Science.gov

Sample records for forest health status

  1. Forest health status in the Carpathian Mountains over the period 1997-2001.

    PubMed

    Badea, Ovidiu; Tanase, Mihai; Georgeta, Jianu; Anisoara, Lazar; Peiov, Agata; Uhlirova, Hana; Pajtik, Josef; Wawrzoniak, Jerzy; Shparyk, Yuri

    2004-07-01

    The results of forest health status assessments in the Carpathian Mountains from the monitoring networks developed by the European Union Scheme on the Protection of Forest Against Atmospheric Pollution (EU Scheme) and International Co-operative Programme on Assessment and Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Forests (ICP-Forests), have led to a better understanding of the impact of air pollution and other stressors on forests at the regional scale. During the period 1997-2001, forests in the Carpathian Mountains were severely affected by air pollution and natural stresses with 29.7-34.9% of the trees included in defoliation classes 2-4. The broadleaves were slightly healthier than the conifers, and European beech (Fagus sylvatica) was the least affected species. Norway spruce (Picea abies) has poor health status, with 42.9-46.6% of the trees damaged (2-4% defoliation classes). Silver fir (Abies alba) damage was also high, with 46.0-50.9% in defoliation classes 2-4. Pines (primarily Pinus sylvestris) were the least affected of the conifers, with 24.9-33.8% in defoliation classes 2-4. The results from the transnational networks (16 x 16 km) show that the Carpathian forests are slightly more damaged than the average for the entire Europe. The correlative studies performed in individual European countries show the relationships between air pollution stressors with trends in defoliation and a possible effect of natural stresses at each site. More specific, effects of tree age, drought, ozone and acid deposition critical level exceedances were demonstrated to affect crown condition.

  2. Relationship between soil properties and forest health status in the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drabek, O.; Šrámek, V.; Tejnecky, V.; Nikodem, A.; Sebek, O.; Fadrhonsová, V.; Boruvka, L.

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of selected soil characteristics on tree vitality at representative forest monitoring plots. We have chosen 20 stands with prevailing Norway spruce and 20 plots with dominance of European beech across the Czech Republic. Following soil characteristics were determined: pH, content of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), content of exchangeable (extracted by 0.1 M BaCl2) Ca, Mg and K, and major organic (formic, acetic and oxalic) and inorganic (e.g. sulphate and nitrate) anions in the aqueous extracts. Moreover, major Al forms in aqueous and 0.5 M KCl soil extracts were determined by means of HPLC/IC. Health of forest stands, expressed as crown defoliation, was assessed repeatedly. Overall, Al speciation in aqueous extracts was significantly affected by the DOC content and by the concentration of low molecular mass organic acids (LMMOA). The DOC content and composition is strongly dependent on tree species. We have observed higher proportion of organically bound Al in soil aqueous extracts under Norway spruce compared to European beech. This is probably caused by higher share of LMMOA from the total DOC content under Norway spruce. The health status of forest stands expressed as defoliation was negatively influenced by the contents of exchangeable Al3+ species and positively by the contents of exchangeable Ca and Mg in soils (Fig. 1). Potentially phytotoxic Al3+ was assessed as the prevailing Al exchangeable form. The beach stands is generally showed higher presence of Al3+, compared to the spruce stands. The Norway spruce stands exhibited different composition of DOC in soil, showing a higher share of LMMOA which might mitigate Al toxicity there. This study was supported by the Ministry of Agriculture of the Czech Republic (project no. QI92A216). Fig. 1 The relationship between the crown defoliation and the content of exchangeable Al forms (left) and contents of exchangeable Ca, Mg and K (right); based on results

  3. Forest Health Detectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bal, Tara L.

    2014-01-01

    "Forest health" is an important concept often not covered in tree, forest, insect, or fungal ecology and biology. With minimal, inexpensive equipment, students can investigate and conduct their own forest health survey to assess the percentage of trees with natural or artificial wounds or stress. Insects and diseases in the forest are…

  4. Airborne laser scanning for forest health status assessment and radiative transfer modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novotny, Jan; Zemek, Frantisek; Pikl, Miroslav; Janoutova, Ruzena

    2013-04-01

    Structural parameters of forest stands/ecosystems are an important complementary source of information to spectral signatures obtained from airborne imaging spectroscopy when quantitative assessment of forest stands are in the focus, such as estimation of forest biomass, biochemical properties (e.g. chlorophyll /water content), etc. The parameterization of radiative transfer (RT) models used in latter case requires three-dimensional spatial distribution of green foliage and woody biomass. Airborne LiDAR data acquired over forest sites bears these kinds of 3D information. The main objective of the study was to compare the results from several approaches to interpolation of digital elevation model (DEM) and digital surface model (DSM). We worked with airborne LiDAR data with different density (TopEye Mk II 1,064nm instrument, 1-5 points/m2) acquired over the Norway spruce forests situated in the Beskydy Mountains, the Czech Republic. Three different interpolation algorithms with increasing complexity were tested: i/Nearest neighbour approach implemented in the BCAL software package (Idaho Univ.); ii/Averaging and linear interpolation techniques used in the OPALS software (Vienna Univ. of Technology); iii/Active contour technique implemented in the TreeVis software (Univ. of Freiburg). We defined two spatial resolutions for the resulting coupled raster DEMs and DSMs outputs: 0.4 m and 1 m, calculated by each algorithm. The grids correspond to the same spatial resolutions of hyperspectral imagery data for which the DEMs were used in a/geometrical correction and b/building a complex tree models for radiative transfer modelling. We applied two types of analyses when comparing between results from the different interpolations/raster resolution: 1/calculated DEM or DSM between themselves; 2/comparison with field data: DEM with measurements from referential GPS, DSM - field tree alometric measurements, where tree height was calculated as DSM-DEM. The results of the analyses

  5. Health status of newcomers.

    PubMed

    Matuk, L C

    1996-01-01

    This article presents and discusses findings on the health status of newcomers residing in Windsor, Ontario. The data are part of a larger study, which was based on the Ontario Health Survey's questionnaire. Data were collected from 548 newcomers through home visits, focus groups, mail surveys, and telephone interviews. Descriptive multivariate analyses focused on main areas in newcomers' physical and mental health status and their access to health services. The findings identified that most newcomers do not have acute, life-threatening physical problems or chronic illness. They do not experience major problems with access to health care or activity limitations. Men are happier, more satisfied with their health, and less stressed than women. This study has implications for adoption of sensitive transcultural approaches to promote newcomers' health. Special challenges lie in women's health and mental health.

  6. Occurrence of Phytophthora plurivora and other Phytophthora species in oak forests of southern Poland and their association with site conditions and the health status of trees.

    PubMed

    Jankowiak, R; Stępniewska, H; Bilański, P; Kolařík, M

    2014-11-01

    Phytophthora plurivora and other Phytophthora species are known to be serious pathogens of forest trees. Little is known, however, about the presence of P. plurivora in Polish oak forests and their role in oak decline. The aims of this study were to identify P. plurivora in healthy and declining Quercus robur stands in southern Poland and to demonstrate the relationship between different site factors and the occurrence of P. plurivora. In addition, the virulence of P. plurivora and other Phytophthora species was evaluated through inoculations using 2-year-old oak seedlings. Rhizosphere soil was investigated from 39 oak stands representing different healthy tree statuses. The morphology and DNA sequences of the internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS) of the ribosomal DNA and the mitochondrial cox1 gene were used for identifications. P. plurivora, an oak fine root pathogen, was isolated from rhizosphere soil samples in 6 out of 39 stands. Additionally, Phytophthora cambivora, Phytophthora polonica and Phytophthora rosacearum-like were also obtained from several stands. The results showed a significant association between the presence of P. plurivora and the health status of oak trees. Similar relationships were also observed for all identified Phytophthora species. In addition, there was evidence for a connection between the presence of all identified Phytophthora species and some site conditions. Phytophthora spp. occurred more frequently in declining stands and in silt loam and sandy loam soils with pH ≥ 3.66. P. plurivora and P. cambivora were the only species capable of killing whole plants, producing extensive necrosis on seedling stems.

  7. [The national health status].

    PubMed

    Afek, Arnon

    2010-04-01

    During the Golden Age of Medicine (20th Century), scientific and technological breakthroughs enabled physicians to treat diseases that were previously incurable. The idealist, romantic approach of medical practice believed in the right of every human being to receive the best treatment possible, regardless of cost. However, the rise in health care expenditure at the end of the last century made this approach impossible to follow. The growing health expenses are due to the increased percentage of chronically sick patients and elderly population, costs of novel technologies and public expectations. Israel spends 7.9% of its GDP on health, a figure which has not changed in the last fifteen years, while other western countries spend a considerably higher and increasing percentage of their GDP on health. Public resources must be allocated in order to maintain the health of the population and to decrease inequities. A data-based demonstration of the population health status and health care system is therefore mandated. in this issue of the Harefuah, three articles are presented which try to show different aspects of the measurement of Israeli heath status. The data accumulated is used to improve the health status of the Israeli people. The Israel Medical Association (IMA) has assumed responsibility for the creation of an objective index for the measurement and evaluation of the public state of health and the healthcare system. The goal of the IMA National Health Index is to promote discussions regarding medicine and health in Israel, and to serve as a tool to be used by relevant policy makers. Prof. Israeli et al discuss the merits of the National Health Index as well as delineate the difficulties regarding the methodology and choice of parameters. They suggest methods for its improvement. Dr Cohen and his colleagues of Clalit Health Services present the Quality Health indicator program in the community. In effect over the past fifteen years, this program is based on

  8. A tool for assessing ecological status of forest ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman Kassim, Abd; Afizzul Misman, Muhammad; Azahari Faidi, Mohd; Omar, Hamdan

    2016-06-01

    Managers and policy makers are beginning to appreciate the value of ecological monitoring of artificially regenerated forest especially in urban areas. With the advent of more advance technology in precision forestry, high resolution remotely sensed data e.g. hyperspectral and LiDAR are becoming available for rapid and precise assessment of the forest condition. An assessment of ecological status of forest ecosystem was developed and tested using FRIM campus forest stand. The forest consisted of three major blocks; the old growth artificially regenerated native species forests, naturally regenerated forest and recent planted forest for commercial timber and other forest products. Our aim is to assess the ecological status and its proximity to the mature old growth artificially regenerated stand. We used airborne LiDAR, orthophoto and thirty field sampling quadrats of 20x20m for ground verification. The parameter assessments were grouped into four broad categories: a. forest community level-composition, structures, function; landscape structures-road network and forest edges. A metric of parameters and rating criteria was introduced as indicators of the forest ecological status. We applied multi-criteria assessment to categorize the ecological status of the forest stand. The paper demonstrates the application of the assessment approach using FRIM campus forest as its first case study. Its potential application to both artificially and naturally regenerated forest in the variety of Malaysian landscape is discussed

  9. [Assessing forest ecosystem health I. Model, method, and index system].

    PubMed

    Chen, Gao; Dai, Limin; Ji, Lanzhu; Deng, Hongbing; Hao, Zhanqing; Wang, Qingli

    2004-10-01

    Ecosystem health assessment is one of the main researches and urgent tasks of ecosystem science in 21st century. An operational definition on ecosystem health and an all-sided, simple, easy operational and standard index system, which are the foundation of assessment on ecosystem health, are necessary in obtaining a simple and applicable assessment theory and method of ecosystem health. Taking the Korean pine and broadleaved mixed forest ecosystem as an example, an originally creative idea on ecosystem health was put forward in this paper based on the idea of mode ecosystem set and the idea of forest ecosystem health, together with its assessment. This creative idea can help understand what ecosystem health is. Finally, a formula was deduced based on a new effective health assessment method--health distance (HD), which is the first time to be brought forward in China. At the same time, aiming at it's characteristics by status understanding and material health questions, a health index system of Korean pine and broadleaved mixed forest ecosystem was put forward in this paper, which is a compound ecosystem based on the compound properties of nature, economy and society. It is concrete enough to measure sub-index, so it is the foundation to assess ecosystem health of Korean pine and broadleaved mixed forest in next researches.

  10. Stigma, status, and population health

    PubMed Central

    Phelan, Jo C.; Lucas, Jeffrey W.; Ridgeway, Cecilia L.; Taylor, Catherine J.

    2014-01-01

    Stigma and status are the major concepts in two important sociological traditions that describe related processes but that have developed in isolation. Although both approaches have great promise for understanding and improving population health, this promise has not been realized. In this paper, we consider the applicability of status characteristics theory (SCT) to the problem of stigma with the goal of better understanding social systemic aspects of stigma and their health consequences. To this end, we identify common and divergent features of status and stigma processes. In both, labels that are differentially valued produce unequal outcomes in resources via culturally shared expectations associated with the labels; macro-level inequalities are enacted in micro-level interactions, which in turn reinforce macro-level inequalities; and status is a key variable. Status and stigma processes also differ: Higher- and lower-status states (e.g., male and female) are both considered normal, whereas stigmatized characteristics (e.g., mental illness) are not; interactions between status groups are guided by “social ordering schemas” that provide mutually agreed-upon hierarchies and interaction patterns (e.g., men assert themselves while women defer), whereas interactions between “normals” and stigmatized individuals are not so guided and consequently involve uncertainty and strain; and social rejection is key to stigma but not status processes. Our juxtaposition of status and stigma processes reveals close parallels between stigmatization and status processes that contribute to systematic stratification by major social groupings, such as race, gender, and SES. These parallels make salient that stigma is not only an interpersonal or intrapersonal process but also a macro-level process and raise the possibility of considering stigma as a dimension of social stratification. As such, stigma’s impact on health should be scrutinized with the same intensity as that of

  11. IS NITROGEN DEPOSITION ALTERING THE NITROGEN STATUS OF NORTHEASTERN FORESTS?

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper reviews literature and compiles existing data to address the question "Is N deposition altering the N status in Northeastern forests?" Using correlational techniques and large sample size, three different categories of indicators appear to give different results. The...

  12. The current status of world protection for mangrove forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhengyun, Zhang; Zhixian, Su; Qiaoying, Zhang; Aiying, Shen

    2003-09-01

    Mangrove forests occur extensively in the tropic areas rich in wildlife and other nonforestry resources and provide a wide array of raw materials for livelihood and production processes and have been a major source of income generation and subsistence for the local people. Exploitation of timber, fuel wood, poles, industrial raw material, and many other non-wood produets from the mangrove forests give rise to large scale economic activity and income generation. At present, mangrove forests are facing great peril. Reckless exploitation and swampland reclamation result in their gradual degradation. This article deals with the world’s mangrove forest resources and their benefit to people; describes the current status, points out the main causes of the destruction of these forests, presents proposals for protecting mangrove forests, and discusses international cooperation in protecting the world’s mangrove forests.

  13. Light on population health status.

    PubMed Central

    Beyrer, K.; Brauer, G. W.; Fliedner, T. M.; Greiner, C.; Reischl, U.

    1999-01-01

    A new approach to illustrating and analysing health status is presented which allows comparisons of various aspects of health in a population at different times and in different populations during given periods. Both quantitative and qualitative elements can be represented, the impact of interventions can be monitored, and the extent to which objectives are achieved can be assessed. The practical application of the approach is demonstrated with reference to the health profiles to Tunisia in 1966 and 1994. PMID:10083719

  14. 78 FR 38287 - Bitterroot National Forest, Darby Ranger District, Como Forest Health Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-26

    ... Forest Service Bitterroot National Forest, Darby Ranger District, Como Forest Health Project AGENCY: Forest Service. ACTION: Notice; Correction. SUMMARY: The Department of Agriculture (USDA), Forest Service, Bitterroot National Forest, Darby Ranger District published a document in the Federal Register of June...

  15. [Approaches for assessing forest ecosystem health].

    PubMed

    Chen, Gao; Deng, Hongbing; Wang, Qingli; Dai, Limin; Hao, Zhanqing

    2003-06-01

    Assessment and indicator system become the key issues in the research on ecosystem health in 21st century. Assessing forest ecosystem health gradually attach much attention because it is an important component of terrestrial ecosystem. The definition, measurement, evaluation and its management had been discussed broadly, and some theories, assessing methods and frameworks had been proposed, which provides a new concept and a serial research approaches for dealing with the crisis of terrestrial ecosystems, even the environment problems in the world. Now, the common operational models for assessing forest ecosystem health do not exist owing to the manifold limitations. This paper discussed forest ecosystem health problem, and brought forward three preconditions for assessing forest ecosystem health: 1) a clear conceptual framework; 2) adequate data sets; 3) proper research and analysis techniques. The issues of three preconditions were discussed, and the possible approaches for the assessing research on forest ecosystem health, e.g., long-term studies and environment monitoring, space-for-time substation studies, e.g., history approaches, economics valuation and others were expariated.

  16. Age and Functional Health Status

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-01

    gender such that energy level declined with older age for males, but energy level was lowest for females in the 35-49 age group. The correlations...psychosocial function," Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 185, 1963, pp. 914-919. Health Status 42 Koenig, H., "Depression and dysphoria among

  17. Tropical forests: present status and future outlook.

    PubMed

    Myers, N

    1991-09-01

    Tropical forests still cover almost 8 million km squared of the humid tropics but they are being destroyed at ever-more rapid rates. In 1989, the area deforested amounted to 142,200 km squared, or nearly 90% more than in 1979. Thus, whereas the 1989 amounted total to 1.8% of the remaining biome, the proportion could well continue to rise for the foreseeable future, until there is little forest in just a few decades. Deforestati on patterns are far from even throughout the biome. In much of the Southeast and Southern Asia, East and West Africa, and Central America, there is likely to be little forest left by the year 2000 or shortly thereafter. But in the Zaire basin, western Brazilian Amazonia, and the Guyana highlands, sizeable expanses of forest could persist a good while longer. The main agent of deforestation in the 'shifted cultivator' or displaced peasant, who, responding to land hunger and general lack of rural development in traditional farming areas of countries concerned, feels there is no alternative but to adopt a slash-and-burn lifestyle in forestlands. This person is now accounting for at least 60% of deforestation, a rapidly expanding proportion. However, he receives far less policy attention than the commercial logger, the cattle rancher, and other agents of deforestation.

  18. Health of North American forests: Stress and risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, W.H. )

    1990-01-01

    The 1980s will be remembered by forest professionals as a decade of intense and widespread societal concern for the vitality and integrity of forest systems. Daily reports of tropical deforestation and temperate forest decline have heightened social consciousness of forest health. It is therefore appropriate, as we enter the 1990s, to assess the health of our forests and propose new initiatives in this critically important area. Making generalizations about the health of North American forests is difficult because of the extraordinary diversity of forests, management regimes, and stress factors. This overview article summarizes forest health fundamentals, significant health risks, and priorities in future forest health management for temperate forests of the United States.

  19. Health status among elderly Hungarians and Americans.

    PubMed

    Buss, T F; Beres, C; Hofstetter, C R; Pomidor, A

    1994-07-01

    Selected health status data for elderly populations from similar industrial cities-Youngstown, Ohio, USA, and Debrecen, Hungary-were compared. Because of their impoverished health care system, unregulated heavily industrialized society, and unhealthful life-styles Hungarians were hypothesized to have poorer health status than Americans, even after taking into account demographic mediating factors. The study provides a health status baseline for elderly Hungarians shortly after communism's fall in 1989-1990 and shows how great a gap exists between Hungarian health status and that in the West. Hungarians were in much poorer health as measured by functional status, symptomatology, medical condition, depression, and subjective health status. Distinctions persisted when controlling for gender, age, and education. Poverty-level (and income) did not explain health status differences. The paper concludes that Hungary should pay more attention to health promotion, prevention, and primary care, as well as to reforming patient management in hospitals, nursing homes, and home care programs.

  20. Boreal forest health and global change.

    PubMed

    Gauthier, S; Bernier, P; Kuuluvainen, T; Shvidenko, A Z; Schepaschenko, D G

    2015-08-21

    The boreal forest, one of the largest biomes on Earth, provides ecosystem services that benefit society at levels ranging from local to global. Currently, about two-thirds of the area covered by this biome is under some form of management, mostly for wood production. Services such as climate regulation are also provided by both the unmanaged and managed boreal forests. Although most of the boreal forests have retained the resilience to cope with current disturbances, projected environmental changes of unprecedented speed and amplitude pose a substantial threat to their health. Management options to reduce these threats are available and could be implemented, but economic incentives and a greater focus on the boreal biome in international fora are needed to support further adaptation and mitigation actions.

  1. Health status of vulnerable populations.

    PubMed

    Aday, L A

    1994-01-01

    The notion of risk underlying the concept of vulnerability implies that everyone is potentially vulnerable (or at risk), that is, there is always a chance of developing health problems. The risk is, however, greater for those with the least social status, social capital, and human capital resources to either prevent or ameliorate the origins and consequences of poor physical, psychological, or social health. The completeness and accuracy of information on the health status of the vulnerable populations examined here varies substantially across groups. Methodological work is needed to derive standardized definitions of terms, specify the content and timing for collecting information for minimum basic data sets, and develop uniform standards for evaluating and reporting data quality on the health status of vulnerable populations. The variety of indicators of vulnerable populations examined indicates that during the decade of the 1980s the incidence of serious physical, psychological, and/or social needs increased (at worst) and was unameliorated (at best) for millions of Americans. AIDS emerged as a new and deadly threat from a handful of cases classified as Gay-Related Immune Deficiency in the early part of the 1980s to what now may be over a million Americans who are HIV-positive. The number of homeless has increased an average of 20% a year to estimates now ranging up to one million men, women, or children homeless on any given night to twice that number who may be homeless sometime during the year. Over seven million people immigrated to the United States during the period from 1981 to 1990--an increasing proportion of whom are refugees carrying with them the physical, psychological, and social wounds of war. The number of children abused by family members or other intimates has burgeoned to an estimated 1.6 to 1.7 million per year, and with the greater use of firearms, intentional acts of violence towards oneself or others are becoming increasingly deadly in

  2. The Effects of Acid Rain on Forest Nutrient Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Dale W.; Turner, John; Kelly, J. M.

    1982-06-01

    The effects of acidic atmospheric inputs on forest nutrient status must be assessed within the context of natural, internal acid production by carbonic and organic acids as well as the nutrient inputs and drains by management practices such as harvesting, fire, and fertilization. In all cases the anion associated with acid inputs must be mobile in the soil if leaching is to occur; immobilization of anions can effectively prevent cation leaching. Soil acidification will occur only if the often substantial buffering capacity of the soil in question is exceeded by acid inputs and if cation weathering from primary minerals is insufficient to offset cation losses by leaching. Such circumstances are rare but certainly could occur in theory, at least, given sufficiently large acid inputs on poorly buffered soils. Soils most sensitive to change are thought to be those of moderately acid pH and low cation exchange capacity. Neither very acid soils nor neutral, highly buffered soils are sensitive to acidification by acid rain. Given extremely high acid inputs, acid rain can cause temporary increases in nitrogen mineralization and nitritication as well as Al mobilization in soils. While temporary increases in N availability can cause increased forest growth in N-deficient forests, increased Al availability can cause toxic reactions in tree roots. Little is known about tree Al toxicity levels as yet, however. It must be emphasized that assessment of acid rain effects is a problem of quantification. Given sufficiently high inputs on sensitive sites, negative effects of acid rain must occur, as is true of inputs of any substance, including H2O. Acid rain inputs of sufficient magnitude to cause acute effects, such as growth increase due to N mobilization or growth decrease due to Al mobilization, are apparently very rare under ambient field conditions. Long-term effects on forest nutrient status can be either beneficial or adverse, depending on site nutrient status, silvicultural

  3. Forest health monitoring: Southeast loblolly/shortleaf pine demonstration interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, T.E.; Conkling, B.L.

    1994-04-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Research and Development is conducting an Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) with other federal agencies to establish the status of and trends in the ecological health of the Nation's natural resources. The forest component of EMAP is a multiagency effort referred to as Forest Health Monitoring (FHM). The FHM program conducted a two year demonstration study to test a suite of indicators considered important in assessing forest health. The study is referred to in this report as the Southeast Loblolly/Shortleaf Pine Demonstration, or SE DEMO. The interim report describes the results from the first year of the SE DEMO. The use of such data is encouraged by EMAP to foster a better understanding of the anticipated performance of an indicator prior to large investments in funding for field research. These data were used to the extent possible to determine the current status of each indicator with respect to the six criteria.

  4. Health status of prisoners in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Kouyoumdjian, Fiona; Schuler, Andrée; Matheson, Flora I.; Hwang, Stephen W.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To review the literature for quantitative research on the health status of persons in custody in provincial, territorial, and federal correctional facilities in Canada, and summarize recent evidence. Quality of evidence A search was performed in research databases and the websites of relevant Canadian governmental and non-governmental organizations for quantitative studies of health conducted between 1993 and 2014. Studies were included that provided quantitative data on health status for youth or adults who had been detained or incarcerated in a jail or prison in Canada. Main message The health status of this population is poor compared with the general Canadian population, as indicated by data on social determinants of health, mortality in custody, mental health, substance use, communicable diseases, and sexual and reproductive health. Little is known about mortality after release, chronic diseases, injury, reproductive health, and health care access and quality. Conclusion Health status data should be used to improve health care and to intervene to improve health for persons while in custody and after release, with potential benefits for all Canadians. PMID:27427562

  5. Health Literacy, Social Support, and Health Status among Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Shoou-Yih D.; Arozullah, Ahsan M.; Cho, Young Ik; Crittenden, Kathleen; Vicencio, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    The study examines whether social support interacts with health literacy in affecting the health status of older adults. Health literacy is assessed using the short version of the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults. Social support is measured with the Medical Outcome Study social support scale. Results show, unexpectedly, that rather…

  6. Relationship between Peer Status and Health Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terre, Lisa; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Investigated relative influence of background characteristics (age, gender, race, socioeconomic status, family type) and peer status on health-related behaviors (physical activity, eating habits, smoking, alcohol use, stress-related behaviors) in 589 junior high school students. Peer popularity provided no significant increment in prediction of…

  7. Disturbance and forest health in Oregon and Washington. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Brookes, M.H.; Campbell, S.; Liegel, L.

    1996-10-01

    The scope and intensity of disturbance by such agents as fire, insects, diseases, air pollution, and weather in the Pacific Northwest forests suggest that forest health has declined in recent years in many areas. The most significant disturbances and causes of tree mortality or decline in Oregon and Washington are presented and illustrated. We discuss the interrelations of disturbance with forest management activities and the effect on native trees and suggest some solutions for reducing the severity of disturbance. One chapter reports on forest health monitoring pilot project.

  8. Health Status, Personal Definition of Health, and Health Behavior Choice in the Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Norma J.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships among health status, personal definition of health, and health behavior choice in the elderly. Self-assessed health status was measured using a modified Cantril Ladder, personal definition of health was measured using the Laffrey Health Conception Scale (LHCS), and health behavior…

  9. The Mental Health Status of California Veterans.

    PubMed

    Tran, Linda Diem; Grant, David; Aydin, May

    2016-04-01

    Data from the California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) from 2011--2013 showed approximately 90,000 veterans had mental health needs and 200,000 reported serious thoughts of suicide during the 12 months prior to participating in CHIS. Although the proportion of veterans reporting mental health need or serious psychological distress was no higher than the general population, California veterans were more likely to report lifetime suicide ideation. This policy brief uses CHIS data to examine the mental health status, needs, and barriers to care among veterans in California. Veterans were more likely to receive mental health or substance use treatment than nonveterans, yet three of four veterans with mental health needs received either inadequate or no mental health care. Integrating mental and physical health services, increasing access to care, retaining veterans who seek mental health treatment, and reducing stigma are among the strategies that might improve the mental health of California's veterans.

  10. Benchmarking dairy herd health status using routinely recorded herd summary data.

    PubMed

    Parker Gaddis, K L; Cole, J B; Clay, J S; Maltecca, C

    2016-02-01

    Genetic improvement of dairy cattle health through the use of producer-recorded data has been determined to be feasible. Low estimated heritabilities indicate that genetic progress will be slow. Variation observed in lowly heritable traits can largely be attributed to nongenetic factors, such as the environment. More rapid improvement of dairy cattle health may be attainable if herd health programs incorporate environmental and managerial aspects. More than 1,100 herd characteristics are regularly recorded on farm test-days. We combined these data with producer-recorded health event data, and parametric and nonparametric models were used to benchmark herd and cow health status. Health events were grouped into 3 categories for analyses: mastitis, reproductive, and metabolic. Both herd incidence and individual incidence were used as dependent variables. Models implemented included stepwise logistic regression, support vector machines, and random forests. At both the herd and individual levels, random forest models attained the highest accuracy for predicting health status in all health event categories when evaluated with 10-fold cross-validation. Accuracy (SD) ranged from 0.61 (0.04) to 0.63 (0.04) when using random forest models at the herd level. Accuracy of prediction (SD) at the individual cow level ranged from 0.87 (0.06) to 0.93 (0.001) with random forest models. Highly significant variables and key words from logistic regression and random forest models were also investigated. All models identified several of the same key factors for each health event category, including movement out of the herd, size of the herd, and weather-related variables. We concluded that benchmarking health status using routinely collected herd data is feasible. Nonparametric models were better suited to handle this complex data with numerous variables. These data mining techniques were able to perform prediction of health status and could add evidence to personal experience in herd

  11. 45 CFR 162.1401 - Health care claim status transaction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Health care claim status transaction. 162.1401... RELATED REQUIREMENTS ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Health Care Claim Status § 162.1401 Health care claim status transaction. The health care claim status transaction is the transmission of either of...

  12. Health status of ayahuasca users.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Paulo Cesar Ribeiro; Mizumoto, Suely; Bogenschutz, Michael P; Strassman, Rick J

    2012-01-01

    Ayahuasca is a psychedelic brew originally used for magico-religious purposes by Amerindian populations of the western Amazon Basin. Throughout the last four decades, the use of ayahuasca spread towards major cities in all regions of Brazil and abroad. This trend has raised concerns that regular use of this N,N-dimethyltryptamine- and harmala-alkaloid-containing tea may lead to mental and physical health problems associated typically with drug abuse. To further elucidate the mental and physical health of ayahuasca users, we conducted a literature search in the international medical PubMed database. Inclusion criteria were evaluation of any related effect of ayahuasca use that occurred after the resolution of acute effects of the brew. Fifteen publications were related to emotional, cognitive, and physical health of ayahuasca users. The accumulated data suggest that ayahuasca use is safe and may even be, under certain conditions, beneficial. However, methodological bias of the reviewed studies might have contributed to the preponderance of beneficial effects and to the few adverse effects reported. The data up to now do not appear to allow for definitive conclusions to be drawn on the effects of ayahuasca use on mental and physical health, but some studies point in the direction of beneficial effects. Additional studies are suggested to provide further clarification.

  13. Temperate forest health in an era of emerging megadisturbance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Millar, Constance I.; Stephenson, Nathan L.

    2015-01-01

    Although disturbances such as fire and native insects can contribute to natural dynamics of forest health, exceptional droughts, directly and in combination with other disturbance factors, are pushing some temperate forests beyond thresholds of sustainability. Interactions from increasing temperatures, drought, native insects and pathogens, and uncharacteristically severe wildfire are resulting in forest mortality beyond the levels of 20th-century experience. Additional anthropogenic stressors, such as atmospheric pollution and invasive species, further weaken trees in some regions. Although continuing climate change will likely drive many areas of temperate forest toward large-scale transformations, management actions can help ease transitions and minimize losses of socially valued ecosystem services.

  14. Socioeconomic status and health of immigrants.

    PubMed

    Vacková, Jitka; Brabcová, Iva

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to acquaint the general public with select socioeconomic status (SES) parameters (type of work, education level, employment category, and net monthly income) of select nationalities (Ukrainians, Slovaks, Vietnamese, Poles, and Russians) from a total of 1,014 immigrants residing in the Czech Republic. It will also present a subjective assessment of socioeconomic status and its interconnection with subjective assessment of health status. This work was carried out as part of the "Social determinants and their impact on the health of immigrants living in the Czech Republic" project (identification number LD 13044), which was conducted under the auspices of the European Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST) agency. Quantitative methodology in the form of a questionnaire was selected to facilitate the research aim. Data was processed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS), version 16.0 (SPSS, Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Statistical analyses were performed using the Pearson chi-square test, adjusted residual analysis, and multivariate correspondence analysis. The results of these tests demonstrated a statistically significant relationship between subjective assessments of socioeconomic status and the following related select characteristics: type of work performed (manual/intellectual), employment categories, education, and net monthly income. Results indicate that those situated lowest on the socioeconomic ladder feel the poorest in terms of health; not only from a subjective perspective, but also in terms of objective parameter comparisons (e.g. manual laborers who earn low wages). As the level of subjective SES assessment increases, the level of subjective health assessment increases, as well. Thus, the relationship has a natural gradient, as was described by Wilkinson and Marmot in 2003. Our study found no evidence of a healthy immigrant effect. Therefore, it was not possible to confirm that health status deteriorates

  15. Telemental health: A status update

    PubMed Central

    Aboujaoude, Elias; Salame, Wael; Naim, Lama

    2015-01-01

    A rather large body of literature now exists on the use of telemental health services in the diagnosis and management of various psychiatric conditions. This review aims to provide an up-to-date assessment of telemental health, focusing on four main areas: computerized CBT (cCBT), Internet-based CBT (iCBT), virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET), and mobile therapy (mTherapy). Four scientific databases were searched and, where possible, larger, better-designed meta-analyses and controlled trials were highlighted. Taken together, published studies support an expanded role for telepsychiatry tools, with advantages that include increased care access, enhanced efficiency, reduced stigma associated with visiting mental health clinics, and the ability to bypass diagnosis-specific obstacles to treatment, such as when social anxiety prevents a patient from leaving the house. Of technology-mediated therapies, cCBT and iCBT possess the most efficacy evidence, with VRET and mTherapy representing promising but less researched options that have grown in parallel with virtual reality and mobile technology advances. Nonetheless, telepsychiatry remains challenging because of the need for specific computer skills, the difficulty in providing patients with a deep understanding or support, concerns about the “therapeutic alliance”, privacy fears, and the well documented problem of patient attrition. Future studies should further test the efficacy, advantages and limitations of technology-enabled CBT, as well as explore the online delivery of other psychotherapeutic and psychopharmacological modalities. PMID:26043340

  16. Telemental health: A status update.

    PubMed

    Aboujaoude, Elias; Salame, Wael; Naim, Lama

    2015-06-01

    A rather large body of literature now exists on the use of telemental health services in the diagnosis and management of various psychiatric conditions. This review aims to provide an up-to-date assessment of telemental health, focusing on four main areas: computerized CBT (cCBT), Internet-based CBT (iCBT), virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET), and mobile therapy (mTherapy). Four scientific databases were searched and, where possible, larger, better-designed meta-analyses and controlled trials were highlighted. Taken together, published studies support an expanded role for telepsychiatry tools, with advantages that include increased care access, enhanced efficiency, reduced stigma associated with visiting mental health clinics, and the ability to bypass diagnosis-specific obstacles to treatment, such as when social anxiety prevents a patient from leaving the house. Of technology-mediated therapies, cCBT and iCBT possess the most efficacy evidence, with VRET and mTherapy representing promising but less researched options that have grown in parallel with virtual reality and mobile technology advances. Nonetheless, telepsychiatry remains challenging because of the need for specific computer skills, the difficulty in providing patients with a deep understanding or support, concerns about the "therapeutic alliance", privacy fears, and the well documented problem of patient attrition. Future studies should further test the efficacy, advantages and limitations of technology-enabled CBT, as well as explore the online delivery of other psychotherapeutic and psychopharmacological modalities.

  17. Geographic analysis of forest health indicators using spatial scan statistics.

    PubMed

    Coulston, John W; Riitters, Kurt H

    2003-06-01

    Geographically explicit analysis tools are needed to assess forest health indicators that are measured over large regions. Spatial scan statistics can be used to detect spatial or spatiotemporal clusters of forests representing hotspots of extreme indicator values. This paper demonstrates the approach through analyses of forest fragmentation indicators in the southeastern United States and insect and pathogen indicators in the Pacific Northwest United States. The scan statistic detected four spatial clusters of fragmented forest including a hotspot in the Piedmont and Coastal Plain region. Three recurring clusters of insect and pathogen occurrence were found in the Pacific Northwest. Spatial scan statistics are a powerful new tool that can be used to identify potential forest health problems.

  18. Quality of Life, Health Status, and Depression

    PubMed Central

    Pike, Nancy A.; Evangelista, Lorraine S.; Doering, Lynn V.; Eastwood, Jo-Ann; Lewis, Alan B.; Child, John S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Quality of life (QOL) in adolescents and adults who have undergone the Fontan procedure and are living with only 1 ventricle is presumed to be diminished. Objectives This study aimed to compare QOL, health status, and prevalence of depression in adolescents/adults after the Fontan procedure with healthy counterparts and to identify predictors of QOL in the Fontan group. Methods Using a comparative, cross-sectional design, 54 adolescents and adults with single ventricle congenital heart disease who have undergone the Fontan procedure were compared with 66 age-matched healthy counterparts. Quality of life, health status, depression, and social support were measured using the Satisfaction With Life Scale, Short Form Survey Version 2, Patient Health Questionnaire Depression Module, and Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support. Clinical variables were abstracted from medical records. Predictors of QOL were determined using multiple linear regression. Results Adolescents and adults in the Fontan group reported lower physical health status (mean [SD] = 46.5 [9.3] vs mean [SD] = 55.9 [5.1], P < .001) and were more depressed (mean [SD] = 7.3 [5.9] vs mean [SD] = 4.5 [4.3], P < .004) than their healthy counterparts. There were no differences in QOL, mental health status, or social support between the 2 groups. Functional status (New York Heart Association class), depression, and social support accounted for 55% of the variance in QOL in the Fontan group. Conclusions Despite lower levels of physical health, the QOL of Fontan patients was comparable with that of their healthy counterparts; this finding contradicts previous proxy reports, self-reports, and assumptions that QOL is lower in patients with complex single ventricle congenital heart disease. However, because Fontan patients were more depressed than their healthy counterparts, the need for early screening and detection is warranted. PMID:21912272

  19. The Mechanisms Linking Health Literacy to Behavior and Health Status

    PubMed Central

    Osborn, Chandra Y.; Paasche-Orlow, Michael K.; Bailey, Stacy Cooper; Wolf, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine the mechanisms linking health literacy to physical activity and self-reported health. Methods From 2005–2007, patients (N=330) with hypertension were recruited from safety net clinics. Path analytic models tested the pathways linking health literacy to physical activity and self-reported health. Results There were significant paths from health literacy to knowledge (r=0.22, P<0.001), knowledge to self-efficacy (r=0.13, P<0.01), self-efficacy to physical activity (r=0.17, P<0.01), and physical activity to health status (r=0.17, P<0.01). Conclusions Health education interventions should be literacy sensitive and aim to enhance patient health knowledge and self-efficacy to promote self-care behavior and desirable health outcomes. PMID:20950164

  20. Developing a Forest Health Index for public engagement and decision support using local climatic, ecological, and socioeconomic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnott, J. C.; Katzenberger, J.; Cundiff, J.

    2013-12-01

    Forest health is an oft-used term without a generally accepted definition. Nonetheless, the concept of forest health continues to permeate scientific, resource management, and public discourse, and it is viewed as a helpful communication device for engagement on issues of concern to forests and their surrounding communities. Notwithstanding the challenges associated with defining the concept of 'forest health,' we present a model for assessing forest health at a watershed scale. Utilizing the Roaring Fork Valley, Colorado--a mountain watershed of 640,000 forested acres--as a case study, we have created a Forest Health Index that integrates a range of climatic, ecological, and socioeconomic data into an assessment organized along a series of public goals including, 1) Ecosystem Services, 2) Public Health & Safety, 3) Sustainable Use & Management, and 4) Ecological Integrity. Methods for this index were adopted from an earlier effort called the Ocean Health Index by Halpern et al, 2012. Indicators that represent drivers of change, such as temperature and precipitation, as well as effects of change, such as primary productivity and phenology, were selected. Each indicator is assessed by comparing a current status of that indicator to a reference scenario obtained through one of the following methods: a) statistical analysis of baseline data from the indicator record, b) commonly accepted normals, thresholds, limits, concentrations, etc., and c) subjective expert judgment. The result of this assessment is a presentation of graphical data and accompanying ratings that combine to form an index of health for the watershed forest ecosystem. We find this product to have potential merit for communities working to assess the range of conditions affecting forest health as well as making sense of the outcomes of those affects. Here, we present a description of the index methodology, data results from engagement with forest watershed stakeholders, example results of data

  1. INTERNAL NITROGEN CYCLING IN WESTERN OREGON FORESTS WITH DIFFERENT NITROGEN STATUS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nitrogen incorporation and retention in forest ecosystems should vary with site N status, because nitrogen often limits temperate forest productivity and microbial activity. We followed the incorporation of a pulse of 15N-ammonium into the roots, microbes and soil organic matter...

  2. Prostate cancer: appraisal, coping, and health status.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Muayyad M; Musil, Carol M; Zauszniewski, Jaclene A; Resnick, Martin I

    2005-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify how cognitive appraisal and types of coping affect the health status of men with prostate cancer. Lazarus and Folkman's model of stress and coping guided this correlational, cross-sectional study. The convenience sample was composed of 131 men with prostate cancer who completed the Cognitive Appraisal of Health Scale, the Ways of Coping Checklist, and the Short-Form Health Survey using mailed questionnaires. Participants who appraised more harm or loss experienced worse physical and mental health. When participants perceived their diagnosis as posing more harm or loss or a greater threat, they were more likely to use emotion-focused coping. When the diagnosis was perceived as a challenge, men were more likely to use more problem-focused coping. The findings of this study enable health care providers to be more attentive to the psychosocial needs of prostate cancer patients.

  3. Status of forest resources and the environment in Siberia

    SciTech Connect

    Danilin, I.; Sokoly, V.

    1997-12-31

    The Siberian forests are considered to be one of the most important biomes on earth. The forested area of Siberia constitutes about 20 percent of the total world forested area and nearly 50 percent of the total world coniferous forested area. About 605 million hectares are covered with stands, these areas make up about 48 percent of the total area. Nearly 450 million hectares are covered with coniferous species. The total growing stock of stemwood is 61.4 billion m{sup 3} as compared to North America - 50.3 billion m{sup 3} of which 51 billion m{sup 3} is made up of coniferous species. About 38.5 billion m{sup 3} (nearly 63 percent) of the growing stock are classified as mature and overmature forests. Nearly 65 percent of the Siberian forests are growing in areas with permafrost and more than 60 percent of the forested areas are classified as mountain forests. The carbon stock, accumulated in forest ecosystems of Siberia, exceeds 94 billion tons in total, with annual carbon sequestration at more than 170 million tons. This sink could be significantly increased by implementation of rational forestry in Siberia. Average stock per 1 ha of mature and overmature stands is 148 m{sup 3}. Average annual growth per 1 ha of forest-forming species is 1.31 m{sup 3}, among them conifers - 1.17 m{sup 3}. Siberia has roughly 40% of its original forests intact (the United States has less than 5% of its ancient forests).

  4. Remote Sensing of Bioindicators for Forest Health Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kefauver, Shawn Carlisle

    The impacts of tropospheric ozone on forest health in Mediterranean type climates in California, USA and Catalonia, Spain were investigated using a combination of remote sensing, Geographic Information System (GIS), and field studies focused on sensitive bioindicator conifer species and ambient ozone monitoring. For the field validation of impacts of tropospheric ozone on conifer health, the Ozone Injury Index (OII) was applied to the bioindicator species Pinus ponderosa, Pinus jeffreyi, and Pinus uncinata. Combining these three tools, it was possible to build meaningful ecological models covering large areas to enhance our understanding of the biotic and abiotic interactions which affect forest health. Regression models predicting ozone injury improved considerably when incorporating ozone exposure with GIS related to plant water status, including water availability and water usage, as a proxies for estimating the stomatal conductance and ozone uptake R2=0.35, p = 0.016 in Catalonia, R2=0.36, p < 0.001 in Yosemite and R2=0.33, p = 0.007 in Sequoia/Kings Canyon National Parks in California). Individual OII components in Catalonia were modeled with improved success compared to the original full OII, in particular visible chlorotic mottling (R2=0.60, p < 0.001). The visual chlorotic mottling component of the OII was the most strongly correlated to remote sensing indices, in particular the photochemical reflectance index (PRI; R2=0.28, p=0.0044 for OIIVI-amount and R 2=0.33 and p=0.0016 for OIIVI -severity). Regression models assessing ozone injury to conifers using imaging spectroscopy techniques also improved when incorporating the GIS proxies of stomatal conductance (R 2=0.59, p<0.0001 for OII in California and R2=0.68, p<0.0001 for OIIVI in Catalonia). Finally, taking advantage of a time series of ambient ozone monitoring in Catalonia, it was found that all models improved when incorporating the cumulative exposure to ozone over a period of three years (R2=0.56, p

  5. [Psychosocial factors and health status of employees].

    PubMed

    Dudek, Bohdan

    2005-01-01

    An issue of relationship between exposure to psychosocial factors and health status of employees is presented in this review. It is difficult to find hard evidence that could reliably confirm this relationship. Methodological difliculties encountered in measuring psychosocial factors and health effects and in designing research procedures are responsible for equivocal study results. However, a huge number of articles presenting the results of numerous studies make us convinced that many human organs are targets of dangerous impact of stress evoked by job conditions. Bearing in mind that work processes and working conditions become more and snore stressogenic. one can expect that in the near future psychosocial factors will form a group of the most dangerous health hazards. Therefore, it is an urgent challenge facing the occupational health service (OHS) to adapt its system of prevention to the specificity of threats, and thus better protect employees against harmful impact of the psychosocial factors.

  6. Ocelot Population Status in Protected Brazilian Atlantic Forest

    PubMed Central

    Massara, Rodrigo Lima; Paschoal, Ana Maria de Oliveira; Doherty, Paul Francis; Hirsch, André; Chiarello, Adriano Garcia

    2015-01-01

    Forest fragmentation and habitat loss are detrimental to top carnivores, such as jaguars (Panthera onca) and pumas (Puma concolor), but effects on mesocarnivores, such as ocelots (Leopardus pardalis), are less clear. Ocelots need native forests, but also might benefit from the local extirpation of larger cats such as pumas and jaguars through mesopredator release. We used a standardized camera trap protocol to assess ocelot populations in six protected areas of the Atlantic forest in southeastern Brazil where over 80% of forest remnants are < 50 ha. We tested whether variation in ocelot abundance could be explained by reserve size, forest cover, number of free-ranging domestic dogs and presence of top predators. Ocelot abundance was positively correlated with reserve size and the presence of top predators (jaguar and pumas) and negatively correlated with the number of dogs. We also found higher detection probabilities in less forested areas as compared to larger, intact forests. We suspect that smaller home ranges and higher movement rates in smaller, more degraded areas increased detection. Our data do not support the hypothesis of mesopredator release. Rather, our findings indicate that ocelots respond negatively to habitat loss, and thrive in large protected areas inhabited by top predators. PMID:26560347

  7. [Community Health Agent: status adapted with Family Health Program reality?].

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Karina Tonini; Saliba, Nemre Adas; Moimaz, Suzely Adas Saliba; Arcieri, Renato Moreira; Carvalho, Maria de Lourdes

    2011-01-01

    This study analyses the status and work reality of Community Health Agents, with the purpose of contributing to the improvement of the Brazilian Health System (SUS) in small cities. It was discussed aspects related to their participation in the team of the Family Health Program (PSF) and their interaction with the community. It was observed a lack of motivation and experience, which compromises the quality of Agents performance in the community. It is known that these findings are reflex and consequence of an established context. It is necessary the team rethink their practice, specially the managers, having always as a fundament the principles that guide the SUS and PSF.

  8. Economy, politics, and health status in Cuba.

    PubMed

    Rojas Ochoa, F; López Pardo, C M

    1997-01-01

    An economic contraction occurred in Cuba at the beginning of the 1990s, of a magnitude greater than in any developed country in the last half century. This resulted primarily from the disappearance of the European socialist bloc and simultaneous tightening of the U.S. government's blockade at a time when Cuba was engaged in correcting its main economic problems. The economic crisis affected a number of areas of Cuban society. The state adopted a series of measures to cope with the socioeconomic situation, which have yielded positive results in the social and economic fields, as well as some undesirable results. In the health sector, the economic crisis has mainly reduced the availability of resources and has adversely affected some health determinants and some aspects of the population's health status. Despite the prevailing economic difficulties, the government is determined to preserve the country's achievements in health, and to develop them still further. The solution is not privatization or the introduction of health insurance systems or similar measures. Rather, Cuba will seek greater rationality and economic efficiency in the health sector. It has ratified the principles that the state should continue to finance the health system and maintain universal coverage and accessibility through free services.

  9. Tribes in Karnataka: Status of health research

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Subarna; Hegde, Harsha V.; Bhattacharya, Debdutta; Upadhya, Vinayak; Kholkute, Sanjiva D.

    2015-01-01

    The south Indian State of Karnataka, once part of several kingdoms and princely states of repute in the Deccan peninsula, is rich in its historic, cultural and anthropological heritage. The State is the home to 42,48,987 tribal people, of whom 50,870 belong to the primitive group. Although these people represent only 6.95 per cent of the population of the State, there are as many as 50 different tribes notified by the Government of India, living in Karnataka, of which 14 tribes including two primitive ones, are primarily natives of this State. Extreme poverty and neglect over generations have left them in poor state of health and nutrition. Unfortunately, despite efforts from the Government and non-Governmental organizations alike, literature that is available to assess the state of health of these tribes of the region remains scanty. It is however, interesting to note that most of these tribes who had been original natives of the forests of the Western Ghats have been privy to an enormous amount of knowledge about various medicinal plants and their use in traditional/folklore medicine and these practices have been the subject matter of various scientific studies. This article is an attempt to list and map the various tribes of the State of Karnataka and review the studies carried out on the health of these ethnic groups, and the information obtained about the traditional health practices from these people. PMID:26139788

  10. Assessment of calcium status in Maine forests: Review and future projection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huntington, T.G.

    2005-01-01

    Forest harvesting and acidic deposition can cause substantial decreases in the calcium (Ca) inventory of forest soils if such losses are not replenished through mineral weathering, atmospheric deposition, or fertilization. The net balance between losses and gains defines the forest Ca status. Site-specific studies have measured Ca pools and fluxes in Maine forests, but no synthesis has been published. In this paper, I review the literature on forest Ca and assess the current status and potential future trends. Forest soils in Maine are currently at lesser risk of Ca depletion compared with many forest soils in the central and southeastern United States, because levels of acidic deposition and rates of Ca accumulation in trees are lower in Maine. The rate of Ca accumulation in trees is reduced in Maine as a result of lower growth rates and a higher proportion of conifer trees that require less Ca than hardwoods. However, field-scale biogeochemical studies in Maine and New Hampshire, and regional estimates of harvest removals and soil inventories coupled with low weathering estimates, indicate that Ca depletion is a realistic concern in Maine. The synthesis of site-specific and regional data for Maine in conjunction with the depletion measured directly in surrounding areas indicates that the Ca status of many forest soils in Maine is likely declining. Ca status could decrease further in the future if forest growth rates increase in response to climate trends and recovery from insect-induced mortality and excessive harvesting in recent years. Proposed climate change induced reductions in spruce and fir and increases in hardwoods would also increase the risk of Ca depletion. ?? 2005 NRC.

  11. Socioeconomic status, race, and COPD health outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Eisner, Mark D.; Blanc, Paul D.; Omachi, Theodore A.; Yelin, Edward H.; Sidney, Stephen; Katz, Patricia P.; Ackerson, Lynn M.; Sanchez, Gabriela; Tolstykh, Irina; Iribarren, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    Background Although COPD is a common cause of death and disability, little is known about the effects of socioeconomic status (SES) and race-ethnicity on health outcomes. Methods We aimed to determine the independent impacts of SES and race-ethnicity on COPD severity status, functional limitations, and acute exacerbations of COPD among patients with access to health care. Data were used from the FLOW cohort study of 1,202 Kaiser Permanente Northern California Medical Care Plan members with COPD. Results Lower educational attainment and household income were consistently related to greater disease severity, poorer lung function, and greater physical functional limitations in cross-sectional analysis. Black race was associated with greater COPD severity, but these differences were no longer apparent after controlling for SES variables and other covariates (comorbidities, smoking, body mass index, and occupational exposures). Both lower education and income were independently related to a greater prospective risk of acute COPD exacerbation (HR 1.5; 95% CI 1.01 to 2.1; and HR 2.1; 95% CI 1.4 to 3.4, respectively). Conclusion Low SES is a risk factor for a broad array of adverse COPD health outcomes. Clinicians and disease management programs should consider SES as a key patient-level marker of risk for poor outcomes. PMID:19854747

  12. [Carbon sequestration status of forest ecosystems in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region].

    PubMed

    Gao, Yang; Jin, Jing-Wei; Cheng, Ji-Min; Su, Ji-Shuai; Zhu, Ren-Bin; Ma, Zheng-Rui; Liu, Wei

    2014-03-01

    Based on the data of Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region forest resources inventory, field investigation and laboratory analysis, this paper studied the carbon sequestration status of forest ecosystems in Ningxia region, estimated the carbon density and storage of forest ecosystems, and analyzed their spatial distribution characteristics. The results showed that the biomass of each forest vegetation component was in the order of arbor layer (46.64 Mg x hm(-2)) > litterfall layer (7.34 Mg x hm(-2)) > fine root layer (6.67 Mg x hm(-2)) > shrub-grass layer (0.73 Mg x hm(-2)). Spruce (115.43 Mg x hm(-2)) and Pinus tabuliformis (94.55 Mg x hm(-2)) had higher vegetation biomasses per unit area than other tree species. Over-mature forest had the highest arbor carbon density among the forests with different ages. However, the young forest had the highest arbor carbon storage (1.90 Tg C) due to its widest planted area. Overall, the average carbon density of forest ecosystems in Ningxia region was 265.74 Mg C x hm(-2), and the carbon storage was 43.54 Tg C. Carbon density and storage of vegetation were 27.24 Mg C x hm(-2) and 4.46 Tg C, respectively. Carbon storage in the soil was 8.76 times of that in the vegetation. In the southern part of Ningxia region, the forest carbon storage was higher than in the northern part, where the low C storage was mainly related to the small forest area and young forest age structure. With the improvement of forest age structure and the further implementation of forestry ecoengineering, the forest ecosystems in Ningxia region would achieve a huge carbon sequestration potential.

  13. 45 CFR 162.1401 - Health care claim status transaction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Health care claim status transaction. 162.1401 Section 162.1401 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES ADMINISTRATIVE DATA STANDARDS AND RELATED REQUIREMENTS ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Health Care Claim Status § 162.1401 Health care...

  14. Wage differences according to health status in France.

    PubMed

    Ben Halima, Mohamed Ali; Rococo, Emeline

    2014-11-01

    Many OECD countries have implemented anti-discrimination laws in recent decades. However, according to the annual report published in 2010 by the French High Authority for the Fight against Discrimination and for Equality, the second most commonly cited factor in discrimination claims since 2005 is a handicap or health status. The aim of this research is to estimate the level of unexplained components in the wage gap that can be attributed to wage discrimination based on health status in France in 2010 utilizing data from the Health, Healthcare and Insurance survey among 1594 individuals. Three health indicators are used: self-perceived health status, activity limitations and long-term chronic illness. To measure the wage gap according to an individual's health status, the analysis considers the endogenous selection of health status and unobserved differences in productivity. The results demonstrate that wage discrimination is experienced by individuals in poor health regardless of the health indicator utilized. The hourly wage rate among individuals with poor self-assessed health status is on average 14.2% lower than among individuals with good self-assessed health status. However, for individuals suffering from a long-term chronic illness or an activity limitation, the gap is 6.3% and 4.5%, respectively. The decomposition performed on wage differences according to health status by correcting for health status selection bias and controlling for unobserved differences in productivity indicates that the 'unexplained component' that can be attributed to wage discrimination is equal to 50%.

  15. Mechanisms by which Childhood Personality Traits Influence Adult Health Status

    PubMed Central

    Hampson, Sarah E.; Goldberg, Lewis R.; Vogt, Thomas M.; Dubanoski, Joan P.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To test a lifespan health-behavior model in which educational attainment and health behaviors (eating habits, smoking, and physical activity) were hypothesized as mechanisms to account for relations between teacher ratings of childhood personality traits and self-reported health status at midlife. Design The model was tested on 1,054 members of the Hawaii Personality and Health cohort, which is a population-based cohort participating in a longitudinal study of personality and health spanning 40 years from childhood to midlife. Outcome Self-reported health status as a latent construct indicated by general health, functional status, and body mass index. Results Childhood Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, and Intellect/Imagination influenced adult health status indirectly through educational attainment, healthy eating habits, and smoking. Several direct effects of childhood traits on health behaviors and health status were also observed. Conclusion The model extends past associations found between personality traits and health behaviors or health status by identifying a life-course pathway based on the health-behavior model through which early childhood traits influence adult health status. The additional direct effects of personality traits indicate that health-behavior mechanisms may not provide a complete account of relations between personality and health. PMID:17209705

  16. Beyond Status: Relating Status Inequality to Performance and Health in Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Amy M.; Barling, Julian

    2010-01-01

    Status structures in organizations are ubiquitous yet largely ignored in organizational research. We offer a conceptualization of team status inequality, or the extent to which status positions on a team are dispersed. Status inequality is hypothesized to be negatively related to individual performance and physical health for low-status…

  17. Effects of acid rain on forest nutrient status. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, D.W.; Cole, D.W.

    1985-04-01

    In five forest sites (three in eastern Tennessee and two in western Washington) the effect of natural carbonic acid production on soil leaching was equaled or exceeded by that of atmospheric acid inputs. In a nitrogen-fixing red alder site in Washington, however, internal leaching by nitrification and nitric acid formation far exceeded atmospheric H/sup +/ inputs at any site. All other sites retained NO/sub 3//sup -/, and soil SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ adsorption reduced the effectiveness of atmospheric H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ inputs on soil leaching in two of the Tennessee sites and in the Washington red alder site. Atmospheric sulfur inputs exceeded the forest sulfur requirement in all five sites. Decomposer invertebrates appeared to be affected negatively by unrealistically large applications of SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/, either as KHSO/sub 4/ or K/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. Forest floor buffering prevented large changes in pH with acid SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ treatments. Results indicate that effects of acid deposition on decomposer invertebrates are unlikely except at input levels much higher than ambient.

  18. Status Epilepticus: Epidemiology and Public Health Needs

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, Sebastián; Rincon, Fred

    2016-01-01

    Status epilepticus (SE) is defined as a continuous clinical and/or electrographic seizure activity lasting five minutes or more or recurrent seizure activity without return to baseline. There is a paucity of epidemiological studies of SE, as most research is derived from small population studies. The overall incidence of SE is 9.9 to 41 per 100,000/year, with peaks in children and the elderly and with febrile seizures and strokes as its main etiologies. The etiology is the major determinant of mortality. Governments and the academic community should predominantly focus on the primary prevention of etiologies linked to SE, as these are the most important risk factors for its development. This review describes the incidence, prevalence, etiology, risk factors, outcomes and costs of SE and aims to identify future research and public health needs. PMID:27537921

  19. The status of conservation of urban forests in eastern Amazonia.

    PubMed

    Amaral, D D; Vieira, I C G; Salomão, R P; Almeida, S S; Jardim, M A G

    2012-05-01

    This study aims to identify the remnant tree flora in six forest fragments in the metropolitan area of Belém and to analyze these fragments in terms of biological conservation, species richness and diversity in the local urban landscape. The fragments and their respective sampling areas were as follows: Amafrutas reserve (15 ha), Trambioca Is. reserve (2 ha), Bosque Rodrigues Alves city park (15 ha), Combu Is. reserve (10 ha), Gunma Park reserve (10 ha) and Mocambo reserve (5 ha). Inventories were built from lineal plots of 250 m² and included trees with DBH equal to or greater than 10 cm at a height of 1.3 m above ground. Sixty-nine families and 759 species, of which eight were officially listed as endangered (Brazilian National Flora: Ministry of Environment, Normative Instruction of September, 2008; Pará State Flora: Decree Nº. 802 of February 2008) were recorded. These endangered species are: Aspidosperma desmanthum Benth. ex Müll. Arg. (Apocynaceae), Cedrela odorata L. (Meliaceae), Eschweilera piresii S.A Mori (Lecythidaceae), Euxylophora paraensis Huber (Rutaceae), Hymenolobium excelsum Ducke (Leguminosae), Manilkara huberi (Ducke) Chevalier (Sapotaceae), Tabebuia impetiginosa (Mart. ex DC.) Standl. (Bignoniaceae), Mezilaurus itauba (Meisn.) Taub. ex Mez (Lauraceae) and Qualea coerulea Aubl. (Vochysiaceae). Emergency actions such as implementing management plans for already existing Conservation Units, the creation of new such units in areas of primary forest fragments (as in the case of the Amafrutas reserve), as well as the intensification of actions of surveillance and monitoring, should be undertaken by Federal, State, and Municipal environmental agencies so as to ensure the conservation of these last primary forest remnants in the metropolitan area of Belém.

  20. The health status of women in Oaxaca: determinants and consequences.

    PubMed

    Winter, M; Morris, E W; Murphy, A D

    1993-12-01

    Survey data from a sample of 575 women from the city of Oaxaca de Juárez, Mexico, are analyzed to ascertain the effect of the receipt of job-related benefits, including health benefits, on the self-reported health status of women, their rating of the health of the members of their household, and their satisfaction with the health of the members of their household. Health status depends on the woman's age, her socioeconomic status, and the number of children she has borne. Her rating of the health of the members of her household is related to her age, her socioeconomic status, and her rating of her own health. Satisfaction with the physical health of the members of the household is a function her health, her rating of the health of her household, her age, her socioeconomic status and the number of children she has borne. The overall conclusion is that, in this study, it is socioeconomic and demographic factors that are important in determining the woman's health status, rather than the receipt of job-related benefits. That she reports good health is an important factor in her view of her family's health and her satisfaction with her own health and that of her family.

  1. Assessing human health risk in the USDA forest service

    SciTech Connect

    Hamel, D.R.

    1990-12-31

    This paper identifies the kinds of risk assessments being done by or for the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service. Summaries of data sources currently in use and the pesticide risk assessments completed by the agency or its contractors are discussed. An overview is provided of the agency`s standard operating procedures for the conduct of toxicological, ecological, environmental fate, and human health risk assessments.

  2. Status and changes of mangrove forest in Mekong Delta: Case study in Tra Vinh, Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thu, Phan Minh; Populus, Jacques

    2007-01-01

    Because shrimp culture in the Mekong Delta develops rapidly, it has negatively impacted the environment, socio-economics and natural resources. In particular, mangrove forests have been altered by the shrimp culture. The area of mangrove forests in the region has been reduced and this is seen especially in Tra Vinh province. The results obtained from GIS (Geography Information System) and RS (Remote Sensing) show the status of mangrove forests in Tra Vinh province in 1965, 1995 (Northeastern part of Tra Vinh Province) and 2001. In 1965, the area of mangrove forests was 21,221 ha making up 56% of total land-use, while in 2001 it was 12,797 ha making up 37% of total land-use. Also based on GIS analysis, over the 36 years (1965-2001), the total coverage of mangrove forests have decreased by 50% since 1965. However, the speed of mangrove forest destruction in the period from 1965 to 1995 was much less than that in the period from 1995 to 2001. The average annual reduction in mangrove forest coverage in the first period (1965-1995) was 0.2% whereas it was 13.1% in the later period (1995-2001). For the long time, mangrove deforestation has been caused by war, collection of firewood and clearing for agriculture, and recently, shrimp farming has significantly contributed rate of mangrove destruction.

  3. Health status measurement in Toxic Oil Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gómez de la Cámara, A; Posada de la Paz, M; Abaitua Borda, I; Barainca Oyagüe, M T; Abraira Santos, V; Ruiz-Navarro, M D; Terracini, B

    1998-10-01

    Toxic Oil Syndrome (TOS) is a previously unreported condition which affected more than 20,000 people in Spain in 1981 and whose natural history is unknown. In 1993-94, a stratified random sample of 1400 survivors was drawn to measure their health status through clinical examination and their self-perception of well-being through the Nottingham Health Profile Questionnaire (NHPQ). Two-thirds of the sample population responded; indirect estimates suggest that selection bias was limited. Clear and intermediate signs of neuropathy were found in one-fifth and one-half of the patients, respectively. One-fourth and one-sixth showed some degree of scleroderma and contractures. All conditions were more frequent in women than in men and in age >50 than in younger ages. Although no concurrent control group was included in the study, prevalences of these conditions are well above expectations and are largely attributable to TOS. NHPQ scores increased with age in both sexes up to age 50, after which they reached a plateau (with values around 48 in men and 62 in women). Scores were associated to the occurrence of peripheral neurological changes, contractures, and scleroderma-like conditions. A multivariate analysis indicated age, sex, and severity of neurological conditions as major determinants of the NHPQ scores. This overall pattern of findings is peculiar to TOS and differs from the typical post-disaster nonspecific syndrome.

  4. Decoupling social status and status certainty effects on health in macaques: a network approach

    PubMed Central

    Hannibal, Darcy L.; Nathman, Amy C.; Capitanio, John P.; Hsieh, Fushing; Atwill, Edward R.; McCowan, Brenda

    2016-01-01

    Background Although a wealth of literature points to the importance of social factors on health, a detailed understanding of the complex interplay between social and biological systems is lacking. Social status is one aspect of social life that is made up of multiple structural (humans: income, education; animals: mating system, dominance rank) and relational components (perceived social status, dominance interactions). In a nonhuman primate model we use novel network techniques to decouple two components of social status, dominance rank (a commonly used measure of social status in animal models) and dominance certainty (the relative certainty vs. ambiguity of an individual’s status), allowing for a more complex examination of how social status impacts health. Methods Behavioral observations were conducted on three outdoor captive groups of rhesus macaques (N = 252 subjects). Subjects’ general physical health (diarrhea) was assessed twice weekly, and blood was drawn once to assess biomarkers of inflammation (interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and C-reactive protein (CRP)). Results Dominance rank alone did not fully account for the complex way that social status exerted its effect on health. Instead, dominance certainty modified the impact of rank on biomarkers of inflammation. Specifically, high-ranked animals with more ambiguous status relationships had higher levels of inflammation than low-ranked animals, whereas little effect of rank was seen for animals with more certain status relationships. The impact of status on physical health was more straightforward: individuals with more ambiguous status relationships had more frequent diarrhea; there was marginal evidence that high-ranked animals had less frequent diarrhea. Discussion Social status has a complex and multi-faceted impact on individual health. Our work suggests an important role of uncertainty in one’s social status in status-health research. This work also suggests that

  5. Phosphorus status of soils from contrasting forested ecosystems in southwestern Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achat, D. L.; Bakker, M. R.; Zeller, B.; Derrien, D.; Barsukov, P.; Nikitich, P.

    2011-12-01

    Phosphorus is one of the most limiting nutrients in many ecosystems and mineral reserves available for fertilizer production are forecasted to last for no more than 100 yrs. Crop requirements for P are often lower in forests than in agriculture and P fertilization to forest ecosystems is not very common on a global scale. In southern Siberia, expected climate change would lead to higher overall precipitation, higher temperatures and subsequently to changes in land use (i.e. agricultural land could increase on detriment of forests). In the present work we evaluated P status in four forested ecosystems in southwestern Siberia including 1 site with lowland Populus tremula, and 3 upland sites in the Salair mountains with Populus tremula, Abies siberica or with small forest openings. The upland sites feature twice higher productivity than the lowland sites and it was suggested that thick snow cover on those sites would enable winter activity of microbial communities leading to faster soil degradation processes and higher nutrient availability. We thus wanted to test whether biological processes in the upland sites were of larger impact on P status than in the lowland sites. We combined 32P isotopic dilution techniques (for diffusive P), chemical extractions (for total P, organic P) and fumigation/incubation/respiration methods (for microbial P) to test this hypothesis. Additional soil analyses (C, N and othes) were performed. Results will be interpreted in the light of the exising knowledge on botany, climate, pedology and expected implications for future land use, would this occur to change.

  6. The effect of physician supply on health status: Canadian evidence.

    PubMed

    Piérard, Emmanuelle

    2014-10-01

    We estimate the relationship between per capita supply of physicians, both general practitioners and specialists, and health status of Canadians. We use data from the Canadian National Population Health Survey and the Canadian Institute for Health Information. Two measures of quality of life, self-assessed health status and the Health Utility Index, are explored. Random effects ordered probits are used to model self-assessed health status, and quantile regressions are used for the Health Utility Index. A higher supply of general practitioners is correlated with better health outcomes as measured by both measures of health status, albeit for different age groups, and it is correlated with a higher HUI for some individuals who report having a chronic condition. A higher supply of specialists is correlated with worse health outcomes for the HUI for some individuals. It is possible that a higher supply of general practitioners increases the likelihood of diagnosing and treating health conditions in a timely manner and that this in turn affects health status. Specialists, due to the nature of their expertise could affect negatively health, both through the use of riskier procedures and due to their clientele being in relatively worse health. Based on our findings, we therefore would recommend maintaining a robust supply and distribution of GPs across Canada.

  7. Vitamin D Status of College Students: Implications for Health Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cress, Eileen McKenna

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is considered to be a pandemic with implications for compromised bone health and other chronic diseases. Few studies have examined vitamin D status in college-aged individuals where prevention of future health consequences is still possible. Serum vitamin D 25(OH)D status and vitamin D intake were examined in 98 college…

  8. Minority Populations in Minnesota: A Health Status Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Dept. of Health, Minneapolis. Center for Health Statistics.

    The social, economic, and health status advances experienced by Minnesota's White population have eluded significant numbers of the State's Black and Indian populations. This report contains statistical data and analyses of the health status of minorities in Minnesota. The information is meant to contribute to an intensified effort to improve the…

  9. Neighborhood socioeconomic status, depression, and health status in the Look AHEAD (Action for health in diabetes) study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Depression and diminished health status are common in adults with diabetes, but few studies have investigated associations with socio-economic environment. The objective of this manuscript was to evaluate the relationship between neighborhood-level SES and health status and depression. Individual-le...

  10. Social status, glucocorticoids, immune function, and health: can animal studies help us understand human socioeconomic-status-related health disparities?

    PubMed

    Cavigelli, Sonia A; Chaudhry, Hashim S

    2012-08-01

    For humans in developed nations, socioeconomic status (SES)--relative income, education and occupational position in a society--is a strong predictor of morbidity and mortality rates, with increasing SES predicting longer life span (e.g. Marmot et al., 1991). Mechanisms underlying this relationship have been examined, but the relative role of each mechanism still remains unknown. By understanding the relative role of specific mechanisms that underlie dramatic health disparities between high and low social status individuals we can begin to identify effective, targeted methods to alleviate health disparities. In the current paper, we take advantage of a growing number of animal studies that have quantified biological health-related correlates (glucocorticoid production and immune function) of social status and compare these studies to the current literature on human SES and health to determine if and how animal studies can further our understanding of SES-associated human health disparities. Specifically, we compared social-status related glucocorticoid production and immune function in humans and animals. From the review, we show that our present understanding of the relationships between social status and glucocorticoid production/immune function is still growing, but that there are already identifiable parallels (and non-parallels) between humans and animals. We propose timely areas of future study focused on (1) specific aspects of social status that may influence stress-related physiology, (2) mechanisms underlying long-term influences of social status on physiology and health, and (3) intervention studies to alleviate potentially negative physiological correlates of social status.

  11. Immigration, Generational Status and Health Literacy in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Edward; Omariba, D. Walter R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Immigrants, a fast-growing population in Canada, score below the national average in health literacy, but the reasons behind the low scores are largely unknown. Also, there is a need to understand the long-term impact of immigration by examining health literacy by generational status. Objective: To examine health literacy differentials…

  12. Quantifying spatial patterns in the Yakama Nation Tribal Forest and Okanogan-Wenatchee National Forest to assess forest health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilder, T. F.

    2013-05-01

    Over the past century western United States have experienced drastic anthropogenic land use change from practices such as agriculture, fire exclusion, and timber harvesting. These changes have complex social, cultural, economic, and ecological interactions and consequences. This research studied landscapes patterns of watersheds with similar LANDFIRE potential vegetation in the Southern Washington Cascades physiographic province, within the Yakama Nation Tribal Forest (YTF) and Okanogan-Wenatchee National Forest, Naches Ranger District (NRD). In the selected watersheds, vegetation-mapping units were delineated and populated based on physiognomy of homogeneous areas of vegetative composition and structure using high-resolution aerial photos. Cover types and structural classes were derived from the raw, photo-interpreted vegetation attributes for individual vegetation mapping units and served as individual and composite response variables to quantify and assess spatial patterns and forest health conditions between the two ownerships. Structural classes in both the NRD and YTF were spatially clustered (Z-score 3.1, p-value 0.01; Z-score 2.3, p-value 0.02, respectively), however, ownership and logging type both explained a significant amount of variance in structural class composition. Based on FRAGSTATS landscape metrics, structural classes in the NRD displayed greater clustering and fragmentation with lower interspersion relative to the YTF. The NRD landscape was comprised of 47.4% understory reinitiation structural class type and associated high FRAGASTAT class metrics demonstrated high aggregation with moderate interspersion. Stem exclusion open canopy displayed the greatest dispersal of structural class types throughout the NRD, but adjacencies were correlated to other class types. In the YTF, stem exclusion open canopy comprised 37.7% of the landscape and displayed a high degree of aggregation and interspersion about clusters throughout the YTF. Composite cover

  13. Status of the Southern Carpathian forests in the long-term ecological research network.

    PubMed

    Badea, Ovidiu; Bytnerowicz, Andrzej; Silaghi, Diana; Neagu, Stefan; Barbu, Ion; Iacoban, Carmen; Iacob, Corneliu; Guiman, Gheorghe; Preda, Elena; Seceleanu, Ioan; Oneata, Marian; Dumitru, Ion; Huber, Viorela; Iuncu, Horia; Dinca, Lucian; Leca, Stefan; Taut, Ioan

    2012-12-01

    Air pollution, bulk precipitation, throughfall, soil condition, foliar nutrients, as well as forest health and growth were studied in 2006-2009 in a long-term ecological research (LTER) network in the Bucegi Mountains, Romania. Ozone (O(3)) was high indicating a potential for phytotoxicity. Ammonia (NH(3)) concentrations rose to levels that could contribute to deposition of nutritional nitrogen (N) and could affect biodiversity changes. Higher that 50% contribution of acidic rain (pH < 5.5) contributed to increased acidity of forest soils. Foliar N concentrations for Norway spruce (Picea abies), Silver fir (Abies alba), Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris), and European beech (Fagus sylvatica) were normal, phosphorus (P) was high, while those of potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), and especially of manganese (Mn) were significantly below the typical European or Carpathian region levels. The observed nutritional imbalance could have negative effects on forest trees. Health of forests was moderately affected, with damaged trees (crown defoliation >25%) higher than 30%. The observed crown damage was accompanied by the annual volume losses for the entire research forest area up to 25.4%. High diversity and evenness specific to the stand type's structures and local climate conditions were observed within the herbaceous layer, indicating that biodiversity of the vascular plant communities was not compromised.

  14. Changing Population Health Policy: A Model for Identifying Health Needs and Recommendations to Improve Health Status.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Shawnda M

    2016-06-01

    In the spring of 2014, the North Dakota Center for Rural Health (CRH) was tasked with completing an objective assessment of the state oral health environment. This included an assessment of oral health status, review of workforce needs, evaluation of current oral health programs, and policy recommendations to ameliorate identified oral health needs. The report was prepared for the North Dakota Legislative Health Services Interim Committee. This article highlights a research method developed and employed to identify current population health status and policy recommendations through statewide collaboration, transparent process, and objective analyses, regardless of the health specialty of focus. Evidenced-based decision making in health policy requires more than presentation of data. It requires input from the population or community utilizing or struggling to gain access to the given health service. It is now understood that health services researchers must employ a variety of research methods, include end users in the research process, tailor presentation of the findings for the appropriate audience, and include the population of study in the research, allowing them to provide recommended solutions when possible. Although the effort to be described focused specifically on oral health in North Dakota, the methodologies used to answer the research questions could, and are encouraged to, be employed in other states with regard to other specialty health disciplines and population health studies. The study sought to answer 3 questions: (1) What is the population health need?; (2) What is already being done?; and (3) What are the recommendations to improve population health? (Population Health Management 2016;19:216-223).

  15. Bone Related Health Status in Adolescent Cyclists

    PubMed Central

    Olmedillas, Hugo; González-Agüero, Alejandro; Moreno, Luís A.; Casajús, José A.; Vicente-Rodríguez, Germán

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To describe bone status and analyse bone mass in adolescent cyclists. Methods Male road cyclists (n = 22) who had been training for a minimum of 2 years and a maximum of 7 years with a volume of 10 h/w, were compared to age-matched controls (n = 22) involved in recreational sports activities. Subjects were divided in 2 groups based on age: adolescents under 17 yrs (cyclists, n = 11; controls, n = 13) and over 17 yrs (cyclists, n = 11; controls, n = 9). Peak oxygen uptake (VO2max) was measured on a cycloergometer. Whole body, lumbar spine, and hip bone mineral content (BMC), density (BMD) and bone area were assessed using dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Volumetric BMD (vBMD) and bone mineral apparent density (BMAD) were also estimated. Results The BMC of cyclists was lower for the whole body, pelvis, femoral neck and legs; BMD for the pelvis, hip, legs and whole body and legs bone area was lower but higher in the hip area (all, P≤0.05) after adjusting by lean mass and height. The BMC of young cyclists was 10% lower in the leg and 8% higher in the hip area than young controls (P≤0.05). The BMC of cyclists over 17 yrs was 26.5%, 15.8% and 14.4% lower BMC at the pelvis, femoral neck and legs respectively while the BMD was 8.9% to 24.5% lower for the whole body, pelvis, total hip, trochanter, intertrochanter, femoral neck and legs and 17.1% lower the vBMD at the femoral neck (all P≤0.05). Grouped by age interaction was found in both pelvis and hip BMC and BMD and in femoral neck vBMD (all P≤0.05). Conclusion Cycling performed throughout adolescence may negatively affect bone health, then compromising the acquisition of peak bone mass. PMID:21980360

  16. Health inequalities policy in Korea: current status and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Khang, Young-Ho; Lee, Sang-il

    2012-05-01

    In recent years, health inequalities have become an important public health concern and the subject of both research and policy attention in Korea. Government reports, as well as many epidemiological studies, have provided evidence that a wide range of health outcomes and health-related behaviors are socioeconomically patterned, and that the magnitude of health inequalities is even increasing. However, except for the revised Health Plan 2010 targets for health equity, few government policies have explicitly addressed health inequalities. Although a number of economic and social policies may have had an impact on health inequalities, such impact has scarcely been evaluated. In this review, we describe the current status of research and policy on health inequalities in Korea. We also suggest future challenges of approaches and policies to reduce health inequalities and highlight the active and intensive engagement of many policy sectors and good evidence for interventions that will make meaningful reduction of health inequalities possible.

  17. Health Inequalities Policy in Korea: Current Status and Future Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang-il

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, health inequalities have become an important public health concern and the subject of both research and policy attention in Korea. Government reports, as well as many epidemiological studies, have provided evidence that a wide range of health outcomes and health-related behaviors are socioeconomically patterned, and that the magnitude of health inequalities is even increasing. However, except for the revised Health Plan 2010 targets for health equity, few government policies have explicitly addressed health inequalities. Although a number of economic and social policies may have had an impact on health inequalities, such impact has scarcely been evaluated. In this review, we describe the current status of research and policy on health inequalities in Korea. We also suggest future challenges of approaches and policies to reduce health inequalities and highlight the active and intensive engagement of many policy sectors and good evidence for interventions that will make meaningful reduction of health inequalities possible. PMID:22661869

  18. The third world health status of black American males.

    PubMed Central

    Gadson, Sandra L.

    2006-01-01

    In contrast to their white counterparts, black men in the United States live sicker and die younger. This longstanding phenomenon is sharply reflected in the poor international health status of black males. The NMA president discusses major health issues facing black males and posits a multidimensional strategy for addressing racial disparities in men's health, with a national focus on health promotion and disease prevention, improving healthcare quality and access, and eliminating structural inequities. PMID:16623060

  19. Correlation of sense of coherence with oral health behaviors, socioeconomic status, and periodontal status

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Kommuri Sahithi; Doshi, Dolar; Kulkarni, Suhas; Reddy, Bandari Srikanth; Reddy, Madupu Padma

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The sense of coherence (SOC) has been suggested to be highly applicable concept in the public health area because a strong SOC is stated to decrease the likelihood of perceiving the social environment as stressful. This reduces the susceptibility to the health-damaging effect of chronic stress by lowering the likelihood of repeated negative emotions to stress perception. Materials and Methods: The demographic data and general information of subjects' oral health behaviors such as frequency of cleaning teeth, aids used to clean teeth, and dental attendance were recorded in the self-administered questionnaire. The SOC-related data were obtained using the short version of Antonovsky's SOC scale. The periodontal status was recorded based on the modified World Health Organization 1997 pro forma. Results: The total of 780 respondents comprising 269 (34.5%) males and 511 (65.5%) females participated in the study. A significant difference was noted among the subjects for socioeconomic status based on gender (P = 0.000). The healthy periodontal status (community periodontal index [CPI] code 0) was observed for 67 (24.9%) males and 118 (23.1%) females. The overall SOC showed statistically negative correlation with socioeconomic status scale (r = −0.287). The CPI and loss of attachment (periodontal status) were significantly and negatively correlated with SOC. Conclusion: The present study concluded that a high level of SOC was associated with good oral health behaviors, periodontal status, and socioeconomic status.

  20. Relationship between Health Literacy, Health-Related Behaviors and Health Status: A Survey of Elderly Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yong-Bing; Liu, Liu; Li, Yan-Fei; Chen, Yan-Li

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite the large volume of research dedicated to health-related behavior change, chronic disease costs continue to rise, thus creating a major public health burden. Health literacy, the ability to seek, understand, and utilize health information, has been identified as an important factor in the course of chronic conditions. Little research has been conducted on the relationship between health literacy and health-related behaviors and health status in elderly Chinese. The aim of this study was to elucidate the relationship between health literacy and health-related behaviors and health status in China. Methods: The subjects enrolled in this study were selected based on a stratified cluster random sampling design. Information involving >4500 older adults in 44 pension institutions in Urumqi, Changji, Karamay, and Shihezi of Xinjiang between September 2011 and June 2012 was collected. The Chinese Citizen Health Literacy Questionnaire (China Health Education Centre, 2008) and a Scale of the General Status were administered and the information was obtained through face-to-face inquiries by investigators. A total of 1452 respondents met the inclusion criteria. A total of 1452 questionnaires were issued and the valid response rate was 96.14% (1396 of 1452). Factors affecting health literacy and the relationship to health literacy were identified by one-way ANOVA and a multiple linear regression model. Results: The average health literacy level of the elderly in nursing homes was relatively low (71.74 ± 28.35 points). There were significant differences in the health literacy score among the factors of age, gender, race, education level, household income, marital conditions, and former occupation (p < 0.001). The health literacy score was significantly associated with smoking, drinking, physical exercise, and health examination (p < 0.001). The elderly with higher health literacy scores were significantly less likely to have risky behaviors (smoking, regular

  1. Using Community Health Assessment to Teach and Explore Health Status Disparities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Marianne; Levine, Jack

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Community health assessment (CHA) is a useful tool for identifying health status disparities at the community level. Developing the skills of master's level public health students to conduct CHA addresses a number of the Association of Schools of Public Health Core competencies for graduate public health education. Teaching…

  2. Perceived health status and daily activity participation of older Malaysians.

    PubMed

    Ng, Sor Tho; Tengku-Aizan, Hamid; Tey, Nai Peng

    2011-07-01

    This article investigates the influence of perceived health status on the daily activity participation of older Malaysians. Data from the Survey on Perceptions of Needs and Problems of the Elderly, which was conducted in 1999, were used. The negative binomial regression results show that older persons with good perceived health status reported more varieties of daily activity participation, especially among the uneducated and those with below-average self-esteem. The multinomial logistic regression model suggests that older persons with good perceived health status tended to engage daily in paid work only or with leisure activities, whereas those perceived to have poor health were more likely to engage in leisure activities only or leisure and family role activities. Promotion of a healthy lifestyle at a younger age encourages every person to monitor and take responsibility for their own health, which is a necessary strategy to ensure active participation at an older age, and thus improve their well-being.

  3. Employment status and perceived health status in younger and older people with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Krokavcova, Martina; Nagyova, Iveta; Rosenberger, Jaroslav; Gavelova, Miriam; Middel, Berrie; Gdovinova, Zuzana; Groothoff, Johan W; van Dijk, Jitse P

    2012-03-01

    This study explores how employment is associated with perceived physical and mental health status in people with multiple sclerosis (MS) adjusted for sociodemographic and clinical variables stratified by age. The sample consisted of 184 MS patients divided into a younger (<45 years) and an older (≥45 years) age group. Respondents underwent an interview, a neurological examination on disability [Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS)], and completed the Short Form-36 Health Survey. Of the respondents (mean age 40.5±6.2 years), 43.5% were employed. Significant differences between younger and older patients were found in employment, EDSS, disease duration, and five Short Form-36 Health Survey dimensions. Block-step multiple regression explained 32.4% of the variance in physical health and 14.5% in mental health in the younger group. Being employed was significantly related to good physical health, whereas EDSS diminished the effect of being employed on physical health. The most important variable for mental health was employment status in the younger group. For the older age group, 19.1% of the variance in physical health and 14.0% of the variance in mental health was explained by the studied variables. Male gender and a lower EDSS were significant explanatory variables of better physical health. Male gender significantly explained mental health in the older age group. In conclusion, employment status was an explanatory variable for physical health and mental health in the younger patients. EDSS played a significant role in physical health for all patients. A vocational rehabilitation program could prevent eventual nonemployment and improve health outcomes in older MS people.

  4. Perceptions of Forest Health among Preservice Educators and Implication for Teaching Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monroe, Martha C.; Lauretta, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to (a) determine preservice educators' perceptions of forest health, (b) define the experiences which may have influenced their understanding, and (c) identify the approaches they might use to convey forest health information. Twelve interviews were conducted with preservice science and agriculture education…

  5. Nutrient status and plant growth effects of forest soils in the Basin of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Fenn, M E; Perea-Estrada, V M; de Bauer, L I; Pérez-Suárez, M; Parker, D R; Cetina-Alcalá, V M

    2006-03-01

    The nutrient status of forest soils in the Mexico City Air Basin was evaluated by observing plant growth responses to fertilization with N, P or both nutrients combined. P deficiency was the most frequent condition for soil from two high pollution sites and N deficiency was greatest at a low N deposition site. Concentrations of Pb and Ni, and to a lesser extent Zn and Co, were higher at the high pollution sites. However, positive plant growth responses to P and sometimes to N, and results of wheat root elongation bioassays, suggest that heavy metal concentrations were not directly phytotoxic. Further studies are needed to determine if heavy metal toxicity to mycorrhizal symbionts of eucalyptus (Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh.) from high pollution sites may explain the P deficiency and stunted growth. P deficiency is expected to limit the capacity for biotic N retention in N saturated forested watersheds in the Basin of Mexico dominated by Andisols.

  6. First molar health status in different craniofacial relationships

    PubMed Central

    Linjawi, Amal I

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association between the health status of permanent first molars and different craniofacial relationships among adolescents. Study design This is a retrospective study on patients’ records aged 11–15 years. Sex, skeletal relationship, vertical growth pattern, malocclusion, overjet, and overbite were assessed. The health status of permanent first molars was recorded from the orthopantomograms and intraoral photographs as “sound” and “not sound”. Chi-square, Mann–Whitney U and Kruskal–Wallis tests, and Pearson’s correlation coefficient were used to analyze and correlate the assessed variables. Significance level was set at P<0.05. Results A total of 210 records were evaluated; 81 were male, 68 had Class I and 91 had Class II skeletal relationships. More than half of the subjects had normal (n=67) to moderate deep bite (n=72); normal (n=91), moderately increased (n=54), to severely increased (n=50) overjet; and Class I (n=106) and Class II division 1 (n=75) malocclusion. Significant differences were found in the health status of the permanent first molars with respect to sex (P=0.034), vertical growth pattern (P=0.01), and overbite (P=0.047). Strong correlations were only found between the health status of the permanent first molars and the following variables: sex (P=0.036) and vertical growth pattern (P=0.004). Significant correlation was further found between the upper left first molar health status and sex (P=0.019) and the lower right first molar health status and the vertical growth pattern (P=0.001). No significant association was found with the anteroposterior craniofacial relationships (P>0.05). Conclusion Sex difference and vertical growth patterns were found to be potential predictors of the health status of the permanent first molars. No significant association was found with the anteroposterior craniofacial relationships. PMID:27462176

  7. Effects of acid deposition on calcium nutrition and health of Southern Appalachian spruce fir forests

    SciTech Connect

    McLaughlin, S.B.; Wullschleger, S.; Stone, A.; Wimmer, R.; Joslin, J.D.

    1995-02-01

    The role of acid deposition in the health of spruce fir forests in the Southern Appalachian Mountains has been investigated by a wide variety of experimental approaches during the past 10 years. These studies have proceeded from initial dendroecological documentation of altered growth patterns of mature trees to increasingly more focused ecophysiological research on the causes and characteristics of changes in system function associated with increased acidic deposition. Field studies across gradients in deposition and soil chemistry have been located on four mountains spanning 85 km of latitude within the Southern Appalachians. The conclusion that calcium nutrition is an important component regulating health of red spruce in the Southern Appalachians and that acid deposition significantly reduces calcium availability in several ways has emerged as a consistent result from multiple lines or research. These have included analysis of trends in wood chemistry, soil solution chemistry, foliar nutrition, gas exchange physiology, root histochemistry, and controlled laboratory and field studies in which acid deposition and/or calcium nutrition has been manipulated and growth and nutritional status of saplings or mature red spruce trees measured. This earlier research has led us to investigate the broader implications and consequences of calcium deficiency for changing resistance of spruce-fir forests to natural stresses. Current research is exploring possible relationships between altered calcium nutrition and shifts in response of Fraser fir to insect attack by the balsam wooly adelgid. In addition, changes in wood ultrastructural properties in relation to altered wood chemistry is being examined to evaluate its possible role in canopy deterioration, under wind and ice stresses typical of high elevation forests.

  8. Calcium oxalate contribution to calcium cycling in forests of contrasting nutrient status

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dauer, Jenny M.; Perakis, Steven S.

    2014-01-01

    Calcium oxalate (Ca oxalate) is an insoluble biomineral that forms in plants and fungi, and occurs in soils across many types of ecosystems. Assessing how Ca oxalate may shape ecosystem Ca cycling requires information on the distribution of Ca oxalate among plant biomass, detritus, and mineral soil, and how it varies with ecosystem Ca status. We compared two Douglas-fir forests of contrasting ecosystem Ca availability, and found that Ca oxalate was partitioned similarly among plant biomass, detritus and mineral soil major ecosystem compartments at both sites, and total pools of Ca oxalate were greater in the high-Ca forest. However, the proportional importance of Ca oxalate was greater in the low-Ca than high-Ca forest (18% versus 4% of actively cycling ecosystem Ca, respectively). And calcium oxalate in mineral soil, which is of particular interest as a potential long-term Ca reservoir, was a larger portion of total available Ca (exchangeable Ca plus Ca oxalate Ca) in the low-Ca site than the high-Ca site (9% versus 1% of available soil Ca, respectively). Calcium oxalate was the dominant form of Ca returned from plants to soil as leaf litterfall at the high-Ca site, yet calcium oxalate disappeared rapidly from decomposing litter (0.28 yr−1 or faster) at both sites. We conclude that accumulation of Ca oxalate in forest ecosystems appears most closely related to overall Ca supply for live biomass pools, and that the accumulation of Ca oxalate in forest floor and mineral soil is limited by rapid microbial degradation of putatively unavailable Ca oxalate.

  9. Hybrid poplar plantations are suitable habitat for reintroduced forest herbs with conservation status.

    PubMed

    Boothroyd-Roberts, Kathleen; Gagnon, Daniel; Truax, Benoit

    2013-01-01

    Plantations of fast-growing tree species may be of use in conservation by accelerating the restoration of forest habitat on abandoned farmland and increasing connectivity in fragmented landscapes. The objective of this study was to determine if hybrid poplar plantations can be suitable habitats for the reintroduction of native forest plant species and, if so, which abiotic factors predict successful reintroduction. Four species of forest herb species (Trillium grandiflorum, Sanguinaria canadensis, Maianthemum racemosum, Asarum canadense), of which three have legal conservation status, were transplanted into experimental plantations of two hybrid poplar clones and nearby second-growth woodlots at six sites in southern Quebec, Canada. The transplanted individuals were protected from deer browsing with exclusion cages. After two years, the plant responses of all four species were stable or increased over two years in both types of hybrid poplar plantations. Sanguinaria showed a better response in the plantations than in the woodlots, preferring the rich post-agricultural soils of the plantations with low C:N ratios. Asarum and Maianthemum showed no significant difference between stand types, while Trillium grew better in the woodlots than in the plantations. Much of the variability in the response of the latter three species was unexplained by the measured environmental variables. These results suggest that certain forest herb species can be reintroduced as juvenile plants into plantations, knowing that their spontaneous recolonization is often limited by dispersal and/or seedling establishment. Plantations could also contribute to the conservation of biodiversity by providing an environment for the cultivation of forest herb species as an alternative to their destructive harvest from natural populations.

  10. Health status of migrant farmworkers: a literature review and commentary.

    PubMed Central

    Rust, G S

    1990-01-01

    I made a computerized search of MEDLINE files from 1966 through October 1989 followed by a review of this literature. Four hundred eighty-five articles were scanned; 152 were found specifically related to migrant families, while another 51 articles addressed the health of agricultural workers or farmers in general. Solid data exist on dental health, nutrition and, to a lesser extent, childhood health. Data also were prominent in several disease categories including certain infectious diseases, pesticide exposures, occupational dermatoses, and lead levels in children. Estimates of the size of the migrant and seasonal farmworker population vary widely. Basic health status indicators such as age-related death rates are unknown. Prevalence rates of the most common cause of death in the United States have yet to be studied. More research is needed into the health problems and health status of migrant and seasonal farmworker families. PMID:2205116

  11. [Work environment and health status of agricultural aviation personnel].

    PubMed

    Marks, E; Karpińska, B; Swiecicki, W

    1983-01-01

    The morbidity rate and present health status of flying agricultural aviation personnel under health care of the Main Military Medical Committee for aviation workers were analysed and compared with another group of helicopter pilots. A detailed clinical examination of 77 "Agro" pilots indicated more trauma cases than idiopathic diseases cases, some of those trauma cases were due to professional work. Analysis of the present health status indicated the predominance of pilots with just one health disturbance, pilots with no health disturbances taking the second position in the comparison. The health deviations did not differ from those in other populations, as classified by pilots' age. On the other hand, their percentage was higher than in helicopters pilots control group. Average age of "Agro" pilots was relatively high and number of hours spent in air considerable, too.

  12. Health Status of Women in the Army.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-08-10

    9) Health seeking behaviors are a product of education, socialization , and personal experience. (10) Because units are gender specific for any given...care: Biological and acquired risks determine the occurrence of illness and injury. Psychosocial factors are involved in the social experience of...regimens, and role accommodations made for long- term problems. Further, when people report their health to others, there are added psycho- social

  13. The health status of women in the world-system.

    PubMed

    Dyches, H; Rushing, B

    1993-01-01

    The health status of women is examined within the context of a global political economy. The authors present a beginning attempt to model some key macrolevel processes linked to the health of women. In particular, a structural modeling technique known as LVPLS (or "soft modeling") is used to empirically test one recent formulation of world-system theory. The findings give added emphasis to the importance of the larger economic forces that affect women's health.

  14. Forest Cover Associated with Improved Child Health and Nutrition: Evidence from the Malawi Demographic and Health Survey and Satellite Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Kiersten B.; Jacob, Anila; Brown, Molly Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Healthy forests provide human communities with a host of important ecosystem services, including the provision of food, clean water, fuel, and natural medicines. Yet globally, about 13 million hectares of forests are lost every year, with the biggest losses in Africa and South America. As biodiversity loss and ecosystem degradation due to deforestation continue at unprecedented rates, with concomitant loss of ecosystem services, impacts on human health remain poorly understood. Here, we use data from the 2010 Malawi Demographic and Health Survey, linked with satellite remote sensing data on forest cover, to explore and better understand this relationship. Our analysis finds that forest cover is associated with improved health and nutrition outcomes among children in Malawi. Children living in areas with net forest cover loss between 2000 and 2010 were 19% less likely to have a diverse diet and 29% less likely to consume vitamin A-rich foods than children living in areas with no net change in forest cover. Conversely, children living in communities with higher percentages of forest cover were more likely to consume vitamin A-rich foods and less likely to experience diarrhea. Net gain in forest cover over the 10-year period was associated with a 34% decrease in the odds of children experiencing diarrhea (P5.002). Given that our analysis relied on observational data and that there were potential unknown factors for which we could not account, these preliminary findings demonstrate only associations, not causal relationships, between forest cover and child health and nutrition outcomes. However, the findings raise concerns about the potential short- and long-term impacts of ongoing deforestation and ecosystem degradation on community health in Malawi, and they suggest that preventing forest loss and maintaining the ecosystems services of forests are important factors in improving human health and nutrition outcomes.

  15. Forest cover associated with improved child health and nutrition: evidence from the Malawi Demographic and Health Survey and satellite data

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Kiersten B; Jacob, Anila; Brown, Molly E

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Healthy forests provide human communities with a host of important ecosystem services, including the provision of food, clean water, fuel, and natural medicines. Yet globally, about 13 million hectares of forests are lost every year, with the biggest losses in Africa and South America. As biodiversity loss and ecosystem degradation due to deforestation continue at unprecedented rates, with concomitant loss of ecosystem services, impacts on human health remain poorly understood. Here, we use data from the 2010 Malawi Demographic and Health Survey, linked with satellite remote sensing data on forest cover, to explore and better understand this relationship. Our analysis finds that forest cover is associated with improved health and nutrition outcomes among children in Malawi. Children living in areas with net forest cover loss between 2000 and 2010 were 19% less likely to have a diverse diet and 29% less likely to consume vitamin A-rich foods than children living in areas with no net change in forest cover. Conversely, children living in communities with higher percentages of forest cover were more likely to consume vitamin A-rich foods and less likely to experience diarrhea. Net gain in forest cover over the 10-year period was associated with a 34% decrease in the odds of children experiencing diarrhea (P = .002). Given that our analysis relied on observational data and that there were potential unknown factors for which we could not account, these preliminary findings demonstrate only associations, not causal relationships, between forest cover and child health and nutrition outcomes. However, the findings raise concerns about the potential short- and long-term impacts of ongoing deforestation and ecosystem degradation on community health in Malawi, and they suggest that preventing forest loss and maintaining the ecosystem services of forests are important factors in improving human health and nutrition outcomes. PMID:25276536

  16. Health Status of Homeless and Marginally Housed Users of Mental Health Self-Help Agencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segal, Steven P.; Gomory, Tomi; Silverman, Carol J.

    1998-01-01

    Investigates the health status of 310 homeless and marginally housed people to determine the usefulness of mental health self-help agencies (SHAs) in addressing their physical health needs. Findings indicated that frequencies of health problems among respondents were similar to those of other homeless or marginally housed groups and that the study…

  17. Water and Forest Health: Drought Stress as a Core Driver of Forest Disturbances and Tree Mortality in Western North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, C. D.; Williams, P.

    2012-12-01

    Increasing warmth and dry climate conditions have affected large portions of western North America in recent years, causing elevated levels of both chronic and acute forest drought stress. In turn, increases in drought stress amplify the incidence and severity of the most significant forest disturbances in this region, including wildfire, drought-induced tree mortality, and outbreaks of damaging insects and diseases. Regional patterns of drought stress and various forest disturbances are reviewed, including interactions among climate and the various disturbance processes; similar global-scale patterns and trends of drought-amplified forest die-off and high-severity wildfire also are addressed. New research is presented that derives a tree-ring-based Forest Drought Stress Index (FDSI) for the three most widespread conifer species (Pinus edulis, Pinus ponderosa, and Pseudotsuga menziesii) in the southwestern US (Arizona, New Mexico), demonstrating nonlinear escalation of FDSI to levels unprecedented in the past 1000 years, in response to both drought and especially recent warming. This new work further highlights strong correlations between drought stress and amplified forest disturbances (fire, bark beetle outbreaks), and projects that by ca. 2050 anticipated regional warming will cause mean FDSI levels to reach extreme levels that may exceed thresholds for the survival of current tree species in large portions of their current range. Given recent trends of forest disturbance and projections for substantially warmer temperatures and greater drought stress for much of western North America in coming years, the growing risks to western forest health are becoming clear. This emerging understanding suggests an urgent need to determine potentials and methods for managing water on-site to maintain the vigor and resilience of western forests in the face of increasing levels of climate-induced water stress.

  18. Psychological Perspectives on Pathways Linking Socioeconomic Status and Physical Health

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Karen A.; Gallo, Linda C.

    2011-01-01

    Low socioeconomic status (SES) is a reliable correlate of poor physical health. Rather than treat SES as a covariate, health psychology has increasingly focused on the psychobiological pathways that inform understanding why SES is related to physical health. This review assesses the status of research that has examined stress and its associated distress, and social and personal resources as pathways. It highlights work on biomarkers and biological pathways related to SES that can serve as intermediate outcomes in future studies. Recent emphasis on the accumulation of psychobiological risks across the life course is summarized and represents an important direction for future research. Studies that test pathways from SES to candidate psychosocial pathways to health outcomes are few in number but promising. Future research should test integrated models rather than taking piecemeal approaches to evidence. Much work remains to be done, but the questions are of great health significance. PMID:20636127

  19. Status and trends of native birds in the Keauhou and Kilauea forest, Hawai`i Island.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Camp, Richard J.; Jacobi, James D.; Pratt, Thane K.; Gorresen, P. Marcos; Rubenstein, Tanya

    2010-01-01

    A Safe Harbor Agreement (SHA) is a voluntary arrangement between the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and non-Federal landowners to promote the protection, conservation, and recovery of listed species without imposing further land use restrictions on the landowners. Kamehameha Schools is considering entering into a SHA for their Keauhou and Kīlauea Forest lands on the island of Hawai′i. Bird surveys were conducted in 2008 to determine the current occurrence and density of listed species for the Keauhou and Kīlauea Forest, a prerequisite for establishing an agreement. Because of different management practices in the proposed SHA area we stratified the survey data into intact and altered forest strata. The listed passerines—′Akiapōlā′au (Hemignathus munroi), Hawai′i Creeper (Oreomystis mana), and Hawai′i ′Ākepa (Loxops coccineus)—occur in both strata but at low densities. The endangered ′Io (Hawaiian Hawk; Buteo solitarius) also occurs within both strata at low densities. This report was prepared for the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and Kamehameha Schools to provide information they can use to establish baseline levels for the SHA. In addition, we describe the status and trends of the non-listed native birds.

  20. Social capital, health, and elderly driver status

    PubMed Central

    Isbel, Stephen T.; Berry, Helen L.

    2016-01-01

    Driving a car enables many people to engage in meaningful activities that, in turn, help develop and maintain personal social capital. Social capital, a combination of community participation and social cohesion, is important in maintaining well-being. This paper argues that social capital can provide a framework for investigating the general role of transportation and driving a car specifically to access activities that contribute to connectedness and well-being among older people. This paper proposes theoretically plausible and empirically testable hypotheses about the relationship between driver status, social capital, and well-being. A longitudinal study may provide a new way of understanding, and thus of addressing, the well-being challenges that occur when older people experience restrictions to, or loss of, their driver’s license. PMID:27505020

  1. Health Status of Current National Guard Members

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-08-01

    will permit comparison to other population norms (e.g., Medical Outcomes Study Short Form Health Survey, SF36 (Ware 1993, 1994); SF36V (Kazis et al...Respondents should be aware that notwithstanding any other provision of law, no person shall be subject to any penalty for failing to comply with a...collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT

  2. Oral Health Status in Haemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Swapna, Lingam Amara; Reddy, Reddy Sudhakara; Ramesh, Tatapudi; Reddy, Reddy Lavanya; Vijayalaxmi, Nimma; Karmakar, Partha; Pradeep, Koppolu

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the oral and dental manifestations in non- diabetic and diabetic uraemic patients who were undergoing haemodialysis and to estimate and compare the salivary pH in these two groups. Material and Methods: Ninety Seven uraemic patients who were undergoing maintenance haemodialysis were included in the study. Subjective and objective findings were evaluated and recorded in a specially designed proforma. Predialytic unstimulated whole salivary pH was recorded by using pH-measuring strips. Dental health assessment consisted of DMFT and CPITN indices. Results: A subjective oral manifestation of dysguesia was found to be more significant in non-diabetic patients (p<0.008). Statistically, a high significance was observed with mucosal petechiae in 31.9% patients of diabetic group .The overall DMFT score was significantly higher in diabetic group. A moderate significance was found with a CPI score of 5 (p<0.015). The pH of saliva was significantly higher among diabetic patients. Conclusion: The diabetic subjects who were on haemodialysis were at a high risk for developing periodontal disease and they exhibited a potential threat for dental decay and xerostomia. A lower salivary pH and a poor glycaemic control may affect their oral health. Further research is required to clarify the combined influence of diabetic nephropathy on oral health. PMID:24179940

  3. Access to health: women's status and utilization of maternal health services in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sharad Kumar; Sawangdee, Yothin; Sirirassamee, Buppha

    2007-09-01

    With the objective of reducing maternal and neonatal mortality, the Safe Motherhood Program was implemented in Nepal in 1997. It was launched as a priority programme during the ninth five-year plan period, 1997-2002, with the aim of increasing women's access to health care and raising their status. This paper examines the association of access to health services and women's status with utilization of prenatal, delivery, and postnatal care during the plan period. The 1996 Nepal Family Health Survey and the 2001 Nepal Demographic and Health Survey data were pooled and the likelihood of women's using maternal health care was examined in 2001 in comparison with 1996. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicates that the utilization of maternal health services increased over the period. Programme interventions such as outreach worker's visits, radio programmes on maternal health, maternal health information disseminated through various mass media sources and raising women's status through education were able to explain the observed change in utilization. Health worker visits and educational status of women showed a large association, but radio programmes and other mass media information were only partially successful in increasing use of maternal health services. Socioeconomic and demographic variables such as household economic status, number of living children and place of residence showed stronger association with use of maternal health services then did intervention programmes.

  4. The health status of minority populations in the United States.

    PubMed

    Nickens, H W

    1991-07-01

    There is increasing national recognition that while our nation's health care system is the most expensive in the world, the health care status of Americans overall ranks poorly compared with other Western, industrialized nations. In the United States we tend to look at minority-majority variations of health status, as well as the variations of many other indicators by race or ethnicity, because race and ethnicity are particularly important components of our society. In general, health status indicators of minority Americans are worse than those of whites. In some locales, death rates of minority Americans are comparable to those of Third World nations. At the same time, minority Americans make up a rapidly increasing proportion of the nation's population and work force. Our baseline national data on some minority groups, however, currently are inadequate to detect shifts in health status. Finally, the rapidly expanding problem of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome among some minority populations provides both an imperative and an opportunity to learn how model prevention programs should be designed and executed.

  5. Dental health status of liver transplant candidates.

    PubMed

    Guggenheimer, James; Eghtesad, Bijan; Close, John M; Shay, Christine; Fung, John J

    2007-02-01

    A prerequisite dental evaluation is usually recommended for potential organ transplant candidates. This is based on the premise that untreated dental disease may pose a risk for infection and sepsis, although there is no evidence that this has occurred in organ transplant candidates or recipients. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of dental disease and oral health behaviors in a sample of liver transplant candidates (LTCs). Oral examinations were conducted on 300 LTCs for the presence of gingivitis, dental plaque, dental caries, periodontal disease, edentulism, and xerostomia. The prevalence of these conditions was compared with oral health data from national health surveys and examined for possible associations with most recent dental visit, smoking, and type of liver disease. Significant risk factors for plaque-related gingivitis included intervals of more than 1 yr since the last dental visit (P = 0.004), smoking (P = 0.03), and diuretic therapy (P = 0.005). Dental caries and periodontal disease were also significantly associated with intervals of more than 1 yr since the last dental visit (P = 0.004). LTCs with viral hepatitis or alcoholic cirrhosis had the highest smoking rate (78.8%). Higher rates of edentulism occurred among older LTCs who were less likely to have had a recent dental evaluation (mean 88 months). In conclusion, intervals of more than 1 yr since the last dental visit, smoking, and diuretic therapy appear to be the most significant determinants of dental disease and the need for a pretransplantation dental screening evaluation in LTCs. Edentulous patients should have periodic examinations for oral cancer.

  6. Association between weight status and men's positive mental health: The influence of marital status.

    PubMed

    de Montigny, Francine; Cloutier, Lyne; Meunier, Sophie; Cyr, Caroline; Coulombe, Simon; Tremblay, Gilles; Auger, Nathalie; Roy, Bernard; Gaboury, Isabelle; Lavoie, Brigitte; Dion, Harold; Houle, Janie

    2016-12-19

    The purpose of this study was to (1) examine the association between weight status and men's positive mental health, defined as the presence of symptoms of emotional, psychological, and social well-being, and (2) evaluate the moderating effect of marital status. A total of 645 men aged between 19 and 71 years self-reported their height and weight and answered a questionnaire measuring their emotional, psychological, and social well-being. Analysis of variance revealed that mean levels of emotional, psychological, and social well-being did not significantly differ according to men's weight status. Moderation analyses indicated that, for men in a relationship (married or living common-law), there were no significant associations between overweight, obesity, and the three components of positive mental health. However, for single men, overweight was marginally associated with higher emotional well-being, while obesity was associated with lower psychological well-being and marginally associated with lower social well-being. Results of the present study suggest that health professionals and researchers should take the characteristics (such as marital status) of men with obesity and overweight into account when working with them. Mental health researchers may need to examine men in each weight category separately (e.g. obesity vs. overweight), since the association with positive mental health can differ from one category to another.

  7. Health Status and Leisure Behavior of Sexual Assault Victims: Educational Opportunities for Health and Leisure Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheffield, Emilyn A.; And Others

    The health status and leisure behavior of victims of sexual assault were studied. Data concerning present illness symptoms, past illness symptoms, negative health behavior, family health history, and female reproductive physiology illness symptoms were obtained and analyzed. Sexual assault victims were similar to nonvictims demographically except…

  8. Ecological health of river basins in forested regions of eastern Washington and Oregon. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Wissmar, R.C.; Smith, J.E.; McIntosh, B.A.; Li, H.W.; Reeves, G.H.

    1994-02-01

    A retrospective examination of the history of the cumulative influences of past land water uses on the ecological health of select river basins in forest regions of eastern Washington and Oregon indicates the loss of fish and riparian habitat diversity and quality since the 19th century. The study focuses on impacts of timber harvest, fire management, live stock grazing, mining and irrigation management practices on stream and riparian ecosystems. An examination of past environmental management approaches for assessing stream, riparian, and watershed conditions in forest regions shows numerous advantages and shortcomings. Rcommendations for ecosystem management with emphasis on monitoring and restoration activities are provided.

  9. Neighborhood Socioeconomic Status, Depression, and Health Status in the Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) Study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Depression and diminished health status are common in adults with diabetes, but few studies have investigated associations with socio-economic environment. The objective of this manuscript was to evaluate the relationship between neighborhood-level SES and health status and depression. Methods Individual-level data on 1010 participants at baseline in Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes), a trial of long-term weight loss among adults with type 2 diabetes, were linked to neighborhood-level SES (% living below poverty) from the 2000 US Census (tracts). Dependent variables included depression (Beck Inventory), and health status (Medical Outcomes Study (SF-36) scale). Multi-level regression models were used to account simultaneously for individual-level age, sex, race, education, personal yearly income and neighborhood-level SES. Results Overall, the % living in poverty in the participants' neighborhoods varied, mean = 11% (range 0-67%). Compared to their counterparts in the lowest tertile of neighborhood poverty (least poverty), those in the highest tertile (most poverty) had significantly lower scores on the role-limitations(physical), role limitations(emotional), physical functioning, social functioning, mental health, and vitality sub-scales of the SF-36 scale. When evaluating SF-36 composite scores, those living in neighborhoods with more poverty had significantly lower scores on the physical health (β-coefficient [β] = -1.90 units, 95% CI: -3.40,-0.039), mental health (β = -2.92 units, -4.31,-1.53) and global health (β = -2.77 units, -4.21,-1.33) composite scores. Conclusion In this selected group of weight loss trial participants, lower neighborhood SES was significantly associated with poorer health status. Whether these associations might influence response to the Look AHEAD weight loss intervention requires further investigation. PMID:22182286

  10. Health, United States, 1998, with Socioeconomic Status and Health Chartbook

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-01-01

    3. Oliveti JF. Pre- and perinatal risk factors for asthma in inner city African-American children. Am J Epidemiol 143(6): 570-577.1996. 60...investigations suggest that fewer than 50 percent of measles cases were reported following an outbreak in an inner city and that 40 percent of...health defects resulting from disease, injury, or congenital malformations . All health conditions, except impairments, are coded according to the

  11. Childhood Sexual Abuse: Impact on a Community's Mental Health Status.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Kathryn D.

    1992-01-01

    This study examined the impact of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) on the mental health status of the Los Angeles Epidemiologic Catchment Area. A history of CSA was found to significantly increase an individual's odds of developing eight psychiatric disorders in adulthood. CSA's effect on the community level was also found to be substantial.…

  12. The Health Status of Children Living in Urban Appalachian Neighborhoods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, M. Kathryn; Obermiller, Phillip J.

    This study compares the health status of Appalachian children living in Cincinnati neighborhoods to that of children living in five predominantly low-income black neighborhoods and children living in the rest of Cincinnati. Age-specific, standardized morbidity ratio analyses were performed to compare the frequency of admissions to hospital and…

  13. The Health Status of Adults on the Autism Spectrum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croen, Lisa A.; Zerbo, Ousseny; Qian, Yinge; Massolo, Maria L.; Rich, Steve; Sidney, Stephen; Kripke, Clarissa

    2015-01-01

    Compared to the general pediatric population, children with autism have higher rates of co-occurring medical and psychiatric illnesses, yet very little is known about the general health status of adults with autism. The objective of this study was to describe the frequency of psychiatric and medical conditions among a large, diverse, insured…

  14. The Impact of Preventive Health Behaviors and Risk Factors on Health Status of Ghanaians

    PubMed Central

    Saeed, Bashiru I. I.; Abdul-Aziz, A. R.; Nguah, Samuel Blay; Zhao, Xicang

    2013-01-01

    The article here investigated the impact of Preventive Health Behaviors and Risk Factors as measures of Health Status of Ghanaians. We carry out a cross-sectional analysis of 5573 adults who participated and had indicated that they needed to state their health description in the three years prior to the phase 2007 World Health Organization, a study on Global Ageing and Adult health (SAGE) conducted in Ghana. The ordinal logistic regression model was employed for analysis using R. The results suggest that, there is incontrovertible evidence showing a strong relationship between preventive health behaviors and health status of Ghanaians. Again, the lifestyle of Ghanaians clearly manifests in their positive correlation with the good and moderate health state due to the high percentage (38.96% and 39.04%) respectively. The outcome points to a potential link with the Ghanaian social and health policies. PMID:23985114

  15. Alcohol consumption and health status in very old veterans.

    PubMed

    Denneson, Lauren M; Lasarev, Michael R; Dickinson, Kathryn C; Dobscha, Steven K

    2011-03-01

    Previous research has linked drinking with health, but has yet to address alcohol consumption and the relationship between drinking and health among very old veterans. To help fill this gap, the authors present a cross-sectional self-report study on 1105 veterans age 90 and older who completed the national Veteran's Affairs (VA) Survey of the Health Experiences of Patients (SHEP) for fiscal year (FY) 2005. Alcohol consumption was measured using Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test scores (AUDIT-C). Health status was measured using the Veterans Rand Health Survey: VR-12. Among men (n = 1063), 60% were abstainers. No significant differences in mental health component (MCS; F(3,1040) = 1.80, P = .15) or physical health component (PCS; F(3,1040) = 1.48, P = .22) scores were detected across consumption categories. Among women (n = 42), 47% were abstainers. These results suggest many very old veterans abstain from alcohol and, among men, the associations between health status and drinking observed in younger groups may not be present in very old age.

  16. Legal status, emotional well-being and subjective health status of Latino immigrants.

    PubMed Central

    Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A.; Zayas, Luis H.; Spitznagel, Edward L.

    2007-01-01

    Among the many stresses that undocumented Latino immigrants experience, worries about their legal status and preoccupation with disclosure and deportation can heighten the risk for emotional distress and impaired quality of health. To better document these effects, this study examined the relationship between deportation concern and emotional and physical well-being among a group of Latino immigrants in a midwestern city. One-hundred-forty-three persons were recruited through community sources. Fifty-six participants (39%) expressed concern with seeking services for fear of deportation, while 87 did not endorse this concern. Measures of emotional distress, Hispanic immigrant stress and subjective health status were administered. Results indicate that Latino immigrants with concerns about deportation are at heightened risk of experiencing negative emotional and health states (particularly anger), Hispanic immigrant stress associated with extrafamilial factors and substandard health status. Findings inform policymakers of culturally relevant stressors of undocumented Latino immigrants that help to create and perpetuate the health and mental health disparities of this group. PMID:17987916

  17. Employment Status and Perceived Health Status in Younger and Older People with Multiple Sclerosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krokavcova, Martina; Nagyova, Iveta; Rosenberger, Jaroslav; Gavelova, Miriam; Middel, Berrie; Gdovinova, Zuzana; Groothoff, Johan W.; van Dijk, Jitse P.

    2012-01-01

    This study explores how employment is associated with perceived physical and mental health status in people with multiple sclerosis (MS) adjusted for sociodemographic and clinical variables stratified by age. The sample consisted of 184 MS patients divided into a younger (less than 45 years) and an older (greater than or equal to 45 years) age…

  18. Weight and mental health status in Massachusetts, National Survey of Children's Health, 2007.

    PubMed

    Lu, Emily; Dayalu, Rashmi; Diop, Hafsatou; Harvey, Elizabeth M; Manning, Susan E; Uzogara, Stella G

    2012-12-01

    This study explores how weight status is related to mental health status among Massachusetts children, aged 10-17 years. We used data from the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health to examine the association between weight status (body mass index-for-age) and parent-reported mental health status among Massachusetts children (N = 827). Multivariable log binomial regression was performed to calculate the adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) of three mental health outcomes (behavioral, emotional, and social) as related to weight status, after controlling for covariates including physical activity, sex, race/ethnicity, maternal education, poverty status, special health needs, and neighborhood safety. Almost one-third (32.5 %) of Massachusetts children were either overweight or obese. Sex was a significant effect modifier of the association between weight status and negative emotions. After stratifying by sex and controlling for covariates, the relationship between weight status and negative emotions remained significant among girls (aPR = 1.8, 95 % CI 1.3-2.6). Children who did not exercise at all were significantly more likely to exhibit negative behaviors (aPR = 1.3, 95 % CI 1.0-1.6), negative emotions (boys' aPR = 3.3, 95 % CI 1.6-6.9; girls' aPR = 2.6, 95 % CI 1.5-4.5), and fewer social skills (aPR = 1.9, 95 % CI 1.3-2.9) than those who exercised at least 20 min every day of the week. Overweight/obese children, especially girls, were more likely than children of normal weight to have parent-reported negative emotions, suggesting an association between weight status and mental health. Lower levels of physical activity were associated with negative mental health outcomes, supporting the benefits of physical activity for all children.

  19. Assessing Bisexual Stigma and Mental Health Status: A Brief Report

    PubMed Central

    Bostwick, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    Bisexual women often report higher rates of depression and mental health problems than their heterosexual and lesbian counterparts. These disparities likely occur, in part, as a result of the unique stigma that bisexual women face and experience. Such stigma can in turn operate as a stressor, thereby contributing to poor mental health status. The current pilot study tested a new measure of bisexual stigma and its association with mental health. Results suggest a moderate positive correlation between the two, and point to areas for future consideration when measuring bisexual stigma. PMID:24683314

  20. [New approaches to assessment of military personnel health status].

    PubMed

    Sivashchenko, P P; Ivanov, V V; Grigor'ev, S G; Baranovskiĭ, A M

    2013-05-01

    For the first time were suggested some indices such as the index of ratio of one unit's (higher/highest formation) hospitalization, lost worktime, discharge and mortality to the primary morbidity for one military unit and the same index of ratio to the same criteria for the group of military unit. The mentioned peculiarities are intended for impartial and comprehensive estimation of Armed Forces of the Russian Federation military personnel health status and medical units (establishments) activity. These indices include as criteria of diseases prevalence, morbidity, hospitalization, discharge and mortality characteristics. Employment of the new tools provides the possibility of the military health care system analysis by means of such health status components as military labor character peculiarities of medical support, as well as medical service forces and resources availability in the Army, Navy and Air Force.

  1. Observation of influences of mental health promotion and mental intervention on mental health status of professionals

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Shu-Qiang; Zhang, Jian-Ling

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To observe the influences of mental health promotion and mental intervention on mental health status of professionals. Method: 2878 professionals for physical examination were selected and randomly divided into treatment group and control group, with 1443 professionals and 1435 professionals, respectively. Then, the difference of mental health status before and after mental intervention between two groups was compared. Results: In treatment group, the proportion of people with healthy mental and modest pressure after mental intervention was higher than that before mental intervention and that in control group after mental intervention (P<0.01); the proportion of people with psychological sub-heath and moderate pressure after mental intervention was significantly lower than that before mental intervention and that in control group after mental intervention (P<0.05). There was no significant difference in mental health status in control group before and after mental intervention (P>0.05). Mental health consciousness, health status, self pressure-relief capability, job satisfaction, and happiness index of professionals were up to 63.3%~78.8%. Conclusions: Mental health promotion and mental intervention may significantly improve mental health status of professionals. PMID:26221385

  2. Subjective socioeconomic status and health in cross-national comparison.

    PubMed

    Präg, Patrick; Mills, Melinda C; Wittek, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Research has established a robust association between subjective socioeconomic status (SES) and health outcomes, which holds over and above the associations between objective markers of SES and health. Furthermore, comparative research on health inequalities has shown considerable variation in the relationship between different objective markers of SES and health across countries. Drawing on data from 29 countries, we present the first cross-national study on the subjective SES-health relationship. For two health outcomes, namely self-rated health (SRH) and psychological wellbeing, we are able to confirm that subjective SES is related to health in all countries under study, even when income, education, and occupational prestige are accounted for. Furthermore, we document considerable variation in the strength of the subjective SES-health association across countries. This variation however is largely independent of country differences in income inequality and country affluence. The health benefits of a high subjective SES appear to be slightly larger in more affluent countries, but only for SRH, not for psychological wellbeing.

  3. Planted forest health: The need for a global strategy.

    PubMed

    Wingfield, M J; Brockerhoff, E G; Wingfield, B D; Slippers, B

    2015-08-21

    Several key tree genera are used in planted forests worldwide, and these represent valuable global resources. Planted forests are increasingly threatened by insects and microbial pathogens, which are introduced accidentally and/or have adapted to new host trees. Globalization has hastened tree pest emergence, despite a growing awareness of the problem, improved understanding of the costs, and an increased focus on the importance of quarantine. To protect the value and potential of planted forests, innovative solutions and a better-coordinated global approach are needed. Mitigation strategies that are effective only in wealthy countries fail to contain invasions elsewhere in the world, ultimately leading to global impacts. Solutions to forest pest problems in the future should mainly focus on integrating management approaches globally, rather than single-country strategies. A global strategy to manage pest issues is vitally important and urgently needed.

  4. Effect of motivational interviewing-based health coaching on employees' physical and mental health status.

    PubMed

    Butterworth, Susan; Linden, Ariel; McClay, Wende; Leo, Michael C

    2006-10-01

    Motivational Interviewing (MI) based health coaching is a relatively new behavioral intervention that has gained popularity in public health because of its ability to address multiple behaviors, health risks, and illness self-management. In this study, 276 employees at a medical center self-selected to participate in either a 3-month health coaching intervention or control group. The treatment group showed significant improvement in both SF-12 physical (p = .035) and mental (p = .0001) health status compared to controls. Because of concerns of selection bias, a matched case-control analysis was also performed, eliciting similar results. These findings suggest that MI-based health coaching is effective in improving both physical and mental health status in an occupational setting.

  5. Stress, Coping, Health Practices, and Health Status in Enlisted and Officer Air Force Women with Dependent Children

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-08-01

    Stress Scale, the Jaloweic Coping Scale, the Personal Lifestyle Questionaire , the Perceived Health Status Index and an demographic sheet devised by...AD-A218 164 (j) Stress, Coping, Health Practices, and Health Status in Enlisted and Officer Air Force Women with Dependent Children DTIC BY FEB 22...NO. 11. TiTLE (Include Security Classification) (UNCLASSIFIED) Stress, Coping, Health Practices, and Health Status in Enlisted and Officer Air Force

  6. Mining Discriminative Patterns to Predict Health Status for Cardiopulmonary Patients

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Qian; Shang, Jingbo; Juen, Joshua; Han, Jiawei; Schatz, Bruce

    2017-01-01

    Smartphones are ubiquitous now, but it is still unclear what physiological functions they can monitor at clinical quality. Pulmonary function is a standard measure of health status for cardiopulmonary patients. We have shown that predictive models can accurately classify cardiopulmonary conditions from healthy status, as well as different severity levels within cardiopulmonary disease, the GOLD stages. Here we propose several universal models to monitor cardiopulmonary conditions, including DPClass, a novel learning approach we designed. We carefully prepare motion dataset covering status from GOLD 0 (healthy), GOLD 1 (mild), GOLD 2 (moderate), all the way to GOLD 3 (severe). Sixty-six subjects participate in this study. After de-identification, their walking data are applied to train the predictive models. The RBF-SVM model yields the highest accuracy while the DPClass model provides better interpretation of the model mechanisms. We not only provide promising solutions to monitor health status by simply carrying a smartphone, but also demonstrate how demographics influences predictive models of cardiopulmonary disease. PMID:28174760

  7. Domestic Violence and its Effect on Oral Health Behaviour and Oral Health Status

    PubMed Central

    P, Basavaraj; Singla, Ashish; Kote, Sunder; Singh, Shilpi; Jain, Swati; Singh, Khushboo; Vashishtha, Vaibhav

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Violence against women is one of the major public health and human rights problem in the world today. Hence, the present study was conducted with the aim to assess the effect of domestic violence on oral health behavior and oral health status of females attending community outreach programmes in and around Modinagar. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted through the community outreach programmes organized in Modinagar. A structured questionnaire was used to illicit information regarding socio demographic characteristics, oral health behavior and domestic violence. The dental health examination was done to record dental health status, intraoral and extraoral soft tissue injury, tooth fracture and tooth avulsion due to the injury. Results: Out of the total 304 women, 204(67.1%) reported positive domestic violence. Psychological violence was found to be severe whereas sexual violence was found to be mild in most of the cases. Significant difference was found between oral hygiene aids used , frequency of tooth brushing, periodontal status, missing teeth, intraoral soft tissue injuries and fractures between both the groups (p<0.05). Conclusion: The present study confirmed that domestic violence had significant influence on oral health behavior and oral health status of women. Thus, the dental professionals also should make an attempt to help victims gain access to support and referral services and to provide adequate treatment to them so as to make a positive difference in their lives. PMID:25584297

  8. Health Status and Satisfaction with Health Care: Results from the Medical Outcomes Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Grant N.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Relations between self-assessed health status and satisfaction with health care were examined using two waves of data obtained from participants in the Medical Outcomes Study. Using a multisample covariance modeling framework, separate models were examined for patients with significant symptoms of depression (N=417) and patients with chronic…

  9. Health Status and Health Risks of the "Hidden Majority" of Adults with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emerson, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the health status of and health risks faced by adults with intellectual disability who do not use intellectual disability services. Self-report data collected from 1,022 people with mild intellectual disability in England indicated that people who do not use intellectual disability services are more likely to smoke tobacco…

  10. Current Status and Problems in Certification of Sustainable Forest Management in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jingzhu; Xie, Dongming; Wang, Danyin; Deng, Hongbing

    2011-12-01

    Forest certification is a mechanism involving the regulation of trade of forest products in order to protect forest resources and improve forest management. Although China had a late start in adopting this process, the country has made good progress in recent years. As of July 31, 2009, 17 forest management enterprises and more than one million hectares of forests in China have been certified by the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC). Several major factors affect forest certification in China. The first set is institutional in nature. Forest management in China is based on centralized national plans and therefore lacks flexibility. A second factor is public awareness. The importance and value of forest certification are not widely understood and thus consumers do not make informed choices regarding certified forest products. The third major factor is the cost of certification. Together these factors have constrained the development of China's forest certification efforts. However, the process does have great potential. According to preliminary calculations, if 50% of China's commercial forests were certified, the economic cost of forest certification would range from US0.66-86.63 million while the economic benefits for the forestry business sector could exceed US150 million. With continuing progress in forest management practices and the development of international trade in forest products, it becomes important to improve the forest certification process in China. This can be achieved by improving the forest management system, constructing and perfecting market access mechanisms for certificated forest products, and increasing public awareness of environmental protection, forest certification, and their interrelationship.

  11. Certification programs for eHealth--status quo.

    PubMed

    Urbauer, Philipp; Herzog, Juliane; Pohn, Birgit; Forjan, Mathias; Sauermann, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    The skills of the workforce are a core factor for the quality of healthcare systems. On top of the basic education, postgraduate training is an important factor for continuously maintaining as well as improving the workforce qualification level. Advanced training often provides certification of the acquired skills. This paper analyses the status quo of international certification programs in the sector of eHealth (EU, US, Global). It uses available literature and observations from international educational expert's workgroups. It identifies gaps regarding certifications in eHealth and suggests steps for solutions. Despite little attention to legal and financial eHealth related content in certification programs in the EU as well as a low degree of harmonization of international certifications in general, there are strong activities especially in the international scope towards personal certification programs in eHealth. Major changes are to be expected within the coming years.

  12. [Health status of nursing workers in functional retraining and readaptation].

    PubMed

    Cacciari, Pâmella; Haddad, Maria do Carmo Lourenço; Vannuchi, Marli Terezinha Oliveira; Dalmas, José Carlos

    2013-12-01

    Cross-sectional descriptive study aimed to assess the health status of nursing staff retrained due to illness of a public university hospital in northern Paraná, Brazil. Data of 34 workers were collected through the application of the Medical Outcomes Studies 36 items - Short Form (MOS SF-36). The results showed that physical problems were the reason for retraining in 91.2 % of cases. Of the eight domains assessed by the MOS SF -36, the worst scores referred to bodily pain, vitality and general health and the best scores were attributed to aspects of the mental health component. Workers retrained due to physical reason had lower scores in all domains except emotional performance in relation to those with mental problem. The evaluation of the perceived health of these workers showed that retraining due to illness is a strategy developed to enhance the functional capacity of workers, despite their limitations.

  13. Effect of health development assistance on health status in sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Negeri, Keneni Gutema; Halemariam, Damen

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Data on the effect of health aid on the health status in developing countries are inconclusive. Moreover, studies on this issue in sub-Saharan Africa are scarce. Therefore, this study aims to analyze the effect of health development aid in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods Using panel data analytic method, as well as infant mortality rate as a proxy for health status, this study examines the effect of health aid on infant mortality rate in sub-Saharan Africa. The panel was constructed from data on 43 countries for the period 1990–2010. Fixed effect, random effect, and first difference generalized method of moments estimator were used for estimation. Results Health development aid has a statistically significant positive effect. A 1% increase of health development assistance per capita saves the lives of two infants per 1,000 live births (P=0.000) in the region. Conclusion Contrary to health aid pessimists’ view, this study observes the fact that health development assistance has strong favorable effect in improving health status in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:27103844

  14. Self-Esteem, Oral Health Behaviours, and Clinical Oral Health Status in Chinese Adults: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chin, Luzy Siu-Hei; Chan, Joanne Chung-Yan

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This is an exploratory study to examine the relations among self-esteem, oral health behaviours and clinical oral health status in Chinese adults. In addition, gender differences in clinical oral health status and oral health behaviours were explored. Methods: Participants were 192 patients from a private dental clinic in Hong Kong…

  15. Status and distribution of mangrove forests of the world using earth observation satellite data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Giri, C.; Ochieng, E.; Tieszen, L.L.; Zhu, Z.; Singh, A.; Loveland, T.; Masek, J.; Duke, N.

    2011-01-01

    Aim Our scientific understanding of the extent and distribution of mangrove forests of the world is inadequate. The available global mangrove databases, compiled using disparate geospatial data sources and national statistics, need to be improved. Here, we mapped the status and distributions of global mangroves using recently available Global Land Survey (GLS) data and the Landsat archive.Methods We interpreted approximately 1000 Landsat scenes using hybrid supervised and unsupervised digital image classification techniques. Each image was normalized for variation in solar angle and earth-sun distance by converting the digital number values to the top-of-the-atmosphere reflectance. Ground truth data and existing maps and databases were used to select training samples and also for iterative labelling. Results were validated using existing GIS data and the published literature to map 'true mangroves'.Results The total area of mangroves in the year 2000 was 137,760 km2 in 118 countries and territories in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Approximately 75% of world's mangroves are found in just 15 countries, and only 6.9% are protected under the existing protected areas network (IUCN I-IV). Our study confirms earlier findings that the biogeographic distribution of mangroves is generally confined to the tropical and subtropical regions and the largest percentage of mangroves is found between 5?? N and 5?? S latitude.Main conclusions We report that the remaining area of mangrove forest in the world is less than previously thought. Our estimate is 12.3% smaller than the most recent estimate by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations. We present the most comprehensive, globally consistent and highest resolution (30 m) global mangrove database ever created. We developed and used better mapping techniques and data sources and mapped mangroves with better spatial and thematic details than previous studies. ?? 2010 Blackwell

  16. Status and distribution of mangrove forests of the world using earth observation satellite data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Giri, Chandra; Ochieng, E.; Tieszen, Larry L.; Zhu, Zhi-Liang; Singh, Ashbindu; Loveland, Thomas R.; Masek, Jeffery G.; Duke, Norm

    2011-01-01

    Aim  Our scientific understanding of the extent and distribution of mangrove forests of the world is inadequate. The available global mangrove databases, compiled using disparate geospatial data sources and national statistics, need to be improved. Here, we mapped the status and distributions of global mangroves using recently available Global Land Survey (GLS) data and the Landsat archive. Methods  We interpreted approximately 1000 Landsat scenes using hybrid supervised and unsupervised digital image classification techniques. Each image was normalized for variation in solar angle and earth–sun distance by converting the digital number values to the top-of-the-atmosphere reflectance. Ground truth data and existing maps and databases were used to select training samples and also for iterative labelling. Results were validated using existing GIS data and the published literature to map ‘true mangroves’. Results  The total area of mangroves in the year 2000 was 137,760 km2 in 118 countries and territories in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Approximately 75% of world's mangroves are found in just 15 countries, and only 6.9% are protected under the existing protected areas network (IUCN I-IV). Our study confirms earlier findings that the biogeographic distribution of mangroves is generally confined to the tropical and subtropical regions and the largest percentage of mangroves is found between 5° N and 5° S latitude. Main conclusions  We report that the remaining area of mangrove forest in the world is less than previously thought. Our estimate is 12.3% smaller than the most recent estimate by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations. We present the most comprehensive, globally consistent and highest resolution (30 m) global mangrove database ever created. We developed and used better mapping techniques and data sources and mapped mangroves with better spatial and thematic details than previous studies.

  17. 78 FR 2947 - Manti-La Sal National Forest, Utah; Maverick Point Forest Health Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-15

    ... increasing aspen and ponderosa pine forest stand resilience and resistance to insects, disease, drought, and..., increasing temperatures, insects, and diseases affect many aspen clones. Ungulate grazing can also, and in... includes building resistance to climate-related stressors (drought, wildfire, insects, and disease)...

  18. Eastside forest ecosystem health assessment. Volume 1. Executive summary. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Everett, R.; Hessburg, P.; Jensen, M.; Bormann, B.

    1994-02-01

    The report responds to the request by Speaker Thomas Foley and Senator Mark Hatfield for a scientific evaluation of the effects of Forest Service Management practices on the sustainability of eastern Oregon and Washington ecosystems. The report recommends analysis methods and management practices that can be used to build an experimental approach to the restoration of stressed ecosystems.

  19. Health status and health behaviours in neighbourhoods: A comparison of Glasgow, Scotland and Hamilton, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Kathi; Eyles, John; Ellaway, Anne; Macintyre, Sally; Macdonald, Laura

    2010-01-01

    Health status has been demonstrated to vary by neighbourhood socioeconomic status (SES). However, neighbourhood effects may vary between countries. In this study, neighbourhood variations in health outcomes are compared across four socially contrasting neighbourhoods in Glasgow, Scotland and Hamilton, Ontario Canada. Data came from the 2001 wave of the West of Scotland Twenty-07 Longitudinal Study and a 2000/2001 cross-sectional survey conducted in Hamilton. The results of the comparison point to important variations in the relationship between neighbourhood SES and health. While both cities display a socioeconomic gradient with respect to various measures of health and health behaviours, for some outcome measures the high SES neighbourhoods in Glasgow display distributions similar to those found in the low SES neighbourhoods in Hamilton. Our results suggest that a low SES neighbourhood in one country may not mean the same for health as a low SES neighbourhood in another country. As such, country context may explain the distribution of health status and health behaviours among socially contrasting neighbourhoods, and neighbourhood variations in health may be context specific. PMID:20022285

  20. Health literacy, socioeconomic status and self-rated health in Japan.

    PubMed

    Furuya, Yoko; Kondo, Naoki; Yamagata, Zentaro; Hashimoto, Hideki

    2015-09-01

    Health literacy (HL) is a key determinant of health in a contemporary society characterized by abundant information. Previous studies have suggested that basic or functional HL is positively associated with health, whereas evidences on the association between health and communicative/critical HL are scarce. Furthermore, confounding by socioeconomic status on HL-health association has been poorly tested. Using cross-sectional data from a nationally representative community-based survey in Japan, we investigated whether communicative/critical HL is associated with self-rated health independent of socioeconomic status. A total of 1237 subjects participated in this study; the response rate was 62%. To measure communicative/critical HL, we used three questions assessing the respondents' ability to select, to communicate to others and to evaluate specific health-related information. Potential confounders included demographic factors, household income, employment status, and educational attainment. A multivariate model revealed that good self-reported health was significantly associated with younger age [odds ratio (OR), 0.99; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.97-0.99], employment (OR, 2.89; 95% CI, 1.06-7.88) and higher communicative/critical HL scores (OR 2.75; 95%CI, 1.93-3.90). Respondents with lower education were likely to have poorer communicative/critical HL. These results imply that to close the health gap, policy interventions should focus on the promotion of HL among deprived sociodemographic groups.

  1. Characterization of P status in forest soils: stocks, fluxes and models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achat, D. L.; Morel, C.; Bakker, M.; Augusto, L.; Gallet-Budynek, A.; Gonzalez, M.; Jonard, M.

    2010-12-01

    Phosphorus (P) is a critical limiting factor of plant growth and production in many ecosystems, which often require to be fertilized. However, there is an increasing concern regarding appropriate local and global management of phosphorus resources, since the existing finite phosphate reserves are rapidly being depleted. This implies to understand what processes (biological, physico-chemical) are governing soil P availability in agroecosystems, and in particular in forests, which will be increasingly managed for their C-sink potential in the future. We characterized the P status in forest soils of the largest managed pine forest in Europe (Landes of Gascogne, southwest of France) using isotopic and extraction methods, as well as modelling approaches. Total P concentration in topsoils were extremely low, ranging from 7 to 195 mg Pkg-1. The concentration of phosphate ions in solution decreased with depth and was related to the Al and Fe oxide content, which controlled the diffusion of P from the soil solid phase to the solution. The gross amount of diffusive P in one week as determined by 32P isotopic dilution in batch experiments was low, ranging from 0.2 to 52 mg P kg-1 in the topsoil layer, and could be predicted by pedotransfer functions built on the Al and Fe oxide and soil organic matter contents. Organic P represented 80% of total P in litter and 60% in the surface mineral soil layer, suggesting a higher contribution of biological processes to soil P cycling. Biological mineralization of organic P was quantified using a long-term incubation study (154 days) of a low-sorbing soil labelled with 33P, associated with a batch experiment with 32P labelled soil: gross mineralization of dead soil organic matter and diffusive phosphate P were low (<1 mg kg-1 ) compared to the remineralization of microbial P (14mg kg-1). A modelling approach combined to these isotopic measurements showed that 80 % of microbial P turned over very quickly (5-9 days), while 20% turned over

  2. Oral health status of a population with multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Pérez, Eva M.; Miegimolle-Herrero, Mónica; Planells-del-Pozo, Paloma

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine the oral treatment needs of a sample of patients diagnosed with multiple sclerosis in the Community of Madrid (Spain). Patients and methods: A cross-sectional epidemiological study was carried out with a sample of 64 patients who were aged 25 to 77 years. They were distributed into homogeneous age groups: < 46 years, 46-54 years and > 54 years. In order to evaluate the oral health status and treatment requirements, the parameters and guidelines of the WHO were used. Results: The prevalence of caries was 100%, or very close in all three groups. As age increased, the morbidity rate decreased, but the mortality rate increased considerably. On analyzing gingival health, 65% of patients had calculus, 5% bleeding and 30% were healthy. Conclusions: The DMFT index found provided data that was, in general, very similar to that of the general population in Spain. However, the gingival health status found demonstrated that the population of multiple sclerosis patients requires specific assistance. Key words: Multiple sclerosis, oral health, dentures. PMID:22143682

  3. Correlates of the health statuses of the faculty at midlife

    PubMed Central

    Galeon, Galvin Alaan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Between the school years of 2009-2012, the turnover record of the University of San Jose-Recoletos (USJ-R), Cebu City, Philippines showed that permanent faculty members who left the institution were all midlifers. Their reasons varied from health issues to greener pasture elsewhere. Materials and Methods: This study then sought to explore the health statuses of the faculty midlifers of the USJ-R. The data were collected through survey conducted among the 106 faculty midlifers of the university. This study applied multivariate analyses to the survey data using Pearson-moment of correlation to determine the relationship between the sociodemographic profile of the research participants and their health statuses. Results: This research revealed that faculty midlifers are generally well physically. They showed emotional maturity and have positive outlook toward midlife. More so, their health conditions are significantly related with their sex, age, years of teaching, educational attainment, and income. Conclusion: At midlife, the faculty members of USJ-R can still generally be considered physically well. Thus, if they are well-managed, they can become relevant and better contributors to the attainment of the basic goals and objectives of the educational institution and the educational system in general. PMID:27134476

  4. Health status of the elderly in the Marigot Health District, Dominica.

    PubMed

    Veen-de Vries, N R; Luteijn, A J; Nasiiro, R S; Meyboom-de Jong, B

    1999-06-01

    The health status and the prevalence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, glaucoma and visual disorders of 123 elderly people (56 men, 67 women) in the Marigot Health District, Dominica, were assessed by means of four questionnaires; collection of data from their medical records; physical examination, measurement of blood pressure, visual acuity and intra-ocular pressure (IOP); and testing for glucosuria. The overall health status was good, but 20% were dependent on care. 74% were independent in the activities in daily life, with only moderate limitations in activities. The health status decreased considerably in those over 75 years of age. There were slight perceived differences in health status between men and women. About 40% of the study population were known to be hypertensive, and another 13% had an elevated blood pressure on examination. Diabetes mellitus was present in 15%. 20% had a visual acuity of 0.1 or below, and 10% had an elevated IOP. During the study, a considerable number of new cases of hypertension, diabetes mellitus and elevated IOP were diagnosed. 50% of the study population who were on medication used this more than as prescribed. This study indicates a high prevalence of the secondary complications of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, cataract, glaucoma and osteo-arthritis that cause disability and dependency in the elderly population. Education, diagnosis at an early stage and appropriate treatment of these disorders may prevent or delay their development. We sugggest the development of a programme oriented approach of primary health care for the elderly to support this.

  5. Socioeconomic Status, Health Behaviors, Obesity and Self-Rated Health among Older Arabs in Israel.

    PubMed

    Khalaila, R N Rabia

    2017-03-01

    Socioeconomic inequalities in health are well documented. Recently, researchers have shown interest in exploring the mechanisms by which measures of SES operate through it to impact SRH, such as material, psychosocial and behavioral factors. To examine the relationships between SES indicators and self-rated health (SRH); and to determine whether health behaviors and obesity mediate the association between SES indicators and SRH. A secondary analysis of data previously collected through the third survey of socioeconomic and health status of the Arab population in Israel, in which the SRH of 878 Arab-Israelis age 50 or older were analyzed using logistic regression. The results showed that higher education level and current employment in old age are associated with better SRH. However, neither subjective economic status nor family income was associated with SRH. Greater physical activity was found to be related to good\\very good SRH, while obesity was associated with less than good SRH. Finally, health behaviors (physical activity) and obesity were revealed as mediators between SES indicators (education and employment status) and SRH. The results highlight the importance of high education level and employment status in old age to reduce health inequalities. The findings also show that the relationship between SES and SRH can operate through behavioral mechanisms (i.e., physical activity) and their consequences (i.e., obesity), that can, however, be changed in old age.

  6. A Geospatial Assessment of Mountain Pine Beetle Infestations and Their Effect on Forest Health in Okanogan-Wenatchee National Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allain, M.; Nguyen, A.; Johnson, E.; Williams, E.; Tsai, S.; Prichard, S.; Freed, T.; Skiles, J. W.

    2010-12-01

    Fire-suppression over the past century has resulted in an accumulation of forest litter and increased tree density. As nutrients are sequestered in forest litter and not recycled by forest fires, soil nutrient concentrations have decreased. The forests of Northern Washington are in poor health as a result of these factors coupled with sequential droughts. The mountain pine beetle (MPB) thrives in such conditions, giving rise to an outbreak in Washington’s Okanogan-Wenatchee National Forest. These outbreaks occur in three successive stages— the green, red, and gray stages. Beetles first infest the tree in the green phase, leading to discoloration of needles in the red phase and eventually death in the gray phase. With the use of geospatial technology, these outbreaks can be better mapped and assessed to evaluate forest health. Field work on seventeen randomly selected sites was conducted using the point-centered quarter method. The stratified random sampling technique ensured that the sampled trees were representative of all classifications present. Additional measurements taken were soil nutrient concentrations (sodium [Na+], nitrate [NO3-], and potassium [K+]), soil pH, and tree temperatures. Satellite imagery was used to define infestation levels and geophysical parameters, such as land cover, vegetation classification, and vegetation stress. ASTER images were used with the Ratio Vegetation Index (RVI) to explore the differences in vegetation, while MODIS images were used to analyze the Disturbance Index (DI). Four other vegetation indices from Landsat TM5 were used to distinguish the green, red and gray phases. Selected imagery from the Hyperion sensor was used to run a minimum distance supervised classification in ENVI, thus testing the ability of Hyperion imagery to detect the green phase. The National Agricultural Imagery Program (NAIP) archive was used to generate accurate maps of beetle-infested regions. This algorithm was used to detect bark beetle

  7. Status of simulation in health care education: an international survey

    PubMed Central

    Qayumi, Karim; Pachev, George; Zheng, Bin; Ziv, Amitai; Koval, Valentyna; Badiei, Sadia; Cheng, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Simulation is rapidly penetrating the terrain of health care education and has gained growing acceptance as an educational method and patient safety tool. Despite this, the state of simulation in health care education has not yet been evaluated on a global scale. In this project, we studied the global status of simulation in health care education by determining the degree of financial support, infrastructure, manpower, information technology capabilities, engagement of groups of learners, and research and scholarly activities, as well as the barriers, strengths, opportunities for growth, and other aspects of simulation in health care education. We utilized a two-stage process, including an online survey and a site visit that included interviews and debriefings. Forty-two simulation centers worldwide participated in this study, the results of which show that despite enormous interest and enthusiasm in the health care community, use of simulation in health care education is limited to specific areas and is not a budgeted item in many institutions. Absence of a sustainable business model, as well as sufficient financial support in terms of budget, infrastructure, manpower, research, and scholarly activities, slows down the movement of simulation. Specific recommendations are made based on current findings to support simulation in the next developmental stages. PMID:25489254

  8. Status of simulation in health care education: an international survey.

    PubMed

    Qayumi, Karim; Pachev, George; Zheng, Bin; Ziv, Amitai; Koval, Valentyna; Badiei, Sadia; Cheng, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Simulation is rapidly penetrating the terrain of health care education and has gained growing acceptance as an educational method and patient safety tool. Despite this, the state of simulation in health care education has not yet been evaluated on a global scale. In this project, we studied the global status of simulation in health care education by determining the degree of financial support, infrastructure, manpower, information technology capabilities, engagement of groups of learners, and research and scholarly activities, as well as the barriers, strengths, opportunities for growth, and other aspects of simulation in health care education. We utilized a two-stage process, including an online survey and a site visit that included interviews and debriefings. Forty-two simulation centers worldwide participated in this study, the results of which show that despite enormous interest and enthusiasm in the health care community, use of simulation in health care education is limited to specific areas and is not a budgeted item in many institutions. Absence of a sustainable business model, as well as sufficient financial support in terms of budget, infrastructure, manpower, research, and scholarly activities, slows down the movement of simulation. Specific recommendations are made based on current findings to support simulation in the next developmental stages.

  9. Smoking, educational status and health inequity in India.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Rajeev

    2006-07-01

    Health related behaviours, especially smoking and tobacco use, are major determinants of health and lead to health inequities. Smoking leads to acute respiratory diseases, tuberculosis and asthma in younger age groups and non communicable diseases such as chronic lung disease, cardiovascular diseases and cancer in middle and older age. We observed an inverse association of educational status with tobacco use (smoking and other forms) in western Indian State of Rajasthan. In successive cross-sectional epidemiological studies- the Jaipur Heart Watch (JHW)- in rural (JHWR; n=3148, men=1982), and urban subjects: JHW-1 (n=2212, men=1415), JHW-2 (n=1124, men=550) and JHW-3 (n=458, men=226), we evaluated various cardiovascular risk factors. The greatest tobacco consumption was observed among the illiterate and low educational status subjects (nil, 1-5, 6-10, >10 yr of formal education) as compared to more literate in men (JHW-R 60, 51, 46 and 36% respectively; JHW-1 44, 52, 30 and 18% JHW-2 54, 43, 29 and 24%; and JHW-3 50, 27, 25 and 25%) as well as women (Mantel Haenzel test, P for trend <0.05). In the illiterate subjects the odds ratios (OR) and 95 per cent confidence intervals (CI) for smoking or tobacco use as compared to the highest educational groups in rural (men OR 2.68, CI 2.02, 3.57; women OR 3.13, CI 1.22, 8.08) as well as larger urban studies- JHW-1 (men OR 2.47, CI 1.70, 3.60; women OR 13.78, CI 3.35, 56.75) and JHW-2 (men OR 3.81; CI 1.90, 7.66; women OR 13.73, CI 1.84, 102.45) were significantly greater (P<0.01). Smoking significantly correlated with prevalence of coronary heart disease and hypertension. Other recent Indian studies and national surveys report similar associations. Health ethicists argue that good education and health lead to true development in an underprivileged society. We propose that improving educational status, a major social determinant of health, can lead to appropriate health related behaviours and prevent the epidemics of non

  10. Effects of TCMC on Transformation of Good Health Status to Suboptimal Health Status: A Nested Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tian; Chen, Jieyu; Sun, Xiaomin; Xiang, Lei; Zhou, Lin; Li, Fei; Lin, Changsong; Jiang, Pingping; Wu, Shengwei; Xiao, Ya; Cheng, Jingru; Luo, Ren; Liu, Yanyan; Zhao, Xiaoshan

    2015-01-01

    To explore the effects of traditional Chinese medicine constitution (TCMC) on transformation of good health status to suboptimal health status (SHS), we conducted a nested case-control study among college students in China. During the 18-month mean follow-up time, 543 cases of SHS (42.7%) occurred in 1273 healthy students. There was a significant (P = 0.000) and marked reduction in SHMS V1.0 total score in the case group at the 18-month follow-up (69.32 ± 5.45) compared with baseline (78.60 ± 4.70), but there was no significant change in the control group. Conditional logistic regression analysis showed that respondents reporting Yin-deficiency and Qi-deficiency were, respectively, 2.247 and 2.198 times more likely to develop SHS, while tendency to Yin-deficiency and tendency to Damp-heat were, respectively, 1.642 and 1.506 times more likely to develop SHS. However, the Balanced Constitution was a significant protective factor (OR 0.649; P < 0.05). Altogether, these findings demonstrate that Yin-deficiency, Qi-deficiency, tendency to Yin-deficiency, and tendency to Damp-heat appeared to induce a change in health status to SHS, while the Balanced Constitution seemed to restrain this change. We conclude that regulating the unbalanced TCMC (such as Yin-deficiency and Qi-deficiency) may prevent a healthy status developing into SHS or lead to the regression of SHS. PMID:26346320

  11. Oral health status of the Lengua Indians of Paraguay.

    PubMed

    Kieser, J A; Preston, C B

    1984-12-01

    The dental and oral health status of 202 Lengua Indians of Paraguay was determined using DMT, Russell's PI and the Greene & Vermillion OHIS. Caries experience in young Lenguas was shown to be positively associated with exposure to Western culture. Mean DMT increased from 8.36 for 15-19 yr-olds to 9.44 in 20-24 yr-olds. For the 25-29 yr age group the DMT was 9.10 whilst 30-34 yr-olds had a mean DMT of 8.67. The mean DMT of 9.64 for 35-40 yr-olds increased to 9.84 for the over 40 age group. Oral hygiene and periodontal status were found to be similar to those reported in other Chaco Indian groups.

  12. Measuring general animal health status: Development of an animal health barometer.

    PubMed

    Depoorter, Pieter; Van Huffel, Xavier; Diricks, Herman; Imberechts, Hein; Dewulf, Jeroen; Berkvens, Dirk; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2015-03-01

    The development of an animal health barometer, an instrument to measure the general health of the Belgian livestock population on a yearly basis and to monitor its evolution over time, is described. The elaboration of a set of 13 animal health indicators (AHIs) as the basis for the animal health barometer is discussed. These indicators were weighted by experts - including scientists, policy makers and agro-industrial representatives - to determine their relative weight in the barometer. The result of the barometer is expressed as a comparison with a previous year. Based on the results of the 13 AHIs, it is concluded that general animal health in Belgium shows a positive evolution since 2008. The animal health barometer provides a composite view of the status of livestock health in Belgium and is a tool to communicate in an intelligible, comprehensible manner on aspects of animal health to consumers and professional stakeholders in the animal production and food chain. Together with the food safety barometer (Baert et al., 2011. Food Res. Int. 44, 940) and the plant health barometer (Wilmart et al., 2014. Eur. J. Plant Pathol. doi: 10.1007/s10658-014-0547-x), the animal health barometer is one of the three instruments to provide a holistic view on the overall status of the safety of the food chain in Belgium.

  13. Educational attainment and self-rated health status among single mothers in rural Alabama.

    PubMed

    Zekeri, Andrew A

    2013-08-01

    Using previous data from a random sample of 300 single mothers from rural Alabama, multiple regression analysis indicated that food insecurity and employment status had a modest effect on self-rated health status, while educational attainment and income had the greatest effect. These variables explained 29% of the variance in health status. Social and economic policies that affect educational attainment and income distribution may have important consequences for health status in these rural areas.

  14. Plant health sensing system for determining nitrogen status in plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomasson, J. A.; Sui, Ruixiu; Read, John J.; Reddy, K. R.

    2004-03-01

    A plant health sensing system was developed for determining nitrogen status in plants. The system consists of a multi-spectral optical sensor and a data-acquisition and processing unit. The optical sensor"s light source provides modulated panchromatic illumination of a plant canopy with light-emitting diodes, and the sensor measures spectral reflectance through optical filters that partition the energy into blue, green, red, and near-infrared wavebands. Spectral reflectance of plants is detected in situ, at the four wavebands, in real time. The data-acquisition and processing unit is based on a single board computer that collects data from the multi-spectral sensor and spatial information from a global positioning system receiver. Spectral reflectance at the selected wavebands is analyzed, with algorithms developed during preliminary work, to determine nitrogen status in plants. The plant health sensing system has been tested primarily in the laboratory and field so far, and promising results have been obtained. This article describes the development, theory of operation, and test results of the plant health sensing system.

  15. Green spaces and General Health: Roles of mental health status, social support, and physical activity.

    PubMed

    Dadvand, Payam; Bartoll, Xavier; Basagaña, Xavier; Dalmau-Bueno, Albert; Martinez, David; Ambros, Albert; Cirach, Marta; Triguero-Mas, Margarita; Gascon, Mireia; Borrell, Carme; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J

    2016-05-01

    Green spaces are associated with improved health, but little is known about mechanisms underlying such association. We aimed to assess the association between greenness exposure and subjective general health (SGH) and to evaluate mental health status, social support, and physical activity as mediators of this association. This cross-sectional study was based on a population-based sample of 3461 adults residing in Barcelona, Spain (2011). We characterized outcome and mediators using the Health Survey of Barcelona. Objective and subjective residential proximity to green spaces and residential surrounding greenness were used to characterize greenness exposure. We followed Baron and Kenny's framework to establish the mediation roles and we further quantified the relative contribution of each mediator. Residential surrounding greenness and subjective residential proximity to green spaces were associated with better SGH. We found indications for mediation of these associations by mental health status, perceived social support, and to less extent, by physical activity. These mediators altogether could explain about half of the surrounding greenness association and one-third of the association for subjective proximity to green spaces. We observed indications that mental health and perceived social support might be more relevant for men and those younger than 65years. The results for objective residential proximity to green spaces were not conclusive. In conclusion, our observed association between SGH and greenness exposure was mediated, in part, by mental health status, enhanced social support, and physical activity. There might be age and sex variations in these mediation roles.

  16. 75 FR 65608 - Flathead National Forest-Swan Lake Ranger District, Montana; Wild Cramer Forest Health and Fuels...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-26

    ... timber, reduce hazardous forest fuels, prescribe burn, and reconstruct and construct permanent roads... before they burn onto private lands; (6) provide forest products to the local timber industry... Forest Service Flathead National Forest--Swan Lake Ranger District, Montana; Wild Cramer Forest...

  17. Utilisation of oral health services, oral health needs and oral health status in a peri-urban informal settlement.

    PubMed

    Westaway, M S; Viljoen, E; Rudolph, M J

    1999-04-01

    Interviews were conducted with 294 black residents (155 females and 138 males) of a peri-urban informal settlement in Gauteng to ascertain utilisation of oral health services, oral health needs and oral health status. Only 37 per cent of the sample had consulted a dentist or medical practitioner, usually for extractions. Teenagers and employed persons were significantly less likely to utilise dentists than the older age groups and unemployed persons. Forty per cent were currently experiencing oral health problems such as a sore mouth, tooth decay and bleeding/painful gums. Two hundred and twelve (73 per cent) interviewees wanted dental treatment or advice. Residents who rated their oral health status as fair or poor appeared to have the greatest need for oral health services. The use of interviews appears to be a cost-effective method of determining oral morbidity.

  18. Factors influencing self-perception of health status.

    PubMed

    Kaleta, Dorota; Polańska, Kinga; Dziankowska-Zaborszczyk, Elzbieta; Hanke, Wojciech; Drygas, Wojciech

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate subjective health status of Łódź adult population and to determine the factors affecting their self-perception of health. The study population consisted of randomly selected 1,056 adults aged 20-74 years from L6di district. Logistic regression model was applied to assess the factors influencing the self-perception of health. More than 30% of study subjects described their health as poor or very poor. There were no statistically significant differences between men and women regarding self-perception of health (p>0.05). Older people more frequently reported their health as poor and very poor compared to those younger than 25 years of age. Four percent of men and 10% of women younger than 25 years of age described their health as poor or very poor whereas in age category 45-54 years that percentage increased to more than 40% (men RR=16.3; p<0.001, women RR=7.5; p<0.001), in 55-64 to 60% (men RR=18.6; p<0.001, women RR=10.0; p<0.001) and for people older than 64 years of age to 60% for men (RR=12.6; p<0.01) and 72% for women (RR=13.4; p<0.001). People with lower educational degree perceived their health as worse compared to those with university diploma (men RR=5.3; p<0.001; women 4.6; p<0.001). The risk of indicating the health as poor or very poor was 3.4 times higher for unemployed men comparing to employed (p<0.001) and 1.5 for unemployed women compared to employed (p>0.05). Men indicating no leisure-time physical activity significantly more frequently described their health as poor or very poor than men with satisfactory level of recreational physical activity (RR=2.2; p<0.01). Current and former smoker men described their health as worse compared to non-smokers (current smokers RR=1.5; p>0.05; former smokers RR=1.8; p>0.05). Preventive programs aimed at improving self-perceived health should concentrate on increasing recreational physical activity and elimination of smoking. Those actions should in particular target people

  19. Mortality rates associated with crown health for eastern forest tree species.

    PubMed

    Morin, Randall S; Randolph, KaDonna C; Steinman, Jim

    2015-03-01

    The condition of tree crowns is an important indicator of tree and forest health. Crown conditions have been evaluated during inventories of the US Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program since 1999. In this study, remeasured data from 55,013 trees on 2616 FIA plots in the eastern USA were used to assess the probability of survival among various tree species using the suite of FIA crown condition variables. Logistic regression procedures were employed to develop models for predicting tree survival. Results of the regression analyses indicated that crown dieback was the most important crown condition variable for predicting tree survival for all species combined and for many of the 15 individual species in the study. The logistic models were generally successful in representing recent tree mortality responses to multiyear infestations of beech bark disease and hemlock woolly adelgid. Although our models are only applicable to trees growing in a forest setting, the utility of models that predict impending tree mortality goes beyond forest inventory or traditional forestry growth and yield models and includes any application where managers need to assess tree health or predict tree mortality including urban forest, recreation, wildlife, and pest management.

  20. Forest health in the Blue Mountains: Science perspectives. A management strategy for fire-adapted ecosystems. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Mutch, R.W.; Arno, S.F.; Brown, J.K.; Carlson, C.E.; Ottmar, R.D.

    1993-02-01

    The fire-adapted forests of the Blue Mountains are suffering from a forest health problem of catastrophic proportions. The composition of the forest at lower elevations has shifted from historically open-growth stands of primarily ponderosa pine and western larch to stands with dense understories of Douglas-fir and grand fir. Epidemic levels of insect infestations and large wildfires adversely affect visual quality, wildlife habitat, stream sedimentation, and timber values. A management strategy to restore forest health at lower elevations will require that the seral ponderosa pine and western larch stands be managed for much lower tree densities and a more open coniferous understory. A combination of silvicultural partial cutting and prescribed fire on a large scale will be needed to produce the desired future condition of healthy, open, and park-like forests.

  1. [Health status hygienic assessment of primary military education establishment pupils].

    PubMed

    Avshits, I V; Shirinskiĭ, V A

    2010-01-01

    During a comprehensive study, the investigators have made a hygienic assessment of an academic process and the actual nutrition of military school pupils, revealed the specific features of functioning of the body's major systems in adolescents at a closed primary military education establishment, studied the body's adaptive reactions to a combination of factors during study, and hygienically evaluated the pupils' health. Their health has been shown to improve at a closed education establishment according to the basic parameters of the body's functional status and nonspecific resistance, physical development. Specific recommendations are proposed to correct daily diets for pupils of primary military education establishments in order to bring the actual nutrition of cadets in compliance with the standard physiological requirements for this group of pupils.

  2. Health status of refugees from Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Catanzaro, A; Moser, R J

    1982-03-05

    More than 0.5 million refugees from Southeast Asia have immigrated to the United States. We undertook a prospective evaluation of 709 refugees within two months of their resettlement in San Diego. The sample included 164 Vietnamese, 356 Cambodians, 139 Laotians, and 50 Hmong. The prevalence of abnormalities was high: intestinal parasites, 61%; positive tuberculin test (PPD) results 55%; anemia, 37%; hepatitis B antigenemia, 14%; and abnormal VDRL test results, 12%. Except for hepatitis, significant differences were noted among the Vietnamese, Cambodian, Laotian, and Hmong subjects on each of these health status indicators. The refugee population should not be considered a homogeneous group of Indochinese, particularly by those responsible for their health care.

  3. SHARP: Automated monitoring of spacecraft health and status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, David J.; James, Mark L.; Martin, R. Gaius

    1991-01-01

    Briefly discussed here are the spacecraft and ground systems monitoring process at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). Some of the difficulties associated with the existing technology used in mission operations are highlighted. A new automated system based on artificial intelligence technology is described which seeks to overcome many of these limitations. The system, called the Spacecraft Health Automated Reasoning Prototype (SHARP), is designed to automate health and status analysis for multi-mission spacecraft and ground data systems operations. The system has proved to be effective for detecting and analyzing potential spacecraft and ground systems problems by performing real-time analysis of spacecraft and ground data systems engineering telemetry. Telecommunications link analysis of the Voyager 2 spacecraft was the initial focus for evaluation of the system in real-time operations during the Voyager spacecraft encounter with Neptune in August 1989.

  4. Deported Mexican migrants: health status and access to care

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Niño, Julián Alfredo; Ramírez-Valdés, Carlos Jacobo; Cerecero-Garcia, Diego; Bojorquez-Chapela, Ietza

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the health status and access to care of forced-return Mexican migrants deported through the Mexico-United States border and to compare it with the situation of voluntary-return migrants. METHODS Secondary data analysis from the Survey on Migration in Mexico’s Northern Border from 2012. This is a continuous survey, designed to describe migration flows between Mexico and the United States, with a mobile-population sampling design. We analyzed indicators of health and access to care among deported migrants, and compare them with voluntary-return migrants. Our analysis sample included 2,680 voluntary-return migrants, and 6,862 deportees. We employ an ordinal multiple logistic regression model, to compare the adjusted odds of having worst self-reported health between the studied groups. RESULTS As compared to voluntary-return migrants, deportees were less likely to have medical insurance in the United States (OR = 0.05; 95%CI 0.04;0.06). In the regression model a poorer self-perceived health was found to be associated with having been deported (OR = 1.71, 95%CI 1.52;1.92), as well as age (OR = 1.03, 95%CI 1.02;1.03) and years of education (OR = 0.94 95%CI 0.93;0.95). CONCLUSIONS According to our results, deportees had less access to care while in the United States, as compared with voluntary-return migrants. Our results also showed an independent and statistically significant association between deportation and having poorer self-perceived health. To promote the health and access to care of deported Mexican migrants coming back from the United States, new health and social policies are required. PMID:25119943

  5. Floristic and structural status of forests in permanent preservation areas of Moju river basin, Amazon region.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, J C; Vieira, I C G; Almeida, A S; Silva, C A

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study is to analyze the floristic patterns and the structure of disturbed and undisturbed upland forests, in Permanent Preservation Areas (PPAs) along the Moju river, in the Brazilian state of Pará. Trees with a diameter equal to or larger than 10cm at 1.30m from the ground (DBH) ≥10cm were analyzed for the upper stratum. For the middle stratum, individuals with DBH between 4.99 and 9.99cm were sampled. Forty-five families and 221 species were found in disturbed forests, and 43 families and 208 species in undisturbed forests. Floristic similarity was high between strata and between forest types, with values above 50%. Similarity was highest between middle strata. The most species-abundant families in undisturbed forests were Fabaceae, Sapotaceae, Chrysobalanaceae and Myrtaceae; the species with the highest density there were Eschweilera grandiflora, Licania sclerophylla and Zygia cauliflora. In disturbed forests, the dominant families were Fabaceae, Sapotaceae, Lecythidaceae and Melastomataceae. The Shannon-Wiener diversity index was 3.21 for undisturbed forests and 2.85 for disturbed forests. Non-metric multidimensional scaling (MDS) analysis did not group the forests by their floristic composition in both upper and middle strata. Overall, the PPA forests along the Moju river, even if disturbed, did not show major floristic changes but substantially change their structural characteristics.

  6. Religiosity dimensions and subjective health status in Greek students.

    PubMed

    Kioulos, K T; Bergiannaki, J D; Glaros, A; Vassiliadou, M; Alexandri, Z; Papadimitriou, G

    2015-01-01

    The quest for existential meaning constitutes a universal phenomenon traditionally manifested in official religions (religiosity) or personal modes of transcendence (spirituality). Religiosity and spirituality have been found to be associated with a variety of mental health and illness parameters. In the last decades there is an increasing number of publications with interesting results on the relationship between religiosity and mental health, both on a theoretical and a clinical level. Recent research suggests the presence of clinically important interactions between religious beliefs and mental health, although the exact nature of the associations remains unclear. The aim of the present study is to investigate subjective health status in relation to specific dimensions of religiosity and spirituality in Greek students; 202 students of the faculty of Theology of the University of Athens were interviewed using the Brief Multidimensional Measurement of Religiousness/Spirituality (BMMRS), which assesses the dimensions of "daily spiritual experiences", "meaning", "values/beliefs", "forgiveness", "private religious practices", "religious/spiritual coping", "religious support", "religious/ spiritual history", "commitment", "organizational religiousness", and "religious preferences". Subjective health status was measured by the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) which examines four areas of health in the following sub-scales: (a) somatic symptoms, (b) anxiety and insomnia, (c) social dysfunction and (d) severe depression. Pearson correlations coefficients and linear regression analyses were used to estimate the associations of GHQ-28 subscales with religiosity dimensions. High scores in each dimension of BMMRS corresponded to a low level of religiosity. The dimension of "daily spiritual experiences" was positively correlated with the subscales of anxiety/ insomnia, social dysfunction and severe depression, while the dimension of "values/beliefs" with social

  7. An investigation into the effect of alcohol consumption on health status and health care utilization in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Ormond, Gillian; Murphy, Rosemary

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents a study of the effect of alcohol consumption on individual health status and health care utilization in Ireland using the 2007 Slán National Health and Lifestyle Survey, while accounting for the endogenous relationship between alcohol and health. Drinkers are categorized as those who never drank, non-drinkers, moderate drinkers, or heavy drinkers, based on national recommended weekly drinking levels in Ireland. The drinking-status equation is estimated using an ordered probit model. Predicted values for the inverse mills ratio are generated, which are then included in the health and health-care utilization equations. Differences in health status for each category of drinker are examined, and the relationship between both alcohol consumption and health with a host of other personal and socio-economic variables is also identified. Given that the measure of health status available is self-assessed, the effect of alcohol consumption on health-care utilization is also analyzed as an alternative measure of health. Findings show that in Ireland, moderate drinkers enjoy the best health status. More moderate drinkers report having very good or excellent health compared with heavy drinkers, non-drinkers, or those who never drank. While heavy drinkers do not report having as good a health status as moderate drinkers, they are better off in terms of health when compared with non-drinkers and those who are lifetime abstainers.

  8. Health status of the Pakistani population: a health profile and comparison with the United States.

    PubMed Central

    Pappas, G; Akhtar, T; Gergen, P J; Hadden, W C; Khan, A Q

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The health status of the Pakistani population was compared with that of the US population to provide a better understanding of the health problems in a developing nation and shed light on the dynamics of selected diseases. METHODS: Results from the National Health Survey of Pakistan (n = 18,315) and the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (n = 31,311) were compared. Standardized and comparable methods were used in both surveys. RESULTS: Indicators of undernutrition among children were high throughout Pakistan. Among adults, there were urban-rural differences and economic gradients in indicators of undernutrition and risk factors for heart disease and cancer. In comparison with the US population, the Pakistani population has a higher rate of undernutrition, a lower rate of high cholesterol, and an approximately equal rate of high blood pressure. CONCLUSIONS: There are major inequalities in health within Pakistan and between Pakistan and the United States. Standardized national health examination survey methodology can be used to monitor health status and plan health transition policy in developing countries. PMID:11189831

  9. Measurement of socioeconomic status in health disparities research.

    PubMed Central

    Shavers, Vickie L.

    2007-01-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) is frequently implicated as a contributor to the disparate health observed among racial/ ethnic minorities, women and elderly populations. Findings from studies that examine the role of SES and health disparities, however, have provided inconsistent results. This is due in part to the: 1) lack of precision and reliability of measures; 2) difficulty with the collection of individual SES data; 3) the dynamic nature of SES over a lifetime; 4) the classification of women, children, retired and unemployed persons; 5) lack of or poor correlation between individual SES measures; and 6) and inaccurate or misleading interpretation of study results. Choosing the best variable or approach for measuring SES is dependent in part on its relevance to the population and outcomes under study. Many of the commonly used compositional and contextual SES measures are limited in terms of their usefulness for examining the effect of SES on outcomes in analyses of data that include population subgroups known to experience health disparities. This article describes SES measures, strengths and limitations of specific approaches and methodological issues related to the analysis and interpretation of studies that examine SES and health disparities. PMID:17913111

  10. Veterinary public health in India: current status and future needs.

    PubMed

    Ghatak, S; Singh, B B

    2015-12-01

    Veterinary public health (VPH) assumes huge significance in developing countries such as India. However, the implementation of VPH services throughout the country is still in its infancy. From 1970 onwards, many institutes, national and international organisations, professional societies, policies and personalities have contributed towards the development of VPH in India. Nevertheless, there is an urgent need to develop VPH still further as there are many issues, such as high population density, the re-emergence of zoonotic pathogens, environmental pollution and antimicrobial resistance, that require attention. The time has surely come to involve all stakeholders, ranging from primary producers (e.g., farmers) to policy-makers, so as to garner support for the holistic implementation of VPH services in India. To improve VPH activities and services, science-based policies enforced through stringent regulation are required to improve human, animal and environmental health. The emergence of the 'One Health' concept has ushered in new hopes for the resurrection of VPH in India. Applying tools such as the World Organisation for Animal Health (OlE) Day One Competencies and the OlE Tool for the Evaluation of Performance of Veterinary Services (PVS Tool) is essential to improve the quality of national Veterinary Services and to identify gaps and weaknesses in service provision, which can be remedied to comply with the OlE international standards. VPH initiatives started modestly but they continue to grow. The present review is focused on the current status and future needs of VPH in India.

  11. Status of the world's remaining closed forests: An assessment using satellite data and policy options

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Singh, A.; Shi, H.; Foresman, T.; Fosnight, E.A.

    2001-01-01

    Historically, it appears that some of the WRCF have survived because i) they lack sufficient quantity of commercially valuable species; ii) they are located in remote or inaccessible areas; or iii) they have been protected as national parks and sanctuaries. Forests will be protected when people who are deciding the fate of forests conclude than the conservation of forests is more beneficial, e.g. generates higher incomes or has cultural or social values, than their clearance. If this is not the case, forests will continue to be cleared and converted. In the future, the WRCF may be protected only by focused attention. The future policy options may include strategies for strong protection measures, the raising of public awareness about the value of forests, and concerted actions for reducing pressure on forest lands by providing alternatives to forest exploitation to meet the growing demands of forest products. Many areas with low population densities offer an opportunity for conservation if appropriate steps are taken now by the national governments and international community. This opportunity must be founded upon the increased public and government awareness that forests have vast importance to the welfare of humans and ecosystems' services such as biodiversity, watershed protection, and carbon balance. Also paramount to this opportunity is the increased scientific understanding of forest dynamics and technical capability to install global observation and assessment systems. High-resolution satellite data such as Landsat 7 and other technologically advanced satellite programs will provide unprecedented monitoring options for governing authorities. Technological innovation can contribute to the way forests are protected. The use of satellite imagery for regular monitoring and Internet for information dissemination provide effective tools for raising worldwide awareness about the significance of forests and intrinsic value of nature.

  12. The Association Between Self-Rated Mental Health Status and Total Health Care Expenditure

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Muoi T.; Chan, Winnie Y.; Keeler, Courtney

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Both clinical diagnoses and self-rated measures of mental illness are associated with a variety of outcomes, including physical well-being, health utilization, and expenditure. However, much of current literature primarily utilizes clinically diagnosed data. This cross-sectional study explores the impact of mental illness and health care expenditure using 2 self-rated measures: self-rated measured of perceived mental health status (SRMH) and Kessler Screening Scale for Psychological Distress (K6). Data from the 2011 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey Household Component, a nationally representative sample of noninstitutionalized individuals (n = 18,295), were analyzed using bivariate χ2 tests and a 2-part model (logistics regression and generalized linear model regression for the first and second stages, respectively). Although predictive of any health expenditure, SRMH alone was not highly predictive of the dollar value of that health expenditure conditional on any spending. By comparison, the K6 measure was significantly and positively associated with the probability of any health expenditure as well as the dollar value of that spending. Taken together, both the K6 and SRMH measures suggest a positive relationship between poor mental health and the probability of any health expenditure and total expenditure conditional on any spending, even when adjusting for other confounding factors such as race/ethnicity, sex, age, educational attainment, insurance status, and some regional characteristics. Our results suggest that psychological distress and SRMH may represent potential pathways linking poor mental health to increased health care expenditure. Further research exploring the nuances of these relationships may aid researchers, practitioners, and policy makers in addressing issues of inflated health care expenditure in populations at risk for poor mental health. PMID:26334899

  13. Cardiovascular Health Status by Occupational Group - 21 States, 2013.

    PubMed

    Shockey, Taylor M; Sussell, Aaron L; Odom, Erika C

    2016-08-12

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) accounts for one of every three deaths in the United States, making it the leading cause of mortality in the country (1). The American Heart Association established seven ideal cardiovascular health behaviors or modifiable factors to improve CVD outcomes in the United States. These cardiovascular health metrics (CHMs) are 1) not smoking, 2) being physically active, 3) having normal blood pressure, 4) having normal blood glucose, 5) being of normal weight, 6) having normal cholesterol levels, and 7) eating a healthy diet (2). Meeting six or all seven CHMs is associated with a lower risk for all-cause, CVD, and ischemic heart disease mortalities compared with the risk to persons who meet none or only one CHM (3). Fewer than 2% of U.S. adults meet all seven of the American Heart Association's CHMs (4). Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality account for an estimated annual $120 billion in lost productivity in the workplace; thus, workplaces are viable settings for effective health promotion programs (5). With over 130 million employed persons in the United States, accounting for about 55% of all U.S. adults, the working population is an important demographic group to evaluate with regard to cardiovascular health status. To determine if an association between occupation and CHM score exists, CDC analyzed data from the 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) industry and occupation module, which was implemented in 21 states. Among all occupational groups, community and social services employees (14.6%), transportation and material moving employees (14.3%), and architecture and engineering employees (11.6%) had the highest adjusted prevalence of meeting two or fewer CHMs. Transportation and material moving employees also had the highest prevalence of "not ideal" ("0" [i.e., no CHMs met]) scores for three of the seven CHMs: physical activity (54.1%), blood pressure (31.9%), and weight (body mass index [BMI]; 75.5%). Disparities

  14. Including a measure of health status in Medicare's health maintenance organization capitation formula: reliability issues.

    PubMed

    Lichtenstein, R; Thomas, J W

    1987-02-01

    Medicare's formula for determining capitation levels for risk-based HMOs, the Adjusted Average Per Capita Cost (AAPCC), has been criticized as a poor basis for establishing payments. Among new adjusting factors suggested for the formula is a measure of beneficiaries' functional health status. The ability of such a measure to improve predictions of Medicare costs has been demonstrated in several studies. In addition to possessing predictive validity, a measure considered for inclusion in the AAPCC must also be reliable. In this paper, the authors examine a measure of functional health status for intrarater reliability or, equivalently, stability over time. A sample of 1,616 Medicare beneficiaries was surveyed twice--in late 1982 and in January 1984. Using a five-point scale, functional health status scores were calculated for each of the beneficiaries at two points in time. For 68.4% of the sample, functional health scores were unchanged over the year, and second-year scores were within one point of first-year scores for 94.3% of the sample. Based on the intraclass correlation coefficient, the scores on this functional health scale demonstrated substantial to "almost perfect" agreement over the 1-year period.

  15. Tree and forest effects on air quality and human health in the United States.

    PubMed

    Nowak, David J; Hirabayashi, Satoshi; Bodine, Allison; Greenfield, Eric

    2014-10-01

    Trees remove air pollution by the interception of particulate matter on plant surfaces and the absorption of gaseous pollutants through the leaf stomata. However, the magnitude and value of the effects of trees and forests on air quality and human health across the United States remains unknown. Computer simulations with local environmental data reveal that trees and forests in the conterminous United States removed 17.4 million tonnes (t) of air pollution in 2010 (range: 9.0-23.2 million t), with human health effects valued at 6.8 billion U.S. dollars (range: $1.5-13.0 billion). This pollution removal equated to an average air quality improvement of less than one percent. Most of the pollution removal occurred in rural areas, while most of the health impacts and values were within urban areas. Health impacts included the avoidance of more than 850 incidences of human mortality and 670,000 incidences of acute respiratory symptoms.

  16. The image of health status and quality of life in a Caribbean society

    PubMed Central

    Bourne, Paul A.; McGrowder, Donovan A.; Charles, Christopher A.D.; Francis, Cynthia G.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Health is defined as the presence or absence of illness. This conceptualization of health status is dominant in health treatment and in fashioning the health care system. However, very little research has been done on how Jamaicans view health status and quality of life (QoL). Aims: This article seeks to understand how Jamaicans conceptualize health status and QoL because definitional content has implications for their health. Material and Methods: The current study utilized two national cross-sectional probability surveys from the Centre for Leadership and Governance (CLG) which looked at QoL among other variables and the Jamaican Survey of Living Conditions (JSLC) which measured living standards including health status. The sample in both surveys was 8,120 participants. Results: The majority of the respondents in the CLG (54%) and the JSLC (82.2%) surveys reported good health status. There was a strong statistical relationship between area of residence and health status (P < 0.0001) unlike the relationship between area of residence and quality of life (P < 0.137). The respondents dichotomized health status and QoL and a significant relationship was found between both variables (P < 0.0001). The respondents’ dichotomization of health status and QoL is explained by the significant relationship between health status and self reported illness (P < 0.0001) where respondents view health status as the absence or presence of illness, excluding QoL. Conclusion: Health status means the presence or absence of illness and excludes QoL which is not in keeping with previous findings. This distinction is culturally determined. PMID:22624140

  17. Oral Health Status and Behaviour of Mauritians Visiting Private Dental Clinics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunsam, P. Pugo; Banka, S.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to assess the oral health status and behaviour of a sample of the Mauritian population visiting private dental clinics. Design/methodology/approach: Oral health status was determined using the World Health Organization (Decayed, Missing, Filled Teeth (DMFT) index indicating the prevalence of caries, and factors associated…

  18. Socioeconomic Status, Smoking, and Health: A Test of Competing Theories of Cumulative Advantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pampel, Fred C.; Rogers, Richard G.

    2004-01-01

    Although both low socioeconomic status and cigarette smoking increase health problems and mortality, their possible combined or interactive influence is less clear. On one hand, the health of low status groups may be harmed least by unhealthy behavior such as smoking because, given the substantial health risks produced by limited resources, they…

  19. Mental health status, aggression, and poor driving distinguish traffic offenders from non-offenders but health status predicts driving behavior in both groups

    PubMed Central

    Abdoli, Nasrin; Farnia, Vahid; Delavar, Ali; Dortaj, Fariborz; Esmaeili, Alireza; Farrokhi, Noorali; Karami, Majid; Shakeri, Jalal; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge

    2015-01-01

    Background In Iran, traffic accidents and deaths from traffic accidents are among the highest in the world, and generally, driver behavior rather than technical failures or environmental conditions are responsible for traffic accidents. In a previous study, we showed that among young Iranian male traffic offenders, poor mental health status, along with aggression, predicted poor driving behavior. The aims of the present study were twofold, to determine whether this pattern could be replicated among non-traffic offenders, and to compare the mental health status, aggression, and driving behavior of male traffic offenders and non-offenders. Methods A total of 850 male drivers (mean age =34.25 years, standard deviation =10.44) from Kermanshah (Iran) took part in the study. Of these, 443 were offenders (52.1%) and 407 (47.9%) were non-offenders with lowest driving penalty scores applying for attaining an international driving license. Participants completed a questionnaire booklet covering socio-demographic variables, traits of aggression, health status, and driving behavior. Results Compared to non-offenders, offenders reported higher aggression, poorer mental health status, and worse driving behavior. Among non-offenders, multiple regression indicated that poor health status, but not aggression, independently predicted poor driving behavior. Conclusion Compared to non-offenders, offenders reported higher aggression, poorer health status and driving behavior. Further, the predictive power of poorer mental health status, but not aggression, for driving behavior was replicated for male non-offenders. PMID:26300646

  20. Health Status and Health Determinants of Older Immigrant Women in Canada: A Scoping Review

    PubMed Central

    Guruge, Sepali; Birpreet, Birpreet; Samuels-Dennis, Joan A.

    2015-01-01

    Increasing international migration in the context of aging populations makes a comprehensive understanding of older immigrant women's health status and determinants of their health particularly urgent. Using Arksey and O'Malley's framework, we conducted a scoping review to examine the available literature on the health of older immigrant women in Canada. We searched CINAHL, PsycINFO, Embase, Medline, and Cochrane databases for the period of 1990 to 2014 for Canadian-based, peer-reviewed studies on the topic. A total of 20 articles met the inclusion criteria. These articles were divided into six areas of focus: physical health; mental health; abuse; health promotion and chronic disease prevention; barriers to healthcare access and utilization; and health beliefs, behaviours, and practices. Our results show that the health of older immigrant women is affected by the interplay of various social determinants of health including the physical and social environment; economic conditions; cultural beliefs; gendered norms; and the healthcare delivery system. Our results also revealed that older immigrant women tend to have more health problems, underutilize preventive services, such as cancer screening, and experience more difficulties in accessing healthcare services. PMID:26273480

  1. Reproductive health status, knowledge, and access to health care among female migrants in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Feng, Wang; Ren, Ping; Shaokang, Zhan; Anan, Shen

    2005-09-01

    As the largest labour flow in human history, the recent rise in migration in China has opened up unprecedented opportunities for millions of Chinese to rearrange their lives. At the same time, this process has also posed great challenges to Chinese migrants, especially female migrants, who not only face a bias against 'outsiders' but also have a greater need for reproductive health-related services in their migratory destinations. Based on data collected via multiple sources in Shanghai, China's largest metropolis, this study profiles the changing characteristics of female migrants, presents data on self-reported symptoms of reproductive health-related problems and knowledge on reproductive health issues, compares maternal and child health measures between migrants and local residents, and examines factors related to reproductive health knowledge and migrants' access to health care in urban China. Results of this study show a relatively low level of self-reported reproductive health problems among female migrants, coupled with a relatively high level of ignorance in knowledge related to STD. Both self-reported health status and knowledge of reproductive health are related to migrants' educational attainment and length of stay in the urban destination. This study also finds ample evidence that female migrants' access to urban health care is limited by a number of institutional barriers.

  2. An ecosystem report on the Panama Canal: monitoring the status of the forest communities and the watershed.

    PubMed

    Ibáñez, Roberto; Condit, Richard; Angehr, George; Aguilar, Salomón; García, Tomas; Martínez, Raul; Sanjur, Amelia; Stallard, Robert; Wright, S Joseph; Rand, A Stanley; Heckadon, Stanley

    2002-11-01

    In 1996, the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute and the Republic of Panama's Environmental Authority, with support from the United States Agency for International Development, undertook a comprehensive program to monitor the ecosystem of the Panama Canal watershed. The goals were to establish baseline indicators for the integrity of forest communities and rivers. Based on satellite image classification and ground surveys, the 2790 km2 watershed had 1570 km2 of forest in 1997, 1080 km2 of which was in national parks and nature monuments. Most of the 490 km2 of forest not currently in protected areas lies along the west bank of the Canal, and its management status after the year 2000 turnover of the Canal from the U.S. to Panama remains uncertain. In forest plots designed to monitor forest diversity and change, a total of 963 woody plant species were identified and mapped. We estimate there are a total of 850-1000 woody species in forests of the Canal corridor. Forests of the wetter upper reaches of the watershed are distinct in species composition from the Canal corridor, and have considerably higher diversity and many unknown species. These remote areas are extensively forested, poorly explored, and harbor an estimated 1400-2200 woody species. Vertebrate monitoring programs were also initiated, focusing on species threatened by hunting and forest fragmentation. Large mammals are heavily hunted in most forests of Canal corridor, and there was clear evidence that mammal density is greatly reduced in hunted areas and that this affects seed predation and dispersal. The human population of the watershed was 113 000 in 1990, and grew by nearly 4% per year from 1980 to 1990. Much of this growth was in a small region of the watershed on the outskirts of Panama City, but even rural areas, including villages near and within national parks, grew by 2% per year. There is no sewage treatment in the watershed, and many towns have no trash collection, thus streams near large

  3. An ecosystem report on the Panama Canal: Monitoring the status of the forest communities and the watershed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ibanez, R.; Condit, R.; Angehr, G.; Aguilar, S.; Garcia, T.; Martinez, R.; Sanjur, A.; Stallard, R.; Wright, S.J.; Rand, A.S.; Heckadon, S.

    2002-01-01

    In 1996, the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute and the Republic of Panama's Environmental Authority, with support from the United States Agency for International Development, undertook a comprehensive program to monitor the ecosystem of the Panama Canal watershed. The goals were to establish baseline indicators for the integrity of forest communities and rivers. Based on satellite image classification and ground surveys, the 2790 km2 watershed had 1570 km2 of forest in 1997, 1080 km2 of which was in national parks and nature monuments. Most of the 490 km2 of forest not currently in protected areas lies along the west bank of the Canal, and its management status after the year 2000 turnover of the Canal from the U.S. to Panama remains uncertain. In forest plots designed to monitor forest diversity and change, a total of 963 woody plant species were identified and mapped. We estimate there are a total of 850-1000 woody species in forests of the Canal corridor. Forests of the wetter upper reaches of the watershed are distinct in species composition from the Canal corridor, and have considerably higher diversity and many unknown species. These remote areas are extensively forested, poorly explored, and harbor an estimated 1400-2200 woody species. Vertebrate monitoring programs were also initiated, focusing on species threatened by hunting and forest fragmentation. Large mammals are heavily hunted in most forests of Canal corridor, and there was clear evidence that mammal density is greatly reduced in hunted areas and that this affects seed predation and dispersal. The human population of the watershed was 113 000 in 1990, and grew by nearly 4% per year from 1980 to 1990. Much of this growth was in a small region of the watershed on the outskirts of Panama City, but even rural areas, including villages near and within national parks, grew by 2% per year. There is no sewage treatment in the watershed, and many towns have no trash collection, thus streams near large

  4. Health care, public policy and the courts: black health status as a civil rights issue.

    PubMed

    Rice, M F; Jones, W

    1985-01-01

    In the U.S.A. serious differences in the health status between black and white citizens continue to exist. Black Americans are less healthy and receive less health care than while Americans. The discrimination is examined as a civil rights issue with focus on both the policy and judicial perspectives of the application of Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the implementative effects of the Hill-Burton Act of 1946. The application, and compliance and enforcement, of civil rights to health care is complicated by a captivity process involving Federal agencies, by corporate medical rights emphasizing a business approach to health care, and by a liberal pluralistic political arena in which certain influential groups prevail over others. In order for black health status and care to improve in the U.S.A., blacks must continue to utilize the judicial system to seek redress of health care inequities. Second, they must utilize their demonstrated political power to demand better treatment from the medical establishment.

  5. Employment status and income as potential mediators of educational inequalities in population mental health

    PubMed Central

    Niedzwiedz, Claire L.; Popham, Frank

    2016-01-01

    We assessed whether educational inequalities in mental health may be mediated by employment status and household income. Poor mental health was assessed using General Health Questionnaire ‘caseness’ in working age adult participants (N = 48 654) of the Health Survey for England (2001–10). Relative indices of inequality by education level were calculated. Substantial inequalities were apparent, with adjustment for employment status and household income markedly reducing their magnitude. Educational inequalities in mental health were attenuated by employment status. Policy responses to economic recession (such as active labour market interventions) might reduce mental health inequalities but longitudinal research is needed to exclude reverse causation. PMID:27593454

  6. Gender-related differences in lifestyle may affect health status.

    PubMed

    Varì, Rosaria; Scazzocchio, Beatrice; D'Amore, Antonio; Giovannini, Claudio; Gessani, Sandra; Masella, Roberta

    2016-01-01

    Consistent epidemiological and clinical evidence strongly indicates that chronic non-communicable diseases are largely associated with four lifestyle risk factors: inadequate diet, physical inactivity, tobacco use, and excessive alcohol use. Notably, obesity, a worldwide-growing pathological condition determined by the combination between inadequate diet and insufficient physical activity, is now considered a main risk factor for most chronic diseases. Dietary habits and physical activity are strongly influenced by gender attitudes and behaviors that promote different patterns of healthy or unhealthy lifestyles among women and men. Furthermore, different roles and unequal relations between genders strongly interact with differences in social and economic aspects as well as cultural and societal environment. Because of the complex network of factors involved in determining the risk for chronic diseases, it has been promoting a systemic approach that, by integrating sex and gender analysis, explores how sex-specific biological factors and gender-related social factors can interact to influence the health status.

  7. Health status indices and access to medical care.

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, R

    1978-01-01

    This paper examines the uses of some health status indices in measuring equity of access to medical care. Empirical examples are provided using data from national surveys of the U.S. population conducted from 1964 through 1976. A simple indicator, mean number of physician visits, suggests that between 1963 and 1976 the poor improved their position relative to the rest of the population and, indeed, currently enjoy the highest level of access. However, a second measure, the use-disability ratio indicates that the poor may still receive less care relative to their need. A third measure, the symptoms-response ratio suggests how norms of appropriate behavior might be incorporated into an access measure. PMID:645994

  8. Race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and satisfaction with health care.

    PubMed

    Haviland, Mark G; Morales, Leo S; Dial, Thomas H; Pincus, Harold Alan

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status on consumer health care satisfaction ratings. The authors analyzed national data from the 2001 National Research Corporation Healthcare Market Guide Survey (N = 99 102). Four global and 3 composite ratings were examined. In general, satisfaction ratings were high across all global and composite measures; however, Asian/Pacific Islanders and Hispanics gave lower ratings than did whites, and African Americans gave a mix of higher and lower ratings (vs whites). Among the lowest ratings were those given by American Indians/Alaska Natives living in poverty. Race/ethnicity effects were independent of education and income. These findings are consistent with reports of continuing racial/ethnic disparities in both coverage and care. Programs to improve quality of care must specifically address these well-documented, severe, and persistent disparities.

  9. Optimal Indicators of Socioeconomic Status for Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Greg J.; Daly, Mary C.; McDonough, Peggy; Williams, David R.

    2002-01-01

    Objectives. In this study we examined the relationship between indicators of socioeconomic status (SES) and mortality for a representative sample of individuals. Methods. The sample included 3734 individuals aged 45 and older interviewed in 1984 in the Panel Study of Income Dynamics. In the current study, mortality was tracked between 1984 and 1994 and is related to SES indicators of education, occupation, income, and wealth. Results. Wealth and recent family income were the indicators that were most strongly associated with subsequent mortality. These associations persisted after we controlled for the other SES indicators and were stronger for women than for men and for nonelderly than for elderly individuals. Conclusions. We found that the economic indicators of SES were usually as strongly associated with mortality as, if not more strongly associated with mortality than, the more conventional indicators of completed schooling and occupation. (Am J Public Health. 2002;92:1151–1157) PMID:12084700

  10. Challenges in researching migration status, health and health service use: an intersectional analysis of a South London community

    PubMed Central

    Gazard, Billy; Frissa, Souci; Nellums, Laura; Hotopf, Matthew; Hatch, Stephani L.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. This study aimed to investigate the associations between migration status and health-related outcomes and to examine whether and how the effect of migration status changes when it is disaggregated by length of residence, first language, reason for migration and combined with ethnicity. Design. A total of 1698 adults were interviewed from 1076 randomly selected households in two South London boroughs. We described the socio-demographic and socio-economic differences between migrants and non-migrants and compared the prevalence of health-related outcomes by migration status, length of residence, first language, reason for migration and migration status within ethnic groups. Unadjusted models and models adjusted for socio-demographic and socio-economic indicators are presented. Results. Migrants were disadvantaged in terms of socio-economic status but few differences were found between migrant and non-migrants regarding health or health service use indicators; migration status was associated with decreased hazardous alcohol use, functional limitations due to poor mental health and not being registered with a general practitioner. Important differences emerged when migration status was disaggregated by length of residence in the UK, first language, reason for migration and intersected with ethnicity. The association between migration status and functional limitations due to poor mental health was only seen in White migrants, migrants whose first language was not English and migrants who had moved to the UK for work or a better life or for asylum or political reasons. There was no association between migration status and self-rated health overall, but Black African migrants had decreased odds for reporting poor health compared to their non-migrant counterparts [odds ratio = 0.15 (0.05–0.48), p < 0.01]. Conclusions. Disaggregating migration status by length of residence, first language and reason for migration as well as intersecting it with ethnicity leads

  11. Health Status and Health Care Experiences among Homeless Patients in Federally Supported Health Centers: Findings from the 2009 Patient Survey

    PubMed Central

    Lebrun-Harris, Lydie A; Baggett, Travis P; Jenkins, Darlene M; Sripipatana, Alek; Sharma, Ravi; Hayashi, A Seiji; Daly, Charles A; Ngo-Metzger, Quyen

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine health status and health care experiences of homeless patients in health centers and to compare them with their nonhomeless counterparts. Data Sources/Study Setting Nationally representative data from the 2009 Health Center Patient Survey. Study Design Cross-sectional analyses were limited to adults (n = 2,683). We compared sociodemographic characteristics, health conditions, access to health care, and utilization of services among homeless and nonhomeless patients. We also examined the independent effect of homelessness on health care access and utilization, as well as factors that influenced homeless patients' health care experiences. Data Collection Computer-assisted personal interviews were conducted with health center patients. Principal Findings Homeless patients had worse health status—lifetime burden of chronic conditions, mental health problems, and substance use problems—compared with housed respondents. In adjusted analyses, homeless patients had twice the odds as housed patients of having unmet medical care needs in the past year (OR = 1.98, 95 percent CI: 1.24–3.16) and twice the odds of having an ED visit in the past year (OR = 2.00, 95 percent CI: 1.37–2.92). Conclusions There is an ongoing need to focus on the health issues that disproportionately affect homeless populations. Among health center patients, homelessness is an independent risk factor for unmet medical needs and ED use. PMID:23134588

  12. Age or health status: which influences medical insurance enrollment greater?

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wei; Cai, Gong–Jie; Li, Guan–Nan; Cao, Jing–Jing; Shi, Qiong–Hua; Bai, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Background The New Cooperative Medical Scheme (NCMS) for peasantries implemented in 2003 and the Urban Resident Basic Medical Insurance (URBMI) for the urban unemployed implemented in 2007 have many similarities. They both apply the financing mode of individual premiums plus government’s subsidies, and the voluntary enrollment. The Chinese government plans to integrate these two systems and build a unified basic medical insurance system for the unemployed in order to achieve the medical equity and increase the general health level. Thus, to analyze the main influencing factors of the enrollment of the urban unemployed and rural residents is very important for improving the system and securing the stability of the system during the transition. Methods The study uses data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) and adopts logistic regression models to test which factors influence the enrollment of the URBMI and the NCMS under the background of rather high enrollment rate of Chinese basic medical insurances and strong fiscal support of the Chinese government, especially whether health status or age influences enrollment of these two insurances greater. Results There is indeed some adverse selection in the URBMI and the NCMS. Whether the individual has chronic diseases have significant influence on enrollments of both the urban unemployed and rural residents, while whether the individual got ill in last four weeks just influences enrollments of the urban unemployed. Age influences enrollment greater than health status. The older the insured are, the larger the enrollment rates are. Conclusion Because of the active support for basic medical insurances of the Chinese government, the enrollment performance of the urban unemployed and rural residents has already changed. When implementing the new policy, the government should pay attention to the willingness to enroll in and the change of enrollment performance of the insured. Therefore, under the policy of

  13. Work-related Mental Consequences: Implications of Burnout on Mental Health Status Among Health Care Providers

    PubMed Central

    Papathanasiou, Ioanna V.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Burnout can create problems in every aspect of individual’s’ human life. It may have an adverse effect on interpersonal and family relations and can lead to a general negative attitude towards life. Aim: The purpose of this study is to investigate whether burnout is associated with the mental health status of health care providers. Material and Methods: The sample in this study consisted of 240 health care employees. The Greek version of Maslach’s Burnout Inventory (MBI) was used for measuring burnout levels and the Greek version of the Symptoms Rating Scale for Depression and Anxiety (SRSDA) questionnaire was used to evaluate health care providers’ mental health status. Descriptive statistics were initially generated for sample characteristics. Normality was checked by the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and data was processed with parametric tests. General linear models with MBI dimensions as independent variables and SRSDA subscales as dependent variables were used to determine the relation between burnout and mental health status. Statistics were processed with SPSS v. 17.0 (SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA). Statistical significance was set at p=0.05. Results: The average age of the sample is 40.00±7.95 years. Regarding gender the percentage of men is 21.40% (N=49) and of women is 78.60% (N=180). Overall the professional burnout of health care workers is moderate. The mean score for emotional exhaustion is 26.41, for personal accomplishment 36.70 and for depersonalization 9.81. The mean for each subscale of SRSDA is 8.23±6.79 for Depression Beck-21, 3.96±4.26 for Depression Beck-13, 4.91±4.44 for Melancholia, 6.32±4.35 for Asthenia and 6.36±4.72 for Anxiety. The results of general linear models with the MBI dimensions as independent variables and the SRSDA subscales as dependent variables are shown that emotional exhaustion and personal accomplishment are statistically correlated with all subscales of SRSDA, while depersonalization is not correlated

  14. Household portfolio choices, health status and health care systems: A cross-country analysis based on SHARE

    PubMed Central

    Atella, Vincenzo; Brunetti, Marianna; Maestas, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    Health risk is increasingly viewed as an important form of background risk that affects household portfolio decisions. However, its role might be mediated by the presence of a protective full-coverage national health service that could reduce households’ probability of incurring current and future out-of-pocket medical expenditures. We use SHARE data to study the influence of current health status and future health risk on the decision to hold risky assets, across ten European countries with different health systems, each offering a different degree of protection against out-of-pocket medical expenditures. We find robust empirical evidence that perceived health status matters more than objective health status and, consistent with the theory of background risk, health risk affects portfolio choices only in countries with less protective health care systems. Furthermore, portfolio decisions consistent with background risk models are observed only with respect to middle-aged and highly-educated investors. PMID:23885134

  15. Health and functional status and utilization of health care services among holocaust survivors and their counterparts in Israel.

    PubMed

    Iecovich, Esther; Carmel, Sara

    2010-01-01

    To examine differences in health and functional status and in utilization of health services between holocaust survivors and their counterparts; and (b) to investigate if holocaust survivor status is a significant predictor of health status, functional status, and utilization of health services. The study included 1255 respondents of whom 272 were holocaust survivors. Interviews were conducted face-to-face at the respondents' homes. Participants were asked about their health (self-rated health and comorbidity) and functional (ADL and IADL) status, utilization of inpatient and outpatient health care services, age, gender, education, marital status, length of residence in Israel, and if they were holocaust survivors. Holocaust survivors, who were frailer and more chronically ill compared to their counterparts, visited their family physician and the nurse at the health care clinic more often than their counterparts did, and received more homecare services. Yet, there were no differences between them in the utilization of other health care services such as visits to specialists, emergency department, and hospitalizations. Holocaust survivors are more homebound due to more morbidity and functional limitations and therefore receive more health home care services that offset the utilization of other health services.

  16. Socioeconomic Status and Health across the Life Course: A Test of the Social Causation and Health Selection Hypotheses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, John Robert

    2009-01-01

    This research investigates the merits of the "social causation" and "health selection" explanations for associations between socioeconomic status and self-reported overall health, musculoskeletal health and depression. Using data that include information about individuals' SES and health from childhood through late adulthood, I employ structural…

  17. Drought impact on forest growth and mortality in the southeast USA: an analysis using Forest Health and Monitoring data.

    PubMed

    Klos, Ryan J; Wang, G Geoff; Bauerle, William L; Rieck, James R

    2009-04-01

    Drought frequency and intensity has been predicted to increase under many climate change scenarios. It is therefore critical to understand the response of forests to potential climate change in an effort to mitigate adverse impacts. The purpose of this study was to explore the regional effects of different drought severities on tree growth and mortality. Specifically, we investigated changes in growth and mortality rates across the southeastern United States under various drought and stand conditions using 1991-2005 Forest Health and Monitoring (FHM) plot data from Alabama, Georgia, and Virginia. Drought effects were examined for three species groups (pines, oaks, and mesophytic species) using the Palmer drought severity index (PDSI) as an indicator of drought severity. Stand variables, including total basal area, total tree density, tree species richness, slope, and stand age, were used to account for drought effects under varying stand conditions. The pines and mesophytic species exhibited significant reductions in growth rate with increasing drought severity. However, no significant difference in growth rate was observed within the oak species group. Mean mortality rates within the no-drought class were significantly lower than those within the other three drought classes, among which no significant differences were found, for both pines and mesophytic species. Mean mortality rates were not significantly different among drought classes for oaks. Total basal area, total tree density, and stand age were negatively related to growth and positively related to mortality, which suggests that older and denser stands are more susceptible to drought damage. The effect of basal area on growth increased with drought severity for the oak and mesophytic species groups. Tree species richness was negatively related to mortality for the pine and mesophytic species groups, indicating that stands with more species suffer less mortality. Slope was positively related to mortality

  18. Examining the association between race, ethnicity, and health status: do assets matter?

    PubMed

    Boyas, Javier; Shobe, Marcia A; Hannam, Holly M

    2009-10-01

    The current study employs data from the 2004 Immigration and Intergenerational Mobility in Metropolitan Los Angeles (IIMMLA) study to examine the degree to which observed differences in self-reported health status between African Americans, Asians, Latinos, and non-Hispanic Whites in the United States can be attributed to differences in various indicators of socioeconomic status. Results of the multinomial logistic regression techniques suggest that socioeconomic indicators had varying significant effects in predicting self-reported health status among all racial and ethnic groups. Among African Americans, homeownership, income, and age played a significant role. Among Asian Americans, only income and age significantly predicted health status. Among Latinos, income, having a checking account, and age significantly shaped health status, while education, age, and homeownership significantly predicted health status among non-Hispanic Whites.

  19. Spatial distributions of forest aboveground biomass and landscape dynamics associated with conservation status and ownership in New England, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, D.; Heath, L. S.; Ducey, M. J.

    2009-05-01

    We combined remote sensing derived forest aboveground biomass (AGB) estimation and the Conservation Biology Institute/World Wildlife Fund Protected Area Database using GIS techniques and spatial pattern analysis to illustrate how different conservation status and ownership could affect the landscape dynamics and spatial distributions of AGB in New England states, USA. The AGB means between all pairs of protection status and ownership categories were significantly different (P < 0.05). The highest mean AGB was observed in the protected public lands (156 Mg/ha), 44% higher than the lowest AGB mean (108 Mg/ha) observed in private regulated lands (privately owned but under the regulatory control by a state agency), or 30% higher than that in privately owned lands on average (120 Mg/ha). Seventy-seven percent of the regional forests with AGB > 200 Mg/ha, totaling about 9,300 km2, were located outside protected areas and were concentrated in western MA, southern VT, southwestern NH, and northwestern CT. The fragmentation rate in protected public lands between 1992 and 2001 was the least with greater rates were observed in privately regulated and non-regulated lands. Changing rates for the 4 representative fragmentation indices (patch density (PD), edge density (ED), landscape shape index (LSI), and mean patch size (MPS)) ranged from 1% in MPS to 6% in PD in protected public lands during the 9-year period whereas the mean changing rates ranged from 21% in LSI to 32% in PD in private lands. Thus, ownership and conservation status appears to have a strong impact on the dynamic changes of landscape structures in the region. These results indicate that if maintenance and enhancement of relatively unfragmented, high-AGB forest is a goal, expansion of protected areas appears to be an important management strategy.

  20. Self-Reported Health Status in Primary Health Care: The Influence of Immigration and Other Associated Factors

    PubMed Central

    Salinero-Fort, Miguel Á.; Jiménez-García, Rodrigo; del Otero-Sanz, Laura; de Burgos-Lunar, Carmen; Chico-Moraleja, Rosa M.; Martín-Madrazo, Carmen; Gómez-Campelo, Paloma

    2012-01-01

    Objective The aims of this study are to compare self-reported health status between Spanish-born and Latin American-born Spanish residents, adjusted by length of residence in the host country; and additionally, to analyse sociodemographic and psychosocial variables associated with a better health status. Design This is a cross-sectional population based study of Latin American-born (n = 691) and Spanish-born (n = 903) in 15 urban primary health care centres in Madrid (Spain), carried out between 2007 and 2009. The participants provided information, through an interview, about self-reported health status, socioeconomic characteristics, psychosocial factors and migration conditions. Descriptive and multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted. Results The Spanish-born participants reported a better health status than the Latin America-born participants (79.8% versus 69.3%, p<0.001). Different patterns of self-reported health status were observed depending on the length of residence in the host country. The proportion of immigrants with a better health status is greater in those who have been in Spain for less than five years compared to those who have stayed longer. Better health status is significantly associated with being men, under 34 years old, being Spanish-born, having a monthly incomes of over 1000 euros, and having considerable social support and low stress. Conclusions Better self-reported health status is associated with being Spanish-born, men, under 34 years old, having an uppermiddle-socioeconomic status, adequate social support, and low stress. Additionally, length of residence in the host country is seen as a related factor in the self-reported health status of immigrants. PMID:22675564

  1. Status of precommercial-sized softwoods in Louisiana, 1991. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Rosson, J.F.

    1994-01-01

    Data on precommercial-sized softwoods in seedling- and sapling-sized stands are presented and discussed. Inadequate levels of softwood stocking in NIPF (Nonindustrial private forest) lands could diminish long-term supplies of softwood in the State.

  2. Intergenerational health disparities: socioeconomic status, women's health conditions, and child behavior problems.

    PubMed Central

    Kahn, Robert S.; Wilson, Kathryn; Wise, Paul H.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Relatively little is known about the intergenerational mechanisms that lead to social disparities in child health. We examined whether the association between low socioeconomic status (SES) and child behavior problems is mediated by maternal health conditions and behavior. METHODS: Prospective cohort data (1979-1998) on 2,677 children and their mothers were obtained from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. SES, the Child Behavior Problems Index (BPI), and maternal smoking, depressive symptoms, and alcohol use before, during, and after pregnancy were examined. RESULTS: Lower income and lower maternal education were associated with increased child BPI scores. Adjustment for maternal smoking, depressive symptoms, and alcohol use attenuated the associations between SES and child BPI by 26% to 49%. These maternal health conditions often occurred together, persisted over time, and were associated with the mother's own childhood SES and pre-pregnancy health. CONCLUSIONS: Social disparities in women's health conditions may help shape the likelihood of behavior problems in the subsequent generation. Improved public health programs and services for disadvantaged women across the lifecourse may not only address their own urgent health needs, but reduce social disparities in the health and well-being of their children. PMID:16025720

  3. Prognostics and Health Management of Wind Turbines: Current Status and Future Opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Sheng, Shuangwen

    2016-10-04

    This presentation was given at the 2016 Annual Conference of the Prognostics and Health Management Society. It covers the current status and challenges and opportunities of prognostics and health management of wind turbines.

  4. Joint Health Status of Hemophilia Patients in Jodhpur Region.

    PubMed

    Payal, Vikas; Sharma, Pramod; Chhangani, N P; Janu, Yojana; Singh, Yudhavir; Sharma, Akash

    2015-09-01

    Hemophilia refers to a group of bleeding disorders in which there is a deficiency of one of the factors necessary for coagulation of the blood. Susceptibility to joint hemorrhage in persons with Hemophilia suggests that the routine assessment of joint health is an important aspect of clinical management and outcome studies assessing the efficacy of treatment. This prospective study was conducted to study joint health status in Hemophilia patients and draw their joint disability score by using Hemophilia Joint Health Score (HJHS). Out of total 56 cases 51 (91.07 %) cases were diagnosed as hemophilia A while 5 cases (8.92 %) were diagnosed as hemophilia B. According to their factor level 44 % cases had severe 36 % had moderate and 20 % had mild disease. Knee joint was the predominant joint affected by hemarthrosis in 67.85 % cases followed by ankle joint (51.7 %) elbow joint (35.7 %), hip joint (12.5 %), shoulder joint (5.3 %) and proximal metacarpophalangeal joint (1.78 %).Out of total 37.5 % patients of hemophilia had developed target joint. Knee joint was the predominant target joint in 28.57 % cases and ankle joint was the target joint in 8.92 % cases. Maximum number of patients (40.47 %) had HJHS score of zero. The mean HJHS score was 6.78 ± 9.04. HJHS score showing significant positive correlation with age of patient (p < 0.0001). Most risky period and most aggravating development of hemophilic joint damage starts from 7 years of age. Therefore, treatment decisions, such as starting prophylaxis, should be tailored according to bleeding pattern and age of patients rather than based on the clotting factor activity levels.

  5. Health status in an invisible population: carnival and migrant worker children.

    PubMed

    Kilanowski, Jill F; Ryan-Wenger, Nancy A

    2007-02-01

    One goal of Healthy People 2010 (2003) is to close the gap of disparities in access to care and health. The purpose of this descriptive exploratory study was to evaluate health status indicators in the children of itinerant carnival and migrant farmworkers aged birth to 12 years. Health status outcomes (immunization records, well-child examinations, dental health status, and growth parameters) were compared between the two groups and to national averages to identify health disparities. All forms were available in Spanish and English. A total of 97 children were recruited for this study: 45 carnival children and 52 migrant farmworker children.

  6. Mental health status can reflect disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Sokolovic, Sekib; Dervisevic, Vedina; Fisekovic, Saida

    2014-01-01

    Objective A significant number of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) link the start of illness with psychological trauma or severe stress. Impaired mental health (IMH), defined as depression and anxiety with psychoneuroimmunological factors, can play a significant role in RA. The main objective of this research was to investigate the mutual correlation of IMH and RA activity, estimated by the laboratory and clinical parameters in RA patients. Material and Methods An open clinical prospective study that lasted for 6 months was designed. There were 72 patients included, 58 women and 14 men, aged 34 to 80 years and screened for mental health status. The study population was randomized following the Brief Symptoms Inventory (BSI) scale, comprised of 53 questions with a range from 0 (no symptoms) to 4 (severe). This mental test was done only once during the study. Following the results from the BSI scale, RA patients were divided into mentally stable and mentally unstable patients to investigate the influence of RA activity on mental health. The following laboratory and clinical parameters were analyzed: sex, age, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), rheumatoid factor (RF), C-reactive protein (CRP), anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) antibody, and disease activity score (DAS28). All RA patients did not express extra-articular manifestations or Sjögren’s syndrome. The chi-square test, ANOVA, Pearson’s coefficient, and IBM Statistics - SPSS v19 were used. Results From a total of 72 RA patients, there were 44 mentally stable and 28 mentally unstable patients. All patients had either moderate or severe active disease. The only significant correlation of IMH and activity of RA was found in CRP and DAS28, but no significance was observed in ESR, RF, and anti-CCP. The DAS28 showed high disease activity with an average of 5.3 and CRP of 20.9 mg/L in patients with unstable mental health compared to stable mental health patients, where RA was associated with

  7. Health status and its determinants in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Yach, D

    1994-03-01

    South Africa's apartheid policies have had direct and indirect effects on morbidity and death that will likely remain for decades. Since 1964, the economy has largely been deteriorating, while the population has grown at 2.8%/year, both of which have hampered economic development and health. South Africa needs to supply water, sanitation, and housing to 75% of the population. Rural development is needed to stem malnutrition, soil erosion, and overgrazing. Urban development design and planning must include health. Schooling needs to improve educators can emphasize school health education. Electricity and better lighting are needed to reduce chest diseases and paraffin poisoning and to improve literacy and learning. Labor migration has contributed to a high rate of sexually transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS in rural areas. In some cases, industry and the public sector have become partners to improve health. The alcohol industry sponsors drive safe campaigns. South Africans need to address inequalities in health status by race, region, and gender, and to follow a holistic development approach. Infant mortality is just 6.4/1000 for Whites, while it is 66.7/1000 for Blacks. It is 1.5 times lower in the best region than it is in the worst region. 2 of every 25 children die before their first birthday among Africans living in the poorest third of South Africa. 42% of Black men who live to 15 years die before their 60th birthday, while just 17.5% of like White women do. Black children less than 5 years old have an almost 9-fold excess in deaths over White children. The tuberculosis rate is among the highest in the world and is likely to increase as HIV/AIDS spreads. Many other preventable diseases occur among South Africans. 5-8% of the population suffer a disability. South Africa has the highest per capita violence mortality rate worldwide (59.2/100,000 vs. 9.6/100,000 in the US). South Africa is likely to face increases in lung cancer, chronic lung disease, heart disease

  8. Improving the health status of Caribbean people: recommendations from the Triangulating on Health Equity summit.

    PubMed

    Sastre, Francisco; Rojas, Patria; Cyrus, Elena; De La Rosa, Mario; Khoury, Aysha H

    2014-09-01

    In 2011, Morehouse School of Medicine convened a summit in San Juan, Puerto Rico, to discuss issues related to the health status of people and communities in the Caribbean region. The summit provided a forum for transparent dialog among researchers, policymakers, and advocates from the Caribbean region and the United States. The summit's theme-improving the region's health outcomes through the adoption of effective practices linking health promotion and primary care, within the context of social and cultural determinants-called for a comprehensive and integrative model or a triangulation of methodologies to improve health outcomes. This article summarizes the recommendations of two workgroup sessions examining the challenges to improving health outcomes in the region and the opportunities to meet those challenges. The recommendations seek to develop action-oriented agendas that integrate research, practice, and policy. Outcomes of the summit highlight the importance of (a) community participation in planning interventions, (b) policymakers' commitment to prioritizing health, and (c) Caribbean governments' commitment to addressing the underlying social factors responsible for poor health outcomes.

  9. Health status, use of health care resources, and treatment strategies of Ethiopian and Nigerian immigrants in the United States.

    PubMed

    Chaumba, Josphine

    2011-01-01

    Although different health risks and behaviors displayed by contemporary U.S. immigrants create challenges for health care providers, knowledge on the health of and variations among African immigrant groups in the United States lags behind. This study compared health status, use of health care resources, and treatment strategies of 362 Ethiopian and Nigerian immigrants. The results indicated that mental health and English-speaking ability varied by country of birth. Furthermore, the study sample reported a low use of health care resources. These results suggest the existence of potential health issues among subsections of the African immigrant population that may threaten the maintenance of good health.

  10. Time to get healthy: associations of time perspective with perceived health status and health behaviors.

    PubMed

    Griva, Fay; Tseferidi, Sofia-Ioanna; Anagnostopoulos, Fotios

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the associations of time perspective (TP) with health behaviors including smoking, exercise, and body mass index (BMI), and perceptions of health status after controlling for sociodemographic factors. Participants (N = 413) completed a web-based questionnaire that included a short version of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory, and reported their weight, height, smoking, and exercise frequency. Future TP was associated with more physical exercise, whereas past-negative and present-fatalistic dimensions were associated with higher BMI. Smoking was not associated with any of the TP dimensions. Additionally, all of the dimensions of TP were found to be associated with conceptually relevant perceptions of health status. Research on TP predominantly focuses on the future and the present orientation, but the findings of the present study suggest that all dimensions of TP should be used in health-related research. Also, issues regarding the role of the present-hedonistic dimension are discussed and directions for future research are proposed.

  11. A School Health Project Can Uplift the Health Status of School Children in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Rachana Manandhar; Miyaguchi, Moe; Shibanuma, Akira; Khanal, Arun; Yasuoka, Junko; Jimba, Masamine

    2016-01-01

    Background School health is effective in helping students achieve health literacy, enhance their health-related behaviors, and thereby improve their health status. However, in resource-limited countries, evidence is limited to show the impact of school health. We determined the association of the school health and nutrition (SHN) project activities on students’ a) health knowledge, b) hygiene practices, and c) health outcomes, one year after the project completion. Methods This is a cross-sectional study conducted among the schools with the SHN project and without the project in four districts of Nepal. We recruited 604 students from six schools in the project group and 648 students from other six schools in the comparison group. We used a self-administered questionnaire to collect the data, and analyzed them using regression models and a structural equation model (SEM). Results Students from the SHN project group reported the decreased odds of worm infestation (AOR = 0.50, 95% CI: 0.34 to 0.75) and diarrhea/ dysentery infection (AOR = 0.67, 95% CI: 0.47 to 0.97) compared to those in the comparison group. Furthermore, the SEM analysis also showed that the students in the project group were more likely to have better health outcomes (β = 0.03, p< 0.05). Conclusion Students in the SHN project group were more likely to have better health outcomes compared to those in the comparison group, even after one year of the project completion. As it can bring about sustainable changes for students, it should be scaled up in other parts of the country. PMID:27812190

  12. The Development of a Health Status Measure for Self-Report by People with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruddick, Loraine; Oliver, Chris

    2005-01-01

    Background: Health status is an important domain of quality of life of people with intellectual disabilities. This paper describes the development of a self-report health status measure for use with people with intellectual disabilities living in staffed community-based accommodation, and reports preliminary reliability data for the schedule.…

  13. 8 CFR 1245.14 - Adjustment of status of certain health care workers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Adjustment of status of certain health care workers. 1245.14 Section 1245.14 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW... RESIDENCE § 1245.14 Adjustment of status of certain health care workers. An alien applying for adjustment...

  14. Marketing and Quality of Life: A Model for Improving Perinatal Health Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dever, G. E. Alan; Smith, Leah T.; Stamps, Bunnie V.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: A marketing/business model using non-traditional Quality of Life measures was developed to assess perinatal health status on a micro-geographic level. This perinatal health status needs assessment study for Georgia South Central Region was conducted for the years 1994-1999. The model may be applied to any geographic unit in the…

  15. Older Adults With Intellectual Disability in Residential Care Centers in Israel: Health Status and Service Utilization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrick, Joav; Davidson, Philip W.; Morad, Mohammed; Janicki, Matthew P.; Wexler, Orren; Henderson, C. Michael

    2004-01-01

    To determine their health status, we studied 2,282 Israeli adults with intellectual disability who were at least 40 years of age and lived in residential care. Results showed that age is a significant factor in health status. The frequency of different disease categories (e.g., cardiovascular disease, cancer, and sensory impairments) increased…

  16. [Possibilities of adaptation and health status in children left without parental care].

    PubMed

    Babko, S V; Beniova, S N

    2011-01-01

    The study was undertaken to examine the health status of abandoned infants in a sociomedical unit, by characterizing their adaptive capacities and by revealing the factors worsening the processes of adaptation. Adaptive impairments were found in the abandoned babies just at early age. Health status, constitutional type, development harmonicity, and a past parental medical history had a considerable impact on the child's adaptive capacities.

  17. Income Inequality and Health Status in the United States: Evidence from the Current Population Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellor, Jennifer M.; Milyo, Jeffrey

    2002-01-01

    Current Population Survey data on self-reported health status and income for the general population and those in poverty were analyzed. No consistent association was found between income inequality and individual health status. Previous findings of such an association were attributed to ecological fallacy or failure to control for individual…

  18. Epigeous fruiting bodies of ectomycorrhizal fungi as indicators of soil fertility and associated nitrogen status of boreal forests.

    PubMed

    Kranabetter, J M; Friesen, J; Gamiet, S; Kroeger, P

    2009-10-01

    Soil fertility and associated nitrogen (N) status was a key ecosystem attribute, and surveys of ectomycorrhizal fungal (EMF) communities via epigeous fruiting bodies could provide an effective biotic indicator of forest soil productivity. We explored the utility of aboveground EMF communities in this regard by surveying sporocarps over a 3-year period from contrasting plant associations of southern old-growth boreal forests of British Columbia (Canada). Cumulative richness ranged from 39 to 89 EMF species per plot (0.15 ha) and followed a skewed parabolic correlation with foliar N concentrations and soil N availability. EMF species composition was consistently distinct in ordinations and strongly correlated to the increasing rates of N mineralization aligned with soil productivity. Approximately 40 EMF species were specialists, as they collectively indicated oligotrophic, mesotrophic, and eutrophic nutrient regimes, while the remaining species were categorized as broadly tolerant (distributed over 100% of the N gradient), partially intolerant (approximately 70%), or satellites (rare). The functional organization of EMF communities reflected by distribution classes could help define the ecological integrity of forests, which was characterized in this boreal landscape by an average allotment of 20 broadly tolerant, 25 partially intolerant, 15 specialist, and ten satellite species per plot. Epigeous fruiting bodies provided a disparate yet complementary view to the belowground assessment of EMF communities that was valuable in identifying indicators for ecosystem monitoring.

  19. Strategies and recommendations for addressing forest health issues in the Blue Mountains of Oregon and Washington. Forest service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, J.A.; Starr, G.L.; Quigley, T.M.

    1995-03-01

    The Blue Mountains Natural Resources Institute held three types of meetings to obtain public and scientific input into strategies for addressing forest health issues in the Blue Mountains of Oregon and Washington. Seven strategies are proposed: (2) plan and implement management on a landscape level, (2) enhance training on natural resources, (3) facilitate public involvement in planning and decision making, (4) develop an integrated landscape-level database, (5) develop an integrated monitoring system, (6) assess economic and social effects and assist with adaptation to change, and (7) identify barriers to improving the protesting forest health and recommend changes.

  20. Childhood Health Status and Adulthood Cardiovascular Disease Morbidity in Rural China: Are They Related?

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qing; Shen, Jay J.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are among the top health problems of the Chinese population. Although mounting evidence suggests that early childhood health status has an enduring effect on late life chronic morbidity, no study so far has analyzed the issue in China. Using nationally representative data from the 2013 China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS), a Probit model and Two-Stage Residual Inclusion estimation estimator were applied to analyze the relationship between childhood health status and adulthood cardiovascular disease in rural China. Good childhood health was associated with reduced risk of adult CVDs. Given the long-term effects of childhood health on adulthood health later on, health policy and programs to improve the health status and well-being of Chinese populations over the entire life cycle, especially in persons’ early life, are expected to be effective and successful. PMID:27275829

  1. Evacuation of a mental health center during a forest fire in Israel.

    PubMed

    Kreinin, Anatoly; Shakera, Tatiana; Sheinkman, Ayala; Levi, Tamar; Tal, Vered; Polakiewicz, Jacob

    2014-08-01

    Tirat Carmel Mental Health Center was successfully evacuated in December 2010 during a ravaging forest fire in the nearby Carmel Mountains. A total of 228 patients were successfully evacuated from the center within 45 minutes. No fatalities or injuries associated with the evacuation occurred. We believe that the efficient functioning of the administrative and medical staff provides a replicable model that can contribute to the level of awareness and readiness of hospital staff members for natural and manmade disasters.

  2. Current knowledge of US metal and nonmetal miner health: Current and potential data sources for analysis of miner health status

    PubMed Central

    Yeoman, K. M.; Halldin, C. N.; Wood, J.; Storey, E.; Johns, D.; Laney, A. S.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Little is known about the current health status of US metal and nonmetal (MNM) miners, in part because no health surveillance systems exist for this population. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is developing a program to characterize burden of disease among MNM miners. This report discusses current knowledge and potential data sources of MNM miner health. Recent national surveys were analyzed, and literature specific to MNM miner health status was reviewed. No robust estimates of disease prevalence were identified, and national surveys did not provide information specific to MNM miners. Because substantial gaps exist in the understanding of MNM miners' current health status, NIOSH plans to develop a health surveillance program for this population to guide intervention efforts to reduce occupational and personal risks for chronic illness. PMID:25658684

  3. Dental health status in two groups of refugees in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, M; Bornstein, R; Martinsson, T

    1988-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine dental health status in two separate groups of Chilean and Polish refugees in Sweden. In Scandinavia, Sweden has the largest number of immigrants--1 million out of a population of 8.3 million. Since 1975, most immigrants have been refugees and their families. During 1978-82 Sweden granted residency to 20,000 refugees, the two largest groups being Chileans and Poles. In 1981-83 a sample of 193 Chilean and 92 Polish refugees in the county of Stockholm were selected for this study. The investigation consisted of a questionnaire followed by clinical examination, including roentgenograms. The average age was 34.0 years in the Chilean group and 34.8 years in the Polish group. The Chileans had been in Sweden for 17.3 months on an average and the Poles for 16.0 months. The Chileans had an average of 10.0 carious surfaces, D(s), and the Poles 11.3. Gingivitis was recorded in 87% of the total number of sites examined in the Chilean group. The corresponding figure in the Polish group was 79%. Of the Chileans 36.5% and of the Poles 32.5% had periodontal pockets measuring more than 5 mm. The results indicate that, when compared with Swedish individuals of a corresponding age, the refugee groups have a high prevalence of caries and periodontal disease.

  4. Health Behaviors and Health Status of At-Risk Latino Students for Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Hurtado-Ortiz, Maria T.; Santos, Silvia; Reynosa, Astrid

    2012-01-01

    This research study examined the behavioral lifestyle patterns and health status of at-risk Latino college students for future diabetes onset in relation to their age, gender, and acculturation status. Participants were 156 Latino (34% male and 66% female) university students who had a first and/or second degree relative afflicted with diabetes. Findings indicated that Latino students exhibit similar lifestyle patterns in terms of dietary intake, physical activity, and drinking and smoking behaviors observed in the general and college population that have been linked to obesity—a particularly problematic risk factor among those who already have a genetic predisposition for diabetes. The reported findings are of importance for the development of culturally-relevant treatment interventions targeting young Latinos in college. PMID:26566366

  5. Subjective social status, self-rated health and tobacco smoking: Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Camelo, Lidyane do V; Giatti, Luana; Barreto, Sandhi M

    2014-11-01

    Using baseline data from ELSA-Brasil (N = 15,105), we investigated whether subjective social status, measured using three 10-rung "ladders," is associated with self-rated health and smoking, independently of objective indicators of social position and depression symptoms. Additionally, we explored whether the magnitude of these associations varies according to the reference group. Subjective social status was independently associated with poor self-rated health and weakly associated with former smoking. The references used for social comparison did not change these associations significantly. Subjective social status, education, and income represent distinct aspects of social inequities, and the impact of each of these indicators on health is different.

  6. Moisture status during a strong El Niño explains a tropical montane cloud forest's upper limit.

    PubMed

    Crausbay, Shelley D; Frazier, Abby G; Giambelluca, Thomas W; Longman, Ryan J; Hotchkiss, Sara C

    2014-05-01

    Growing evidence suggests short-duration climate events may drive community structure and composition more directly than long-term climate means, particularly at ecotones where taxa are close to their physiological limits. Here we use an empirical habitat model to evaluate the role of microclimate during a strong El Niño in structuring a tropical montane cloud forest's upper limit and composition in Hawai'i. We interpolate climate surfaces, derived from a high-density network of climate stations, to permanent vegetation plots. Climatic predictor variables include (1) total rainfall, (2) mean relative humidity, and (3) mean temperature representing non-El Niño periods and a strong El Niño drought. Habitat models explained species composition within the cloud forest with non-El Niño rainfall; however, the ecotone at the cloud forest's upper limit was modeled with relative humidity during a strong El Niño drought and secondarily with non-El Niño rainfall. This forest ecotone may be particularly responsive to strong, short-duration climate variability because taxa here, particularly the isohydric dominant Metrosideros polymorpha, are near their physiological limits. Overall, this study demonstrates moisture's overarching influence on a tropical montane ecosystem, and suggests that short-term climate events affecting moisture status are particularly relevant at tropical ecotones. This study further suggests that predicting the consequences of climate change here, and perhaps in other tropical montane settings, will rely on the skill and certainty around future climate models of regional rainfall, relative humidity, and El Niño.

  7. Artificial recharge of groundwater through sprinkling infiltration: impacts on forest soil and the nutrient status and growth of Scots pine.

    PubMed

    Nöjd, Pekka; Lindroos, Antti-Jussi; Smolander, Aino; Derome, John; Lumme, Ilari; Helmisaari, Heljä-Sisko

    2009-05-01

    We studied the chemical changes in forest soil and the effects on Scots pine trees caused by continuous sprinkling infiltration over a period of two years, followed by a recovery period of two years. Infiltration increased the water input onto the forest soil by a factor of approximately 1000. After one year of infiltration, the pH of the organic layer had risen from about 4.0 to 6.7. The NH(4)-N concentration in the organic layer increased, most probably due to the NH(4) ions in the infiltration water, as the net N mineralization rate did not increase. Sprinkling infiltration initiated nitrification in the mineral soil. Macronutrient concentrations generally increased in the organic layer and mineral soil. An exception, however, was the concentration of extractable phosphorus, which decreased strongly during the infiltration period and did not show a recovery within two years. The NO(3)-N and K concentrations had reverted back to their initial level during the two-year recovery period, while the concentrations of Ca, Mg and NH(4)-N were still elevated. Nutrient concentrations in the pine needles increased on the infiltrated plots. However, the needle P concentration increased, despite the decrease in plant-available P in the soil. Despite the increase in the nutrient status, there were some visible signs of chlorosis in the current-year needles after two years of infiltration. The radial growth of the pines more than doubled on the infiltrated plots, which suggests that the very large increase in the water input onto the forest floor had no adverse effect on the functioning of the trees. However, a monitoring period of four years is not sufficient for detecting potential long term detrimental effects on forest trees.

  8. A systematic review of randomized controlled trials on curative and health enhancement effects of forest therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kamioka, Hiroharu; Tsutani, Kiichiro; Mutoh, Yoshiteru; Honda, Takuya; Shiozawa, Nobuyoshi; Okada, Shinpei; Park, Sang-Jun; Kitayuguchi, Jun; Kamada, Masamitsu; Okuizumi, Hiroyasu; Handa, Shuichi

    2012-01-01

    Objective To summarize the evidence for curative and health enhancement effects through forest therapy and to assess the quality of studies based on a review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Study design A systematic review based on RCTs. Methods Studies were eligible if they were RCTs. Studies included one treatment group in which forest therapy was applied. The following databases – from 1990 to November 9, 2010 – were searched: MEDLINE via PubMed, CINAHL, Web of Science, and Ichushi- Web. All Cochrane databases and Campbell Systematic Reviews were also searched up to November 9, 2010. Results Two trials met all inclusion criteria. No specific diseases were evaluated, and both studies reported significant effectiveness in one or more outcomes for health enhancement. However, the results of evaluations with the CONSORT (Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials) 2010 and CLEAR NPT (A Checklist to Evaluate a Report of a Nonpharmacological Trial) checklists generally showed a remarkable lack of description in the studies. Furthermore, there was a problem of heterogeneity, thus a meta-analysis was unable to be performed. Conclusion Because there was insufficient evidence on forest therapy due to poor methodological and reporting quality and heterogeneity of RCTs, it was not possible to offer any conclusions about the effects of this intervention. However, it was possible to identify problems with current RCTs of forest therapy, and to propose a strategy for strengthening study quality and stressing the importance of study feasibility and original check items based on characteristics of forest therapy as a future research agenda. PMID:22888281

  9. Evaluation of a regional monitoring program's statistical power to detect temporal trends in forest health indicators

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perles, Stephanie J.; Wagner, Tyler; Irwin, Brian J.; Manning, Douglas R.; Callahan, Kristina K.; Marshall, Matthew R.

    2014-01-01

    Forests are socioeconomically and ecologically important ecosystems that are exposed to a variety of natural and anthropogenic stressors. As such, monitoring forest condition and detecting temporal changes therein remain critical to sound public and private forestland management. The National Parks Service’s Vital Signs monitoring program collects information on many forest health indicators, including species richness, cover by exotics, browse pressure, and forest regeneration. We applied a mixed-model approach to partition variability in data for 30 forest health indicators collected from several national parks in the eastern United States. We then used the estimated variance components in a simulation model to evaluate trend detection capabilities for each indicator. We investigated the extent to which the following factors affected ability to detect trends: (a) sample design: using simple panel versus connected panel design, (b) effect size: increasing trend magnitude, (c) sample size: varying the number of plots sampled each year, and (d) stratified sampling: post-stratifying plots into vegetation domains. Statistical power varied among indicators; however, indicators that measured the proportion of a total yielded higher power when compared to indicators that measured absolute or average values. In addition, the total variability for an indicator appeared to influence power to detect temporal trends more than how total variance was partitioned among spatial and temporal sources. Based on these analyses and the monitoring objectives of theVital Signs program, the current sampling design is likely overly intensive for detecting a 5 % trend·year−1 for all indicators and is appropriate for detecting a 1 % trend·year−1 in most indicators.

  10. Evaluation of a Regional Monitoring Program's Statistical Power to Detect Temporal Trends in Forest Health Indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perles, Stephanie J.; Wagner, Tyler; Irwin, Brian J.; Manning, Douglas R.; Callahan, Kristina K.; Marshall, Matthew R.

    2014-09-01

    Forests are socioeconomically and ecologically important ecosystems that are exposed to a variety of natural and anthropogenic stressors. As such, monitoring forest condition and detecting temporal changes therein remain critical to sound public and private forestland management. The National Parks Service's Vital Signs monitoring program collects information on many forest health indicators, including species richness, cover by exotics, browse pressure, and forest regeneration. We applied a mixed-model approach to partition variability in data for 30 forest health indicators collected from several national parks in the eastern United States. We then used the estimated variance components in a simulation model to evaluate trend detection capabilities for each indicator. We investigated the extent to which the following factors affected ability to detect trends: (a) sample design: using simple panel versus connected panel design, (b) effect size: increasing trend magnitude, (c) sample size: varying the number of plots sampled each year, and (d) stratified sampling: post-stratifying plots into vegetation domains. Statistical power varied among indicators; however, indicators that measured the proportion of a total yielded higher power when compared to indicators that measured absolute or average values. In addition, the total variability for an indicator appeared to influence power to detect temporal trends more than how total variance was partitioned among spatial and temporal sources. Based on these analyses and the monitoring objectives of the Vital Signs program, the current sampling design is likely overly intensive for detecting a 5 % trend·year-1 for all indicators and is appropriate for detecting a 1 % trend·year-1 in most indicators.

  11. Oral health status of older adults in Kentucky: results from the Kentucky Elder Oral Health Survey.

    PubMed

    Bush, Heather M; Dickens, Noel E; Henry, Robert G; Durham, Lisa; Sallee, Nancy; Skelton, Judith; Stein, Pam S; Cecil, James C

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the Kentucky Elder Oral Health Survey (KEOHS) was to assess the oral health status of Kentuckians 65 and older. The KEOHS consisted of a self-administered questionnaire and a clinical examination. Recruitment occurred from May 2002 through March 2005 of persons aged 65 and older (n = 1,386) whose functional ability was classified by residential setting. Independent elders living in their own homes were designated as "well-elders," those who lived in skilled nursing facilities and who were functionally dependent were designated as "nursing home elders," and those older adults who were considered frail were designated as "homebound elders." Significant associations were found between the functional ability of the elders and demographic characteristics. While elders who were homebound reported the highest rate of barriers to care, dental insurance, affordability, and transportation were consistently reported as barriers for all groups of elders. This study has established the baseline oral health status of older adults in Kentucky and the data show differences that exist for various community living situations.

  12. Health status sensed by the adult Latin American immigrant population in the city of Seville, Spain.

    PubMed

    González-López, J R; Rodríguez-Gázquez, M A; Lomas-Campos, M M

    2015-06-01

    The immigrant population in Seville has grown over the last 10 years, most of which are Latin Americans. Our aim was to describe the health status perceived in this emerging population. In 2011, a cross-sectional study was performed on a representative sample of 190 Latin American immigrants between the ages of 25 and 44 years residing in Seville (Spain). The self-sensed health status was 18% excellent, 28% very good, 42% good, 11% regular, and 1% poor. The average number of days of satisfactory health status during the last month was 22. Statistically significant differences were found: (a) higher satisfactory perception of health in men than in women (30 vs. 9%) and (b) higher average number of days with excellent health in people with satisfactory perception than those with an unsatisfactory perception of their health status (23 and 15, respectively). Logistic regression, educational level, number of days of good health, and doing physical exercise were the variables that best explained the satisfactory perception of health status. Most people studied have a positive self-assessment of their health status, especially men, who engage in physical activity and those who have 3 and more weeks of good health per month. Our results permit us to support, to a large extent, the theory of the "healthy immigrant".

  13. Definitions and codes for seral status and structure of vegetation. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, F.C.; Bryant, L.; Clausnitzer, R.; Geier-Hayes, K.; Keane, R.

    1995-11-01

    Definitions and codes for identifying vegetation seral status and structure are desired for land management planning, appraising wildlife habitat, and prescibing vegetation treatment. Codes are only presented; they are not a system for determining seral status or stand structure. Terms defined are climax, potential natural community (PNC) succession, seral status, thresholds, altered PNCs, life-form layer, dominant species, successional indicator species, structure classes, cover, and strata. Plant communities may be divided into three life-form layers where appropriate: tree, shrub, and herb/cryptogram. Each layer may be appraised and coded separately for seral status, or a single code may be used. Coding is provided for plant community structure class according to size, cover, and strata in a life-form layer. Seral status and structure may be coded together.

  14. Blending forest fire smoke forecasts with observed data can improve their utility for public health applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuchi, Weiran; Yao, Jiayun; McLean, Kathleen E.; Stull, Roland; Pavlovic, Radenko; Davignon, Didier; Moran, Michael D.; Henderson, Sarah B.

    2016-11-01

    Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) generated by forest fires has been associated with a wide range of adverse health outcomes, including exacerbation of respiratory diseases and increased risk of mortality. Due to the unpredictable nature of forest fires, it is challenging for public health authorities to reliably evaluate the magnitude and duration of potential exposures before they occur. Smoke forecasting tools are a promising development from the public health perspective, but their widespread adoption is limited by their inherent uncertainties. Observed measurements from air quality monitoring networks and remote sensing platforms are more reliable, but they are inherently retrospective. It would be ideal to reduce the uncertainty in smoke forecasts by integrating any available observations. This study takes spatially resolved PM2.5 estimates from an empirical model that integrates air quality measurements with satellite data, and averages them with PM2.5 predictions from two smoke forecasting systems. Two different indicators of population respiratory health are then used to evaluate whether the blending improved the utility of the smoke forecasts. Among a total of six models, including two single forecasts and four blended forecasts, the blended estimates always performed better than the forecast values alone. Integrating measured observations into smoke forecasts could improve public health preparedness for smoke events, which are becoming more frequent and intense as the climate changes.

  15. Strand I, Physical Health: Health Status. Health Curriculum Materials for Grades 4-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Curriculum Development Center.

    This health curriculum guide, intended for use with children in grades four through six, contends that the school is in a unique position to supplement efforts by home and community in raising the levels of physical, mental, and social-emotional health for each child. The contents of the guide are presented in outline form and cover observing…

  16. Socioeconomic Status and Health Communication Inequalities in Japan: A Nationwide Cross-Sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, Yoshiki; Nishiuchi, Hiromu; Hayashi, Hana; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula

    2012-01-01

    Background Considerable evidence suggests that communication inequality is one potential mechanism linking social determinants, particularly socioeconomic status, and health inequalities. This study aimed to examine how dimensions of health communication outcomes (health information seeking, self-efficacy, exposure, and trust) are patterned by socioeconomic status in Japan. Methods Data of a nationally representative cross-sectional survey of 2,455 people aged 15–75 years in Japan were used for secondary analysis. Measures included socio-demographic characteristics, subjective health, recent health information seeking, self-efficacy in seeking health information, and exposure to and trust in health information from different media. Results A total of 1,311 participants completed the questionnaire, giving a response rate of 53.6%. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that education and household income, but not employment, were significantly associated with health information seeking and self-efficacy. Socioeconomic status was not associated with exposure to and trust in health information from mass media, but was significantly associated with health information from healthcare providers and the Internet. Conclusion Health communication outcomes were patterned by socioeconomic status in Japan thus demonstrating the prevalence of health communication inequalities. Providing customized exposure to and enhancing the quality of health information by considering social determinants may contribute to addressing social disparities in health in Japan. PMID:22808229

  17. No exit? The effect of health status on dissatisfaction and disenrollment from health plans.

    PubMed Central

    Schlesinger, M; Druss, B; Thomas, T

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the implications of serious and chronic health problems on the willingness of enrollees to switch health plans if they are dissatisfied with their current arrangements. DATA SOURCE: A large (20,283 respondents) survey of employees of three national corporations committed to the model of managed competition, with substantial enrollment in four types of health plans: fee-for-service, prepaid group practice, independent practice associations, and point-of-service plans. STUDY DESIGN: A set of logistic regression models are estimated to determine the probability of disenrollment, if dissatisfied, controlling for the influence on satisfaction and disenrollment of age, race, education, family income and size, gender, marital status, mental health status, pregnancy, duration of employment and enrollment in the plan, number of alternative plans, and HMO penetration in the local market. Separate coefficients are estimated for enrollees with and without significant physical health problems. Additional models are estimated to test for the influence of selection effects as well as alternative measures of dissatisfaction and health problems. DATA COLLECTION: Data were collected through a mailed survey with a response rate of 63.5 percent; comparisons to a subsample administered by telephone showed few differences. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In group/staff model HMOs and point-of-service plans, only 12-17 percent of the chronically ill enrollees who were so dissatisfied when surveyed that they intended to disenroll actually left their plan in the next open enrollment period. This compared to 25-29 percent of the healthy enrollees in these same plans, who reported this level of dissatisfaction and 58-63 percent of the enrollees under fee-for-service insurance. CONCLUSIONS: Switching plans appears to be significantly limited for enrollees with serious health problems, the very enrollees who will be best informed about the ability of their health plan to provide

  18. [Gerodontology consultation in geriatric facilities: general health status (I)].

    PubMed

    Katsoulis, Joannis; Huber, Sandra; Mericske-Stern, Regina

    2009-01-01

    Dental undertreatment is often seen in the older population. This is particularly true for the elderly living in nursing homes and geriatric hospitals. The progression of chronic diseases results in loss of their independence. They rely on daily support and care due to physical or mental impairment. The visit of a dentist in private praxis becomes difficult or impossible and is a logistic problem. These elderly patients are often not aware of oral and dental problems or these are not addressed. The geriatric hospital Bern, Ziegler, has integrated dental care in the concept of physical rehabilitation of geriatric patients. A total of 139 patients received dental treatment in the years 2005/2006. Their mean age was 83 years, but the segment with > 85 years of age amounted to 46%. The general health examinations reveald multiple and complex disorders. The ASA classification (American Society of Anesthesiologists, Physical Status Classification System) was applied and resulted in 15% = P2 (mild systemic disease, no functional limitation), 47% = P3 (severe systemic disease, definite functional limitations) and 38% = P4 (severe systemic disease, constant threat to life). Eighty-seven of the patients exhibited 3 or more chronic diseases with a prevalence of cardiovascular diseases, musculoskelettal disorders and dementia. Overall the differences between men and women were small, but broncho-pulmonary dieseases were significantly more frequent in women, while men were more often diagnosed with dementia and depression. Verbal communication was limited or not possible with 60% of the patients due to cognitive impairment or aphasia after a stroke. Although the objective treatment need is high, providing dentistry for frail and geriatric patients is characterized by risks due to poor general health conditions, difficulties in communication, limitations in feasibility and lack of adequate aftercare. In order to prevent the problem of undertreatment, elderly independently living

  19. Income inequality, social capital and self-rated health and dental status in older Japanese.

    PubMed

    Aida, Jun; Kondo, Katsunori; Kondo, Naoki; Watt, Richard G; Sheiham, Aubrey; Tsakos, Georgios

    2011-11-01

    The erosion of social capital in more unequal societies is one mechanism for the association between income inequality and health. However, there are relatively few multi-level studies on the relation between income inequality, social capital and health outcomes. Existing studies have not used different types of health outcomes, such as dental status, a life-course measure of dental disease reflecting physical function in older adults, and self-rated health, which reflects current health status. The objective of this study was to assess whether individual and community social capital attenuated the associations between income inequality and two disparate health outcomes, self-rated health and dental status in Japan. Self-administered questionnaires were mailed to subjects in an ongoing Japanese prospective cohort study, the Aichi Gerontological Evaluation Study Project in 2003. Responses in Aichi, Japan, obtained from 5715 subjects and 3451 were included in the final analysis. The Gini coefficient was used as a measure of income inequality. Trust and volunteering were used as cognitive and structural individual-level social capital measures. Rates of subjects reporting mistrust and non-volunteering in each local district were used as cognitive and structural community-level social capital variables respectively. The covariates were sex, age, marital status, education, individual- and community-level equivalent income and smoking status. Dichotomized responses of self-rated health and number of remaining teeth were used as outcomes in multi-level logistic regression models. Income inequality was significantly associated with poor dental status and marginally significantly associated with poor self-rated health. Community-level structural social capital attenuated the covariate-adjusted odds ratio of income inequality for self-rated health by 16% whereas the association between income inequality and dental status was not substantially changed by any social capital

  20. Examining health status of women in rural, peri-urban and urban areas in Jamaica

    PubMed Central

    Bourne, Paul A.; Eldemire-Shearer, Denise; McGrowder, Donovan; Crawford, Tazhmoye

    2009-01-01

    Background: A comprehensive review of the literature revealed that less information is available in literature on health status of women, and health status of women in 3 geographical zones in Jamaica. Aims: This study examined data on the health status of women in Jamaica in order to provide some scientific explanation of those factors that account for their health status; and differences based on area of residence. Materials and Methods: The sub-sample for the current study was 8,541 women ages of 15 and 100 years extracted from a national survey of 25,018 respondents. Stratified random sampling technique was used to draw the sample. Data were stored, retrieved and analyzed using SPSS 16.0. Descriptive statistics were used to provide background information on the subsample, and logistic regressions were utilized to model health statuses. Results: Rural women had the lowest health status (OR = 0.819, 95% CI = 0.679-0.989) among all women (peri-urban OR = 1.054, 95% CI = 0.842-1.320; urban OR = 1.00) and that they were the least likely to have health insurance coverage. Health insurance was the critical predictor of good health status of women in Jamaica, and this was equally the same across the 3 geographic areas; and that married women were 1.3 times more likely (OR 1.3, 95 CI = 1.036-1.501) to report good health compared to those who were never married. Conclusion: This study provides an understanding of women's health status in Jamaica as well as the disparity which correlates based on the different geographical regions. PMID:22666705

  1. Race, Socioeconomic Status and Health: Complexities, Ongoing Challenges and Research Opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Williams, David R.; Mohammed, Selina A.; Leavell, Jacinta; Collins, Chiquita

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of racial variations in health and shows that differences in socioeconomic status (SES) across racial groups are a major contributor to racial disparities in health. However, race reflects multiple dimensions of social inequality and individual and household indicators of SES capture relevant but limited aspects of this phenomenon. Research is needed that will comprehensively characterize the critical pathogenic features of social environments and identify how they combine with each other to affect health over the life course. Migration history and status are also important predictors of health and research is needed that will enhance understanding of the complex ways in which race, SES, and immigrant status combine to affect health. Fully capturing the role of race in health also requires rigorous examination of the conditions under which medical care and genetic factors can contribute to racial and SES differences in health. The paper identifies research priorities in all of these areas. PMID:20201869

  2. Using historical ecology to reassess the conservation status of coniferous forests in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Szabó, Péter; Kuneš, Petr; Svobodová-Svitavská, Helena; Švarcová, Markéta Gabriela; Křížová, Lucie; Suchánková, Silvie; Müllerová, Jana; Hédl, Radim

    2017-02-01

    Forests cover approximately one-third of Central Europe. Oak (Quercus) and European beech (Fagus sylvatica) are considered the natural dominants at low and middle elevations, respectively. Many coniferous forests (especially of Picea abies) occur primarily at midelevations, but these are thought to have resulted from forestry plantations planted over the past 200 years. Nature conservation and forestry policy seek to promote broadleaved trees over conifers. However, there are discrepancies between conservation guidelines (included in Natura 2000) and historical and palaeoecological data with regard to the distribution of conifers. Our aim was to bring new evidence to the debate on the conservation of conifers versus broadleaved trees at midelevations in Central Europe. We created a vegetation and land-cover model based on pollen data for a highland area of 11,300 km(2) in the Czech Republic and assessed tree species composition in the forests before the onset of modern forestry based on 18th-century archival sources. Conifers dominated the study region throughout the entire Holocene (approximately 40-60% of the area). Broadleaved trees were present in a much smaller area than envisaged by current ideas of natural vegetation. Rather than casting doubt on the principles of Central European nature conservation in general, our results highlight the necessity of detailed regional investigations and the importance of historical data in challenging established notions on the natural distribution of tree species.

  3. Crop loss from air pollutants and injury to forest trees assessment program. Final status report

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, C.R.; Kats, G.; Mutters, R.G.; Poe, M.

    1991-04-01

    Yield loss estimates from ozone for 52 different agricultural crops on a county-wide basis for California were made for 1987 and 1988. Compared to expected yields in clean air, losses ranged between 0 and 63 percent. A field survey in 1990 indicated that leaf injury and defoliation were more pronounced in southern portions of the San Joaquin Valley, and an east-to-west gradient in losses also occurred. Some of the crop losses occurring in 1988 air quality were alfalfa, 1.3-11.1%; beans, 0-34%; cotton, 6-45%; grapes,25-31%; onions, 4-20%; oranges, 11-63%; potatoes, 10-20%; rice, 3-7%; sugar beets, 0-9%; tomatoes, 2-22%; and wheat, 0.7-16%. The report includes an extensive bibliography of the effect of air pollution on forest vegetation; no satisfactory models exist for assessing losses to the 21 host tree species listed as 'moderately or very sensitive' to air pollution. Monthly 7- and 12-hour ozone averages indicate that valuable commercial timber species in the forests in El Dorado, Placer, Riverside, San Bernardino, and San Diego counties experience the highest levels of exposures to air pollution, and the absence of monitoring sites hinders the assessment of the risk to Southern Sierra Nevada forests, which are downwind of urban and industrial conifers.

  4. The impact of COPD on health status: findings from the BOLD study

    PubMed Central

    Janson, Christer; Marks, Guy; Buist, Sonia; Gnatiuc, Louisa; Gislason, Thorarinn; McBurnie, Mary Ann; Nielsen, Rune; Studnicka, Michael; Toelle, Brett; Benediktsdottir, Bryndis; Burney, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the impact of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) on health status in the Burden of Obstructive Lung Disease (BOLD) populations. We conducted a cross-sectional, general population-based survey in 11 985 subjects from 17 countries. We measured spirometric lung function and assessed health status using the Short Form 12 questionnaire. The physical and mental health component scores were calculated. Subjects with COPD (post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 s/forced vital capacity <0.70, n = 2269) had lower physical component scores (44±10 versus 48±10 units, p<0.0001) and mental health component scores (51±10 versus 52±10 units, p = 0.005) than subjects without COPD. The effect of reported heart disease, hypertension and diabetes on physical health component scores (-3 to -4 units) was considerably less than the effect of COPD Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease grade 3 (-8 units) or 4 (-11 units). Dyspnoea was the most important determinant of a low physical and mental health component scores. In addition, lower forced expiratory volume in 1 s, chronic cough, chronic phlegm and the presence of comorbidities were all associated with a lower physical health component score. COPD is associated with poorer health status but the effect is stronger on the physical than the mental aspects of health status. Severe COPD has a greater negative impact on health status than self-reported cardiovascular disease and diabetes. PMID:23722617

  5. Health Insurance Status and Psychological Distress among US Adults Aged 18-64 Years.

    PubMed

    Ward, Brian W; Martinez, Michael E

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine the relationship between psychological distress and aspects of health insurance status, including lack of coverage, types of coverage and disruption in coverage, among US adults. Data from the 2001-2010 National Health Interview Survey were used to conduct analyses representative of the US adult population aged 18-64 years. Multivariate analyses regressed psychological distress on health insurance status while controlling for covariates. Adults with private or no health insurance coverage had lower levels of psychological distress than those with public/other coverage. Adults who recently (≤1 year) experienced a change in health insurance status had higher levels of distress than those who had not recently experienced a change. An interaction effect indicated that the relationship between recent change in health insurance status and distress was not dependent on whether an adult had private versus public/other coverage. However, for adults who had not experienced a change in status in the past year, the average absolute level of distress is higher among those with no coverage versus private coverage. Although significant relationships between psychological distress and health insurance status were identified, their strength was modest, with other demographic and health condition covariates also being potential sources of distress. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  6. [Research on mental health status of 726 adolescents and its influential factors].

    PubMed

    Zhou, D M; Tan, H Z; Li, S Q

    2000-04-28

    Mental health status of 726 adolescents and their backgrounds were investigated with Symptom Check List(SCL-90) and self-designed questionnaire. The results showed that the prevalence rate of psychological problems ranged from 6.34% to 24.93%. Among these problems, obsession led all the others. Females had higher scores in interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, phobia than males. Logistic regression analysis indicated that the major factors contributed to mental health status of adolescents were the relationship between teacher and student, father's concern with his child, only child or not, parents' expectations, personality and sex. The study provides reference source for improving the mental health status of adolescents.

  7. Beyond conventional socioeconomic status: examining subjective and objective social status with self-reported health among Asian immigrants.

    PubMed

    Gong, Fang; Xu, Jun; Takeuchi, David T

    2012-08-01

    Despite mounting evidence for a strong and persistent association between socioeconomic status (SES) and health, this relationship is largely unknown among Asian immigrants, a fast growing minority group in the US population. Previous research has typically focused on objective SES (primarily education and income) and ignored self-perceived SES. Using data from the National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS) (N = 1,570), we examined the impact of subjective as well as objective SES upon multiple self-reported health outcomes among Asian immigrants. Results indicated that conventional SES indicators by and large were non-significantly related to self-rated physical health, physical discomfort, self-rated mental health, and psychological distress. In contrast, subjective SES relative to people in the United States and people in the community showed strong associations with health outcomes above and beyond conventional SES markers. This study suggested a promising avenue to incorporate subjective SES in health disparities research, especially among immigrants.

  8. Parents’ Oral Health Literacy and its Impact on their Children’s Dental Health Status

    PubMed Central

    Khodadadi, Effat; Niknahad, Ayshe; Sistani, Mohammad Mehdi Naghibi; Motallebnejad, Mina

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Because parents play a key role in children’s dental health, the aim of this study was to determine the relationship between parents’ oral health literacy (OHL) and their children’s dental health status in Babol, Iran. Methods In this cross sectional study a total of 384 children aged 21 months to 84 months who attended the dental clinic of Babol University of Medical Sciences between September 2015 and February 2016 were examined. We measured dmft index only for primary dentition; during examination the accompanying parent completed the “Oral Health Literacy-Adults Questionnaire”. Comparing mean analysis, such as one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), and an independent-samples t-test, served to compare children’s dental caries, missing, and dental fillings’ mean differences, between subgroups. In addition, the relationship between OHL, children’s dental caries, and dental fillings was assessed using multiple linear regression models while controlling for socioeconomic and demographic factors. All data were analyzed by SPSS version 22. Results Children’s mean age was 55.1 months (SD: 13.7), while 47% were girls. Mean children’s dental caries, missing, filling, and mean dmft index were 6.5, 0.4, 1.2, and 8.2 respectively. Parents with inadequate OHL had children with more dental caries (p=0.005), however this relation had no significance while controlling for background factors. Increasing children’s dental fillings was significantly related with families living in urban regions (p=0.01, 95% CI: 0.11 to 1.12), and parents with adequate OHL (p=0.02, 95% CI: 0.08 to 1.05). Conclusion Inadequate parents’ OHL was associated with children having high dental caries and less dental fillings. Therefore, providing interventions to improve parents’ OHL would be valuable in children’s dental health promotion programs, especially in countries with a developing oral health system. PMID:28163858

  9. Socioeconomic Status and the Health of Youth: A Multilevel, Multidomain Approach to Conceptualizing Pathways

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schreier, Hannah M. C.; Chen, Edith

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has clearly established associations between low socioeconomic status (SES) and poor youth physical health outcomes. This article provides an overview of the main pathways through which low SES environments come to influence youth health. We focus on 2 prevalent chronic health problems in youth today, asthma and obesity. We…

  10. 77 FR 44107 - Information From Foreign Regions Applying for Recognition of Animal Health Status

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-27

    ... / Friday, July 27, 2012 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health... Animal Health Status AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We are amending the regulations that govern the importation of animals and animal products...

  11. Relationships between Health Status, Self Esteem and Social Support among Adolescents: Gender and Race Group Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landsberger, Betty H.

    To locate possible causes for the gender and race differences observed in adolescent health status, an analysis was made of the relationship between the scores of a national sample of 12- to 17-year-old adolescents on selected items of the National Center for Health Statistics' Health Examination Survey. Thirty survey items indicating social…

  12. Early Identification of Mental Health Problems in Schools: The Status of Instrumentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levitt, Jessica Mass; Saka, Noa; Romanelli, Lisa Hunter; Hoagwood, Kimberly

    2007-01-01

    When embedded within a continuum of mental health services including both prevention and treatment, school-based mental health identification programs can promote improved academic and mental health functioning among students. This article describes the scientific status of assessment instrumentation that may be used for early mental health…

  13. Perceived Health Status and Utilization of Specialty Care: Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Patients with Chronic Diseases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glover, Saundra; Bellinger, Jessica D.; Bae, Sejong; Rivers, Patrick A.; Singh, Karan P.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study is to determine racial and ethnic variations in specialty care utilization based on (a) perceived health status and (b) chronic disease status. Methods: Variations in specialty care utilization, by perceived health and chronic disease status, were examined using the Commonwealth Fund Health Care Quality…

  14. Forest insect pest management and forest management in China: an overview.

    PubMed

    Ji, Lanzhu; Wang, Zhen; Wang, Xiaowei; An, Linli

    2011-12-01

    According to the Seventh National Forest Inventory (2004-2008), China's forests cover an area of 195.45 million ha, or 20.36% of the total land area. China has the most rapidly increasing forest resources in the world. However, China is also a country with serious forest pest problems. There are more than 8,000 species of potential forest pests in China, including insects, plant diseases, rodents and lagomorphs, and hazardous plants. Among them, 300 species are considered as economically or ecologically important, and half of these are serious pests, including 86 species of insects. Forest management and utilization have a considerable influence on the stability and sustainability of forest ecosystems. At the national level, forestry policies always play a major role in forest resource management and forest health protection. In this paper, we present a comprehensive overview of both achievements and challenges in forest management and insect pest control in China. First, we summarize the current status of forest resources and their pests in China. Second, we address the theories, policies, practices and major national actions on forestry and forest insect pest management, including the Engineering Pest Management of China, the National Key Forestry Programs, the Classified Forest Management system, and the Collective Forest Tenure Reform. We analyze and discuss three representative plantations-Eucalyptus, poplar and Masson pine plantations-with respect to their insect diversity, pest problems and pest management measures.

  15. Forest Insect Pest Management and Forest Management in China: An Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Lanzhu; Wang, Zhen; Wang, Xiaowei; An, Linli

    2011-12-01

    According to the Seventh National Forest Inventory (2004-2008), China's forests cover an area of 195.45 million ha, or 20.36% of the total land area. China has the most rapidly increasing forest resources in the world. However, China is also a country with serious forest pest problems. There are more than 8,000 species of potential forest pests in China, including insects, plant diseases, rodents and lagomorphs, and hazardous plants. Among them, 300 species are considered as economically or ecologically important, and half of these are serious pests, including 86 species of insects. Forest management and utilization have a considerable influence on the stability and sustainability of forest ecosystems. At the national level, forestry policies always play a major role in forest resource management and forest health protection. In this paper, we present a comprehensive overview of both achievements and challenges in forest management and insect pest control in China. First, we summarize the current status of forest resources and their pests in China. Second, we address the theories, policies, practices and major national actions on forestry and forest insect pest management, including the Engineering Pest Management of China, the National Key Forestry Programs, the Classified Forest Management system, and the Collective Forest Tenure Reform. We analyze and discuss three representative plantations— Eucalyptus, poplar and Masson pine plantations—with respect to their insect diversity, pest problems and pest management measures.

  16. In-group identification mediates the effects of subjective in-group status on mental health.

    PubMed

    Sani, Fabio; Magrin, Maria Elena; Scrignaro, Marta; McCollum, Rachel

    2010-12-01

    We present two studies exploring the effects of the relative standing of one's in-group in the social hierarchy, which we conceptualize as 'subjective in-group status', on mental health and well-being. Study 1 focuses on the subjective status of a professional in-group (prison guards) while Study 2 concerns the subjective status of the family in-group. Results show that higher subjective in-group status predicts better mental health (e.g., less depression) and greater well-being (e.g., higher satisfaction with life). Also, results demonstrate that the effects of subjective in-group status on mental health are mediated by the extent to which one subjectively identifies with the in-group.

  17. (abstract) Characterization of Tree Water Status and Dielectric Constant Changes of North American Boreal Forests in Combination with Synthetic Aperture Radar Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDonald, K. C.; Zimmerman, R.; Way, J. B.

    1994-01-01

    The occurrence and magnitude of temporal and spatial tree water status changes in the boreal environment were studied in a floodplain forest in Alaska and in four forest types of Central Canada. Under limited water supply conditions from the rooted soil zone in early spring (freeze/thaw transition) and during summer, trees show declining water potentials. Coincidental change in tree water potential, tree transpiration and tree dielectric constant had been observed in previous studies performed in Mediterranean ecotones. If radar is sensitive to chances in tree water status as reflected through changes in dielectric constant, then radar remote sensing could be used to monitor the water status of forests. The SAR imagery is examined to determine the response of the radar backscatter to the ground based observations of the water status of forest canopies. Comparisons are made between stands and also along the large North-South gradient between sites. Data from SAR are used to examine the radar response to canopy physiological state as related to vegetation freeze/thaw and growing season length.

  18. Indoor air pollution in rural China: cooking fuels, stoves, and health status.

    PubMed

    Peabody, John W; Riddell, Travis J; Smith, Kirk R; Liu, Yaping; Zhao, Yanyun; Gong, Jianghui; Milet, Meredith; Sinton, Jonathan E

    2005-01-01

    Solid fuels are a major source of indoor air pollution, but in less developed countries the short-term health effects of indoor air pollution are poorly understood. The authors conducted a large cross-sectional study of rural Chinese households to determine associations between individual health status and domestic cooking as a source of indoor air pollution. The study included measures of health status as well as measures of indoor air-pollution sources, such as solid cooking fuels and cooking stoves. Compared with other fuel types, coal was associated with a lower health status, including negative impacts on exhaled carbon monoxide level, forced vital capacity, lifetime prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma, and health care utilization. Decreasing household coal use, increasing use of improved stove technology, and increasing kitchen ventilation may decrease the short-term health effects of indoor air pollution.

  19. Impact of natural disasters on the functional and health status of patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Tomio, Jun; Sato, Hajime; Mizumura, Hiroko

    2011-08-01

    To examine the effects of natural disasters on rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients we conducted a questionnaire survey targeted to 1,477 members of a nationwide RA patient group in Japan who lived in the municipalities affected by natural disasters between 2004 and 2006. Functional statuses measured by the modified Health Assessment Questionnaire and self-rated health statuses before and after the events were retrospectively examined. The associations between the changes in functional and health status and socio-demographics, direct damage, and preparedness status were statistically analyzed. Of the 665 individuals who responded, the data on 192 women RA patients were analyzed. The values at 1 and 6 months post-event were the same, with 14% experiencing deteriorations of functional status, while 22% experienced a worsening of self-rated health status. Those in poorer functional status before the events were more likely to experience deteriorations of functional [odds ratio (OR) 4.4, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.5-13.6] and health (OR 2.8, 95% CI 1.2-6.7) status at both 1 month and 6 months (OR 3.9, 95% CI 1.3-12.0, and OR 2.8, 95% CI 1.2-6.7, respectively) after the events. Based on these results, we conclude that the functional and health status of women RA patients could worsen due to the consequences of a natural disaster, with a disproportionately large impact upon those with a poorer functional status.

  20. Prevalence and correlates of perceived teeth health status and oral health behavior among school-going adolescents in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Peltzer, Karl; Tepirou, Chher; Pengpid, Supa

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The purpose of the study was to investigate perceived teeth health status and oral health behavior, as well as their correlates, among adolescents in Cambodia. The analysis included 3806 Cambodian school children (mean age 15.7 years, SD=1.8 years) who took part in the “Global School-based Student Health Survey” (GSHS) in 2013. Overall, 7.8% of the students reported poor perceived teeth status, 18.0% had missed school in the past year because of a toothache, 26.7% engaged in combined oral health behavior (brushing teeth twice daily or more often = 79.8%, using fluoride toothpaste = 59.9%, and drinking soft drinks less than once a day = 53.6%), and 59.9% had never visited a dentist for a routine examination or other dental work. In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, older age, being female, missing school because of a toothache, having a toothache in the past 12 months, poor oral health behavior and sedentary leisure time were associated with poor perceived teeth status. Older age, good perceived teeth status, having had a dental check-up, washing hands before eating and after toilet use, and not eating fast food were associated with a positive oral health behavior (brushing teeth twice daily or more often, using fluoride toothpaste, and drinking soft drinks less than once a day). Significant proportions of poor perceived teeth status and poor oral health behavior were found among school children in Cambodia. Various risk factors (sociodemographic, dental variables, general health risk behaviors) for perceived poor teeth status, oral health behavior and never having had a dental check-up were identified, which can be utilized for intervention programs. PMID:28008205

  1. Exploring the Latino Paradox: How Economic and Citizenship Status Impact Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Kelly; Garcia, Donna M.; Granillo, Christina V.; Chavez, David V.

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined the contributions of economic status (ES) and citizenship status to health differences between European Americans, Latino Americans, and noncitizen Latinos. The investigation was framed using social identity and comparison theories. Southern California residents (N = 2,164) were randomly selected to complete a telephone…

  2. Acculturation and sociocultural influences on dietary intake and health status among Puerto Rican adults in Massachusetts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous studies have shown negative consequences of acculturation on lifestyle factors, health status, and dietary intake of Hispanic immigrants in the US. Despite prevalent type 2 diabetes and low socioeconomic status (SES) among Puerto Rican adults living on the US mainland, little is known about...

  3. Oral Health and Nutritional Status of Semi-Institutionalized Persons with Mental Retardation in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batista, Luciana Rodrigues Vieira; Moreira, Emilia Addison Machado; Rauen, Michelle Soares; Corso, Arlete Catarina Tittoni; Fiates, Giovanna Medeiros Rataichesck

    2009-01-01

    Association between oral health status and nutritional status was investigated in 200 semi-institutionalized persons with mental retardation aged 5-53 years, 45.5% female, in the cities of Florianopolis and Sao Jose, province of Santa Catarina, Brazil. In this cross-sectional study, clinical-odontological examination revealed a high percentage of…

  4. The Relative Contribution of Health Status and Quality of Life Domains in Subjective Health in Old Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prieto-Flores, Maria-Eugenia; Moreno-Jimenez, Antonio; Fernandez-Mayoralas, Gloria; Rojo-Perez, Fermina; Forjaz, Maria Joao

    2012-01-01

    To analyze the influence of different health status dimensions and quality of life (QoL) domains on older adults' subjective health, and to assess the role that residential satisfaction plays in these relationships. A QoL survey was conducted on a representative sample of the community-dwelling older adult population in Madrid province (Spain).…

  5. Socioeconomic status, smoking, and health: a test of competing theories of cumulative advantage.

    PubMed

    Pampel, Fred C; Rogers, Richard G

    2004-09-01

    Although both low socioeconomic status and cigarette smoking increase health problems and mortality, their possible combined or interactive influence is less clear On one hand, the health of low status groups may be harmed least by unhealthy behavior such as smoking because, given the substantial health risks produced by limited resources, they have less to lose from damaging lifestyles. On the other hand, the health of low status groups may be harmed most by smoking because lifestyle choices exacerbate the health problems created by deprived material conditions. Alternatively, the harm of low status and smoking may accumulate additively rather than multiplicatively. We test these arguments with data from the 1990 U.S. National Health Interview Survey, and with measures of morbidity and mortality. For ascribed statuses such as gender, race, and ethnicity, and for the outcome measure of mortality, the results favor the additive argument, whereas for achieved status and morbidity, the results support the vulnerability hypothesis--that smoking inflicts greater harm among disadvantaged groups.

  6. Mobile health in China: current status and future development.

    PubMed

    Li, Huijun; Zhang, Tianhong; Chi, Hongmei; Chen, Yingmei; Li, Yue; Wang, Jijun

    2014-08-01

    Mobile health applications offer unique opportunities for monitoring patient progress, providing education materials to patients and family members, receiving personalized prompts and support, collecting ecologically valid data, and using self-management interventions when and where they are needed. Mobile health application services to mental illness have evidenced success in Western countries. However, they are still in the initial stage of development in China. The purpose of this paper is to identify needs for mobile health in China, present major mobile health products and technology in China, introduce mobile and digital psychiatric services, and discuss ethical issues and challenges in mobile health development in a country with the largest population in the world.

  7. Neighborhood Socioeconomic Status and Health: A Longitudinal Analysis.

    PubMed

    Robinette, Jennifer W; Charles, Susan T; Gruenewald, Tara L

    2017-03-17

    Higher income neighborhoods are associated with better health, a relation observed in many cross-sectional studies. However, prior research focused on the prevalence of health conditions, and examining the incidence of new health conditions may provide stronger support for a potential causal role of neighborhoods on health. We used the 2004 and 2014 waves of the Midlife in the United States Study (n = 1726; ages 34-83) to examine health condition incidence as a function of neighborhood income. Among participants who had lived in the same neighborhood across the time period, we hypothesized that higher neighborhood income would be associated with a lower incidence of health conditions ten years later. Health included 18 chronic conditions related to mental (anxiety, depression) and physical (cardiovascular, immune) health. Multinomial logistic regression analyses adjusting for individual income and sociodemographics indicated that the odds of developing two or more new health conditions (no new health conditions as referent), was significantly lower (OR = 0.92, CI: 0.86, 0.99) for every $10,000 increment in neighborhood income. Associations did not vary by age or neighborhood tenure. Results add to a literature documenting that higher neighborhood income is associated with better health.

  8. Development history and bibliography of the US Forest Service crown-condition indicator for forest health monitoring.

    PubMed

    Randolph, KaDonna C

    2013-06-01

    Comprehensive assessment of individual-tree crown condition by the US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Program has its origins in the concerns about widespread forest decline in Europe and North America that developed in the late 1970s and early 1980s. Programs such as the US National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program, US National Vegetation Survey, Canadian Acid Rain National Early Warning System, and joint US-Canadian North American Sugar Maple Decline Project laid the groundwork for the development of the US Forest Service crown-condition indicator. The crown-condition assessment protocols were selected and refined through literature review, peer review, and field studies in several different forest types during the late 1980s and early 1990s. Between 1980 and 2011, 126 publications relating specifically to the crown-condition indicator were added to the literature. The majority of the articles were published by the US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service or other State or Federal government agency, and more than half were published after 2004.

  9. Health and nutritional status of children in Ethiopia: do maternal characteristics matter?

    PubMed

    Seid, Abdu Kedir

    2013-03-01

    In Ethiopia, despite some recent improvements, the health and nutritional status of children is very poor. A better understanding of the main socioeconomic determinants of child health and nutrition is essential to address the problem and make appropriate interventions. In the present study, an attempt is made to explore the effect of maternal characteristics on the health and nutritional status of under-five children using the 2005 Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey. The health and nutritional status of children are measured using the two widely used anthropometric indicators height-for-age (HAZ) and weight-for-height (WHZ). In the ordinary least squares (OLS) estimation, it is observed that maternal characteristics have a significant impact on child health and nutritional status. The magnitudes of the coefficients, however, are found to slightly increase when maternal education is instrumented in the 2SLS estimation. Moreover, in the quantile regression (QR) estimation, the impacts of maternal characteristics are observed to vary between long-term and current child health and nutritional status.

  10. SOME INDICATORS OF HEALTH CARE STATUS IN CROATIA.

    PubMed

    Puntarić, Dinko; Stašević, Ina; Ropac, Darko; Poljičanin, Tamara; Mayer, Dijana

    2015-03-01

    The article presents the basic principles of health care, health care measures and strategic objectives of these measures in Croatia. The health of the population does not depend solely on the activities of the health care system but also on various demographic indicators. Our success in implementing health care depends largely on the structure of health facilities and health workers. The Croatian health system in late 2013 had permanently employed 74,489 workers. Out of these, 77% were health care workers. Most health care workers had only secondary school education (37.7%); physicians represented 17.4% of the workforce. On assessing the health of the population, certain health indicators are of utmost importance. The leading cause of deaths were circulatory diseases (in 2012, 24,988 persons died, 585.5/100,000). Neoplasms were the cause of death in 13,940 persons (326.6/100,000), then injuries and poisoning (69.1/100,000), diseases of the gastrointestinal system (53.1/100,000), and respiratory diseases (50.4/100,000). Data are presented on the basis of diseases reported from several national registries (cancer, psychoactive drug abuse, the disabled, diabetes, and suicides). The importance of vaccination for the control of infectious diseases in Croatia is especially emphasized, as well as the experience and excellent results achieved in this area. The epidemiological situation in Croatia in terms of infectious diseases can be assessed as favorable. This is due to the general living conditions, which contributed to the entire health system, making Croatia equal to other developed countries of Europe and throughout the world.

  11. The Relative Impacts of Disease on Health Status and Capability Wellbeing: A Multi-Country Study

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Paul Mark; Al-Janabi, Hareth; Richardson, Jeff; Iezzi, Angelo; Coast, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Background Evaluations of the impact of interventions for resource allocation purposes commonly focus on health status. There is, however, also concern about broader impacts on wellbeing and, increasingly, on a person's capability. This study aims to compare the impact on health status and capability of seven major health conditions, and highlight differences in treatment priorities when outcomes are measured by capability as opposed to health status. Methods The study was a cross-sectional four country survey (n = 6650) of eight population groups: seven disease groups with: arthritis, asthma, cancer, depression, diabetes, hearing loss, and heart disease and one health population ‘comparator’ group. Two simple self-complete questionnaires were used to measure health status (EQ-5D-5L) and capability (ICECAP-A). Individuals were classified by illness severity using condition-specific questionnaires. Effect sizes were used to estimate: (i) the difference in health status and capability for those with conditions, relative to a healthy population; and (ii) the impact of the severity of the condition on health status and capability within each disease group. Findings 5248 individuals were included in the analysis. Individuals with depression have the greatest mean reduction in both health (effect size, 1.26) and capability (1.22) compared to the healthy population. The effect sizes for capability for depression are much greater than for all other conditions, which is not the case for health. For example, the arthritis group effect size for health (1.24) is also high and similar to that of depression, whereas for the same arthritis group, the effect size for capability is much lower than that for depression (0.55). In terms of severity within disease groups, individuals categorised as 'mild' have similar capability levels to the healthy population (effect sizes <0.2, excluding depression) but lower health status than the healthy population (≥0.4). Conclusion

  12. Characterizing the Status (Disturbed, Hybrid or Novel) of Swamp Forest Fragments in a Caribbean Ramsar Wetland: The Impact of Anthropogenic Degradation and Invasive Plant Species.

    PubMed

    Prospere, Kurt; McLaren, Kurt P; Wilson, Byron

    2016-10-01

    The last remaining Amazonian-type swamp forest fragments in Black River Lower Morass, Jamaica, have been subjected to a myriad of anthropogenic disturbances, compounded by the establishment and spread of several invasive plant species. We established 44 permanent sample plots (covering 3.92 ha) across 10 of these swamp forest fragments and sampled all non-woody plants and all trees ≥2 cm DBH found in the plots. These data were used to (1) identify thresholds of hybridity and novelty, (2) derive several diversity and structural descriptors used to characterize the swamp forest fragments and (3) identify possible indicators of anthropogenic degradation. These were incorporated into a framework and used to determine the status of the swamp forest fragments so that appropriate management and conservation measures can be implemented. We recorded 43 woody plant species (9 endemic, 28 native and 4 non-native) and 21 non-tree species. The composition and structure of all the patches differed significantly due to the impact of the herbaceous invasive plant Alpinia allughas, the presence and diversity of other non-native plants, and differing intensities of anthropogenic disturbance (e.g., burning, cutting and harvesting of non-timber forest products). We ranked forest patches along a continuum representing deviations from a historical proxy (least disturbed) swamp forest to those with dramatically altered structural and floristic attributes (=novel swamp forests). Only one fragment overrun with A. allughas was classified as novel. If effective conservation and management does not come to the BRLM, the remaining swamp forest fragments appear doomed to further degradation and will soon disappear altogether.

  13. Characterizing the Status (Disturbed, Hybrid or Novel) of Swamp Forest Fragments in a Caribbean Ramsar Wetland: The Impact of Anthropogenic Degradation and Invasive Plant Species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prospere, Kurt; McLaren, Kurt P.; Wilson, Byron

    2016-10-01

    The last remaining Amazonian-type swamp forest fragments in Black River Lower Morass, Jamaica, have been subjected to a myriad of anthropogenic disturbances, compounded by the establishment and spread of several invasive plant species. We established 44 permanent sample plots (covering 3.92 ha) across 10 of these swamp forest fragments and sampled all non-woody plants and all trees ≥2 cm DBH found in the plots. These data were used to (1) identify thresholds of hybridity and novelty, (2) derive several diversity and structural descriptors used to characterize the swamp forest fragments and (3) identify possible indicators of anthropogenic degradation. These were incorporated into a framework and used to determine the status of the swamp forest fragments so that appropriate management and conservation measures can be implemented. We recorded 43 woody plant species (9 endemic, 28 native and 4 non-native) and 21 non-tree species. The composition and structure of all the patches differed significantly due to the impact of the herbaceous invasive plant Alpinia allughas, the presence and diversity of other non-native plants, and differing intensities of anthropogenic disturbance (e.g., burning, cutting and harvesting of non-timber forest products). We ranked forest patches along a continuum representing deviations from a historical proxy (least disturbed) swamp forest to those with dramatically altered structural and floristic attributes (=novel swamp forests). Only one fragment overrun with A. allughas was classified as novel. If effective conservation and management does not come to the BRLM, the remaining swamp forest fragments appear doomed to further degradation and will soon disappear altogether.

  14. Edentulism and other variables associated with self-reported health status in Mexican adults

    PubMed Central

    Medina-Solís, Carlo Eduardo; Pontigo-Loyola, América Patricia; Pérez-Campos, Eduardo; Hernández-Cruz, Pedro; Avila-Burgos, Leticia; Mendoza-Rodríguez, Martha; Maupomé, Gerardo

    2014-01-01

    Background To determine if edentulism, controlling for other known factors, is associated with subjective self-report health status (SRH) in Mexican adults. Material/Methods We examined the SRH of 13 966 individuals 35 years and older, using data from the National Survey of Performance Assessment, a cross-sectional study that is part of the technical collaboration between the Ministry of Health of Mexico and the World Health Organization, which used the survey instrument and sampling strategies developed by WHO for the World Health Survey. Sociodemographic, socioeconomic, medical, and behavioral variables were collected using questionnaires. Self-reported health was our dependent variable. Data on edentulism were available from 20 of the 32 Mexican states. A polynomial logistic regression model adjusted for complex sampling was generated. Results In the SRH, 58.2% reported their health status as very good/good, 33.8% said they had a moderate health status, and 8.0% reported that their health was bad/very bad. The association between edentulism and SRH was modified by age and was significant only for bad/very bad SRH. Higher odds of reporting moderate health or poor/very poor health were found in women, people with lower socio-economic status and with physical disabilities, those who were not physically active, or those who were underweight or obese, those who had any chronic disease, and those who used alcohol. Conclusions The association of edentulism with a self-report of a poor health status (poor/very poor) was higher in young people than in adults. The results suggest socioeconomic inequalities in SRH. Inequality was further confirmed among people who had a general health condition or a disability. PMID:24852266

  15. Human health risks due to heavy metals through consumption of wild mushrooms from Macheke forest, Rail Block forest and Muganyi communal lands in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Nharingo, Tichaona; Ndumo, Tafungwa; Moyo, Mambo

    2015-12-01

    The levels and sources of toxic heavy metals in Amanita loosii (AL) and Cantharellus floridulus (CF) mushrooms and their substrates were studied in some parts of Zimbabwe, Rail Block forest (mining town), Macheke forest (commercial farming), and Muganyi communal lands. The mushrooms and their associated soils were acid digested prior to Al, Pb, and Zn determination by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. The transfer factors, mushrooms-soil metal correlation coefficients, daily intake rates, weekly intake rates, and target hazard quotients were calculated for each metal. The concentration of Zn, Al and Pb in mushrooms ranged from 1.045 ± 0.028 to 7.568 ± 0.322, 0.025 ± 0.001 to 0.654 ± 0.005, and a maximum of 5.78 ± 0.31 mg/kg, respectively, in all the three sampling areas. The mean heavy metal concentrations among the three sampling areas decreased as follows: Rail Block forest (mining town) > Macheke forest (commercial farming) > Muganyi communal lands for the concentrations in both mushrooms and total concentration in their substrates. C. floridulus accumulated higher concentrations of Al, Zn, and Pb than A. loosii at each site under study. Zn in both AL and CF (Muganyi communal lands) and Pb in AL (Rail Block forest) were absorbed only from the soils, while other sources of contamination were involved elsewhere. The consumption of 300 g of fresh A. loosii and C. floridulus per day by children less than 16 kg harvested from Rail Block forest would cause health problems, while mushrooms from Macheke Forest and Muganyi communal lands were found to be safe for human consumption. Due to non-biodegradability and bioaccumulation abilities of heavy metals, people are discouraged to consume A. loosii and C. floridulus from Rail Block forest for they have significant levels of heavy metals compared to those from Macheke forest and Muganyi communal lands.

  16. Stress and sociocultural factors related to health status among US-Mexico border farmworkers.

    PubMed

    Carvajal, Scott C; Kibor, Clara; McClelland, Deborah Jean; Ingram, Maia; de Zapien, Jill Guernsey; Torres, Emma; Redondo, Floribella; Rodriguez, Kathryn; Rubio-Goldsmith, Raquel; Meister, Joel; Rosales, Cecilia

    2014-12-01

    This study examines factors relating to farmworkers' health status from sociocultural factors, including stress embedded within their work and community contexts. A cross-sectional household survey of farmworkers (N = 299) included social-demographics, immigration status descriptors, and a social-ecologically grounded, community-responsive, stress assessment. Outcomes included three standard US national surveillance measures of poor mental, physical, and self-rated health (SRH). Logistic regression models showed that higher levels of stress were significantly associated (Ps < .001) with increased risk for poor mental health and poor physical health considering all variables. Stress was not associated with SRH. Regarding two of the three outcomes, mental health and physical health, stress added explanatory power as expected. For poor SRH, a known marker for mortality risk and quite high in the sample at 38%, only age was significantly associated. Clinical and systems-level health promotion strategies may be required to mitigate these stressors in border-residing farmworkers.

  17. Personality is associated with perceived health and functional status in older primary care patients.

    PubMed

    Duberstein, Paul R; Sörensen, Silvia; Lyness, Jeffrey M; King, Deborah A; Conwell, Yeates; Seidlitz, Larry; Caine, Eric D

    2003-03-01

    Using data collected on 265 primary care medical patients 60 years of age and older, the authors examined the personality bases of subjective health (perceived health, functional status) after controlling for observer-rated depression and medical burden. Four hypotheses were tested: High Neuroticism is associated with poorer perceived health, low Extraversion is associated with poorer perceived health, low Openness to Experience is associated with worse functional status, and age moderates the relationships between personality and subjective health. Findings supported the notion that personality is associated with subjective health; moreover, this effect appeared to grow more pronounced with increasing age. This study underscores the conceptual and heuristic value of examining moderators of the links between personality variables and health.

  18. Use of NASA Satellite Data to Improve Coastal Cypress Forest Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spurce, Joseph; Graham, William; Barras, John

    2010-01-01

    Problem: Information gaps exist regarding health status and location of cypress forests in coastal Louisiana (LA). Such information is needed to aid coastal forest conservation and restoration programs. Approach to Issue Mitigation: Use NASA data to revise cypress forest cover type maps. Landsat and ASTER data. Use NASA data to identify and track cypress forest change. Landsat, ASTER, and MODIS data. Work with partners and end-users to transfer useful products and technology.

  19. Worse Health Status and Higher Incidence of Health Disorders in Rhesus Negative Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Flegr, Jaroslav; Hoffmann, Rudolf; Dammann, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Rhesus-positive and Rhesus-negative persons differ in the presence-absence of highly immunogenic RhD protein on the erythrocyte membrane. The biological function of the RhD molecule is unknown. Its structure suggests that the molecular complex with RhD protein transports NH3 or CO2 molecules across the erythrocyte cell membrane. Some data indicate that RhD positive and RhD negative subjects differ in their tolerance to certain biological factors, including, Toxoplasma infection, aging and fatique. Present cross sectional study performed on 3,130 subjects) showed that Rhesus negative subjects differed in many indices of their health status, including incidences of many disorders. Rhesus negative subjects reported to have more frequent allergic, digestive, heart, hematological, immunity, mental health, and neurological problems. On the population level, a Rhesus-negativity-associated burden could be compensated for, for example, by the heterozygote advantage, but for Rhesus negative subjects this burden represents a serious problem. PMID:26495842

  20. Health Status of Children of Migrant Farm Workers: Farm Worker Family Health Program, Moultrie, Georgia

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Aryeh D.; Wold, Judith Lupo

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated the health status of migrant farmworkers’ children served by the Farm Worker Family Health Program (FWFHP) in Moultrie, Georgia. Methods. We analyzed data from children aged 0 to 16 years examined through the FWFHP from 2003 to 2011 (n across years = 179–415). We compared their prevalence of overweight, obesity, elevated blood pressure, anemia, and stunting with that of children in the United States and Mexico. Results. Across study years, prevalence of overweight, obesity, elevated blood pressure, anemia, and stunting ranged from 13.5% to 21.8%, 24.0% to 37.4%, 4.1% to 20.2%, 10.1% to 23.9%, and 1% to 6.4%, respectively. Children in the FWFHP had a higher prevalence of obesity than children in all comparison groups, and FWFHP children aged 6 to 12 years had a higher prevalence of elevated blood pressure than all comparison groups. Older FWFHP children had a higher prevalence of anemia than US children and Mexican children. Children in FWFHP had a higher prevalence of stunting than US and Mexican American children. Conclusions. We observed an elevated prevalence of obesity, anemia among older age groups, and stunting in this sample of children of migrant workers. PMID:24328649

  1. Changes in self-rated health and subjective social status over time in a cohort of healthcare personnel.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Mark G; Gaglani, Manjusha J; Naleway, Allison; Thaker, Swathi; Ball, Sarah

    2014-09-01

    As part of a prospective cohort study of 1354 female and 347 male healthcare personnel, we examined the stability of subjective social status over ~7 months and the prospective association between subjective social status and self-rated health status. Most (82%) subjective social status ratings were stable (within ±1 point). Lower baseline subjective social status among healthcare personnel was associated with more subsequent reports of fatigue and headache and worsening global self-rated health status. Healthcare personnel who placed themselves on the bottom half of the subjective social status ladder were four times more likely to experience a decline in global self-rated health status and half as likely to improve to excellent self-rated health status.

  2. Health status and labour force participation: evidence from Australia.

    PubMed

    Cai, Lixin; Kalb, Guyonne

    2006-03-01

    This paper examines the effect of health on labour force participation using the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) Survey. The potential endogeneity of health, especially self-assessed health, in the labour force participation equation is addressed by estimating the health equation and the labour force participation equation simultaneously. Taking into account the correlation between the error terms in the two equations, the estimation is conducted separately for males aged 15-49, males aged 50-64, females aged 15-49 and females aged 50-60. The results indicate that better health increases the probability of labour force participation for all four groups. However, the effect is larger for the older groups and for women. As for the feedback effect, it is found that labour force participation has a significant positive impact on older females' health, and a significant negative effect on younger males' health. For younger females and older males, the impact of labour force participation on health is not significant. The null-hypothesis of exogeneity of health to labour force participation is rejected for all groups.

  3. Community mental health care worldwide: current status and further developments.

    PubMed

    Thornicroft, Graham; Deb, Tanya; Henderson, Claire

    2016-10-01

    This paper aims to give an overview of the key issues facing those who are in a position to influence the planning and provision of mental health systems, and who need to address questions of which staff, services and sectors to invest in, and for which patients. The paper considers in turn: a) definitions of community mental health care; b) a conceptual framework to use when evaluating the need for hospital and community mental health care; c) the potential for wider platforms, outside the health service, for mental health improvement, including schools and the workplace; d) data on how far community mental health services have been developed across different regions of the world; e) the need to develop in more detail models of community mental health services for low- and middle-income countries which are directly based upon evidence for those countries; f) how to incorporate mental health practice within integrated models to identify and treat people with comorbid long-term conditions; g) possible adverse effects of deinstitutionalization. We then present a series of ten recommendations for the future strengthening of health systems to support and treat people with mental illness.

  4. Community mental health care worldwide: current status and further developments

    PubMed Central

    Thornicroft, Graham; Deb, Tanya; Henderson, Claire

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to give an overview of the key issues facing those who are in a position to influence the planning and provision of mental health systems, and who need to address questions of which staff, services and sectors to invest in, and for which patients. The paper considers in turn: a) definitions of community mental health care; b) a conceptual framework to use when evaluating the need for hospital and community mental health care; c) the potential for wider platforms, outside the health service, for mental health improvement, including schools and the workplace; d) data on how far community mental health services have been developed across different regions of the world; e) the need to develop in more detail models of community mental health services for low‐ and middle‐income countries which are directly based upon evidence for those countries; f) how to incorporate mental health practice within integrated models to identify and treat people with comorbid long‐term conditions; g) possible adverse effects of deinstitutionalization. We then present a series of ten recommendations for the future strengthening of health systems to support and treat people with mental illness. PMID:27717265

  5. Current status of cardiac surgery allied health professionals in Asia.

    PubMed

    Liu, Z; Ye, W

    2011-01-01

    More and more allied health professions are getting involved in clinical health care. One estimate reported allied health personnel makes up 60 percent of the total health workforce. In Asia, in the field of cardiothoracic surgery, allied health personnel includes perfusionists, physician assistants, physiotherapist, intensivists, rehabilitation therapists, nutritionists and social workers. They work in collaboration with surgeons to provide a range of diagnostic, technical, therapeutic, cardiac care and support services to the patients and their families.Some allied health professions are more specialized. They must adhere to national training and education standards and their professional scope of practice. For example, the training of perfusionists consists of at least five years of academic in medical schools and another three-year-long clinical training in the hospital. The cardiac intensivists usually are medical doctors with a background in cardiology. They spend 3-4 years rotating in Internal Medicine, Anesthesiology, Emergency Rooms and Intensive Care Units. There have specialized medical societies to grant certified credentials and to provide continuing education. Other allied health professions require no special training or credentials and are trained for their work by the hospitals through on-the-job training. Many young health care providers are getting involved in the allied health personnel projects. They consider this as a career ladder because of the opportunities for advancement within specific fields.

  6. Electronic health in ghana: current status and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Afarikumah, Ebenezer

    2014-01-01

    The health-care system in Ghana is similar to those in other developing countries and access to health services for remote communities is extremely limited. In July, 2010, the Government of Ghana launched the national e health strategy. A number of international organizations have initiated various pilot projects, including disseminating and collecting data, education initiatives and telemedicine. In addition, several institutions and organizations are dedicated to the promotion of e-health and a range of Web-based health consultancy services have begun. The main objective of this study is to provide an overview of eHealth activities in Ghana. It was a daunting task, not least because of the need to gather information on eHealth projects and initiatives in Ghana, as there is no existing repository of such information. Through literature search in Africa journals online, Hinari, Medline, Google.com, Journal of Telemedicine and e-Health, Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare, Journal of Medical Internet Research and Interaction with eHealth experts, followed up with some of the authors' for directions to other projects, and following the references in some articles. A total of twenty-two (22) pilot projects have been identified in Ghana. Mobile devices in use range from PDAs to simple phones and smart phones. The key findings of this research are that there are about 22 eHealth project at various stages of implementation in Ghana. Some of these projects have wind up and others are still being implemented. Mobile devices in use range from PDAs to simple mobile phones and smart phones. Most of the projects have been donor initiated. Data collection started in March 2010 to June 2013. Although eHealth seems to have a limited role in Ghana at present, there is growing interest in the opportunities it may offer in terms of improving the delivery and access to services, especially in remote locations. Recommendations for further research are provided.

  7. Modeling physical health and functional health status: the role of combat exposure, posttraumatic stress disorder, and personal resource attributes.

    PubMed

    Taft, C T; Stern, A S; King, L A; King, D W

    1999-01-01

    This study examined associations of combat exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) with physical health conditions and also incorporated hardiness and social support as mediators and functional health status as an outcome. Data were derived from 1,632 male and female Vietnam veterans who participated in the National Vietnam Veterans Readjustment Study. Path analysis revealed that hardiness and social support operated primarily as intermediary variables between combat exposure and PTSD, and PTSD emerged as the pivotal variable explaining physical health conditions and functional health status. Gender-based differences in means and patterns of associations among variables were found. The results stress the importance of assessing trauma in clinical settings as a meaningful determinant of health outcomes.

  8. Mapping tree health using airborne laser scans and hyperspectral imagery: a case study for a floodplain eucalypt forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shendryk, Iurii; Tulbure, Mirela; Broich, Mark; McGrath, Andrew; Alexandrov, Sergey; Keith, David

    2016-04-01

    Airborne laser scanning (ALS) and hyperspectral imaging (HSI) are two complementary remote sensing technologies that provide comprehensive structural and spectral characteristics of forests over large areas. In this study we developed two algorithms: one for individual tree delineation utilizing ALS and the other utilizing ALS and HSI to characterize health of delineated trees in a structurally complex floodplain eucalypt forest. We conducted experiments in the largest eucalypt, river red gum forest in the world, located in the south-east of Australia that experienced severe dieback over the past six decades. For detection of individual trees from ALS we developed a novel bottom-up approach based on Euclidean distance clustering to detect tree trunks and random walks segmentation to further delineate tree crowns. Overall, our algorithm was able to detect 67% of tree trunks with diameter larger than 13 cm. We assessed the accuracy of tree delineations in terms of crown height and width, with correct delineation of 68% of tree crowns. The increase in ALS point density from ~12 to ~24 points/m2 resulted in tree trunk detection and crown delineation increase of 11% and 13%, respectively. Trees with incorrectly delineated crowns were generally attributed to areas with high tree density along water courses. The accurate delineation of trees allowed us to classify the health of this forest using machine learning and field-measured tree crown dieback and transparency ratios, which were good predictors of tree health in this forest. ALS and HSI derived indices were used as predictor variables to train and test object-oriented random forest classifier. Returned pulse width, intensity and density related ALS indices were the most important predictors in the tree health classifications. At the forest level in terms of tree crown dieback, 77% of trees were classified as healthy, 14% as declining and 9% as dying or dead with 81% mapping accuracy. Similarly, in terms of tree

  9. Mapping tree health using airborne full-waveform laser scans and hyperspectral imagery: a case study for floodplain eucalypt forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shendryk, I.; Tulbure, M. G.; Broich, M.

    2014-12-01

    Barmah-Millewa Forest (BMF), the largest River Red Gum forest in the world, located in south-eastern Australia is suffering from severe dieback, thus diminishing its ecological and economical value. Previous research showed that dieback is a good predictor of the forest health and stressed the need for BMF health mapping and change monitoring. In this respect, airborne laser scanning and hyperspectral imaging offer extensive spatial and spectral coverage of measurements and represent an ideal tool for forest health mapping at individual tree scale. The aim of this project is to quantify the health of individual, structurally complex floodplain eucalypt trees by integrating airborne hyperspectral imagery, full-waveform laser scans and field measurements. An aerial survey, conducted in May 2014, was designed to provide a representative sample of BMF tree health. The positioning of 17 flight lines aimed to capture the heterogeneity of the forest health and flood frequency. Preliminary analysis of the aerial remote sensing data with regards to chlorophyll concentrations, dieback levels and canopy densities allowed us to target our field campaign (conducted in June 2014). Field measurements included accurate position measurements, LAI, visual assessment, spectral measurement and mensuration of individual trees in 30 m2 plots. For detection of individual tree trunks from airborne laser scans we used a novel approach based on Euclidean distance clustering, taking advantage of the intensity and pulse width difference between woody and leaf tree compartments. The detected trunks were used to seed a minimum cut algorithm for tree crown delineation. In situ measurements confirmed the high structural diversity of the forest and allowed the calibration of the tree detection algorithm. An overall accuracy of the tree detection of 54% and 67% was achieved for trees with circumference over 40 cm and over 100 cm respectively. As a further step, 3D point clusters representing

  10. Gender & Economic Status Matter in Mental Health of Adolescents?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Namita; Dua, Radha

    2011-01-01

    Mental health is the ability to adjust oneself satisfactorily to the various strains of life. Mental health and Education are closely related to each other. Sound mental is prerequisite for the learner. In this era of severe competition to excel or to be on the top is pressurizing today's adolescents to the utmost. Besides a number of factors like…

  11. Community Colleges of Colorado: Status of Health Care Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Randy

    The rapid increase in Colorado's population has created a huge demand for allied health care providers. This increase, coupled with the aging baby boomer population, has created a near-crisis situation in many Colorado communities. The U.S. Department of Labor predicts severe shortages of allied health care workers for the next several years. The…

  12. Anger Symptomatology, Stress Reactivity and Health Status of Mid-Life Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Sandra P.

    This study examined psychological, behavioral, environmental, and sociodemographic predictors of health status in 87 mid-life women participating in a longitudinal investigation. Correlates of good health were found to be an optimistic disposition, internal locus of control, education, income, employment outside the home, moderate exercise, and…

  13. The Prevalence of Self-Reported Health Problems and Haemoglobin Status of Sudanese Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moukhyer, M. E.; de Vries, N. K.; Bosma, H.; van Eijk, J. Th. M.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we describe self-reported health problems and haemoglobin status among 1200 Sudanese adolescents (53.2% females, 46.8% males). Many adolescents report their general health as excellent and good (84%). A large number, however, report separate physical and psychological complaints. Report of psychological complaints is equal for both…

  14. Determinants of Self-Perceived Changes in Health Status among Pre- and Early-Retirement Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Namkee G.

    2003-01-01

    Using data from the 1992 and 1994 waves of the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), this study described reasons reported by pre- and early-retirement populations for perceived changes in global health status over a 2-year period. It then analyzed the association between self-perceptions of change and the actual changes in objective health…

  15. Effect of Service Barriers on Health Status of Aging South Asian Immigrants in Calgary, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Daniel W. L.; Surood, Shireen

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between service barriers and health status of aging South Asian immigrants. Data were obtained through a structured telephone survey with a random sample of 220 South Asians 55 years of age and older. The effect of the different types of service barriers on the physical and mental health of participants was…

  16. Associations among Socioeconomic Status, Perceived Neighborhood Control, Perceived Individual Control, and Self-Reported Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Spencer; Daniel, Mark; Bockenholt, Ulf; Gauvin, Lise; Richard, Lucie; Stewart, Steven; Dube, Laurette

    2010-01-01

    Recent research has suggested that perceived control and a person's perceptions of their neighborhood environment may mediate the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and health. This cross-sectional study assessed whether perceptions of informal social control mediated the association between SES and self-reported health, and if these…

  17. Trends in the Health Status of Older Manitobans, 1985 to 1999

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menec, Verena H.; Lix, Lisa; MacWilliam, Leonard R.

    2005-01-01

    Trends in the health status of the entire senior population aged 65 years or older in Manitoba were examined over a 14-year period (1985-1999) using administrative data (about 150,000 individuals). Significant health gains were apparent for a number of important indicators, including acute myocardial infarction, stroke, cancer, and hip fractures,…

  18. Health and Nutritional Status of Working and Non-Working Mothers in Poverty Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roe, Daphne A.; Eickwort, Kathleen R.

    The aim of this study was to examine the health and nutritional status of low-income women in Upstate New York and to identify problems that interfere with their employment. Questionnaires on health and work, complete medical and employment histories, physical examination, laboratory tests, dental examination and diet recalls were obtained for 469…

  19. Early Childbearing, Marital Status, and Women's Health and Mortality after Age 50

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henretta, John C.

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between a woman's childbearing history and her later health and mortality, with primary focus on whether the association between them is due to early and later socioeconomic status. Data are drawn from the Health and Retirement Study birth cohort of 1931-1941. Results indicate that, conditional on reaching…

  20. College students' responses to mental health status updates on Facebook.

    PubMed

    Egan, Katie G; Koff, Rosalind N; Moreno, Megan A

    2013-01-01

    Facebook is widely used by the college population, and previous research has shown that mental health references on Facebook are common. Focus groups of college students were held to determine their views of mental health references seen in their peers' Facebook profiles. Students' views of mental health references varied from being serious calls for help, to being jokes or attention-seeking behavior. Responses to mental health references depended on the participants' offline relationship with the poster. Students would contact close friends through a phone call or in-person conversation, but would not approach acquaintances. The prevalence of mental health references on Facebook, and the awareness of these references by college students, may present opportunities for future peer intervention efforts.

  1. Education for eHealth--a status analysis.

    PubMed

    Herzog, Juliane; Pohn, Birgit; Forjan, Mathias; Sauermann, Stefan; Urbauer, Philipp

    2014-01-01

    eHealth is not only a growing market, but also an important factor for new healthcare systems. National and European initiatives implicitly demand a higher level of knowledge in the areas of healthcare, engineering and management. As part of the eLearning4eHealth project an initial web based study was performed concentrating on European and global eHealth related educational programs. The results show that eHealth related courses do not evenly exist for the identified professions. 43% of the offered programs are focused on the engineering sector, whereas only 21% are available for the management sector. In order to offer compatible and comparable state of knowledge in the identified fields of profession and knowledge, further educational programs may be necessary. Despite the found shortcomings, results have shown that international activities have started in order to close the gaps and improve the quality of knowledge in the interdisciplinary field of eHealth.

  2. Health status: types of validity and the index of well-being.

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, R M; Bush, J W; Berry, C C

    1976-01-01

    The concept of validity as it applies to measures of health and health status is examined in the context of a set of standard, widely accepted definitions of validity. Criterion validity is shown to be irrelevant to health status measures because of the lack of a single specific, directly observable measure of health for use as a criterion. To overcome this problem, the Index of Well-being has been constructed to fulfill the definition of content validity by including all levels of function and symptom/problem complexes, a clearly defined relation to the death state, and consumer ratings of the relative desirability of the function levels. Data from a two-wave household interview survey provide convergent evidence of construct validity by demonstrating an expected positive correlation of the Index of Well-being with self-rated well-being and expected negative correlations with age, number of chronic medical conditions, number of reported symptoms or problems, number of physician contacts, and dysfunctional status. Discriminant evidence of construct validity is demonstrated by predicted differences in correlation between concurrent Index of Well-being scores and self-assessed overall health status, and between the Index of Well-being scores and self-rated well-being on different days. A simple method of estimating a currently usable comprehensive population index of health status, the Weighted Life Expectancy, is described. PMID:1030700

  3. Influence of socioeconomic status on the relationship between locus of control and oral health.

    PubMed

    Acharya, Shashidhar; Pentapati, Kalyana Chakravarthy; Singh, Sweta

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the relationship between Locus of Control (LoC) and oral health among a group of rural adolescent school children and to examine the influence of socioeconomic status (SES) on the association between health, LoC and oral health status. A total of 318 children 15 years of age from a public and private school formed the study population. The children were administered following the Indian translation of the 18-item Multidimensional Health Locus of Control scale, and subsequently examined for caries and oral hygiene. T tests and correlation analyses showed a significant relationship between higher 'Internal' Locus of Control and dental caries. A hierarchical multiple regression analysis was performed to assess the effect of socioeconomic status on LoC and oral health using three interaction models which showed a statistically significant interaction between 'Internal' LoC and socioeconomic status on caries. Socioeconomic stratum-specific estimates of the relationship between the LoC and caries revealed a positive association between Internal LoC and caries in the middle socioeconomic group. The results demonstrated the relationship between Locus of Control and oral health, and the role of socioeconomic status having a strong bearing on this relationship.

  4. Food security and perceptions of health status: a preliminary study in rural Appalachia.

    PubMed

    Pheley, Alfred M; Holben, David H; Graham, Annette S; Simpson, Chris

    2002-01-01

    Food insecurity is estimated to affect about 10% of the United States population. Rural areas experience even higher rates and intensity of food security problems related to poverty, food access, and higher food costs. Reports of the relationship between household food security and health status, however, are limited. This report examines the relationship between household food security and measures of functional health status in a rural Appalachian sample. A comprehensive health status survey was completed by 1,006 individuals seen either in a clinical (n = 605) or nonclinical (n = 401) community setting. The survey included the USDA Food Security Core Module, the SF-36, and demographic and health care access questions. Household food insecurity was reported by 23% of respondents. Food insecure respondents reported significantly poorerfunctional status on all SF-36 scales compared tofood secure respondents (all p < 0.05). After adjusting for demographic and access variables in a multiple regression analysis, food insecurity remained a significant independent predictor of responses for each SF-36 scale. Generalizability of results are limited by the convenience sampling methods and geographic region in which the study was conducted. In this preliminary study, even minimal levels of food insecurity are related to self-reported levels of health status as measured by the SF-36 spectrum. Health professionals must be able to identify individuals at risk for food insufficiency; policy makers must develop more effective programs for alleviating the basic causes of food insecurity.

  5. Relationship of Periodontal Status and Dental Caries Status with Oral Health Knowledge, Attitude and Behavior among Professional Students in India

    PubMed Central

    Sharda, Archana J; Shetty, Srinath

    2009-01-01

    Aim To find the relationship of periodontal status and dental caries status with oral health knowledge, attitude, behavior, among professional students in India. Methodology In a cross sectional study, a total of 825 students (males: 577, females: 248) from six professions were surveyed using a self administered structured questionnaire including 41 multiple choice questions and the WHO Oral Health Assessment Form (1997). The data was analyzed using the SPSS version 13.0 to perform the Student's t-test, ANOVA test, Scheffe's test and Chi-square test, linear regression analysis. Results The mean percentage scores of the students for knowledge were 53.25 ± 15.05; for attitude 74.97 ±20.48; and for behavior 59.09 ± 18.77. The percentage of students with calculus score was found to be significantly high (43.8%). The percentage of professional students with DMFT>4 was 14.1% and the percentage of students with decayed teeth was 46.2%. The regression analysis showed that the oral health behavior of the students was dependent on the attitude (P <0.001), but showed no significant linear relation with the knowledge. Also, that the mean DMFT score was dependent on the oral health behavior (P <0.05), but showed no significant relationship with the knowledge and attitude of the students. The periodontal status was independent on the knowledge, but showed a significant relationship with attitude and behavior of the students. Conclusion A positive attitude and adherence to good oral hygiene behaviors is associated with better oral health. PMID:20690423

  6. The role of public policies in reducing mental health status disparities for people of color.

    PubMed

    Alegría, Margarita; Pérez, Debra Joy; Williams, Sandra

    2003-01-01

    Ethnic and racial disparities in mental health are driven by social factors such as housing, education, and income. Many of these social factors are different for minorities than they are for whites. Policies that address gaps in these social factors therefore can address mental health status disparities. We analyze three policies and their impact on minorities: the Individuals with Disability Education Act, Section 8 housing vouchers, and the Earned Income Tax Credit. Two of the three policies appear to have been effective in reducing social inequalities between whites and minorities. Expansion of public policies can be the mechanism to eliminate mental health status disparities for minorities.

  7. Current status of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis in Beyla and Macenta Prefectures, Forest Guinea.

    PubMed

    Hodges, Mary; Koroma, Manso M; Baldé, Mamadou S; Turay, Hamid; Fofanah, Ibrahim; Divall, Mark J; Winkler, Mirko S; Zhang, Yaobi

    2011-11-01

    A cross-sectional survey was undertaken in children aged 9-14 years in Beyla and Macenta Prefectures, Forest Guinea. Stool samples were examined by Kato-Katz and urine samples were examined by the centrifugation method. The overall prevalence and intensity of infection was 66.2% and 462.4 eggs per gram of faeces (epg) for Schistosoma mansoni, 21.0% and 17.8 eggs per 10ml of urine for S. haematobium, 51.2% and 507.5 epg for hookworm, 8.1% and 89.1 epg for Ascaris lumbricoides and 2.4% and 16.7 epg for Trichuris trichiura. The overall prevalence of schistosomiasis (S. mansoni and/or S. haematobium) was 70.7%. The prevalence of schistosomiasis was similar to those reported in the 1990s in the region; however, the prevalence of soil-transmitted helminths has since fallen. These findings illustrate the need for schistosomiasis control in Guinea.

  8. Regeneration status of mangrove forests in Mida Creek, Kenya: a compromised or secured future?

    PubMed

    Kairo, James Gitundu; Dahdouh-Guebas, Farid; Gwada, Patrick O; Ochieng, Caroline; Koedam, Nico

    2002-12-01

    The structure and regeneration patterns of Mida Creek mangrove vegetation were studied along belt transects at 2 forest sites of Mida Creek (3 degrees 20'S, 40 degrees 00'E): Uyombo and Kirepwe. Based on the species importance values, the dominant mangrove tree species in Mida were Ceriops tagal (Perr.) C. B. Robinson and Rhizophora mucronata Lamk. Tree density varied from 1197 trees ha(-1) at Kirepwe to 1585 trees ha(-1) at Uyombo and mean tree height was higher at the former site compared to the latter. The size-class structure at both localities of Mida showed the presence of more small trees than large ones. Spatial distribution pattern of adults and juveniles varied greatly between sites and they showed a close to uniform pattern (Morisita's Index I0 < 1) for trees, but a tendency to random distribution (I0 = 1) for juveniles. The present paper shows that unmanaged but exploited mangroves do not necessarily disappear, but change qualitatively from locally preferred R. mucronata to the less preferred C. tagal. Whereas the effects of this change on the ecological function of the mangrove cannot be estimated yet, the economical function of the mangrove has evidently weakened.

  9. An Examination of Forest Certification Status among Logging Companies in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Nukpezah, Daniel; Alemagi, Dieudonne; Duguma, Lalisa; Minang, Peter; Mbosso, Charlie; Tchoundjeu, Zac

    2014-01-01

    This paper assesses the level of interest, awareness, and adoption of ISO 14001 and Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) certification schemes among logging companies in Cameroon. Eleven logging companies located in Douala in the Littoral Region of Cameroon were assessed through a structured interview using an administered questionnaire which was mostly analyzed qualitatively thereafter. The findings indicated that none of the companies was certified for ISO 14001; however 63.64% of them were already FSC-certified. Four companies (36.36%) were neither FSC- nor ISO 14001 EMS-certified. Among the factors found to influence the adoption rate was the level of awareness about ISO 14001 and FSC certification schemes. The main drivers for pursuing FSC certification were easy penetration into international markets, tax holiday benefits, and enhancement of corporate image of the logging companies through corporate social responsibility fulfillments. Poor domestic market for certified products was found to be the major impediment to get certified. To make logging activities more environmentally friendly and socially acceptable, logging companies should be encouraged to get certified through the ISO 14001 EMS scheme which is almost nonexistent so far. This requires awareness creation about the scheme, encouraging domestic markets for certified products and creating policy incentives.

  10. An Examination of Forest Certification Status among Logging Companies in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Nukpezah, Daniel; Alemagi, Dieudonne; Duguma, Lalisa; Minang, Peter; Mbosso, Charlie; Tchoundjeu, Zac

    2014-01-01

    This paper assesses the level of interest, awareness, and adoption of ISO 14001 and Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) certification schemes among logging companies in Cameroon. Eleven logging companies located in Douala in the Littoral Region of Cameroon were assessed through a structured interview using an administered questionnaire which was mostly analyzed qualitatively thereafter. The findings indicated that none of the companies was certified for ISO 14001; however 63.64% of them were already FSC-certified. Four companies (36.36%) were neither FSC- nor ISO 14001 EMS-certified. Among the factors found to influence the adoption rate was the level of awareness about ISO 14001 and FSC certification schemes. The main drivers for pursuing FSC certification were easy penetration into international markets, tax holiday benefits, and enhancement of corporate image of the logging companies through corporate social responsibility fulfillments. Poor domestic market for certified products was found to be the major impediment to get certified. To make logging activities more environmentally friendly and socially acceptable, logging companies should be encouraged to get certified through the ISO 14001 EMS scheme which is almost nonexistent so far. This requires awareness creation about the scheme, encouraging domestic markets for certified products and creating policy incentives. PMID:27355041

  11. Assessing health status and quality of life in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: which measure should be used?

    PubMed

    De Vries, J; Seebregts, A; Drent, M

    2000-03-01

    Many studies conducted on the health status and quality of life (QOL) of patients with certain chronic diseases have demonstrated that their disease had an impact on their lives. However, less is known about the QOL and health status of patients suffering from idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). In the present study, three focus groups of IPF patients (n=10) were run to identify the aspects of QOL or health status that are relevant to this population and to establish which measure is preferable to assess these aspects. The patients completed and discussed the St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) and the World Health Organization Quality of Life assessment instrument (WHOQOL-100). Results indicated that hobbies/leisure activities, mobility, transport, social relationships, working capacity, energy and doing things slower were aspects relevant to IPF patients' QOL. The WHOQOL-100, with an additional social support questionnaire, appeared to be preferable.

  12. Dysphonations in infant cry: A potential marker for health status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbs, Katlin J.

    Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is defined as an unexplained death in an infant's first year of life. Risk factors for SIDS include maternal smoking, sex, and infant sleep positioning, among others. The current study analyzed dysphonations in the cries of 32 infants 24-66 hours after birth. Dysphonations are acoustic characteristics of cries and include frequency shift (FS), harmonic doubling (HD), biphonation (BP), and noise (N). An interaction effect was found, male infants whose mothers smoked during pregnancy (maternal smoking status) had a significantly lower percent of dysphonations than male infants whose mothers did not smoke during pregnancy (no maternal smoking status). No significant main effects were found for the factors maternal smoking status, sex, infant positioning, or partition. In addition, the types of dysphonations were consistently distributed across groups with noise being the most commonly occurring dysphonation followed by harmonic doubling, frequency shift and then biphonation. It is hypothesized that differences in number and type of dysphonations may either be an effect of differences in infant arousal and/or developmental differences. A lower number of dysphonations seen in male infants with mothers who smoked during pregnancy may suggest a lowered arousal state, which may be associated with the occurrence of SIDS.

  13. Considering the health care entity C corporation conversion to tax pass-through entity status.

    PubMed

    Reilly, Robert F

    2012-01-01

    The double taxation of C corporation income from operations and from the ultimate sale of its assets makes the C corporation an inefficient tax status for many health care entities. At the time of this writing, the changes in the federal tax law that are scheduled to take effect in 2013 will increase this level of double-taxation inefficiency. The owners of a C corporation practice can avoid the C corporation status tax inefficiency by converting the practice to either (1) S corporation status or (2) LLC status. The conversion of the health care C corporation to an S corporation may be accomplished without a current tax cost. However, the conversion of a health care C corporation to an LLC status can result in a current tax at both the corporation level and the shareholder level. Nonetheless, the current conversion tax cost may be less than the future tax cost (1) of operating the practice as a C corporation and incurring double taxation at what may be higher tax rates or (2) of incurring the higher tax cost (or reduced price) on the ultimate disposition of the practice assets and the attendant double taxation of the appreciation in the value of the practice assets. Since individual income tax rates on qualifying dividends from C corporations and on capital gains are currently at very low rates, this may be a good time for C corporation practice owners to consider the costs and benefits of a conversion to either S corporation status or LLC status. The practice owners should consult with their accounting, legal, and valuation advisors in order to consider all of the costs and benefits of a possible corporate tax status conversion. An estimation of both the costs and benefits of the corporate tax status conversion depends on the concluded fair market values of the medical practice, dental practice, or other health care entity assets. And, that practice asset appraisal should encompass all of the practice assets, both tangible assets and intangible assets.

  14. Iranian Nurses’ Status in Policymaking for Nursing in Health System: A Qualitative Content Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cheraghi, Mohammad Ali; Ghiyasvandian, Shahrzad; Aarabi, Akram

    2015-01-01

    Presence of nurses in policy making will result improvement of nursing practice, and increase qualification of patients’ care, but still few nurses are involved in policy debates and health reforms and their status in policy making for nursing is not clear. The aim of this study was to elucidate Iranian nurses’ status in policy making for nursing in health system. This is a qualitative study. Using purposive sampling 22 participants were interviewed to gain deep understanding from the phenomenon of status of nurses in policy making. Of these 2 were not nurses but the members of Iran’s council for health policy making. Data were analyzed by employing conventional content analysis. Nurses’ status in policy making declared base on the implications of three main themes including “the policy making framework”, “perceived status of nurses in policy making”, and “the manner of nurses’ participation in policy making”. The conclusion of the present study is that Policy making for nursing is a subcategory of Iran’s macro health policies. What made the status of nurses more efficient in policy making for nursing was their practice and rate of participation in the appointed positions and the society. Results of this study represented major points of weakness in nursing policies and some recommendations for modifications. PMID:26089996

  15. Changes in food insecurity, nutritional status, and physical health status after antiretroviral therapy initiation in rural Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Weiser, Sheri D.; Gupta, Reshma; Tsai, Alexander C.; Frongillo, Edward A.; Grede, Nils; Kumbakumba, Elias; Kawuma, Annet; Hunt, Peter W.; Martin, Jeffrey N.; Bangsberg, David R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether time on antiretroviral treatment (ART) is associated with improvements in food security and nutritional status, and the extent to which associations are mediated by improved physical health status (PHS). Design The Uganda AIDS Rural Treatment Outcomes study (UARTO), a prospective cohort of HIV-infected adults newly initiating ART in Mbarara, Uganda. Methods Participants initiating ART underwent quarterly structured interview and blood draws. The primary explanatory variable was time on ART, constructed as a set of binary variables for each three-month period. Outcomes were food insecurity, nutritional status and PHS. We fit multiple regression models with cluster-correlated robust estimates of variance to account for within-person dependence of observations over time, and analyses were adjusted for clinical and socio-demographic characteristics. Results 228 ART-naive participants were followed for up to 3 years, and 41% were severely food insecure at baseline. The mean food insecurity score progressively declined (test for linear trend P<0.0001), beginning with the second quarter (b=-1.6; 95% CI, -2.7 to -0.45) and ending with the final quarter (b=-6.4; 95% CI, -10.3 to -2.5). PHS and nutritional status improved in a linear fashion over study follow-up (P<0.001). Inclusion of PHS in the regression model attenuated the relationship between ART duration and food security. Conclusions Among HIV-infected individuals in Uganda, food insecurity decreased and nutritional status and PHS improved over time after initiation of ART. Changes in food insecurity were partially explained by improvements in PHS. These data support early initiation of ART in resource-poor settings prior to decline in functional status to prevent worsening food insecurity and its detrimental effects on HIV treatment outcomes. PMID:22692093

  16. Toward Development of a Naval Oral Health Status Index,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-01

    included variables for certain health factors ( diabetes , cardiovascular disorders, and rheumatic fever) ; temporomandibular joint (TMJ) dysfunc- tions...yielded 208 variables, as indicated in Figure 3. As can be seen, these included age; sex; race; history of diabetes , cardiovascular disease, or...Female___ Race: American Indian (1) Health: Diabetes I Black (2) Cardiovascular -- " Oriental (3) - Rheumatic Feverj..._ Spanish (4) W’hite (5) Other

  17. Parents' Socioeconomic Status and Health Literacy Domains among Shokrof Preparatory School Students , Shokrof Village, Algarbia Governorate, Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alseraty, Wafaa Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Parents' socioeconomic status is mainly impact their children health outcomes, cognitive, social and emotional development. It also had a great impact on children health-related knowledge, health-related attitudes, health-related communication, health-related behavior, and self-efficiency level. Enhancing health literacy domains are the keystone…

  18. The socioeconomic status of older adults: How should we measure it in studies of health inequalities?

    PubMed Central

    Grundy, E; Holt, G

    2001-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE—To identify which of seven indicators of socioeconomic status used singly or combined with one other would be most useful in studies of health inequalities in the older population.
DESIGN—Secondary analysis of socioeconomic and health data in a two wave survey.
SETTING—Great Britain. Participants were interviewed at home by a trained interviewer.
PARTICIPANTS—Nationally representative sample of 3543 adults aged 55-69 interviewed in 1988/9, 2243 of whom were interviewed again in 1994.
METHODS—Desirable features of socioeconomic measurement systems for identifying health inequalities in older populations were identified with reference to the literature. Logistic regression was used to examine variations in self reported health by seven indicators of socioeconomic status. The pair of indicators with the greatest explanatory power was identified.
MAIN RESULTS—All indicators were significantly associated with differences in self reported health. The best pair of variables, according to criteria used, was educational qualification or social class paired with a deprivation indicator.
DISCUSSION—For a range of reasons the measurement of socioeconomic status is particularly challenging in older age groups. Extending our knowledge of which indicators work well in analyses and are relatively easy to collect should help both further study of health inequalities in the older population and appropriate planning.


Keywords: health inequalities; elderly people; socioeconomic status PMID:11707484

  19. Extreme warming challenges sentinel status of kelp forests as indicators of climate change

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Daniel; Washburn, Libe; Rassweiler, Andrew; Miller, Robert; Bell, Tom; Harrer, Shannon

    2016-01-01

    The desire to use sentinel species as early warning indicators of impending climate change effects on entire ecosystems is attractive, but we need to verify that such approaches have sound biological foundations. A recent large-scale warming event in the North Pacific Ocean of unprecedented magnitude and duration allowed us to evaluate the sentinel status of giant kelp, a coastal foundation species that thrives in cold, nutrient-rich waters and is considered sensitive to warming. Here, we show that giant kelp and the majority of species that associate with it did not presage ecosystem effects of extreme warming off southern California despite giant kelp's expected vulnerability. Our results challenge the general perception that kelp-dominated systems are highly vulnerable to extreme warming events and expose the more general risk of relying on supposed sentinel species that are assumed to be very sensitive to climate change. PMID:27958273

  20. Extreme warming challenges sentinel status of kelp forests as indicators of climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, Daniel; Washburn, Libe; Rassweiler, Andrew; Miller, Robert; Bell, Tom; Harrer, Shannon

    2016-12-01

    The desire to use sentinel species as early warning indicators of impending climate change effects on entire ecosystems is attractive, but we need to verify that such approaches have sound biological foundations. A recent large-scale warming event in the North Pacific Ocean of unprecedented magnitude and duration allowed us to evaluate the sentinel status of giant kelp, a coastal foundation species that thrives in cold, nutrient-rich waters and is considered sensitive to warming. Here, we show that giant kelp and the majority of species that associate with it did not presage ecosystem effects of extreme warming off southern California despite giant kelp's expected vulnerability. Our results challenge the general perception that kelp-dominated systems are highly vulnerable to extreme warming events and expose the more general risk of relying on supposed sentinel species that are assumed to be very sensitive to climate change.

  1. Change in health status in COPD: a seven-year follow-up cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Sundh, Josefin; Montgomery, Scott; Hasselgren, Mikael; Kämpe, Mary; Janson, Christer; Ställberg, Björn; Lisspers, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Health status is a prognostic factor included in the assessment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The aim of our study was to examine the associations of clinical factors with change in health status over a 7-year follow-up period. In 2005, 970 randomly selected primary and secondary care patients with a COPD diagnosis completed questionnaires including the Clinical COPD Questionnaire (CCQ); and in 2012, 413 completed the CCQ questionnaire again. Linear regression used difference in mean total CCQ score between 2005 and 2012 as the dependent variable. Independent variables were CCQ score at baseline 2005, sex, age, educational level, body mass index (BMI), smoking status, heart disease, diabetes, depression, number of exacerbations in the previous 6 months, dyspnoea (modified Medical Research Council (mMRC)). Health status worsened from mean total CCQ (s.d.) 2.03 (1.26) in 2005 to 2.16 (1.37) in 2012 (P=0.011). In linear regression with adjustment for baseline CCQ; older age, lower education, higher mMRC and BMI below 25 kg/m2 at baseline were associated with worsened health status in 2012. When sex, age and all statistically significant measures were included simultaneously in the analysis of the main study group, higher mMRC and BMI below 25 kg/m2 were were associated with deteriorated health status (P<0.0001). A higher level of dyspnoea and lower weight were associated with worse health status in COPD. Strategies for decreasing dyspnoea and awareness of the possible increased risk of worsening disease in under- and normal-weight COPD patients are clinically important. PMID:27763623

  2. A comparison of forest and agricultural shallow groundwater chemical status a century after land use change.

    PubMed

    Kellner, Elliott; Hubbart, Jason A; Ikem, Abua

    2015-10-01

    Considering the increasing pace of global land use change and the importance of groundwater quality to humans and aquatic ecosystems, studies are needed that relate land use types to patterns of groundwater chemical composition. Piezometer grids were installed in a remnant bottomland hardwood forest (BHF) and a historic agricultural field (Ag) to compare groundwater chemical composition between sites with contrasting land use histories. Groundwater was sampled monthly from June 2011 to June 2013, and analyzed for 50 physiochemical metrics. Statistical tests indicated significant differences (p<0.05) between the study sites for 32 out of 50 parameters. Compared to the Ag site, BHF groundwater was characterized by significantly (p<0.05) lower pH, higher electrical conductivity, and higher concentrations of total dissolved solids and inorganic carbon. BHF groundwater contained significantly (p<0.05) higher concentrations of all nitrogen species except nitrate, which was higher in Ag groundwater. BHF groundwater contained significantly (p<0.05) higher concentrations of nutrients such as sulfur, potassium, magnesium, calcium, and sodium, relative to the Ag site. Ag groundwater was characterized by significantly (p<0.05) higher concentrations of trace elements such as arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, copper, molybdenum, nickel, and titanium. Comparison of shallow groundwater chemical composition with that of nearby receiving water suggests that subsurface concentration patterns are the result of contrasting site hydrology and vegetation. Results detail impacts of surface vegetation alteration on subsurface chemistry and groundwater quality, thereby illustrating land use impacts on the lithosphere and hydrosphere. This study is among the first to comprehensively characterize and compare shallow groundwater chemical composition at sites with contrasting land use histories.

  3. Nutritional status, symptoms experienced and general state of health in HIV-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, A; Nordström, G

    2001-09-01

    The aim of the study was to describe HIV-infected patients with respect to nutritional status, symptoms experienced, general state of health, and relevant medical and laboratory data. An additional aim was to study the relationships between some of these variables. On admission to an acute care hospital in Sweden, 25 HIV-positive men were consecutively included in the study. Medical data, anthropometric variables such as weight, height, body mass index (BMI) and percentage weight loss were studied. The following instruments were used: the subjective global assessment (SGA) was used to determine nutritional status; the oral assessment guide (OAG) was used for subjective assessment of the oral cavity; and the numeric rating scale (NRS) was used to assess the symptoms experienced. The Health Index (HI) was used to evaluate general state of health. The results showed that more than half of the patients had suspected/severe malnutrition; between 48% and 72% complained of moderate to severe symptoms of various kinds. Two thirds felt their general state of health was rather poor or very poor. Correlations showed that the lower the BMI, the worse the nutritional status (SGA); the greater the weight loss in percent, the worse the nutritional status (SGA); and the worse the general state of health (HI), the worse the nutritional status (SGA). In conclusion, it is important that nurses have good knowledge concerning nutritional problems in order to be able to detect these conditions at an early stage and/or to endeavour to prevent them.

  4. Content of health status reports of people seeking assisted suicide: a qualitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Imhof, Lorenz; Bosshard, Georg; Fischer, Susanne; Mahrer-Imhof, Romy

    2011-08-01

    Two right-to-die organisations offer assisted suicide in Switzerland. The specific legal situation allows assistance to Swiss and foreign citizens. Both organisations require a report of the person's health status before considering assistance. This qualitative study explored these reports filed to legal authorities after the deaths of individuals in the area of Zurich. Health status reports in the legal medical dossiers of the deceased were analysed using content analysis and Grounded Theory. From 421 cases of assisted suicide (2001-2004), 350 reports on health status were filed. Many cases contained diagnosis lists only. Other reports had more elaborate reports revealing that some physicians were aware about the patient's death wish and the intention to solicit assisted suicide. Physicians' attitudes ranged from neutral to rather depreciative. Few physicians openly referred the patient to the organisations and supported the patient's request by highlighting a history of suffering as well as reporting understanding and agreement with the patient's wish to hasten death. In the health status reports five categories could be identified. Some files revealed that physicians were aware of the death wish. The knowledge and recognition of the patient's death wish varied from no apparent awareness to strongly supportive. This variety might be due to difficulties to discuss the death wish with patients, but might also reflect the challenge to avoid legal prosecution in the country of origin. To require comparable health status reports as requirements for the right-to-die organisations might be difficult to pursue.

  5. Report from China: health insurance in China--evolution, current status, and challenges.

    PubMed

    Cao, Qi; Shi, Leiyu; Wang, Hufeng; Dong, Keyong

    2012-01-01

    The authors review the evolution of health insurance in China and analyze how it has been shaped to its current form by political and economic dynamics. They summarize the current status of health insurance in terms of population coverage, benefit design, scope of service, and its interaction with providers; address challenges regarding future health insurance reform; and propose policy recommendations. Although the recent health insurance reform has made major breakthroughs in population coverage, it is still too early to judge whether the political willingness to appease social unrest can be translated into concrete health care protections for the population.

  6. [Social status, health risk and sickness insurance: a comparative analysis between the FRD and the USA].

    PubMed

    Abel, T; Wysong, J

    1991-01-01

    Issues of unequal risk distribution among sickness funds are given increasing attention in the current discussions on the reform of the statutory health insurance system in Germany. This paper raises the question on the structural determinants of risk segregation and points towards the links between social stratification, health risk and insurance status. A model showing the links between basic structural determinants is presented. Using health survey data from Germany and the U.S. statistical analyses are conducted. The results support the model and indicate its applicability for both health care systems. The paper concludes by indicating the relevance of such findings for health policy and future research.

  7. Determinants of self-perceived changes in health status among pre- and early-retirement populations.

    PubMed

    Choi, Namkee G

    2003-01-01

    Using data from the 1992 and 1994 waves of the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), this study described reasons reported by pre- and early-retirement populations for perceived changes in global health status over a 2-year period. It then analyzed the association between self-perceptions of change and the actual changes in objective health conditions, controlling for demographics, emotional health status, and the changes in work status and health-affecting habits. The results were compared to the determinants of self-ratings of health at wave 2. Existing or increasing impairments in functional abilities were found to contribute to self-perceptions of decline. However, a diagnosis of new chronic disease and the experience of a major medical event per se did not universally contribute to self-perception of decline. The relationship between cross-sectional self-ratings of health and objective health conditions was more straightforward. Self-perception of improvement among people with serious health problems most likely owed to medical interventions and improvement in symptoms, the most frequently mentioned reasons for perceived improvement, and reflected the subjects' selective optimization and resiliency.

  8. The Unusually Poor Physical Health Status of Cambodian Refugees Two Decades After Resettlement

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Eunice C.; Schell, Terry L.; Marshall, Grant N.; Elliott, Marc N.; Babey, Susan H.; Hambarsoomians, Katrin

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To better document the health status of Cambodian refugees, the physical health functioning, disability, and general health status of Cambodian refugees was compared to that of non-refugee Asian immigrants with similar demographic characteristics. Methods Data were collected between October 2003 and February 2005, from 490 face- to-face interviews conducted with a stratified probability sample of households from the Cambodian community in Long Beach, California. Data on the health status of the general adult population (n=56,270) was taken from the California Health Interview Survey (CHIS), a telephone interview of a representative sample California residents. Results Cambodian refugees reported exceedingly poor health when compared to both the general population to the Asian participants. This disparity was only slightly reduced when Cambodian refugees were compared to the subsample of Asian immigrants who were matched on gender, age, income, and urbanicity. Conclusions Although Cambodians refugees are older and poorer than the general population, their poor health cannot be fully attributed to these risk factors. Research is needed to guide health policy and practices aimed at eliminating this health disparity. PMID:20878473

  9. Poverty status and health equity: evidence from rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Karim, F; Tripura, A; Gani, M S; Chowdhury, A M R

    2006-03-01

    Many studies have examined the health inequities between different social groups, often measured by individual independent variables, such as education, gender, ethnicity, geography, rich, poor, etc. Although inequities are increasingly widening, a few studies have looked at the health inequity between different poverty groups within the poor. The present study, using equity terms, examined the use of health services in two rural areas of Bangladesh. Using a multistage sampling method, a total of 80 villages were selected from the Bogra and Dinajpur sadar thanas (subdistricts) for the study. A total of 4003 households in these villages were visited for data collection on mortality and fertility, while data related to use of health services was collected from a subsample of 1032 households. A poverty index, constructed using three variables (household landholding, education level of head of household, and self-rated categorization of household's annual food security), categorized the households into three groups: extreme poor, moderate poor and non-poor. Overall, the data revealed considerable inequities in many study indicators between the poor and the non-poor. However, inequities of varying degrees were also found between the extreme poor and the moderate poor. Lower levels of inequities were found between the poor and the non-poor in the use of health services, which were easily accessible and free of charge (immunization, vitamin A capsule, etc.). On the whole, the extreme poor were less likely to use health services than the moderate poor and the non-poor, suggesting the need for a more appropriate programme to address their pressing health needs.

  10. Mis-reporting, previous health status and health status of family may seriously bias the association between food patterns and disease

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Food pattern analyses are popular tools in the study of associations between diet and health. However, there is a need for further evaluation of this methodology. The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to evaluate the relationship between food pattern groups (FPG) and existing health, and to identify factors influencing this relationship. Methods The inhabitants of Västerbotten County in northern Sweden are invited to health check-ups when they turn 30, 40, 50, and 60 years of age. The present study includes data collected from almost 60,000 individuals between 1992 and 2005. Associations between FPG (established using K-means cluster analyses) and health were analyzed separately in men and women. Results The health status of the participants and their close family and reporting accuracy differed significantly between men and women and among FPG. Crude regression analyses, with the high fat FPG as reference, showed increased risks for several health outcomes for all other FPGs in both sexes. However, when limiting analysis to individuals without previous ill-health and with adequate energy intake reports, most of the risks instead showed a trend towards protective effects. Conclusions Food pattern classifications reflect both eating habits and other own and family health related factors, a finding important to remember and to adjust for before singling out the diet as a primary cause for present and future health problems. Appropriate exclusions are suggested to avoid biases and attenuated associations in nutrition epidemiology. PMID:21034501

  11. Employment as a Social Determinant of Health: A Systematic Review of Longitudinal Studies Exploring the Relationship between Employment Status and Physical Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hergenrather, Kenneth C.; Zeglin, Robert J.; McGuire-Kuletz, Maureen; Rhodes, Scott D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To explore employment as a social determinant of health through examining the relationship between employment status and physical health. Method: The authors explored the causal relationship between employment status and physical health through conducting a systematic review of 22 longitudinal studies conducted in Finland, France, the…

  12. Unmet health and mental health need among adolescents: the roles of sexual minority status and child-parent connectedness.

    PubMed

    Williams, Kelly A; Chapman, Mimi V

    2012-10-01

    Using a representative national sample from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) survey (N = 18,924), this article explores sexual minority status (SMS) and child-parent connectedness in relation to the unmet needs for health or mental health care among adolescents. Through the use of logistic regression models, data were analyzed to determine whether SMS and child-parent connectedness predict unmet health and mental health need. In addition, models tested whether child-parent connectedness, sex or gender, and race or ethnicity interact with SMS to predict unmet need. Results show that both SMS and child-parent connectedness predict unmet health and mental health need. Being a sexual minority youth (SMY) significantly increases the odds of having an unmet need for health or mental health care; female SMY have the highest odds of an unmet mental health need. Child-parent connectedness is a predictor of unmet need regardless of SMS. Youth with lower levels of child-parent connectedness have significantly higher odds of an unmet health or mental health need. Findings call for service providers to address the unmet needs of SMY both in terms of outreach to youth and parents and to communicate the importance of the parental role in helping teens access care.

  13. [The impact of health economics: a status report].

    PubMed

    Tunder, R

    2011-12-01

    "Health is not everything, but without health, everything is nothing" (cited from Arthur Schopenhauer, German philosopher, 1788-1860). The relationship between medicine and economics could not have been put more precisely. On the one hand there is the need for a maximum of medical care and on the other hand the necessity to economize with scarce financial resources. The compatibility of these two aspects inevitably leads to strains. How to approach this challenge? From medicine to economics or from economics to medicine? The present article intends to raise awareness to regard the "economization of medicine" not just as a threat, but also as an opportunity. Needs for economic action are pointed out, and insights as well as future perspectives for the explanatory contribution for health economics are given.

  14. Quantifying Health Status and Function in Marfan Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rao, Sandesh S; Venuti, Kristen D; Dietz, Harry C; Sponseller, Paul D

    2016-01-01

    Two hundred thirty patients were prospectively enrolled in this study and completed various portions of the Short Form 36 and a study-specific questionnaire (visual analog scale 1 to 10, comprising three separate questionnaires) to evaluate quality of life and function in patients with Marfan syndrome. The greatest health concern was cardiac problems (high in 70% of patients), followed by spine issues and generalized fatigue (both high, in 53%). The most severe reported pain involved the back: 105 patients (46%) rated pain as 6 to 10 on the visual analog scale. Among the 72 patients who responded to work life questions, work hours were reduced because of treatment in 59 (82%) or directly because of Marfan syndrome in 29 (40%). Across all Short Form 36 domains, patients scored significantly lower than United States population norms (p<.05); physical health scores were considerably lower than mental health scores.

  15. Oral health status of homeless people in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yan; McGrath, Colman

    2006-01-01

    The authors report on an oral health survey among Hong Kong Chinese homeless people. A total of 140 homeless men underwent clinical examination and were interviewed with a structured questionnaire. More than 90% had evidence of caries experience; most (75%) were related to untreated caries. The mean DMFT score was 9.0 (DT = 3.2, MT = 5.2, FT = 0.6). Periodontal disease was highly prevalent, with 96% having periodontal pockets. The dental problems most frequently reported by the homeless were: bleeding gums or drifting teeth (62%), dental pain (52%) and tooth trauma (38%). More than 70% of the study's participants perceived a need for dental care. The population surveyed had poorer oral health compared to the general population. High levels of dental needs, both normative and perceived, were found. There is a need to provide more accessible and affordable oral health services to this group of people.

  16. A Life Course Perspective on the Relationship between Socio-Economic Status and Health: Testing the Divergence Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prus, Steven G.

    2004-01-01

    While adults from all socio-economic status (SES) levels generally encounter a decline in health as they grow older, research shows that health status is tied to SES at all stages of life. The dynamics of the relationship between SES and health over the life course of adult Canadians, however, remain largely unexplored. This paper tests the…

  17. Vitamin D status during Pregnancy and Aspects of Offspring Health

    PubMed Central

    Ponsonby, Anne-Louise; Lucas, Robyn M.; Lewis, Sharon; Halliday, Jane

    2010-01-01

    Low maternal vitamin D levels during pregnancy have been linked to various health outcomes in the offspring, ranging from periconceptional effects to diseases of adult onset. Maternal and infant cord 25(OH)D levels are highly correlated. Here, we review the available evidence for these adverse health effects. Most of the evidence has arisen from observational epidemiological studies, but randomized controlled trials are now underway. The evidence to date supports that women should be monitored and treated for vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy but optimal and upper limit serum 25(OH)D levels during pregnancy are not known. PMID:22254029

  18. Adolescent socio-economic and school-based social status, health and well-being

    PubMed Central

    Sweeting, Helen; Hunt, Kate

    2014-01-01

    Studies of adults and adolescents suggest subjective socio-economic status (SES) is associated with health/well-being even after adjustment for objective SES. In adolescence, objective SES may have weaker relationships with health/well-being than at other life stages; school-based social status may be of greater relevance. We investigated the associations which objective SES (residential deprivation and family affluence), subjective SES and three school-based subjective social status dimensions (“SSS-peer”, “SSS-scholastic” and “SSS-sports”) had with physical symptoms, psychological distress and anger among 2503 Scottish 13–15 year-olds. Associations between objective SES and health/well-being were weak and inconsistent. Lower subjective SES was associated with increased physical symptoms and psychological distress, lower SSS-peer with increased psychological distress but reduced anger, lower SSS-scholastic with increased physical symptoms, psychological distress and anger, and lower SSS-sports with increased physical symptoms and psychological distress. Associations did not differ by gender. Objective and subjective SES had weaker associations with health/well-being than did school-based SSS dimensions. These findings underline the importance of school-based SSS in adolescence, and the need for future studies to include a range of school-based SSS dimensions and several health/well-being measures. They also highlight the need for a focus on school-based social status among those working to promote adolescent health/well-being. PMID:25306408

  19. Physical, mental, emotional and social health status of adolescents and youths in Benghazi, Libya.

    PubMed

    Salam, A A; Alshekteria, A A; Mohammed, H A A; Al Abar, N M; Al Jhany, M M; Al Flah, F

    2012-06-01

    Adolescence and youth are stages of life that other great opportunities for reduction of future health needs. A cross-sectional study was carried out to assess the physical, mental, emotional and social health status of adolescents and youths attending 2 large universities in Benghazi city, Libya, and to determine variables associated with their health status. Stratified sampling was used to select 383 students aged 17-24 years and data were collected by face-to-face interview and self-administered questionnaires. Major health problems were depression/anxiety and pain/discomfort, and these were suffered by significantly more females than males. Mental health was at the transitional stage in Dabrowski's emotional development theory (spontaneous multilevel disintegration). Females had higher levels of emotional development. Regular physical activity was practised by 34.7% overall (25.8% of women) and 17.2% were smokers. The main social activity was visiting family members.

  20. [Problems of the health status of the youth from a student town].

    PubMed

    Iotova, E; Mineva, T; Popivanova, Ts; Georgiev, V

    1990-01-01

    Studies are carried out on the health status and morbidity of students from the territory of the student town and health-hygienic undertakings are recommended for improving the health of the students and formation of health habits. For 8000 students were traced the following data: prophylactic examinations, acute morbidity, morbidity according to medical registrations studied from the statistical cards, the follow-up care of patients with chronic diseases. A scientific statistical method for studying the medical documentation is used for examining the acute and chronic morbidity. The basic moments in the structure of the students pathology are described, stimulated by the new moments of life in the conditions of the students town and the peculiarities in the health status of the students as special age group of the population. Conclusions are made concerning the carrying out of directed hygiene-preventive undertakings.

  1. [Changes of general and oral health status of elderly patients receiving home-visit dental services].

    PubMed

    Nishiyama, Yoshihide

    2005-06-01

    This study investigated the changes of general and oral health status of elderly patients who received home-visit dental services. The subjects were 51 patients (male: 19, female: 32, age: 83.0+/-9.1). The results of initial and re-examination (5.4 months later) by questionnaire survey, oral status and oral microbes were compared. The following results were obtained. 1. More than half of the subjects were bedridden and about 70% were affected by dementia. Three-quarters needed special care for daily activities. 2. The general health condition of the subjects became worse after 5.4 months. Moreover, 11 subjects died within 6 months after re-examination. However, oral health status, such as status of oral hygiene (p < 0.01), inflammation of gingiva (p < 0.01), tongue coating (p < 0.05) and oral malodor (p < 0.01) improved significantly. 3. There was a significant difference in the rate of people with dysphagic problems between the living and dead groups (p < 0.05). 4. The initial general and oral health status of the people with dysphagic problems was significantly worse than that of those without it. After receiving home-visit dental services, general condition became worse. However oral status, such as status of oral hygiene, inflammation of gingiva, oral malodor, and lactobacillus count significantly improved in both groups. These results suggest that dysphagic problems of elderly patients may affect their general health condition and might increase the risk of death. It is recommended to judge dysphagic problems accurately when performing certification of need for long-term care and to provide professional oral care periodically for the dependent elderly needing care.

  2. Adult Health in Child Care: Health Status, Behaviors, and Concerns of Teachers, Directors, and Family Child Care Providers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gratz, Rene R.; Claffey, Anne

    1996-01-01

    A statewide survey examined health status, behaviors, and concerns of 446 randomly selected early childhood professionals--directors, teachers, and family day care providers. Found dramatic changes in perceived frequency of various symptoms and becoming ill since working with children. Found significant differences between groups for number of…

  3. Impact of long-term forest enrichment planting on the biological status of soil in a deforested dipterocarp forest in Perak, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Karam, D S; Arifin, A; Radziah, O; Shamshuddin, J; Majid, N M; Hazandy, A H; Zahari, I; Nor Halizah, A H; Rui, T X

    2012-01-01

    Deforestation leads to the deterioration of soil fertility which occurs rapidly under tropical climates. Forest rehabilitation is one of the approaches to restore soil fertility and increase the productivity of degraded areas. The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare soil biological properties under enrichment planting and secondary forests at Tapah Hill Forest Reserve, Perak after 42 years of planting. Both areas were excessively logged in the 1950s and left idle without any appropriate forest management until 1968 when rehabilitation program was initiated. Six subplots (20 m × 20 m) were established within each enrichment planting (F1) and secondary forest (F2) plots, after which soil was sampled at depths of 0-15 cm (topsoil) and 15-30 cm (subsoil). Results showed that total mean microbial enzymatic activity, as well as biomass C and N content, was significantly higher in F1 compared to F2. The results, despite sample variability, suggest that the rehabilitation program improves the soil biological activities where high rate of soil organic matter, organic C, N, suitable soil acidity range, and abundance of forest litter is believed to be the predisposing factor promoting higher population of microbial in F1 as compared to F2. In conclusion total microbial enzymatic activity, biomass C and biomass N evaluation were higher in enrichment planting plot compared to secondary forest. After 42 years of planting, rehabilitation or enrichment planting helps to restore the productivity of planted forest in terms of biological parameters.

  4. Impact of Long-Term Forest Enrichment Planting on the Biological Status of Soil in a Deforested Dipterocarp Forest in Perak, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Karam, D. S.; Arifin, A.; Radziah, O.; Shamshuddin, J.; Majid, N. M.; Hazandy, A. H.; Zahari, I.; Nor Halizah, A. H.; Rui, T. X.

    2012-01-01

    Deforestation leads to the deterioration of soil fertility which occurs rapidly under tropical climates. Forest rehabilitation is one of the approaches to restore soil fertility and increase the productivity of degraded areas. The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare soil biological properties under enrichment planting and secondary forests at Tapah Hill Forest Reserve, Perak after 42 years of planting. Both areas were excessively logged in the 1950s and left idle without any appropriate forest management until 1968 when rehabilitation program was initiated. Six subplots (20 m × 20 m) were established within each enrichment planting (F1) and secondary forest (F2) plots, after which soil was sampled at depths of 0–15 cm (topsoil) and 15–30 cm (subsoil). Results showed that total mean microbial enzymatic activity, as well as biomass C and N content, was significantly higher in F1 compared to F2. The results, despite sample variability, suggest that the rehabilitation program improves the soil biological activities where high rate of soil organic matter, organic C, N, suitable soil acidity range, and abundance of forest litter is believed to be the predisposing factor promoting higher population of microbial in F1 as compared to F2. In conclusion total microbial enzymatic activity, biomass C and biomass N evaluation were higher in enrichment planting plot compared to secondary forest. After 42 years of planting, rehabilitation or enrichment planting helps to restore the productivity of planted forest in terms of biological parameters. PMID:22606055

  5. Development and status of health insurance systems in China.

    PubMed

    Barber, Sarah L; Yao, Lan

    2011-01-01

    Health insurance programs have changed rapidly over time in China. Among rural populations, insurance coverage shifted from nearly universal levels in the 1970s to 7% in 1999; it stands at 94% of counties in 2009. This large increase is the result of a series of health reforms that aim to achieve universal access to healthcare and better risk protection, largely through the rollout of the health insurance programs and the gradual increase in subsidies and benefits over time. In this paper, we present the development of the rural and urban health insurance programs, their modes of financing and operation and the benefits and reimbursement schemes at the end of 2009. We discuss some of the problems with the rural and urban residents' schemes including reliance on local government capacity, reimbursement ceilings and rates, and incentives for unnecessary care and waste in the design of the programs. Recommendations include increasing financial support and deepening the benefits packages. Strategies to control cost and improve quality include developing mixed provider payment mechanisms, implementing essential medicines policies and strengthening the quality of primary-care provision.

  6. [Status of information technology in health care institutions of Serbia].

    PubMed

    Simić, S; Marinković, J; Stanojević, S; Radovanović, M; Andjelski, H; Atanasković, Z; Grujović, G; Pavlović, Z; Djukić, Lj; Obradović, M

    1995-09-01

    The basic purpose of this study was to analyse the condition of the information technology in the health care institutions of Serbia in 1994. and to compare the results with similar investigation from 1992. in order to determine the state of its development and progress. The instrument used for the collection of data was questionnaire with 24 questions which was distributed to all independent health care institutions in the Republic of Serbia (total 238). The response rate was 40.8 percent. Out of the number of responded health institutions, 86 percent of them own computers which are in use, almost duble the number of institutions which had and used this equipment in 1992. The great majority of institutions had one or two PCs. Organized units for medical information systems were formed in 27.2 percent of institutions. Each of them in average uses two application softwares, from which one is for billing and payroll accounting. The development of information system technology has improved in relation to 1992. and is, with certain suggestions and activities a good basis for designing of a unique health care information system in Republic of Serbia.

  7. Allostatic Load and Health Status of African Americans and Whites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deuster, Patricia A.; Kim-Dorner, Su Jong; Remaley, Alan T.; Poth, Merrily

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To compare health risks in 84 healthy African American and 45 white men and women after calculating allostatic load (AL) from biologic, psychosocial, and behavioral measures. Methods: Participants (18-45 years) ranging in weight from normal to obese and without hypertension or diabetes. Fitness, body fat, CRP, mood, social support,…

  8. Relationship between Health Insurance Status and the Pattern of Traditional Medicine Utilisation in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Gyasi, Razak Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between national health insurance status and the pattern of traditional medicine (TRM) use among the general population in Ghana. A retrospective cross-sectional survey of randomly sampled adults, aged ≥18 years (N = 324), was conducted. The results indicate that TRM use was high with prevalence of over 86%. The study found no statistically significant association between national health insurance status and TRM utilisation (P > 0.05). Paradoxically, major sources of TRM, frequency of TRM use, comedical administration, and disclosure of TRM use to health care professionals differed significantly between the insured and uninsured subgroups (P < 0.001). Whereas effectiveness of TRM predicted its use for both insured [odds ratio (OR) = 4.374 (confidence interval (CI): 1.753–10.913; P = 0.002)] and uninsured [OR = 3.383 CI: 0.869–13.170; P = 0.039)], work experience predicted TRM use for the insured [OR = 1.528 (95% CI: 1.309–1.900; P = 0.019)]. Cultural specific variables and health philosophies rather than health insurance status may influence health care-seeking behaviour and TRM use. The enrollment of herbal-based therapies on the national health insurance medicine plan is exigent to ensure monitoring and rational use of TRM towards intercultural health care system in Ghana. PMID:26347791

  9. Health Status of the Prisoners in a Central Jail of South India

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sunil D.; Kumar, Santosh A.; Pattankar, Jayashree V.; Reddy, Shrinivas B.; Dhar, Murali

    2013-01-01

    Background: Health care in prisons is one of the neglected health areas in our country. Looking into the health problems of prisons will show us a way for the approach in providing the heath care for prisoners. Objectives: To assess the health status of convicted inmates of prison and to study their sociodemographic profile. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among the inmates of central prison over a period of 1 year. Study population comprised of 300 convicted life-term prisoners. The inmates were interviewed using predesigned and pretested proforma. Sociodemographic data were analyzed by frequencies and percentages along with 95% confidence interval using statistical package SPSS18. Results: In health status, 29 (9.6%) inmates suffered from acute upper respiratory tract infections and 15 (5%) from acute lower respiratory tract infections. A total of 54 (18%) inmates had ascariasis. Diseases of musculoskeletal system and connective tissue contributed to 26 (8.7%) of inmates. A total of 252 (84%) prisoners had anemia. In sociodemographic profile, it was found that rural people, unmarried, illiterates, lower socioeconomic status people were more likely to have committed the crime resulting in the conviction for life. Conclusions: As there is an increase in number of prisoners and morbidities among them, there is an urgent need for prison health care services in developing countries like India and provide training to the health care providers to manage the commonly existing health problems among prisoners in the prisons. PMID:24379498

  10. Marital Status, Relationship Distress, and Self-rated Health: What Role for "Sleep Problems"?

    PubMed

    Meadows, Robert; Arber, Sara

    2015-09-01

    This paper analyzes data from a nationally representative survey of adults in the United Kingdom (Understanding Society, N = 37,253) to explore the marital status/health nexus (using categories that include a measure of relationship distress) and to assess the role that sleep problems play as a potential mediator. Findings indicate how it is not just the "form" marital status takes but also the absence or presence of relationship distress that is essential to self-rated health. We demonstrate two further findings that: (1) sleep problems act as a mediator of the link between marital status/relationship distress and self-rated health, most notably for those in cohabiting relationships with medium/high distress or who have a history of relationship loss, and (2) the mediating role of sleep problems differs for divorced men and women.

  11. Mental health status among Japanese medical students: a cross-sectional survey of 20 universities.

    PubMed

    Ohtsu, Tadahiro; Kaneita, Yoshitaka; Osaki, Yoneatsu; Kokaze, Akatsuki; Ochiai, Hirotaka; Shirasawa, Takako; Nanri, Hinako; Ohida, Takashi

    2014-12-01

    The purposes of this study were to evaluate the mental health status of Japanese medical students and to examine differences based on gender, as well as on university type and location, using the results of a nationwide survey. Between December 2006 and March 2007, we conducted a questionnaire survey among fourth-year medical students at 20 randomly selected medical schools in Japan. The data from 1,619 students (response rate: 90.6%; male: 1,074; female: 545) were analyzed. We used the Japanese version of the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) to measure mental health status. Poor mental health status (GHQ-12 score of 4 points or higher) was observed in 36.6% and 48.8% of the male and female medical students, respectively. The ratio of the age-adjusted prevalence of poor mental health status in female versus male medical students was 1.33 (95% confidence interval: 1.10-1.62). The universities were categorized into two groups based on the university type (national/public: 15 vs. private: 5) or location (in a large city: 7 vs. in a local city: 13 cities). The prevalence of poor mental health status in both men and women differed between these groups, although not significantly. The GHQ-12 scores in men significantly differed between the categorized groups of universities. These results suggest that adequate attention must be paid to the mental health of medical students, especially females, and that a system for providing mental health care for medical students must be established in the context of actual conditions at each university.

  12. Violence in adulthood and mental health: gender and immigrant status.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-del Arco, Debora; del Amo, Julia; Garcia-Pina, Rocio; Garcia-Fulgueiras, Ana Maria; Rodriguez-Arenas, M Angeles; Ibañez-Rojo, Vicente; Díaz-del Peral, Domingo; Jarrin, Inma; Fernandez-Liria, Alberto; Zunzunegui, Maria Victoria; Garcia-Ortuzar, Visitación; Mazarrasa, Lucia; Llacer, Alicia

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to describe perceived abuse in adult Spanish and Ecuadorian women and men and to assess its association with mental health. A population-based survey was conducted in Spain in 2006. Data were taken from a probabilistic sample allowing for an equal number of men and women, Spaniards and Ecuadorians. Mental disorder was measured with the General Health Questionnaire-28. The nine questions on exposure to physical, sexual, and psychological abuse during the previous year were self-administered. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess the association between exposure to abuse and poor mental health, adjusting for potential confounders. The sample was composed of 1,059 individuals aged 18 to 54, 104 of whom reported physical, psychological, or sexual abuse. Some 6% refused to answer the questions on abuse. Overall, reported abuse ranged from 13% in Ecuadorian women to 5% in Spanish men. Psychological abuse was the most frequent. Half the abused women, both Spanish and Ecuadorian, reported intimate partner violence (IPV), as did 22% of abused men. Poor mental health was found in 61% of abused Spanish women (adjusted Odds Ratio [ORa] = 5.1; 95% CI: 1.8-14.4), and 62% abused Ecuadorian women (ORa = 4; 95% CI: 2-7.9), in 36% of abused Spanish men (ORa = 3; 95% CI: 0.9-10.7) and in 30% abused Ecuadorian men (ORa = 2.8; 95% CI: 1-7.7). Interpersonal violence is frequent in relations with the partner, the family, and outside the family, and it seriously affects the mental health. Ecuadorian women stand out as the most vulnerable group.

  13. Predicting later life health status and mortality using state-level socioeconomic characteristics in early life.

    PubMed

    Hamad, Rita; Rehkopf, David H; Kuan, Kai Y; Cullen, Mark R

    2016-12-01

    Studies extending across multiple life stages promote an understanding of factors influencing health across the life span. Existing work has largely focused on individual-level rather than area-level early life determinants of health. In this study, we linked multiple data sets to examine whether early life state-level characteristics were predictive of health and mortality decades later. The sample included 143,755 U.S. employees, for whom work life claims and administrative data were linked with early life state-of-residence and mortality. We first created a "state health risk score" (SHRS) and "state mortality risk score" (SMRS) by modeling state-level contextual characteristics with health status and mortality in a randomly selected 30% of the sample (the "training set"). We then examined the association of these scores with objective health status and mortality in later life in the remaining 70% of the sample (the "test set") using multivariate linear and Cox regressions, respectively. The association between the SHRS and adult health status was β=0.14 (95%CI: 0.084, 0.20), while the hazard ratio for the SMRS was 0.96 (95%CI: 0.93, 1.00). The association between the SHRS and health was not statistically significant in older age groups at a p-level of 0.05, and there was a statistically significantly different association for health status among movers compared to stayers. This study uses a life course perspective and supports the idea of "sensitive periods" in early life that have enduring impacts on health. It adds to the literature examining populations in the U.S. where large linked data sets are infrequently available.

  14. Current status of cadmium as an environmental health problem

    SciTech Connect

    Jaerup, Lars Akesson, Agneta

    2009-08-01

    Cadmium is a toxic metal occurring in the environment naturally and as a pollutant emanating from industrial and agricultural sources. Food is the main source of cadmium intake in the non-smoking population. The bioavailability, retention and toxicity are affected by several factors including nutritional status such as low iron status. Cadmium is efficiently retained in the kidney (half-time 10-30 years) and the concentration is proportional to that in urine (U-Cd). Cadmium is nephrotoxic, initially causing kidney tubular damage. Cadmium can also cause bone damage, either via a direct effect on bone tissue or indirectly as a result of renal dysfunction. After prolonged and/or high exposure the tubular injury may progress to glomerular damage with decreased glomerular filtration rate, and eventually to renal failure. Furthermore, recent data also suggest increased cancer risks and increased mortality in environmentally exposed populations. Dose-response assessment using a variety of early markers of kidney damage has identified U-Cd points of departure for early kidney effects between 0.5 and 3 {mu}g Cd/g creatinine, similar to the points of departure for effects on bone. It can be anticipated that a considerable proportion of the non-smoking adult population has urinary cadmium concentrations of 0.5 {mu}g/g creatinine or higher in non-exposed areas. For smokers this proportion is considerably higher. This implies no margin of safety between the point of departure and the exposure levels in the general population. Therefore, measures should be put in place to reduce exposure to a minimum, and the tolerably daily intake should be set in accordance with recent findings.

  15. Meeting Recommended Levels of Physical Activity in Relation to Preventive Health Behavior and Health Status Among Adults

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of meeting the recommended levels of physical activity (PA) with health status and preventive health behavior in adults. Methods A total of 5630 adults 18 years of age or older were included in this study. PA was assessed using a series of questions that categorized activities based on their metabolic equivalent values and then categorized individuals based on the reported frequency and duration of such activities. Participants reporting 150 minutes or more of moderate-intensity PA per week were considered to have met the PA guidelines. Multiple logistic regression was used to model the relationships between meeting PA guidelines and health status and preventive health behavior, while controlling for confounding variables. Results Overall, 53.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 51.9 to 55.9%) of adults reported meeting the recommended levels of PA. Among adults with good general health, 56.9% (95% CI, 54.7 to 59.1%) reported meeting the recommended levels of PA versus 43.1% (95% CI, 40.9 to 45.3%) who did not. Adults who met the PA guidelines were significantly more likely not to report high cholesterol, diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, arthritis, asthma, depression, or overweight. Furthermore, adults meeting the PA guidelines were significantly more likely to report having health insurance, consuming fruits daily, consuming vegetables daily, and not being a current cigarette smoker. Conclusions In this study, we found meeting the current guidelines for PA to have a protective relationship with both health status and health behavior in adults. Health promotion programs should focus on strategies that help individuals meet the current guidelines of at least 150 minutes per week of moderate-intensity PA. PMID:28173688

  16. Oral health and periodontal status in Brazilian elderly.

    PubMed

    Pereira, A C; Castellanos, R A; da Silva, S R; Watanabe, M G; Queluz, D P; Meneghim, M C

    1996-01-01

    A total of 104 elderly persons between the ages of 60 and 89 were examined at the "Geraldo de Paula Sousa" Health Center, São Paulo, State of São Paulo. The state of their oral health was very poor, insofar as 4.29 (71.5%) of the sextants were shown to be null, while 0.12 and 0.13 sextants showed deep periodontal pockets > or = 6 mm in the ages from 60-70 and more than 70 years of age, respectively. The level of knowledge about periodontal disease and dental plaque was very deficient; only about 52% of the population under study reported having visited a dentist in the last two years. We conclude that greater odontological attention is needed for the elderly age group, as there are no large-scale community service centers in Brazil for this population group.

  17. Benevolent Images of God, Gratitude, and Physical Health Status.

    PubMed

    Krause, Neal; Emmons, Robert A; Ironson, Gail

    2015-08-01

    This study has two goals. The first is to assess whether a benevolent image of God is associated with better physical health. The second goal is to examine the aspects of congregational life that is associated with a benevolent image of God. Data from a new nationwide survey (N = 1774) are used to test the following core hypotheses: (1) people who attend worship services more often and individuals who receive more spiritual support from fellow church members (i.e., informal assistance that is intended to increase the religious beliefs and behaviors of the recipient) will have more benevolent images of God, (2) individuals who believe that God is benevolent will feel more grateful to God, (3) study participants who are more grateful to God will be more hopeful about the future, and (4) greater hope will be associated with better health. The data provide support for each of these relationships.

  18. Health status of corals surrounding Kish Island, Persian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Alidoost Salimi, Mahsa; Mostafavi, Pargol Ghavam; Fatemi, Seyyed Mohammad; Aeby, Greta S

    2017-03-30

    Corals in the Persian Gulf exist in a harsh environment with extreme temperature and salinity fluctuations. Understanding the health of these hardy corals may prove useful for predicting the survival of other marine organisms facing the impacts of global climate change. In this study, the health state of corals was surveyed along belt transects at 4 sites on the east side of Kish Island, Iran. Corals had a patchy distribution, low colony densities and species diversity, and were dominated by Acropora, Porites, and Dipsastrea. We found chronic sedimentation on corals, a high prevalence of old partial mortality, abundant bioeroders, and overgrowth of corals by sponges and bryozoans. These are all signs indicating suboptimal environmental conditions for coral reefs. Four types of tissue loss lesions consistent with disease were found: Porites multi-focal chronic tissue loss, Porites peeling tissue loss, Porites focal chronic tissue loss, and Dipsastrea focal sub-acute tissue loss. Overall disease prevalence was 3.6% and there were significant differences in prevalence among the 3 most abundant coral genera. Acropora was numerically dominant within transects yet showed no signs of disease, whereas Porites had a 14% disease prevalence, indicating differential susceptibility to disease among genera. Other coral lesions included pigmentation response in Porites associated with algae invasion or boring organisms, sponge overgrowth, and mucus sheathing in Dipsastrea. The Persian Gulf region is understudied, and this represents one of the first quantitative surveys of coral health and disease on these reefs.

  19. Current Status of Chemical Public Health Risks and Testing ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The cardiovascular system, at all its various developmental and life stages, represents a critical target organ system that can be adversely affected by a variety of chemicals and routes of exposure. A World Health Organization report estimated the impact of environmental chemical exposures on health to be 16% (range: 7—23%) of the total global burden of cardiovascular disease, corresponding to ~2.5 million deaths per year. Currently, the overall impact of environmental chemical exposures on all causes of cardiovascular disease and the number one cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States is unknown. Evidence from epidemiology, clinical, and toxicological studies will be presented documenting adverse cardiovascular effects associated with environmental exposure to chemicals. The presentation will cover US EPA’s ability to regulate and test chemicals as well as current challenges faced by the Agency to assess chemical cardiovascular risk and public health safety. (This abstract does not necessarily reflect US EPA Policy) Will be presented at the Workshop titled

  20. Subjective social status and maternal health in a low income urban population.

    PubMed

    Dennis, Erika Fitzpatrick; Webb, David A; Lorch, Scott A; Mathew, Leny; Bloch, Joan R; Culhane, Jennifer F

    2012-05-01

    Appropriate measurement of socioeconomic status (SES) in health research can be problematic. Conventional SES measures based on 'objective' indicators such as income, education, or occupation may have questionable validity in certain populations. The objective of this investigation was to determine if a relatively new measurement of SES, subjective social status (SSS), was more consistently and strongly associated with multiple health outcomes for low income mothers. Data available from a large scale community-based study examining maternal and infant health for a low income urban population were used to examine relationships between SSS and a wide range of postpartum physical and emotional health outcomes. Crosstabulations and multivariate analyses focused on the breadth and depth of these relationships; in addition, the relative strength of the relationships between SSS and the health outcomes was compared to that of conventional measures of SES, including both income and education. SSS was significantly related to all physical and emotional health outcomes examined. The overall pattern of findings indicated that these relationships were independent of, as well as more consistent and stronger than, those between conventional measures of SES and postpartum health outcomes. SSS represents an important dimension of the relationship between SES and postpartum physical and emotional health. In low income populations the failure to account for this dimension likely underestimates the influence of SES on postpartum health. This has important implications for the interpretation of findings in empirical studies which seek to control for the effects of SES on maternal health outcomes.

  1. Mobile Technology, Cancer Prevention, and Health Status among Diverse, Low-Income Adults

    PubMed Central

    Purnell, Jason Q.; Griffith, Julia; Eddens, Katherine S.; Kreuter, Matthew W.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Characterize mobile technology ownership, use, and relationship to self-reported cancer prevention behaviors and health status in a diverse, low-income sample of callers to 2-1-1. Design Secondary analyses of cross-sectional survey data from a larger trial collected from June 2010 to December 2012. Setting United Way Missouri 2-1-1 serves 99 of 114 counties and received 166,000 calls in 2011. Subjects The respondents (baseline n = 1,898; 4-month n = 1,242) were predominantly female, non-Hispanic Black, under 50, with ≤ high school education and annual income < $20,000. Measures Cell phone ownership and use and its relationship to cancer prevention services and health status were assessed via telephone-based survey using items adapted from previous research and the BRFSS. Smartphone ownership and use were also assessed. Analysis Descriptive statistics and bivariate and multivariate associations between cell phone ownership and prevention and health status are reported. Results Three-fourths (74%) of study participants owned a cell phone and 19% owned a smartphone. Text messaging was the most popular use. Ownership was significantly associated with good to excellent health status and presence of smoke-free home policies in multivariate models. Conclusion Cell phone ownership is growing and has potential to deliver health information to low-income populations. With 16 million calls annually, the national 2-1-1 system may be a promising model and platform. PMID:24200336

  2. The impact of community context on children's health and nutritional status in China.

    PubMed

    Lei, Lei

    2017-04-01

    The link between community environment and individual health outcomes has been widely documented in Western literature, but little is known about whether community context influences children's health over and above individual characteristics in developing countries. This study examines how community socioeconomic status (SES) influences children's self-rated health and nutritional status in urban and rural China and explores whether the effects of community SES vary by a child's gender and family background. Using data from the China Family Penal Studies in 2010, this study focuses on children aged 10-15 years old living in 261 urban neighborhoods and 293 rural villages in China. Multilevel regression models are estimated to examine the effect of community SES on the probability of reporting poor/fair health and nutritional status measured by height for age while controlling for individual and family characteristics. The results suggest that community SES has a positive and curvilinear effect on children's health and nutritional status in urban China, and it only positively influences children's nutrition in rural China. Community SES has a stronger effect for boys than for girls, and for children in poorer families and families with lower levels of parental involvement.

  3. Changes in health status, psychological distress, and quality of life in COPD patients after hospitalization.

    PubMed

    Andenaes, Randi; Moum, Torbjørn; Kalfoss, Mary H; Wahl, Astrid K

    2006-03-01

    The purpose of this paper was to describe quality of life (QoL) following an acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and to examine possible relationships between QoL, health status, psychological distress and QoL. This prospective longitudinal study examined data from hospitalization and two subsequent phases, collected over a 9-month period. The sample consisted of 51 COPD patients aged 48-87 years. Health status was assessed with the St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ); psychological distress with the Hopkins Symptom Checklist (HSCL); and quality of life using the World Health Organization Quality of Life - Bref (WHOQOL - Bref). Health status improved significantly over the 9 months; from 65.95 to 59.40 (p = 0.001) in the SGRQ total score. Psychological distress improved significantly from hospitalization to the 1-month assessment (T2) (p = 0.001). QoL remained stable except for a significant increase in the physical domain from hospitalization to T2, and in the environmental domain from hospitalization to T2 and T3. Test-retest correlations of the WHOQOL - Bref were high. The results suggest an improvement in the health status over a 9-month period from being discharged after an exacerbation of COPD in spite of high levels of psychological distress and reduced QoL.

  4. Effects of post-hospital Medicare home health and informal care on patient functional status.

    PubMed Central

    Penrod, J D; Kane, R L; Finch, M D; Kane, R A

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of post-hospital Medicare home health and informal care on the functional status of 755 Medicare beneficiaries six weeks after hospital discharge for treatment of stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), congestive heart failure (CHF), hip procedures, and hip fractures. STUDY SETTING/DATA SOURCES: Consecutive patients enrolled in the study between March 1988 and February 1989 prior to discharge from one of 52 hospitals in three cities. Data sources included patient interviews, medical records, and the Medicare Automated Data Retrieval System (MADRS). ANALYSIS: The effect of the two types of care on patients' subsequent functional status was estimated using a selectivity corrected least squares regression of functional status six weeks post-discharge on hours of informal care, Medicare home health expenditures, and patient prior functional and cognitive status. DATA COLLECTION/EXTRACTION METHODS: Patients were interviewed before hospital discharge and six weeks later. The patient's primary caregiver was interviewed by telephone six weeks post-discharge. Patient data included demographic characteristics, illness severity, cognitive status, functional status at discharge and six weeks later, post-discharge expenditures for Medicare home health, and hours of informal care. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: More informal care after discharge was associated with greater patient functional impairment six weeks later. The amount of Medicare home health that patients used had a nonsignificant effect on subsequent functional status. CONCLUSIONS: Post-acute home care may maintain the patient at home and compensate for functional limitations, rather than promote restoration of function. Future studies are needed to examine the effects of specific types of care, services, and providers as well as factors that mediate their effects on patient functional outcomes. PMID:9685120

  5. The effects on population health status of using dedicated property taxes to fund local public health agencies

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In the United States, a dedicated property tax describes the legal authority given to a local jurisdiction to levy and collect a tax for a specific purpose. We investigated for an association of locally dedicated property taxes to fund local public health agencies and improved health status in the eight states designated as the Mississippi Delta Region. Methods We analyzed the difference in health outcomes of counties with and without a dedicated public health tax after adjusting for a set of control variables using regression models for county level data from 720 counties of the Mississippi Delta Region. Results Levying a dedicated public health tax for counties with per capita income above $28,000 is associated with improved health outcomes of those counties when compared to counties without a dedicated property tax for public health. Alternatively, levying a dedicated property tax in counties with lower per capita income is associated with poor health outcomes. Conclusions There are both positive and negative consequences of using dedicated property taxes to fund public health. Policymakers should carefully examine both the positive association of improved health outcomes and negative impact of taxation on poor populations before authorizing the use of dedicated local property tax levies to fund public health agencies. PMID:21672231

  6. The oral health status of adults with a visual impairment, their dental care and oral health information needs.

    PubMed

    Watson, E K; Moles, D R; Kumar, N; Porter, S R

    2010-04-24

    AIM There is little information available concerning the impact of visual impairment upon oral health. The present study sought to identify the oral health and experiences of adults with a visual impairment together with the nature, source and access to oral health information. In addition the study evaluated the oral health status of a group of individuals with a visual impairment with respect to oral health markers, treatment choice and attendance patterns in comparison to a reference group from the general population in the United Kingdom. METHOD One hundred adults with a visual impairment were examined and completed a questionnaire concerning their experience of oral health care and available information sources. The information collected was directly compared with data from the Adult Dental Health Survey 1998 for the south region of England. RESULTS The present group of individuals with a visual impairment had better oral hygiene practices, and similar levels of oral hygiene and hard tissue disease to those of a comparable group of the Adult Dental Health Survey 1998 (ADHS 1998). However 24% of those with a visual impairment were not registered with a dentist and 26% of the patients wished for appropriate information concerning oral health care. CONCLUSIONS There is a need to develop oral health promotion that ensures patients with a visual impairment have appropriate information regarding oral health care and its provision.

  7. Vegan diet, subnormal vitamin B-12 status and cardiovascular health.

    PubMed

    Woo, Kam S; Kwok, Timothy C Y; Celermajer, David S

    2014-08-19

    Vegetarian diets have been associated with atherosclerosis protection, with healthier atherosclerosis risk profiles, as well as lower prevalence of, and mortality from, ischemic heart disease and stroke. However, there are few data concerning the possible cardiovascular effects of a vegan diet (with no meat, dairy or egg products). Vitamin B-12 deficiency is highly prevalent in vegetarians; this can be partially alleviated by taking dairy/egg products in lact-ovo-vegetarians. However, metabolic vitamin B-12 deficiency is highly prevalent in vegetarians in Australia, Germany, Italy and Austria, and in vegans (80%) in Hong Kong and India, where vegans rarely take vitamin B-12 fortified food or vitamin B-12 supplements. Similar deficiencies exist in northern Chinese rural communities consuming inadequate meat, egg or dairy products due to poverty or dietary habits. Vascular studies have demonstrated impaired arterial endothelial function and increased carotid intima-media thickness as atherosclerosis surrogates in such metabolic vitamin B-12 deficient populations, but not in lactovegetarians in China. Vitamin B-12 supplementation has a favourable impact on these vascular surrogates in Hong Kong vegans and in underprivileged communities in northern rural China. Regular monitoring of vitamin B-12 status is thus potentially beneficial for early detection and treatment of metabolic vitamin B-12 deficiency in vegans, and possibly for prevention of atherosclerosis-related diseases.

  8. Vegan Diet, Subnormal Vitamin B-12 Status and Cardiovascular Health

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Kam S.; Kwok, Timothy C.Y.; Celermajer, David S.

    2014-01-01

    Vegetarian diets have been associated with atherosclerosis protection, with healthier atherosclerosis risk profiles, as well as lower prevalence of, and mortality from, ischemic heart disease and stroke. However, there are few data concerning the possible cardiovascular effects of a vegan diet (with no meat, dairy or egg products). Vitamin B-12 deficiency is highly prevalent in vegetarians; this can be partially alleviated by taking dairy/egg products in lact-ovo-vegetarians. However, metabolic vitamin B-12 deficiency is highly prevalent in vegetarians in Australia, Germany, Italy and Austria, and in vegans (80%) in Hong Kong and India, where vegans rarely take vitamin B-12 fortified food or vitamin B-12 supplements. Similar deficiencies exist in northern Chinese rural communities consuming inadequate meat, egg or dairy products due to poverty or dietary habits. Vascular studies have demonstrated impaired arterial endothelial function and increased carotid intima-media thickness as atherosclerosis surrogates in such metabolic vitamin B-12 deficient populations, but not in lactovegetarians in China. Vitamin B-12 supplementation has a favourable impact on these vascular surrogates in Hong Kong vegans and in underprivileged communities in northern rural China. Regular monitoring of vitamin B-12 status is thus potentially beneficial for early detection and treatment of metabolic vitamin B-12 deficiency in vegans, and possibly for prevention of atherosclerosis-related diseases. PMID:25195560

  9. Health Status and Health Insurance Coverage of Women with Live-Born Infants: An Opportunity for Preventive Services After Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Letitia; Harrison, Leslie; Ahluwalia, Indu B.

    2015-01-01

    Most women in the US have access to health care and insurance during pregnancy; however women with Medicaid-paid deliveries lose Medicaid eligibility in the early postpartum period. This study examined the association between health insurance coverage at the time of delivery and health conditions that may require preventive or treatment services extending beyond pregnancy into the postpartum period. We used 2008 Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System data from 27 states (n = 35,980). We calculated the prevalence of maternal health conditions, including emotional and behavioral risks, by health insurance status at the time of delivery. We used multivariable logistic regression to assess the association between health insurance coverage, whether Medicaid or private, and maternal health status. As compared to women with private health insurance, women with Medicaid-paid deliveries had higher odds of reporting smoking during pregnancy (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 1.85, 95 % confidence interval [CI]: 1.56–2.18), physical abuse during pregnancy (AOR: 1.73, 95 % CI: 1.24–2.40), having six or more stressors during pregnancy (AOR: 2.48, 95 % CI: 1.93–3.18), and experiencing postpartum depressive symptoms (AOR: 1.24, 95 % CI: 1.04–1.48). There were no significant differences by insurance status at delivery in pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity, pre-pregnancy physical activity, weight gain during pregnancy, alcohol consumption during pregnancy, or postpartum contraceptive use. Compared to women with private insurance, women with Medicaid-paid deliveries were more likely to experience risk factors during pregnancy such as physical abuse, stress, and smoking, and postpartum depressive symptoms for which continued screening, counseling, or treatment in the postpartum period could be beneficial. PMID:23124817

  10. Psychosocial Health Status of Persons Seeking Treatment for Exposure to Libby Amphibole Asbestos

    PubMed Central

    Weinert, Clarann; Hill, Wade G.; Winters, Charlene A.; Kuntz, Sandra W.; Rowse, Kimberly; Hernandez, Tanis; Black, Brad; Cudney, Shirley

    2011-01-01

    A cross-sectional exploratory study was conducted to describe the psychosocial health status of persons seeking health care for exposure to Libby amphibole asbestos (LAA). Health indicators including depression, stress, acceptance of illness, and satisfaction with access and financial aspects of care were obtained via electronic and paper-pencil survey. The exposure pathway and demographic data were gleaned from the health record. Of the 386 participants, more than one-third (34.5%) demonstrated significant levels of psychological distress. The oldest group of women had the lowest levels of depression and stress and the highest acceptance of illness. Gender, age, and satisfaction with financial resources were significantly related to depression, stress, and acceptance of illness. Satisfaction with access to care was significant only for stress. No differences in depression, stress, and acceptance of illness were found based on residence, exposure pathway, or insurance status. PMID:22007326

  11. Delta15N values of tropical savanna and monsoon forest species reflect root specialisations and soil nitrogen status.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, S; Stewart, G R

    2003-03-01

    A large number of herbaceous and woody plants from tropical woodland, savanna, and monsoon forest were analysed to determine the impact of environmental factors (nutrient and water availability, fire) and biological factors (microbial associations, systematics) on plant delta(15)N values. Foliar delta(15)N values of herbaceous and woody species were not related to growth form or phenology, but a strong relationship existed between mycorrhizal status and plant delta(15)N. In woodland and savanna, woody species with ectomycorrhizal (ECM) associations and putative N(2)-fixing species with ECM/arbuscular (AM) associations had lowest foliar delta(15)N values (1.0-0.6 per thousand ), AM species had mostly intermediate delta(15)N values (average +0.6 per thousand ), while non-mycorrhizal Proteaceae had highest delta(15)N values (+2.9 to +4.1 per thousand ). Similar differences in foliar delta(15)N were observed between AM (average 0.1 and 0.2 per thousand ) and non-mycorrhizal (average +0.8 and +0.3 per thousand ) herbaceous species in woodland and savanna. Leguminous savanna species had significantly higher leaf N contents (1.8-2.5% N) than non-fixing species (0.9-1.2% N) indicating substantial N acquisition via N(2) fixation. Monsoon forest species had similar leaf N contents (average 2.4% N) and positive delta(15)N values (+0.9 to +2.4 per thousand ). Soil nitrification and plant NO(3)(-) use was substantially higher in monsoon forest than in woodland or savanna. In the studied communities, higher soil N content and nitrification rates were associated with more positive soil delta(15)N and plant delta(15)N. In support of this notion, Ficus, a high NO(3)(-) using taxa associated with NO(3)(-) rich sites in the savanna, had the highest delta(15)N values of all AM species in the savanna. delta(15)N of xylem sap was examined as a tool for studying plant delta(15)N relations. delta(15)N of xylem sap varied seasonally and between differently aged Acacia and other savanna

  12. Race: a major health status and outcome variable 1980-1999.

    PubMed Central

    Clayton, L. A.; Byrd, W. M.

    2001-01-01

    Based on the latest available data, African Americans are faced with persistent, or worsening, wide and deep, race-based health disparities compared to the white or general population as we enter the new millennium. These disparities are a 382-year continuum. There have been two periods of health reform specifically addressing the correction of race-based health disparities. The first period (1865-1872) was linked to Freedmen's Bureau legislation and the second (1965-1975) was a part of the Black Civil Rights Movement. Both had dramatic and positive effects on black health status and outcome, but were discontinued too soon to correct the "slave health deficit." Although African-American health status and outcome is slowly improving, black health has generally stagnated or deteriorated compared to whites since 1980. There is a compelling need for a third period of health reform accompanied by a cultural competence movement to address and correct persistent, often worsening, race-based health disparities. PMID:12653396

  13. [The health status of students studying information science at a physics and mathematics school].

    PubMed

    Kuchma, V R; Bobrishcheva-Pushkina, N D; Shlenskiĭ, A A; Purgaeva, V K; Sukhinina, S P

    1998-01-01

    The sanitary conditions of information technology classes, the capacities and health status of 10-11th form pupils thoroughly studying information technology were examined. Tests revealed that in the presence of poor conditions, such as reduced illumination, higher air temperatures, increased electromagnetic radiation, noncompliance of rest and work regimens, the pupils had poor working capacities and deteriorated subjective ill health and that adolescents with myopia, poor posture, and scoliosis increased in number.

  14. Health status of newly arrived refugees in Toronto, Ont

    PubMed Central

    Redditt, Vanessa J.; Janakiram, Praseedha; Graziano, Daniela; Rashid, Meb

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine the prevalence of selected infectious diseases among newly arrived refugee patients and whether there is variation by key demographic factors. Design Retrospective chart review. Setting Primary care clinic for refugee patients in Toronto, Ont. Participants A total of 1063 refugee patients rostered at the clinic from December 2011 to June 2014. Main outcome measures Demographic information (age, sex, and region of birth); prevalence of HIV, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, Strongyloides, Schistosoma, intestinal parasites, gonorrhea, chlamydia, and syphilis infections; and varicella immune status. Results The median age of patients was 29 years and 56% were female. Refugees were born in 87 different countries. Approximately 33% of patients were from Africa, 28% were from Europe, 14% were from the Eastern Mediterranean Region, 14% were from Asia, and 8% were from the Americas (excluding 4% born in Canada or the United States). The overall rate of HIV infection was 2%. The prevalence of hepatitis B infection was 4%, with a higher rate among refugees from Asia (12%, P < .001). Hepatitis B immunity was 39%, with higher rates among Asian refugees (64%, P < .001) and children younger than 5 years (68%, P < .001). The rate of hepatitis C infection was less than 1%. Strongyloides infection was found in 3% of tested patients, with higher rates among refugees from Africa (6%, P = .003). Schistosoma infection was identified in 15% of patients from Africa. Intestinal parasites were identified in 16% of patients who submitted stool samples. Approximately 8% of patients were varicella nonimmune, with higher rates in patients from the Americas (21%, P < .001). Conclusion This study highlights the importance of screening for infectious diseases among refugee patients to provide timely preventive and curative care. Our data also point to possible policy and clinical implications, such as targeted screening approaches and improved access to vaccinations and

  15. Influence of weight status on physical and mental health in Moroccan perimenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Oudghiri, Dia Eddine; Ruiz-Cabello, Pilar; Camiletti-Moirón, Daniel; Fernández, María Del Mar; Aranda, Pilar; Aparicio, Virginia Ariadna

    2016-01-01

    Introduction There is a lack of information about fitness and other health indicators in women from countries such as Morocco. This study aims to explore the association of weight status with physical and mental health in Moroccan perimenopausal women. Methods 151 women (45-65 years) from the North of Morocco were analyzed by standardized field-based fitness tests to assess cardiorespiratory fitness, muscular strength, flexibility, agility and balance. Quality of life was assessed by means of the Short-Form-36 Health Survey. Resting heart rate, blood pressure and plasma fasting glucose, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides were also measured. Results Blood pressure (P=0.001), plasma triglycerides (P=0.041) and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (P<0.001) increased as weight status increased. Levels of cardiorespiratory fitness, upper-body flexibility (both, P<0.001), static balance (P<0.05) and dynamic balance (P<0.01) decreased as weight status increased. Pairwise comparisons showed differences mainly between normal-weight and overweight vs. obese groups. No differences between groups were observed on quality of life. Conclusion Cardiovascular and lipid profile and fitness, important indicators of cardiovascular disease risk, worsened as weight status increased, whereas quality of life appears to be independent of weight status. Exercise and nutritional programs focus on weight management may be advisable in this under studied population. PMID:27303571

  16. Mapping Robinia Pseudoacacia Forest Health Conditions by Using Combined Spectral, Spatial and Textureal Information Extracted from Ikonos Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H.; Zhao, Y.; Pu, R.; Zhang, Z.

    2016-10-01

    In this study grey-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) textures and a local statistical analysis Getis statistic (Gi), computed from IKONOS multispectral (MS) imagery acquired from the Yellow River Delta in China, along with a random forest (RF) classifier, were used to discriminate Robina pseudoacacia tree health levels. The different RF classification results of the three forest health conditions were created: (1) an overall accuracy (OA) of 79.5% produced using the four MS band reflectances only; (2) an OA of 97.1% created with the eight GLCM features calculated from IKONOS Band 4 with the optimal window size of 13 × 13 and direction 45°; (3) an OA of 94.0% created using the four Gi features calculated from the four IKONOS MS bands with the optimal distance value of 5 and Queen's neighborhood rule; and (4) an OA of 96.9% created with the combined 16 spectral (four), spatial (four), and textural (eight) features. The experimental results demonstrate that (a) both textural and spatial information was more useful than spectral information in determining the Robina pseudoacacia forest health conditions; and (b) IKONOS NIR band was more powerful than visible bands in quantifying varying degree of forest crown dieback.

  17. The Status of Health Literacy Research in Health Communication and Opportunities for Future Scholarship.

    PubMed

    Aldoory, Linda

    2017-02-01

    While national concern is growing, the scholarly body of knowledge in health literacy is still relatively small in health communication literature. The field began to distinguish itself as an outgrowth of adult literacy that focused on patient understanding of health information. It grew out of medicine and public health science mostly, and still today the majority of research can be found in health professional journals. However, the links with health communication, particularly with provider-patient communication and with printed health information, have been established and documented over the last decade. This article is a conceptual review that highlights state-of-the-science literature that has made connections between health literacy and health communication. Evidence reveals the contribution that health literacy can have on the health communication body of knowledge. The article illuminates the gaps in research and possibilities for theory development and future studies.

  18. Comparing racial and immigrant health status and health care access in later life in Canada and the United States.

    PubMed

    Prus, Steven G; Tfaily, Rania; Lin, Zhiqiu

    2010-09-01

    Little comparative research exists on health experiences and conditions of minority groups in Canada and the United States, despite both countries having a racially diverse population with a significant proportion of immigrants. This article explores race and immigrant disparities in health and health care access across the two countries. The study focus was on middle and old age given the change and increasing diversity in health and health care policy, such as Medicare. Logistic regression analysis of data from the 2002-2003 Joint Canada/United States Survey of Health shows that the joint effect of race and nativity on health outcomes - health differences between native and foreign-born Whites and non-Whites - is largely insignificant in Canada but considerable in the U.S. Non-White native and foreign-born Americans within both 45-to-64 and 65-and-over age groups experience significant disadvantage in health status and access to care, irrespective of health insurance coverage, demographic, socio-economic, and lifestyle factors.

  19. Intra-population variation in anemia status and its relationship to economic status and self-perceived health in the Mexican Family Life Survey: implications for bioarchaeology.

    PubMed

    Piperata, Barbara A; Hubbe, Mark; Schmeer, Kammi K

    2014-10-01

    Recently scholars have advocated for the use of a critical biocultural approach in bioarchaeology, where osteological and dental markers of stress are used to understand the broader biosocial context of past populations. However, the ability to accomplish this task rests on the assumption that ultimate-level environmental stressors and well-being in the past can be reconstructed from the prevalence of pathologies in skeletal collections. Here we test this assumption using anemia prevalence in the Mexican Family Life Survey. Specifically we test three hypotheses: (1) that individuals sharing the same household are more likely to share anemia status; (2) anemia status is a predictor of economic status (a common proxy for broader environmental context); and (3) anemia status is related to self-rated health. Results demonstrate that: anemia status was not commonly shared between household members; there was a significant overlap in economic status between anemic and nonanemic individuals (i.e., anemia poorly predicted economic status) and; while anemia status was associated with self-perceived health, the majority of those who reported poor health were nonanemic while a significant number of those who reported very good health were anemic. We argue that these findings are likely related to variation in individual frailty, which is shaped by biological and cultural risk factors. Therefore, we advocate for greater incorporation of individual frailty into bioarchaeological investigations, and, in effort to overcome some of the difficulties associated with this task, increased use of data from living populations and greater collaboration between bioarchaeologists and human biologists.

  20. Diatom-based reconstruction of the Lake Czechowskie trophy status in the last 2000 years (Tuchola Forest, Northern Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rzodkiewicz, Monika; Hübener, Thomas; Ott, Florian; Kramkowski, Mateusz; Obremska, Milena; Słowiński, Michał; Zawiska, Izabela; Błaszkiewicz, Mirosław; Brauer, Achim

    2015-04-01

    Lakes ecosystems are very sensitive to climate and environment fluctuation. In lake sediments there are preserved remains of plant and animals that lived in the lake and its surroundings in the past. In paleolimnological research we analyse the species composition of the assemblages preserved in the sediments and on this base reconstruct past environment changes (climate changes). One of the most commonly used bio-proxy for reconstruction of lake development are subfossil diatoms. Diatoms are commonly used to reconstruct such environment parameters as: pH, nutrient status, salinity or temperature. In our study we analysed the sediments of Lake Czechowskie, which is located in the northern part of the Tuchola Forest region (Northern Poland). Lacustrine sediments of this lake are laminated and therefore are unique archive to reconstruct climate and environmental changes in Northern Polish Lowland. In this research we focused on the last 2000 years and with high resolution analyzed diatoms, pollen and sediment geochemistry. The core chronology is based varve counting, 14C AMS dating of terrestrial macro remains, 137Cs activity measurement. Diatoms communities during the last 2000 years were rich and mostly very well preserved. A characteristic feature of those communities is the dominance of typically planktonic species of the spring phytoplankton, as the oligo to mesotraphent Cyclotella comensis but also the eutraphent Stephanodiscus parvus. We also aimed at quantitative reconstruction of the pH and eutrophication(TP) using diatom-based transfer functions in order to identify reference conditions for the Lake Czechowskie. Transfer function are based on the assumption that the modern biological proxies, which ecological requirements are known, can be used to quantitative reconstructions of the past changes. This study is a contribution to the Virtual Institute ICLEA (Integrated Climate and Landscape Evolution Analysis) funded by the Helmholtz Association. The research

  1. Work-Recreation Balance, Health-Promoting Lifestyles and Suboptimal Health Status in Southern China: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shengwei; Xuan, Zhengzheng; Li, Fei; Xiao, Wei; Fu, Xiuqiong; Jiang, Pingping; Chen, Jieyu; Xiang, Lei; Liu, Yanyan; Nie, Xiaoli; Luo, Ren; Sun, Xiaomin; Kwan, Hiuyee; Zhao, Xiaoshan

    2016-01-01

    Suboptimal health status (SHS)—an intermediate state between health and illness—refers to functional somatic symptoms that are medically undiagnosed. Although SHS has become a great challenge for global public health, very little about its etiology and mechanisms are known. Work-recreation balance is a part of work−life balance, and is related to stress which greatly influences health status. We therefore carried out a cross-sectional investigation between 2012 and 2013 within a clustered sample of 24,475 individuals aged 15−60 years from a population in southern China. In so doing, we hoped to illuminate the associations between work-recreation balance conditions, healthy lifestyles, and SHS. Work-recreation balance conditions were categorically defined by frequency (“rarely, sometimes, or always”). Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile (HPLP-II) was used to evaluate the level of healthy lifestyles, and the medical examination report and Sub-Health Measurement Scale V1.0 (SHMS V1.0) were both used to evaluate health status. The ratio of SHS (46.3%) is higher than health status (18.4%) or disease status (35.3%). Overall, 4.9% of respondents reported the lowest level of work-recreation balance, and they scored lower on both the HPLP-II and SHMS V1.0 compared with those who frequently maintained a work-recreation balance. Significant association was found between work-recreation balance behaviors and healthy lifestyles (p < 0.001) after demographic adjustment. In comparison with those reporting a frequent work-recreation balance, individuals whose work-recreation balance was categorically “rare” were 1.69 times as likely to develop SHS (odds ratio (OR): 1.69, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.49–1.92), and those with infrequent work-recreation balance (“sometimes”) were 1.71 times more likely to develop SHS (OR: 1.71, 95% CI: 1.62–1.81). These findings suggest that work-recreation balance conditions are significantly associated with, and seem to be

  2. Work-Recreation Balance, Health-Promoting Lifestyles and Suboptimal Health Status in Southern China: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shengwei; Xuan, Zhengzheng; Li, Fei; Xiao, Wei; Fu, Xiuqiong; Jiang, Pingping; Chen, Jieyu; Xiang, Lei; Liu, Yanyan; Nie, Xiaoli; Luo, Ren; Sun, Xiaomin; Kwan, Hiuyee; Zhao, Xiaoshan

    2016-03-19

    Suboptimal health status (SHS)-an intermediate state between health and illness--refers to functional somatic symptoms that are medically undiagnosed. Although- SHS has become a great challenge for global public health, very little about its etiology and mechanisms are known. Work-recreation balance is a part of work-life balance, and is related to stress which greatly influences health status. We therefore carried out a cross-sectional investigation between 2012 and 2013 within a clustered sample of 24,475 individuals aged 15-60 years from a population in southern China. In so doing, we hoped to illuminate the associations between work-recreation balance conditions, healthy lifestyles, and SHS. Work-recreation balance conditions were categorically defined by frequency ("rarely, sometimes, or always"). Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile (HPLP-II) was used to evaluate the level of healthy lifestyles, and the medical examination report and Sub-Health Measurement Scale V1.0 (SHMS V1.0) were both used to evaluate health status. The ratio of SHS (46.3%) is higher than health status (18.4%) or disease status (35.3%). Overall, 4.9% of respondents reported the lowest level of work-recreation balance, and they scored lower on both the HPLP-II and SHMS V1.0 compared with those who frequently maintained a work-recreation balance. Significant association was found between work-recreation balance behaviors and healthy lifestyles (p < 0.001) after demographic adjustment. In comparison with those reporting a frequent work-recreation balance, individuals whose work-recreation balance was categorically "rare" were 1.69 times as likely to develop SHS (odds ratio (OR): 1.69, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.49-1.92), and those with infrequent work-recreation balance ("sometimes") were 1.71 times more likely to develop SHS (OR: 1.71, 95% CI: 1.62-1.81). These findings suggest that work-recreation balance conditions are significantly associated with, and seem to be accurate behavioral

  3. [Status report on public health in Mauritius in 2009].

    PubMed

    D'Aoust, L; Munbodh, P; Sookram, C; Paratian, U; Gaüzère, B A; Aubry, P

    2010-06-01

    Mauritius is an island nation off the coast of Africa in the southwestern Indian Ocean. Improved socio-sanitation conditions over the past years have dramatically decreased the incidence of tropical diseases to levels comparable with those observed in developed countries. Some tropical illnesses including malaria, schistosomiasis, cysticercosis and lymphatic filariasis have been eradicated. Others such as amibiasis, typhoid fever and leprosy have become rare. However, because of the island's geographical proximity to countries with uncontrolled and suboptimal socio-sanitation conditions and its humid subtropical climate, there is a continued risk for certain vector transmitted tropical diseases such as Chikungunya and dengue. In addition, the incidence of HIV infection and AIDS has been rising rapidly since 2004 and tuberculosis remains a public health problem. Better living conditions have also been accompanied by an increase in cardiovascular and metabolic diseases that, along with cancer, are now the main causes of morbidity and mortality.

  4. Income inequality, social cohesion and the health status of populations: the role of neo-liberalism.

    PubMed

    Coburn, D

    2000-07-01

    There has been a recent upsurge of interest in the relationship between income inequality and health within nations and between nations. On the latter topic Wilkinson and others believe that, in the advanced capitalist countries, higher income inequality leads to lowered social cohesion which in turn produces poorer health status. I argue that, despite a by-now voluminous literature, not enough attention has been paid to the social context of income inequality--health relationships or to the causes of income inequality itself. In this paper I contend that there is a particular affinity between neo-liberal (market-oriented) political doctrines, income inequality and lowered social cohesion. Neo-liberalism, it is argued, produces both higher income inequality and lowered social cohesion. Part of the negative effect of neo-liberalism on health status is due to its undermining of the welfare state. The welfare state may have direct effects on health as well as being one of the underlying structural causes of social cohesion. The rise of neo-liberalism and the decline of the welfare state are themselves tied to globalization and the changing class structures of the advanced capitalist societies. More attention should be paid to understanding the causes of income inequalities and not just to its effects because income inequalities are neither necessary nor inevitable. Moreover, understanding the contextual causes of inequality may also influence our notion of the causal pathways involved in inequality-health status relationships (and vice versa).

  5. Older patients' health status and satisfaction with medical care in an HMO population.

    PubMed

    Hall, J A; Feldstein, M; Fretwell, M D; Rowe, J W; Epstein, A M

    1990-03-01

    Few studies have examined the relationship between older patients' satisfaction with medical care and their health status, and none of these investigations has been based at an HMO. To examine this question, data on 532 patients older than 70 years in an HMO were analyzed. Patients' reports of satisfaction with medical care were examined in relation to several dimensions of health status (based on self-reports, chart data, and physicians' ratings), their own sociodemographic characteristics, and characteristics of their primary physicians. Greater satisfaction was significantly associated with better self-rated health and physical function, less emotional distress, and more social activity but was not related to physicians' health ratings, number of diagnoses, or cognitive function. Mean levels of satisfaction were also significantly different for patients of different physicians but not appreciably related to patients' sociodemographic characteristics. When patient sociodemographic characteristics were controlled for, the relations of health status variables to satisfaction were essentially unchanged. It was concluded that the key issues to be resolved are whether better health leads to greater satisfaction or vice versa, and, in either case, whether the relations are mediated by factors relating to the patient's experience of medical care.

  6. Immigration and selected indicators of health status and healthcare utilization among the Chinese.

    PubMed

    Chou, Chiu-Fang; Johnson, Pamela Jo; Blewett, Lynn A

    2010-08-01

    We examined indicators of health status and healthcare utilization according to immigration status to assess the 'healthy immigrant effect' for Chinese adults. Data for Chinese in Taiwan (n = 15,549) were from the 2001 Taiwan National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). Data for U.S.-born Chinese (n = 964) and Chinese Immigrants in the U.S. (n = 253) were from the 1998-2004 U.S. NHIS. We used multivariate logistic regression to estimate the adjusted odds of perceived poor health, having ever smoked, and past year emergency room visits according to immigration status. For Chinese immigrants, more years in the U.S. were associated with lower odds of reporting poor health (OR = 0.4; 95% CI = 0.2-0.8) and past-year emergency room use (OR = 0.5; 95% CI = 0.3-0.9). Compared with recent Chinese immigrants (<5 years in U.S.), Chinese in Taiwan had higher odds of reporting poor health (OR = 6.2; 95% CI = 3.2-12.1) and having ever smoked (OR = 1.6; 95% CI = 1.1-2.5). Our results suggest that those who migrate have better health profiles than those who do not migrate. However, recent Chinese immigrants were not significantly different than U.S.-born Chinese.

  7. Beyond Black and White: Race/Ethnicity and Health Status Among Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Judy H.; Bierman, Arlene S.; Elliott, Marc N.; Wilson, Rachel L.; Xia, Chengfei; Scholle, Sarah Hudson

    Objectives This study examined physical and mental health, health symptoms, sensory and functional limitations, risk factors, and multimorbidity among older Medicare managed care members to assess disparities associated with race/ethnicity. Study Design and Methods We used data on 236,289 older adults from 208 Medicare plans who completed the 2012 Medicare Health Outcomes Survey to compare 14 health indicators across non-Hispanic whites, blacks, American Indians/Alaskan Natives, Asians, Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders, multiracial individuals, and Hispanics. Logistic regression models that clustered on the plan estimated the risk of indicators of adverse health and functional status. Results Even after controlling for key patient sociodemographic factors, race/ethnicity was significantly associated with most adverse health indicators. Except for Asians, all racial/ethnic minority groups were significantly more likely than whites to report poor mental health status, presence of most health symptoms, sensory limitations, and activities-of-daily-living disability. Important differences were observed across racial and ethnic groups. Conclusions Despite some exceptions, elders of racial/ethnic minority background are generally at higher risk than non-Hispanic whites for a broad range of adverse health and functional outcomes that are not routinely assessed. Limitations include bias related to self-reported data and respondent recall. Future research should consider ethnic subgroup variations; employing newer techniques to improve estimates for smaller groups; and prioritizing and identifying opportunities for care improvement of diverse enrollee groups by considering specific needs. To improve the health status of the elderly, service delivery targeting the needs of specific population groups, coupled with culturally appropriate care for racial/ethnic minorities, should also be considered. PMID:24884752

  8. Health status transitions in community-living elderly with complex care needs: a latent class approach

    PubMed Central

    Lafortune, Louise; Béland, François; Bergman, Howard; Ankri, Joël

    2009-01-01

    Background For older persons with complex care needs, accounting for the variability and interdependency in how health dimensions manifest themselves is necessary to understand the dynamic of health status. Our objective is to test the hypothesis that a latent classification can capture this heterogeneity in a population of frail elderly persons living in the community. Based on a person-centered approach, the classification corresponds to substantively meaningful groups of individuals who present with a comparable constellation of health problems. Methods Using data collected for the SIPA project, a system of integrated care for frail older people (n = 1164), we performed latent class analyses to identify homogenous categories of health status (i.e. health profiles) based on 17 indicators of prevalent health problems (chronic conditions; depression; cognition; functional and sensory limitations; instrumental, mobility and personal care disability) Then, we conducted latent transition analyses to study change in profile membership over 2 consecutive periods of 12 and 10 months, respectively. We modeled competing risks for mortality and lost to follow-up as absorbing states to avoid attrition biases. Results We identified four health profiles that distinguish the physical and cognitive dimensions of health and capture severity along the disability dimension. The profiles are stable over time and robust to mortality and lost to follow-up attrition. The differentiated and gender-specific patterns of transition probabilities demonstrate the profiles' sensitivity to change in health status and unmasked the differential relationship of physical and cognitive domains with progression in disability. Conclusion Our approach may prove useful at organization and policy levels where many issues call for classification of individuals into pragmatically meaningful groups. In dealing with attrition biases, our analytical strategy could provide critical information for the

  9. Subjective evaluation of health in old age: the role of immigration status and social environment.

    PubMed

    Carmel, S

    2001-01-01

    The study investigated the role of immigration status on self-rated health, general health, and well-being among elderly persons by comparing two groups of elderly persons who immigrated from Eastern European countries to Israel-veterans and new immigrants. It also examined the factors that explain self-rated health in both groups. Data for this study (n = 784) were taken from a study based on structured home interviews of a random sample of Israeli Jewish elderly (70+) conducted in 1994. The results show that the new immigrants are younger and have higher education than the veterans, but their economic status is lower and they have a lower percentage of men and married persons. The new immigrants also rank themselves lower than the veterans on a variety of measures of health and psycho-social well-being. It is suggested that the stress caused by immigration and factors related to the standard of living and health services in the countries of origin outweigh the relative advantage that the new immigrants have, in terms of age and education, in influencing their health and well-being. Self-rated health among the new immigrants is explained mainly by objective measures of health, economic status and a feeling of control over life, while among the veterans it is explained by these variables as well as by other psycho-social variables such as self-esteem and social support. These findings suggest careful analyses of subjective evaluations of health in different socio-cultural subgroups in society for theoretical reasons and for purposes of planning interventions directed to promote health and psycho-social well-being of elderly persons on the community level.

  10. Forests of opportunities and mischief: disentangling the interactions between forests, parasites and immune responses.

    PubMed

    Renner, Swen C; Lüdtke, Bruntje; Kaiser, Sonja; Kienle, Julia; Schaefer, H Martin; Segelbacher, Gernot; Tschapka, Marco; Santiago-Alarcon, Diego

    2016-08-01

    Habitat characteristics determine the presence of individuals through resource availability, but at the same time, such features also influence the occurrence of parasites. We analyzed how birds respond to changes in interior forest structures, to forest management regimes, and to the risk of haemosporidian infections. We captured and took blood samples from blackcaps (Sylvia atricapilla) and chaffinches (Fringilla coelebs) in three different forest types (beech, mixed deciduous, spruce). We measured birds' body asymmetries, detected avian haemosporidians, and counted white blood cells as an immune measure of each individual per forest type. We used, to our knowledge for the first time, continuous forest structural parameters to quantify habitat structure, and found significant effects of habitat structure on parasite prevalence that previously have been undetected. We found three times higher prevalence for blackcaps compared with chaffinches. Parasite intensity varied significantly within host species depending on forest type, being lowest in beech forests for both host species. Structurally complex habitats with a high degree of entropy had a positive effect on the likelihood of acquiring an infection, but the effect on prevalence was negative for forest sections with a south facing aspect. For blackcaps, forest gaps also had a positive effect on prevalence, but canopy height had a negative one. Our results suggest that forest types and variations in forest structure influence the likelihood of acquiring an infection, which subsequently has an influence on host health status and body condition; however, responses to some environmental factors are host-specific.

  11. Canada's non-status immigrants: negotiating access to health care and citizenship.

    PubMed

    Miklavcic, Alessandra

    2011-01-01

    Illegal immigration in Canada is characterized mainly by non-status immigrants who legally enter Canada and stay after their legal status expires and by failed refugee claimants. For these persons, immigration status or its absence plays an important role in determining the degree of access to Canadian health care. This article situates the clinical setting as a site of contention and negotiation of citizenship and care in social networks as well as pragmatic and discursive strategies. Drawing on the case of a patient who faced imminent deportation and became suicidal, in this article I depict how psychiatrists and other health practitioners embrace "bearing witness" as an ethical practice, which intersects the medical and legal spheres.

  12. Undocumented Status as a Social Determinant of Occupational Safety and Health: The Workers’ Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, Michael A.; Eggerth, Donald E.; Jacobson, C. Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Background Undocumented immigration to the United States has grown dramatically over the past 25 years. This study explores undocumented status as a social determinant of occupational health by examining its perceived consequences on workplace safety of Latino immigrants. Methods Guided by the Theory of Work Adjustment, qualitative analysis was conducted on transcripts from focus groups and individual interviews conducted with a convenience sample of Latino immigrant workers. Results Participants reported that unauthorized status negatively impacted their safety at work and resulted in a degree of alienation that exceeded the specific proscriptions of the law. Participants overwhelming used a strategy of disengagement to cope with the challenges they face as undocumented immigrants. Conclusion This study describes the complex web of consequences resulting from undocumented status and its impact on occupational health. This study presents a framework connecting the daily work experiences of immigrants, the coping strategy of disengagement, and efforts to minimize the impact of structural violence. PMID:26471878

  13. Sleeping Position and Health Status of Children at Six-, Eighteen- and Thirty-Six-Month Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lung, For-Wey; Shu, Bih-Ching

    2011-01-01

    Using structural equation modeling to investigate the multiple pathways of sleeping position and children's early development at six-, eighteen- and thirty-six-month children, with parental demographics and child health status controlled. The participants consisted of 1783 six-month children, who were assessed using the Taiwan Birth Cohort Study…

  14. Stress, Health Risk Behaviors, and Weight Status among Community College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelletier, Jennifer E.; Lytle, Leslie A.; Laska, Melissa N.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the relationship between stress, weight-related health risk behaviors (e.g., eating behaviors, physical activity, sedentary behavior, sleep, cigarette smoking, and binge drinking), and weight status using cross-sectional data on 2-year community college students enrolled in a randomized controlled weight…

  15. Rising Poverty, Declining Health: The Nutritional Status of the Rural Poor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Voice for Food and Health Policy, Washington, DC.

    Using five key indicators of nutritional status (dietary intake, biochemical tests for circulating levels of nutrients or their metabolites, anthropometric measures, low birth weight and infant mortality rates, and food, health, and income assistance program participation rates and benefit levels), this 1-year research project identified national,…

  16. Socioeconomic Status and Health: Why Is the Relationship Stronger for Older Children? NBER Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Currie, Janet; Stabile, Mark

    Case, Lubotsky, and Paxson (2001) show that the well-known relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and health exists in childhood and grows more pronounced with age. However, in cross-sectional data, it is difficult to distinguish between two possible explanations. The first is that low-SES children are less able to respond to a given…

  17. Patient- versus physician-reporting of symptoms and health status in chronic myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Efficace, Fabio; Rosti, Gianantonio; Aaronson, Neil; Cottone, Francesco; Angelucci, Emanuele; Molica, Stefano; Vignetti, Marco; Mandelli, Franco; Baccarani, Michele

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to compare the reporting of health status and symptom severity, for a set of core symptoms related to imatinib therapy, between chronic myeloid leukemia patients and their treating physicians. Patients were asked to complete a questionnaire including questions on symptom severity and health status. The symptoms assessed were: abdominal discomfort, diarrhea, edema, fatigue, headache, muscle cramps, musculoskeletal pain, nausea and skin problems. The physicians were asked to complete a questionnaire for each of their patients entering the study. Four hundred twenty-two patients were included in the study. All respective paired physicians (n=29) completed the questionnaire, and thus the analyses are based on 422 patient-physician dyads. Agreement on symptom ratings ranged from 34% (for muscle cramps) to 66% (for nausea). For all symptoms, patients reported higher severity more often than their physicians. The three symptoms whose severity was most frequently underestimated by physicians were fatigue (51%), muscle cramps (49%) and musculoskeletal pain (42%). Health status was overestimated by physicians in 67% of the cases. Physicians and their patients with chronic myeloid leukemia often disagree in their ratings of the patients’ symptom severity. Most typically, physicians tend to underestimate symptom severity and overestimate the overall health status of their patients. Current findings support the use of patient-reported outcome measures as a possible means to enhance the management of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia. PMID:24241488

  18. Oral health status, knowledge, attitude and practice of patients with heart disease

    PubMed Central

    Rasouli-Ghahroudi, Amir Alireza; Khorsand, Afshin; Yaghobee, Siamak; Rokn, Amirreza; Jalali, Mohammad; Masudi, Sima; Rahimi, Hamed; Kabir, Ali

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to investigate knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of cardiovascular disease (CVD) patients about their oral health status. METHODS In this cross-sectional study, we analyzed the data of 150 CVD patients that collected by a self-administered questionnaire consists of demographic characteristics and KAP. Oral health indicators calculated based on the results of oral examination by an expert dentist. RESULTS CVD patients had an overall moderate level of knowledge and attitude, but their practice was lower than moderate. There were important associations between knowledge scores with gender, education, residential area and financial status, between attitude scores with education and residential area, and between practice scores with education and financial status. There were no associations between KAP and age, marital status or job. Significant positive correlations were found between KAP components. Significant negative correlations were found between oral hygiene index with knowledge and practice. CONCLUSION The practice of heart disease patients about their oral health was poor, and declares that increasing awareness and attitude may not promote practice. Efficient programs are needed to promote oral health practice of adult populations in special groups. PMID:27114731

  19. Health care cost containment in Denmark and Norway: a question of relative professional status?

    PubMed

    Andersen, Lotte B

    2014-04-01

    The demand for publicly subsidized health care services is insatiable, but the costs can be contained in different ways: formal rules can limit access to and the number of subsidized services, demand and supply can be regulated through the price mechanism, the relevant profession can contain the costs through state-sanctioned self-regulation, and other professions can contain the costs (e.g. through referrals). The use of these cost containment measures varies between countries, depending on demand and supply factors, but the relative professional status of the health professions may help explain why different countries use cost containment measures differently for different services. This article compares cost containment measures in Denmark and Norway because these countries vary with regard to the professional status of the medical profession relative to other health care providers, while other relevant variables are approximately similar. The investigation is based on formal agreements and rules, historical documents, existing analyses and an analysis of 360 newspaper articles. It shows that high relative professional status seems to help professions to avoid user fees, steer clear of regulation from other professions and regulate the services produced by others. This implies that relative professional status should be taken into consideration in analyses of health care cost containment.

  20. The Relationship of Smoking Status to Alcohol Use, Problems, and Health Behaviors in College Freshmen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haas, Amie L.; Smith, Shelby K.

    2012-01-01

    Differences in drinking, consequences, and perceptions were examined between alcohol-using college students by smoking status (current, past, and lifetime nonsmoker). Entering freshmen (N = 558: 45% male, 72% Caucasian, age M = 18) completed a questionnaire assessing smoking, drinking and current health perceptions. Results indicated current…

  1. Are Improvements in Child Health Due to Increasing Status of Women in Developing Nations?

    PubMed

    Heaton, Tim B

    2015-01-01

    This research tests the hypothesis that change over time in women's status leads to improvements in their children's health. Specifically, we examine whether change in resources and empowerment in mother's roles as biological mothers, caregivers, and providers and social contexts that promote the rights and representation of and investment in women are associated with better nutritional status and survival of young children. Analysis is based on a broad sample of countries (n = 28), with data at two or more points in time to enable examination of change. Key indicators of child health show improvement in the last 13 years in developing nations. Much of this improvement--90 percent of the increase in nutritional status and 47 percent of the reduction in mortality--is associated with improving status of women. Increased maternal education, control over reproduction, freedom from violence, access to health care, legislation and enforcement of women's rights, greater political representation, equality in the education system, and lower maternal mortality are improving children's health. These results imply that further advancement of women's position in society would be beneficial.

  2. [Assessment of the health status and working capacity of electric charge plant operators].

    PubMed

    Gavrish, N N; Zuev, V G; Pokhodzeĭ, L V; Rubtsova, N B; Pal'tsev, Iu P

    2008-01-01

    High-power broadband electromagnetic pulses of nanosecond range duration have been found to adversely affect the health status and working capacity of electric charge plant operators. A system of measures to protect the workers from exposure to such pulses, which is based on the hygienic regulation of the exposure, has been implemented.

  3. Status of Health Appraisal Services for Primary School Children in Edo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ojugo, Augustine I.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the status of the health appraisal services provided for primary school children in Edo State, Nigeria. Using the cross-sectional survey design a total of 1506 primary school children were selected from across the state as the study participants. The analysis of data collected through a 14-item…

  4. Energy Efficiency in Gait, Activity, Participation, and Health Status in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, Claire; Parkes, Jackie; Stevenson, Mike; Cosgrove, Aidan P.; McDowell, Brona C.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study was to establish if a relationship exists between the energy efficiency of gait, and measures of activity limitation, participation restriction, and health status in a representative sample of children with cerebral palsy (CP). Secondary aims were to investigate potential differences between clinical subtypes and gross motor…

  5. The Impact of Socioeconomic Status on Health over the Life-Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, James P.

    2007-01-01

    Using data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics PSID, across the life course Socio Economic Status (SES) impacts future health outcomes, although the primary influence is education and not an individual's financial resources in whatever form they are received. That conclusion appears to be robust whether the financial resources are income or…

  6. User Interfaces for Patient-Centered Communication of Health Status and Care Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox-Patterson, Lauren

    2013-01-01

    The recent trend toward patients participating in their own healthcare has opened up numerous opportunities for computing research. This dissertation focuses on how technology can foster this participation, through user interfaces to effectively communicate personal health status and care progress to hospital patients. I first characterize the…

  7. Iron status and reproduction in US women: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2006.

    PubMed

    Miller, Elizabeth M

    2014-01-01

    Women experience significant changes in iron status throughout their reproductive lifespans. While this is evident in regions with high rates of malnutrition and infectious disease, the extent of reproductive-related changes is less well known in countries with low rates of iron deficiency anemia, such as the United States. The goal of this study is determine the relationship between women's reproductive variables (pregnancy, parity, currently breastfeeding, regular menstruation, hormonal contraceptive use, and age at menarche) and iron status (hemoglobin, ferritin, transferrin receptor, and % transferrin saturation) using an anthropological framework for interpreting the results. Data from women aged 18-49 were taken from the 1999-2006 US NHANES, a nationally representative cross-sectional sample of US women. Using multiple imputation and complex survey statistics, women's reproductive variables were regressed against indicators of iron status. Pregnant women had significantly poorer iron status, by most indicators, than non-pregnant women. All biomarkers demonstrated significantly lower iron levels with increasing parity. Women who were having regular periods had iron indicators that suggested decreased iron levels, while women who used hormonal contraceptives had iron indicators that suggested increased iron levels. Despite relatively good iron status and widespread availability of iron-rich foods in the US, women still exhibit patterns of iron depletion across several reproductive variables of interest. These results contribute to an ecological approach to iron status that seeks to understand variation in iron status, with the hopes that appropriate, population-specific recommendations can be developed to improve women's health.

  8. Women's status and the health of women and men: a view from the States.

    PubMed

    Kawachi, I; Kennedy, B P; Gupta, V; Prothrow-Stith, D

    1999-01-01

    We examined the status of women in the 50 American states in relation to women's and men's levels of health. The status of women in each state was assessed by four composite indices measuring women's political participation, economic autonomy, employment and earnings, and reproductive rights. The study design was cross-sectional and ecologic. Our main outcome measures were total female and male mortality rates, female cause-specific death rates and mean days of activity limitations reported by women during the previous month. Measures of women's status were strikingly correlated with each of these health outcomes at the state level. Higher political participation by women was correlated with lower female mortality rates (r = -0.51), as well as lower activity limitations (-0.47). A smaller wage gap between women and men was associated with lower female mortality rates (-0.30) and lower activity limitations (-0.31) (all correlations, P < 0.05). Indices of women's status were also strongly correlated with male mortality rates, suggesting that women's status may reflect more general underlying structural processes associated with material deprivation and income inequality. However, the indices of women's status persisted in predicting female mortality and morbidity rates after adjusting for income inequality, poverty rates and median household income. Associations were observed for specific causes of death, including stroke, cervical cancer and homicide. We conclude that women experience higher mortality and morbidity in states where they have lower levels of political participation and economic autonomy. Living in such states has detrimental consequences for the health of men as well. Gender inequality and truncated opportunities for women may be one of the pathways by which the maldistribution of income adversely affects the health of women.

  9. Holocene occurrence of Lophodermium piceae, a black spruce needle endophyte and possible paleoindicator of boreal forest health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasinski, J. P. Paul; Payette, Serge

    2007-01-01

    Holocene occurrences of conifer needle endophytes have not previously been reported. We report the fossil remains of Lophodermium piceae (Fckl.) Hoehn., a fungal endophyte of black spruce ( Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.) needles, in macrofossils dating back to 8000 cal yr BP. Spruce budworm head capsules and L. piceae remains were found preceding charcoal layers delineating the transformation of four spruce-moss forest sites to spruce-lichen woodland. As L. piceae is found solely on senescent needles, its increased presence during these transformation periods likely indicates that the forests were in decline due to the spruce budworm ( Choristoneura fumiferana (Clem.)) when they burned. Future paleoecological studies incorporating needle fungi observations could be used to investigate the historical occurrence of tree disease and the role of fungi in forest health and decline.

  10. Current status of yoga in mental health services.

    PubMed

    Varambally, Shivarama; Gangadhar, B N

    2016-06-01

    Yoga (derived from 'yuj' which means to yoke together or unite) has been used for millennia as a tool for self-improvement, with the ultimate goal of uniting the individual consciousness with the universal. The physical elements of yoga, although seen as necessary in the path to achieve the goal, they were not considered as the endpoint for a practitioner. Sage Patanjali, who codified the practices into an eight-limbed model (Ashtanga yoga) in the Patanjali Yoga Sutras, makes it clear that the target of yoga is primarily the mind. However, in the modern world, yoga practices have become immensely popular as aids to improve health. Yoga-based practices are being extensively used as therapeutic ingredients, alone or as adjuncts to other therapies in a variety of disorders, both physical and mental. There is now strong evidence to suggest that yoga-based interventions are beneficial in several lifestyle disorders. Recent research has also shown significant benefits in mental disorders such as depression, anxiety, and psychosis. This paper discusses the place of yoga as one of the therapeutic strategies in the holistic approach to mental disorders, and the challenges inherent to research in this area.

  11. Air pollution and changes in forest nitrogen status: Fog and rain deposition and nitrogen losses from forested watersheds in the San Bernardino Mountains. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Fenn, M.E.; Poth, M.A.

    1998-08-01

    The primary objective of this project was to examine the effects of N deposition on mixed conifer forests in southern California. Studies were conducted at selected sites an air pollution gradient in the San Bernardino Mountains (SBM). The main tasks were: (1) to measure N deposition to the forest in fog and throughfall, (2) to determine spatial and temporal patterns of nitrate export in stream water, and (3) to quantify trace gas fluxes from soil at sites with high and low N deposition. Fog was found to be an important N source at the western end of the SMB due to his high frequency and presence at elevated concentrations. N deposition from throughfall was found to be similar to levels in forests where adverse effects have occurred. Annual fluxes of N from soil were 18-times higher at the western end of the SBM than at the eastern end. The data provide evidence of forest nitrogen saturation caused by the deposition of anthropogenic pollutants over a multi-decade period in the SBM.

  12. Describing the population health burden of depression: health-adjusted life expectancy by depression status in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Steensma, C.; Loukine, L.; Orpana, H.; McRae, L.; Vachon, J.; Mo, F.; Boileau-Falardeau, M.; Reid, C.; Choi, B. C.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Few studies have evaluated the impact of depression in terms of losses to both premature mortality and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) on the overall population. Health-adjusted life expectancy (HALE) is a summary measure of population health that combines both morbidity and mortality into a single summary statistic that describes the current health status of a population. Methods: We estimated HALE for the Canadian adult population according to depression status. National Population Health Survey (NPHS) participants 20 years and older (n = 12 373) were followed for mortality outcomes from 1994 to 2009, based on depression status. Depression was defined as having likely experienced a major depressive episode in the previous year as measured by the Composite International Diagnostic Interview Short Form. Life expectancy was estimated by building period abridged life tables by sex and depression status using the relative risks of mortality from the NPHS and mortality data from the Canadian Chronic Disease Surveillance System (2007–2009). The Canadian Community Health Survey (2009/10) provided estimates of depression prevalence and Health Utilities Index as a measure of HRQOL. Using the combined mortality, depression prevalence and HRQOL estimates, HALE was estimated for the adult population according to depression status and by sex. Results: For the population of women with a recent major depressive episode, HALE at 20 years of age was 42.0 years (95% CI: 40.2–43.8) compared to 57.0 years (95% CI: 56.8–57.2) for women without a recent major depressive episode. For the population of Canadian men, HALE at 20 was 39.0 years (95% CI: 36.5–41.5) for those with a recent major depressive episode compared to 53.8 years (95% CI: 53.6–54.0) for those without. For the 15.0-year difference in HALE between women with and without depression, 12.3 years can be attributed to the HRQOL gap and the remaining 2.7 years to the mortality gap. The

  13. Beyond the metaphysical: health-promoting existential mechanisms and their impact on the health status of clients.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, Dean

    2003-09-01

    This paper aims to conceptualize the issues that surround the notion of existential health. It also seeks to establish the impact that existential issues have upon the health of the individual client and how these might explicitly be applied in clinical practice settings. The ability of clients to draw upon their own existential resources as a fundamental part of their health care experience often goes unrecognized in nursing. Whilst existential mechanisms may be theoretically recognized, as a valid aspect of an individual's unique and personal identity, they are not an established part of the health care activity of nurses. Entrenched biomedical frameworks of care delivery and the interchangeable use of metaphysical health states with existential health states in the established literature present particular dilemmas for the acknowledgement of existential health in clients. A review of the literature has been conducted. This account argues that the failure to recognize and assess a client's existential health status represents a major omission on the part of the clinical nurse. These nurses are, in effect, denying their clients the right to exercise and mobilize an important and valuable health resource.

  14. Impaired Health Status, Psychological Distress, and Personality in Women and Men With Nonobstructive Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Arts, Lindy; Zijlstra, Wobbe; Widdershoven, Jos W.; Aarnoudse, Wilbert; Denollet, Johan

    2017-01-01

    Background— Patients with nonobstructive coronary artery disease (NOCAD; wall irregularities, stenosis <60%), and women with NOCAD in particular, remain underinvestigated. We examined sex and gender (S&G) differences in health status, psychological distress, and personality between patients with NOCAD and the general population, as well as S&G differences within the NOCAD population. Methods and Results— In total, 523 patients with NOCAD (61±9 years, 52% women) were included via coronary angiography and computed tomography as part of the TWIST (Tweesteden Mild Stenosis) study. Generic health status (12-item Short Form physical and mental scales and fatigue), psychological distress (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale anxiety and depressive symptoms and Global Mood Scale negative and positive affect), and personality (Type D personality) were compared between patients with NOCAD and an age- and sex-matched group of 1347 people from the general population. Frequency matching was performed to obtain a similar sex distribution in each age–decile group. Both men and women with NOCAD reported impaired health status, more psychological distress, and Type D personality compared with men and women in the reference group. Women reported more psychosocial distress compared with men, but no significant sex-by-group interaction effects were observed. Women with NOCAD reported impaired health status, more anxiety, and less positive affect, but no differences in depressive symptoms, angina, or Type D personality when compared with men with NOCAD. Age, education, employment, partner, and alcohol use explained these S&G differences within the NOCAD group. Conclusions— In both men and women, NOCAD was associated with impaired health status, more psychological distress, and Type D personality when compared with a reference population. Factors reflecting S&G differences explained these S&G findings in patient-reported outcomes. Clinical Trial Registration— URL: http

  15. PRE-OPERATIVE HEALTH STATUS AND OUTCOMES FOLLOWING CONTINUOUS-FLOW LEFT VENTRICULAR ASSIST DEVICE IMPLANTATION

    PubMed Central

    Flint, Kelsey M.; Matlock, Daniel D.; Sundareswaran, Kartik; Lindenfeld, JoAnn; Spertus, John A.; Farrar, David J.; Allen, Larry A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Health status predicts adverse outcomes in heart failure and cardiac surgery patients, but its prognostic value in left ventricular assist device (LVAD) placement is unknown. Methods We examined the association of pre-operative health status, as measured by the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ), with survival and hospitalization after LVAD using KCCQ as a continuous variable and stratified by KCCQ score quartile plus missing KCCQ in 1125 clinical trial participants receiving the HeartMate II as either destination therapy (n=635) or bridge to transplantation (n=490). Results Mean pre-operative KCCQ score was 29.4±18.7 among survivors (n=719), and 27.1±18.3 (n=406) in those who died. In time-to-event analysis for all available follow up using health status as a continuous variable, pre-operative KCCQ score did not correlate with overall mortality after LVAD implantation (p=0.178). Small absolute differences were seen between pre-operative KCCQ quartile and 30-day survival (Q4 95% vs. Q1 89% vs. missing 87%; p=0.0009 for trend), 180-day survival (Q4 83% vs. Q1 76% vs. missing 79%; p=0.060 for trend), and days hospitalized at 180 days (Q4 29.8±25.6 vs. Q1 34.1±27.1 vs. missing 36.5±29.9; p=0.009 for trend). Conclusion Our findings suggest that pre-operative health status has limited association with outcomes after LVAD implantation. Although these data require further study in a diverse population, mechanical circulatory support may represent a relatively unique clinical situation, distinct from heart failure and other cardiac surgeries, in which heart failure-specific health status measures may be largely reversed. PMID:24119729

  16. Physical Activity, Health Status and Risk of Hospitalization in Patients with Severe Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Benzo, Roberto P.; Chang, Chung-Chou H.; Farrell, Max H.; Kaplan, Robert; Ries, Andrew; Martinez, Fernando J.; Wise, Robert; Make, Barry; Sciurba, Frank

    2010-01-01

    Background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of death and 70% of the cost of COPD is due to hospitalizations. Self-reported daily physical activity and health status have been reported as predictors of a hospitalization in COPD but are not routinely assessed. Objectives We tested the hypothesis that self-reported daily physical activity and health status assessed by a simple question were predictors of a hospitalization in a well-characterized cohort of patients with severe emphysema. Methods Investigators gathered daily physical activity and health status data assessed by a simple question in 597 patients with severe emphysema and tested the association of those patient-reported outcomes to the occurrence of a hospitalization in the following year. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to determine predictors of hospitalization during the first 12 months after randomization. Results The two variables tested in the hypothesis were significant predictors of a hospitalization after adjusting for all univariable significant predictors: >2 h of physical activity per week had a protective effect [odds ratio (OR) 0.60; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.41–0.88] and self-reported health status as fair or poor had a deleterious effect (OR 1.57; 95% CI 1.10–2.23). In addition, two other variables became significant in the multivariate model: total lung capacity (every 10% increase) had a protective effect (OR 0.88; 95% CI 0.78–0.99) and self-reported anxiety had a deleterious effect (OR 1.75; 95% CI 1.13–2.70). Conclusion Self-reported daily physical activity and health status are independently associated with COPD hospitalizations. Our findings, assessed by simple questions, suggest the value of patient-reported outcomes in developing risk assessment tools that are easy to use. PMID:20234126

  17. Effects of coffee management intensity on composition, structure, and regeneration status of ethiopian moist evergreen afromontane forests.

    PubMed

    Hundera, Kitessa; Aerts, Raf; Fontaine, Alexandre; Van Mechelen, Maarten; Gijbels, Pieter; Honnay, Olivier; Muys, Bart

    2013-03-01

    The effect of arabica coffee management intensity on composition, structure, and regeneration of moist evergreen Afromontane forests was studied in three traditional coffee-management systems of southwest Ethiopia: semiplantation coffee, semiforest coffee, and forest coffee. Vegetation and environmental data were collected in 84 plots from forests varying in intensity of coffee management. After controlling for environmental variation (altitude, aspect, slope, soil nutrient availability, and soil depth), differences in woody species composition, forest structure, and regeneration potential among management systems were compared using one way analysis of variance. The study showed that intensification of forest coffee cultivation to maximize coffee production negatively affects diversity and structure of Ethiopian moist evergreen Afromontane forests. Intensification of coffee productivity starts with the conversion of forest coffee to semiforest coffee, which has significant negative effects on tree seedling abundance. Further intensification leads to the conversion of semiforest to semiplantation coffee, causing significant diversity losses and the collapse of forest structure (decrease of stem density, basal area, crown closure, crown cover, and dominant tree height). Our study underlines the need for shade certification schemes to include variables other than canopy cover and that the loss of species diversity in intensively managed coffee systems may jeopardize the sustainability of coffee production itself through the decrease of ecosystem resilience and disruption of ecosystem services related to coffee yield, such as pollination and pest control.

  18. Effects of Coffee Management Intensity on Composition, Structure, and Regeneration Status of Ethiopian Moist Evergreen Afromontane Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hundera, Kitessa; Aerts, Raf; Fontaine, Alexandre; Van Mechelen, Maarten; Gijbels, Pieter; Honnay, Olivier; Muys, Bart

    2013-03-01

    The effect of arabica coffee management intensity on composition, structure, and regeneration of moist evergreen Afromontane forests was studied in three traditional coffee-management systems of southwest Ethiopia: semiplantation coffee, semiforest coffee, and forest coffee. Vegetation and environmental data were collected in 84 plots from forests varying in intensity of coffee management. After controlling for environmental variation (altitude, aspect, slope, soil nutrient availability, and soil depth), differences in woody species composition, forest structure, and regeneration potential among management systems were compared using one way analysis of variance. The study showed that intensification of forest coffee cultivation to maximize coffee production negatively affects diversity and structure of Ethiopian moist evergreen Afromontane forests. Intensification of coffee productivity starts with the conversion of forest coffee to semiforest coffee, which has significant negative effects on tree seedling abundance. Further intensification leads to the conversion of semiforest to semiplantation coffee, causing significant diversity losses and the collapse of forest structure (decrease of stem density, basal area, crown closure, crown cover, and dominant tree height). Our study underlines the need for shade certification schemes to include variables other than canopy cover and that the loss of species diversity in intensively managed coffee systems may jeopardize the sustainability of coffee production itself through the decrease of ecosystem resilience and disruption of ecosystem services related to coffee yield, such as pollination and pest control.

  19. Implementation Status of Accrual Accounting System in Health Sector

    PubMed Central

    Mehrolhassani, Mohammad Hossien; Khayatzadeh-Mahani, Akram; Emami, Mozhgan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Management of financial resources in health systems is one of the major issues of concern for policy makers globally. As a sub-set of financial management, accounting system is of paramount importance. In this paper, which presents part of the results of a wider research project on transition process from a cash accounting system to an accrual accounting system, we look at the impact of components of change on implementation of the new system. Implementing changes is fraught with many obstacles and surveying these challenges will help policy makers to better overcome them. Methods: The study applied a quantitative manner in 2012 at Kerman University of Medical Science in Iran. For the evaluation, a teacher made valid questionnaire with Likert scale was used (Cranach’s alpha of 0.89) which included 7 change components in accounting system. The study population was 32 subordinate units of Kerman University of Medical Sciences and for data analysis, descriptive and inferential statistics and correlation coefficient in SPSS version 19 were used. Results: Level of effect of all components on the implementation was average downward (5.06±1.86), except for the component “management & leadership (3.46±2.25)” (undesirable from external evaluators’ viewpoint) and “technology (6.61±1.92) and work processes (6.35±2.19)” (middle to high from internal evaluators’ viewpoint). Conclusions: Results showed that the establishment of accrual accounting system faces infrastructural challenges, especially the components of leadership and management and followers. As such, developing effective measures to overcome implementation obstacles should target these components. PMID:25560337

  20. Health Status and Social Networks as Predictors of Resilience in Older Adults Residing in Rural and Remote Environments.

    PubMed

    McKibbin, Christine; Lee, Aaron; Steinman, Bernard A; Carrico, Catherine; Bourassa, Katelynn; Slosser, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. Health status and social networks are associated with resilience among older adults. Each of these factors may be important to the ability of adults to remain in rural and remote communities as they age. We examined the association of health status and social networks and resilience among older adults dwelling in a rural and remote county in the Western United States. Methods. We selected a random sample of 198 registered voters aged 65 years or older from a frontier Wyoming county. Hierarchical linear regression was used to examine the association of health status as well as social networks and resilience. We also examined health status as a moderator of the relationship between social networks and resilience. Results. Family networks (p = 0.024) and mental health status (p < 0.001) significantly predicted resilience. Mental health status moderated the relationship of family (p = 0.004) and friend (p = 0.021) networks with resilience. Smaller family and friend networks were associated with greater resilience when mental health status was low, but not when it was high. Conclusion. Efforts to increase mental health status may improve resilience among older adults in rural environments, particularly for those with smaller family and friends networks.

  1. Health Status and Social Networks as Predictors of Resilience in Older Adults Residing in Rural and Remote Environments

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Aaron; Carrico, Catherine; Bourassa, Katelynn; Slosser, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. Health status and social networks are associated with resilience among older adults. Each of these factors may be important to the ability of adults to remain in rural and remote communities as they age. We examined the association of health status and social networks and resilience among older adults dwelling in a rural and remote county in the Western United States. Methods. We selected a random sample of 198 registered voters aged 65 years or older from a frontier Wyoming county. Hierarchical linear regression was used to examine the association of health status as well as social networks and resilience. We also examined health status as a moderator of the relationship between social networks and resilience. Results. Family networks (p = 0.024) and mental health status (p < 0.001) significantly predicted resilience. Mental health status moderated the relationship of family (p = 0.004) and friend (p = 0.021) networks with resilience. Smaller family and friend networks were associated with greater resilience when mental health status was low, but not when it was high. Conclusion. Efforts to increase mental health status may improve resilience among older adults in rural environments, particularly for those with smaller family and friends networks. PMID:27478639

  2. Relationships between Culture and Health Status: A Multi-Site Study of the Older Chinese in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Daniel W. L.; Tsang, Ka Tat; Chappell, Neena; Lai, David C. Y.; Chau, Shirley B. Y.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between culture and the health status of older Chinese in Canada. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews with a cross-sectional, randomly selected sample of 2,272 older Chinese between 55 and 101 years of age in seven Canadian cities. Health status was assessed by the number of chronic illnesses,…

  3. The status of health communication: education and employment outlook for a growing field.

    PubMed

    McKeever, Brooke Weberling

    2014-12-01

    Using an online survey of health communication practitioners and academics (N = 372), this study investigates the educational background (degrees, knowledge, skills, and coursework) perceived to be important for employment in health communication. It provides an update on what may be needed in terms of graduate education, as well as which areas may be emerging as most important in the field. The purpose is to inform students, educators, administrators, and practitioners about the current status and possible future trends in health communication education and practice.

  4. [Health status of schoolchildren under five-day-week school program].

    PubMed

    Mineva, T; Semova, N; Spasova, V; Petrova, M

    1989-01-01

    The effect of a five-day educative programme is studied with respect to the health status and morbidity of schoolchildren--from entering VIIth class in the Unified secondary professional school to completion Xth class. The data received are compared with the results from health exam on children, trained on six-day week. The results from the investigation show more favorable dynamics of the chronic, acute and neuro-psychic morbidity, the per cent of those frequently taken ill and is increased the number of healthy schoolchildren. In comparison with the traditional educative organization the five-day week programme has higher prophylactic effectiveness in the health protection of schoolchildren.

  5. Can Decision Biases Improve Insurance Outcomes? An Experiment on Status Quo Bias in Health Insurance Choice

    PubMed Central

    Krieger, Miriam; Felder, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Rather than conforming to the assumption of perfect rationality in neoclassical economic theory, decision behavior has been shown to display a host of systematic biases. Properly understood, these patterns can be instrumentalized to improve outcomes in the public realm. We conducted a laboratory experiment to study whether decisions over health insurance policies are subject to status quo bias and, if so, whether experience mitigates this framing effect. Choices in two treatment groups with status quo defaults are compared to choices in a neutrally framed control group. A two-step design features sorting of subjects into the groups, allowing us to control for selection effects due to risk preferences. The results confirm the presence of a status quo bias in consumer choices over health insurance policies. However, this effect of the default framing does not persist as subjects repeat this decision in later periods of the experiment. Our results have implications for health care policy, for example suggesting that the use of non-binding defaults in health insurance can facilitate the spread of co-insurance policies and thereby help contain health care expenditure. PMID:23783222

  6. Can decision biases improve insurance outcomes? An experiment on status quo bias in health insurance choice.

    PubMed

    Krieger, Miriam; Felder, Stefan

    2013-06-19

    Rather than conforming to the assumption of perfect rationality in neoclassical economic theory, decision behavior has been shown to display a host of systematic biases. Properly understood, these patterns can be instrumentalized to improve outcomes in the public realm. We conducted a laboratory experiment to study whether decisions over health insurance policies are subject to status quo bias and, if so, whether experience mitigates this framing effect. Choices in two treatment groups with status quo defaults are compared to choices in a neutrally framed control group. A two-step design features sorting of subjects into the groups, allowing us to control for selection effects due to risk preferences. The results confirm the presence of a status quo bias in consumer choices over health insurance policies. However, this effect of the default framing does not persist as subjects repeat this decision in later periods of the experiment. Our results have implications for health care policy, for example suggesting that the use of non-binding defaults in health insurance can facilitate the spread of co-insurance policies and thereby help contain health care expenditure.

  7. Differences in mental health outcomes by acculturation status following a major urban disaster.

    PubMed

    Adams, Richard E; Boscarino, Joseph A

    2013-01-01

    A number of studies have assessed the association between acculturation and psychological outcomes following a traumatic event. Some suggest that low acculturation is associated with poorer health outcomes, while others show no differences or that low acculturation is associated with better outcomes. One year after the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center, we surveyed a multi-ethnic population of New York City adults (N= 2,368). We assessed posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), major depression, panic attack, anxiety symptoms, and general physical and mental health status. We classified study respondents into "low," "moderate," or "high" acculturation, based on survey responses. Bivariate results indicated that low acculturation individuals were more likely to experience negative life events, have low social support, and less likely to have pre-disaster mental health disorders. Those in the low acculturation group were also more likely to experience post-disaster perievent panic attacks, have higher anxiety, and have poorer mental health status. However, using logistic regression to control for confounding, and adjusting for multiple comparisons, we found that none of these outcomes were associated with acculturation status. Thus, our study suggests that acculturation was not associated with mental health outcomes following a major traumatic event.

  8. Health status and school achievement of children from Head Start and Free School Lunch Programs.

    PubMed

    Gietzen, D; Vermeersch, J A

    1980-01-01

    School health records of 332 children through the eighth grade were examined in a retrospective comparative analysis of physical health status and school achievement of children from Head Start and Free School Lunch Programs. The objective was to determine if nutrition early in the lives of children as a part of a comprehensive health and education program such as Head Start produces greater or different benefits for disadvantaged children than nutrition intervention later through free lunches when the child enters school. Cross-sectional longitudinal, and case-study approaches were used in the analysis. A group of no-food-program disadvantaged children and a group of advantaged children served as comparisons. Results showed that advantaged children performed better on all parameters of school achievement and health status compared with the disadvantaged children, regardless of the form of intervention. Measures of school achievement of Head Start and Free Lunch children did not differ from those of the disadvantaged comparison group, but there were significant differences in measures of health status between the disadvantaged groups. Fewer boys from Project Head Start fell below the 25th percentile for height compared with boys in the Free Lunch Program. Head Start children also scored higher in physical fitness and had fewer reported absences from school due to illness.

  9. A Study on Perception and Usage Status on Health Functional Foods in Women according to Menopause Status

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Heesook; Lee, Hae-Hyeog

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study was performed to provide a reference base for suggesting proper guidelines for the health of the people by analyzing perception and intake pattern on health functional foods and by identifying needs in pre- and postmenopausal women. Methods We conducted a self-administered survey in women admitted to the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at a university hospital between July and August, 2014. The survey questionnaire consisted of 8 items on general characteristics, 4 items on awareness on health functional foods, and 16 items on usage status. Results Of all 133 women with ages ranging between 19 to 67 years, postmenopausal women were 57 accounting for 42.9% of all subjects. Mean age was 55.4 ± 6.2 and menopausal age was 49.6 ± 4.3 in the postmenopause group. Mean age was 38.7 ± 9.0 in the postmenopause group. With respect to components of health functional foods, 76.3% of women answered "important" in the postmenopause group, significantly higher than 49.1% in the postmenopause group (P < 0.01). In regard to price, those who answered "important" accounted for the largest percentage in the premenopausal group at 56.6%, and those who answered "moderately important" accounted for 57.9% in the postmenopausal women. A significant difference was found between the two groups (P < 0.05). Conclusion Development of products reflecting consumer needs can be considered. It is important to foster an environment allowing individuals to choose right health functional foods and further studies are warranted. PMID:27152310

  10. Causes, Consequences and Public Health Implications of Low B-Vitamin Status in Ageing

    PubMed Central

    Porter, Kirsty; Hoey, Leane; Hughes, Catherine F.; Ward, Mary; McNulty, Helene

    2016-01-01

    The potential protective roles of folate and the metabolically related B-vitamins (vitamins B12, B6 and riboflavin) in diseases of ageing are of increasing research interest. The most common cause of folate and riboflavin deficiencies in older people is low dietary intake, whereas low B12 status is primarily associated with food-bound malabsorption, while sub-optimal vitamin B6 status is attributed to increased requirements in ageing. Observational evidence links low status of folate and the related B-vitamins (and/or elevated concentrations of homocysteine) with a higher risk of degenerative diseases including cardiovascular disease (CVD), cognitive dysfunction and osteoporosis. Deficient or low status of these B-vitamins alone or in combination with genetic polymorphisms, including the common MTHFR 677 C → T polymorphism, could contribute to greater disease risk in ageing by causing perturbations in one carbon metabolism. Moreover, interventions with the relevant B-vitamins to optimise status may have beneficial effects in preventing degenerative diseases. The precise mechanisms are unknown but many have been proposed involving the role of folate and the related B-vitamins as co-factors for one-carbon transfer reactions, which are fundamental for DNA and RNA biosynthesis and the maintenance of methylation reactions. This review will examine the evidence linking folate and related B-vitamins with health and disease in ageing, associated mechanisms and public health implications. PMID:27854316

  11. Health status and the development of health services in colonial state: the case of British Malaya.

    PubMed

    Leng, C H

    1982-01-01

    The health of a population and the development of health services in a country at a particular time in history are directly linked to the socioeconomic system. This paper discusses health and health services in Malay Peninsula during the time that it was a British colony. Economic production under British colonialism, which is basically a capitalist system, is organized primarily for the purpose of realizing profits. The health of the population is in direct conflict with and generally subordinated to this main objective. The pattern of health that emerges reflects this general framework. Moreover, health services under the colonialist system are developed primarily to serve the economic interests of the colonialists. Hence, the structure of health services is biased toward curative medicine and centered mainly in the urban areas.

  12. Dental Health Status of HIV-Positive Patients and Related Variables in Southeast Iran

    PubMed Central

    Saravani, Shirin; Nosrat Zehi, Tahereh; Kadeh, Hamideh; Mir, Sarvar

    2016-01-01

    Background Different factors can be responsible for the increased prevalence of dental caries and missing teeth in HIV-positive patients. Objectives This study evaluates dental health status and its relationship with social, behavioral, and medical factors in HIV-positive patients under the coverage of Zahedan University of Medical Sciences in Southeast Iran. Patients and Methods In a cross-sectional study, the dental health status of 119 HIV-positive patients was assessed in accordance with WHO indices and included decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT). A questionnaire on different social, behavioral, and medical variables was filled out for every case and the relationship and correlation of the variables to dental health status were investigated using One-way ANOVA, the Kruskal Wallis test, the t-test, the Mann-Whitney test, Spearman’s rho correlation coefficient, and Pearson correlation. Results The mean value of DMFT index was 11.87 ± 8.08, where the mean values of decayed and missing teeth were 8.42 ± 5.44 and 3.43 ± 4.07, respectively. DMFT index, decayed, and missing teeth correlated only with age (P < 0.0001, P = 0.009, P < 0.0001) and duration of HIV involvement (P = 0.004, P = 0.031, P = 0.007). Conclusions The dental health status of HIV-positive patients in this region was almost inappropriate. Most social, behavioral, and medical factors had no influence on dental health; only a correlation between dental health, age, and duration of HIV involvement was observed. PMID:27622173

  13. Role of Health Insurance Status in Interfacility Transfers of Patients With ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Ward, Michael J; Kripalani, Sunil; Zhu, Yuwei; Storrow, Alan B; Wang, Thomas J; Speroff, Theodore; Munoz, Daniel; Dittus, Robert S; Harrell, Frank E; Self, Wesley H

    2016-08-01

    Lack of health insurance is associated with interfacility transfer from emergency departments for several nonemergent conditions, but its association with transfers for ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), which requires timely definitive care for optimal outcomes, is unknown. Our objective was to determine whether insurance status is a predictor of interfacility transfer for emergency department visits with STEMI. We analyzed data from the 2006 to 2011 Nationwide Emergency Department Sample examining all emergency department visits for patients age 18 years and older with a diagnosis of STEMI and a disposition of interfacility transfer or hospitalization at the same institution. For emergency department visits with STEMI, our multivariate logistic regression model included emergency department disposition status (interfacility transfer vs hospitalization at the same institution) as the primary outcome, and insurance status (none vs any [including Medicare, Medicaid, and private insurance]) as the primary exposure. We found that among 1,377,827 emergency department STEMI visits, including 249,294 (18.1%) transfers, patients without health insurance (adjusted odds ratio 1.6, 95% CI 1.5 to 1.7) were more likely to be transferred than those with insurance. Lack of health insurance status was also an independent risk factor for transfer compared with each subcategory of health insurance, including Medicare, Medicaid, and private insurance. In conclusion, among patients presenting to United States emergency departments with STEMI, lack of insurance was an independent predictor of interfacility transfer. In conclusion, because interfacility transfer is associated with longer delays to definitive STEMI therapy than treatment at the same facility, lack of health insurance may lead to important health disparities among patients with STEMI.

  14. Health, developmental, and nutritional status of adolescent alcohol and marijuana abusers.

    PubMed

    Farrow, J A; Rees, J M; Worthington-Roberts, B S

    1987-02-01

    The impact of alcohol and marijuana abuse on the physical health and nutritional status of adolescents has not been well documented. The health consequences of alcoholism and chemical abuse in adults may not relate to the pediatric population. Forty-nine adolescent boys (mean age 15.8 years) with varying degrees of alcohol and marijuana use by self-report were evaluated as to their general health, pubertal development and nutritional status using health and dietary history, physical examination, anthropometrics, and biochemical assays of liver function and tissue nutrients. Thirteen (27%) were alcohol and marijuana abusers, 20 (41%) marijuana abusers, and 16 (32%) nonusers. There were significant differences between alcohol and marijuana abusers and marijuana abusers compared to nonusers with respect to endorsing symptoms of nutritional deficiency (muscle weakness, bleeding gums, tiredness, etc) (P less than .001). There were no significant differences between subgroups in other nutritional measures except plasma zinc concentration which was low in marijuana abusers (mean 85 micrograms/dL). All adolescents reported consuming adequate nutrients, although alcohol and marijuana abusers reported eating more snack foods and less fruit, vegetables, and milk than other groups. There were no significant differences in hematologic status (complete blood cell count, transferrin, folate), liver function (gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase), or anthropometric and sexual maturational indices of growth. There were no chronic signs of chemical abuse by physical examinations. It appears that health and nutritional disability from chemical abuse in adolescents relates more to poor dietary habits and symptomatic deterioration in general health than to specific effects on growth or nutritional status. Studies with larger numbers of subjects need to document these findings.

  15. Same-sex cohabitors and health: the role of race-ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui; Reczek, Corinne; Brown, Dustin

    2013-03-01

    A legacy of research finds that marriage is associated with good health. Yet same-sex cohabitors cannot marry in most states in the United States and therefore may not receive the health benefits associated with marriage. We use pooled data from the 1997 to 2009 National Health Interview Surveys to compare the self-rated health of same-sex cohabiting men (n = 1,659) and same-sex cohabiting women (n = 1,634) with that of their different-sex married, different-sex cohabiting, and unpartnered divorced, widowed, and never-married counterparts. Results from logistic regression models show that same-sex cohabitors report poorer health than their different-sex married counterparts at the same levels of socioeconomic status. Additionally, same-sex cohabitors report better health than their different-sex cohabiting and single counterparts, but these differences are fully explained by socioeconomic status. Without their socioeconomic advantages, same-sex cohabitors would report similar health to nonmarried groups. Analyses further reveal important racial-ethnic and gender variations.

  16. Maternal mental health and nutritional status of six-month-old infants

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Bruna Kulik; Werneck, Guilherme Loureiro; Hasselmann, Maria Helena

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze if maternal mental health is associated with infant nutritional status at six month of age. METHODS A cross-sectional study with 228 six-month-old infants who used primary health care units of the city of Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil. Mean weight-for-length and mean weight-for-age were expressed in z-scores considering the 2006 World Health Organization reference curves. Maternal mental health was measured by the 12-item General Health Questionnaire. The following cutoff points were used: ≥ 3 for common mental disorders, ≥ 5 for more severe mental disorders, and ≥ 9 for depression. The statistical analysis employed adjusted linear regression models. RESULTS The prevalence of common mental disorders, more severe mental disorders and depression was 39.9%, 23.7%, and 8.3%, respectively. Children of women with more severe mental disorders had, on average, a weight-for-length 0.37 z-scores lower than children of women without this health harm (p = 0.026). We also observed that the weight-for-length indicator of children of depressed mothers was, on average, 0.67 z-scores lower than that of children of nondepressed women (p = 0.010). Maternal depression was associated with lower mean values of weight-for-age z-scores (p = 0.041). CONCLUSIONS Maternal mental health is positively related to the inadequacy of the nutritional status of infants at six months. PMID:27007683

  17. Longitudinal predictors of adult socioeconomic attainment: the roles of socioeconomic status, academic competence, and mental health.

    PubMed

    Slominski, Lisa; Sameroff, Arnold; Rosenblum, Katherine; Kasser, Tim

    2011-02-01

    Educational attainment and occupational status are key markers of success in adulthood. We expand upon previous research that focused primarily on the contributions of academic competence and family socioeconomic status (SES) by investigating the role of mental health in predicting adult SES. In a longitudinal study spanning 30 years, we used structural equation modeling to examine how parental mental health in early childhood and family SES, offspring academic competence, and offspring mental health in adolescence relate to occupational and educational attainment at age 30. Results were that adolescent academic competence predicted adult educational attainment, and that educational attainment then predicted occupational attainment. The pathways between academic competence and occupational attainment, family SES and educational attainment, and family SES and occupational attainment were not significant. In contrast, adolescent mental health not only predicted educational attainment, but was also directly related to adult occupational attainment. Finally, early maternal mental health was associated with offspring's adult socioeconomic attainment through its relations with adolescent academic competence and mental health. These results highlight the importance of mental health to adult socioeconomic attainment.

  18. Status of cardiovascular health among adults in a rural area of Northwest China

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yaling; Yan, Hong; Yang, Ruihai; Li, Qiang; Dang, Shaonong; Liu, Ruru; Pei, Leilei; Cao, Lei; Marshall, Roger J.; Wang, Duolao

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to assess the status of cardiovascular health among a rural population in Northwest China and to determine the associated factors for cardiovascular health. A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in the rural areas of Hanzhong in Northwest China. Interview, physical examination, and fasting blood glucose and lipid measurements were completed for 2693 adults. The construct of cardiovascular health and the definitions of cardiovascular health metrics proposed by the American Heart Association were used to assess cardiovascular health. The proportions of subjects with cardiovascular health metrics were calculated, adjusting for age and sex. The multiple logistic regression model was used to evaluate the association between ideal cardiovascular health and its associated factors. Only 0.5% (0.0% in men vs 0.9% in women, P = 0.002) of the participants had ideal cardiovascular health, whereas 33.8% (18.0% in men vs 50.0% in women, P < 0.001) and 65.7% (82.0% in men vs 49.1% in women, P < 0.001) of the participants had intermediate and poor cardiovascular health, respectively. The prevalence of poor cardiovascular health increased with increasing age (P < 0.001 for trend). Participants fulfilled, on average, 4.4 (95% confidence interval: 4.2–4.7) of the ideal cardiovascular health metrics. Also, 22.2% of the participants presented with 3 or fewer ideal metrics. Only 19.4% of the participants presented with 6 or more ideal metrics. 24.1% of the participants had all 4 ideal health factors, but only 1.1% of the participants had all 4 ideal health behaviors. Women were more likely to have ideal cardiovascular health, whereas adults aged 35 years or over and those who had a family history of hypertension were less likely to have ideal cardiovascular health. The prevalence of ideal cardiovascular health was extremely low among the rural population in Northwest China. Most adults, especially men and the elderly

  19. Interim final rules for group health plans and health insurance coverage relating to status as a grandfathered health plan under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. Interim final rules with request for comments.

    PubMed

    2010-06-17

    This document contains interim final regulations implementing the rules for group health plans and health insurance coverage in the group and individual markets under provisions of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act regarding status as a grandfathered health plan.

  20. Parent- Versus Child-Reported Functional Health Status After the Fontan Procedure

    PubMed Central

    Lambert, Linda M.; Minich, L. LuAnn; Newburger, Jane W.; Lu, Minmin; Pemberton, Victoria L.; McGrath, Ellen A.; Atz, Andrew M.; Xu, Mingfen; Radojewski, Elizabeth; Servedio, Darlene; McCrindle, Brian W.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We sought to compare perceptions of functional health status between children who had undergone a Fontan procedure and their parents. METHODS Fontan procedure survivors 10 to 18 years of age were included in the study if the child completed the Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ) and the parent completed the parent form to assess the child’s functional health status. Comparisons were made between raw domain scores for the parent- and child-completed CHQs. RESULTS Between March 2003 and April 2004, 1078 Fontan survivors were screened. Of the 546 eligible and consented patients, 354 were 10 –18 years of age and 328 parent/child pairs completed the CHQs. Parents reported significantly lower scores (worse functioning) for their children than the children reported for themselves in the domains of physical functioning (P < .01), impact on school or activities from emotional and behavioral problems (P < .01), impact on school or activities from physical health issues (P<.01), general behavior (P < .01), mental health (P < .01), self-esteem (P < .01), and general health perceptions (P<.01). No significant differences were noted for the domains of bodily pain, family cohesiveness, or family activities. For the physical functioning domain, factors contributing to lower scores for parent versus child reports included pulmonary artery anomalies and fenestration at the time of the Fontan operation. Lower parent-reported scores also were associated with more noncardiac health problems in the child. CONCLUSIONS Parents’ perceptions of the functional health status of their children after the Fontan procedure were worse than the children’s perceptions. PMID:19841109

  1. Teachers' perception of oral health status. Design and validation of an evaluation instrument.

    PubMed

    Bordoni, Noemi; Cadile, María del Carmen; Sotelo, Romelia; Squassi, Aldo

    2006-01-01

    The evaluation of health status is a complex process that requires the use of indicators that assess health both in terms of disease and of the impact the health-disease-care process has on the quality of life. The aim of the present study was to design and validate an instrument to evaluate teachers 'perceptions of oral health status. The sample comprised 78 teachers of 4 schools (province of Buenos Aires). DESIGN OF THE INSTRUMENT: (a) identification of the 5 categories that compose the instrument and can measure the object of study based on evidence; (b) creation of a questionnaire that contains 32 items by two researchers; (c) evaluation of the questionnaire by 5 professionals of 4 different professions to standardize criteria (Ventegodt et al, 2003) applying an ordinal scale. Items were reduced to 25 (Index of perception of oral health: IPOH). VALIDATION OF THE INSTRUMENT: the following parameters were evaluated: reliability employing the test-retest method at 30 days; internal consistency employing Cronbach's a coefficient (1951); content validity determined by two experts; construct validity employing the method of extreme groups (Student's t test). The established categories were knowledge on oral health, personal experience with oral health care, expectations regarding their students 'families, expectations regarding dentistry, satisfaction with his/her role as a teacher The instrument proved to be reliable as evidenced by a value of r = 0.80 in the test-retest method; a satisfactory intra-items consistency was evidenced by Cronbach's alpha coefficient value of 0.82. The differences between the results of the groups of teachers in the extreme groups were statistically significant (p = 2.2). The instrument designed to measure the teachers' perception of oral health status would be valid. It would be desirable to enlarge the sample and determine criterion validity by comparison with other instruments.

  2. Health Insurance Stability and Health Status: Do Family-Level Coverage Patterns Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Robert B.; Garasky, Steven

    2008-01-01

    Being uninsured affects one's ability to access medical services and maintain health. Using longitudinal data from the Survey of Income and Program Participation, the authors investigated how individual and family insurance coverage affects adult health. They found that health insurance coverage often varies across family members and changes…

  3. Does social status predict adult smoking and obesity? Results from the 2000 Mexican National Health Survey.

    PubMed

    Buttenheim, A M; Wong, R; Goldman, N; Pebley, A R

    2010-01-01

    Socioeconomic status is generally associated with better health, but recent evidence suggests that this 'social gradient' in health is far from universal. This study examines whether social gradients in smoking and obesity in Mexico - a country in the midst of rapid socioeconomic change - conform to or diverge from results for richer countries. Using a nationally representative sample of 39,129 Mexican adults, we calculate the odds of smoking and of being obese by educational attainment and by household wealth. We conclude that socioeconomic determinants of smoking and obesity in Mexico are complex, with some flat gradients and some strong positive or negative gradients. Higher social status (education and assets) is associated with more smoking and less obesity for urban women. Higher status rural women also smoke more, but obesity for these women has a non-linear relationship to education. For urban men, higher asset levels (but not education) are associated with obesity, whereas education is protective of smoking. Higher status rural men with more assets are more likely to smoke and be obese. As household wealth, education and urbanisation continue to increase in Mexico, these patterns suggest potential targets for public health intervention now and in the future.

  4. Does social status predict adult smoking and obesity? Results from the 2000 Mexican National Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    Buttenheim, A.M.; Wong, R.; Goldman, N.; Pebley, A.R.

    2009-01-01

    Socioeconomic status is generally associated with better health, but recent evidence suggests that this ‘social gradient’ in health is far from universal. This study examines whether social gradients in smoking and obesity in Mexico—a country in the midst of rapid socioeconomic change—conform to or diverge from results for richer countries. Using a nationally-representative sample of 39 129 Mexican adults, we calculate the odds of smoking and of being obese by educational attainment and by household wealth. We conclude that socioeconomic determinants of smoking and obesity in Mexico are complex, with some flat gradients and some strong positive or negative gradients. Higher social status (education and assets) is associated with more smoking and less obesity for urban women. Higher status rural women also smoke more, but obesity for these women has a non-linear relationship to education. For urban men, higher asset levels (but not education) are associated with obesity, whereas education is protective of smoking. Higher status rural men with more assets are more likely to smoke and be obese. As household wealth, education, and urbanisation continue to increase in Mexico, these patterns suggest potential targets for public health intervention now and in the future. PMID:19367478

  5. [Analysis of different health status based on characteristics of the facial spectrum photometric color].

    PubMed

    Xu, Jiatuo; Wu, Hongjin; Lu, Luming; Tu, Liping; Zhang, Zhifeng; Chen, Xiao

    2012-12-01

    This paper is aimed to observe the difference of facial color of people with different health status by spectral photometric color measuring technique according to the theory of facial color diagnosis in Internal Classic. We gathered the facial color information about the health status of persons in healthy group (183), sub-healthy group (287) and disease group (370) respectively. The information included L, a, b, C values and reflection of different wavelengths in 400-700nm with CM-2600D spectral photometric color measuring instrument on 8 points. The results indicated that overall complexion color values of the people in the three groups were significantly different. The persons in the disease group looked deep dark in features. The people in the sub-healthy group looked pale in features. The loci L, a, b, C values were with varying degrees of significant differences (P < 0.05) at 6 points among the groups, and the central position of the face in all the groups was the position with most significant differences. Comparing the facial color information at the same point of the people in the three groups, we obtained each group's diagnostic special point. There existed diagnostic values in distinguishing disease status and various status of health in some degree by spectral photometric color measuring technique. The present method provides a prosperous quantitative basis for Chinese medical inspection of the complexion diagnosis.

  6. Best Practice Guidelines for Monitoring Socioeconomic Inequalities in Health Status: Lessons from Scotland

    PubMed Central

    Frank, John; Haw, Sally

    2011-01-01

    Context In this article we present “best practice” guidelines for monitoring socioeconomic inequalities in health status in the general population, using routinely collected data. Methods First, we constructed a set of critical appraisal criteria to assess the utility of routinely collected outcomes for monitoring socioeconomic inequalities in population health status, using epidemiological principles to measure health status and quantify health inequalities. We then selected as case studies three recent “cutting-edge” reports on health inequalities from the Scottish government and assessed the extent to which each of the following outcomes met our critical appraisal criteria: natality (low birth weight rate, LBW), adult mortality (all-cause, coronary heart disease [CHD], alcohol-related, cancer, and healthy life expectancy at birth), cancer incidence, and mental health and well-being. Findings The critical appraisal criteria we derived were “completeness and accuracy of reporting”; “reversibility and sensitivity to intervention”; “avoidance of reverse causation”; and “statistical appropriateness.” Of these, the most commonly unmet criterion across the routinely collected outcomes was “reversibility and sensitivity to intervention.” The reasons were that most mortality events occur in later life and that the LBW rate has now become obsolete as a sole indicator of perinatal health. Other outcomes were also judged to fail other criteria, notably alcohol-related mortality after midlife (“avoidance of reverse causation”); all cancer sites’ incidence and mortality (statistical appropriateness due largely to heterogeneity of SEP gradients across different cancer sites, as well as long latency); and mental health and well-being (“uncertain reversibility and sensitivity to intervention”). Conclusions We conclude that even state-of-the-art data reports on health inequalities by SEP have only limited usefulness for most health and social

  7. HIV, tobacco use, and poverty: a potential cause of disparities in health status by race and socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Sowah, Leonard Anang; Busse, Sarah; Amoroso, Anthony

    2013-08-01

    Tobacco use in the U.S. has declined significantly since the 1960s, but differentially by socioeconomic status. Current HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) infection rates in the United States are higher in minorities and underprivileged individuals. Effective highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) has changed HIV into a chronic infection. Mortality among HIV patients is now as likely to be due to heart disease and cancers as HIV-related infections. In the current situation, one would expect public insurance plans to focus on interventions targeting lifestyle-associated behaviors such as tobacco use that have been found to be associated with increased risk for heart disease and cancers. Review of the AIDS Drug Assistance Program formularies and the Medicaid Programs of 50 states and the District of Columbia, however, revealed that coverage for smoking cessation is inadequate in most instances. To reduce health disparities, publicly funded programs that serve the nation's most vulnerable should provide coverage for effective tobacco cessation.

  8. Vitamin K status may be an important determinant of childhood bone health.

    PubMed

    Cashman, Kevin D

    2005-08-01

    There has been relatively little research emphasis on the effect of vitamin K on bone health during childhood. Recent interesting data from an observational study of healthy young girls (aged 3-16 years) in the United States suggests that better vitamin K status is associated with lower levels of markers of bone resorption and bone formation, suggesting a lower rate of bone turnover. However, in that study, vitamin K status was not consistently associated with bone mineral content or gain in bone mineral content over 4 years. There is a need for randomized phylloquinone supplementation trials to better understand the role of vitamin K on bone acquisition in growing children.

  9. Status report - Public Health 2016: time for a cultural shift in the field of public health.

    PubMed

    Mallach, E Rm; Ferrao, T; MacLean, R; Kirk, S Fl

    2016-11-01

    Public Health 2016, the Canadian Public Health Association's annual conference, was held from June 13 to 16, 2016, in Toronto, Canada, and showcased a wide variety of public health issues that fostered considerable discussion at the conference and on social media. The four plenary sessions, while on seemingly disparate topics including technology, violence prevention, racism and harm reduction, all revealed the need for a cultural shift in the field of public health that acknowledges and addresses the broader inequities that influence the health and well-being of populations. They also highlighted some of the key challenges that society faces in achieving the UN Sustainable Development Goals released in 2015.

  10. What are the living conditions and health status of those who don’t report their migration status? a population-based study in Chile

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Undocumented immigrants are likely to be missing from population databases, making it impossible to identify an accurate sampling frame in migration research. No population-based data has been collected in Chile regarding the living conditions and health status of undocumented immigrants. However, the CASEN survey (Caracterizacion Socio- Economica Nacional) asked about migration status in Chile for the first time in 2006 and provides an opportunity to set the base for future analysis of available migration data. We explored the living conditions and health of self-reported immigrants and respondents who preferred not to report their migration status in this survey. Methods Cross-sectional secondary analysis of CASEN survey in Chile in 2006. Outcomes: any disability, illness/accident, hospitalization/surgery, cancer/chronic condition (all binary variables); and the number of medical/emergency attentions received (count variables). Covariates: Demographics (age, sex, marital status, urban/rural, ethnicity), socioeconomic status (education level, employment status and household income), and material standard of living (overcrowding, sanitation, housing quality). Weighted regression models were estimated for each health outcome, crude and adjusted by sets of covariates, in STATA 10.0. Results About 1% of the total sample reported being immigrants and 0.7% preferred not to report their migration status (Migration Status - Missing Values; MS-MV). The MS-MV lived in more deprived conditions and reported a higher rate of health problems than immigrants. Some gender differences were observed by health status among immigrants and the MS-MV but they were not statistically significant. Regressions indicated that age, sex, SES and material factors consistently affected MS-MVs’ chance of presenting poor health and these patterns were different to those found among immigrants. Great heterogeneity in both the MS-MV and the immigrants, as indicated by wide confidence

  11. Aging expectations are associated with physical activity and health among older adults of low socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Dogra, Shilpa; Al-Sahab, Ban; Manson, James; Tamim, Hala

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of the current study was to determine whether aging expectations (AE) are associated with physical activity participation and health among older adults of low socioeconomic status (SES). A cross-sectional analysis of a sample of 170 older adults (mean age 70.9 years) was conducted. Data on AE, physical activity, and health were collected using the 12 item Expectations Regarding Aging instrument, the Healthy Physical Activity Participation Questionnaire, and the Short Form-36, respectively. Adjusted linear regression models showed significant associations between AE and social functioning, energy/vitality, mental health, and self-rated general health, as well as physical activity. These results suggest that AE may help to better explain the established association between low SES, low physical activity uptake, and poor health outcomes among older adults.

  12. Socioeconomic status and cumulative disadvantage processes across the life course: implications for health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Seabrook, Jamie A; Avison, William R

    2012-02-01

    Given the complexity surrounding various interactions among health determinants and the challenge of being able to adequately describe the dynamic processes through which health determinants have their effects, the purpose of this paper is to provide a conceptual overview demonstrating the effects of socioeconomic status and cumulative disadvantage on producing health disparities across the life course. The idea underlying cumulative disadvantage is that socioeconomic-based health inequalities will increase across the life course, mostly because of differential exposure to risk factors and access to protective resources. The advantage of life course sociology is its consideration of early life experiences, and the social and historical context of their occurrences, as important contingencies in producing these systematic socioeconomic differences in health gradients.

  13. Evaluating the Relationship of Dental Fear with Dental Health Status and Awareness

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Dental fear is one of the most common problems in dentistry, for both the patient and for the dentist. This issue can have an important effect on an individual’s dental health. Aim The aim of this paper was to report on the prevalence of dental anxiety and to explore if high levels of anxiety are associated with sociodemographic factors, oral health status, and level of oral health awareness. Materials and Methods The sample for this cross-sectional study included 294 patients (154 males and 140 females). All participants filled out a Dental Fear Survey (DFS) to evaluate their level of dental fear. Gender, age, education level, socioeconomic status and oral health awareness were also noted. Oral health behaviors and oral health awareness levels were investigated using seven questions. Also, the periodontal status of all participants was evaluated using the Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs (CPITN). Differences between different subgroups were tested using the chi-square test. Results There was a statistically significant difference between the DFS groups with regard to sociodemographic data. Women had significantly higher scores than men, and young patients had significantly higher scores than others. Patients with low education levels and low socioeconomic status had high DFS scores. Periodontal status was better in groups that had scores in the low and moderate ranges compared to groups that had high scores on the DFS. There was a statistically significant difference between the groups of DFS and CPITN (p<0.05). Patients with low and moderate levels of DFS answered the oral health knowledge questions correctly. There was a statistically significant difference between the DFS groups based on correct answers to the oral health knowledge questions (p<0.05). Conclusion The elimination of dental fear is very important and should be treated according to a patient-centered assessment. These individuals were informed about the dental treatment

  14. An analysis of the health status of the United Arab Emirates: the ‘Big 4’ public health issues

    PubMed Central

    Loney, Tom; Aw, Tar-Ching; Handysides, Daniel G.; Ali, Raghib; Blair, Iain; Grivna, Michal; Shah, Syed M.; Sheek-Hussein, Mohamud; El-Sadig, Mohamed; Sharif, Amer A.; El-Obaid, Yusra

    2013-01-01

    Background The United Arab Emirates (UAE) is a rapidly developing country composed of a multinational population with varying educational backgrounds, religious beliefs, and cultural practices, which pose a challenge for population-based public health strategies. A number of public health issues significantly contribute to morbidity and mortality in the UAE. This article summarises the findings of a panel of medical and public health specialists from UAE University and various government health agencies commissioned to report on the health status of the UAE population. Methods A systematic literature search was conducted to retrieve peer-reviewed articles on health in the UAE, and unpublished data were provided by government health authorities and local hospitals. Results The panel reviewed and evaluated all available evidence to list and rank (1=highest priority) the top four main public health issues: 1) Cardiovascular disease accounted for more than 25% of deaths in 2010; 2) Injury caused 17% of mortality for all age groups in 2010; 3) Cancer accounted for 10% of all deaths in 2010, and the incidence of all cancers is projected to double by 2020; and 4) Respiratory disorders were the second most common non-fatal condition in 2010. Conclusion The major public health challenges posed by certain personal (e.g. ethnicity, family history), lifestyle, occupational, and environmental factors associated with the development of chronic disease are not isolated to the UAE; rather, they form part of a global health problem, which requires international collaboration and action. Future research should focus on population-based public health interventions that target the factors associated with the development of various chronic diseases. PMID:23394856

  15. Interactions between leaf nitrogen status and longevity in relation to N cycling in three contrasting European forest canopies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L.; Ibrom, A.; Korhonen, J. F. J.; Arnoud Frumau, K. F.; Wu, J.; Pihlatie, M.; Schjoerring, J. K.

    2012-07-01

    Seasonal and spatial variations in foliar nitrogen (N) parameters were investigated in three European forests with different tree species, viz. beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii, Mirb., Franco) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in Denmark, The Netherlands and Finland, respectively. This was done in order to obtain information about functional acclimation, tree internal N conservation and its relevance for both ecosystem internal N cycling and foliar N exchange with the atmosphere. Leaf N pools generally showed much higher seasonal variability in beech trees than in the coniferous canopies. The concentrations of N and chlorophyll in the beech leaves were synchronized with the seasonal course of solar radiation implying close physiological acclimation, which was not observed in the coniferous needles. During phases of intensive N metabolism in the beech leaves, the NH4+ concentration rose considerably. This was compensated for by a strong pH decrease resulting in relatively low Γ values (ratio between tissue NH4+ and H+). The Γ values in the coniferous were even smaller than in beech, indicating low probability of NH3 emissions from the foliage to the atmosphere as an N conserving mechanism. The reduction in foliage N content during senescence was interpreted as N re-translocation from the senescing leaves into the rest of the trees. The N re-translocation efficiency (ηr) ranged from 37 to 70% and decreased with the time necessary for full renewal of the canopy foliage. Comparison with literature data from in total 23 tree species showed a general tendency for ηr to on average be reduced by 8% per year the canopy stays longer, i.e. with each additional year it takes for canopy renewal. The boreal pine site returned the lowest amount of N via foliage litter to the soil, while the temperate Douglas fir stand which had the largest peak canopy N content and the lowestηr returned the highest amount of N to the soil. These results

  16. Comparing demographic, health status and psychosocial strategies of audience segmentation to promote physical activity.

    PubMed

    Boslaugh, Sarah E; Kreuter, Matthew W; Nicholson, Robert A; Naleid, Kimberly

    2005-08-01

    The goal of audience segmentation is to identify population subgroups that are homogeneous with respect to certain variables associated with a given outcome or behavior. When such groups are identified and understood, targeted intervention strategies can be developed to address their unique characteristics and needs. This study compares the results of audience segmentation for physical activity that is based on either demographic, health status or psychosocial variables alone, or a combination of all three types of variables. Participants were 1090 African-American and White adults from two public health centers in St Louis, MO. Using a classification-tree algorithm to form homogeneous groups, analyses showed that more segments with greater variability in physical activity were created using psychosocial versus health status or demographic variables and that a combination of the three outperformed any individual set of variables. Simple segmentation strategies such as those relying on demographic variables alone provided little improvement over no segmentation at all. Audience segmentation appears to yield more homogeneous subgroups when psychosocial and health status factors are combined with demographic variables.

  17. Association of blood heavy metals with developmental delays and health status in children

    PubMed Central

    Hsueh, Yu-Mei; Lee, Chih-Ying; Chien, Ssu-Ning; Chen, Wei-Jen; Shiue, Horng-Sheng; Huang, Shiau-Rung; Lin, Ming-I; Mu, Shu-Chi; Hsieh, Ru-Lan

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of blood lead, mercury, and cadmium concentrations with developmental delays and to explore the association of these concentrations with the health status of children. This study recruited 89 children with developmental delays and 89 age- and sex-matched children with typical development. Their health status was evaluated using the Pediatric Quality of Life (PedsQL) Inventory for health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and the Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instrument for function. Family function was also evaluated. Blood lead, mercury, and cadmium concentrations were measured using inductively coupled mass spectrometry. The children with developmental delays had a considerably poorer HRQOL, lower functional performance and family function, and a higher blood lead concentration than those with typical development. The blood lead concentration had a significantly positive association with developmental delays [odds ratio (OR) = 1.54, p < 0.01] in a dose-response manner, and it negatively correlated with PedsQL scores (regression coefficient: −0. 47 to −0.53, p < 0.05) in all the children studied. The higher blood cadmium concentration showed a significantly positive association with developmental delays (OR = 2.24, for >1.0 μg/L vs. <0.6 μg/L, p < 0.05). The blood mercury concentration was not associated with developmental delays and health status. PMID:28252669

  18. Oral Health Status of Patients with Lysosomal Storage Diseases in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Drążewski, Damian; Grzymisławska, Małgorzata; Korybalska, Katarzyna; Czepulis, Natasza; Grzymisławski, Marian; Witowski, Janusz; Surdacka, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Patients with lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs) suffer from physical and mental disabilities, which together with poor access to professional care may lead to impaired oral health. This cross-sectional case-control study characterized the status of oral health in patients with LSDs in Poland. Thirty-six children and young adults with various forms of LSDs were examined. The data were compared with those from age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Exemplary cases were presented to highlight typical problems in oral care associated with LSDs. When possible, saliva was collected and analyzed for total protein, inflammatory mediators, and antioxidant status. Generally, patients with LSDs had significantly higher prevalence of caries, inferior gingival status, and inadequate oral hygiene. The severity of oral health impairment in mucopolysaccaridoses, the most common LSD in Poland, was similar to that seen in patients with mannosidoses or Pompe disease. Saliva could be collected only from few less handicapped patients. In MPS, it did not appear to differ significantly from the controls, but in patients with Pompe disease it contained lower concentrations of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), but higher levels of tumor necrosis factor receptors 1 and 2 (TNF-R1, TNF-R2) and myeloperoxidase (MPO). In conclusion, Polish patients with LSDs have an inadequate level of oral hygiene and substantially deteriorated oral health. PMID:28282939

  19. Potential of VIIRS Time Series Data for Aiding the USDA Forest Service Early Warning System for Forest Health Threats: A Gypsy Moth Defoliation Case Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spruce, Joseph P.; Ryan, Robert E.; Smoot, James; Kuper, Phillip; Prados, Donald; Russell, Jeffrey; Ross, Kenton; Gasser, Gerald; Sader, Steven; McKellip, Rodney

    2007-01-01

    This report details one of three experiments performed during FY 2007 for the NASA RPC (Rapid Prototyping Capability) at Stennis Space Center. This RPC experiment assesses the potential of VIIRS (Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite) and MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data for detecting and monitoring forest defoliation from the non-native Eurasian gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar). The intent of the RPC experiment was to assess the degree to which VIIRS data can provide forest disturbance monitoring information as an input to a forest threat EWS (Early Warning System) as compared to the level of information that can be obtained from MODIS data. The USDA Forest Service (USFS) plans to use MODIS products for generating broad-scaled, regional monitoring products as input to an EWS for forest health threat assessment. NASA SSC is helping the USFS to evaluate and integrate currently available satellite remote sensing technologies and data products for the EWS, including the use of MODIS products for regional monitoring of forest disturbance. Gypsy moth defoliation of the mid-Appalachian highland region was selected as a case study. Gypsy moth is one of eight major forest insect threats listed in the Healthy Forest Restoration Act (HFRA) of 2003; the gypsy moth threatens eastern U.S. hardwood forests, which are also a concern highlighted in the HFRA of 2003. This region was selected for the project because extensive gypsy moth defoliation occurred there over multiple years during the MODIS operational period. This RPC experiment is relevant to several nationally important mapping applications, including agricultural efficiency, coastal management, ecological forecasting, disaster management, and carbon management. In this experiment, MODIS data and VIIRS data simulated from MODIS were assessed for their ability to contribute broad, regional geospatial information on gypsy moth defoliation. Landsat and ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission

  20. Acculturation and Sociocultural Influences on Dietary Intake and Health Status among Puerto Rican Adults in Massachusetts

    PubMed Central

    Van Rompay, Maria I.; McKeown, Nicola M.; Castaneda-Sceppa, Carmen; Falcon, Luis M.; Ordovas, José M.; Tucker, Katherine L.

    2011-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown negative consequences of acculturation on lifestyle factors, health status, and dietary intake of Hispanic immigrants in the US. Despite prevalent type 2 diabetes and low socioeconomic status (SES) among Puerto Rican adults living on the US mainland, little is known about acculturation in this group. Objective We investigated associations among acculturation, lifestyle characteristics, health status, and carbohydrate nutrition in Puerto Rican adults. A secondary objective was to investigate possible confounding and/or effect modification on these associations by SES. Design Cross-sectional data from the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study, which included 1219 Puerto Ricans in the Boston area, aged 45–75 years. Statistical analyses Characteristics were compared using ANCOVA, linear trend and Pearson’s chi-square tests across quartiles of acculturation. Tests for interaction by poverty status were conducted. Proportional contributions of foods to intake of total carbohydrate and fiber were assessed using SAS RANK. Results Levels of acculturation were low, despite young age at first arrival to the US mainland (25.4 ± 12.3 y) and long length of stay (34.2 ± 12.2 y). Greater English language use was associated with higher SES, alcohol consumption, physical activity, better perceived health, and less central obesity. Acculturation was associated with lower legume fiber and greater cereal fiber intake. Among those above the poverty threshold, acculturation was associated with lower dietary glycemic index and starch intake, and greater fruit and non-starchy vegetable intake. Conclusions In contrast to studies with Mexican Americans, the association of acculturation with dietary quality in these Puerto Rican adults was mixed, but tended toward better carbohydrate quality. Dietary recommendations should include maintenance of traditional, healthful dietary practices including consumption of legumes, but also reduction in refined

  1. Picture of the health status of Aboriginal children living in an urban setting of Sydney.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Suzie; Woolfenden, Susan; Callaghan, Lola; Allende, Trudy; Winters, Jennifer; Wong, Grace; Caplice, Shea; Zwi, Karen

    2016-06-01

    Objectives The aims of the present study were to: (1) describe the health status and health indicators for urban Aboriginal children (age 0-16 years) in south-east Sydney; and (2) evaluate the quality of routinely collected clinical data and its usefulness in monitoring local progress of health outcomes. Methods Aboriginal maternal and child health routine data, from multiple databases, for individuals accessing maternal and child health services between January 2007 and December 2012 were examined and compared with state and national health indicators. Results Reductions in maternal smoking, premature delivery and low birthweight delivery rates were achieved in some years, but no consistent trends emerged. Paediatric services had increased referrals each year. The most frequent diagnoses were nutritional problems, language delay or disorder and developmental delay or learning difficulties. Twenty per cent of children had a chronic medical condition requiring long-term follow-up. Aboriginal children were more likely to be discharged from hospital against medical advice than non-Aboriginal children. Routinely collected data did not include some information essential to monitor determinants of health and health outcomes. Conclusions Aboriginal children living in this urban setting had high levels of need. Routinely recorded data were suboptimal for monitoring local health status and needed to reflect national and state health indicators. Routinely collected data can identify service gaps and guide service development. What is known about this topic? Despite improvements in some areas, there continue to be significant gaps in maternal and child health outcomes between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians. These are poorly documented at a local service level. What does this paper add? Intensive, local services offered to Aboriginal women and children can result in rapid service engagement. Health service data routinely collected by local services can be used to

  2. Baseline Assessment of Campus-Wide General Health Status and Mental Health: Opportunity for Tailored Suicide Prevention and Mental Health Awareness Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawley, Lisa D.; MacDonald, Michael G.; Wallace, Erica H.; Smith, Julia; Wummel, Brian; Wren, Patricia A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: A campus-wide assessment examined the physical and mental health status of a midsize midwestern public university. Participants: Two thousand and forty-nine students, faculty, and staff on a single college campus were assessed in March-April 2013. Methods: Participants completed an online survey with sections devoted to demographics,…

  3. Integrating Multiple Social Statuses in Health Disparities Research: The Case of Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Williams, David R; Kontos, Emily Z; Viswanath, K; Haas, Jennifer S; Lathan, Christopher S; MacConaill, Laura E; Chen, Jarvis; Ayanian, John Z

    2012-01-01

    Objective To illustrate the complex patterns that emerge when race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status (SES), and gender are considered simultaneously in health care disparities research and to outline the needed research to understand them by using disparities in lung cancer risks, treatment, and outcomes as an example. Principal Findings SES, gender, and race/ethnicity are social categories that are robust predictors of variations in health and health services utilization. These are usually considered separately, but intersectionality theory indicates that the impact of each depends on the others. Each reflects historically and culturally contingent variations in social, economic, and political status. Distinct patterns of risk and resilience emerge at the intersections of multiple social categories and shape the experience of health, health care access, utilization, quality, and outcomes where these categories intersect. Intersectional approaches call for greater attention to understand social processes at multiple levels of society and require the collection of relevant data and utilization of appropriate analytic approaches to understand how multiple risk factors and resources combine to affect the distribution of disease and its management. Conclusions Understanding how race/ethnicity, gender, and SES are interactive, interdependent, and social identities can provide new knowledge to enhance our efforts to effectively address health disparities. PMID:22568674

  4. Application of a Spatial Intelligent Decision System on Self-Rated Health Status Estimation.

    PubMed

    Calzada, Alberto; Liu, Jun; Wang, Hui; Nugent, Chris; Martinez, Luis

    2015-11-01

    Self- assessed general health status is a commonly-used survey technique since it can be used as a predictor for several public health risks such as mortality, deprivation, and fear of crime or poverty. Therefore, it is a useful alternative measure to help assessing the public health situation of a neighborhood or town, and can be utilized by authorities in many decision support situations related to public health, budget allocation and general policy-making, among others. It can be considered as spatial decision problems, since both data location and spatial relationships make a prominent impact during the decision making process. This paper utilizes a recently-developed spatial intelligent decision system, named, Spatial RIMER(+), to model the self-rated health estimation decision problem using real data in the areas of Northern Ireland, UK. The goal is to learn from past or partial observations on self-rated health status to predict its future or neighborhood behavior and reference it in the map. Three scenarios in line of this goal are discussed in details, i.e., estimation of unknown, downscaling, and predictions over time. They are used to demonstrate the flexibility and applicability of the spatial decision support system and their positive capabilities in terms of accuracy, efficiency and visualization.

  5. Long-term Antifungal Treatment Improves Health Status in Patients With Chronic Pulmonary Aspergillosis: A Longitudinal Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Al-shair, Khaled; Atherton, Graham T.; Harris, Christine; Ratcliffe, Libuse; Newton, Philippa J.; Denning, David W.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) is an infectious disease that progressively destroys lung tissue. To date, no longitudinal data on the efficacy of antifungal treatment on health status in CPA patients exist. Methods. Using the standardized St George's Respiratory Questionnaire, the health status of 122 patients with was assessed at baseline and quarterly over 12 months. The score range was 0–100, where higher score indicates worse heath status, and a change of ≥4 was deemed the minimal clinically important difference. Lung function, body mass index, Medical Research Council dyspnea scale, disease severity, and demographic data were reported. Results. Mean age of patients was 59 years, and 45% were female. Overall, patients with CPA had substantial health status impairment at baseline. After treatment, 47%–50% gained substantial health improvement with a mean reduction of score of 14 at both 6 and 12 months, whereas 32% deteriorated with a mean rise of score of 11 and 14 after 6 and 12 months of treatment and observation, respectively, and 21% were not much different (stable). Patients gained therapeutic benefit irrespective of their illness severity where >50% of those who had “poor” and “very poor” status at baseline improved with score reduction of ≥4 after 6 months of treatment. Replicating this analysis using a health status category, we found that at least 50% of patients with a “poor/very poor” health status category at baseline improved significantly to “fair” or “good/very good” categories. Side effects burdened health status considerably. In multivariate analysis, dyspnea and disease severity significantly defined health status impairment. Conclusions. Antifungal therapy improved health status and prevented CPA progression in most patients. PMID:23788240

  6. Relationships between culture and health status: a multi-site study of the older Chinese in Canada.

    PubMed

    Lai, Daniel W L; Tsang, Ka Tat; Chappell, Neena; Lai, David C Y; Chau, Shirley B Y

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between culture and the health status of older Chinese in Canada. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews with a cross-sectional, randomly selected sample of 2,272 older Chinese between 55 and 101 years of age in seven Canadian cities. Health status was assessed by the number of chronic illnesses, by limitations in ADL and IADL, and by information on the Medical Outcome Study Short Form SF-36. Although cultural variables explained only a small proportion of variance in health status, having a stronger level of identification with traditional Chinese health beliefs was significant in predicting physical health, number of illnesses, and limitations on IADL. Other cultural variables, including religion, country of origin, and length of residence in Canada, were also significant in predicting some health variables. Interventions to improve health should focus on strategies to enhance cultural compatibility between users and the health delivery system.

  7. Health status of people with work-related musculoskeletal disorders in return to work programs: a Malaysian study.

    PubMed

    Murad, Mohd Suleiman; O'Brien, Lisa; Farnworth, Louise; Chien, Chi-Wen

    2013-07-01

    This study examined the health status of injured workers with musculoskeletal disorders enrolled in the Malaysian Return to Work (RTW) program. The 102 participants were categorized into three RTW groups: Off-work (n = 30, 29.4%), Re-entry (n = 44, 43.1%), and Maintenance (n = 28, 27.5%). Overall health status, as measured by the SF-36 version 2, of the workers exhibited below average compared to the internationally established normative population, with their physical health component summary rated lower than mental health. Across the different groups, significant differences were found in role-physical, vitality, bodily pain, general health, and mental health. However, the mean values of these variables were higher in the Maintenance group and were found significant. The current health status of injured workers at Off-work and Re-entry phases was significantly low and warranted to be improved by involving other health professionals such as occupational therapists, ergonomists, and psychologists.

  8. A survey of social support for exercise and its relationship to health behaviours and health status among endurance Nordic skiers

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Paul J; Wang, Zhen; Beebe, Timothy J; Murad, Mohammad Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Regular exercise is a key component of obesity prevention and 48% of Americans do not meet minimum guidelines for weekly exercise. Social support has been shown to help individuals start and maintain exercise programmes. We evaluated social support among endurance athletes and explored the relationship between social support for exercise, health behaviours and health status. Design Survey. Setting The largest Nordic ski race in North America. Participants 5433 past participants responded to an online questionnaire. Outcome measures Social support, health behaviours and health status. Results The mean overall support score was 32.1 (SD=16.5; possible range=−16.0 to 88.0). The most common forms of social support were verbal such as discussing exercise, invitations to exercise and celebrating the enjoyment of exercise. We found that an increase of 10 points in the social support score was associated with a 5 min increase in weekly self-reported exercise (5.02, 95% CI 3.63 to 6.41). Conclusions Physical activity recommendations should incorporate the importance of participation in group activities, especially those connected to strong fitness cultures created by community and competitive events. PMID:27338876

  9. Solid health care waste management status at health care centers in the West Bank - Palestinian Territory

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Khatib, Issam A. Sato, Chikashi

    2009-08-15

    Health care waste is considered a major public health hazard. The objective of this study was to assess health care waste management (HCWM) practices currently employed at health care centers (HCCs) in the West Bank - Palestinian Territory. Survey data on solid health care waste (SHCW) were analyzed for generated quantities, collection, separation, treatment, transportation, and final disposal. Estimated 4720.7 m{sup 3} (288.1 tons) of SHCW are generated monthly by the HCCs in the West Bank. This study concluded that: (i) current HCWM practices do not meet HCWM standards recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) or adapted by developed countries, and (ii) immediate attention should be directed towards improvement of HCWM facilities and development of effective legislation. To improve the HCWM in the West Bank, a national policy should be implemented, comprising a comprehensive plan of action and providing environmentally sound and reliable technological measures.

  10. A baseline study of the health status of the residents in Kalapana, Hawaii, January--June 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, David B.; Arbeit, William, R.

    1988-08-01

    A community health survey was conducted during the first five months of 1987 in Kalapana, Hawaii. Some 676 residents were interviewed during the study, which represents some 82% of all households in the community. The goal was to obtain base-line data on the health status of all community residents and ambient air quality, in order to evaluate any changes in health status of residents after geothermal development in the area.

  11. Classification of riparian forest species and health condition using multi-temporal and hyperspatial imagery from unmanned aerial system.

    PubMed

    Michez, Adrien; Piégay, Hervé; Lisein, Jonathan; Claessens, Hugues; Lejeune, Philippe

    2016-03-01

    Riparian forests are critically endangered many anthropogenic pressures and natural hazards. The importance of riparian zones has been acknowledged by European Directives, involving multi-scale monitoring. The use of this very-high-resolution and hyperspatial imagery in a multi-temporal approach is an emerging topic. The trend is reinforced by the recent and rapid growth of the use of the unmanned aerial system (UAS), which has prompted the development of innovative methodology. Our study proposes a methodological framework to explore how a set of multi-temporal images acquired during a vegetative period can differentiate some of the deciduous riparian forest species and their health conditions. More specifically, the developed approach intends to identify, through a process of variable selection, which variables derived from UAS imagery and which scale of image analysis are the most relevant to our objectives.The methodological framework is applied to two study sites to describe the riparian forest through two fundamental characteristics: the species composition and the health condition. These characteristics were selected not only because of their use as proxies for the riparian zone ecological integrity but also because of their use for river management.The comparison of various scales of image analysis identified the smallest object-based image analysis (OBIA) objects (ca. 1 m(2)) as the most relevant scale. Variables derived from spectral information (bands ratios) were identified as the most appropriate, followed by variables related to the vertical structure of the forest. Classification results show good overall accuracies for the species composition of the riparian forest (five classes, 79.5 and 84.1% for site 1 and site 2). The classification scenario regarding the health condition of the black alders of the site 1 performed the best (90.6%).The quality of the classification models developed with a UAS-based, cost-effective, and semi-automatic approach

  12. Racism, health status, and birth outcomes: results of a participatory community-based intervention and health survey.

    PubMed

    Carty, Denise C; Kruger, Daniel J; Turner, Tonya M; Campbell, Bettina; DeLoney, E Hill; Lewis, E Yvonne

    2011-02-01

    Many community-based participatory research (CBPR) partnerships address social determinants of health as a central consideration. However, research studies that explicitly address racism are scarce in the CBPR literature, and there is a dearth of available community-generated data to empirically examine how racism influences health disparities at the local level. In this paper, we provide results of a cross-sectional, population-based health survey conducted in the urban areas of Genesee and Saginaw Counties in Michigan to assess how a sustained community intervention to reduce racism and infant mortality influenced knowledge, beliefs, and experiences of r