Science.gov

Sample records for forest ecosystem final

  1. Managing pinon-juniper ecosystems for sustainability and social needs. Forest Service general technical report (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Aldon, E.F.; Shaw, D.W.

    1993-10-01

    The purpose of the symposium was to assist the USDA Forest Service, other federal land management agencies, and the New Mexico State Land Office in the future development and management of the pinon-juniper ecosystem in the Southwest. Authors assessed the current state of knowledge about the pinon-juniper resources and helped develop future research and management goals.

  2. Restoring Forested Wetland Ecosystems

    Treesearch

    John A. Stanturf; Emile S. Gardiner; Melvin L. Warren

    2003-01-01

    Forests as natural systems are intrinsically linked to the sustainability of fresh-water systems. Efforts worldwide to restore forest ecosystems seek to counteract centuries of forest conversion to agriculture and other uses. Afforestation, the practice of regenerating forests on land deforested for agriculture or other uses, is occurring at an intense pace in the...

  3. Session overview: forest ecosystems

    Treesearch

    John J. Battles; Robert C. Heald

    2004-01-01

    The core assumption of this symposium is that science can provide insight to management. Nowhere is this link more formally established than in regard to the science and management of forest ecosystems. The basic questions addressed are integral to our understanding of nature; the applications of this understanding are crucial to effective stewardship of natural...

  4. Evaluating the Contribution of Climate Forcing and Forest Dynamics to Accelerating Carbon Sequestration by Forest Ecosystems in the Northeastern U.S.: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Munger, J. William; Foster, David R.; Richardson, Andrew D.

    2014-10-01

    This report summarizes work to improve quantitative understanding of the terrestrial ecosystem processes that control carbon sequestration in unmanaged forests It builds upon the comprehensive long-term observations of CO2 fluxes, climate and forest structure and function at the Harvard Forest in Petersham, MA. This record includes the longest CO2 flux time series in the world. The site is a keystone for the AmeriFlux network. Project Description The project synthesizes observations made at the Harvard Forest HFEMS and Hemlock towers, which represent the dominant mixed deciduous and coniferous forest types in the northeastern United States. The 20+ year record of carbon uptake at Harvard Forest and the associated comprehensive meteorological and biometric data, comprise one of the best data sets to challenge ecosystem models on time scales spanning hourly, daily, monthly, interannual and multi-decadal intervals, as needed to understand ecosystem change and climate feedbacks.

  5. Forest ecosystems in the Alaskan taiga

    SciTech Connect

    Van Cleve, K.; Chapin, F.S. III; Flanagan, P.W.; Viereck, L.A.

    1986-01-01

    This volume in the series ''Ecological Studies'' provides an overview and synthesis of research on the structure and function of taiga forest ecosystems of interior Alaska. The first section discusses the nature of the taiga environment and covers climate, forest ecosystem distribution, natural regeneration of vegetation, and the role of fire. The second edition focuses on environmental controls over organism activity with discussions on growth and nutrient use, nitrogen fixation, physiological ecology of mosses, and microbial activity and element availability. The final section considers environmental controls over ecosystem processes with discussions of processes, plant-animal interactions, and a model of forest growth and yield.

  6. Carbon allocation in forest ecosystems

    Treesearch

    Creighton M. Litton; James W. Raich; Michael G. Ryan

    2007-01-01

    Carbon allocation plays a critical role in forest ecosystem carbon cycling. We reviewed existing literature and compiled annual carbon budgets for forest ecosystems to test a series of hypotheses addressing the patterns, plasticity, and limits of three components of allocation: biomass, the amount of material present; flux, the flow of carbon to a component per unit...

  7. Forest operations for ecosystem management

    Treesearch

    Robert B. Rummer; John Baumgras; Joe McNeel

    1997-01-01

    The evolution of modern forest resource management is focusing on ecologically sensitive forest operations. This shift in management strategies is producing a new set of functional requirements for forest operations. Systems to implement ecosystem management prescriptions may need to be economically viable over a wider range of piece sizes, for example. Increasing...

  8. Carbon Isotopic Studies of Assimilated and Ecosystem Respired CO2 in a Southeastern Pine Forest. Final Report and Conference Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Conte, Maureen H

    2008-04-10

    Carbon dioxide is the major “greenhouse” gas responsible for global warming. Southeastern pine forests appear to be among the largest terrestrial sinks of carbon dioxide in the US. This collaborative study specifically addressed the isotopic signatures of the large fluxes of carbon taken up by photosynthesis and given off by respiration in this ecosystem. By measuring these isotopic signatures at the ecosystem level, we have provided data that will help to more accurately quantify the magnitude of carbon fluxes on the regional scale and how these fluxes vary in response to climatic parameters such as rainfall and air temperature. The focus of the MBL subcontract was to evaluate how processes operating at the physiological and ecosystem scales affects the resultant isotopic signature of plant waxes that are emitted as aerosols into the convective boundary layer. These wax aerosols provide a large-spatial scale integrative signal of isotopic discrimination of atmospheric carbon dioxide by terrestrial photosynthesis (Conte and Weber 2002). The ecosystem studies have greatly expanded of knowledge of wax biosynthetic controls on their isootpic signature The wax aerosol data products produced under this grant are directly applicable as input for global carbon modeling studies that use variations in the concentration and carbon isotopic composition of atmospheric carbon dioxide to quantify the magnitude and spatial and temporal patterns of carbon uptake on the global scale.

  9. Disturbance dynamics of forested ecosystems

    Treesearch

    John A. Stanturf

    2004-01-01

    Forested ecosystems are dynamic, subject to natural developmental processes as well as natural and anthropogenic stresses and disturbances. Degradation is a related term. for lowered productive capacity from changes to forest structure of function (FAO. 2001). Degradation is not synonymous with disturbance, however; disturbance becomes degradation when natural...

  10. Forest restoration, biodiversity and ecosystem functioning

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Globally, forests cover nearly one third of the land area and they contain over 80% of terrestrial biodiversity. Both the extent and quality of forest habitat continue to decrease and the associated loss of biodiversity jeopardizes forest ecosystem functioning and the ability of forests to provide ecosystem services. In the light of the increasing population pressure, it is of major importance not only to conserve, but also to restore forest ecosystems. Ecological restoration has recently started to adopt insights from the biodiversity-ecosystem functioning (BEF) perspective. Central is the focus on restoring the relation between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Here we provide an overview of important considerations related to forest restoration that can be inferred from this BEF-perspective. Restoring multiple forest functions requires multiple species. It is highly unlikely that species-poor plantations, which may be optimal for above-ground biomass production, will outperform species diverse assemblages for a combination of functions, including overall carbon storage and control over water and nutrient flows. Restoring stable forest functions also requires multiple species. In particular in the light of global climatic change scenarios, which predict more frequent extreme disturbances and climatic events, it is important to incorporate insights from the relation between biodiversity and stability of ecosystem functioning into forest restoration projects. Rather than focussing on species per se, focussing on functional diversity of tree species assemblages seems appropriate when selecting tree species for restoration. Finally, also plant genetic diversity and above - below-ground linkages should be considered during the restoration process, as these likely have prominent but until now poorly understood effects at the level of the ecosystem. The BEF-approach provides a useful framework to evaluate forest restoration in an ecosystem functioning context, but

  11. Forest restoration, biodiversity and ecosystem functioning.

    PubMed

    Aerts, Raf; Honnay, Olivier

    2011-11-24

    Globally, forests cover nearly one third of the land area and they contain over 80% of terrestrial biodiversity. Both the extent and quality of forest habitat continue to decrease and the associated loss of biodiversity jeopardizes forest ecosystem functioning and the ability of forests to provide ecosystem services. In the light of the increasing population pressure, it is of major importance not only to conserve, but also to restore forest ecosystems. Ecological restoration has recently started to adopt insights from the biodiversity-ecosystem functioning (BEF) perspective. Central is the focus on restoring the relation between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Here we provide an overview of important considerations related to forest restoration that can be inferred from this BEF-perspective. Restoring multiple forest functions requires multiple species. It is highly unlikely that species-poor plantations, which may be optimal for above-ground biomass production, will outperform species diverse assemblages for a combination of functions, including overall carbon storage and control over water and nutrient flows. Restoring stable forest functions also requires multiple species. In particular in the light of global climatic change scenarios, which predict more frequent extreme disturbances and climatic events, it is important to incorporate insights from the relation between biodiversity and stability of ecosystem functioning into forest restoration projects. Rather than focussing on species per se, focussing on functional diversity of tree species assemblages seems appropriate when selecting tree species for restoration. Finally, also plant genetic diversity and above - below-ground linkages should be considered during the restoration process, as these likely have prominent but until now poorly understood effects at the level of the ecosystem. The BEF-approach provides a useful framework to evaluate forest restoration in an ecosystem functioning context, but

  12. INSECTS & PATHOGENS Regulators of Forest Ecosystems

    Treesearch

    Robert A. Haack; James W. Byler

    1993-01-01

    Today's forest managers are challenged by issues such as soil productivity, biodiversity, threatened and endangered species, and ecosystem sustainability; and ecosystem management has been proposed as a way to deal with them. The Society of American Foresters (1993) defines this term as keeping forest ecosystems functioning well over long periods of time in order...

  13. Management to conserve forest ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robbins, C.S.; McComb, William C.

    1984-01-01

    Historically, management of forests for wildlife has emphasized creation of openings and provision for a maximum of edge habitats. Wildlife managers have believed, quite logically, that increased sunlight enhances productivity among plants and insects, resulting in greater use by game animals and other wildlife. Recent studies comparing breeding bird populations of extensive forests with those of isolated woodlots have shown that the smaller woodlots, especially those under 35 ha (about 85 acres), lack many species that are typical of the larger tracts. The missing species can be predicted, and basically are the neotropical migrants. These long-distance migrants share several characteristics that make them especially vulnerable to reproductive failure in situations where predation and cowbird parasitism are high: they are primarily single-brooded, open nesters that lay small clutches on or near the ground. Edge habitats and forest openings attract cowbirds and predators. The edge species of birds, which are mostly permanent residents or short-distance migrants, are well adapted to survive and reproduce in small isolated woodlands without the benefit of special habitat management. The obligate forest interior species, on the other hand, are decreasing in those parts of North America where extensive forests are being replaced by isolated woodlands. If we are to preserve ecosystems intact for the benefit of future generations, and maintain a viable gene pool for the scarcer species, we must think in terms of retaining large, unbroken tracts of forest and of limiting disturbance in the more remote portions of these tracts.

  14. Acid Precipitation and the Forest Ecosystem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dochinger, Leon S.; Seliga, Thomas A.

    1975-01-01

    The First International Symposium on Acid Precipitation and the Forest Ecosystem dealt with the potential magnitude of the global effects of acid precipitation on aquatic ecosystems, forest soils, and forest vegetation. The problem is discussed in the light of atmospheric chemistry, transport, and precipitation. (Author/BT)

  15. Acid Precipitation and the Forest Ecosystem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dochinger, Leon S.; Seliga, Thomas A.

    1975-01-01

    The First International Symposium on Acid Precipitation and the Forest Ecosystem dealt with the potential magnitude of the global effects of acid precipitation on aquatic ecosystems, forest soils, and forest vegetation. The problem is discussed in the light of atmospheric chemistry, transport, and precipitation. (Author/BT)

  16. Forest Ecosystem Services As Production Inputs

    Treesearch

    Subhrendu Pattanayak; David T. Butry

    2003-01-01

    Are we cutting down tropical forests too rapidly and too extensively? If so, why? Answers to both questions are obscured in some ways by insufficient and unreliable data on the economic worth of forest ecosystem services. It is clear, however, that rapid, excessive cutting of forests can irreversibly and substantively impair ecosystem functions, thereby endangering the...

  17. An Integrated Approach to Forest Ecosystem Services

    Treesearch

    José Joaquin Campos; Francisco Alpizar; Bastiaan Louman; John A. Parrotta

    2005-01-01

    Forest ecosystem services (FES) are fundamental for the Earth’s life support systems. This chapter discusses the different services provided by forest ecosystems and the effects that land use and forest management practices have on their provision. It also discusses the role of markets in providing an enabling environment for a sustainable and equitable provision of...

  18. [Assessing forest ecosystem health I. Model, method, and index system].

    PubMed

    Chen, Gao; Dai, Limin; Ji, Lanzhu; Deng, Hongbing; Hao, Zhanqing; Wang, Qingli

    2004-10-01

    Ecosystem health assessment is one of the main researches and urgent tasks of ecosystem science in 21st century. An operational definition on ecosystem health and an all-sided, simple, easy operational and standard index system, which are the foundation of assessment on ecosystem health, are necessary in obtaining a simple and applicable assessment theory and method of ecosystem health. Taking the Korean pine and broadleaved mixed forest ecosystem as an example, an originally creative idea on ecosystem health was put forward in this paper based on the idea of mode ecosystem set and the idea of forest ecosystem health, together with its assessment. This creative idea can help understand what ecosystem health is. Finally, a formula was deduced based on a new effective health assessment method--health distance (HD), which is the first time to be brought forward in China. At the same time, aiming at it's characteristics by status understanding and material health questions, a health index system of Korean pine and broadleaved mixed forest ecosystem was put forward in this paper, which is a compound ecosystem based on the compound properties of nature, economy and society. It is concrete enough to measure sub-index, so it is the foundation to assess ecosystem health of Korean pine and broadleaved mixed forest in next researches.

  19. [Forest ecosystems and Ebola virus].

    PubMed

    Morvan, J M; Nakouné, E; Deubel, V; Colyn, M

    2000-07-01

    Despite data collected since the emergence of the Ebola virus in 1976, its natural transmission cycle and especially the nature of its reservoirs and means of transmission are still an enigma. This means that effective epidemiological surveillance and prevention are difficult to implement. The location of outbreak areas has suggested that the reservoir and the transmission cycle of the Ebola virus are closely linked to the rainforest ecosystem. The fact that outbreaks seldom occur suggests the presence of a rare animal reservoir having few contacts with man. Paradoxically, various serological investigations have shown a high prevalence in human beings, especially in forest areas of the Central African Republic (CAR), with no pathology associated. This would appear to suggest a circulation of both pathogenic and non-pathogenic strains as well as frequent contacts with man. The ecological changes resulting from human activity (agriculture and logging) account for the modification of the fauna (movement of rainforest fauna, introduction of savannah species) and could explain a multiplication of contacts. Likewise, it is interesting to note that the centre of outbreaks has always been in areas bordering on forests (ecotone foreset-savannah in the Democratic Republic of Congo, savannah in Sudan). All these considerations have led us to establish a permanent "watch" in areas bordering on forests in the CAR, involving a multidisciplinary approach to the virological study (strain isolation, molecular biology) of the biodiversity of small terrestrial mammals. The results of a study conducted on 947 small mammals has shown for the first time the presence of the Ebola virus genome in two species of rodents and one species of shrew living in forest border areas. These animals must be considered as intermediary hosts and research should now focus on reservoirs in the ecosystem of forest border areas where contacts with man are likely to be more frequent.

  20. Connecting forest ecosystem and microwave backscatter models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasischke, Eric S.; Christensen, Norman L., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    A procedure is outlined to connect data obtained from active microwave remote sensing systems with forest ecosystem models. The hierarchy of forest ecosystem models is discussed, and the levels at which microwave remote sensing data can be used as inputs are identified. In addition, techniques to utilize forest ecosystem models to assist in the validation of theoretical microwave backscatter models are identified. Several examples to illustrate these connecting processes are presented.

  1. Missouri Ozark Forest Ecosystem Project: the experiment

    Treesearch

    Steven L. Sheriff

    2002-01-01

    Missouri Ozark Forest Ecosystem Project (MOFEP) is a unique experiment to learn about the impacts of management practices on a forest system. Three forest management practices (uneven-aged management, even-aged management, and no-harvest management) as practiced by the Missouri Department of Conservation were randomly assigned to nine forest management sites using a...

  2. Air pollutants effects on forest ecosystems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference on the effects of acid rain on forests. The conference was sponsored by the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP). Topics considered at the conference included the status of US research on acid deposition and its effects contributing factors to the decline of forests, evidence for effects on ecosystems, the effects of air pollutants on forest ecosystems in North America and Europe, forest management, and future scientific research programs and management approaches.

  3. Predicting the response of a temperate forest ecosystem to atmospheric CO{sub 2} increase. Final report, 1984--1995

    SciTech Connect

    Bazzaz, F.A.

    1995-12-31

    This document describes the most recent progress made in several areas of the project. Details of individual experiments in the following areas are provided: (1) the impact of soil volume on the physiological acclimation of temperate deciduous trees in elevated CO{sub 2}; (2) growth under elevated CO{sub 2}: the shape as well as the size of pots is important; (3) a survey of growth responses of temperate deciduous trees to elevated CO{sub 2}; (4) a survey of closely related birch species; (5) the response of temperate deciduous tress to CO{sub 2} in variable light and nutrients conditions; (6) elevated CO{sub 2} differentially alters the response of birch and maple seedlings to a moisture gradient; (7) population dynamics; (8) heat shock in elevated CO{sub 2}: is there a change in temperature sensitivity; (9) response of temperate deciduous trees to CO{sub 2} in variable light and nutrient conditions; (10) changes in tree community composition and their consequences to ecosystem productivity; and (11) species diversity and ecosystem response to carbon dioxide fertilization.

  4. Assessment and monitoring of forest ecosystem structure

    Treesearch

    Oscar A. Aguirre Calderón; Javier Jiménez Pérez; Horst Kramer

    2006-01-01

    Characterization of forest ecosystems structure must be based on quantitative indices that allow objective analysis of human influences or natural succession processes. The objective of this paper is the compilation of diverse quantitative variables to describe structural attributes from the arboreal stratum of the ecosystem, as well as different methods of forest...

  5. Contingent Valuation of Forest Ecosystem Protection

    Treesearch

    Randall A. Kramer; Thomas P. Holmes; Michelle Haefele

    2003-01-01

    In recent decades, concerns have arisen about the proper valuation of the world's forests. While some of these concerns have to do with market distortions for timber products or inadequate data on non-timber forest products, an additional challenge is to uncover the economic worth of non- market services provided by forest ecosystems (Kramer et al. 1997). This has...

  6. Criterion 3: Maintenance of forest ecosystem health and vitality

    Treesearch

    Stephen R. Shifley; Francisco X. Aguilar; Nianfu Song; Susan I. Stewart; David J. Nowak; Dale D. Gormanson; W. Keith Moser; Sherri Wormstead; Eric J. Greenfield

    2012-01-01

    Forest ecosystem health depends on stable forest composition and structure and on sustainable ecosystem processes. Forest disturbances that push an ecosystem beyond the range of conditions considered normal can upset the balance among processes, exacerbate forest health problems, and increase mortality beyond historical norms. Sometimes forest ecosystems respond to...

  7. The Cooperative Forest Ecosystem Research Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2002-01-01

    Changes in priorities for forest management on federal and state lands in the Pacific Northwest have raised many questions about the best ways to manage young-forest stands, riparian areas, and forest landscapes. The Cooperative Forest Ecosystem Research (CFER) Program draws together scientists and managers from the U.S. Geological Survey, Bureau of Land Management, Oregon Department of Forestry, and Oregon State University to find science-based answers to these questions. Managers, researchers, and decisionmakers, working within the CFER program, are helping develop and disseminate the knowledge needed to carry out ecosystem-based management successfully in the Pacific Northwest.

  8. [Approaches for assessing forest ecosystem health].

    PubMed

    Chen, Gao; Deng, Hongbing; Wang, Qingli; Dai, Limin; Hao, Zhanqing

    2003-06-01

    Assessment and indicator system become the key issues in the research on ecosystem health in 21st century. Assessing forest ecosystem health gradually attach much attention because it is an important component of terrestrial ecosystem. The definition, measurement, evaluation and its management had been discussed broadly, and some theories, assessing methods and frameworks had been proposed, which provides a new concept and a serial research approaches for dealing with the crisis of terrestrial ecosystems, even the environment problems in the world. Now, the common operational models for assessing forest ecosystem health do not exist owing to the manifold limitations. This paper discussed forest ecosystem health problem, and brought forward three preconditions for assessing forest ecosystem health: 1) a clear conceptual framework; 2) adequate data sets; 3) proper research and analysis techniques. The issues of three preconditions were discussed, and the possible approaches for the assessing research on forest ecosystem health, e.g., long-term studies and environment monitoring, space-for-time substation studies, e.g., history approaches, economics valuation and others were expariated.

  9. Forests planted for ecosystem restoration or conservation.

    Treesearch

    Constance A. Harrington

    1999-01-01

    Although the phrase, "planting for ecosystem restoration," is of recent origin, many of the earliest large-scale tree plantings were made for what we now refer to as "'restoration" or "conservation" goals. Forest restoration activities may be needed when ecosystems are disturbed by either natural or anthropogenic forces. Disturbances...

  10. Forest Ecosystem Analysis Using a GIS

    Treesearch

    S.G. McNulty; W.T. Swank

    1996-01-01

    Forest ecosystem studies have expanded spatially in recent years to address large scale environmental issues. We are using a geographic information system (GIS) to understand and integrate forest processes at landscape to regional spatial scales. This paper presents three diverse research studies using a GIS. First, we used a GIS to develop a landscape scale model to...

  11. Gall midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) in forest ecosystems

    Treesearch

    Marcela Skuhrav& #225; ; Marcela NO-VALUE

    1991-01-01

    The family Cecidomyiidae is one of the largest of the Diptera. Gall midges are small, inconspicuous flies, but they may be very important both in forest ecosystems and in agroecosystems. Many phytophagous gall midge species attack forest trees, and some of them can be serious pests, such as the Dasineura rozhkovii Mamaev and Nikolsky, which develops...

  12. Forest Health Monitoring and Forest Inventory Analysis programs monitor climate change effects in forest ecosystems

    Treesearch

    Kenneth W. Stolte

    2001-01-01

    The Forest Health Monitoring (FHM) and Forest Inventory and Analyses (FIA) programs are integrated bilogical monitoring systems that use nationally standardized methods to evaluate and report on the health and sustainability of forest ecosystems in the United States. Many of the anticipated changes in forest ecosystems from climate change were also issues addressed in...

  13. Interacting CO2 and O3 effects on litter production, chemistry and decomposition in an aggrading northern forest ecosystem: final report

    SciTech Connect

    Rihard L. Lindroth

    2004-08-03

    The overall purpose of this research was to evaluate the independent and interactive effects of elevated levels of CO{sub 2} and O{sub 3} on tree leaf litter quality and decomposition. This research was conducted at the Aspen FACE (Free Air CO{sub 2} Enrichment) facility near Rhinelander, Wisconsin. This research comprised one facet of a larger project assessing how CO{sub 2} and O{sub 3} pollutants will alter carbon sequestration and nutrient cycling in north temperate forest ecosystems.

  14. Predictors of Drought Recovery across Forest Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderegg, W.

    2016-12-01

    The impacts of climate extremes on terrestrial ecosystems are poorly understood but central for predicting carbon cycle feedbacks to climate change. Coupled climate-carbon cycle models typically assume that vegetation recovery from extreme drought is immediate and complete, which conflicts with basic plant physiological understanding. Here, we discuss what we have learned about forest ecosystem recovery from extreme drought across spatial and temporal scales, drawing on inference from tree rings, eddy covariance data, large scale gross primary productivity products, and ecosystem models. In tree rings, we find pervasive and substantial "legacy effects" of reduced growth and incomplete recovery for 1-4 years after severe drought, and that legacy effects are most prevalent in dry ecosystems, Pinaceae, and species with low hydraulic safety margins. At larger scales, we see relatively rapid recovery of ecosystem fluxes, with strong influences of ecosystem productivity and diversity and longer recovery periods in high latidue forests. In contrast, no or limited legacy effects are simulated in current climate-vegetation models after drought, and we highlight some of the key missing mechanisms in dynamic vegetation models. Our results reveal hysteresis in forest ecosystem carbon cycling and delayed recovery from climate extremes and help advance a predictive understanding of ecosystem recovery.

  15. Insect pest management in forest ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahlsten, Donald L.; Rowney, David L.

    1983-01-01

    Understanding the role of insects in forest ecosystems is vital to the development of environmentally and economically sound pest management strategies in forestry Most of the research on forest insects has been confined to phytophagous species associated with economically important tree species The roles of most other insects in forest environments have generally been ignored, including the natural enemies and associates of phytophagous species identified as being important In the past few years several investigations have begun to reevaluate the role of phytophagous species responsible for perturbation in forest ecosystems, and it appears that these species may be playing an important role in the primary productivity of those ecosystems Also, there is an increasing awareness that forest pest managers have been treating the symptoms and not the causes of the problems in the forest Many insect problems are associated with poor sites or sites where trees are growing poorly because of crowding As a result, there is considerable emphasis on the hazard rating of stands of trees for their susceptibility to various phytophagous insects The next step is to manipulate forest stands to make them less susceptible to forest pest complexes A thinning study in California is used as an example and shows that tree mortality in ponderosa pine ( Pinus ponderosa) attributable to the western pine beetle ( Dendroctonus brevicomis) can be reduced by commercial thinning to reduce stocking

  16. Aquatic biodiversity in forests: A weak link in ecosystem services resilience

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Penaluna, Brooke E.; Olson, Deanna H.; Flitcroft, Rebecca L; Weber, Matthew A.; Bellmore, J. Ryan; Wondzell, Steven M.; Dunham, Jason; Johnson, Sherri L.; Reeves, Gordon H.

    2016-01-01

    The diversity of aquatic ecosystems is being quickly reduced on many continents, warranting a closer examination of the consequences for ecological integrity and ecosystem services. Here we describe intermediate and final ecosystem services derived from aquatic biodiversity in forests. We include a summary of the factors framing the assembly of aquatic biodiversity in forests in natural systems and how they change with a variety of natural disturbances and human-derived stressors. We consider forested aquatic ecosystems as a multi-state portfolio, with diverse assemblages and life-history strategies occurring at local scales as a consequence of a mosaic of habitat conditions and past disturbances and stressors. Maintaining this multi-state portfolio of assemblages requires a broad perspective of ecosystem structure, various functions, services, and management implications relative to contemporary stressors. Because aquatic biodiversity provides multiple ecosystem services to forests, activities that compromise aquatic ecosystems and biodiversity could be an issue for maintaining forest ecosystem integrity. We illustrate these concepts with examples of aquatic biodiversity and ecosystem services in forests of northwestern North America, also known as Northeast Pacific Rim. Encouraging management planning at broad as well as local spatial scales to recognize multi-state ecosystem management goals has promise for maintaining valuable ecosystem services. Ultimately, integration of information from socio-ecological ecosystems will be needed to maintain ecosystem services derived directly and indirectly from forest aquatic biota.

  17. Forest-related ecosystem services

    Treesearch

    Sandra Luque; Louis Iverson

    2016-01-01

    Forests are a crucial element not only of landscapes but also of human living conditions. Covering nearly a third of the earth's land surtace, they stabilize surface soil, prevent erosion and play an essential role in water resource management at the watershed and local levels. They regulate climate and improve air quality. At the same time they are an important...

  18. Neighbourhood-scale urban forest ecosystem classification.

    PubMed

    Steenberg, James W N; Millward, Andrew A; Duinker, Peter N; Nowak, David J; Robinson, Pamela J

    2015-11-01

    Urban forests are now recognized as essential components of sustainable cities, but there remains uncertainty concerning how to stratify and classify urban landscapes into units of ecological significance at spatial scales appropriate for management. Ecosystem classification is an approach that entails quantifying the social and ecological processes that shape ecosystem conditions into logical and relatively homogeneous management units, making the potential for ecosystem-based decision support available to urban planners. The purpose of this study is to develop and propose a framework for urban forest ecosystem classification (UFEC). The multifactor framework integrates 12 ecosystem components that characterize the biophysical landscape, built environment, and human population. This framework is then applied at the neighbourhood scale in Toronto, Canada, using hierarchical cluster analysis. The analysis used 27 spatially-explicit variables to quantify the ecosystem components in Toronto. Twelve ecosystem classes were identified in this UFEC application. Across the ecosystem classes, tree canopy cover was positively related to economic wealth, especially income. However, education levels and homeownership were occasionally inconsistent with the expected positive relationship with canopy cover. Open green space and stocking had variable relationships with economic wealth and were more closely related to population density, building intensity, and land use. The UFEC can provide ecosystem-based information for greening initiatives, tree planting, and the maintenance of the existing canopy. Moreover, its use has the potential to inform the prioritization of limited municipal resources according to ecological conditions and to concerns of social equity in the access to nature and distribution of ecosystem service supply. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Ecosystem carbon stocks in Pinus palustris forests

    Treesearch

    Lisa Samuelson; Tom Stokes; John R. Butnor; Kurt H. Johnsen; Carlos A. Gonzalez-Benecke; Pete Anderson; Jason Jackson; Lorenzo Ferrari; Tim A. Martin; Wendell P. Cropper

    2014-01-01

    Longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) restoration in the southeastern United States offers opportunities for carbon (C) sequestration. Ecosystem C stocks are not well understood in longleaf pine forests, which are typically of low density and maintained by prescribed fire. The objectives of this research were to develop allometric equations for...

  20. Unlocking the climate riddle in forested ecosystems

    Treesearch

    Greg C. Liknes; Christopher W. Woodall; Brian F. Walters; Sara A. Goeking

    2012-01-01

    Climate information is often used as a predictor in ecological studies, where temporal averages are typically based on climate normals (30-year means) or seasonal averages. While ensemble projections of future climate forecast a higher global average annual temperature, they also predict increased climate variability. It remains to be seen whether forest ecosystems...

  1. Hydrologic Modeling of Boreal Forest Ecosystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haddeland, I.; Lettenmaier, D. P.

    1995-01-01

    This study focused on the hydrologic response, including vegetation water use, of two test regions within the Boreal-Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) region in the Canadian boreal forest, one north of Prince Albert, Saskatchewan, and the other near Thompson, Manitoba. Fluxes of moisture and heat were studied using a spatially distributed hydrology soil-vegetation-model (DHSVM).

  2. Forest Ecosystem services and development pressures

    Treesearch

    David N. Wear

    2006-01-01

    Ecosystem services from forests on private lands are often under-produced because landowners bear the cost of restoring, preserving, and managing their lands to produce ecological services that benefit all members of the community or larger society. Over the last two decades, a variety of federal and state programs have applied a combination of regulations, extension,...

  3. Linking ecosystem characteristics to final ecosystem services for public policy

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Christina P; Jiang, Bo; Kinzig, Ann P; Lee, Kai N; Ouyang, Zhiyun

    2015-01-01

    Governments worldwide are recognising ecosystem services as an approach to address sustainability challenges. Decision-makers need credible and legitimate measurements of ecosystem services to evaluate decisions for trade-offs to make wise choices. Managers lack these measurements because of a data gap linking ecosystem characteristics to final ecosystem services. The dominant method to address the data gap is benefit transfer using ecological data from one location to estimate ecosystem services at other locations with similar land cover. However, benefit transfer is only valid once the data gap is adequately resolved. Disciplinary frames separating ecology from economics and policy have resulted in confusion on concepts and methods preventing progress on the data gap. In this study, we present a 10-step approach to unify concepts, methods and data from the disparate disciplines to offer guidance on overcoming the data gap. We suggest: (1) estimate ecosystem characteristics using biophysical models, (2) identify final ecosystem services using endpoints and (3) connect them using ecological production functions to quantify biophysical trade-offs. The guidance is strategic for public policy because analysts need to be: (1) realistic when setting priorities, (2) attentive to timelines to acquire relevant data, given resources and (3) responsive to the needs of decision-makers. PMID:25394857

  4. Linking ecosystem characteristics to final ecosystem services for public policy.

    PubMed

    Wong, Christina P; Jiang, Bo; Kinzig, Ann P; Lee, Kai N; Ouyang, Zhiyun

    2015-01-01

    Governments worldwide are recognising ecosystem services as an approach to address sustainability challenges. Decision-makers need credible and legitimate measurements of ecosystem services to evaluate decisions for trade-offs to make wise choices. Managers lack these measurements because of a data gap linking ecosystem characteristics to final ecosystem services. The dominant method to address the data gap is benefit transfer using ecological data from one location to estimate ecosystem services at other locations with similar land cover. However, benefit transfer is only valid once the data gap is adequately resolved. Disciplinary frames separating ecology from economics and policy have resulted in confusion on concepts and methods preventing progress on the data gap. In this study, we present a 10-step approach to unify concepts, methods and data from the disparate disciplines to offer guidance on overcoming the data gap. We suggest: (1) estimate ecosystem characteristics using biophysical models, (2) identify final ecosystem services using endpoints and (3) connect them using ecological production functions to quantify biophysical trade-offs. The guidance is strategic for public policy because analysts need to be: (1) realistic when setting priorities, (2) attentive to timelines to acquire relevant data, given resources and (3) responsive to the needs of decision-makers. © 2014 The Authors. Ecology Letters published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and CNRS.

  5. Modeling carbon and nitrogen biogeochemistry in forest ecosystems

    Treesearch

    Changsheng Li; Carl Trettin; Ge Sun; Steve McNulty; Klaus Butterbach-Bahl

    2005-01-01

    A forest biogeochemical model, Forest-DNDC, was developed to quantify carbon sequestration in and trace gas emissions from forest ecosystems. Forest-DNDC was constructed by integrating two existing moels, PnET and DNDC, with several new features including nitrification, forest litter layer, soil freezing and thawing etc, PnET is a forest physiological model predicting...

  6. Investigating drought-induced forest ecosystem evolution using water use efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, L.; Yang, Z. L.

    2016-12-01

    Forest mortality from drought and heat stress has increased worldwide during the past decades, and is expected to happen more frequently as drought events become more common due to global climate change. How different forest ecosystems respond dynamically to drought events of varying severity is not well understood. As a selective force, drought could drive the evolution of forest ecosystems and thus impact forest drought resilience. In this study, I propose to examine the change of forest ecosystem carbon-water cycle during drought-induced evolution, using ecosystem water use efficiency (eWUE) as a proxy. Based on NASA datasets (e.g. forest canopy height and solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence) and other datasets, the relationships between eWUE and a variety of potential factors will be assessed, to understand how different environmental conditions shape the forest ecosystem carbon-water cycle. I will then look at drought resilience, examining how different forest ecosystems respond to different kinds of drought events. Finally, I will analyze how forest ecosystem carbon-water cycle changes during drought phases and how mega drought may drive forest ecosystem evolution. North American forest ecosystems will be used as a testbed here. By studying how eWUE can be used as a proxy measure of evolution, the proposed investigation can advance our knowledge of how forest ecosystem adapt to drought. This study can inform decisions in forest management, enhance model development, improve our ability to assess and respond to drought events, and thus help society better adapt to the changing climate.

  7. Cryptic Methane Emissions from Upland Forest Ecosystems

    SciTech Connect

    Megonigal, Patrick; Pitz, Scott

    2016-04-19

    This exploratory research on Cryptic Methane Emissions from Upland Forest Ecosystems was motivated by evidence that upland ecosystems emit 36% as much methane to the atmosphere as global wetlands, yet we knew almost nothing about this source. The long-term objective was to refine Earth system models by quantifying methane emissions from upland forests, and elucidate the biogeochemical processes that govern upland methane emissions. The immediate objectives of the grant were to: (i) test the emerging paradigm that upland trees unexpectedly transpire methane, (ii) test the basic biogeochemical assumptions of an existing global model of upland methane emissions, and (iii) develop the suite of biogeochemical approaches that will be needed to advance research on upland methane emissions. We instrumented a temperate forest system in order to explore the processes that govern upland methane emissions. We demonstrated that methane is emitted from the stems of dominant tree species in temperate upland forests. Tree emissions occurred throughout the growing season, while soils adjacent to the trees consumed methane simultaneously, challenging the concept that forests are uniform sinks of methane. High frequency measurements revealed diurnal cycling in the rate of methane emissions, pointing to soils as the methane source and transpiration as the most likely pathway for methane transport. We propose the forests are smaller methane sinks than previously estimated due to stem emissions. Stem emissions may be particularly important in upland tropical forests characterized by high rainfall and transpiration, resolving differences between models and measurements. The methods we used can be effectively implemented in order to determine if the phenomenon is widespread.

  8. Ten years of research on the MeadWestvaco Wildlife and Ecosystem Research Forest

    Treesearch

    P.D. Keyser; W.M. Ford; W.M. Ford

    2005-01-01

    Contains 90 citations and annotations of publications and final reports that describe research conducted on or in association with the MeadWestvaco Wildlife and Ecosystem Research Forest in West Virginia from 1994 through 2004.

  9. Subcanopy Flux Measurements in Forest Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, Sebastian; Paul-Limoges, Eugenie; Baldocchi, Dennis

    2017-04-01

    Eddy-covariance measurements of carbon dioxide, water vapour and energy provide direct evidence for the biosphere-atmosphere exchange at the ecosystem scale. Such continuous measurements are typically performed in the atmospheric surface layer above the canopy and integrate fluxes over the entire ecosystem within the footprint. Forest ecosystems, however, have complex vertical structures composed of several layers with different functional properties that are represented to a limited extend by above canopy measurements. Concurrent eddy-covariance measurements below canopy (subcanopy) can provide valuable insights on (1) understory processes, (2) their contributions to total ecosystem fluxes, and (3) the partitioning of component fluxes. Accordingly, there is a large potential for including standardized subcanopy forest measurements into large-scale monitoring networks such as FLUXNET, ICOS or NEON. However, our understanding of the performance and limitations for such measurements is still very limited. To gain a better understanding of subcanopy measurements, we conducted (I) a survey across FLUXNET on their availability, and (II) a literature review on published subcanopy measurements. We will present the results from our survey, summarize the current process understanding (from a literature review), and discuss research priorities for concurrent below and above canopy eddy-covariance measurements.

  10. [Evaluation of forest ecosystem services value in Liaoning Province].

    PubMed

    Wang, Bing; Lu, Shao-wei; You, Wen-zhong; Ren, Xiao-xu; Xing, Zhao-kai; Wang, Shi-ming

    2010-07-01

    Based on the long-term located observation of forest ecosystem, and by using the 2006 forest resources inventory data of Liaoning Province and the forest industry standard of the People's Republic of China( LY/T 1721-2008, specification for assessment of forest ecosystem services in China), an evaluation was made on the material quantity and services value of main forest ecosystems in fourteen cities of Liaoning Province. In this province, the forest ecosystem services value supplied by water storage, soil conservation, C fixation, O2 release, nutrients accumulation, environment purification, biodiversity conservation, and forest recreation in 2006 was 2591.72 x 10(8) yuan, which was 8.54 times of the forestry production value and 28.02% in the GDP of the province. The services value of water storage, biodiversity conservation, C fixation, and O2 release occupied 79.09% of the total, being the main forest ecosystem services in the province. Economic forest and shrub had smaller per unit services value but larger area, and hence, their ecosystem services value should not be ignored. Abies fargesii forest, Phellodendron amurense forest, Juglans mandshurica forest, and Fraxinus mandshurica forest were the representative zonal vegetations in Liaoning Province, which had high value in biodiversity conservation. Under the effects of climate and other factors, the forest area and forest quality in west Liaoning were lower than those in east Liaoning.

  11. The Missouri Ozark Forest Ecosystem Project: past, present, and future

    Treesearch

    Brian L. Brookshire; Randy Jensen; Daniel C. Dey

    1997-01-01

    In 1989, the Missouri Department of Conservation initiated a research project to examine the impacts of forest management practices on multiple ecosystem components. The Missouri Ozark Forest Ecosystem Project (MOFEP) is a landscape experiment comparing the impacts of even-aged management, uneven-aged management, and no harvesting on a wide array of ecosystem...

  12. Vegetation and environmental features of forest and range ecosystems

    Treesearch

    George A. Garrison; Ardell J. Bjugstad; Don A. Duncan; Mont E. Lewis; Dixie R. Smith

    1977-01-01

    This publication describes the 34 ecosystems into which all the land of the 48 contiguous states has been classified in the Forest-Range Environmental Study (FRES) of the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. The description of each ecosystem discusses physiography, climate, vegetation, fauna, soils, and land use. For a number of the ecosystems, the...

  13. Supplementing forest ecosystem health projects on the ground

    Treesearch

    Cathy Barbouletos; Lynette Z. Morelan

    1995-01-01

    Understanding the functions and processes of ecosystems is critical before implementing forest ecosystem health projects on the landscape. Silvicultural treatments such as thinning, prescribed fire, and reforestation can simulate disturbance regimes and landscape patterns that have regulated forest ecosystems for centuries. As land managers we need to understand these...

  14. The 1990 forest ecosystem dynamics multisensor aircraft campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Darrel L.; Ranson, K. Jon

    1991-01-01

    The overall objective of the Forest Ecosystem Dynamics (FED) research activity is to develop a better understanding of the dynamics of forest ecosystem evolution over a variety of temporal and spatial scales. Primary emphasis is being placed on assessing the ecosystem dynamics associated with the transition zone between northern hardwood forests in eastern North America and the predominantly coniferous forests of the more northerly boreal biome. The approach is to combine ground-based, airborne, and satellite observations with an integrated forest pattern and process model which is being developed to link together existing models of forest growth and development, soil processes, and radiative transfer.

  15. Ecosystem adaptation to scarce nutrient resources: Do forest ecosystems shift from acquisition to recycling of phosphorus?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, F.; Kaupenjohann, M.

    2011-12-01

    Friederike Lang(1, Nicole Wellbrock(2, Martin Kaupenjohann(1 (1) Department of Soil Science, TU Berlin, 10587 Berlin, Germany; (2) vTI Eberswalde Agricultural food production is essential to our existence, yet we are using up the Earths stocks of phosphorus (P) for the fertilizer production (Cordell, 2009). Forest ecosystems that developed on marginal soil have developed highly efficient strategies for the uptake, usage and recycling of P, which might inspire solutions for the problem of P scarcity in agriculture. However, these efficient forest strategies are hardly investigated yet. Current literature concepts on the adaptation to low soil-P supply are mainly refined to individual organisms (e.g. the concept of uptake efficiency, Sattelmacher et al., 1994, and utilisation efficiency of plants, Compton and Cole, 1998). At the ecosystem level, however, low mineral-P supply requires an evolution of the system towards closed biogeochemical cycling (the concept of cycling efficiency). At the ecosystem level nutrient efficiency becomes rather a matter of transfer and distribution of resources among species, generations and soil components than of the capability of single organisms to acquire P sources. We plead for introducing the term ecosystem nutrition to cover this topic. Our general hypothesis is that P depletion of soils drives the development of forest ecosystems from geochemical P acquiring systems (mobilisation of P from the mineral phase) to biogeochemical P recycling systems (recycling of P from soil organic matter). We conclude that fundamental knowledge in the area of ecosystem nutrition is essential for forestry to mitigate the consequences of increasing N deposition, climate change and intensification of forest usage, which most likely interfere with essential nutrition strategies of forest ecosystems. Transfer of the knowledge on nutrition strategies and resource management of near-natural ecosystems to/in agricultural systems may finally contribute to

  16. Whole-ecosystem experimental manipulations of tropical forests.

    PubMed

    Fayle, Tom M; Turner, Edgar C; Basset, Yves; Ewers, Robert M; Reynolds, Glen; Novotny, Vojtech

    2015-06-01

    Tropical forests are highly diverse systems involving extraordinary numbers of interactions between species, with each species responding in a different way to the abiotic environment. Understanding how these systems function and predicting how they respond to anthropogenic global change is extremely challenging. We argue for the necessity of 'whole-ecosystem' experimental manipulations, in which the entire ecosystem is targeted, either to reveal the functioning of the system in its natural state or to understand responses to anthropogenic impacts. We survey the current range of whole-ecosystem manipulations, which include those targeting weather and climate, nutrients, biotic interactions, human impacts, and habitat restoration. Finally we describe the unique challenges and opportunities presented by such projects and suggest directions for future experiments.

  17. Paying for Forest Ecosystem Services: Voluntary Versus Mandatory Payments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roesch-McNally, Gabrielle E.; Rabotyagov, Sergey S.

    2016-03-01

    The emergence of new markets for forest ecosystem services can be a compelling opportunity for market diversification for private forest landowners, while increasing the provision of public goods from private lands. However, there is limited information available on the willingness-to-pay (WTP) for specific forest ecosystem services, particularly across different ecosystem market mechanisms. We utilize survey data from Oregon and Washington households to compare marginal WTP for forest ecosystem services and the total WTP for cost-effective bundles of forest ecosystem services obtained from a typical Pacific Northwest forest across two value elicitation formats representing two different ecosystem market mechanisms: an incentive-compatible choice experiment involving mandatory tax payments and a hypothetical private provision scenario modeled as eliciting contributions to the preferred forest management alternative via a provision point mechanism with a refund. A representative household's total WTP for the average forest management program was estimated at 217.59 per household/year under a mandatory tax mechanism and 160.44 per household/per year under a voluntary, crowdfunding-style, contribution mechanism; however, these estimates are not statistically different. Marginal WTP estimates were assessed for particular forest ecosystem service attributes including water quality, carbon storage, mature forest habitat, and public recreational access. This study finds that survey respondents place significant economic value on forest ecosystem services in both elicitation formats and that the distributions of the marginal WTP are not statistically significantly different.

  18. Paying for Forest Ecosystem Services: Voluntary Versus Mandatory Payments.

    PubMed

    Roesch-McNally, Gabrielle E; Rabotyagov, Sergey S

    2016-03-01

    The emergence of new markets for forest ecosystem services can be a compelling opportunity for market diversification for private forest landowners, while increasing the provision of public goods from private lands. However, there is limited information available on the willingness-to-pay (WTP) for specific forest ecosystem services, particularly across different ecosystem market mechanisms. We utilize survey data from Oregon and Washington households to compare marginal WTP for forest ecosystem services and the total WTP for cost-effective bundles of forest ecosystem services obtained from a typical Pacific Northwest forest across two value elicitation formats representing two different ecosystem market mechanisms: an incentive-compatible choice experiment involving mandatory tax payments and a hypothetical private provision scenario modeled as eliciting contributions to the preferred forest management alternative via a provision point mechanism with a refund. A representative household's total WTP for the average forest management program was estimated at $217.59 per household/year under a mandatory tax mechanism and $160.44 per household/per year under a voluntary, crowdfunding-style, contribution mechanism; however, these estimates are not statistically different. Marginal WTP estimates were assessed for particular forest ecosystem service attributes including water quality, carbon storage, mature forest habitat, and public recreational access. This study finds that survey respondents place significant economic value on forest ecosystem services in both elicitation formats and that the distributions of the marginal WTP are not statistically significantly different.

  19. Ca isotope cycling in a forested ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmden, Chris; Bélanger, Nicolas

    2010-02-01

    Reports of large Ca isotope fractionations between trees and soils prompted this study of a Boreal forest ecosystem near La Ronge, Saskatchewan, to improve understanding of this phenomenon. The results on five tree species (black spruce, trembling aspen, white spruce, jack pine, balsam poplar) confirm that nutrient Ca uptake by plants favors the light isotopes, thus driving residual Ca in plant available soil pools towards enrichment in the heavy isotopes. Substantial within-tree fraction occurs in tissues formed along the transpiration stream, with low δ 44Ca values in fine roots (2 mm), intermediate values in stemwood, and high values in foliage. Separation factors between different plant tissues are similar between species, but the initial fractionation step in the tips of the fine roots is species specific, and/or sensitive to the local soil environment. Soil water δ 44Ca values appear to increase with depth to at least 35 cm below the top of the forest floor, which is close to the deepest level of fine roots. The heavy plant fractionated signature of Ca in the finely rooted upper soils filters downward where it is retained on ion exchange sites, leached into groundwater, and discharged into surface waters. The relationship between Ca uptake by tree fine roots and the pattern of δ 44Ca enrichment with soil depth was modeled for two Ca pools: the forest floor (litter) and the underlying (upper B) mineral soil. Six study plots were investigated along two hillside toposequences trending upwards from a first order stream. We used allometric equations describing the Ca distribution in boreal tree species to calculate weighted average δ 44Ca values for the stands in each plot and estimate Ca uptake rates. The δ 44Ca value of precipitation was measured, and soil weathering signatures deduced, by acid leaching of lower B mineral soils. Steady state equations were used to derive a set of model Ca fluxes and fractionation factors for each plot. The model reproduces

  20. Disturbance dynamics and ecosystem-based forest management

    Treesearch

    Kalev Jogiste; W. Keith Moser; Malle. Mandre

    2005-01-01

    Ecosystem-based management is intended to balance ecological, social and economic values of sustainable resource management. The desired future state of forest ecosystem is usually defined through productivity, biodiversity, stability or other terms. However, ecosystem-based management may produce an unbalanced emphasis on different components. Although ecosystem-based...

  1. An assessment of forest ecosystem health in the Southwest

    Treesearch

    Cathy W. Dahms; Brian W. Geils

    1997-01-01

    This report documents an ecological assessment of forest ecosystem health in the Southwest. The assessment focuses at the regional level and mostly pertains to lands administered by the National Forest System. Information is presented for use by forest and district resource managers as well as collaborative partners in the stewardship of Southwestern forests. The...

  2. [A review on carbon and water interactions of forest ecosystem and its impact factors].

    PubMed

    Song, Chun-lin; Sun, Xiang-yang; Wang, Gen-xu

    2015-09-01

    Interaction between carbon and water in forest ecosystem is a coupling process in terrestrial ecosystem, which is an indispensable aspect for the study of forest carbon pool, ecohydrological processes and the responses to global change. In the context of global change, the interaction and coupling of carbon and water in forest ecosystem has attracted much attention among scientists. In this paper, we reviewed the process mechanism of forest carbon and water relationships based on previous studies, which consisted of advance in forest water use efficiency, carbon and water interactions at different scales, scaling, and model simulation. We summed up the factors affecting for- est water and carbon interaction, including water condition, carbon dioxide enrichment, warming, nitrogen deposition, ozone concentration variation, solar radiation, and altitudinal gradients. Finally, we discussed the problems in the previous studies, and prospected the possible future research fields, among which we thought the inherent dynamics mechanism and scaling of forest carbon and water interactions should be enhanced.

  3. Northern Forest Ecosystem Dynamics Using Coupled Models and Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ranson, K. J.; Sun, G.; Knox, R. G.; Levine, E. R.; Weishampel, J. F.; Fifer, S. T.

    1999-01-01

    Forest ecosystem dynamics modeling, remote sensing data analysis, and a geographical information system (GIS) were used together to determine the possible growth and development of a northern forest in Maine, USA. Field measurements and airborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data were used to produce maps of forest cover type and above ground biomass. These forest attribute maps, along with a conventional soils map, were used to identify the initial conditions for forest ecosystem model simulations. Using this information along with ecosystem model results enabled the development of predictive maps of forest development. The results obtained were consistent with observed forest conditions and expected successional trajectories. The study demonstrated that ecosystem models might be used in a spatial context when parameterized and used with georeferenced data sets.

  4. Impacts of forestry on boreal forests: An ecosystem services perspective.

    PubMed

    Pohjanmies, Tähti; Triviño, María; Le Tortorec, Eric; Mazziotta, Adriano; Snäll, Tord; Mönkkönen, Mikko

    2017-04-22

    Forests are widely recognized as major providers of ecosystem services, including timber, other forest products, recreation, regulation of water, soil and air quality, and climate change mitigation. Extensive tracts of boreal forests are actively managed for timber production, but actions aimed at increasing timber yields also affect other forest functions and services. Here, we present an overview of the environmental impacts of forest management from the perspective of ecosystem services. We show how prevailing forestry practices may have substantial but diverse effects on the various ecosystem services provided by boreal forests. Several aspects of these processes remain poorly known and warrant a greater role in future studies, including the role of community structure. Conflicts among different interests related to boreal forests are most likely to occur, but the concept of ecosystem services may provide a useful framework for identifying and resolving these conflicts.

  5. [Evaluation of economic forest ecosystem services in China].

    PubMed

    Wang, Bing; Lu, Shao-Wei

    2009-02-01

    This paper quantitatively evaluated the economic forest ecosystem services in the provinces of China in 2003, based on the long-term and continuous observations of economic forest ecosystems in this country, the sixth China national forest resources inventory data, and the price parameter data from the authorities in the world, and by applying the law of market value, the method of substitution of the expenses, and the law of the shadow project. The results showed that in 2003, the total value of economic forest ecosystem services in China was 11763.39 x 10(8) yuan, and the total value of the products from economic forests occupied 19.3% of the total ecosystem services value, which indicated that the economic forests not only provided society direct products, but also exhibited enormous eco-economic value. The service value of the functions of economic forests was in the order of water storage > C fixation and O2 release > biodiversity conservation > erosion control > air quality purification > nutrient cycle. The spatial pattern of economic forest ecosystem services in the provinces of China had the same trend with the spatial distribution of water and heat resources and biodiversity. To understand the differences of economic forest ecosystem services in the provinces of China was of significance in alternating the irrational arrangement of our present forestry production, diminishing the abuses of forest management, and establishing high grade, high efficient, and modernized economic forests.

  6. CO2 flux studies of different hemiboreal forest ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasnova, Alisa; Krasnov, Dmitrii; Noe, Steffen M.; Uri, Veiko; Mander, Ülo; Niinemets, Ülo; Soosaar, Kaido

    2017-04-01

    Hemiboreal zone is a transition between boreal and temperate zones characterized by the combination of climatic and edaphic conditions inherent in both zones. Hemiboreal forests are typically presented by mixed forests types with different ratios of deciduous and conifer tree species. Dominating tree species composition affects the functioning of forest ecosystem and its influence on biogeochemical cycles. We present the result of ecosystem scale CO2 eddy-covariance fluxes research conducted in 4 ecosystems (3 forests sites and 1 clear-cut area) of hemiboreal zone in Estonia. All 4 sites were developing under similar climatic conditions, but different forest management practices resulted in different composition of dominating tree species: pine forest with spruce trees as a second layer (Soontaga site); spruce/birch forest with single alder trees (Liispõllu site); forest presented by sectors of pine, spruce, birch and clearcut areas (SMEAR Estonia site); 5-years old clearcut area (Kõnnu site).

  7. Spatial complementarity of forests and farms: accounting for ecosystem services

    Treesearch

    Subhrendu K. Pattanayak; David T. Butry

    2006-01-01

    Our article considers the economic contributions of forest ecosystem services, using a case study from Flores, Indonesia, in which forest protection in upstream watersheds stabilize soil and hydrological flows in downstream farms. We focus on the demand for a weak complement to the ecosystem services--farm labor-- and account for spatial dependence due to economic...

  8. Water and the Ecosystems of the Luquillo Experimental Forest

    Treesearch

    Ariel E. Lugo

    1986-01-01

    Water dynamics, water balance, and water requirements of the ecosystems and aquatic organisms of the Luquillo Experimental Forest (aka Caribbean National Forest) are reviewed. Objective is to draw attention to research needs and to highlight importance of freshwater allocations to natural ecosystems.

  9. Interannual Variations in Ecosystem Oxidative Ratio in Croplands, Deciduous Forest, Coniferous Forest, and Early Successional Forest Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masiello, C. A.; Hockaday, W. C.; Gallagher, M. E.; Calligan, L.

    2009-12-01

    Ecosystem net primary productivity (NPP) can vary significantly with annual variations in precipitation and temperature. These climate variations can also drive changes in plant carbon allocation patterns. Shifting allocation patterns can lead to variation in net ecosystem biochemical stocks (e.g. kg cellulose, lignin, protein, and lipid/ha), which can in turn lead to shifts in ecosystem oxidative ratio (OR). OR is the molar ratio of O2 released : CO2 fixed during biosynthesis. Major plant biochemicals vary substantially in oxidative ratio, ranging from average organic acid OR values of 0.75 to average lipid OR values of 1.37 (Masiello et al., 2008). OR is a basic property of ecosystem biochemistry, and is also an essential variable needed to constrain the size of the terrestrial biospheric carbon sink (Keeling et al., 1996). OR is commonly assumed to be 1.10 (e.g. Prentice et al., 2001), but small variations in net ecosystem OR can drive large errors in estimates of the size of the terrestrial carbon sink (Randerson et al., 2006). We hypothesized that interannual changes in climate may drive interannual variation in ecosystem OR values. Working at Kellogg Biological Station NSF LTER, we measured the annual average OR of coniferous and deciduous forests, an early successional forest, and croplands under both corn and soy. There are clear distinctions between individual ecosystems (e.g., the soy crops have a higher OR than the corn crops, and the coniferous forests have a higher OR than the deciduous forests), but the ecosystems themselves retained remarkably constant annual OR values between 1998 and 2008.

  10. Ecosystem feedbacks and nitrogen fixation in boreal forests.

    PubMed

    DeLuca, Thomas H; Zackrisson, Olle; Gundale, Michael J; Nilsson, Marie-Charlotte

    2008-05-30

    Biological feedback mechanisms regulate fundamental ecosystem processes and potentially regulate ecosystem productivity. To date, no studies have documented the down-regulation of terrestrial nitrogen (N) fixation via an ecosystem-level feedback mechanism. Herein, we demonstrate such a feedback in boreal forests. Rapid cycling of N in early secondary succession forests yielded greater throughfall N deposition, which in turn decreased N fixation by cyanobacterial associates in feather moss carpets that reside on the forest floor. The forest canopy exerts a tight control on biotic N input at a period of high productivity.

  11. Urban forests and pollution mitigation: analyzing ecosystem services and disservices.

    PubMed

    Escobedo, Francisco J; Kroeger, Timm; Wagner, John E

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to integrate the concepts of ecosystem services and disservices when assessing the efficacy of using urban forests for mitigating pollution. A brief review of the literature identifies some pollution mitigation ecosystem services provided by urban forests. Existing ecosystem services definitions and typologies from the economics and ecological literature are adapted and applied to urban forest management and the concepts of ecosystem disservices from natural and semi-natural systems are discussed. Examples of the urban forest ecosystem services of air quality and carbon dioxide sequestration are used to illustrate issues associated with assessing their efficacy in mitigating urban pollution. Development of urban forest management alternatives that mitigate pollution should consider scale, contexts, heterogeneity, management intensities and other social and economic co-benefits, tradeoffs, and costs affecting stakeholders and urban sustainability goals. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The Mammoth-June Ecosystem Management Project, Inyo National Forest

    Treesearch

    Connie Millar

    1996-01-01

    The Sierra Nevada Ecosystem Project (SNEP) case-study assessmentof the Mammoth-June Ecosystem Management Project(MJEMP) was undertaken to review and analyze the efficacy of alocal landscape analysis in achieving ecosystem-management objectivesin the Sierra Nevada. Of primary interest to SNEP was applicationof the new U.S. Forest Service (USFS) regional process...

  13. The experimental design of the Missouri Ozark Forest Ecosystem Project

    Treesearch

    Steven L. Sheriff; Shuoqiong. He

    1997-01-01

    The Missouri Ozark Forest Ecosystem Project (MOFEP) is an experiment that examines the effects of three forest management practices on the forest community. MOFEP is designed as a randomized complete block design using nine sites divided into three blocks. Treatments of uneven-aged, even-aged, and no-harvest management were randomly assigned to sites within each block...

  14. Integrating forest products with ecosystem services: a global perspective

    Treesearch

    Robert L. Deal; Rachel. White

    2012-01-01

    Around the world forests provide a broad range of vital ecosystem services. Sustainable forest management and forest products play an important role in global carbon management, but one of the major forestry concerns worldwide is reducing the loss of forestland from development. Currently, deforestation accounts for approximately 20% of total greenhouse gas emissions....

  15. The Missouri Ozark Forest Ecosystem Project: the effects of forest management on the forest ecosystem

    Treesearch

    Brian Brookshire; Carl Hauser

    1993-01-01

    The effects of forest management on non-timber resources are of growing concern to forest managers and the public. While many previous studies have reported effects of stand-level treatments (less than 15 ha) on various stand-level attributes, few studies have attempted to document the influence of forest management on the biotic and abiotic characteristics of entire...

  16. Complex trophic interactions in kelp forest ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Estes, J. A.; Danner, E.M.; Doak, D.F.; Konar, B.; Springer, A.M.; Steinberg, P.D.; Tinker, M. Tim; Williams, T.M.

    2004-01-01

    The distributions and abundances of species and populations change almost continuously. Understanding the processes responsible is perhaps ecology’s most fundamental challenge. Kelp-forest ecosystems in southwest Alaska have undergone several phase shifts between alga- and herbivore-dominated states in recent decades. Overhunting and recovery of sea otters caused the earlier shifts. Studies focusing on these changes demonstrate the importance of top-down forcing processes, a variety of indirect food-web interactions associated with the otter-urchin-kelp trophic cascade, and the role of food-chain length in the coevolution of defense and resistance in plants and their herbivores. This system unexpectedly shifted back to an herbivore-dominated state during the 1990s, because of a sea-otter population collapse that apparently was driven by increased predation by killer whales. Reasons for this change remain uncertain but seem to be linked to the whole-sale collapse of marine mammals in the North Pacific Ocean and southern Bering Sea. We hypothesize that killer whales sequentially "fished down" pinniped and sea-otter populations after their earlier prey, the great whales, were decimated by commercial whaling. The dynamics of kelp forests in southwest Alaska thus appears to have been influenced by an ecological chain reaction that encompassed numerous species and large scales of space and time.

  17. Forest ecosystems: Vegetation, disturbance, and economics: Chapter 5

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Littell, Jeremy S.; Hicke, Jeffrey A.; Shafer, Sarah L.; Capalbo, Susan M.; Houston, Laurie L.; Glick, Patty

    2013-01-01

    Forests cover about 47% of the Northwest (NW–Washington, Oregon, and Idaho) (Smith et al. 2009, fig. 5.1, table 5.1). The impacts of current and future climate change on NW forest ecosystems are a product of the sensitivities of ecosystem processes to climate and the degree to which humans depend on and interact with those systems. Forest ecosystem structure and function, particularly in relatively unmanaged forests where timber harvest and other land use have smaller effects, is sensitive to climate change because climate has a strong influence on ecosystem processes. Climate can affect forest structure directly through its control of plan physiology and life history (establishment, individual growth, productivity, and morality) or indirectly through its control of disturbance (fire, insects, disease). As climate changes, many forest processes will be affected, altering ecosystem services such as timber production and recreation. These changes have socioeconomic implications (e.g. for timber economies) and will require changes to current management of forests. Climate and management will interact to determine the forests of the future, and the scientific basis for adaptation to climate change in forests thus depends significantly on how forests will be affected.

  18. Forest Ecosystem Services and Eco-Compensation Mechanisms in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Hongbing; Zheng, Peng; Liu, Tianxing; Liu, Xin

    2011-12-01

    Forests are a major terrestrial ecosystem providing multiple ecosystem services. However, the importance of forests is frequently underestimated from an economic perspective because of the externalities and public good properties of these services. Forest eco-compensation is a transfer mechanism that serves to internalize the externalities of forest ecosystem services by compensating individuals or companies for the losses or costs resulting from the provision of these services. China's current forest eco-compensation system is centered mainly on noncommercial forest. The primary measures associated with ecosystem services are (1) a charge on destructive activities, such as indiscriminate logging, and (2) compensation for individual or local activities and investments in forest conservation. The Compensation Fund System for Forest Ecological Benefits was first listed in the Forest Law of the People's Republic of China in 1998. In 2004, the Central Government Financial Compensation Fund, an important source for the Compensation Fund for Forest Ecological Benefits, was formally established. To improve the forest eco-compensation system, it is crucial to design and establish compensation criteria for noncommercial forests. These criteria should take both theoretical and practical concerns into account, and they should be based on the quantitative valuation of ecosystem services. Although some initial headway has been made on this task, the implementation of an effective forest eco-compensation system in China still has deficiencies and still faces problems. Implementing classification-based and dynamic management for key noncommercial forests and establishing an eco-compensation mechanism with multiple funding sources in the market economy are the key measures needed to conquer these problems and improve the forest eco-compensation system and China's forestry development in sequence.

  19. Forest ecosystem services and eco-compensation mechanisms in China.

    PubMed

    Deng, Hongbing; Zheng, Peng; Liu, Tianxing; Liu, Xin

    2011-12-01

    Forests are a major terrestrial ecosystem providing multiple ecosystem services. However, the importance of forests is frequently underestimated from an economic perspective because of the externalities and public good properties of these services. Forest eco-compensation is a transfer mechanism that serves to internalize the externalities of forest ecosystem services by compensating individuals or companies for the losses or costs resulting from the provision of these services. China's current forest eco-compensation system is centered mainly on noncommercial forest. The primary measures associated with ecosystem services are (1) a charge on destructive activities, such as indiscriminate logging, and (2) compensation for individual or local activities and investments in forest conservation. The Compensation Fund System for Forest Ecological Benefits was first listed in the Forest Law of the People's Republic of China in 1998. In 2004, the Central Government Financial Compensation Fund, an important source for the Compensation Fund for Forest Ecological Benefits, was formally established. To improve the forest eco-compensation system, it is crucial to design and establish compensation criteria for noncommercial forests. These criteria should take both theoretical and practical concerns into account, and they should be based on the quantitative valuation of ecosystem services. Although some initial headway has been made on this task, the implementation of an effective forest eco-compensation system in China still has deficiencies and still faces problems. Implementing classification-based and dynamic management for key noncommercial forests and establishing an eco-compensation mechanism with multiple funding sources in the market economy are the key measures needed to conquer these problems and improve the forest eco-compensation system and China's forestry development in sequence.

  20. Maintaining ecosystem function and services in logged tropical forests.

    PubMed

    Edwards, David P; Tobias, Joseph A; Sheil, Douglas; Meijaard, Erik; Laurance, William F

    2014-09-01

    Vast expanses of tropical forests worldwide are being impacted by selective logging. We evaluate the environmental impacts of such logging and conclude that natural timber-production forests typically retain most of their biodiversity and associated ecosystem functions, as well as their carbon, climatic, and soil-hydrological ecosystem services. Unfortunately, the value of production forests is often overlooked, leaving them vulnerable to further degradation including post-logging clearing, fires, and hunting. Because logged tropical forests are extensive, functionally diverse, and provide many ecosystem services, efforts to expand their role in conservation strategies are urgently needed. Key priorities include improving harvest practices to reduce negative impacts on ecosystem functions and services, and preventing the rapid conversion and loss of logged forests. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Forest ecosystem health in the inland west

    Treesearch

    R. Neil Sampson; Lance R. Clark; Lynnette Z. Morelan

    1995-01-01

    For the past four years, American Forests has focused much of its policy attention on forest health, highlighted by a forest health partnership in southern Idaho. The partnership has been hard at work trying to better understand the forests of the Inland West. Our goal has been to identify what is affecting these forests, why they are responding differently to climate...

  2. Anthropogenic impacts on tropical forest biodiversity: a network structure and ecosystem functioning perspective

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Rebecca J.

    2010-01-01

    Huge areas of diverse tropical forest are lost or degraded every year with dramatic consequences for biodiversity. Deforestation and fragmentation, over-exploitation, invasive species and climate change are the main drivers of tropical forest biodiversity loss. Most studies investigating these threats have focused on changes in species richness or species diversity. However, if we are to understand the absolute and long-term effects of anthropogenic impacts on tropical forests, we should also consider the interactions between species, how those species are organized in networks, and the function that those species perform. I discuss our current knowledge of network structure and ecosystem functioning, highlighting empirical examples of their response to anthropogenic impacts. I consider the future prospects for tropical forest biodiversity, focusing on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in secondary forest. Finally, I propose directions for future research to help us better understand the effects of anthropogenic impacts on tropical forest biodiversity. PMID:20980318

  3. Anthropogenic impacts on tropical forest biodiversity: a network structure and ecosystem functioning perspective.

    PubMed

    Morris, Rebecca J

    2010-11-27

    Huge areas of diverse tropical forest are lost or degraded every year with dramatic consequences for biodiversity. Deforestation and fragmentation, over-exploitation, invasive species and climate change are the main drivers of tropical forest biodiversity loss. Most studies investigating these threats have focused on changes in species richness or species diversity. However, if we are to understand the absolute and long-term effects of anthropogenic impacts on tropical forests, we should also consider the interactions between species, how those species are organized in networks, and the function that those species perform. I discuss our current knowledge of network structure and ecosystem functioning, highlighting empirical examples of their response to anthropogenic impacts. I consider the future prospects for tropical forest biodiversity, focusing on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in secondary forest. Finally, I propose directions for future research to help us better understand the effects of anthropogenic impacts on tropical forest biodiversity.

  4. [Forest ecosystem service and its evaluation in China].

    PubMed

    Fang, Jin; Lu, Shaowei; Yu, Xinxiao; Rao, Liangyi; Niu, Jianzhi; Xie, Yuanyuan; Zhag, Zhenming

    2005-08-01

    Facing the relative lag of forest ecosystem service and estimation in China, this paper proposed to quickly carry out the research on the evaluation of forest ecosystem service. On the basis of the classification of forest ecosystem types in China, the service of artificial and semi-artificial forest ecosystems was investigated, which was divided into eight types, i.e., timber and other products, recreation and eco-tourism, water storage, C fixation and O2 release, nutrient cycling, air quality purifying, erosion control, and habitat provision. According to the assessment index system for global ecosystem service proposed by Costanza et al., a series of assessment index system suitable for Chinese forest ecosystem service was set up, by which, the total value of forest ecosystem service in China was estimated to be 30 601.20 x 10(8) yuan x yr(-1), including direct and indirect economic value about 1 920.23 x 10(8) and 28 680.97 x 10(8) yuan x yr(-1), respectively. The indirect value was as 14.94 times as the direct one. The research aimed to bring natural resources and environment factors into the account system of national economy quickly, and to realize the green GDP at last, which would be helpful to realize sustainable development and environment protection.

  5. Thinking About Oak Forests as Responsive Ecosystems

    Treesearch

    Paul S. Johnson

    2004-01-01

    Like all forests, oak forests are continually responding to disturbances originating from both within and outside the forest. Oaks (Quercus spp.) owe their very existence to disturbance. In this context, silvicultural and other manage-ment practices can be thought of as planned disturbances designed to direct forest change in specific ways. The...

  6. Changing Forest Values and Ecosystem Management

    Treesearch

    David N. Bengston

    1994-01-01

    There is substantial evidence that we are currently in a period of rapid and significant change in forest values. Some have charged that managing forests in ways that are responsive to diverse and changing forest values is the main challenge faced by public forest managers. To tackle this challenge, we need to address the following questions: (1) What is the nature of...

  7. Timber productivity of seven forest ecosystems in southeastern Alaska.

    Treesearch

    Willem W.S. van Hees

    1988-01-01

    Observations of growth on Alaska-cedar (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis), mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana), Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis), western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla), and western redcedar (Thuja plicata) on seven forest ecosystems in southeastern Alaska...

  8. Francis Marion National Forest forest plan revision - ecosystems & restoration needs

    Treesearch

    Mark Danaher

    2016-01-01

    The Forest Service is currently revising the previous 1995 Forest Plan for the Francis Marion National Forest in Coastal South Carolina developed in the wake of Hurricane Hugo which devastated the forest in 1989. Since 1995, the human communities surrounding the Francis Marion National Forest have grown and changed significantly. The revised Francis Marion Forest Plan...

  9. Ecosystem services capacity across heterogeneous forest types: understanding the interactions and suggesting pathways for sustaining multiple ecosystem services.

    PubMed

    Alamgir, Mohammed; Turton, Stephen M; Macgregor, Colin J; Pert, Petina L

    2016-10-01

    As ecosystem services supply from tropical forests is declining due to deforestation and forest degradation, much effort is essential to sustain ecosystem services supply from tropical forested landscapes, because tropical forests provide the largest flow of multiple ecosystem services among the terrestrial ecosystems. In order to sustain multiple ecosystem services, understanding ecosystem services capacity across heterogeneous forest types and identifying certain ecosystem services that could be managed to leverage positive effects across the wider bundle of ecosystem services are required. We sampled three forest types, tropical rainforests, sclerophyll forests, and rehabilitated plantation forests, over an area of 32,000m(2) from Wet Tropics bioregion, Australia, aiming to compare supply and evaluate interactions and patterns of eight ecosystem services (global climate regulation, air quality regulation, erosion regulation, nutrient regulation, cyclone protection, habitat provision, energy provision, and timber provision). On average, multiple ecosystem services were highest in the rainforests, lowest in sclerophyll forests, and intermediate in rehabilitated plantation forests. However, a wide variation was apparent among the plots across the three forest types. Global climate regulation service had a synergistic impact on the supply of multiple ecosystem services, while nutrient regulation service was found to have a trade-off impact. Considering multiple ecosystem services, most of the rehabilitated plantation forest plots shared the same ordination space with rainforest plots in the ordination analysis, indicating that rehabilitated plantation forests may supply certain ecosystem services nearly equivalent to rainforests. Two synergy groups and one trade-off group were identified. Apart from conserving rainforests and sclerophyll forests, our findings suggest two additional integrated pathways to sustain the supply of multiple ecosystem services from a

  10. A tool for assessing ecological status of forest ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman Kassim, Abd; Afizzul Misman, Muhammad; Azahari Faidi, Mohd; Omar, Hamdan

    2016-06-01

    Managers and policy makers are beginning to appreciate the value of ecological monitoring of artificially regenerated forest especially in urban areas. With the advent of more advance technology in precision forestry, high resolution remotely sensed data e.g. hyperspectral and LiDAR are becoming available for rapid and precise assessment of the forest condition. An assessment of ecological status of forest ecosystem was developed and tested using FRIM campus forest stand. The forest consisted of three major blocks; the old growth artificially regenerated native species forests, naturally regenerated forest and recent planted forest for commercial timber and other forest products. Our aim is to assess the ecological status and its proximity to the mature old growth artificially regenerated stand. We used airborne LiDAR, orthophoto and thirty field sampling quadrats of 20x20m for ground verification. The parameter assessments were grouped into four broad categories: a. forest community level-composition, structures, function; landscape structures-road network and forest edges. A metric of parameters and rating criteria was introduced as indicators of the forest ecological status. We applied multi-criteria assessment to categorize the ecological status of the forest stand. The paper demonstrates the application of the assessment approach using FRIM campus forest as its first case study. Its potential application to both artificially and naturally regenerated forest in the variety of Malaysian landscape is discussed

  11. 76 FR 41753 - Sierra National Forest, Bass Lake Ranger District, California, Grey's Mountain Ecosystem...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-15

    ... Forest Service Sierra National Forest, Bass Lake Ranger District, California, Grey's Mountain Ecosystem... Friday. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background Information: The Grey's Mountain Ecosystem Restoration... Ecosystem Restoration Project has changed from one where frequent, low intensity fires occurred to one with...

  12. Disturbance in forest ecosystems caused by pathogens and insects

    Treesearch

    Philip M. Wargo; Philip M. Wargo

    1995-01-01

    Pathogens and insects are major driving forces of processes in forested ecosystems. Disturbances caused by them are as intimately involved in ecosystem dynamics as the more sudden and obvious abiotic disturbances, for example, those caused by wind or fire. However, because pathogens and insects are selective and may affect only one or several related species of...

  13. An ecosystem model for tropical forest disturbance and selective logging

    Treesearch

    Maoyi Huang; Gregory P. Asner; Michael Keller; Joseph A. Berry

    2008-01-01

    [1] A new three-dimensional version of the Carnegie-Ames-Stanford Approach (CASA) ecosystem model (CASA-3D) was developed to simulate regional carbon cycling in tropical forest ecosystems after disturbances such as logging. CASA-3D has the following new features: (1) an alternative approach for calculating absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (APAR) using new...

  14. Retenation of soluble organic nutrients by a forested ecosystem

    Treesearch

    R.G. Qualls; B.L. Haines; Wayne T. Swank; S.W. Tyler

    2002-01-01

    We document an example of a forested watershed at the Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory with an extraordinary tendency to retain dissolved organic matter (DOM) generated in large quantities within the ecosystem. Our objectives were to determine fluxes of dissolved organic C, N, and P (DOC,D ON, DOP, respectively), in water draining through each stratum of the ecosystem and...

  15. A Practical Decision-Analysis Process for Forest Ecosystem Management

    Treesearch

    H. Michael Rauscher; F. Thomas Lloyd; David L. Loftis; Mark J. Twery

    2000-01-01

    Many authors have pointed out the need to firm up the 'fuzzy' ecosystem management paradigm and develop operationally practical processes to allow forest managers to accommodate more effectively the continuing rapid change in societal perspectives and goals. There are three spatial scales where clear, precise, practical ecosystem management processes are...

  16. A conceptual framework of urban forest ecosystem vulnerability

    Treesearch

    James W.N. Steenberg; Andrew A. Millward; David J. Nowak; Pamela J. Robinson

    2017-01-01

    The urban environment is becoming the most common setting in which people worldwide will spend their lives. Urban forests, and the ecosystem services they provide, are becoming a priority for municipalities. Quantifying and communicating the vulnerability of this resource are essential for maintaining a consistent and equitable supply of these ecosystem services. We...

  17. Application of artificial intelligence to risk analysis for forested ecosystems

    Treesearch

    Daniel L. Schmoldt

    2001-01-01

    Forest ecosystems are subject to a variety of natural and anthropogenic disturbances that extract a penalty from human population values. Such value losses (undesirable effects) combined with their likelihoods of occurrence constitute risk. Assessment or prediction of risk for various events is an important aid to forest management. Artificial intelligence (AI)...

  18. Forecasting Urban Forest Ecosystem Structure, Function, and Vulnerability

    Treesearch

    James W. N. Steenberg; Andrew A. Millward; David J. Nowak; Pamela J. Robinson; Alexis Ellis

    2016-01-01

    The benefits derived from urban forest ecosystems are garnering increasing attention in ecological research and municipal planning. However, because of their location in heterogeneous and highly-altered urban landscapes, urban forests are vulnerable and commonly suffer disproportionate and varying levels of stress and disturbance. The objective of this study is to...

  19. Assessing pathogen and insect succession functions in forest ecosystems

    Treesearch

    Susan K. Hagle; Sandra J. Kegley; Stephen B. Williams

    1995-01-01

    The pilot test of a method to assess the ecological function of pathogens and insects in forests is reported. The analysis is a practical application of current ecosystem management theory.The influences of pathogens and insects on forest succession are measured by relating successional transition rates and types to conditions for pathogen and insect activities which...

  20. Wastewater and Sludge Nutrient Utilization in Forest Ecosystems

    Treesearch

    D.G. Brockway; D.H. Urie; P.V. Nguyen; J.B. Hart

    1986-01-01

    Although forest ecosystems have evolved efficient mechanisms to assimilate and retain modest levels of annual geochemical input, their productivity is frequently limited by low levels of available nutrients. A review of research studies conducted in the major U.S. forest regions indicates that the nutrients and organic matter in wastewater and sludge representa...

  1. Applications of satellite remote sensing to forested ecosystems

    Treesearch

    Louis R. Iverson; Robin Lambert Graham; Elizabeth A. Cook; Elizabeth A. Cook

    1989-01-01

    Since the launch of the first civilian earth-observing satellite in 1972, satellite remote sensing has provided increasingly sophisticated information on the structure and function of forested ecosystems. Forest classification and mapping, common uses of satellite data, have improved over the years as a result of more discriminating sensors, better classification...

  2. Emerald ash borer aftermath forests: the future of ash ecosystems

    Treesearch

    Kathleen S. Knight; Daniel A. Herms; John Cardina; Robert Long; Kamal J.K. Gandhi; Catharine P. Herms

    2011-01-01

    The effects of emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis) on forest ecosystems are being studied through a collaborative research program between the U.S. Forest Service and The Ohio State University. We are monitoring ash demographics, understory light availability, EAB population dynamics, native and non-native plants, and effects of ash...

  3. Forest ecosystems, disturbance, and climate change in Washington State, USA

    Treesearch

    Jeremy S. Littell; Elaine E. Oneil; Donald McKenzie; Jeffrey A. Hicke; James A. Lutz; Robert A. Norheim; Marketa M. Elsner

    2010-01-01

    Climatic change is likely to affect Pacific Northwest (PNW) forests in several important ways. In this paper, we address the role of climate in four forest ecosystem processes and project the effects of future climatic change on these processes across Washington State. First, we relate Douglas-fir growth to climatic limitation and suggest that where Douglas-fir is...

  4. Diseases of Forest Trees: Consequences of Exotic Ecosystems?

    Treesearch

    William J. Otrosina

    1998-01-01

    Much attention is now given to risks and impacts of exotic pest introductions in forest ecosystems. This concern is for good reason because, once introduced, an exotic pathogen or insect encounters little resistance in the native plant population and can produce catastrophic losses in relatively short periods of time. Most native fungal pathogens of forest trees have...

  5. Restoring longleaf pine forest ecosystems in the southern United States

    Treesearch

    Dale G. Brockway; Kenneth W. Outcalt; Donald J. Tomczak; E. E. Johnson

    2002-01-01

    Longleafpine (Pinus palustris) forests were historically one of the most extensive ecosystems in North America, covering 38 million ha along the coastal plain from Texas to Virginia and extending into central Florida and the Piedmont and mountains of Alabama and Georgia. Throughout its domain. longleaf pine occurred in forests, woodlands and savannas...

  6. Advances of Air Pollution Science: From Forest Decline to Multiple-Stress Effects on Forest Ecosystem Services

    Treesearch

    E. Paoletti; M. Schaub; R. Matyssek; G. Wieser; A. Augustaitis; A. M. Bastrup-Birk; A. Bytnerowicz; M. S. Gunthardt-Goerg; G. Muller-Starck; Y. Serengil

    2010-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, the focus of forest science on air pollution has moved from forest decline to a holistic framework of forest health, and from the effects on forest production to the ecosystem services provided by forest ecosystems. Hence, future research should focus on the interacting factorial impacts and resulting antagonistic and synergistic responses of...

  7. Ecosystem management, forest health, and silviculture

    Treesearch

    Merrill R. Kaufmann; Claudia M. Regan

    1995-01-01

    Forest health issues include the effects of fire suppression and grazing on forest stands, reduction in amount of old-growth forests, stand structural changes associated with even-aged management, .changes in structure of the landscape mosaic, loss of habitat for threatened species, and the introduction of exotic species. The consequences of these impacts can be...

  8. Conservation of diversity in forest ecosystems

    Treesearch

    C. I. Millar; F. T. Ledig; L. A. Riggs

    1990-01-01

    The symposium from which the papers in this issue derive was organized to foster an awareness among forest managers of the issues surrounding biological diversity. Forest geneticists have been calling for conservation of diversity for many years (Anonymous, 1975). Since they were geneticists, they naturally called this gene conservation. Forest geneticists often sold...

  9. Parameterisation of Biome BGC to assess forest ecosystems in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautam, Sishir; Pietsch, Stephan A.

    2010-05-01

    African forest ecosystems are an important environmental and economic resource. Several studies show that tropical forests are critical to society as economic, environmental and societal resources. Tropical forests are carbon dense and thus play a key role in climate change mitigation. Unfortunately, the response of tropical forests to environmental change is largely unknown owing to insufficient spatially extensive observations. Developing regions like Africa where records of forest management for long periods are unavailable the process-based ecosystem simulation model - BIOME BGC could be a suitable tool to explain forest ecosystem dynamics. This ecosystem simulation model uses descriptive input parameters to establish the physiology, biochemistry, structure, and allocation patterns within vegetation functional types, or biomes. Undocumented parameters for larger-resolution simulations are currently the major limitations to regional modelling in African forest ecosystems. This study was conducted to document input parameters for BIOME-BGC for major natural tropical forests in the Congo basin. Based on available literature and field measurements updated values for turnover and mortality, allometry, carbon to nitrogen ratios, allocation of plant material to labile, cellulose, and lignin pools, tree morphology and other relevant factors were assigned. Daily climate input data for the model applications were generated using the statistical weather generator MarkSim. The forest was inventoried at various sites and soil samples of corresponding stands across Gabon were collected. Carbon and nitrogen in the collected soil samples were determined from soil analysis. The observed tree volume, soil carbon and soil nitrogen were then compared with the simulated model outputs to evaluate the model performance. Furthermore, the simulation using Congo Basin specific parameters and generalised BIOME BGC parameters for tropical evergreen broadleaved tree species were also

  10. Barrier island forest ecosystem: role of meteorologic nutrient inputs.

    PubMed

    Art, H W; Bormann, F H; Voigt, G K; Woodwell, G M

    1974-04-05

    The Sunken Forest, located on Fire Island, a barrier island in the Atlantic Ocean off Long Island, New York, is an ecosystem in which most of the basic cation input is in the form of salt spray. This meteorologic input is sufficient to compensate for the lack of certain nutrients in the highly weathered sandy soils. In other ecosystems these nutrients are generally supplied by weathering of soil particles. The compensatory effect of meteorologic input allows for primary production rates in the Sunken Forest similar to those of inland temperate forests.

  11. Learning in Virtual Forest: A Forest Ecosystem in the Web-Based Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jussila, Terttu; Virtanen, Viivi

    2014-01-01

    Virtual Forest is a web-based, open-access learning environment about forests designed for primary-school pupils between the ages of 10 and 13 years. It is pedagogically designed to develop an understanding of ecology, to enhance conceptual development and to give a holistic view of forest ecosystems. Various learning tools, such as concept maps,…

  12. Learning in Virtual Forest: A Forest Ecosystem in the Web-Based Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jussila, Terttu; Virtanen, Viivi

    2014-01-01

    Virtual Forest is a web-based, open-access learning environment about forests designed for primary-school pupils between the ages of 10 and 13 years. It is pedagogically designed to develop an understanding of ecology, to enhance conceptual development and to give a holistic view of forest ecosystems. Various learning tools, such as concept maps,…

  13. Methane Emissions From Boreal and Tropical Forest Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, J.; Sinha, V.; Crutzen, P.; Lelieveld, J.

    2006-12-01

    Methane is a climatologically important greenhouse gas and plays a key role in regulating water vapour in the stratosphere and hydroxyl radicals in the troposphere. Recent findings that vegetation emits methane have stimulated efforts to ascertain the impact of this source on the global budget of this trace gas. In this work, we present the results of high frequency (1 minute) methane measurements conducted in the boreal forests of Finland and the tropical forests of Suriname, in April-May, 2005 and October 2005 respectively. The measurements were performed using a gas chromatograph - flame ionization detector (GC-FID). The average of the median mixing ratios during a typical diel cycle were 1.83 μmol mol-1 and 1.74 μmol mol-1 for the boreal forest ecosystem and tropical forest ecosystem respectively, with remarkable similarity in the time series of both the boreal and tropical diel profiles. Night time methane emission flux of the boreal forest ecosystem, calculated from the increase of methane during the night and measured nocturnal boundary layer heights yields a flux of 3.62 x 1011 molecules cm-2 s-1.These results highlight the importance of the boreal and tropical forest ecosystems for the global budget of methane. We also discuss our results in the context of recent work reporting high methane mixing ratios over tropical forests using space borne near infra red spectroscopy measurements.

  14. Assessing ecosystem carbon stocks of Indonesia's threatened wetland forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, M.; Kauffman, B.; Murdiyarso, D.; Kurnianto, S.

    2011-12-01

    Over millennia, atmospheric carbon dioxide has been sequestered and stored in Indonesia's tropical wetland forests. Waterlogged conditions impede decomposition, allowing the formation of deep organic soils. These globally significant C pools are highly vulnerable to deforestation, degradation and climate change which can potentially switch their function as C sinks to long term sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Also at risk are critical ecosystem services which sustain millions of people and the conservation of unique biological communities. The multiple benefits derived from wetland forest conservation makes them attractive for international C offset programs such as the proposed Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD+) mechanism. Yet, ecosystem C pools and fluxes in wetland forests remain poorly quantified. Significant knowledge gaps exist regarding how land use changes impact C dynamics in tropical wetlands, and very few studies have simultaneously assessed above- and belowground ecosystem C pools in Indonesia's freshwater peat swamps and mangroves. In addition, most of what is known about Indonesia's tropical wetland forests is derived from few geographic locations where long-standing research has focused, despite their broad spatial distribution. Here we present results from an extensive survey of ecosystem C stocks across several Indonesian wetland forests. Ecosystem C stocks were measured in freshwater peat swamp forests in West Papua, Central Kalimantan, West Kalimantan, and Sumatra. Carbon storage was also measured for mangrove forests in W. Papua, W. Kalimantan, and Sumatra. One overarching goal of this research is to support the development of REDD+ for tropical wetlands by informing technical issues related to carbon measuring, monitoring, and verification (MRV) and providing baseline data about the variation of ecosystem C storage across and within several Indonesian wetland forests.

  15. The forest ecosystems observatory in Guadeloupe (FWI)

    Treesearch

    G. Van Laere; Y. Gall; A. Rousteau

    2016-01-01

    Between 2010 and 2012, Parc National de la Guadeloupe, Office National des Forêts, and Université des Antilles et de la Guyane established 9 permanent 1-ha plots in tropical rain forest of Basse-Terre Island (Guadeloupe). These plots comprise the Guadeloupian Forest Observatory, and are specifically designed for long-term tree growth measurements and forest-dynamics...

  16. ESRP approach to using final ecosystem services

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has developed the ecosystem Services Research Program (ESRP) as one of its major research efforts. The goal of this program is to create “A comprehensive theory and practice for quantifying ecosystem services so that their value and their...

  17. ESRP approach to using final ecosystem services

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has developed the ecosystem Services Research Program (ESRP) as one of its major research efforts. The goal of this program is to create “A comprehensive theory and practice for quantifying ecosystem services so that their value and their...

  18. Mass balance of cadmium in two contrasting oak forest ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Sevel, Lisbeth; Hansen, Hans Christian Bruun; Raulund-Rasmussen, Karsten

    2009-01-01

    The mass balance of cadmium in forest ecosystems was parameterized. Soil pH is the main variable controlling retention of Cd in the soil and, hence, determines whether Cd is leached from the system or not. However the extent to which root uptake and biomass accumulation of Cd, or the return of Cd to the soil as internal cycling, influences forest Cd balances is unknown. Also unknown is whether these fluxes might counteract Cd leaching from forest soils. The objective of this study was to compare the Cd mass balance of two contrasting oak forest ecosystems, one grown on an acid sandy soil and one on a near-neutral loamy soil. The oak forest ecosystem grown on the acid sandy soil was a source of Cd with an input flux from deposition of 64 microg Cd m(-2) yr(-1), which was only 30% of the output flux with seepage water (175 microg Cd m(-2) yr(-1)). The oak forest ecosystem on the loamy soil acted as a sink for Cd, with an input flux (92 microg Cd m(-2) yr(-1)) 8.4 times higher than the output flux (11 microg Cd m(-2) yr(-1)). Biomass accumulation was 46% and 74% of root uptake on the sandy and the loamy soil, respectively, indicating that biomass accumulation, if harvested, will reduce the net return to the soil and hence the potential amount of Cd prone for leaching.

  19. Ecosystem carbon stocks of micronesian mangrove forests

    Treesearch

    J. Boone Kauffman; Chris Heider; Thomas G. Cole; Kathleen A. Dwire; Daniel C. Donato

    2011-01-01

    Among the least studied ecosystem services of mangroves is their value as global carbon (C) stocks. This is significant as mangroves are subject to rapid rates of deforestation and therefore could be significant sources of atmospheric emissions. Mangroves could be key ecosystems in strategies addressing the mitigation of climate change though reduced deforestation. We...

  20. Maintenance of forest ecosystem health and vitality

    Treesearch

    Ryan D. DeSantis; W. Keith Moser

    2016-01-01

    Forest health will likely be threatened by a number of factors - including fragmentation, fire regime alteration, and a variety of diseases, insects, and invasive plants - along with global climate change (Krist et al. 2007, Tkacz et al. 2008). By itself, global climate change could dramatically and rapidly alter forest composition and structure (Allen and Breshears...

  1. Restoring forest ecosystems: the human dimension

    Treesearch

    Bruce R. Hull; Paul H. Gobster

    2000-01-01

    In the past two decades, ecological restoration has moved from an obscure and scientifically suspect craft to a widely practiced and respected profession with considerable scientific knowledge and refined on-the-ground practices. Concurrently, forest restoration has become a valued skill of forestry professionals and a popular goal for forest management. Politics and...

  2. A climate sensitive model of carbon transfer through atmosphere, vegetation and soil in managed forest ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loustau, D.; Moreaux, V.; Bosc, A.; Trichet, P.; Kumari, J.; Rabemanantsoa, T.; Balesdent, J.; Jolivet, C.; Medlyn, B. E.; Cavaignac, S.; Nguyen-The, N.

    2012-12-01

    For predicting the future of the forest carbon cycle in forest ecosystems, it is necessary to account for both the climate and management impacts. Climate effects are significant not only at a short time scale but also at the temporal horizon of a forest life cycle e.g. through shift in atmospheric CO2 concentration, temperature and precipitation regimes induced by the enhanced greenhouse effect. Intensification of forest management concerns an increasing fraction of temperate and tropical forests and untouched forests represents only one third of the present forest area. Predicting tools are therefore needed to project climate and management impacts over the forest life cycle and understand the consequence of management on the forest ecosystem carbon cycle. This communication summarizes the structure, main components and properties of a carbon transfer model that describes the processes controlling the carbon cycle of managed forest ecosystems. The model, GO+, links three main components, (i) a module describing the vegetation-atmosphere mass and energy exchanges in 3D, (ii) a plant growth module and a (iii) soil carbon dynamics module in a consistent carbon scheme of transfer from atmosphere back into the atmosphere. It was calibrated and evaluated using observed data collected on coniferous and broadleaved forest stands. The model predicts the soil, water and energy balance of entire rotations of managed stands from the plantation to the final cut and according to a range of management alternatives. It accounts for the main soil and vegetation management operations such as soil preparation, understorey removal, thinnings and clearcutting. Including the available knowledge on the climatic sensitivity of biophysical and biogeochemical processes involved in atmospheric exchanges and carbon cycle of forest ecosystems, GO+ can produce long-term backward or forward simulations of forest carbon and water cycles under a range of climate and management scenarios. This

  3. Drought in forest understory ecosystems - a novel rainfall reduction experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gimbel, K. F.; Felsmann, K.; Baudis, M.; Puhlmann, H.; Gessler, A.; Bruelheide, H.; Kayler, Z.; Ellerbrock, R. H.; Ulrich, A.; Welk, E.; Weiler, M.

    2015-02-01

    Precipitation patterns across Central Europe are expected to change over the 21st century due to climate change. This may reduce water availability during the plant-growing season and hence affect the performance and vitality of forest ecosystems. We established a novel rainfall reduction experiment on nine sites in Germany to investigate drought effects on soil-forest-understory ecosystems. A realistic, but extreme annual drought with a return period of 40 years, which corresponds to the 2.5% percentile of the annual precipitation, was imposed. At all sites, we were able to reach the target values of rainfall reduction, while other important ecosystem variables like air temperature, humidity, and soil temperature remained unaffected due to the novel design of a flexible roof. The first year of drought showed considerable changes in the soil moisture dynamics relative to the control sites, which affected leaf stomatal conductance of understory species as well as evapotranspiration rates of the forest understory.

  4. Drought in forest understory ecosystems - a novel rainfall reduction experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gimbel, K. F.; Felsmann, K.; Baudis, M.; Puhlmann, H.; Gessler, A.; Bruelheide, H.; Kayler, Z.; Ellerbrock, R. H.; Ulrich, A.; Welk, E.; Weiler, M.

    2014-10-01

    Climate change is predicted to severely affect precipitation patterns across central Europe. This may reduce water availability during the plant-growing season and hence affect the performance and vitality of forest ecosystems. We established a novel rainfall reduction experiment on nine sites in Germany to investigate drought effects on soil-forest-understory-ecosystems. A realistic, but extreme annual drought with a return period of 40 years, which corresponds to the 2.5% percentile of the annual precipitation, was imposed. At all sites, we were able to reach the target values of rainfall reduction, while other important ecosystem variables like air temperature, humidity and soil temperature remained unaffected due to the novel design of a flexible roof. The first year of drought showed considerable changes in the soil moisture dynamics relative to the control sites, which affected leaf stomatal conductance of understory species as well as evapotranspiration rates of the forest understory.

  5. Fitting rainfall interception models to forest ecosystems of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Návar, José

    2017-05-01

    Models that accurately predict forest interception are essential both for water balance studies and for assessing watershed responses to changes in land use and the long-term climate variability. This paper compares the performance of four rainfall interception models-the sparse Gash (1995), Rutter et al. (1975), Liu (1997) and two new models (NvMxa and NvMxb)-using data from four spatially extensive, structurally diverse forest ecosystems in Mexico. Ninety-eight case studies measuring interception in tropical dry (25), arid/semi-arid (29), temperate (26), and tropical montane cloud forests (18) were compiled and analyzed. Coefficients derived from raw data or published statistical relationships were used as model input to evaluate multi-storm forest interception at the case study scale. On average empirical data showed that, tropical montane cloud, temperate, arid/semi-arid and tropical dry forests intercepted 14%, 18%, 22% and 26% of total precipitation, respectively. The models performed well in predicting interception, with mean deviations between measured and modeled interception as a function of total precipitation (ME) generally <5.8% and Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency E estimators >0.66. Model fitting precision was dependent on the forest ecosystem. Arid/semi-arid forests exhibited the smallest, while tropical montane cloud forest displayed the largest ME deviations. Improved agreement between measured and modeled data requires modification of in-storm evaporation rate in the Liu; the canopy storage in the sparse Gash model; and the throughfall coefficient in the Rutter and the NvMx models. This research concludes on recommending the wide application of rainfall interception models with some caution as they provide mixed results. The extensive forest interception data source, the fitting and testing of four models, the introduction of a new model, and the availability of coefficient values for all four forest ecosystems are an important source of information and

  6. [Edge effect and its impacts on forest ecosystem: a review].

    PubMed

    Tian, Chao; Yang, Xin-bing; Liu, Yang

    2011-08-01

    Edge effect is an important concept in ecology and biological conservation, playing an important role in the study of ecological processes such as energy and material flow at ecosystem scale and landscape scale. This paper expatiated the connotation, features, quantitative evaluation (basis of quantitative analysis, strength, impact zone, and models, etc.), and applied aspects of edge effect, summarized the impacts of edge effect on forest ecosystem, analyzed the deficiencies in the study of edge effect, and prospected related research directions, aimed to provide references for forest and protected area management.

  7. Integrating ecosystem services into national Forest Service policy and operations

    Treesearch

    Robert Deal; Lisa Fong; Erin Phelps; Emily Weidner; Jonas Epstein; Tommie Herbert; Mary Snieckus; Nikola Smith; Tania Ellersick; Greg Arthaud

    2017-01-01

    The ecosystem services concept describes the many benefits people receive from nature. It highlights the importance of managing public and private lands sustainably to ensure these benefits continue into the future, and it closely aligns with the U.S. Forest Service (USFS) mission to “sustain the health, diversity, and productivity of the Nation’s forests and...

  8. Different cesium-137 transfers to forest and stream ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Masaru; Gomi, Takashi; Negishi, Junjiro N; Iwamoto, Aimu; Okada, Kengo

    2016-02-01

    Understanding the mechanisms of (137)Cs movement across different ecosystems is crucial for projecting the environmental impact and management of nuclear contamination events. Here, we report differential movement of (137)Cs in adjacent forest and stream ecosystems. The food webs of the forest and stream ecosystems in our study were similar, in that they were both dominated by detrital-based food webs and the basal energy source was terrestrial litter. However, the concentration of (137)Cs in stream litter was significantly lower than in forest litter, the result of (137)Cs leaching from litter in stream water. The difference in (137)Cs concentrations between the two types of litter was reflected in the (137)Cs concentrations in the animal community. While the importance of (137)Cs fallout and the associated transfer to food webs has been well studied, research has been primarily limited to cases in a single ecosystem. Our results indicate that there are differences in the flow of (137)Cs through terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, and that (137)Cs concentrations are reduced in both basal food resources and higher trophic animals in aquatic systems, where primary production is subsidized by a neighboring terrestrial ecosystem.

  9. Monitoring Change in Temperate Coniferous Forest Ecosystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Darrel (Technical Monitor); Woodcock, Curtis E.

    2004-01-01

    The primary goal of this research was to improve monitoring of temperate forest change using remote sensing. In this context, change includes both clearing of forest due to effects such as fire, logging, or land conversion and forest growth and succession. The Landsat 7 ETM+ proved an extremely valuable research tool in this domain. The Landsat 7 program has generated an extremely valuable transformation in the land remote sensing community by making high quality images available for relatively low cost. In addition, the tremendous improvements in the acquisition strategy greatly improved the overall availability of remote sensing images. I believe that from an historical prespective, the Landsat 7 mission will be considered extremely important as the improved image availability will stimulate the use of multitemporal imagery at resolutions useful for local to regional mapping. Also, Landsat 7 has opened the way to global applications of remote sensing at spatial scales where important surface processes and change can be directly monitored. It has been a wonderful experience to have participated on the Landsat 7 Science Team. The research conducted under this project led to contributions in four general domains: I. Improved understanding of the information content of images as a function of spatial resolution; II. Monitoring Forest Change and Succession; III. Development and Integration of Advanced Analysis Methods; and IV. General support of the remote sensing of forests and environmental change. This report is organized according to these topics. This report does not attempt to provide the complete details of the research conducted with support from this grant. That level of detail is provided in the 16 peer reviewed journal articles, 7 book chapters and 5 conference proceedings papers published as part of this grant. This report attempts to explain how the various publications fit together to improve our understanding of how forests are changing and how to

  10. Density-dependent vulnerability of forest ecosystems to drought

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bottero, Alessandra; D'Amato, Anthony W.; Palik, Brian J.; Bradford, John B.; Fraver, Shawn; Battaglia, Mike A.; Asherin, Lance A.

    2017-01-01

    1. Climate models predict increasing drought intensity and frequency for many regions, which may have negative consequences for tree recruitment, growth and mortality, as well as forest ecosystem services. Furthermore, practical strategies for minimizing vulnerability to drought are limited. Tree population density, a metric of tree abundance in a given area, is a primary driver of competitive intensity among trees, which influences tree growth and mortality. Manipulating tree population density may be a mechanism for moderating drought-induced stress and growth reductions, although the relationship between tree population density and tree drought vulnerability remains poorly quantified, especially across climatic gradients.2. In this study, we examined three long-term forest ecosystem experiments in two widely distributed North American pine species, ponderosa pine Pinus ponderosa (Lawson & C. Lawson) and red pine Pinus resinosa (Aiton), to better elucidate the relationship between tree population density, growth and drought. These experiments span a broad latitude and aridity range and include tree population density treatments that have been purposefully maintained for several decades. We investigated how tree population density influenced resistance (growth during drought) and resilience (growth after drought compared to pre-drought growth) of stand-level growth during and after documented drought events.3. Our results show that relative tree population density was negatively related to drought resistance and resilience, indicating that trees growing at lower densities were less vulnerable to drought. This result was apparent in all three forest ecosystems, and was consistent across species, stand age and drought intensity.4. Synthesis and applications. Our results highlighted that managing pine forest ecosystems at low tree population density represents a promising adaptive strategy for reducing the adverse impacts of drought on forest growth in coming decades

  11. The forgotten stage of forest succession: early-successional ecosystems on forest sites

    Treesearch

    Mark E. Swanson; Jerry F. Franklin; Robert L. Beschta; Charles M. Crisafulli; Dominick A. DellaSala; Richard L. Hutto; David B. Lindenmayer; Frederick J. Swanson

    2010-01-01

    Early-successional forest ecosystems that develop after stand-replacing or partial disturbances are diverse in species, processes, and structure. Post-disturbance ecosystems are also often rich in biological legacies, including surviving organisms and organically derived structures, such as woody debris. These legacies and postdisturbance plant communities provide...

  12. Eastside forest ecosystem health assessment. Volume 1. Executive summary. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Everett, R.; Hessburg, P.; Jensen, M.; Bormann, B.

    1994-02-01

    The report responds to the request by Speaker Thomas Foley and Senator Mark Hatfield for a scientific evaluation of the effects of Forest Service Management practices on the sustainability of eastern Oregon and Washington ecosystems. The report recommends analysis methods and management practices that can be used to build an experimental approach to the restoration of stressed ecosystems.

  13. Vulnerability and impacts of climate change on forest and freshwater wetland ecosystems in Nepal: A review.

    PubMed

    Lamsal, Pramod; Kumar, Lalit; Atreya, Kishor; Pant, Krishna Prasad

    2017-06-01

    Climate change (CC) threatens ecosystems in both developed and developing countries. As the impacts of CC are pervasive, global, and mostly irreversible, it is gaining worldwide attention. Here we review vulnerability and impacts of CC on forest and freshwater wetland ecosystems. We particularly look at investigations undertaken at different geographic regions in order to identify existing knowledge gaps and possible implications from such vulnerability in the context of Nepal along with available adaptation programs and national-level policy supports. Different categories of impacts which are attributed to disrupting structure, function, and habitat of both forest and wetland ecosystems are identified and discussed. We show that though still unaccounted, many facets of forest and freshwater wetland ecosystems of Nepal are vulnerable and likely to be impacted by CC in the near future. Provisioning ecosystem services and landscape-level ecosystem conservation are anticipated to be highly threatened with future CC. Finally, the need for prioritizing CC research in Nepal is highlighted to close the existing knowledge gap along with the implementation of adaptation measures based on existing location specific traditional socio-ecological system.

  14. Harvest-associated disturbance in upland Ozark forests of the Missouri Ozark Forest Ecosystem Project

    Treesearch

    Johann N. Bruhn; James J. Wetteroff; Jeanne D. Mihail; Randy G. Jensen; James B. Pickens

    2002-01-01

    The Missouri Ozark Forest Ecosystem Project (MOFEP) is a long-term, multidisciplinary, landscape-based research program studying effects of even-aged (EAM), uneven-aged (UAM), and no-harvest (NHM) management on forest communities. The first MOFEP timber harvests occurred from May through November 1996. Harvest- related disturbance occurred on 69 of 180 permanent 0.2-ha...

  15. Global sensitivity analysis of DRAINMOD-FOREST, an integrated forest ecosystem model

    Treesearch

    Shiying Tian; Mohamed A. Youssef; Devendra M. Amatya; Eric D. Vance

    2014-01-01

    Global sensitivity analysis is a useful tool to understand process-based ecosystem models by identifying key parameters and processes controlling model predictions. This study reported a comprehensive global sensitivity analysis for DRAINMOD-FOREST, an integrated model for simulating water, carbon (C), and nitrogen (N) cycles and plant growth in lowland forests. The...

  16. Linking disturbance intensity and carbon cycle in forest ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gielen, B.; Hudiburg, T.; Law, B. E.; Luyssaert, S.

    2011-12-01

    There is increasing awareness that natural and anthropogenic disturbance in forests forest affects exchange of CO2, H2O and energy between the ecosystem and the atmosphere. Furthermore, severe disturbance may result in substantial emissions of greenhouse gasses to the atmosphere. Consequently quantification of land use and disturbance intensity (LUDI) is one of the next steps needed to improve our understanding of the carbon cycle, its interactions with the atmosphere and its main drivers at local as well as at global level. The conventional NPP-based approaches to quantify the intensity of land management are limited because they lack a sound ecological basis. Here we apply a new way of characterising the degree of management and disturbance in forest. The index called LUDI: land use and disturbance intensity makes use of the self thinning theory and observations of diameter at breast height and stand density. The application of LUDI was demonstrated by using a very extensive dataset from the Pacific Northwest region (PNW) in North America containing more than 5000 inventory plots. Results show significant relationships between LUDI and forest productivity (NPP) and Carbon uptake (NEP) for seven different forest types in the PNW. In addition the relationships suggest a maximal productivity at mild disturbance. These results further confirm the link between forest disturbance and carbon cycling in forest ecosystems.

  17. Gross primary production of global forest ecosystems has been overestimated

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jianyong; Yan, Xiaodong; Dong, Wenjie; Chou, Jieming

    2015-01-01

    Coverage rate, a critical variable for gridded forest area, has been neglected by previous studies in estimating the annual gross primary production (GPP) of global forest ecosystems. In this study, we investigated to what extent the coverage rate could impact forest GPP estimates from 1982 to 2011. Here we show that the traditional calculation without considering the coverage rate globally overestimated the forest gross carbon dioxide uptake by approximately 8.7%, with a value of 5.12 ± 0.23 Pg C yr−1, which is equivalent to 48% of the annual emissions from anthropogenic activities in 2012. Actually, the global annual GPP of forest ecosystems is approximately 53.71 ± 4.83 Pg C yr−1 for the past 30 years by taking the coverage rate into account. Accordingly, we argue that forest annual GPP calculated by previous studies has been overestimated due to the exaggerated forest area, and therefore, coverage rate may be a required factor to further quantify the global carbon cycle. PMID:26027557

  18. Sustainable carbon uptake - important ecosystem service within sustainable forest management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zorana Ostrogović Sever, Maša; Anić, Mislav; Paladinić, Elvis; Alberti, Giorgio; Marjanović, Hrvoje

    2016-04-01

    Even-aged forest management with natural regeneration under continuous cover (i.e. close to nature management) is considered to be sustainable regarding the yield, biodiversity and stability of forest ecosystems. Recently, in the context of climate change, there is a raising question of sustainable forest management regarding carbon uptake. Aim of this research was to explore whether current close to nature forest management approach in Croatia can be considered sustainable in terms of carbon uptake throughout the life-time of Pedunculate oak forest. In state-owned managed forest a chronosequence experiment was set up and carbon stocks in main ecosystem pools (live biomass, dead wood, litter and mineral soil layer), main carbon fluxes (net primary production, soil respiration (SR), decomposition) and net ecosystem productivity were estimated in eight stands of different age (5, 13, 38, 53, 68, 108, 138 and 168 years) based on field measurements and published data. Air and soil temperature and soil moisture were recorded on 7 automatic mini-meteorological stations and weekly SR measurements were used to parameterize SR model. Carbon balance was estimated at weekly scale for the growing season 2011 (there was no harvesting), as well as throughout the normal rotation period of 140 years (harvesting was included). Carbon stocks in different ecosystem pools change during a stand development. Carbon stocks in forest floor increase with stand age, while carbon stocks in dead wood are highest in young and older stands, and lowest in middle-aged, mature stands. Carbon stocks in mineral soil layer were found to be stable across chronosequence with no statistically significant age-dependent trend. Pedunculate Oak stand, assuming successful regeneration, becomes carbon sink very early in a development phase, between the age of 5 and 13 years, and remains carbon sink even after the age of 160 years. Greatest carbon sink was reached in the stand aged 53 years. Obtained results

  19. Maintenance of productive capacity of forest ecosystems

    Treesearch

    W. Keith Moser; Patrick D. Miles; Aimee Stephens; Dale D. Gormanson; Stephen R. Shifley; Dave Wear; Robert J. Huggett; Ruhong. Li

    2016-01-01

    This chapter reports projected changes in forest area, age, volume, biomass, number of trees, and removals from 2010 to 2060 for alternative scenarios that bracket a range of possible future socioeconomic and climate conditions in the Northern United States, which consists of 20 central and northeastern States. As described in Chapter 2, the scenarios incorporate...

  20. Mechanisms of nitrogen retention in forest ecosystems - A field experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vitousek, P. M.; Matson, P. A.

    1984-01-01

    Intensive forest management led to elevated losses of nitrogen from a recently harvested loblolly pine plantation in North Carolina. Measurements of nitrogen-15 retention in the field demonstrated that microbial uptake of nitrogen during the decomposition of residual organic material was the most important process retaining nitrogen. Management practices that remove this material cause increased losses of nitrogen to aquatic ecosystems and the atmosphere.

  1. Invasive bark and ambrosia beetles in California Mediterranean forest ecosystems

    Treesearch

    Steven Seybold; Richard Penrose; Andrew Graves

    2016-01-01

    This chapter discusses the native ranges, histories of introduction, recent research efforts, and the potential impacts of some of 22 species of invasive scolytids in California’s Mediterranean forest ecosystems. The diversity of native and ornamental tree species, the varied climatic zones, and the widespread importation of nursery stock and packaged cargo have made...

  2. Human dimensions in ecosystem management: a USDA Forest Service perspective

    Treesearch

    Deborah S. Carr

    1995-01-01

    For many decades, the natural resource profession has approached the management of public lands as exclusively a natural science endeavor requiring purely technical solutions. With the adoption of an ecosystem management philosophy, the USDA Forest Service has acknowledged the centrality of people in land management policy and decision-making. This paper explores the...

  3. Analyzing growth and mortality in a subtropical urban forest ecosystem

    Treesearch

    Alicia B. Lawrence; Fancisco J. Escobedo; Christina L. Staudhammera; Wayne Zipperer Zipperer

    2012-01-01

    Information on urban tree growth, mortality and in-growth is currently being used to estimate urban forest structure changes and ecosystem services such as carbon sequestration. This study reports on tree diameter growth and mortality in 65 plots distributed among four land use categories, which were established in 2005/2006 in Gainesville, Florida, USA and were re-...

  4. Mechanisms of nitrogen retention in forest ecosystems - A field experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vitousek, P. M.; Matson, P. A.

    1984-01-01

    Intensive forest management led to elevated losses of nitrogen from a recently harvested loblolly pine plantation in North Carolina. Measurements of nitrogen-15 retention in the field demonstrated that microbial uptake of nitrogen during the decomposition of residual organic material was the most important process retaining nitrogen. Management practices that remove this material cause increased losses of nitrogen to aquatic ecosystems and the atmosphere.

  5. Density-dependent vulnerability of forest ecosystems to drought

    Treesearch

    Alessandra Bottero; Anthony W. D' Amato; Brian J. Palik; John B. Bradford; Shawn Fraver; Mike A. Battaglia; Lance A. Asherin; Harald Bugmann

    2017-01-01

    Climate models predict increasing drought intensity and frequency for many regions, which may have negative consequences for tree recruitment, growth and mortality, as well as forest ecosystem services. Furthermore, practical strategies for minimizing vulnerability to drought are limited. Tree population density, a metric of tree abundance in a given area, is a primary...

  6. Anthropogenic calcium depletion: a unique threat to forest ecosystem health?

    Treesearch

    Paul G. Schaberg; Donald H. DeHayes; Gary J. Hawley

    2001-01-01

    Numerous anthropogenic factors can deplete calcium (Ca) from forest ecosystems. Because an adequate supply of Ca is needed to support fundamental biological functions, including cell membrane stability and stress response, the potential for Ca deficiency following the individual, cumulative, or potentially synergistic, influences of anthropogenic factors raises...

  7. Biogeochemistry of vertebrate decomposition in a forest ecosystem

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Decomposing plants and animals provide critical nutrients for ecosystems, including forests. During vertebrate decay, the rapid release of limiting nutrients, including N, P, C, and S fundamentally transforms the soil environment by stimulating endogenous organisms. The goal of this study was t...

  8. Estimating aboveground net primary productivity in forest-dominated ecosystems

    Treesearch

    Brian D. Kloeppel; Mark E. Harmon; Timothy J. Fahey

    2007-01-01

    The measurement of net primary productivity (NPP) in forest ecosystems presents a variety of challenges because of the large and complex dimensions of trees and the difficulties of quantifying several components of NPP. As summarized by Clark et al. (2001a), these methodological challenges can be overcome, and more reliable spatial and temporal comparisons can be...

  9. Forest ecosystem carbon on public lands of the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Heath, L.S.

    1995-06-01

    Increasing concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere has prompted nations to investigate strategies to mitigate emissions. One set of strategies involves sequestering carbon in forests, and this requires a way to estimate and project the forest ecosystem carbon budget for all forestland under a range of potential policy options. Carbon was estimated and projected using the FORCARB model, linked to ATLAS, the Aggregate Timberland Assessment System. FORCARB estimates carbon in live trees, detrital wood, forest floor, and soil, and ATLAS tracks timber inventory in terms of volume and land area. Together, these models account for the effects of existing forest inventories, forest growth, land use changes, and harvesting on carbon sequestered on public lands. Forests on both federal and non-federal public lands comprise at least 40% of the forests in the U.S. by land area, and contain a significant portion of the forest carbon budget. Changes in harvesting and fire suppression strategies on public lands noticeably affect the forest carbon budget of the U.S.

  10. 78 FR 7450 - Final Environmental Impact Statement for Protecting and Restoring Native Ecosystems by Managing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-01

    ... National Park Service Final Environmental Impact Statement for Protecting and Restoring Native Ecosystems... a Final Environmental Impact Statement for Protecting and Restoring Native Ecosystems by Managing... a manner that supports long-term ecosystem protection, supports natural ecosystem recovery and...

  11. Assemblages of braconidae (Hymenoptera) at agricultural and secondary forest ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razali, Rabibah; Din, Abdullah Muhaimin Mohammad; Yaakop, Salmah

    2016-11-01

    Braconids are parasitoid insects which parasitize other insects by injecting their eggs into the larvae and eventually killing the hosts. Due to this character, braconids play an important role in stabilizing the natural and human-made environment. The objective of this study was to evaluate the diversity and distribution of braconids in two ecosystems. Nine Malaise traps were installed in each ecosystem for 30 days at five sampling sites, namely Bukit Rupa (BR), Bukit Fraser (BF), Ladang Zamrud (LZ), Felda Lui Muda (FLM) and Cherating (Ch). Samples were collected and kept in 75% alcohol for identification process. Two types of ecosystem were selected namely forest (secondary forest) and agricultural (oil palm plantation, star fruit orchard) ecosystems. A total of 1201 individuals were collected in 18 subfamilies and 137 morphospecies. From the results, BR showed the highest H', as it was a natural habitat for the braconids. FLM and LZ also showed high H' values, while Ch was the lowest. Based on the cluster analysis, the clade was divided into two groups; the oil palm plantation (LZ, FLM) and forest ecosystem (BF, BR). Ch was considered an outgroup because the braconid spesies found there were specific to Bactocera spp. Based on the rarefaction curve, LZ had the most stable curve compared to the others due to high sample size.

  12. Molecular changes of DOM cycling in forest ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hara, M.; Ohashi, M.; Piirainen, S.; Kortelainen, P.; Finer, L.; Kumagai, T.; Takahashi, K.; Sugiyama, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Fresh water is essential for sustaining all the life on the earth. Most of the fresh water available for human is stored in forest ecosystem in the forms of soil and ground water. Therefore, the chemical compositions of fresh water could be controlled by the forest ecosystem. Dissolved Organic Matter (DOM) is one of the main dissolved components of water. Since it controls the cycling processes of both organic and inorganic matters in water by variety of physical, chemical, and biochemical interactions, chatacterization of DOM in both qualitatively and quantitatively is very important. However, molecular-level study in DOM has been behind due to technological difficulties. Over the past years, high resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) which enables us to identify individual molecular species of DOM had been hugely developed and brought radical changes to the analysis of many different substances in molecular level. The purpose of this study is to observe the cycling and alteration process of DOM in the forest ecosystem substantially using FT-ICR MS. We analyzed DOM samples by FT-ICR MS to determine the molecular-level characteristics of DOM. We also analyzed dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and characteristics of fluorescence spectra to elucidate the bulk characteristics of DOM in the forest ecosystem. In forest ecosystem, DOC increased from bulk deposition (1.0~3.3 mgC/L) and throughfall (0.8~3.6 mgC/L) to soil water of the A- (4.7~28.6 mgC/L) and B-horizon (4.5~29.2 mgC/L). DOC decreased as the water percolated through the soil deeper to ground water (0.3~1.7 mgC/L). In the whole forest ecosystem, fluorescence spectra showed strong humic-like fluorescence peaks rather than protein-like peaks. Each sample's result of FT-ICR MS including bulk deposition, throughfall, soil waters in different depths, and groundwater showed different molecular characteristics between one another. These results suggest that DOM in water is

  13. Ecosystem approach: Healthy ecosystems and sustainable economies. Volume 3. Case studies. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    The case study report of the Interagency Ecosystem Management Task Force presents findings and recommendations from seven survey teams, details the nature, history, and current status of each ecosystem, and summarizes survey team interviews with many participating parties. The volume targets those interested in how ecosystem partnerships work. Ecosystems include: Anacostia River watershed--state and local agencies are restoring components of this system of marshes, rivers, forests in urban environments: Coastal Louisiana--a federal task force and the state of Louisiana are restoring wetlands to reverse the trend of losses; Great Lakes basin--local communities joined with governmental agencies to reverse pollution and habitat degradation; Pacific Northwest forests--an interagency effort is protecting both forest ecosystems and the region`s economic health; Prince William Sound--a state/federal trustee council is restoring the ecosystem following the Exxon Valdez oil spill: South Florida--a federal task force is restoring habitat in the Everglades; and Southern Appalachians--the Man and Biosphere program is working with communities to restore habitats.

  14. Dust outpaces bedrock in nutrient supply to montane forest ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Aciego, S. M.; Riebe, C. S.; Hart, S. C.; Blakowski, M. A.; Carey, C. J.; Aarons, S. M.; Dove, N. C.; Botthoff, J. K.; Sims, K. W. W.; Aronson, E. L.

    2017-01-01

    Dust provides ecosystem-sustaining nutrients to landscapes underlain by intensively weathered soils. Here we show that dust may also be crucial in montane forest ecosystems, dominating nutrient budgets despite continuous replacement of depleted soils with fresh bedrock via erosion. Strontium and neodymium isotopes in modern dust show that Asian sources contribute 18–45% of dust deposition across our Sierra Nevada, California study sites. The remaining dust originates regionally from the nearby Central Valley. Measured dust fluxes are greater than or equal to modern erosional outputs from hillslopes to channels, and account for 10–20% of estimated millennial-average inputs of bedrock P. Our results demonstrate that exogenic dust can drive the evolution of nutrient budgets in montane ecosystems, with implications for predicting forest response to changes in climate and land use. PMID:28348371

  15. Dust outpaces bedrock in nutrient supply to montane forest ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aciego, S. M.; Riebe, C. S.; Hart, S. C.; Blakowski, M. A.; Carey, C. J.; Aarons, S. M.; Dove, N. C.; Botthoff, J. K.; Sims, K. W. W.; Aronson, E. L.

    2017-03-01

    Dust provides ecosystem-sustaining nutrients to landscapes underlain by intensively weathered soils. Here we show that dust may also be crucial in montane forest ecosystems, dominating nutrient budgets despite continuous replacement of depleted soils with fresh bedrock via erosion. Strontium and neodymium isotopes in modern dust show that Asian sources contribute 18-45% of dust deposition across our Sierra Nevada, California study sites. The remaining dust originates regionally from the nearby Central Valley. Measured dust fluxes are greater than or equal to modern erosional outputs from hillslopes to channels, and account for 10-20% of estimated millennial-average inputs of bedrock P. Our results demonstrate that exogenic dust can drive the evolution of nutrient budgets in montane ecosystems, with implications for predicting forest response to changes in climate and land use.

  16. Assessment and valuation of forest ecosystem services: State of the science review

    Treesearch

    Seth Binder; Robert G. Haight; Stephen Polasky; Travis Warziniack; Miranda H. Mockrin; Robert L. Deal; Greg. Arthaud

    2017-01-01

    This review focuses on the assessment and economic valuation of ecosystem services from forest ecosystems—that is, our ability to predict changes in the quantity and value of ecosystem services as a result of specific forest management decisions. It is aimed at forest economists and managers and intended to provide a useful reference to those interested in developing...

  17. The Hardwood Ecosystem Experiment: a framework for studying responses to forest management

    Treesearch

    Robert K. Swihart; Michael R. Saunders; Rebecca A. Kalb; G. Scott Haulton; Charles H., eds. Michler

    2013-01-01

    Conditions in forested ecosystems of southern Indiana are described before initiation of silvicultural treatments for the Hardwood Ecosystem Experiment (HEE). The HEE is a 100-year study begun in 2006 in Morgan-Monroe and Yellowwood State Forests to improve the sustainability of forest resources and quality of life of Indiana residents by understanding ecosystem and...

  18. Urban Forest Ecosystem Service Optimization, Tradeoffs, and Disparities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodnaruk, E.; Kroll, C. N.; Endreny, T. A.; Hirabayashi, S.; Yang, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Urban land area and the proportion of humanity living in cities is growing, leading to increased urban air pollution, temperature, and stormwater runoff. These changes can exacerbate respiratory and heat-related illnesses and affect ecosystem functioning. Urban trees can help mitigate these threats by removing air pollutants, mitigating urban heat island effects, and infiltrating and filtering stormwater. The urban environment is highly heterogeneous, and there is no tool to determine optimal locations to plant or protect trees. Using spatially explicit land cover, weather, and demographic data within biophysical ecosystem service models, this research expands upon the iTree urban forest tools to produce a new decision support tool (iTree-DST) that will explore the development and impacts of optimal tree planting. It will also heighten awareness of environmental justice by incorporating the Atkinson Index to quantify disparities in health risks and ecosystem services across vulnerable and susceptible populations. The study area is Baltimore City, a location whose urban forest and environmental justice concerns have been studied extensively. The iTree-DST is run at the US Census block group level and utilizes a local gradient approach to calculate the change in ecosystem services with changing tree cover across the study area. Empirical fits provide ecosystem service gradients for possible tree cover scenarios, greatly increasing the speed and efficiency of the optimization procedure. Initial results include an evaluation of the performance of the gradient method, optimal planting schemes for individual ecosystem services, and an analysis of tradeoffs and synergies between competing objectives.

  19. Application experiments to trace N-P interactions in forest ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krüger, Jaane; Niederberger, Jörg; Schulz, Stefanie; Lang, Friederike

    2017-04-01

    Phosphorus is a limited resource and there is increasing debate regarding the principles of tight P recycling. Forest ecosystems show commonly high P use efficiencies but the processes behind this phenomenon are still unresolved. In frame of the priority program "SPP 1685 Ecosystem nutrition - Forest strategies for limited phosphorus resources" around 70 researchers from different disciplines collaborate to unravel these processes. The overall hypothesis to be tested is that the P nutrition strategy of forest ecosystems at sites rich in mineral P is characterized by high P uptake efficiency (acquiring systems). In contrast, the P strategy of forest ecosystems facing low soil P stocks is characterized by highly efficient mechanisms of P recycling. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed five beech forest ecosystems on silicate rock with different parent materials representing a gradient of total P stocks (160 - 900 g P m-2, down to 1m soil depth). In fact, we found evidence confirming our hypothesis, but controls and drivers of P strategies are still unknown as other environmental variables differ. One of those might be the N content, as organisms strive to reach a specific internal N:P ratio. Thus, an additional application of N might also alter P nutrition. To test this, we established a factorial P x N application experiment at three of the study sites. With our presentation we will introduce this experiment and give a review on published P x N experiments discussing different advantages and disadvantages of different basic conditions (e.g. amount and application form, doses, sampling and statistical design, monitoring periods, budget calculation, isotopic tracing). Finally, we want to initiate a common discussion on the standardization of P x N field experiments to enable interdisciplinary and across-compartment comparisons (e.g. different land use, different climate zones, terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems).

  20. The forest ecosystem of southeast Alaska: 2. Forest insects.

    Treesearch

    John S. Hard

    1974-01-01

    Southeast Alaska's remaining virgin forests have few insect pests. The black-headed budworm and the hemlock sawfly, both western hemlock defoliators, are the most important species. They kill some trees, kill tops in others, and cause growth loss, but stands survive their attacks. Extensive conversion of virgin stands to second growth may result in an increase in...

  1. Understory cover and biomass indices predictions for forest ecosystems of the Northwestern United States

    Treesearch

    Vasile A. Suchar; Nicholas L. Crookston

    2010-01-01

    The understory community is a critical component of many processes of forest ecosystems. Cover and biomass indices of shrubs and herbs of forested ecosystems of Northwestern United States are presented. Various forest data were recorded for 10,895 plots during a Current Vegetation Survey, over the National Forest lands of entire Pacific Northwest. No significant...

  2. New Forestry Principles from Ecosystem Analysis of Pacific Northwest Forests.

    PubMed

    Swanson, F J; Franklin, J F

    1992-08-01

    Forest management practices on Federal lands in the Pacific Northwest of the United States have been the center of intense controversy. Conflicting value systems, new information, and new perspectives have fueled the debate over the balance between timber production and preservation of natural ecosystems. In this paper we consider examples from three aspects of forest management: (1) management of forest stands, (2) management of the patchwork of forest stands at the landscape scale, and (3) management of streams and riparian networks. In each of these cases we examine: management practices and perspectives of the recent past, findings from ecosystem research that are leading to change in those practices, resulting changes in management practices, and future research directions. We also suggest a path for future change, including systems for managing in the face of uncertainty. Results of research in natural and managed forest and stream ecosystems have been pivotal in reassessment and redesign of management practices to provide a broader range of management options for society to consider. Results of studies of natural disturbance processes and their effects are used as reference points for management systems intending to sustain biological diversity and ecosystem productivity. Stand management practices, for example, are being modified to retain some live trees and greater amounts of dead woody debris, both standing and down, in areas that would instead be clear-cut under intensive plantation forestry practices. The motivations for these modified practices are to sustain biological diversity, including key wildlife species, and to maintain soil productivity. Models of alternative forest-cutting patterns at a landscape scale are being used to examine their effects on ecosystem structure and function. One result of this analysis has been to shift from the previous system of dispersing cutting units to a system involving greater aggregation of units using designs to

  3. Floodplain forest ecosystem before water management measures. Part 1

    SciTech Connect

    Penka, M.; Vyskot, M.; Klimo, E.; Vasicek, F.

    1985-01-01

    The ultimate motivation for the study which is the subject of the book was the need to draw conclusions on the impact of man's activity on natural ecosystems. The study forms part of the Czechoslovak project MAB 2, No. 86: Ecological Effects of Stream Water Regulation and Changing Methods of Land Management in the Region of the Floodplain Forest of Southern Moravia. The results characterize the situation of the south-Moravian floodplain forest in the period of fading uncontrolled floods before the extensive technical measures successively changed the moisture regime by eliminating inundation and lowering the level of underground water. This publication is unique in Czechoslovakia as it records the ecological situation in the floodplain forest prior to the major and irreversible changes. The study also documents the exceptional role played by the Central-European floodplain forest in maintaining the gene pool and structure of one thousand or so species in flora and fauna of an agricultural region.

  4. Modeling ecosystem CO[sub 2] exchange in Harvard Forest

    SciTech Connect

    Amthor, J.S.; Goulden, M.L. Harvard Univ, Cambridge, MA )

    1993-06-01

    A new model of forest ecosystem CO[sub 2] and energy exchange (FORPHYS) was tested (i.e., validated) with eddy-correlation measurements of net atmosphere/biosphere CO[sub 2] exchange at Harvard Forest. FORPHYS predictions were comparable to measured whole-ecosystem CO[sub 2] exchange rates. The leaf physiology component of FORPHYS combines a radiation transfer model; a modified Farquhar model of photosynthesis and photorespiration; a physically based model of leaf energy exchange, transpiration, and temperature; a leaf respiration model; and a dynamic model of stomatal conductance. Maintenance respiration of all tree organs is based on temperature and nitrogen content. Growth and growth respiration are modeled according to the quantitative biosynthesis model of Penning de Vries. Soil CO[sub 2] exchange is modeled empirically, based on environmental factors. FORPHYS is used to identify, in a quantitative manner, the processes underlying net ecosystem exchange of carbon and energy. The ultimate goal of the model is to predict effects of environmental change, in particular increasing atmospheric CO[sub 2] and temperature, on forest ecosystem carbon exchange and storage.

  5. The impact of intensive forest management on carbon stores in forest ecosystems

    SciTech Connect

    Krankina, O.N.; Harmon, M.E. . Dept. of Forest Science)

    1994-06-01

    The expansion of intensive management of forest resources for timber production with the human population growth may have a profound effect on the role forests play in the global carbon cycle. First, the transition from old-growth to intensively managed second-growth forest with short rotations entails major long-term ecosystems changes including the reduction of total woody biomass. Although the biomass of living trees can be restored within a relatively short period of time, dead wood biomass takes considerably longer to reach pre-harvest levels; therefore commonly used rotations are too short for the latter part of ecosystem to recover fully. As dead trees account for 14--18% of the total woody biomass stores in a natural forest, a considerable amount of carbon can be released if this material is not replaced. Second, economically efficient, intensive forest management systems that include commercial thinning and wood salvage can further reduce the total biomass loading of second-growth forests. Long-term study of live and dead wood in thinning trials in the Pacific Northwest and in northwestern Russia suggest that intensive practices can reduce total woody biomass averaged over rotation to 10--25% that found in a natural old-growth forest. Therefore intensive forest management practices may maximize the supply of raw materials, but they may also generate a major carbon flux into the atmosphere. This flux may be significant despite the fact the land-use type remains the same. Effect of intensive forest management practices should be included in future carbon budgets and in developing forest management strategies aimed at increasing carbon storage in forest ecosystems.

  6. Impact of cloudiness on net ecosystem exchange of carbon dioxide in different types of forest ecosystems in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, M.; Yu, G.-R.; Zhang, L.-M.; Sun, X.-M.; Wen, X.-F.; Han, S.-J.; Yan, J.-H.

    2010-02-01

    Clouds can significantly affect carbon exchange process between forest ecosystems and the atmosphere by influencing the quantity and quality of solar radiation received by ecosystem's surface and other environmental factors. In this study, we analyzed the effects of cloudiness on net ecosystem exchange of carbon dioxide (NEE) in a temperate broad-leaved Korean pine mixed forest at Changbaishan (CBS) and a subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest at Dinghushan (DHS), based on the flux data obtained during June-August from 2003 to 2006. The results showed that the response of NEE of forest ecosystems to photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) differed under clear skies and cloudy skies. Compared with clear skies, the light-saturated maximum photosynthetic rate (Pec,max) at CBS under cloudy skies during mid-growing season (from June to August) increased by 34%, 25%, 4% and 11% in 2003, 2004, 2005 and 2006, respectively. In contrast, Pec,max of the forest ecosystem at DHS was higher under clear skies than under cloudy skies from 2004 to 2006. When the clearness index (kt) ranged between 0.4 and 0.6, the NEE reached its maximum at both CBS and DHS. However, the NEE decreased more dramatically at CBS than at DHS when kt exceeded 0.6. The results indicate that cloudy sky conditions are beneficial to net carbon uptake in the temperate forest ecosystem and the subtropical forest ecosystem. Under clear skies, vapor pressure deficit (VPD) and air temperature increased due to strong light. These environmental conditions led to greater decrease in gross ecosystem photosynthesis (GEP) and greater increase in ecosystem respiration (Re) at CBS than at DHS. As a result, clear sky conditions caused more reduction of NEE in the temperate forest ecosystem than in the subtropical forest ecosystem. The response of NEE of different forest ecosystems to the changes in cloudiness is an important factor that should be included in evaluating regional carbon budgets under climate change

  7. Adjustment of forest ecosystem root respiration as temperature warms.

    PubMed

    Burton, Andrew J; Melillo, Jerry M; Frey, Serita D

    2008-11-01

    Adjustment of ecosystem root respiration to warmer climatic conditions can alter the autotrophic portion of soil respiration and influence the amount of carbon available for biomass production. We examined 44 published values of annual forest root respiration and found an increase in ecosystem root respiration with increasing mean annual temperature (MAT), but the rate of this cross-ecosystem increase (Q(10)= 1.6) is less than published values for short-term responses of root respiration to temperature within ecosystems (Q(10)= 2-3). When specific root respiration rates and root biomass values were examined, there was a clear trend for decreasing root metabolic capacity (respiration rate at a standard temperature) with increasing MAT. There also were tradeoffs between root metabolic capacity and root system biomass, such that there were no instances of high growing season respiration rates and high root biomass occurring together. We also examined specific root respiration rates at three soil warming experiments at Harvard Forest, USA, and found decreases in metabolic capacity for roots from the heated plots. This decline could be due to either physiological acclimation or to the effects of co-occurring drier soils on the measurement date. Regardless of the cause, these findings clearly suggest that modeling efforts that allow root respiration to increase exponentially with temperature, with Q(10) values of 2 or more, may over-predict root contributions to ecosystem CO2 efflux for future climates and underestimate the amount of C available for other uses, including net primary productivity.

  8. Potential climate change impacts on temperate forest ecosystem processes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peters, Emily B.; Wythers, Kirk R.; Zhang, Shuxia; Bradford, John B.; Reich, Peter B.

    2013-01-01

    Large changes in atmospheric CO2, temperature and precipitation are predicted by 2100, yet the long-term consequences for carbon, water, and nitrogen cycling in forests are poorly understood. We applied the PnET-CN ecosystem model to compare the long-term effects of changing climate and atmospheric CO2 on productivity, evapotranspiration, runoff, and net nitrogen mineralization in current Great Lakes forest types. We used two statistically downscaled climate projections, PCM B1 (warmer and wetter) and GFDL A1FI (hotter and drier), to represent two potential future climate and atmospheric CO2 scenarios. To separate the effects of climate and CO2, we ran PnET-CN including and excluding the CO2 routine. Our results suggest that, with rising CO2 and without changes in forest type, average regional productivity could increase from 67% to 142%, changes in evapotranspiration could range from –3% to +6%, runoff could increase from 2% to 22%, and net N mineralization could increase 10% to 12%. Ecosystem responses varied geographically and by forest type. Increased productivity was almost entirely driven by CO2 fertilization effects, rather than by temperature or precipitation (model runs holding CO2 constant showed stable or declining productivity). The relative importance of edaphic and climatic spatial drivers of productivity varied over time, suggesting that productivity in Great Lakes forests may switch from being temperature to water limited by the end of the century.

  9. Robust assessment of future forest development across Europe by 3D-CMCC Forest Ecosystem Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caporaso, L.; Collalti, A.; Santini, M.

    2016-12-01

    We use latest version (v.5.2) of 3D-CMCC Forest Ecosystem Model(FEM) to evaluate the performances in simulating gross primary productivity (GPP) against eddy covariance GPP data for FLUXNET forest sites across Europe with different species composition. Moreover using four RCP climate scenarios along different future horizons we investigate possible biophysical feedbacks in the vegetation composition and structure due to different climate conditions. Different sensitivity experiments are conducted using the 3D-CMCC FEM trying to evaluate:1) the potential role of climate feedbacks within the forest ecosystems 2) the impact of climate variability and transient climate change on the ecosystem 3) the role of forest aging. The preliminary results demonstrate the importance of climate in regulating the forest productivity as well as forest aging over long periods: the forest scenarios produced can be used by policy-makers to explore the medium to long term consequences of planning made today and to formulate more robust decisions.

  10. Practical Strategies for Integrating Final Ecosystem Goods and ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The concept of Final Ecosystem Goods and Services (FEGS) explicitly connects ecosystem services to the people that benefit from them. This report presents a number of practical strategies for incorporating FEGS, and more broadly ecosystem services, into the decision-making process. Whether a decision process is in early or late stages, or whether a process includes informal or formal decision analysis, there are multiple points where ecosystem services concepts can be integrated. This report uses Structured Decision Making (SDM) as an organizing framework to illustrate the role ecosystem services can play in a values-focused decision-process, including: • Clarifying the decision context: Ecosystem services can help clarify the potential impacts of an issue on natural resources together with their spatial and temporal extent based on supply and delivery of those services, and help identify beneficiaries for inclusion as stakeholders in the deliberative process. • Defining objectives and performance measures: Ecosystem services may directly represent stakeholder objectives, or may be means toward achieving other objectives. • Creating alternatives: Ecosystem services can bring to light creative alternatives for achieving other social, economic, health, or general well-being objectives. • Estimating consequences: Ecosystem services assessments can implement ecological production functions (EPFs) and ecological benefits functions (EBFs) to link decision alt

  11. A sensor fusion field experiment in forest ecosystem dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, James A.; Ranson, K. Jon; Williams, Darrel L.; Levine, Elissa R.; Goltz, Stewart M.

    1990-01-01

    The background of the Forest Ecosystem Dynamics field campaign is presented, a progress report on the analysis of the collected data and related modeling activities is provided, and plans for future experiments at different points in the phenological cycle are outlined. The ecological overview of the study site is presented, and attention is focused on forest stands, needles, and atmospheric measurements. Sensor deployment and thermal and microwave observations are discussed, along with two examples of the optical radiation measurements obtained during the experiment in support of radiative transfer modeling. Future activities pertaining to an archival system, synthetic aperture radar, carbon acquisition modeling, and upcoming field experiments are considered.

  12. A sensor fusion field experiment in forest ecosystem dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, James A.; Ranson, K. Jon; Williams, Darrel L.; Levine, Elissa R.; Goltz, Stewart M.

    1990-01-01

    The background of the Forest Ecosystem Dynamics field campaign is presented, a progress report on the analysis of the collected data and related modeling activities is provided, and plans for future experiments at different points in the phenological cycle are outlined. The ecological overview of the study site is presented, and attention is focused on forest stands, needles, and atmospheric measurements. Sensor deployment and thermal and microwave observations are discussed, along with two examples of the optical radiation measurements obtained during the experiment in support of radiative transfer modeling. Future activities pertaining to an archival system, synthetic aperture radar, carbon acquisition modeling, and upcoming field experiments are considered.

  13. Net ecosystem carbon exchange of a dry temperate eucalypt forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinko-Najera, Nina; Isaac, Peter; Beringer, Jason; van Gorsel, Eva; Ewenz, Cacilia; McHugh, Ian; Exbrayat, Jean-François; Livesley, Stephen J.; Arndt, Stefan K.

    2017-08-01

    Forest ecosystems play a crucial role in the global carbon cycle by sequestering a considerable fraction of anthropogenic CO2, thereby contributing to climate change mitigation. However, there is a gap in our understanding about the carbon dynamics of eucalypt (broadleaf evergreen) forests in temperate climates, which might differ from temperate evergreen coniferous or deciduous broadleaved forests given their fundamental differences in physiology, phenology and growth dynamics. To address this gap we undertook a 3-year study (2010-2012) of eddy covariance measurements in a dry temperate eucalypt forest in southeastern Australia. We determined the annual net carbon balance and investigated the temporal (seasonal and inter-annual) variability in and environmental controls of net ecosystem carbon exchange (NEE), gross primary productivity (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (ER). The forest was a large and constant carbon sink throughout the study period, even in winter, with an overall mean NEE of -1234 ± 109 (SE) g C m-2 yr-1. Estimated annual ER was similar for 2010 and 2011 but decreased in 2012 ranging from 1603 to 1346 g C m-2 yr-1, whereas GPP showed no significant inter-annual variability, with a mean annual estimate of 2728 ± 39 g C m-2 yr-1. All ecosystem carbon fluxes had a pronounced seasonality, with GPP being greatest during spring and summer and ER being highest during summer, whereas peaks in NEE occurred in early spring and again in summer. High NEE in spring was likely caused by a delayed increase in ER due to low temperatures. A strong seasonal pattern in environmental controls of daytime and night-time NEE was revealed. Daytime NEE was equally explained by incoming solar radiation and air temperature, whereas air temperature was the main environmental driver of night-time NEE. The forest experienced unusual above-average annual rainfall during the first 2 years of this 3-year period so that soil water content remained relatively high and the forest

  14. Estimating key forest ecosystem parameters through remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wessman, Carol A.; Aber, John D.; Peterson, David L.

    1987-01-01

    Forest canopy chemistry and biomass indicators of ecosystem photosynthesis and decomposition processes are presently studied in view of Airborne Imaging Spectrometer data, which generated spectra from averaged 3 x 3 pixel areas for each of 20 sites for mutual qualitative comparison. Vegetation spectra were strongly differentiated from other cover types by an apparent absorption feature at 1500-1700 nm. Preliminary work with stepwise regression suggests that lignin may play a role in canopy reflectance, and that there is potential for remote detection of forest canopy lignin.

  15. Deadwood as Biogeochemical `Hot Spots' in Soil and Forest Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stutz, K. P.; Wambsganss, J.; Lang, F.

    2016-12-01

    Forest use removes substantial quantities of woody biomass. As such, a prominent feature of managed forests is the lack of deadwood, specifically coarse woody debris (CWD), when compared to undisturbed forests. Yet the extent to which this disruption of litter cycling impacts the biogeochemistry of soil and forest ecosystems remains unclear. We sampled 32 pairs of points near deadwood and points distant from deadwood at eight Fagus sylvatica (L.) stands in SW Germany. Metabolites released from deadwood influenced soil pH, cation exchange capacity, nutrient availability, pore size distribution, and soil organic matter fractions. The extent to which deadwood influenced these soil properties depended though on site conditions such as biological activity, bedrock type, and harvesting intensity. In another, smaller study of the same design, deadwood of Abies alba (Mill.) and F. sylvatica in a mixed stand influenced soil functioning to unequal extents. This was best explained by differences in the quality of decayed lignin and other metabolites from brown-rot and white-rot. These results suggest deadwood is a transient center of biological activity where biogeochemical exchanges and cycling occurs, and as such warrants the designation as a `hot spot'. At meter and sub-meter scales, those processes contribute to aggregation, mineral weathering, and horizon differentiation - i.e., soil development. And as with other, more-studied `hot spots' such as the rhizosphere, these centers of soil development would have an oversized influence in soil and forest ecosystems both spatially and temporally. Consequently the removal (or retention) of deadwood through forest disturbances could alter the resilience and tipping points of soils and forests.

  16. Spatial and temporal patterns of carbon storage in forest ecosystems on Hainan island, southern China.

    PubMed

    Ren, Hai; Li, Linjun; Liu, Qiang; Wang, Xu; Li, Yide; Hui, Dafeng; Jian, Shuguang; Wang, Jun; Yang, Huai; Lu, Hongfang; Zhou, Guoyi; Tang, Xuli; Zhang, Qianmei; Wang, Dong; Yuan, Lianlian; Chen, Xubing

    2014-01-01

    Spatial and temporal patterns of carbon (C) storage in forest ecosystems significantly affect the terrestrial C budget, but such patterns are unclear in the forests in Hainan Province, the largest tropical island in China. Here, we estimated the spatial and temporal patterns of C storage from 1993-2008 in Hainan's forest ecosystems by combining our measured data with four consecutive national forest inventories data. Forest coverage increased from 20.7% in the 1950s to 56.4% in the 2010s. The average C density of 163.7 Mg C/ha in Hainan's forest ecosystems in this study was slightly higher than that of China's mainland forests, but was remarkably lower than that in the tropical forests worldwide. Total forest ecosystem C storage in Hainan increased from 109.51 Tg in 1993 to 279.17 Tg in 2008. Soil C accounted for more than 70% of total forest ecosystem C. The spatial distribution of forest C storage in Hainan was uneven, reflecting differences in land use change and forest management. The potential carbon sequestration of forest ecosystems was 77.3 Tg C if all forested lands were restored to natural tropical forests. To increase the C sequestration potential on Hainan Island, future forest management should focus on the conservation of natural forests, selection of tree species, planting of understory species, and implementation of sustainable practices.

  17. Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Carbon Storage in Forest Ecosystems on Hainan Island, Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Xuli; Zhang, Qianmei; Wang, Dong; Yuan, Lianlian; Chen, Xubing

    2014-01-01

    Spatial and temporal patterns of carbon (C) storage in forest ecosystems significantly affect the terrestrial C budget, but such patterns are unclear in the forests in Hainan Province, the largest tropical island in China. Here, we estimated the spatial and temporal patterns of C storage from 1993–2008 in Hainan's forest ecosystems by combining our measured data with four consecutive national forest inventories data. Forest coverage increased from 20.7% in the 1950s to 56.4% in the 2010s. The average C density of 163.7 Mg C/ha in Hainan's forest ecosystems in this study was slightly higher than that of China's mainland forests, but was remarkably lower than that in the tropical forests worldwide. Total forest ecosystem C storage in Hainan increased from 109.51 Tg in 1993 to 279.17 Tg in 2008. Soil C accounted for more than 70% of total forest ecosystem C. The spatial distribution of forest C storage in Hainan was uneven, reflecting differences in land use change and forest management. The potential carbon sequestration of forest ecosystems was 77.3 Tg C if all forested lands were restored to natural tropical forests. To increase the C sequestration potential on Hainan Island, future forest management should focus on the conservation of natural forests, selection of tree species, planting of understory species, and implementation of sustainable practices. PMID:25229628

  18. Chapter 10: Case studies in ecosystem management: the Mammoth-June ecosystem management project, Inyo National Forest

    Treesearch

    Constance I. Millar

    1996-01-01

    To assess the various ways organizations and people come together to manage Sierran ecosystems, SNEP conducted four case studies to examine the efficacy of different institutional arrangements:The Mammoth-June case study examines how a single national forest is attempting to implement the new Forest Service policy for ecosystem analysis...

  19. Study of the radiocesium dynamics in the Fukushima forest ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoschenko, Vasyl; Konoplev, Alexei; Takase, Tsugiko; Nanba, Kenji; Onda, Yuichi; Zheleznyak, Mark; Kivva, Sergii

    2016-04-01

    Accident at Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP on March 11, 2011, has resulted in release into the environment of large amounts of radiocesium (134Cs and 137Cs) and in radioactive contamination of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Up to 2/3 of the most contaminated territory in Fukushima prefecture is covered with forests, and efforts aimed at revitalization of this territory should include, therefore, elaboration of the forestry strategy. In particular, understanding of the radiocesium dynamics in the ecosystem compartments is necessary for the reliable long-term prognosis. Numerous studies revealed and quantified the key processes governing radiocesium redistribution in Fukushima forests at the early stage after the accident, when initially intercepted radiocesium was gradually transported from the trees' crowns to the soil surface and profile with precipitations and litterfall, and the general trend was a decrease of the radiocesium total inventory in the forest biomass. However, at the later stage, the radiocesium activities in the biomass compartments can increase due to its root uptake from the soil profile; the two major processes, radionuclide root uptake and its return to soil, will determine the future radiocesium levels in the forest compartments. Objectives of our study were characterization of the radiocesium distribution at the beginning of the late stage, revealing its dynamics and parameterization of the above-mentioned fluxes for prognosis of the radiocesium long-term redistribution in the typical Fukushima forest ecosystems. The study started at one experimental site (Yamakiya district, Kawamata town, Fukushima Prefecture) in the spring of 2014; to the moment, it has been continuing at several experimental sites in the Fukushima zone characterized by different species composition and soil-landscape conditions. For the typical Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) and Japanese red pine (Pinus Densiflora) forests, we determined distributions of radiocesium in

  20. Forest Ecosystem Processes at the Watershed Scale: Ecosystem services, feedback and evolution in developing mountainous catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Band, Larry

    2010-05-01

    Mountain watersheds provide significant ecosystem services both locally and for surrounding regions, including the provision of freshwater, hydropower, carbon sequestration, habitat, forest products and recreational/aesthetic opportunities. The hydrologic connectivity along hillslopes in sloping terrain provides an upslope subsidy of water and nutrients to downslope ecosystem patches, producing characteristic ecosystem patterns of vegetation density and type, and soil biogeochemical cycling. Recent work suggests that optimal patterns of forest cover evolve along these flowpaths which maximize net primary productivity and carbon sequestration at the hillslope to catchment scale. These watersheds are under significant pressure from potential climate change, changes in forest management, increasing population and development, and increasing demand for water export. As water balance and flowpaths are altered by shifting weather patterns and new development, the spatial distribution and coupling of water, carbon and nutrient cycling will spur the evolution of different ecosystem patterns. These issues have both theoretical and practical implications for the coupling of water, carbon and nutrient cycling at the landscape level, and the potential to manage watersheds for bundled ecosystem services. If the spatial structure of the ecosystem spontaneously adjusts to maximize landscape level use of limiting resources, there may be trade-offs in the level of services provided. The well known carbon-for-water tradeoff reflects the growth of forests to maximize carbon uptake, but also transpiration which limits freshwater availability in many biomes. We provide examples of the response of bundled ecosystem services to climate and land use change in the Southern Appalachian Mountains of the United States. These mountains have very high net primary productivity, biodiversity and water yields, and provide significant freshwater resources to surrounding regions. There has been a

  1. Forecasting Urban Forest Ecosystem Structure, Function, and Vulnerability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steenberg, James W. N.; Millward, Andrew A.; Nowak, David J.; Robinson, Pamela J.; Ellis, Alexis

    2017-03-01

    The benefits derived from urban forest ecosystems are garnering increasing attention in ecological research and municipal planning. However, because of their location in heterogeneous and highly-altered urban landscapes, urban forests are vulnerable and commonly suffer disproportionate and varying levels of stress and disturbance. The objective of this study is to assess and analyze the spatial and temporal changes, and potential vulnerability, of the urban forest resource in Toronto, Canada. This research was conducted using a spatially-explicit, indicator-based assessment of vulnerability and i-Tree Forecast modeling of temporal changes in forest structure and function. Nine scenarios were simulated for 45 years and model output was analyzed at the ecosystem and municipal scale. Substantial mismatches in ecological processes between spatial scales were found, which can translate into unanticipated loss of function and social inequities if not accounted for in planning and management. At the municipal scale, the effects of Asian longhorned beetle and ice storm disturbance were far less influential on structure and function than changes in management actions. The strategic goals of removing invasive species and increasing tree planting resulted in a decline in carbon storage and leaf biomass. Introducing vulnerability parameters in the modeling increased the spatial heterogeneity in structure and function while expanding the disparities of resident access to ecosystem services. There was often a variable and uncertain relationship between vulnerability and ecosystem structure and function. Vulnerability assessment and analysis can provide strategic planning initiatives with valuable insight into the processes of structural and functional change resulting from management intervention.

  2. Methane uptake in forest and agro-ecosystems in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arndt, S. K.; Livesley, S. J.; Fest, B. J.; Weston, C. J.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.

    2007-12-01

    Oxidation of methane by methanotrophic bacteria in aerated soils does provide a considerable global sink for greenhouse gases (-30 Tg CH4/yr). The form of land-use can have a significant impact on the methane uptake capacity of a soil. We investigated the sink strength for methane uptake of forest ecosystems and agro- ecosystems in Australia using automated measurement systems and manual chamber methods. Our results demonstrate large differences in the methane uptake capacity of Australian soils. Data from Western Australia showed that CH4 uptake rates increased with stand age of plantations and were greatest in an undisturbed native forest and lowest in an improved pasture. Measurements in differently aged forest ecosystems indicated that sites with the most recent fire disturbance had the lowest methane uptake rates. Generally, native forest ecosystems showed the greatest methane uptake rates (up to 130 kg CO2-e ha yr). Plantations (eucalyptus/pine) showed significantly lower methane uptake rates (around 15 kg CO2-e ha yr). Grazed pastures in Australia had the lowest uptake rates (6 kg CO2-e ha yr) and were occasional methane sources. The methane uptake rates of soils were only marginally influenced by environmental parameters over the course of a year. Between sites the methane uptake rates were not related to soil parameters such as soil bulk density. Experiments with excavated soil cores demonstrated that diffusivity of methane through the upper soil layer was the rate limiting step. Our results indicate that the community structure of methanotrophic bacteria and substrate diffusivity are the most important factor influencing methane uptake rates in soils. Disturbance events such as change of land-use or vegetation structure can have significant impacts on the capacity of soils to take up methane.

  3. Forecasting Urban Forest Ecosystem Structure, Function, and Vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Steenberg, James W N; Millward, Andrew A; Nowak, David J; Robinson, Pamela J; Ellis, Alexis

    2017-03-01

    The benefits derived from urban forest ecosystems are garnering increasing attention in ecological research and municipal planning. However, because of their location in heterogeneous and highly-altered urban landscapes, urban forests are vulnerable and commonly suffer disproportionate and varying levels of stress and disturbance. The objective of this study is to assess and analyze the spatial and temporal changes, and potential vulnerability, of the urban forest resource in Toronto, Canada. This research was conducted using a spatially-explicit, indicator-based assessment of vulnerability and i-Tree Forecast modeling of temporal changes in forest structure and function. Nine scenarios were simulated for 45 years and model output was analyzed at the ecosystem and municipal scale. Substantial mismatches in ecological processes between spatial scales were found, which can translate into unanticipated loss of function and social inequities if not accounted for in planning and management. At the municipal scale, the effects of Asian longhorned beetle and ice storm disturbance were far less influential on structure and function than changes in management actions. The strategic goals of removing invasive species and increasing tree planting resulted in a decline in carbon storage and leaf biomass. Introducing vulnerability parameters in the modeling increased the spatial heterogeneity in structure and function while expanding the disparities of resident access to ecosystem services. There was often a variable and uncertain relationship between vulnerability and ecosystem structure and function. Vulnerability assessment and analysis can provide strategic planning initiatives with valuable insight into the processes of structural and functional change resulting from management intervention.

  4. Repeated wildfires alter forest recovery of mixed-conifer ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Stevens-Rumann, Camille; Morgan, Penelope

    2016-09-01

    Most models project warmer and drier climates that will contribute to larger and more frequent wildfires. However, it remains unknown how repeated wildfires alter post-fire successional patterns and forest structure. Here, we test the hypothesis that the number of wildfires, as well as the order and severity of wildfire events interact to alter forest structure and vegetation recovery and implications for vegetation management. In 2014, we examined forest structure, composition, and tree regeneration in stands that burned 1-18 yr before a subsequent 2007 wildfire. Three important findings emerged: (1) Repeatedly burned forests had 15% less woody surface fuels and 31% lower tree seedling densities compared with forests that only experienced one recent wildfire. These repeatedly burned areas are recovering differently than sites burned once, which may lead to alternative ecosystem structure. (2) Order of burn severity (high followed by low severity compared with low followed by high severity) did influence forest characteristics. When low burn severity followed high, forests had 60% lower canopy closure and total basal area with 92% fewer tree seedlings than when high burn severity followed low. (3) Time between fires had no effect on most variables measured following the second fire except large woody fuels, canopy closure and tree seedling density. We conclude that repeatedly burned areas meet many vegetation management objectives of reduced fuel loads and moderate tree seedling densities. These differences in forest structure, composition, and tree regeneration have implications not only for the trajectories of these forests, but may reduce fire intensity and burn severity of subsequent wildfires and may be used in conjunction with future fire suppression tactics.

  5. Forest ecosystem management: An ecological, economic, and social assessment. Report of the forest ecosystem management assessment team

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    The objectives based on the President's mandate and principles are to identify management alternatives that attain the greatest economic and social contribution from the forests of the region and meet the requirements of the applicable laws and regulations, including the Endangered Species Act, the National Forest Management Act, the Federal Land Policy Management Act, and the National Environmental Policy Act. The Ecosystem Management Assessment working group should explore adaptive management and silvicultural techniques and base its work on the best technical and scientific information currently available.

  6. Hemiboreal forest: natural disturbances and the importance of ecosystem legacies to management

    Treesearch

    Kalev Jogiste; Henn Korjus; John Stanturf; Lee E. Frelich; Endijs Baders; Janis Donis; Aris Jansons; Ahto Kangur; Kajar Koster; Diana Laarmann; Tiit Maaten; Vitas Marozas; Marek Metslaid; Kristi Nigul; Olga Polyachenko; Tiit Randveer; Floortje Vodde

    2017-01-01

    The condition of forest ecosystems depends on the temporal and spatial pattern of management interventions and natural disturbances. Remnants of previous conditions persisting after disturbances, or ecosystem legacies, collectively comprise ecosystem memory. Ecosystem memory in turn contributes to resilience and possibilities of ecosystem reorganization...

  7. Methods for calculating forest ecosystem and harvested carbon with standard estimates for forest types of the United States

    Treesearch

    James E. Smith; Linda S. Heath; Kenneth E. Skog; Richard A. Birdsey

    2006-01-01

    This study presents techniques for calculating average net annual additions to carbon in forests and in forest products. Forest ecosystem carbon yield tables, representing stand-level merchantable volume and carbon pools as a function of stand age, were developed for 51 forest types within 10 regions of the United States. Separate tables were developed for...

  8. Bulgarian Rila mountain forest ecosystems study site: site description and SO42-, NO3- deposition

    Treesearch

    Karl Zeller; Christo Bojinov; Evgeny Donev; Nedialko Nikolov

    1998-01-01

    Bulgaria's forest ecosystems (31 percent of the country's area) are considered vulnerable to dry and wet pollution deposition. Coniferous forests that cover one-third of the total forest land are particularly sensitive to pollution loads. The USDA Forest Service, Sofia University, and the Bulgarian Forest Research Institute (FRI) established a cooperative...

  9. Climate change impact on peatland and forest ecosystems of Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Kondrasheva, N.Yu.; Kobak, K.I.; Turchinovich, I.Ye.

    1996-12-31

    Paleoclimatic and paleobotanic reconstructions allow a conclusion that ecosystems and natural zones significantly changed due to climate fluctuations. The average long-term carbon accumulation in peatlands of Russia was estimated as 45.6 mln tons of carbon per year. During the Holocene the rate of peat accumulation changed. During the Subboreal period the rate of peat accumulation gradually decreased to 17 gC/m2 yr, reaching its lowest value in the Subatlantic period. Apparently, the rate of peat accumulation decreased in Subboreal period due to sharp cooling and precipitation decrease. Future rates of peat accumulation might be higher than the present one. Forest ecosystems of north-western Russia also significantly changed during the Holocene. In Atlantic time the boundary between middle and south taiga was located 500 km northward compared to the present and broad-leaved forest occupied large areas. According to their forecast, a mean global air temperature increase by 1.4 C is expected to result in a considerable decrease in coniferous forest area and an increase in mixed and broad-leaved forest area.

  10. Ecosystem-Level Carbon Stocks in Costa Rican Mangrove Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cifuentes, M.

    2012-12-01

    Tropical mangroves provide a wide variety of ecosystem services, including atmospheric carbon sequestration. Because of their high rates of carbon accumulation, the large expected size of their total stocks (from 2 to 5 times greater than those of upland tropical forests), and the alarming rates at which they are being converted to other uses (releasing globally from 0.02 to 0.12 Pg C yr-1), mangroves are receiving increasing attention as additional tools to mitigate climate change. However, data on whole ecosystem-level carbon in tropical mangroves is limited. Here I present the first estimate of ecosystem level carbon stocks in mangrove forests of Central America. I established 28, 125 m-long, sampling transects along the 4 main rivers draining the Térraba-Sierpe National Wetland in the southern Pacific coast of Costa Rica. This area represents 39% of all remaining mangroves in the country (48300 ha). A circular nested plot was placed every 25 m along each transect. Carbon stocks of standing trees, regeneration, the herbaceous layer, litter, and downed wood were measured following internationally-developed methods compatible with IPCC "Good Practice Guidelines". In addition, total soil carbon stocks were determined down to 1 m depth. Together, these carbon estimates represent the ecosystem-carbon stocks of these forests. The average aboveground carbon stocks were 72.5 ± 3.2 MgC ha-1 (range: 9 - 241 MgC ha-1), consistent with results elsewhere in the world. Between 74 and 92% of the aboveground carbon is stored in trees ≥ 5cm dbh. I found a significant correlation between basal area of trees ≥ 5cm dbh and total aboveground carbon. Soil carbon stocks to 1 m depth ranged between 141 y 593 MgC ha-1. Ecosystem-level carbon stocks ranged from 391 MgC ha-1 to 438 MgC ha-1, with a slight increase from south to north locations. Soil carbon stocks represent an average 76% of total ecosystem carbon stocks, while trees represent only 20%. These Costa Rican mangroves

  11. Assessing exergy of forest ecosystem using airborne and satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brovkina, Olga; Fabianek, Tomas; Lukes, Petr; Zemek, Frantisek

    2017-04-01

    Interactions of the energy flows of forest ecosystem with environment are formed by a suite of forest structure, functions and pathways of self-control. According to recent thermodynamic theory for open systems, concept of exergy of solar radiation has been applied to estimate energy consumptions on evapotranspiration and biomass production in forest ecosystem or to indicate forest decline and human land use impact on ecosystem stability. However, most of the methods for exergy estimation in forest ecosystem is not stable and its physical meaning remains on the surface. This study was aimed to contribute to understanding the exergy of forest ecosystem using combination of remote sensing (RS) and eddy covariance technologies, specifically: 1/to explore exergy of solar radiation depending on structure of solar spectrum (number of spectral bands of RS data), and 2/to explore the relationship between exergy and flux tower eddy covariance measurements. Two study forest sites were located in Western Beskids in the Czech Republic. The first site was dominated by young Norway spruce, the second site was dominated by mature European beech. Airborne hyperspectral data in VNIR, SWIR and TIR spectral regions were acquired 9 times for study sites during a vegetation periods in 2015-2016. Radiometric, geometric and atmospheric corrections of airborne data were performed. Satellite multispectral Landsat-8 cloud-free 21 scenes were downloaded and atmospherically corrected for the period from April to November 2015-2016. Evapotranspiration and latent heat fluxes were collected from operating flux towers located on study sites according to date and time of remote sensing data acquisition. Exergy was calculated for each satellite and airborne scene using various combinations of spectral bands as: Ex=E^out (K+ln E^out/E^in )+R, where Ein is the incoming solar energy, Eout is the reflected solar energy, R = Ein-Eout is absorbed energy, Eout/Ein is albedo and K is the Kullback increment

  12. Vulnerability of tropical forest ecosystems and forest dependent communities to droughts.

    PubMed

    Vogt, D J; Vogt, K A; Gmur, S J; Scullion, J J; Suntana, A S; Daryanto, S; Sigurðardóttir, R

    2016-01-01

    Energy captured by and flowing through a forest ecosystem can be indexed by its total Net Primary Productivity (NPP). This forest NPP can also be a reflection of its sensitivity to, and its ability to adapt to, any climate change while also being harvested by humans. However detecting and identifying the vulnerability of forest and human ecosystems to climate change requires information on whether these coupled social and ecological systems are able to maintain functionality while responding to environmental variability. To better understand what parameters might be representative of environmental variability, we compiled a metadata analysis of 96 tropical forest sites. We found that three soil textural classes (i.e., sand, sandy loam and clay) had significant but different relationships between NPP and precipitation levels. Therefore, assessing the vulnerability of forests and forest dependent communities to drought was carried out using data from those sites that had one of those three soil textural classes. For example, forests growing on soil textures of sand and clay had NPP levels decreasing as precipitation levels increased, in contrast to those forest sites that had sandy loam soils where NPP levels increased. Also, forests growing on sandy loam soil textures appeared better adapted to grow at lower precipitation levels compared to the sand and clay textured soils. In fact in our tropical database the lowest precipitation level found for the sandy loam soils was 821 mm yr(-1) compared to sand at 1739 mm yr(-1) and clay at 1771 mm yr(-1). Soil texture also determined the level of NPP reached by a forest, i.e., forest growing on sandy loam and clay reached low-medium NPP levels while higher NPP levels (i.e., medium, high) were found on sand-textured soils. Intermediate precipitation levels (>1800-3000 mm yr(-1)) were needed to grow forests at the medium and high NPP levels. Low thresholds of NPP were identified at both low (∼750 mm) and high precipitation

  13. Soil and water related forest ecosystem services and resilience of social ecological system in the Central Highlands of Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tekalign, Meron; Muys, Bart; Nyssen, Jan; Poesen, Jean

    2014-05-01

    In the central highlands of Ethiopia, deforestation and forest degradation are occurring and accelerating during the last century. The high population pressure is the most repeatedly mentioned reason. However, in the past 30 years researchers agreed that the absence of institutions, which could define the access rights to particular forest resources, is another underlying cause of forest depletion and loss. Changing forest areas into different land use types is affecting the biodiversity, which is manifested through not proper functioning of ecosystem services. Menagesha Suba forest, the focus of this study has been explored from various perspectives. However the social dimension and its interaction with the ecology have been addressed rarely. This research uses a combined theoretical framework of Ecosystem Services and that of Resilience thinking for understanding the complex social-ecological interactions in the forest and its influence on ecosystem services. For understanding the history and extent of land use land cover changes, in-depth literature review and a GIS and remote sensing analysis will be made. The effect of forest conversion into plantation and agricultural lands on soil and above ground carbon sequestration, fuel wood and timber products delivery will be analyzed with the accounting of the services on five land use types. The four ecosystem services to be considered are Supporting, Provisioning, Regulating, and Cultural services as set by the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. A resilience based participatory framework approach will be used to analyze how the social and ecological systems responded towards the drivers of change that occurred in the past. The framework also will be applied to predict future uncertainties. Finally this study will focus on the possible interventions that could contribute to the sustainable management and conservation of the forest. An ecosystem services trade-off analysis and an environmental valuation of the water

  14. SIR-C/X-SAR: Imaging Radar Analyses for Forest Ecosystem Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ranson, K. Jon; Shugart, Herman; Smith, James A.; Sun, Guoqing

    1996-01-01

    Progress, significant results and future plans are discussed relating to the following objectives: (1) Ecosystem characterization using SIR-C/X-SAR and AirSAR data; (2) Improving radar backscatter models for forest canopies; and (3) Using SAR measurements and models with forest ecosystem models to improve inferences of ecosystem attributes and processes.

  15. A framework for developing urban forest ecosystem services and goods indicators

    Treesearch

    Cynnamon Dobbs; Francisco J. Escobedo; Wayne C. Zipperer

    2011-01-01

    The social and ecological processes impacting on urban forests have been studied at multiple temporal and spatial scales in order to help us quantify, monitor, and value the ecosystem services that benefit people. Few studies have comprehensively analyzed the full suite of ecosystem services, goods (ESG), and ecosystem disservices provided by an urban forest....

  16. 77 FR 60373 - Monroe Mountain Aspen Ecosystems Restoration Project Fishlake National Forest; Sevier and Piute...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-03

    ... Forest Service Monroe Mountain Aspen Ecosystems Restoration Project Fishlake National Forest; Sevier and... alternatives, within the Monroe Mountain Aspen Ecosystems Restoration Project area. The purpose of the Monroe Mountain Aspen Ecosystems Restoration Project is to implement land management activities that are...

  17. 76 FR 46721 - Salmon-Challis National Forest, ID; Upper North Fork HFRA Ecosystem Restoration Project...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Salmon-Challis National Forest, ID; Upper North Fork HFRA Ecosystem... this project area to improve the health of the ecosystem and reach the desired future condition. DATES..., Attn: Upper North Fork HFRA Ecosystem Restoration Project EIS, P.O. Box 180, 11 Casey Rd., North Fork...

  18. Sustainable development and use of ecosystems with non-forest trees

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Non-forest trees are components of managed ecosystems including orchards and agroforestry systems and natural ecosystems such as savannas and riparian corridors. Each of these ecosystems includes trees but does not have a complete tree canopy or spatial extent necessary to create a true forest ecosy...

  19. The Kings River Sustainable Forest Ecosystems Project: inception, objectives, and progress

    Treesearch

    Jared Verner; Mark T. Smith

    2002-01-01

    The Kings River Sustainable Forest Ecosystems Project, a formal administrative study involving extensive and intensive collaboration between Forest Service managers and researchers, is a response to changes in the agency’s orientation in favor of ecosystem approaches and to recent concern over issues associated with maintenance of late successional forest attributes...

  20. Historical open forest ecosystems in the Missouri Ozarks: reconstruction and restoration targets

    Treesearch

    Brice B. Hanberry; D. Todd Jones-Farrand; John M. Kabrick

    2014-01-01

    Current forests no longer resemble historical open forest ecosystems in the eastern United States. In the absence of representative forest ecosystems under a continuous surface fire regime at a large scale, reconstruction of historical landscapes can provide a reference for restoration efforts. For initial expert-assigned vegetation phases ranging from prairie to...

  1. Forest-land conversion, ecosystem services, and economic issues for policy: a review

    Treesearch

    Robert A. Smail; David J. Lewis

    2009-01-01

    The continued conversion and development of forest land pose a serious threat to the ecosystem services derived from forested landscapes. We argue that developing an understanding of the full range of consequences from forest conversion requires understanding the effects of such conversion on both components of ecosystem services: products and processes....

  2. Spatial and temporal trends of drought effects in a heterogeneous semi-arid forest ecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Assal, Timothy J.; Anderson, Patrick J.; Sibold, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Drought has long been recognized as a driving mechanism in the forests of western North America and drought-induced mortality has been documented across genera in recent years. Given the frequency of these events are expected to increase in the future, understanding patterns of mortality and plant response to severe drought is important to resource managers. Drought can affect the functional, physiological, structural, and demographic properties of forest ecosystems. Remote sensing studies have documented changes in forest properties due to direct and indirect effects of drought; however, few studies have addressed this at local scales needed to characterize highly heterogeneous ecosystems in the forest-shrubland ecotone. We analyzed a 22-year Landsat time series (1985–2012) to determine changes in forest in an area that experienced a relatively dry decade punctuated by two years of extreme drought. We assessed the relationship between several vegetation indices and field measured characteristics (e.g. plant area index and canopy gap fraction) and applied these indices to trend analysis to uncover the location, direction and timing of change. Finally, we assessed the interaction of climate and topography by forest functional type. The Normalized Difference Moisture Index (NDMI), a measure of canopy water content, had the strongest correlation with short-term field measures of plant area index (R2 = 0.64) and canopy gap fraction (R2 = 0.65). Over the entire time period, 25% of the forested area experienced a significant (p-value < 0.05) negative trend in NDMI, compared to less than 10% in a positive trend. Coniferous forests were more likely to be associated with a negative NDMI trend than deciduous forest. Forests on southern aspects were least likely to exhibit a negative trend while north aspects were most prevalent. Field plots with a negative trend had a lower live density, and higher amounts of standing dead and down trees compared to plots with no

  3. Models for Forest Ecosystem Management: A European Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Pretzsch, H.; Grote, R.; Reineking, B.; Rötzer, Th.; Seifert, St.

    2008-01-01

    Background Forest management in Europe is committed to sustainability. In the face of climate change and accompanying risks, however, planning in order to achieve this aim becomes increasingly challenging, underlining the need for new and innovative methods. Models potentially integrate a wide range of system knowledge and present scenarios of variables important for any management decision. In the past, however, model development has mainly focused on specific purposes whereas today we are increasingly aware of the need for the whole range of information that can be provided by models. It is therefore assumed helpful to review the various approaches that are available for specific tasks and to discuss how they can be used for future management strategies. Scope Here we develop a concept for the role of models in forest ecosystem management based on historical analyses. Five paradigms of forest management are identified: (1) multiple uses, (2) dominant use, (3) environmentally sensitive multiple uses, (4) full ecosystem approach and (5) eco-regional perspective. An overview of model approaches is given that is dedicated to this purpose and to developments of different kinds of approaches. It is discussed how these models can contribute to goal setting, decision support and development of guidelines for forestry operations. Furthermore, it is shown how scenario analysis, including stand and landscape visualization, can be used to depict alternatives, make long-term consequences of different options transparent, and ease participation of different stakeholder groups and education. Conclusions In our opinion, the current challenge of forest ecosystem management in Europe is to integrate system knowledge from different temporal and spatial scales and from various disciplines. For this purpose, using a set of models with different focus that can be selected from a kind of toolbox according to particular needs is more promising than developing one overarching model

  4. Carbon allocation patterns in boreal and hemiboreal forest ecosystems along the gradient of soil fertility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kriiska, Kaie; Uri, Veiko; Frey, Jane; Napa, Ülle; Kabral, Naima; Soosaar, Kaido; Rannik, Kaire; Ostonen, Ivika

    2017-04-01

    Carbon (C) allocation plays a critical role in forest ecosystem carbon cycling. Changes in C allocation alter ecosystems carbon sequestration and plant-soil-atmosphere gas exchange, hence having an impact on the climate. Currently, there is lack of reliable indicators that show the direction of C accumulation patterns in forest ecosystems on regional scale. The first objective of our study was to determine the variability of carbon allocation in hemiboreal coniferous forests along the gradient of soil fertility in Estonia. We measured C stocks and fluxes, such as litter, fine root biomass and production, soil respiration etc. in 8 stands of different site types - Scots pine (Cladonia, Vaccinium, Myrtillus, Fragaria) and Norway spruce (Polytrichum, Myrtillus, Oxalis, Calamagrostis alvar). The suitability of above- and belowground litter production (AG/BG) ratio was analysed as a carbon allocation indicator. The second aim of the study was to analyse forest C allocation patterns along the north-south gradient from northern boreal Finland to hemiboreal Estonia. Finally, C sequestration in silver birch and grey alder stands were compared with coniferous stands in order to determine the impact of tree species on carbon allocation. Preliminary results indicate that estimated AG/BG ratio (0.5 ... 3.0) tends to decrease with increasing soil organic horizon C/N ratio, indicating that in less fertile sites more carbon is allocated into belowground through fine root growth and in consequence the soil organic carbon stock increases. Similar trends were found on the north-south forest gradient. However, there was a significant difference between coniferous and broadleaf stands in C allocation patterns. Net ecosystem exchange in Estonian coniferous stands varied from -1.64 ... 3.95 t C ha-1 yr-1, whereas older stands tended to be net carbon sources.

  5. Forest biodiversity, carbon and other ecosystem services: relationships and impacts of deforestation and forest degradation

    Treesearch

    Ian D. Thompson; Joice Ferreira; Toby Gardner; Manuel Guariguata; Lian Pin Koh; Kimiko Okabe; Yude Pan; Christine B. Schmitt; Jason Tylianakis; Jos Barlow; Valerie Kapos; Werner A. Kurz; John A. Parrotta; Mark D. Spalding; Nathalie. van Vliet

    2012-01-01

    REDD+ actions should be based on the best science and on the understanding that forests can provide more than a repository for carbon but also offer a wide range of services beneficial to people. Biodiversity underpins many ecosystem services, one of which is carbon sequestration, and individual species’ functional traits play an important role in determining...

  6. Ecosystem services as a framework for forest stewardship: Deschutes National Forest overview

    Treesearch

    Nikola Smith; Robert Deal; Jeff Kline; Dale Blahna; Trista Patterson; Thomas A. Spies; Karen. Bennett

    2011-01-01

    The concept of ecosystem services has emerged as a way of framing and describing the comprehensive set of benefits that people receive from nature. These include commonly recognized goods like timber and fresh water, as well as processes like climate regulation and water purification, and aesthetic, spiritual, and cultural benefits. The USDA Forest Service has been...

  7. Pattern and control of biomass allocation across global forest ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yongtao; Wang, Limei

    2017-07-01

    The underground part of a tree is an important carbon sink in forest ecosystems. Understanding biomass allocation between the below- and aboveground parts (root:shoot ratios) is necessary for estimation of the underground biomass and carbon pool. Nevertheless, large-scale biomass allocation patterns and their control mechanisms are not well identified. In this study, a large database of global forests at the community level was compiled to investigate the root:shoot ratios and their responses to environmental factors. The results indicated that both the aboveground biomass (AGB) and belowground biomass (BGB) of the forests in China (medians 73.0 Mg/ha and 17.0 Mg/ha, respectively) were lower than those worldwide (medians 120.3 Mg/ha and 27.7 Mg/ha, respectively). The root:shoot ratios of the forests in China (median = 0.23), however, were not significantly different from other forests worldwide (median = 0.24). In general, the allocation of biomass between the belowground and aboveground parts was determined mainly by the inherent allometry of the plant but also by environmental factors. In this study, most correlations between root:shoot ratios and environmental factors (development parameter, climate, altitude, and soil) were weak but significant (p < .01). The allometric model agreed with the trends observed in this study and effectively estimated BGB based on AGB across the entire database.

  8. A review of malaria transmission dynamics in forest ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Malaria continues to be a major health problem in more than 100 endemic countries located primarily in tropical and sub-tropical regions around the world. Malaria transmission is a dynamic process and involves many interlinked factors, from uncontrollable natural environmental conditions to man-made disturbances to nature. Almost half of the population at risk of malaria lives in forest areas. Forests are hot beds of malaria transmission as they provide conditions such as vegetation cover, temperature, rainfall and humidity conditions that are conducive to distribution and survival of malaria vectors. Forests often lack infrastructure and harbor tribes with distinct genetic traits, socio-cultural beliefs and practices that greatly influence malaria transmission dynamics. Here we summarize the various topographical, entomological, parasitological, human ecological and socio-economic factors, which are crucial and shape malaria transmission in forested areas. An in-depth understanding and synthesis of the intricate relationship of these parameters in achieving better malaria control in various types of forest ecosystems is emphasized. PMID:24912923

  9. A review of the ecosystem functions in oil palm plantations, using forests as a reference system.

    PubMed

    Dislich, Claudia; Keyel, Alexander C; Salecker, Jan; Kisel, Yael; Meyer, Katrin M; Auliya, Mark; Barnes, Andrew D; Corre, Marife D; Darras, Kevin; Faust, Heiko; Hess, Bastian; Klasen, Stephan; Knohl, Alexander; Kreft, Holger; Meijide, Ana; Nurdiansyah, Fuad; Otten, Fenna; Pe'er, Guy; Steinebach, Stefanie; Tarigan, Suria; Tölle, Merja H; Tscharntke, Teja; Wiegand, Kerstin

    2017-08-01

    Oil palm plantations have expanded rapidly in recent decades. This large-scale land-use change has had great ecological, economic, and social impacts on both the areas converted to oil palm and their surroundings. However, research on the impacts of oil palm cultivation is scattered and patchy, and no clear overview exists. We address this gap through a systematic and comprehensive literature review of all ecosystem functions in oil palm plantations, including several (genetic, medicinal and ornamental resources, information functions) not included in previous systematic reviews. We compare ecosystem functions in oil palm plantations to those in forests, as the conversion of forest to oil palm is prevalent in the tropics. We find that oil palm plantations generally have reduced ecosystem functioning compared to forests: 11 out of 14 ecosystem functions show a net decrease in level of function. Some functions show decreases with potentially irreversible global impacts (e.g. reductions in gas and climate regulation, habitat and nursery functions, genetic resources, medicinal resources, and information functions). The most serious impacts occur when forest is cleared to establish new plantations, and immediately afterwards, especially on peat soils. To variable degrees, specific plantation management measures can prevent or reduce losses of some ecosystem functions (e.g. avoid illegal land clearing via fire, avoid draining of peat, use of integrated pest management, use of cover crops, mulch, and compost) and we highlight synergistic mitigation measures that can improve multiple ecosystem functions simultaneously. The only ecosystem function which increases in oil palm plantations is, unsurprisingly, the production of marketable goods. Our review highlights numerous research gaps. In particular, there are significant gaps with respect to socio-cultural information functions. Further, there is a need for more empirical data on the importance of spatial and temporal

  10. The allocation of ecosystem net primary productivity in tropical forests

    PubMed Central

    Malhi, Yadvinder; Doughty, Christopher; Galbraith, David

    2011-01-01

    The allocation of the net primary productivity (NPP) of an ecosystem between canopy, woody tissue and fine roots is an important descriptor of the functioning of that ecosystem, and an important feature to correctly represent in terrestrial ecosystem models. Here, we collate and analyse a global dataset of NPP allocation in tropical forests, and compare this with the representation of NPP allocation in 13 terrestrial ecosystem models. On average, the data suggest an equal partitioning of allocation between all three main components (mean 34 ± 6% canopy, 39 ± 10% wood, 27 ± 11% fine roots), but there is substantial site-to-site variation in allocation to woody tissue versus allocation to fine roots. Allocation to canopy (leaves, flowers and fruit) shows much less variance. The mean allocation of the ecosystem models is close to the mean of the data, but the spread is much greater, with several models reporting allocation partitioning outside of the spread of the data. Where all main components of NPP cannot be measured, litterfall is a good predictor of overall NPP (r2 = 0.83 for linear fit forced through origin), stem growth is a moderate predictor and fine root production a poor predictor. Across sites the major component of variation of allocation is a shifting allocation between wood and fine roots, with allocation to the canopy being a relatively invariant component of total NPP. This suggests the dominant allocation trade-off is a ‘fine root versus wood’ trade-off, as opposed to the expected ‘root–shoot’ trade-off; such a trade-off has recently been posited on theoretical grounds for old-growth forest stands. We conclude by discussing the systematic biases in estimates of allocation introduced by missing NPP components, including herbivory, large leaf litter and root exudates production. These biases have a moderate effect on overall carbon allocation estimates, but are smaller than the observed range in allocation values across sites. PMID

  11. Biological N Fixation Rates in a Tropical Dry Forest Ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santiago, L. S.; Dawson, T. E.

    2005-12-01

    Because tropical legumes are usually the dominant family in forests of the Neotropics and Africa, they represent the greatest potential terrestrial cover of N-fixing species globally. Tropical dry forests therefore may have the greatest rates of biological N-fixation of any ecosystem type. Our objective was to determine the number of legume species that fix N along a successional gradient (10, 20, and 30 years) using a combination of nodule excavation, nodule incubations, and N isotopic composition of foliage. We also quantified non-symbiotic N-fixation by free-living fixers in litter and soil. We found that 21 out of 23 legume species were nodulated. Calculations of percent N from fixation, based on N isotopic composition, ranged from 1-78 percent for individual species. At the stand level, estimates of symbiotic N-fixation was 13.9, 23.1, and 27.8 kg N/ha/yr in 10, 20, and 30 year old forest, respectively. Total non-symbiotic N-fixation, based on acetylne reduction incubations of leaf litter, fine woody debris and surface soil, was 7.5 kg N/ha/yr during the dry season and 17.1 kg N/ha/yr during the wet season. Total ecosystem estimates were 38.5, 47.7, and 52.4 kg N/ha/yr in 10, 20, and 30 year old forest, respectively. Overall, we found that non-symbiotic N-fixation was a greater proportion of total biological N-fixation than has been reported in other tropical dry forests and savanas, but our total biological N-fixation values were similar.

  12. Assimilating Eddy-covariance Flux into an Ecosystem Model: A Case Study in China's Forest Ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y.; Piao, S.

    2016-12-01

    Process-based ecosystem model without the observed constraints may bias high and does not meet the demand for accurately estimating the regional carbon balance and assessing regional ecosystem responses to climate change. In this study, we collected and processed data from 6 eddy-covariance flux sites (5 plant types) and hereby optimized the parameters of a state-of-the-art ecosystem model in China's forest ecosystem. The prior simulations has overestimated the net ecosystem exchange (NEE) over all forest sites, with the mean biases ranging from 0.41 to 3.09 gC m-2 d-1. The optimization process has reduced these biases and enhanced the agreement of the simulated seasonal cycle of the latent heat (LE) and gross primary production (GPP), through alteration in parameters by reducing the vegetation (and soil) respiration and enhancing the plant photosynthetic capability at most forest sites. Substantially underestimated LE at 4 out of these sites has also been improved by 4% 20%. The effect of the optimized parameters has been further demonstrated by validation of the observed fluxes in the other years, implying the capability of the optimized model in systematically improving the model's performance in particular at the sites where errors of the prior simulations are marked. Simulations of separate scenarios of altered temperature and precipitation indicate that the modeled carbon cycling responses are linear to warming and asymmetric to alteration in precipitation despite the optimized parameters, whose impact is found complicated and nonlinear on the response of GPP to climate change while is quite simpler for that of the respiration processes.

  13. Dynamics of Ecosystem Services during Forest Transitions in Reventazón, Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Vallet, Améline; Locatelli, Bruno; Levrel, Harold; Brenes Pérez, Christian; Imbach, Pablo; Estrada Carmona, Natalia; Manlay, Raphaël; Oszwald, Johan

    2016-01-01

    The forest transition framework describes the temporal changes of forest areas with economic development. A first phase of forest contraction is followed by a second phase of expansion once a turning point is reached. This framework does not differentiate forest types or ecosystem services, and describes forests regardless of their contribution to human well-being. For several decades, deforestation in many tropical regions has degraded ecosystem services, such as watershed regulation, while increasing provisioning services from agriculture, for example, food. Forest transitions and expansion have been observed in some countries, but their consequences for ecosystem services are often unclear. We analyzed the implications of forest cover change on ecosystem services in Costa Rica, where a forest transition has been suggested. A review of literature and secondary data on forest and ecosystem services in Costa Rica indicated that forest transition might have led to an ecosystem services transition. We modeled and mapped the changes of selected ecosystem services in the upper part of the Reventazón watershed and analyzed how supply changed over time in order to identify possible transitions in ecosystem services. The modeled changes of ecosystem services is similar to the second phase of a forest transition but no turning point was identified, probably because of the limited temporal scope of the analysis. Trends of provisioning and regulating services and their tradeoffs were opposite in different spatial subunits of our study area, which highlights the importance of scale in the analysis of ecosystem services and forest transitions. The ecosystem services transition framework proposed in this study is useful for analyzing the temporal changes of ecosystem services and linking socio-economic drivers to ecosystem services demand at different scales. PMID:27390869

  14. Dynamics of Ecosystem Services during Forest Transitions in Reventazón, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Vallet, Améline; Locatelli, Bruno; Levrel, Harold; Brenes Pérez, Christian; Imbach, Pablo; Estrada Carmona, Natalia; Manlay, Raphaël; Oszwald, Johan

    2016-01-01

    The forest transition framework describes the temporal changes of forest areas with economic development. A first phase of forest contraction is followed by a second phase of expansion once a turning point is reached. This framework does not differentiate forest types or ecosystem services, and describes forests regardless of their contribution to human well-being. For several decades, deforestation in many tropical regions has degraded ecosystem services, such as watershed regulation, while increasing provisioning services from agriculture, for example, food. Forest transitions and expansion have been observed in some countries, but their consequences for ecosystem services are often unclear. We analyzed the implications of forest cover change on ecosystem services in Costa Rica, where a forest transition has been suggested. A review of literature and secondary data on forest and ecosystem services in Costa Rica indicated that forest transition might have led to an ecosystem services transition. We modeled and mapped the changes of selected ecosystem services in the upper part of the Reventazón watershed and analyzed how supply changed over time in order to identify possible transitions in ecosystem services. The modeled changes of ecosystem services is similar to the second phase of a forest transition but no turning point was identified, probably because of the limited temporal scope of the analysis. Trends of provisioning and regulating services and their tradeoffs were opposite in different spatial subunits of our study area, which highlights the importance of scale in the analysis of ecosystem services and forest transitions. The ecosystem services transition framework proposed in this study is useful for analyzing the temporal changes of ecosystem services and linking socio-economic drivers to ecosystem services demand at different scales.

  15. FINAL ECOSYSTEM GOODS AND SERVICES CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM (FEGS-CS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document defines and classifies 338 Final Ecosystem Goods and Services (FEGS), each defined and uniquely numbered by a combination of environmental class or sub-class and a beneficiary category or sub-category. The introductory section provides the rationale and conceptual ...

  16. FINAL ECOSYSTEM GOODS AND SERVICES CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM (FEGS-CS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document defines and classifies 338 Final Ecosystem Goods and Services (FEGS), each defined and uniquely numbered by a combination of environmental class or sub-class and a beneficiary category or sub-category. The introductory section provides the rationale and conceptual ...

  17. Carbon Budget and its Dynamics over Northern Eurasia Forest Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shvidenko, Anatoly; Schepaschenko, Dmitry; Kraxner, Florian; Maksyutov, Shamil

    2016-04-01

    The presentation contains an overview of recent findings and results of assessment of carbon cycling of forest ecosystems of Northern Eurasia. From a methodological point of view, there is a clear tendency in understanding a need of a Full and Verified Carbon Account (FCA), i.e. in reliable assessment of uncertainties for all modules and all stages of FCA. FCA is considered as a fuzzy (underspecified) system that supposes a system integration of major methods of carbon cycling study (land-ecosystem approach, LEA; process-based models; eddy covariance; and inverse modelling). Landscape-ecosystem approach 1) serves for accumulation of all relevant knowledge of landscape and ecosystems; 2) for strict systems designing the account, 3) contains all relevant spatially distributed empirical and semi-empirical data and models, and 4) is presented in form of an Integrated Land Information System (ILIS). The ILIS includes a hybrid land cover in a spatially and temporarily explicit way and corresponding attributive databases. The forest mask is provided by utilizing multi-sensor remote sensing data, geographically weighed regression and validation within GEO-wiki platform. By-pixel parametrization of forest cover is based on a special optimization algorithms using all available knowledge and information sources (data of forest inventory and different surveys, observations in situ, official statistics of forest management etc.). Major carbon fluxes within the LEA (NPP, HR, disturbances etc.) are estimated based on fusion of empirical data and aggregations with process-based elements by sets of regionally distributed models. Uncertainties within LEA are assessed for each module and at each step of the account. Within method results of LEA and corresponding uncertainties are harmonized and mutually constrained with independent outputs received by other methods based on the Bayesian approach. The above methodology have been applied to carbon account of Russian forests for 2000

  18. Advances of air pollution science: from forest decline to multiple-stress effects on forest ecosystem services.

    PubMed

    Paoletti, E; Schaub, M; Matyssek, R; Wieser, G; Augustaitis, A; Bastrup-Birk, A M; Bytnerowicz, A; Günthardt-Goerg, M S; Müller-Starck, G; Serengil, Y

    2010-06-01

    Over the past 20 years, the focus of forest science on air pollution has moved from forest decline to a holistic framework of forest health, and from the effects on forest production to the ecosystem services provided by forest ecosystems. Hence, future research should focus on the interacting factorial impacts and resulting antagonistic and synergistic responses of forest trees and ecosystems. The synergistic effects of air pollution and climatic changes, in particular elevated ozone, altered nitrogen, carbon and water availability, must be key issues for research. Present evidence suggests air pollution will become increasingly harmful to forests under climate change, which requires integration amongst various stressors (abiotic and biotic factors, including competition, parasites and fire), effects on forest services (production, biodiversity protection, soil protection, sustained water balance, socio-economical relevance) and assessment approaches (research, monitoring, modeling) to be fostered. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Quantifying carbon budgets of conifer Mediterranean forest ecosystems, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Evrendilek, Fatih; Berberoglu, Suha; Taskinsu-Meydan, Sibel; Yilmaz, Erhan

    2006-08-01

    Aboveground biomass, aboveground litterfall, and leaf litter decomposition of five indigenous tree stands (pure stands of Pinus brutia, Pinus nigra, Cedrus libani, Juniperus excelsa, and a mixed stand of Abies cilicica, P. nigra, and C. libani) were measured in an eastern Mediterranean evergreen needleleaf forest of Turkey. Measurements were converted to regional scale estimates of carbon (C) stocks and fluxes of forest ecosystems, based on general non-site-specific allometric relationships. Mean C stock of the conifer forests was estimated as 97.8 +/- 79 Mg C ha(-1) consisting of 83.0 +/- 67 Mg C ha(-1) in the aboveground and 14.8 +/- 12 Mg C ha(-1) in the belowground biomass. The forest stands had mean soil organic carbon (SOC) and nitrogen (SON) stocks of 172.0 +/- 25.7 Mg C ha(-1) and 9.2 +/- 1.2 Mg N ha(-1), respectively. Mean total monthly litterfall was 376.2 +/- 191.3 kg C ha(-1), ranging from 641 +/- 385 kg C ha(-1) for Pinus brutia to 286 +/- 82 kg C ha(-1) for Cedrus libani. Decomposition rate constants (k) for pine needles were 0.0016 for Cedrus libani, 0.0009 for Pinus nigra, 0.0006 for the mixed stand, and 0.0005 day(-1) for Pinus brutia and Juniperus excelsa. Estimation of components of the C budgets revealed that the forest ecosystems were net C sinks, with a mean sequestration rate of 2.0 +/- 1.1 Mg C ha(-1) yr(-1) ranging from 3.2 +/- 2 Mg C ha(-1) for Pinus brutia to 1.6 +/- 0.6 Mg C ha(-1) for Cedrus libani. Mean net ecosystem productivity (NEP) resulted in sequestration of 98.4 +/- 54.1 Gg CO2 yr(-1) from the atmosphere when extrapolated for the entire study area of 134.2 km2 (Gg = 10(9) g). The quantitative C data from the study revealed the significance of the conifer Mediterranean forests as C sinks.

  20. Biodiversity as a solution to mitigate climate change impacts on the functioning of forest ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Hisano, Masumi; Searle, Eric B; Chen, Han Y H

    2017-07-10

    Forest ecosystems are critical to mitigating greenhouse gas emissions through carbon sequestration. However, climate change has affected forest ecosystem functioning in both negative and positive ways, and has led to shifts in species/functional diversity and losses in plant species diversity which may impair the positive effects of diversity on ecosystem functioning. Biodiversity may mitigate climate change impacts on (I) biodiversity itself, as more-diverse systems could be more resilient to climate change impacts, and (II) ecosystem functioning through the positive relationship between diversity and ecosystem functioning. By surveying the literature, we examined how climate change has affected forest ecosystem functioning and plant diversity. Based on the biodiversity effects on ecosystem functioning (B→EF), we specifically address the potential for biodiversity to mitigate climate change impacts on forest ecosystem functioning. For this purpose, we formulate a concept whereby biodiversity may reduce the negative impacts or enhance the positive impacts of climate change on ecosystem functioning. Further B→EF studies on climate change in natural forests are encouraged to elucidate how biodiversity might influence ecosystem functioning. This may be achieved through the detailed scrutiny of large spatial/long temporal scale data sets, such as long-term forest inventories. Forest management strategies based on B→EF have strong potential for augmenting the effectiveness of the roles of forests in the mitigation of climate change impacts on ecosystem functioning. © 2017 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  1. A large-scale forest fragmentation experiment: the Stability of Altered Forest Ecosystems Project.

    PubMed

    Ewers, Robert M; Didham, Raphael K; Fahrig, Lenore; Ferraz, Gonçalo; Hector, Andy; Holt, Robert D; Kapos, Valerie; Reynolds, Glen; Sinun, Waidi; Snaddon, Jake L; Turner, Edgar C

    2011-11-27

    Opportunities to conduct large-scale field experiments are rare, but provide a unique opportunity to reveal the complex processes that operate within natural ecosystems. Here, we review the design of existing, large-scale forest fragmentation experiments. Based on this review, we develop a design for the Stability of Altered Forest Ecosystems (SAFE) Project, a new forest fragmentation experiment to be located in the lowland tropical forests of Borneo (Sabah, Malaysia). The SAFE Project represents an advance on existing experiments in that it: (i) allows discrimination of the effects of landscape-level forest cover from patch-level processes; (ii) is designed to facilitate the unification of a wide range of data types on ecological patterns and processes that operate over a wide range of spatial scales; (iii) has greater replication than existing experiments; (iv) incorporates an experimental manipulation of riparian corridors; and (v) embeds the experimentally fragmented landscape within a wider gradient of land-use intensity than do existing projects. The SAFE Project represents an opportunity for ecologists across disciplines to participate in a large initiative designed to generate a broad understanding of the ecological impacts of tropical forest modification.

  2. A large-scale forest fragmentation experiment: the Stability of Altered Forest Ecosystems Project

    PubMed Central

    Ewers, Robert M.; Didham, Raphael K.; Fahrig, Lenore; Ferraz, Gonçalo; Hector, Andy; Holt, Robert D.; Kapos, Valerie; Reynolds, Glen; Sinun, Waidi; Snaddon, Jake L.; Turner, Edgar C.

    2011-01-01

    Opportunities to conduct large-scale field experiments are rare, but provide a unique opportunity to reveal the complex processes that operate within natural ecosystems. Here, we review the design of existing, large-scale forest fragmentation experiments. Based on this review, we develop a design for the Stability of Altered Forest Ecosystems (SAFE) Project, a new forest fragmentation experiment to be located in the lowland tropical forests of Borneo (Sabah, Malaysia). The SAFE Project represents an advance on existing experiments in that it: (i) allows discrimination of the effects of landscape-level forest cover from patch-level processes; (ii) is designed to facilitate the unification of a wide range of data types on ecological patterns and processes that operate over a wide range of spatial scales; (iii) has greater replication than existing experiments; (iv) incorporates an experimental manipulation of riparian corridors; and (v) embeds the experimentally fragmented landscape within a wider gradient of land-use intensity than do existing projects. The SAFE Project represents an opportunity for ecologists across disciplines to participate in a large initiative designed to generate a broad understanding of the ecological impacts of tropical forest modification. PMID:22006969

  3. Unresolving the "real age" of fine roots in forest ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solly, Emily; Brunner, Ivano; Herzog, Claude; Schöning, Ingo; Schrumpf, Marion; Schweigruber, Fritz; Trumbore, Susan; Hagedorn, Frank

    2016-04-01

    Estimating the turnover time of tree fine roots is crucial for modelling soil organic matter dynamics, but it is one of the biggest challenges in soil ecology and one of the least understood aspects of the belowground carbon cycle. The methods used - ranging from radiocarbon to ingrowth cores and root cameras (minirhizotrons) - yield very diverse pictures of fine root dynamics in forest ecosystems with turnover rates reaching from less than one year to decades. These have huge implications on estimates of carbon allocation to root growth and maintenance and on the persistence of root carbon in soils before it is decomposed or leached. We will present a new approach, involving techniques to study plant anatomy, which unravels the "real age" of fine roots. For a range of forests with diverse water and nutrient limitations located at different latitudes, we investigated the annual growth rings in the secondary xylem of thin transversal sections of fine roots belonging to tree species which form distinct growth rings. In temperate forests we find mean root "ring ages" of 1-2 years while in sub-arctic forests living fine roots can also persist for several years. The robustness of these results were tested by counting the maximum yearly growth rings in tree seedlings of known age and by counting the maximum number of growth rings of fine roots grown in ingrowth cores which were kept in temperate forest soils for one and two years. Radiocarbon estimates of mean "carbon ages", which define the time elapsed since structural carbon was fixed from the atmosphere, instead average around a decade in root systems of temperate forests (mixture of newly produced and older living roots). This dramatic difference may not be related to methodological bias, but to a time lag between C assimilation and production of a portion of fine root tissues due to the storage of older carbon components. The time lag depends very likely on tree species and environmental conditions. We further

  4. Effects of atmospheric pollutants on forests, wetlands, and agricultural ecosystems

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchinson, T.C.; Meema, K.M.

    1987-01-01

    This book reports on the knowledge of the sensitivities and responses of forests, wetlands and crops to airborne pollutants. Pollutants examined include: acidic depositions, heavy metal particulates, sulphur dioxide, ozone, nitrogen oxides, acid fogs, and mixtures of these. Various types of ecosystem stresses and physiological mechanisms pertinent to acid deposition are also discussed. Related subjects, such as the effects of ethylene on vegetation, the physiology of drought in trees, the ability of soils to generate acidity naturally, the role of Sphagnum moss in natural peatland acidity, the use of lichens as indicators of changing air quality, and the magnitude of natural emissions of reduced sulphur gases from tropical rainforests and temperate deciduous forests, are covered.

  5. Heterogeneity of hemiboreal forests in relation to ecosystems functioning.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasnov, Dmitrii; Noe, Steffen M.; Krasnova, Alisa; Niinemets, Ülo

    2015-04-01

    Heterogeneity is one of the key components of sustainable development of every living system. It provides the source for restocking of ecosystem living components, irregular distribution of nutrients and habitats. Main components of forest horizontal heterogeneity are related with horizontal distribution of dominant species, soil properties, topography and as natural as human disturbances. Soil as the main source for nutrients supply plays essential role in functioning terrestrial ecosystems. The understanding of spatial distribution principles of such soil properties as soil acidity, nutrients available for living organisms, soil moisture and temperature, soil density and the role of tree dominant and co-dominant species can give deeper knowledge about ecosystem functioning. Models based on this knowledge can be more precise and give possibilities to predict more exactly the behavior of ecosystem in terms of global climate changing. The aim of the project is to assess spatial distribution and changes in soil properties related to spatial distribution of vegetation, microtopography and landscape position. For this purpose we used 3D modelling of sample plots and soil profiles using photogrammetry. PhotoModelerScanner software from EOS System Inc. was used to create 3D models from photogrammetric images and GIS technology was used for soil mapping. The project was done in the frame of SMEAR Estonia.

  6. Influence of spring and autumn phenological transitions on forest ecosystem productivity

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Andrew D.; Andy Black, T.; Ciais, Philippe; Delbart, Nicolas; Friedl, Mark A.; Gobron, Nadine; Hollinger, David Y.; Kutsch, Werner L.; Longdoz, Bernard; Luyssaert, Sebastiaan; Migliavacca, Mirco; Montagnani, Leonardo; William Munger, J.; Moors, Eddy; Piao, Shilong; Rebmann, Corinna; Reichstein, Markus; Saigusa, Nobuko; Tomelleri, Enrico; Vargas, Rodrigo; Varlagin, Andrej

    2010-01-01

    We use eddy covariance measurements of net ecosystem productivity (NEP) from 21 FLUXNET sites (153 site-years of data) to investigate relationships between phenology and productivity (in terms of both NEP and gross ecosystem photosynthesis, GEP) in temperate and boreal forests. Results are used to evaluate the plausibility of four different conceptual models. Phenological indicators were derived from the eddy covariance time series, and from remote sensing and models. We examine spatial patterns (across sites) and temporal patterns (across years); an important conclusion is that it is likely that neither of these accurately represents how productivity will respond to future phenological shifts resulting from ongoing climate change. In spring and autumn, increased GEP resulting from an ‘extra’ day tends to be offset by concurrent, but smaller, increases in ecosystem respiration, and thus the effect on NEP is still positive. Spring productivity anomalies appear to have carry-over effects that translate to productivity anomalies in the following autumn, but it is not clear that these result directly from phenological anomalies. Finally, the productivity of evergreen needleleaf forests is less sensitive to phenology than is productivity of deciduous broadleaf forests. This has implications for how climate change may drive shifts in competition within mixed-species stands. PMID:20819815

  7. Influence of spring and autumn phenological transitions on forest ecosystem productivity.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Andrew D; Black, T Andy; Ciais, Philippe; Delbart, Nicolas; Friedl, Mark A; Gobron, Nadine; Hollinger, David Y; Kutsch, Werner L; Longdoz, Bernard; Luyssaert, Sebastiaan; Migliavacca, Mirco; Montagnani, Leonardo; Munger, J William; Moors, Eddy; Piao, Shilong; Rebmann, Corinna; Reichstein, Markus; Saigusa, Nobuko; Tomelleri, Enrico; Vargas, Rodrigo; Varlagin, Andrej

    2010-10-12

    We use eddy covariance measurements of net ecosystem productivity (NEP) from 21 FLUXNET sites (153 site-years of data) to investigate relationships between phenology and productivity (in terms of both NEP and gross ecosystem photosynthesis, GEP) in temperate and boreal forests. Results are used to evaluate the plausibility of four different conceptual models. Phenological indicators were derived from the eddy covariance time series, and from remote sensing and models. We examine spatial patterns (across sites) and temporal patterns (across years); an important conclusion is that it is likely that neither of these accurately represents how productivity will respond to future phenological shifts resulting from ongoing climate change. In spring and autumn, increased GEP resulting from an 'extra' day tends to be offset by concurrent, but smaller, increases in ecosystem respiration, and thus the effect on NEP is still positive. Spring productivity anomalies appear to have carry-over effects that translate to productivity anomalies in the following autumn, but it is not clear that these result directly from phenological anomalies. Finally, the productivity of evergreen needleleaf forests is less sensitive to phenology than is productivity of deciduous broadleaf forests. This has implications for how climate change may drive shifts in competition within mixed-species stands.

  8. Measuring forest floor and canopy interception in a savannah ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsiko, C. T.; Makurira, H.; Gerrits, A. M. J.; Savenije, H. H. G.

    Interception is one of the most underestimated processes of the hydrological cycle. However, it amounts to a substantial part of the terrestrial evaporation and forms a direct feedback of moisture to the atmosphere which is important to sustain continental rainfall. Most investigations on interception focus on canopy interception only, whereas the interception by the surface and forest floor may be of same order of magnitude. Moreover there is a regional bias. Most research has been carried out in Europe and America and little is known about interception in Africa. This paper presents a study on forest floor and canopy interception in a savannah ecosystem. The study deals with both interception storage capacity of different vegetation types and the related moisture fluxes. The interception storage capacity of Msasa leaf litter and of Thatching grass is 1.8 mm and 1.5 mm respectively. This water storage capacity is dependent on storm intensity, with high intensity storms resulting in smaller storage capacity than less intensive storms. Canopy interception for the study period averaged 25% of the total rainfall, which is comparable with other studies. More importantly, the study revealed that combining canopy and forest floor interception yields a total interception flux amounting to 37% of the rainfall, or close to 50% of the total evaporation. This is a significant amount which implies that interception of both canopy and forest floor should be included in hydrological modelling and that interception is relevant for water management.

  9. A review of impacts by invasive exotic plants on forest ecosystem services

    Treesearch

    Kevin Devine; Songlin. Fei

    2011-01-01

    Many of our forest ecosystems are at risk due to the invasion of exotic invasive plant species. Invasive plant species pose numerous threats to ecosystems by decreasing biodiversity, deteriorating ecosystem processes, and degrading ecosystem services. Literature on Kentucky's most invasive exotic plant species was examined to understand their potential impacts on...

  10. Transport and fate of trifluoroacetate in upland forest and wetland ecosystems

    SciTech Connect

    Likens, G.E.; Tartowski, S.L.; Berger, T.W.

    1997-04-29

    Although trifluoroacetate (TFA), a breakdown product of chlorofluorocarbon replacements, is being dispersed widely within the biosphere, its ecological fate is largely unknown. TFA was added experimentally to an upland, northern hardwood forest and to a small forest wetland ecosystem within the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest in New Hampshire. Inputs of TFA were not transported conservatively through these ecosystems; instead, significant amounts of TFA were retained within the vegetation and soil compartments. More TFA was retained by the wetland ecosystem than by the upland forest ecosystem. Using simulation modeling, TFA concentrations were predicted for soil and drainage water until the year 2040. 32 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Transport and fate of trifluoroacetate in upland forest and wetland ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Likens, G. E.; Tartowski, S. L.; Berger, T. W.; Richey, D. G.; Driscoll, C. T.; Frank, H. G.; Klein, A.

    1997-01-01

    Although trifluoroacetate (TFA), a breakdown product of chlorofluorocarbon replacements, is being dispersed widely within the biosphere, its ecological fate is largely unknown. TFA was added experimentally to an upland, northern hardwood forest and to a small forest wetland ecosystem within the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest in New Hampshire. Inputs of TFA were not transported conservatively through these ecosystems; instead, significant amounts of TFA were retained within the vegetation and soil compartments. More TFA was retained by the wetland ecosystem than by the upland forest ecosystem. Using simulation modeling, TFA concentrations were predicted for soil and drainage water until the year 2040. PMID:9114018

  12. Dynamics of novel forests of Castilla elastica in Puerto Rico: from species to ecosystems

    Treesearch

    Jessica Fonseca da Silva

    2015-01-01

    Novel forests (NFs)—forests that contain a combination of introduced and native species—are a consequence of intense anthropogenic disturbances and the natural resilience of disturbed ecosystems. The extent to which NFs have similar forest function as comparable native secondary forests is a matter of debate in the scientific community. Little is known about the...

  13. Integrated restoration of forested ecosystems to achieve multiresource benefits: proceedings of the 2007 national silviculture workshop.

    Treesearch

    Robert L. Deal

    2008-01-01

    A primary mission of the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service is multiple resource management, and one of the emerging themes is forest restoration. The National Silviculture Workshop, a biennial event co-sponsored by the Forest Service, was held May 7-10, 2007, in Ketchikan, Alaska, with the theme of "Integrated Restoration of Forested Ecosystems to...

  14. Influence of forest planning alternatives on landscape pattern and ecosystem processes in northern Wisconsin, USA

    Treesearch

    Patrick A. Zollner; L. Jay Roberts; Eric J. Gustafson; Hong S. He; Volker Radeloff

    2008-01-01

    Incorporating an ecosystem management perspective into forest planning requires consideration of the impacts of timber management on a suite of landscape characteristics at broad spatial and long temporal scales. We used the LANDIS forest landscape simulation model to predict forest composition and landscape pattern under seven alternative forest management plans...

  15. Potential increases in natural disturbance rates could offset forest management impacts on ecosystem carbon stocks.

    Treesearch

    John B. Bradford; Nicholas R. Jensen; Grant M. Domke; Anthony W. D' Amato

    2013-01-01

    Forested ecosystems contain the majority of the world’s terrestrial carbon, and forest management has implications for regional and global carbon cycling. Carbon stored in forests changes with stand age and is affected by natural disturbance and timber harvesting. We examined how harvesting and disturbance interact to influence forest carbon stocks over the Superior...

  16. Impact of cloudiness on net ecosystem exchange of carbon dioxide in different types of forest ecosystems in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, M.; Yu, G.-R.; Zhang, L.-M.; Sun, X.-M.; Wen, X.-F.; Han, S.-J.; Yan, J.-H.

    2009-08-01

    Clouds can significantly affect carbon uptake of forest ecosystems by affecting incoming solar radiation on the ground, temperature and other environmental factors. In this study, we analyzed the effects of cloudiness on the net ecosystem exchange of carbon dioxide (NEE) of a temperate broad-leaved Korean pine mixed forest at Changbaishan (CBS) and a subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest at Dinghushan (DHS) of ChinaFLUX, based on the flux data obtained during June-August from 2003 to 2006. The results showed that the response of the NEE of forest ecosystem to photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) was different under clear sky and cloudy sky conditions, and this difference was not consistent between CBS and DHS. Compared with clear skies, light-saturated maximum photosynthetic rate (Pec,max) of CBS during mid-growing season (from June to August) was respectively enhanced by 34%, 25%, 4% and 11% on cloudy skies in 2003, 2004, 2005 and 2006; however, Pec,max of DHS was higher under clear skies than under cloudy skies from 2004 to 2006. NEE of forests at CBS reached its maximum when the clearness index (kt) was between 0.4 and 0.6, and the NEE decreased obviously when kt exceeded 0.6. Compare with CBS, although NEE of forest at DHS tended to the maximum when kt varied between 0.4 and 0.6, the NEE did not decrease noticeably when kt exceeded 0.6. The results indicated that cloudy sky conditions were more beneficial to carbon uptake for the temperate forest ecosystem rather than for the subtropical forest ecosystem. This is due to the fact that the non-saturating light conditions and increase of diffuse radiation were more beneficial to photosynthesis, and the reduced temperature was more conducive to decreasing the ecosystem respiration in temperate forest ecosystems under cloudy sky conditions. This phenomenon is important to evaluate carbon uptake of temperate forests under climate change conditions.

  17. Soil Organic Matter in Forest Ecosystems of the Forest-tundra zone of Central Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhortova, Liudmila

    2010-05-01

    Our study was conducted on 17 forest sample plots in the forest-tundra zone of Central Siberia, Krasnoyarsk region, Russia. They were covered by larch/feather moss/shrub and larch/grass forest types growing on cryozems and podburs (Cryosols). The investigation was aimed at estimating soil organic matter storage and structure in forest ecosystems growing along the northern tree line. Such ecosystems have low rates of exchange processes and biological productivity. Estimating soil carbon in these forest types is important for a deeper understanding of their role in biogeochemical cycles and forecasting consequences of climate changes. Soil organic matter was divided into pools by biodegradation resistance level and, hence, different roles of these pools in biological cycles. The soil organic matter was divided into an easily mineralizable (LMOM) fraction, which includes labile (insoluble) (LOM) and mobile (soluble) (MOM) organic compounds, and a stable organic matter fraction that is humus substances bound with soil matrix. The forest-tundra soil carbon was found to total 30.9 to 125.9 tons/ha. Plant residues were the main part of the soil easily mineralizable organic matter and contained from 13.3 to 62.4% of this carbon. Plant residue carbon was mainly allocated on the soil surface, in the forest litter. Plant residues in the soil (dead roots + other "mortmass") were calculated to contribute 10-30% of the plant residues carbon, or 2.5-15.1% of the total soil carbon. Soil surface and in-soil dead plant material included 60-95% of heavily decomposed residues that made up a forest litter fermentation subhorizon and an "other mortmass" fraction of the root detritus. Mobile organic matter (substances dissolved in water and 0.1N NaOH) of plant residues was found to allocate 15-25% of carbon. In soil humus, MOM contribution ranged 14 to 64%. Easily mineralizable organic matter carbon appeared to generally dominate forest-tundra soil carbon pool. It was measured to

  18. Radar remote sensing of forest and wetland ecosystems in the Central American tropics

    SciTech Connect

    Pope, K.O.; Rey-Benayas, J.M. ); Paris, J.F. . Dept. of Biology)

    1994-05-01

    The authors analyzed airborne synthetic aperture radar (AIRSAR) imagery of forest, wetland, and agricultural ecosystems in northern Belize, Central America. The analyses are based upon four biophysical Indices derived from the fully polarimetric SAR data: the volume scattering index (VSI), canopy structure index (CSI), biomass index (BMI), calculated from the backscatter magnitude data, and the interaction type index (ITI), calculated from the backscatter phase data. The authors developed a four-level landscape hierarchy based upon clustering analyses of the 12 index parameters from two test site images. Statistical analyses were used to examine the relative importance of the 12 parameters for discriminating ecosystem characteristics at various landscape scales. The authors found that ITI was the most important index (primarily C band = CITI) for level, vegetated terrain at all levels of the hierarchy. BMI was most important for differentiating between vegetated and nonvegetated areas and between sloping and level terrain. These findings indicate that upper canopy spatial characteristics and flooding in marshlands are more important than biomass in differentiating many tropical ecosystems with radar data. The relative importance of the indices varied with vegetation type; for example, PVSI was the most important for distinguishing between upland forests and regrowth, and PCSI was the most important for differentiating swamp forest types. Finally, the authors evaluated the potential of present and future spaceborne SARs for tropical ecosystem studies based on the results. Most of these SARs are single channel system and will provide limited capability for characterizing biomass and structure of tropical vegetation. The SIR-C/X-SAR and proposed EOS SAR are future spaceborne multifrequency fully polarimetric SAR systems, and they will provide a significant contribution to tropical ecosystem studies.

  19. The role of forest floor and trees to the ecosystem scale methane budget of boreal forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pihlatie, Mari; Halmeenmäki, Elisa; Peltola, Olli; Haikarainen, Iikka; Heinonsalo, Jussi; Santalahti, Minna; Putkinen, Anuliina; Fritze, Hannu; Urban, Otmar; Machacova, Katerina

    2016-04-01

    Boreal forests are considered as a sink of atmospheric methane (CH4) due to the activity of CH4 oxidizing bacteria (methanotrophs) in the soil. This soil CH4 sink is especially strong for upland forest soils, whereas forests growing on organic soils may act as small sources due to the domination of CH4 production by methanogens in the anaerobic parts of the soil. The role of trees to the ecosystem-scale CH4 fluxes has until recently been neglected due to the perception that trees do not contribute to the CH4 exchange, and also due to difficulties in measuring the CH4 exchange from trees. Findings of aerobic CH4 formation in plants and emissions from tree-stems in temperate and tropical forests during the past decade demonstrate that our understanding of CH4 cycling in forest ecosystems is not complete. Especially the role of forest canopies still remain unresolved, and very little is known of CH4 fluxes from trees in boreal region. We measured the CH4 exchange of tree-stems and tree-canopies from pine (Pinus sylvestris), spruce (Picea abies) and birch (Betula pubescens, Betula pendula) trees growing in Southern Finland (SMEAR II station) on varying soil conditions, from upland mineral soils to paludified soil. We compared the CH4 fluxes from trees to forest-floor CH4 exchange, both measured by static chambers, and to CH4 fluxes measured above the forest canopy by a flux gradient technique. We link the CH4 fluxes from trees and forest floor to physiological activity of the trees, such as transpiration, sap-flow, CO2 net ecosystem exchange (NEE), soil properties such as temperature and moisture, and to the presence of CH4 producing methanogens and CH4 oxidizing methanotrophs in trees or soil. The above canopy CH4 flux measurements show that the whole forest ecosystem was a small source of CH4 over extended periods in the spring and summer 2012, 2014 and 2015. Throughout the 2013-2014 measurements, the forest floor was in total a net sink of CH4, with variation

  20. Managing forests as ecosystems: A success story or a challenge ahead?

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, V.H.

    1997-10-01

    To manage forests as ecosystems, the many values they hold for different users must be recognized, and they must be used so that those assets are not destroyed. Important ecosystem features of forests include nutrient cycling, habitat, succession, and water quality. Over time, the ways in which humans value forests have changed as forest uses have altered and as forests have declined in size and quality. Both ecosystem science and forest ecology have developed approaches that are useful to manage forests to retain their value. A historical perspective shows how changes in ecology, legislation, and technology have resulted in modern forest-management practices. However, current forest practices are still a decade or so behind current ecosystem science. Ecologists have done a good job of transferring their theories and approaches to the forest manager classroom but have done a poor job of translating these concepts into practice. Thus, the future for ecosystem management requires a closer linkage between ecologists and other disciplines. For example, the changing ways in which humans value forests are the primary determinant of forest-management policies. Therefore, if ecologists are to understand how ecosystem science can influence these policies, they must work closely with social scientists trained to assess human values.

  1. 76 FR 58240 - Modoc National Forest, Alturas, CA, Supplemental Information for the Final Environmental Impact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-20

    ... Forest Service Modoc National Forest, Alturas, CA, Supplemental Information for the Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) Motorized Travel Management AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of intent to supplement the Modoc National Forest Motorized Travel Management Final Environmental Impact...

  2. Forest fragmentation and selective logging have inconsistent effects on multiple animal-mediated ecosystem processes in a tropical forest.

    PubMed

    Schleuning, Matthias; Farwig, Nina; Peters, Marcell K; Bergsdorf, Thomas; Bleher, Bärbel; Brandl, Roland; Dalitz, Helmut; Fischer, Georg; Freund, Wolfram; Gikungu, Mary W; Hagen, Melanie; Garcia, Francisco Hita; Kagezi, Godfrey H; Kaib, Manfred; Kraemer, Manfred; Lung, Tobias; Naumann, Clas M; Schaab, Gertrud; Templin, Mathias; Uster, Dana; Wägele, J Wolfgang; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin

    2011-01-01

    Forest fragmentation and selective logging are two main drivers of global environmental change and modify biodiversity and environmental conditions in many tropical forests. The consequences of these changes for the functioning of tropical forest ecosystems have rarely been explored in a comprehensive approach. In a Kenyan rainforest, we studied six animal-mediated ecosystem processes and recorded species richness and community composition of all animal taxa involved in these processes. We used linear models and a formal meta-analysis to test whether forest fragmentation and selective logging affected ecosystem processes and biodiversity and used structural equation models to disentangle direct from biodiversity-related indirect effects of human disturbance on multiple ecosystem processes. Fragmentation increased decomposition and reduced antbird predation, while selective logging consistently increased pollination, seed dispersal and army-ant raiding. Fragmentation modified species richness or community composition of five taxa, whereas selective logging did not affect any component of biodiversity. Changes in the abundance of functionally important species were related to lower predation by antbirds and higher decomposition rates in small forest fragments. The positive effects of selective logging on bee pollination, bird seed dispersal and army-ant raiding were direct, i.e. not related to changes in biodiversity, and were probably due to behavioural changes of these highly mobile animal taxa. We conclude that animal-mediated ecosystem processes respond in distinct ways to different types of human disturbance in Kakamega Forest. Our findings suggest that forest fragmentation affects ecosystem processes indirectly by changes in biodiversity, whereas selective logging influences processes directly by modifying local environmental conditions and resource distributions. The positive to neutral effects of selective logging on ecosystem processes show that the

  3. Forest Fragmentation and Selective Logging Have Inconsistent Effects on Multiple Animal-Mediated Ecosystem Processes in a Tropical Forest

    PubMed Central

    Schleuning, Matthias; Farwig, Nina; Peters, Marcell K.; Bergsdorf, Thomas; Bleher, Bärbel; Brandl, Roland; Dalitz, Helmut; Fischer, Georg; Freund, Wolfram; Gikungu, Mary W.; Hagen, Melanie; Garcia, Francisco Hita; Kagezi, Godfrey H.; Kaib, Manfred; Kraemer, Manfred; Lung, Tobias; Schaab, Gertrud; Templin, Mathias; Uster, Dana; Wägele, J. Wolfgang; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin

    2011-01-01

    Forest fragmentation and selective logging are two main drivers of global environmental change and modify biodiversity and environmental conditions in many tropical forests. The consequences of these changes for the functioning of tropical forest ecosystems have rarely been explored in a comprehensive approach. In a Kenyan rainforest, we studied six animal-mediated ecosystem processes and recorded species richness and community composition of all animal taxa involved in these processes. We used linear models and a formal meta-analysis to test whether forest fragmentation and selective logging affected ecosystem processes and biodiversity and used structural equation models to disentangle direct from biodiversity-related indirect effects of human disturbance on multiple ecosystem processes. Fragmentation increased decomposition and reduced antbird predation, while selective logging consistently increased pollination, seed dispersal and army-ant raiding. Fragmentation modified species richness or community composition of five taxa, whereas selective logging did not affect any component of biodiversity. Changes in the abundance of functionally important species were related to lower predation by antbirds and higher decomposition rates in small forest fragments. The positive effects of selective logging on bee pollination, bird seed dispersal and army-ant raiding were direct, i.e. not related to changes in biodiversity, and were probably due to behavioural changes of these highly mobile animal taxa. We conclude that animal-mediated ecosystem processes respond in distinct ways to different types of human disturbance in Kakamega Forest. Our findings suggest that forest fragmentation affects ecosystem processes indirectly by changes in biodiversity, whereas selective logging influences processes directly by modifying local environmental conditions and resource distributions. The positive to neutral effects of selective logging on ecosystem processes show that the

  4. Central Appalachians forest ecosystem vulnerability assessment and synthesis: a report from the Central Appalachians Climate Change Response Framework project

    Treesearch

    Patricia R. Butler; Louis Iverson; Frank R. Thompson; Leslie Brandt; Stephen Handler; Maria Janowiak; P. Danielle Shannon; Chris Swanston; Kent Karriker; Jarel Bartig; Stephanie Connolly; William Dijak; Scott Bearer; Steve Blatt; Andrea Brandon; Elizabeth Byers; Cheryl Coon; Tim Culbreth; Jad Daly; Wade Dorsey; David Ede; Chris Euler; Neil Gillies; David M. Hix; Catherine Johnson; Latasha Lyte; Stephen Matthews; Dawn McCarthy; Dave Minney; Daniel Murphy; Claire O’Dea; Rachel Orwan; Matthew Peters; Anantha Prasad; Cotton Randall; Jason Reed; Cynthia Sandeno; Tom Schuler; Lesley Sneddon; Bill Stanley; Al Steele; Susan Stout; Randy Swaty; Jason Teets; Tim Tomon; Jim Vanderhorst; John Whatley; Nicholas. Zegre

    2015-01-01

    Forest ecosystems in the Central Appalachians will be affected directly and indirectly by a changing climate over the 21st century. This assessment evaluates the vulnerability of forest ecosystems in the Central Appalachian Broadleaf Forest-Coniferous Forest-Meadow and Eastern Broadleaf Forest Provinces of Ohio, West Virginia, and Maryland for a range of future...

  5. Combining paleoecology and ecosystem modeling to study forest ecosystem consequences of wildfires from decades to millennia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higuera, P. E.; Hudiburg, T. W.; Hicke, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    Forest disturbances strongly regulate ecosystem structure and function, including vegetation composition, nutrient cycling, and energy flow. In ecosystems where disturbance is historically prevalent, vegetation and biogeochemical properties typically return to pre-disturbance conditions on time scales of years to decades. The biogeochemical impacts of changing disturbance regimes, however, are less well understood. Changing disturbance regimes may potentially impact ecosystem processes for centuries to millennia and alter global C and N balance. We combine a paleoecological record of fire and biogeochemical change with ecosystem modeling to test the hypothesis that variability in the timing and severity of wildfires has long-lasting impacts on biogeochemical processes in a subalpine forest in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado. We used an existing 4000-yr, high-resolution record of fire history (Fig. 1A) to drive the DayCent ecosystem model under two scenarios: (a) standard initialization where fire is repeated according to literature-estimated mean fire return intervals, and (b) paleo-informed scenario to dictate the timing of high-severity and non-high-severity fires. We compare the results to a suite of biogeochemical proxies from the same paleo record and draw inferences based on the two model scenarios. When driven by the standard initialization, ecosystem properties of soil carbon, nitrogen, and net primary productivity (NPP) are relatively stable over the 4000-year period. In contrast, when driven with the paleo-informed disturbance history, soil C and N stocks and NPP undergo millennial-scale directional changes, similar in timing to some biogeochemical proxies from the paleo record (Fig. 1). In the model, these changes are due to a reduced frequency of high-severity fires after c. 2500 yr BP. Adding climate variability to this simulation is the next step for inferring potential mechanisms responsible for the millennial-scale trends observed in the

  6. Overlaps among phenological phases in flood plain forest ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartošová, Lenka; Bauer, Zdeněk; Trnka, Miroslav; Možný, Martin; Štěpánek, Petr; Žalud, Zdeněk

    2015-04-01

    There is a growing concern that climate change has significant impacts on species phenology, seasonal population dynamics, and thus interaction (a)synchrony between species. Species that have historically undergone life history events on the same seasonal calendar may lose synchrony and therefore lose the ability to interact as they have in the past. In view of the match/mismatch hypothesis, the different extents or directions of the phenological shifts among interacting species may have significant implications for community structure and dynamics. That's why our principal goal of the study is to determine the phenological responses within the ecosystem of flood plain forest and analyzed the phenological overlapping among each phenological periods of given species. The phenological observations were done at flood-plain forest experimental site during the period 1961-2012. The whole ecosystem in this study create 17 species (15 plants and 2 bird species) and each species is composed of 2 phenological phases. Phenological periods of all species of ecosystem overlap each other and 43 of these overlapping were chosen and the length, trend and correlation with temperature were elaborated. The analysis of phenophases overlapping of chosen species showed that the length of overlay is getting significantly shorter in 1 case. On the other hand the situation when the length of overlaps is getting significantly longer arose in 4 cases. Remaining overlaps (38) of all phenological periods among various species is getting shorter or longer but with no significance or have not changed anyhow. This study was funded by project "Building up a multidisciplinary scientific team focused on drought" No. CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0248. and of projects no. LD13030 supporting participation of the Czech Republic in the COST action ES1106.

  7. Assessing the ecosystem service potential of Tucson AZ's urban forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavao-Zuckerman, M.

    2011-12-01

    canopy photos) to asses growth of the trees in the urban environment. These growth rates, and associated ecosystem services (C-sequestration, energy savings, pollution mitigation, etc.) are evaluated using US Forest Service models (Tree Carbon Calculator and i-tree software) to determine how the performance of trees in the Tucson urban environment perform vs. model predictions. We hypothesize that the models overestimate tree performance as Tucson differs in water availability relative to the cities the model was parameterized in (e.g. Glendale), both in terms of soil water holding capacities and also city "water culture." This preliminary study will provide a data collection framework for a citizen science urban forestry project which will provide data to improve environmental decision making related to the interaction of plants, water, and energy balance in this arid city.

  8. Storm Effects on Net Ecosystem Productivity in Boreal Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vestin, Patrik; Grelle, Achim; Lagergren, Fredrik; Hellström, Margareta; Langvall, Ola; Lindroth, Anders

    2010-05-01

    Regional carbon budgets are to some extent determined by disturbance in ecosystems. Disturbance is believed to be partly responsible for the large inter-annual variability of the terrestrial carbon balance. When neglecting anthropogenic disturbance, forest fires have been considered the most important kind of disturbance. However, also insect outbreaks and wind-throw may be major factors in regional carbon budgets. The effects of wind-throw on CO2 fluxes in boreal forests are not well known due to lack of data. Principally, the reduced carbon sequestration capacity, increased substrate availability and severe soil perturbation following wind-throw are expected to result in increased CO2 fluxes from the forest to the atmosphere. In January 2005, the storm Gudrun hit Sweden, which resulted in approx. 66 × 106m3storm-felled stem wood distributed over an area of approx. 272 000 ha. Eddy covariance flux measurements started at storm-felled areas in Asa and Toftaholm in central Sweden during summer 2005. Data from the first months suggests increased CO2 fluxes by a factor of 2.5-10, as compared to normal silviculture (clear-cutting). An important question is how long such enhanced CO2 fluxes persist. The BIOME-BGC model will be calibrated against measured CO2 fluxes from both sites for 2005 through 2009. Modeled data will be used to fill gaps in the data sets and annual carbon balances will be calculated. Data from Asa and Toftaholm will be presented at the conference.

  9. Riparian forests buffer panel final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    The Chesapeake Executive Council adopted Directive 94-1 which called upon the Chesapeake Bay Program to develop a set of goals and actions to increase the focus on riparian stewardship and enhance efforts to conserve and restore riparian forest buffers. The Council appointed a panel to recommend a set of policies, recommend an accepted definition of forest buffers, and suggest quantifiable goals. The Panel was a diverse group of thirty-one members, comprised of federal, state, and local government representatives, scientists, land managers, citizens, and farming, development, forest industry, and environmental interests. This report contains our principal findings and recommendations.

  10. FOREST ECOLOGY. Pervasive drought legacies in forest ecosystems and their implications for carbon cycle models.

    PubMed

    Anderegg, W R L; Schwalm, C; Biondi, F; Camarero, J J; Koch, G; Litvak, M; Ogle, K; Shaw, J D; Shevliakova, E; Williams, A P; Wolf, A; Ziaco, E; Pacala, S

    2015-07-31

    The impacts of climate extremes on terrestrial ecosystems are poorly understood but important for predicting carbon cycle feedbacks to climate change. Coupled climate-carbon cycle models typically assume that vegetation recovery from extreme drought is immediate and complete, which conflicts with the understanding of basic plant physiology. We examined the recovery of stem growth in trees after severe drought at 1338 forest sites across the globe, comprising 49,339 site-years, and compared the results with simulated recovery in climate-vegetation models. We found pervasive and substantial "legacy effects" of reduced growth and incomplete recovery for 1 to 4 years after severe drought. Legacy effects were most prevalent in dry ecosystems, among Pinaceae, and among species with low hydraulic safety margins. In contrast, limited or no legacy effects after drought were simulated by current climate-vegetation models. Our results highlight hysteresis in ecosystem-level carbon cycling and delayed recovery from climate extremes.

  11. Using DCOM to support interoperability in forest ecosystem management decision support systems

    Treesearch

    W.D. Potter; S. Liu; X. Deng; H.M. Rauscher

    2000-01-01

    Forest ecosystems exhibit complex dynamics over time and space. Management of forest ecosystems involves the need to forecast future states of complex systems that are often undergoing structural changes. This in turn requires integration of quantitative science and engineering components with sociopolitical, regulatory, and economic considerations. The amount of data...

  12. Loss of foundation species: consequences for the structure and dynamics of forested ecosystems

    Treesearch

    Aaron M. Ellison; Michael S. Bank; Barton D. Clinton; Elizabeth A. Colburn; Katherine Elliott; Chelcy Rae Ford; David R. Foster; Brian D. Kloeppel; Jennifer D. Knoepp; Gary M. Lovett; Jacqueline Mohan; David A. Orwig; Nicholas L. Rodenhouse; William V. Sobczak; Kristina A. Stinson; Jeffrey K. Stone; Christopher M. Swan; Jill Thompson; Betsy Von Holle; Jackson R. Webster

    2005-01-01

    In many forested ecosystems, the architecture and functional ecology of certain tree species define forest structure and their species-specific traits control ecosystem dynamics. Such foundation tree species are declining throughout the world due to introductions and outbreaks of pests and pathogens, selective removal of individual taxa, and over-harvesting. Through a...

  13. The encyclopedia of southern Appalachian forest ecosystems: A prototype of an online scientific knowledge management system

    Treesearch

    Deborah K. Kennard; H. Michael Rauscher; Patricia A. Flebbe; Daniel L. Schmoldt; William G. Hubbard; J. Bryan Jordin; William Milnor

    2003-01-01

    The Encyclopedia of Southern Appalachian Forest Ecosystems (ESAFE), a hyperdocument-based encyclopedia system available on the Internet, provides an organized synthesis of existing research on the management and ecology of Southern Appalachian forests ecosystems. The encyclopedia is dynamic, so that new or revised content can be submitted directly through the Internet...

  14. Linking an ecosystem model and a landscape model to study forest species response to climate warming

    Treesearch

    Hong S. He; David J. Mladenoff; Thomas R. Crow

    1999-01-01

    No single model can address forest change from single tree to regional scales. We discuss a framework linking an ecosystem process model {LINKAGES) with a spatial landscape model (LANDIS) to examine forest species responses to climate warming for a large, heterogeneous landscape in northern Wisconsin, USA. Individual species response at the ecosystem scale was...

  15. Forest reference conditions for ecosystem management in the Sacramento Mountains, New Mexico

    Treesearch

    M. R. Kaufmann; L. S. Huckaby; C. M. Regan; J. Popp

    1998-01-01

    We present the history of land use and historic vegetation conditions on the Sacramento Ranger District of the Lincoln National Forest within the framework of an ecosystem needs assessment. We reconstruct forest vegetation conditions and ecosystem processes for the period immediately before Anglo-American settlement using General Land Office survey records, historic...

  16. Managing forest ecosystems to conserve fungus diversity and sustain wild mushroom harvests.

    Treesearch

    D. Pilz; R. Molina

    1996-01-01

    Ecosystem management is the dominant paradigm for managing the forests of the Pacific Northwest. It integrates biological, ecological, geophysical, and silvicultural information to develop adaptive management practices that conserve biological diversity and maintain ecosystem functioning while meeting human needs for the sustainable production of forest products. Fungi...

  17. Scaling ozone responses of forest trees to the ecosystem level in a changing climate

    Treesearch

    D.F. Karnosky; K.S. Pregitzer; D.R. Zak; M.E. Kubiske; G.R. Hendrey; D. Weinstein; M. Nosal; K.E. Percy

    2005-01-01

    Many uncertainties remain regarding how climate change will alter the structure and function of forest ecosystems. At the Aspen FACE experiment in northern Wisconsin, we are attempting to understand how an aspen/birch/maple forest ecosystem responds to long-term exposure to elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) and ozone (O3),...

  18. Calcium inputs and transport in a base-poor forest ecosystem as interpreted by Sr isotopes

    Treesearch

    Scott W. Bailey; James W. Hornbeck; Charles T. Driscoll; Henri E. Gaudette

    1996-01-01

    Depletion of Ca in forests and its effects on forest health are poorly quantified. Depletion has been difficult to document due to limitations in determining rates at which Ca becomes available for ecosystem processes through weathering, and difficulty in determining changes in ecosystem storage. We coupled a detailed analysis of Sr isotopic composition with a mass...

  19. Ecological and geochemical impacts of exotic earthworm dispersal in forest ecosystems of Eastern Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drouin, Melanie; Fugere, Martine; Lapointe, Line; Vellend, Mark; Bradley, Robert L.

    2016-04-01

    In Eastern Canada, native earthworm species did not survive the Wisconsin glaciation, which ended over 11,000 years ago. Accordingly, the 17 known Lumbricidae species in the province of Québec were introduced in recent centuries by European settlers. Given that natural migration rates are no more than 5-10 m yr-1, exotic earthworm dispersal across the landscape is presumed to be mediated by human activities, although this assertion needs further validation. In agroecosystems, earthworms have traditionally been considered beneficial soil organisms that facilitate litter decomposition, increase nutrient availability and improve soil structure. However, earthworm activities could also increase soil nutrient leaching and CO2 emissions. Furthermore, in natural forest ecosystems, exotic earthworms may reduce organic forest floors provoking changes in watershed hydrology and loss of habitat for some faunal species. Over the past decade, studies have also suggested a negative effect of exotic earthworms on understory plant diversity, but the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Finally, there are no studies to our knowledge that have tested the effects of Lumbricidae species on the production of N2O (an important greenhouse gas) in forest ecosystems. We report on a series of field, greenhouse and laboratory studies on the human activities responsible for the dispersal of exotic earthworms, and on their ecological / geochemical impacts in natural forest ecosystems. Our results show: (1) Car tire treads and bait discarded by fishermen are important human vectors driving the dispersal of earthworms into northern temperate forests; (2) Exotic earthworms significantly modify soil physicochemical properties, nutrient cycling, microbial community structure and biomass; (3) Earthworm abundances in the field correlate with a decrease in understory plant diversity; (4) Lumbricus terrestris, an anecic earthworm species and favorite bait of fishermen, reduces seed germination and

  20. Carbon account of forest ecosystems as a fuzzy system: a case study for Northern Eurasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shvidenko, A.; Shchepashchenko, D.; Kraxner, F.; Maksyutov, S. S.

    2015-12-01

    We consider practicality of a verified account of Net Ecosystem Carbon Budget for forest ecosystems (FCA) that supposes reliable assessment of uncertainties, i.e. understanding "uncertainty of uncertainties". The FCA is a fuzzy (underspecified) system, of which membership function is inherently stochastic. Thus, any individually used method of FCA is not able to estimate structural uncertainties and usually reported "within method" uncertainties are inevitably partial. Attempting at estimation of "full uncertainties" of the studied system we follow the requirements of applied systems analysis integrating the major methods of terrestrial ecosystems carbon account, assessing the uncertainties "within method" for intermediate and final indicators of FCA with their following mutual constrains. Landscape-ecosystem approach (LEA) 1) serves for strict systems designing the account, 2) contains all relevant spatially distributed empirical and semi-empirical data and models, and 3) is presented in form of an Integrated Land Information System (ILIS). By-pixel parametrization of forest cover is provided by utilizing multi-sensor remote sensing data (12 RS products used) within GEO-wiki platform and other relevant information based on special optimization algorithms. Major carbon fluxes within the LEA (NPP, HR, disturbances etc.) are estimated based on fusion of empirical data with process-based elements by sets of regionally distributed models. Uncertainties within LEA are assessed for each module and at each step of the account. "Within method" results and uncertainties (including LEA, process-based models, eddy covariance, and inverse modelling) are harmonized based on the Bayesian approach. The above methodology have been applied to carbon account of Russian forests for 2000-2010; uncertainties of the FCA for individual years were estimated in limits of 25%. We discussed strengths and weaknesses of the approach, system requirements to different methods of FCA, information

  1. Passive nighttime warming facility for forest ecosystem research.

    PubMed

    Luxmoore, R. J.; Hanson, P. J.; Beauchamp, J. J.; Joslin, J. D.

    1998-01-01

    A nighttime warming experiment is proposed. Over the last four decades a significant rise in nighttime minimum temperature has been determined from analysis of meteorological records from a global distribution of locations. The experiment involves nighttime deployment of infrared (IR) reflecting curtains around four sides of a forest canopy and across the top of the forest to mimic the top-down warming effect of cloud cover. The curtains are deployed with cable and pulley systems mounted on a tower and scaffolding structure built around the selected forest site. The trunk space is not enclosed except as an optional manipulation. The curtains reflect long-wave radiation emitted from the forest and ground back into the forest warming the trees, litter, and soil. Excellent infrared reflection can be obtained with commercially available fabrics that have aluminum foil bonded to one side. A canopy warming of 3 to 5 degrees C is expected on cloudless nights, and on cloudy nights, a warming of 1 to 3 degrees C is anticipated relative to a control plot. The curtains are withdrawn by computer control during the day and also at night during periods with precipitation or excessive wind. Examples of hypothesized ecosystem responses to nighttime warming include: (1) increase in tree maintenance respiration (decreasing carbon reserves and ultimately tree growth), (2) increase in the length of the growing season (increasing growth), (3) increase in soil respiration, (4) increase in litter decomposition, (5) increase in mineralization of N and other nutrients from soil organic matter, (6) increase in nutrient uptake (increasing growth), and (7) increase in N immobilization in litter. Hypothesis 1 has the opposite consequence for tree growth to Hypotheses 2 and 6, and thus opposite consequences for the feedback regulation that vegetation has on net greenhouse gas releases to the atmosphere. If Hypothesis 1 is dominant, warming could lead to more warming from the additional CO(2

  2. Herbivory makes major contributions to ecosystem carbon and nutrient cycling in tropical forests.

    PubMed

    Metcalfe, Daniel B; Asner, Gregory P; Martin, Roberta E; Silva Espejo, Javier E; Huasco, Walter Huaraca; Farfán Amézquita, Felix F; Carranza-Jimenez, Loreli; Galiano Cabrera, Darcy F; Baca, Liliana Durand; Sinca, Felipe; Huaraca Quispe, Lidia P; Taype, Ivonne Alzamora; Mora, Luzmila Eguiluz; Dávila, Angela Rozas; Solórzano, Marlene Mamani; Puma Vilca, Beisit L; Laupa Román, Judith M; Guerra Bustios, Patricia C; Revilla, Norma Salinas; Tupayachi, Raul; Girardin, Cécile A J; Doughty, Christopher E; Malhi, Yadvinder

    2014-03-01

    The functional role of herbivores in tropical rainforests remains poorly understood. We quantified the magnitude of, and underlying controls on, carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus cycled by invertebrate herbivory along a 2800 m elevational gradient in the tropical Andes spanning 12°C mean annual temperature. We find, firstly, that leaf area loss is greater at warmer sites with lower foliar phosphorus, and secondly, that the estimated herbivore-mediated flux of foliar nitrogen and phosphorus from plants to soil via leaf area loss is similar to, or greater than, other major sources of these nutrients in tropical forests. Finally, we estimate that herbivores consume a significant portion of plant carbon, potentially causing major shifts in the pattern of plant and soil carbon cycling. We conclude that future shifts in herbivore abundance and activity as a result of environmental change could have major impacts on soil fertility and ecosystem carbon sequestration in tropical forests.

  3. Significant Increase in Ecosystem C Can Be Achieved with Sustainable Forest Management in Subtropical Plantation Forests

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xiaohua; Blanco, Juan A.

    2014-01-01

    Subtropical planted forests are rapidly expanding. They are traditionally managed for intensive, short-term goals that often lead to long-term yield decline and reduced carbon sequestration capacity. Here we show how it is possible to increase and sustain carbon stored in subtropical forest plantations if management is switched towards more sustainable forestry. We first conducted a literature review to explore possible management factors that contribute to the potentials in ecosystem C in tropical and subtropical plantations. We found that broadleaves plantations have significantly higher ecosystem C than conifer plantations. In addition, ecosystem C increases with plantation age, and reaches a peak with intermediate stand densities of 1500–2500 trees ha−1. We then used the FORECAST model to simulate the regional implications of switching from traditional to sustainable management regimes, using Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) plantations in subtropical China as a study case. We randomly simulated 200 traditional short-rotation pure stands and 200 sustainably-managed mixed Chinese fir – Phoebe bournei plantations, for 120 years. Our results showed that mixed, sustainably-managed plantations have on average 67.5% more ecosystem C than traditional pure conifer plantations. If all pure plantations were gradually transformed into mixed plantations during the next 10 years, carbon stocks could rise in 2050 by 260.22 TgC in east-central China. Assuming similar differences for temperate and boreal plantations, if sustainable forestry practices were applied to all new forest plantation types in China, stored carbon could increase by 1,482.80 TgC in 2050. Such an increase would be equivalent to a yearly sequestration rate of 40.08 TgC yr−1, offsetting 1.9% of China’s annual emissions in 2010. More importantly, this C increase can be sustained in the long term through the maintenance of higher amounts of soil organic carbon and the production of timber

  4. Significant increase in ecosystem C can be achieved with sustainable forest management in subtropical plantation forests.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiaohua; Blanco, Juan A

    2014-01-01

    Subtropical planted forests are rapidly expanding. They are traditionally managed for intensive, short-term goals that often lead to long-term yield decline and reduced carbon sequestration capacity. Here we show how it is possible to increase and sustain carbon stored in subtropical forest plantations if management is switched towards more sustainable forestry. We first conducted a literature review to explore possible management factors that contribute to the potentials in ecosystem C in tropical and subtropical plantations. We found that broadleaves plantations have significantly higher ecosystem C than conifer plantations. In addition, ecosystem C increases with plantation age, and reaches a peak with intermediate stand densities of 1500-2500 trees ha⁻¹. We then used the FORECAST model to simulate the regional implications of switching from traditional to sustainable management regimes, using Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) plantations in subtropical China as a study case. We randomly simulated 200 traditional short-rotation pure stands and 200 sustainably-managed mixed Chinese fir--Phoebe bournei plantations, for 120 years. Our results showed that mixed, sustainably-managed plantations have on average 67.5% more ecosystem C than traditional pure conifer plantations. If all pure plantations were gradually transformed into mixed plantations during the next 10 years, carbon stocks could rise in 2050 by 260.22 TgC in east-central China. Assuming similar differences for temperate and boreal plantations, if sustainable forestry practices were applied to all new forest plantation types in China, stored carbon could increase by 1,482.80 TgC in 2050. Such an increase would be equivalent to a yearly sequestration rate of 40.08 TgC yr⁻¹, offsetting 1.9% of China's annual emissions in 2010. More importantly, this C increase can be sustained in the long term through the maintenance of higher amounts of soil organic carbon and the production of timber products

  5. Sinks for inorganic nitrogen deposition in forest ecosystems with low and high nitrogen deposition in China.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Wenping; Yu, Guirui; Fang, Huajun; Jiang, Chunming; Yan, Junhua; Zhou, Mei

    2014-01-01

    We added the stable isotope (15)N in the form of ((15)NH4)2SO4 and K(15)NO3 to forest ecosystems in eastern China under two different N deposition levels to study the fate of the different forms of deposited N. Prior to the addition of the (15)N tracers, the natural (15)N abundance ranging from -3.4‰ to +10.9‰ in the forest under heavy N deposition at Dinghushan (DHS), and from -3.92‰ to +7.25‰ in the forest under light N deposition at Daxinganling (DXAL). Four months after the tracer application, the total (15)N recovery from the major ecosystem compartments ranged from 55.3% to 90.5%. The total (15)N recoveries were similar under the ((15)NH4)2SO4 tracer treatment in both two forest ecosystems, whereas the total (15)N recovery was significantly lower in the subtropical forest ecosystem at DHS than in the boreal forest ecosystem at DXAL under the K(15)NO3 tracer treatment. The (15)N assimilated into the tree biomass represented only 8.8% to 33.7% of the (15)N added to the forest ecosystems. In both of the tracer application treatments, more (15)N was recovered from the tree biomass in the subtropical forest ecosystem at DHS than the boreal forest ecosystem at DXAL. The amount of (15)N assimilated into tree biomass was greater under the K(15)NO3 tracer treatment than that of the ((15)NH4)2SO4 treatment in both forest ecosystems. This study suggests that, although less N was immobilized in the forest ecosystems under more intensive N deposition conditions, forest ecosystems in China strongly retain N deposition, even in areas under heavy N deposition intensity or in ecosystems undergoing spring freezing and thawing melts. Compared to ammonium deposition, deposited nitrate is released from the forest ecosystem more easily. However, nitrate deposition could be retained mostly in the plant N pool, which might lead to more C sequestration in these ecosystems.

  6. Sinks for Inorganic Nitrogen Deposition in Forest Ecosystems with Low and High Nitrogen Deposition in China

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Wenping; Yu, Guirui; Fang, Huajun; Jiang, Chunming; Yan, Junhua; Zhou, Mei

    2014-01-01

    We added the stable isotope 15N in the form of (15NH4)2SO4 and K15NO3 to forest ecosystems in eastern China under two different N deposition levels to study the fate of the different forms of deposited N. Prior to the addition of the 15N tracers, the natural 15N abundance ranging from −3.4‰ to +10.9‰ in the forest under heavy N deposition at Dinghushan (DHS), and from −3.92‰ to +7.25‰ in the forest under light N deposition at Daxinganling (DXAL). Four months after the tracer application, the total 15N recovery from the major ecosystem compartments ranged from 55.3% to 90.5%. The total 15N recoveries were similar under the (15NH4)2SO4 tracer treatment in both two forest ecosystems, whereas the total 15N recovery was significantly lower in the subtropical forest ecosystem at DHS than in the boreal forest ecosystem at DXAL under the K15NO3 tracer treatment. The 15N assimilated into the tree biomass represented only 8.8% to 33.7% of the 15N added to the forest ecosystems. In both of the tracer application treatments, more 15N was recovered from the tree biomass in the subtropical forest ecosystem at DHS than the boreal forest ecosystem at DXAL. The amount of 15N assimilated into tree biomass was greater under the K15NO3 tracer treatment than that of the (15NH4)2SO4 treatment in both forest ecosystems. This study suggests that, although less N was immobilized in the forest ecosystems under more intensive N deposition conditions, forest ecosystems in China strongly retain N deposition, even in areas under heavy N deposition intensity or in ecosystems undergoing spring freezing and thawing melts. Compared to ammonium deposition, deposited nitrate is released from the forest ecosystem more easily. However, nitrate deposition could be retained mostly in the plant N pool, which might lead to more C sequestration in these ecosystems. PMID:24586688

  7. Forest Management Type Influences Diversity and Community Composition of Soil Fungi across Temperate Forest Ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Goldmann, Kezia; Schöning, Ingo; Buscot, François; Wubet, Tesfaye

    2015-01-01

    Fungal communities have been shown to be highly sensitive toward shifts in plant diversity and species composition in forest ecosystems. However, little is known about the impact of forest management on fungal diversity and community composition of geographically separated sites. This study examined the effects of four different forest management types on soil fungal communities. These forest management types include age class forests of young managed beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), with beech stands age of approximately 30 years, age class beech stands with an age of approximately 70 years, unmanaged beech stands, and coniferous stands dominated by either pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) or spruce (Picea abies Karst.) which are located in three study sites across Germany. Soil were sampled from 48 study plots and we employed fungal ITS rDNA pyrotag sequencing to assess the soil fungal diversity and community structure. We found that forest management type significantly affects the Shannon diversity of soil fungi and a significant interaction effect of study site and forest management on the fungal operational taxonomic units richness. Consequently distinct fungal communities were detected in the three study sites and within the four forest management types, which were mainly related to the main tree species. Further analysis of the contribution of soil properties revealed that C/N ratio being the most important factor in all the three study sites whereas soil pH was significantly related to the fungal community in two study sites. Functional assignment of the fungal communities indicated that 38% of the observed communities were Ectomycorrhizal fungi (ECM) and their distribution is significantly influenced by the forest management. Soil pH and C/N ratio were found to be the main drivers of the ECM fungal community composition. Additional fungal community similarity analysis revealed the presence of study site and management type specific ECM genera. This study extends our

  8. Forest Management Type Influences Diversity and Community Composition of Soil Fungi across Temperate Forest Ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Goldmann, Kezia; Schöning, Ingo; Buscot, François; Wubet, Tesfaye

    2015-01-01

    Fungal communities have been shown to be highly sensitive toward shifts in plant diversity and species composition in forest ecosystems. However, little is known about the impact of forest management on fungal diversity and community composition of geographically separated sites. This study examined the effects of four different forest management types on soil fungal communities. These forest management types include age class forests of young managed beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), with beech stands age of approximately 30 years, age class beech stands with an age of approximately 70 years, unmanaged beech stands, and coniferous stands dominated by either pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) or spruce (Picea abies Karst.) which are located in three study sites across Germany. Soil were sampled from 48 study plots and we employed fungal ITS rDNA pyrotag sequencing to assess the soil fungal diversity and community structure. We found that forest management type significantly affects the Shannon diversity of soil fungi and a significant interaction effect of study site and forest management on the fungal operational taxonomic units richness. Consequently distinct fungal communities were detected in the three study sites and within the four forest management types, which were mainly related to the main tree species. Further analysis of the contribution of soil properties revealed that C/N ratio being the most important factor in all the three study sites whereas soil pH was significantly related to the fungal community in two study sites. Functional assignment of the fungal communities indicated that 38% of the observed communities were Ectomycorrhizal fungi (ECM) and their distribution is significantly influenced by the forest management. Soil pH and C/N ratio were found to be the main drivers of the ECM fungal community composition. Additional fungal community similarity analysis revealed the presence of study site and management type specific ECM genera. This study extends our

  9. Climate Change and Ecosystem Services Output Efficiency in Southern Loblolly Pine Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susaeta, Andres; Adams, Damian C.; Carter, Douglas R.; Dwivedi, Puneet

    2016-09-01

    Forests provide myriad ecosystem services that are vital to humanity. With climate change, we expect to see significant changes to forests that will alter the supply of these critical services and affect human well-being. To better understand the impacts of climate change on forest-based ecosystem services, we applied a data envelopment analysis method to assess plot-level efficiency in the provision of ecosystem services in Florida natural loblolly pine ( Pinus taeda L.) forests. Using field data for n = 16 loblolly pine forest plots, including inputs such as site index, tree density, age, precipitation, and temperatures for each forest plot, we assessed the relative plot-level production of three ecosystem services: timber, carbon sequestered, and species richness. The results suggested that loblolly pine forests in Florida were largely inefficient in the provision of these ecosystem services under current climatic conditions. Climate change had a small negative impact on the loblolly pine forests efficiency in the provision of ecosystem services. In this context, we discussed the reduction of tree density that may not improve ecosystem services production.

  10. Climate Change and Ecosystem Services Output Efficiency in Southern Loblolly Pine Forests.

    PubMed

    Susaeta, Andres; Adams, Damian C; Carter, Douglas R; Dwivedi, Puneet

    2016-09-01

    Forests provide myriad ecosystem services that are vital to humanity. With climate change, we expect to see significant changes to forests that will alter the supply of these critical services and affect human well-being. To better understand the impacts of climate change on forest-based ecosystem services, we applied a data envelopment analysis method to assess plot-level efficiency in the provision of ecosystem services in Florida natural loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) forests. Using field data for n = 16 loblolly pine forest plots, including inputs such as site index, tree density, age, precipitation, and temperatures for each forest plot, we assessed the relative plot-level production of three ecosystem services: timber, carbon sequestered, and species richness. The results suggested that loblolly pine forests in Florida were largely inefficient in the provision of these ecosystem services under current climatic conditions. Climate change had a small negative impact on the loblolly pine forests efficiency in the provision of ecosystem services. In this context, we discussed the reduction of tree density that may not improve ecosystem services production.

  11. Available fuel dynamics in nine contrasting forest ecosystems in North America

    Treesearch

    Soung-Ryoul Ryu; Jiquan Chen; Thomas R. Crow; Sari C. Saunders

    2004-01-01

    Available fuel and its dynamics, both of which affect fire behavior in forest ecosystems, are direct products of ecosystem production, decomposition, and disturbances. Using published ecosystem models and equations, we developed a simulation model to evaluate the effects of dynamics of aboveground net primary production (ANPP), carbon allocation, residual slash,...

  12. Implications of sodium mass balance for interpreting the calcium cycle of a forested ecosystem

    Treesearch

    Scott W. Bailey; Donald C. Buso; Gene E. Likens

    2003-01-01

    Disturbance of forest ecosystems, such as that caused by harvesting or acid deposition, is thought to alter the ability of the ecosystem to retain nutrients. Although many watershed studies have suggested depletion of available calcium (Ca) pools, interpretation of ecosystem Ca mass balance has been limited by the difficulty in obtaining mineral weathering flux...

  13. The Forest Ecosystem Study: background, rationale, implementation, baseline conditions, and silvicultural assessment.

    Treesearch

    Andrew B. Carey; David R. Thysell; Angus W. Brodie

    1999-01-01

    The Forest Ecosystem Study (FES) came about as an early response to the need for innovative silvicultural methods designed to stimulate development of late-successional attributes in managed forests—a need ensuing from the exceptional and longstanding controversies over old-growth forests and endangered species concerns in the Pacific Northwest. In 1991, scientists...

  14. Anthropogenic alterations of genetic diversity within tree populations: Implications for forest ecosystem resilience

    Treesearch

    Paul G. Schaberg; Donald H. DeHayes; Gary J. Hawley; Samuel E. Nijensohn

    2008-01-01

    Healthy forests provide many of the essential ecosystem services upon which all life depends. Genetic diversity is an essential component of long-term forest health because it provides a basis for adaptation and resilience to environmental stress and change. In addition to natural processes, numerous anthropogenic factors deplete forest genetic resources. Genetic...

  15. Integrating neotropical migratory birds into Forest Service plans for ecosystem management

    Treesearch

    Deborah M. Finch; William M. Block; Reg A. Fletcher; Leon F. Fager

    1993-01-01

    The USDA Forest Service is undergoing a major change in focus in response to public interests, growing concern for sustaining natural resources, and new knowledge about wildlife, fisheries, forests and grasslands, and how they interact at the ecosystem level. This shift in direction affects how Forest Service lands are managed, what research is conducted, how resource...

  16. Changes in ground layer vegetation following timber harvests on the Missouri Ozark Forest Ecosystem Project

    Treesearch

    Jennifer K. Grabner; Eric K. Zenner

    2002-01-01

    The Missouri Ozark Forest Ecosystem Project (MOFEP) is a landscape-scale experiment to test for effects of the following three common forest management practices on upland forests: 1) even-aged management (EAM), 2) uneven-aged management (UAM), and 3) no-harvest management (NHM). The first round of harvesting treatments was applied on the nine MOFEP sites in 1996. One...

  17. Fire, competition and forest pests: landscape treatment to sustain ecosystem function

    Treesearch

    Geral I. McDonald; A. E. Harvey; J. R. Tonn

    2000-01-01

    Fire, competition for light and water, and native forest pests have interacted for millennia in western forests to produce a countryside dominated by seral species of conifers. These conifer-dominated ecosystems exist in six kinds of biotic communities. We divided one of these communities, the Rocky Mountain Montane Conifer Forest, into 31 subseries based on the...

  18. The role of remote sensing in process‐scaling studies of managed forest ecosystems

    Treesearch

    Jeffrey G. Masek; Daniel J. Hayes; M. Joseph Hughes; Sean P. Healey; David P. Turner

    2015-01-01

    Sustaining forest resources requires a better understanding of forest ecosystem processes, and how management decisions and climate change may affect these processes in the future. While plot and inventory data provide our most detailed information on forest carbon, energy, and water cycling, applying this understanding to broader spatial and temporal domains...

  19. Forest changes since Euro-American settlement and ecosystem restoration in the Lake Tahoe Basin, USA

    Treesearch

    Alan H. Taylor

    2007-01-01

    Pre Euro-American settlement forest structure and fire regimes for Jeffrey pine-white fir, red fir-western white pine, and lodgepole pine forests were quantified using stumps from trees cut in the 19th century to establish a baseline reference for ecosystem management in the Lake Tahoe Basin. Contemporary forests varied in different ways compared...

  20. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Air Pollution and Climate Change Effects on Forest Ecosystems

    Treesearch

    Andrzej Bytnerowicz; Michael J. Arbaugh; Susan L. Schilling

    1998-01-01

    Industrial air pollution has been identified as one of the primary causes of severe damage to forests of central Europe in the past 30 to 40 years. The mountain forest ecosystems have been affected considerably, resulting in extensive areas of severely deteriorated forest stands (e.g., the Krusne Hory of the Czech Republic or the Izerske and Sudety Mountains along the...

  1. Effects of nutrient additions on ecosystem carbon cycle in a Puerto Rican tropical wet forest

    Treesearch

    YIQING LI; MING XU; XIAOMING ZOU

    2006-01-01

    Wet tropical forests play a critical role in global ecosystem carbon (C) cycle, but C allocation and the response of different C pools to nutrient addition in these forests remain poorly understood. We measured soil organic carbon (SOC), litterfall, root biomass, microbial biomass and soil physical and chemical properties in a wet tropical forest from May 1996 to July...

  2. Forest health in the Blue Mountains: a management strategy for fire-adapted ecosystems.

    Treesearch

    R.W. Mutch; S.F. Arno; J.K. Brown; C.E. Carlson; R.D. Ottmar; J.L. Peterson

    1993-01-01

    The fire-adapted forests of the Blue Mountains are suffering from a forest health problem of catastrophic proportions. Contributing to the decline of forest health are such factors as the extensive harvesting of the western larch and ponderosa pine overstory during the 1900s, attempted exclusion of fire from a fire-dependent ecosystem, and the continuing drought. The...

  3. Effects of roads on elk: implications for management in forested ecosystems.

    Treesearch

    Mary M. Rowland; Michael J. Wisdom; Bruce K. Johnson; Mark A. Penninger

    2004-01-01

    The effects of roads on both habitat and population responses of elk (Cervus elaphus) have been of keen interest to foresters and ungulate biologists for the last half century. Increased timber harvest in national forests, beginning in the 1960s, led to a proliferation of road networks in forested ecosystems inhabited by elk (Hieb 1976, Lyon and...

  4. Long-term trends from ecosystem research at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest

    Treesearch

    John L. Campbell; Charles T. Driscoll; Christopher Eagar; Gene E. Likens; Thomas G. Siccama; Chris E. Johnson; Timothy J. Fahey; Steven P. Hamburg; Richard T. Holmes; Amey S. Bailey; Donald C. Buso

    2007-01-01

    Summarizes 52 years of collaborative, long-term research conducted at the Hubbard Brook (NH) Experimental Forest on ecosystem response to disturbances such as air pollution, climate change, forest disturbance, and forest management practices. Also provides explanations of some of the trends and lists references from scientific literature for further reading.

  5. Managing ecosystems for forest health: An approach and the effects on uses and values

    Treesearch

    Chadwick D. Oliver; Dennis E. Ferguson; Alan E. Harvey; Herbert S. Malany; John M. Mandzak; Robert W. Mutch

    1994-01-01

    Forest health is most appropriately based on the scientific paradigm of dynamic, constantly changing forest ecosystems. Many forests in the Inland West now support high levels of insect infestations, disease epidemics, fire susceptibilities, and imbalances in stand structures and habitats because of natural processes and past management practices. Impending,...

  6. Involving forest communities in identifying and constructing ecosystems services: millennium assessment and place specificity

    Treesearch

    Stanley T. Asah; Dale J. Blahna; Clare M. Ryan

    2012-01-01

    The ecosystem services (ES) approach entails integrating people into public forest management and managing to meet their needs and wants. Managers must find ways to understand what these needs are and how they are met. In this study, we used small group discussions, in a case study of the Deschutes National Forest, to involve community members and forest staff in...

  7. Assessing and comparing risk to climate changes among forested locations: implications for ecosystem services

    Treesearch

    Stephen N. Matthews; Louis R. Iverson; Matthew P. Peters; Anantha M. Prasad; Sakthi. Subburayalu

    2014-01-01

    Forests provide key ecosystem services (ES) and the extent to which the ES are realized varies spatially, with forest composition and cultural context, and in breadth, depending on the dominant tree species inhabiting an area. We address the question of how climate change may impact ES within the temperate and diverse forests of the eastern United States. We quantify...

  8. Integrating studies in the Missouri Ozark Forest Ecosystem Project: Status and outlook

    Treesearch

    David Gwaze; Stephen Sheriff; John Kabrick; Larry. Vangilder

    2011-01-01

    The Missouri Ozark Forest Ecosystem Project (MOFEP), which was started in 1989 by the Missouri Department of Conservation, evaluates the effects of forest management practices (even-aged management, uneven-aged management, and no-harvest management) on upland oak-forest components in southern Missouri. MOFEP is a long-term, landscape-level, fully replicated, and...

  9. Microbial denitrification dominates nitrate losses from forest ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Yunting; Koba, Keisuke; Makabe, Akiko; Takahashi, Chieko; Zhu, Weixing; Hayashi, Takahiro; Hokari, Azusa A.; Urakawa, Rieko; Bai, Edith; Houlton, Benjamin Z.; Xi, Dan; Zhang, Shasha; Matsushita, Kayo; Tu, Ying; Liu, Dongwei; Zhu, Feifei; Wang, Zhenyu; Zhou, Guoyi; Chen, Dexiang; Makita, Tomoko; Toda, Hiroto; Liu, Xueyan; Chen, Quansheng; Zhang, Deqiang; Li, Yide; Yoh, Muneoki

    2015-01-01

    Denitrification removes fixed nitrogen (N) from the biosphere, thereby restricting the availability of this key limiting nutrient for terrestrial plant productivity. This microbially driven process has been exceedingly difficult to measure, however, given the large background of nitrogen gas (N2) in the atmosphere and vexing scaling issues associated with heterogeneous soil systems. Here, we use natural abundance of N and oxygen isotopes in nitrate (NO3−) to examine dentrification rates across six forest sites in southern China and central Japan, which span temperate to tropical climates, as well as various stand ages and N deposition regimes. Our multiple stable isotope approach across soil to watershed scales shows that traditional techniques underestimate terrestrial denitrification fluxes by up to 98%, with annual losses of 5.6–30.1 kg of N per hectare via this gaseous pathway. These N export fluxes are up to sixfold higher than NO3− leaching, pointing to widespread dominance of denitrification in removing NO3− from forest ecosystems across a range of conditions. Further, we report that the loss of NO3− to denitrification decreased in comparison to leaching pathways in sites with the highest rates of anthropogenic N deposition. PMID:25605898

  10. Microbial denitrification dominates nitrate losses from forest ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yunting; Koba, Keisuke; Makabe, Akiko; Takahashi, Chieko; Zhu, Weixing; Hayashi, Takahiro; Hokari, Azusa A; Urakawa, Rieko; Bai, Edith; Houlton, Benjamin Z; Xi, Dan; Zhang, Shasha; Matsushita, Kayo; Tu, Ying; Liu, Dongwei; Zhu, Feifei; Wang, Zhenyu; Zhou, Guoyi; Chen, Dexiang; Makita, Tomoko; Toda, Hiroto; Liu, Xueyan; Chen, Quansheng; Zhang, Deqiang; Li, Yide; Yoh, Muneoki

    2015-02-03

    Denitrification removes fixed nitrogen (N) from the biosphere, thereby restricting the availability of this key limiting nutrient for terrestrial plant productivity. This microbially driven process has been exceedingly difficult to measure, however, given the large background of nitrogen gas (N2) in the atmosphere and vexing scaling issues associated with heterogeneous soil systems. Here, we use natural abundance of N and oxygen isotopes in nitrate (NO3 (-)) to examine dentrification rates across six forest sites in southern China and central Japan, which span temperate to tropical climates, as well as various stand ages and N deposition regimes. Our multiple stable isotope approach across soil to watershed scales shows that traditional techniques underestimate terrestrial denitrification fluxes by up to 98%, with annual losses of 5.6-30.1 kg of N per hectare via this gaseous pathway. These N export fluxes are up to sixfold higher than NO3 (-) leaching, pointing to widespread dominance of denitrification in removing NO3 (-) from forest ecosystems across a range of conditions. Further, we report that the loss of NO3 (-) to denitrification decreased in comparison to leaching pathways in sites with the highest rates of anthropogenic N deposition.

  11. Physical attributes of some clouds amid a forest ecosystem's trees

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeFelice, Thomas P.

    2002-01-01

    Cloud or fog water collected by forest canopies of any elevation could represent significant sources of required moisture and nutrients for forest ecosystems, human consumption, and as an alternative source of water for agriculture and domestic use. The physical characteristics of fogs and other clouds have been well studied, and this information can be useful to water balance or canopy–cloud interaction model verification and to calibration or training of satellite-borne sensors to recognize atmospheric attributes, such as optical thickness, albedo, and cloud properties. These studies have taken place above-canopy or within canopy clearings and rarely amid the canopy. Simultaneous physical and chemical characteristics of clouds amid and above the trees of a mountain forest, located about 3.3 km southwest of Mt. Mitchell, NC, were collected between 13 and 22 June 1993. This paper summarizes the physical characteristics of the cloud portions amid the trees. The characteristic cloud amid the trees (including cloud and precipitation periods) contained 250 droplet/cm3 with a mean diameter of 9.5 μm and liquid water content (LWC) of 0.11 g m−3. The cloud droplets exhibited a bimodal distribution with modes at about 2 and 8 μm and a mean diameter near 5 μm during precipitation-free periods, whereas the concurrent above-canopy cloud droplets had a unimodal distribution with a mode near 6 μm and a mean diameter of 6 μm. The horizontal cloud water flux is nonlinearly related to the rate of collection onto that surface amid the trees, especially for the Atmospheric Sciences Research Center (ASRC) sampling device, whereas it is linear when the forward scattering spectrometer probe (FSSP) are is used. These findings suggest that statements about the effects clouds have on surfaces they encounter, which are based on above-canopy or canopy-clearing data, can be misleading, if not erroneous.

  12. Physical attributes of some clouds amid a forest ecosystem's trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeFelice, T. P.

    Cloud or fog water collected by forest canopies of any elevation could represent significant sources of required moisture and nutrients for forest ecosystems, human consumption, and as an alternative source of water for agriculture and domestic use. The physical characteristics of fogs and other clouds have been well studied, and this information can be useful to water balance or canopy-cloud interaction model verification and to calibration or training of satellite-borne sensors to recognize atmospheric attributes, such as optical thickness, albedo, and cloud properties. These studies have taken place above-canopy or within canopy clearings and rarely amid the canopy. Simultaneous physical and chemical characteristics of clouds amid and above the trees of a mountain forest, located about 3.3 km southwest of Mt. Mitchell, NC, were collected between 13 and 22 June 1993. This paper summarizes the physical characteristics of the cloud portions amid the trees. The characteristic cloud amid the trees (including cloud and precipitation periods) contained 250 droplet/cm 3 with a mean diameter of 9.5 μm and liquid water content (LWC) of 0.11 g m -3. The cloud droplets exhibited a bimodal distribution with modes at about 2 and 8 μm and a mean diameter near 5 μm during precipitation-free periods, whereas the concurrent above-canopy cloud droplets had a unimodal distribution with a mode near 6 μm and a mean diameter of 6 μm. The horizontal cloud water flux is nonlinearly related to the rate of collection onto that surface amid the trees, especially for the Atmospheric Sciences Research Center (ASRC) sampling device, whereas it is linear when the forward scattering spectrometer probe (FSSP) are is used. These findings suggest that statements about the effects clouds have on surfaces they encounter, which are based on above-canopy or canopy-clearing data, can be misleading, if not erroneous.

  13. Cadmium in forest ecosystems around lead smelters in Missouri.

    PubMed

    Gale, N L; Wixson, B G

    1979-02-01

    The development of Missouri's new lead belt within the past decase has provided an excellent opportunity to study the dissemination and effects of heavy metals in a deciduous forest ecosystem. Primary lead smelters within the new lead belt have been identified as potential sources of cadmium as well as lead, zinc, and copper. Sintering and blast furnace operations tend to produce significant quantities of small particulates highly enriched in cadmium and other heavy metals. At one smelter, samples of stack particulate emissions indicate that as ms accompanied by 0.44 lb zinc, 4.66 lb lead, and 0.01 lb copper/hr. These point-source emissions, as well as a number of other sources of fugitive (wind blown) and waterborne emissions contribute to a significant deposition of cadmium in the surrounding forest and stream beds. Mobilization of vagrant heavy metals may be significantly increased by contact of baghouse dusts or scrubber slurries with acidic effluents emanating from acid plants designed to produce H2SO4 as a smelter by-product. Two separate drainage forks within the Crooked Creek watershed permit some comparisons of the relative contributions of cadmium by air-borne versus water-borne contaminants. Cadmium and other heavy metals have been found to accumulate in the forest litter and partially decomposed litter along stream beds. Greater solubility, lower levels of complexation with organic ligands in the litter, and greater overall mobility of cadmium compared with lead, zinc, and copper result in appreciable contributions of dissolved cadmium to the watershed runoff. The present paper attempts to define the principle sources and current levels of heavy metal contamination and summarizes the efforts undertaken by the industry to curtail the problem.

  14. Cadmium in forest ecosystems around lead smelters in Missouri.

    PubMed Central

    Gale, N L; Wixson, B G

    1979-01-01

    The development of Missouri's new lead belt within the past decase has provided an excellent opportunity to study the dissemination and effects of heavy metals in a deciduous forest ecosystem. Primary lead smelters within the new lead belt have been identified as potential sources of cadmium as well as lead, zinc, and copper. Sintering and blast furnace operations tend to produce significant quantities of small particulates highly enriched in cadmium and other heavy metals. At one smelter, samples of stack particulate emissions indicate that as ms accompanied by 0.44 lb zinc, 4.66 lb lead, and 0.01 lb copper/hr. These point-source emissions, as well as a number of other sources of fugitive (wind blown) and waterborne emissions contribute to a significant deposition of cadmium in the surrounding forest and stream beds. Mobilization of vagrant heavy metals may be significantly increased by contact of baghouse dusts or scrubber slurries with acidic effluents emanating from acid plants designed to produce H2SO4 as a smelter by-product. Two separate drainage forks within the Crooked Creek watershed permit some comparisons of the relative contributions of cadmium by air-borne versus water-borne contaminants. Cadmium and other heavy metals have been found to accumulate in the forest litter and partially decomposed litter along stream beds. Greater solubility, lower levels of complexation with organic ligands in the litter, and greater overall mobility of cadmium compared with lead, zinc, and copper result in appreciable contributions of dissolved cadmium to the watershed runoff. The present paper attempts to define the principle sources and current levels of heavy metal contamination and summarizes the efforts undertaken by the industry to curtail the problem. PMID:488037

  15. Urban forest ecosystem analysis using fused airborne hyperspectral and lidar data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonzo, Mike Gerard

    Urban trees are strategically important in a city's effort to mitigate their carbon footprint, heat island effects, air pollution, and stormwater runoff. Currently, the most common method for quantifying urban forest structure and ecosystem function is through field plot sampling. However, taking intensive structural measurements on private properties throughout a city is difficult, and the outputs from sample inventories are not spatially explicit. The overarching goal of this dissertation is to develop methods for mapping urban forest structure and function using fused hyperspectral imagery and waveform lidar data at the individual tree crown scale. Urban forest ecosystem services estimated using the USDA Forest Service's i-Tree Eco (formerly UFORE) model are based largely on tree species and leaf area index (LAI). Accordingly, tree species were mapped in my Santa Barbara, California study area for 29 species comprising >80% of canopy. Crown-scale discriminant analysis methods were introduced for fusing Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometry (AVIRIS) data with a suite of lidar structural metrics (e.g., tree height, crown porosity) to maximize classification accuracy in a complex environment. AVIRIS imagery was critical to achieving an overall species-level accuracy of 83.4% while lidar data was most useful for improving the discrimination of small and morphologically unique species. LAI was estimated at both the field-plot scale using laser penetration metrics and at the crown scale using allometry. Agreement of the former with photographic estimates of gap fraction and the latter with allometric estimates based on field measurements was examined. Results indicate that lidar may be used reasonably to measure LAI in an urban environment lacking in continuous canopy and characterized by high species diversity. Finally, urban ecosystem services such as carbon storage and building energy-use modification were analyzed through combination of aforementioned

  16. Forest type effects on the retention of radiocesium in organic layers of forest ecosystems affected by the Fukushima nuclear accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koarashi, Jun; Atarashi-Andoh, Mariko; Matsunaga, Takeshi; Sanada, Yukihisa

    2016-12-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant disaster caused serious radiocesium (137Cs) contamination of forest ecosystems over a wide area. Forest-floor organic layers play a key role in controlling the overall bioavailability of 137Cs in forest ecosystems; however, there is still an insufficient understanding of how forest types influence the retention capability of 137Cs in organic layers in Japanese forest ecosystems. Here we conducted plot-scale investigations on the retention of 137Cs in organic layers at two contrasting forest sites in Fukushima. In a deciduous broad-leaved forest, approximately 80% of the deposited 137Cs migrated to mineral soil located below the organic layers within two years after the accident, with an ecological half-life of approximately one year. Conversely, in an evergreen coniferous forest, more than half of the deposited 137Cs remained in the organic layers, with an ecological half-life of 2.1 years. The observed retention behavior can be well explained by the tree phenology and accumulation of 137Cs associated with litter materials with different degrees of degradation in the organic layers. Spatial and temporal patterns of gamma-ray dose rates depended on the retention capability. Our results demonstrate that enhanced radiation risks last longer in evergreen coniferous forests than in deciduous broad-leaved forests.

  17. Forest type effects on the retention of radiocesium in organic layers of forest ecosystems affected by the Fukushima nuclear accident

    PubMed Central

    Koarashi, Jun; Atarashi-Andoh, Mariko; Matsunaga, Takeshi; Sanada, Yukihisa

    2016-01-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant disaster caused serious radiocesium (137Cs) contamination of forest ecosystems over a wide area. Forest-floor organic layers play a key role in controlling the overall bioavailability of 137Cs in forest ecosystems; however, there is still an insufficient understanding of how forest types influence the retention capability of 137Cs in organic layers in Japanese forest ecosystems. Here we conducted plot-scale investigations on the retention of 137Cs in organic layers at two contrasting forest sites in Fukushima. In a deciduous broad-leaved forest, approximately 80% of the deposited 137Cs migrated to mineral soil located below the organic layers within two years after the accident, with an ecological half-life of approximately one year. Conversely, in an evergreen coniferous forest, more than half of the deposited 137Cs remained in the organic layers, with an ecological half-life of 2.1 years. The observed retention behavior can be well explained by the tree phenology and accumulation of 137Cs associated with litter materials with different degrees of degradation in the organic layers. Spatial and temporal patterns of gamma-ray dose rates depended on the retention capability. Our results demonstrate that enhanced radiation risks last longer in evergreen coniferous forests than in deciduous broad-leaved forests. PMID:27974832

  18. Forest cover type, habitat diversity, and anthropogenic influences on forest ecosystems adjoining the Maasai Mara National Reserve, Kenya

    Treesearch

    James Legilisho-Kiyiapi

    2000-01-01

    Through combined use of satellite imagery, aerial photographs, and ground truthing, a multilevel assessment was conducted in a forest block that forms a unique dispersal zone to the Maasai Mara National Reserve ecosystem. Results of the survey revealed considerable ecological diversity on an area-scale basis - in terms of ecotypes. Forest types ranged from Afro-montane...

  19. Microbial responses to experimental warming in a peatland forest ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kluber, L. A.; Hanson, P. J.; Schadt, C. W.

    2016-12-01

    The Spruce and Peatland Responses Under Climatic and Environmental Change (SPRUCE) experiment is a ten-year ecosystem manipulation experiment examining how peatland forests respond to increased temperature and CO2 levels. This experiment is expected to lead to various changes in ecosystem processes, including microbially mediated biogeochemical cycles that may ultimately alter the overall C balance of these ecosystems. The initial phase of this experiment began over the summer of 2014 by heating deep subsurface peat to +2.25, +4.5, +6.75 and +9.0 °C above ambient plots with a target heating zone of 1.5-2 meters depth. Whole ecosystem warming began the summer of 2015 with the addition of aboveground heating to the same target temperatures. The response of microbial communities to in-situ warming is assessed with qPCR and rRNA amplicon sequencing at eleven discrete depths across the peat profile to a depth of 200 cm. Additionally, metagenomic sequencing is used to characterize microbial metabolic and functional potential on four depths per profile. After one year of deep peat warming, microbial community structure and abundance of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, and methanogenic populations showed strong vertical stratification across the peat depth profile yet no clear response to the temperature treatments. In an effort to identify factors that may be limiting decomposition and microbial community change in deep peat, we conducted a microcosm incubation of deep peat (150-200 cm depth) at 6 and 15 °C to mimic ambient and +9 °C SPRUCE conditions. Additional treatments included elevated pH and the addition of N and P. Microcosms were monitored for CO2 and CH4 production, and microbial community dynamics were assessed using qPCR and amplicon sequencing. Increasing temperature elevated both CO2 and CH4 production while elevated pH only resulted in greater CH4 production. The effects of elevating temperature and pH in combination with N, P, or N+P additions were more

  20. Criterion 2: Maintenance of productive capacity of forest ecosystems

    Treesearch

    Stephen R. Shifley; Francisco X. Aguilar; Nianfu Song; Susan I. Stewart; David J. Nowak; Dale D. Gormanson; W. Keith Moser; Sherri Wormstead; Eric J. Greenfield

    2012-01-01

    People rely on forests, directly and indirectly, for a wide range of goods and services. Measures of forest productive capacity are indicators of the ability of forests to sustainably supply goods and services over time. An ongoing emphasis on maintaining productive capacity of forests can help ensure that utilization of forest resources does not impair long term...

  1. Challenges for tree officers to enhance the provision of regulating ecosystem services from urban forests.

    PubMed

    Davies, Helen J; Doick, Kieron J; Hudson, Malcolm D; Schreckenberg, Kate

    2017-07-01

    Urbanisation and a changing climate are leading to more frequent and severe flood, heat and air pollution episodes in Britain's cities. Interest in nature-based solutions to these urban problems is growing, with urban forests potentially able to provide a range of regulating ecosystem services such as stormwater attenuation, heat amelioration and air purification. The extent to which these benefits are realized is largely dependent on urban forest management objectives, the availability of funding, and the understanding of ecosystem service concepts within local governments, the primary delivery agents of urban forests. This study aims to establish the extent to which British local authorities actively manage their urban forests for regulating ecosystem services, and identify which resources local authorities most need in order to enhance provision of ecosystem services by Britain's urban forests. Interviews were carried out with staff responsible for tree management decisions in fifteen major local authorities from across Britain, selected on the basis of their urban nature and high population density. Local authorities have a reactive approach to urban forest management, driven by human health and safety concerns and complaints about tree disservices. There is relatively little focus on ensuring provision of regulating ecosystem services, despite awareness by tree officers of the key role that urban forests can play in alleviating chronic air pollution, flood risk and urban heat anomalies. However, this is expected to become a greater focus in future provided that existing constraints - lack of understanding of ecosystem services amongst key stakeholders, limited political support, funding constraints - can be overcome. Our findings suggest that the adoption of a proactive urban forest strategy, underpinned by quantified and valued urban forest-based ecosystem services provision data, and innovative private sector funding mechanisms, can facilitate a change to a

  2. Evaluating carbon fluxes of global forest ecosystems by using an individual tree-based model FORCCHN.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jianyong; Shugart, Herman H; Yan, Xiaodong; Cao, Cougui; Wu, Shuang; Fang, Jing

    2017-05-15

    The carbon budget of forest ecosystems, an important component of the terrestrial carbon cycle, needs to be accurately quantified and predicted by ecological models. As a preamble to apply the model to estimate global carbon uptake by forest ecosystems, we used the CO2 flux measurements from 37 forest eddy-covariance sites to examine the individual tree-based FORCCHN model's performance globally. In these initial tests, the FORCCHN model simulated gross primary production (GPP), ecosystem respiration (ER) and net ecosystem production (NEP) with correlations of 0.72, 0.70 and 0.53, respectively, across all forest biomes. The model underestimated GPP and slightly overestimated ER across most of the eddy-covariance sites. An underestimation of NEP arose primarily from the lower GPP estimates. Model performance was better in capturing both the temporal changes and magnitude of carbon fluxes in deciduous broadleaf forest than in evergreen broadleaf forest, and it performed less well for sites in Mediterranean climate. We then applied the model to estimate the carbon fluxes of forest ecosystems on global scale over 1982-2011. This application of FORCCHN gave a total GPP of 59.41±5.67 and an ER of 57.21±5.32PgCyr(-1) for global forest ecosystems during 1982-2011. The forest ecosystems over this same period contributed a large carbon storage, with total NEP being 2.20±0.64PgCyr(-1). These values are comparable to and reinforce estimates reported in other studies. This analysis highlights individual tree-based model FORCCHN could be used to evaluate carbon fluxes of forest ecosystems on global scale.

  3. Tree diversity does not always improve resistance of forest ecosystems to drought

    PubMed Central

    Grossiord, Charlotte; Granier, André; Ratcliffe, Sophia; Bouriaud, Olivier; Bruelheide, Helge; Chećko, Ewa; Forrester, David Ian; Dawud, Seid Muhie; Finér, Leena; Pollastrini, Martina; Scherer-Lorenzen, Michael; Valladares, Fernando; Bonal, Damien

    2014-01-01

    Climate models predict an increase in the intensity and frequency of drought episodes in the Northern Hemisphere. Among terrestrial ecosystems, forests will be profoundly impacted by drier climatic conditions, with drastic consequences for the functions and services they supply. Simultaneously, biodiversity is known to support a wide range of forest ecosystem functions and services. However, whether biodiversity also improves the resistance of these ecosystems to drought remains unclear. We compared soil drought exposure levels in a total of 160 forest stands within five major forest types across Europe along a gradient of tree species diversity. We assessed soil drought exposure in each forest stand by calculating the stand-level increase in carbon isotope composition of late wood from a wet to a dry year (Δδ13CS). Δδ13CS exhibited a negative linear relationship with tree species diversity in two forest types, suggesting that species interactions in these forests diminished the drought exposure of the ecosystem. However, the other three forest types were unaffected by tree species diversity. We conclude that higher diversity enhances resistance to drought events only in drought-prone environments. Managing forest ecosystems for high tree species diversity does not necessarily assure improved adaptability to the more severe and frequent drought events predicted for the future. PMID:25267642

  4. Tree diversity does not always improve resistance of forest ecosystems to drought.

    PubMed

    Grossiord, Charlotte; Granier, André; Ratcliffe, Sophia; Bouriaud, Olivier; Bruelheide, Helge; Chećko, Ewa; Forrester, David Ian; Dawud, Seid Muhie; Finér, Leena; Pollastrini, Martina; Scherer-Lorenzen, Michael; Valladares, Fernando; Bonal, Damien; Gessler, Arthur

    2014-10-14

    Climate models predict an increase in the intensity and frequency of drought episodes in the Northern Hemisphere. Among terrestrial ecosystems, forests will be profoundly impacted by drier climatic conditions, with drastic consequences for the functions and services they supply. Simultaneously, biodiversity is known to support a wide range of forest ecosystem functions and services. However, whether biodiversity also improves the resistance of these ecosystems to drought remains unclear. We compared soil drought exposure levels in a total of 160 forest stands within five major forest types across Europe along a gradient of tree species diversity. We assessed soil drought exposure in each forest stand by calculating the stand-level increase in carbon isotope composition of late wood from a wet to a dry year (Δδ(13)CS). Δδ(13)CS exhibited a negative linear relationship with tree species diversity in two forest types, suggesting that species interactions in these forests diminished the drought exposure of the ecosystem. However, the other three forest types were unaffected by tree species diversity. We conclude that higher diversity enhances resistance to drought events only in drought-prone environments. Managing forest ecosystems for high tree species diversity does not necessarily assure improved adaptability to the more severe and frequent drought events predicted for the future.

  5. Analysis of zone of vulnurability and impact of forest fires in forest ecosystems in north algeria by susing remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zegrar, Ahmed

    2010-05-01

    The Forest in steppe present ecological diversity, and seen climatic unfavourable conditions in zone and impact of forest fires; we notes deterioration of physical environment particularly, deterioration of natural forest. This deterioration of forests provokes an unbalance of environment witch provokes a process of deterioration advanced in the ultimate stadium is desertification. By elsewhere, where climatic conditions are favourable, the fire is an ecological and acted agent like integral part of evolution of the ecosystems, the specific regeneration of plants are influenced greatly by the regime of fire (season of fire, intensity, interval), witch leads to the recuperation of the vegetation of meadow- fire. In this survey we used the pictures ALSAT-1 for detection of zones with risk of forest fire and their impact on the naturals forests in region named TLEMCEN in the north west of Algeria. A thematic detailed analysis of forests well attended ecosystems some processing on the picture ALSAT-1, we allowed to identify and classifying the forests in there opinion components flowers. We identified ampleness of fire on this zone also. Some parameters as the slope, the proximity to the road and the forests formations were studied in the goal of determining the zones to risk of forest fire. A crossing of diaper of information in a GIS according to a very determined logic allowed classifying the zones in degree of risk of fire in semi arid zone witch forest zone not encouraging the regeneration but permitting the installation of cash of steppe which encourages the desertification.

  6. Biological effects of wood ash application to forest and aquatic ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Aronsson, K Andreas; Ekelund, Nils G A

    2004-01-01

    The present review aims to summarize current knowledge in the topic of wood ash application to boreal forest and aquatic ecosystems, and the different effects derived from these actions. Much research has been conducted regarding the effects of wood ash application on forest growth. Present studies show that, generally speaking, forest growth can be increased on wood ash-ameliorated peatland rich in nitrogen. On mineral soils, however, no change or even decreased growth have been reported. The effects on ground vegetation are not very clear, as well as the effects on fungi, soil microbes, and soil-decomposing animals. The discrepancies between different studies are for the most part explained by abiotic factors such as variation in fertility among sites, different degrees of stabilization, and wood ash dosage used, and different time scales among different studies. The lack of knowledge in the field of aquatic ecosystems and their response to ash application is an important issue for future research. The few studies conducted have mainly considered changes in water chemistry. The biotoxic effects of ash application can roughly be divided into two categories: primary and secondary. Among the primary effects is toxicity deriving from compounds in the wood ash and cadmium is probably the worst among these. The secondary effects of wood ash are generally due to its alkaline capacity and a release of ions into the soil and soil water, and finally, watercourses and lakes. Given current knowledge, we would recommend site- and wood ash-specific application practices, rather than broad and general guidelines for wood ash application to forests.

  7. [Historical range of variability in forest ecosystem management: applications and prospects].

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhi-feng; Li, Yue-hui; Chang, Yu; Hu, Zhi-bin

    2010-07-01

    Historical range of variability (HRV) characterizes the fluctuations of ecosystem structure and processes under natural disturbances, and is helpful in understanding the causes and consequences of ecosystem change, providing the researchers and managers a reference to evaluate the present status of ecosystems and guiding managers to develop effective management strategies to ultimately drive ecosystems to a sustainable state. In recent years, HRV has played an increasingly important role in forest ecosystem management, and has been successfully used in indicating the causes of ecosystem change, conservation of biological diversity and endangered species, and restoration of ecosystem function, etc. This paper outlined the concept of HRV, and discussed the applications, limitations (lack of data, environmental change, and human impacts, etc.), and challenges of applying HRV in forest ecosystem management. Strengthening data mining, focusing on the changes of natural environment and human society, and increasing the public's recognition of HRV would benefit the improvement of the application efficacy of HRV in forest ecosystem management, and make the forest ecosystem ultimately achieve a sustainable state.

  8. Biomass carbon pool of forest ecosystems and carbon-containing gas emission from biomass burning in China

    SciTech Connect

    Xiaoke Wang; Yahui Zhuang; Zongwei Feng

    1997-12-31

    With the increasing study on global climatic change, scientists have paid more attention to the role of forest ecosystem in global carbon cycle, especially to the uncertainty of atmospheric carbon source and sink involved in forest ecosystems. However, to date it is lack of the information of forest carbon cycle in China for many studies of global carbon cycle. By investigations of forest ecosystem biomass and experiment of chamber combustion, in this paper it was estimated that the carbon pool of forest ecosystem and the carbon-containing gases released from forest biomass burning in China.

  9. [Carbon cycle in ten kinds of forest ecosystem in Guangzhou City].

    PubMed

    Kang, Wen-xing; Tian, Zheng; He, Jie-nan; Cui, Sha-sha

    2009-12-01

    Based on an extensive collection of information and experimental data, this paper studied the carbon cycle in ten kinds of forest ecosystem in Guangzhou, China, aimed to explore the carbon cycling patterns in, southern subtropical forest ecosystems. For the test ecosystems, their carbon density ranged from 108.35 to 151.85 t C x hm(-2), with 10. 85-48.86 t C x hm(-2) in tree layer and 87.74-99.01 t C x hm(-2) in soil layer (0-60 cm), being lower than the national average. There were 4. 41-9. 15 t C x hm(-2) x a(-1) flowed from atmosphere to vegetation stratum, 0. 74-2.06 t C x hm(-2) x a(-1) from vegetation stratum to soil, and 3.94-5.42 t C x hm(-2) x a(-1) from soil to atmosphere, i.e., the forest systems absorbed 0.47-4.97 t C x hm(-2) x a(-1) from atmosphere. The net ecosystem production (NEP) varied with forest stand, being higher for broadleaved forest than coniferous forest, mixed forest than pure forest, and natural secondary forest than artificial forest.

  10. Restoration of Degraded Salt Affected Lands to Productive Forest Ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Yash; Singh, Gurbachan; Singh, Bajrang; Cerdà, Artemi

    2017-04-01

    Soil system determines the fluxes of energy and matter in the Earth and is the source of goods, services and resources to the humankind (Keesstra et al., 2012; Brevik et al., 2015; Keesstra et al., 2016). To restore and rehabilitate the soil system is a key strategy to recover the services the soils offers (Celentano et al., 2016; Galati et al., 2016; Parras-Alcantara et al., 2016). Transformation of degraded sodic lands in biodiversity rich productive forest ecosystem is a challenging task before the researchers all over the world. The soils of the degraded sites remain almost unfavorable for the normal growth, development and multiplication of organisms; all our attempts tend to alleviate the soil constraints. Land degradation due to presence of salts in the soil is an alarming threat to agricultural productivity and sustainability, particularly in arid and semiarid regions of the world (Tanji, 1990; Qadir et al., 2006). According to the FAO Land and Nutrition Management Service (2008), over 6% of the world's lands are affected by salinity, which accounts for more than 800 million ha in 100 countries. This is due to natural causes, extensive utilization of land (Egamberdieva et al., 2008), poor drainage systems and limited availability of irrigation water which causes salinization in many irrigated soils (Town et al., 2008).In India, about 6.73 million ha are salt affected which spread in 194 districts out of 584 districts in India and represents 2.1% of the geographical area of the country (Mandal et al., 2009).Out of these, 2.8 million ha are sodic in nature and primarily occurring in the Indo-Gangetic alluvial plains. These lands are degraded in structural, chemical, nutritional, hydrological and microbiological characteristics. The reclamation of salt affected soils with chemical amendments like gypsum and phospho-gypsum are in practice for the cultivation field crops under agricultural production. Forest development on such lands although takes considerable

  11. Potential increases in natural disturbance rates could offset forest management impacts on ecosystem carbon stocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradford, John B.; Jensen, Nicholas R.; Domke, Grant M.; D’Amato, Anthony W.

    2013-01-01

    Forested ecosystems contain the majority of the world’s terrestrial carbon, and forest management has implications for regional and global carbon cycling. Carbon stored in forests changes with stand age and is affected by natural disturbance and timber harvesting. We examined how harvesting and disturbance interact to influence forest carbon stocks over the Superior National Forest, in northern Minnesota. Forest inventory data from the USDA Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis program were used to characterize current forest age structure and quantify the relationship between age and carbon stocks for eight forest types. Using these findings, we simulated the impact of alternative management scenarios and natural disturbance rates on forest-wide terrestrial carbon stocks over a 100-year horizon. Under low natural mortality, forest-wide total ecosystem carbon stocks increased when 0% or 40% of planned harvests were implemented; however, the majority of forest-wide carbon stocks decreased with greater harvest levels and elevated disturbance rates. Our results suggest that natural disturbance has the potential to exert stronger influence on forest carbon stocks than timber harvesting activities and that maintaining carbon stocks over the long-term may prove difficult if disturbance frequency increases in response to climate change.

  12. Effects of climate change on forest ecosystems in Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kjartansson, Bjarki; Smith, Ben; Warlind, David; Olafsson, Haraldur

    2013-04-01

    The subartic region has been considered an area of high impact under future climate change senarios. We investigated the climatic effect on the change in potential forest distribution, structure and growth in Iceland from 1900 to 2100 by applying climatic time series to the dynamic vegetation model LPJ-GUESSN. For the historical period we utilized a combination of gridded climatic datasets to create a time series for monthly means of temperature, precipitation and radiation. These datasets where provided by the Icelandic Metrological office (IMO) and the Climatic research unit at East Anglia (CRU). For the future climate we added data from three different general circulation models (GCḾs) where each model had three different representative concentration pathways (RCP). In order to compensate for topographical differences within modeled grid cells we divide each grid cell into elevation zones with 50 meters vertical interval. Each elevation zone is modeled explicitly with downscaled temperature values adjusted for the elevation. This gave us the opportunity to observe different ecosystems with in each grid cell and how they developed over time both horizontally and vertically. We applied the climatic time series to drive the dynamic vegetation model LPJ-GUESSN. The model includes the features of the LPJ-GUESS model with added module where nitrogen is modeled explicitly. The addition of the nitrogen cycle allowed us to examine the nitrogen availability in soils and its effects on vegetation growth. Our results show that under the future scenario there is increased NPP under all RCṔs and GCḾs. We observe a general trend of increase in carbon pool buildup with varying degree around the island. There is an advance in forest limits into higher elevation areas. The lowland areas show a shift in species composition where conifers retreat upward from broadleaved species dominating the lower altitudes into the future. Increased temperature opens up areas in the

  13. Forest restoration and forest communities: have local communities benefited from forest service contracting of ecosystem management?

    PubMed

    Moseley, Cassandra; Reyes, Yolanda E

    2008-08-01

    Conservation-based development programs have sought to create economic opportunities for people negatively impacted by biological diversity protection. The USDA Forest Service, for example, developed policies and programs to create contracting opportunities for local communities to restore public lands to replace jobs lost from reduced timber harvest. This article examines 12 years of Forest Service land management contracting in western Oregon, Washington, and northern California to evaluate if contractors located in communities near national forests have been awarded more land management contracts and contract value over time. We find that land management contracting spending has declined dramatically and, once we control for intervening factors, we find that local contractors have received a smaller proportion of land management contracts over time.

  14. Forest Restoration and Forest Communities: Have Local Communities Benefited from Forest Service Contracting of Ecosystem Management?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moseley, Cassandra; Reyes, Yolanda E.

    2008-08-01

    Conservation-based development programs have sought to create economic opportunities for people negatively impacted by biological diversity protection. The USDA Forest Service, for example, developed policies and programs to create contracting opportunities for local communities to restore public lands to replace jobs lost from reduced timber harvest. This article examines 12 years of Forest Service land management contracting in western Oregon, Washington, and northern California to evaluate if contractors located in communities near national forests have been awarded more land management contracts and contract value over time. We find that land management contracting spending has declined dramatically and, once we control for intervening factors, we find that local contractors have received a smaller proportion of land management contracts over time.

  15. Fast rendering of forest ecosystems with dynamic global illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steele, Jay Edward

    Real-time rendering of large-scale, forest ecosystems remains a challenging problem, in that important global illumination effects, such as leaf transparency and inter-object light scattering, are difficult to capture, given tight timing constraints and scenes that typically contain hundreds of millions of primitives. We propose a new lighting model, adapted from a model previously used to light convective clouds and other participating media, together with GPU ray tracing, in order to achieve these global illumination effects while maintaining near real-time performance. The lighting model is based on a lattice-Boltzmann method in which reflectance, transmittance, and absorption parameters are taken from measurements of real plants. The lighting model is solved as a preprocessing step, requires only seconds on a single GPU, and allows dynamic lighting changes at run-time. The ray tracing engine, which runs on one or multiple GPUs, combines multiple acceleration structures to achieve near real-time performance for large, complex scenes. Both the preprocessing step and the ray tracing engine make extensive use of NVIDIA's Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA).

  16. Ca cycling and isotopic fluxes in forested ecosystems in Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiegand, B.A.; Chadwick, O.A.; Vitousek, P.M.; Wooden, J.L.

    2005-01-01

    Biogeochemical processes fractionate Ca isotopes in plants and soils along a 4 million year developmental sequence in the Hawaiian Islands. We observed that plants preferentially take up 40Ca relative to 44Ca, and that biological fractionation and changes in the relative contributions from volcanic and marine sources produce a significant increase in 44Ca in soil exchangeable pools. Our results imply moderate fluxes enriched in 44Ca from strongly nutrient-depleted old soils, in contrast with high 40Ca fluxes in young and little weathered environments. In addition, biological fractionation controls divergent geochemical pathways of Ca and Sr in the plant-soil system. While Ca depletes progressively with increasing soil age, Sr/Ca ratios increase systematically. Sr isotope ratios provide a valuable tracer for provenance studies of alkaline earth elements in forested ecosystems, but its usefulness is limited when deciphering biogeochemical processes involved in the terrestrial Ca cycle. Ca isotopes in combination with Sr/ Ca ratios reveal more complex processes involved in the biogeochemistry of Ca and Sr. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

  17. Ca cycling and isotopic fluxes in forested ecosystems in Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiegand, B. A.; Chadwick, O. A.; Vitousek, P. M.; Wooden, J. L.

    2005-06-01

    Biogeochemical processes fractionate Ca isotopes in plants and soils along a 4 million year developmental sequence in the Hawaiian Islands. We observed that plants preferentially take up 40Ca relative to 44Ca, and that biological fractionation and changes in the relative contributions from volcanic and marine sources produce a significant increase in 44Ca in soil exchangeable pools. Our results imply moderate fluxes enriched in 44Ca from strongly nutrient-depleted old soils, in contrast with high 40Ca fluxes in young and little weathered environments. In addition, biological fractionation controls divergent geochemical pathways of Ca and Sr in the plant-soil system. While Ca depletes progressively with increasing soil age, Sr/Ca ratios increase systematically. Sr isotope ratios provide a valuable tracer for provenance studies of alkaline earth elements in forested ecosystems, but its usefulness is limited when deciphering biogeochemical processes involved in the terrestrial Ca cycle. Ca isotopes in combination with Sr/Ca ratios reveal more complex processes involved in the biogeochemistry of Ca and Sr.

  18. Forest restoration and forest communities: Have local communities benefited from forest service contracting of ecosystem management?

    Treesearch

    Cassandra Moseley; Yolanda E. Reyes

    2008-01-01

    Conservation-based development programs have sought to create economic opportunities for people negatively affected by biological diversity protection. The USDA Forest Service, for example, developed policies and programs to create contracting opportunities for local communities to restore public lands to replace jobs lost from reduced timber harvest. This article...

  19. Hydrological principles for sustainable management of forest ecosystems

    Treesearch

    Irena F. Creed; Gabor Z. Sass; Jim M. Buttle; Julia A. Jones

    2011-01-01

    Forested landscapes around the world are changing as a result of human activities, including forest management, fire suppression, mountaintop mining, conversion of natural forests to plantations, and climate change (Brockerhoff et al., 2008; Cyr et al., 2009; Johnston et al., 2010; Miller et al., 2009; Kelly et al., 2010; Palmer et al., 2010). Forests...

  20. Soil bacterial community structure responses to precipitation reduction and forest management in forest ecosystems across Germany.

    PubMed

    Felsmann, Katja; Baudis, Mathias; Gimbel, Katharina; Kayler, Zachary E; Ellerbrock, Ruth; Bruelheide, Helge; Bruehlheide, Helge; Bruckhoff, Johannes; Welk, Erik; Puhlmann, Heike; Weiler, Markus; Gessler, Arthur; Ulrich, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Soil microbial communities play an important role in forest ecosystem functioning, but how climate change will affect the community composition and consequently bacterial functions is poorly understood. We assessed the effects of reduced precipitation with the aim of simulating realistic future drought conditions for one growing season on the bacterial community and its relation to soil properties and forest management. We manipulated precipitation in beech and conifer forest plots managed at different levels of intensity in three different regions across Germany. The precipitation reduction decreased soil water content across the growing season by between 2 to 8% depending on plot and region. T-RFLP analysis and pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene were used to study the total soil bacterial community and its active members after six months of precipitation reduction. The effect of reduced precipitation on the total bacterial community structure was negligible while significant effects could be observed for the active bacteria. However, the effect was secondary to the stronger influence of specific soil characteristics across the three regions and management selection of overstorey tree species and their respective understorey vegetation. The impact of reduced precipitation differed between the studied plots; however, we could not determine the particular parameters being able to modify the response of the active bacterial community among plots. We conclude that the moderate drought induced by the precipitation manipulation treatment started to affect the active but not the total bacterial community, which points to an adequate resistance of the soil microbial system over one growing season.

  1. The impact of human-environment interactions on the stability of forest-grassland mosaic ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Innes, Clinton; Anand, Madhur; Bauch, Chris T

    2013-01-01

    Forest-grassland mosaic ecosystems can exhibit alternative stables states, whereby under the same environmental conditions, the ecosystem could equally well reside either in one state or another, depending on the initial conditions. We develop a mathematical model that couples a simplified forest-grassland mosaic model to a dynamic model of opinions about conservation priorities in a population, based on perceptions of ecosystem rarity. Weak human influence increases the region of parameter space where alternative stable states are possible. However, strong human influence precludes bistability, such that forest and grassland either co-exist at a single, stable equilibrium, or their relative abundance oscillates. Moreover, a perturbation can shift the system from a stable state to an oscillatory state. We conclude that human-environment interactions can qualitatively alter the composition of forest-grassland mosaic ecosystems. The human role in such systems should be viewed as dynamic, responsive element rather than as a fixed, unchanging entity.

  2. The impact of human-environment interactions on the stability of forest-grassland mosaic ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Innes, Clinton; Anand, Madhur; Bauch, Chris T.

    2013-01-01

    Forest-grassland mosaic ecosystems can exhibit alternative stables states, whereby under the same environmental conditions, the ecosystem could equally well reside either in one state or another, depending on the initial conditions. We develop a mathematical model that couples a simplified forest-grassland mosaic model to a dynamic model of opinions about conservation priorities in a population, based on perceptions of ecosystem rarity. Weak human influence increases the region of parameter space where alternative stable states are possible. However, strong human influence precludes bistability, such that forest and grassland either co-exist at a single, stable equilibrium, or their relative abundance oscillates. Moreover, a perturbation can shift the system from a stable state to an oscillatory state. We conclude that human-environment interactions can qualitatively alter the composition of forest-grassland mosaic ecosystems. The human role in such systems should be viewed as dynamic, responsive element rather than as a fixed, unchanging entity. PMID:24048359

  3. Vegetation analysis, environmental relationships, and potential successional trends in the Missouri forest ecosystem project

    Treesearch

    Stephen G. Pallardy

    1995-01-01

    The vegetation data set of the Missouri Forest Ecosystem Project (MOFEP, initiated by the Missouri Department of Conservation) in the Ozark Mountains of southeastern Missouri was ordinated by Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA) to identify vegetation gradients and potential environmental influences.

  4. Validation of 3D-CMCC Forest Ecosystem Model (v.5.1) against eddy covariance data for 10 European forest sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collalti, A.; Marconi, S.; Ibrom, A.; Trotta, C.; Anav, A.; D'Andrea, E.; Matteucci, G.; Montagnani, L.; Gielen, B.; Mammarella, I.; Grünwald, T.; Knohl, A.; Berninger, F.; Zhao, Y.; Valentini, R.; Santini, M.

    2016-02-01

    This study evaluates the performances of the new version (v.5.1) of 3D-CMCC Forest Ecosystem Model (FEM) in simulating gross primary productivity (GPP), against eddy covariance GPP data for 10 FLUXNET forest sites across Europe. A new carbon allocation module, coupled with new both phenological and autotrophic respiration schemes, was implemented in this new daily version. Model ability in reproducing timing and magnitude of daily and monthly GPP fluctuations is validated at intra-annual and inter-annual scale, including extreme anomalous seasons. With the purpose to test the 3D-CMCC FEM applicability over Europe without a site-related calibration, the model has been deliberately parametrized with a single set of species-specific parametrizations for each forest ecosystem. The model consistently reproduces both in timing and in magnitude daily and monthly GPP variability across all sites, with the exception of the two Mediterranean sites. We find that 3D-CMCC FEM tends to better simulate the timing of inter-annual anomalies than their magnitude within measurements' uncertainty. In six of eight sites where data are available, the model well reproduces the 2003 summer drought event. Finally, for three sites we evaluate whether a more accurate representation of forest structural characteristics (i.e. cohorts, forest layers) and species composition can improve model results. In two of the three sites results reveal that model slightly increases its performances although, statistically speaking, not in a relevant way.

  5. Ecosystem services to enhance sustainable forest management in the US: moving from forest service national programmes to local projects in the Pacific Northwest

    Treesearch

    Robert L. Deal; Nikola Smith; Joe Gates

    2017-01-01

    Ecosystem services are increasingly recognized as a way of framing and describing the broad suite of benefits that people receive from forests. The USDA Forest Service has been exploring use of an ecosystem services framework to describe forest values provided by federal lands and to attract and build partnerships with stakeholders to implement projects. Recently, the...

  6. A decision framework for identifying models to estimate forest ecosystem services gains from restoration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christin, Zachary; Bagstad, Kenneth J.; Verdone, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Restoring degraded forests and agricultural lands has become a global conservation priority. A growing number of tools can quantify ecosystem service tradeoffs associated with forest restoration. This evolving “tools landscape” presents a dilemma: more tools are available, but selecting appropriate tools has become more challenging. We present a Restoration Ecosystem Service Tool Selector (RESTS) framework that describes key characteristics of 13 ecosystem service assessment tools. Analysts enter information about their decision context, services to be analyzed, and desired outputs. Tools are filtered and presented based on five evaluative criteria: scalability, cost, time requirements, handling of uncertainty, and applicability to benefit-cost analysis. RESTS uses a spreadsheet interface but a web-based interface is planned. Given the rapid evolution of ecosystem services science, RESTS provides an adaptable framework to guide forest restoration decision makers toward tools that can help quantify ecosystem services in support of restoration.

  7. Biodiversity and ecosystem processes: lessons from nature to improve management of planted forests for REDD-plus

    Treesearch

    Ian D. Thompson; Kimiko Okabe; John A. Parrotta; David I. Forrester; Eckehard Brockerhoff; Hervé Jactel; Hisatomo. Taki

    2014-01-01

    Planted forests are increasingly contributing wood products and other ecosystem services at a global scale. These forests will be even more important as carbon markets develop and REDD-plus forest programs (forests used specifically to reduce atmospheric emissions of CO2 through deforestation and forest degradation) become common. Restoring degraded and deforested...

  8. Lessons from native spruce forests in Alaska: managing Sitka spruce plantations worldwide to benefit biodiversity and ecosystem services

    Treesearch

    Robert L. Deal; Paul Hennon; Richard O' Hanlon; David D' Amore

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing interest worldwide in managing forests to maintain or improve biodiversity, enhance ecosystem services and assure long-term sustainability of forest resources. An important goal of forest management is to increase stand diversity, provide wildlife habitat and improve forest species diversity. We synthesize results from natural spruce forests in...

  9. [Carbon sequestration status of forest ecosystems in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region].

    PubMed

    Gao, Yang; Jin, Jing-Wei; Cheng, Ji-Min; Su, Ji-Shuai; Zhu, Ren-Bin; Ma, Zheng-Rui; Liu, Wei

    2014-03-01

    Based on the data of Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region forest resources inventory, field investigation and laboratory analysis, this paper studied the carbon sequestration status of forest ecosystems in Ningxia region, estimated the carbon density and storage of forest ecosystems, and analyzed their spatial distribution characteristics. The results showed that the biomass of each forest vegetation component was in the order of arbor layer (46.64 Mg x hm(-2)) > litterfall layer (7.34 Mg x hm(-2)) > fine root layer (6.67 Mg x hm(-2)) > shrub-grass layer (0.73 Mg x hm(-2)). Spruce (115.43 Mg x hm(-2)) and Pinus tabuliformis (94.55 Mg x hm(-2)) had higher vegetation biomasses per unit area than other tree species. Over-mature forest had the highest arbor carbon density among the forests with different ages. However, the young forest had the highest arbor carbon storage (1.90 Tg C) due to its widest planted area. Overall, the average carbon density of forest ecosystems in Ningxia region was 265.74 Mg C x hm(-2), and the carbon storage was 43.54 Tg C. Carbon density and storage of vegetation were 27.24 Mg C x hm(-2) and 4.46 Tg C, respectively. Carbon storage in the soil was 8.76 times of that in the vegetation. In the southern part of Ningxia region, the forest carbon storage was higher than in the northern part, where the low C storage was mainly related to the small forest area and young forest age structure. With the improvement of forest age structure and the further implementation of forestry ecoengineering, the forest ecosystems in Ningxia region would achieve a huge carbon sequestration potential.

  10. Effects of productivity on biodiversity in forest ecosystems across the United States and China.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jingjing; Watson, James V; Zhou, Mo; Lei, Xiangdong

    2016-04-01

    In the global campaign against biodiversity loss in forest ecosystems, land managers need to know the status of forest biodiversity, but practical guidelines for conserving biodiversity in forest management are lacking. A major obstacle is the incomplete understanding of the relationship between site primary productivity and plant diversity, due to insufficient ecosystem-wide data, especially for taxonomically and structurally diverse forest ecosystems. We investigated the effects of site productivity (the site's inherent capacity to grow timber) on tree species richness across 19 types of forest ecosystems in North America and China through 3 ground-sourced forest inventory data sets (U.S. Forest Inventory and Analysis, Cooperative Alaska Forest Inventory, and Chinese Forest Management Planning Inventory). All forest types conformed to a consistent and highly significant (P < 0.001) hump-shaped unimodal relationship, of which the generalized coefficients of determination averaged 20.5% over all the forest types. That is, tree species richness first increased as productivity increased at a progressively slower rate, and, after reaching a maximum, richness started to decline. Our consistent findings suggest that forests of high productivity would sustain few species because they consist mostly of flat homogeneous areas lacking an environmental gradient along which a diversity of species with different habitats can coexist. The consistency of the productivity-biodiversity relationship among the 3 data sets we examined makes it possible to quantify the expected tree species richness that a forest stand is capable of sustaining, and a comparison between the actual species richness and the sustainable values can be useful in prioritizing conservation efforts. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  11. Climate change implications of shifting forest management strategy in a boreal forest ecosystem of Norway.

    PubMed

    Bright, Ryan M; Antón-Fernández, Clara; Astrup, Rasmus; Cherubini, Francesco; Kvalevåg, Maria; Strømman, Anders H

    2014-02-01

    Empirical models alongside remotely sensed and station measured meteorological observations are employed to investigate both the local and global direct climate change impacts of alternative forest management strategies within a boreal ecosystem of eastern Norway. Stand-level analysis is firstly executed to attribute differences in daily, seasonal, and annual mean surface temperatures to differences in surface intrinsic biophysical properties across conifer, deciduous, and clear-cut sites. Relative to a conifer site, a slight local cooling of −0.13 °C at a deciduous site and −0.25 °C at a clear-cut site were observed over a 6-year period, which were mostly attributed to a higher albedo throughout the year. When monthly mean albedo trajectories over the entire managed forest landscape were taken into consideration, we found that strategies promoting natural regeneration of coniferous sites with native deciduous species led to substantial global direct climate cooling benefits relative to those maintaining current silviculture regimes – despite predicted long-term regional warming feedbacks and a reduced albedo in spring and autumn months. The magnitude and duration of the cooling benefit depended largely on whether management strategies jointly promoted an enhanced material supply over business-as-usual levels. Expressed in terms of an equivalent CO2 emission pulse at the start of the simulation, the net climate response at the end of the 21st century spanned −8 to −159 Tg-CO2-eq., depending on whether near-term harvest levels increased or followed current trends, respectively. This magnitude equates to approximately −20 to −300% of Norway's annual domestic (production) emission impact. Our analysis supports the assertion that a carbon-only focus in the design and implementation of forest management policy in boreal and other climatically similar regions can be counterproductive – and at best – suboptimal if boreal forests are to be used as a

  12. Restoring Forests and Associated Ecosystem Services on Appalachian Coal Surface Mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zipper, Carl E.; Burger, James A.; Skousen, Jeffrey G.; Angel, Patrick N.; Barton, Christopher D.; Davis, Victor; Franklin, Jennifer A.

    2011-05-01

    Surface coal mining in Appalachia has caused extensive replacement of forest with non-forested land cover, much of which is unmanaged and unproductive. Although forested ecosystems are valued by society for both marketable products and ecosystem services, forests have not been restored on most Appalachian mined lands because traditional reclamation practices, encouraged by regulatory policies, created conditions poorly suited for reforestation. Reclamation scientists have studied productive forests growing on older mine sites, established forest vegetation experimentally on recent mines, and identified mine reclamation practices that encourage forest vegetation re-establishment. Based on these findings, they developed a Forestry Reclamation Approach (FRA) that can be employed by coal mining firms to restore forest vegetation. Scientists and mine regulators, working collaboratively, have communicated the FRA to the coal industry and to regulatory enforcement personnel. Today, the FRA is used routinely by many coal mining firms, and thousands of mined hectares have been reclaimed to restore productive mine soils and planted with native forest trees. Reclamation of coal mines using the FRA is expected to restore these lands' capabilities to provide forest-based ecosystem services, such as wood production, atmospheric carbon sequestration, wildlife habitat, watershed protection, and water quality protection to a greater extent than conventional reclamation practices.

  13. Alternative silvicultural practices in Appalachian forest ecosystems: implications for species diversity, ecosystem resilience, and commercial timber production

    Treesearch

    Thomas R. Fox; Carola A. Haas; David W. Smith; David L. Loftis; Shepard M. Zedaker; Robert H. Jones; A.L. Hammett

    2007-01-01

    Increasing demands for timber and non-timber forest products often conflict with demands to maintain biodiversity and ecosystem processes. To examine tradeoffs between these goals, we implemented six alternative management systems using a stand-level, replicated experiment. The treatments included four silvicultural regeneration methods designed to sustain timber...

  14. Long-term CO2 enrichment of a forest ecosystem: implications for forest regeneration and succession.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Jacqueline E; Clark, James S; Schlesinger, William H

    2007-06-01

    The composition and successional status of a forest affect carbon storage and net ecosystem productivity, yet it remains unclear whether elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) will impact rates and trajectories of forest succession. We examined how CO2 enrichment (+200 microL CO2/L air differential) affects forest succession through growth and survivorship of tree seedlings, as part of the Duke Forest free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiment in North Carolina, USA. We planted 2352 seedlings of 14 species in the low light forest understory and determined effects of elevated CO2 on individual plant growth, survival, and total sample biomass accumulation, an integrator of plant growth and survivorship over time, for six years. We used a hierarchical Bayes framework to accommodate the uncertainty associated with the availability of light and the variability in growth among individual plants. We found that most species did not exhibit strong responses to CO2. Ulmus alata (+21%), Quercus alba (+9.5%), and nitrogen-fixing Robinia pseudoacacia (+230%) exhibited greater mean annual relative growth rates under elevated CO2 than under ambient conditions. The effects of CO2 were small relative to variability within populations; however, some species grew better under low light conditions when exposed to elevated CO2 than they did under ambient conditions. These species include shade-intolerant Liriodendron tulipifera and Liquidambar styraciflua, intermediate-tolerant Quercus velutina, and shade-tolerant Acer barbatum, A. rubrum, Prunus serotina, Ulmus alata, and Cercis canadensis. Contrary to our expectation, shade-intolerant trees did not survive better with CO2 enrichment, and population-scale responses to CO2 were influenced by survival probabilities in low light. CO2 enrichment did not increase rates of sample biomass accumulation for most species, but it did stimulate biomass growth of shade-tolerant taxa, particularly Acer barbatum and Ulmus alata. Our data suggest a

  15. Synthesis and Integration of Pre-treatment Results from the Missouri Ozark Forest Ecosystem Project

    Treesearch

    Wendy K. Gram; Victoria L. Sork; Robert J. Marquis

    1997-01-01

    Integrating results across disciplines is a critical component of ecosystem management and research. The common research sites, landscape-scale experimental design, and breadth of research subjects in Missouri Ozark Forest Ecosystem Project provide circumstances conducive for addressing multidisciplinary questions. Our objectives were to (1) summarize the treatment and...

  16. Understanding ecosystem service preferences across residential classifications near Mt. Baker Snoqualmie National Forest, Washington (USA).

    Treesearch

    Katherine Williams; Kelly Biedenweg; Lee Cerveny

    2017-01-01

    Ecosystem services consistently group together both spatially and cognitively into “bundles”. Understanding socio-economic predictors of these bundles is essential to informing a management approach that emphasizes equitable distribution of ecosystem services. We received 1796 completed surveys from stakeholders of the Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest (WA, USA)...

  17. The role of mosses in ecosystem succession and function in Alaska's boreal forest

    Treesearch

    Merritt R. Turetsky; Michelle C. Mack; Teresa N. Hollingsworth; Jennifer W. Harden

    2010-01-01

    Shifts in moss communities may affect the resilience of boreal ecosystems to a changing climate because of the role of moss species in regulating soil climate and biogeochemical cycling. Here, we use long-term data analysis and literature synthesis to examine the role of moss in ecosystem succession, productivity, and decomposition. In Alaskan forests, moss abundance...

  18. Presettlement fire regime and vegetation mapping in Southeastern Coastal Plain forest ecosystems

    Treesearch

    Andrew D. Bailey; Robert Mickler; Cecil Frost

    2007-01-01

    Fire-adapted forest ecosystems make up 95 percent of the historic Coastal Plain vegetation types in the Southeastern United States. Fire suppression over the last century has altered the species composition of these ecosystems, increased fuel loads, and increased wildfire risk. Prescribed fire is one management tool used to reduce fuel loading and restore fire-adapted...

  19. An individual-based process model to simulate landscape-scale forest ecosystem dynamics

    Treesearch

    Rupert Seidl; Werner Rammer; Robert M. Scheller; Thomas Spies

    2012-01-01

    Forest ecosystem dynamics emerges from nonlinear interactions between adaptive biotic agents (i.e., individual trees) and their relationship with a spatially and temporally heterogeneous abiotic environment. Understanding and predicting the dynamics resulting from these complex interactions is crucial for the sustainable stewardship of ecosystems, particularly in the...

  20. Effects of Soil Texture on Belowground Carbon and Nutrient Storage in a Lowland Amazonian Forest Ecosystem.

    Treesearch

    Whendee L. Silver; Jason Neff; Megan McGroddy; Ed Veldkamp; Michael Keller; Raimundo Cosme

    2000-01-01

    Soil texture plays a key role in belowground C storage in forest ecosystems and strongly influences nutrient availability and retention, particularly in highly weathered soils. We used field data and the Century ecosystem model to explore the role of soil texture in belowground C storage, nutrient pool sizes, and N fluxes in highly weathered soils in an Amazonian...

  1. Forest Floor CO2 Flux From Two Contrasting Ecosystems in the Southern Appalachians

    Treesearch

    James M. Vose; Barton D. Clinton; Verl Emrick

    1995-01-01

    We measured forest floor CO2 flux in two contrasting ecosystems (white pine plantation and northern hardwood ecosystems at low and high elevations, respectively) in May and September 1993 to quantify differences and determine factors regulating CO2 fluxes. An automated IRGA based, flow through system was used with chambers...

  2. Age-dependent changes in ecosystem carbon fluxes in managed forests in Northern Wisconsin, USA

    Treesearch

    Asko Noormets; Jiquan Chen; Thomas R. Crow

    2007-01-01

    The age-dependent variability of ecosystem carbon (C) fluxes was assessed by measuring the net ecosystem exchange of C (NEE) in five managed forest stands in northern Wisconsin, USA. The study sites ranged in age from 3-year-old clearcut to mature stands (65 years). All stands, except the clearcut, accumulated C over the study period from May to October 2002. Seasonal...

  3. Decision support for evaluating the U.S. national criteria and indicators for forest ecosystem sustainability

    Treesearch

    Keith M. Reynolds

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes and illustrates the use of the Ecosystem Management Decision Support (EMDS) system for evaluating the U.S. national criteria and indicators for forest ecosystem sustainability at the scale of Resource Planning Act (RPA) regions. The evaluation component of EMDS uses a logic engine to evaluate landscape condition, and the RPA-scale application...

  4. Ecosystem management decision support for federal forests in the United States: a review

    Treesearch

    H. Michael Rauscher

    1999-01-01

    Ecosystem management has been adopted as the philosophical paradigm guiding management on many Federal forests in the United States. The strategic goal of ecosystem management is to find a sensible middle ground between ensuring long-term protection of the environment while allowing an increasing population to use its natural resources for maintaining and improving...

  5. Integrating science and management to assess forest ecosystem vulnerability to climate change

    Treesearch

    Leslie A. Brandt; Patricia R. Butler; Stephen D. Handler; Maria K. Janowiak; P. Danielle Shannon; Chris Swanston

    2016-01-01

    We developed the ecosystem vulnerability assessment approach (EVAA) to help inform potential adaptation actions in response to a changing climate. EVAA combines multiple quantitative models and expert elicitation from scientists and land managers. In each of eight assessment areas, a panel of local experts determined potential vulnerability of forest ecosystems to...

  6. Ecosystem services: foundations, opportunities, and challenges for the forest products sector

    Treesearch

    Trista M. Patterson; Dana L. Coelho

    2009-01-01

    The ecosystem service concept has been proposed as a meaningful framework for natural resource management. In theory, it holds concomitant benefit and consequence for the forest product sector. However, numerous barriers impede practitioners from developing concrete and enduring responses to emerging ecosystem service markets, policies, and initiatives. Principal among...

  7. Evidence and implications of recent and projected climate change in Alaska's forest ecosystems

    Treesearch

    Jane M. Wolken; Teresa N. Hollingsworth; T. Scott Rupp; F. Stuart Chapin; Sarah F. Trainor; Tara M. Barrett; Patrick F. Sullivan; A. David McGuire; Eugenie S. Euskirchen; Paul E. Hennon; Erik A. Beever; Jeff S. Conn; Lisa K. Crone; David V. A' More; Nancy Fresco; Thomas A. Hanley; Knut Kielland; James J. Kruse; Trista Patterson; Edward A.G. Schuur; David L. Verbyla; John. Yarie

    2011-01-01

    The structure and function of Alaska's forests have changed significantly in response to a changing climate, including alterations in species composition and climate feedbacks (e.g., carbon, radiation budgets) that have important regional societal consequences and human feedbacks to forest ecosystems. In this paper we present the first comprehensive synthesis of...

  8. Foliar and ecosystem respiration in an old-growth tropical rain forest

    Treesearch

    Molly A. Cavaleri; Steven F. Oberbauer; Michael G. Ryan

    2008-01-01

    Foliar respiration is a major component of ecosystem respiration, yet extrapolations are often uncertain in tropical forests because of indirect estimates of leaf area index (LAI).A portable tower was used to directly measure LAI and night-time foliar respiration from 52 vertical transects throughout an old-growth tropical rain forest in Costa Rica. In this study, we (...

  9. Disturbance and net ecosystem production across three climatically distinct forest landscapes

    Treesearch

    John L. Campbell; O.J. Sun; B.E. Law

    2004-01-01

    Biometric techniques were used to measure net ecosystem production (NEP) across three climatically distinct forest chronosequences in Oregon. NEP was highly negative immediately following stand-replacing disturbance in all forests and recovered to positive values by 10, 20, and 30 years of age for the mild mesic Coast Range, mesic West Cascades, and semi-arid East...

  10. IMPACTS OF AIR POLLUTION AND CLIMATE CHANGE ON FOREST ECOSYSTEMS - EMERGING RESEARCH NEEDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Outcomes from the 22nd meeting for Specialists in Air Pollution Effects on Forest Ecosystems "Forests under Anthropogenic Pressure - Effects of Air Pollution, Climate Change and Urban Development", September 10-16, 2006, Riverside, CA, USA are summarized. Tropospheric ozone is st...

  11. Production, respiration, and overall carbon balance in an old-growth Pseudotsuga-Tsuga forest ecosystem

    Treesearch

    Mark E. Harmon; Ken Bible; Michael G. Ryan; David C. Shaw; H. Chen; Jeffrey Klopatek; Xia Li

    2004-01-01

    Ground-based measurements of stores, growth, mortality, litterfall, respiration, and decomposition were conducted in an old-growth forest at Wind River Experimental Forest, Washington. These measurements were used to estimate: Gross (GPP) and Net Primary Production (NPP); autotrophic (Ra) and heterotrophic (Rh) respiration; and Net Ecosystem Production (NEP). Monte...

  12. The Northwest Forest Plan as a model for broad-scale ecosystem management: a social perspective.

    Treesearch

    Susan. Charnley

    2006-01-01

    I evaluated the Northwest Forest Plan as a model for ecosystem management to achieve social and economic goals in communities located around federal forests in the US. Pacific Northwest. My assessment is based on the results of socioeconomic monitoring conducted to evaluate progress in achieving the plan's goals during its past 10 years. The assessment criteria I...

  13. The Northwest Forest Plan as a model for broad-scale ecosystem management: a social perspective.

    Treesearch

    Susan. Charnely

    2006-01-01

    I evaluated the Northwest Forest Plan as a model for ecosystem management to achieve social and economic goals in communities located around federal forests in the U.S. Pacific Northwest. My assessment is based on the results of socioeconomic monitoring conducted to evaluate progress in achieving the plan's goals during its past 10 years. The assessment criteria I...

  14. IMPACTS OF AIR POLLUTION AND CLIMATE CHANGE ON FOREST ECOSYSTEMS - EMERGING RESEARCH NEEDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Outcomes from the 22nd meeting for Specialists in Air Pollution Effects on Forest Ecosystems "Forests under Anthropogenic Pressure - Effects of Air Pollution, Climate Change and Urban Development", September 10-16, 2006, Riverside, CA, USA are summarized. Tropospheric ozone is st...

  15. Analyzing the ecosystem carbon and hydrologic characteristics of forested wetland using a biogeochemical process model

    Treesearch

    Jianbo Cui; Changsheng Li; Carl Trettin

    2005-01-01

    A comprehensive biogeochemical model, Wetland-DNDC, was applied to analyze the carbon and hydrologic characteristics of forested wetland ecosystem at Minnesota (MN) and Florida (FL) sites. The model simulates the flows of carbon, energy, and water in forested wetlands. Modeled carbon dynamics depends on physiological plant factors, the size of plant pools,...

  16. Modeling impacts of management on carbon sequestration and trace gas emissions in forested wetland ecosystems

    Treesearch

    Changsheng Li; Jianbo Cui

    2004-01-01

    A process- based model, Wetland-DNDC, was modified to enhance its capacity to predict the impacts of management practices on carbon sequestration in and trace gas emissions from forested wetland ecosystems. The modifications included parameterization of management practices fe.g., forest harvest, chopping, burning, water management, fertilization, and tree planting),...

  17. Ecosystem transformation by emerging infectious disease: loss of large tanoak from California forests

    Treesearch

    Richard C. Cobb; Joao A.N. Filipe; Ross K. Meentemeyer; Christopher A. Gilligan; David M. Rizzo

    2012-01-01

    1. Few pathogens are the sole or primary cause of species extinctions, but forest disease has caused spectacular declines in North American overstorey trees and restructured forest ecosystems at large spatial scales over the past 100 years. These events threaten biodiversity associated with impacted host trees and other resources valued by human societies even when...

  18. Human influences on forest ecosystems: the southern wildland-urban interface assessment

    Treesearch

    Edward A. Macie; L. Annie Hermansen; [Editors

    2002-01-01

    This publication provides a review of critical wildland-urban interface issues, challenges, and needs for the Southern United States. Chapter topics include population and demographic trends; economic and tax issues; land use planning and policy; urban effects on forest ecosystems; challenges for forest resource management and conservation; social consequences of...

  19. Impacts of air pollution and climate change on forest ecosystems - emerging research needs

    Treesearch

    Elena Paoletti; Bytnerowicz; Chris Andersen; Algirdas Augustaitis; Marco Ferretti; Nancy Grulke; Madeleine S. Gunthardt-goerg; John Innes; Dale Johnson; Dave Karnosky; Jessada Luangjame; Rainer Matyssek; Steven McNulty; Gerhard Muller-Starck; Robert Musselman; Kevin Percy

    2007-01-01

    Outcomes from the 22nd meeting for Specialists in Air Pollution Effects on Forest Ecosystems "Forests under Anthropogenic Pressure – Effects of Air Pollution, Climate Change and Urban Development", September 10–16, 2006, Riverside, CA, are summarized. Tropospheric or ground-level ozone (O3) is still the phytotoxic...

  20. Forest ecosystem changes from annual methane source to sink depending on late summer water balance

    Treesearch

    Julie K. Shoemaker; Trevor F. Keenan; David Y. Hollinger; Andrew D. Richardson

    2014-01-01

    Forests dominate the global carbon cycle, but their role in methane (CH4) biogeochemistry remains uncertain. We analyzed whole-ecosystem CH4 fluxes from 2 years, obtained over a lowland evergreen forest in Maine, USA. Gross primary productivity provided the strongest correlation with the CH4 flux in...

  1. Preface: long-term response of a forest watershed ecosystem, clearcutting in the Southern Appalachians

    Treesearch

    Wayne Swank; Jackson Webster

    2014-01-01

    Our North American forests are no longer the wild areas of past centuries; they are an economic and ecological resource undergoing changes from both natural and management disturbances. A watershed-scale and long-term perspective of forest ecosystem responses is requisite to understanding and predicting cause and effect relationships. This book synthesizes...

  2. Proceedings of a Symposium on the Kings River Sustainable Forest Ecosystem Project: Progress and Current Status

    Treesearch

    Jared Verner

    2002-01-01

    Ecosystem management aligns different uses of the land with ecological parameters and goals of environmental quality. An important USDA Forest Service mission is to balance the multiple uses of its lands in an ecologically sustainable way. This objective has been particularly challenging for National Forests of the Sierra Nevada in the face of heated controversies over...

  3. Fisher research and the Kings River Sustainable Forest Ecosystem Project: current results and future efforts

    Treesearch

    Brian B. Boroski; Richard T. Golightly; Amie K. Mazzoni; Kimberly A. Sager

    2002-01-01

    The Kings River Sustainable Forest Ecosystems Project was initiated on the Kings River Ranger District of the Sierra National Forest, California, in 1993, with fieldwork beginning in 1994. Knowledge of the ecology of the fisher (Martes pennanti) in the Project area, and in the Sierra Nevada of California in general, is insufficient to develop...

  4. A review of the role of fungi in wood decay of forest ecosystems

    Treesearch

    Bruce G. Marcot

    2017-01-01

    Fungi are key players in the health, diversity, and productivity of forest ecosystems in Pacific Northwest forests, as mycorrhizal associations, pathogens, decomposers, nontimber resources, and food resources for wildlife. A number of invertebrate species are associated with wood decay fungi, serve as vectors for fungal pathogens, or are fungivorous (consume fungi) and...

  5. Armillaria species: Primary drivers of forest ecosystem processes and potential impacts of climate change

    Treesearch

    Ned B. Klopfenstein; Mee-Sook Kim; John W. Hanna; Amy L. Ross-Davis; Sara M. Ashiglar; Geral I. McDonald

    2012-01-01

    Species of the fungal genus Armillaria are pervasive in forest soils and are associated with widely ranging tree species of diverse forests worldwide (Baumgartner et al., 2011). As primary decay drivers of ecosystem processes, Armillaria species exhibit diverse ecological behaviors, ranging from virulent root and/or butt pathogens of diverse woody hosts, such as timber...

  6. Simulation of the effect of air pollution on forest ecosystems in a region

    SciTech Connect

    Tarko, A.M.; Bykadorov, A.V.; Kryuchkov, V.V. ||

    1995-03-01

    This article describes a model of air pollution effects on spruce in forests of the northern taiga regions which have been exposed to air pollution from a large metallurgical industrial complex. Both the predictions the model makes about forest ecosystem degradation zones and the limitations of the model are discussed. 5 refs., 1 fig.

  7. Ownership and ecosystem as sources of spatial heterogeneity in a forested landscape, Wisconsin, USA

    Treesearch

    Thomas R. Crow; George E. Host; David J. Mladenoff

    1999-01-01

    The interaction between physical environment and land ownership in creating spatial heterogeneity was studied in largely forested landscapes of northern Wisconsin, USA. A stratified random approach was used in which 2500-ha plots representing two ownerships (National Forest and private non-industrial) were located within two regional ecosystems (extremely well-drained...

  8. Divergence of ecosystem services in U.S. National Forests and Grasslands under a changing climate

    Treesearch

    Kai Duan; Ge Sun; Shanlei Sun; Peter V. Caldwell; Erika Cohen Mack; Steve McNulty; Heather D. Aldridge; Yang Zhang

    2016-01-01

    The 170 National Forests and Grasslands (NFs) in the conterminous United States are public lands that provide important ecosystem services such as clean water and timber supply to the American people. This study investigates the potential impacts of climate change on two key ecosystem functions (i.e., water yield and ecosystem productivity) using the most recent...

  9. The importance and conservation of ectomycorrizal fungal diversity in forest ecosystems: lessons from Europe and the Pacific Northwest.

    Treesearch

    Michael P. Amaranthus

    1998-01-01

    Ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF) consist of about 5,000 species and profoundly affect forest ecosystems by mediating nutrient and water uptake, protecting roots from pathogens and environmental extremes, and maintaining soil structure and forest food webs. Diversity of EMF likely aids forest ecosystem resilience in the face of changing environmental factors such as...

  10. Establishment and Data Collection of Vegetation-related Studies on the Missouri Ozark Forest Ecosystem Project Study Sites

    Treesearch

    Brian L. Brookshire; Daniel C. Dey

    2000-01-01

    The Missouri Ozark Forest Ecosystem Project (MOFEP) is an experiment designed to determine the effects of forest management practices on important ecosystem attributes. MOFEP treatments evaluated include even-aged, uneven-aged, and no management treatments. Forest vegetation provides a common ecological link among many organisms and ecological processes, and therefore...

  11. [Substantiation of radio-ecological monitoring of forest ecosystems at various stages after the accident radioactive fallout].

    PubMed

    Perevolotskiĭ, A N; Perevolotskaia, T V

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzes the long-term dynamics of distribution ofradionuclides in forest ecosystems. Three stages in the formation of radio-ecological situation in the forests are distinguished. Proposals for optimization of sampling for radio-ecological monitoring of forest ecosystems at various periods after a radiation accident are formulated.

  12. Forest management and biodiversity conservation based on natural ecosystem dynamics in northern Europe: the complexity challenge.

    PubMed

    Kuuluvainen, Timo

    2009-09-01

    Recent research in northern Europe has revised many long-held conceptions of the complexity of forest ecosystems and their natural structure and dynamics. The unveiling of the picture of natural characteristics of forest ecosystem structure and dynamics reveals much more diversity than its traditional complement, highlighting the importance of non-stand-replacing disturbances and the associated heterogeneous and dynamic stand and landscape structures. This increasing detail is a reflection of a fundamental change in the ecological understanding of forests as complex ecosystems. In particular, the generalization that the boreal forest is regulated by fierce stand-replacing disturbances, leading to the dominance of even-aged stand successions, has been disproved. However, this misconception has, until now, been repeated and used to legitimize the dominant practice of clear-cutting as a nature-based way to manage the forest. The practical conclusion of this review paper is that the dominating forest management model in North European boreal forests, which is based on the clear-cut harvesting of timber and growing of even-aged stands, is in contradiction with the variable and complex characteristics of the disturbance-succession cycle observed in naturally dynamic forests with negligible human impact. As a consequence, the structural variation of the boreal forest under management has been grossly truncated compared with its natural range. Because of this, and due to the scarcity of protection areas in many regions of northern Europe, it is not likely that the conservation of native biodiversity and ecological sustainability will be attained, assuming that the model of forest management remains unchanged. Thus, there is a strong incentive for change in the prevailing forest management model toward one that is based on natural ecosystem dynamics and an understanding of forests as complex systems.

  13. Growing Season Length as a Key Factor of Cumulative Net Ecosystem Exchange Over the Pine Forest Ecosystems in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danielewska, Alina; Urbaniak, Marek; Olejnik, Janusz

    2015-04-01

    The Scots pine is one of the most important species in European and Asian forests. Due to a widespread occurrence of pine forests, their significance in the energy and mass exchange between the Earth surface and the atmosphere is also important, particularly in the context of climate change and greenhouse gases balance. The aim of this work is to present the relationship between the average annual net ecosystem productivity and growing season length, latitude and air temperature (tay) over Europe. Therefore, CO2 flux measurement data from eight European pine dominated forests were used. The observations suggest that there is a correlation between the intensity of CO2 uptake or emission by a forest stand and the above mentioned parameters. Based on the obtained results, all of the selected pine forest stands were CO2 sinks, except a site in northern Finland. The carbon dioxide uptake increased proportionally with the increase of growing season length (9.212 g C m-2 y-1 per day of growing season, R2 = 0.53, p = 0.0399). This dependency showed stronger correlation and higher statistical significance than both relationships between annual net ecosystem productivity and air temperature (R2 = 0.39, p = 0.096) and annual net ecosystem productivity and latitude (R2 = 0.47, p = 0.058). The CO2 emission surpassed assimilation in winter, early spring and late autumn. Moreover, the appearance of late, cold spring and early winter, reduced annual net ecosystem productivity. Therefore, the growing season length can be considered as one of the main factor affecting the annual carbon budget of pine forests.

  14. [Effects of CO2 storage flux on carbon budget of forest ecosystem].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mi; Wen, Xue-fa; Yu, Gui-rui; Zhang, Lei-ming; Fu, Yu-ling; Sun, Xiao-min; Han, Shi-jie

    2010-05-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) storage flux in the air space below measurement height of eddy covariance is very important to correctly evaluate net ecosystem exchange of CO2 (NEE) between forest ecosystem and atmosphere. This study analyzed the dynamic variation of CO2 storage flux and its effects on the carbon budget of a temperate broad-leaved Korean pine mixed forest at Changbai Mountains, based on the eddy covariance flux data and the vertical profile of CO2 concentration data. The CO2 storage flux in this forest ecosystem had typical diurnal variation, with the maximum variation appeared during the transition from stable atmospheric layer to unstable atmospheric layer. The CO2 storage flux calculated by the change in CO2 concentration throughout a vertical profile was not significantly different from that calculated by the change in CO2 concentration at the measurement height of eddy covariance. The NEE of this forest ecosystem was underestimated by 25% and 19% at night and at daytime, respectively, without calculating the CO2 storage flux at half-hour scale, and was underestimated by 10% and 25% at daily scale and annual scale, respectively. Without calculating the CO2 storage flux in this forest ecosystem, the parameters of Michaelis-Menten equation and Lloyd-Taylor equation were underestimated, and the ecosystem apparent quantum yield (alpha) and the ecosystem respiration rate (Rref) at the reference temperature were mostly affected. The gross primary productivity (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (Re) of this forest ecosystem were underestimated about 20% without calculating the CO2 storage flux at half-hour, daily scale, and annual scale.

  15. Northern Forest DroughtNet: A New Framework to Understand Impacts of Precipitation Change on the Northern Forest Ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asbjornsen, H.; Rustad, L.; Templer, P. H.; Jennings, K.; Phillips, R.; Smith, M.

    2014-12-01

    Recent trends and projections for future change for the U.S. northern forests suggest that the region's climate is becoming warmer, wetter, and, ironically, drier, with more precipitation occurring as large events, separated by longer periods with no precipitation. However, to date, precipitation manipulation experiments conducted in forest ecosystems represent only ~5% of all such experiments worldwide, and our understanding of how the mesic-adapted northern forest will respond to greater frequency and intensity of drought in the future is especially poor. Several important challenges have hampered previous research efforts to conduct forest drought experiments and draw robust conclusions, including difficulties in reducing water uptake by deep and lateral tree roots, logistical and financial constraints to establishing and maintaining large-scale field experiments, and the lack of standardized approaches for determining the appropriate precipitation manipulation treatment (e.g., amount and timing of throughfall displacement), designing and constructing the throughfall displacement infrastructure, identifying key response variables, and collecting and analyzing the field data. The overarching goal of this project is to establish a regional research coordination network - Northern Forest DroughtNet - to investigate the impacts of changes in the amount and distribution of precipitation on the hydrology, biogeochemistry, and carbon (C) cycling dynamics of northern temperate forests. Specific objectives include the development of a standard prototype for conducting precipitation manipulation studies in forest ecosystems (in collaboration with the international DroughtNet-RCN) and the implementation of this prototype drought experiment at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest. Here, we present the advances made thus far towards achieving the objectives of Northern Forest DroughtNet, plans for future work, and an invitation to the larger scientific community interested

  16. EnviroAtlas - Ecosystem Service Market and Project Enabling Conditions, U.S., 2016, Forest Trends' Ecosystem Marketplace

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This EnviroAtlas dataset contains polygons depicting conditions enabling market-based programs, referred to herein as markets, and projects addressing ecosystem services protection in the United States. Polygons represent the area in which a particular condition, policy, or regulation is implemented with the result of direct or indirect facilitation of a market-based approach to investing in and protecting biodiversity (i.e., imperiled species/habitats; wetlands and streams), carbon, and/or water ecosystem services. The data were collected via desk research conducted by Forest Trends' Ecosystem Marketplace during 2015-2016. Attribute data include the ecosystem service(s) of interest, year established, design mechanisms(s) employed, and the regulatory authority associated with a particular condition. This dataset was produced by Forest Trends' Ecosystem Marketplace for Enviroatlas in order to support public access to and use of information related to environmental markets. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-shee

  17. Bridging the gap between ecosystem theory and forest watershed management

    Treesearch

    Jackson Webster; Wayne Swank; James Vose; Jennifer Knoepp; Katherine Elliott

    2014-01-01

    The history of forests and logging in North America provides a back drop for our study of Watershed (WS) 7. Prior to European settlement, potentially commercial forests covered approximately 45% of North America, but not all of it was the pristine, ancient forest that some have imagined. Prior to 1492, Native Americans had extensive settlements throughout eastern...

  18. Ecosystems and people: managing forests for mutual gains.

    Treesearch

    Valerie. Rapp

    2004-01-01

    The debate over forest management has often portrayed management choices as tradeoffs between ecological and socioeconomic values. Scientists at Pacific Northwest (PNW) Research Station, along with their colleagues at universities and national forests, decided to look scientifically at the question: "Can we as a society produce wood products and other forest...

  19. Carbon storage and accumulation in United States forest ecosystems

    Treesearch

    Richard A. Birdsey

    1992-01-01

    Historically, assessments of the forest resource situation have focused on timber supply, and the data used to support the assessments came from traditional forest inventories designed to provide reliable estimates of timber volume, growth, removals, and mortality (U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service 1982). The most recent assessment included data and...

  20. Soil carbon in arid and semiarid forest ecosystems [Chapter 18

    Treesearch

    Daniel G. Neary; Steven T. Overby; Stephen C. Hart

    2002-01-01

    Forests of the semiarid and arid zones of the interior western United States (US) are some of the most unique in North America. They occupy 11 to 34% of the landscape at mostly higher elevations (USDA Forest Service, 1981). These forests are characterized by a high diversity of flora, fauna, climates, elevations, soils, geology, hydrology, and productivity. Within the...

  1. [Forest ecosystem services and their ecological valuation--a case study of tropical forest in Jianfengling of Hainan Island].

    PubMed

    Xiao, H; Ouyang, Z; Zhao, J; Wang, X

    2000-08-01

    This paper attempts to present forest ecosystem services and their indirect economic value of Jianfengling tropical forest in Hainan Island. The results show that average annual integrated ecosystem service value of Jianfengling tropical forest, which covers 44667.00 hm2, adds up to 664.38 million yuan(Chinese RMB), of which, about 71.64 million yuan is of the output of standing trees and other forest products, about 394.29 million yuan of water-holding, about 2.47 million yuan of soil conservation against erosion, about 13.16 million yuan of carbon fixation for reducing green house effect, about 4.29 million yuan of nutrient retention for N, P, K, Ca and Mg, about 178.53 million yuan of air purification.

  2. Temporal-Spatial Pattern of Carbon Stocks in Forest Ecosystems in Shaanxi, Northwest China.

    PubMed

    Cui, Gaoyang; Chen, Yunming; Cao, Yang

    2015-01-01

    The precise and accurate quantitative evaluation of the temporal and spatial pattern of carbon (C) storage in forest ecosystems is critical for understanding the role of forests in the global terrestrial C cycle and is essential for formulating forest management policies to combat climate change. In this study, we examined the C dynamics of forest ecosystems in Shaanxi, northwest China, based on four forest inventories (1989-1993, 1994-1998, 1999-2003, and 2004-2008) and field-sampling measurements (2012). The results indicate that the total C storage of forest ecosystems in Shaanxi increased by approximately 29.3%, from 611.72 Tg in 1993 to 790.75 Tg in 2008, partially as a result of ecological restoration projects. The spatial pattern of C storage in forest ecosystems mainly exhibited a latitude-zonal distribution across the province, increasing from north (high latitude) to south (low latitude) generally, which signifies the effect of environmental conditions, chiefly water and heat related factors, on forest growth and C sequestration. In addition, different data sources and estimation methods had a significant effect on the results obtained, with the C stocks in 2008 being considerably overestimated (864.55 Tg) and slightly underestimated (778.07 Tg) when measured using the mean C density method and integrated method, respectively. Overall, our results demonstrated that the forest ecosystem in Shaanxi acted as a C sink over the last few decades. However, further studies should be carried out with a focus on adaption of plants to environmental factors along with forest management for vegetation restoration to maximize the C sequestration potential and to better cope with climate change.

  3. Temporal-Spatial Pattern of Carbon Stocks in Forest Ecosystems in Shaanxi, Northwest China

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Gaoyang; Chen, Yunming; Cao, Yang

    2015-01-01

    The precise and accurate quantitative evaluation of the temporal and spatial pattern of carbon (C) storage in forest ecosystems is critical for understanding the role of forests in the global terrestrial C cycle and is essential for formulating forest management policies to combat climate change. In this study, we examined the C dynamics of forest ecosystems in Shaanxi, northwest China, based on four forest inventories (1989–1993, 1994–1998, 1999–2003, and 2004–2008) and field-sampling measurements (2012). The results indicate that the total C storage of forest ecosystems in Shaanxi increased by approximately 29.3%, from 611.72 Tg in 1993 to 790.75 Tg in 2008, partially as a result of ecological restoration projects. The spatial pattern of C storage in forest ecosystems mainly exhibited a latitude-zonal distribution across the province, increasing from north (high latitude) to south (low latitude) generally, which signifies the effect of environmental conditions, chiefly water and heat related factors, on forest growth and C sequestration. In addition, different data sources and estimation methods had a significant effect on the results obtained, with the C stocks in 2008 being considerably overestimated (864.55 Tg) and slightly underestimated (778.07 Tg) when measured using the mean C density method and integrated method, respectively. Overall, our results demonstrated that the forest ecosystem in Shaanxi acted as a C sink over the last few decades. However, further studies should be carried out with a focus on adaption of plants to environmental factors along with forest management for vegetation restoration to maximize the C sequestration potential and to better cope with climate change. PMID:26353011

  4. Disturbance, complexity, and succession of net ecosystem production in North America’s temperate deciduous forests

    SciTech Connect

    Gough, Christopher; Curtis, Peter; Hardiman, Brady; Scheuermann, Cynthia; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin

    2016-06-29

    Century-old forests in the U.S. upper Midwest and Northeast power much of North Amer- ica’s terrestrial carbon (C) sink, but these forests’ production and C sequestration capacity are expected to soon decline as fast-growing early successional species die and are replaced by slower growing late successional species. But will this really happen? Here we marshal empirical data and ecological theory to argue that substantial declines in net ecosystem production (NEP) owing to reduced forest growth, or net primary production (NPP), are not imminent in regrown temperate deciduous forests over the next several decades. Forest age and production data for temperate deciduous forests, synthesized from published literature, suggest slight declines in NEP and increasing or stable NPP during middle successional stages. We revisit long-held hypotheses by EP Odum and others that suggest low-severity, high-frequency disturbances occurring in the region’s aging forests will, against intuition, maintain NEP at higher-than- expected rates by increasing ecosystem complexity, sustaining or enhancing NPP to a level that largely o sets rising C losses as heterotrophic respiration increases. This theoretical model is also supported by biological evidence and observations from the Forest Accelerated Succession Experiment in Michigan, USA. Ecosystems that experience high-severity disturbances that simplify ecosystem complexity can exhibit substantial declines in production during middle stages of succession. However, observations from these ecosystems have exerted a disproportionate in uence on assumptions regarding the trajectory and magnitude of age-related declines in forest production. We conclude that there is a wide ecological space for forests to maintain NPP and, in doing so, lessens the declines in NEP, with signi cant implications for the future of the North American carbon sink. Our intellectual frameworks for understanding forest C cycle dynamics and resilience need to

  5. Asymmetric warming significantly affects net primary production, but not ecosystem carbon balances of forest and grassland ecosystems in northern China

    PubMed Central

    Su, Hongxin; Feng, Jinchao; Axmacher, Jan C.; Sang, Weiguo

    2015-01-01

    We combine the process-based ecosystem model (Biome-BGC) with climate change-scenarios based on both RegCM3 model outputs and historic observed trends to quantify differential effects of symmetric and asymmetric warming on ecosystem net primary productivity (NPP), heterotrophic respiration (Rh) and net ecosystem productivity (NEP) of six ecosystem types representing different climatic zones of northern China. Analysis of covariance shows that NPP is significant greater at most ecosystems under the various environmental change scenarios once temperature asymmetries are taken into consideration. However, these differences do not lead to significant differences in NEP, which indicates that asymmetry in climate change does not result in significant alterations of the overall carbon balance in the dominating forest or grassland ecosystems. Overall, NPP, Rh and NEP are regulated by highly interrelated effects of increases in temperature and atmospheric CO2 concentrations and precipitation changes, while the magnitude of these effects strongly varies across the six sites. Further studies underpinned by suitable experiments are nonetheless required to further improve the performance of ecosystem models and confirm the validity of these model predictions. This is crucial for a sound understanding of the mechanisms controlling the variability in asymmetric warming effects on ecosystem structure and functioning. PMID:25766381

  6. Asymmetric warming significantly affects net primary production, but not ecosystem carbon balances of forest and grassland ecosystems in northern China.

    PubMed

    Su, Hongxin; Feng, Jinchao; Axmacher, Jan C; Sang, Weiguo

    2015-03-13

    We combine the process-based ecosystem model (Biome-BGC) with climate change-scenarios based on both RegCM3 model outputs and historic observed trends to quantify differential effects of symmetric and asymmetric warming on ecosystem net primary productivity (NPP), heterotrophic respiration (Rh) and net ecosystem productivity (NEP) of six ecosystem types representing different climatic zones of northern China. Analysis of covariance shows that NPP is significant greater at most ecosystems under the various environmental change scenarios once temperature asymmetries are taken into consideration. However, these differences do not lead to significant differences in NEP, which indicates that asymmetry in climate change does not result in significant alterations of the overall carbon balance in the dominating forest or grassland ecosystems. Overall, NPP, Rh and NEP are regulated by highly interrelated effects of increases in temperature and atmospheric CO2 concentrations and precipitation changes, while the magnitude of these effects strongly varies across the six sites. Further studies underpinned by suitable experiments are nonetheless required to further improve the performance of ecosystem models and confirm the validity of these model predictions. This is crucial for a sound understanding of the mechanisms controlling the variability in asymmetric warming effects on ecosystem structure and functioning.

  7. Net ecosystem CO2 exchange of a primary tropical peat swamp forest in Sarawak, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang Che Ing, A.; Stoy, P. C.; Melling, L.

    2014-12-01

    Tropical peat swamp forests are widely recognized as one of the world's most efficient ecosystems for the sequestration and storage of carbon through both their aboveground biomass and underlying thick deposits of peat. As the peat characteristics exhibit high spatial and temporal variability as well as the structural and functional complexity of forests, tropical peat ecosystems can act naturally as both carbon sinks and sources over their life cycles. Nonetheless, few reports of studies on the ecosystem-scale CO2 exchange of tropical peat swamp forests are available to-date and their present roles in the global carbon cycle remain uncertain. To quantify CO2 exchange and unravel the prevailing factors and potential underlying mechanism regulating net CO2 fluxes, an eddy covariance tower was erected in a tropical peat swamp forest in Sarawak, Malaysia. We observed that the diurnal and seasonal patterns of net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) and its components (gross primary productivity (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (RE)) varied between seasons and years. Rates of NEE declined in the wet season relative to the dry season. Conversely, both the gross primary productivity (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (RE) were found to be higher during the wet season than the dry season, in which GPP was strongly negatively correlated with NEE. The average annual NEE was 385 ± 74 g C m-2 yr-1, indicating the primary peat swamp forest functioned as net source of CO2 to the atmosphere over the observation period.

  8. Foliar and ecosystem respiration in an old-growth tropical rain forest.

    PubMed

    Cavaleri, Molly A; Oberbauer, Steven F; Ryan, Michael G

    2008-04-01

    Foliar respiration is a major component of ecosystem respiration, yet extrapolations are often uncertain in tropical forests because of indirect estimates of leaf area index (LAI). A portable tower was used to directly measure LAI and night-time foliar respiration from 52 vertical transects throughout an old-growth tropical rain forest in Costa Rica. In this study, we (1) explored the effects of structural, functional and environmental variables on foliar respiration; (2) extrapolated foliar respiration to the ecosystem; and (3) estimated ecosystem respiration. Foliar respiration temperature response was constant within plant functional group, and foliar morphology drove much of the within-canopy variability in respiration and foliar nutrients. Foliar respiration per unit ground area was 3.5 +/- 0.2 micromol CO2 m(-2) s(-1), and ecosystem respiration was 9.4 +/- 0.5 micromol CO2 m(-2) s(-1)[soil = 41%; foliage = 37%; woody = 14%; coarse woody debris (CWD) = 7%]. When modelled with El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) year temperatures, foliar respiration was 9% greater than when modelled with temperatures from a normal year, which is in the range of carbon sink versus source behaviour for this forest. Our ecosystem respiration estimate from component fluxes was 33% greater than night-time net ecosystem exchange for the same forest, suggesting that studies reporting a large carbon sink for tropical rain forests based solely on eddy flux measurements may be in error.

  9. Theory into practice: implementing ecosystem management objectives in the USDA Forest Service.

    PubMed

    Butler, Kelly F; Koontz, Tomas M

    2005-02-01

    In the United States and around the world, scientists and practitioners have debated the definition and merits of ecosystem management as a new approach to natural resource management. While these debates continue, a growing number of organizations formally have adopted ecosystem management. However, adoption does not necessarily lead to successful implementation, and theories are not always put into practice. In this article, we examine how a leading natural resource agency, the United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service, has translated ecosystem management theory into concrete policy objectives and how successfully these objectives are perceived to be implemented throughout the national forest system. Through document analysis, interviews, and survey responses from 345 Forest Service managers (district rangers, forest supervisors, and regional foresters), we find that the agency has incorporated numerous ecosystem management components into its objectives. Agency managers perceive that the greatest attainment of such objectives is related to collaborative stewardship and integration of scientific information, areas in which the organization has considerable prior experience. The objectives perceived to be least attained are adaptive management and integration of social and economic information, areas requiring substantial new resources and a knowledge base not traditionally emphasized by natural resource managers. Overall, success in implementing ecosystem management objectives is linked to committed forest managers.

  10. [Eco-value level classification model of forest ecosystem based on modified projection pursuit technique].

    PubMed

    Wu, Chengzhen; Hong, Wei; Hong, Tao

    2006-03-01

    To optimize the projection function and direction of projection pursuit technique, predigest its realization process, and overcome the shortcomings in long time calculation and in the difficulty of optimizing projection direction and computer programming, this paper presented a modified simplex method (MSM), and based on it, brought forward the eco-value level classification model (EVLCM) of forest ecosystem, which could integrate the multidimensional classification index into one-dimensional projection value, with high projection value denoting high ecosystem services value. Examples of forest ecosystem could be reasonably classified by the new model according to their projection value, suggesting that EVLCM driven directly by samples data of forest ecosystem was simple and feasible, applicable, and maneuverable. The calculating time and value of projection function were 34% and 143% of those with the traditional projection pursuit technique, respectively. This model could be applied extensively to classify and estimate all kinds of non-linear and multidimensional data in ecology, biology, and regional sustainable development.

  11. Coupling of soil prokaryotic diversity and plant diversity across latitudinal forest ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jun-Tao; Zheng, Yuan-Ming; Hu, Hang-Wei; Li, Jing; Zhang, Li-Mei; Chen, Bao-Dong; Chen, Wei-Ping; He, Ji-Zheng

    2016-01-01

    The belowground soil prokaryotic community plays a cardinal role in sustaining the stability and functions of forest ecosystems. Yet, the nature of how soil prokaryotic diversity co-varies with aboveground plant diversity along a latitudinal gradient remains elusive. By establishing three hundred 400-m2 quadrats from tropical rainforest to boreal forest in a large-scale parallel study on both belowground soil prokaryote and aboveground tree and herb communities, we found that soil prokaryotic diversity couples with the diversity of herbs rather than trees. The diversity of prokaryotes and herbs responds similarly to environmental factors along the latitudinal gradient. These findings revealed that herbs provide a good predictor of belowground biodiversity in forest ecosystems, and provide new perspective on the aboveground and belowground interactions in forest ecosystems. PMID:26781165

  12. Coupling of soil prokaryotic diversity and plant diversity across latitudinal forest ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun-Tao; Zheng, Yuan-Ming; Hu, Hang-Wei; Li, Jing; Zhang, Li-Mei; Chen, Bao-Dong; Chen, Wei-Ping; He, Ji-Zheng

    2016-01-19

    The belowground soil prokaryotic community plays a cardinal role in sustaining the stability and functions of forest ecosystems. Yet, the nature of how soil prokaryotic diversity co-varies with aboveground plant diversity along a latitudinal gradient remains elusive. By establishing three hundred 400-m(2) quadrats from tropical rainforest to boreal forest in a large-scale parallel study on both belowground soil prokaryote and aboveground tree and herb communities, we found that soil prokaryotic diversity couples with the diversity of herbs rather than trees. The diversity of prokaryotes and herbs responds similarly to environmental factors along the latitudinal gradient. These findings revealed that herbs provide a good predictor of belowground biodiversity in forest ecosystems, and provide new perspective on the aboveground and belowground interactions in forest ecosystems.

  13. Coupling of soil prokaryotic diversity and plant diversity across latitudinal forest ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jun-Tao; Zheng, Yuan-Ming; Hu, Hang-Wei; Li, Jing; Zhang, Li-Mei; Chen, Bao-Dong; Chen, Wei-Ping; He, Ji-Zheng

    2016-01-01

    The belowground soil prokaryotic community plays a cardinal role in sustaining the stability and functions of forest ecosystems. Yet, the nature of how soil prokaryotic diversity co-varies with aboveground plant diversity along a latitudinal gradient remains elusive. By establishing three hundred 400-m2 quadrats from tropical rainforest to boreal forest in a large-scale parallel study on both belowground soil prokaryote and aboveground tree and herb communities, we found that soil prokaryotic diversity couples with the diversity of herbs rather than trees. The diversity of prokaryotes and herbs responds similarly to environmental factors along the latitudinal gradient. These findings revealed that herbs provide a good predictor of belowground biodiversity in forest ecosystems, and provide new perspective on the aboveground and belowground interactions in forest ecosystems.

  14. Soil Bacterial Community Structure Responses to Precipitation Reduction and Forest Management in Forest Ecosystems across Germany

    PubMed Central

    Felsmann, Katja; Baudis, Mathias; Gimbel, Katharina; Kayler, Zachary E.; Ellerbrock, Ruth; Bruehlheide, Helge; Bruckhoff, Johannes; Welk, Erik; Puhlmann, Heike; Weiler, Markus; Gessler, Arthur; Ulrich, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Soil microbial communities play an important role in forest ecosystem functioning, but how climate change will affect the community composition and consequently bacterial functions is poorly understood. We assessed the effects of reduced precipitation with the aim of simulating realistic future drought conditions for one growing season on the bacterial community and its relation to soil properties and forest management. We manipulated precipitation in beech and conifer forest plots managed at different levels of intensity in three different regions across Germany. The precipitation reduction decreased soil water content across the growing season by between 2 to 8% depending on plot and region. T-RFLP analysis and pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene were used to study the total soil bacterial community and its active members after six months of precipitation reduction. The effect of reduced precipitation on the total bacterial community structure was negligible while significant effects could be observed for the active bacteria. However, the effect was secondary to the stronger influence of specific soil characteristics across the three regions and management selection of overstorey tree species and their respective understorey vegetation. The impact of reduced precipitation differed between the studied plots; however, we could not determine the particular parameters being able to modify the response of the active bacterial community among plots. We conclude that the moderate drought induced by the precipitation manipulation treatment started to affect the active but not the total bacterial community, which points to an adequate resistance of the soil microbial system over one growing season. PMID:25875835

  15. Foliar litter decomposition in an alpine forest meta-ecosystem on the eastern Tibetan Plateau.

    PubMed

    Yue, Kai; Yang, Wanqin; Peng, Changhui; Peng, Yan; Zhang, Chuan; Huang, Chunping; Tan, Yu; Wu, Fuzhong

    2016-10-01

    Litter decomposition is a biological process fundamental to element cycling and a main nutrient source within forest meta-ecosystems, but few studies have looked into this process simultaneously in individual ecosystems, where environmental factors can vary substantially. A two-year field study conducted in an alpine forest meta-ecosystem with four litter species (i.e., willow: Salix paraplesia, azalea: Rhododendron lapponicum, cypress: Sabina saltuaria, and larch: Larix mastersiana) that varied widely in chemical traits showed that both litter species and ecosystem type (i.e., forest floor, stream and riparian zone) are important factors affecting litter decomposition, and their effects can be moderated by local-scale environmental factors such as temperature and nutrient availability. Litter decomposed fastest in the streams followed by the riparian zone and forest floor regardless of species. For a given litter species, both the k value and limit value varied significantly among ecosystems, indicating that the litter decomposition rate and extent (i.e., reaching a limit value) can be substantially affected by ecosystem type and the local-scale environmental factors. Apart from litter initial acid unhydrolyzable residue (AUR) concentration and its ratio to nitrogen concentration (i.e., AUR/N ratio), the initial nutrient concentrations of phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), and magnesium (Mg) were also important litter traits that affected decomposition depending on the ecosystem type.

  16. Nutrient addition effects on tropical dry forests: a mini-review from microbial to ecosystem scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powers, Jennifer; Becklund, Kristen; Gei, Maria; Iyengar, Siddarth; Meyer, Rebecca; O'Connell, Christine; Schilling, Erik; Smith, Christina; Waring, Bonnie; Werden, Leland

    2015-06-01

    Humans have more than doubled inputs of reactive nitrogen globally and greatly accelerated the biogeochemical cycles of phosphorus and metals. However, the impacts of increased element mobility on tropical ecosystems remain poorly quantified, particularly for the vast tropical dry forest biome. Tropical dry forests are characterized by marked seasonality, relatively little precipitation, and high heterogeneity in plant functional diversity and soil chemistry. For these reasons, increased nutrient deposition may affect tropical dry forests differently than wet tropical or temperate forests. Here we review studies that investigated how nutrient availability affects ecosystem and community processes from the microsite to ecosystem scales in tropical dry forests. The effects of N and P addition on ecosystem carbon cycling and plant and microbial dynamics depend on forest successional stage, soil parent material and rainfall regime. Responses may depend on whether overall productivity is N- versus P-limited, although data to test this hypothesis are limited. These results highlight the many important gaps in our understanding of tropical dry forest responses to global change. Large-scale experiments are required to resolve these uncertainties.

  17. Practical Strategies for Integrating Final Ecosystem Goods and Services into Community Decision-Making.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The concept of Final Ecosystem Goods and Services (FEGS) explicitly connects ecosystem services to the people that benefit from them. This report presents a number of practical strategies for incorporating FEGS, and more broadly ecosystem services, into the decision-making proces...

  18. Ecosystem carbon dioxide fluxes after disturbance in forests of North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amiro, B. D.; Barr, A. G.; Barr, J. G.; Black, T. A.; Bracho, R.; Brown, M.; Chen, J.; Clark, K. L.; Davis, K. J.; Desai, A. R.; Dore, S.; Engel, V.; Fuentes, J. D.; Goldstein, A. H.; Goulden, M. L.; Kolb, T. E.; Lavigne, M. B.; Law, B. E.; Margolis, H. A.; Martin, T.; McCaughey, J. H.; Misson, L.; Montes-Helu, M.; Noormets, A.; Randerson, J. T.; Starr, G.; Xiao, J.

    2010-10-01

    Disturbances are important for renewal of North American forests. Here we summarize more than 180 site years of eddy covariance measurements of carbon dioxide flux made at forest chronosequences in North America. The disturbances included stand-replacing fire (Alaska, Arizona, Manitoba, and Saskatchewan) and harvest (British Columbia, Florida, New Brunswick, Oregon, Quebec, Saskatchewan, and Wisconsin) events, insect infestations (gypsy moth, forest tent caterpillar, and mountain pine beetle), Hurricane Wilma, and silvicultural thinning (Arizona, California, and New Brunswick). Net ecosystem production (NEP) showed a carbon loss from all ecosystems following a stand-replacing disturbance, becoming a carbon sink by 20 years for all ecosystems and by 10 years for most. Maximum carbon losses following disturbance (g C m-2y-1) ranged from 1270 in Florida to 200 in boreal ecosystems. Similarly, for forests less than 100 years old, maximum uptake (g C m-2y-1) was 1180 in Florida mangroves and 210 in boreal ecosystems. More temperate forests had intermediate fluxes. Boreal ecosystems were relatively time invariant after 20 years, whereas western ecosystems tended to increase in carbon gain over time. This was driven mostly by gross photosynthetic production (GPP) because total ecosystem respiration (ER) and heterotrophic respiration were relatively invariant with age. GPP/ER was as low as 0.2 immediately following stand-replacing disturbance reaching a constant value of 1.2 after 20 years. NEP following insect defoliations and silvicultural thinning showed lesser changes than stand-replacing events, with decreases in the year of disturbance followed by rapid recovery. NEP decreased in a mangrove ecosystem following Hurricane Wilma because of a decrease in GPP and an increase in ER.

  19. Ecosystem carbon dioxide fluxes after disturbance in forests of North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amiro, B. D.; Barr, A. G.; Barr, J. G.; Black, T. A.; Bracho, R.; Brown, M.; Chen, J.; Clark, K. L.; Davis, K. J.; Desai, A. R.; Dore, S.; Engel, V.; Fuentes, J. D.; Goldstein, A. H.; Goulden, M. L.; Kolb, T. E.; Lavigne, M. B.; Law, B. E.; Margolis, H. A.; Martin, T.; McCaughey, J. H.; Misson, L.; Montes-Helu, M.; Noormets, A.; Randerson, J. T.; Starr, G.; Xiao, J.

    2010-12-01

    Disturbances are important for renewal of North American forests. Here we summarize more than 180 site years of eddy covariance measurements of carbon dioxide flux made at forest chronosequences in North America. The disturbances included stand-replacing fire (Alaska, Arizona, Manitoba, and Saskatchewan) and harvest (British Columbia, Florida, New Brunswick, Oregon, Quebec, Saskatchewan, and Wisconsin) events, insect infestations (gypsy moth, forest tent caterpillar, and mountain pine beetle), Hurricane Wilma, and silvicultural thinning (Arizona, California, and New Brunswick). Net ecosystem production (NEP) showed a carbon loss from all ecosystems following a stand-replacing disturbance, becoming a carbon sink by 20 years for all ecosystems and by 10 years for most. Maximum carbon losses following disturbance (g C m-2y-1) ranged from 1270 in Florida to 200 in boreal ecosystems. Similarly, for forests less than 100 years old, maximum uptake (g C m-2y-1) was 1180 in Florida mangroves and 210 in boreal ecosystems. More temperate forests had intermediate fluxes. Boreal ecosystems were relatively time invariant after 20 years, whereas western ecosystems tended to increase in carbon gain over time. This was driven mostly by gross photosynthetic production (GPP) because total ecosystem respiration (ER) and heterotrophic respiration were relatively invariant with age. GPP/ER was as low as 0.2 immediately following stand-replacing disturbance reaching a constant value of 1.2 after 20 years. NEP following insect defoliations and silvicultural thinning showed lesser changes than stand-replacing events, with decreases in the year of disturbance followed by rapid recovery. NEP decreased in a mangrove ecosystem following Hurricane Wilma because of a decrease in GPP and an increase in ER.

  20. [Regional and global estimates of carbon stocks and carbon sequestration capacity in forest ecosystems: A review].

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei-wei; Wang, Xiao-ke; Lu, Fei; Ouyang, Zhi-yun

    2015-09-01

    As a dominant part of terrestrial ecosystems, forest ecosystem plays an important role in absorbing atmospheric CO2 and global climate change mitigation. From the aspects of zonal climate and geographical distribution, the present carbon stocks and carbon sequestration capacity of forest ecosystem were comprehensively examined based on the review of the latest literatures. The influences of land use change on forest carbon sequestration were analyzed, and factors that leading to the uncertainty of carbon sequestration assessment in forest ecosystem were also discussed. It was estimated that the current forest carbon stock was in the range of 652 to 927 Pg C and the carbon sequestration capacity was approximately 4.02 Pg C · a(-1). In terms of zonal climate, the carbon stock and carbon sequestration capacity of tropical forest were the maximum, about 471 Pg C and 1.02-1.3 Pg C · a(-1) respectively; then the carbon stock of boreal forest was about 272 Pg C, while its carbon sequestration capacity was the minimum, approximately 0.5 Pg C · a(-1); for temperate forest, the carbon stock was minimal, around 113 to 159 Pg C and its carbon sequestration capacity was 0.8 Pg C · a(-1). From the aspect of geographical distribution, the carbon stock of forest ecosystem in South America was the largest (187.7-290 Pg C), then followed by European (162.6 Pg C), North America (106.7 Pg C), Africa (98.2 Pg C) and Asia (74.5 Pg C), and Oceania (21.7 Pg C). In addition, carbon sequestration capacity of regional forest ecosystem was summed up as listed below: Tropical South America forest was the maximum (1276 Tg C · a(-1)), then were Tropical Africa (753 Tg C · a(-1)), North America (248 Tg C · a(-1)) and European (239 Tg C · a(-1)), and East Asia (98.8-136.5 Tg C · a(-1)) was minimum. To further reduce the uncertainty in the estimations of the carbon stock and carbon sequestration capacity of forest ecosystem, comprehensive application of long-term observation, inventories

  1. Final Report to DOE’s Office of Science (BER) submitted by Ram Oren (PI) of DE-FG02-00ER63015 (ended on 09/14/2009) entitled “Controls of Net Ecosystem Exchange at an Old Field, a Pine Plantation, & a Hardwood Forest under Identical Climatic & Edaphic Conditions”

    SciTech Connect

    Oren, Ram; Oishi, AC; Palmroth, Sari; Butnor, JR; Johnsen, KH

    2014-03-17

    The project yielded papers on fluxes (energy, water and carbon dioxide)between each ecosystem and the atmosphere, and explained the temporal dynamics of fluxes based on intrinsic (physiology, canopy leaf area and structure) and extrinsic (atmospheric and edaphic conditions). Comparisons between any two of the ecosystems, and among all three followed, attributing differences in behavior to different patterns of phenology and differential sensitivities to soil and atmospheric humidity. Finally, data from one-to-three of the ecosystems (incorporated into FluxNet data archive) were used in syntheses across AmeriFlux sites and even more broadly across FluxNet sites.

  2. Comparative behavior of three long-lived radionuclides in forest ecosystems

    SciTech Connect

    Auerbach, S.I.

    1986-01-01

    This paper deals with studies in three forest ecosystems in eastern Tennessee, an area of rich temperate deciduous forests, sometimes referred to as mixed mesophytic forests. Two of these forest ecosystems were contaminated as a result of waste disposal operations. The third was experimentally tagged with millicurie quantities of /sup 137/Cs. One of these ecosystems is a floodplain forest that is typical of this region. This forest has been growing on alluvial soils since 1944. Prior to that time the area was a temporary holding pond within White Oak Creek which received radioactive effluents from ORNL. Radiocesium was deposited in the pond sediments as were /sup 90/Sr, /sup 239/Pu, /sup 241/Am, and other radionuclides. The dam which created the pond failed in late 1944, and the area was allowed to revert to natural conditions. The result was the development of a floodplain forest consisting of three different forest communities. The soils are fertile alluvials representative of bottomlands. The overstory tree species are principally ash, sycamore, boxelder, willow, and sweetgum (Fraxinus americana L., Plantanus occidentalis L., Acer negundo L., Salix nigra Marsh, and Liquidambar styraciflua L., respectively).

  3. Characterization of Canopy Layering in Forested Ecosystems Using Full Waveform Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitehurst, Amanda S.; Swatantran, Anu; Blair, J. Bryan; Hofton, Michelle A.; Dubayah, Ralph

    2013-01-01

    Canopy structure, the vertical distribution of canopy material, is an important element of forest ecosystem dynamics and habitat preference. Although vertical stratification, or "canopy layering," is a basic characterization of canopy structure for research and forest management, it is difficult to quantify at landscape scales. In this paper we describe canopy structure and develop methodologies to map forest vertical stratification in a mixed temperate forest using full-waveform lidar. Two definitions-one categorical and one continuous-are used to map canopy layering over Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, New Hampshire with lidar data collected in 2009 by NASA's Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (LVIS). The two resulting canopy layering datasets describe variation of canopy layering throughout the forest and show that layering varies with terrain elevation and canopy height. This information should provide increased understanding of vertical structure variability and aid habitat characterization and other forest management activities.

  4. EnviroAtlas - Ecosystem Service Market and Project Locations, U.S., 2015, Forest Trends' Ecosystem Marketplace

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This EnviroAtlas dataset contains points depicting the location of market-based programs, referred to herein as markets, and projects addressing ecosystem services protection in the United States. The data were collected via surveys and desk research conducted by Forest Trends' Ecosystem Marketplace from 2008 to 2016 on biodiversity (i.e., imperiled species/habitats; wetlands and streams), carbon, and water markets. Additional biodiversity data were obtained from the Regulatory In-lieu Fee and Bank Information Tracking System (RIBITS) database in 2015. Points represent the centroids (i.e., center points) of market coverage areas, project footprints, or project primary impact areas in which ecosystem service markets or projects operate. National-level markets are an exception to this norm with points representing administrative headquarters locations. Attribute data include information regarding the methodology, design, and development of biodiversity, carbon, and water markets and projects. This dataset was produced by Forest Trends' Ecosystem Marketplace for EnviroAtlas in order to support public access to and use of information related to environmental markets. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) o

  5. EnviroAtlas - Ecosystem Services Market-Based Programs Web Service, U.S., 2016, Forest Trends' Ecosystem Marketplace

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This EnviroAtlas web service contains layers depicting market-based programs and projects addressing ecosystem services protection in the United States. Layers include data collected via surveys and desk research conducted by Forest Trends' Ecosystem Marketplace from 2008 to 2016 on biodiversity (i.e., imperiled species/habitats; wetlands and streams), carbon, and water markets and enabling conditions that facilitate, directly or indirectly, market-based approaches to protecting and investing in those ecosystem services. This dataset was produced by Forest Trends' Ecosystem Marketplace for EnviroAtlas in order to support public access to and use of information related to environmental markets. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets).

  6. EnviroAtlas - Ecosystem Service Market and Project Areas, U.S., 2015, Forest Trends' Ecosystem Marketplace

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This EnviroAtlas dataset contains polygons depicting the geographic areas of market-based programs, referred to herein as markets, and projects addressing ecosystem services protection in the United States. Depending upon the type of market or project and data availability, polygons reflect market coverage areas, project footprints, or project primary impact areas in which ecosystem service markets and projects operate. The data were collected via surveys and desk research conducted by Forest Trends' Ecosystem Marketplace from 2008 to 2016 on biodiversity (i.e., imperiled species/habitats; wetlands and streams), carbon, and water markets. Additional biodiversity data were obtained from the Regulatory In-lieu Fee and Bank Information Tracking System (RIBITS) database in 2015. Attribute data include information regarding the methodology, design, and development of biodiversity, carbon, and water markets and projects. This dataset was produced by Forest Trends' Ecosystem Marketplace for EnviroAtlas in order to support public access to and use of information related to environmental markets. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about thi

  7. Forest Fire Effects on Mercury and Other Trace Metal Concentrations in a Rocky Mountain Forest Ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, A.; Blum, J. D.; Keeler, G. J.

    2003-12-01

    The impacts of forest fires on pools of major elements including carbon, calcium, and sulfur, have been extensively studied while their effects on potentially toxic trace metals are not as well understood. We examined the effect of the summer 2001, 4470 acre Green Knoll Fire (GKF) in northeastern Wyoming on mercury (Hg) and other trace metal concentrations in forest ecosystem pools. A paired watershed study was conducted using a burned and unburned watershed of similar stand age, climate, vegetation, and geology to investigate wildfire effects on the evolution and dispersal of pools of Hg and trace metals in forests. Mercury and other trace metal concentrations were determined through a 15 cm soil profile as well as in vegetation. Atmospheric sampling suggests that possibly due to geothermal inputs, ambient atmospheric and soil mercury concentrations are elevated in this region compared to other rural areas in the US, with typical concentrations of vapor phase mercury >5 ng/m3. The burned watershed soil profile had much lower mercury concentrations than that of the unburned watershed, suggesting Hg volatilization by wildfires. Previous studies have suggested that leaf litter releases 97-100%\\ of its mercury content, while this study suggests that the Hg release from soil organic matter may not be as complete. Mercury concentrations in the unburned soil column decreased from an average of 158 ppb at the surface to 38 ppb at 10-15 cm. In contrast, average concentrations in the burned soil were near 30 ppb from 0-15 cm. This result indicates the GKF released only ˜ 85%\\ of the mercury present in the organic soil horizon, which may be attributed to relatively low fire intensity. Extrapolations from our results indicate that this relatively small fire released ˜ 0.1 Mg of Hg from the soil. On average, 4.2 million acres are burned yearly in the US, suggesting that soil burning releases an approximate 100 Mg annual Hg flux into the atmosphere, 70%\\ of the estimated

  8. Nutrient loss accelerated by clear-cutting of a forest ecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bormann, F.H.; Likens, G.E.; Fisher, D.W.; Pierce, R.S.

    1968-01-01

    The forest of a small watershed-ecosystem was cut in order to determine the effects of removal of vegetation on nutrient cycles. Relative to undisturbed ecosystems, the cut ecosystem exhibited accelerated loss of nutrients: nitrogen lost during the first year after cutting was equivalent to the amount annually turned over in an undisturbed system, and losses of cations were 3 to 20 times greater than from comparable undisturbed systems. Possible causes of the pattern of nutrient loss from the cut ecosystem are discussed.

  9. The Importance of Uncertainty and Sensitivity Analyses in Process-Based Models of Carbon and Nitrogen Cycling in Terrestrial Ecosystems with Particular Emphasis on Forest Ecosystems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Many process-based models of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycles have been developed for terrestrial ecosystems, including forest ecosystems. Existing models are sufficiently well advanced to help decision makers develop sustainable management policies and planning of terrestrial ecosystems, as they ...

  10. [Water and soil conservation function of typical plantation forest ecosystems in semi-arid region of Western Liaoning Province].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ping; Guo, Fang; Luo, Yue-Chu; Wei, Jing; Sun, Xiao-Wei; Wu, Gang

    2007-12-01

    From the aspects of surface runoff and soil erosion, this paper quantitatively studied the water and soil conservation function of five plantation forest ecosystems in semi-arid region of Western Liaoning Province. The results showed that various types of test plantation forest ecosystems were all able to reduce surface runoff and soil erosion effectively. In June - September, the monthly mean surface runoff coefficient of Pinus tabulaeformis forest ecosystem, P. tabulaeformis - Hippophae rhamnoides forest ecosystem, H. rhamnoides forest ecosystem, P. simonii forest ecosystem, and P. simonii - H. rhamnoides forest ecosystem was 10.1%, 6.5%, 2.3%, 8.6% and 5.3% of that of barren hill, respectively, and the soil erosion quantity was 2.65%, 0.96%, 0.15%, 2.32% and 0.69% of that of barren hill, respectively. Among the five forest ecosystems, H. rhamnoides forest ecosystem had the least surface runoff and soil erosion, being the best in water and soil conservation function.

  11. Minnesota forest ecosystem vulnerability assessment and synthesis: a report from the Northwoods Climate Change Response Framework project

    Treesearch

    Stephen Handler; Matthew J. Duveneck; Louis Iverson; Emily Peters; Robert M. Scheller; Kirk R. Wythers; Leslie Brandt; Patricia Butler; Maria Janowiak; P. Danielle Shannon; Chris Swanston; Kelly Barrett; Randy Kolka; Casey McQuiston; Brian Palik; Peter B. Reich; Clarence Turner; Mark White; Cheryl Adams; Anthony D' Amato; Suzanne Hagell; Patricia Johnson; Rosemary Johnson; Mike Larson; Stephen Matthews; Rebecca Montgomery; Steve Olson; Matthew Peters; Anantha Prasad; Jack Rajala; Jad Daley; Mae Davenport; Marla R. Emery; David Fehringer; Christopher L. Hoving; Gary Johnson; Lucinda Johnson; David Neitzel; Adena Rissman; Chadwick Rittenhouse; Robert. Ziel

    2014-01-01

    Forests in northern Minnesota will be affected directly and indirectly by a changing climate over the next 100 years. This assessment evaluates the vulnerability of forest ecosystems in Minnesota's Laurentian Mixed Forest Province to a range of future climates. Information on current forest conditions, observed climate trends, projected climate changes, and...

  12. Effects of fire on major forest ecosystem processes: an overview.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhong

    2006-09-01

    Fire and fire ecology are among the best-studied topics in contemporary ecosystem ecology. The large body of existing literature on fire and fire ecology indicates an urgent need to synthesize the information on the pattern of fire effects on ecosystem composition, structure, and functions for application in fire and ecosystem management. Understanding fire effects and underlying principles are critical to reduce the risk of uncharacteristic wildfires and for proper use of fire as an effective management tool toward management goals. This overview is a synthesis of current knowledge on major effects of fire on fire-prone ecosystems, particularly those in the boreal and temperate regions of the North America. Four closely related ecosystem processes in vegetation dynamics, nutrient cycling, soil and belowground process and water relations were discussed with emphases on fire as the driving force. Clearly, fire can shape ecosystem composition, structure and functions by selecting fire adapted species and removing other susceptible species, releasing nutrients from the biomass and improving nutrient cycling, affecting soil properties through changing soil microbial activities and water relations, and creating heterogeneous mosaics, which in turn, can further influence fire behavior and ecological processes. Fire as a destructive force can rapidly consume large amount of biomass and cause negative impacts such as post-fire soil erosion and water runoff, and air pollution; however, as a constructive force fire is also responsible for maintaining the health and perpetuity of certain fire-dependent ecosystems. Considering the unique ecological roles of fire in mediating and regulating ecosystems, fire should be incorporated as an integral component of ecosystems and management. However, the effects of fire on an ecosystem depend on the fire regime, vegetation type, climate, physical environments, and the scale of time and space of assessment. More ecosystem

  13. Enhanced accumulation and storage of mercury on subtropical evergreen forest floor: Implications on mercury budget in global forest ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xun; Lin, Che-Jen; Lu, Zhiyun; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Yiping; Feng, Xinbin

    2016-08-01

    Forest ecosystems play an important role in the global cycling of mercury (Hg). In this study, we characterized the Hg cycling at a remote evergreen broadleaf (EB) forest site in southwest China (Mount Ailao). The annual Hg input via litterfall is estimated to be 75.0 ± 24.2 µg m-2 yr-1 at Mount Ailao. Such a quantity is up to 1 order of magnitude greater than those observed at remote temperate/boreal (T/B) forest sites. Production of litter biomass is found to be the most influential factor causing the high Hg input to the EB forest. Given their large areal coverage, Hg deposition through litterfall in EB forests is appropriately 9 ± 5 Mg yr-1 in China and 1086 ± 775 Mg yr-1 globally. The observed wet Hg deposition at Mount Ailao is 4.9 ± 4.5 µg m-2 yr-1, falling in the lower range of those observed at 49 T/B forest sites in North America and Europe. Given the data, the Hg deposition flux through litterfall is approximately 15 times higher than the wet Hg deposition at Mount Ailao. Steady Hg accumulation in decomposing litter biomass and Hg uptake from the environment were observed during 25 months of litter decomposition. The size of the Hg pool in the organic horizon of EB forest floors is estimated to be up to 2-10 times the typical pool size in T/B forests. This study highlights the importance of EB forest ecosystems in global Hg cycling, which requires further assessment when more data become available in tropical forests.

  14. Seasonal Evolution, Interannual Variability and Partitioning of Evapotranspiration in Two Mountainous Semiarid Forest Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendez-Barroso, L. A.; Vivoni, E. R.; Rodriguez, J. C.; Watts, C.; Garatuza-Payan, J.; Yepez, E. A.

    2010-12-01

    Seasonal vegetation changes play a strong role in semiarid regions by modifying water, energy and momentum fluxes. Nevertheless, most land surface models parameterize vegetation as a static component or with long-term averaged seasonal variations. One way to account for the role of vegetation on land surface dynamics is by incorporating physiological properties obtained from remote sensing data. In this study, we couple a set of vegetation parameters derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) with a land surface model, the TIN-based Real-time Integrated Basin Simulator (tRIBS), for two semiarid mountain ecosystems in northern Sonora, Mexico. We relate model vegetation parameters, such cover fraction, canopy storage capacity, optical transmission coefficient, and stomatal resistance, to remotely-sensed vegetation indices using empirical equations. Point-scale model simulations are carried out for two eddy-covariance tower sites installed in a subtropical scrubland and an oak-savanna arranged along a semiarid mountain front. Model simulations span multiple summer periods (2004-2009) and cover the full extent and transition of the monsoon season (June 1 to September 30). Based on the tower observations, we first describe the seasonal evolution and interannual variability of surface states and fluxes, with a focus on evapotranspiration (ET). We then compare the model simulations with the tower data under three vegetation conditions - static leaf-off, static leaf-on and dynamic greening - to quantify the impact of seasonal greening on the modeled fluxes and states. Finally, we utilize the model to investigate the temporal variations and controls on the partitioning of ET into soil evaporation, plant transpiration and evaporation of intercepted water for the two ecosystems. Our preliminary results indicate that the magnitude or intensity in vegetation parameters vary among years and depends directly to the frequency or intensity of rainfall

  15. Nonsteady state carbon sequestration in forest ecosystems of China estimated by data assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Tao; Shi, Peijun; Jia, Gensuo; Luo, Yiqi

    2013-12-01

    sequestration occurs only when terrestrial ecosystems are at nonsteady states. Despite of their ubiquity in the real world, the nonsteady states of ecosystems have not been well quantified, especially at regional and global scales. In this study, we developed a two-step data assimilation scheme to estimate carbon sink strength in China's forest ecosystems. Specifically, the two-step scheme consists of a steady state step and a nonsteady state step. In the steady state step, we constrained a process-based model (Terrestrial Ecosystem Regional (TECO-R) model) against biometric data (net primary production NPP, biomass, litter, and soil organic carbon) in mature forests. With a subset of the parameter values estimated from the steady state data assimilation being fixed, the nonsteady state data assimilation was performed to estimate carbon sequestration in China's forest ecosystems. Our results indicated that 17 out of the 22 total parameters in the TECO-R model were well constrained by the biometric data with the steady state data assimilation. When observations from both mature and developing forests were used, all the 10 parameters related to carbon sequestration in vegetation and soil carbon pools were well constrained at the nonsteady state step. The estimated mean vegetation carbon sink in China's forests is 89.7 ± 16.8 gC m-2 yr-1, comparable with the values estimated from the forest inventory and other process-based regional models. The estimated mean soil and litter carbon sinks in China's forests are 14.1 ± 20.7 and 4.7 ± 6.5 gC m-2 yr-1. This study demonstrated that a two-step data assimilation scheme can be a potent tool to estimate regional carbon sequestration in nonsteady state ecosystems.

  16. Studies on Interpretive Structural Model for Forest Ecosystem Management Decision-Making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Suqing; Gao, Xiumei; Zen, Qunying; Zhou, Yuanman; Huang, Yuequn; Han, Weidong; Li, Linfeng; Li, Jiping; Pu, Yingshan

    Characterized by their openness, complexity and large scale, forest ecosystems interweave themselves with social system, economic system and other natural ecosystems, thus complicating both their researches and management decision-making. According to the theories of sustainable development, hierarchy-competence levels, cybernetics and feedback, 25 factors have been chosen from human society, economy and nature that affect forest ecosystem management so that they are systematically analyzed via developing an interpretive structural model (ISM) to reveal their relationships and positions in the forest ecosystem management. The ISM consists of 7 layers with the 3 objectives for ecosystem management being the top layer (the seventh layer). The ratio between agricultural production value and industrial production value as the bases of management decision-making in forest ecosystems becomes the first layer at the bottom because it has great impacts on the values of society and the development trends of forestry, while the factors of climatic environments, intensive management extent, management measures, input-output ratio as well as landscape and productivity are arranged from the second to sixth layers respectively.

  17. Characterization of the Montane Huntington Wildlife Forest Ecosystem Using Machine Learning Approaches from Remote Sensing Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Manqi

    Montane forests are susceptible to various stressors such as land use and climate change. Consequently, research on characterizing montane forest ecosystems should be conducted on a continuous basis for sustainable forest management. In this research, forest type mapping and change analysis, and biomass/carbon stock quantification were performed over a mountainous forest located in the central Adirondack Park, NY, by employing machine learning techniques at the plot level. Multi-temporal Landsat TM data were used to classify forest type cover and to detect forest cover changes for the past 20 years. Forest biomass and carbon stock quantification was then performed using full waveform LiDAR data collected in September 2011. Accuracies from the two case studies were in support of the versatility of machine learning approaches for forest and ecological investigation. Topographic characteristics affected the classification accuracy as well as the forest type change for the past 20 years. LiDAR-derived metrics, especially height-based ones, proved useful for quantifying biomass/carbon stock. Keywords: Landsat TM, full waveform LiDAR, forest classification, forest change analysis, biomass, carbon stock, machine learning

  18. High carbon dioxide uptake by subtropical forest ecosystems in the East Asian monsoon region.

    PubMed

    Yu, Guirui; Chen, Zhi; Piao, Shilong; Peng, Changhui; Ciais, Philippe; Wang, Qiufeng; Li, Xuanran; Zhu, Xianjin

    2014-04-01

    Temperate- and high-latitude forests have been shown to contribute a carbon sink in the Northern Hemisphere, but fewer studies have addressed the carbon balance of the subtropical forests. In the present study, we integrated eddy covariance observations established in the 1990s and 2000s to show that East Asian monsoon subtropical forests between 20 °N and 40 °N represent an average net ecosystem productivity (NEP) of 362 ± 39 g C m(-2) yr(-1) (mean ± 1 SE). This average forest NEP value is higher than that of Asian tropical and temperate forests and is also higher than that of forests at the same latitudes in Europe-Africa and North America. East Asian monsoon subtropical forests have comparable NEP to that of subtropical forests of the southeastern United States and intensively managed Western European forests. The total NEP of East Asian monsoon subtropical forests was estimated to be 0.72 ± 0.08 Pg C yr(-1), which accounts for 8% of the global forest NEP. This result indicates that the role of subtropical forests in the current global carbon cycle cannot be ignored and that the regional distributions of the Northern Hemisphere's terrestrial carbon sinks are needed to be reevaluated. The young stand ages and high nitrogen deposition, coupled with sufficient and synchronous water and heat availability, may be the primary reasons for the high NEP of this region, and further studies are needed to quantify the contribution of each underlying factor.

  19. High carbon dioxide uptake by subtropical forest ecosystems in the East Asian monsoon region

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Guirui; Chen, Zhi; Piao, Shilong; Peng, Changhui; Ciais, Philippe; Wang, Qiufeng; Li, Xuanran; Zhu, Xianjin

    2014-01-01

    Temperate- and high-latitude forests have been shown to contribute a carbon sink in the Northern Hemisphere, but fewer studies have addressed the carbon balance of the subtropical forests. In the present study, we integrated eddy covariance observations established in the 1990s and 2000s to show that East Asian monsoon subtropical forests between 20°N and 40°N represent an average net ecosystem productivity (NEP) of 362 ± 39 g C m−2 yr−1 (mean ± 1 SE). This average forest NEP value is higher than that of Asian tropical and temperate forests and is also higher than that of forests at the same latitudes in Europe–Africa and North America. East Asian monsoon subtropical forests have comparable NEP to that of subtropical forests of the southeastern United States and intensively managed Western European forests. The total NEP of East Asian monsoon subtropical forests was estimated to be 0.72 ± 0.08 Pg C yr−1, which accounts for 8% of the global forest NEP. This result indicates that the role of subtropical forests in the current global carbon cycle cannot be ignored and that the regional distributions of the Northern Hemisphere's terrestrial carbon sinks are needed to be reevaluated. The young stand ages and high nitrogen deposition, coupled with sufficient and synchronous water and heat availability, may be the primary reasons for the high NEP of this region, and further studies are needed to quantify the contribution of each underlying factor. PMID:24639529

  20. Biogeochemical modelling vs. tree-ring data - comparison of forest ecosystem productivity estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zorana Ostrogović Sever, Maša; Barcza, Zoltán; Hidy, Dóra; Paladinić, Elvis; Kern, Anikó; Marjanović, Hrvoje

    2017-04-01

    Forest ecosystems are sensitive to environmental changes as well as human-induce disturbances, therefore process-based models with integrated management modules represent valuable tool for estimating and forecasting forest ecosystem productivity under changing conditions. Biogeochemical model Biome-BGC simulates carbon, nitrogen and water fluxes, and it is widely used for different terrestrial ecosystems. It was modified and parameterised by many researchers in the past to meet the specific local conditions. In this research, we used recently published improved version of the model Biome-BGCMuSo (BBGCMuSo), with multilayer soil module and integrated management module. The aim of our research is to validate modelling results of forest ecosystem productivity (NPP) from BBGCMuSo model with observed productivity estimated from an extensive dataset of tree-rings. The research was conducted in two distinct forest complexes of managed Pedunculate oak in SE Europe (Croatia), namely Pokupsko basin and Spačva basin. First, we parameterized BBGCMuSo model at a local level using eddy-covariance (EC) data from Jastrebarsko EC site. Parameterized model was used for the assessment of productivity on a larger scale. Results of NPP assessment with BBGCMuSo are compared with NPP estimated from tree ring data taken from trees on over 100 plots in both forest complexes. Keywords: Biome-BGCMuSo, forest productivity, model parameterization, NPP, Pedunculate oak

  1. Urban forest structure, ecosystem services and change in Syracuse, NY

    Treesearch

    David J. Nowak; Robert E. Hoehn; Allison R. Bodine; Eric J. Greenfield; Jarlath. O' Neil-Dunne

    2013-01-01

    The tree population within the City of Syracuse was assessed using a random sampling of plots in 1999, 2001 and 2009 to determine how the population and the ecosystem services these trees provide have changed over time. Ecosystem services and values for carbon sequestration, air pollution removal and changes in building energy use were derived using the i-Tree Eco...

  2. Disease of Forest Trees: Consequences of Exotic Ecosystems?

    SciTech Connect

    Otrosina, W.J.

    1997-01-01

    The paper introduces the concept of exotic ecosystems defined as unstable ecosystems arising from edaphic and environmental changes brought about by past land use or current management practices. These are presented in the context of how various silvicultural regimes, disturbances and past land use practices have interacted to create disease problems.

  3. Radiocesium distributions and fluxes in the forest ecosystems of Chernobyl and Fukushima

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoschenko, Vasyl; Nanba, Kenji; Konoplev, Alexei; Takase, Tsugiko; Kashparov, Valery; Zheleznyak, Mark

    2015-04-01

    Institute of Environmental Radioactivity (IER) of Fukushima University and Ukrainian Institute of Agricultural Radiology (UIAR) of NUBiP of Ukraine have started the long-term monitoring programs for characterization of the radiocesium distributions and fluxes in the typical forest ecosystems of the Fukushima and Chernobyl zones, respectively. Realization of the programs will enable identification of the key processes governing the radionuclides cycling in the forest ecosystems at the intermediate (Fukushima) and late (Chernobyl) stages of the two accidents and will provide the empirical data needed for modelling the radionuclide long-term behavior in the Fukushima and Chernobyl forests. At the present stage in the Chernobyl zone root uptake of radionuclides plays the main role in the forest biomass contamination with 137Cs. In the typical Scots pine forests its inventories in the aboveground biomass and litter may reach several percents of the total radionuclide activity in the ecosystem. The radionuclides biogenic fluxes (root uptake and return to soil with litterfall and throughfall) in the Chernobyl forests are comparable or exceed their geochemical migration fluxes in the root-inhabited soil layer, which leads to stabilization of the radionuclide distributions in the soil profile and to the gradual decrease of the apparent vertical migration rates. For example, the main part (about 80%) of the radiocesium activity in soil is still localized in the 0-5 cm topsoil layer; the radiocesium uptake flux may reach 0.n % year-1 of its total activity in the ecosystem, while the geochemical migration flux from the root-inhabited layer is estimated as 0.1 % year-1. In the studied typical forest ecosystem at the territory contaminated as a result of the Fukushima accident (Sugi forest) about 20% of the total radiocesium activity in the soil profile is localized in the forest litter, and similarly to the Chernobyl forest, major part of the activity, about 70% of the total in

  4. Human impacts on genetic diversity in forest ecosystems

    Treesearch

    F. Thomas Ledig

    1992-01-01

    Humans have converted forest to agricultural and urban uses, exploited species, fragmented wildlands. changed the demographic structure of forests, altered habitat, degraded the environment with atmospheric and soil pollutants, introduced exotic pests and competitors, and domesticated favored species. None of they activities is new; perhaps with the exception of...

  5. FOREST SOIL CARBON SEQUESTRATION: ACCOUNTING FOR THIS VITAL ECOSYSTEM SERVICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Forests play a crucial role in supplying many goods and services that society depends upon on a daily basis including water supply, production of oxygen, soil protection, building materials, wildlife habitat and recreation. Forests also provide a significant amount of carbon seq...

  6. FOREST SOIL CARBON SEQUESTRATION: ACCOUNTING FOR THIS VITAL ECOSYSTEM SERVICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Forests play a crucial role in supplying many goods and services that society depends upon on a daily basis including water supply, production of oxygen, soil protection, building materials, wildlife habitat and recreation. Forests also provide a significant amount of carbon seq...

  7. Responses of Forest Ecosystems to Changing Sulfur Inputs

    Treesearch

    Dale W. Johnson; Myron J. Mitchell

    1998-01-01

    There was little information on sulfur (S) cycling in forests compared with that of other nutrients (especially N) until the past two decades. Interest in S nutrition and cycling in forests was heightened with the discovery of deficiencies in some unpolluted regions (Kelly and Lambert, 1972; Humphreys et al., 1975; Turner et al., 1977, 1980) and excesses associated...

  8. Restoring biodiversity and forest ecosystem services in degraded tropical landscapes

    Treesearch

    John A. Parrotta

    2010-01-01

    Over the past century, an estimated 850 million ha of the world’s tropical forests have been lost or severely degraded, with serious impacts on local and regional biodiversity. A significant proportion of these lands were originally cleared of their forest cover for agricultural development or other economic uses. Today, however, they provide few if any environmental...

  9. Long-Term Soil Chemistry Changes in Aggrading Forest Ecosystems

    Treesearch

    Jennifer D. Knoepp; Wayne T. Swank

    1994-01-01

    Assessing potential long-term forest productivity requires identification of the processes regulating chemical changes in forest soils. We resampled the litter layer and upper two mineral soil horizons, A and AB/BA, in two aggrading southern Appalachian watersheds 20 yr after an earlier sampling. Soils from a mixed-hardwood watershed exhibited a small but significant...

  10. Describing the conditions of forest ecosystems using disturbance profiles

    Treesearch

    John E. Lundquist; J. P. Ward

    1995-01-01

    Data from a study on the effect of small-scale disturbances on small mammal prey of the Mexican spotted owl illustrates how spatial models of canopy cover and disturbance profiles of forest stands might be used to define forest stand condition and develop silvicultural prescriptions.

  11. Searching for resilience: addressing the impacts of changing disturbance regimes on forest ecosystem services.

    PubMed

    Seidl, Rupert; Spies, Thomas A; Peterson, David L; Stephens, Scott L; Hicke, Jeffrey A

    2016-02-01

    1. The provisioning of ecosystem services to society is increasingly under pressure from global change. Changing disturbance regimes are of particular concern in this context due to their high potential impact on ecosystem structure, function and composition. Resilience-based stewardship is advocated to address these changes in ecosystem management, but its operational implementation has remained challenging. 2. We review observed and expected changes in disturbance regimes and their potential impacts on provisioning, regulating, cultural and supporting ecosystem services, concentrating on temperate and boreal forests. Subsequently, we focus on resilience as a powerful concept to quantify and address these changes and their impacts, and present an approach towards its operational application using established methods from disturbance ecology. 3. We suggest using the range of variability concept - characterizing and bounding the long-term behaviour of ecosystems - to locate and delineate the basins of attraction of a system. System recovery in relation to its range of variability can be used to measure resilience of ecosystems, allowing inferences on both engineering resilience (recovery rate) and monitoring for regime shifts (directionality of recovery trajectory). 4. It is important to consider the dynamic nature of these properties in ecosystem analysis and management decision-making, as both disturbance processes and mechanisms of resilience will be subject to changes in the future. Furthermore, because ecosystem services are at the interface between natural and human systems, the social dimension of resilience (social adaptive capacity and range of variability) requires consideration in responding to changing disturbance regimes in forests. 5.Synthesis and applications. Based on examples from temperate and boreal forests we synthesize principles and pathways for fostering resilience to changing disturbance regimes in ecosystem management. We conclude that

  12. Searching for resilience: addressing the impacts of changing disturbance regimes on forest ecosystem services

    PubMed Central

    Seidl, Rupert; Spies, Thomas A.; Peterson, David L.; Stephens, Scott L.; Hicke, Jeffrey A.

    2016-01-01

    Summary 1. The provisioning of ecosystem services to society is increasingly under pressure from global change. Changing disturbance regimes are of particular concern in this context due to their high potential impact on ecosystem structure, function and composition. Resilience-based stewardship is advocated to address these changes in ecosystem management, but its operational implementation has remained challenging. 2. We review observed and expected changes in disturbance regimes and their potential impacts on provisioning, regulating, cultural and supporting ecosystem services, concentrating on temperate and boreal forests. Subsequently, we focus on resilience as a powerful concept to quantify and address these changes and their impacts, and present an approach towards its operational application using established methods from disturbance ecology. 3. We suggest using the range of variability concept – characterizing and bounding the long-term behaviour of ecosystems – to locate and delineate the basins of attraction of a system. System recovery in relation to its range of variability can be used to measure resilience of ecosystems, allowing inferences on both engineering resilience (recovery rate) and monitoring for regime shifts (directionality of recovery trajectory). 4. It is important to consider the dynamic nature of these properties in ecosystem analysis and management decision-making, as both disturbance processes and mechanisms of resilience will be subject to changes in the future. Furthermore, because ecosystem services are at the interface between natural and human systems, the social dimension of resilience (social adaptive capacity and range of variability) requires consideration in responding to changing disturbance regimes in forests. 5. Synthesis and applications. Based on examples from temperate and boreal forests we synthesize principles and pathways for fostering resilience to changing disturbance regimes in ecosystem management. We

  13. Tropical forest carbon balance in a warmer world: a critical review spanning microbial- to ecosystem-scale processes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Tana E.; Cavaleri, Molly A.; Reed, Sasha C.

    2012-01-01

    Tropical forests play a major role in regulating global carbon (C) fluxes and stocks, and even small changes to C cycling in this productive biome could dramatically affect atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations. Temperature is expected to increase over all land surfaces in the future, yet we have a surprisingly poor understanding of how tropical forests will respond to this significant climatic change. Here we present a contemporary synthesis of the existing data and what they suggest about how tropical forests will respond to increasing temperatures. Our goals were to: (i) determine whether there is enough evidence to support the conclusion that increased temperature will affect tropical forest C balance; (ii) if there is sufficient evidence, determine what direction this effect will take; and, (iii) establish what steps should to be taken to resolve the uncertainties surrounding tropical forest responses to increasing temperatures. We approach these questions from a mass-balance perspective and therefore focus primarily on the effects of temperature on inputs and outputs of C, spanning microbial- to ecosystem-scale responses. We found that, while there is the strong potential for temperature to affect processes related to C cycling and storage in tropical forests, a notable lack of data combined with the physical, biological and chemical diversity of the forests themselves make it difficult to resolve this issue with certainty. We suggest a variety of experimental approaches that could help elucidate how tropical forests will respond to warming, including large-scale in situ manipulation experiments, longer term field experiments, the incorporation of a range of scales in the investigation of warming effects (both spatial and temporal), as well as the inclusion of a diversity of tropical forest sites. Finally, we highlight areas of tropical forest research where notably few data are available, including temperature effects on: nutrient cycling

  14. Tropical forest carbon balance in a warmer world: a critical review spanning microbial- to ecosystem-scale processes.

    PubMed

    Wood, Tana E; Cavaleri, Molly A; Reed, Sasha C

    2012-11-01

    Tropical forests play a major role in regulating global carbon (C) fluxes and stocks, and even small changes to C cycling in this productive biome could dramatically affect atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO(2) ) concentrations. Temperature is expected to increase over all land surfaces in the future, yet we have a surprisingly poor understanding of how tropical forests will respond to this significant climatic change. Here we present a contemporary synthesis of the existing data and what they suggest about how tropical forests will respond to increasing temperatures. Our goals were to: (i) determine whether there is enough evidence to support the conclusion that increased temperature will affect tropical forest C balance; (ii) if there is sufficient evidence, determine what direction this effect will take; and, (iii) establish what steps should to be taken to resolve the uncertainties surrounding tropical forest responses to increasing temperatures. We approach these questions from a mass-balance perspective and therefore focus primarily on the effects of temperature on inputs and outputs of C, spanning microbial- to ecosystem-scale responses. We found that, while there is the strong potential for temperature to affect processes related to C cycling and storage in tropical forests, a notable lack of data combined with the physical, biological and chemical diversity of the forests themselves make it difficult to resolve this issue with certainty. We suggest a variety of experimental approaches that could help elucidate how tropical forests will respond to warming, including large-scale in situ manipulation experiments, longer term field experiments, the incorporation of a range of scales in the investigation of warming effects (both spatial and temporal), as well as the inclusion of a diversity of tropical forest sites. Finally, we highlight areas of tropical forest research where notably few data are available, including temperature effects on: nutrient cycling

  15. On the functional role of tree species in two forest ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutsch, Werner Leo; Herbst, Mathias; Liu, Chunjiang

    2010-05-01

    Ecosystems can be characterized in different ways depending on the point of view or the scientific background. Summarizing these views, one can describe ecosystems by their structure and metabolism. The species composition is part of the ecosystem structure. Moreover, ecosystem structures are detailed by biomass or soil and canopy architecture. Ecosystem metabolism represents the functional side. It can be described by primary production, nutrient retention, or control and use of water resources. Structure and function are connected. The biomass that is produced by the ecosystem metabolism is used to construct the ecosystem structure, which vice versa the structure controls the efficiency of the ecosystem metabolism. One hypothesis is that ecosystems with many species provide a more efficient metabolism than ecosystems with fewer species. We tested this hypothesis by using two ecosystems functional parameters in several deciduous forest ecosystems. The first example are possible relations between canopy carbon uptake capacity (FP,max) as measured with the eddy covariance technique (ecosystem metabolism) and LAI as well as spatial and temporal variability of leaf traits (ecosystem structure). We investigated leaf traits of four tree species in a mixed deciduous forest in northern Germany in search for an explanation for the differences in canopy photosynthetic capacity between different forest sectors consisting of different species and species numbers (Quercus robur + Fagus sylvatica, Fraxinus excelsior + Alnus glutinosa, pure Fagus sylvatica). We identified leaf traits that were adjusted to the canopy light profile in species-specific ways, and for these traits the plasticity indices were calculated. Canopy photosynthetic capacity did neither correlate with leaf area index (LAI) alone nor with canopy plasticity indices which were almost similar between the three sectors although it differed at the species level. It is suggested that the spatial variability of FP

  16. Interactive effects between N addition and disturbance on boreal forest ecosystem structure and function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordin, Annika; Strengbom, Joachim; From, Fredrik

    2014-05-01

    In management of boreal forests, nitrogen (N) enrichment from atmospheric deposition or from forest fertilization can appear in combination with land-use related disturbances, i.e. tree harvesting by clear-felling. Long-term interactive effects between N enrichment and disturbance on boreal forest ecosystem structure and function are, however, poorly known. We investigated effects of N enrichment by forest fertilization done > 25 years ago on forest understory species composition in old-growth (undisturbed) forests, and in forests clear-felled 10 years ago (disturbed). In clear-felled forests we also investigated effects of the previous N addition on growth of tree saplings. The results show that the N enrichment effect on the understory species composition was strongly dependent on the disturbance caused by clear-felling. In undisturbed forests, there were small or no effects on understory species composition from N addition. In contrast, effects were large in forests first exposed to N addition and subsequently disturbed by clear-felling. Effects of N addition differed among functional groups of plants. Abundance of graminoids increased (+232%) and abundance of dwarf shrubs decreased (-44%) following disturbance in N fertilized forests. For vascular plants, the two perturbations had contrasting effects on α-(within forests) and β-diversity (among forests): in disturbed forests, N addition reduced, or had no effect on α-diversity, while β-diversity increased. For bryophytes, negative effects of disturbance on α-diversity were smaller in N fertilized forests than in forests not fertilized, while neither N addition nor disturbance had any effects on β-diversity. Moreover, sapling growth in forests clear-felled 10 years ago was significantly higher in previously N fertilized forests than in forests not fertilized. Our study show that effects of N addition on plant communities may appear small, short-lived, or even absent until exposed to a disturbance. This

  17. A dynamic ecosystem growth model for forests at high complexity structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collalti, A.; Perugini, L.; Chiti, T.; Matteucci, G.; Oriani, A.; Santini, M.; Papale, D.; Valentini, R.

    2012-04-01

    Forests ecosystem play an important role in carbon cycle, biodiversity conservation and for other ecosystem services and changes in their structure and status perturb a delicate equilibrium that involves not only vegetation components but also biogeochemical cycles and global climate. The approaches to determine the magnitude of these effects are nowadays various and one of those include the use of models able to simulate structural changes and the variations in forests yield The present work shows the development of a forest dynamic model, on ecosystem spatial scale using the well known light use efficiency to determine Gross Primary Production. The model is predictive and permits to simulate processes that determine forest growth, its dynamic and the effects of forest management using eco-physiological parameters easy to be assessed and to be measured. The model has been designed to consider a tri-dimensional cell structure composed by different vertical layers depending on the forest type that has to be simulated. These features enable the model to work on multi-layer and multi-species forest types, typical of Mediterranean environment, at the resolution of one hectare and at monthly time-step. The model simulates, for each layer, a value of available Photosynthetic Active Radiation (PAR) through Leaf Area Index, Light Extinction Coefficient and cell coverage, the transpiration rate that is closely linked to the intercepted light and the evaporation from soil. Using this model it is possible to evaluate the possible impacts of climate change on forests that may result in decrease or increase of productivity as well as the feedback of one or more dominated layers in terms of CO2 uptake in a forest stand and the effects of forest management activities during the forest harvesting cycle. The model has been parameterised, validated and applied in a multi-layer, multi-age and multi-species Italian turkey oak forest (Q. cerris L., C. betulus L. and C. avellana L

  18. Monitoring gradual ecosystem change using Landsat time series analyses: case studies in selected forest and rangeland ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vogelmann, James E.; Xian, George; Homer, Collin G.; Tolk, Brian

    2012-01-01

    The focus of the study was to assess gradual changes occurring throughout a range of natural ecosystems using decadal Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM +) time series data. Time series data stacks were generated for four study areas: (1) a four scene area dominated by forest and rangeland ecosystems in the southwestern United States, (2) a sagebrush-dominated rangeland in Wyoming, (3) woodland adjacent to prairie in northwestern Nebraska, and (4) a forested area in the White Mountains of New Hampshire. Through analyses of time series data, we found evidence of gradual systematic change in many of the natural vegetation communities in all four areas. Many of the conifer forests in the southwestern US are showing declines related to insects and drought, but very few are showing evidence of improving conditions or increased greenness. Sagebrush communities are showing decreases in greenness related to fire, mining, and probably drought, but very few of these communities are showing evidence of increased greenness or improving conditions. In Nebraska, forest communities are showing local expansion and increased canopy densification in the prairie–woodland interface, and in the White Mountains high elevation understory conifers are showing range increases towards lower elevations. The trends detected are not obvious through casual inspection of the Landsat images. Analyses of time series data using many scenes and covering multiple years are required in order to develop better impressions and representations of the changing ecosystem patterns and trends that are occurring. The approach described in this paper demonstrates that Landsat time series data can be used operationally for assessing gradual ecosystem change across large areas. Local knowledge and available ancillary data are required in order to fully understand the nature of these trends.

  19. Biomass is the main driver of changes in ecosystem process rates during tropical forest succession.

    PubMed

    Lohbeck, Madelon; Poorter, Lourens; Martínez-Ramos, Miguel; Bongers, Frans

    2015-05-01

    Over half of the world's forests are disturbed, and the rate at which ecosystem processes recover after disturbance is important for the services these forests can provide. We analyze the drivers' underlying changes in rates of key ecosystem processes (biomass productivity, litter productivity, actual litter decomposition, and potential litter decomposition) during secondary succession after shifting cultivation in wet tropical forest of Mexico. We test the importance of three alternative drivers of ecosystem processes: vegetation biomass (vegetation quantity hypothesis), community-weighted trait mean (mass ratio hypothesis), and functional diversity (niche complementarity hypothesis) using structural equation modeling. This allows us to infer the relative importance of different mechanisms underlying ecosystem process recovery. Ecosystem process rates changed during succession, and the strongest driver was aboveground biomass for each of the processes. Productivity of aboveground stem biomass and leaf litter as well as actual litter decomposition increased with initial standing vegetation biomass, whereas potential litter decomposition decreased with standing biomass. Additionally, biomass productivity was positively affected by community-weighted mean of specific leaf area, and potential decomposition was positively affected by functional divergence, and negatively by community-weighted mean of leaf dry matter content. Our empirical results show that functional diversity and community-weighted means are of secondary importance for explaining changes in ecosystem process rates during tropical forest succession. Instead, simply, the amount of vegetation in a site is the major driver of changes, perhaps because there is a steep biomass buildup during succession that overrides more subtle effects of community functional properties on ecosystem processes. We recommend future studies in the field of biodiversity and ecosystem functioning to separate the effects of

  20. Integrating remotely sensed land cover observations and a biogeochemical model for estimating forest ecosystem carbon dynamics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liu, J.; Liu, S.; Loveland, T.R.; Tieszen, L.L.

    2008-01-01

    Land cover change is one of the key driving forces for ecosystem carbon (C) dynamics. We present an approach for using sequential remotely sensed land cover observations and a biogeochemical model to estimate contemporary and future ecosystem carbon trends. We applied the General Ensemble Biogeochemical Modelling System (GEMS) for the Laurentian Plains and Hills ecoregion in the northeastern United States for the period of 1975-2025. The land cover changes, especially forest stand-replacing events, were detected on 30 randomly located 10-km by 10-km sample blocks, and were assimilated by GEMS for biogeochemical simulations. In GEMS, each unique combination of major controlling variables (including land cover change history) forms a geo-referenced simulation unit. For a forest simulation unit, a Monte Carlo process is used to determine forest type, forest age, forest biomass, and soil C, based on the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) data and the U.S. General Soil Map (STATSGO) data. Ensemble simulations are performed for each simulation unit to incorporate input data uncertainty. Results show that on average forests of the Laurentian Plains and Hills ecoregion have been sequestrating 4.2 Tg C (1 teragram = 1012 gram) per year, including 1.9 Tg C removed from the ecosystem as the consequences of land cover change. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V.

  1. Wildfires, Ecosystem Services, and Biodiversity in Tropical Dry Forest in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmerbeck, Joachim; Fiener, Peter

    2015-08-01

    This review is intended to contribute to the understanding of the interlinkage between wildfire in India's tropical dry forest (TDF) and selected ecosystem services (ES), namely forest provisioning and water regulating services, as well as biodiversity. TDF covers approximately 146,000 km2 (4.4 %) of India, whereas according to the MODIS fire product about 2200 km2 (1.4 %) burns per year. As studies on wildfire effects upon ESs and biodiversity in Indian TDFs are rare we partly transferred findings from other (dry) forest areas to the environmental situation in India. In India (intentionally lit) wildfires have a very important connection to local livelihoods and the availability of non-wood forest products. Very important adverse long-term effects are the deterioration of forest ecosystems and soil degradation. The potential for TDF to regulate hydrological cycles is expected to be greater in the absence of fire than with it. A general judgment on the effect of fire on biodiversity is difficult as it depends on the community and species involved but a loss of biodiversity under regular burnings is apparent. Consequently, forest managers need sound knowledge regarding the interplay of wildfires and ecosystem behavior in general and more specific knowledge regarding the effects on taxa being considered for conservation efforts. Generally, much more research is needed to understand the trade-offs between the short-term benefits gained from forest provisioning services and long-term adverse effects.

  2. Quantifying the regional variation in forest ecosystem light-use efficiency using airborne remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serbin, S. P.; Townsend, P. A.

    2011-12-01

    Forests are a globally important resource, playing a critical role in the terrestrial carbon cycle and influencing climate through the exchange of mass and energy with the atmosphere. In order to better understand the continued role of forest ecosystems in the functioning of the terrestrial biosphere detailed assessments of carbon and nutrient cycling are needed along forest successional trajectories, across climatic regions, and in response to ephemeral disturbances. Remote sensing approaches offer great potential to estimate the landscape- to regional-scale productivity in the world's forests, as well as other critical constituents including nitrogen concentration, pigments, water content, morphology, and structure. In this project, we are utilizing imaging spectroscopy data in conjunction with extensive field measurements to derive spatially explicit estimates of light-use efficiency (LUE, ɛ), a key component in remote sensing of productivity, based on forest functional properties (i.e. chemistry and leaf morphology) and canopy architecture. We show a strong ability to map chemistry, morphology and LUE across diverse forest types. These data are being used in a diagnostic modeling framework driven by the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) sensor to quantify regional variability in net primary productivity (NPP) in the Upper Great Lakes region. This research is furthering our understanding of ecosystem responses to global change by testing the links between forest ecosystem processes and mechanisms that can be remotely sensed, thereby advancing large-scale modeling abilities.

  3. Experimental warming studies on tree species and forest ecosystems: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Chung, Haegeun; Muraoka, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Masahiro; Han, Saerom; Muller, Onno; Son, Yowhan

    2013-07-01

    Temperature affects a cascade of ecological processes and functions of forests. With future higher global temperatures being inevitable it is critical to understand and predict how forest ecosystems and tree species will respond. This paper reviews experimental warming studies in boreal and temperate forests or tree species beyond the direct effects of higher temperature on plant ecophysiology by scaling up to forest level responses and considering the indirect effects of higher temperature. In direct response to higher temperature (1) leaves emerged earlier and senesced later, resulting in a longer growing season (2) the abundance of herbivorous insects increased and their performance was enhanced and (3) soil nitrogen mineralization and leaf litter decomposition were accelerated. Besides these generalizations across species, plant ecophysiological traits were highly species-specific. Moreover, we showed that the effect of temperature on photosynthesis is strongly dependent on the position of the leaf or plant within the forest (canopy or understory) and the time of the year. Indirect effects of higher temperature included among others higher carbon storage in trees due to increased soil nitrogen availability and changes in insect performance due to alterations in plant ecophysiological traits. Unfortunately only a few studies extrapolated results to forest ecosystem level and considered the indirect effects of higher temperature. Thus more intensive, long-term studies are needed to further confirm the emerging trends shown in this review. Experimental warming studies provide us with a useful tool to examine the cascade of ecological processes in forest ecosystems that will change with future higher temperature.

  4. Beyond CO2 - Tackling the full greenhouse gas budget of a sub-alpine forest ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burri, Susanne; Merbold, Lutz; Meier, Philip; Eugster, Werner; Hörtnagl, Lukas; Buchmann, Nina

    2017-04-01

    In order to tackle the full greenhouse gas (GHG) budgets of forest ecosystems, it is desirable but challenging to quantify the three major GHGs, i.e. CO2, CH4 and N2O simultaneously in-situ. At the long-term forest research site Davos (Candidate Class I Ecosystem Station within the Integrated Carbon Observation System - ICOS), we have recently installed a state-of-the-art measuring system simultaneously to observe the three GHGs on a high temporal resolution and both within and above the forest canopy. Thereby, we combine above-canopy eddy covariance flux measurements and forest floor chamber flux measurements (using five custom-made fully automated chambers). Both systems are connected to a quantum cascade laser absorption spectrometer (QCL, Aerodyne) and measurements are switched between three hours of above-canopy and one hour of forest floor GHG flux measurements. Using this approach, we will be able to study the full GHG budget as well as the dynamics of the individual fluxes on two vertical levels within the forest using a single instrument. The first results presented here will highlight the suitability of this promising tool for quantifying the full GHG budget of forest ecosystems.

  5. Wildfires, Ecosystem Services, and Biodiversity in Tropical Dry Forest in India.

    PubMed

    Schmerbeck, Joachim; Fiener, Peter

    2015-08-01

    This review is intended to contribute to the understanding of the interlinkage between wildfire in India's tropical dry forest (TDF) and selected ecosystem services (ES), namely forest provisioning and water regulating services, as well as biodiversity. TDF covers approximately 146,000 km(2) (4.4%) of India, whereas according to the MODIS fire product about 2200 km(2) (1.4%) burns per year. As studies on wildfire effects upon ESs and biodiversity in Indian TDFs are rare we partly transferred findings from other (dry) forest areas to the environmental situation in India. In India (intentionally lit) wildfires have a very important connection to local livelihoods and the availability of non-wood forest products. Very important adverse long-term effects are the deterioration of forest ecosystems and soil degradation. The potential for TDF to regulate hydrological cycles is expected to be greater in the absence of fire than with it. A general judgment on the effect of fire on biodiversity is difficult as it depends on the community and species involved but a loss of biodiversity under regular burnings is apparent. Consequently, forest managers need sound knowledge regarding the interplay of wildfires and ecosystem behavior in general and more specific knowledge regarding the effects on taxa being considered for conservation efforts. Generally, much more research is needed to understand the trade-offs between the short-term benefits gained from forest provisioning services and long-term adverse effects.

  6. Disturbances catalyze the adaptation of forest ecosystems to changing climate conditions.

    PubMed

    Thom, Dominik; Rammer, Werner; Seidl, Rupert

    2017-01-01

    The rates of anthropogenic climate change substantially exceed those at which forest ecosystems - dominated by immobile, long-lived organisms - are able to adapt. The resulting maladaptation of forests has potentially detrimental effects on ecosystem functioning. Furthermore, as many forest-dwelling species are highly dependent on the prevailing tree species, a delayed response of the latter to a changing climate can contribute to an extinction debt and mask climate-induced biodiversity loss. However, climate change will likely also intensify forest disturbances. Here, we tested the hypothesis that disturbances foster the reorganization of ecosystems and catalyze the adaptation of forest composition to climate change. Our specific objectives were (i) to quantify the rate of autonomous forest adaptation to climate change, (ii) examine the role of disturbance in the adaptation process, and (iii) investigate spatial differences in climate-induced species turnover in an unmanaged mountain forest landscape (Kalkalpen National Park, Austria). Simulations with a process-based forest landscape model were performed for 36 unique combinations of climate and disturbance scenarios over 1000 years. We found that climate change strongly favored European beech and oak species (currently prevailing in mid- to low-elevation areas), with novel species associations emerging on the landscape. Yet, it took between 357 and 706 years before the landscape attained a dynamic equilibrium with the climate system. Disturbances generally catalyzed adaptation and decreased the time needed to attain equilibrium by up to 211 years. However, while increasing disturbance frequency and severity accelerated adaptation, increasing disturbance size had the opposite effect. Spatial analyses suggest that particularly the lowest and highest elevation areas will be hotspots of future species change. We conclude that the growing maladaptation of forests to climate and the long lead times of autonomous

  7. Ecosystem Consequences of Tree Monodominance for Nitrogen Cycling in Lowland Tropical Forest

    PubMed Central

    Brookshire, E. N. Jack; Thomas, Steven A.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding how plant functional traits shape nutrient limitation and cycling on land is a major challenge in ecology. This is especially true for lowland forest ecosystems of the tropics which can be taxonomically and functionally diverse and rich in bioavailable nitrogen (N). In many tropical regions, however, diverse forests occur side-by-side with monodominant forest (one species >60% of canopy); the long-term biogeochemical consequences of tree monodominance are unclear. Particularly uncertain is whether the monodominant plant-soil system modifies nutrient balance at the ecosystem level. Here, we use chemical and stable isotope techniques to examine N cycling in old-growth Mora excelsa and diverse watershed rainforests on the island of Trinidad. Across 26 small watershed forests and 4 years, we show that Mora monodominance reduces bioavailable nitrate in the plant-soil system to exceedingly low levels which, in turn, results in small hydrologic and gaseous N losses at the watershed-level relative to adjacent N-rich diverse forests. Bioavailable N in soils and streams remained low and remarkably stable through time in Mora forests; N levels in diverse forests, on the other hand, showed high sensitivity to seasonal and inter-annual rainfall variation. Total mineral N losses from diverse forests exceeded inputs from atmospheric deposition, consistent with N saturation, while losses from Mora forests did not, suggesting N limitation. Our measures suggest that this difference cannot be explained by environmental factors but instead by low internal production and efficient retention of bioavailable N in the Mora plant-soil system. These results demonstrate ecosystem-level consequences of a tree species on the N cycle opposite to cases where trees enhance ecosystem N supply via N2 fixation and suggest that, over time, Mora monodominance may generate progressive N draw-down in the plant-soil system. PMID:23936215

  8. Ecosystem consequences of tree monodominance for nitrogen cycling in lowland tropical forest.

    PubMed

    Brookshire, E N Jack; Thomas, Steven A

    2013-01-01

    Understanding how plant functional traits shape nutrient limitation and cycling on land is a major challenge in ecology. This is especially true for lowland forest ecosystems of the tropics which can be taxonomically and functionally diverse and rich in bioavailable nitrogen (N). In many tropical regions, however, diverse forests occur side-by-side with monodominant forest (one species >60% of canopy); the long-term biogeochemical consequences of tree monodominance are unclear. Particularly uncertain is whether the monodominant plant-soil system modifies nutrient balance at the ecosystem level. Here, we use chemical and stable isotope techniques to examine N cycling in old-growth Mora excelsa and diverse watershed rainforests on the island of Trinidad. Across 26 small watershed forests and 4 years, we show that Mora monodominance reduces bioavailable nitrate in the plant-soil system to exceedingly low levels which, in turn, results in small hydrologic and gaseous N losses at the watershed-level relative to adjacent N-rich diverse forests. Bioavailable N in soils and streams remained low and remarkably stable through time in Mora forests; N levels in diverse forests, on the other hand, showed high sensitivity to seasonal and inter-annual rainfall variation. Total mineral N losses from diverse forests exceeded inputs from atmospheric deposition, consistent with N saturation, while losses from Mora forests did not, suggesting N limitation. Our measures suggest that this difference cannot be explained by environmental factors but instead by low internal production and efficient retention of bioavailable N in the Mora plant-soil system. These results demonstrate ecosystem-level consequences of a tree species on the N cycle opposite to cases where trees enhance ecosystem N supply via N2 fixation and suggest that, over time, Mora monodominance may generate progressive N draw-down in the plant-soil system.

  9. Disturbance-mediated heterogeneity drives pollinator diversity in boreal managed forest ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Antonio; Kouki, Jari

    2017-03-01

    Intensive forest management, together with fire suppression, have decreased structural complexity and altered dynamics of boreal forests profoundly. Such management threatens forest biodiversity and can reduce the provision of ecosystem services. Although the importance of ecosystem services is widely acknowledged, conservation strategies are hindered by poor knowledge about diversity patterns of service provider species as well as on mechanisms affecting these assemblages at different spatial and temporal scales. In this study, we assessed the effect of disturbance management on forest pollinator communities. To do so, we used a large-scale ecological experiment conducted in the year 2000, where forest complexity was manipulated with different harvest regimes and prescribed fire. Results were consistent with a positive response of pollinators to increasing habitat heterogeneity driven by past disturbances. Harvested sites harbored a diverse pollinator community, and showed higher spatial and temporal turnover in species richness. Conversely, old-growth forest communities were a nested subset of harvested sites and contained half of their total diversity. Variation in community composition (β diversity) was primarily affected by species temporal turnover. Throughout the season, β diversity was controlled by fire and harvesting legacies, which provide environmental heterogeneity in the form of flowering and nesting resources over space and time. Conservation strategies may undervalue ecosystem services in dynamic, naturally disturbance-driven, landscapes when relying solely on undisturbed forests areas. However, maintaining natural dynamics in early successional forests, by emulating natural disturbances at harvesting, hold promise for the conservation of both biodiversity and ecosystem services in boreal forests. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  10. Proceedings of the fourth meeting of the International Union of Forest Research Organizations (IUFRO) Working Party S07.02.09: Phytophthoras in forests and natural ecosystems

    Treesearch

    E.M. Goheen; S.J. Frankel

    2009-01-01

    The fourth meeting of the International Union of Forest Research Organizations (IUFRO) Working Party S07.02.09, Phytophthoras in Forests and Natural Ecosystems provided a forum for current research on Phytophthora species worldwide. Seventy-eight submissions describing papers and posters on recent developments in Phytophthora diseases of trees and natural ecosystems in...

  11. Potential indicators of final ecosystem services in wetlands

    EPA Science Inventory

    Numerous and inconsistent lists of wetland ecosystem services exist because services are identified using ambiguous definitions or categorization schemes based around divergent or ambiguous objectives. A consistent and scientific approach would provide clarity and provide greater...

  12. The new flora of northeastern USA: quantifying introduced plant species occupancy in forest ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Bethany K; Gray, Andrew N

    2013-05-01

    Introduced plant species have significant negative impacts in many ecosystems and are found in many forests around the world. Some factors linked to the distribution of introduced species include fragmentation and disturbance, native species richness, and climatic and physical conditions of the landscape. However, there are few data sources that enable the assessment of introduced species occupancy in native plant communities over broad regions. Vegetation data from 1,302 forest inventory plots across 24 states in northeastern and mid-western USA were used to examine and compare the distribution of introduced species in relation to forest fragmentation across ecological provinces and forest types, and to examine correlations between native and introduced species richness. There were 305 introduced species recorded, and 66 % of all forested plots had at least one introduced species. Forest edge plots had higher constancy and occupancy of introduced species than intact forest plots, but the differences varied significantly among ecological provinces and, to a lesser degree, forest types. Weak but significant positive correlations between native and introduced species richness were observed most often in intact forests. Rosa multiflora was the most common introduced species recorded across the region, but Hieracium aurantiacum and Epipactus helleborine were dominant in some ecological provinces. Identifying regions and forest types with high and low constancies and occupation by introduced species can help target forest stands where management actions will be the most effective. Identifying seemingly benign introduced species that are more prevalent than realized will help focus attention on newly emerging invasives.

  13. Unconventional gas development and its effect on forested ecosystems in the Northern Appalachians, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drohan, Patrick; Brittingham, Margaret; Mortensen, David; Barlow, Kathryn; Langlois, Lillie

    2017-04-01

    Worldwide unconventional shale-gas development has the potential to cause substantial landscape disturbance. The northeastern U.S.A. Appalachian Mountains across the states of Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Ohio, and Kentucky, are experiencing rapid landscape change as unconventional gas development occurs. We highlight several years of our research from this region in order to demonstrate the unique effect unconventional development has had on forested ecosystems. Infrastructure development has had a wide-reaching and varied effect on forested ecosystems and their services, which has resulted in temporary disturbances and long-lasting ones altering habitats and their viability. Corridor disturbances, such as pipelines, are the most spatially extensive disturbance and have substantially fragmented forest cover. Core forest disturbance, especially, in upper watershed positions, has resulted in disproportionate disturbances to forested ecosystems and their wildlife, and suggests a need for adaptive land management strategies to minimize and mitigate the effects of gas development. Soil and water resources are most affected by surface disturbances; however, soil protection and restoration strategies are evolving as the gas play changes economically. Dynamic soil properties related to soil organic matter and water availability respond uniquely to unconventional gas development and new, flexible restoration strategies are required to support long-term ecosystem stability. While the focus of management and research to date has been on acute disturbances to forested ecosystems, unconventional gas development is clearly a greater chronic, long-term disturbance factor in the Appalachian Mountains. Effectively managing ecosystems where unconventional gas development is occurring is a complicated interplay between public, private and corporate interests.

  14. Participation of soil invertebrates in the organic matter decomposition in forest ecosystems of Central Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezkorovainaya, I. N.

    2011-02-01

    The biomass of large invertebrates was studied in the soils of forest ecosystems in the forest-tundra and southern taiga of Central Siberia. Its formation is shown to be controlled by the integrated effect of the soil and climatic conditions. The distribution of the zoomass according to the main taxonomic groups testifies to the higher functional significance of the large saprophagous invertebrates in the ecosystems of the southern taiga compared to those of the forest-tundra. The quantitative contribution of the invertebrates-destroyers to the organic matter decomposition was assessed on the basis of field experiments; it was shown to be determined by the quality of the material decomposed irrespective of the conditions and time of its exposition. Every year, soil saprophages decompose 0.5-2.0% of the total phytodetritus reserves in the forest-tundra and 3-14% in the southern taiga amounting to 12-54% of its losses upon decomposition.

  15. Improving SWAT for simulating water and carbon fluxes of forest ecosystems

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Qichun; Zhang, Xuesong

    2016-11-01

    As a widely used watershed model for assessing impacts of anthropogenic and natural disturbances on water quantity and quality, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) has not been extensively tested in simulating water and carbon fluxes of forest ecosystems. Here, we examine SWAT simulations of evapotranspiration (ET), net primary productivity (NPP), net ecosystem exchange (NEE), and plant biomass at ten AmeriFlux forest sites across the U.S. We identify unrealistic radiation use efficiency (Bio_E), large leaf to biomass fraction (Bio_LEAF), and missing phosphorus supply from parent material weathering as the primary causes for the inadequate performance of the default SWAT model in simulating forest dynamics. By further revising the relevant parameters and processes, SWAT’s performance is substantially improved. Based on the comparison between the improved SWAT simulations and flux tower observations, we discuss future research directions for further enhancing model parameterization and representation of water and carbon cycling for forests.

  16. Recent Forest Disturbance History in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem Reconstructed using Remote Sensing and Management Record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, F.; Huang, C.; Zhu, Z.

    2014-12-01

    The Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE), located in Central Rocky Mountains of United States, is of complex ecological and land management histories along with different land ownerships. What are effects of the different land management practices (such as those by national parks vs. national forests) on ecosystem disturbances and carbon balance? We present here the methods and results of a study on forest disturbance history over the GYE from 1984 to 2010 reconstructed from Landsat time series stacks and local management records. Annual forest fire, harvest and other disturbances were tracked and separated by integrating a model called Vegetation Change Tracker and the Support Vector Machine algorithm. Local management records were separated into training and validation data for the disturbance maps. Area statistics and rates of disturbances were quantified and compared across GYE land ownership over the multi-decade period and interpreted for implications of these changes for forest management and carbon analysis. Our results indicate that during the study interval (1984 - 2010), GYE National Parks (NPs) and Wilderness Area (WA) had higher percentages of area of forests disturbed compared to GYE National Forests (NF). Within the GYE NPs, over 45% of the forest lands were disturbed at least once during the study period, the majority (37%) was by wildfire. For GYE wilderness area, the total disturbance was 30% of forest with 19.4% by wildfire and 10.6% by other disturbances. In Bridger-Teton NF, 14.7% of forest was disturbed and 3.6%, 0.5% and 10.6% of forest were disturbed by fire, harvest and other disturbances, respectively. For Caribou-Targhee NF, 25% of total forest was disturbed during this time interval and 1.5%, 6.4% and 17.1% of forest were disturbed by fire, harvest and other disturbances, respectively.

  17. Comparing soil biogeochemical processes in novel and natural boreal forest ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quideau, S. A.; Swallow, M. J. B.; Prescott, C. E.; Grayston, S. J.; Oh, S.-W.

    2013-08-01

    Emulating the variability that exists in the natural landscape prior to disturbance should be a goal of soil reconstruction and land reclamation efforts following resource extraction. Long-term ecosystem sustainability within reclaimed landscapes can only be achieved with the re-establishment of biogeochemical processes between reconstructed soils and plants. In this study, we assessed key soil biogeochemical attributes (nutrient availability, organic matter composition, and microbial communities) in reconstructed, novel, anthropogenic ecosystems, covering different reclamation treatments following open-cast mining for oil extraction. We compared the attributes to those present in a range of natural soils representative of mature boreal forest ecosystems in the same area of Northern Alberta. Soil nutrient availability was determined in situ with resin probes, organic matter composition was described with 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and soil microbial community structure was characterized using phospholipid fatty acid analysis. Significant differences among natural ecosystems were apparent in nutrient availability and seemed more related to the dominant tree cover than to soil type. When analyzed together, all natural forests differed significantly from the novel ecosystems, in particular with respect to soil organic matter composition. However, there was some overlap between the reconstructed soils and some of the natural ecosystems in nutrient availability and microbial communities, but not in organic matter characteristics. Hence, our results illustrate the importance of considering the range of natural landscape variability and including several soil biogeochemical attributes when comparing novel, anthropogenic ecosystems to the mature ecosystems that constitute ecological targets.

  18. Comparing soil biogeochemical processes in novel and natural boreal forest ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quideau, S. A.; Swallow, M. J. B.; Prescott, C. E.; Grayston, S. J.; Oh, S.-W.

    2013-04-01

    Emulating the variability that exists in the natural landscape prior to disturbance should be a goal of soil reconstruction and land reclamation efforts following resource extraction. Long-term ecosystem sustainability within reclaimed landscapes can only be achieved with the re-establishment of biogeochemical processes between reconstructed soils and plants. In this study, we assessed key soil biogeochemical attributes (nutrient availability, organic matter composition, and microbial communities) in reconstructed, novel, anthropogenic ecosystems covering different reclamation treatments following open-cast mining for oil extraction. We compared the attributes to those present in a range of natural soils representative of mature boreal forest ecosystems in the same area of northern Alberta. Soil nutrient availability was determined in situ with resin probes, organic matter composition was described with 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and soil microbial community structure was characterized using phospholipid fatty acid analysis. Significant differences among natural ecosystems were apparent in nutrient availability and seemed more related to the dominant tree cover than to soil type. When analyzed together, all natural forests differed significantly from the novel ecosystems, in particular with respect to soil organic matter composition. However, there was some overlap between the reconstructed soils and some of the natural ecosystems in nutrient availability and microbial communities, but not in organic matter characteristics. Hence, our results illustrate the importance of considering the range of natural landscape variability, and including several soil biogeochemical attributes when comparing novel, anthropogenic ecosystems to the mature ecosystems that constitute ecological targets.

  19. Increased forest ecosystem carbon and nitrogen storage from nitrogen rich bedrock.

    PubMed

    Morford, Scott L; Houlton, Benjamin Z; Dahlgren, Randy A

    2011-08-31

    Nitrogen (N) limits the productivity of many ecosystems worldwide, thereby restricting the ability of terrestrial ecosystems to offset the effects of rising atmospheric CO(2) emissions naturally. Understanding input pathways of bioavailable N is therefore paramount for predicting carbon (C) storage on land, particularly in temperate and boreal forests. Paradigms of nutrient cycling and limitation posit that new N enters terrestrial ecosystems solely from the atmosphere. Here we show that bedrock comprises a hitherto overlooked source of ecologically available N to forests. We report that the N content of soils and forest foliage on N-rich metasedimentary rocks (350-950 mg N kg(-1)) is elevated by more than 50% compared with similar temperate forest sites underlain by N-poor igneous parent material (30-70 mg N kg(-1)). Natural abundance N isotopes attribute this difference to rock-derived N: (15)N/(14)N values for rock, soils and plants are indistinguishable in sites underlain by N-rich lithology, in marked contrast to sites on N-poor substrates. Furthermore, forests associated with N-rich parent material contain on average 42% more carbon in above-ground tree biomass and 60% more carbon in the upper 30 cm of the soil than similar sites underlain by N-poor rocks. Our results raise the possibility that bedrock N input may represent an important and overlooked component of ecosystem N and C cycling elsewhere.

  20. Effects of disturbance and climate change on ecosystem performance in the Yukon River Basin boreal forest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wylie, Bruce K.; Rigge, Matthew B.; Brisco, Brian; Mrnaghan, Kevin; Rover, Jennifer R.; Long, Jordan

    2014-01-01

    A warming climate influences boreal forest productivity, dynamics, and disturbance regimes. We used ecosystem models and 250 m satellite Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data averaged over the growing season (GSN) to model current, and estimate future, ecosystem performance. We modeled Expected Ecosystem Performance (EEP), or anticipated productivity, in undisturbed stands over the 2000–2008 period from a variety of abiotic data sources, using a rule-based piecewise regression tree. The EEP model was applied to a future climate ensemble A1B projection to quantify expected changes to mature boreal forest performance. Ecosystem Performance Anomalies (EPA), were identified as the residuals of the EEP and GSN relationship and represent performance departures from expected performance conditions. These performance data were used to monitor successional events following fire. Results suggested that maximum EPA occurs 30–40 years following fire, and deciduous stands generally have higher EPA than coniferous stands. Mean undisturbed EEP is projected to increase 5.6% by 2040 and 8.7% by 2070, suggesting an increased deciduous component in boreal forests. Our results contribute to the understanding of boreal forest successional dynamics and its response to climate change. This information enables informed decisions to prepare for, and adapt to, climate change in the Yukon River Basin forest.

  1. Methane emissions from boreal and tropical forest ecosystems derived from in-situ measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, V.; Williams, J.; Crutzen, P. J.; Lelieveld, J.

    2007-09-01

    Methane is a climatologically important greenhouse gas, which plays a key role in regulating water vapour in the stratosphere and hydroxyl radicals in the troposphere. Recent findings that vegetation emits methane have stimulated efforts to ascertain the impact of this source on the global budget. In this work, we present the results of high frequency (ca. 1 min-1) methane measurements conducted in the boreal forests of Finland and the tropical forests of Suriname, in April-May, 2005 and October 2005 respectively. The measurements were performed using a gas chromatograph - flame ionization detector (GC-FID). The average of the median mixing ratios during a typical diel cycle were 1.83 μmol mol-1 and 1.74 μmol mol-1 for the boreal forest ecosystem and tropical forest ecosystem respectively, with remarkable similarity in the time series of both the boreal and tropical diel profiles. Night time methane emission flux of the boreal forest ecosystem, calculated from the increase of methane during the night and measured nocturnal boundary layer heights yields a flux of (3.62±0.87)×1011 molecules cm-2 s-1(or 45.5±11 Tg CH4 yr-1 for global boreal forest area). This is a source contribution of circa 8% of the global methane budget. These results highlight the importance of the boreal and tropical forest ecosystems for the global budget of methane. The results are also discussed in the context of recent work reporting high methane mixing ratios over tropical forests using space borne near infra-red spectroscopy measurements.

  2. Acorn Production on the Missouri Ozark Forest Ecosystem Project Study Sites: Pre-treatment Data

    Treesearch

    Larry D. Vangilder

    1997-01-01

    In the pre-treatment phase of a study to determine if even- and uneven-aged forest management affects the production of acorns on the Missourt Forest Ecosystem Project (MOFEP) study sites, acorn production was measured on the nine study sites by randomly placing from 2 to 6 plots in each of four ecological land type (ELT) groupings (N=130 plots). A split-plot...

  3. Development of the BIOME-BGC model for the simulation of managed Moso bamboo forest ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Mao, Fangjie; Li, Pingheng; Zhou, Guomo; Du, Huaqiang; Xu, Xiaojun; Shi, Yongjun; Mo, Lufeng; Zhou, Yufeng; Tu, Guoqing

    2016-05-01

    Numerical models are the most appropriate instrument for the analysis of the carbon balance of terrestrial ecosystems and their interactions with changing environmental conditions. The process-based model BIOME-BGC is widely used in simulation of carbon balance within vegetation, litter and soil of unmanaged ecosystems. For Moso bamboo forests, however, simulations with BIOME-BGC are inaccurate in terms of the growing season and the carbon allocation, due to the oversimplified representation of phenology. Our aim was to improve the applicability of BIOME-BGC for managed Moso bamboo forest ecosystem by implementing several new modules, including phenology, carbon allocation, and management. Instead of the simple phenology and carbon allocation representations in the original version, a periodic Moso bamboo phenology and carbon allocation module was implemented, which can handle the processes of Moso bamboo shooting and high growth during "on-year" and "off-year". Four management modules (digging bamboo shoots, selective cutting, obtruncation, fertilization) were integrated in order to quantify the functioning of managed ecosystems. The improved model was calibrated and validated using eddy covariance measurement data collected at a managed Moso bamboo forest site (Anji) during 2011-2013 years. As a result of these developments and calibrations, the performance of the model was substantially improved. Regarding the measured and modeled fluxes (gross primary production, total ecosystem respiration, net ecosystem exchange), relative errors were decreased by 42.23%, 103.02% and 18.67%, respectively.

  4. New Projections of Global Forest Carbon and Ecosystems at Risk for Increased Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Disturbance and Forest Degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klooster, S.; Potter, C. S.; Genovese, V. B.; Gross, P. M.; Kumar, V.; Boriah, S.; Mithal, V.; Castilla-Rubio, J.

    2009-12-01

    Widely cited forest carbon values from look-up tables and statistical correlations with aboveground biomass have proven to be inadequate to discern details of national carbon stocks in forest pools. Similarly, global estimates based on biome-average (tropical, temperate, boreal, etc.) carbon measurements are generally insufficient to support REDD incentives (Reductions in Emission from Deforestation in Developing countries). The NASA-CASA (Carnegie-Ames-Stanford Approach) ecosystem model published by Potter et al. (1999 and 2003) offers several unique advantages for carbon accounting that cannot be provided by conventional inventory techniques. First, CASA uses continuous satellite observations to map land cover status and changes in vegetation on a monthly time interval over the past 25 years. NASA satellites observe areas that are too remote or rugged for conventional inventory-based techniques to measure. Second, CASA estimates both aboveground and belowground pools of carbon in all ecosystems (forests, shrublands, croplands, and rangelands). Carbon storage estimates for forests globally are currently being estimated for the Cisco Planetary Skin open collaborative platform (www.planetaryskin.org ) in a new series of CASA model runs using the latest input data from the NASA MODIS satellites, from 2000 to the present. We have also developed an approach for detection of large-scale ecosystem disturbance (LSED) events based on sustained declines in the same satellite greenness data used for CASA modeling. This approach is global in scope, covers more than a decade of observations, and encompasses all potential categories of major ecosystem disturbance - physical, biogenic, and anthropogenic, using advanced methods of data mining and analysis. In addition to quantifying forest areas at various levels of risk for loss of carbon storage capacity, our data mining approaches for LSED events can be adapted to detect and map biophysically unsuitable areas for deforestation

  5. Calcium depletion in a Southeastern United States forest ecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huntington, T.G.; Hooper, R.P.; Johnson, C.E.; Aulenbach, Brent T.; Cappellato, R.; Blum, A.E.

    2000-01-01

    Forest soil Ca depletion through leaching and vegetation uptake may threaten long-term sustainability of forest productivity in the southeastern USA. This study was conducted to assess Ca pools and fluxes in a representative southern Piedmont forest to determine the soil Ca depletion rate. Soil Ca storage, Ca inputs in atmospheric deposition, and outputs in soil leaching and vegetation uptake were investigated at the Panola Mountain Research Watershed (PMRW) near Atlanta, GA. Average annual outputs of 12.3 kg ha-1 yr-1 in uptake into merchantable wood and 2.71 kg ha-1 yr-1 soil leaching exceeded inputs in atmospheric deposition of 2.24 kg ha-1 yr-1. The annual rate of Ca uptake into merchantable wood exceeds soil leaching losses by a factor of more than five. The potential for primary mineral weathering to provide a substantial amount of Ca inputs is low. Estimates of Ca replenishment through mineral weathering in the surface 1 m of soil and saprolite was estimated to be 0.12 kg ha-1 yr-1. The weathering rate in saprolite and partially weathered bedrock below the surface 1 m is similarly quite low because mineral Ca is largely depleted. The soil Ca depletion rate at PMRW is estimated to be 12.7 kg ha-1 yr-1. At PMRW and similar hardwood-dominated forests in the Piedmont physiographic province, Ca depletion will probably reduce soil reserves to less than the requirement for a merchantable forest stand in ???80 yr. This assessment and comparable analyses at other southeastern USA forest sites suggests that there is a strong potential for a regional problem in forest nutrition in the long term.Forest soil Ca depletion through leaching and vegetation uptake may threaten long-term sustainability of forest productivity in the southeastern USA. This study was conducted to assess Ca pools and fluxes in a representative southern Piedmont forest to determine the soil Ca depletion rate. Soil Ca storage, Ca inputs in atmospheric deposition, and outputs in soil leaching and

  6. Historical range of variation assessment for wetland and riparian ecosystems, U.S. Forest Service Rocky Mountain Region

    Treesearch

    Edward Gage; David J. Cooper

    2013-01-01

    This document provides an overview of historical range of variation concepts and explores their application to wetland and riparian ecosystems in the US Forest Service Rocky Mountain Region (Region 2), which includes National Forests and National Grasslands occurring in the states of Colorado, Wyoming, Nebraska, Kansas, and South Dakota. For each of five ecosystem...

  7. 76 FR 47353 - Final Directives for Forest Service Wind Energy Special Use Authorizations, Forest Service Manual...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-04

    ...The Forest Service is amending its internal directives for special use authorizations and wildlife monitoring. The amendments provide direction and guidance specific to wind energy projects on National Forest System (NFS) lands. These amendments supplement, rather than supplant or duplicate, existing special use and wildlife directives to address issues specifically associated with siting, processing proposals and applications, and issuing special use permits for wind energy uses. The directives ensure consistent and adequate analyses for evaluating wind energy proposals and applications and issuing wind energy permits. Public comment was considered in development of the final directives, and a response to comments is included in this notice.

  8. Placing man in regional landscape classification: Use of Forest Survey data to assess human influences for southern U.S. forest ecosystems

    Treesearch

    Victor A. Rudis; John B. Tansey

    1991-01-01

    Information from plots surveyed by U.S.D.A., Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) units provides a basis for classifying human-dominated ecosystems at the regional scale of resolution.Attributes include forest stand measures, evidence of human influence, and other disturbances.Data from recent FIA surveys suggest that human influences are common to...

  9. Effects of repeated fires on ecosystem C and N stocks along a fire induced forest/grassland gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Chih-Hsin; Chen, Yung-Sheng; Huang, Yu-Hsuan; Chiou, Chyi-Rong; Lin, Chau-Chih; Menyailo, Oleg V.

    2013-03-01

    Repeated fires might have different effect on ecosystem carbon storage than a single fire event, but information on repeated fires and their effects on forest ecosystems and carbon storage is scarce. However, changes in climate, vegetation composition, and human activities are expected to make forests more susceptible to fires that recur with relatively high frequency. In this study, the effects of repeated fires on ecosystem carbon and nitrogen stocks were examined along a fire-induced forest/grassland gradient wherein the fire events varied from an unburned forest to repeatedly burned grassland. Results from the study show repeated fires drastically decreased ecosystem carbon and nitrogen stocks along the forest/grassland gradient. The reduction began with the disappearance of living tree biomass, and followed by the loss of soil carbon and nitrogen. Within 4 years of the onset of repeated fires on the unburned forest, the original ecosystem carbon and nitrogen stocks were reduced by 42% and 21%, respectively. Subsequent fires caused cumulative reductions in ecosystem carbon and nitrogen stocks by 68% and 44% from the original ecosystem carbon and nitrogen stocks, respectively. The analyses of carbon budgets calculated by vegetation composition and stable isotopic δ13C values indicate that 84% of forest-derived carbon is lost at grassland, whereas the gain of grass-derived carbon only compensates 18% for this loss. Such significant losses in ecosystem carbon and nitrogen stocks suggest that the effects of repeated fires have substantial impacts on ecosystem and soil carbon and nitrogen cycling.

  10. Advancement of tree species across ecotonal borders into non-forested ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanberry, Brice B.; Hansen, Mark H.

    2015-10-01

    Woody species are increasing in density, causing transition to more densely wooded vegetation states, and encroaching across ecotonal borders into non-forested ecosystems. We examined USDA Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis data to identify tree species that have expanded longitudinally in range, particularly into the central United States. We analyzed compositional differences within ecological regions (i.e., subsections) in eastern and western ranges of species using repeated measures ANOVA. We considered differences in outer ranges to indicate range expansion or contraction. We also estimated the shift in forest area and basal area relative to the center of the US and compared change in deciduous forest land cover. Out of 80 candidate species, 22 species expanded to the west, seven species expanded to the east, and five species expanded in both directions. During the survey interval, eastern tree species advanced into the predominantly non-forested ecosystems of central United States. Eastern cottonwood, eastern hophornbeam, eastern redbud, honeylocust, Osage-orange, pecan, red mulberry, and Shumard oak represent some of the species that are advancing eastern forest boundaries across forest-grassland ecotones into the central United States. Forest land has shifted towards the center of the continent, as has the center of mean tree basal area, and a simple comparison of deciduous cover change also displayed forest advancement into the central United States from eastern forests. The expanding species may spread along riparian migration corridors that provide protection from drought. Humans use the advancing tree species for windbreaks, fencerows, and ornamental landscaping, while wildlife spread fruit seeds, which results in unintentional assisted migration, or translocation, to drier sites across the region.

  11. Volume 5: A framework for sustainable-ecosystem management. eastside forest ecosystem health assessment. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Bormann, B.T.; Brookes, M.H.; Ford, E.D.; Kiester, A.R.; Oliver, C.D.

    1994-02-01

    The principles for sustainable-ecosystem management are derived by integrating fundamental societal, and scientific premises, ecosystem science is applied in the design of a system of management focused on building overlap between what people collectively want and what is ecologically possible. The authors conclude that management must incorporate more science and social processes in the system--to better inform decisions and to learn by 'managing as an experiment.' A management model is proposed that laces together societal values and ecological capacity.

  12. Ecosystem carbon density and allocation across a chronosequence of longleaf pine forests.

    PubMed

    Samuelson, Lisa J; Stokes, Thomas A; Butnor, John R; Johnsen, Kurt H; Gonzalez-Benecke, Carlos A; Martin, Timothy A; Cropper, Wendell P; Anderson, Pete H; Ramirez, Michael R; Lewis, John C

    2017-01-01

    Forests can partially offset greenhouse gas emissions and contribute to climate change mitigation, mainly through increases in live biomass. We quantified carbon (C) density in 20 managed longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) forests ranging in age from 5 to 118 years located across the southeastern United States and estimated above- and belowground C trajectories. Ecosystem C stock (all pools including soil C) and aboveground live tree C increased nonlinearly with stand age and the modeled asymptotic maxima were 168 Mg C/ha and 80 Mg C/ha, respectively. Accumulation of ecosystem C with stand age was driven mainly by increases in aboveground live tree C, which ranged from <1 Mg C/ha to 74 Mg C/ha and comprised <1% to 39% of ecosystem C. Live root C (sum of below-stump C, ground penetrating radar measurement of lateral root C, and live fine root C) increased with stand age and represented 4-22% of ecosystem C. Soil C was related to site index, but not to stand age, and made up 39-92% of ecosystem C. Live understory C, forest floor C, downed dead wood C, and standing dead wood C were small fractions of ecosystem C in these frequently burned stands. Stand age and site index accounted for 76% of the variation in ecosystem C among stands. The mean root-to-shoot ratio calculated as the average across all stands (excluding the grass-stage stand) was 0.54 (standard deviation of 0.19) and higher than reports for other conifers. Long-term accumulation of live tree C, combined with the larger role of belowground accumulation of lateral root C than in other forest types, indicates a role of longleaf pine forests in providing disturbance-resistant C storage that can balance the more rapid C accumulation and C removal associated with more intensively managed forests. Although other managed southern pine systems sequester more C over the short-term, we suggest that longleaf pine forests can play a meaningful role in regional forest C management. © 2016 by the Ecological Society

  13. Uncertainties in mapping forest carbon in urban ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gang; Ozelkan, Emre; Singh, Kunwar K; Zhou, Jun; Brown, Marilyn R; Meentemeyer, Ross K

    2017-02-01

    Spatially explicit urban forest carbon estimation provides a baseline map for understanding the variation in forest vertical structure, informing sustainable forest management and urban planning. While high-resolution remote sensing has proven promising for carbon mapping in highly fragmented urban landscapes, data cost and availability are the major obstacle prohibiting accurate, consistent, and repeated measurement of forest carbon pools in cities. This study aims to evaluate the uncertainties of forest carbon estimation in response to the combined impacts of remote sensing data resolution and neighborhood spatial patterns in Charlotte, North Carolina. The remote sensing data for carbon mapping were resampled to a range of resolutions, i.e., LiDAR point cloud density - 5.8, 4.6, 2.3, and 1.2 pt s/m(2), aerial optical NAIP (National Agricultural Imagery Program) imagery - 1, 5, 10, and 20 m. Urban spatial patterns were extracted to represent area, shape complexity, dispersion/interspersion, diversity, and connectivity of landscape patches across the residential neighborhoods with built-up densities from low, medium-low, medium-high, to high. Through statistical analyses, we found that changing remote sensing data resolution introduced noticeable uncertainties (variation) in forest carbon estimation at the neighborhood level. Higher uncertainties were caused by the change of LiDAR point density (causing 8.7-11.0% of variation) than changing NAIP image resolution (causing 6.2-8.6% of variation). For both LiDAR and NAIP, urban neighborhoods with a higher degree of anthropogenic disturbance unveiled a higher level of uncertainty in carbon mapping. However, LiDAR-based results were more likely to be affected by landscape patch connectivity, and the NAIP-based estimation was found to be significantly influenced by the complexity of patch shape.

  14. Artificial streams for ecosystem toxicity studies: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, C.E.; Liss, W.J.; Wevers, M.J.; Burnett, K.M.; Corrarino, C.A.; Curtis, L.R.; Frissell, C.A.; Hoffman, R.L.; Hurley, M.D.; Melton, L.A.

    1987-02-01

    Watershed and stream ecosystem theory, classification and empirical approaches were employed to evaluate the usefulness of laboratory stream ecosystems (microcosms) to study the transport, fate, and effects of toxic substances in natural stream ecosystems. Based upon field studies and classification of natural streams, laboratory streams were designed to model different classes and states of natural streams. Communities in the laboratory streams were exposed to dieldrin, a chlorinated hydrocarbon and fenvalerate, an organophosphate pesticide. Different classes of laboratory streams responded differently to similar exposures. Toxicant dynamics were related to community dynamics through the use of mathematical models and studies of simple laboratory communities in aquaria. These results, along with studies of individual organisms, showed that bioaccumulation coefficients could not be treated as constants. Well-designed laboratory streams and other microcosms are complex dynamic systems that can be used to gain understanding of toxic substance behavior and effects in streams and other ecosystems. But such systems are far too complex and dynamic to be used for bioassays, monitoring, or as predictive tools.

  15. The Northwest Forest Plan as a model for broad-scale ecosystem management: a social perspective.

    PubMed

    Charnley, Susan

    2006-04-01

    I evaluated the Northwest Forest Plan as a model for ecosystem management to achieve social and economic goals in communities located around federal forests in the US. Pacific Northwest. My assessment is based on the results of socioeconomic monitoring conducted to evaluate progress in achieving the plan's goals during its first 10 years. The assessment criteria I used related to economic development and social justice. The Northwest Forest Plan incorporated economic development and social justice goals in its design. Socioeconomic monitoring results indicate that plan implementation to achieve those goals met with mixed success, however I hypothesize there are two important reasons the plan's socioeconomic goals were not fully met: some of the key assumptions underlying the implementation strategies were flawed and agency institutional capacity to achieve the goals was limited. To improve broad-scale ecosystem management in the future, decision makers should ensure that natural-resource management policies are socially acceptable; land-management agencies have the institutional capacity to achieve their management goals; and social and economic management goals (and the strategies for implementing them) are based on accurate assumptions about the relations between the resources being managed and well-being in local communities. One of the difficulties of incorporating economic development and social justice goals in conservation initiatives is finding ways to link conservation behavior and development activities. From a social perspective, the Northwest Forest Plan as a model for ecosystem management is perhaps most valuable in its attempt to link the biophysical and socioeconomic goals of forest management by creating high-quality jobs for residents of forest communities in forest stewardship and ecosystem management work, thereby contributing to conservation.

  16. Consolidating new paradigms in large-scale monitoring and assessment of forest ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Corona, Piermaria

    2016-01-01

    Forests provide a wide range of ecosystem services from which people benefit, and upon which all life depends. However, any rational decision related to the maintenance and enhancement of the multiple functions provided by the forests needs to be based on objective, reliable information. As such, forest monitoring and assessment are rapidly evolving as new information needs arise or new techniques and tools become available. Global change issues and utilities from ecosystem management are distinctively to be considered, so that forest inventory and mapping are broadening their scope towards multipurpose resources surveys. Recent changes in forest management perspective have promoted the consideration of forests as complex adaptive systems, thereby highlighting the need to account that such approaches actually work: forest monitoring and assessment are then expected to address and fully incorporate this perspective at global scale, seeking to support planning and management decisions that are evidence-based. This contribution provides selected considerations on the above mentioned issues, in the form of a commented discussion with examples from the literature produced in the last decade.

  17. Alternative Modelling Approach to Spatial Harvest Scheduling with Respect to Fragmentation of Forest Ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marušák, Róbert; Kašpar, Jan; Hlavatý, Robert; Kotek, Václav; Kuželka, Karel; Vopěnka, Petr

    2015-11-01

    Fragmentation of the forests affects forest ecosystems by changing the composition, shape, and configuration of the resulting patches. Subsequently, the prevailing conditions vary between patches. The exposure to the sun decreases from the patch boundary to the patch interior and this forms core and edge areas within each patch. Forest harvesting and, in particular, the clear-cut management system which is still preferred in many European countries has a significant impact on forest fragmentation. There are many indices of measuring fragmentation: non-spatial and spatial. The non-spatial indices measure the composition of patches, while the spatial indices measure both the shape and configuration of the resulting patches. The effect of forest harvesting on fragmentation, biodiversity, and the environment is extensively studied; however, the integration of fragmentation indices in the harvest scheduling model is a new, novel approach. This paper presents a multi-objective integer model of harvest scheduling for clear-cut management system and presents a case study demonstrating its use. Harvest balance and sustainability are ensured by the addition of constraints from the basic principle of the regulated forest model. The results indicate that harvest balance and sustainability can be also achieved in minimizing fragmentation of forest ecosystems. From the analyses presented in this study, it can be concluded that integration of fragmentation into harvest scheduling can provide better spatial structure. It depends on the initial spatial and age structure. It was confirmed that it is possible to find compromise solution while minimizing fragmentation and maximizing harvested area.

  18. Alternative Modelling Approach to Spatial Harvest Scheduling with Respect to Fragmentation of Forest Ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Marušák, Róbert; Kašpar, Jan; Hlavatý, Robert; Kotek, Václav; Kuželka, Karel; Vopěnka, Petr

    2015-11-01

    Fragmentation of the forests affects forest ecosystems by changing the composition, shape, and configuration of the resulting patches. Subsequently, the prevailing conditions vary between patches. The exposure to the sun decreases from the patch boundary to the patch interior and this forms core and edge areas within each patch. Forest harvesting and, in particular, the clear-cut management system which is still preferred in many European countries has a significant impact on forest fragmentation. There are many indices of measuring fragmentation: non-spatial and spatial. The non-spatial indices measure the composition of patches, while the spatial indices measure both the shape and configuration of the resulting patches. The effect of forest harvesting on fragmentation, biodiversity, and the environment is extensively studied; however, the integration of fragmentation indices in the harvest scheduling model is a new, novel approach. This paper presents a multi-objective integer model of harvest scheduling for clear-cut management system and presents a case study demonstrating its use. Harvest balance and sustainability are ensured by the addition of constraints from the basic principle of the regulated forest model. The results indicate that harvest balance and sustainability can be also achieved in minimizing fragmentation of forest ecosystems. From the analyses presented in this study, it can be concluded that integration of fragmentation into harvest scheduling can provide better spatial structure. It depends on the initial spatial and age structure. It was confirmed that it is possible to find compromise solution while minimizing fragmentation and maximizing harvested area.

  19. Ecosystem management and mine permitting on public lands. Open file report (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, L.A.; Martin, W.E.

    1995-04-12

    This report focuses on how ecosystem management will be implemented into public land management and how this may affect the permitting of mining operations in the western U.S. Numerous federal, state, and local agencies are considering ecosystem management as the preferred management alternative. Other sections discuss definitional problems, legal foundation for the system, activities of the federal land management agencies, activities within certain states, and finally the implications of the ecosystem management effort on mine permitting.

  20. Assessment of vulnerability of forest ecosystems to climate change and adaptation planning in Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matin, M. A.; Chitale, V. S.

    2016-12-01

    Understanding ecosystem level vulnerability of forests and dependence of local communities on these ecosystems is a first step towards developing effective adaptation strategies. As forests are important components of livelihoods system for a large percentage of the population in the Himalayan region, they offer an important basis for creating and safeguarding more climate-resilient communities. Increased frequency, duration, and/or severity of drought and heat stress, changes in winter ecology, and pest and fire outbreaksunder climate change scenarios could fundamentally alter the composition, productivity and biogeography of forests affecting the potential ecosystem services offered and forest-based livelihoods. Hence, forest ecosystem vulnerability assessment to climate change and the development of a knowledgebase to identify and support relevant adaptation strategies is identified as an urgent need. Climate change vulnerability is measured as a function of exposure, sensitivity and the adaptive capacity of the system towards climate variability and extreme events. Effective adaptation to climate change depends on the availability of two important prerequisites: a) information on what, where, and how to adapt, and b) availability of resources to implement the adaptation measures. In the present study, we introduce the concept of two way multitier approach, which can support effective identification and implementation of adaptation measures in Nepal and the framework can be replicated in other countries in the HKH region. The assessment of overall vulnerability of forests comprises of two components: 1) understanding the relationship between exposure and sensitivity and positive feedback from adaptive capacity of forests; 2) quantifying the dependence of local communities on these ecosystems. We use climate datasets from Bioclim and biophysical products from MODIS, alongwith field datasets. We report that most of the forests along the high altitude areas and few

  1. Impacts of air pollution and climate change on forest ecosystems--emerging research needs.

    PubMed

    Paoletti, Elena; Bytnerowicz, Andrzej; Andersen, Chris; Augustaitis, Algirdas; Ferretti, Marco; Grulke, Nancy; Günthardt-Goerg, Madeleine S; Innes, John; Johnson, Dale; Karnosky, Dave; Luangjame, Jesada; Matyssek, Rainer; McNulty, Steven; Müller-Starck, Gerhard; Musselman, Robert; Percy, Kevin

    2007-03-21

    Outcomes from the 22nd meeting for Specialists in Air Pollution Effects on Forest Ecosystems "Forests under Anthropogenic Pressure--Effects of Air Pollution, Climate Change and Urban Development", September 10-16, 2006, Riverside, CA, are summarized. Tropospheric or ground-level ozone (O3) is still the phytotoxic air pollutant of major interest. Challenging issues are how to make O3 standards or critical levels more biologically based and at the same time practical for wide use; quantification of plant detoxification processes in flux modeling; inclusion of multiple environmental stresses in critical load determinations; new concept development for nitrogen saturation; interactions between air pollution, climate, and forest pests; effects of forest fire on air quality; the capacity of forests to sequester carbon under changing climatic conditions and coexposure to elevated levels of air pollutants; enhanced linkage between molecular biology, biochemistry, physiology, and morphological traits.

  2. Nitrate input/output budget and nitrate isotope ratio in forest ecosystems.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobari, Y.; Koba, K.; Fukushima, K.; Tokuchi, N.; Tateno, R.; Ohte, N.; Suzuki, N.; Toyoda, S.; Yoshida, N.

    2006-12-01

    Recent years nitrogen input to forest has been increased by industrial development and increase use of fossil fuel, so elucidating the fate of nitrate added to forest ecosystems is quite important issue for revealing its potential of nitrogen-removing from environment, and better management of forests. Forest ecosystems in mountains region, typically in Japan, vary in many respects from Europe or United States, therefore, It is not possible to make the research result of Europe and America simply adjust to Japan as it is. In this study, measurement of nitrogen and oxygen isotopic ratios of nitrate give us integrated information of nitrate dynamics in Japanese forest ecosystems. There are cedar/ cypress plantations in Japan, about 40 percent of the total forest area is, need to maintain, therefore forest disturbance by human activity (e.g. clearcutting or thinning) is large proportion of total forest ecosystems. Forest disturbance is considered to affect nitrate discharge in many ways (Aber et al. 1998), and contribution of atmospheric nitrate to total nitrate discharge is dramatically increased after disturbance (e.g. forest decline by acid rain: Durka et al. 1994). In our study site with different application (logging) history, nitrate concentrations in streamwater showed clear trend. Atmospheric nitrate has high oxygen isotope ratio (over 10 per-mill vs. VSMOW), while its nitrogen isotopic ratio is about 0 per-mill vs. Atmosphere N2 and nitrate undergone denitrification in soil has high nitrogen isotope ratio (Kendall 1998). Nitrate discharge from forest ecosystems is mainly regulated by plant/microbe uptake, nitrification (NH4 toNO3) and denitrification (NO3 to N2). If clear cut of plantation affects the ratio of atmospheric versus microbial (nitrified) nitrate in streamwater, together with high concentrations in younger forest, we can assume several signal of isotopic ratios of nitrate with the hypothesis below; 1) Streamwater from young forests has high oxygen

  3. Methodological Considerations in the Study of Earthworms in Forest Ecosystems

    Treesearch

    Dylan Rhea-Fournier; Grizelle Gonzalez

    2017-01-01

    Decades of studies have shown that soil macrofauna, especially earthworms, play dominant engineering roles in soils, affecting physical, chemical, and biological components of ecosystems. Quantifying these effects would allow crucial improvement in biogeochemical budgets and modeling, predicting response of land use and disturbance, and could be applied to...

  4. Developing the next generation of forest ecosystem models

    Treesearch

    Christopher R. Schwalm; Alan R. Ek

    2002-01-01

    Forest ecology and management are model-rich areas for research. Models are often cast as either empirical or mechanistic. With evolving climate change, hybrid models gain new relevance because of their ability to integrate existing mechanistic knowledge with empiricism based on causal thinking. The utility of hybrid platforms results in the combination of...

  5. The forest ecosystem of southeast Alaska: 5. Soil mass movement.

    Treesearch

    Douglas N. Swanston

    1974-01-01

    Research in southeast Alaska has identified soil mass movement as the dominant erosion process, with debris avalanches and debris flows the most frequent events on characteristically steep, forested slopes. Periodically high soil water levels and steep slopes are controlling factors. Bedrock structure and the rooting characteristics of trees and other vegetation exert...

  6. Conservation of biodiversity: a useful paradigm for forest ecosystem management.

    Treesearch

    A.B. Carey; R.O. Curtis

    1996-01-01

    The coniferous forests of the Western Hemlock Zone of western Oregon and western Washington are remarkable in the longevity and stature of their trees, long intervals between stand-replacing events, capacity to produce timber, diversity of life forms and species, and controversy over their management. The controversy is hardly new (Overton and Hunt 1974). But the...

  7. The forest ecosystem of southeast Alaska: 1. The setting.

    Treesearch

    Arland S. Harris; O. Keith Hutchison; William R. Meehan; Douglas N. Swanston; Austin E. Helmers; John C. Hendee; Thomas M. Collins

    1974-01-01

    A description of the discovery and exploration of southeast Alaska sets the scene for a discussion of the physical and biological features of this region. Subjects discussed include geography, climate, vegetation types, geology, minerals, forest products, soils, fish, wildlife, water, recreation, and aesthetic values. This is the first of a series of publications...

  8. Effects of natural gas development on forest ecosystems

    Treesearch

    Mary Beth Adams; W. Mark Ford; Thomas M. Schuler; Melissa. Thomas-Van Gundy

    2011-01-01

    In 2004, an energy company leased the privately owned minerals that underlie the Fernow Experimental Forest in West Virginia. The Fernow, established in 1934, is dedicated to long-term research. In 2008, a natural gas well was drilled on the Fernow and a pipeline and supporting infrastructure constructed. We describe the impacts of natural gas development on the...

  9. The role of the genus Ceanofhus in western forest ecosystems.

    Treesearch

    Susan G. Conard; Annabelle E. Jaramillo; Kermit Cromack; Sharon Rose

    1985-01-01

    This report was developed from discussions on the role of Ceanothus in western forests that took place at a workshop held November 22-24, 1982, at Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon. The workshop provided a forum for discussing research relevant to Ceanothus management. Major topics were autecology and synecology;...

  10. The forest ecosystem of Southeast Alaska: 4. Wildlife habitats.

    Treesearch

    William R. Meehan

    1974-01-01

    The effects of logging and associated activities on the habitat of the major forest wildlife species in southeast Alaska are discussed and research results applicable to this region are summarized. Big game, furbearers, and non-game species are considered with respect to their habitat requirements and behavior. Recommendations are made for habitat management with...

  11. Forest Service Nurseries: 100 years of ecosystem restoration

    Treesearch

    R. Kasten Dumroese; Thomas D. Landis; James P. Barnett; Frank Burch

    2005-01-01

    The USDA Forest Service broke ground on its first nursery in 1902 and since then its nurseries have adapted to many changes in scope and direction: from fire restoration to conservation, to reforestation, and back to restoration. In addition to providing a reliable source of native plant material, they have also been a source of research and technology transfer in...

  12. An ecosystem management strategy for Sierran mixed-conifer forests

    Treesearch

    Malcolm North; Peter Stine; Kevin O' Hara; William Zielinski; Scott Stephens

    2009-01-01

    Current Sierra Nevada forest management is often focused on strategically reducing fuels without an explicit strategy for ecological restoration across the landscape matrix. Summarizing recent scientific literature, we suggest managers produce different stand structures and densities across the landscape using topographic variables (i.e., slope shape, aspect, and slope...

  13. Characterizing forest fragments in boreal, temperate, and tropical ecosystems

    Treesearch

    Arjan J. H. Meddens; Andrew T. Hudak; Jeffrey S. Evans; William A. Gould; Grizelle Gonzalez

    2008-01-01

    An increased ability to analyze landscapes in a spatial manner through the use of remote sensing leads to improved capabilities for quantifying human-induced forest fragmentation. Developments of spatially explicit methods in landscape analyses are emerging. In this paper, the image delineation software program eCognition and the spatial pattern analysis program...

  14. Long-term forest ecosystem research: a programmatic view

    Treesearch

    Wayne Swank; James Vose

    2010-01-01

    Long-term research provides the building blocks of knowledge needed to address natural resource and environmental issues. "Long-term" has frequently been considered to span decades with a time frame that usually encompasses at least one generation of scientists and frequently two or more generations. In the rich history of forest science, the origin of long-...

  15. Intelligent Model Management in a Forest Ecosystem Management Decision Support System

    Treesearch

    Donald Nute; Walter D. Potter; Frederick Maier; Jin Wang; Mark Twery; H. Michael Rauscher; Peter Knopp; Scott Thomasma; Mayukh Dass; Hajime Uchiyama

    2002-01-01

    Decision making for forest ecosystem management can include the use of a wide variety of modeling tools. These tools include vegetation growth models, wildlife models, silvicultural models, GIS, and visualization tools. NED-2 is a robust, intelligent, goal-driven decision support system that integrates tools in each of these categories. NED-2 uses a blackboard...

  16. Carbon dioxide fluxes in a central hardwoods oak-hickory forest ecosystem

    Treesearch

    Stephen G. Pallardy; Lianhong Gu; Paul J. Hanson; Tilden Myers; Stan D. Wullschleger; Bai Yang; Jeffery S. Riggs; Kevin P. Hosman; Mark Heuer

    2007-01-01

    A long-term experiment to measure carbon and water fluxes was initiated in 2004 as part of the Ameriflux network in a second-growth oak-hickory forest in central Missouri. Ecosystem-scale (~ 1 km2) canopy gas exchange (measured by eddy-covariance methods), vertical CO2 profile sampling and soil respiration along with...

  17. Biotic resistance to exotic invasions: its role in forest ecosystems, confounding artifacts, and future directions

    Treesearch

    Gabriela C. Nunez-Mir; Andrew M. Liebhold; Qinfeng Guo; Eckehard G. Brockerhoff; Insu Jo; Kimberly Ordonez; Songlin Fei

    2017-01-01

    Biotic resistance, the ability of communities to resist exotic invasions, has long attracted interest in the research and management communities. However, inconsistencies exist in various biotic resistance studies and less is known about the current status and knowledge gaps of biotic resistance in forest ecosystems. In this paper, we provide a brief review of the...

  18. An agent architecture for an integrated forest ecosystem management decision support system

    Treesearch

    Donald Nute; Walter D. Potter; Mayukh Dass; Astrid Glende; Frederick Maier; Hajime Uchiyama; Jin Wang; Mark Twery; Peter Knopp; Scott Thomasma; H. Michael Rauscher

    2003-01-01

    A wide variety of software tools are available to support decision in the management of forest ecosystems. These tools include databases, growth and yield models, wildlife models, silvicultural expert systems, financial models, geographical informations systems, and visualization tools. Typically, each of these tools has its own complex interface and data format. To...

  19. Potential of a national monitoring program for forests to assess change in high-latitude ecosystems

    Treesearch

    Tara M. Barrett; Andrew N. Gray

    2011-01-01

    Broad-scale monitoring in Alaska has become of increasing interest due to uncertainty about the potential impacts of changing climate on high-latitude ecosystems. The Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program is a national monitoring program for all public and private forestlands in the US, but the program is not currently implemented in the boreal region of Alaska....

  20. Patterns of Genetic Variation in Woody Plant Species in the Missouri Ozark Forest Ecosystem Project

    Treesearch

    Victoria L. Sork; Anthony Koop; Marie Ann de la Fuente; Paul Foster; Jay. Raveill

    1997-01-01

    We quantified current patterns of genetic variation of three woody plant species—Carya tomentosa (Juglandaceae), Quercus alba (Fagaceae), and Sassafras albidum (Lauraceae)—distributed throughout the nine Missouri Ozark Forest Ecosystem Project (MOFEP) study sites and evaluated the data in light of the MOFEP...