.; Hudiburg, T. W.; Yang, Z.

    2013-12-01

    Human use of forests in the Pacific Northwest US has evolved from underburning for wildlife habitat, to clearing for subsistence living, and an emphasis on timber production. In Oregon, forests older than 200 years now occupy less than 1 percent of private land that accounts for half the forest area, and ranges from 15 to almost 60 percent of public lands depending on the ecoregion. The Northwest Forest Plan (NWFP) was implemented on public lands in 1993 as a region-wide forest management regime intended to conserve species at risk from extensive harvest of older forests. The result was an 82 percent reduction in harvest removals on public forest lands, and subsequently, public forestland became a carbon sink while private forest remained near carbon neutral. Currently, forest management on public lands in the PNW emphasizes widespread thinning of forests to reduce wildfire risk, and thinning and slash removal for bioenergy production. In addition, several states have set ambitious GHG reduction targets. These policies are being implemented even though many aspects have not been adequately assessed for the effects on forests. CLM4 simulations over Oregon show that by the year 2100, net carbon uptake increases by 32-68% depending on the climate and CO2 scenario, suggesting that enhanced productivity from a warmer climate and CO2 fertilization compensates for disturbance losses if business-as-usual management continues. Water cycle implications are also considered. Simulated repeat thinnings were applied in areas susceptible to fire to reduce mortality and fire emissions, and clearcut rotations were applied in productive forests to provide biomass for both wood products and bioenergy. CLM input to a Life Cycle Assessment, which tracks emissions off-site, shows that none of the scenarios reduce regional net CO2 emissions to the atmosphere by the end of the 21st century. Thinning dry forests to reduce potential fire emissions led to no net change in emissions from BAU

  12. Determination of Land Use/ Land Cover Changes in Igneada Alluvial (Longos) Forest Ecosystem, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bektas Balcik, F.

    2012-12-01

    Alluvial (Longos) forests are one of the most fragile and threatened ecosystems in the world. Typically, these types of ecosystems have high biological diversity, high productivity, and high habitat dynamism. In this study, Igneada, Kirklareli was selected as study area. The region, lies between latitudes 41° 46' N and 41° 59' N and stretches between longitudes 27° 50' E and 28° 02' E and it covers approximately 24000 (ha). Igneada Longos ecosystems include mixed forests, streams, flooded (alluvial) forests, marshes, wetlands, lakes and coastal sand dunes with different types of flora and fauna. Igneada was classified by Conservation International as one of the world's top 122 Important Plant Areas, and 185 Important Bird Areas. These types of wild forest in other parts of Turkey and in Europe have been damaged due to anthropogenic effects. Remote sensing is very effective tool to monitor these types of sensitive regions for sustainable management. In this study, 1984 and 2011 dated Landsat 5 TM data were used to determine land cover/land use change detection of the selected region by using six vegetation indices such as Tasseled Cap index of greenness (TCG), brightness (TCB), and wetness (TCW), ratios of near-infrared to red image (RVI), normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), and soil-adjusted vegetation index (SAVI). Geometric and radiometric corrections were applied in image pre-processing step. Selective Principle Component Analysis (PCA) change detection method was applied to the selected vegetation index imagery to generate change imagery for extracting the changed features between the year of 1984 and 2011. Accuracy assessment was applied based on error matrix by calculating overall accuracy and Kappa statistics.

  13. Evaluating forest land development effects on private forestry in eastern Oregon.

    Treesearch

    Jeffrey D. Kline; David L. Azuma

    2007-01-01

    Research suggests that forest land development can reduce the productivity of remaining forest land because private forest owners reduce their investments in forest management. We developed empirical models describing forest stocking, thinning, harvest, and postharvest tree planting in eastern Oregon, as functions of stand and site characteristics, ownership, and...

  14. 78 FR 12084 - Public Land Order No. 7809; Withdrawal of National Forest System Land for the Settler's Grove of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-21

    ... Bureau of Land Management Public Land Order No. 7809; Withdrawal of National Forest System Land for the..., Interior. ACTION: Public Land Order. SUMMARY: This order withdraws 183.46 acres of National Forest System... one of the few remaining stands of old- growth western red cedar trees in the Settler's Grove...

  15. Impacts of Land Cover Change on the Carbon Dynamics in Indonesian Tropical Forested Wetlands- Mangroves and Peat Swamp Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauffman, J. B.; Arifanti, V. B.; Basuki, I.; Kurnianto, S.; Novita, N.; Murdiyarso, D.

    2014-12-01

    Tropical wetland forests including mangroves and lowland peat swamp forests contain among the highest carbon stocks of any ecosystem on the planet. This is largely due to the accumulation of deep organic rich soils which have been sequestering carbon for millennia. Depth of organic layers (peats) can exceed 3 m in mangrove and 10 m in the peat swamp forests. The ecosystem carbon stocks may exceed 2000 Mg/ha in mangroves and 5000 Mg/ha in peat swamp forests. Ironically, rates of deforestation of these tropical forests are among the highest in the tropics. With land cover change comes dramatic shifts in carbon stocks, net ecosystem productivity, and greenhouse gas emissions. Land cover change results in carbon losses of practically all aboveground pools as well as losses arising from soil pools. Based upon studies where we have compared stock changes due to land use the carbon emissions arising from land cover change to shrimp ponds and oil palm have ranged from 800-3000 Mg CO2e/ha. The lowered carbon sequestration rates coupled with increased or similar emissions from decomposition results in an ecosystem shift from a carbon sink to a carbon source. Clearly the large carbon stocks, high rates of deforestation, and large emissions resulting from their degradation suggest that these ecosystems should receive great consideration in climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies.

  16. Emerging forests on abandoned land: Puerto Rico’s new forests

    Treesearch

    Ariel E. Lugo; Eileen Helmer

    2004-01-01

    The species composition of forests change continuously as the earth’s biota evolves and adjusts to environmental change. Humans are accelerating the rate of species turnover by moving species around the planet and dramatically changing environmental conditions. Our focus is on new forests in Puerto Rico that emerge naturally on abandoned lands previously converted to...

  17. Final Environmental Assessment, Conversion of Forest Land to Road Right-of-Way, Arnold Air Force Base, Tennessee

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-04-01

    DECHERD ESTILL SPRINGS WINCHESTER SEWANEE Figure 1-1 Legend Road Centerline County Boundaries Arnold AFB Boundary 0 2.51.25 Miles Arnold Air Force Base...to 890 feet above sea level in the valleys. In the areas north and northeast of Arnold AFB, there are many swamps and internally drained depressions...rivers, streams, and springs ) and groundwater. Arnold AFB lies within the Duck River and the Elk River basins. The drainage divide between these two

  18. Risk of impaired condition of watersheds containing National Forest lands

    Treesearch

    Thomas C Brown; Pamela Froemke

    2010-01-01

    We assessed the risk of impaired condition of the nearly 3700 5th-level watersheds in the contiguous 48 states containing the national forests and grasslands that make up the U.S. Forest Service's National Forest System (NFS). The assessment was based on readily available, relatively consistent nationwide data sets for a series of indicators representing watershed...

  19. Boreal Forest Land Cover Mapping in Iceland and Finland Using Sentinel-1A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haarpaintner, J.; Davids, C.; Storvold, R.; Johansen, K. S.; Arnason, K.; Rauste, Y.; Mutanen, T.

    2016-08-01

    The complete Sentinel-1A (S1A) data set since autumn 2014 until September 2015 over two test sites of the EU FP7 project NorthState has been collected: Hallormsstaður in the north-east of Iceland of 50x50 km2 and Hyytiälä in southern Finland of 200x200 km2. The dense 20m-resolution dual-polarization S1A time series allow for a new level of forest land cover monitoring capabilities compared to ESA's former Envisat A(dvanced)SAR sensor. Temporal filtered dual- polarized mosaics clearly show different land covers that can be classified into forest land cover (FLC) products. Even single agricultural fields can be distinguished from these mosaics. The S1A data set also allowed the construction of a precise water mask for these sites. Results of S1A-based FLC based on two different approaches are compared to 2010 ALOS PALSAR derived FLC results and very high resolution (VHR) NDVI aerial photos. The forest land cover classes extracted are forest, disturbed forest, peatland, grassland, bare land, and settlements.

  20. Integration of strategic inventory and monitoring programs for the forest lands, wood lands, range lands and agricultural lands of the United States

    Treesearch

    Raymond L. Czaplewski

    1999-01-01

    The United States Department of Agriculture uses the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program to monitor the nation's forests and wood lands, and the National Resources Inventory (NRI) program to monitor the nation's agricultural and range lands. Although their measurement methods and sampling frames are very different, both programs are developing annual...

  1. Forest transitions, trade, and the global displacement of land use.

    PubMed

    Meyfroidt, Patrick; Rudel, Thomas K; Lambin, Eric F

    2010-12-07

    Reducing tropical deforestation is an international priority, given its impacts on carbon emissions and biodiversity. We examined whether recent forest transitions--a shift from net deforestation to net reforestation--involved a geographic displacement of forest clearing across countries through trade in agricultural and forest products. In most of the seven developing countries that recently experienced a forest transition, displacement of land use abroad accompanied local reforestation. Additional global land-use change embodied in their net wood trade offset 74% of their total reforested area. Because the reforesting countries continued to export more agricultural goods than they imported, this net displacement offset 22% of their total reforested area when both agriculture and forestry sectors are included. However, this net displacement increased to 52% during the last 5 y. These countries thus have contributed to a net global reforestation and/or decrease in the pressure on forests, but this global environmental benefit has been shrinking during recent years. The net decrease in the pressure on forests does not account for differences in their ecological quality. Assessments of the impacts of international policies aimed at reducing global deforestation should integrate international trade in agricultural and forest commodities.

  2. Forest transitions, trade, and the global displacement of land use

    PubMed Central

    Meyfroidt, Patrick; Rudel, Thomas K.; Lambin, Eric F.

    2010-01-01

    Reducing tropical deforestation is an international priority, given its impacts on carbon emissions and biodiversity. We examined whether recent forest transitions—a shift from net deforestation to net reforestation—involved a geographic displacement of forest clearing across countries through trade in agricultural and forest products. In most of the seven developing countries that recently experienced a forest transition, displacement of land use abroad accompanied local reforestation. Additional global land-use change embodied in their net wood trade offset 74% of their total reforested area. Because the reforesting countries continued to export more agricultural goods than they imported, this net displacement offset 22% of their total reforested area when both agriculture and forestry sectors are included. However, this net displacement increased to 52% during the last 5 y. These countries thus have contributed to a net global reforestation and/or decrease in the pressure on forests, but this global environmental benefit has been shrinking during recent years. The net decrease in the pressure on forests does not account for differences in their ecological quality. Assessments of the impacts of international policies aimed at reducing global deforestation should integrate international trade in agricultural and forest commodities. PMID:21078977

  3. Changes in land use, forest fragmentation, and policy responses.

    Treesearch

    Ralph J. Alig; David J. Lewis; Jennifer J. Swenson

    2005-01-01

    Land-use conversion is a primary determinant of environmental change in terrestrial ecosystems. Projections are for more than 50 million acres of U.S. forest to be converted to developed uses (e.g., parking lots) over the next 50 years (Alig et al. 2004, Alig and Plantinga 2004), as the population grows by more than 120 million people. Land use change can lead to...

  4. Wild forest fire regime following land abandonment in the Mediterranean region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ursino, Nadia; Romano, Nunzio

    2014-12-01

    Land use, climate, and fire have markedly shaped Mediterranean ecosystems. While climate and land use are external forcing, wildfire is an integral component of ecosystem functioning which inevitably poses a threat to humans. With a view to gaining an insight into the mechanisms underlying fire dynamics, fire control, and prevention, we formulated a model that predicts the wildfire regime in fire-prone Mediterranean ecoregions. The model is based on the positive feedback between forest expansion following cropland abandonment, fuel abundance, and fire. Our results demonstrate that progressive land abandonment leads to different fire dynamics in the Mediterranean forest ecosystem. Starting at a no-fire regime when the land is almost completely cultivated, the ecosystem reaches a chaotic fire regime, passing through intermediate land development stages characterized by limit cycle fire dynamics. Wildfires are more devastating, albeit more predictable, in these intermediate stages when fire frequency is higher.

  5. An analysis of forest land use, forest land cover, and change at policy-relevant scales

    Treesearch

    John W. Coulston; Greg Reams; Dave Wear; C. Kenneth Brewer

    2014-01-01

    Quantifying the amount of forest and change in the amount of forest are key to ensure that appropriate management practices and policies are in place to maintain the array of ecosystem services provided by forests. There are a range of analytical techniques and data available to estimate these forest parameters, however, not all ‘forest’ is the same and various...

  6. The Forest Types and Ages Cleared for Land Development in Puerto Rico.

    Treesearch

    Todd Kennaway; E. H. Helmer

    2007-01-01

    On the Caribbean island of Puerto Rico, forest, urban/built-up, and pasture lands have replaced most formerly cultivated lands. The extent and age distribution of each forest type that undergoes land development, however, is unknown. This study assembles a time series of four land cover maps for Puerto Rico. The time series includes two digitized paper maps of land...

  7. Restoration of Degraded Salt Affected Lands to Productive Forest Ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Yash; Singh, Gurbachan; Singh, Bajrang; Cerdà, Artemi

    2017-04-01

    time but it appears to be driven by two parallel sets of ameliorative mechanisms like (i) fertility building process associated with organic matter addition, nitrogen accretion and nutrient recycling (ii) sodicity alleviation process driven by improved leaching that lead to reduced soil dispersion and less sodium toxicity. The index of these changes in the soil depends on the age of the forest. The present paper is based on the 15 years field study conducted to find out the rate and time that is required to achieve the status at par with a reference site of natural forest of the region, a stage where aim of degraded salt affected soils may be diverted to productive forest ecosystem. Changes in soil properties were recorded under canopy of various aged plantations. Most of the leguminous species raised on degraded sodic soils rendered an appreciable reduction in soil pH and exchangeable sodium (ESP), decrease in bulk density and increasing in soil porosity and water holding capacity. Exchangeable K, Ca, Mg and organic carbon content increased with plant growth and age. As a result of afforestation, a significant increase in soil organic matter (4 times) and decrease in pH from 10.2 to 8.6 were recorded. Total available N was increased 2-4 times in forested soil in comparison to barren soil. Acknowledgements. The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement n° 603498 (RECARE project) References. Brevik, E. C., Cerdà, A., Mataix-Solera, J., Pereg, L., Quinton, J. N., Six, J., and Van Oost, K. 2015. The interdisciplinary nature of SOIL, SOIL, 1, 117-129, doi:10.5194/soil-1-117-2015 Celentano, D., G. X. Rousseau, V. L. Engel, M. Zelarayán, E. C. Oliveira, A. C. M. Araujo, and E. G. de Moura. 2016. Degradation of Riparian Forest Affects Soil Properties and Ecosystem Services Provision in Eastern Amazon of Brazil. Land Degradation and Development. doi:10.1002/ldr.2547

  8. Modeling Changes in Hydrology and Sedimentation for Forested Watersheds: an Approach for Land Managers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litschert, S. E.; MacDonald, L. H.

    2007-12-01

    Hydrologic changes and sedimentation have long been recognized as critical concerns for forest management. Federal and state laws commonly require land managers to compare the cumulative effects of different forest management scenarios before management plans or policy changes can be implemented. Existing operational methods tend to be simple checklists, indices, or lumped models. Physically based, spatially explicit models are available but are not widely used because they are too data intensive, costly, and complex. Our goal is to find a middle ground by providing land managers with a suite of models that are easy-to-use, spatially and temporally explicit, and scientifically based. Delta-Q and FOREST (FORest Erosion Simulation Tools) are coupled models designed to meet these criteria. They calculate the hydrologic and sedimentary effects of roads, forest fires, and forest management using GIS. Delta-Q calculates annual changes in flow from a watershed using a simple linear recovery model. Required inputs are a GIS layer of forest management activities over time, the initial changes in flow, and the times to recovery for each activity. FOREST uses conceptual and empirical models to calculate sediment production and delivery from hillslopes and roads, and to route sediment through the stream network. Required inputs include sediment production and recovery coefficients, and GIS layers of fires, roads, streams, forest management, soils, and elevation. Online help files provide detailed instructions and summaries of published data to help users select coefficients. Model results include tables of annual changes in flow and sediment yield as well as GIS layers showing the spatial distribution of sediment production and delivery over the period being simulated. The models are now being finalized and will be validated against data from five different experimental forests across the U.S. Model results should be helpful for comparing different land management scenarios

  9. 75 FR 41886 - Public Land Order No. 7744; Withdrawal of National Forest System Land for Inyan Kara Area; WY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-19

    ... States mining laws for a period of 20 years on behalf of the United States Forest Service to protect the...-775-6257. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The United States Forest Service will manage the land to protect... made of National Forest System land, to protect the Inyan Kara area of the Black Hills National...

  10. Characterization factors for land use impacts on biodiversity in life cycle assessment based on direct measures of plant species richness in European farmland in the 'Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forest' biome.

    PubMed

    Knudsen, Marie Trydeman; Hermansen, John E; Cederberg, Christel; Herzog, Felix; Vale, Jim; Jeanneret, Philippe; Sarthou, Jean-Pierre; Friedel, Jürgen K; Balázs, Katalin; Fjellstad, Wendy; Kainz, Max; Wolfrum, Sebastian; Dennis, Peter

    2017-02-15

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a widely used tool to assess environmental sustainability of products. The LCA should optimally cover the most important environmental impact categories such as climate change, eutrophication and biodiversity. However, impacts on biodiversity are seldom included in LCAs due to methodological limitations and lack of appropriate characterization factors. When assessing organic agricultural products the omission of biodiversity in LCA is problematic, because organic systems are characterized by higher species richness at field level compared to the conventional systems. Thus, there is a need for characterization factors to estimate land use impacts on biodiversity in life cycle assessment that are able to distinguish between organic and conventional agricultural land use that can be used to supplement and validate the few currently suggested characterization factors. Based on a unique dataset derived from field recording of plant species diversity in farmland across six European countries, the present study provides new midpoint occupation Characterization Factors (CF) expressing the Potentially Disappeared Fraction (PDF) to estimate land use impacts on biodiversity in the 'Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forest' biome in Europe. The method is based on calculation of plant species on randomly selected test sites in the biome and enables the calculation of characterization factors that are sensitive to particular types of management. While species richness differs between countries, the calculated CFs are able to distinguish between different land use types (pastures (monocotyledons or mixed), arable land and hedges) and management practices (organic or conventional production systems) across countries. The new occupation CFs can be used to supplement or validate the few current CF's and can be applied in LCAs of agricultural products to assess land use impacts on species richness in the 'Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forest' biome

  11. Northern forest lands: resident attitudes and resource use

    Treesearch

    Herbert E. Echelberger; Albert E. Luloff; Frederick E. Schmidt; Frederick E. Schmidt

    1991-01-01

    Describes socioeconomic characteristics of residents of northern New Hampshire and northeastern Vermont; their level of participation in outdoor recreational activities; perceptions of community problems; and attitudes concerning local versus regional planning, public ownership of northern forest lands, and other pertinent issues with respect to changes in patterns of...

  12. Experiences Spreading Organic Solid Wastes on Forest Land

    Treesearch

    J.H. Wilhoit; L.J. Samuelson

    1998-01-01

    This paper reviews experiences spreading organic solid wastes on forest land over the past six years. Presented are some of the first-ever reported results on tree growth responses from fertilizing pine trees with poultry litter, spreader distribution pattern results for spreading in a pine plantation stand, and a discussion of equipment-related experiences spreading...

  13. Forest Land Ownership in the Conterminous United States [map

    Treesearch

    Mark D. Nelson; Greg C. Liknes

    2007-01-01

    Patterns of public and private forestland ownership vary across the United States. For example, two-thirds of western forestland is publicly owned, mostly by federal agencies such as the U.S. Forest Service (USFS), Bureau of Land Management, and National Park Service. However, more than 80 percent of eastern forestland is privately owned. Private forestland is further...

  14. Use of herbicides on forest lands in southwestern Oregon.

    Treesearch

    H.J. Gratkowski

    1961-01-01

    A substantial portion of the commercial forest land in southwestern Oregon is occupied by dense stands of brush species or by understocked stands of conifers with a dense understory of brush. Individual brushfields range in size from small patches a few acres in extent to large, continuous areas covering more than 10,000 acres. Climatically, the area is warmer and...

  15. Timber and Amenities on Nonindustrial Private Forest Land

    Treesearch

    Subhrendu K. Pattanayak; Karen Lee Abt; Thomas P. Holmes

    2003-01-01

    Economic analyses of the joint production timber and amenities from nonindustrial private forest lands (NIPF) have been conducted for several decades. Binkley (1981) summarized this strand of research and elegantly articulated a microeconomic household model in which NIPF owners maximize utility by choosing optimal combinations of timber income and amenities. Most...

  16. A stockability equation for forest land in Siskiyou County, California.

    Treesearch

    Neil. McKay

    1985-01-01

    An equation is presented that estimates the relative stocking capacity of forest land in Siskiyou County, California, from the amount of precipitation and the presence of significant indicator plants. The equation is a toot for identifying sites incapable of supporting normal stocking. Estimated relative stocking capacity may be used to discount normal yields to levels...

  17. Soil Taxonomy and land evaluation for forest establishment

    Treesearch

    Haruyoshi Ikawa

    1992-01-01

    Soil Taxonomy, the United States system of soil classification, can be used for land evaluation for selected purposes. One use is forest establishment in the tropics, and the soil family category is especially functional for this purpose. The soil family is a bionomial name with descriptions usually of soil texture, mineralogy, and soil temperature classes. If the...

  18. Reducing biosolids disposal costs using land application in forested areas

    SciTech Connect

    Huffines, R.L.

    1995-11-01

    Switching biosolids land application from a reclamation site to a forested site significantly reduced the cost of biosolids disposal at the Savannah River Site. Previous beneficial reuse programs focused on reclamation of existing borrow pits. While extremely beneficial, this program became very costly due to the regulatory requirements for groundwater monitoring, soil monitoring and frequent biosolids analyses. A new program was developed to reuse biosolids in forested areas where the biosolids could be used as a soil conditioner and fertilizer to enhance timber yield. The forested land application site was designed so that groundwater monitoring and soil monitoring could be eliminated while biosolids monitoring and site maintenance were minimized. Monitoring costs alone were reduced by 80%. Capital costs for site preparation were also significantly reduced since there was no longer a need for expensive groundwater monitoring wells.

  19. Image-based change estimation for land cover and land use monitoring

    Treesearch

    Jeremy Webb; C. Kenneth Brewer; Nicholas Daniels; Chris Maderia; Randy Hamilton; Mark Finco; Kevin A. Megown; Andrew J. Lister

    2012-01-01

    The Image-based Change Estimation (ICE) project resulted from the need to provide estimates and information for land cover and land use change over large areas. The procedure uses Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) plot locations interpreted using two different dates of imagery from the National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP). In order to determine a suitable...

  20. Pilot Studies for Enhanced Forest Land Measurement

    Treesearch

    R. Birdsey; D. Hollinger; L. Heath; C. Hoover; R. Kolka; M. L. Smith; M. Ryan

    2003-01-01

    Land measurements will make a significant contribution towards answering the science questions that motivate the North American Carbon Program (NACP):What is the carbon balance of North America and adjacent ocean basins, and how is the balance changing over time? What are the sources and sinks, and the geographic patterns of carbon fluxes?...

  1. Modern fire regime resembles historical fire regime in a ponderosa pine forest on Native American land

    Treesearch

    Amanda B. Stan; Peter Z. Fule; Kathryn B. Ireland; Jamie S. Sanderlin

    2014-01-01

    Forests on tribal lands in the western United States have seen the return of low-intensity surface fires for several decades longer than forests on non-tribal lands. We examined the surface fire regime in a ponderosa pinedominated (Pinus ponderosa) forest on the Hualapai tribal lands in the south-western United States. Using fire-scarred trees, we inferred temporal (...

  2. Land Cover Change in Colombia: Surprising Forest Recovery Trends between 2001 and 2010

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Cuervo, Ana María; Aide, T. Mitchell; Clark, Matthew L.; Etter, Andrés

    2012-01-01

    Background Monitoring land change at multiple spatial scales is essential for identifying hotspots of change, and for developing and implementing policies for conserving biodiversity and habitats. In the high diversity country of Colombia, these types of analyses are difficult because there is no consistent wall-to-wall, multi-temporal dataset for land-use and land-cover change. Methodology/Principal Findings To address this problem, we mapped annual land-use and land-cover from 2001 to 2010 in Colombia using MODIS (250 m) products coupled with reference data from high spatial resolution imagery (QuickBird) in Google Earth. We used QuickBird imagery to visually interpret percent cover of eight land cover classes used for classifier training and accuracy assessment. Based on these maps we evaluated land cover change at four spatial scales country, biome, ecoregion, and municipality. Of the 1,117 municipalities, 820 had a net gain in woody vegetation (28,092 km2) while 264 had a net loss (11,129 km2), which resulted in a net gain of 16,963 km2 in woody vegetation at the national scale. Woody regrowth mainly occurred in areas previously classified as mixed woody/plantation rather than agriculture/herbaceous. The majority of this gain occurred in the Moist Forest biome, within the montane forest ecoregions, while the greatest loss of woody vegetation occurred in the Llanos and Apure-Villavicencio ecoregions. Conclusions The unexpected forest recovery trend, particularly in the Andes, provides an opportunity to expand current protected areas and to promote habitat connectivity. Furthermore, ecoregions with intense land conversion (e.g. Northern Andean Páramo) and ecoregions under-represented in the protected area network (e.g. Llanos, Apure-Villavicencio Dry forest, and Magdalena-Urabá Moist forest ecoregions) should be considered for new protected areas. PMID:22952816

  3. Quantifying the Detrimental Impacts of Land-Use and Management Change on European Forest Bird Populations

    PubMed Central

    Wade, Amy S. I.; Barov, Boris; Burfield, Ian J.; Gregory, Richard D.; Norris, Ken; Butler, Simon J.

    2013-01-01

    The ecological impacts of changing forest management practices in Europe are poorly understood despite European forests being highly managed. Furthermore, the effects of potential drivers of forest biodiversity decline are rarely considered in concert, thus limiting effective conservation or sustainable forest management. We present a trait-based framework that we use to assess the detrimental impact of multiple land-use and management changes in forests on bird populations across Europe. Major changes to forest habitats occurring in recent decades, and their impact on resource availability for birds were identified. Risk associated with these changes for 52 species of forest birds, defined as the proportion of each species' key resources detrimentally affected through changes in abundance and/or availability, was quantified and compared to their pan-European population growth rates between 1980 and 2009. Relationships between risk and population growth were found to be significantly negative, indicating that resource loss in European forests is an important driver of decline for both resident and migrant birds. Our results demonstrate that coarse quantification of resource use and ecological change can be valuable in understanding causes of biodiversity decline, and thus in informing conservation strategy and policy. Such an approach has good potential to be extended for predictive use in assessing the impact of possible future changes to forest management and to develop more precise indicators of forest health. PMID:23704997

  4. Options for management of sandhill forest land

    SciTech Connect

    Brendemuehl, R.H.

    1981-01-01

    A summary of results from trial plantings of 38 species of pine, 4 other conifers and 5 broadleaved species established on sandhill land in NW Florida during the past 50 years. Only Choctawhatchee sand pine (Pinus clausa var. immuginata) and longleaf pine are recommended for reforestation. Sand pine is expected to produce twice as much volume of wood as longleaf pine in 25 years under the same conditions, but has more limbs than most southern pine and is considered difficult to harvest.

  5. Forests on the Edge: A GIS-based Approach to Projecting Housing Development on Private Forests

    Treesearch

    Susan Stein; Ron McRoberts; Mark Nelson; David Theobald; Mike Eley; Mike Dechter

    2006-01-01

    The private working land base of America’s forests, farms, and ranches is being converted at the rate of nearly 1,620 ha (4,000 acres) per day with tremendous economic, ecological, and social impacts. The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service is sponsoring the “Forests on the Edge” project to develop a better understanding of the contributions...

  6. Evaluating land-use and private forest management responses to a potential forest carbon offset sales program in western Oregon (USA)

    Treesearch

    Gregory S. Latta; Darius M. Adams; Kathleen P. Bell; Jeff Kline

    2016-01-01

    We describe the use of linked land-use and forest sector models to simulate the effects of carbon offset sales on private forest owners' land-use and forest management decisions inwestern Oregon (USA). Our work focuses on forest management decisions rather than afforestation, allows full forest sector price adjustment to land-use changes, and incorporates time-...

  7. Mapping forest composition from the Canadian National Forest Inventory and land cover classification maps.

    PubMed

    Yemshanov, Denys; McKenney, Daniel W; Pedlar, John H

    2012-08-01

    Canada's National Forest Inventory (CanFI) provides coarse-grained, aggregated information on a large number of forest attributes. Though reasonably well suited for summary reporting on national forest resources, the coarse spatial nature of this data limits its usefulness in modeling applications that require information on forest composition at finer spatial resolutions. An alternative source of information is the land cover classification produced by the Canadian Forest Service as part of its Earth Observation for Sustainable Development of Forests (EOSD) initiative. This product, which is derived from Landsat satellite imagery, provides relatively high resolution coverage, but only very general information on forest composition (such as conifer, mixedwood, and deciduous). Here we link the CanFI and EOSD products using a spatial randomization technique to distribute the forest composition information in CanFI to the forest cover classes in EOSD. The resultant geospatial coverages provide randomized predictions of forest composition, which incorporate the fine-scale spatial detail of the EOSD product and agree in general terms with the species composition summaries from the original CanFI estimates. We describe the approach and provide illustrative results for selected major commercial tree species in Canada.

  8. Effects of Land Use/Cover Changes and Urban Forest Configuration on Urban Heat Islands in a Loess Hilly Region: Case Study Based on Yan’an City, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xinping; Hao, Hongke; Zhang, Fangfang; Hu, Youning

    2017-01-01

    In this study Yan’an City, a typical hilly valley city, was considered as the study area in order to explain the relationships between the surface urban heat island (SUHI) and land use/land cover (LULC) types, the landscape pattern metrics of LULC types and land surface temperature (LST) and remote sensing indexes were retrieved from Landsat data during 1990–2015, and to find factors contributed to the green space cool island intensity (GSCI) through field measurements of 34 green spaces. The results showed that during 1990–2015, because of local anthropogenic activities, SUHI was mainly located in lower vegetation cover areas. There was a significant suburban-urban gradient in the average LST, as well as its heterogeneity and fluctuations. Six landscape metrics comprising the fractal dimension index, percentage of landscape, aggregation index, division index, Shannon’s diversity index, and expansion intensity of the classified LST spatiotemporal changes were paralleled to LULC changes, especially for construction land, during the past 25 years. In the urban area, an index-based built-up index was the key positive factor for explaining LST increases, whereas the normalized difference vegetation index and modified normalized difference water index were crucial factors for explaining LST decreases during the study periods. In terms of the heat mitigation performance of green spaces, mixed forest was better than pure forest, and the urban forest configuration had positive effects on GSCI. The results of this study provide insights into the importance of species choice and the spatial design of green spaces for cooling the environment. PMID:28933770

  9. Effects of Land Use/Cover Changes and Urban Forest Configuration on Urban Heat Islands in a Loess Hilly Region: Case Study Based on Yan'an City, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinping; Wang, Dexiang; Hao, Hongke; Zhang, Fangfang; Hu, Youning

    2017-07-26

    In this study Yan'an City, a typical hilly valley city, was considered as the study area in order to explain the relationships between the surface urban heat island (SUHI) and land use/land cover (LULC) types, the landscape pattern metrics of LULC types and land surface temperature (LST) and remote sensing indexes were retrieved from Landsat data during 1990-2015, and to find factors contributed to the green space cool island intensity (GSCI) through field measurements of 34 green spaces. The results showed that during 1990-2015, because of local anthropogenic activities, SUHI was mainly located in lower vegetation cover areas. There was a significant suburban-urban gradient in the average LST, as well as its heterogeneity and fluctuations. Six landscape metrics comprising the fractal dimension index, percentage of landscape, aggregation index, division index, Shannon's diversity index, and expansion intensity of the classified LST spatiotemporal changes were paralleled to LULC changes, especially for construction land, during the past 25 years. In the urban area, an index-based built-up index was the key positive factor for explaining LST increases, whereas the normalized difference vegetation index and modified normalized difference water index were crucial factors for explaining LST decreases during the study periods. In terms of the heat mitigation performance of green spaces, mixed forest was better than pure forest, and the urban forest configuration had positive effects on GSCI. The results of this study provide insights into the importance of species choice and the spatial design of green spaces for cooling the environment.

  10. Land Use and Land Cover Change in Forest Frontiers: The Role of Household Life Cycles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Robert

    2002-01-01

    Tropical deforestation remains a critical issue given its present rate and a widespread consensus regarding its implications for the global carbon cycle and biodiversity. Nowhere is the problem more pronounced than in the Amazon basin, home to the world's largest intact, tropical forest. This article addresses land cover change processes at household level in the Amazon basin, and to this end adapts a concept of domestic life cycle to the current institutional environment of tropical frontiers. In particular, it poses a risk minimization model that integrates demography with market-based factors such as transportation costs and accessibility. In essence, the article merges the theory of Chayanov with the household economy framework, in which markets exist for inputs (including labor), outputs, and capital. The risk model is specified and estimated, using survey data for 261 small producers along the Transamazon Highway in the eastern sector of the Brazilian Amazon.

  11. Land Use and Land Cover Change in Forest Frontiers: The Role of Household Life Cycles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Robert

    2002-01-01

    Tropical deforestation remains a critical issue given its present rate and a widespread consensus regarding its implications for the global carbon cycle and biodiversity. Nowhere is the problem more pronounced than in the Amazon basin, home to the world's largest intact, tropical forest. This article addresses land cover change processes at household level in the Amazon basin, and to this end adapts a concept of domestic life cycle to the current institutional environment of tropical frontiers. In particular, it poses a risk minimization model that integrates demography with market-based factors such as transportation costs and accessibility. In essence, the article merges the theory of Chayanov with the household economy framework, in which markets exist for inputs (including labor), outputs, and capital. The risk model is specified and estimated, using survey data for 261 small producers along the Transamazon Highway in the eastern sector of the Brazilian Amazon.

  12. 7 CFR 701.157 - Private non-industrial forest land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... a 2005 hurricane. To be eligible, a non-industrial private forest landowner must have suffered a... landowner in a designated disaster county due to a 2005 hurricane or related condition. The 35 percent loss shall be determined based on the value of the land before and after the hurricane event. (b) During...

  13. 7 CFR 701.157 - Private non-industrial forest land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... a 2005 hurricane. To be eligible, a non-industrial private forest landowner must have suffered a... landowner in a designated disaster county due to a 2005 hurricane or related condition. The 35 percent loss shall be determined based on the value of the land before and after the hurricane event. (b) During...

  14. 7 CFR 701.157 - Private non-industrial forest land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... a 2005 hurricane. To be eligible, a non-industrial private forest landowner must have suffered a... landowner in a designated disaster county due to a 2005 hurricane or related condition. The 35 percent loss shall be determined based on the value of the land before and after the hurricane event. (b) During...

  15. 7 CFR 701.157 - Private non-industrial forest land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... a 2005 hurricane. To be eligible, a non-industrial private forest landowner must have suffered a... landowner in a designated disaster county due to a 2005 hurricane or related condition. The 35 percent loss shall be determined based on the value of the land before and after the hurricane event. (b) During...

  16. Mapping Secondary Forest Succession on Abandoned Agricultural Land in the Polish Carpathians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolecka, N.; Kozak, J.; Kaim, D.; Dobosz, M.; Ginzler, Ch.; Psomas, A.

    2016-06-01

    Land abandonment and secondary forest succession have played a significant role in land cover changes and forest cover increase in mountain areas in Europe over the past several decades. Land abandonment can be easily observed in the field over small areas, but it is difficult to map over the large areas, e.g., with remote sensing, due to its subtle and spatially dispersed character. Our previous paper presented how the LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) and topographic data were used to detect secondary forest succession on abandoned land in one commune located in the Polish Carpathians by means of object-based image analysis (OBIA) and GIS (Kolecka et al., 2015). This paper proposes how the method can be applied to efficiently map secondary forest succession over the entire Polish Carpathians, incorporating spatial sampling strategy supported by various ancillary data. Here we discuss the methods of spatial sampling, its limitations and results in the context of future secondary forest succession modelling.

  17. Anthropogenic Land-use Change and the Dynamics of Amazon Forest Biomass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laurance, William F.

    2004-01-01

    This project was focused on assessing the effects of prevailing land uses, such as habitat fragmentation, selective logging, and fire, on biomass and carbon storage in Amazonian forests, and on the dynamics of carbon sequestration in regenerating forests. Ancillary goals included developing GIs models to help predict the future condition of Amazonian forests, and assessing the effects of anthropogenic climate change and ENS0 droughts on intact and fragmented forests. Ground-based studies using networks of permanent plots were linked with remote-sensing data (including Landsat TM and AVHRR) at regional scales, and higher-resolution techniques (IKONOS imagery, videography, LIDAR, aerial photographs) at landscape and local scales. The project s specific goals were quite eclectic and included: Determining the effects of habitat fragmentation on forest dynamics, floristic composition, and the various components of above- and below-ground biomass. Assessing historical and physical factors that affect trajectories of forest regeneration and carbon sequestration on abandoned lands. Extrapolating results from local studies of biomass dynamics in fragmented and regenerating forests to landscape and regional scales in Amazonia, using remote sensing and GIS. Testing the hypothesis that intact Amazonian forests are functioning as a significant carbon sink. Examining destructive synergisms between forest fragmentation and fire. Assessing the short-term impacts of selective logging on aboveground biomass. Developing GIS models that integrate current spatial data on forest cover, deforestation, logging, mining, highway and roads, navigable rivers, vulnerability to wild fires, protected areas, and existing and planned infrastructure projects, in an effort to predict the future condition of Brazilian Amazonian forests over the next 20-25 years. Devising predictive spatial models to assess the influence of varied biophysical and anthropogenic predictors on Amazonian deforestation.

  18. Classifying forest and nonforest land on space photographs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aldrich, R. C.

    1970-01-01

    Although the research reported is in its preliminary stages, results show that: (1) infrared color film is the best single multiband sensor available; (2) there is a good possibility that forest can be separated from all nonforest land uses by microimage evaluation techniques on IR color film coupled with B/W infrared and panchromatic films; and (3) discrimination of forest and nonforest classes is possible by either of two methods: interpreters with appropriate viewing and mapping instruments, or programmable automatic scanning microdensitometers and automatic data processing.

  19. Ash, the emerald ash borer, and private forest land management

    Treesearch

    Tom. Crowe

    2010-01-01

    Forest management through emerald ash borer (EAB) will be a dynamic process that will change based on the best information available at the time. Management decisions will depend on the anticipated time of EAB arrival; the diameter and number of ash present in the forest stand; the diameter and number of other desirable and undesirable species present in the stand (...

  20. Is Oregon's land use planning program conserving forest and farm land? A review of the evidence

    Treesearch

    Hannah Gosnell; Jeffrey D. Kline; Garrett Chrostek; James Duncan

    2011-01-01

    Planners have long been interested in understanding ways in which land use planning approaches play out on the ground, and planning scholars have approached the task of evaluating such effects using a variety of methods. Oregon, in particular, has been the focus of numerous studies owing to its early-adopted and widely recognized statewide approach to farm and forest...

  1. Aboveground tree biomass on productive forest land in Alaska.

    Treesearch

    John Yarie; Delbert. Mead

    1982-01-01

    Total aboveground woody biomass of trees on forest land that can produce 1.4 cubic m eters per hectare per year of industrial wood in Alaska is 1.33 billion metric tons green weight. The estimated energy value of the standing woody biomass is 11.9 x 10'5 Btu's. Statewide tables of biomass and energy values for softwoods, hardwoods, and species groups are...

  2. Environmental Assessment: Apalachicola National Forest Helicopter Landing Zones Florida

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-12-01

    farmlands, coastal zones, flood plains , or to Native American religious concerns. 3.2 Land Use The Apalachicola National Forest (ANF) is owned...incisallncised Groovebur Both Andropogon arctatus/Pine-Woods Bluestem Both Angelica dentata/ Coastal - Plain Angelica Both Aristida patulaffall threeawn Both...simplicifolia/ Coastal Plain Wild Indigo Both Berlandiera subacauliSIFlorida Greeneyes Both Boltonia apalachicolensis/ Apalachicola Doll’s Daisy Both

  3. Cadastre (forest maps) and spatial land uses planning, strategic tool for sustainable development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drosos, Vasileios C.

    2014-08-01

    The rise in the living standards of the Greeks created, especially since 1970, along with other needs and the need for second or holiday home since 1990 after finding the first house on the outskirts of large urban centers. Trying to find land for the creation of new resorts or new type of permanent residences (maisonettes with or without garden, depending on the financial position of each) had the painful consequence of wasteful and uncontrolled use of land, without a program, without the fundamental rules of land planning and the final creation was usually unsightly buildings. The costs were to pay as usually the forest rural lands. The national spatial planning of land use requires that we know the existing land uses in this country, and based on that we can design and decide their land uses on the future in a rational way. On final practical level, this planning leads to mark the boundaries of specific areas of land that are permitted and may change uses. For this reason, one of the most valuable "tools" of that final marking the boundaries is also the forest maps. The paper aims the investigation to determine the modern views on the issues of Cadastre and Land Management with an ulterior view to placing the bases for creating a building plan of an immediate completion of forest maps. Sustainable development as a term denoting a policy of continued economic and social development that does not involve the destruction of the environment and natural resources, but rather guarantees their rational viability.

  4. 76 FR 37826 - Public Land Order No. 7773; Emergency Withdrawal of Public and National Forest System Lands...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ...,776 acres of public and National Forest System lands from location and entry under the 1872 Mining Law... alter the applicability of the public land laws other than the 1872 Mining Law (30 U.S.C. 22 et seq.). 3... Bureau of Land Management Public Land Order No. 7773; Emergency Withdrawal of Public and National...

  5. Land use, forest density, soil mapping, erosion, drainage, salinity limitations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yassoglou, N. J. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The results of analyses show that it is possible to obtain information of practical significance as follows: (1) A quick and accurate estimate of the proper use of the valuable land can be made on the basis of temporal and spectral characteristics of the land features. (2) A rather accurate delineation of the major forest formations in the test areas was achieved on the basis of spatial and spectral characteristics of the studied areas. The forest stands were separated into two density classes; dense forest, and broken forest. On the basis of ERTS-1 data and the existing ground truth information a rather accurate mapping of the major vegetational forms of the mountain ranges can be made. (3) Major soil formations are mapable from ERTS-1 data: recent alluvial soils; soil on quarternary deposits; severely eroded soil and lithosol; and wet soils. (4) An estimation of cost benefits cannot be made accurately at this stage of the investigation. However, a rough estimate of the ratio of the cost for obtaining the same amount information from ERTS-1 data and from conventional operations would be approximately 1:6 to 1:10, in favor of the ERTS-1.

  6. Forest land suitability in a Mediterranean area under climate change scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam; Anaya-Romero, María; Kotb Abd-Elmabod, Sameh; De la Rosa, Diego

    2013-04-01

    As a consequence of the increasing level of atmospheric CO2 and air temperatures, global climate is changing leading to warmer and often drier conditions in many forest ecosystems. The Mediterranean area is particularly vulnerable to climate change as a result of a combination of environmental and human factors. An adequate forest management is associated to improvement of habitat suitability for soil and water quality, climate regulation and other important ecosystem services. The MicroLEIS decision support system (MicroLEIS DSS), through its 12 land evaluation models, is a useful tool to assist decision-makers with specific agro-ecological problems. Among the land evaluation models, Sierra was specifically designed to assess forestry land suitability for restoration of semi-natural habitats in marginal agricultural lands. This model selects up to 22 forest species adapted to Mediterranean conditions based on latitude, longitude, physiographic position, useful depth, texture, drainage, pH, summer and winter temperatures, and precipitation. In this research, Sierra model was applied in 35 benchmark sites representative of the natural regions (NUTS2) of a Mediterranean area (Andalusia, Southern Spain) in current and future climate scenarios for the A1B IPPC SRES (Special Report on Emission Scenarios) and the periods 2040, 2070 and 2100. Data was obtained from SEISnet soil database, CDBm climate database and the future climate change variation values of the State Meteorological Agency. The results showed that Pinus Pinea, Pinus halepensis, Quercus Ilex and Quercus suber are the most suitable forest species in actual and future climate scenarios for the selected marginal lands, according to the tolerance ranges for standard soil and climate variables of the forest species. Various forest species showed a potential aptitude for reforestation in future climate scenarios (i.e. Quercus), whereas others such as Castanea Sativa will not be suitable in the study area in 2070

  7. Area changes in U.S. forests and other major land uses, 1982 to 2002, with projections to 2062.

    Treesearch

    Ralph J. Alig; Andrew J. Plantinga; David Haim; Maribeth. Todd

    2010-01-01

    This study updates an earlier assessment of the past, current, and prospective situation for the Nation’s land base. We describe area changes among major land uses on the U.S. land base for historical trends from 1982 to 2002 and projections out to 2062. Historically, 11 million acres of forest, cropland, and open space were converted to urban and other developed uses...

  8. RESTORING SUSTAINABLE FORESTS ON APPALACHIAN MINED LANDS FOR WOOD PRODUCTS, RENEWABLE ENERGY, CARBON SEQUESTRATION, AND OTHER ECOSYSTEM SERVICES

    SciTech Connect

    Jonathan Aggett

    2003-12-15

    The overall purpose of this project is to evaluate the biological and economic feasibility of restoring high-quality forests on mined land, and to measure carbon sequestration and wood production benefits that would be achieved from forest restoration procedures. In this segment of work, our goal was to review methods for estimating tree survival, growth, yield and value of forests growing on surface mined land in the eastern coalfields of the USA, and to determine the extent to which carbon sequestration is influenced by these factors. Public Law 95-87, the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA), mandates that mined land be reclaimed in a fashion that renders the land at least as productive after mining as it was before mining. In the central Appalachian region, where prime farmland and economic development opportunities for mined land are scarce, the most practical land use choices are hayland/pasture, wildlife habitat, or forest land. Since 1977, the majority of mined land has been reclaimed as hayland/pasture or wildlife habitat, which is less expensive to reclaim than forest land, since there are no tree planting costs. As a result, there are now hundreds of thousands of hectares of grasslands and scrublands in various stages of natural succession located throughout otherwise forested mountains in the U.S. A literature review was done to develop the basis for an economic feasibility study of a range of land-use conversion scenarios. Procedures were developed for both mixed hardwoods and white pine under a set of low product prices and under a set of high product prices. Economic feasibility is based on land expectation values. Further, our review shows that three types of incentive schemes might be important: (1) lump sum payment at planting (and equivalent series of annual payments); (2) revenue incentive at harvest; and (3) benefit based on carbon volume.

  9. 32 CFR 644.409 - Procedures for Interchange of National Forest Lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Procedures for Interchange of National Forest... Interests § 644.409 Procedures for Interchange of National Forest Lands. (a) General. The interchange of national forest lands is accomplished in three steps: first, agreement must be reached between the two...

  10. 32 CFR 644.409 - Procedures for Interchange of National Forest Lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Procedures for Interchange of National Forest... Interests § 644.409 Procedures for Interchange of National Forest Lands. (a) General. The interchange of national forest lands is accomplished in three steps: first, agreement must be reached between the two...

  11. 32 CFR 644.408 - Interchange of national forest and military and civil works lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Interchange of national forest and military and... Property and Easement Interests § 644.408 Interchange of national forest and military and civil works lands. 16 U.S.C. 505a, 505b authorizes the Secretary of Agriculture, with respect to national forest lands...

  12. 32 CFR 644.409 - Procedures for Interchange of National Forest Lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Procedures for Interchange of National Forest... Interests § 644.409 Procedures for Interchange of National Forest Lands. (a) General. The interchange of national forest lands is accomplished in three steps: first, agreement must be reached between the two...

  13. 32 CFR 644.408 - Interchange of national forest and military and civil works lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Interchange of national forest and military and... Property and Easement Interests § 644.408 Interchange of national forest and military and civil works lands. 16 U.S.C. 505a, 505b authorizes the Secretary of Agriculture, with respect to national forest lands...

  14. 32 CFR 644.408 - Interchange of national forest and military and civil works lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Interchange of national forest and military and... Property and Easement Interests § 644.408 Interchange of national forest and military and civil works lands. 16 U.S.C. 505a, 505b authorizes the Secretary of Agriculture, with respect to national forest lands...

  15. 32 CFR 644.408 - Interchange of national forest and military and civil works lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Interchange of national forest and military and... Property and Easement Interests § 644.408 Interchange of national forest and military and civil works lands. 16 U.S.C. 505a, 505b authorizes the Secretary of Agriculture, with respect to national forest lands...

  16. 32 CFR 644.408 - Interchange of national forest and military and civil works lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Interchange of national forest and military and... Property and Easement Interests § 644.408 Interchange of national forest and military and civil works lands. 16 U.S.C. 505a, 505b authorizes the Secretary of Agriculture, with respect to national forest lands...

  17. 75 FR 52713 - Nationwide Aerial Application of Fire Retardant on National Forest System Lands

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-27

    ... Forest Service Nationwide Aerial Application of Fire Retardant on National Forest System Lands AGENCY... aerial application of fire retardant on National Forest System lands. The responsible official for this.... Comments may also be sent via e- mail to FireRetardantEIS@fs.fed.us . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT:...

  18. Tracking changes in the susceptibility of forest land infested with gypsy moth

    Treesearch

    David A. Gansner; John W. Quimby; Susan L. King; Stanford L. Arner; David A. Drake

    1994-01-01

    Does forest land subject to intensive outbreaks of gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) become less susceptible to defoliation? A model for estimating the likelihood of gypsy moth defoliation has been developed and validated. It was applied to forest-inventory plot data to quantify trends in the susceptibility of forest land in south-central Pennsylvania during a period of...

  19. 78 FR 61329 - Revision of the Land Management Plan for the Nantahala and Pisgah National Forests

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-03

    ... ``need for change'', which identifies the need to change management direction in current plans due to... Forest Service Revision of the Land Management Plan for the Nantahala and Pisgah National Forests AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of Initiating the development of a land management plan revision...

  20. 75 FR 8645 - Public Meetings on the Development of the Forest Service Land Management Planning Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-25

    ... Forest Service Public Meetings on the Development of the Forest Service Land Management Planning Rule... to developing a new Forest Service Land Management Planning Rule (planning rule) through a... roundtables. Summaries of each session will be produced and posted on the planning rule Web site as part...

  1. Impacts of all terrain vehicles (ATV) on National Forest lands and grasslands [Abstract

    Treesearch

    Randy B. Foltz; Kristina A. Yanosek

    2005-01-01

    The US Forest Service has identified unmanaged all terrain vehicle (ATV) use as a threat to forested lands and grasslands. Some undesirable impacts include severely eroded soils, usercreated unplanned roads, disrupted wetland ecosystems, as well as general habitat destruction and degraded water quality throughout forested lands. More insight on how ATV use affects...

  2. Land use history, environment, and tree composition in a tropical forest

    Treesearch

    Jill Thompson; Nicholas Brokaw; Jess K. Zimmerman; Robert B. Waide; Edwin M. III Everham; D. Jean Lodge; Charlotte M. Taylor; Diana Garcia-Montiel; Marcheterre Fluet

    2002-01-01

    The effects of historical land use on tropical forest must be examined to understand present forest characteristics and to plan conservation strategies. We compared the effects of past land use, topography, soil type, and other environmental variables on tree species composition in a subtropical wet forest in the Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico. The study involved...

  3. China's classification-based forest management: procedures, problems, and prospects.

    PubMed

    Dai, Limin; Zhao, Fuqiang; Shao, Guofan; Zhou, Li; Tang, Lina

    2009-06-01

    China's new Classification-Based Forest Management (CFM) is a two-class system, including Commodity Forest (CoF) and Ecological Welfare Forest (EWF) lands, so named according to differences in their distinct functions and services. The purposes of CFM are to improve forestry economic systems, strengthen resource management in a market economy, ease the conflicts between wood demands and public welfare, and meet the diversified needs for forest services in China. The formative process of China's CFM has involved a series of trials and revisions. China's central government accelerated the reform of CFM in the year 2000 and completed the final version in 2003. CFM was implemented at the provincial level with the aid of subsidies from the central government. About a quarter of the forestland in China was approved as National EWF lands by the State Forestry Administration in 2006 and 2007. Logging is prohibited on National EWF lands, and their landowners or managers receive subsidies of about 70 RMB (US$10) per hectare from the central government. CFM represents a new forestry strategy in China and its implementation inevitably faces challenges in promoting the understanding of forest ecological services, generalizing nationwide criteria for identifying EWF and CoF lands, setting up forest-specific compensation mechanisms for ecological benefits, enhancing the knowledge of administrators and the general public about CFM, and sustaining EWF lands under China's current forestland tenure system. CFM does, however, offer a viable pathway toward sustainable forest management in China.

  4. China's Classification-Based Forest Management: Procedures, Problems, and Prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Limin; Zhao, Fuqiang; Shao, Guofan; Zhou, Li; Tang, Lina

    2009-06-01

    China’s new Classification-Based Forest Management (CFM) is a two-class system, including Commodity Forest (CoF) and Ecological Welfare Forest (EWF) lands, so named according to differences in their distinct functions and services. The purposes of CFM are to improve forestry economic systems, strengthen resource management in a market economy, ease the conflicts between wood demands and public welfare, and meet the diversified needs for forest services in China. The formative process of China’s CFM has involved a series of trials and revisions. China’s central government accelerated the reform of CFM in the year 2000 and completed the final version in 2003. CFM was implemented at the provincial level with the aid of subsidies from the central government. About a quarter of the forestland in China was approved as National EWF lands by the State Forestry Administration in 2006 and 2007. Logging is prohibited on National EWF lands, and their landowners or managers receive subsidies of about 70 RMB (US10) per hectare from the central government. CFM represents a new forestry strategy in China and its implementation inevitably faces challenges in promoting the understanding of forest ecological services, generalizing nationwide criteria for identifying EWF and CoF lands, setting up forest-specific compensation mechanisms for ecological benefits, enhancing the knowledge of administrators and the general public about CFM, and sustaining EWF lands under China’s current forestland tenure system. CFM does, however, offer a viable pathway toward sustainable forest management in China.

  5. The Ouachita and Ozark- St. Francis National Forests: A History of the Lands and USDA Forest Service Tenure

    Treesearch

    Stephen Strausberg; Walter A. Hough

    1997-01-01

    A brief history of the Ouachita and Ozark-St. Francis National Forests shows that many factors influenced the land, vegetation, wildlife, and other resources that have beenunder USDA Forest Serviceadministration for almost 90 years. This history indicates that laws, acts, and regulations not only created the national forests in Arkansas and Oklahoma but continue to...

  6. Forest in My Neighborhood: An Exercise Using Aerial Photos to Engage Students in Forest Ecology & Land Use History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matlack, Glenn R.; McEwan, Ryan W.

    2008-01-01

    Human activity has profoundly altered the deciduous forest of the eastern United States. Modern forest is a patchwork of stands of varying ages, sizes, and shapes reflecting a complex history of land use. Much modern forest is nestled in and around human communities, and faces the threat of imminent clearance for residential and commercial…

  7. Forest in My Neighborhood: An Exercise Using Aerial Photos to Engage Students in Forest Ecology & Land Use History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matlack, Glenn R.; McEwan, Ryan W.

    2008-01-01

    Human activity has profoundly altered the deciduous forest of the eastern United States. Modern forest is a patchwork of stands of varying ages, sizes, and shapes reflecting a complex history of land use. Much modern forest is nestled in and around human communities, and faces the threat of imminent clearance for residential and commercial…

  8. Mapping and Analysis of Forest and Land Fire Potential Using Geospatial Technology and Mathematical Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suliman, M. D. H.; Mahmud, M.; Reba, M. N. M.; S, L. W.

    2014-02-01

    Forest and land fire can cause negative implications for forest ecosystems, biodiversity, air quality and soil structure. However, the implications involved can be minimized through effective disaster management system. Effective disaster management mechanisms can be developed through appropriate early warning system as well as an efficient delivery system. This study tried to focus on two aspects, namely by mapping the potential of forest fire and land as well as the delivery of information to users through WebGIS application. Geospatial technology and mathematical modeling used in this study for identifying, classifying and mapping the potential area for burning. Mathematical models used is the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP), while Geospatial technologies involved include remote sensing, Geographic Information System (GIS) and digital field data collection. The entire Selangor state was chosen as our study area based on a number of cases have been reported over the last two decades. AHP modeling to assess the comparison between the three main criteria of fuel, topography and human factors design. Contributions of experts directly involved in forest fire fighting operations and land comprising officials from the Fire and Rescue Department Malaysia also evaluated in this model. The study found that about 32.83 square kilometers of the total area of Selangor state are the extreme potential for fire. Extreme potential areas identified are in Bestari Jaya and Kuala Langat High Ulu. Continuity of information and terrestrial forest fire potential was displayed in WebGIS applications on the internet. Display information through WebGIS applications is a better approach to help the decision-making process at a high level of confidence and approximate real conditions. Agencies involved in disaster management such as Jawatankuasa Pengurusan Dan Bantuan Bencana (JPBB) of District, State and the National under the National Security Division and the Fire and Rescue

  9. A stochastic Forest Fire Model for future land cover scenarios assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorucci, P.; Holmes, T.; Gaetani, F.; D'Andrea, M.

    2009-04-01

    Land cover change and forest fire interaction under climate and socio-economics changes, is one of the main issues of the 21th century. The capability of defining future scenarios of land cover and fire regime allow forest managers to better understand the best actions to be carried out and their long term effects. In this paper a new methodology for land cover change simulations under climate change and fire disturbance is presented and discussed. The methodology is based on the assumption that forest fires exhibits power law frequency-area distribution. The well known Forest Fire Model (FFM), which is an example of self organized criticality, is able to reproduce this behavior. Starting from this observation, a modified version of the FFM has been developed. The new model, called Modified Forest Fire Model (MFFM) introduces several new features. A stochastic model for vegetation growth and regrowth after fire occurrence has been implemented for different kind of vegetations. In addition, a stochastic fire propagation model taking into account topography and vegetation cover has been introduced. The MFFM has been developed with the purpose of estimating vegetation cover changes and fire regimes over a time windows of many years for a given spatial region. Two different case studies have been carried out. The first case study is related with Liguria (Italy), a region of 5400 km2 lying between the Cote d'Azur, France, and Tuscany, Italy, on the northwest coast of the Tyrrhenian Sea. This region is characterized by Mediterranean fire regime. The second case study has been carried out in California (Florida) on a region having similar area and characterized by similar climate conditions. In both cases the model well represents the actual fire regime in terms of power law parameters proving interesting results about future land cover scenarios under climate, land use and socio-economics change.

  10. Changes in fragmentation of western Washington forest land (Project WC-EM-08-01)

    Treesearch

    Andrew Gray

    2013-01-01

    Land conversion and forest fragmentation is an important issue across the country. Forest fragmentation is one of the international Montréal criteria and indicators that the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, must assess periodically (Riitters and others 2004). Characteristics of increased fragmentation include increases in the amount of forest-nonforest...

  11. Effects of satellite image spatial aggregation and resolution on estimates of forest land area

    Treesearch

    M.D. Nelson; R.E. McRoberts; G.R. Holden; M.E. Bauer

    2009-01-01

    Satellite imagery is being used increasingly in association with national forest inventories (NFIs) to produce maps and enhance estimates of forest attributes. We simulated several image spatial resolutions within sparsely and heavily forested study areas to assess resolution effects on estimates of forest land area, independent of other sensor characteristics. We...

  12. Quantifying the influences of various ecological factors on land surface temperature of urban forests.

    PubMed

    Ren, Yin; Deng, Lu-Ying; Zuo, Shu-Di; Song, Xiao-Dong; Liao, Yi-Lan; Xu, Cheng-Dong; Chen, Qi; Hua, Li-Zhong; Li, Zheng-Wei

    2016-09-01

    Identifying factors that influence the land surface temperature (LST) of urban forests can help improve simulations and predictions of spatial patterns of urban cool islands. This requires a quantitative analytical method that combines spatial statistical analysis with multi-source observational data. The purpose of this study was to reveal how human activities and ecological factors jointly influence LST in clustering regions (hot or cool spots) of urban forests. Using Xiamen City, China from 1996 to 2006 as a case study, we explored the interactions between human activities and ecological factors, as well as their influences on urban forest LST. Population density was selected as a proxy for human activity. We integrated multi-source data (forest inventory, digital elevation models (DEM), population, and remote sensing imagery) to develop a database on a unified urban scale. The driving mechanism of urban forest LST was revealed through a combination of multi-source spatial data and spatial statistical analysis of clustering regions. The results showed that the main factors contributing to urban forest LST were dominant tree species and elevation. The interactions between human activity and specific ecological factors linearly or nonlinearly increased LST in urban forests. Strong interactions between elevation and dominant species were generally observed and were prevalent in either hot or cold spots areas in different years. In conclusion, quantitative studies based on spatial statistics and GeogDetector models should be conducted in urban areas to reveal interactions between human activities, ecological factors, and LST.

  13. Reaching a forest land per capita milestone in the United States

    Treesearch

    C.W. Woodall; P.D. Miles

    2008-01-01

    During April 2007, forest land per capita in the United States dropped below 1 ha. This is the result of a rather static area of forest land in the United States for the past 100 years combined with population growth. The US now joins the ranks of most countries (77%) having forest land per capita below 1 ha. The combination of an increasing human population with...

  14. Vegetation Analysis and Land Use Land Cover Classification of Forest in Uttara Kannada District India Through Geo-Informatics Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koppad, A. G.; Janagoudar, B. S.

    2017-05-01

    The study was conducted in Uttara Kannada districts during the year 2012-2014. The study area lies between 13.92° N to 15.52° N latitude and 74.08° E to 75.09° E longitude with an area of 10,215 km2. The Indian satellite IRS P6 LISS-III imageries were used to classify the land use land cover classes with ground truth data collected with GPS through supervised classification in ERDAS software. The land use and land cover classes identified were dense forest, horticulture plantation, sparse forest, forest plantation, open land and agriculture land. The dense forest covered an area of 63.32 % (6468.70 sq km) followed by agriculture 12.88 % (1315.31 sq. km), sparse forest 10.59 % (1081.37 sq. km), open land 6.09 % (622.37 sq. km), horticulture plantation and least was forest plantation (1.07 %). Settlement, stony land and water body together cover about 4.26 percent of the area. The study indicated that the aspect and altitude influenced the forest types and vegetation pattern. The NDVI map was prepared which indicated that healthy vegetation is represented by high NDVI values between 0.1 and 1. The non-vegetated features such as water bodies, settlement, and stony land indicated less than 0.1 values. The decrease in forest area in some places was due to anthropogenic activities. The thematic map of land use land cover classes was prepared using Arc GIS Software.

  15. Mapping land cover and estimating forest structure using satellite imagery and coarse resolution lidar in the Virgin Islands

    Treesearch

    Todd Kennaway; Eileen Helmer; Michael Lefsky; Thomas Brandeis; Kirk Sherrill

    2009-01-01

    Current information on land cover, forest type and forest structure for the Virgin Islands is critical to land managers and researachers for accurate forest inverntory and ecological monitoring. In this study, we use cloud free image mosaics of panchromatic sharpened Landsat ETM+ images and decision tree classification software to map land cover and forest type for the...

  16. Mapping land cover and estimating forest structure using satellite imagery and coarse resolution lidar in the Virgin Islands

    Treesearch

    T.A. Kennaway; E.H. Helmer; M.A. Lefsky; T.A. Brandeis; K.R. Sherill

    2008-01-01

    Current information on land cover, forest type and forest structure for the Virgin Islands is critical to land managers and researchers for accurate forest inventory and ecological monitoring. In this study, we use cloud free image mosaics of panchromatic sharpened Landsat ETM+ images and decision tree classification software to map land cover and forest type for the...

  17. Aboveground tree biomass on productive forest land in Alaska. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Yarie, J.; Mead, D.R.

    1982-08-01

    Total aboveground woody biomass of trees on forest land that can produce 1.4 cubic meters per hectare per year of industrial wood in Alaska is 1.33 billion metric tons green weight. The estimated energy value of the standing woody biomass is 11.9 x 10 Btu's. Statewide tables of biomass and energy values for softwoods, hardwoods, and species group are presented.

  18. Soil microbial diversity, site conditions, shelter forest land, saline water drip-irrigation, drift desert.

    PubMed

    Jin, Zhengzhong; Lei, Jiaqiang; Li, Shengyu; Xu, Xinwen

    2013-10-01

    Soil microbes in forest land are crucial to soil development in extreme areas. In this study, methods of conventional culture, PLFA and PCR-DGGE were utilized to analyze soil microbial quantity, fatty acids and microbial DNA segments of soils subjected to different site conditions in the Tarim Desert Highway forest land. The main results were as follows: the soil microbial amount, diversity indexes of fatty acid and DNA segment differed significantly among sites with different conditions (F < F0.05 ). Specifically, the values were higher in the middle and base of dunes than the top part of dunes and hardened flat sand, but all values for dunes were higher than for drift sand. Bacteria was dominant in the soil microbial community (>84%), followed by actinomycetes and then fungi (<0.05%). Vertical differences in the soil microbial diversity were insignificant at 0-35 cm. Correlation analysis indicated that the forest trees grew better as the soil microbial diversity index increased. Therefore, construction of the Tarim Desert Highway shelter-forest promoted soil biological development; however, for enhancing sand control efficiency and promoting sand development, we should consider the effects of site condition in the construction and regeneration of shelter-forest ecological projects.

  19. Climate Changes Projection for Land and Forest Fire Risk Assessment in West Kalimantan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jadmiko, S. D.; Murdiyarso, D.; Faqih, A.

    2017-03-01

    Risk analysis is a method used to determine the probability of disaster in the current and future. This research analyse of fire risk in West Kalimantan by using extreme climate and vulnerability analysis. Extreme climate was calculated based on the extreme dry rainfall from regional climate model RegCM4.4 outputs. Vulnerability analysis was conducted by using a composite mapping analysis used hotspot data and eleven indicators of vulnerability. We found that very high level of extreme dry rainfall located in the southern region and the western coast area of West Kalimantan. This condition was influenced by environment factors such as topography and land use. Extreme dry rainfall also associated with the pattern of annual rainfall in West Kalimantan which ranges between 1753-4861 mm. Modelling of the vulnerability of land and forest fires in West Kalimantan showed that the land use has impact 24% on the vulnerability model. The results of the vulnerability model analysis shows that the plantations areas and secondary swamp forests are highly vulnerable, particularly on the peat area with depth about 50-200 cm. The analysis of land and forest fires risk found that the vulnerable areas have high risk which is largely unmanaged plantation areas and peatlands.

  20. Land Management Agencies: Restoring Fish Passage Through Culverts on Forest Service and BLM Lands in Oregon and Washington Could Take Decades

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-11-01

    2,645 4,805 $331,042 aAccording to the Forest Service, the Umpqua , Wallow-Whitman, and Colville national forests did not provide estimates because...Action 20 Agency Comments 20 Appendix I Barrier Culvert Information by Bureau of Land Management District Office and National Forest 22 Bureau of Land...of public lands, managed by 9 regional offices that are responsible for supervising the operations of 155 national forests . BLM and the Forest Service

  1. Using Resource Economics to Anticipate Forest Land Use Change in the U.S. Mid-Atlantic Region

    Treesearch

    Peter J. Parks; Ian W. Hardie; Cheryl A. Tedder; David N. Wear

    2000-01-01

    Demands for forest, farm, and developed land are evolving in the U.S. mid-Atlantic region. The demand for land in developed uses, as well as demands for various forest and farm products are changing in response to population growth, demographic shifts, and market forces. As demand factors change so do relative land values. Land area in future forest, farm, and...

  2. Forest biomass allometry in global land surface models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, Adam; Ciais, Philippe; Bellassen, Valentin; Delbart, Nicolas; Field, Christopher B.; Berry, Joseph A.

    2011-09-01

    A number of global land surface models simulate photosynthesis, respiration, and disturbance, important flows in the carbon cycle that are widely tested against flux towers and CO2 concentration gradients. The resulting forest biomass is examined in this paper for its resemblance to realistic stands, which are characterized using allometric theory. The simulated biomass pools largely do not conform to widely observed allometry, particularly for young stands. The best performing models had an explicit treatment of stand-thinning processes, which brought the slope of the allometry of these models closer to observations. Additionally, models that had relatively shorter wood turnover times performed were generally closer to observed allometries. The discrepancy between the pool distribution between models and data suggests estimates of NEE have biases when integrated over the long term, as compared to observed biomass data, and could therefore compromise long-term predictions of land carbon sources and sinks. We think that this presents a practical obstacle for improving models by informing them better with data. The approach taken in this paper, examining biomass pools allometrically, offers a simple approach to improving the characteristic behaviors of global models with the relatively sparse data that is available globally by forest inventory.

  3. Soil humus composition - comparison between mountain grasslands and forest lands with different land-use intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naydenova, Lora; Zhiyanski, Miglena; Leifeld, Jens; Filcheva, Ekaterina

    2015-04-01

    Soil humus is a dynamic characteristic greatly vulnerable to land use and climate and with important feedbacks to the atmospheric green house gas balance and the rate of climate change. The increased demand for accurate soil carbon stocks assessments and predictions of its changes as a result of land use/cover and climate change has triggered large-scale and long-term measurements of soil organic matter specifics. We studied the soil humus composition in four mountain grasslands, differentiated according to the land-use sub-type and land-use intensity and four forest lands. Two pastures - with intensive (Pi) and extensive grazing (Pe) and two meadows- managed (Mm) and unmanaged (Mu) were objects of present study. Two spruce plantations (Picea abies Karst), and two natural beech forests (Fagus sylvatica L.) - control, unmanaged for the both (Su and Bu) and with 10 % cutting intensity (Sc and Bc). Humus composition was analyzed following the methodology of Kononova-Belchikova. The aggressive and mobile fulvic acids predominated in all of the investigated plots, except Pe and Bu. Humic acids are "free" and bonded with R3O3 and no Ca-bonded humic acids were established under the grasslands, but in the soils under the two beech forest we observed Ca-bonded humic acids in small quantities. The values of total org. C and C-extracted by 0.1 N NaOH was similar in most of studied horizons. Our results showed that the highest total carbon content was localized in the organic-mineral soil horizon and decreased toward deeper soil. The highest total carbon content estimated at 14.04 % was determined in A-horizon of soil in pasture with extensive grazing, for the grasslands. The higher grazing disturbance in Pi leads to increase root biomass in patch areas and in inter-patch upper soil related with decrease of soil humus content. We supposed that the reduced amount of litter input with increased recalcitrance to decomposition provoked the reduction of organic carbon content and

  4. Greenhouse gas mitigation on marginal land: a quantitative review of the relative benefits of forest recovery versus biofuel production.

    PubMed

    Evans, Samuel G; Ramage, Benjamin S; DiRocco, Tara L; Potts, Matthew D

    2015-02-17

    Decisions concerning future land-use/land cover change stand at the forefront of ongoing debates on how to best mitigate climate change. In this study, we compare the greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation value over a 30-year time frame for a range of forest recovery and biofuel production scenarios on abandoned agricultural land. Carbon sequestration in recovering forests is estimated based on a statistical analysis of tropical and temperate studies on marginal land. GHGs offset by biofuel production are analyzed for five different production pathways. We find that forest recovery is superior to low-yielding biofuel production scenarios such as oil palm and corn. Biofuel production scenarios with high yields, such as sugarcane or high-yielding energy grasses, can be comparable or superior to natural forest succession and to reforestation in some cases. This result stands in contrast to previous research suggesting that restoring degraded ecosystems to their native state is generally superior to agricultural production in terms of GHG mitigation. Further work is needed on carbon stock changes in forests, soil carbon dynamics, and bioenergy crop production on degraded/abandoned agricultural land. This finding also emphasizes the need to consider the full range of social, economic, and ecological consequences of land-use policies.

  5. Tracking changes in the susceptibility of forest land infested with gypsy moth. Forest Service research paper (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Gansner, D.A.; Quimby, J.W.; King, S.L.; Arner, S.L.; Drake, D.A.

    1994-08-01

    The report questions the forest land subject to intensive outbreaks of gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) which become less susceptible to defoliation. A model for estimating the lifelihood of gypsy moth defoliation has been developed and validated. It was applied to forest-inventory plot data to quantity trends in the susceptibility of forest land in south-central Pennsylvania during a period of intensive infestation. Results show that even though susceptibility of the region's forest apparently has declined, the potential for future infestations remains relatively high.

  6. Effects of different land use changes on SOC stocks: From Mediterranean forest to agricultural land and vice versa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozano-García, Beatriz; Francaviglia, Rosa; Renzi, Gianluca; Doro, Luca; Parras-Alcántara, Luis; Ledda, Luigi; Concepción Benítez, M.

    2017-04-01

    During the past century there has been a general trend to alter ecosystems based on both the conversion from forest to agricultural land and the intensification of agriculture. The land use change (LUC) from forest to agricultural land is the origin of serious and direct soil problems, such as soil losses and degradation but there are other indirect problems as the decrease of soil carbon storage worldwide. Therefore, the deforestation involves an important loss of soil carbon, its emission to the atmosphere and a high contribution to the global warming. In addition, it is important to point out that due to the low yields and the high cost of modern tillage equipments, frequently the agricultural lands are abandoned, suffering a secondly LUC. This abandonment can exacerbate soil degradation, but in some cases gives the soil the opportunity to restore by revegetation (naturally in some cases, and induced in others). Thus, by reforestation/revegetation these soils can increase their capacity of storage soil organic carbon. To determine the effects both of deforestation and revegetation on SOC stock is highly important to consider the quantification of SOC stock in the hole profile, taking into account the surface layer and the subsurface horizons, since many research have shown the importance of the amount of C stored in depth and its significance in the role of soil as C sink. The main goal of this research was to assess the effect of a double LUC in the SOC stocks along the soil entire profile. After LUC from the agroforestry system to agricultural lands there were different situations. The first one in which the SOC stock did not suffer changes (when the land use was hay crop and pasture). There was no change in SOC stock both in the surface layer and in the subsurface. However, when the LUC was toward vineyards, both tilled and no tilled vineyards, the SOC stock decreased considerably in the topsoil. In the second land use change considered, derived from the

  7. Implications of land-use change on forest carbon stocks in the eastern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puhlick, Joshua; Woodall, Christopher; Weiskittel, Aaron

    2017-02-01

    Given the substantial role that forests play in removing CO2 from the atmosphere, there has been a growing need to evaluate the carbon (C) implications of various forest management and land-use decisions. Although assessment of land-use change is central to national-level greenhouse gas monitoring guidelines, it is rarely incorporated into forest stand-level evaluations of C dynamics and trajectories. To better inform the assessment of forest stand C dynamics in the context of potential land-use change, we used a region-wide repeated forest inventory (n = 71 444 plots) across the eastern United States to assess forest land-use conversion and associated changes in forest C stocks. Specifically, the probability of forest area reduction between 2002–2006 and 2007–2012 on these plots was related to key driving factors such as proportion of the landscape in forest land use, distance to roads, and initial forest C. Additional factors influencing the actual reduction in forest area were then used to assess the risk of forest land-use conversion to agriculture, settlement, and water. Plots in forests along the Great Plains had the highest periodic (approximately 5 years) probability of land-use change (0.160 ± 0.075; mean ± SD) with forest conversion to agricultural uses accounting for 70.5% of the observed land-use change. Aboveground forest C stock change for plots with a reduction in forest area was ‑4.2 ± 17.7 Mg ha‑1 (mean ± SD). The finding that poorly stocked stands and/or those with small diameter trees had the highest probability of conversion to non-forest land uses suggests that forest management strategies can maintain the US terrestrial C sink not only in terms of increased net forest growth but also retention of forest area to avoid conversion. This study highlights the importance of considering land-use change in planning and policy decisions that seek to maintain or enhance regional C sinks.

  8. Impacts of changes in land use and fragmentation patterns on Atlantic coastal forests in northern Spain.

    PubMed

    Teixido, Alberto L; Quintanilla, Luis G; Carreño, Francisco; Gutiérrez, David

    2010-01-01

    Changes in forested landscapes may have important consequences for ecosystem services and biodiversity conservation. In northern Spain, major changes in land use occurred during the second half of the 20th century, but their impacts on forests have not been quantified. We evaluated the dynamics of landscape and forest distribution patterns between 1957 and 2003 in Fragas do Eume Natural Park (northwestern Spain). We used orthoimages and a set of standard landscape metrics to determine transitions between land cover classes and to examine forest distribution patterns. Eucalypt plantations showed the greatest increase in area (197%) over time. Furthermore, transitions to eucalypt plantations were found in all major land cover classes. Forest showed a net decline of 20% in total area and represented 30% of the landscape area in 2003. Forest losses were mainly due to eucalypt plantations and the building of a water reservoir, while forest gains were due to increases in shrubland, meadows and cultivated fields which had been recolonised. Forest patch size and core area decreased, and edge length increased over time. In turn, increases were obtained in mean distance between forest patches, and in adjacency to eucalypt plantations and to a water reservoir. These results suggest an increase in forest fragmentation from 1957 to 2003, as well as a change in the nature of the habitat surrounding forest patches. This study shows that land use changes, mostly from eucalypt plantation intensification, negatively affected forested habitats, although some regeneration was ongoing through ecological succession from land abandonment. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Human and Nature Interactions: A Dynamic Land Base of Many Goods and Services

    Treesearch

    Ralph J. Alig

    2006-01-01

    Availability of land is fundamental for sustainable forestry, providing the basis for the production of a wide array of goods and services (for example, biodiversity, forest carbon sequestration). This paper summarizes types of land-related data contained in major U.S. data bases, and gives examples of how such data were used in projecting changes in forest area for...

  10. Contribution of Near Real Time MODIS-Based Forest Disturbance Detection Products to a National Forest Threat Early Warning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spruce, Joseph; Hargrove, William; Gasser, Gerald; Smoot, James; Kuper, Philip

    2011-01-01

    U.S. forests occupy approx. 751 million acres (approx. 1/3 of total land). These forests are exposed to multiple biotic and abiotic threats that collectively damage extensive acreages each year. Hazardous forest disturbances can threaten human life and property, bio-diversity and water supplies. Timely regional forest monitoring products are needed to aid forest management and decision making by the US Forest Service and its state and private partners. Daily MODIS data products provide a means to monitor regional forest disturbances on a weekly basis. In response, we began work in 2006 to develop a Near Real Time (NRT) forest monitoring capability, based on MODIS NDVI data, as part of a national forest threat early warning system (EWS)

  11. Effect Of Per-Capita Land Use Changes On Holocene Forest Clearance And CO2 Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruddiman, W. F.; Ellis, E. C.

    2009-12-01

    Several recent studies have attempted to estimate the extent of land clearance in the centuries and millennia before the industrial era. These studies require scaling modern land use to modern populations and then projecting (hind casting) that relationship in some way to pre-industrial times for which population information is available. Several studies have used a one-for-one (linear) scaling for these reconstructions, with the implicit assumption that land-use practices have not changed for several millennia. But this assumption is inconsistent with decades of field-based exploration: anthropological studies of contemporary cultures that use pre-modern farming methods, as well as archeological and paleoecological investigations of past farming methods. These studies suggest that per-capita land use was much larger millennia ago and then progressively decreased toward the present. Early land use (mostly shifting cultivation) was extensive (~4 +/- 2 ha/person) because land was readily available and little labor was required. By the centuries just prior to the industrial era, average per-capita land use had fallen to just ~0.4 +/- 0.2 ha per person because population growth forced farmers to grow food on smaller areas using more labor-intensive methods. Allowance for this long-term per-capita trend boosts estimates of the size of pre-industrial carbon emissions. Prior to the introduction of mechanized agriculture in prairie and steppe regions after 1850, most agriculture took place in forested regions. If small populations millennia ago had a disproportionately large impact on forest clearance and carbon emissions to the atmosphere, then later clearance and carbon emissions must be smaller than those derived by hind casting a linear relationship between modern population and land use.

  12. An assessment of the effectiveness of a random forest classifier for land-cover classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez-Galiano, V. F.; Ghimire, B.; Rogan, J.; Chica-Olmo, M.; Rigol-Sanchez, J. P.

    2012-01-01

    Land cover monitoring using remotely sensed data requires robust classification methods which allow for the accurate mapping of complex land cover and land use categories. Random forest (RF) is a powerful machine learning classifier that is relatively unknown in land remote sensing and has not been evaluated thoroughly by the remote sensing community compared to more conventional pattern recognition techniques. Key advantages of RF include: their non-parametric nature; high classification accuracy; and capability to determine variable importance. However, the split rules for classification are unknown, therefore RF can be considered to be black box type classifier. RF provides an algorithm for estimating missing values; and flexibility to perform several types of data analysis, including regression, classification, survival analysis, and unsupervised learning. In this paper, the performance of the RF classifier for land cover classification of a complex area is explored. Evaluation was based on several criteria: mapping accuracy, sensitivity to data set size and noise. Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper data captured in European spring and summer were used with auxiliary variables derived from a digital terrain model to classify 14 different land categories in the south of Spain. Results show that the RF algorithm yields accurate land cover classifications, with 92% overall accuracy and a Kappa index of 0.92. RF is robust to training data reduction and noise because significant differences in kappa values were only observed for data reduction and noise addition values greater than 50 and 20%, respectively. Additionally, variables that RF identified as most important for classifying land cover coincided with expectations. A McNemar test indicates an overall better performance of the random forest model over a single decision tree at the 0.00001 significance level.

  13. Forest biomass-based energy

    Treesearch

    Janaki R. R. Alavalapati; Pankaj Lal; Andres Susaeta; Robert C. Abt; David N. Wear

    2013-01-01

    Key FindingsHarvesting woody biomass for use as bioenergy is projected to range from 170 million to 336 million green tons by 2050, an increase of 54 to 113 percent over current levels.Consumption projections for forest biomass-based energy, which are based on Energy Information Administration projections, have a high level of...

  14. Communicating with nonindustrial private forest-land owners: Getting programs on target

    Treesearch

    Thomas W. Birch; Nancy A. Pywell; Nancy A. Pywell

    1986-01-01

    Nonindustrial private forest-land owners can be motivated 1, by programs directed to their needs and objectives. Seven target audiences in Pennsylvania were defined and outlets for information programs identified for each target I audience. The primary objectives of each group and the benefits they expect from owning forest land were considered in the preparation of...

  15. Forest and farmland conservation effects of Oregon's (USA) land-use planning program.

    Treesearch

    Jeffrey D. Kline

    2005-01-01

    Oregon's land-use planning program is often cited as an exemplary approach to forest and farmland conservation, but analyses of its effectiveness are limited. This article examines Oregon's land-use planning program using detailed spatial data describing building densities in western Oregon. An empirical model describes changes in building densities on forest...

  16. 78 FR 59913 - Revision of the Land Management Plan for the Francis Marion National Forest

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-30

    ... develop a preliminary ``need for change'' and a proposed action for the land management plan revision... to change management direction in current plans due to changing conditions or other monitoring... Forest Service Revision of the Land Management Plan for the Francis Marion National Forest AGENCY:...

  17. Forest land cover change (1975-2000) in the Greater Border Lakes region

    Treesearch

    Peter T. Wolter; Brian R. Sturtevant; Brian R. Miranda; Sue M. Lietz; Phillip A. Townsend; John. Pastor

    2012-01-01

    This document and accompanying maps describe land cover classifications and change detection for a 13.8 million ha landscape straddling the border between Minnesota, and Ontario, Canada (greater Border Lakes Region). Land cover classifications focus on discerning Anderson Level II forest and nonforest cover to track spatiotemporal changes in forest cover. Multi-...

  18. Homogenization of northern U.S. Great Lakes forests due to land use

    Treesearch

    Lisa A. Schulte; David J. Mladenoff; Thomas R. Crow; Laura C. Merrick; David T. Cleland

    2007-01-01

    Human land use of forested regions has intensified worldwide in recent decades, threatening long-term sustainability. Primary effects include conversion of land cover or reversion to an earlier stage of successional development. Both types of change can have cascading effects through ecosystems; however, the longterm effects where forests are allowed to regrow are...

  19. Is forest fragmentation driven by the spatial configuration of land quality? The case of western Oregon.

    Treesearch

    Ralph J. Alig; David J. Lewis; Jennifer J. Swenson

    2005-01-01

    We investigated spatial configuration of economic returns, to enhance models of forest fragmentation for western Oregon and western Washington. Drawing from spatial land rent theory, economic drivers of forest fragmentation at the landscape level include land quality comprised of attributes such as soil fertility or the distance of urban plots to amenities. We included...

  20. LANDSAT applications by the Adirondack Park Agency for land cover analyses and forest cover change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banta, J. S.; Curran, R. P.

    1981-01-01

    The New York State Adirondack Park Agency is using LANDSAT imagery to provide current, consistent parkwide data on forest cover, forest change and other land cover characteristics for the Adirondack Park, an area of 9,375 sq. miles (24,280 sq km). Boundaries of the study area were digitized and the data were enhanced and geographically rectified. A classification scheme was devised which emphasized the basic land cover types of the Park: hardwoods, spruce-fir, pine, wet conifer, brushland, grassland, agricultural areas, exposed earth, urban areas, and water bodies. Cover type classifications for disturbed forest land were also chosen: cut hardwoods, regenerating hardwoods, and cut spruce fir. Field verification of 1978 classification revealed an accurate differentiation of forest types within types and between nonforested/forested areas. The classification accurately detects forest land disturbances; however, it is not always descriptive of the level of disturbance.

  1. Monitoring population and land use change in tropical forest protected areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zvoleff, A. I.; Rosa, M.; Ahumada, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    Monitoring human-environment interactions in tropical forest protected areas requires linking interdisciplinary datasets collected across a range of spatial and temporal scales. Recent assessments have shown that forest degradation and loss outside of protected areas is strongly associated with declines in biodiversity within protected areas. Biodiversity monitoring efforts must therefore develop approaches that consider change in the broader landscape, using biophysical and socioeconomic datasets that not only cover the extent of a protected area, but also the region surrounding it. The Tropical Ecology Assessment and Monitoring (TEAM) Network has developed an approach for linking remotely sensed imagery from Landsat and MODIS sensors with in-situ ecological data and socioeconomic datasets to better understand the effects of landscape change on biodiversity. The TEAM Network is a global system for monitoring biodiversity, land use/cover change (LUCC), and climate in sixteen tropical forest sites evenly distributed across global biophysical gradients (rainfall and seasonality) and gradients of expected climate change and land use change. TEAM adopts the Zone of Interaction (ZOI) concept to delineate the spatial extent around protected areas for linking broader-scale trends in LUCC to plot-based monitoring data. This talk reports on a cross-site comparison examining LUCC and biodiversity change across the TEAM network. The analysis indicates a gradient of forest loss in the tropics dependent on landscape-level human factors, such as population and road density. The highest losses of forest cover are associated with changing patterns of land use and agricultural development, particularly plantation forestry in Southeast Asia. While the spatial and temporal resolution of remote sensing-derived datasets continues to increase, a key challenge for monitoring efforts is linking this data to spatially explicit socioeconomic datasets for use in statistical modeling. We will

  2. History of early settlement and land use on the Bent Creek Experimental Forest Buncombe County, NC

    Treesearch

    William A. Nesbitt

    1941-01-01

    This report has been prepared for two reasons: first, it is believed that a description of past land use on the Bent Creek Experimental Forest may enable the research forester to better interpret the forest conditions as he finds them today; and second, a record of the rise and fall of a once prosperous rural community will be preserved for its future sociological...

  3. Evaluating a new method for reconstructing forest conditions from General Land Office survey records

    Treesearch

    Carrie R. Levine; Charles V. Cogbill; Brandon M. Collins; Andrew J. Larson; James A. Lutz; Malcolm P. North; Christina M. Restaino; Hugh D. Safford; Scott L. Stephens; John J. Battles

    2017-01-01

    Historical forest conditions are often used to inform contemporary management goals because historical forests are considered to be resilient to ecological disturbances. The General Land Office (GLO) surveys of the late 19th and early 20th centuries provide regionally quasi-contiguous data sets of historical forests across much of the Western United States....

  4. Maryland's Strategic Forest Lands Assessment--Using Indicators and Models for Decision Support

    Treesearch

    J. L. Horan; J. C. Wolf

    2006-01-01

    Sustaining healthy, ecologically functional, and economically viable forests is an increasing challenge in Maryland due to relentless urban development. Forests that once occupied more than 90 percent of Maryland’s landscape today cover only 41 percent of the land. As forests become more fragmented and parcelized they begin to lose their ability to provide important...

  5. Improving Forest Inventory and Analysis efficiency with common land unit information

    Treesearch

    Greg C. Liknes; Mark D. Nelson

    2009-01-01

    The Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA's) Northern Research Station Forest Inventory and Analysis program (NRS-FIA) examines inventory locations on digital aerial imagery to determine if the land use at each plot location meets the FIA definition of forest and thereby becomes a field visit site. This manual image-interpretation effort...

  6. Quantifying the role of forested lands in providing surface drinking water supply for Puerto Rico

    Treesearch

    Erika Cohen; Ge Sun; Liangxia Zhang; Peter Caldwell; Suzanne Krieger

    2017-01-01

    The Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture published a General Technical Report (GTR-SRS-197) in 2014 that quantified the role that water originating on National Forest System lands contributed to the drinking water supply and determined what population and communities were being served in the 13 Southern States of Region 8 of the Forest Service. The...

  7. Impact of Alternative Timber Management Policies on Availability of Forest Land in the Northeast

    Treesearch

    Owen W. Herrick

    1977-01-01

    Gaging the ability of the forest resource to satisfy future timber requirements is central to solving many problems arising from competition for use of forest land. In this study, production potentials of forest acreage in the Northeastern United States under management alternatives that range from extensive to intensive are weighed against several estimates of timber...

  8. Forest-land conversion, ecosystem services, and economic issues for policy: a review

    Treesearch

    Robert A. Smail; David J. Lewis

    2009-01-01

    The continued conversion and development of forest land pose a serious threat to the ecosystem services derived from forested landscapes. We argue that developing an understanding of the full range of consequences from forest conversion requires understanding the effects of such conversion on both components of ecosystem services: products and processes....

  9. Toward a National Early Warning System for Forest Disturbances Using Remotely Sensed Land-Surface Phenology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hargrove, W. W.; Spruce, J.

    2010-12-01

    A prototype National Early Warning System (EWS) for Forest Disturbances was established in 2010 by producing national maps showing potential forest disturbance across the conterminous United States at 231m resolution every 8 days. Each map is based on Land-Surface Phenology (LSP), calculated using temporally smoothed MODIS MOD13 imagery obtained over the preceding 24-day analysis window. Potential disturbance maps are generated by comparing a spatially and temporally specific historical expectation of normal NDVI "greenness" with NDVI "greenness" from a series of current satellite views. Three different disturbance products are produced using differing lengths of historical baseline periods to calculate the expected normal greenness. The short-term baseline products show only disturbances newer than one year ago, while the intermediate baseline products show disturbances since the prior three years, and the long-term baseline products show all disturbances over the MODIS historical period. A Forest Change Assessment Viewer website, http://ews.forestthreats.org/NPDE/NPDE.html, showcases the three most recent national disturbance maps in full spatial context. Although 2010 was a wet el Nino year without major forest problems, disturbances in 2010 in MI, NY, CO and LA will be highlighted. Forest disturbances caused by wildfire, hurricanes, tornadoes, hail, ice storms, and defoliating insects, including fall cankerworms, forest tent caterpillars, gypsy moths, baldcypress leafrollers and winter moths were successfully detected during the 2009 and 2010 field seasons. The EWS was used in 2010 to detect and alert Forest Health Monitoring (FHM) Aerial Disturbance Survey personnel to an otherwise-unknown outbreak of forest tent caterpillar and baldcypress leafroller in the Atchafalaya and Pearl River regions of southern Louisiana. A local FHM Program Coordinator verified these EWS-detected outbreaks. Many defoliator-induced disturbances were ephemeral, and were followed by

  10. [Spatial pattern of land surface dead combustible fuel load in Huzhong forest area in Great Xing'an Mountains].

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhi-Hua; Chang, Yu; Chen, Hong-Wei; Zhou, Rui; Jing, Guo-Zhi; Zhang, Hong-Xin; Zhang, Chang-Meng

    2008-03-01

    By using geo-statistics and based on time-lag classification standard, a comparative study was made on the land surface dead combustible fuels in Huzhong forest area in Great Xing'an Mountains. The results indicated that the first level land surface dead combustible fuel, i. e., 1 h time-lag dead fuel, presented stronger spatial auto-correlation, with an average of 762.35 g x m(-2) and contributing to 55.54% of the total load. Its determining factors were species composition and stand age. The second and third levels land surface dead combustible fuel, i. e., 10 h and 100 h time-lag dead fuels, had a sum of 610.26 g x m(-2), and presented weaker spatial auto-correlation than 1 h time-lag dead fuel. Their determining factor was the disturbance history of forest stand. The complexity and heterogeneity of the factors determining the quality and quantity of forest land surface dead combustible fuels were the main reasons for the relatively inaccurate interpolation. However, the utilization of field survey data coupled with geo-statistics could easily and accurately interpolate the spatial pattern of forest land surface dead combustible fuel loads, and indirectly provide a practical basis for forest management.

  11. Forests, Water and People: Drinking water supply and forest lands in the Northeast and Midwest United States, June 2009

    Treesearch

    Martina Barnes; Albert Todd; Rebecca Whitney Lilja; Paul Barten

    2009-01-01

    Forests are critically important to the supply of clean drinking water in the Northeast and Midwest portion of the United States. In this part of the country more than 52 million people depend on surface water supplies that are protected in large part by forested lands. The public is generally unaware of the threats to their water supplies or the connection between...

  12. Comparing Forest/Nonforest Classifications of Landsat TM Imagery for Stratifying FIA Estimates of Forest Land Area

    Treesearch

    Mark D. Nelson; Ronald E. McRoberts; Greg C. Liknes; Geoffrey R. Holden

    2005-01-01

    Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) satellite imagery and Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) plot data were used to construct forest/nonforest maps of Mapping Zone 41, National Land Cover Dataset 2000 (NLCD 2000). Stratification approaches resulting from Maximum Likelihood, Fuzzy Convolution, Logistic Regression, and k-Nearest Neighbors classification/prediction methods were...

  13. Putting science into action on Forest Service Lands [Chapter 5

    Treesearch

    William M. Block; Victoria A. Saab; Leonard Ruggiero

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Forest Service includes three main branches: National Forest Systems, Research and Development, and State and Private Forestry. Herein, we focus on National Forest Systems and Research and Development. National Forest Systems is the management branch of the agency, and its charge is to administer national forests and grasslands throughout the United States. A...

  14. A comparative assessment of land cover dynamics of three protected forest areas in tropical eastern Africa.

    PubMed

    Lung, Tobias; Schaab, Gertrud

    2010-02-01

    Processes of deforestation, known to threaten tropical forest biodiversity, have not yet been studied sufficiently in East Africa. To shed light on the patterns and causes of human influences on protected forest ecosystems, comparisons of different study areas regarding land cover dynamics and potential drivers are needed. We analyze the development of land cover since the early 1970s for three protected East African rainforests and their surrounding farmlands and assess the relationship between the observed changes in the context of the protection status of the forests. Processing of Landsat satellite imagery of eight or seven time steps in regular intervals results in 12 land cover classes for the Kakamega-Nandi forests (Kenya) and Budongo Forest (Uganda) whereas ten are distinguished for Mabira Forest (Uganda). The overall classification accuracy assessed for the year 2001 or 2003 is similarly high for all three study areas (81% to 85%). The time series reveal that, despite their protection status, Kakamega-Nandi forests and Mabira Forest experienced major forest decrease, the first a continuous forest loss of 31% between 1972/1973 and 2001, the latter an abrupt loss of 24% in the late 1970s/early 1980s. For both forests, the temporally dense time series show short-term fluctuations in forest classes (e.g., areas of forest regrowth since the 1980s or exotic secondary bushland species from the 1990s onwards). Although selectively logged, Budongo Forest shows a much more stable forest cover extent. A visual overlay with population distribution for all three regions clearly indicates a relationship between forest loss and areas of high population density, suggesting population pressure as a main driver of deforestation. The revealed forest losses due to local and commercial exploitation further demonstrate that weak management impedes effective forest protection in East Africa.

  15. Forest and land inventory using ERTS imagery and aerial photography in the boreal forest region of Alberta, Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirby, C. L.

    1974-01-01

    Satellite imagery and small-scale (1:120,000) infrared ektachrome aerial photography for the development of improved forest and land inventory techniques in the boreal forest region are presented to demonstrate spectral signatures and their application. The forest is predominately mixed, stands of white spruce and poplar, with some pure stands of black spruce, pine and large areas of poorly drained land with peat and sedge type muskegs. This work is part of coordinated program to evaluate ERTS imagery by the Canadian Forestry Service.

  16. Changes in development near public forest lands in Oregon and Washington, 1974–2005: implications for management

    Treesearch

    David Azuma; Joel Thompson; Dale. Weyermann

    2013-01-01

    Development owing to population increases over the last 30 years has greatly affected forested lands in the United States. To assess and compare increases in development, we counted changes in the number of structures on a systematic grid of photointerpreted points around public forest land in Washington and Oregon. Areas bordering public forest land are showing...

  17. Spatio-temporal analysis on land transformation in a forested tropical landscape in Jambi Province, Sumatra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melati, Dian N.; Nengah Surati Jaya, I.; Pérez-Cruzado, César; Zuhdi, Muhammad; Fehrmann, Lutz; Magdon, Paul; Kleinn, Christoph

    2015-04-01

    Land use/land cover (LULC) in forested tropical landscapes is very dynamically developing. In particular, the pace of forest conversion in the tropics is a global concern as it directly impacts the global carbon cycle and biodiversity conservation. Expansion of agriculture is known to be among the major drivers of forest loss especially in the tropics. This is also the case in Jambi Province, Sumatra, Indonesia where it is the mainly expansion of tree crops that triggers deforestation: oil palm and rubber trees. Another transformation system in Jambi is the one from natural forest into jungle rubber, which is an agroforestry system where a certain density of forest trees accompanies the rubber tree crop, also for production of wood and non-wood forest products. The spatial distribution and the dynamics of these transformation systems and of the remaining forests are essential information for example for further research on ecosystem services and on the drivers of land transformation. In order to study land transformation, maps from the years 1990, 2000, 2011, and 2013 were utilized, derived from visual interpretation of Landsat images. From these maps, we analyze the land use/land cover change (LULCC) in the study region. It is found that secondary dryland forest (on mineral soils) and secondary swamp forest have been transformed largely into (temporary) shrub land, plantation forests, mixed dryland agriculture, bare lands and estate crops where the latter include the oil palm and rubber plantations. In addition, we present some analyses of the spatial pattern of land transformation to better understand the process of LULC fragmentation within the studied periods. Furthermore, the driving forces are analyzed.

  18. The effect of local land use and loss of forests on bats and nocturnal insects.

    PubMed

    Treitler, Julia T; Heim, Olga; Tschapka, Marco; Jung, Kirsten

    2016-07-01

    Land-use intensification at local and landscape level poses a serious threat to biodiversity and affects species interactions and ecosystem function. It is thus important to understand how interrelated taxa respond to land-use intensification and to consider the importance of different spatial scales. We investigated whether and how local land-use intensity and landscape features affect the predator-prey interaction of bats and insects. Bats and nocturnal insects were assessed on 50 grassland sites in the Schorfheide-Chorin. We analyzed the effect of local land use and distance to forested areas as a proxy for site accessibility on bats and insects and their biological interaction measured in bat's feeding activity. Insect abundance increased with higher land-use intensity, while size and diversity of insects decreased. In contrast, bat activity, diversity, and species composition were determined by the distance to forested areas and only slightly by land-use intensity. Feeding attempts of bats increased with higher insect abundance and diversity but decreased with insect size and distance to forested areas. Finally, our results revealed that near forested areas, the number of feeding attempts was much lower on grassland sites with high, compared to those with low land-use intensity. In contrast, far from forests, the feeding attempts did not differ significantly between intensively and extensively managed grassland sites. We conclude that the two interrelated taxa, bats and insects, respond to land-use intensification on very different scales. While insects respond to local land use, bats are rather influenced by surrounding landscape matrix. Hereby, proximity to forests reveals to be a prerequisite for higher bat species diversity and a higher rate of feeding attempts within the area. However, proximity to forest is not sufficient to compensate local high land-use intensity. Thus, local land-use intensification in combination with a loss of forest remnants

  19. Land Surface Temperature estimation using ENVISAT AATSR Data -A study over tropical deciduous forest region.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kvs, Badarinath

    Seasonal vegetation characteristics and other related phenological parameters can be better studies by Combined analysis of reflective and thermal data recorded by coarse resolution and high repetitive satellites. ENVISAT Advanced Along Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR) data for different seasons from January 04 to April 04 has been analyzed to derive the Normal-ized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Surface Temperature (ST) images for the forest regions of Nagarjunasagar Srisailam Tiger Reserve (NSTR), India. Temporal variation of NDVI and ST reflected the phenology of the forest area. A negative relationship was observed be-tween the NDVI and ST over all the vegetation types and the proportion of vegetation cover seemed to has bearing on the ST. Scatter plots for NDVI and ST drawn for winter season showed a good separability of land use/land cover types of the study area. AATSR operates in channels with band centers at 0.555, 0.659, 0.858,1.61,3.70,10.85 and 12m. NDVI estimated from AATSR has been taken as a parameter for estimating surface emissivity and algorithm based on nadir and forward scans of brightness temperature in 12m has been used for esti-mating surface temperature. The surface temperature(ST) showed an inverse relation with a maximum for less vegetated areas and minimum from high vegetated areas. NDVI and surface temperature are inversely related and different land use / land cover categories can be segre-gated depending on the date of satellite pass in the TS vs. NDVI relation. Combination of spectral vegetation indices and thermal infrared measurements forms a useful tool in studying the land-atmospheric interactions. The proportion of vegetation cover at pixel level plays an important role in observing surface temperature variations over forest regions. The relation between NDVI and ST depends on vegetation phenology and thus on the availability of mois-ture in forest regions. The study area comprises mostly of deciduous type of forest

  20. Mapping Deforestation area in North Korea Using Phenology-based Multi-Index and Random Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Y.; Sung, S.; Lee, D. K.; Jeong, S.

    2016-12-01

    Forest ecosystem provides ecological benefits to both humans and wildlife. Growing global demand for food and fiber is accelerating the pressure on the forest ecosystem in whole world from agriculture and logging. In recently, North Korea lost almost 40 % of its forests to crop fields for food production and cut-down of forest for fuel woods between 1990 and 2015. It led to the increased damage caused by natural disasters and is known to be one of the most forest degraded areas in the world. The characteristic of forest landscape in North Korea is complex and heterogeneous, the major landscape types in the forest are hillside farm, unstocked forest, natural forest and plateau vegetation. Remote sensing can be used for the forest degradation mapping of a dynamic landscape at a broad scale of detail and spatial distribution. Confusion mostly occurred between hillside farmland and unstocked forest, but also between unstocked forest and forest. Most previous forest degradation that used focused on the classification of broad types such as deforests area and sand from the perspective of land cover classification. The objective of this study is using random forest for mapping degraded forest in North Korea by phenological based vegetation index derived from MODIS products, which has various environmental factors such as vegetation, soil and water at a regional scale for improving accuracy. The model created by random forest resulted in an overall accuracy was 91.44%. Class user's accuracy of hillside farmland and unstocked forest were 97.2% and 84%%, which indicate the degraded forest. Unstocked forest had relative low user accuracy due to misclassified hillside farmland and forest samples. Producer's accuracy of hillside farmland and unstocked forest were 85.2% and 93.3%, repectly. In this case hillside farmland had lower produce accuracy mainly due to confusion with field, unstocked forest and forest. Such a classification of degraded forest could supply essential

  1. Looking back to move forward: collaborative planning to revise the Green Mountain and Finger Lakes National Forests land and resource management plans

    Treesearch

    Michael J. Dockry

    2015-01-01

    The United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service (Forest Service) manages 154 national forests and 20 grasslands in 44 states and Puerto Rico. National Forest Land and Resource Management Plans (forest plans) form the basis for land and resource management of national forests in the United States. For more than a decade the Forest Service has been attempting...

  2. Comparison of Ant Community Diversity and Functional Group Composition Associated to Land Use Change in a Seasonally Dry Oak Forest.

    PubMed

    Cuautle, M; Vergara, C H; Badano, E I

    2016-04-01

    Ants have been used to assess land use conversion, because they reflect environmental change, and their response to these changes have been useful in the identification of bioindicators. We evaluated ant diversity and composition associated to different land use change in a temperate forest (above 2000 m asl) in Mexico. The study was carried out in "Flor del Bosque" Park a vegetation mosaic of native Oak Forests and introduced Eucalyptus and grasslands. Species richness, dominance and diversity rarefaction curves, based on ant morphospecies and functional groups, were constructed and compared among the three vegetation types, for the rainy and the dry seasons of 2008-2009. Jaccard and Sorensen incidence-based indices were calculated to obtain similarity values among all the habitats. The Oak Forest was a rich dominant community, both in species and functional groups; the Eucalyptus plantation was diverse with low dominance. The most seasonality habitat was the grassland, with low species and high functional group diversity during the dry seasons, but the reverse pattern during the wet season. The Oak Forest was more similar to the Eucalyptus plantation than to the grassland, particularly during the dry season. Oak Forests are dominated by Cold Climate Specialists, specifically Prenolepis imparis (Say). The Eucalyptus and the grassland are characterized by generalized Myrmicinae, as Pheidole spp. and Monomorium ebenium (Forel). The conservation of the native Oak Forest is primordial for the maintenance of Cold Climate Specialist ant communities. The microclimatic conditions in this forest, probably, prevented the invasion by opportunistic species.

  3. Modeling hydrology and in-stream transport on drained forested lands in coastal Carolinas, U.S.A.

    Treesearch

    Devendra Amatya

    2005-01-01

    This study summarizes the successional development and testing of forest hydrologic models based on DRAINMOD that predicts the hydrology of low-gradient poorly drained watersheds as affected by land management and climatic variation. The field scale (DRAINLOB) and watershed-scale in-stream routing (DRAINWAT) models were successfully tested with water table and outflow...

  4. Mapping forest plantations in Mainland China: combining remotely sensed land cover and census land use data in a land transition model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ying, Q.; Hurtt, G. C.; Chini, L. P.; Fisk, J.; Liang, S.; Hansen, M.; Dolan, K. A.

    2013-12-01

    Forest plantations have played an important role in shaping the coverage and compositions of China's forests. Maps characterizing the spatial and temporal patterns of forest plantations in china are essential to both identifying and quantifying how forest plantations are driving changes to the countries ecosystem structure and terrestrial carbon cycle. At this time there are no detailed spatial maps of plantations in China accessible to public. Land transition model that employs Metropolis simulated annealing optimization has been demonstrated effective in land use mapping when land cover observations and land use census data are available. This study aims to map forest plantations in Mainland China by linking remote sensing observations of land cover and census statistics on land use in land transition model. Two models, a national model and a regional model were developed in the study. National model depicted a universal relationship between land cover and land use across the whole country. One of the land use data sources came from the 7th National Forest Inventory (NFI) that depicted forest plantation area in the period of 2004-2008 in each provincial jurisdictions of China (Data from Taiwan, Hongkong and Macau is not available). In accordance with land use data, MODIS yearly IGBP land cover product that contains sixteen-land cover types has been averaged upon the same time period and summarized for each province. The pairwise correlation coefficient between modeled value and reported value is 0.9996. In addition, the 95% confidence interval of true population correlation of these two variables is [0.9994, 0.9998]. Because the targeted forest plantations cover much less area compared to the other land use type of non-plantation, model precision on forest plantations was isolated to eliminate the dominance in area of non-plantation and the correlation coefficient is 0.8058. National model tends to underestimate plantation area. Due to distinct geographic and

  5. Forest land area estimates from vegetation continuous fields

    Treesearch

    Mark D. Nelson; Ronald E. McRoberts; Matthew C. Hansen

    2004-01-01

    The USDA Forest Service's Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program provides data, information, and knowledge about our Nation's forest resources. FIA regional units collect data from field plots and remotely sensed imagery to produce statistical estimates of forest extent (area); volume, growth, and removals; and health and condition. There is increasing...

  6. Land cover for Ukraine: the harmonization of remote sensing and ground-based data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesiv, M.; Shchepashchenko, D.; Shvidenko, A.; See, L. M.; Bun, R.

    2012-12-01

    This study focuses on the development of a land cover map of the Ukraine through harmonization of remote sensing and ground-based data. At present there is no land cover map of the Ukraine available that is of sufficient accuracy for use in environmental modeling. The existing remote sensing data are not enough accurate. In this study we compare the territory of the Ukraine from three global remote sensing products (GlobCover 2009, MODIS Land Cover and GLC-2000) using a fuzzy logic methodology in order to capture the uncertainty in the classification of land cover. The results for the Ukraine show that GlobCover 2009, MODIS Land Cover and GLC-2000 have a fuzzy agreement of 65%. We developed a weighted algorithm for the creation of a land cover map based on an integration of a number of global land cover and remote sensing products including the GLC-2000, GlobCover 2009, MODIS Land Cover, the Vegetation Continuous Fields product, digital map of administrative units and forest account data at the local level. This weighted algorithm is based on the results of comparing these products and an analysis of a dataset of validation points for different land cover types in the Ukraine. We applied this algorithm to generate a forest land cover type map. This raster map contains a forest expectation index that was calculated for each pixel. Forest land was then allocated based on forest statistics at the local level. Areas with a higher forest expectation index were allocated with forest first until the results matched the forest statistics. The result is the first digital map of forest (with a spatial resolution of 300m) for the Ukraine, which consistent with forest and land accounts, remote sensing datasets and GIS products. The forest land was well defined in forest rich areas (i.e. in the northern part of the Ukraine, the Carpathians and the Crimea); well less accurate areas were identified in the steppe due to heterogeneous land cover. Acknowledgements. This research was

  7. Application of ERTS-1 imagery to land use, forest density and soil investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yassoglou, N. J. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Photographic and digital imagery obtained by ERTS-1 was analyzed and assigned to land features related to agricultural and forest resources. Land use and forest site evaluation maps were prepared by comparing remote sensing and ground truth data. Relationships found in this investigation between spectral signatures recorded by ERTS-1 and land features can be used for the assessment and development of agricultural and forest resources. The results are applicable to areas with ecological and geological conditions similar to those of Greece.

  8. CoFoLaMo: Comparing forest landscape model simulations under different climate, interaction- and land use scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lischke, Heike; Speich, Matthias; Schmatz, Dirk; Vacchiano, Giorgio; Mairota, Paola; Leronni, Vincenzo; Schuler, Laura; Bugmann, Harald; Bruna, Josef; Thom, Dominik; Seidl, Rupert; Reineking, Björn

    2016-04-01

    Forests play an important role in the global climate system, and are themselves strongly affected by the changing climate. Forest dynamics do not only act at the stand scale, but are also influenced by larger scale drivers, such as landscape management, and by spatial interactions, such as fire spread or seed dispersal. Forest landscape models run on areas larger than a stand and interact spatially and thus are capable of taking into account these effects. We present the setup of the forest landscape model intercomparison CoFoLaMo (which is based on the setup of the ISI-MIP forest stand model comparison), where we examine several forest landscape models- LandClim, ForHyCS, TreeMig, LANDIS II and iLand - in terms of their usefulness for different kinds of applications. We compare the models with respect to their general approach, scales, resolution, and data requirements, processes, interactions, drivers, disturbances, outputs, and uncertainties. We run simulations in different test regions across temperate Europe, e.g., in the northern(Davos)and southern Alps (Valle d'Aosta), the Bavarian Forest and southern Italy (Puglia). Climate drivers (mostly daily T and P) are downscaled to 100 m resolution in the respective regions. For spinup and model testing we use past observed climate, extrapolated back to 1600 AD, for future simulations a set of different RCPs of different model chains from the ISI-MIP community. For model testing we use appropriate spatial forest data available for each region, ranging from NFI data, terrestrial vegetation type maps, or remote sensing derived forest types and high resolution canopy height. To address the landscape aspect of the models, we compare them in different scenarios of spatially interacting disturbances, spatial interactions by seed dispersal and land use.

  9. Long-term modeling of the forest-grassland ecotone in the French Alps: implications for land management and conservation.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Bradley Z; Renaud, Julien; Biron, Pierre Eymard; Choler, Philippe

    2014-07-01

    Understanding decadal-scale land-cover changes has the potential to inform current conservation policies. European mountain landscapes that include numerous protected areas provide a unique opportunity to weigh the long-term influences of land-use practices and climate on forest-grassland ecotone dynamics. Aerial photographs from four dates (1948, 1978, 1993, and 2009) were used to quantify the extent of forest and grassland cover at 5-m resolution across a 150-km2 area in a protected area of the southwestern French Alps. The study area included a grazed zone and a nongrazed zone that was abandoned during the 1970s. We estimated time series of a forestation index (FI) and analyzed the effects of elevation and grazing on FI using a hierarchical linear mixed effect model. Forest extent (composed primarily of mountain pine, Pinus uncinata) expanded from 50.6 km2 in 1948 to 85.5 km2 in 2009, i.e., a 23% increase in relative cover at the expense of grassland communities. Over the sixty-year period, the treeline rose by 118 m, from 1564 to 1682 m. Rapid forest expansion within the nongrazed zone followed the cessation of logging activities and was likely accelerated by climate warming during the 1980s. Within the grazed zone, the maintained presence of sheep did not fully counteract mountain pine expansion and led to highly contrasting rates of land-cover change based on the location of shepherds' cabins and water sources. Projections of FI for 2030 showed remnant patches of intensively used grasslands interspersed in a densely forested matrix. Our analysis of mountain land-cover dynamics provided strong evidence for forest encroachment into grassland habitat despite consistent grazing pressure. This pattern may be attributed to the disappearance of traditional land-use practices such as shrub burning and removal. Our findings prompt land managers to reconsider their initial conservation priority (i.e., the protection of a renowned mountain pine forest) and to implement

  10. Land cover and land use mapping of the iSimangaliso Wetland Park, South Africa: comparison of oblique and orthogonal random forest algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassa, Zaakirah; Bob, Urmilla; Szantoi, Zoltan; Ismail, Riyad

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the popularity of tree-based ensemble methods for land cover classification has increased significantly. Using WorldView-2 image data, we evaluate the potential of the oblique random forest algorithm (oRF) to classify a highly heterogeneous protected area. In contrast to the random forest (RF) algorithm, the oRF algorithm builds multivariate trees by learning the optimal split using a supervised model. The oRF binary algorithm is adapted to a multiclass land cover and land use application using both the "one-against-one" and "one-against-all" combination approaches. Results show that the oRF algorithms are capable of achieving high classification accuracies (>80%). However, there was no statistical difference in classification accuracies obtained by the oRF algorithms and the more popular RF algorithm. For all the algorithms, user accuracies (UAs) and producer accuracies (PAs) >80% were recorded for most of the classes. Both the RF and oRF algorithms poorly classified the indigenous forest class as indicated by the low UAs and PAs. Finally, the results from this study advocate and support the utility of the oRF algorithm for land cover and land use mapping of protected areas using WorldView-2 image data.

  11. San Juan National Forest Land Management Planning Support System (LMPSS) requirements definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werth, L. F. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    The role of remote sensing data as it relates to a three-component land management planning system (geographic information, data base management, and planning model) can be understood only when user requirements are known. Personnel at the San Juan National Forest in southwestern Colorado were interviewed to determine data needs for managing and monitoring timber, rangelands, wildlife, fisheries, soils, water, geology and recreation facilities. While all the information required for land management planning cannot be obtained using remote sensing techniques, valuable information can be provided for the geographic information system. A wide range of sensors such as small and large format cameras, synthetic aperture radar, and LANDSAT data should be utilized. Because of the detail and accuracy required, high altitude color infrared photography should serve as the baseline data base and be supplemented and updated with data from the other sensors.

  12. Mitigation of agricultural emissions in the tropics: comparing forest land-sparing options at the national level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, S.; Herold, M.; Rufino, M. C.; Neumann, K.; Kooistra, L.; Verchot, L.

    2015-08-01

    Emissions from agriculture-driven deforestation are of global concern, but forest land-sparing interventions such as agricultural intensification and utilization of available non-forest land offer opportunities for mitigation. In many tropical countries, where agriculture is the major driver of deforestation, interventions in the agriculture sector could reduce deforestation emissions as well as reduce emissions in the agriculture sector. Our study uses a novel approach to quantify agriculture-driven deforestation and associated emissions in the tropics between 2000 and 2010. Emissions from agriculture-driven deforestation in the tropics (97 countries) are 4.3 GtCO2e yr-1. We investigate the national potential to mitigate these emissions through forest land-sparing interventions, which can potentially be implemented under REDD+. We consider intensification and utilization of available non-forested land as forest land-sparing opportunities since they avoid the expansion of agriculture into forested land. In addition, we assess the potential to reduce agricultural emissions on existing agriculture land. The use of a systematic framework demonstrates the selection of mitigation interventions by considering sequentially the level of emissions, mitigation potential of various interventions, enabling environment and associated risks to livelihoods at the national level. Our results show that considering only countries with high emissions from agriculture-driven deforestation, with potential for forest-sparing interventions and a good enabling environment (e.g. effective governance or engagement in REDD+), there is a potential to mitigate 1.3 GtCO2e yr-1 (20 countries of 78 with sufficient data). For countries where we identify agricultural emissions as a priority for mitigation, up to 1 GtCO2e yr-1 could be reduced from the agriculture sector including livestock. Risks to livelihoods from implementing interventions based on national level data call for detailed

  13. Effects of Previous Land-Use on Plant Species Composition and Diversity in Mediterranean Forests

    PubMed Central

    Kouba, Yacine; Martínez-García, Felipe; de Frutos, Ángel; Alados, Concepción L.

    2015-01-01

    At some point in their history, most forests in the Mediterranean Basin have been subjected to intensive management or converted to agriculture land. Knowing how forest plant communities recovered after the abandonment of forest-management or agricultural practices (including livestock grazing) provides a basis for investigating how previous land management have affected plant species diversity and composition in forest ecosystems. Our study investigated the consequences of historical “land management” practices on present-day Mediterranean forests by comparing species assemblages and the diversity of (i) all plant species and (ii) each ecological group defined by species’ habitat preferences and successional status (i.e., early-, mid-, and late-successional species). We compared forest stands that differed both in land-use history and in successional stage. In addition, we evaluated the value of those stands for biodiversity conservation. The study revealed significant compositional differentiation among stands that was due to among-stand variations in the diversity (namely, species richness and evenness) of early-, intermediate-, and late-successional species. Historical land management has led to an increase in compositional divergences among forest stands and the loss of late-successional forest species. PMID:26397707

  14. Effects of Previous Land-Use on Plant Species Composition and Diversity in Mediterranean Forests.

    PubMed

    Kouba, Yacine; Martínez-García, Felipe; de Frutos, Ángel; Alados, Concepción L

    2015-01-01

    At some point in their history, most forests in the Mediterranean Basin have been subjected to intensive management or converted to agriculture land. Knowing how forest plant communities recovered after the abandonment of forest-management or agricultural practices (including livestock grazing) provides a basis for investigating how previous land management have affected plant species diversity and composition in forest ecosystems. Our study investigated the consequences of historical "land management" practices on present-day Mediterranean forests by comparing species assemblages and the diversity of (i) all plant species and (ii) each ecological group defined by species' habitat preferences and successional status (i.e., early-, mid-, and late-successional species). We compared forest stands that differed both in land-use history and in successional stage. In addition, we evaluated the value of those stands for biodiversity conservation. The study revealed significant compositional differentiation among stands that was due to among-stand variations in the diversity (namely, species richness and evenness) of early-, intermediate-, and late-successional species. Historical land management has led to an increase in compositional divergences among forest stands and the loss of late-successional forest species.

  15. Effect of differential forest management on land-use change (LUC) in a tropical hill forest of Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Masum, Kazi Mohammad; Mansor, Asyraf; Sah, Shahrul Anuar Mohd; Lim, Hwee San

    2017-09-15

    Forest ownership is considered as a vital aspect for sustainable management of forest and its associated biodiversity. The Global Forest Resources Assessment 2015 reported that privately owned forest area are increasing on a global scale, but deforestation was found very active in privately owned hill forest areas of Malaysia. Penang State was purposively chosen as it has been experiencing rapid and radical changes due to urban expansion over the last three decades. In this study, analyses of land-use changes were done by PCI Geomatica using Landsat images from 1991 to 2015, future trends of land-use change were assessed using EXCEL forecast function, and its impact on the surrounding environment were conducted by reviewing already published articles on changing environment of the study area. This study revealed an annual deforestation rate of 1.4% in Penang Island since 1991. Trend analysis forecasted a forest area smaller than the current forest reserves by the year 2039. Impact analysis revealed a rapid biodiversity loss with increasing landslides, mudflows, water pollution, flash flood, and health hazard. An immediate ban over hill-land development is crucial for overall environmental safety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Land-use poverty traps identified in shifting cultivation systems shape long-term tropical forest cover.

    PubMed

    Coomes, Oliver T; Takasaki, Yoshito; Rhemtulla, Jeanine M

    2011-08-23

    In this article we illustrate how fine-grained longitudinal analyses of land holding and land use among forest peasant households in an Amazonian village can enrich our understanding of the poverty/land cover nexus. We examine the dynamic links in shifting cultivation systems among asset poverty, land use, and land cover in a community where poverty is persistent and primary forests have been replaced over time--with community enclosure--by secondary forests (i.e., fallows), orchards, and crop land. Land cover change is assessed using aerial photographs/satellite imagery from 1965 to 2007. Household and plot level data are used to track land holding, portfolios, and use as well as land cover over the past 30 y, with particular attention to forest status (type and age). Our analyses find evidence for two important types of "land-use" poverty traps--a "subsistence crop" trap and a "short fallow" trap--and indicate that the initial conditions of land holding by forest peasants have long-term effects on future forest cover and household welfare. These findings suggest a new mechanism driving poverty traps: insufficient initial land holdings induce land use patterns that trap households in low agricultural productivity. Path dependency in the evolution of household land portfolios and land use strategies strongly influences not only the wellbeing of forest people but also the dynamics of tropical deforestation and secondary forest regrowth.

  17. Land-use poverty traps identified in shifting cultivation systems shape long-term tropical forest cover

    PubMed Central

    Coomes, Oliver T.; Takasaki, Yoshito; Rhemtulla, Jeanine M.

    2011-01-01

    In this article we illustrate how fine-grained longitudinal analyses of land holding and land use among forest peasant households in an Amazonian village can enrich our understanding of the poverty/land cover nexus. We examine the dynamic links in shifting cultivation systems among asset poverty, land use, and land cover in a community where poverty is persistent and primary forests have been replaced over time—with community enclosure—by secondary forests (i.e., fallows), orchards, and crop land. Land cover change is assessed using aerial photographs/satellite imagery from 1965 to 2007. Household and plot level data are used to track land holding, portfolios, and use as well as land cover over the past 30 y, with particular attention to forest status (type and age). Our analyses find evidence for two important types of “land-use” poverty traps—a “subsistence crop” trap and a “short fallow” trap—and indicate that the initial conditions of land holding by forest peasants have long-term effects on future forest cover and household welfare. These findings suggest a new mechanism driving poverty traps: insufficient initial land holdings induce land use patterns that trap households in low agricultural productivity. Path dependency in the evolution of household land portfolios and land use strategies strongly influences not only the wellbeing of forest people but also the dynamics of tropical deforestation and secondary forest regrowth. PMID:21873179

  18. Ecological traits affect the response of tropical forest bird species to land-use intensity.

    PubMed

    Newbold, Tim; Scharlemann, Jörn P W; Butchart, Stuart H M; Sekercioğlu, Cağan H; Alkemade, Rob; Booth, Hollie; Purves, Drew W

    2013-01-07

    Land-use change is one of the main drivers of current and likely future biodiversity loss. Therefore, understanding how species are affected by it is crucial to guide conservation decisions. Species respond differently to land-use change, possibly related to their traits. Using pan-tropical data on bird occurrence and abundance across a human land-use intensity gradient, we tested the effects of seven traits on observed responses. A likelihood-based approach allowed us to quantify uncertainty in modelled responses, essential for applying the model to project future change. Compared with undisturbed habitats, the average probability of occurrence of bird species was 7.8 per cent and 31.4 per cent lower, and abundance declined by 3.7 per cent and 19.2 per cent in habitats with low and high human land-use intensity, respectively. Five of the seven traits tested affected the observed responses significantly: long-lived, large, non-migratory, primarily frugivorous or insectivorous forest specialists were both less likely to occur and less abundant in more intensively used habitats than short-lived, small, migratory, non-frugivorous/insectivorous habitat generalists. The finding that species responses to land use depend on their traits is important for understanding ecosystem functioning, because species' traits determine their contribution to ecosystem processes. Furthermore, the loss of species with particular traits might have implications for the delivery of ecosystem services.

  19. Landscape characterization integrating expert and local spatial knowledge of land and forest resources.

    PubMed

    Fagerholm, Nora; Käyhkö, Niina; Van Eetvelde, Veerle

    2013-09-01

    In many developing countries, political documentation acknowledges the crucial elements of participation and spatiality for effective land use planning. However, operative approaches to spatial data inclusion and representation in participatory land management are often lacking. In this paper, we apply and develop an integrated landscape characterization approach to enhance spatial knowledge generation about the complex human-nature interactions in landscapes in the context of Zanzibar, Tanzania. We apply an integrated landscape conceptualization as a theoretical framework where the expert and local knowledge can meet in spatial context. The characterization is based on combining multiple data sources in GIS, and involves local communities and their local spatial knowledge since the beginning into the process. Focusing on the expected information needs for community forest management, our characterization integrates physical landscape features and retrospective landscape change data with place-specific community knowledge collected through participatory GIS techniques. The characterization is established in a map form consisting of four themes and their synthesis. The characterization maps are designed to support intuitive interpretation, express the inherently uncertain nature of the data, and accompanied by photographs to enhance communication. Visual interpretation of the characterization mediates information about the character of areas and places in the studied local landscape, depicting the role of forest resources as part of the landscape entity. We conclude that landscape characterization applied in GIS is a highly potential tool for participatory land and resource management, where spatial argumentation, stakeholder communication, and empowerment are critical issues.

  20. Landscape Characterization Integrating Expert and Local Spatial Knowledge of Land and Forest Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fagerholm, Nora; Käyhkö, Niina; Van Eetvelde, Veerle

    2013-09-01

    In many developing countries, political documentation acknowledges the crucial elements of participation and spatiality for effective land use planning. However, operative approaches to spatial data inclusion and representation in participatory land management are often lacking. In this paper, we apply and develop an integrated landscape characterization approach to enhance spatial knowledge generation about the complex human-nature interactions in landscapes in the context of Zanzibar, Tanzania. We apply an integrated landscape conceptualization as a theoretical framework where the expert and local knowledge can meet in spatial context. The characterization is based on combining multiple data sources in GIS, and involves local communities and their local spatial knowledge since the beginning into the process. Focusing on the expected information needs for community forest management, our characterization integrates physical landscape features and retrospective landscape change data with place-specific community knowledge collected through participatory GIS techniques. The characterization is established in a map form consisting of four themes and their synthesis. The characterization maps are designed to support intuitive interpretation, express the inherently uncertain nature of the data, and accompanied by photographs to enhance communication. Visual interpretation of the characterization mediates information about the character of areas and places in the studied local landscape, depicting the role of forest resources as part of the landscape entity. We conclude that landscape characterization applied in GIS is a highly potential tool for participatory land and resource management, where spatial argumentation, stakeholder communication, and empowerment are critical issues.

  1. Application of ERTS-1 imagery to land use, forest density and soil investigations in Greece

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yassoglou, N. J.; Skordalakis, E.; Koutalos, A.

    1974-01-01

    Photographic and digital imagery received from ERTS-1 was analyzed and evaluated as to its usefulness for the assessment of agricultural and forest land resources. Black and white, and color composite imagery provided spectral and spatial data, which, when matched with temporal land information, provided the basis for a semidetailed land use and forest site evaluation cartography. Color composite photographs have provided some information on the status of irrigation of agricultural lands. Computer processed digital imagery was successfully used for detailed crop classification and semidetailed soil evaluation. The results and techniques of this investigation are applicable to ecological and geological conditions similar to those prevailing in the Eastern Mediterranean.

  2. Forest restoration potentials of coal-mined lands in the eastern United States.

    PubMed

    Zipper, C E; Burger, J A; McGrath, J M; Rodrigue, J A; Holtzman, G I

    2011-01-01

    The Appalachian region in the eastern United Sates is home to the Earth's most extensive temperate deciduous forests, but coal mining has caused forest loss and fragmentation. More than 6000 km in Appalachia have been mined for coal since 1980 under the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act (SMCRA). We assessed Appalachian areas mined under SMCRA for forest restoration potentials. Our objectives were to characterize soils and vegetation, to compare soil properties with those of pre-SMCRA mined lands that were reforested successfully, and to determine the effects of site age on measured properties. Soils were sampled and dominant vegetation characterized at up to 10 points on each of 25 post-SMCRA mines. Herbaceous species were dominant on 56%, native trees on 24%, and invasive exotics on 16% of assessed areas. Mean values for soil pH (5.8), electrical conductivity (0.07 dS m(-1)), base saturation (89%), and coarse fragment content (50% by mass) were not significantly different from measured levels on the pre-SMCRA forested sites, but silt+clay soil fraction (61%) was higher, bicarbonate-extractable P (4 mg kg(-1)) was lower, and bulk density (1.20 g cm(-1)) was more variable and often unfavorable. Pedogenic N and bicarbonate-extractable P in surface soils increased with site age and with the presence of weathered rocks among coarse fragments. Our results indicate a potential for many of these soils to support productive forest vegetation if replanted and if cultural practices, including temporary control of existing vegetation, soil density mitigation, and fertilization, are applied to mitigate limitations and aid forest tree reestablishment and growth. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  3. Pennsylvania's Forests, 2009

    Treesearch

    George L. McCaskill; William H. McWilliams; Carol A. Alerich; Brett J. Butler; Susan J. Crocker; Grant M. Domke; Doug Griffith; Cassandra M. Kurtz; Shawn Lehman; Tonya W. Lister; Randall S. Morin; W. Keith Moser; Paul Roth; Rachel Riemann; James A. Westfall

    2013-01-01

    The second full annual inventory of Pennsylvania's forests reports a stable base of 16.7 million acres of forest land. Northern hardwoods and mixed-oak forest-type groups account for 54 and 32 percent of the forest land, respectively. The State's forest land averages about 61 dry tons of wood per acre and almost 6,500 board feet (International ¼-inch...

  4. Land use, the Climate Change Action Plan, and U.S. Department of Defense forests

    SciTech Connect

    Barker, J.R.; Baumgardner, G.A.; Lee, J.J.; McFarlane, J.C.

    1996-03-01

    The Climate Change Action Plan (CCAP) commits the US to reducing greenhouse gas emissions to their 1990 levels by the year 2000. Management to improve carbon (C) sequestration by forests may be one way to offset increasing atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. A forest-inventory model and a forest-carbon model were used to calculate C pools and fluxes for the forests of Camp Shelby--a military training base in Mississippi. Research objectives were to model C pools and fluxes from 1990 through 2040, and to account for on-site and off-site C benefits as they relate to achieving the CCAP in Mississippi. In comparison with conservation management, tree harvesting for merchantable logs, fuelwood, or land-use change decreased C pools and sequestration rates, while reforestation increased C pools and sequestration rates. The production of lumber or fuelwood from the harvested trees contributed to off-site C benefits. However, only fuelwood produced long-term, off-site C benefits adequate to offset on-site C losses from harvesting trees. The reforestation scenario could provide about 1.3% of the C offset needed to obtain the CCAP in Mississippi. 32 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. Differences in forest plant functional trait distributions across land-use and productivity gradients.

    PubMed

    Mayfield, Margaret M; Dwyer, John M; Chalmandrier, Loïc; Wells, Jessie A; Bonser, Stephen P; Catterall, Carla P; DeClerck, Fabrice; Ding, Yi; Fraterrigo, Jennifer M; Metcalfe, Daniel J; Queiroz, Cibele; Vesk, Peter A; Morgan, John W

    2013-07-01

    Plant functional traits are commonly used as proxies for plant responses to environmental challenges, yet few studies have explored how functional trait distributions differ across gradients of land-use change. By comparing trait distributions in intact forests with those across land-use change gradients, we can improve our understanding of the ways land-use change alters the diversity and functioning of plant communities. We examined how the variation and distribution of trait values for seven plant functional traits differ between reference natural forest and three types of land-use conversion (pasture, old-field, or "legacy" sites-regrowth following logging), landscape productivity (NPP) and vegetation strata (tree or non-tree "understory"), in a meta-analysis of studies from 15 landscapes across five continents. Although trait variation often differed between land-uses within a landscape, these patterns were rarely consistent across landscapes. The variance and distribution of traits were more likely to differ consistently between natural forest and land-use conversion categories for understory (non-tree) plants than for trees. Landscape productivity did not significantly alter the difference in trait variance between natural forest and land-use conversion categories for any trait except dispersal. Our results suggest that even for traits well linked to plant environmental response strategies, broad classes of land-use change and landscape productivity are not generally useful indicators of the mechanisms driving compositional changes in human-modified forest systems.

  6. From field measurements to process based modelling of N2O and CO2 emissions of forest, arable and grassland systems in developed landscapes - impact of land use, management and upscaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houska, Tobias; Kruck, Felix; Kraus, David; Kiese, Ralf; Kraft, Philipp; Breuer, Lutz

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents a new study catchment with two years of continuously measured N2O and CO2 emissions from adjacent arable, forest and grassland sites in weekly time intervals in a developed landscape in Germany. Measured emissions are investigated according to seasonal patterns and management effects like fertilizer/manure application, tillage, harvest and sheep grazing. The biogeochemical model LandscapeDNDC was used to reproduce and increase the temporal resolution of data from weekly to daily time intervals. A close look is given on model outputs for both, before and after management occurs. Our results indicate that the model is capable to predict the trace gas emissions of the different land uses. Good model performance was found in predicting seasonal effects, while the model struggles in the representation of direct management effects. An upscaling approach is performed by validating plot scale LandscapeDNDC outputs like percolation water and nitrate-leaching concentration on the catchment scale by using the data as input data for the fully distributed process-based hydrological model CMF.

  7. Capacity of US Forests to Maintain Existing Carbon Sequestration will be affected by Changes in Forest Disturbances and to a greater extent, the Economic and Societal Influences on Forest Management and Land Use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joyce, L. A.; Running, S. W.; Breshears, D. D.; Dale, V.; Malmsheimer, R. W.; Sampson, N.; Sohngen, B.; Woodall, C. W.

    2012-12-01

    -growing planting stock and shorter rotations, and weed, disease, and insect control, and increasing the interval between harvests or decreasing harvest intensity. Economic drivers will affect future carbon cycle of forests such as shifts in forest age class structure in response to markets, land-use changes such as urbanization, and forest type changes. Future changes in forestland objectives include the potential for bioenergy based on forestland resources, which is as large as 504 million acres of timberland and 91 million acres of other forest land out of the 751 million acres of U.S. forestland. Implications of forest product use for bioenergy depend on the context of specific locations such as feedstock type and prior management, land conditions, transport and storage logistics, conversion processes used to produce energy, distribution and use. Markets for energy from biomass appear to be ready to grow in response to energy pricing, policy and demand, although recent increases in the supply of natural gas have reduced urgency for new biomass projects. Beyond use in the forest industry and some residences, biopower is not a large-scale enterprise in the United States. Societal choices about forest policy will also affect the carbon cycles on public and private forestland.

  8. 32 CFR 644.409 - Procedures for Interchange of National Forest Lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... municipality, names of the forest, project or installation, and number of acres to be interchanged by each department. (2) If the areas involved include public domain lands, the number and date of the Executive Order...

  9. 32 CFR 644.409 - Procedures for Interchange of National Forest Lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... municipality, names of the forest, project or installation, and number of acres to be interchanged by each department. (2) If the areas involved include public domain lands, the number and date of the Executive Order...

  10. Private forest-land owners of the Northern United States, 1994

    Treesearch

    Thomas W. Birch; Thomas W. Birch

    1996-01-01

    A statistical analytical report on mail canvass of private forest-land owners in the Northern United States. Landowner characteristics attitudes harvesting experience tenure and management planning are discussed.

  11. Private forest-land owners of the Southern United States, 1994

    Treesearch

    Thomas W. Birch; Thomas W. Birch

    1997-01-01

    A statistical analytical report on mail canvass of private forest-land owners in the Southern United States. Landowner characteristics, attitudes, harvesting experience, tenure, and management planning are discussed.

  12. Private forest-land owners of the Western United States, 1994

    Treesearch

    Thomas W. Birch; Thomas W. Birch

    1997-01-01

    A statistical analytical report on mail canvass of private forest-land owners in the Western United States. Landowner characteristics attitudes harvesting experience tenure and management planning are discussed.

  13. Assessing double counting of carbon emissions between forest land cover change and forest wildfires: a case study in the United States, 1992-2006

    Treesearch

    Daolan Zheng; Linda S. Heath; Mark J. Ducey; Brad. Quayle

    2013-01-01

    The relative contributions of double counting of carbon emissions between forest-to-nonforest cover change (FNCC) and forest wildfires are an unknown in estimating net forest carbon exchanges at large scales. This study employed land-cover change maps and forest fire data in the four representative states (Arkansas, California, Minnesota, and Washington) of the US for...

  14. Changes in Carbon Flux at the Duke Forest Hardwood Ameriflux Site Due to Land Cover/Land Use Changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCombs, A. G.

    2014-12-01

    The Raleigh/Durham, North Carolina metropolitan area has been ranked by Forbes as the fastest growing cities in the United States. As a result of the rapid growth, there has been a significant amount of urban sprawl. The objective of this study was to determine if the changes in land use and land cover have caused a change in the carbon flux near the Duke Forest AmeriFlux station that was active from 2001 to 2008. The land cover and land use were assessed every two years to determine how land cover has changed at the Duke Forest Hardwoods (US-Dk2) AmeriFlux site from 2001 to 2008 using Landsat scenes. The change in land cover and land use was then compared to changes in the carbon footprint that is computed annually from 2001 to 2008. The footprint model for each wind direction determined that there are changes annually and that the research will determine if these changes are due to annual weather patterns or land use and land cover changes.

  15. Effects of Nitrogen Fertilization of Boreal Forest Land on Greenhouse Gas Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustavsson, L.; Sathre, R. C.

    2011-12-01

    Forest growth on mineral soils in boreal regions is often limited by a low availability of nitrogen (N), and fertilization has shown particular promise in increasing yields in productive boreal forests. In this study we analyze the greenhouse gas (GHG) implications of increasing forest biomass production through N fertilization and using the increased production for bioenergy and biomaterials in place of non-renewable fuels and materials. We begin with a stand-level analysis of the radiative forcing implications of forest fertilization and biomass substitution, with explicit consideration of the temporal patterns of GHG emissions to and removals from the atmosphere. We model and compare the production and use of biomass from a hectare of fertilized and non-fertilized forest land in northern Sweden. We calculate the annual net emissions of CO2, N2O and CH4 for each system, over a 225-year period with 1-year time steps. We calculate the annual atmospheric concentration decay of each of these emissions, and calculate the resulting annual changes in instantaneous and cumulative radiative forcing. We find that forest fertilization can significantly increase biomass production, which increases the potential for material and energy substitution. The average carbon stock in tree biomass, forest soils and wood products all increase when fertilization is used. The additional GHG emissions due to fertilizer production and application are small compared to increases in carbon stock and substitution benefits. By the end of the 225-year simulation period, the cumulative radiative forcing reduction of the fertilized stand is over twice that of the non-fertilized stand. We then consider a steady-state landscape-level scenario where 10% of Swedish forest land is fertilized. We estimate the primary energy use and GHG emissions from forest management including production and application of N and NPK fertilizers. Based on modelled growth response, we then estimate the net GHG benefits

  16. Indigenous systems of forest classification: understanding land use patterns and the role of NTFPs in shifting cultivators' subsistence economies.

    PubMed

    Delang, Claudio O

    2006-04-01

    This article discusses the system of classification of forest types used by the Pwo Karen in Thung Yai Naresuan Wildlife Sanctuary in western Thailand and the role of nontimber forest products (NTFPs), focusing on wild food plants, in Karen livelihoods. The article argues that the Pwo Karen have two methods of forest classification, closely related to their swidden farming practices. The first is used for forest land that has been, or can be, swiddened, and classifies forest types according to growth conditions. The second system is used for land that is not suitable for cultivation and looks at soil properties and slope. The article estimates the relative importance of each forest type in what concerns the collection of wild food plants. A total of 134 wild food plant species were recorded in December 2004. They account for some 80-90% of the amount of edible plants consumed by the Pwo Karen, and have a base value of Baht 11,505 per year, comparable to the cash incomes of many households. The article argues that the Pwo Karen reliance on NTFPs has influenced their land-use and forest management practices. However, by restricting the length of the fallow period, the Thai government has caused ecological changes that are challenging the ability of the Karen to remain subsistence oriented. By ignoring shifting cultivators' dependence on such products, the involvement of governments in forest management, especially through restrictions imposed on swidden farming practices, is likely to have a considerable impact on the livelihood strategies of these communities.

  17. Mitigation of agriculture emissions in the tropics: comparing forest land-sparing options at the national level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, S.; Herold, M.; Rufino, M. C.; Neumann, K.; Kooistra, L.; Verchot, L.

    2015-04-01

    implementing interventions based on national level data, call for detailed investigation at the local level to inform decisions. Three case-studies demonstrate the use of the analytical framework. The inherent link between the agriculture and forestry sectors due to competition for land suggests that these cannot be considered independently. This highlights the need to include the forest and the agricultural sector in the decision making process for mitigation interventions at the national level.

  18. Private timberlands: growing demands, shrinking land base.

    Treesearch

    Ralph Alig; John Mills; Brett Butler

    2002-01-01

    By 2050, US timberland area is projected to be about 3 percent smaller than today due to increasing demands for urban and related land uses from another 126 million people. An increasing area of southern planted pine will be accompanied by a reduction in the area of upland hardwoods. Hardwoods will continue to dominate the forested landscape in the South. Plantation...

  19. Timber resource statistics for non-federal forest land in northwest Oregon.

    Treesearch

    Donald R. Gedney; Patricia M. Bassett; Mary A. Mei

    1986-01-01

    This report summarizes a 1986 timber resource inventory of the non-Federal forest land in the 10 counties (Clackamas, Clatsop, Columbia, Hood River, Marion, Multnomah , Polk, Tillamook, Washington, and Yamhill) in northwest Oregon. Detailed tables of forest area, timber volume, growth, mortality, and harvest are presented.

  20. Timber resource statistics for non-Federal forest land in southwest Oregon.

    Treesearch

    Donald R. Gedney; Patricia M. Bassett; Mary A. Mei

    1986-01-01

    This report summarizes a 1985 timber resource inventory of the non-Federal forest land in the five counties (Coos, Curry, Douglas, Jackson, and Josephine) in southwest Oregon. Detailed tables of forest area, timber volume, growth, mortality, and harvest are presented.

  1. Timber resource statistics for non-Federal forest land in west-central Oregon.

    Treesearch

    Donald R. Gedney; Patricia M. Bassett; Mary A. Mei

    1987-01-01

    This report summarizes a 1985-86 timber resource inventory of the non-Federal forest land in the four counties (Benton, Lane, Lincoln, and Linn) in west-central Oregon. Detailed tables of forest area, timber volume, growth, mortality, and harvest are presented.

  2. Comparative analysis of forest lands cadastral appraisal estimated with regards to wood and food resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovyazin, V.; Romanchikov, A.; Pasko, O.

    2015-11-01

    Cadastral appraisal of forest fund is one of the topical challenges of modern natural resource management. The paper delivers comparison of different approaches to cadastral appraisal of forest lands. The authors suggest a uniformed model to compare objectively and choose the most effective use of parcels.

  3. Description of a land classification system and its application to the management of Tennessee's state forests

    Treesearch

    Glendon W. Smalley; S. David Todd; K. Ward Tarkington

    2006-01-01

    The Tennessee Division of Forestry has adopted a land classification system developed by the senior author as the basic theme of information for the management of its 15 state forests (162,371 acres) with at least 1 in each of 8 physiographic provinces. This paper summarizes the application of the system to six forests on the Cumberland Plateau. Landtypes are the most...

  4. Land use change effects on forest carbon cycling throughout the southern United States

    Treesearch

    Peter B. Woodbury; Linda S. Heath; James E. Smith

    2006-01-01

    We modeled the effects of afforestation and deforestation on carbon cycling in forest floor and soil from 1900 to 2050 throughout 13 states in the southern United States. The model uses historical data on gross (two-way) transitions between forest, pasture, plowed agriculture, and urban lands along with equations describing changes in carbon over many decades for each...

  5. An alternative incentive structure for wildfire management on national forest land.

    Treesearch

    Geoffrey H. Donovan; Thomas C. Brown

    2005-01-01

    Wildfire suppression expenditures on national forest land have increased over the last 35 years, exceeding US $l billion in 2000 and 2002. These increases in expenditure have been attributed, in part, to a century of aggressive wildfire suppression, resulting in a buildup of fuel on the nation's forests. The efficiency of the current incentive structure faced by...

  6. An Assessment of the Forest and Range Land Situation in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hair, Dwight; And Others

    This report is a comprehensive analysis of the renewable resources of forest and range land and associated waters prepared in response to provisions of the Forest and Rangeland Renewable Resources Planning Act of 1974. It shows that the nation's demands for outdoor recreation, wildlife and fish, range grazing, timber, and water have been growing…

  7. Global pattern of soil carbon losses due to the conversion of forests to agricultural land.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiaorong; Shao, Mingan; Gale, William; Li, Linhai

    2014-02-11

    Several reviews have analyzed the factors that affect the change in soil organic C (SOC) when forest is converted to agricultural land; however, the effects of forest type and cultivation stage on these changes have generally been overlooked. We collated observations from 453 paired or chronosequential sites where forests have been converted to agricultural land and then assessed the effects of forest type, cultivation stage, climate factors, and soil properties on the change in the SOC stock and the SOC turnover rate constant (k). The percent decrease in SOC stocks and the turnover rate constants both varied significantly according to forest type and cultivation stage. The largest decrease in SOC stocks was observed in temperate regions (52% decrease), followed by tropical regions (41% decrease) and boreal regions (31% decrease). Climate and soil factors affected the decrease in SOC stocks. The SOC turnover rate constant after the conversion of forests to agricultural land increased with the mean annual precipitation and temperature. To our knowledge, this is the first time that original forest type was considered when evaluating changes in SOC after being converted to agricultural land. The differences between forest types should be considered when calculating global changes in SOC stocks.

  8. Intensive Culture on Northern Forest-Industry Lands: Trends, Expectations, and Needs

    Treesearch

    David A. Gansner; Owen W. Herrick; Dietmar W. Rose

    1977-01-01

    Results of a survey of intensive forest-culture practices on forest-industry lands in the North. Timber-stand improvement and commercial thinning have been and apparently will continue to be the most popular practices undertaken. Estimated increases in recent annual harvests due to intensive culture averaged about 4 percent, and greater increases are expected during...

  9. The Role of Gender in Management Behaviors on Family Forest Lands in the United States

    Treesearch

    Sarah M. Butler; Emily S. Huff; Stephanie A. Snyder; Brett J. Butler; Mary Tyrrell

    2017-01-01

    In the United States, 58% of the 11 million family forest ownerships with at least 10 acres of forestland have at least one female owner. Within the single-owner population of landowners, women are the sole owners of and primary decisionmakers for 31% of ownerships. Despite the number of female family forest owners (FFOs), little research has focused on whether land-...

  10. The cost of acquiring public hunting access on family forests lands

    Treesearch

    Michael A. Kilgore; Stephanie A. Snyder; Joesph M. Schertz; Steven J. Taff

    2008-01-01

    To address the issue of declining access to private forest land in the United States for hunting, over 1,000 Minnesota family forest owners were surveyed to estimate the cost of acquiring non-exclusive public hunting access rights. The results indicate landowner interest in selling access rights is extremely modest. Using binary logistic regression, the mean annual...

  11. Urbanization in the US: land use trends, impacts on forest area, projections, and policy considerations

    Treesearch

    Ralph Alig

    2010-01-01

    Since World War II, socio-economic drivers of US urbanization such as population totals and personal income levels have increased substantially. Human land use is the primary force driving changes in forest ecosystem attributes including forest area, which is the focus of this paper. The percentage of the US population residing in urban areas is higher than that in...

  12. Effect of taxes and financial incentives on family-owned forest land

    Treesearch

    John L. Greene; Thomas J. Straka; Tamara L. Cushing

    2013-01-01

    Key FindingsFederal and State taxes reduce the pre-tax value of family-owned forest land in the South by amounts ranging from little more than one-quarter to nearly half, with the greatest share of the reduction attributable to the Federal income tax and State property taxes.Most family forest owners are aware of some general...

  13. Simulating restoration strategies for a southern boreal forest landscape with complex land ownership patterns

    Treesearch

    Douglas J. Shinneman; Meredith W. Cornett; Brian J. Palik

    2010-01-01

    Restoring altered forest landscapes toward their ranges of natural variability (RNV) may enhance ecosystem sustainability and resiliency, but such efforts can be hampered by complex land ownership and management patterns. We evaluated restoration potential for southern-boreal forests in the ~2.1 million ha Border Lakes Region of northern Minnesota (U.S.A.) and...

  14. The ownership of small private forest-land holdings in 23 New England towns

    Treesearch

    Solon Barraclough; James C. Rettie

    1950-01-01

    Much of the forest land in New England, as elsewhere in the United States, is in small private holdings. How to get these small holdings under reasonably good forest management so that they can better contribute to the country?s need for a high sustained yield of good timber products is one of the forestry?s big problems.

  15. Global pattern of soil carbon losses due to the conversion of forests to agricultural land

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xiaorong; Shao, Mingan; Gale, William; Li, Linhai

    2014-01-01

    Several reviews have analyzed the factors that affect the change in soil organic C (SOC) when forest is converted to agricultural land; however, the effects of forest type and cultivation stage on these changes have generally been overlooked. We collated observations from 453 paired or chronosequential sites where forests have been converted to agricultural land and then assessed the effects of forest type, cultivation stage, climate factors, and soil properties on the change in the SOC stock and the SOC turnover rate constant (k). The percent decrease in SOC stocks and the turnover rate constants both varied significantly according to forest type and cultivation stage. The largest decrease in SOC stocks was observed in temperate regions (52% decrease), followed by tropical regions (41% decrease) and boreal regions (31% decrease). Climate and soil factors affected the decrease in SOC stocks. The SOC turnover rate constant after the conversion of forests to agricultural land increased with the mean annual precipitation and temperature. To our knowledge, this is the first time that original forest type was considered when evaluating changes in SOC after being converted to agricultural land. The differences between forest types should be considered when calculating global changes in SOC stocks. PMID:24513580

  16. Recovery of a Subtropical Dry Forest After Abandonment of Different Land Uses

    Treesearch

    Sandra Molina Colon; Ariel E. Lugo

    2006-01-01

    We studied the ecological characteristics of 45.50-yr-old subtropical dry forest stands in Puerto Rico that were growing on sites that had been deforested and used intensively for up to 128 yr. The study took place in the Guánica Commonwealth Forest. Our objective was to assess the long-term effects of previous land use on this forest.i.e., its species...

  17. From forest to farmland: pollen-inferred land cover change across Europe using the pseudobiomization approach.

    PubMed

    Fyfe, Ralph M; Woodbridge, Jessie; Roberts, Neil

    2015-03-01

    Maps of continental-scale land cover are utilized by a range of diverse users but whilst a range of products exist that describe present and recent land cover in Europe, there are currently no datasets that describe past variations over long time-scales. User groups with an interest in past land cover include the climate modelling community, socio-ecological historians and earth system scientists. Europe is one of the continents with the longest histories of land conversion from forest to farmland, thus understanding land cover change in this area is globally significant. This study applies the pseudobiomization method (PBM) to 982 pollen records from across Europe, taken from the European Pollen Database (EPD) to produce a first synthesis of pan-European land cover change for the period 9000 bp to present, in contiguous 200 year time intervals. The PBM transforms pollen proportions from each site to one of eight land cover classes (LCCs) that are directly comparable to the CORINE land cover classification. The proportion of LCCs represented in each time window provides a spatially aggregated record of land cover change for temperate and northern Europe, and for a series of case study regions (western France, the western Alps, and the Czech Republic and Slovakia). At the European scale, the impact of Neolithic food producing economies appear to be detectable from 6000 bp through reduction in broad-leaf forests resulting from human land use activities such as forest clearance. Total forest cover at a pan-European scale moved outside the range of previous background variability from 4000 bp onwards. From 2200 bp land cover change intensified, and the broad pattern of land cover for preindustrial Europe was established by 1000 bp. Recognizing the timing of anthropogenic land cover change in Europe will further the understanding of land cover-climate interactions, and the origins of the modern cultural landscape. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Effect of modifying land cover and long-term agricultural practices on the soil characteristics in native forest-land.

    PubMed

    Gol, Ceyhun; Dengiz, Orhan

    2008-09-01

    Natural forestland soils in the high land mountain ecosystems on the eastern Black sea region of Turkey are being seriously degraded and destructed due to intensive agricultural practices. In this study we examined four soil profiles selected from four sites in each of three adjacent land use types which are native forest, pasture and cultivated fields with corn and hazelnut to compare the soil physical, chemical and morphological properties modified after natural forestland transformation into cultivated land. Disturbed and undisturbed soil samples were collected from four sites. The effects of agricultural practices on soil properties taken from each three adjacent land use types were most clearly detected in the past 50 years with the land use change. Land use change and subsequent tillage practices resulted in significant decreases in organic matter, total porosity, total nitrogen and reduced soil aggregates stability. However, contents of available P were improved by application of phosphorous fertilizers in cultivated system. There was also a significant change in bulk density among cultivated, pasture and natural forest soils. Depending upon the increase in bulk density and disruption of pores by cultivation, total porosity decreased accordingly. The data show that long term continuous cultivation of the natural forest soils resulted in changes in physical and chemical characteristics of soils.

  19. The Multiple Species Inventory and Monitoring Protocol: A Population, Community, and Biodiversity Monitoring Solution for National Forest System Lands

    Treesearch

    P. N. Manley; B. Van Horne

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Forest Service manages approximately 76 million ha (191 million acres) of National Forest System (NFS) lands. The National Forest Management Act (1976) recognizes the importance of maintaining species and ecosystem diversity on NFS lands as a critical component of our ecological and cultural heritage. Information on the condition of populations and habitats of...

  20. Quantifying the role of National Forest system lands in providing surface drinking water supply for the Southern United States

    Treesearch

    Peter Caldwell; Corinne Muldoon; Chelcy Ford-Miniat; Erika Cohen; Suzanne Krieger; Ge Sun; Steven McNulty; Paul V. Bolstad

    2014-01-01

    Forests and water are inextricably linked, and people are dependent on forested lands to provide clean, reliable water supplies for drinking and to support local economies. These water supplies are at risk of degradation from a growing population, continued conversion of forests to other land uses, and climate change. Given the variety of threats to surface water, it...

  1. Brush control on forest lands with emphasis on promising methods for the Pacific Northwest: a review of selected references.

    Treesearch

    Walter G. Dahms; George A. James

    1955-01-01

    Brush encroachment on forest land is greatly reducing the amount of wood grown in forests of the Pacific Northwest. Reliable estimates show that brush has reduced the productivity of more than one-fourth of the forest land of southwestern Oregon. Red alder alone, which is a commercial tree on some areas but a weed species on others, accounts for poor conifer stocking...

  2. 47 CFR 17.58 - Facilities to be located on land under the jurisdiction of the U.S. Forest Service or the Bureau...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... jurisdiction of the U.S. Forest Service or the Bureau of Land Management. 17.58 Section 17.58 Telecommunication... land under the jurisdiction of the U.S. Forest Service or the Bureau of Land Management. Link to an... facilities to be located on land under the jurisdiction of the U.S. Forest Service or the Bureau of Land...

  3. Differences in forest plant functional trait distributions across land-use and productivity gradients

    Treesearch

    Margaret M. Mayfield; John M. Dwyer; Loic Chalmandrier; Jessie A. Wells; Stephen P. Bonser; Carla P. Catterall; Fabrice DeClerck; Yi Ding; Jennifer M. Fraterrigo; Daniel J. Metcalfe; Cibele Queiroz; Peter A. Vesk; John W. Morgan

    2013-01-01

    • Premise of study: Plant functional traits are commonly used as proxies for plant responses to environmental challenges, yet few studies have explored how functional trait distributions differ across gradients of land-use change. By comparing trait distributions in intact forests with those across land-use change gradients, we can improve our understanding of the ways...

  4. 78 FR 69814 - Revision of the Land Management Plan for El Yunque National Forest

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-21

    ... preliminary ``need for change'' and a proposed action for the land management plan revision. DATES: A draft of... to change management direction in current plans due to changing conditions or other monitoring...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Revision of the Land Management Plan for El Yunque National...

  5. Forest service contributions to the national land cover database (NLCD): Tree Canopy Cover Production

    Treesearch

    Bonnie Ruefenacht; Robert Benton; Vicky Johnson; Tanushree Biswas; Craig Baker; Mark Finco; Kevin Megown; John Coulston; Ken Winterberger; Mark. Riley

    2015-01-01

    A tree canopy cover (TCC) layer is one of three elements in the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) 2011 suite of nationwide geospatial data layers. In 2010, the USDA Forest Service (USFS) committed to creating the TCC layer as a member of the Multi-Resolution Land Cover (MRLC) consortium. A general methodology for creating the TCC layer was reported at the 2012 FIA...

  6. Using an Ecological Land Hierarchy to Predict Seasonal-Wetland Abundance in Upland Forests

    Treesearch

    Brian J. Palik; Richard Buech; Leanne Egeland

    2003-01-01

    Hierarchy theory, when applied to landscapes, predicts that broader-scale ecosystems constrain the development of finer-scale, nested ecosystems. This prediction finds application in hierarchical land classifications. Such classifications typically apply to physiognomically similar ecosystems, or ecological land units, e.g., a set of multi-scale forest ecosystems. We...

  7. The Intrusion of Human Population into Forest and Range Lands of California

    Treesearch

    Ted D. Bradshaw

    1987-01-01

    Demographic and economic growth are pushing deeper into California's forest and range lands, making effective fire protection and traditional industrial uses of the land more difficult. Urban forces that will increase the difficulties in the future include: increasing urban population pressures, selective migration, low-priced housing, adequate infrastructure,...

  8. Anticipating Forest and Range Land Development in Central Oregon (USA) for Landscape Analysis, with an Example Application Involving Mule Deer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kline, Jeffrey D.; Moses, Alissa; Burcsu, Theresa

    2010-05-01

    Forest policymakers, public lands managers, and scientists in the Pacific Northwest (USA) seek ways to evaluate the landscape-level effects of policies and management through the multidisciplinary development and application of spatially explicit methods and models. The Interagency Mapping and Analysis Project (IMAP) is an ongoing effort to generate landscape-wide vegetation data and models to evaluate the integrated effects of disturbances and management activities on natural resource conditions in Oregon and Washington (USA). In this initial analysis, we characterized the spatial distribution of forest and range land development in a four-county pilot study region in central Oregon. The empirical model describes the spatial distribution of buildings and new building construction as a function of population growth, existing development, topography, land-use zoning, and other factors. We used the model to create geographic information system maps of likely future development based on human population projections to inform complementary landscape analyses underway involving vegetation, habitat, and wildfire interactions. In an example application, we use the model and resulting maps to show the potential impacts of future forest and range land development on mule deer ( Odocoileus hemionus) winter range. Results indicate significant development encroachment and habitat loss already in 2000 with development located along key migration routes and increasing through the projection period to 2040. The example application illustrates a simple way for policymakers and public lands managers to combine existing data and preliminary model outputs to begin to consider the potential effects of development on future landscape conditions.

  9. Anticipating forest and range land development in central Oregon (USA) for landscape analysis, with an example application involving mule deer.

    PubMed

    Kline, Jeffrey D; Moses, Alissa; Burcsu, Theresa

    2010-05-01

    Forest policymakers, public lands managers, and scientists in the Pacific Northwest (USA) seek ways to evaluate the landscape-level effects of policies and management through the multidisciplinary development and application of spatially explicit methods and models. The Interagency Mapping and Analysis Project (IMAP) is an ongoing effort to generate landscape-wide vegetation data and models to evaluate the integrated effects of disturbances and management activities on natural resource conditions in Oregon and Washington (USA). In this initial analysis, we characterized the spatial distribution of forest and range land development in a four-county pilot study region in central Oregon. The empirical model describes the spatial distribution of buildings and new building construction as a function of population growth, existing development, topography, land-use zoning, and other factors. We used the model to create geographic information system maps of likely future development based on human population projections to inform complementary landscape analyses underway involving vegetation, habitat, and wildfire interactions. In an example application, we use the model and resulting maps to show the potential impacts of future forest and range land development on mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) winter range. Results indicate significant development encroachment and habitat loss already in 2000 with development located along key migration routes and increasing through the projection period to 2040. The example application illustrates a simple way for policymakers and public lands managers to combine existing data and preliminary model outputs to begin to consider the potential effects of development on future landscape conditions.

  10. Analysis of Renewable Energy Potential on U. S. National Forest Lands

    SciTech Connect

    Zvolanek, E.; Kuiper, J.; Carr, A.; Hlava, K.

    2013-12-13

    In 2005, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) completed an assessment of the potential for solar and wind energy development on National Forest System (NFS) public lands managed by the US Department of Agriculture, U.S. Forest Service (USFS). This report provides an update of the analysis in the NREL report, and extends the analysis with additional siting factors for solar and wind energy. It also expands the scope to biomass and geothermal energy resources. Hydropower is acknowledged as another major renewable energy source on NFS lands; however, it was not analyzed in this project primarily because of the substantially different analysis that would be needed to identify suitable locations. Details about each renewable energy production technology included in the study are provided following the report introduction, including how each resource is converted to electrical power, and examples of existing power plants. The analysis approach was to use current and available Geographic Information System (GIS) data to map the distribution of the subject renewable energy resources, major siting factors, and NFS lands. For each major category of renewable energy power production, a set of siting factors were determined, including minimum levels for the renewable energy resources, and details for each of the other siting factors. Phase 1 of the analysis focused on replicating and updating the 2005 NREL analysis, and Phase 2 introduced additional siting factors and energy resources. Source data were converted to a cell-based format that helped create composite maps of locations meeting all the siting criteria. Acreages and potential power production levels for NFS units were tabulated and are presented throughout this report and the accompanying files. NFS units in the southwest United States were found to have the most potentially suitable land for concentrating solar power (CSP), especially in Arizona and New Mexico. In total, about 136,032 acres of NFS lands

  11. Evaluation and improvement of the Community Land Model (CLM4) in Oregon forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudiburg, T. W.; Law, B. E.; Thornton, P. E.

    2013-01-01

    Ecosystem process models are important tools for determining the interactive effects of global change and disturbance on forest carbon dynamics. Here we evaluated and improved terrestrial carbon cycling simulated by the Community Land Model (CLM4), the land model portion of the Community Earth System Model (CESM1.0.4). Our analysis was conducted primarily in Oregon forests using FLUXNET and forest inventory data for the period 2001-2006. We go beyond prior modeling studies in the region by incorporating regional variation in physiological parameters from >100 independent field sites in the region. We also compare spatial patterns of simulated forest carbon stocks and net primary production (NPP) at 15 km resolution using data collected from federal forest inventory plots (FIA) from >3000 plots in the study region. Finally, we evaluate simulated gross primary production (GPP) with FLUXNET eddy covariance tower data at wet and dry sites in the region. We improved model estimates by making modifications to CLM4 to allow physiological parameters (e.g., foliage carbon to nitrogen ratios and specific leaf area), mortality rate, biological nitrogen fixation, and wood allocation to vary spatially by plant functional type (PFT) within an ecoregion based on field plot data in the region. Prior to modifications, default parameters resulted in underestimation of stem biomass in all forested ecoregions except the Blue Mountains and annual NPP was both over- and underestimated. After modifications, model estimates of mean NPP fell within the observed range of uncertainty in all ecoregions (two-sided P value = 0.8), and the underestimation of stem biomass was reduced. This was an improvement from the default configuration by 50% for stem biomass and 30% for NPP. At the tower sites, modeled monthly GPP fell within the observed range of uncertainty at both sites for the majority of the year, however summer GPP was underestimated at the Metolius semi-arid pine site and spring GPP

  12. Evaluation and improvement of the Community Land Model (CLM 4.0) in Oregon forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudiburg, T. W.; Law, B. E.; Thornton, P. E.

    2012-09-01

    Ecosystem process models are important tools for determining the interactive effects of global change and disturbance on forest carbon dynamics. Here we evaluated and improved terrestrial carbon cycling simulated by the Community Land Model (CLM4), the land model portion of the Community Earth System Model (CESM1.0.4). Our analysis was conducted primarily in Oregon forests using FLUXNET and forest inventory data for the period 2001-2006. We go beyond prior modeling studies in the region by incorporating regional variation in physiological parameters from >100 independent field sites in the region. We also compare spatial patterns of simulated forest carbon stocks and net primary production (NPP) at 15 km resolution using data collected from federal forest inventory plots (FIA) from >3000 plots in the study region. Finally, we evaluate simulated gross primary production (GPP) with FLUXNET eddy-covariance tower data at wet and dry sites in the region. We improved model estimates by making modifications to CLM4 to allow physiological parameters (e.g. foliage carbon to nitrogen ratios and specific leaf area), mortality rate, biological nitrogen fixation, and wood allocation to vary spatially by plant functional type (PFT) within an ecoregion based on field plot data in the region. Prior to modifications, default parameters resulted in underestimation of stem biomass in all forested ecoregions except the Blue Mountains and annual NPP was both over and underestimated. After modifications, model estimates of mean NPP fell within the observed range of uncertainty in all ecoregions (two-sided p-value = 0.8) and the underestimation of stem biomass was reduced. This was an improvement from the default configuration by 50% for stem biomass and 30% for NPP. At the tower sites, modeled monthly GPP fell within the observed range of uncertainty at both sites for the majority of the year, however summer GPP was underestimated at the Metolius semi-arid pine site and spring GPP was

  13. Evaluating a new method for reconstructing forest conditions from General Land Office survey records.

    PubMed

    Levine, Carrie R; Cogbill, Charles V; Collins, Brandon M; Larson, Andrew J; Lutz, James A; North, Malcolm P; Restaino, Christina M; Safford, Hugh D; Stephens, Scott L; Battles, John J

    2017-07-01

    Historical forest conditions are often used to inform contemporary management goals because historical forests are considered to be resilient to ecological disturbances. The General Land Office (GLO) surveys of the late 19th and early 20th centuries provide regionally quasi-contiguous data sets of historical forests across much of the Western United States. Multiple methods exist for estimating tree density from point-based sampling such as the GLO surveys, including distance-based and area-based approaches. Area-based approaches have been applied in California mixed-conifer forests but their estimates have not been validated. To assess the accuracy and precision of plotless density estimators with potential for application to GLO data in this region, we imposed a GLO sampling scheme on six mapped forest stands of known densities (159-784 trees/ha) in the Sierra Nevada in California, USA, and Baja California Norte, Mexico. We compared three distance-based plotless density estimators (Cottam, Pollard, and Morisita) as well as two Voronoi area (VA) estimators, the Delincé and mean harmonic Voronoi density (MHVD), to the true densities. We simulated sampling schemes of increasing intensity to assess sampling error. The relative error (RE) of density estimates for the GLO sampling scheme ranged from 0.36 to 4.78. The least biased estimate of tree density in every stand was obtained with the Morisita estimator and the most biased was obtained with the MHVD estimator. The MHVD estimates of tree density were 1.2-3.8 times larger than the true densities and performed best in stands subject to fire exclusion for 100 yr. The Delincé approach obtained accurate estimates of density, implying that the Voronoi approach is theoretically sound but that its application in the MHVD was flawed. The misapplication was attributed to two causes: (1) the use of a crown scaling factor that does not correct for the number of trees sampled and (2) the persistent underestimate of the true

  14. A preliminary investigation of forest carbon changes associated with land-use change in northern New England

    Treesearch

    Daolan Zheng; Linda S. Heath; Mark J. Ducey; James E. Smith

    2009-01-01

    Maine (ME), New Hampshire (NH), and Vermont (VT) are three of the four most heavily forested states in the United States. In these states, we examined how land-use change, at the Anderson Level I classification, affected regional forest carbon using the 30-m Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics Consortium 1992/2001 Retrofit Land Cover Change product coupled with...

  15. 75 FR 11107 - Revision of Land Management Plan for the George Washington National Forest, Virginia and West...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-10

    ..., Need for Change, and Proposed Actions According to 36 CFR 219.10(g) (1982 rule), land management plans... to additional issues and needs for change, different alternatives, different land allocations... Forest Service Revision of Land Management Plan for the George Washington National Forest, Virginia...

  16. RESTORING SUSTAINABLE FORESTS ON APPALACHIAN MINED LANDS FOR WOOD PRODUCTS, RENEWABLE ENERGY, CARBON SEQUESTRATION, AND OTHER ECOSYSTEM SERVICES

    SciTech Connect

    J. Burger; J. Galbraith; T. Fox; G. Amacher; J. Sullivan; C. Zipper

    2004-08-04

    The overall purpose of this project is to evaluate the biological and economic feasibility of restoring high-quality forests on mined land, and to measure carbon sequestration and wood production benefits that would be achieved from forest restoration procedures. We are currently estimating the acreage of lands in VA, WV, KY, OH, and PA mined under SMCRA and reclaimed to non-forested post-mining land uses that are not currently under active management, and therefore can be considered as available for carbon sequestration. To determine actual sequestration under different forest management scenarios, a field study was installed as a 3 x 3 factorial in a random complete block design with three replications at each of three locations, Ohio, West Virginia, and Virginia. The treatments included three forest types (white pine, hybrid poplar, mixed hardwood) and three silvicultural regimes (competition control, competition control plus tillage, competition control plus tillage plus fertilization). Each individual treatment plot is 0.5 acres. Each block of nine plots requires 4.5 acres, and the complete installation at each site requires 13.5 acres. The plots at all three locations have been installed and the plot corners marked with PVC stakes. GPS coordinates of each plot have been collected. Soil samples were collected from each plot to characterize the sites prior to treatment. Baseline soil carbon was determined for each of the eighty-one plots. Fertility analysis of soil samples was completed and these data were used to prepare fertilizer prescriptions and the pre-designated plots were fertilized. We also evaluated economic-based policy instruments that are designed to mitigate the reforestation burden borne by the owner of reclaimed mined land. Results suggest that although profitability of reforestation of these previously reclaimed mine lands may be achievable on better sites under lower interest rates, substantial payments would be required to reach

  17. ALOS-PALSAR multi-temporal observation for describing land use and forest cover changes in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avtar, R.; Suzuki, R.; Ishii, R.; Kobayashi, H.; Nagai, S.; Fadaei, H.; Hirata, R.; Suhaili, A. B.

    2012-12-01

    The establishment of plantations in carbon rich peatland of Southeast Asia has shown an increase in the past decade. The need to support development in countries such as Malaysia has been reflected by having a higher rate of conversion of its forested areas to agricultural land use in particular oilpalm plantation. Use of optical data to monitor changes in peatland forests is difficult because of the high cloudiness in tropical region. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) based remote sensing can potentially be used to monitor changes in such forested landscapes. In this study, we have demonstrated the capability of multi-temporal Fine-Beam Dual (FBD) data of Phased Array L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) to detect forest cover changes in peatland to other landuse such as oilpalm plantation. Here, the backscattering properties of radar were evaluated to estimate changes in the forest cover. Temporal analysis of PALSAR FBD data shows that conversion of peatland forest to oilpalm can be detected by analyzing changes in the value of σoHH and σoHV. This is characterized by a high value of σoHH (-7.89 dB) and σoHV (-12.13 dB) for areas under peat forests. The value of σoHV decreased about 2-4 dB due to the conversion of peatland to a plantation area. There is also an increase in the value of σoHH/σoHV. Changes in σoHV is more prominent to identify the peatland conversion than in the σoHH. The results indicate the potential of PALSAR to estimate peatland forest conversion based on thresholding of σoHV or σoHH/σoHV for monitoring changes in peatland forest. This would improve our understanding of the temporal change and its effect on the peatland forest ecosystem.

  18. The use of space and high altitude aerial photography to classify forest land and to detect forest disturbances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aldrich, R. C.; Greentree, W. J.; Heller, R. C.; Norick, N. X.

    1970-01-01

    In October 1969, an investigation was begun near Atlanta, Georgia, to explore the possibilities of developing predictors for forest land and stand condition classifications using space photography. It has been found that forest area can be predicted with reasonable accuracy on space photographs using ocular techniques. Infrared color film is the best single multiband sensor for this purpose. Using the Apollo 9 infrared color photographs taken in March 1969 photointerpreters were able to predict forest area for small units consistently within 5 to 10 percent of ground truth. Approximately 5,000 density data points were recorded for 14 scan lines selected at random from five study blocks. The mean densities and standard deviations were computed for 13 separate land use classes. The results indicate that forest area cannot be separated from other land uses with a high degree of accuracy using optical film density alone. If, however, densities derived by introducing red, green, and blue cutoff filters in the optical system of the microdensitometer are combined with their differences and their ratios in regression analysis techniques, there is a good possibility of discriminating forest from all other classes.

  19. Land cover and forest formation distributions for St. Kitts, Nevis, St. Eustatius, Grenada and Barbados from decision tree classification of cloud-cleared satellite imagery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Helmer, E.H.; Kennaway, T.A.; Pedreros, D.H.; Clark, M.L.; Marcano-Vega, H.; Tieszen, L.L.; Ruzycki, T.R.; Schill, S.R.; Carrington, C.M.S.

    2008-01-01

    Satellite image-based mapping of tropical forests is vital to conservation planning. Standard methods for automated image classification, however, limit classification detail in complex tropical landscapes. In this study, we test an approach to Landsat image interpretation on four islands of the Lesser Antilles, including Grenada and St. Kitts, Nevis and St. Eustatius, testing a more detailed classification than earlier work in the latter three islands. Secondly, we estimate the extents of land cover and protected forest by formation for five islands and ask how land cover has changed over the second half of the 20th century. The image interpretation approach combines image mosaics and ancillary geographic data, classifying the resulting set of raster data with decision tree software. Cloud-free image mosaics for one or two seasons were created by applying regression tree normalization to scene dates that could fill cloudy areas in a base scene. Such mosaics are also known as cloud-filled, cloud-minimized or cloud-cleared imagery, mosaics, or composites. The approach accurately distinguished several classes that more standard methods would confuse; the seamless mosaics aided reference data collection; and the multiseason imagery allowed us to separate drought deciduous forests and woodlands from semi-deciduous ones. Cultivated land areas declined 60 to 100 percent from about 1945 to 2000 on several islands. Meanwhile, forest cover has increased 50 to 950%. This trend will likely continue where sugar cane cultivation has dominated. Like the island of Puerto Rico, most higher-elevation forest formations are protected in formal or informal reserves. Also similarly, lowland forests, which are drier forest types on these islands, are not well represented in reserves. Former cultivated lands in lowland areas could provide lands for new reserves of drier forest types. The land-use history of these islands may provide insight for planners in countries currently considering

  20. Reducing uncertainty for estimating forest carbon stocks and dynamics using integrated remote sensing, forest inventory and process-based modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulter, B.; Ciais, P.; Joetzjer, E.; Maignan, F.; Luyssaert, S.; Barichivich, J.

    2015-12-01

    Accurately estimating forest biomass and forest carbon dynamics requires new integrated remote sensing, forest inventory, and carbon cycle modeling approaches. Presently, there is an increasing and urgent need to reduce forest biomass uncertainty in order to meet the requirements of carbon mitigation treaties, such as Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD+). Here we describe a new parameterization and assimilation methodology used to estimate tropical forest biomass using the ORCHIDEE-CAN dynamic global vegetation model. ORCHIDEE-CAN simulates carbon uptake and allocation to individual trees using a mechanistic representation of photosynthesis, respiration and other first-order processes. The model is first parameterized using forest inventory data to constrain background mortality rates, i.e., self-thinning, and productivity. Satellite remote sensing data for forest structure, i.e., canopy height, is used to constrain simulated forest stand conditions using a look-up table approach to match canopy height distributions. The resulting forest biomass estimates are provided for spatial grids that match REDD+ project boundaries and aim to provide carbon estimates for the criteria described in the IPCC Good Practice Guidelines Tier 3 category. With the increasing availability of forest structure variables derived from high-resolution LIDAR, RADAR, and optical imagery, new methodologies and applications with process-based carbon cycle models are becoming more readily available to inform land management.

  1. Modeling the effect of land use on carbon storage in the forests of the Pacific Northwest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Warren B.; Wallin, David O.; Harmon, Mark E.; Sollins, Philip; Daly, Christopher; Ferrell, William K.

    1992-01-01

    There is concern as to how the balance of carbon in the terrestrial ecosystem will change in response to a variety of land use practices. A study is described in which a methodology is being developed to help narrow this uncertainty for the temperate forets of the Pacific Northwest region of the US. A carbon storage model is being developed to respond to forest harvesting, the dominant use of land in the region. By linking the carbon model to satellite imagery and a climate simulation model, the current amount of carbon stored in the forests of the Pacific northwest is estimated. The archive of Landsat multispectral scanner (MSS) images permits a 20-year historical perspective of land use changes in the region. With these data, the recent impact of regional land use in forest carbon stores is assessed.

  2. Modeling the effect of land use on carbon storage in the forests of the Pacific Northwest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Warren B.; Wallin, David O.; Harmon, Mark E.; Sollins, Philip; Daly, Christopher; Ferrell, William K.

    1992-01-01

    There is concern as to how the balance of carbon in the terrestrial ecosystem will change in response to a variety of land use practices. A study is described in which a methodology is being developed to help narrow this uncertainty for the temperate forets of the Pacific Northwest region of the US. A carbon storage model is being developed to respond to forest harvesting, the dominant use of land in the region. By linking the carbon model to satellite imagery and a climate simulation model, the current amount of carbon stored in the forests of the Pacific northwest is estimated. The archive of Landsat multispectral scanner (MSS) images permits a 20-year historical perspective of land use changes in the region. With these data, the recent impact of regional land use in forest carbon stores is assessed.

  3. Interactive effects of land use history and natural disturbance on seedling dynamics in a subtropical forest.

    PubMed

    Comita, Liza S; Thompson, Jill; Uriarte, Maria; Jonckheere, Inge; Canham, Charles D; Zimmerman, Jess K

    2010-07-01

    Human-impacted forests are increasing in extent due to widespread regrowth of secondary forests on abandoned lands. The degree and speed of recovery from human disturbance in these forests will determine their value in terms of biodiversity conservation and ecosystem function. In areas subject to periodic, severe natural disturbances, such as hurricanes, it has been hypothesized that human and natural disturbance may interact to either erase or preserve land use legacies. To increase understanding of how interactions between human and natural disturbance influence forest regeneration and recovery, we monitored seedlings in a human- and hurricane-impacted forest in northeastern Puerto Rico over a approximately 10-yr period and compared seedling composition and dynamics in areas that had experienced high- and low-intensity human disturbance during the first half of the 20th century. We found that land use history significantly affected the composition and diversity of the seedling layer and altered patterns of canopy openness and seedling dynamics following hurricane disturbance. The area that had been subject to high-intensity land use supported a higher density, but lower diversity, of species. In both land use history categories, the seedling layer was dominated by the same two species, Prestoea acuminata var. montana and Guarea guidonia. However, seedlings of secondary-successional species tended to be more abundant in the high-intensity land use area, while late-successional species were more abundant in the low-intensity area, consistent with patterns of adult tree distributions. Seedlings of secondary-forest species showed greater increases in growth and survival following hurricane disturbance compared to late-successional species, providing support for the hypothesis that hurricanes help preserve the signature of land use history. However, the increased performance of secondary-forest species occurred predominantly in the low-intensity land use area

  4. Mapping Mexico's Forest Lands with Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

    Treesearch

    David J. Evans; Zhiliang Zhu; Susan Eggen-McIntosh; Pedro García Mayoral; Jose Luis Ornelas de Anda

    1992-01-01

    Data from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) were used in a program sponsored by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, and the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization to help scientists from Mexico generate forest-cover maps of that country. Two near-cloud-free composite images were generated for December and March 1990 from...

  5. Tribal lands provide forest management laboratory for mainstream university students

    Treesearch

    Serra J. Hoagland; Ronald Miller; Kristen M. Waring; Orlando Carroll

    2017-01-01

    Northern Arizona University (NAU) faculty and Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) foresters initiated a partnership to expose NAU School of Forestry (SoF) graduate students to tribal forest management practices by incorporating field trips to the 1.68-million acre Fort Apache Indian Reservation as part of their silviculture curriculum. Tribal field trips were contrasted and...

  6. BIA Forest Lands of North and South Dakota, 1996

    Treesearch

    David E. Haugen; Mark H. Hansen

    2002-01-01

    Data used in this report were collected during the third North Dakota forest inventory, begun in September 1994 and completed in November 1994, and the fourth South Dakota forest inventory, begun in 1995 and completed in the spring of 1996. The reported statistics are estimates. Users of these data are cautioned to consult the table of sampling errors and the...

  7. Tropical Forest for Sale! An Interdisciplinary Land-Use Simulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krauskopf, Sara

    1998-01-01

    Describes an extended role-playing game for middle school to post-secondary students centered around the sale of a forest and farm in Costa Rica. Takes an in-depth look at the question of what it takes to purchase and protect a tropical forest. (DDR)

  8. SOC storage in Swiss forest soils - driven by climate or historical land-use?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gosheva, Sia; Walthert, Lorenz; Niklaus, Pascal; Zimmermann, Stephan; Hagedorn, Frank

    2015-04-01

    Soils store the most carbon of all terrestrial ecosystems, with forest soils being particularly carbon-rich (Schmidt et al. 2011; Hagedorn et al. 2010; Jobaggy & Jackson 2000). The C balance of soils might be altered by land-use changes such as in Switzerland, where the forest cover has increased by approximately 22% in the last century (Ginzler et al. 2011). The objectives of this study were 1) to determine whether historical forest cover change has an impact on soil organic carbon (SOC) storage in Swiss forests, and 2) to estimate the influence of climate on C-stocks in the organic layer and the mineral soil. In our study, we reconstructed forest cover changes for the last 150 years for the coordinates of 1000 soil profiles from the soil database of the Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research (WSL). We evaluated historical and modern topographic maps using ArcGIS, classifying current forest sites into permanently (≥150y) forested and newly forested sites (<150y). To identify the impact of climate and historic land-use change on SOC storage, we statistically analyzed the influence of the estimated forest ages of the sites and of potentially additional drivers such as topography, climate, and soil properties on SOC stocks. Contrary to our expectations, our results indicate slightly higher SOC stocks in younger forest sites compared to permanently forested ones. This result could be observed in both organic layer (28,65 vs. 22,23 t C ha-1) and mineral soil (131,38 vs. 113,68 t C ha-1). We attribute the slightly smaller SOC stocks in the younger forests to their inherently higher SOC-stocks, as associated with favorable land previously used for grassland. Moreover, we observed higher SOC stocks under coniferous than under deciduous forest - however, this was only evident in the organic layer, but not in the mineral soil. Soil carbon increased significantly with decreasing mean annual temperature (MAT) and increasing precipitation (MAP), in

  9. A proper Land Cover and Forest Type Classification Scheme for Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebhardt, S.; Maeda, P.; Wehrmann, T.; Argumedo Espinoza, J.; Schmidt, M.

    2015-04-01

    The imminent implementation of a REDD+ MRV system in Mexico in 2015, demanding operational annual land cover change reporting, requires highly accurate, annual and high resolution forest type maps; not only for monitoring but also to establish the historical baseline from the 1990s onwards. The employment of any supervised classifier demands exhaustive definition of land cover classes and the representation of all classes in the training stage. This paper reports the process of a data driven class separability analysis and the definition and application of a national land cover classification scheme. All Landsat data recorded over Mexico in the year 2000 with cloud coverage below 10 percent and a national digital elevation model have been used. Automatic wall-2-wall image classification has been performed trained by national reference data on land use and vegetation types with 66 classes. Validation has been performed against field plots of the national forest inventory. Groups of non-separable classes have subsequently been discerned by automatic iterative class aggregation. Class aggregations have finally been manually revised and modified towards a proposed national land cover classification scheme at 4 levels with 35 classes at the highest level including 13 classes for primary temperate and tropical forests, 2 classes for secondary temperate and tropical forest, 1 for induced or cultivated forest, as also 8 different scrubland classes. The remaining 11 classes cover agriculture, grassland, wetland, water bodies, urban and other vegetation land cover classes. The remaining 3 levels provide further hierarchic aggregations with 14, 10, and 8 classes, respectively. Trained by the relabeled training dataset wall-2-wall classification towards the 35 classes has been performed. The final national land cover dataset has been validated against more than 200,000 polygons randomly distributed all over the country with class labels derived by manual interpretation. The

  10. Toward A National Early Warning System for Forest Disturbances Using Remotely Sensed Land Surface Phenology

    SciTech Connect

    HargroveJr., William Walter; Spruce, Joe; Gasser, Gerry; Hoffman, Forrest M

    2009-12-01

    We are using a statistical clustering method for delineating homogeneous ecoregions as a basis for identifying disturbances in forests through time over large areas, up to national and global extents. Such changes can be shown relative to past conditions, or can be predicted relative to present conditions, as with forecasts of future climatic change. This quantitative ecoregion approach can be used to predict destinations for populations whose local environments are forecast to become unsuitable and are forced to migrate as their habitat shifts, and is also useful for predicting the susceptibility of new locations to invasive species like Sudden Oak Death. EFETAC and our sister western center WWETAC, along with our NASA and ORNL collaborators, are designing a new national-scale early warning system for forest threats, called FIRST. Envisioned as a change-detection system, FIRST will identify all land surface cover changes at the MODIS observational scale, and then try to discriminate normal, expected seasonal changes from locations having unusual activity that may represent potential forest threats. As a start, we have developed new national data sets every 16 days from 2002 through 2008, based on land surface phenology, or timing of leaf-out in the spring and brown-down in the fall. Changes in such phenological maps will be shown to contain important information about vegetation health status across the United States. The standard deviation of the duration of fall can be mapped, showing places where length of fall is relatively constant or is variable in length from year to year.

  11. The influence of land use and climate change on forest biomass and composition in Massachusetts, USA.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Jonathan R; Foster, David R; Scheller, Robert; Kittredge, David

    2011-10-01

    Land use and climate change have complex and interacting effects on naturally dynamic forest landscapes. To anticipate and adapt to these changes, it is necessary to understand their individual and aggregate impacts on forest growth and composition. We conducted a simulation experiment to evaluate regional forest change in Massachusetts, USA over the next 50 years (2010-2060). Our objective was to estimate, assuming a linear continuation of recent trends, the relative and interactive influence of continued growth and succession, climate change, forest conversion to developed uses, and timber harvest on live aboveground biomass (AGB) and tree species composition. We examined 20 years of land use records in relation to social and biophysical explanatory variables and used regression trees to create "probability-of-conversion" and "probability-of-harvest" zones. We incorporated this information into a spatially interactive forest landscape simulator to examine forest dynamics as they were affected by land use and climate change. We conducted simulations in a full-factorial design and found that continued forest growth and succession had the largest effect on AGB, increasing stores from 181.83 Tg to 309.56 Tg over 50 years. The increase varied from 49% to 112% depending on the ecoregion within the state. Compared to simulations with no climate or land use, forest conversion reduced gains in AGB by 23.18 Tg (or 18%) over 50 years. Timber harvests reduced gains in AGB by 5.23 Tg (4%). Climate change (temperature and precipitation) increased gains in AGB by 17.3 Tg (13.5%). Pinus strobus and Acer rubrum were ranked first and second, respectively, in terms of total AGB throughout all simulations. Climate change reinforced the dominance of those two species. Timber harvest reduced Quercus rubra from 10.8% to 9.4% of total AGB, but otherwise had little effect on composition. Forest conversion was generally indiscriminate in terms of species removal. Under the naive

  12. Denitrification at a long-term forested land treatment system in the Piedmont of Georgia.

    PubMed

    Meding, S M; Morris, L A; Hoover, C M; Nutter, W L; Cabrera, M L

    2001-01-01

    Spray irrigation of forested land can provide an effective system for nutrient removal and treatment of municipal wastewater. Evolution of N2 + N2O from denitrifying activity is an important renovation pathway for N applied to forested land treatment systems. Federal and state guidance documents for design of forested land treatment systems indicate the expected range for denitrification to be up to 25% of applied N, and most forest land treatment systems are designed using values from 15 to 20% of applied N. However, few measurements of denitrification following long-term wastewater applications at forested land treatment sites exist. In this study, soil N2 + N2O-N evolution was directly measured at four different landscape positions (hilltop, midslope, toe-slope, and riparian zone) in a forested land treatment facility in the Georgia Piedmont that has been operating for more than 13 yr. Denitrification rates within effluent-irrigated areas were significantly greater than rates in adjacent nonirrigated buffer zones. Rates of N2 + N2O-N evolved from soil in irrigated forests ranged from 5 to 10 kg ha(-1) yr(-1) N on the three upland landscape positions and averaged 38 kg ha(-1) yr(-1) N within the riparian zone. The relationship between measured riparian zone denitrification rates and soil physical and chemical properties was poor. The best relationship was with soil temperature, with an r2 of 0.18. Overall, on a landscape position weighted basis, only 2.4% of the wastewater-applied N was lost through denitrification.

  13. Housing growth, forests, and public lands in Northern Wisconsin from 1940 to 2000.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Roger B; Stewart, Susan I; Hawbaker, Todd J; Radeloff, Volker C

    2009-06-01

    Rural, forested areas throughout the United States are experiencing strong housing growth with potentially detrimental impacts on the environment. In this paper, we quantify housing growth in Northern Wisconsin over the last sixty years to determine if growth rates were higher near public lands, which may represent an important recreational amenity. We used data from the U.S. Census to produce decadal housing density estimates, "backcasts," from 1940 to 2000 for northern Wisconsin to examine "rural sprawl" in northern Wisconsin and its relationship to forested areas and public lands. We integrated housing density estimates with the 1992/1993 National Land Cover Dataset to examine the relationship between rural sprawl and land cover, especially forests. Between 1940 and 2000, private land with <2 housing units/km(2) decreased from 47% to 21% of the total landscape. Most importantly, housing growth was concentrated along the boundaries of public lands. In 14 of the 19 counties that we studied, housing growth rates within 1 km of a public land boundary exceeded growth rates in the remainder of the county, and three of the five counties that did not exhibit this pattern, were the ones with the least amount of public land. Future growth can be expected in areas with abundant natural amenities, highlighting the critical need for additional research and effective natural resource management and regional planning to address these challenges.

  14. Ecological processes dominate the 13C land disequilibrium in a Rocky Mountain subalpine forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowling, D. R.; Ballantyne, A. P.; Miller, J. B.; Burns, S. P.; Conway, T. J.; Menzer, O.; Stephens, B. B.; Vaughn, B. H.

    2014-04-01

    Fossil fuel combustion has increased atmospheric CO2 by ≈ 115 µmol mol-1 since 1750 and decreased its carbon isotope composition (δ13C) by 1.7-2‰ (the 13C Suess effect). Because carbon is stored in the terrestrial biosphere for decades and longer, the δ13C of CO2 released by terrestrial ecosystems is expected to differ from the δ13C of CO2 assimilated by land plants during photosynthesis. This isotopic difference between land-atmosphere respiration (δR) and photosynthetic assimilation (δA) fluxes gives rise to the 13C land disequilibrium (D). Contemporary understanding suggests that over annual and longer time scales, D is determined primarily by the Suess effect, and thus, D is generally positive (δR > δA). A 7 year record of biosphere-atmosphere carbon exchange was used to evaluate the seasonality of δA and δR, and the 13C land disequilibrium, in a subalpine conifer forest. A novel isotopic mixing model was employed to determine the δ13C of net land-atmosphere exchange during day and night and combined with tower-based flux observations to assess δA and δR. The disequilibrium varied seasonally and when flux-weighted was opposite in sign than expected from the Suess effect (D = -0.75 ± 0.21‰ or -0.88 ± 0.10‰ depending on method). Seasonality in D appeared to be driven by photosynthetic discrimination (Δcanopy) responding to environmental factors. Possible explanations for negative D include (1) changes in Δcanopy over decades as CO2 and temperature have risen, and/or (2) post-photosynthetic fractionation processes leading to sequestration of isotopically enriched carbon in long-lived pools like wood and soil.

  15. Examining soil erosion and nutrient accumulation in forested and agriculture lands of the low mountainous area of Northern Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, A. T.; Gomi, T.; Takahisa, F.; Phung, K. V.

    2011-12-01

    We examined soil erosion and nutrient accumulations in the Xuanmai area located in the low mountainous region of Northern Vietnam, based on field investigations and remote sensing approaches. The study area had been degraded by land-use change from forest to agriculture in the last 20 years. In contrast, around the study area, the Vietnam government promoted reforestation projects. Such changes in land-use conditions, which may or may not be associated with vegetation ground cover conditions, potentially alter soil erosion and nutrient accumulation. We selected 10 dominant land-use types including forested land (e.g., Pinus massoniana and Acacia mangium plantation) agriculture land (e.g., Cassava), and bare land. We established three 1 x 1 m plots in each land-use type in September 2010. Vegetation biomass, litter cover, soil erosion (height of soil pedestal), and soil physical (soil bulk density and particle size distribution) and chemical properties (Total soil carbon, nitrate, and phosphorus) were measured. Height of soil pedestal can be a record of soil erosion by rain splash during rainy periods from April to August (prior to our field study). We also conducted remote sensing analysis using Landsat TM images obtained in 1993, 2000, and 2007 for identifying temporal patterns of land-use types. We found that the intensity of soil erosion depended primary on current vegetation ground cover condition with no regard of land-use. Hence, nutrient accumulation varied among vegetation ground cover and soil erosion. Remote sensing analysis suggested that shrub and bare lands had been altered from forested land more recently. Our finding suggested that variability of soil nutrient conditions can be associated with long-term soil erosion and production processes. Findings of our study are that: (1) current vegetation and litter ground cover affected the amount of surface soil erosion, and (2) legacy of land-use can be more critical for soil nutrient accumulation. Both

  16. Fire in eastern oak forests: delivering science to land managers

    Treesearch

    Matthew B., ed. Dickinson

    2006-01-01

    Contains 20 papers and 36 poster abstracts presented at a conference on fire in oak forests of the Eastern United States that was held at the Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, on November 15-17, 2005.

  17. 47 CFR 17.58 - Facilities to be located on land under the jurisdiction of the U.S. Forest Service or the Bureau...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... jurisdiction of the U.S. Forest Service or the Bureau of Land Management. 17.58 Section 17.58 Telecommunication... land under the jurisdiction of the U.S. Forest Service or the Bureau of Land Management. Any... the U.S. Forest Service or the Bureau of Land Management shall include a statement that the facilities...

  18. 47 CFR 17.58 - Facilities to be located on land under the jurisdiction of the U.S. Forest Service or the Bureau...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... jurisdiction of the U.S. Forest Service or the Bureau of Land Management. 17.58 Section 17.58 Telecommunication... land under the jurisdiction of the U.S. Forest Service or the Bureau of Land Management. Any... the U.S. Forest Service or the Bureau of Land Management shall include a statement that the facilities...

  19. 47 CFR 17.58 - Facilities to be located on land under the jurisdiction of the U.S. Forest Service or the Bureau...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... jurisdiction of the U.S. Forest Service or the Bureau of Land Management. 17.58 Section 17.58 Telecommunication... land under the jurisdiction of the U.S. Forest Service or the Bureau of Land Management. Any... the U.S. Forest Service or the Bureau of Land Management shall include a statement that the facilities...

  20. 47 CFR 17.58 - Facilities to be located on land under the jurisdiction of the U.S. Forest Service or the Bureau...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... jurisdiction of the U.S. Forest Service or the Bureau of Land Management. 17.58 Section 17.58 Telecommunication... land under the jurisdiction of the U.S. Forest Service or the Bureau of Land Management. Any... the U.S. Forest Service or the Bureau of Land Management shall include a statement that the facilities...

  1. Land parcelization and forest cover fragmentation in three forested countries in Northern Lower Michigan

    Treesearch

    Scott A. Drzyzga; Daniel G. Brown

    1999-01-01

    Many northern Michigan counties have grown in permanent residents and seasonal homes over the past several decades. Forest managers have observed that this influx of new forest owners affects public expectations and the range of socially acceptable forest management options. This shift in settlement and ownership patterns affects the landscape and has important...

  2. Nonindustrial private forest landowners and sources of assistance

    Treesearch

    Eli Sagor

    2006-01-01

    Nonindustrial private forest (NIPF) lands make up a large and important portion of the forested land base in the U.S. Forest management decisions on these lands have important impacts on the nature and level of benefits derived from the land. This chapter will review some important findings about NIPF owners as they relate to forest landowner cooperatives.

  3. Effect of soil carbohydrates on nutrient availability in natural forests and cultivated lands in Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratnayake, R. R.; Seneviratne, G.; Kulasooriya, S. A.

    2013-05-01

    Carbohydrates supply carbon sources for microbial activities that contribute to mineral nutrient production in soil. Their role on soil nutrient availability has not yet been properly elucidated. This was studied in forests and cultivated lands in Sri Lanka. Soil organic matter (SOM) fractions affecting carbohydrate availability were also determined. Soil litter contributed to sugars of plant origin (SPO) in croplands. The negative relationship found between clay bound organic matter (CBO) and glucose indicates higher SOM fixation in clay that lower its availability in cultivated lands. In forests, negative relationships between litter and sugars of microbial origin (SMO) showed that litter fuelled microbes to produce sugars. Fucose and glucose increased the availability of Cu, Zn and Mn in forests. Xylose increased Ca availability in cultivated lands. Arabinose, the main carbon source of soil respiration reduced the P availability. This study showed soil carbohydrates and their relationships with mineral nutrients could provide vital information on the availability of limiting nutrients in tropical ecosystems.

  4. Divergent responses of soil buffering capacity to long-term N deposition in three typical tropical forests with different land-use history.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiankai; Mao, Qinggong; Mo, Jiangming; Gilliam, Frank S; Zhou, Guoyi; Luo, Yiqi; Zhang, Wei; Huang, Juan

    2015-04-07

    Elevated anthropogenic nitrogen (N) deposition has become an important driver of soil acidification at both regional and global scales. It remains unclear, however, how long-term N deposition affects soil buffering capacity in tropical forest ecosystems and in ecosystems of contrasting land-use history. Here, we expand on a long-term N deposition experiment in three tropical forests that vary in land-use history (primary, secondary, and planted forests) in Southern China, with N addition as NH4NO3 of 0, 50, 100, and 150 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1), respectively. Results showed that all three forests were acid-sensitive ecosystems with poor soil buffering capacity, while the primary forest had higher base saturation and cation exchange capacity than others. However, long-term N addition significantly accelerated soil acidification and decreased soil buffering capacity in the primary forest, but not in the degraded secondary and planted forests. We suggest that ecosystem N status, influenced by different land-use history, is primarily responsible for these divergent responses. N-rich primary forests may be more sensitive to external N inputs than others with low N status, and should be given more attention under global changes in the future, because lack of nutrient cations is irreversible.

  5. Role of forest conservation in lessening land degradation in a temperate region: the Monarch Butterfly Biosphere Reserve, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Manzo-Delgado, Lilia; López-García, José; Alcántara-Ayala, Irasema

    2014-06-01

    With international concern about the rates of deforestation worldwide, particular attention has been paid to Latin America. Forest conservation programmes in Mexico include Payment for Environmental Services (PES), a scheme that has been successfully introduced in the Monarch Butterfly Biosphere Reserve. To seek further evidence of the role of PES in lessening land degradation processes in a temperate region, the conservation state of the Cerro Prieto ejido within the Reserve was assessed by an analysis of changes in vegetation cover and land-use between 1971 and 2013. There were no changes in the total forest surface area, but the relative proportions of the different classes of cover density had changed. In 1971, closed and semi-closed forest occupied 247.81 ha and 5.38 ha, 82.33% and 1.79% of the total area of the ejido, respectively. By 2013, closed forest had decreased to 230.38 ha (76.54% of the ejido), and semi-closed cover was 17.23 ha (5.72% of the ejido), suggesting that some semi-closed forest had achieved closed status. The final balance between forest losses and recovery was: 29.63 ha were lost, whereas 13.72 ha were recovered. Losses were mainly linked to a sanitation harvest programme to control the bark beetle Scolytus mundus. Ecotourism associated with forest conservation in the Cerro Prieto ejido has been considered by inhabitants as a focal alternative for economic development. Consequently, it is essential to develop a well-planned and solidly structured approach based on social cohesion to foster a community-led sustainable development at local level.

  6. Impact of ecological and socioeconomic determinants on the spread of tallow tree in southern forest lands

    Treesearch

    Yuan Tan; Joseph Z. Fan; Christopher M. Oswalt

    2010-01-01

    Based on USDA Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) database, relationships between the presence of tallow tree and related driving variables including forest landscape metrics, stand and site conditions, as well as natural and anthropogenic disturbances were analyzed for the southern states infested by tallow trees. Of the 9,966 re-measured FIA plots in...

  7. Michigan's Forests 2009

    Treesearch

    Scott A. Pugh; Lawrence D. Pedersen; Douglas C. Heym; Ronald J. Piva; Christopher W. Woodall; Charles J. Barnett; Cassandra M. Kurtz; W. Keith. Moser

    2012-01-01

    The seventh inventory of Michigan's forests, completed in 2009, describes more than 19.9 million acres of forest land. The data in this report are based on visits to 7,516 forested plots from 2005 to 2009. Timberland accounts for 97 percent of this forest land, and 62 percent is privately owned. The sugar maple/beech/yellow birch forest type accounts for 18...

  8. West Virginia Forests 2013

    Treesearch

    Randall S. Morin; Gregory W. Cook; Charles J. Barnett; Brett J. Butler; Susan J. Crocker; Mark A. Hatfield; Cassandra M. Kurtz; Tonya W. Lister; William G. Luppold; William H. McWilliams; Patrick D. Miles; Mark D. Nelson; Charles H. (Hobie) Perry; Ronald J. Piva; James E. Smith; Jim Westfall; Richard H. Widmann; Christopher W. Woodall

    2016-01-01

    The annual inventory of West Virginia's forests, completed in 2013, covers nearly 12.2 million acres of forest land with an average volume of more than 2,300 cubic feet per acre. This report is based data collected from 2,808 plots located across the State. Forest land is dominated by the oak/hickory forest-type group, which occupies 74 percent of total forest...

  9. Michigan forests 2014

    Treesearch

    Scott A. Pugh; Douglas C. Heym; Brett J. Butler; David E. Haugen; Cassandra M. Kurtz; William H. McWilliams; Patrick D. Miles; Randall S. Morin; Mark D. Nelson; Rachel I. Riemann; James E. Smith; James A. Westfall; Christopher W. Woodall

    2017-01-01

    The eighth inventory of Michigan's forests, completed in 2014, describes more than 20.3 million acres of forest land. The data in this report are based on visits to 4,289 forested plots from 2009 to 2014. Timberland accounts for 95 percent of this forest land, and 62 percent is privately owned. The sugar maple/beech/yellow birch forest type accounts for 19 percent...

  10. Michigan's forests 2004

    Treesearch

    Scott A. Pugh; Mark H. Hansen; Lawrence D. Pedersen; Douglas C. Heym; Brett J. Butler; Susan J. Crocker; Dacia Meneguzzo; Charles H. Perry; David E. Haugen; Christopher Woodall; Ed Jepsen

    2009-01-01

    The first annual inventory of Michigan's forests, completed in 2004, covers more than 19.3 million acres of forest land. The data in this report are based on visits to 10,355 forested plots from 2000 to 2004. In addition to detailed information on forest attributes, this report includes data on forest health, biomass, land-use change, and timber-product outputs....

  11. Impacts of Forest and Agricultural Land Use on Stream Dissolved Organic Carbon During Storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, N. H.; Shin, Y.; Jeon, Y. J.; Lee, E. J.; Eom, J. S.; Kim, B.

    2015-12-01

    Although many studies have been conducted to evaluate the effects of land use on concentrations and compositions of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in streams and rivers, the relationships are still not clear. To elucidate the impacts of forest and agricultural land use on stream DOC during storm events, we investigated concentrations, optical properties, δ13C, and Δ 14C of DOC in forest and agriculture dominated headwater streams in South Korea. Stream DOC concentrations were the highest in a forested subwatershed, and a significant positive correlation was observed between stream DOC concentrations and the proportion of forested area in watersheds, which was strengthened by increased rain intensity. Four PARAFAC components were extracted including terrestrial humic substances, terrestrial fulvic acids, microbial organic matter, and protein-like organic matter, all of which showed a positive correlation with stream DOC concentration although relative proportion of components were dependent on land use. While DOC in a forest stream was mostly composed of terrestrially derived and 14C-enriched, DOC in an agricultural stream included aged DOC up to ~1,000 years old. Although the impacts of hydrological changes due to irrigation, fertilizer use, and selected crop species were not examined, the results of this study suggest that agricultural land use can be a source of aged terrestrial DOC to streams during summer monsoon storms, potentially changing the balance of the regional carbon cycle.

  12. Land cover change and remote sensing: Examples of quantifying spatiotemporal dynamics in tropical forests

    SciTech Connect

    Krummel, J.R.; Su, Haiping; Fox, J.; Yarnasan, S.; Ekasingh, M.

    1995-06-01

    Research on human impacts or natural processes that operate over broad geographic areas must explicitly address issues of scale and spatial heterogeneity. While the tropical forests of Southeast Asia and Mexico have been occupied and used to meet human needs for thousands of years, traditional forest management systems are currently being transformed by rapid and far-reaching demographic, political, economic, and environmental changes. The dynamics of population growth, migration into the remaining frontiers, and responses to national and international market forces result in a demand for land to produce food and fiber. These results illustrate some of the mechanisms that drive current land use changes, especially in the tropical forest frontiers. By linking the outcome of individual land use decisions and measures of landscape fragmentation and change, the aggregated results shows the hierarchy of temporal and spatial events that in summation result in global changes to the most complex and sensitive biome -- tropical forests. By quantifying the spatial and temporal patterns of tropical forest change, researchers can assist policy makers by showing how landscape systems in these tropical forests are controlled by physical, biological, social, and economic parameters.

  13. Retrieval of biophysical parameters with AVIRIS and ISM: The Landes Forest, south west France

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zagolski, F.; Gastellu-Etchegorry, J. P.; Mougin, E.; Giordano, G.; Marty, G.; Letoan, T.; Beaudoin, A.

    1992-01-01

    The first steps of an experiment for investigating the capability of airborne spectrometer data for retrieval of biophysical parameters of vegetation, especially water conditions are presented. Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) and ISM data were acquired in the frame of the 1991 NASA/JPL and CNES campaigns on the Landes, South west France, a large and flat forest area with mainly maritime pines. In-situ measurements were completed at that time; i.e. reflectance spectra, atmospheric profiles, sampling for further laboratory analyses of elements concentrations (lignin, water, cellulose, nitrogen,...). All information was integrated in an already existing data base (age, LAI, DBH, understory cover,...). A methodology was designed for (1) obtaining geometrically and atmospherically corrected reflectance data, (2) registering all available information, and (3) analyzing these multi-source informations. Our objective is to conduct comparative studies with simulation reflectance models, and to improve these models, especially in the MIR.

  14. Using IKONOS and Aerial Videography to Validate Landsat Land Cover Maps of Central African Tropical Rain Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, T.; Laporte, N. T.

    2003-12-01

    Compared to the traditional validation methods, aerial videography is a relatively inexpensive and time-efficient approach to collect "field" data for validating satellite-derived land cover map over large areas. In particular, this approach is valuable in remote and inaccessible locations. In the Sangha Tri-National Park region of Central Africa, where road access is limited to industrial logging sites, we are using IKONOS imagery and aerial videography to assess the accuracy of Landsat-derived land cover maps. As part of a NASA Land Cover Land Use Change project (INFORMS) and in collaboration with the Wildlife Conservation Society in the Republic of Congo, over 1500km of aerial video transects were collected in the Spring of 2001. The use of MediaMapper software combined with a VMS 200 video mapping system enabled the collection of aerial transects to be registered with geographic locations from a Geographic Positioning System. Video frame were extracted, visually interpreted, and compared to land cover types mapped by Landsat. We addressed the limitations of accuracy assessment using aerial-base data and its potential for improving vegetation mapping in tropical rain forests. The results of the videography and IKONOS image analysis demonstrate the utility of very high resolution imagery for map validation and forest resource assessment.

  15. Analysis of Land-Use Effects on Landscape Patterns and Biological Diversity in Pacific North Forests: 1972-1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallin, David O.; Cohen, Warren B.; Bradshaw, G. A.; Spies, T. A.; Hansen, A.; Huff, M. H.; Lehmkuhl, J. F.; Raphael, M. G.; Ripple, W. J.

    1998-01-01

    While there is widespread recognition of the importance of preserving biological diversity there is considerable uncertainty about how to map current patterns of diversity and monitor changes through time. Ground-based approaches are impractical for examining regional patterns of biological diversity, for monitoring change, and they may actually overlook important higher-order phenomena. Thus, there is a critical need for innovative techniques to examine land-use effects on biological diversity at the landscape and regional scales. In this project, we have used satellite-based remote sensing to examine land-use effects on forest ecosystems in the Pacific NorthWest region (PNW) of the U.S.A. Rates and patterns of forest change throughout the region were quantified for the period from 1972 to 1993. This information was then used to map changes in the abundance and distribution of potential habitat for selected vertebrate species. The results of this project will be useful for identifying "keystone" stands that are important in maintaining habitat connectivity at the regional scale and for evaluating the impact of future land-use on vertebrate diversity throughout the region. The approaches developed here will also be useful in other forested regions throughout the world.

  16. Assessing Independent Variables Used in Econometric Modeling Forest Land Use or Land Cover Change: A Meta-Analysis

    Treesearch

    J Jeuck; F. Cubbage; R. Abt; R. Bardon; J. McCarter; J. Coulston; M. Renkow

    2014-01-01

    : We conducted a meta-analysis on 64 econometric models from 47 studies predicting forestland conversion to agriculture (F2A), forestland to development (F2D), forestland to non-forested (F2NF) and undeveloped (including forestland) to developed (U2D) land. Over 250 independent econometric variables were identified from 21 F2A models, 21 F2D models, 12 F2NF models, and...

  17. Land use impact on water quality: valuing forest services in terms of the water supply sector.

    PubMed

    Fiquepron, Julien; Garcia, Serge; Stenger, Anne

    2013-09-15

    The aim of this paper is to quantify the impact of the forest on raw water quality within the framework of other land uses. On the basis of measurements of quality parameters that were identified as being the most problematic (i.e., pesticides and nitrates), we modeled how water quality is influenced by land uses. In order to assess the benefits provided by the forest in terms of improved water quality, we used variations of drinking water prices that were determined by the operating costs of water supply services (WSS). Given the variability of links between forests and water quality, we chose to cover all of France using data observed in each administrative department (France is divided into 95 départements), including a description of WSS and information on land uses. We designed a model that describes the impact of land uses on water quality, as well as the operation of WSS and prices. This bioeconomic model was estimated by the generalized method of moments (GMM) to account for endogeneity and heteroscedasticity issues. We showed that the forest has a positive effect on raw water quality compared to other land uses, with an indirect impact on water prices, making them lower for consumers.

  18. Object Based Land Use and Land Cover Classification Using Sumbandilasat Imagery in Pretoria, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mhangara, P.; Odindi, J.

    2012-04-01

    The launch of SumbandilaSat satellite on 17 September 2009 has ushered in new possibilities in land use/cover classification. SumbandilaSat has a ground sampling resolution of 6.25 m and possesses the red, red-edge and NIR spectral bands. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of using SumbandilaSat imagery to classify land use/cover using an object-based classification ruleset that uses spectral indices, Haralick texture and the original spectral bands to classify urban land use and land cover in Pretoria, South Africa. High classification accuracies were achieved for water, forest, urban built up areas, irrigated-riparian vegetation and grass and sparse vegetation as shown by the very high KIAs higher than 0.85. Bare soil achieved a relatively low classification accuracy of 0.65. This study also showcases the value of SumbandilaSat imagery and the efficacy of object-oriented techniques in land use/cover classification as revealed by the overall accuracy of 0.93 and KIA of 0.91.

  19. AgRISTARS: Renewable resources inventory. Land information support system implementation plan and schedule. [San Juan National Forest pilot test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yao, S. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    The planning and scheduling of the use of remote sensing and computer technology to support the land management planning effort at the national forests level are outlined. The task planning and system capability development were reviewed. A user evaluation is presented along with technological transfer methodology. A land management planning pilot test of the San Juan National Forest is discussed.

  20. The role of non-industrial private forest lands in the conservation of southern fire-dependent wildlife

    Treesearch

    Christopher E. Moorman; Peter T. Bromley; Mark A. Megalos; David Drake

    2002-01-01

    Although scientific support for fire as a land management tool has grown, non-industrial private forest (NIPF) landowners often fail to burn on their properties. These lands comprise approximately 70 percent of southern forests, making them critical to the long-term conservation of wildlife and plant species. Natural resource professionals must overcome key constraints...

  1. Effects of land-cover change on spatial pattern of forest communities in the Southern Appalachian Mountains (USA)

    Treesearch

    Monica G. Turner; Scott M. Pearson; Paul Bolstad; David N. Wear

    2003-01-01

    Understanding the implications of past. present and future patterns of human land use for biodiversity and ecosystem function is increasingly important in landscape ecology. We examined effects of land-use change on four major forest communities of the Southern Appalachian Mountains (USA), addressed two questions: (1) Are and forest communities differentially...

  2. Using widely spaced observations of land use, forest attributes, and intrusions to map resource potential and human impact probability

    Treesearch

    Victor A. Rudis

    2000-01-01

    Scant information exists about the spatial extent of human impact on forest resource supplies, i.e., depreciative and nonforest uses. I used observations of ground-sampled land use and intrusions on forest land to map the probability of resource use and human impact for broad areas. Data came from a seven-state survey region (Alabama, Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi,...

  3. Historical land use and stand age effects on forest soil properties in the Mid-Atlantic US

    Treesearch

    Ian Yesilonis; K. Szlavecz; Richard Pouyat; D. Whigham; L. Xia

    2016-01-01

    The conversion of agriculture lands to forest has been occurring in parts of North America for decades. The legacy of management activity during this transition is reflected in soil physical and chemical properties years after abandonment. This study was conducted at the Smithsonian Environmental Research Center, Maryland, USA, to determine land-use history and forest...

  4. Using widely spaced observations of land use, forest attributes, and intrusions to map resource potential and human impact probability

    Treesearch

    Victor A. Rudis

    2000-01-01

    Scant information exists about the spatial extent of human impact on forest resource supplies, i.e., depreciative and nonforest uses. I used observations of ground-sampled land use and intrusions on forest land to map the probability of resource use and human impact for broad areas. Data came from a seven State survey region (Alabama, Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi,...

  5. 76 FR 8479 - National Forest System Land Management Planning

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-14

    ... sustain the health, diversity, and productivity of the Nation's forests and grasslands to meet the needs..., plans would include plan components to maintain or restore ecosystem and watershed health and resilience... spectrum of sources and users, and a framework that can facilitate adaptation. Questions about multiple use...

  6. Forecasting the Effects of Land-Use Change on Forest Rodents in Indiana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizkalla, Carol E.; Swihart, Robert K.

    2009-11-01

    Forest cover in the upper Wabash River basin in Indiana was fragmented due to agricultural conversion beginning more than 175 years ago. Currently, urban expansion is an important driver of land-use change in the basin. A land transformation model was applied to the basin to forecast land use from 2000 to 2020. We assessed the effect of this projected land-use change scenario on five forest rodent species at three scales: using occupancy models at the patch level, proportional occupancy models at the landscape level, and ecologically scaled landscape indices to assess the change in connectivity at the watershed level. At the patch and landscape scales, occupancy models had low predictability but suggest that gray squirrels are most susceptible to land-use change. At the watershed scale, declines in connectivity did not correspond with the decline of forest. This study highlights the importance of map resolution and consideration of matrix elements in constructing forecast models. Unforeseen drivers of land use, such as changing economic incentives, may also have important ramifications.

  7. Carbon sequestration in the soils of aquaculture ponds, crop land, and forest land in southern Ohio, USA.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, Subhendu; Lal, Rattan; Wang, Han-Ping

    2014-03-01

    Soil samples were collected from four aquaculture ponds (yellow perch culture), a control pond (without aquaculture activities, fallow pond), crop land (under corn), and forest land to estimate the carbon (C) sequestration potential in the Piketon county, Ohio, USA. The averaged total of C was 6.5 ± 2, 8.8 ± 2, 8.53 ± 0.2 and 10.49 ± 1.1 Mg/ha (Mg=10(6)g) in < 0.25 mm fraction; 15.2 ± 2, 16.0 ± 3, 11.49 ± 0.8 and 17.23 ± 3.4 Mg/ha in micro aggregates (0.25-2.5 mm); and 22.1 ± 3, 26.4 ± 3, 12.16 ± 1.6 and 18.51 ± 4.3 Mg/ha in macro aggregates ( > 2.5mm), for aquaculture ponds, control ponds, cropland and forest land, respectively. The soil/sediment C pool followed the order of forest > crop land soils > aquaculture pond soils.

  8. Modelling interannual variation in the spring and autumn land surface phenology of the European forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez-Galiano, Victor F.; Sanchez-Castillo, Manuel; Dash, Jadunandan; Atkinson, Peter M.; Ojeda-Zujar, Jose

    2016-06-01

    This research reveals new insights into the weather drivers of interannual variation in land surface phenology (LSP) across the entire European forest, while at the same time establishes a new conceptual framework for predictive modelling of LSP. Specifically, the random-forest (RF) method, a multivariate, spatially non-stationary and non-linear machine learning approach, was introduced for phenological modelling across very large areas and across multiple years simultaneously: the typical case for satellite-observed LSP. The RF model was fitted to the relation between LSP interannual variation and numerous climate predictor variables computed at biologically relevant rather than human-imposed temporal scales. In addition, the legacy effect of an advanced or delayed spring on autumn phenology was explored. The RF models explained 81 and 62 % of the variance in the spring and autumn LSP interannual variation, with relative errors of 10 and 20 %, respectively: a level of precision that has until now been unobtainable at the continental scale. Multivariate linear regression models explained only 36 and 25 %, respectively. It also allowed identification of the main drivers of the interannual variation in LSP through its estimation of variable importance. This research, thus, shows an alternative to the hitherto applied linear regression approaches for modelling LSP and paves the way for further scientific investigation based on machine learning methods.

  9. Implementing ecosystem management in public agencies: lessons from the U.S. Bureau of Land Management and the Forest Service.

    PubMed

    Koontz, Tomas M; Bodine, Jennifer

    2008-02-01

    Ecosystem management was formally adopted over a decade ago by many U.S. natural resource agencies, including the Forest Service and the Bureau of Land Management. This approach calls for management based on stakeholder collaboration; interagency cooperation; integration of scientific, social, and economic information; preservation of ecological processes; and adaptive management. Results of previous studies indicate differences in the extent to which particular components of ecosystem management would be implemented within the U.S. Forest Service and the Bureau of Land Management and suggest a number of barriers thought to impede implementation. Drawing on survey and interview data from agency personnel and stakeholders, we compared levels of ecosystem-management implementation in the Forest Service and Bureau of Land Management and identified the most important barriers to implementation. Agency personnel perceived similarly high levels of implementation on many ecosystem-management components, whereas stakeholders perceived lower levels. Agencies were most challenged by implementation of preservation of ecological processes, adaptive management, and integration of social and economic information, whereas the most significant barriers to implementation were political, cultural, and legal.

  10. Combining global land cover datasets to quantify agricultural expansion into forests in Latin America: Limitations and challenges.

    PubMed

    Pendrill, Florence; Persson, U Martin

    2017-01-01

    While we know that deforestation in the tropics is increasingly driven by commercial agriculture, most tropical countries still lack recent and spatially-explicit assessments of the relative importance of pasture and cropland expansion in causing forest loss. Here we present a spatially explicit quantification of the extent to which cultivated land and grassland expanded at the expense of forests across Latin America in 2001-2011, by combining two "state-of-the-art" global datasets (Global Forest Change forest loss and GlobeLand30-2010 land cover). We further evaluate some of the limitations and challenges in doing this. We find that this approach does capture some of the major patterns of land cover following deforestation, with GlobeLand30-2010's Grassland class (which we interpret as pasture) being the most common land cover replacing forests across Latin America. However, our analysis also reveals some major limitations to combining these land cover datasets for quantifying pasture and cropland expansion into forest. First, a simple one-to-one translation between GlobeLand30-2010's Cultivated land and Grassland classes into cropland and pasture respectively, should not be made without caution, as GlobeLand30-2010 defines its Cultivated land to include some pastures. Comparisons with the TerraClass dataset over the Brazilian Amazon and with previous literature indicates that Cultivated land in GlobeLand30-2010 includes notable amounts of pasture and other vegetation (e.g. in Paraguay and the Brazilian Amazon). This further suggests that the approach taken here generally leads to an underestimation (of up to ~60%) of the role of pasture in replacing forest. Second, a large share (~33%) of the Global Forest Change forest loss is found to still be forest according to GlobeLand30-2010 and our analysis suggests that the accuracy of the combined datasets, especially for areas with heterogeneous land cover and/or small-scale forest loss, is still too poor for deriving

  11. Combining global land cover datasets to quantify agricultural expansion into forests in Latin America: Limitations and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Persson, U. Martin

    2017-01-01

    While we know that deforestation in the tropics is increasingly driven by commercial agriculture, most tropical countries still lack recent and spatially-explicit assessments of the relative importance of pasture and cropland expansion in causing forest loss. Here we present a spatially explicit quantification of the extent to which cultivated land and grassland expanded at the expense of forests across Latin America in 2001–2011, by combining two “state-of-the-art” global datasets (Global Forest Change forest loss and GlobeLand30-2010 land cover). We further evaluate some of the limitations and challenges in doing this. We find that this approach does capture some of the major patterns of land cover following deforestation, with GlobeLand30-2010’s Grassland class (which we interpret as pasture) being the most common land cover replacing forests across Latin America. However, our analysis also reveals some major limitations to combining these land cover datasets for quantifying pasture and cropland expansion into forest. First, a simple one-to-one translation between GlobeLand30-2010’s Cultivated land and Grassland classes into cropland and pasture respectively, should not be made without caution, as GlobeLand30-2010 defines its Cultivated land to include some pastures. Comparisons with the TerraClass dataset over the Brazilian Amazon and with previous literature indicates that Cultivated land in GlobeLand30-2010 includes notable amounts of pasture and other vegetation (e.g. in Paraguay and the Brazilian Amazon). This further suggests that the approach taken here generally leads to an underestimation (of up to ~60%) of the role of pasture in replacing forest. Second, a large share (~33%) of the Global Forest Change forest loss is found to still be forest according to GlobeLand30-2010 and our analysis suggests that the accuracy of the combined datasets, especially for areas with heterogeneous land cover and/or small-scale forest loss, is still too poor for

  12. Photo series for quantifying forest residues in managed lands of the Medicine Bow National Forest

    Treesearch

    John B. Popp; John E. Lundquist

    2006-01-01

    This photo series presents a visual representation of a range of fuel loading conditions specifically found on the Medicine Bow National Forest. The photos are grouped by forest type and past management practices. This field guide describes the distribution of different types of woody fuels and includes some vegetation data.

  13. Monitoring state forest lands in standardization with a national forest inventory program

    Treesearch

    James A. Westfall; Charles T. Scott

    2009-01-01

    Within the past decade, there has been increasing interest in uniformity of forest inventory techniques and methods. Where forest inventories are already in place, harmonization is often needed to recast various metrics and measurements to a common definition so that results can be compared and summarized across various spatial scales without regard to administrative...

  14. Canopy structure on forest lands in western Oregon: differences among forest types and stand ages

    Treesearch

    Anne C.S. McIntosh; Andrew N. Gray; Steven L. Garman

    2009-01-01

    Canopy structure is an important attribute affecting economic and ecological values of forests in the Pacific Northwest. However, canopy cover and vertical layering are rarely measured directly; they are usually inferred from other forest measurements. In this study, we quantified and compared vertical and horizontal patterns of tree canopy structure and understory...

  15. Seasonal greenness variations in Amazon transitional forests in response to light, moisture, and land use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratana, P.; Huete, A. R.; Davies, K.; Restrepo-Coupe, N.

    2014-12-01

    The Amazon basin consists of structurally diverse tropical forest ecosystems resulting from unique functional responses to seasonal rainfall and radiation drivers, as well as fire and land use pressures. Dry season intensity and duration increase from the tropical wet rainforests at the equator to cerrado at the south, with transitional forests (dry forest, semi-deciduous forests, and cerradão) and the arc of deforestation between the two large biomes. Little known of this distinctive transitional forest composition and functional types, yet this zone is disappearing rapidly due to anthropological pressure and warming events. We hypothesize that these gradients in light, moisture, land use pressures, and forest functional types should be expressed in distinct canopy-level seasonal responses observable in satellite time series data. Yet, recent studies have raised concerns of concurrent seasonal sun geometry influences that confound the interpretation of satellite-derived greenness and suggest that observed tropical forest seasonality are optical artifacts of shifting sun- sensor view geometries. In this study we investigated forest seasonal variations and greenness dynamics across the transition zone, with 10+ years (2003-2013) of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) enhanced vegetation index (EVI) data derived from the MCD43A1 product, for a fixed sun angle and fully corrected for sun- sensor view geometries. EVI values were extracted across two latitudinal transects across the Amazon transition zone sampling the eastern and central regions of the basin. We found a clear pattern of shifting forest greenness seasonality resulting from earlier onsets of the dry season from south to the north, irrespective of, and asynchronous with the solstice to equinox sun-earth geometry. From this seasonal profiles dry season greening in the wet forests and browning in the southern tropical dry forests could be observed. In many of the transitional forests, a

  16. Factors affecting the availability of wood energy from nonindustrial private forest lands in the Northeast.

    Treesearch

    John J. Lindsay; Alphonse H. Gilbert; Thomas W. Birch; Thomas W. Birch

    1992-01-01

    Describes factors affecting the availability of fuelwood from nonindustrial private forests (NIPF) in the Northeast. The availability of market fuelwood depends heavily on tract size. The demand for land to supply the expanding urban fringe may result in a lower supply of market wood but also in more wood being cut to satisfy the owner's need for wood. NIPF owners...

  17. Restocking conditions on the burned-over forest lands of southwestern Maine, June 1949

    Treesearch

    Wayne G. Banks; James C. Rettie

    1949-01-01

    Disastrous fires swept over some 130,000 acres of forest land in southwestern Maine during the autumn of 1947. Practically all of the timber stand (211 million board feet of saw timber and 400,000 cords of pole timber) was killed or injured by this fire.

  18. Influence of purchaser perceptions and intentions on price for forest land parcels: a hedonic pricing approach

    Treesearch

    Stephanie A. Snyder; Michael A. Kilgore; Rachel Hudson; Jacob Donnay

    2008-01-01

    A hedonic model was developed to analyze the market for undeveloped forest land in Minnesota. Variables describing in situ conditions, locational characteristics, buyer perceptions and intentions, and transactional terms were tested for their influence on sale price. The independent variables explained 67% of the per hectare sale price variation. Water frontage, road...

  19. Effects of all-terrain vehicles on forested lands and grasslands

    Treesearch

    Dexter Meadows; Randy Foltz; Nancy Geehan

    2008-01-01

    As the United States population has grown, so has all-terrain-vehicle (ATV) use on national forests and grasslands and other public lands. Annual sales of ATVs have increased over 272 percent since 1994 to an estimated 876,000 units in 2005 (Specialty Vehicle Institute of America - Special Report Summer 2006). ATVs are a popular choice for outdoor recreation. According...

  20. Timber resource statistics for forest land in eastern Washington, January 2002.

    Treesearch

    Andrew N. Gray; Jeremy S. Fried; Glenn Christensen; Larry. Potts

    2006-01-01

    This report summarizes timber resource statistics for the 20 counties in eastern Washington. The inventory sampled all private and public lands except those administered by the National Forest System in 2001, and those that were reserved from management for wood products. Area information for parks and other reserves was obtained directly from the organizations...

  1. Attribution of net carbon change by disturbance type across forest lands of the conterminous United States

    Treesearch

    N. L. Harris; S. C. Hagen; S. S. Saatchi; T. R. H. Pearson; Christopher W. Woodall; Grant M. Domke; B. H. Braswell; Brian F. Walters; S. Brown; W. Salas; A. Fore; Y. Yu

    2016-01-01

    Background: Locating terrestrial sources and sinks of carbon (C) will be critical to developing strategies that contribute to the climate change mitigation goals of the Paris Agreement. Here we present spatially resolved estimates of net C change across United States (US) forest lands between 2006 and 2010 and attribute them to natural and anthropogenic processes....

  2. Multivariate geomorphic analysis of forest streams: Implications for assessment of land use impacts on channel condition

    Treesearch

    Richard. D. Wood-Smith; John M. Buffington

    1996-01-01

    Multivariate statistical analyses of geomorphic variables from 23 forest stream reaches in southeast Alaska result in successful discrimination between pristine streams and those disturbed by land management, specifically timber harvesting and associated road building. Results of discriminant function analysis indicate that a three-variable model discriminates 10...

  3. Integrating fire management into land management planning for west-side forests

    Treesearch

    Peter D. Teensma

    1996-01-01

    Fire management's integration into land management planning is critical to the successful management of nearly all wildland ecosystems, including westside forests, which lie west of the Cascade crest in Oregon and the northern coastal ranges in California. Restoration and maintenance of fire as an ecosystem process is critical to retention of biological diversity...

  4. A stochastic forest fire model for future land cover scenarios assessment

    Treesearch

    M. D' Andrea; P. Fiorucci; T.P. Holmes

    2011-01-01

    Land cover is affected by many factors including economic development, climate and natural disturbances such as wildfires. The ability to evaluate how fire regimes may alter future vegetation, and how future vegetation may alter fire regimes, would assist forest managers in planning management actions to be carried out in the face of anticipated socio-economic and...

  5. Land grants of New Mexico and the United States Forest Service

    Treesearch

    Carol Raish; Alice M. McSweeney

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Forest Service (FS) has a long, shared history with the Spanish and Mexican land grants of northern New Mexico. The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, which ended the war between the United States and Mexico, was supposed to recognize and respect the property rights of the resident Hispano population. In many cases the intent of the Treaty was not honored. During...

  6. Nitrate Leaching From Intensive Forest Management on Abandonded Agricultural Land: Fifth-Year Results

    Treesearch

    Thomas M. Williams; Charles Gresham

    2002-01-01

    This report is on the fifth year results of a cooperative research project to examine water quality impacts of maximizing plantation growth on abandoned agricultural land, first reported after two years in the Ninth Southern Silvicultural Research Conference. The study, located on International Paper's Southland Experimental Forest at Bainbridge GA, examines...

  7. Ecological Land Classification: Applications to Identify the Productive Potential of Southern Forests

    Treesearch

    Dennis L. Mengel; D. Thompson Tew; [Editors

    1991-01-01

    Eighteen papers representing four categories-Regional Overviews; Classification System Development; Classification System Interpretation; Mapping/GIS Applications in Classification Systems-present the state of the art in forest-land classification and evaluation in the South. In addition, nine poster papers are presented.

  8. Evaluating anthropogenic risk of grassland and forest habitat degradation using land-cover data

    Treesearch

    Kurt Riitters; James Wickham; Timothy Wade

    2009-01-01

    The effects of landscape context on habitat quality are receiving increased attention in conservation biology. The objective of this research is to demonstrate a landscape-level approach to mapping and evaluating the anthropogenic risks of grassland and forest habitat degradation by examining habitat context as defined by intensive anthropogenic land uses at multiple...

  9. Utilization of ERTS-1 data in North Carolina. [forested wetlands, water management, and land use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welby, C. W. (Principal Investigator); Lammi, J. O.; Carson, R. J., III

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. ERTS-1 imagery has been used to study forested wetlands, dynamic processes off Coastal North Carolina, and land use patterns in the Wilmington, North Carolina area. The thrust of the investigation is still involvement of state and regional agencies in the use of ERTS-1 imagery in solving some of their day-to-day problems.

  10. An approach to quantifying long-term habitat change on managed forest lands

    Treesearch

    Paul B. Hamel; John B. Dunning

    2000-01-01

    Forest land managers must determine the effects of their management on nontarget resources, resources for which no current inventory is available, and for which no current inventory information exists. The tools available to managers to make these determinations consist of the inventory information gathered for those commodities desired to be produced, i.e.,...

  11. The hardwood resource on nonindustrial private forest land in the Southeast Piedmont

    Treesearch

    William A. Bechtold; Douglas R. Phillips

    1983-01-01

    More than half of the commercial forest land in the Southeast Piedment supports hardwood stands held by small nonindustrial private landowners. Only 21 percent of all NIPF stands are fully stocked with growing-stock trees. Only 37 percent of all hardwood biomass harvested from these stands is currently being utilized. As these stands are harvested, about 39 tons of...

  12. Influence of forest management alternatives and land type on susceptibility to fire in northern Wisconsin, USA

    Treesearch

    Eric J. Gustafson; Patrick A. Zollner; Brian R. Sturtevant; S. He Hong; David J. Mladenoff

    2004-01-01

    We used the LANDIS disturbance and succession model to study the effects of six alternative vegetation management scenarios on forest succession and the subsequent risk of canopy fire on a 2791 km2 landscape in northern Wisconsin, USA. The study area is a mix of fire-prone and fire-resistant land types. The alternatives vary the spatial...

  13. Housing growth, forests, and public lands in Northern Wisconsin form 1940 to 2000

    Treesearch

    Roger B. Hammer; Susan I. Stewart; Todd J. Hawbaker; Volker C. Radeloff

    2009-01-01

    Rural, forested areas throughout the United States are experiencing strong housing growth with potentially detrimental impacts on the environment. In this paper, we quantify housing growth in Northern Wisconsin over the last sixty years to determine if growth rates were higher near public lands, which may represent an important recreational amenity. We used data from...

  14. Riparian Zone Analysis for Forest Land Cover for the Conterminous US

    EPA Science Inventory

    One data layer describing the amount of forest land cover contained within a buffer area extending 30 meters to each side of all streams contained within the basin (Watershed Boundary Dataset (WBD) 12-digit Hydrologic Unit Code (HUC)) and from the edge of water bodies such as la...

  15. Modeling fuel treatment costs on Forest Service Lands in the Western United States

    Treesearch

    David Calkin; Krista Gebert

    2006-01-01

    Years of successful fire suppression have led to high fuel loads on the nation's forests, and steps are being taken by the nation's land management agencies to reduce these fuel loads. However, to achieve desired outcomes in a fiscally responsible manner, the cost and effectiveness in reducing losses due to wildland fire of different fuel treatments in...

  16. Satellite detection of land-use change and effects on regional forest aboveground biomass estimates

    Treesearch

    Daolan Zheng; Linda S. Heath; Mark J. Ducey

    2008-01-01

    We used remote-sensing-driven models to detect land-cover change effects on forest aboveground biomass (AGB) density (Mg·ha−1, dry weight) and total AGB (Tg) in Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Michigan USA, between the years 1992-2001, and conducted an evaluation of the approach. Inputs included remotely-sensed 1992 reflectance data...

  17. Effects of changing forest and impervious land covers on discharge characteristics of watersheds.

    PubMed

    Wissmar, Robert C; Timm, Raymond K; Logsdon, Miles G

    2004-07-01

    Effects of changing patterns of forest and impervious land covers on hydrologic regimes of watersheds were evaluated for urban and rural areas of the lower Cedar River drainage near Seattle, Washington. Land cover characterizations were used in a spatially explicit hydrology model to assess effects of land covers on watershed hydrology during presettlement conditions ("full forest cover"), 1991 and 1998. For the presettlement to 1991 period, urban watersheds showed decreases in forest covers (range 63% to 83%) and increases in impervious surfaces (range 43% to 71%). Rural watersheds showed similar patterns but smaller changes, with forest covers decreasing (range 28% to 34%) and impervious surfaces increasing (range 8% to 15%). For the 1991 and 1998 period, changes in forest covers for urban and rural watershed were <24%, with losses in some watersheds and regeneration in others. Impervious surfaces continued to increase, but increases were larger in rural (range 38% to 60%) than in urban watersheds (range 4% to 27%). Flood-frequency curves indicated that discharge rates (m sec(-1)) for all watersheds were higher in 1991 and 1998 than historical and suggested that chances for floods increase because of changing land covers. The largest increases in discharge rates were in urban watersheds, with rates for 2-year, 10-year, and 25-year recurrence intervals being more than two times greater than the rate during historical conditions. Changes in flow regimes were indicated by presettlement discharge levels of less frequent recurrence intervals (10-year and 25-year) occurring in posturbanization times (1991 and 1998) during more frequent intervals (2-year and 10-year). Normalized flows (m yr(-1)) of watersheds for 2-year, 10-year, and 25-year recurrence intervals indicate how flow regimes in 1991 and 1998 can change as functions of different areas of land covers. During 1991 and 1998, abrupt increases in flows occurred when forest covers were low (range 17% to 37%) and

  18. Land-use pressure and a transition to forest-cover loss in the Eastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drummond, M.A.; Loveland, T.R.

    2010-01-01

    Contemporary land-use pressures have a significant impact on the extent and condition of forests in the eastern United States, causing a regional-scale decline in forest cover. Earlier in the 20th century, land cover was on a trajectory of forest expansion that followed agricultural abandonment. However, the potential for forest regeneration has slowed, and the extent of regional forest cover has declined by more than 4.0%. Using remote-sensing data, statistical sampling, and change-detection methods, this research shows how land conversion varies spatially and temporally across the East from 19732000, and how those changes affect regional land-change dynamics. The analysis shows that agricultural land use has continued to decline, and that this enables forest recovery; however, an important land-cover transition has occurred, from a mode of regional forest-cover gain to one of forest-cover loss caused by timber cutting cycles, urbanization, and other land-use demands. ?? 2010 by American Institute of Biological Sciences. All rights reserved.

  19. Regional differences of urbanization in the conterminous U.S. on upland forest land cover, 1973-2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Auch, Roger F.; Drummond, Mark A.; Xian, George Z.; Sayler, Kristi L.; Acevedo, William; Taylor, Janis L.

    2016-01-01

    In this U.S. Geological Survey study of forest land cover across the conterminous U.S. (CONUS), specific proportions and rates of forest conversion to developed (urban) land were assessed on an ecoregional basis. The study period was divided into six time intervals between 1973 and 2011. Forest land cover was the source of 40% or more of the new urban land in 35 of the 84 ecoregions located within the CONUS. In 11 of these ecoregions this threshold exceeded in every time interval. When the percent of change, forest to urban, was compared to the percent of forest in each ecoregion, 58 ecoregions had a greater percent of change and, in six of those, change occurred in every time interval. Annual rates of forest to urban land cover change of 0.2% or higher occurred in 12 ecoregions at least once and in one ecoregion in all intervals. There were three ecoregions where the above conditions were met for nearly every time interval. Even though only a small number of the ecoregions were heavily impacted by forest loss to urban development within the CONUS, the ecosystem services provided by undeveloped forest land cover need to be quantified more completely to better inform future regional land management.

  20. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions from deforestation and forest degradation: global land-use implications.

    PubMed

    Miles, Lera; Kapos, Valerie

    2008-06-13

    Recent climate talks in Bali have made progress toward action on deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries, within the anticipated post-Kyoto emissions reduction agreements. As a result of such action, many forests will be better protected, but some land-use change will be displaced to other locations. The demonstration phase launched at Bali offers an opportunity to examine potential outcomes for biodiversity and ecosystem services. Research will be needed into selection of priority areas for reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation to deliver multiple benefits, on-the-ground methods to best ensure these benefits, and minimization of displaced land-use change into nontarget countries and ecosystems, including through revised conservation investments.

  1. Land-based approach to evaluate sustainable land management and adaptive capacity of ecosystems/lands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kust, German; Andreeva, Olga

    2015-04-01

    A number of new concepts and paradigms appeared during last decades, such as sustainable land management (SLM), climate change (CC) adaptation, environmental services, ecosystem health, and others. All of these initiatives still not having the common scientific platform although some agreements in terminology were reached, schemes of links and feedback loops created, and some models developed. Nevertheless, in spite of all these scientific achievements, the land related issues are still not in the focus of CC adaptation and mitigation. The last did not grow much beyond the "greenhouse gases" (GHG) concept, which makes land degradation as the "forgotten side of climate change" The possible decision to integrate concepts of climate and desertification/land degradation could be consideration of the "GHG" approach providing global solution, and "land" approach providing local solution covering other "locally manifesting" issues of global importance (biodiversity conservation, food security, disasters and risks, etc.) to serve as a central concept among those. SLM concept is a land-based approach, which includes the concepts of both ecosystem-based approach (EbA) and community-based approach (CbA). SLM can serve as in integral CC adaptation strategy, being based on the statement "the more healthy and resilient the system is, the less vulnerable and more adaptive it will be to any external changes and forces, including climate" The biggest scientific issue is the methods to evaluate the SLM and results of the SLM investments. We suggest using the approach based on the understanding of the balance or equilibrium of the land and nature components as the major sign of the sustainable system. Prom this point of view it is easier to understand the state of the ecosystem stress, size of the "health", range of adaptive capacity, drivers of degradation and SLM nature, as well as the extended land use, and the concept of environmental land management as the improved SLM approach

  2. Application of municipal sewage sludge in forest and degraded land

    Treesearch

    D.H. Marx; C.R. Berry; Paul P. Kormanik

    1995-01-01

    Nearly 8 million dry tons of municipal sewage sludge are produced each year in the USA by the more than 15,000 publicly owned treatment plants and the tonnage is increasing.For two decades, researchers in the USA have been studying the feasibility of land application of municipal sewage sludge. Research, large-scale practical projects, and commercial ventures have...

  3. 25 CFR 163.35 - Indian forest land assistance account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ....35 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY... reservation; (2) Donations or contributions; (3) Unobligated forestry appropriations for the tribe; (4) User...) For purposes of § 163.35(c)(3) of this part; unobligated forestry appropriations shall consist of...

  4. 25 CFR 163.35 - Indian forest land assistance account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ....35 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY... reservation; (2) Donations or contributions; (3) Unobligated forestry appropriations for the tribe; (4) User...) For purposes of § 163.35(c)(3) of this part; unobligated forestry appropriations shall consist of...

  5. 25 CFR 163.35 - Indian forest land assistance account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ....35 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY... reservation; (2) Donations or contributions; (3) Unobligated forestry appropriations for the tribe; (4) User...) For purposes of § 163.35(c)(3) of this part; unobligated forestry appropriations shall consist of...

  6. 25 CFR 163.35 - Indian forest land assistance account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ....35 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY... reservation; (2) Donations or contributions; (3) Unobligated forestry appropriations for the tribe; (4) User...) For purposes of § 163.35(c)(3) of this part; unobligated forestry appropriations shall consist of...

  7. 25 CFR 163.35 - Indian forest land assistance account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ....35 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY... reservation; (2) Donations or contributions; (3) Unobligated forestry appropriations for the tribe; (4) User...) For purposes of § 163.35(c)(3) of this part; unobligated forestry appropriations shall consist of...

  8. Southern United States climate, land use, and forest conditions

    Treesearch

    David N. Wear; Thomas L. Mote; J. Marshall Shepherd; K. C. Benita; Christopher W. Strother

    2014-01-01

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has concluded, with 90% certainty, that human or "anthropogenic" activities (emissions of greenhouse gases, aerosols and pollution, landuse/land-cover change) have altered global temperature patterns over the past 100-150 years (IPCC 2007a). Such temperature changes have a set of cascading, and sometimes...

  9. RESTORING SUSTAINABLE FORESTS ON APPALACHIAN MINED LANDS FOR WOOD PRODUCTS, RENEWABLE ENERGY, CARBON SEQUESTRATION, AND OTHER ECOSYSTEM SERVICES

    SciTech Connect

    James A. Burger; J. Galbraith; T. Fox; G. Amacher; J. Sullivan; C. Zipper

    2005-02-15

    The overall purpose of this project is to evaluate the biological and economic feasibility of restoring high-quality forests on mined land, and to measure carbon sequestration and wood production benefits that would be achieved from forest restoration procedures. During the reporting period (October-December 2004) we completed the validation of a forest productivity classification model for mined land. A coefficient of determination (R{sup 2}) of 0.68 confirms the model's ability to predict SI based on a selection of mine soil properties. To determine carbon sequestration under different forest management scenarios, a field study was installed as a 3 x 3 factorial in a random complete block design with three replications at each of three locations, Ohio (Figure 1), West Virginia (Figure 2), and Virginia (Figure 3). The treatments included three forest types (white pine, hybrid poplar, mixed hardwood) and three silvicultural regimes (competition control, competition control plus tillage, competition control plus tillage plus fertilization). For hybrid poplar, total plant biomass differences increased significantly with the intensity of silvicultural input. Root, stem, and foliage biomass also increased with the level of silvicultural intensity. Financial feasibility analyses of reforestation on mined lands previously reclaimed to grassland have been completed for conversion to white pine and mixed hardwood species. Examination of potential policy instruments for promoting financial feasibility also have been completed, including lump sum payments at time of conversion, annual payments through the life of the stand, and payments based on carbon sequestration that provide both minimal profitability and fully offset initial reforestation outlays. We have compiled a database containing mine permit information obtained from permitting agencies in Virginia, West Virginia, Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Kentucky. Due to differences and irregularities in permitting procedures

  10. Biophysical Impacts of Tropical Land Transformation from Forest to Oil Palm and Rubber Plantations in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knohl, A.; Meijide, A.; Fan, Y.; Hölscher, D.; June, T.; Niu, F.; Panferov, O.; Ringeler, A.; Röll, A.; Sabajo, C.; Tiralla, N.

    2015-12-01

    Indonesia currently experiences rapid and large-scale land-use changes resulting in forest loss and the expansion of cash crop plantations such as oil palm and rubber. Such land transformations are associated with changes in surface properties that affect biophysical processes influencing the atmosphere. Yet, the overall effect of such land transformations on the atmosphere at local and regional scale remains unclear. In our study, we combine measurements of microclimate, transpiration via sap-flux, surface energy fluxes via eddy covariance, surface temperature via remote sensing, land surface (CLM) and regional climate modeling (WRF) for Jambi Province in Indonesia. Our microclimatic measurements showed that air temperature within the canopy was on average 0.7-0.8°C higher in monoculture plantations (oil palm and rubber) compared to forest. Remote sensing analysis using MODIS and Landsat revealed a higher canopy surface temperature for oil palm plantations (+1.5°C) compared to forest, but only little differences for rubber plantations. Transpiration (T) and evapotranspiration (ET) as well as the contribution of T to ET of oil palm showed a strong age-dependent increase. The sensible to latent heat flux ratio decreased with age. Overall, rubber plantations showed the lowest transpirations rates (320 mm year-1), oil palm intermediate rates (414 mm year-1), and forest the highest rates (558 mm year-1) indicating substantial differences in water use. Despite the differences in water use and the higher within-canopy and surface temperatures of the plantations compared to the forest, there was only a minor effect of land transformation on the atmosphere at the regional scale (<0.2 °C), irrespectively of the large spatial extend of the transformation. In conclusion, our study shows a strong local scale biophysical impact affecting the conditions at the stand level, which is however mitigated in the atmosphere at the regional level.

  11. Biophysical Impacts of Tropical Land Transformation from Forest to Oil Palm and Rubber Plantations in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knohl, Alexander; Meijide, Ana; Fan, Yuanchao; Gunawan, Dodo; Hölscher, Dirk; June, Tania; Niu, Furong; Panferov, Oleg; Ringeler, Andre; Röll, Alexander; Sabajo, Clifton; Tiralla, Nina

    2016-04-01

    Indonesia currently experiences rapid and large-scale land-use changes resulting in forest loss and the expansion of cash crop plantations such as oil palm and rubber. Such land transformations are associated with changes in surface properties that affect biophysical processes influencing the atmosphere. Yet, the overall effect of such land transformations on the atmosphere at local and regional scale remains unclear. In our study, we combine measurements of microclimate, transpiration via sap-flux, surface energy fluxes via eddy covariance, surface temperature via remote sensing, land surface (CLM) and regional climate modeling (WRF) for Jambi Province in Indonesia. Our microclimatic measurements showed that air temperature within the canopy was on average 0.7-0.8°C higher in monoculture plantations (oil palm and rubber) compared to forest. Remote sensing analysis using MODIS and Landsat revealed a higher canopy surface temperature for oil palm plantations (+1.5°C) compared to forest, but only little differences for rubber plantations. Transpiration (T) and evapotranspiration (ET) as well as the contribution of T to ET of oil palm showed a strong age-dependent increase. The sensible to latent heat flux ratio decreased with age. Overall, rubber plantations showed the lowest transpirations rates (320 mm year-1), oil palm intermediate rates (414 mm year-1), and forest the highest rates (558 mm year-1) indicating substantial differences in water use. Despite the differences in water use and the higher within-canopy and surface temperatures of the plantations compared to the forest, there was only a minor effect of land transformation on the atmosphere at the regional scale (<0.2 °C), irrespectively of the large spatial extend of the transformation. In conclusion, our study shows a strong local scale biophysical impact affecting the conditions at the stand level, which is however mitigated in the atmosphere at the regional level.

  12. Carbon emissions caused by land-use change in tropical forests of Borneo island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, R.; Ito, A.

    2016-12-01

    Tropical forests in Borneo island have disappeared by 1.5%/year during the last decade. Land-use changes have been mainly caused by plantation and wild fire in Borneo island. We estimated regional scale carbon balance of Borneo island by using a terrestrial ecosystem model, VISIT. We took into account a land-use change map developed by using MODIS data. The land-use change map includes when wild fire occurred and when artificial trees (e.g. oil palm) were planted. Southern part of Borneo island was strongly affected by wild fire. Especially in 2002, 2006 and 2015, wild fire was spread widely because of ENSO. Carbon emissions in these years were larger than other year. Carbon emission in northern part of Borneo was mainly caused by conversion from forest to oil palm.

  13. Soil-Atmosphere Greenhouse Gas Fluxes on the Margins of the Congo Forest: Effects of Forest Conversion towards Smallholder Agricultural Lands and Agricultural Intensification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    kwatcho Kengdo, S.; Sonwa, D. J.; Njine-Bememba, C. B.; Djatsa, L. D.; Rufino, M. C.; Verchot, L. V.; Tejedor, J.; Dannenmann, M.

    2016-12-01

    The forests of the Congo Basin are subject to deforestation and land use change, which may severely influence the soil-atmosphere exchange of greenhouse gases (GHG). However, due to absence of analytical capacities in Central Africa, there is a lack of knowledge on fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O at the soil-atmosphere interface for natural and managed ecosystems, which introduces large uncertainties into regional and national GHG reporting. The objectives of this study were to quantify GHG emissions from typical land use on the margins of the Congo forests, to analyze seasonal variability and environmental controls of soil-atmosphere GHG fluxes across a land use gradient and explore options of sustainable intensification of maize cultivation. In Cameroon, we quantified fluxes of CO2, CH4, and N2O at the soil - atmosphere interface in secondary forests, cocoa agroforests, unfertilized mixed crop fields, and three different types of maize cultivation: unfertilized control, maize intercropped with N fixing beans, maize applied with mineral nitrogen fertilizer. We used manual static chamber techniques with approximately weekly temporal resolution over a full year and analyzed gas samples using a gas chromatograph. Soil temperature and moisture data were permanently recorded at main sites and soil sampling provided information on soil mineral N content. We found highest CO2 and N2O emissions, net CH4 uptake and soil mineral N concentrations in the secondary forest with lower values observed in cocoa agroforest and in particular in extensive mixed crop. Soil moisture changes were the dominant driver of seasonal changes of GHG fluxes at all study sites. Intercropping with N fixing beans did not alter soil N2O emissions from maize fields. In contrast, application of mineral N increased soil N2O emissions by more than a factor of five. Our work highlights the importance of soil moisture as the driver of GHG fluxes and in particular for N2O indicates a strong decrease in soil

  14. Monitoring network confirms land use change is a substantial component of the forest carbon sink in the eastern United States

    Treesearch

    Christopher W. Woodall; Brian F. Walters; John Coulston; A.W. D’Amato; Grant M. Domke; M.B. Russell; Paul Sowers

    2015-01-01

    Quantifying forest carbon (C) stocks and stock change within a matrix of land use (LU) and LU change is a central component of large-scale forest C monitoring and reporting practices prescribed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Using a region–wide, repeated forest inventory, forest C stocks and stock change by pool were examined by LU categories...

  15. Land use change effects on trace gas fluxes in the forest margins of Central Sulawesi, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veldkamp, Edzo; Purbopuspito, Joko; Corre, Marife D.; Brumme, Rainer; Murdiyarso, Daniel

    2008-06-01

    Land use changes and land use intensification are considered important processes contributing to the increasing concentrations of the greenhouse gases nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) and of nitric oxide (NO), a precursor of ozone. Studies on the effects of land use changes and land use intensification on soil trace gas emissions were mostly conducted in Latin America and only very few in Asia. Here we present results from Central Sulawesi where profound changes in land use and cultivation practices take place: traditional agricultural practices like shifting cultivation and slash-and-burn agriculture are replaced by permanent cultivation systems and introduction of income-generating cash crops like cacao. Our results showed that N2O emissions were higher from cacao agroforestry (35 ± 10 μg N m-2 h-1) than maize (9 ± 2 μg N m-2 h-1), whereas intermediate rates were observed from secondary forests (25 ± 11 μg N m-2 h-1). NO emissions did not differ among land use systems, ranging from 12 ± 2 μg N m-2 h-1 for cacao agroforestry and secondary forest to 18 ± 2 μg N m-2 h-1 for maize. CH4 uptake was higher for maize (-30 ± 4 μg C m-2 h-1) than cacao agroforestry (-18 ± 2 μg C m-2 h-1) and intermediate rates were measured from secondary forests (-25 ± 4 μg C m-2 h-1). Combining these data with results from other studies in this area, we present chronosequence effects of land use change on trace gas emissions from natural forest, through maize cultivation, to cacao agroforestry (with or without fertilizer). Compared to the original forests, this typical land use change in the study area clearly led to higher N2O emissions and lower CH4 uptake with age of cacao agroforestry systems. We conclude that this common land use sequence in the area combined with the increasing use of fertilizer will strongly increase soil trace gas emissions. We suggest that the future hot spot regions of high N2O (and to a lesser extend NO) emissions in the tropics are those

  16. Land use change effects on forest carbon cycling throughout the southern United States.

    PubMed

    Woodbury, Peter B; Heath, Linda S; Smith, James E

    2006-01-01

    We modeled the effects of afforestation and deforestation on carbon cycling in forest floor and soil from 1900 to 2050 throughout 13 states in the southern United States. The model uses historical data on gross (two-way) transitions between forest, pasture, plowed agriculture, and urban lands along with equations describing changes in carbon over many decades for each type of land use change. Use of gross rather than net land use transition data is important because afforestation causes a gradual gain in carbon stocks for many decades, while deforestation causes a much more rapid loss in carbon stocks. In the South-Central region (Texas to Kentucky) land use changes caused a net emission of carbon before the 1980s, followed by a net sequestration of carbon subsequently. In the Southeast region (Florida to Virginia), there was net emission of carbon until the 1940s, again followed by net sequestration of carbon. These results could improve greenhouse gas inventories produced to meet reporting requirements under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Specifically, from 1990 to 2004 for the entire 13-state study area, afforestation caused sequestration of 88 Tg C, and deforestation caused emission of 49 Tg C. However, the net effect of land use change on carbon stocks in soil and forest floor from 1990 to 2004 was about sixfold smaller than the net change in carbon stocks in trees on all forestland. Thus land use change effects and forest carbon cycling during this period are dominated by changes in tree carbon stocks.

  17. To provide for the conveyance of a small parcel of National Forest System land in Los Padres National Forest in California, and for other purposes.

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Capps, Lois [D-CA-24

    2013-08-02

    Senate - 07/30/2014 Committee on Energy and Natural Resources Subcommittee on Public Lands, Forests, and Mining. Hearings held. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  18. To provide for the conveyance of a small parcel of National Forest System land in Los Padres National Forest in California, and for other purposes.

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Capps, Lois [D-CA-24

    2013-08-02

    07/30/2014 Committee on Energy and Natural Resources Subcommittee on Public Lands, Forests, and Mining. Hearings held. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  19. To provide for the conveyance of a small parcel of National Forest System land in Los Padres National Forest in California, and for other purposes.

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Capps, Lois [D-CA-24

    2013-08-02

    07/30/2014 Committee on Energy and Natural Resources Subcommittee on Public Lands, Forests, and Mining. Hearings held. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  20. Land Application of Wastes: An Educational Program. Non-Crop and Forest Systems - Module 13, Objectives, and Script.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarkson, W. W.; And Others

    This module discusses the characteristics of alternate sites and management schemes and attempts to evaluate the efficiency of each alternative in terms of waste treatment. Three types of non-crop land application are discussed: (1) forest lands; (2) park and recreational application; and (3) land reclamation in surface or strip mined areas. (BB)

  1. Sensitivity analysis of land unit suitability for conservation using a knowledge-based system.

    PubMed

    Humphries, Hope C; Bourgeron, Patrick S; Reynolds, Keith M

    2010-08-01

    The availability of spatially continuous data layers can have a strong impact on selection of land units for conservation purposes. The suitability of ecological conditions for sustaining the targets of conservation is an important consideration in evaluating candidate conservation sites. We constructed two fuzzy logic-based knowledge bases to determine the conservation suitability of land units in the interior Columbia River basin using NetWeaver software in the Ecosystem Management Decision Support application framework. Our objective was to assess the sensitivity of suitability ratings, derived from evaluating the knowledge bases, to fuzzy logic function parameters and to the removal of data layers (land use condition, road density, disturbance regime change index, vegetation change index, land unit size, cover type size, and cover type change index). The amount and geographic distribution of suitable land polygons was most strongly altered by the removal of land use condition, road density, and land polygon size. Removal of land use condition changed suitability primarily on private or intensively-used public land. Removal of either road density or land polygon size most strongly affected suitability on higher-elevation US Forest Service land containing small-area biophysical environments. Data layers with the greatest influence differed in rank between the two knowledge bases. Our results reinforce the importance of including both biophysical and socio-economic attributes to determine the suitability of land units for conservation. The sensitivity tests provided information about knowledge base structuring and parameterization as well as prioritization for future data needs.

  2. Assessing Land Management Change Effects on Forest Carbon and Emissions Under Changing Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Law, B. E.

    2014-12-01

    There has been limited focus on fine-scale land management change effects on forest carbon under future environmental conditions (climate, nitrogen deposition, increased atmospheric CO2). Forest management decisions are often made at the landscape to regional levels before analyses have been conducted to determine the potential outcomes and effectiveness of such actions. Scientists need to evaluate plausible land management actions in a timely manner to help shape policy and strategic land management. Issues of interest include species-level adaptation to climate, resilience and vulnerability to mortality within forested landscapes and regions. Efforts are underway to improve land system model simulation of future mortality related to climate, and to develop and evaluate plausible land management options that could help mitigate or avoid future die-offs. Vulnerability to drought-related mortality varies among species and with tree size or age. Predictors of species ability to survive in specific environments are still not resolved. A challenge is limited observations for fine-scale (e.g. 4 km2) modeling, particularly physiological parameters. Uncertainties are primarily associated with future land management and policy decisions. They include the interface with economic factors and with other ecosystem services (biodiversity, water availability, wildlife habitat). The outcomes of future management scenarios should be compared with business-as-usual management under the same environmental conditions to determine the effects of management changes on forest carbon and net emissions to the atmosphere. For example, in the western U.S., land system modeling and life cycle assessment of several management options to reduce impacts of fire reduced long-term forest carbon gain and increased carbon emissions compared with business-as-usual management under future environmental conditions. The enhanced net carbon uptake with climate and reduced fire emissions after thinning

  3. A report on the potential use of USDA Forest Service forest inventory and analysis data by the Bureau of Land Management

    Treesearch

    Bill Williams; Tracey S. Frescino; Larry T. DeBlander; Sharon W. Woudenberg; Michael Wilson

    2006-01-01

    The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) does not have a consistent internal program or source of vegetation data to use for strategic level planning, such as in resource management plans. This technical note discusses and evaluates the potential of the USDA Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Program to assist the BLM in filling this data gap. The FIA...

  4. The energy budget of a spruce forest: field measurements and comparison with the forest?land?atmosphere model (FLAME)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constantin, J.; Inclan, M. G.; Raschendorfer, M.

    1998-12-01

    The components of the energy budget (net radiation Rn, soil heat flux G, canopy heat storage S, turbulent fluxes of sensible and latent heat ( H, λE) were determined above and inside a 30 m tall spruce forest in central Germany in summer 1994 using micrometeorological equipment and eddy correlation instruments. Data of net radiation, turbulent fluxes and profiles of temperature and wind speed are compared with results obtained with the Forest-Land-Atmosphere-ModEl (FLAME), which is initialized with temperature, humidity and wind speed profiles within and above the canopy and boundary conditions in the soil and at the top of the atmospheric boundary layer. The model is able to quantify the contribution of large eddies transporting momentum and scalar quantities from above the canopy into the trunk space.

  5. Development of a stand-scale forest biodiversity index based on the state forest inventory

    Treesearch

    Diego Van Den Meersschaut; Kris Vandekerkhove

    2000-01-01

    Ecological aspects are increasingly influencing silvicultural management. Estimating forest biodiversity has become one often major tools for evaluating management strategies. A stand-scale forest biodiversity index is developed, based on available data from the state forest inventory. The index combines aspects of forest structure, woody and herbal layer composition,...

  6. Vegetation of the selected forest stands and land use in the Carpathian Mountains.

    PubMed

    Grodzińska, Krystyna; Godzik, Barbara; Fraczek, Witold; Badea, Ovidiu; Oszlányi, Július; Postelnicu, Daniela; Shparyk, Yuriy

    2004-07-01

    Within the framework of the project "Effects of forest health on biodiversity with emphasis on air pollution in the Carpathian Mountains" 26 permanent study sites were established in the vicinity of the ozone monitoring sites. The study sites were located on the NW-SE transect through the Western (12 sites), Eastern (11 sites) and Southern (3 sites) Carpathians in forest ecosystems typical of each area. Some of the forest monitoring sites were located in national parks, biosphere reserves and areas of protected landscape. Each permanent site of 0.7 ha area consisted of 5 small 500m(2) circular plots, arranged in the form of a cross, i.e. four placed on the cardinal points (N, E, S, W) and one in the center. Phytosociological records were done twice during the 1998 growing season using the Braun-Blanquet's method. The study sites represented various types of forest: Picea abies stands (8), beech (Fagus sylvatica) stands (10), fir (Abies alba) stands (2) and mixed beech-fir, spruce-fir and beech-spruce stands (6). Age of most stands was 80-100 years. Degree of crown damage varied greatly between sites, a percentage of damaged trees decrease in Carpathians from West to East. It corresponds well with the O(3) level in these areas. Typical damage by O(3) in herb layer species in several Carpathian sites were found. Land-use map for the entire Carpathian Mountains and two detailed land use maps for Tatras (Western Carpathians) and Retezat (Southern Carpathians) are presented. A little more than half of the Carpathian territory is forested. The most densely forested are Eastern Carpathians, while the most sparsely Western Carpathians. Arable lands occupy 22.6% of the Carpathians, pastures and meadows 6.2%, water bodies 1.9%, and build up areas several percent. In the highest elevation of the Carpathians alpine meadows (11.3%) and rocks (3.5%) are distributed.

  7. Developing New Coastal Forest Restoration Products Based on Landsat, ASTER, and MODIS Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spruce, Joseph P.; Graham, William; Smoot, James

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses an ongoing effort to develop new geospatial information products for aiding coastal forest restoration and conservation efforts in coastal Louisiana and Mississippi. This project employs Landsat, Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite data in conjunction with airborne elevation data to compute coastal forest cover type maps and change detection products. Improved forest mapping products are needed to aid coastal forest restoration and management efforts of State and Federal agencies in the Northern Gulf of Mexico (NGOM) region. In particular, such products may aid coastal forest land acquisition and conservation easement procurements. This region's forests are often disturbed and subjected to multiple biotic and abiotic threats, including subsidence, salt water intrusion, hurricanes, sea-level rise, insect-induced defoliation and mortality, altered hydrology, wildfire, and conversion to non-forest land use. In some cases, such forest disturbance has led to forest loss or loss of regeneration capacity. In response, a case study was conducted to assess and demonstrate the potential of satellite remote sensing products for improving forest type maps and for assessing forest change over the last 25 years. Change detection products are needed for assessing risks for specific priority coastal forest types, such as live oak and baldcypress-dominated forest. Preliminary results indicate Landsat time series data are capable of generating the needed forest type and change detection products. Useful classifications were obtained using 2 strategies: 1) general forest classification based on use of 3 seasons of Landsat data from the same year; and 2) classification of specific forest types of concern using a single date of Landsat data in which a given targeted type is spectrally distinct compared to adjacent forested cover. When available, ASTER data was

  8. Oligocene to Miocene terrestrial climate change and the demise of forests on Wilkes Land, East Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salzmann, Ulrich; Strother, Stephanie; Sangiorgi, Francesca; Bijl, Peter; Pross, Joerg; Woodward, John; Escutia, Carlota; Brinkhuis, Henk

    2016-04-01

    The question whether Cenozoic climate was warm enough to support a substantial vegetation cover on the Antarctic continent is of great significance to the ongoing controversial debate on the dynamic behaviour of Antarctic land ice during the transition from a greenhouse to an icehouse world. Here we present palynological results from an Oligocene to Miocene sediment record provided by the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 318 to the Wilkes Land margin (East Antarctica). The Oligocene assemblages (33.9-23 Ma) are dominated by pollen and spores from temperate forest and sub-Antarctic shrub vegetation inhabiting different altitudinal zones. These include a lowland cold temperate forest with Dacrydium and Lagarostrobos (both common in southern forests of New Zealand and Tasmania today) and a high altitude tundra shrubland comprising Microcachrys, Nothofagus (southern beech) and Podocarpaceae conifers. A decline in pollen percentages of Dacrydium and Lagarostrobos and absence of Proteaceae indicate climate cooling during the late Oligocene (~25-23 Ma). However, the continuous presence of Lagarostrobos suggests that the full transition to a tundra environment had not yet occurred and climate on Wilkes Land during the late Oligocene was still warm enough to support forest vegetation in sheltered areas. Temperature reconstructions derived from the fossil pollen assemblages using the Coexistence Approach suggest mean annual temperatures (MATs) between 6.7-13.7°C during the early Oligocene and a drop of minimum MATs to 5.8°C in the late Oligocene. Pollen of "unambiguous" forest indicators, such as Lagarostrobos, are absent in the Miocene sediment record (16.2 -12.5 Ma) but temperatures were still high enough (minimum MATs > 5°C) to sustain a woody sub-Antarctic vegetation under partially ice-free conditions. Wilkes Land provides a unique record of Antarctic vegetation change from a subtropical, highly diverse Eocene rainforest to an Oligocene cold temperate

  9. RESTORING SUSTAINABLE FORESTS ON APPALACHIAN MINED LANDS FOR WOOD PRODUCTS, RENEWABLE ENERGY, CARBON SEQUESTRATION, AND OTHER ECOSYSTEM SERVICES

    SciTech Connect

    James A. Burger; J. Galbraith; T. Fox; G. Amacher; J. Sullivan; C. Zipper

    2004-11-29

    The overall purpose of this project is to evaluate the biological and economic feasibility of restoring high-quality forests on mined land, and to measure carbon sequestration and wood production benefits that would be achieved from forest restoration procedures. We are currently estimating the acreage of lands in VA, WV, KY, OH, and PA mined under SMCRA and reclaimed to non-forested post-mining land uses that are not currently under active management, and therefore can be considered as available for carbon sequestration. To determine actual sequestration under different forest management scenarios, a field study was installed as a 3 x 3 factorial in a random complete block design with three replications at each of three locations, Ohio, West Virginia, and Virginia. The treatments included three forest types (white pine, hybrid poplar, mixed hardwood) and three silvicultural regimes (competition control, competition control plus tillage, competition control plus tillage plus fertilization). Each individual treatment plot is 0.5 acres. Each block of nine plots requires 4.5 acres, and the complete installation at each site requires 13.5 acres. The plots at all three locations have been installed and the plot corners marked with PVC stakes. GPS coordinates of each plot have been collected. Tree survival, height and diameter were measured after the first growing season. There were significant treatment and treatment x site interactions. A STELLA{reg_sign}-based model helped us develop insight as to whether it is possible to differentiate the permanent SOC from the C contained in the labile forms of SOM. The model can be used for predicting the amount of C sequestered on mine lands, and the amount of C that is expected to reside in the mine soil for more than 1,000 years. Based on our work, it appears that substantial carbon payments to landowners would be required to reach ''profitability'' under present circumstances. However, even though the payments that we examine

  10. Mediation Support for Forest Land Allocation: The SIRO-MED System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cocks, Douglas; Ive, John

    1996-01-01

    Mediation support systems for facilitating resolution of natural resources conflicts must be able to systematically identify and use a full complement of data and value sets relevant to the spectrum of issues underlying the conflict. A stepwise computer-supported procedure for developing and then blending contrasting issue-sensitive stakeholder plans in map form for forest use is described and demonstrated. The goal is a balanced plan that efficiently satisfies the more important land-use guidelines of each stakeholder reasonably well. This procedure, SIROMED, can be applied at any level of detail compatible with available analytical resources and to resources other than forests.

  11. Urban land cover thematic disaggregation, employing datasets from multiple sources and RandomForests modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gounaridis, Dimitrios; Koukoulas, Sotirios

    2016-09-01

    Urban land cover mapping has lately attracted a vast amount of attention as it closely relates to a broad scope of scientific and management applications. Late methodological and technological advancements facilitate the development of datasets with improved accuracy. However, thematic resolution of urban land cover has received much less attention so far, a fact that hampers the produced datasets utility. This paper seeks to provide insights towards the improvement of thematic resolution of urban land cover classification. We integrate existing, readily available and with acceptable accuracies datasets from multiple sources, with remote sensing techniques. The study site is Greece and the urban land cover is classified nationwide into five classes, using the RandomForests algorithm. Results allowed us to quantify, for the first time with a good accuracy, the proportion that is occupied by each different urban land cover class. The total area covered by urban land cover is 2280 km2 (1.76% of total terrestrial area), the dominant class is discontinuous dense urban fabric (50.71% of urban land cover) and the least occurring class is discontinuous very low density urban fabric (2.06% of urban land cover).

  12. Changes within a single land-use category alter microbial diversity and community structure: molecular evidence from wood-inhabiting fungi in forest ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Purahong, Witoon; Hoppe, Björn; Kahl, Tiemo; Schloter, Michael; Schulze, Ernst-Detlef; Bauhus, Jürgen; Buscot, François; Krüger, Dirk

    2014-06-15

    The impact of changes within a single land-use category or land-use intensity on microbial communities is poorly understood, especially with respect to fungi. Here we assessed how forest management regimes and a change in forest type affect the richness and community structure of wood-inhabiting fungi across Germany. We used molecular methods based on the length polymorphism of the internal transcribed spacers and the 5.8S rRNA gene to assess fungal operational taxonomic units (OTUs). A cloning/sequencing approach was used to identify taxonomic affinities of the fungal OTUs. Overall, 20-24% and 25-27% of native fungal OTUs from forest reserves and semi-natural forests became undetectable or were lost in managed and converted forests, respectively. Fungal richness was significantly reduced during a regeneration phase in age-class beech forests with a high level of wood extraction (P = 0.017), whereas fungal community structures were not significantly affected. Conversion of forests from native, deciduous to coniferous species caused significant changes in the fungal community structure (R = 0.64-0.66, P = 0.0001) and could reduce fungal richness (P < 0.05) which may depend on which coniferous species was introduced. Our results showed that Ascocoryne cylichnium, Armillaria sp., Exophiala moniliae, Hyphodontia subalutacea and Fomes fomentarius, all known for wood-decaying abilities were strongly reduced in their abundances when forests were converted from beech to coniferous. We conclude that changes within a single land-use category can be regarded as a major threat to fungal diversity in temperate forest ecosystems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Monitoring Network Confirms Land Use Change is a Substantial Component of the Forest Carbon Sink in the eastern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodall, C. W.; Walters, B. F.; Coulston, J. W.; D'Amato, A. W.; Domke, G. M.; Russell, M. B.; Sowers, P. A.

    2015-12-01

    Quantifying forest carbon (C) stocks and stock change within a matrix of land use (LU) and LU change is a central component of large-scale forest C monitoring and reporting practices prescribed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Using a region-wide, repeated forest inventory, forest C stocks and stock change by pool were examined by LU categories. In eastern US forests, LU change is a substantial component of C sink strength (~37% of forest sink strength) only secondary to that of C accumulation in forests remaining forest where their comingling with other LUs does not substantially reduce sink strength. The strongest sinks of forest C were study areas not completely dominated by forests, even when there was some loss of forest to agriculture/settlement/other LUs. Long-term LU planning exercises and policy development that seeks to maintain and/or enhance regional C sinks should explicitly recognize the importance of maximizing non-forest to forest LU changes and not overlook management and conservation of forests located in landscapes not currently dominated by forests.

  14. Monitoring Network Confirms Land Use Change is a Substantial Component of the Forest Carbon Sink in the eastern United States.

    PubMed

    Woodall, C W; Walters, B F; Coulston, J W; D'Amato, A W; Domke, G M; Russell, M B; Sowers, P A

    2015-12-07

    Quantifying forest carbon (C) stocks and stock change within a matrix of land use (LU) and LU change is a central component of large-scale forest C monitoring and reporting practices prescribed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Using a region-wide, repeated forest inventory, forest C stocks and stock change by pool were examined by LU categories. In eastern US forests, LU change is a substantial component of C sink strength (~37% of forest sink strength) only secondary to that of C accumulation in forests remaining forest where their comingling with other LUs does not substantially reduce sink strength. The strongest sinks of forest C were study areas not completely dominated by forests, even when there was some loss of forest to agriculture/settlement/other LUs. Long-term LU planning exercises and policy development that seeks to maintain and/or enhance regional C sinks should explicitly recognize the importance of maximizing non-forest to forest LU changes and not overlook management and conservation of forests located in landscapes not currently dominated by forests.

  15. Monitoring Network Confirms Land Use Change is a Substantial Component of the Forest Carbon Sink in the eastern United States

    PubMed Central

    Woodall, C. W.; Walters, B. F.; Coulston, J. W.; D’Amato, A. W.; Domke, G. M.; Russell, M. B.; Sowers, P. A.

    2015-01-01

    Quantifying forest carbon (C) stocks and stock change within a matrix of land use (LU) and LU change is a central component of large-scale forest C monitoring and reporting practices prescribed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Using a region–wide, repeated forest inventory, forest C stocks and stock change by pool were examined by LU categories. In eastern US forests, LU change is a substantial component of C sink strength (~37% of forest sink strength) only secondary to that of C accumulation in forests remaining forest where their comingling with other LUs does not substantially reduce sink strength. The strongest sinks of forest C were study areas not completely dominated by forests, even when there was some loss of forest to agriculture/settlement/other LUs. Long-term LU planning exercises and policy development that seeks to maintain and/or enhance regional C sinks should explicitly recognize the importance of maximizing non-forest to forest LU changes and not overlook management and conservation of forests located in landscapes not currently dominated by forests. PMID:26639409

  16. Historic resource production from USDA Forest Service northern and intermountain region lands.

    Treesearch

    David. Calkin

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents long-term resource production from National Forests in the Northern and Intermountain Regions, Regions 1 and 4, respectively. A historical data series of timber harvest and grazing levels on National Forests and lumber production and prices for these regions is developed. Significant trends within the data set are examined. A simple model based on...

  17. A comparison of pixel-based and object-based approaches for land use land cover classification in semi-arid areas, Sudan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, H. E.; Csaplovics, E.; Elhaja, M. E.

    2016-06-01

    This paper deals with the comparison between application of pixel-based and object- based approaches in land use land cover classification in semi-arid areas in Sudan. The second aim is to assess the accuracy of classification for each approach. The study was conducted in the gum arabic belt in North Kordofan State, which is affected by modifications in conditions and composition of vegetation cover trends. The study used ASTER L1B registered radiance at the sensor image acquired on (19.10.2010). The image was radiometrically corrected by using ENVI-FLAASH software. Subset with an area of (40880) ha was created. The image classification (pixel-based and object-based) and accuracy assessment were conducted. Total number of (47) GCPs were surveyed and used in accuracy assessment using ERDAS 9.1. Image segmentation process was implemented using Definiens eCognition 7.1 software. Segmentation level 4 of scale parameter 25 was selected for classification based on colour and form homogeneity. Land use land cover classes were derived by classification using the nearest neighbor classifier with membership functions (fuzzy logic) for each class. The land use land cover distribution in the area for forest dominated by Acacia Senegal is (20%) and for residential area is (1.50%) for the two methods of classification. While for bare and farm land, grass and bush land and mixed woodland classes are (6.69% and 1.63%), (18.62% and 15.16%) and (53% and 61%) for pixel based and object based methods, respectively. The overall accuracy and Kappa statistic of the classification produced by the pixel-based and object-based were (72.92%, and 54.17%) and (0.6259 and 0.3810), respectively. The pixel based approach performed slightly better than the object-based approach in land use land cover classification in the semi-arid land in gum Arabic belt.

  18. Geotechnology-Based Modeling to Optimize Conservation of Forest Network in Urban Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teng, Mingjun; Zhou, Zhixiang; Wang, Pengcheng; Xiao, Wenfa; Wu, Changguang; Lord, Elizabeth

    2016-03-01

    Forest network development in urban areas faces the challenge from forest fragmentation, human-induced disturbances, and scarce land resources. Here, we proposed a geotechnology-based modeling to optimize conservation of forest network by a case study of Wuhan, China. The potential forest network and their priorities were assessed using an improved least-cost path model and potential utilization efficiency estimation. The modeling process consists of four steps: (i) developing species assemblages, (ii) identifying core forest patches, (iii) identifying potential linkages among core forest patches, and (iv) demarcating forest networks. As a result, three species assemblages, including mammals, pheasants, and other birds, were identified as the conservation targets of urban forest network (UFN) in Wuhan, China. Based on the geotechnology-based model, a forest network proposal was proposed to fulfill the connectivity requirements of selected species assemblages. The proposal consists of seven forest networks at three levels of connectivity, named ideal networks, backbone networks, and comprehensive network. The action priorities of UFN plans were suggested to optimize forest network in the study area. Additionally, a total of 45 forest patches with important conservation significance were identified as prioritized stepping-stone patches in the forest network development. Urban forest conserve was also suggested for preserving woodlands with priority conservation significance. The presented geotechnology-based modeling is fit for planning and optimizing UFNs, because of the inclusion of the stepping-stone effects, human-induced pressures, and priorities. The framework can also be applied to other areas after a sensitivity test of the model and the modification of the parameters to fit the local environment.

  19. Geotechnology-Based Modeling to Optimize Conservation of Forest Network in Urban Area.

    PubMed

    Teng, Mingjun; Zhou, Zhixiang; Wang, Pengcheng; Xiao, Wenfa; Wu, Changguang; Lord, Elizabeth

    2016-03-01

    Forest network development in urban areas faces the challenge from forest fragmentation, human-induced disturbances, and scarce land resources. Here, we proposed a geotechnology-based modeling to optimize conservation of forest network by a case study of Wuhan, China. The potential forest network and their priorities were assessed using an improved least-cost path model and potential utilization efficiency estimation. The modeling process consists of four steps: (i) developing species assemblages, (ii) identifying core forest patches, (iii) identifying potential linkages among core forest patches, and (iv) demarcating forest networks. As a result, three species assemblages, including mammals, pheasants, and other birds, were identified as the conservation targets of urban forest network (UFN) in Wuhan, China. Based on the geotechnology-based model, a forest network proposal was proposed to fulfill the connectivity requirements of selected species assemblages. The proposal consists of seven forest networks at three levels of connectivity, named ideal networks, backbone networks, and comprehensive network. The action priorities of UFN plans were suggested to optimize forest network in the study area. Additionally, a total of 45 forest patches with important conservation significance were identified as prioritized stepping-stone patches in the forest network development. Urban forest conserve was also suggested for preserving woodlands with priority conservation significance. The presented geotechnology-based modeling is fit for planning and optimizing UFNs, because of the inclusion of the stepping-stone effects, human-induced pressures, and priorities. The framework can also be applied to other areas after a sensitivity test of the model and the modification of the parameters to fit the local environment.

  20. University of Washington - AFA symposium: shall we sell the nation's forest lands

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, M.B.

    1983-07-01

    Debate over whether federal forest land should be sold to private owners has been emotional and confused. Congress has received a variety of interpretations of the administration's intent that range from slight modifications in existing programs to virtual privatization. Advocates of the asset management program point out that its intent is to sell only excess property with a higher private use, to make land management more efficient, and to help reduce the national debt. Opponents argue that it violates the Endangered Species and the National Environmental Protection Acts. They disagree on how the public interest is best served. The article presents the arguments on both sides of the issue. (DCK)

  1. Attribution of Net Carbon Change by Disturbance Type across Forest Lands of the Continental United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagen, S. C.; Harris, N.; Saatchi, S. S.; Domke, G. M.; Woodall, C. W.; Pearson, T.

    2016-12-01

    We generated spatially comprehensive maps of carbon stocks and net carbon changes from US forestlands between 2005 and 2010 and attributed the changes to natural and anthropogenic processes. The prototype system created to produce these maps is designed to assist with national GHG inventories and support decisions associated with land management. Here, we present the results and methodological framework of our analysis. In summary, combining estimates of net C losses and gains results in net carbon change of 269±49 Tg C yr-1 (sink) in the coterminous US forest land, with carbon loss from harvest acting as the predominent source process.

  2. Predicting local Soil- and Land-units with Random Forest in the Senegalese Sahel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grau, Tobias; Brandt, Martin; Samimi, Cyrus

    2013-04-01

    MODIS (MCD12Q1) or Globcover are often the only available global land-cover products, however ground-truthing in the Sahel of Senegal has shown that most classes do have any agreement with actual land-cover making those products unusable in any local application. We suggest a methodology, which models local Wolof land- and soil-types in an area in the Senegalese Ferlo around Linguère at different scales. In a first step, interviews with the local population were conducted to ascertain the local denotation of soil units, as well as their agricultural use and woody vegetation mainly growing on them. "Ndjor" are soft sand soils with mainly Combretum glutinosum trees. They are suitable for groundnuts and beans while millet is grown on hard sand soils ("Bardjen") dominated by Balanites aegyptiaca and Acacia tortilis. "Xur" are clayey depressions with a high diversity of tree species. Lateritic pasture sites with dense woody vegetation (mostly Pterocarpus lucens and Guiera senegalensis) have never been used for cropping and are called "All". In a second step, vegetation and soil parameters of 85 plots (~1 ha) were surveyed in the field. 28 different soil parameters are clustered into 4 classes using the WARD algorithm. Here, 81% agree with the local classification. Then, an ordination (NMDS) with 2 dimensions and a stress-value of 9.13% was calculated using the 28 soil parameters. It shows several significant relationships between the soil classes and the fitted environmental parameters which are derived from field data, a digital elevation model, Landsat and RapidEye imagery as well as TRMM rainfall data. Landsat's band 5 reflectance values (1.55 - 1.75 µm) of mean dry season image (2000-2010) has a R² of 0.42 and is the most important of 9 significant variables (5%-level). A random forest classifier is then used to extrapolate the 4 classes to the whole study area based on the 9 significant environmental parameters. At a resolution of 30 m the OBB (out-of-bag) error

  3. Drought, Fire and Insects in Western US Forests: Observations to Improve Regional Land System Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Law, B. E.; Yang, Z.; Berner, L. T.; Hicke, J. A.; Buotte, P.; Hudiburg, T. W.

    2015-12-01

    Drought, fire and insects are major disturbances in the western US, and conditions are expected to get warmer and drier in the future. We combine multi-scale observations and modeling with CLM4.5 to examine the effects of these disturbances on forests in the western US. We modified the Community Land Model, CLM4.5, to improve simulated drought-related mortality in forests, and prediction of insect outbreaks under future climate conditions. We examined differences in plant traits that represent species variation in sensitivity to drought, and redefined plant groupings in PFTs. Plant traits, including sapwood area: leaf area ratio and stemwood density were strongly correlated with water availability during the ecohydrologic year. Our database of co-located observations of traits for 30 tree species was used to produce parameterization of the model by species groupings according to similar traits. Burn area predicted by the new fire model in CLM4.5 compares well with recent years of GFED data, but has a positive bias compared with Landsat-based MTBS. Biomass mortality over recent decades increased, and was captured well by the model in general, but missed mortality trends of some species. Comparisons with AmeriFlux data showed that the model with dynamic tree mortality only (no species trait improvements) overestimated GPP in dry years compared with flux data at semi-arid sites, and underestimated GPP at more mesic sites that experience dry summers. Simulations with both dynamic tree mortality and species trait parameters improved estimates of GPP by 17-22%; differences between predicted and observed NEE were larger. Future projections show higher productivity from increased atmospheric CO2 and warming that somewhat offsets drought and fire effects over the next few decades. Challenges include representation of hydraulic failure in models, and availability of species trait and carbon/water process data in disturbance- and drought-impacted regions.

  4. Synthesis of the Ecohydrology of a Mexican Tropical Montane Cloud Forest and Implications of Land Use and Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asbjornsen, H.; Alvarado-Barrientos, M. S.; Bruijnzeel, L. A.; Dawson, T. E.; Geissert, D.; Goldsmith, G. R.; Gomez-Cardenas, M.; Gomez-Tagle, A.; Gotsch, S. F.; Holwerda, F.; McDonnell, J. J.; Munoz Villers, L. E.; Tobon, C.

    2013-05-01

    Land use conversion and climate change threaten the hydrological services from tropical montane cloud forests (TMCFs), but knowledge about cloud forest ecohydrology and the effects of global change drivers is limited. Here, we present a synthesis of research that traced the hydrologic sources, fluxes and flowpaths under different land cover types degraded pasture, regenerating forest, mature forest, pine reforestation) in a seasonally dry TMCF in Veracruz, Mexico. We used hydrological (cloud water interception, CWI; streamflow) and ecophysiological measurements (transpiration, E; foliar uptake, FU) in combination with stable isotope techniques to elucidate to these ecohydrological processes. Results revealed that CWI was ≤2% of total annual rainfall due to low fog occurrence and wind speeds. Fog without rainfall reduced E by a factor of 4-5 relative to sunny conditions and by a factor of 2 relative to overcast conditions; the water 'gained' from fog suppression was ~80-100 mm year-1 relative to sunny conditions. At the canopy scale, FU resulted in the recovery of 9% of total E, suggesting a crucial role in alleviating water deficit; but not sufficient to offset the 17% water loss from nighttime E. Trees primarily utilized water from 30-50 cm soil depth, while water reaching the stream was derived from deep, 'old' water that was distinct from 'new' rainwater and plant water. Soils had high infiltration rates and water storage capacity, which contributed to the relatively low rainfall-runoff response, mainly generated from deep subsurface flowpaths. Conversion of mature forest to pasture or forest regeneration on former TMCF increased annual water yield by 600 mm and 300 mm, respectively, while planting pine on degraded pastures reduced water yield by 365 mm. Our results suggest that the ecophysiological effects of fog via suppressed E and FU have a greater impact on water yield than direct inputs from CWI in this TMCF. Rapid vertical rainfall percolation and

  5. From forest to farmland and moraine to meadow: Integrated modeling of Holocene land cover change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, J. O.

    2012-12-01

    Did humans affect global climate over the before the Industrial Era? While this question is hotly debated, the co-evolution of humans and the natural environment over the last 11,700 years had an undisputed role in influencing the development and present state of terrestrial ecosystems, many of which are highly valued today as economic, cultural, and ecological resources. Yet we still have a very incomplete picture of human-environment interactions over the Holocene, both spatially and temporally. In order to address this problem, we combined a global dynamic vegetation model with a new model of preindustrial anthropogenic land cover change. We drive these integrated models with paleoclimate from GCM scenarios, a new synthesis of global demographic, technological, and economic development over preindustrial time, and a global database of historical urbanization covering the last 8000 years. We simulate land cover and land use change, fire, soil erosion, and emissions of CO2 and methane (CH4) from 11,700 years before present to AD 1850. We evaluate our simulations in part with a new set of continental-scale reconstructions of land cover based on records from the Global Pollen Database. Our model results show that climate and tectonic change controlled global land cover in the early Holocene, e.g., shifts in forest biomes in northern continents show an expansion of temperate tree types far to the north of their present day limits, but that by the early Iron Age (1000 BC), humans in Europe, east Asia, and Mesoamerica had a larger influence than natural processes on the landscape. 3000 years before present, anthropogenic deforestation was widespread with most areas of temperate Europe and southwest Asia, east-central China, northern India, and Mesoamerica occupied by a matrix of natural vegetation, cropland and pastures. Burned area and emissions of CO2 and CH4 from wildfires declined slowly over the entire Holocene, as landscape fragmentation and changing agricultural

  6. Temporal optimisation of image acquisition for land cover classification with Random Forest and MODIS time-series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nitze, Ingmar; Barrett, Brian; Cawkwell, Fiona

    2015-02-01

    The analysis and classification of land cover is one of the principal applications in terrestrial remote sensing. Due to the seasonal variability of different vegetation types and land surface characteristics, the ability to discriminate land cover types changes over time. Multi-temporal classification can help to improve the classification accuracies, but different constraints, such as financial restrictions or atmospheric conditions, may impede their application. The optimisation of image acquisition timing and frequencies can help to increase the effectiveness of the classification process. For this purpose, the Feature Importance (FI) measure of the state-of-the art machine learning method Random Forest was used to determine the optimal image acquisition periods for a general (Grassland, Forest, Water, Settlement, Peatland) and Grassland specific (Improved Grassland, Semi-Improved Grassland) land cover classification in central Ireland based on a 9-year time-series of MODIS Terra 16 day composite data (MOD13Q1). Feature Importances for each acquisition period of the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) and Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) were calculated for both classification scenarios. In the general land cover classification, the months December and January showed the highest, and July and August the lowest separability for both VIs over the entire nine-year period. This temporal separability was reflected in the classification accuracies, where the optimal choice of image dates outperformed the worst image date by 13% using NDVI and 5% using EVI on a mono-temporal analysis. With the addition of the next best image periods to the data input the classification accuracies converged quickly to their limit at around 8-10 images. The binary classification schemes, using two classes only, showed a stronger seasonal dependency with a higher intra-annual, but lower inter-annual variation. Nonetheless anomalous weather conditions, such as the cold winter of

  7. State of Conservation of the Native Forests in Entre Ríos (Argentina) and Changes in Land Use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabattini, R. A.; Sione, S. M.; Ledesma, S. G.; Sabattini, J. A.; Wilson, M. G.

    2012-04-01

    The native forest area of Entre Ríos province (Argentina) is associated with a constant change in land use, with an increase in recent years in agricultural use, especially for soybean crop. In addition, since its inadequate management has triggered degradation processes of the natural forest structure, the implementation of strategies for the restoration and conservation of native forests has become a priority. The aim of this study was to diagnose the conservation state of the native forest in the basin of the Estacas Stream (Entre Ríos, Argentina) after the change in land use, to help design guidelines for the restoration and sustainable management of these ecosystems. The field study was conducted in October 2010, in a representative area of the native forest of 73,000 ha. Using Landsat 5-TM images (INPE), environments were separated by manual vectorization, identifying and classifying native forests and other lands (agricultural, urban). Using a field exploratory survey (58 geo-referenced sampling points), we developed patterns corresponding to the different types of forests, contrasting this information with the digital data of the images. The native forests were classified according to type (high/low forest, open/closed forest, savanna), successional stage (climax, successional or regeneration forest) and degree of disturbance (weed growth, erosion, fire), and their frequency determined. Each classification was assessed by a contingency matrix, and global reliability index and the Kappa index. The information obtained generated a classification map of native forests in the basin scale. We found that the native forest covered an area of 42,726.91 ha, accounting for 58.52% of the total basin area, and that the rest corresponded to other land uses. The most frequent native forests (59.09%) were climax forest, but accounted for only 8.2% of the basin area. Within this group, the most important were the low and open forest, with Prosopis affinis and Prosopis

  8. Challenges in forest reclamation of marginal lands: a balance between site conditions and seedling quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landhäusser, Simon

    2017-04-01

    Forest loss and degradation is occurring worldwide, but at the same time efforts in forest restoration are ever increasing. While approaches to restoration often follow specific stakeholder objectives, regional climates and the degree of site degradation also play an important role in the prioritization of restoration efforts. Often the restoration of degraded lands can satisfy only few measurable objectives; however, to design and restore resistant and resilient ecosystems that can adapt to changing conditions, there is a need for new and adaptive management approaches. Mining and other resource extraction industries are affecting more and more forested areas worldwide. A priority in the reclamation and certification of forest lands disturbed by industrial activity is their expeditious redevelopment to functioning forests. To rehabilitate these heavily disturbed areas back to forest ecosystems, planting of trees remains one of the most effective strategies for the redevelopment of a continuous tree canopy on a site. It is well understood that access to good quality seedling stock is essential to achieve establishment success and early growth of seedlings. However, most reclamation areas have challenging initial site conditions and these conditions are often not a single factor but a combination of factors that can be additive or synergistic. Therefore successful forest restoration on degraded lands needs to consider multiple objectives and approaches to minimize trade-offs in achieving these objectives. To meet these demands, new methods for the production and evaluation of seedling stock types are needed to ensure that that seedlings are fit to grow on a wide range of site conditions or are particularly designed to grow in very specific conditions. Generally, defining seedling quality is difficult as it is species specific and results have been mixed; likely influenced by site conditions, further reiterating the need to carefully evaluate sites allowing

  9. Factors affecting the availability of wood energy from nonindustrial private forest lands in the Northeast. Forest Service Resource Bulletin (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Lindsay, J.J.; Gilbert, A.H.; Birch, T.W.

    1992-05-01

    The report describes the factors that affect the availability of fuelwood from NIPF lands in the Northeastern United States (Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Vermont, Maryland, New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania). It is part of a comprehensive wood-for-energy study entitled 'The Production, Consumption, and Marketing of Wood for Energy in the Northeast (Northeast Regional Study 142).'' The study is designed to: (1) Estimate the demand for wood energy in the Northeast by consuming sectors, state, and region; (2) Analyze the managment and supply of wood for energy processing as well as marketing structures; (3) Identify goals and effectiveness of actual and alternative local, state, and Federal forest policies and contrast these with the objectives of forest owners with regard to the use of wood for energy. The objective of the study is to analyze the supply of wood energy, that is, to identify and describe the factors that influence NIPF owners to harvest, or permit the harvest, of fuelwood from their land.

  10. Developing Spatial Data Protocol and a Geodatabase for the Surinamese Ministry of Physical Planning, Land and Forest Management (Ministry RGB)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Surinamese Ministry of Physical Planning, Land and Forest Management (De minister van Ruimtelijke ordening, Grond- en Bosbeheer (Ministry RGB)) is tasked with a wide range of critical environmental duties. This ministry is responsible for monitoring and protecting federally ...

  11. Developing Spatial Data Protocol and a Geodatabase for the Surinamese Ministry of Physical Planning, Land and Forest Management (Ministry RGB)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Surinamese Ministry of Physical Planning, Land and Forest Management (De minister van Ruimtelijke ordening, Grond- en Bosbeheer (Ministry RGB)) is tasked with a wide range of critical environmental duties. This ministry is responsible for monitoring and protecting federally ...

  12. Forest to agriculture conversion in southern Belize: Implications for migrant land birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spruce, J.P.; Dowell, B.A.; Robbins, C.S.; Sader, S.A.; Doyle, Jamie K.; Schelhas, John

    1993-01-01

    Central America offers a suite of neotropical habitats vital to overwintering migrant land birds. The recent decline of many forest dwelling avian migrants is believed to be related in part to neotropical deforestation and land use change. However, spatio-temporal trends in neotropical habitat availability and avian migrant habitat use are largely unknown. Such information is needed to assess the impact of agriculture conversion on migrant land birds. In response, the USDI Fish and Wildlife Service and the University of Maine began a cooperative study in 1988 which applies remote sensing and field surveys to determine current habitat availability and avian migrant habitat use. Study sites include areas in Belize, Costa Rica, Guatemala and southern Mexico. Visual assessment of Landsat TM imagery indicates southern Belize forests are fragmented by various agricultural systems. Shifting agriculture is predominant in some areas, while permanent agriculture (citrus and mixed animal crops) is the primary system in others. This poster focuses on efforts to monitor forest to agriculture conversion in southern Belize using remote sensing, field surveys and GIS techniques. Procedures and avian migrant use of habitat are summarized.

  13. Five challenges to reconcile agricultural land use and forest ecosystem services in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, L R; Papworth, S K; Reed, J; Symes, W S; Ickowitz, A; Clements, T; Peh, K S-H; Sunderland, T

    2016-10-01

    Southeast Asia possesses the highest rates of tropical deforestation globally and exceptional levels of species richness and endemism. Many countries in the region are also recognized for their food insecurity and poverty, making the reconciliation of agricultural production and forest conservation a particular priority. This reconciliation requires recognition of the trade-offs between competing land-use values and the subsequent incorporation of this information into policy making. To date, such reconciliation has been relatively unsuccessful across much of Southeast Asia. We propose an ecosystem services (ES) value-internalization framework that identifies the key challenges to such reconciliation. These challenges include lack of accessible ES valuation techniques; limited knowledge of the links between forests, food security, and human well-being; weak demand and political will for the integration of ES in economic activities and environmental regulation; a disconnect between decision makers and ES valuation; and lack of transparent discussion platforms where stakeholders can work toward consensus on negotiated land-use management decisions. Key research priorities to overcome these challenges are developing easy-to-use ES valuation techniques; quantifying links between forests and well-being that go beyond economic values; understanding factors that prevent the incorporation of ES into markets, regulations, and environmental certification schemes; understanding how to integrate ES valuation into policy making processes, and determining how to reduce corruption and power plays in land-use planning processes. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  14. Proximal Association of Land Management Preferences: Evidence from Family Forest Owners

    PubMed Central

    Aguilar, Francisco X.; Cai, Zhen; Butler, Brett

    2017-01-01

    Individual behavior is influenced by factors intrinsic to the decision-maker but also associated with other individuals and their ownerships with such relationship intensified by geographic proximity. The land management literature is scarce in the spatially integrated analysis of biophysical and socio-economic data. Localized land management decisions are likely driven by spatially-explicit but often unobserved resource conditions, influenced by an individual’s own characteristics, proximal lands and fellow owners. This study examined stated choices over the management of family-owned forests as an example of a resource that captures strong pecuniary and non-pecuniary values with identifiable decision makers. An autoregressive model controlled for spatially autocorrelated willingness-to-harvest (WTH) responses using a sample of residential and absentee family forest owners from the U.S. State of Missouri. WTH responses were largely explained by affective, cognitive and experience variables including timber production objectives and past harvest experience. Demographic variables, including income and age, were associated with WTH and helped define socially-proximal groups. The group of closest identity was comprised of resident males over 55 years of age with annual income of at least $50,000. Spatially-explicit models showed that indirect impacts, capturing spillover associations, on average accounted for 14% of total marginal impacts among statistically significant explanatory variables. We argue that not all proximal family forest owners are equal and owners-in-absentia have discernible differences in WTH preferences with important implications for public policy and future research. PMID:28060960

  15. Proximal Association of Land Management Preferences: Evidence from Family Forest Owners.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, Francisco X; Cai, Zhen; Butler, Brett

    2017-01-01

    Individual behavior is influenced by factors intrinsic to the decision-maker but also associated with other individuals and their ownerships with such relationship intensified by geographic proximity. The land management literature is scarce in the spatially integrated analysis of biophysical and socio-economic data. Localized land management decisions are likely driven by spatially-explicit but often unobserved resource conditions, influenced by an individual's own characteristics, proximal lands and fellow owners. This study examined stated choices over the management of family-owned forests as an example of a resource that captures strong pecuniary and non-pecuniary values with identifiable decision makers. An autoregressive model controlled for spatially autocorrelated willingness-to-harvest (WTH) responses using a sample of residential and absentee family forest owners from the U.S. State of Missouri. WTH responses were largely explained by affective, cognitive and experience variables including timber production objectives and past harvest experience. Demographic variables, including income and age, were associated with WTH and helped define socially-proximal groups. The group of closest identity was comprised of resident males over 55 years of age with annual income of at least $50,000. Spatially-explicit models showed that indirect impacts, capturing spillover associations, on average accounted for 14% of total marginal impacts among statistically significant explanatory variables. We argue that not all proximal family forest owners are equal and owners-in-absentia have discernible differences in WTH preferences with important implications for public policy and future research.

  16. Vegetation, land surface brightness, and temperature dynamics after aspen forest die-off

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Cho-ying; Anderegg, William R. L.

    2014-07-01

    Forest dynamics following drought-induced tree mortality can affect regional climate through biophysical surface properties. These dynamics have not been well quantified, particularly at the regional scale, and are a large uncertainty in ecosystem-climate feedback. We investigated regional biophysical characteristics through time (1995-2011) in drought-impacted (2001-2003), trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) forests by utilizing Landsat time series green and brown vegetation cover, surface brightness (total shortwave albedo), and daytime land surface temperature. We quantified the temporal dynamics and postdrought recovery of these characteristics for aspen forests experiencing severe drought-induced mortality in the San Juan National Forest in southwestern Colorado, USA. We partitioned forests into three categories from healthy to severe mortality (Healthy, Intermediate, and Die-off) by referring to field observations of aspen canopy mortality and live aboveground biomass losses. The vegetation cover of die-off areas in 2011 (26.9% of the aspen forest) was significantly different compared to predrought conditions (decrease of 7.4% of the green vegetation cover and increase of 12.1% of the brown vegetation cover compared to 1999). The surface brightness of the study region 9 years after drought however was comparable to predrought estimates (12.7-13.7%). Postdrought brightness was potentially influenced by understory shrubs, since they became the top layer green canopies in disturbed sites from a satellite's point of view. Satellite evidence also showed that the differences of land surface temperature among the three groups increased substantially (≥45%) after drought, possibly due to the reduction of plant evapotranspiration in the Intermediate and Die-off sites. Our results suggest that the mortality-affected systems have not recovered in terms of the surface biophysical properties. We also find that the temporal dynamics of vegetation cover holds

  17. Assessing land ownership as a driver of change in the distribution, structure, and composition of California's forests.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Easterday, K.; Kelly, M.; McIntyre, P. J.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change is forecasted to have considerable influence on the distribution, structure, and function of California's forests. However, human interactions with forested landscapes (e.g. fire suppression, resource extraction and etc.) have complicated scientific understanding of the relative contributions of climate change and anthropogenic land management practices as drivers of change. Observed changes in forest structure towards smaller, denser forests across California have been attributed to both climate change (e.g. increased temperatures and declining water availability) and management practices (e.g. fire suppression and logging). Disentangling how these drivers of change act both together and apart is important to developing sustainable policy and land management practices as well as enhancing knowledge of human and natural system interactions. To that end, a comprehensive historical dataset - the Vegetation Type Mapping project (VTM) - and a modern forest inventory dataset (FIA) are used to analyze how spatial variations in vegetation composition and structure over a ~100 year period can be explained by land ownership.Climate change is forecasted to have considerable influence on the distribution, structure, and function of California's forests. However, human interactions with forested landscapes (e.g. fire suppression, resource extraction and etc.) have complicated scientific understanding of the relative contributions of climate change and anthropogenic land management practices as drivers of change. Observed changes in forest structure towards smaller, denser forests across California have been attributed to both climate change (e.g. increased temperatures and declining water availability) and management practices (e.g. fire suppression and logging). Disentangling how these drivers of change act both together and apart is important to developing sustainable policy and land management practices as well as enhancing knowledge of human and natural

  18. Rewilding as nature based solution in land management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novara, Agata; Gristina, Luciano; Keesstra, Saskia; Pereira, Paulo; Cerda, Artemio

    2017-04-01

    Rewilding is an effective tool of ecological restoration and a nature based solution for hydro-meteorological risk control. Rewilding contributes to reduce flood risk, resist droughts, helps to restore soil organic matter content, increases soil and plant biodiversity, improves the overall ecosystem and human health. The key element of rewilding is not the nature control, but following the natural processes to restore the key soil ecological factors and their connectivity. Rewilding can be applicable at different ecosystem stages, from natural reserve to more anthropogenic system such as agricultural land through the restoration of wild soil function trough permaculture or forest farming. The proposed nature based solution not only avoid the investment in traditional engineering but it also an opportunities for creating new economics model based on wild nature (ecoturism, education, wild edible plants). This work is a review of applied rewilding actions and considerations on future nature based solutions applications will be discussed .

  19. The Future of Forest Management on NIPF Lands in the South: Results of an Expert Opinion Survey

    Treesearch

    Steverson O. Moffat; Frederick W. Cubbage; Anthony J. Cascio; Raymond M. Sheffield

    1998-01-01

    A survey was sent to each state forester in the 13 states in the Southeast and South Central Regions to ask their opinions regarding the future of forest management on NIPF lands in their state. The results indicate that changes are in store for NIPF lands between now and 2020. Planted pine is projected to increase 7% in area in the South, largely at the expense of...

  20. The forest resources of Vermont

    Treesearch

    Neal P. Kingsley

    1977-01-01

    A statistical and analytical report on the third forest survey of Vermont by the USDA Forest Service. Statistical findings are based on the remeasurement of 1/5-acre plots and 10-point cluster plots. This report discusses and analyzes trends in forest-land area, timber volume, annual growth, and timber removals. Timber-products output by forest industries, based upon a...

  1. The public water supply protection value of forests: A watershed-scale ecosystem services based upon total organic carbon

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We developed a cost-based methodology to assess the value of forested watersheds to improve water quality in public water supplies. The developed methodology is applicable to other source watersheds to determine ecosystem services for water quality. We assess the value of forest land for source wate...

  2. Analyzing cloud base at local and regional scales to understand tropical montane cloud forest vulnerability to climate change

    Treesearch

    Ashley E. Van Beusekom; Grizelle Gonzalez; Martha A. Scholl

    2017-01-01

    The degree to which cloud immersion provides water in addition to rainfall, suppresses transpiration, and sustains tropical montane cloud forests (TMCFs) during rainless periods is not well understood. Climate and land use changes represent a threat to these forests if cloud base altitude rises as a result of regional warming or deforestation. To establish a baseline...

  3. Annual forest inventory estimates based on the moving average

    Treesearch

    Francis A. Roesch; James R. Steinman; Michael T. Thompson

    2002-01-01

    Three interpretations of the simple moving average estimator, as applied to the USDA Forest Service's annual forest inventory design, are presented. A corresponding approach to composite estimation over arbitrarily defined land areas and time intervals is given for each interpretation, under the assumption that the investigator is armed with only the spatial/...

  4. Effects of different land-uses on soil organic carbon pools in the Peruvian tropical forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliver, V.; Kala, J.; Lever, R.; Teh, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Tropical soils are a large carbon reservoir, acting as both a source and a sink of CO2. Changes to these soil environments have major implications for long term carbon storage and rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Enhanced CO2 emissions originate, in large part, from the decomposition and loss of soil organic matter (SOM) following anthropogenic disturbances such as deforestation or agricultural conversion. Therefore, quantitative knowledge of the stabilisation and decomposition of SOM is necessary in order to understand, assess and predict the impact of land use change in the tropics. In particular, labile SOM is an early and sensitive indicator of how SOM responds to changes in land use and management practices. The main focus of this study is to explore the relationship between soil respiration, decomposition and soil C pools in order to estimate the turnover times of soil C on a suite of different land uses in the Peruvian tropical forests. Three major C pools (light fractions, occluded light fractions and heavy fractions) were separated using sodium polytungstate in a density fraction technique, soil CO2 flux was measured bimonthly over a year using a closed-chamber technique and decomposition rates were estimated using buried birch wood sticks acting as a common substrate across the sites. Our results showed that CO2 flux ranged from 0.237-7.676 μmol m-2s-1 for the banana plantation, 2.773-11.1 μmol m-2s-1 for the mature forest, 1.718-17.005 μmol m-2s-1 for pasture and 2.931-5.216 μmol m-2s-1 for the secondary forest. On an annual basis, the soil CO2 flux was highest in the pasture ecosystem with an estimated production of 2.3 kg C m-2yr-1 followed by the banana plantation with 1.3 kg C m-2yr-1 and the mature forest site with 1.0 kg C m-2yr-1. Land use affected soil temperature and bulk density, which also showed positive correlations with CO2 flux. The stick decomposition rate was significantly faster on the pasture site in comparison to the forest

  5. Forest sector carbon analyses support land management planning and projects: Assessing the influence of anthropogenic and natural factors

    Treesearch

    Alexa J. Dugan; Richard Birdsey; Sean P. Healey; Yude Pan; Fangmin Zhang; Gang Mo; Jing Chen; Christopher W. Woodall; Alexander J. Hernandez; Kevin McCullough; James B. McCarter; Crystal L. Raymond; Karen. Dante-Wood

    2017-01-01

    Management of forest carbon stocks on public lands is critical to maintaining or enhancing carbon dioxide removal from the atmosphere. Acknowledging this, an array of federal regulations and policies have emerged that requires US National Forests to report baseline carbon stocks and changes due to disturbance and management and assess how management activities and...

  6. Mapping wildland fuels and forest structure for land management: a comparison of nearest neighbor imputation and other methods

    Treesearch

    Kenneth B. Pierce; Janet L. Ohmann; Michael C. Wimberly; Matthew J. Gregory; Jeremy S. Fried

    2009-01-01

    Land managers need consistent information about the geographic distribution of wildland fuels and forest structure over large areas to evaluate fire risk and plan fuel treatments. We compared spatial predictions for 12 fuel and forest structure variables across three regions in the western United States using gradient nearest neighbor (GNN) imputation, linear models (...

  7. Seed dispersal turns an experimental plantation on degraded land into a novel forest in urban northern Puerto Rico

    Treesearch

    Oscar Abelleira; Elvia J. Meléndez Ackerman; Diana García Montiel; John A. Parrotta

    2015-01-01

    Planting tree species with desirable traits may catalyze forest regeneration in increasingly common degraded lands by restoring soil properties and attracting seed dispersers. We sampled forest regeneration in an experimental plantation of Albizia lebbek, an introduced N-fixing species, on a degraded pasture in northern Puerto Rico, 27 years after its establishment. We...

  8. Sustainable landscapes in a world of change: tropical forests, land use and implementation of REDD+: Part I-Forward

    Treesearch

    Richard ​Birdsey; Yude Pan; Richard. Houghton

    2013-01-01

    Tropical forests play a critical role in the Earth system; however, tropical landscapes have changed greatly in recent decades because of increasing demand for land to support agriculture and timber production, fuel wood, and other pressures of population and human economics. The observable results are a legacy of persistent deforestation, forest degradation, increased...

  9. Soil dynamics and carbon stocks 10 years after restoration of degraded land using Atlantic Forest tree species

    Treesearch

    Lauro R. Nogueira; José Leonardo M. Goncalves; Vera L. Engel; John A. Parrotta

    2011-01-01

    Brazil’s Atlantic Forest ecosystem has been greatly affected by land use changes, with only 11.26% of its original vegetation cover remaining. Currently, Atlantic Forest restoration is receiving increasing attention because of its potential for carbon sequestration and the important role of soil carbon in the global carbon balance. Soil organic matter is also essential...

  10. Potential applications of prefield land use and canopy cover data: Examples from nonforest and nonsampled forest inventory plots

    Treesearch

    Sara A. Goeking

    2012-01-01

    The Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) prefield workflow involves interpreting aerial imagery to determine whether each plot in a given inventory year may meet FIA’s definition of forest land. The primary purpose of this determination is to minimize inventory costs by avoiding unnecessary ground surveys of plots that are obviously in nonforest areas. Since the...

  11. Regional annual water yield from forest lands and its response to potential deforestation across the southeastern United States

    Treesearch

    Ge Sun; Steve G. McNulty; J. Lu; Devendra M. Amatya; Y. Liang; R.K. Kolka

    2005-01-01

    Regional water yield at a meso-scale can be estimated as the difference between precipitation input and evapotranspiration output. Forest water yield from the southeastern US varies greatly both in space and time. Because of the hot climate and high evapotranspiration, less than half of the annual precipitation that falls on forest lands is available for stream flow...

  12. 78 FR 78326 - Revision of the Land Management Plans for the Inyo, Sierra and Sequoia National Forests

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-26

    ...The Pacific Southwest Region (Region 5) has initiated land management plan revisions for the Inyo, Sierra, and Sequoia National Forests. The Final Assessments and other related information for these forests have been posted to the Region 5 Web site at http:// www.fs.usda.gov/main/r5/landmanagement/planning. The Forest Service invites the public to help develop a ``need for change'' and desired......

  13. Stability and change in forest-based communities: A selected bibliography. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, C.W.

    1996-03-01

    This bibliography lists literature dealing with the concept of community stability, the condition of forest-based communities, and the relations between forest management and local community conditions. The emphasis is on forest-based communities in the Pacific Northwest, but citations from across the United States and other industrialized nations, such as Canada, New Zealand, and the Scandinavian countries, also are included.

  14. Forested land cover classification on the Cumberland Plateau, Jackson County, Alabama: a comparison of Landsat ETM+ and SPOT5 images

    Treesearch

    Yong Wang; Shanta Parajuli; Callie Schweitzer; Glendon Smalley; Dawn Lemke; Wubishet Tadesse; Xiongwen Chen

    2010-01-01

    Forest cover classifications focus on the overall growth form (physiognomy) of the community, dominant vegetation, and species composition of the existing forest. Accurately classifying the forest cover type is important for forest inventory and silviculture. We compared classification accuracy based on Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (Landsat ETM+) and Satellite...

  15. Attribution of net carbon change by disturbance type across forest lands of the conterminous United States.

    PubMed

    Harris, N L; Hagen, S C; Saatchi, S S; Pearson, T R H; Woodall, C W; Domke, G M; Braswell, B H; Walters, B F; Brown, S; Salas, W; Fore, A; Yu, Y

    2016-12-01

    Locating terrestrial sources and sinks of carbon (C) will be critical to developing strategies that contribute to the climate change mitigation goals of the Paris Agreement. Here we present spatially resolved estimates of net C change across United States (US) forest lands between 2006 and 2010 and attribute them to natural and anthropogenic processes. Forests in the conterminous US sequestered -460 ± 48 Tg C year(-1), while C losses from disturbance averaged 191 ± 10 Tg C year(-1). Combining estimates of net C losses and gains results in net carbon change of -269 ± 49 Tg C year(-1). New forests gained -8 ± 1 Tg C year(-1), while deforestation resulted in losses of 6 ± 1 Tg C year(-1). Forest land remaining forest land lost 185 ± 10 Tg C year(-1) to various disturbances; these losses were compensated by net carbon gains of -452 ± 48 Tg C year(-1). C loss in the southern US was highest (105 ± 6 Tg C year(-1)) with the highest fractional contributions from harvest (92%) and wind (5%). C loss in the western US (44 ± 3 Tg C year(-1)) was due predominantly to harvest (66%), fire (15%), and insect damage (13%). The northern US had the lowest C loss (41 ± 2 Tg C year(-1)) with the most significant proportional contributions from harvest (86%), insect damage (9%), and conversion (3%). Taken together, these disturbances reduced the estimated potential C sink of US forests by 42%. The framework presented here allows for the integration of ground and space observations to more fully inform US forest C policy and monitoring efforts.

  16. Spatially explicit modeling of 1992-2100 land cover and forest stand age for the conterminous United States.

    PubMed

    Sohl, Terry L; Sayler, Kristi L; Bouchard, Michelle A; Reker, Ryan R; Friesz, Aaron M; Bennett, Stacie L; Sleeter, Benjamin M; Sleeter, Rachel R; Wilson, Tamara; Soulard, Chris; Knuppe, Michelle; Van Hofwegen, Travis

    2014-07-01

    Information on future land-use and land-cover (LULC) change is needed to analyze the impact of LULC change on ecological processes. The U.S. Geological Survey has produced spatially explicit, thematically detailed LULC projections for the conterminous United States. Four qualitative and quantitative scenarios of LULC change were developed, with characteristics consistent with the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES). The four quantified scenarios (A1B, A2, B1, and B2) served as input to the forecasting scenarios of land-use change (FORE-SCE) model. Four spatially explicit data sets consistent with scenario storylines were produced for the conterminous United States, with annual LULC maps from 1992 through 2100. The future projections are characterized by a loss of natural land covers in most scenarios, with corresponding expansion of anthropogenic land uses. Along with the loss of natural land covers, remaining natural land covers experience increased fragmentation under most scenarios, with only the B2 scenario remaining relatively stable in both the proportion of remaining natural land covers and basic fragmentation measures. Forest stand age was also modeled. By 2100, scenarios and ecoregions with heavy forest cutting had relatively lower mean stand ages compared to those with less forest cutting. Stand ages differed substantially between unprotected and protected forest lands, as well as between different forest classes. The modeled data were compared to the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) and other data sources to assess model characteristics. The consistent, spatially explicit, and thematically detailed LULC projections and the associated forest stand-age data layers have been used to analyze LULC impacts on carbon and greenhouse gas fluxes, biodiversity, climate and weather variability, hydrologic change, and other ecological processes.

  17. Spatially explicit modeling of 1992-2100 land cover and forest stand age for the conterminous United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sohl, Terry L.; Sayler, Kristi L.; Bouchard, Michelle; Reker, Ryan R.; Friesz, Aaron M.; Bennett, Stacie L.; Sleeter, Benjamin M.; Sleeter, Rachel R.; Wilson, Tamara; Knuppe, Michelle; Van Hofwegen, Travis

    2014-01-01

    Information on future land-use and land-cover (LULC) change is needed to analyze the impact of LULC change on ecological processes. The U.S. Geological Survey has produced spatially explicit, thematically detailed LULC projections for the conterminous United States. Four qualitative and quantitative scenarios of LULC change were developed, with characteristics consistent with the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on 5 Emission Scenarios (SRES). The four quantified scenarios (A1B, A2, B1, and B2) served as input to the Forecasting Scenarios of Land-use Change (FORE-SCE) model. Four spatially explicit datasets consistent with scenario storylines were produced for the conterminous United States, with annual LULC maps from 1992 through 2100. The future projections are characterized by a loss of natural land covers in most scenarios, with corresponding expansion of 10 anthropogenic land uses. Along with the loss of natural land covers, remaining natural land covers experience increased fragmentation under most scenarios, with only the B2 scenario remaining relatively stable in both proportion of remaining natural land covers and basic fragmentation measures. Forest stand age was also modeled. By 2100, scenarios and ecoregions with heavy forest cutting have relatively lower mean stand ages compared to those with less 15 forest cutting. Stand ages differ substantially between unprotected and protected forest lands, as well as between different forest classes. The modeled data were compared to the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) and other data sources to assess model characteristics. The consistent, spatially explicit, and thematically detailed LULC projections and the associated forest stand age data layers have been used to analyze LULC impacts on carbon and greenhouse gas fluxes, 20 biodiversity, climate and weather variability, hydrologic change, and other ecological processes.

  18. Aerial Orthophoto and Airborne Laser Scanning as Monitoring Tools for Land Cover Dynamics: A Case Study from the Milicz Forest District (Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szostak, Marta; Wezyk, Piotr; Tompalski, Piotr

    2014-06-01

    The paper presents the results from the study concerning the application of airborne laser scanning (ALS) data and derived raster products like the digital surface model (DSM) and the digital terrain model (DTM) for the assessment of the degree of change of the land use based on the forest succession example. Simultaneously, an automated method of ALS data processing was developed based on the normalized (nDSM) and cadastral GIS information. Besides delivering precise information on forest succession, ALS technology is an excellent tool for time-changes spatial analyses. Usage of the ALS data can support the image interpretation process decreasing the subjectivity of the operator. In parallel, a manual vectorization and object classification (object-based image analysis—OBIA) were performed; both based on aerial orthophoto and ALS data. By using integrated ALS point clouds and digital aerial images, one can obtain fast OBIA processing and the determination of areas where the land cover has changed. The Milicz District (central west part of Poland) was chosen as the test site where ALS was to be performed in 2007, together with the digital aerial photos (Vexcel camera; pixel 0.15 m; CIR). The aerial photos were then processed to a CIR orthophoto. The area of study consisted of 68 private parcels (some of them were abandoned; 68.57 ha; scanned cadastral maps from the local survey office; land use information) in the direct neighbourhood of the State Forest, on which a forest succession could often be observed. The operator vectorized forest (trees and shrubs) succession areas on the 2D CIR orthophoto. They were then compared with the results from the OBIA and GIS analysis, based on the normalized digital surface model. The results showed that areas with high vegetation cover were three times larger than the official land cover database (cadastral maps).

  19. Aerial Orthophoto and Airborne Laser Scanning as Monitoring Tools for Land Cover Dynamics: A Case Study from the Milicz Forest District (Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szostak, Marta; Wezyk, Piotr; Tompalski, Piotr

    2013-04-01

    The paper presents the results from the study concerning the application of airborne laser scanning (ALS) data and derived raster products like the digital surface model (DSM) and the digital terrain model (DTM) for the assessment of the degree of change of the land use based on the forest succession example. Simultaneously, an automated method of ALS data processing was developed based on the normalized (nDSM) and cadastral GIS information. Besides delivering precise information on forest succession, ALS technology is an excellent tool for time-changes spatial analyses. Usage of the ALS data can support the image interpretation process decreasing the subjectivity of the operator. In parallel, a manual vectorization and object classification (object-based image analysis—OBIA) were performed; both based on aerial orthophoto and ALS data. By using integrated ALS point clouds and digital aerial images, one can obtain fast OBIA processing and the determination of areas where the land cover has changed. The Milicz District (central west part of Poland) was chosen as the test site where ALS was to be performed in 2007, together with the digital aerial photos (Vexcel camera; pixel 0.15 m; CIR). The aerial photos were then processed to a CIR orthophoto. The area of study consisted of 68 private parcels (some of them were abandoned; 68.57 ha; scanned cadastral maps from the local survey office; land use information) in the direct neighbourhood of the State Forest, on which a forest succession could often be observed. The operator vectorized forest (trees and shrubs) succession areas on the 2D CIR orthophoto. They were then compared with the results from the OBIA and GIS analysis, based on the normalized digital surface model. The results showed that areas with high vegetation cover were three times larger than the official land cover database (cadastral maps).

  20. Understanding Environmental Change and Biodiversity in a Dryland Ecosystem through Quantification of Climate Variability and Land Modification: The Case of the Dhofar Cloud Forest, Oman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galletti, Christopher S.

    The Dhofar Cloud Forest is one of the most diverse ecosystems on the Arabian Peninsula. As part of the South Arabian Cloud Forest that extends from southern Oman to Yemen, the cloud forest is an important center of endemism and provides valuable ecosystem services to those living in the region. There have been various claims made about the health of the cloud forest and its surrounding region, the most prominent of which are: 1) variability of the Indian Summer Monsoon threatens long-term vegetation health, and 2) human encroachment is causing deforestation and land degradation. This dissertation uses three independent studies to test these claims and bring new insight about the biodiversity of the cloud forest. Evidence is presented that shows that the vegetation dynamics of the cloud forest are resilient to most of the variability in the monsoon. Much of the biodiversity in the cloud forest is dominated by a few species with high abundance and a moderate number of species at low abundance. The characteristic tree species include Anogeissus dhofarica and Commiphora spp. These species tend to dominate the forested regions of the study area. Grasslands are dominated by species associated with overgrazing (Calotropis procera and Solanum incanum). Analysis from a land cover study conducted between 1988 and 2013 shows that deforestation has occurred to approximately 8% of the study area and decreased vegetation fractions are found throughout the region. Areas around the city of Salalah, located close to the cloud forest, show widespread degradation in the 21st century based on an NDVI time series analysis. It is concluded that humans are the primary driver of environmental change. Much of this change is tied to national policies and development priorities implemented after the Dhofar War in the 1970's.