Science.gov

Sample records for forest health status

  1. Forest health status in Russia

    Treesearch

    Vladislav A. Alexeyev

    1998-01-01

    About 886.5 Mha in Russia is occupied by forests, including 763.5 Mha of tree stands and 123 Mha of nonstocked lands. The Russian forests comprise about 22 percent of the earth's forest area or 43 percent of the earth's temperate and boreal forests. Main forest-forming species are Larix sp. (32 percent of the growing stock), Pinus...

  2. Forest health status in Hungary

    Treesearch

    Andras Szepesi

    1998-01-01

    Because Hungary has about 18 percent forest area, it is not as densely forested as most of the countries in Europe. Forests are dominated by native species such as oaks, beech, hornbeam, and other broadleaves. As a result of an intensive afforestation in the last 50 years, introduced species, such as black locust, Scots pine, and improved poplars were widely planted...

  3. Forest health status in North America.

    PubMed

    Tkacz, Borys; Moody, Ben; Villa Castillo, Jaime

    2007-03-21

    The forests of North America provide a variety of benefits including water, recreation, wildlife habitat, timber, and other forest products. However, they continue to face many biotic and abiotic stressors including fires, native and invasive pests, fragmentation, and air pollution. Forest health specialists have been monitoring the health of forests for many years. This paper highlights some of the most damaging forest stressors affecting North American forests in recent years and provides some projections of future risks.

  4. Forest health monitoring: national status, trends, and analysis 2011

    Treesearch

    Kevin M. Potter; Barbara L. Conkling

    2013-01-01

    The annual national report of the Forest Health Monitoring Program of the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, presents forest health status and trends from a national or multi-State regional perspective using a variety of sources, introduces new techniques for analyzing forest health data, and summarizes results of recently completed Evaluation Monitoring...

  5. Forest health monitoring: National status, trends, and analysis 2012

    Treesearch

    Kevin M. Potter; Barbara L. Conkling

    2014-01-01

    The annual national report of the Forest Health Monitoring Program of the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, presents forest health status and trends from a national or multi-State regional perspective using a variety of sources, introduces new techniques for analyzing forest health data, and summarizes results of recently completed Evaluation Monitoring...

  6. Forest health monitoring: national status, trends, and analysis 2013

    Treesearch

    Kevin M. Potter; Barbara L. Conkling

    2015-01-01

    The annual national report of the Forest Health Monitoring (FHM) Program of the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, presents forest health status and trends from a national or multi-State regional perspective using a variety of sources, introduces new techniques for analyzing forest health data, and summarizes results of recently completed Evaluation...

  7. Forest Health Monitoring: national status, trends, and analysis 2010

    Treesearch

    Kevin M. Potter; Barbara L. Conkling

    2013-01-01

    The annual national report of the Forest Health Monitoring Program of the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, presents forest health status and trends from a national or multi-State regional perspective using a variety of sources, introduces new techniques for analyzing forest health data, and summarizes results of recently completed Evaluation Monitoring...

  8. Forest Health Monitoring: national status, trends, and analysis 2014

    Treesearch

    Kevin M. Potter; Barbara L. Conkling

    2015-01-01

    The annual national report of the Forest Health Monitoring (FHM) Program of the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, presents forest health status and trends from a national or multi-State regional perspective using a variety of sources, introduces new techniques for analyzing forest health data, and summarizes results of recently completed Evaluation...

  9. Forest health monitoring: national status, trends, and analysis 2016

    Treesearch

    Kevin M. Potter; Barbara L. Conkling

    2017-01-01

    The annual national report of the Forest Health Monitoring (FHM) Program of the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, presents forest health status and trends from a national or multi-State regional perspective using a variety of sources, introducesnew techniques for analyzing forest health data, and summarizes results of recently completed...

  10. Forest health monitoring: national status, trends, and analysis 2015

    Treesearch

    Kevin M. Potter; Barbara L. Conkling

    2016-01-01

    The annual national report of the Forest Health Monitoring (FHM) Program of the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, presents forest health status and trends from a national or multi- State regional perspective using a variety of sources, introduces new techniques for analyzing forest health data, and summarizes results of recently completed Evaluation...

  11. Status and future of the forest health indicators program of the USA

    Treesearch

    Christopher William Woodall; Michael C. Amacher; William A. Bechtold; John W. Coulston; Sarah Jovan; Charles H. Perry; KaDonna C. Randolph; Beth K. Schulz; Gretchen C. Smith; Borys Tkacz; Susan. Will-Wolf

    2011-01-01

    For two decades, the US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, has been charged with implementing a nationwide field-based forest health monitoring effort. Given its extensive nature, the monitoring program has been gradually implemented across forest health indicators and inventoried states. Currently, the Forest Service's Forest Inventory and Analysis...

  12. Forest health status in the Carpathian Mountains over the period 1997-2001.

    PubMed

    Badea, Ovidiu; Tanase, Mihai; Georgeta, Jianu; Anisoara, Lazar; Peiov, Agata; Uhlirova, Hana; Pajtik, Josef; Wawrzoniak, Jerzy; Shparyk, Yuri

    2004-07-01

    The results of forest health status assessments in the Carpathian Mountains from the monitoring networks developed by the European Union Scheme on the Protection of Forest Against Atmospheric Pollution (EU Scheme) and International Co-operative Programme on Assessment and Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Forests (ICP-Forests), have led to a better understanding of the impact of air pollution and other stressors on forests at the regional scale. During the period 1997-2001, forests in the Carpathian Mountains were severely affected by air pollution and natural stresses with 29.7-34.9% of the trees included in defoliation classes 2-4. The broadleaves were slightly healthier than the conifers, and European beech (Fagus sylvatica) was the least affected species. Norway spruce (Picea abies) has poor health status, with 42.9-46.6% of the trees damaged (2-4% defoliation classes). Silver fir (Abies alba) damage was also high, with 46.0-50.9% in defoliation classes 2-4. Pines (primarily Pinus sylvestris) were the least affected of the conifers, with 24.9-33.8% in defoliation classes 2-4. The results from the transnational networks (16 x 16 km) show that the Carpathian forests are slightly more damaged than the average for the entire Europe. The correlative studies performed in individual European countries show the relationships between air pollution stressors with trends in defoliation and a possible effect of natural stresses at each site. More specific, effects of tree age, drought, ozone and acid deposition critical level exceedances were demonstrated to affect crown condition.

  13. Analyzing forest health data

    Treesearch

    William D. Smith; Barbara L. Conkling

    2004-01-01

    This report focuses on the Forest Health Monitoring Program’s development and use of analytical procedures for monitoring changes in forest health and for expressing the corresponding statistical confidences. The program’s assessments of long-term status, changes, and trends in forest ecosystem health use the Santiago Declaration: “Criteria and Indicators for the...

  14. Status and future of the forest health indicators program of the USA.

    PubMed

    Woodall, Christopher William; Amacher, Michael C; Bechtold, William A; Coulston, John W; Jovan, Sarah; Perry, Charles H; Randolph, Kadonna C; Schulz, Beth K; Smith, Gretchen C; Tkacz, Borys; Will-Wolf, Susan

    2011-06-01

    For two decades, the US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, has been charged with implementing a nationwide field-based forest health monitoring effort. Given its extensive nature, the monitoring program has been gradually implemented across forest health indicators and inventoried states. Currently, the Forest Service's Forest Inventory and Analysis program has initiated forest health inventories in all states, and most forest health indicators are being documented in terms of sampling protocols, data management structures, and estimation procedures. Field data from most sample years and indicators are available on-line with numerous analytical examples published both internally and externally. This investment in national forest health monitoring has begun to yield dividends by allowing evaluation of state/regional forest health issues (e.g., pollution and invasive pests) and contributing substantially to national/international reporting efforts (e.g., National Report on Sustainability and US EPA Annual Greenhouse Gas Estimates). With the emerging threat of climate change, full national implementation and remeasurement of a forest health inventory should allow for more robust assessment of forest communities that are undergoing unprecedented changes, aiding future land management and policy decisions.

  15. Relationship between soil properties and forest health status in the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drabek, O.; Šrámek, V.; Tejnecky, V.; Nikodem, A.; Sebek, O.; Fadrhonsová, V.; Boruvka, L.

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of selected soil characteristics on tree vitality at representative forest monitoring plots. We have chosen 20 stands with prevailing Norway spruce and 20 plots with dominance of European beech across the Czech Republic. Following soil characteristics were determined: pH, content of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), content of exchangeable (extracted by 0.1 M BaCl2) Ca, Mg and K, and major organic (formic, acetic and oxalic) and inorganic (e.g. sulphate and nitrate) anions in the aqueous extracts. Moreover, major Al forms in aqueous and 0.5 M KCl soil extracts were determined by means of HPLC/IC. Health of forest stands, expressed as crown defoliation, was assessed repeatedly. Overall, Al speciation in aqueous extracts was significantly affected by the DOC content and by the concentration of low molecular mass organic acids (LMMOA). The DOC content and composition is strongly dependent on tree species. We have observed higher proportion of organically bound Al in soil aqueous extracts under Norway spruce compared to European beech. This is probably caused by higher share of LMMOA from the total DOC content under Norway spruce. The health status of forest stands expressed as defoliation was negatively influenced by the contents of exchangeable Al3+ species and positively by the contents of exchangeable Ca and Mg in soils (Fig. 1). Potentially phytotoxic Al3+ was assessed as the prevailing Al exchangeable form. The beach stands is generally showed higher presence of Al3+, compared to the spruce stands. The Norway spruce stands exhibited different composition of DOC in soil, showing a higher share of LMMOA which might mitigate Al toxicity there. This study was supported by the Ministry of Agriculture of the Czech Republic (project no. QI92A216). Fig. 1 The relationship between the crown defoliation and the content of exchangeable Al forms (left) and contents of exchangeable Ca, Mg and K (right); based on results

  16. Forest health monitoring: 2009 national technical report

    Treesearch

    Kevin M. Potter; Barbara L. Conkling

    2012-01-01

    The annual national technical report of the Forest Health Monitoring Program of the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, presents forest health status and trends from a national or multi-State regional perspective using a variety of sources, introduces new techniques for analyzing forest health data, and summarizes results of recently completed Evaluation...

  17. Forest health assessment for eastern hardwood forests

    Treesearch

    Daniel B. Twardus

    1995-01-01

    Information presented here, was obtained generally from 3 sources: the Cooperative Forest Health Protection Program, the Forest Inventory and Analysis Program and the National Forest Health Monitoring Program. The Cooperative Forest Health Protection Program is a joint State-Federal effort responsible for forest-wide surveys of forest damage. From these surveys, we...

  18. Forest Health Detectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bal, Tara L.

    2014-01-01

    "Forest health" is an important concept often not covered in tree, forest, insect, or fungal ecology and biology. With minimal, inexpensive equipment, students can investigate and conduct their own forest health survey to assess the percentage of trees with natural or artificial wounds or stress. Insects and diseases in the forest are…

  19. Forest Health Detectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bal, Tara L.

    2014-01-01

    "Forest health" is an important concept often not covered in tree, forest, insect, or fungal ecology and biology. With minimal, inexpensive equipment, students can investigate and conduct their own forest health survey to assess the percentage of trees with natural or artificial wounds or stress. Insects and diseases in the forest are…

  20. Forest health monitoring: 2001 national technical report

    Treesearch

    Barbara L. Conkling; John W. Coulston; Mark J. Ambrose

    2005-01-01

    The Forest Health Monitoring (FHM) Program’s annual national report uses FHM data, as well as data from a variety of other programs, to provide an overview of forest health based on the criteria and indicators of sustainable forestry framework of the Santiago Declaration. It presents information about the status of and trends in various forest health indicators...

  1. Forest health monitoring: 2008 national technical report

    Treesearch

    Kevin M. Potter; Barbara L. Conkling

    2012-01-01

    The Forest Health Monitoring (FHM) Program’s annual national technical report has three objectives: (1) to present forest health status and trends from a national or a multi-State regional perspective using a variety of sources, (2) to introduce new techniques for analyzing forest health data, and (3) to report results of recently completed evaluation monitoring...

  2. Dynamics of forest health status in Slovakia from 1987 to 1994

    Treesearch

    Julius Oszlanyi

    1998-01-01

    Slovakia is a mountainous and forested country (40.6 percent forest cover) in central Europe and has a large variety of vegetation zones, forest types, and a rich diversity of forest tree species. The most important tree species are beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst.), oak species (Quercus...

  3. Status of Forest Certification

    Treesearch

    Omar Espinoza; Urs Buehlmann; Michael Dockry

    2013-01-01

    Forest certification systems are voluntary, market-based initiatives to promote the sustainable use of forests. These standards assume that consumers prefer products made from materials grown in an environmentally sustainable fashion, and this in turn creates incentives for companies to adopt responsible environmental practices. One of the major reasons for the...

  4. Forest Health Monitoring in the Interior West: A baseline summary of forest issues, 1996-1999

    Treesearch

    Paul Rogers; David Atkins; Michelle Frank; Douglas Parker

    2001-01-01

    Although forest health may be difficult to define and measure, a strong demand exists for assessment of forest conditions at various state, regional, and national scales. Forest Health Monitoring (FHM) is a national program designed to measure the status, changes, and trends of forest conditions annually. This report presents a broad view of forest health issues...

  5. Habitat disturbance results in chronic stress and impaired health status in forest-dwelling paleotropical bats

    PubMed Central

    Czirják, Gábor Á.; Courtiol, Alexandre; Bernard, Henry; Struebig, Matthew J.; Voigt, Christian C.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Anthropogenic habitat disturbance is a major threat to biodiversity worldwide. Yet, before population declines are detectable, individuals may suffer from chronic stress and impaired immunity in disturbed habitats, making them more susceptible to pathogens and adverse weather conditions. Here, we tested in a paleotropical forest with ongoing logging and fragmentation, whether habitat disturbance influences the body mass and immunity of bats. We measured and compared body mass, chronic stress (indicated by neutrophil to lymphocyte ratios) and the number of circulating immune cells between several bat species with different roost types living in recovering areas, actively logged forests, and fragmented forests in Sabah, Malaysia. In a cave-roosting species, chronic stress levels were higher in individuals from fragmented habitats compared with conspecifics from actively logged areas. Foliage-roosting species showed a reduced body mass and decrease in total white blood cell counts in actively logged areas and fragmented forests compared with conspecifics living in recovering habitats. Our study highlights that habitat disturbance may have species-specific effects on chronic stress and immunity in bats that are potentially related to the roost type. We identified foliage-roosting species as particularly sensitive to forest habitat deterioration. These species may face a heightened extinction risk in the near future if anthropogenic habitat alterations continue. PMID:28421138

  6. Forest health from different perspectives

    Treesearch

    T. E. Kolb; M. R. Wagner; W. W. Covington

    1995-01-01

    Forest health is an increasingly important concept in natural resource management. However, definition of forest health is difficult and dependent on human perspective. From a utilitarian perspective, forest health has been defined by the production of forest conditions which directly satisfy human needs. From an ecosystem-centered perspective, forest health has been...

  7. Airborne laser scanning for forest health status assessment and radiative transfer modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novotny, Jan; Zemek, Frantisek; Pikl, Miroslav; Janoutova, Ruzena

    2013-04-01

    Structural parameters of forest stands/ecosystems are an important complementary source of information to spectral signatures obtained from airborne imaging spectroscopy when quantitative assessment of forest stands are in the focus, such as estimation of forest biomass, biochemical properties (e.g. chlorophyll /water content), etc. The parameterization of radiative transfer (RT) models used in latter case requires three-dimensional spatial distribution of green foliage and woody biomass. Airborne LiDAR data acquired over forest sites bears these kinds of 3D information. The main objective of the study was to compare the results from several approaches to interpolation of digital elevation model (DEM) and digital surface model (DSM). We worked with airborne LiDAR data with different density (TopEye Mk II 1,064nm instrument, 1-5 points/m2) acquired over the Norway spruce forests situated in the Beskydy Mountains, the Czech Republic. Three different interpolation algorithms with increasing complexity were tested: i/Nearest neighbour approach implemented in the BCAL software package (Idaho Univ.); ii/Averaging and linear interpolation techniques used in the OPALS software (Vienna Univ. of Technology); iii/Active contour technique implemented in the TreeVis software (Univ. of Freiburg). We defined two spatial resolutions for the resulting coupled raster DEMs and DSMs outputs: 0.4 m and 1 m, calculated by each algorithm. The grids correspond to the same spatial resolutions of hyperspectral imagery data for which the DEMs were used in a/geometrical correction and b/building a complex tree models for radiative transfer modelling. We applied two types of analyses when comparing between results from the different interpolations/raster resolution: 1/calculated DEM or DSM between themselves; 2/comparison with field data: DEM with measurements from referential GPS, DSM - field tree alometric measurements, where tree height was calculated as DSM-DEM. The results of the analyses

  8. Forest health in West Virginia: past, present and future

    Treesearch

    Ray R., Jr. Hicks; Darlene A. Mudrick

    1995-01-01

    This report chronicles the status of forest health in West Virginia as of 1993. Primary data sources are the Forest Inventory and Analysis reports, West Virginia state forest pest reports, National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration weather records and numerous other publications. We attempted to describe primary stressing agents affecting the forest,...

  9. Forest health and global change.

    PubMed

    Trumbore, S; Brando, P; Hartmann, H

    2015-08-21

    Humans rely on healthy forests to supply energy, building materials, and food and to provide services such as storing carbon, hosting biodiversity, and regulating climate. Defining forest health integrates utilitarian and ecosystem measures of forest condition and function, implemented across a range of spatial scales. Although native forests are adapted to some level of disturbance, all forests now face novel stresses in the form of climate change, air pollution, and invasive pests. Detecting how intensification of these stresses will affect the trajectory of forests is a major scientific challenge that requires developing systems to assess the health of global forests. It is particularly critical to identify thresholds for rapid forest decline, because it can take many decades for forests to restore the services that they provide. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  10. Beech status in New England's aftermath forests

    Treesearch

    George L. McCaskill; Randall S. Morin

    2012-01-01

    American beech (Fagus grandifolia) is one of the three most dominant tree species occupying the northern hardwoods forest of New England. We studied Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, and New York to capture those areas with higher concentrations of beech. The status of beech in the northern hardwood forests is important because of the long-term impacts...

  11. Indicators of nitrogen status in California forests

    Treesearch

    Mark E. Fenn; Mark A. Poth

    1998-01-01

    Indicators of ecosystem nitrogen (N) status are needed for monitoring and for identifying ecosystems that are at risk of becoming N saturated. The N chemistry of a number of plant, soil and hydrologic components were analyzed to assess the N status of mixed conifer forests across an N deposition gradient in the San Bernardino Mountains east of Los Angeles, California....

  12. Health status of newcomers.

    PubMed

    Matuk, L C

    1996-01-01

    This article presents and discusses findings on the health status of newcomers residing in Windsor, Ontario. The data are part of a larger study, which was based on the Ontario Health Survey's questionnaire. Data were collected from 548 newcomers through home visits, focus groups, mail surveys, and telephone interviews. Descriptive multivariate analyses focused on main areas in newcomers' physical and mental health status and their access to health services. The findings identified that most newcomers do not have acute, life-threatening physical problems or chronic illness. They do not experience major problems with access to health care or activity limitations. Men are happier, more satisfied with their health, and less stressed than women. This study has implications for adoption of sensitive transcultural approaches to promote newcomers' health. Special challenges lie in women's health and mental health.

  13. Allegheny National Forest health

    Treesearch

    Susan L. Stout; Christopher A. Nowak; James A. Redding; Robert White; William H. McWilliams; William H. McWilliams

    1995-01-01

    Since 1985 72 percent of the forest land on the Allegheny National Forest has been subject to at least one moderate to severe defoliation from any of three native or three exotic agents. In addition, droughts affected the forest in 1972, 1988 and 1991. As a result, at least 20 percent of the forest shows tree mortality in from 10 to 80 percent of the overstory trees....

  14. Louisiana forests: Status and outlook

    Treesearch

    Paul A. Murphy

    1975-01-01

    Between 1964 and 1974, forest area in Louisiana declined 9 percent to 14.5 million acres. Softwood volume increased 31 percent to 9 billion cubic feet, and hardwood declined 7 percent to 7.7 billion. All softwood size classes had increases in volume, and all hardwood size classes had decreases.

  15. Occurrence of Phytophthora plurivora and other Phytophthora species in oak forests of southern Poland and their association with site conditions and the health status of trees.

    PubMed

    Jankowiak, R; Stępniewska, H; Bilański, P; Kolařík, M

    2014-11-01

    Phytophthora plurivora and other Phytophthora species are known to be serious pathogens of forest trees. Little is known, however, about the presence of P. plurivora in Polish oak forests and their role in oak decline. The aims of this study were to identify P. plurivora in healthy and declining Quercus robur stands in southern Poland and to demonstrate the relationship between different site factors and the occurrence of P. plurivora. In addition, the virulence of P. plurivora and other Phytophthora species was evaluated through inoculations using 2-year-old oak seedlings. Rhizosphere soil was investigated from 39 oak stands representing different healthy tree statuses. The morphology and DNA sequences of the internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS) of the ribosomal DNA and the mitochondrial cox1 gene were used for identifications. P. plurivora, an oak fine root pathogen, was isolated from rhizosphere soil samples in 6 out of 39 stands. Additionally, Phytophthora cambivora, Phytophthora polonica and Phytophthora rosacearum-like were also obtained from several stands. The results showed a significant association between the presence of P. plurivora and the health status of oak trees. Similar relationships were also observed for all identified Phytophthora species. In addition, there was evidence for a connection between the presence of all identified Phytophthora species and some site conditions. Phytophthora spp. occurred more frequently in declining stands and in silt loam and sandy loam soils with pH ≥ 3.66. P. plurivora and P. cambivora were the only species capable of killing whole plants, producing extensive necrosis on seedling stems.

  16. Globalization and its implications for forest health

    Treesearch

    Andrew Liebhold; Michael. Wingfield

    2014-01-01

    Consideration of forest health is central to the sustainable management of forests. While many definitions of forest health have been proposed, the most widely adopted concept refers to the sustained functioning of desired forest ecosystem processes (Kolb et al., 1994). Legitimate complaints have been raised about the human-centric usage of the term "Forest Health...

  17. Forest Health Monitoring in Maryland 1996-1999

    Treesearch

    Northeastern Research Station

    2003-01-01

    The National Forest Health Monitoring (FHM) program monitors the long-term status, changes and trends in the health of forest ecosystems and is conducted in cooperation with individual states. In Maryland, 40 FHM plots were established in 1991. Beginning in 1998, 95 plots were added. Each plot is a series of four fixed-area circular plots. Most tree measurements are...

  18. Forest ecosystem health in the inland west

    Treesearch

    R. Neil Sampson; Lance R. Clark; Lynnette Z. Morelan

    1995-01-01

    For the past four years, American Forests has focused much of its policy attention on forest health, highlighted by a forest health partnership in southern Idaho. The partnership has been hard at work trying to better understand the forests of the Inland West. Our goal has been to identify what is affecting these forests, why they are responding differently to climate...

  19. [The national health status].

    PubMed

    Afek, Arnon

    2010-04-01

    During the Golden Age of Medicine (20th Century), scientific and technological breakthroughs enabled physicians to treat diseases that were previously incurable. The idealist, romantic approach of medical practice believed in the right of every human being to receive the best treatment possible, regardless of cost. However, the rise in health care expenditure at the end of the last century made this approach impossible to follow. The growing health expenses are due to the increased percentage of chronically sick patients and elderly population, costs of novel technologies and public expectations. Israel spends 7.9% of its GDP on health, a figure which has not changed in the last fifteen years, while other western countries spend a considerably higher and increasing percentage of their GDP on health. Public resources must be allocated in order to maintain the health of the population and to decrease inequities. A data-based demonstration of the population health status and health care system is therefore mandated. in this issue of the Harefuah, three articles are presented which try to show different aspects of the measurement of Israeli heath status. The data accumulated is used to improve the health status of the Israeli people. The Israel Medical Association (IMA) has assumed responsibility for the creation of an objective index for the measurement and evaluation of the public state of health and the healthcare system. The goal of the IMA National Health Index is to promote discussions regarding medicine and health in Israel, and to serve as a tool to be used by relevant policy makers. Prof. Israeli et al discuss the merits of the National Health Index as well as delineate the difficulties regarding the methodology and choice of parameters. They suggest methods for its improvement. Dr Cohen and his colleagues of Clalit Health Services present the Quality Health indicator program in the community. In effect over the past fifteen years, this program is based on

  20. Remote Sensing of Forest Health Indicators for Assessing Change in Forest Health

    Treesearch

    Michael K. Crosby; Zhaofei Fan; Martin A. Spetich; Theodor D. Leininger

    2012-01-01

    Oak decline poses a substantial threat to forest health in the Ozark Highlands of northern Arkansas and southern Missouri, where coupled with diseases and insect infestations, it has damaged large tracts of forest lands. Forest Health Monitoring (FHM) crown health indicators (e.g. crown dieback, etc.), collected by the U.S. Forest Service’s Forest Inventory and...

  1. Forest health monitoring in the United States: focus on national reports

    Treesearch

    Kurt Riitters; Kevin Potter; Borys Tkacz

    2013-01-01

    The health and sustainability of United States forests have been monitored for many years from several different perspectives. The national Forest Health Monitoring (FHM) Program was established in 1990 by Federal and State agencies to develop a national system for monitoring and reporting on the status and trends of forest ecosystem health. We describe and illustrate...

  2. A tool for assessing ecological status of forest ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman Kassim, Abd; Afizzul Misman, Muhammad; Azahari Faidi, Mohd; Omar, Hamdan

    2016-06-01

    Managers and policy makers are beginning to appreciate the value of ecological monitoring of artificially regenerated forest especially in urban areas. With the advent of more advance technology in precision forestry, high resolution remotely sensed data e.g. hyperspectral and LiDAR are becoming available for rapid and precise assessment of the forest condition. An assessment of ecological status of forest ecosystem was developed and tested using FRIM campus forest stand. The forest consisted of three major blocks; the old growth artificially regenerated native species forests, naturally regenerated forest and recent planted forest for commercial timber and other forest products. Our aim is to assess the ecological status and its proximity to the mature old growth artificially regenerated stand. We used airborne LiDAR, orthophoto and thirty field sampling quadrats of 20x20m for ground verification. The parameter assessments were grouped into four broad categories: a. forest community level-composition, structures, function; landscape structures-road network and forest edges. A metric of parameters and rating criteria was introduced as indicators of the forest ecological status. We applied multi-criteria assessment to categorize the ecological status of the forest stand. The paper demonstrates the application of the assessment approach using FRIM campus forest as its first case study. Its potential application to both artificially and naturally regenerated forest in the variety of Malaysian landscape is discussed

  3. Forest health monitoring: 2006 national technical report

    Treesearch

    Mark J. Ambrose; Barbara L. Conkling

    2009-01-01

    The Forest Health Monitoring Program’s annual national technical reportpresents results of forest health analyses from a national perspective usingdata from a variety of sources. The report is organized according to the

  4. Forest health monitoring: 2007 national technical report

    Treesearch

    Barbara L. Conkling

    2011-01-01

    The Forest Health Monitoring Program produces an annual technical report that has two main objectives. The first objective is to present information about forest health from a national perspective. The second objective is to present examples of useful techniques for analyzing forest health data new to the annual national reports and new applications of techniques...

  5. Overview of the Forest Health Monitoring Program

    Treesearch

    Robert D. Mangold

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the Forest Health Monitoring Program (FHM), a partnership among the USDA Forest Service, State Foresters, universities, and the USDI Bureau of Land Management. The purpose of FHM is to annually assess the condition of the Nation's forested ecosystems in a standardized way. There are four components of the program-Detection...

  6. Overview of the forest health monitoring program

    Treesearch

    Robert D. Mangold

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the Forest Health Monitoring Program (FHM), a partnership among the USDA Forest Service, State Foresters, universities, and the USDI Bureau of Land Management. The purpose of FHM is to annually assess the condition of the nation's forested ecosystems in a standardized way. There are four components of the program - Detection...

  7. Forest Health Monitoring and Forest Inventory Analysis programs monitor climate change effects in forest ecosystems

    Treesearch

    Kenneth W. Stolte

    2001-01-01

    The Forest Health Monitoring (FHM) and Forest Inventory and Analyses (FIA) programs are integrated bilogical monitoring systems that use nationally standardized methods to evaluate and report on the health and sustainability of forest ecosystems in the United States. Many of the anticipated changes in forest ecosystems from climate change were also issues addressed in...

  8. Status of fertilization and nutrition research in northern forest types

    Treesearch

    Miroslaw M. Czapowskyj

    1977-01-01

    Forest fertilization is a useful tool that, when combined with other silvicultural practices, results in increased forest growth. Many experiments have demonstrated that both hardwoods and conifers of the northern forest respond to the addition of one or more nutrients. Examples of pitfalls and successes are given. Present status of research and future research needs...

  9. Chapter 36: Status of Forest Habitat of the Marbled Murrelet

    Treesearch

    David A. Perry

    1995-01-01

    Marbled Murrelets (Brachyramphus marmoratus) have been shown to be dependant upon old-growth forests for nesting habitat. These forests have declined over the last century as they are cut for human use. This paper reviews the current status of old-growth forests along the west coast, in both the United States and Canada.

  10. Forest health monitoring: 2003 national technical report

    Treesearch

    John W. Coulston; Mark J. Ambrose; Kurt H. Riitters; Barbara L. Conkling; William D. Smith

    2005-01-01

    The Forest Health Monitoring Program’s annual national reports present results from forest health data analyses focusing on a national perspective. The Criteria and Indicators for the Conservation and Sustainable Management of Temperate and Boreal Forests are used as a reporting framework. This report has five main sections. The first contains introductory material....

  11. Forest health monitoring: 2005 national technical report

    Treesearch

    Mark J. Ambrose; Barbara L. Conkling

    2007-01-01

    The Forest Health Monitoring program's annual national technical report presents results of forest health analyses from a national perspective using data from a variety of sources. The report is organized according to the Criteria and Indicators for the Conservation and Sustainable Management of Temperate and Boreal Forests of the Santiago Declaration. The results...

  12. Spatial Analysis for Monitoring Forest Health

    Treesearch

    Francis A. Roesch

    1994-01-01

    A plan for the spatial analysis for the sample design for the detection monitoring phase in the joint USDA Forest Service/EPA Forest Health Monitoring Program (FHM) in the United States is discussed. The spatial analysis procedure is intended to more quickly identify changes in forest health by providing increased sensitivity to localized changes. The procedure is...

  13. Forest health monitoring: 2002 national technical report

    Treesearch

    John W. Coulston; Mark J. Ambrose; Kurt H. Riitters; Barbara L. Conkling

    2005-01-01

    The Forest Health Monitoring (FHM) Program’s annual national technical report presents results of forest health analyses from a national perspective using data from a variety of sources. This annual report focuses on “Criterion 3—Maintenance of Forest Ecosystem Health and Vitality” from the “Criteria and Indicators of Sustainable Forestry of the Santiago Declaration”...

  14. Forest health monitoring: 2004 national technical report

    Treesearch

    John W. Coulston; Mark J. Ambrose; Kurt H. Riitters; Barbara L. Conkling

    2005-01-01

    The Forest Health Monitoring (FHM) Program’s annual national technical report presents results of forest health analyses from a national perspective using data from a variety of sources. Results presented in the report pertain to the Santiago Declaration’s Criterion 1— Conservation of Biological Diversity and Criterion 3—Maintenance of Forest Ecosystem Health and...

  15. Seeing the forest for the trees: forest health monitoring

    Treesearch

    M. Fierke; D. Nowak; R. Hofstetter

    2011-01-01

    A recent definition of forest health states that it is dependent on sustainability, productivity, and pest management, which is similar to the central premise of this text. We suggest that one way to assess sustainability, as the first component of a healthy forest, is to determine if observed landscape-level tree mortality corresponds to baseline mortality (i.e., a...

  16. Ecosystem management, forest health, and silviculture

    Treesearch

    Merrill R. Kaufmann; Claudia M. Regan

    1995-01-01

    Forest health issues include the effects of fire suppression and grazing on forest stands, reduction in amount of old-growth forests, stand structural changes associated with even-aged management, .changes in structure of the landscape mosaic, loss of habitat for threatened species, and the introduction of exotic species. The consequences of these impacts can be...

  17. The status of Puerto Rico's forests, 2003

    Treesearch

    Thomas J. Brandeis; Eileen H. Helmer; Sonja N. Oswalt

    2007-01-01

    Puerto Rico’s forest cover continues to increase and is now 57 percent for mainland Puerto Rico, 85 percent for Vieques, and 88 percent for Culebra. Subtropical dry forest occupies 50 346 ha, 6832 ha, 2591 ha, and 6217 ha on the islands of Puerto Rico, Vieques, Culebra, and Mona, respectively. Subtropical moist forest, the most prevalent forested life zone on...

  18. [Assessing forest ecosystem health I. Model, method, and index system].

    PubMed

    Chen, Gao; Dai, Limin; Ji, Lanzhu; Deng, Hongbing; Hao, Zhanqing; Wang, Qingli

    2004-10-01

    Ecosystem health assessment is one of the main researches and urgent tasks of ecosystem science in 21st century. An operational definition on ecosystem health and an all-sided, simple, easy operational and standard index system, which are the foundation of assessment on ecosystem health, are necessary in obtaining a simple and applicable assessment theory and method of ecosystem health. Taking the Korean pine and broadleaved mixed forest ecosystem as an example, an originally creative idea on ecosystem health was put forward in this paper based on the idea of mode ecosystem set and the idea of forest ecosystem health, together with its assessment. This creative idea can help understand what ecosystem health is. Finally, a formula was deduced based on a new effective health assessment method--health distance (HD), which is the first time to be brought forward in China. At the same time, aiming at it's characteristics by status understanding and material health questions, a health index system of Korean pine and broadleaved mixed forest ecosystem was put forward in this paper, which is a compound ecosystem based on the compound properties of nature, economy and society. It is concrete enough to measure sub-index, so it is the foundation to assess ecosystem health of Korean pine and broadleaved mixed forest in next researches.

  19. Forest health conditions in North America

    Treesearch

    B. Tkacz; B. Moody; J.V. Castillo; M.E. Fenn

    2008-01-01

    Some of the greatest forest health impacts in North America are caused by invasive forest insects and pathogens (e.g., emerald ash borer and sudden oak death in the US), by severe outbreaks of native pests (e.g., mountain pine beetle in Canada), and fires exacerbated by changing climate. Ozone and N and S pollutants continue to impact the health of forests in several...

  20. IS NITROGEN DEPOSITION ALTERING THE NITROGEN STATUS OF NORTHEASTERN FORESTS?

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper reviews literature and compiles existing data to address the question "Is N deposition altering the N status in Northeastern forests?" Using correlational techniques and large sample size, three different categories of indicators appear to give different results. The...

  1. IS NITROGEN DEPOSITION ALTERING THE NITROGEN STATUS OF NORTHEASTERN FORESTS?

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper reviews literature and compiles existing data to address the question "Is N deposition altering the N status in Northeastern forests?" Using correlational techniques and large sample size, three different categories of indicators appear to give different results. The...

  2. The current status of world protection for mangrove forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhengyun, Zhang; Zhixian, Su; Qiaoying, Zhang; Aiying, Shen

    2003-09-01

    Mangrove forests occur extensively in the tropic areas rich in wildlife and other nonforestry resources and provide a wide array of raw materials for livelihood and production processes and have been a major source of income generation and subsistence for the local people. Exploitation of timber, fuel wood, poles, industrial raw material, and many other non-wood produets from the mangrove forests give rise to large scale economic activity and income generation. At present, mangrove forests are facing great peril. Reckless exploitation and swampland reclamation result in their gradual degradation. This article deals with the world’s mangrove forest resources and their benefit to people; describes the current status, points out the main causes of the destruction of these forests, presents proposals for protecting mangrove forests, and discusses international cooperation in protecting the world’s mangrove forests.

  3. Stigma, status, and population health

    PubMed Central

    Phelan, Jo C.; Lucas, Jeffrey W.; Ridgeway, Cecilia L.; Taylor, Catherine J.

    2014-01-01

    Stigma and status are the major concepts in two important sociological traditions that describe related processes but that have developed in isolation. Although both approaches have great promise for understanding and improving population health, this promise has not been realized. In this paper, we consider the applicability of status characteristics theory (SCT) to the problem of stigma with the goal of better understanding social systemic aspects of stigma and their health consequences. To this end, we identify common and divergent features of status and stigma processes. In both, labels that are differentially valued produce unequal outcomes in resources via culturally shared expectations associated with the labels; macro-level inequalities are enacted in micro-level interactions, which in turn reinforce macro-level inequalities; and status is a key variable. Status and stigma processes also differ: Higher- and lower-status states (e.g., male and female) are both considered normal, whereas stigmatized characteristics (e.g., mental illness) are not; interactions between status groups are guided by “social ordering schemas” that provide mutually agreed-upon hierarchies and interaction patterns (e.g., men assert themselves while women defer), whereas interactions between “normals” and stigmatized individuals are not so guided and consequently involve uncertainty and strain; and social rejection is key to stigma but not status processes. Our juxtaposition of status and stigma processes reveals close parallels between stigmatization and status processes that contribute to systematic stratification by major social groupings, such as race, gender, and SES. These parallels make salient that stigma is not only an interpersonal or intrapersonal process but also a macro-level process and raise the possibility of considering stigma as a dimension of social stratification. As such, stigma’s impact on health should be scrutinized with the same intensity as that of

  4. Forest health conditions on the Allegheny National Forest (1989-1999): Analysis of forest health monitoring surveys

    Treesearch

    R.S. Morin; A.M. Liebhold; K.W. Gottschalk; D.B. Twardus; R.E. Acciavatti; R.L. White; S.B. Horsley; W.D. Smith; E.R. Luzader

    2001-01-01

    This publication describes the forest vegetation and health conditions of the Allegheny National Forest (ANF). During the past 15 years, the ANF has experienced four severe droughts, several outbreaks of exotic and native insect defoliators, and the effects of other disturbance agents. An increase in tree mortality has raised concerns about forest health. Historical...

  5. Appendix C: National Forest System status information

    Treesearch

    Diane Macfarlane

    1994-01-01

    The information presented in this appendix was compiled from responses to two separate forest carnivore questionnaires distributed to Forest Service Regions 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 10 in early 1993. Each region designated a primary contact to serve on the Habitat Conservation Assessment Management Team. It was the duty of each representative to provide and verify...

  6. Light on population health status.

    PubMed Central

    Beyrer, K.; Brauer, G. W.; Fliedner, T. M.; Greiner, C.; Reischl, U.

    1999-01-01

    A new approach to illustrating and analysing health status is presented which allows comparisons of various aspects of health in a population at different times and in different populations during given periods. Both quantitative and qualitative elements can be represented, the impact of interventions can be monitored, and the extent to which objectives are achieved can be assessed. The practical application of the approach is demonstrated with reference to the health profiles to Tunisia in 1966 and 1994. PMID:10083719

  7. East Texas forests: Status and trends

    Treesearch

    Paul A. Murphy

    1976-01-01

    The softwood inventory in east Texas has grown 24 percent durring the 1965-1975 time period; hardwood volume has gained 13 percent. Forest area declined slightly, a trend that is expected to continue into the future.

  8. Developing technology -- a forest health partnership

    Treesearch

    John W. Barry; Harold W. Thistle

    1995-01-01

    Since the early 1960's Missoula Technology and Development Center (MTDC) and Forest Pest Management (FPM) have worked in partnership developing technology to support forest health and silviculture. Traditionally this partnership has included cooperators from other agencies, States, foreign governments, academia, industry, and individual landowners. The FPM...

  9. Maintenance of forest ecosystem health and vitality

    Treesearch

    Ryan D. DeSantis; W. Keith Moser

    2016-01-01

    Forest health will likely be threatened by a number of factors - including fragmentation, fire regime alteration, and a variety of diseases, insects, and invasive plants - along with global climate change (Krist et al. 2007, Tkacz et al. 2008). By itself, global climate change could dramatically and rapidly alter forest composition and structure (Allen and Breshears...

  10. The soil indicator of forest health in the Forest Inventory and Analysis Program

    Treesearch

    Michael C. Amacher; Charles H. Perry

    2010-01-01

    Montreal Process Criteria and Indicators (MPCI) were established to monitor forest conditions and trends to promote sustainable forest management. The Soil Indicator of forest health was developed and implemented within the USFS Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program to assess condition and trends in forest soil quality in U.S. forests regardless of ownership. The...

  11. 78 FR 38287 - Bitterroot National Forest, Darby Ranger District, Como Forest Health Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-26

    ... Forest Service Bitterroot National Forest, Darby Ranger District, Como Forest Health Project AGENCY: Forest Service. ACTION: Notice; Correction. SUMMARY: The Department of Agriculture (USDA), Forest Service, Bitterroot National Forest, Darby Ranger District published a document in the Federal Register of June 17...

  12. Age and Functional Health Status

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-01

    gender such that energy level declined with older age for males, but energy level was lowest for females in the 35-49 age group. The correlations...psychosocial function," Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 185, 1963, pp. 914-919. Health Status 42 Koenig, H., "Depression and dysphoria among

  13. Criterion 3: Maintenance of forest ecosystem health and vitality

    Treesearch

    Stephen R. Shifley; Francisco X. Aguilar; Nianfu Song; Susan I. Stewart; David J. Nowak; Dale D. Gormanson; W. Keith Moser; Sherri Wormstead; Eric J. Greenfield

    2012-01-01

    Forest ecosystem health depends on stable forest composition and structure and on sustainable ecosystem processes. Forest disturbances that push an ecosystem beyond the range of conditions considered normal can upset the balance among processes, exacerbate forest health problems, and increase mortality beyond historical norms. Sometimes forest ecosystems respond to...

  14. Tropical forests: present status and future outlook.

    PubMed

    Myers, N

    1991-09-01

    Tropical forests still cover almost 8 million km squared of the humid tropics but they are being destroyed at ever-more rapid rates. In 1989, the area deforested amounted to 142,200 km squared, or nearly 90% more than in 1979. Thus, whereas the 1989 amounted total to 1.8% of the remaining biome, the proportion could well continue to rise for the foreseeable future, until there is little forest in just a few decades. Deforestati on patterns are far from even throughout the biome. In much of the Southeast and Southern Asia, East and West Africa, and Central America, there is likely to be little forest left by the year 2000 or shortly thereafter. But in the Zaire basin, western Brazilian Amazonia, and the Guyana highlands, sizeable expanses of forest could persist a good while longer. The main agent of deforestation in the 'shifted cultivator' or displaced peasant, who, responding to land hunger and general lack of rural development in traditional farming areas of countries concerned, feels there is no alternative but to adopt a slash-and-burn lifestyle in forestlands. This person is now accounting for at least 60% of deforestation, a rapidly expanding proportion. However, he receives far less policy attention than the commercial logger, the cattle rancher, and other agents of deforestation.

  15. Status of oak seedlings and saplings in the northern United States: implications for sustainability of oak forests

    Treesearch

    Chris W. Woodall; Randall S. Morin; Jim R. Steinman; Charles H. Perry

    2008-01-01

    Oak species are a substantial component of forest ecosystems in a 24-state region spanning the northern U.S. During recent decades, it has been documented that the health of oak forests has been experiencing large-scale decline. To further evaluate the sustainability of oak forests in nearly half the states of the U.S., the current status of oak seedlings and saplings...

  16. Health Status of Older Immigrants to Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newbold, K. Bruce; Filice, John K.

    2006-01-01

    Using the 2000/2001 Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS), this paper examines the health status of the older (aged 55[thorn]) immigrant population relative to that of non-immigrants in order to identify areas where their health statuses diverge. First, we compare the health status of older immigrants (foreign-born) aged 55 and over in Canada to…

  17. Summary report: Forest health monitoring in the South, 1992

    Treesearch

    John S. Vissage; William H. Hoffard

    1997-01-01

    In 1990, the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency launched a cooperative program, Forest Health Monitoring, to monitor the health of the Nation's forests. Several indicators of forest health have been measured on permanent plots in 14 States. Data gathered from Alabama, Georgia, and Virginia in 1992 are...

  18. [Approaches for assessing forest ecosystem health].

    PubMed

    Chen, Gao; Deng, Hongbing; Wang, Qingli; Dai, Limin; Hao, Zhanqing

    2003-06-01

    Assessment and indicator system become the key issues in the research on ecosystem health in 21st century. Assessing forest ecosystem health gradually attach much attention because it is an important component of terrestrial ecosystem. The definition, measurement, evaluation and its management had been discussed broadly, and some theories, assessing methods and frameworks had been proposed, which provides a new concept and a serial research approaches for dealing with the crisis of terrestrial ecosystems, even the environment problems in the world. Now, the common operational models for assessing forest ecosystem health do not exist owing to the manifold limitations. This paper discussed forest ecosystem health problem, and brought forward three preconditions for assessing forest ecosystem health: 1) a clear conceptual framework; 2) adequate data sets; 3) proper research and analysis techniques. The issues of three preconditions were discussed, and the possible approaches for the assessing research on forest ecosystem health, e.g., long-term studies and environment monitoring, space-for-time substation studies, e.g., history approaches, economics valuation and others were expariated.

  19. Has Virginia pine declined? The use of Forest Health Monitoring and other information in the determination

    Treesearch

    William G. Burkman; William A. Bechtold

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines the current status of Virginia pine, focusing on Forest Health Monitoring (FHM) results and using Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) information to determine if Virginia pine is showing a decline. An examination of crown condition data from live trees in the FHM program from 1991 through 1997 showed that Virginia pine had significantly...

  20. Forest health and bark beetles

    Treesearch

    C. J. Fettig

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, bark beetles have caused significant tree mortality in the Sierra Nevada, rivaling mortality caused by wildfire in some locations. This chapter addresses two important questions: How can managers prepare for and influence levels of bark beetle-caused tree mortality given current forest conditions and future climate uncertainties? and How would the...

  1. Health status among elderly Hungarians and Americans.

    PubMed

    Buss, T F; Beres, C; Hofstetter, C R; Pomidor, A

    1994-07-01

    Selected health status data for elderly populations from similar industrial cities-Youngstown, Ohio, USA, and Debrecen, Hungary-were compared. Because of their impoverished health care system, unregulated heavily industrialized society, and unhealthful life-styles Hungarians were hypothesized to have poorer health status than Americans, even after taking into account demographic mediating factors. The study provides a health status baseline for elderly Hungarians shortly after communism's fall in 1989-1990 and shows how great a gap exists between Hungarian health status and that in the West. Hungarians were in much poorer health as measured by functional status, symptomatology, medical condition, depression, and subjective health status. Distinctions persisted when controlling for gender, age, and education. Poverty-level (and income) did not explain health status differences. The paper concludes that Hungary should pay more attention to health promotion, prevention, and primary care, as well as to reforming patient management in hospitals, nursing homes, and home care programs.

  2. Application of rangeland health indicators on forested plots on the Fishlake National Forest, Utah

    Treesearch

    Maggie G. Toone; Sara Goeking

    2017-01-01

    Typical indicators of rangeland health are used to describe health and functionality of a variety of rangeland ecosystems. Similar indicators may be applied to forested locations to examine ecological health at a local forest level. Four rangeland health indicators were adapted and applied to data compiled by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky...

  3. Health of North American forests: Stress and risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, W.H. )

    1990-01-01

    The 1980s will be remembered by forest professionals as a decade of intense and widespread societal concern for the vitality and integrity of forest systems. Daily reports of tropical deforestation and temperate forest decline have heightened social consciousness of forest health. It is therefore appropriate, as we enter the 1990s, to assess the health of our forests and propose new initiatives in this critically important area. Making generalizations about the health of North American forests is difficult because of the extraordinary diversity of forests, management regimes, and stress factors. This overview article summarizes forest health fundamentals, significant health risks, and priorities in future forest health management for temperate forests of the United States.

  4. Forest health monitoring in the Eastern Arc Mountains of Kenya and Tanzania: A baseline report on selected forest reserves

    Treesearch

    Seif Madoffe; James Mwang' ombe; Barbara O' Connell; Paul Rogers; Gerard Hertel; Joe Mwangi

    2005-01-01

    This status report presents the results of 43 permanent forest health study plots (3871 trees, saplings, and seedlings) established in 2000 and 2001 in parts of three areas of the Eastern Arc Mountains - the Taita Hills in Kenya (Ngangao and Chawia), the East Usambara Mountains (Amani Nature Reserve) and the Uluguru Mountains (Morogoro Teachers College and Kimboza) in...

  5. Aging, Nutritional Status and Health

    PubMed Central

    Leslie, Wilma; Hankey, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    The older population is increasing worldwide and in many countries older people will outnumber younger people in the near future. This projected growth in the older population has the potential to place significant burdens on healthcare and support services. Meeting the diet and nutrition needs of older people is therefore crucial for the maintenance of health, functional independence and quality of life. While many older adults remain healthy and eat well those in poorer health may experience difficulties in meeting their nutritional needs. Malnutrition, encompassing both under and over nutrition increases health risks in the older population. More recently the increase in obesity, and in turn the incidence of chronic disease in older adults, now justifies weight management interventions in obese older adults. This growing population group is becoming increasingly diverse in their nutritional requirements. Micro-nutrient status may fluctuate and shortfalls in vitamin D, iron and a number of other nutrients are relatively common and can impact on well-being and quality of life. Aging presents a number of challenges for the maintenance of good nutritional health in older adults. PMID:27417787

  6. Aging, Nutritional Status and Health.

    PubMed

    Leslie, Wilma; Hankey, Catherine

    2015-07-30

    The older population is increasing worldwide and in many countries older people will outnumber younger people in the near future. This projected growth in the older population has the potential to place significant burdens on healthcare and support services. Meeting the diet and nutrition needs of older people is therefore crucial for the maintenance of health, functional independence and quality of life. While many older adults remain healthy and eat well those in poorer health may experience difficulties in meeting their nutritional needs. Malnutrition, encompassing both under and over nutrition increases health risks in the older population. More recently the increase in obesity, and in turn the incidence of chronic disease in older adults, now justifies weight management interventions in obese older adults. This growing population group is becoming increasingly diverse in their nutritional requirements. Micro-nutrient status may fluctuate and shortfalls in vitamin D, iron and a number of other nutrients are relatively common and can impact on well-being and quality of life. Aging presents a number of challenges for the maintenance of good nutritional health in older adults.

  7. Health status of vulnerable populations.

    PubMed

    Aday, L A

    1994-01-01

    The notion of risk underlying the concept of vulnerability implies that everyone is potentially vulnerable (or at risk), that is, there is always a chance of developing health problems. The risk is, however, greater for those with the least social status, social capital, and human capital resources to either prevent or ameliorate the origins and consequences of poor physical, psychological, or social health. The completeness and accuracy of information on the health status of the vulnerable populations examined here varies substantially across groups. Methodological work is needed to derive standardized definitions of terms, specify the content and timing for collecting information for minimum basic data sets, and develop uniform standards for evaluating and reporting data quality on the health status of vulnerable populations. The variety of indicators of vulnerable populations examined indicates that during the decade of the 1980s the incidence of serious physical, psychological, and/or social needs increased (at worst) and was unameliorated (at best) for millions of Americans. AIDS emerged as a new and deadly threat from a handful of cases classified as Gay-Related Immune Deficiency in the early part of the 1980s to what now may be over a million Americans who are HIV-positive. The number of homeless has increased an average of 20% a year to estimates now ranging up to one million men, women, or children homeless on any given night to twice that number who may be homeless sometime during the year. Over seven million people immigrated to the United States during the period from 1981 to 1990--an increasing proportion of whom are refugees carrying with them the physical, psychological, and social wounds of war. The number of children abused by family members or other intimates has burgeoned to an estimated 1.6 to 1.7 million per year, and with the greater use of firearms, intentional acts of violence towards oneself or others are becoming increasingly deadly in

  8. Forest health monitoring in the Ngangao Forest, Taita Tills, Kenya: A five year assessment of change

    Treesearch

    Paul C. Rogers; Barbara O' Connell; James Mwang' ombe; Seif Madoffe; Gerard Hertel

    2008-01-01

    Forest Health Monitoring (FHM) provides a standardized detection-level survey of forest and tree characteristics for large forested areas. We have adopted FHM methods from this temperate-based program to tropical forests in the Eastern Arc Mountains (EAM) of Kenya and Tanzania. This paper reports the first assessment of trend data in the EAM over a period from 2001 to...

  9. The New England forest: baseline for New England forest health monitoring

    Treesearch

    Robert T. Brooks; Thomas S Frieswyk; Douglas M. Griffith; Ellen Cooter; Luther Smith; Luther Smith

    1992-01-01

    The USDA Forest Service along with various cooperators has initiated Forest Health Monitoring (FHM) in New England to assess the condition and stressors of the region's forests, to analyze changes in these data over time, and to identify any relationships between forest condition and stressors. A major component of FHM in New England is 263 permanent plots located...

  10. Boreal forest health and global change.

    PubMed

    Gauthier, S; Bernier, P; Kuuluvainen, T; Shvidenko, A Z; Schepaschenko, D G

    2015-08-21

    The boreal forest, one of the largest biomes on Earth, provides ecosystem services that benefit society at levels ranging from local to global. Currently, about two-thirds of the area covered by this biome is under some form of management, mostly for wood production. Services such as climate regulation are also provided by both the unmanaged and managed boreal forests. Although most of the boreal forests have retained the resilience to cope with current disturbances, projected environmental changes of unprecedented speed and amplitude pose a substantial threat to their health. Management options to reduce these threats are available and could be implemented, but economic incentives and a greater focus on the boreal biome in international fora are needed to support further adaptation and mitigation actions.

  11. An assessment of forest ecosystem health in the Southwest

    Treesearch

    Cathy W. Dahms; Brian W. Geils

    1997-01-01

    This report documents an ecological assessment of forest ecosystem health in the Southwest. The assessment focuses at the regional level and mostly pertains to lands administered by the National Forest System. Information is presented for use by forest and district resource managers as well as collaborative partners in the stewardship of Southwestern forests. The...

  12. The Effects of Acid Rain on Forest Nutrient Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Dale W.; Turner, John; Kelly, J. M.

    1982-06-01

    The effects of acidic atmospheric inputs on forest nutrient status must be assessed within the context of natural, internal acid production by carbonic and organic acids as well as the nutrient inputs and drains by management practices such as harvesting, fire, and fertilization. In all cases the anion associated with acid inputs must be mobile in the soil if leaching is to occur; immobilization of anions can effectively prevent cation leaching. Soil acidification will occur only if the often substantial buffering capacity of the soil in question is exceeded by acid inputs and if cation weathering from primary minerals is insufficient to offset cation losses by leaching. Such circumstances are rare but certainly could occur in theory, at least, given sufficiently large acid inputs on poorly buffered soils. Soils most sensitive to change are thought to be those of moderately acid pH and low cation exchange capacity. Neither very acid soils nor neutral, highly buffered soils are sensitive to acidification by acid rain. Given extremely high acid inputs, acid rain can cause temporary increases in nitrogen mineralization and nitritication as well as Al mobilization in soils. While temporary increases in N availability can cause increased forest growth in N-deficient forests, increased Al availability can cause toxic reactions in tree roots. Little is known about tree Al toxicity levels as yet, however. It must be emphasized that assessment of acid rain effects is a problem of quantification. Given sufficiently high inputs on sensitive sites, negative effects of acid rain must occur, as is true of inputs of any substance, including H2O. Acid rain inputs of sufficient magnitude to cause acute effects, such as growth increase due to N mobilization or growth decrease due to Al mobilization, are apparently very rare under ambient field conditions. Long-term effects on forest nutrient status can be either beneficial or adverse, depending on site nutrient status, silvicultural

  13. The status of oak and hickory regeneration in forests of Virginia

    Treesearch

    Anita K. Rose

    2008-01-01

    Evidence suggests that eastern U.S. forests dominated by oak (Quercus spp.) and hickory (Carya spp.) may be shifting to more maple- (Acer spp.) and mixed-species dominated forests. Data from the U.S. Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis program were used to describe the status of oak and hickory...

  14. Analysis of forest health monitoring surveys on the Allegheny National Forest (1998-2001)

    Treesearch

    Randall S. Morin; Andrew M Liebhold; K.W. Gottschalk; Chris W. Woodall; Daniel B. Twardus; Robert L. White; Stephen B. Horsley; Todd E. Ristau

    2006-01-01

    Describes forest vegetation and health conditions on the Allegheny National Forest (ANF). During the past 20 years, the ANF has experienced four severe droughts, several outbreaks of exotic and native insect defoliators, and the effects of other disturbance agents. An increase in tree mortality has raised concerns about forest health. Historical aerial surveys (1984-98...

  15. Lichen communities for forest health monitoring in Colorado, USA: A report to the USDA Forest Service

    Treesearch

    Bruce McCune; Paul Rogers; Andrea Ruchty; Bruce Ryan

    1998-01-01

    Lichen communities were included in the Forest Health Monitoring program because they help to answer several key assessment questions. These questions concern the contamination of natural resources, biodiversity, forest health, and sustainability of timber production. Field crews collected data on epiphytic macrolichens from throughout forested areas of Colorado from...

  16. Summary Report: Forest Health Monitoring in the South, 1991

    Treesearch

    William A. Bechtold; William H. Hoffard; Robert L. Anderson

    1992-01-01

    The USDA Forest Service and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency have launched a joint program to monitor the health of forests iu the United States. The program is still in the initial phases of implementation, but several indicators of forest health are undergoiug development and permanent plots have been established in 12 States. This report contains...

  17. Health literacy and functional health status in Korean older adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, Su Hyun

    2009-08-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the relationships of health literacy to chronic medical conditions and the functional health status among community-dwelling Korean older adults. In the literature, limited health literacy has been reported to have adverse effect on health outcomes. However, the link between health literacy to health status among Korean older adults needs to be clarified. A cross-sectional survey. A cross-sectional survey of 103 community-dwelling Korean older adults was conducted from June 2007-September 2007. Health literacy was measured using the Korean Functional Health Literacy test and functional health status was measured using the subscales of the Medical Outcomes Study 12-item Short-Form Health Survey. Individuals with a low health literacy had significantly higher rates of arthritis and hypertension. After adjusting for age, education and income, older individuals with low health literacy had higher limitations in activity and lower subjective health. In a model adjusting for age and income only, older individuals with low health literacy were more likely to report lower levels of physical function and subjective health and higher levels of limitations in activity and pain. Among community-dwelling Korean older adults, limited health literacy is associated independently with higher rates of chronic medical conditions and lower subjective health status. Nurses are key to providing health education to older adults. The understanding of the relationship of health literacy to health status is essential to develop communication and health education efforts for older adults in nursing practice.

  18. Status and Trend of Cottonwood Forests Along the Missouri River

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-03

    cropland and urban or exurban expansion; channel incision and cessation of overbank flooding below dams; disruption of sediment supply and transport...Plains rivers. Floods maintained the ecological health of these forests by providing moisture to sustain the growth of trees and wetland plants...dynamic mix of young, mature, and old cottonwood stands, driven by river flooding and channel migration (Johnson 1992). In the 1950s and 1960s, the

  19. Conserving the forests of the Chesapeake: The status, trends, and importance of forests for the bay`s sustainable future

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    The report reviews the most current data on the status and trends of forests in the states of the Chesapeake Bay watershed. The report begins with an historical perspective of land use changes in the basin from the time of European settlement to today. It then proceeds with the status of the forests in the Bay watershed in 1996 and trends of forest change from the mid 1970`s to early 1990`s. The information is examined in light of its importance to the Bay. Finally, we present recommendations for an effective forest conservation program for the Chesapeake Bay region.

  20. Health for all: analyzing health status and determinants.

    PubMed

    Lerer, L B; Lopez, A D; Kjellstrom, T; Yach, D

    1998-01-01

    An analysis of health status and determinants is presented as a basis for health for all renewal and in order to provide a model linking the health for all vision with strategy and action. Equity and gender, at the core of health for all, directly concern health status and the distribution of health determinants. The role of the various transitions (demographic, epidemiological, health risk and technological) is described, the need to strengthen the link between data and decision-making for health is explained, and the range of health determinants--macroeconomic, demographic/nutritional, environmental, tobacco and alcohol and their implications for policy--is outlined.

  1. 2004 report on the health of Colorado's forests: Special issue: Ponderosa pine forests

    Treesearch

    Paige Lewis; Merrill R. Kaufmann; Laurie S. Huckaby; Dave Leatherman

    2005-01-01

    The 2004 Report on the Health of Colorado's Forests begins with an overview of significant incidents and trends in forest insect and disease activity across the state. The remainder of the Report provides an in-depth examination of the ecology, condition and management of Colorado's ponderosa pine forests. Unlike previous editions, which highlighted a range...

  2. Highlights of the Forest Health Protection Whitebark Pine Restoration Program

    Treesearch

    John Schwandt

    2011-01-01

    In 2005, Forest Health Protection (FHP) initiated a rangewide health assessment for whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis). This assessment summarized the forest health condition of whitebark pine throughout its range and also documented information needs, potential restoration strategies, and challenges to restoration that need to be addressed (Schwandt 2006). This led to...

  3. Use of Aerial Hyperspectral Imaging For Monitoring Forest Health

    Treesearch

    Milton O. Smith; Nolan J. Hess; Stephen Gulick; Lori G. Eckhardt; Roger D. Menard

    2004-01-01

    This project evaluates the effectiveness of aerial hyperspectral digital imagery in the assessment of forest health of loblolly stands in central Alabama. The imagery covers 50 square miles, in Bibb and Hale Counties, south of Tuscaloosa, AL, which includes intensive managed forest industry sites and National Forest lands with multiple use objectives. Loblolly stands...

  4. Urban Forest Health Monitoring in the United States

    Treesearch

    David J. Nowak; Robert Hoehn; Jeffrey T. Walton; Daniel E. Crane; Jack C. Stevens; Daniel Twardus; Anne Cumming; Manfred Mielke; Bill Smith

    2006-01-01

    Trees in cities can contribute significantly to human health and environmental quality. Unfortunately, little is known about the urban forest resource and what it contributes to the local, regional, and national societal and economic interests. To help better understand the urban forest resource and its numerous values, the USDA Forest Service has initiated a pilot...

  5. The status of North Carolina's national forests, 2002

    Treesearch

    Sonja N. Oswalt; Tony G. Johnson

    2007-01-01

    This bulletin describes forest resources of the Pisgah/Cherokee, Nantahala, Croatan, and Uwharrie National Forests in the State of North Carolina. It is based on sampling conducted by the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Southern Research Station, Forest Inventory and Analysis Research Work Unit. This bulletin addresses forest area estimates; timber...

  6. The status of forest management research in the United States.

    Treesearch

    Donald G. Hodges; Pamela J. Jakes; Frederick W. Cubbage

    1988-01-01

    In 1985, the USDA Forest Service invested nearly $30 million in forest management research, forest industry invested $19 million, and universities invested at least $17 million. Investments in this research have been declining since then. Forest Service data indicate that the public sector is the largest beneficiary of forest management research.

  7. Health status of prisoners in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Kouyoumdjian, Fiona; Schuler, Andrée; Matheson, Flora I.; Hwang, Stephen W.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To review the literature for quantitative research on the health status of persons in custody in provincial, territorial, and federal correctional facilities in Canada, and summarize recent evidence. Quality of evidence A search was performed in research databases and the websites of relevant Canadian governmental and non-governmental organizations for quantitative studies of health conducted between 1993 and 2014. Studies were included that provided quantitative data on health status for youth or adults who had been detained or incarcerated in a jail or prison in Canada. Main message The health status of this population is poor compared with the general Canadian population, as indicated by data on social determinants of health, mortality in custody, mental health, substance use, communicable diseases, and sexual and reproductive health. Little is known about mortality after release, chronic diseases, injury, reproductive health, and health care access and quality. Conclusion Health status data should be used to improve health care and to intervene to improve health for persons while in custody and after release, with potential benefits for all Canadians. PMID:27427562

  8. Forest health monitoring: Southeast loblolly/shortleaf pine demonstration interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, T.E.; Conkling, B.L.

    1994-04-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Research and Development is conducting an Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) with other federal agencies to establish the status of and trends in the ecological health of the Nation's natural resources. The forest component of EMAP is a multiagency effort referred to as Forest Health Monitoring (FHM). The FHM program conducted a two year demonstration study to test a suite of indicators considered important in assessing forest health. The study is referred to in this report as the Southeast Loblolly/Shortleaf Pine Demonstration, or SE DEMO. The interim report describes the results from the first year of the SE DEMO. The use of such data is encouraged by EMAP to foster a better understanding of the anticipated performance of an indicator prior to large investments in funding for field research. These data were used to the extent possible to determine the current status of each indicator with respect to the six criteria.

  9. Forest vegetation simulation tools and forest health assessment

    Treesearch

    Richard M. Teck; Melody Steele

    1995-01-01

    A Stand Hazard Rating System for Central ldaho forests has been incorporated into the Central ldaho Prognosis variant of the Forest Vegetation Simulator to evaluate how insects, disease and fire hazards within the Deadwood River Drainage change over time. A custom interface, BOISE.COMPUTE.PR, has been developed so hazard ratings can be electronically downloaded...

  10. Relationship between Peer Status and Health Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terre, Lisa; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Investigated relative influence of background characteristics (age, gender, race, socioeconomic status, family type) and peer status on health-related behaviors (physical activity, eating habits, smoking, alcohol use, stress-related behaviors) in 589 junior high school students. Peer popularity provided no significant increment in prediction of…

  11. Health Literacy, Social Support, and Health Status among Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Shoou-Yih D.; Arozullah, Ahsan M.; Cho, Young Ik; Crittenden, Kathleen; Vicencio, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    The study examines whether social support interacts with health literacy in affecting the health status of older adults. Health literacy is assessed using the short version of the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults. Social support is measured with the Medical Outcome Study social support scale. Results show, unexpectedly, that rather…

  12. Health Literacy, Social Support, and Health Status among Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Shoou-Yih D.; Arozullah, Ahsan M.; Cho, Young Ik; Crittenden, Kathleen; Vicencio, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    The study examines whether social support interacts with health literacy in affecting the health status of older adults. Health literacy is assessed using the short version of the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults. Social support is measured with the Medical Outcome Study social support scale. Results show, unexpectedly, that rather…

  13. The role of genetics in improving forest health

    Treesearch

    Mary F. Mahalovich

    1995-01-01

    An often ignored tool to improve forest health is the application of genetics-Tree improvement programs in the Inland West utilize genetic principles to develop-seed transfer guidelines to avoid the problems associated with off-site plantings and to improve characteristics in conifers related to forest health. PC-based expert systems have been developed to aid in seed...

  14. Design and analysis for detection monitoring of forest health

    Treesearch

    F. A. Roesch

    1995-01-01

    An analysis procedure is proposed for the sample design of the Forest Health Monitoring Program (FHM) in the United States. The procedure is intended to provide increased sensitivity to localized but potentially important changes in forest health by explicitly accounting for the spatial relationships between plots in the FHM design. After a series of median sweeps...

  15. The Mental Health Status of California Veterans.

    PubMed

    Tran, Linda Diem; Grant, David; Aydin, May

    2016-04-01

    Data from the California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) from 2011--2013 showed approximately 90,000 veterans had mental health needs and 200,000 reported serious thoughts of suicide during the 12 months prior to participating in CHIS. Although the proportion of veterans reporting mental health need or serious psychological distress was no higher than the general population, California veterans were more likely to report lifetime suicide ideation. This policy brief uses CHIS data to examine the mental health status, needs, and barriers to care among veterans in California. Veterans were more likely to receive mental health or substance use treatment than nonveterans, yet three of four veterans with mental health needs received either inadequate or no mental health care. Integrating mental and physical health services, increasing access to care, retaining veterans who seek mental health treatment, and reducing stigma are among the strategies that might improve the mental health of California's veterans.

  16. Disturbance and forest health in Oregon and Washington. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Brookes, M.H.; Campbell, S.; Liegel, L.

    1996-10-01

    The scope and intensity of disturbance by such agents as fire, insects, diseases, air pollution, and weather in the Pacific Northwest forests suggest that forest health has declined in recent years in many areas. The most significant disturbances and causes of tree mortality or decline in Oregon and Washington are presented and illustrated. We discuss the interrelations of disturbance with forest management activities and the effect on native trees and suggest some solutions for reducing the severity of disturbance. One chapter reports on forest health monitoring pilot project.

  17. [Health expectancy indicators for the measurement of population health status].

    PubMed

    Robine J-m

    1996-01-01

    "This overview reviews the indicators currently used to describe the health status of populations. It emphasizes Quebec's contributions in helping to develop such indicators, including the development of health expectancy indicators; various theories on changes in population health status and longevity; Quebec's role in the international harmonization of health expectancy indicators; and the initial findings emerging from the compilation of health expectancy time series. An appendix offers a brief survey of texts on demographic indicators, an area in which Quebec has come to specialize." (EXCERPT)

  18. Relationship between peer status and health behaviors.

    PubMed

    Terre, L; Drabman, R S; Meydrech, E F; Hsu, H S

    1992-01-01

    Over the past decade, univariate studies have identified peer-rated popularity/sociability as a correlate of individual health practices (e.g., alcohol and drug use, exercise habits). Yet, the relationship between multiple health habits and broader social competencies rarely has been systematically examined. Accordingly, using a multivariate approach, the present study investigated the relative influence of background characteristics (i.e., age, gender, race, family type, and socioeconomic status) and peer status on health-related behaviors (i.e., physical activity, eating habits, smoking, alcohol use, and stress-related behaviors) in 589 junior high school students (ages 11-13). In this sample, peer popularity provided no significant increment in the prediction of health habits over and above the effects explained by demographics. These results are consistent with current perspectives on health and interpersonal behaviors, and have important practical implications for the initiation and maintenance of healthful and risky practices in the natural environment.

  19. Health Status, Personal Definition of Health, and Health Behavior Choice in the Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Norma J.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships among health status, personal definition of health, and health behavior choice in the elderly. Self-assessed health status was measured using a modified Cantril Ladder, personal definition of health was measured using the Laffrey Health Conception Scale (LHCS), and health behavior…

  20. Benchmarking dairy herd health status using routinely recorded herd summary data.

    PubMed

    Parker Gaddis, K L; Cole, J B; Clay, J S; Maltecca, C

    2016-02-01

    Genetic improvement of dairy cattle health through the use of producer-recorded data has been determined to be feasible. Low estimated heritabilities indicate that genetic progress will be slow. Variation observed in lowly heritable traits can largely be attributed to nongenetic factors, such as the environment. More rapid improvement of dairy cattle health may be attainable if herd health programs incorporate environmental and managerial aspects. More than 1,100 herd characteristics are regularly recorded on farm test-days. We combined these data with producer-recorded health event data, and parametric and nonparametric models were used to benchmark herd and cow health status. Health events were grouped into 3 categories for analyses: mastitis, reproductive, and metabolic. Both herd incidence and individual incidence were used as dependent variables. Models implemented included stepwise logistic regression, support vector machines, and random forests. At both the herd and individual levels, random forest models attained the highest accuracy for predicting health status in all health event categories when evaluated with 10-fold cross-validation. Accuracy (SD) ranged from 0.61 (0.04) to 0.63 (0.04) when using random forest models at the herd level. Accuracy of prediction (SD) at the individual cow level ranged from 0.87 (0.06) to 0.93 (0.001) with random forest models. Highly significant variables and key words from logistic regression and random forest models were also investigated. All models identified several of the same key factors for each health event category, including movement out of the herd, size of the herd, and weather-related variables. We concluded that benchmarking health status using routinely collected herd data is feasible. Nonparametric models were better suited to handle this complex data with numerous variables. These data mining techniques were able to perform prediction of health status and could add evidence to personal experience in herd

  1. Northwest Forest Plan–the first 15 years (1994–2008): status and trends of late-successional and old-growth forests

    Treesearch

    Melinda Moeur; Janet L. Ohmann; Robert E. Kennedy; Warren B. Cohen; Matthew J. Gregory; Zhiqiang Yang; Heather M. Roberts; Thomas A. Spies; Maria Fiorella

    2011-01-01

    Late-successional and old-growth (LSOG) monitoring characterizes the status and trends of older forests to answer such questions as: How much older forest is there? Where is it? How much has changed and from what causes? Is the Northwest Forest Plan (the Plan) maintaining or restoring older forest ecosystems to desired conditions on federal lands in the Plan area? This...

  2. Health status of ayahuasca users.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Paulo Cesar Ribeiro; Mizumoto, Suely; Bogenschutz, Michael P; Strassman, Rick J

    2012-01-01

    Ayahuasca is a psychedelic brew originally used for magico-religious purposes by Amerindian populations of the western Amazon Basin. Throughout the last four decades, the use of ayahuasca spread towards major cities in all regions of Brazil and abroad. This trend has raised concerns that regular use of this N,N-dimethyltryptamine- and harmala-alkaloid-containing tea may lead to mental and physical health problems associated typically with drug abuse. To further elucidate the mental and physical health of ayahuasca users, we conducted a literature search in the international medical PubMed database. Inclusion criteria were evaluation of any related effect of ayahuasca use that occurred after the resolution of acute effects of the brew. Fifteen publications were related to emotional, cognitive, and physical health of ayahuasca users. The accumulated data suggest that ayahuasca use is safe and may even be, under certain conditions, beneficial. However, methodological bias of the reviewed studies might have contributed to the preponderance of beneficial effects and to the few adverse effects reported. The data up to now do not appear to allow for definitive conclusions to be drawn on the effects of ayahuasca use on mental and physical health, but some studies point in the direction of beneficial effects. Additional studies are suggested to provide further clarification.

  3. Tracking the health of trees over time on Forest Health Monitoring plots

    Treesearch

    Jim. Steinman

    2000-01-01

    The Forest Health Monitoring (FHM) Program was initiated in 1990 as a cooperative effort between the USDA Forest Service and the National Association of State Foresters. Program efforts include detecting changes in tree health from a national grid of one-sixth acre permanent sample plots. Tree data have been collected in various States since 1991, and include species...

  4. Tracking the health of trees over time on forest health monitoring plots

    Treesearch

    Jim Steinman

    2000-01-01

    The Forest Health Monitoring (FHM) Program was initiated in 1990 as a cooperative effort between the USDA Forest Service and the National Association of State Foresters. Program efforts include detecting changes in tree health from a national grid of one-sixth acre permanent sample plots. Tree data have been collected in various states since 1991, and include species,...

  5. Telemental health: A status update

    PubMed Central

    Aboujaoude, Elias; Salame, Wael; Naim, Lama

    2015-01-01

    A rather large body of literature now exists on the use of telemental health services in the diagnosis and management of various psychiatric conditions. This review aims to provide an up-to-date assessment of telemental health, focusing on four main areas: computerized CBT (cCBT), Internet-based CBT (iCBT), virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET), and mobile therapy (mTherapy). Four scientific databases were searched and, where possible, larger, better-designed meta-analyses and controlled trials were highlighted. Taken together, published studies support an expanded role for telepsychiatry tools, with advantages that include increased care access, enhanced efficiency, reduced stigma associated with visiting mental health clinics, and the ability to bypass diagnosis-specific obstacles to treatment, such as when social anxiety prevents a patient from leaving the house. Of technology-mediated therapies, cCBT and iCBT possess the most efficacy evidence, with VRET and mTherapy representing promising but less researched options that have grown in parallel with virtual reality and mobile technology advances. Nonetheless, telepsychiatry remains challenging because of the need for specific computer skills, the difficulty in providing patients with a deep understanding or support, concerns about the “therapeutic alliance”, privacy fears, and the well documented problem of patient attrition. Future studies should further test the efficacy, advantages and limitations of technology-enabled CBT, as well as explore the online delivery of other psychotherapeutic and psychopharmacological modalities. PMID:26043340

  6. Telemental health: A status update.

    PubMed

    Aboujaoude, Elias; Salame, Wael; Naim, Lama

    2015-06-01

    A rather large body of literature now exists on the use of telemental health services in the diagnosis and management of various psychiatric conditions. This review aims to provide an up-to-date assessment of telemental health, focusing on four main areas: computerized CBT (cCBT), Internet-based CBT (iCBT), virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET), and mobile therapy (mTherapy). Four scientific databases were searched and, where possible, larger, better-designed meta-analyses and controlled trials were highlighted. Taken together, published studies support an expanded role for telepsychiatry tools, with advantages that include increased care access, enhanced efficiency, reduced stigma associated with visiting mental health clinics, and the ability to bypass diagnosis-specific obstacles to treatment, such as when social anxiety prevents a patient from leaving the house. Of technology-mediated therapies, cCBT and iCBT possess the most efficacy evidence, with VRET and mTherapy representing promising but less researched options that have grown in parallel with virtual reality and mobile technology advances. Nonetheless, telepsychiatry remains challenging because of the need for specific computer skills, the difficulty in providing patients with a deep understanding or support, concerns about the "therapeutic alliance", privacy fears, and the well documented problem of patient attrition. Future studies should further test the efficacy, advantages and limitations of technology-enabled CBT, as well as explore the online delivery of other psychotherapeutic and psychopharmacological modalities.

  7. 45 CFR 162.1401 - Health care claim status transaction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Health care claim status transaction. 162.1401... RELATED REQUIREMENTS ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Health Care Claim Status § 162.1401 Health care claim status transaction. The health care claim status transaction is the transmission of either of...

  8. 45 CFR 162.1401 - Health care claim status transaction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Health care claim status transaction. 162.1401... RELATED REQUIREMENTS ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Health Care Claim Status § 162.1401 Health care claim status transaction. The health care claim status transaction is the transmission of either of the...

  9. 45 CFR 162.1401 - Health care claim status transaction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Health care claim status transaction. 162.1401... RELATED REQUIREMENTS ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Health Care Claim Status § 162.1401 Health care claim status transaction. The health care claim status transaction is the transmission of either of the...

  10. The status of U.S. Virgin Islands' forests, 2004

    Treesearch

    Thomas J. Brandeis; Sonja N. Oswalt

    2007-01-01

    Forest covers 21 237 ha of the U.S. Virgin Islands, 61 percent of the total land area. St. John had the highest percentage of forest cover (92 percent), followed by St. Thomas (74 percent), and St. Croix (50 percent). Forest cover has decreased 7 percent from 1994 to 2004, a loss of 1671 ha of forest. Most notably, St. Croix lost 986 ha (11 percent) of subtropical dry...

  11. Socioeconomic status and health of immigrants.

    PubMed

    Vacková, Jitka; Brabcová, Iva

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to acquaint the general public with select socioeconomic status (SES) parameters (type of work, education level, employment category, and net monthly income) of select nationalities (Ukrainians, Slovaks, Vietnamese, Poles, and Russians) from a total of 1,014 immigrants residing in the Czech Republic. It will also present a subjective assessment of socioeconomic status and its interconnection with subjective assessment of health status. This work was carried out as part of the "Social determinants and their impact on the health of immigrants living in the Czech Republic" project (identification number LD 13044), which was conducted under the auspices of the European Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST) agency. Quantitative methodology in the form of a questionnaire was selected to facilitate the research aim. Data was processed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS), version 16.0 (SPSS, Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Statistical analyses were performed using the Pearson chi-square test, adjusted residual analysis, and multivariate correspondence analysis. The results of these tests demonstrated a statistically significant relationship between subjective assessments of socioeconomic status and the following related select characteristics: type of work performed (manual/intellectual), employment categories, education, and net monthly income. Results indicate that those situated lowest on the socioeconomic ladder feel the poorest in terms of health; not only from a subjective perspective, but also in terms of objective parameter comparisons (e.g. manual laborers who earn low wages). As the level of subjective SES assessment increases, the level of subjective health assessment increases, as well. Thus, the relationship has a natural gradient, as was described by Wilkinson and Marmot in 2003. Our study found no evidence of a healthy immigrant effect. Therefore, it was not possible to confirm that health status deteriorates

  12. Use of ancillary data to improve the analysis of forest health indicators

    Treesearch

    Dave Gartner

    2013-01-01

    In addition to its standard suite of mensuration variables, the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the U.S. Forest Service also collects data on forest health variables formerly measured by the Forest Health Monitoring program. FIA obtains forest health information on a subset of the base sample plots. Due to the sample size differences, the two sets of...

  13. Summary of mortality statistics and forest health monitoring results for the Northeastern United States

    Treesearch

    William H. McWilliams; Stanford L. Arner; Charles J. Barnett

    1997-01-01

    The USDA Forest Service's Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program and the Forest Health Monitoring (FHM) program maintain networks of sample locations providing coarse-scale information that characterize general indicators of forest health. Tree mortality is the primary FIA variable for analyzing forest health. Recent FIA inventories of New York, Pennsylvania...

  14. Patterns of forest phylogenetic community structure across the United States and their possible forest health implications

    Treesearch

    Kevin M. Potter; Frank H. Koch

    2014-01-01

    The analysis of phylogenetic relationships among co-occurring tree species offers insights into the ecological organization of forest communities from an evolutionary perspective and, when employed regionally across thousands of plots, can assist in forest health assessment. Phylogenetic clustering of species, when species are more closely related than expected by...

  15. Forest Inventory and Analysis and Forest Health Monitoring: Piecing the Quilt

    Treesearch

    Joseph M. McCollum; Jamie K. Cochran

    2005-01-01

    Against the backdrop of a discussion about patchwork quilt assembly, the authors present background information on global grids. They show how to compose hexagons, an important task in systematically developing a subset of Forest Health Monitoring (FHM) Program plots from Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) plots. Finally, they outline the FHM and FIA grids, along with...

  16. National Forest Health Monitoring Program, Urban Forests Of Wisconsin: Pilot Monitoring Project 2002

    Treesearch

    Anne Buckelew Cumming; David Nowak; Daniel Twardus; Robert Hoehn; Manfred Mielke; Richard Rideout

    2007-01-01

    Trees in cities can contribute significantly to human health and environmental quality. Unfortunately, little is known about the urban forest resource and what it contributes locally, regionally, and nationally in terms of ecology, economy, and social well-being. To better understand this resource and its values, the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture,...

  17. Health disparities in Milwaukee by socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Vila, Peter M; Swain, Geoffrey R; Baumgardner, Dennis J; Halsmer, Sarah E; Remington, Patrick L; Cisler, Ron A

    2007-10-01

    In 2006, the city of Milwaukee ranked worse than any Wisconsin county for health outcomes and worse than all but 1 county for health determinants. To further examine disparities in health, Milwaukee city ZIP codes were stratified into 3 groups (lower, middle, and upper) by socioeconomic status (SES). Health determinants (15 measures) and health outcomes (2 measures) were compared across these ZIP code groups, and to the rest of Wisconsin. The risk ratio for the lower SES group in comparison to the upper SES group was at least 2.0 for 5 of the 17 measures examined, and was at least 1.5 for 13 of the 17 measures. The upper SES group in Milwaukee, while the healthiest in the city, was worse than the state average in 6 measures. Large health disparities within the city of Milwaukee are associated with geographic regions of differing socioeconomic status. As the state's largest urban center, Milwaukee's relatively poor health and significant health disparities have a considerable impact on the overall health of the state. To improve population health in Wisconsin, substantial efforts and resources are needed to address these disparities, and their related upstream factors.

  18. Indigenous Health and Socioeconomic Status in India

    PubMed Central

    Subramanian, S. V; Smith, George Davey; Subramanyam, Malavika

    2006-01-01

    Background Systematic evidence on the patterns of health deprivation among indigenous peoples remains scant in developing countries. We investigate the inequalities in mortality and substance use between indigenous and non-indigenous, and within indigenous, groups in India, with an aim to establishing the relative contribution of socioeconomic status in generating health inequalities. Methods and Findings Cross-sectional population-based data were obtained from the 1998–1999 Indian National Family Health Survey. Mortality, smoking, chewing tobacco use, and alcohol use were four separate binary outcomes in our analysis. Indigenous status in the context of India was operationalized through the Indian government category of scheduled tribes, or Adivasis, which refers to people living in tribal communities characterized by distinctive social, cultural, historical, and geographical circumstances. Indigenous groups experience excess mortality compared to non-indigenous groups, even after adjusting for economic standard of living (odds ratio 1.22; 95% confidence interval 1.13–1.30). They are also more likely to smoke and (especially) drink alcohol, but the prevalence of chewing tobacco is not substantially different between indigenous and non-indigenous groups. There are substantial health variations within indigenous groups, such that indigenous peoples in the bottom quintile of the indigenous-peoples-specific standard of living index have an odds ratio for mortality of 1.61 (95% confidence interval 1.33–1.95) compared to indigenous peoples in the top fifth of the wealth distribution. Smoking, drinking alcohol, and chewing tobacco also show graded associations with socioeconomic status within indigenous groups. Conclusions Socioeconomic status differentials substantially account for the health inequalities between indigenous and non-indigenous groups in India. However, a strong socioeconomic gradient in health is also evident within indigenous populations

  19. Forest health monitoring in New England: 1990 annual report

    Treesearch

    Robert T. Brooks; David R. Dickson; William B. Burkman; Imants Millers; Margaret Miller-Weeks; Ellen Cooter; Luther Smith; Luther Smith

    1992-01-01

    The USDA Forest Service, in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the New England State Forestry Agencies initiated field sampling for the Forest Health Monitoring program in 1990. Two hundred and sixty-three permanent sample plots were established. Measurements were taken to characterize the physical conditions of the plots. This publication...

  20. Geographic analysis of forest health indicators using spatial scan statistics

    Treesearch

    John W. Coulston; Kurt H. Riitters

    2003-01-01

    Forest health analysts seek to define the location, extent, and magnitude of changes in forest ecosystems, to explain the observed changes when possible, and to draw attention to the unexplained changes for further investigation. The data come from a variety of sources including satellite images, field plot measurements, and low-altitude aerial surveys. Indicators...

  1. Disturbance and Forest Health in Oregon and Washington.

    Treesearch

    Sally Campbell; Leon Liegel

    1996-01-01

    The scope and intensity of disturbance by such agents as fire, insects, diseases, air pollution, and weather in Pacific Northwest forests suggests that forest health has declined in recent years in many areas. The most significant disturbances and causes of tree mortality or decline in Oregon and Washington are presented and illustrated. We discuss the interrelations...

  2. Disturbance regimes and their relationships to forest health.

    Treesearch

    Brian W. Geils; John E. Lundquist; Jose F. Negron; Jerome S. Beatty

    1995-01-01

    While planners deal with landscape issues in forest health, silviculturists deal with the basic units of the landscape, forest stands. The silviculturist manipulates small-scale disturbances and needs appropriate management indicators. Disturbance agents and their effects are important to stand development and are therefore useful as management indicators. More studies...

  3. Supplementing forest ecosystem health projects on the ground

    Treesearch

    Cathy Barbouletos; Lynette Z. Morelan

    1995-01-01

    Understanding the functions and processes of ecosystems is critical before implementing forest ecosystem health projects on the landscape. Silvicultural treatments such as thinning, prescribed fire, and reforestation can simulate disturbance regimes and landscape patterns that have regulated forest ecosystems for centuries. As land managers we need to understand these...

  4. Quality of Life, Health Status, and Depression

    PubMed Central

    Pike, Nancy A.; Evangelista, Lorraine S.; Doering, Lynn V.; Eastwood, Jo-Ann; Lewis, Alan B.; Child, John S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Quality of life (QOL) in adolescents and adults who have undergone the Fontan procedure and are living with only 1 ventricle is presumed to be diminished. Objectives This study aimed to compare QOL, health status, and prevalence of depression in adolescents/adults after the Fontan procedure with healthy counterparts and to identify predictors of QOL in the Fontan group. Methods Using a comparative, cross-sectional design, 54 adolescents and adults with single ventricle congenital heart disease who have undergone the Fontan procedure were compared with 66 age-matched healthy counterparts. Quality of life, health status, depression, and social support were measured using the Satisfaction With Life Scale, Short Form Survey Version 2, Patient Health Questionnaire Depression Module, and Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support. Clinical variables were abstracted from medical records. Predictors of QOL were determined using multiple linear regression. Results Adolescents and adults in the Fontan group reported lower physical health status (mean [SD] = 46.5 [9.3] vs mean [SD] = 55.9 [5.1], P < .001) and were more depressed (mean [SD] = 7.3 [5.9] vs mean [SD] = 4.5 [4.3], P < .004) than their healthy counterparts. There were no differences in QOL, mental health status, or social support between the 2 groups. Functional status (New York Heart Association class), depression, and social support accounted for 55% of the variance in QOL in the Fontan group. Conclusions Despite lower levels of physical health, the QOL of Fontan patients was comparable with that of their healthy counterparts; this finding contradicts previous proxy reports, self-reports, and assumptions that QOL is lower in patients with complex single ventricle congenital heart disease. However, because Fontan patients were more depressed than their healthy counterparts, the need for early screening and detection is warranted. PMID:21912272

  5. Mental health status after living donor hepatectomy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Szu-Han; Lin, Ping-Yi; Wang, Jiun-Yi; Huang, Mei-Feng; Lin, Hui-Chuan; Hsieh, Chia-En; Hsu, Ya-Lan; Chen, Yao-Li

    2017-05-01

    Donor safety and preservation of donor health after living liver donation are of paramount importance. In addition, the preoperative mental state of a donor is an important factor in determining the psychological impact of donor hepatectomy. Thus, we aimed to explore the mental health status of living liver donors after hepatectomy. We enrolled 60 donors who were scheduled to undergo living donor hepatectomy during the period January 2014 to March 2015 at a single medical center. Mental health status was measured before and 3 months after surgery using 3 self-report questionnaires, namely the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) to assess depressive symptoms, the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-BREF) questionnaire to measure quality of life, and the Chinese Health Questionnaire (CHQ) to screen for minor psychiatric disorders. A comparison of the pre- and postdonation CES-D scores revealed a significant reduction in depressive symptoms after surgery (P = .031). There were significant improvements in the physical health domain (P = .031), the psychological health domain (P = .005), the social relationships domain (P = .005), and the environmental health domain (P = .010) of the WHOQOL-BREF. There were no significant changes in CHQ scores after donor hepatectomy (P = .136). All donors reported that they would donate again if required. Approximately one-third (33.3%) of donors experienced more pain than they had anticipated in the immediate postoperative period, and 20.0% of donors had complications after donor hepatectomy. Donor mental health status tended to improve as donors regained physical function during the 1st 3 months of recovery. Long-term monitoring of living donors' mental health is needed to minimize the adverse psychological outcomes of living liver donation.

  6. Northwest Forest Plan—the first 10 years (1994-2003): status and trend of late-successional and old-growth forest.

    Treesearch

    Melinda Moeur; Thomas A. Spies; Miles Hemstrom; Jon R. Martin; James Alegria; Julie Browning; John Cissel; Warren B. Cohen; Thomas E. Demeo; Sean Healey; Ralph. Warbington

    2005-01-01

    We monitored the status and trend of late-successional and old-growth forest (older forest) on 24 million ac of land managed by the Forest Service, Bureau of Land Management, and National Park Service in the Northwest Forest Plan (the Plan) area between 1994 and 2003. We developed baseline maps from satellite imagery of older forest conditions at the start of the Plan...

  7. INTERNAL NITROGEN CYCLING IN WESTERN OREGON FORESTS WITH DIFFERENT NITROGEN STATUS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nitrogen incorporation and retention in forest ecosystems should vary with site N status, because nitrogen often limits temperate forest productivity and microbial activity. We followed the incorporation of a pulse of 15N-ammonium into the roots, microbes and soil organic matter...

  8. Status of bottomland forests in the Albemarle Sound of North Carolina and Virginia, 1984-2012

    Treesearch

    Jean H. Lorber; Anita K. Rose

    2015-01-01

    The Albemarle Sound, a 6-million-acre watershed, contains some of the largest areas of bottomland hardwood habitat in the Eastern United States. Using close to 30 years of data from the Forest Inventory and Analysis Program, a study of the current status and trends in the Albemarle Sound’s bottomland forest system was conducted. In 2012, bottomlands totaled...

  9. Temperate forest health in an era of emerging megadisturbance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Millar, Constance I.; Stephenson, Nathan L.

    2015-01-01

    Although disturbances such as fire and native insects can contribute to natural dynamics of forest health, exceptional droughts, directly and in combination with other disturbance factors, are pushing some temperate forests beyond thresholds of sustainability. Interactions from increasing temperatures, drought, native insects and pathogens, and uncharacteristically severe wildfire are resulting in forest mortality beyond the levels of 20th-century experience. Additional anthropogenic stressors, such as atmospheric pollution and invasive species, further weaken trees in some regions. Although continuing climate change will likely drive many areas of temperate forest toward large-scale transformations, management actions can help ease transitions and minimize losses of socially valued ecosystem services.

  10. Relationship between health literacy, health information access, health behavior, and health status in Japanese people.

    PubMed

    Suka, Machi; Odajima, Takeshi; Okamoto, Masako; Sumitani, Masahiko; Igarashi, Ataru; Ishikawa, Hirono; Kusama, Makiko; Yamamoto, Michiko; Nakayama, Takeo; Sugimori, Hiroki

    2015-05-01

    To examine the relationship between health literacy (HL), health information access, health behavior, and health status in Japanese people. A questionnaire survey was conducted at six healthcare facilities in Japan. Eligible respondents aged 20-64 years (n=1218) were included. Path analysis with structural equation modeling was performed to test the hypothesis model linking HL to health information access, health behavior, and health status. The acceptable fitting model indicated that the pathways linking HL to health status consisted of two indirect paths; one intermediated by health information access and another intermediated by health behavior. Those with higher HL as measured by the 14-item Health Literacy Scale (HLS-14) were significantly more likely to get sufficient health information from multiple sources, less likely to have risky habits of smoking, regular drinking, and lack of exercise, and in turn, more likely to report good self-rated health. HL was significantly associated with health information access and health behavior in Japanese people. HL may play a key role in health promotion, even in highly educated countries like Japan. In order to enhance the effects of health promotion interventions, health professionals should aim at raising HL levels of their target population groups. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Exotic pests: major threats to forest health

    Treesearch

    J. Robert Bridges

    1995-01-01

    Over 360 exotic forest insects and about 20 exotic diseases have become established in the U.S. Many of these organisms have become serious pests, causing great economic impacts and irreversible ecological harm. Despite efforts to exclude exotic species, forest insects and disease organisms continue to be introduced at a rather rapid rate. In the last few years, one...

  12. Status of forest resources and the environment in Siberia

    SciTech Connect

    Danilin, I.; Sokoly, V.

    1997-12-31

    The Siberian forests are considered to be one of the most important biomes on earth. The forested area of Siberia constitutes about 20 percent of the total world forested area and nearly 50 percent of the total world coniferous forested area. About 605 million hectares are covered with stands, these areas make up about 48 percent of the total area. Nearly 450 million hectares are covered with coniferous species. The total growing stock of stemwood is 61.4 billion m{sup 3} as compared to North America - 50.3 billion m{sup 3} of which 51 billion m{sup 3} is made up of coniferous species. About 38.5 billion m{sup 3} (nearly 63 percent) of the growing stock are classified as mature and overmature forests. Nearly 65 percent of the Siberian forests are growing in areas with permafrost and more than 60 percent of the forested areas are classified as mountain forests. The carbon stock, accumulated in forest ecosystems of Siberia, exceeds 94 billion tons in total, with annual carbon sequestration at more than 170 million tons. This sink could be significantly increased by implementation of rational forestry in Siberia. Average stock per 1 ha of mature and overmature stands is 148 m{sup 3}. Average annual growth per 1 ha of forest-forming species is 1.31 m{sup 3}, among them conifers - 1.17 m{sup 3}. Siberia has roughly 40% of its original forests intact (the United States has less than 5% of its ancient forests).

  13. Geographic analysis of forest health indicators using spatial scan statistics.

    PubMed

    Coulston, John W; Riitters, Kurt H

    2003-06-01

    Geographically explicit analysis tools are needed to assess forest health indicators that are measured over large regions. Spatial scan statistics can be used to detect spatial or spatiotemporal clusters of forests representing hotspots of extreme indicator values. This paper demonstrates the approach through analyses of forest fragmentation indicators in the southeastern United States and insect and pathogen indicators in the Pacific Northwest United States. The scan statistic detected four spatial clusters of fragmented forest including a hotspot in the Piedmont and Coastal Plain region. Three recurring clusters of insect and pathogen occurrence were found in the Pacific Northwest. Spatial scan statistics are a powerful new tool that can be used to identify potential forest health problems.

  14. The Mechanisms Linking Health Literacy to Behavior and Health Status

    PubMed Central

    Osborn, Chandra Y.; Paasche-Orlow, Michael K.; Bailey, Stacy Cooper; Wolf, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine the mechanisms linking health literacy to physical activity and self-reported health. Methods From 2005–2007, patients (N=330) with hypertension were recruited from safety net clinics. Path analytic models tested the pathways linking health literacy to physical activity and self-reported health. Results There were significant paths from health literacy to knowledge (r=0.22, P<0.001), knowledge to self-efficacy (r=0.13, P<0.01), self-efficacy to physical activity (r=0.17, P<0.01), and physical activity to health status (r=0.17, P<0.01). Conclusions Health education interventions should be literacy sensitive and aim to enhance patient health knowledge and self-efficacy to promote self-care behavior and desirable health outcomes. PMID:20950164

  15. Prostate cancer: appraisal, coping, and health status.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Muayyad M; Musil, Carol M; Zauszniewski, Jaclene A; Resnick, Martin I

    2005-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify how cognitive appraisal and types of coping affect the health status of men with prostate cancer. Lazarus and Folkman's model of stress and coping guided this correlational, cross-sectional study. The convenience sample was composed of 131 men with prostate cancer who completed the Cognitive Appraisal of Health Scale, the Ways of Coping Checklist, and the Short-Form Health Survey using mailed questionnaires. Participants who appraised more harm or loss experienced worse physical and mental health. When participants perceived their diagnosis as posing more harm or loss or a greater threat, they were more likely to use emotion-focused coping. When the diagnosis was perceived as a challenge, men were more likely to use more problem-focused coping. The findings of this study enable health care providers to be more attentive to the psychosocial needs of prostate cancer patients.

  16. [Sports activities and declared health status].

    PubMed

    Geneste, C; Blin, P; Nouveau, A; Krzentowski, R; Chalabi, H; Ginesty, J; Guezennec, Y

    1998-03-01

    A cross-section study on sports and health was carried out among 8666 subjects from 15 to 49 years old, for a large range of practices. The analysis compared three groups, 2048 non-athletics, 5381 "moderately" athletic, and 1237 "highly" athletic. Compared to non-athletics, the "moderately" athletic group has a higher opinion of their state of health, with a similar frequency of declared health problems (hospitalisations, absences from work, traumatisms). The intensive practices are accompanied by an opinion of health status similar to the moderately athletic group, with a larger frequency of declared health problems. These results suggest a poor control of sports risks among those who practice the most.

  17. Developing a Forest Health Index for public engagement and decision support using local climatic, ecological, and socioeconomic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnott, J. C.; Katzenberger, J.; Cundiff, J.

    2013-12-01

    Forest health is an oft-used term without a generally accepted definition. Nonetheless, the concept of forest health continues to permeate scientific, resource management, and public discourse, and it is viewed as a helpful communication device for engagement on issues of concern to forests and their surrounding communities. Notwithstanding the challenges associated with defining the concept of 'forest health,' we present a model for assessing forest health at a watershed scale. Utilizing the Roaring Fork Valley, Colorado--a mountain watershed of 640,000 forested acres--as a case study, we have created a Forest Health Index that integrates a range of climatic, ecological, and socioeconomic data into an assessment organized along a series of public goals including, 1) Ecosystem Services, 2) Public Health & Safety, 3) Sustainable Use & Management, and 4) Ecological Integrity. Methods for this index were adopted from an earlier effort called the Ocean Health Index by Halpern et al, 2012. Indicators that represent drivers of change, such as temperature and precipitation, as well as effects of change, such as primary productivity and phenology, were selected. Each indicator is assessed by comparing a current status of that indicator to a reference scenario obtained through one of the following methods: a) statistical analysis of baseline data from the indicator record, b) commonly accepted normals, thresholds, limits, concentrations, etc., and c) subjective expert judgment. The result of this assessment is a presentation of graphical data and accompanying ratings that combine to form an index of health for the watershed forest ecosystem. We find this product to have potential merit for communities working to assess the range of conditions affecting forest health as well as making sense of the outcomes of those affects. Here, we present a description of the index methodology, data results from engagement with forest watershed stakeholders, example results of data

  18. Health status of Victorian special school children.

    PubMed

    Ackland, M J; Wade, R W

    1995-12-01

    This study sought to determine the health status and health needs of a sample of students attending special schools for the intellectually disabled in Victoria, Australia. Two hundred and forty-nine students not previously seen by a Community Child Health Medical Officer (CCHMO) were assessed at school. Data on student, parent and staff needs were obtained through personal interviews and documented on a standard questionnaire. Health status was documented using data obtained from parents and teachers as well as the clinical assessment. Comparison of the number of problems reported by parents with the number confirmed at examination showed significant underreporting of vision, hearing and general medical problems. However, behaviour problems were nearly all reported. Many students had multiple problems with 63% having 2-4 problems and 11% having 5-8 problems. Ninety-nine (40%) of the 249 children seen had newly detected problems; vision (24), hearing (24) and obesity (9) were the most common. Two hundred and forty-four (98%) had known problems and 27% of these had insufficient information available from parents or staff to completely ascertain their health status. In 115 cases the primary problem was intellectual impairment of unknown cause. Down syndrome was the next most common underlying diagnosis (30) followed by autism (24), epilepsy (21) and cerebral palsy (15). The most common secondary diagnoses were asthma (16), congenital heart defects (12), seizures (8) and skin problems (8). Many students required referral for further management both for newly detected problems (64%) and known problems (18%). Parents required counselling and/or discussion on a number of issues for both newly detected problems (66%) and known problems (39%); when counselling had taken place parent and staff concerns had reduced significantly by the time of the follow-up assessment. This study demonstrated that in those students with known intellectual impairment there were many with other

  19. Improvements in health status after Massachusetts health care reform.

    PubMed

    Van Der Wees, Philip J; Zaslavsky, Alan M; Ayanian, John Z

    2013-12-01

    Massachusetts enacted health care reform in 2006 to expand insurance coverage and improve access to health care. The objective of our study was to compare trends in health status and the use of ambulatory health services before and after the implementation of health reform in Massachusetts relative to that in other New England states. We used a quasi-experimental design with data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System from 2001 to 2011 to compare trends associated with health reform in Massachusetts relative to that in other New England states. We compared self-reported health and the use of preventive services using multivariate logistic regression with difference-in-differences analysis to account for temporal trends. We estimated predicted probabilities and changes in these probabilities to gauge the differential effects between Massachusetts and other New England states. Finally, we conducted subgroup analysis to assess the differential changes by income and race/ethnicity. The sample included 345,211 adults aged eighteen to sixty-four. In comparing the periods before and after health care reform relative to those in other New England states, we found that Massachusetts residents reported greater improvements in general health (1.7%), physical health (1.3%), and mental health (1.5%). Massachusetts residents also reported significant relative increases in rates of Pap screening (2.3%), colonoscopy (5.5%), and cholesterol testing (1.4%). Adults in Massachusetts households that earned up to 300% of the federal poverty level gained more in health status than did those above that level, with differential changes ranging from 0.2% to 1.3%. Relative gains in health status were comparable among white, black, and Hispanic residents in Massachusetts. Health care reform in Massachusetts was associated with improved health status and the greater use of some preventive services relative to those in other New England states, particularly among low

  20. Improvements in Health Status after Massachusetts Health Care Reform

    PubMed Central

    van der Wees, Philip J; Zaslavsky, Alan M; Ayanian, John Z

    2013-01-01

    Context Massachusetts enacted health care reform in 2006 to expand insurance coverage and improve access to health care. The objective of our study was to compare trends in health status and the use of ambulatory health services before and after the implementation of health reform in Massachusetts relative to that in other New England states. Methods We used a quasi-experimental design with data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System from 2001 to 2011 to compare trends associated with health reform in Massachusetts relative to that in other New England states. We compared self-reported health and the use of preventive services using multivariate logistic regression with difference-in-differences analysis to account for temporal trends. We estimated predicted probabilities and changes in these probabilities to gauge the differential effects between Massachusetts and other New England states. Finally, we conducted subgroup analysis to assess the differential changes by income and race/ethnicity. Findings The sample included 345,211 adults aged eighteen to sixty-four. In comparing the periods before and after health care reform relative to those in other New England states, we found that Massachusetts residents reported greater improvements in general health (1.7%), physical health (1.3%), and mental health (1.5%). Massachusetts residents also reported significant relative increases in rates of Pap screening (2.3%), colonoscopy (5.5%), and cholesterol testing (1.4%). Adults in Massachusetts households that earned up to 300% of the federal poverty level gained more in health status than did those above that level, with differential changes ranging from 0.2% to 1.3%. Relative gains in health status were comparable among white, black, and Hispanic residents in Massachusetts. Conclusions Health care reform in Massachusetts was associated with improved health status and the greater use of some preventive services relative to those in other New England states

  1. Ocelot Population Status in Protected Brazilian Atlantic Forest

    PubMed Central

    Massara, Rodrigo Lima; Paschoal, Ana Maria de Oliveira; Doherty, Paul Francis; Hirsch, André; Chiarello, Adriano Garcia

    2015-01-01

    Forest fragmentation and habitat loss are detrimental to top carnivores, such as jaguars (Panthera onca) and pumas (Puma concolor), but effects on mesocarnivores, such as ocelots (Leopardus pardalis), are less clear. Ocelots need native forests, but also might benefit from the local extirpation of larger cats such as pumas and jaguars through mesopredator release. We used a standardized camera trap protocol to assess ocelot populations in six protected areas of the Atlantic forest in southeastern Brazil where over 80% of forest remnants are < 50 ha. We tested whether variation in ocelot abundance could be explained by reserve size, forest cover, number of free-ranging domestic dogs and presence of top predators. Ocelot abundance was positively correlated with reserve size and the presence of top predators (jaguar and pumas) and negatively correlated with the number of dogs. We also found higher detection probabilities in less forested areas as compared to larger, intact forests. We suspect that smaller home ranges and higher movement rates in smaller, more degraded areas increased detection. Our data do not support the hypothesis of mesopredator release. Rather, our findings indicate that ocelots respond negatively to habitat loss, and thrive in large protected areas inhabited by top predators. PMID:26560347

  2. Ocelot Population Status in Protected Brazilian Atlantic Forest.

    PubMed

    Massara, Rodrigo Lima; Paschoal, Ana Maria de Oliveira; Doherty, Paul Francis; Hirsch, André; Chiarello, Adriano Garcia

    2015-01-01

    Forest fragmentation and habitat loss are detrimental to top carnivores, such as jaguars (Panthera onca) and pumas (Puma concolor), but effects on mesocarnivores, such as ocelots (Leopardus pardalis), are less clear. Ocelots need native forests, but also might benefit from the local extirpation of larger cats such as pumas and jaguars through mesopredator release. We used a standardized camera trap protocol to assess ocelot populations in six protected areas of the Atlantic forest in southeastern Brazil where over 80% of forest remnants are < 50 ha. We tested whether variation in ocelot abundance could be explained by reserve size, forest cover, number of free-ranging domestic dogs and presence of top predators. Ocelot abundance was positively correlated with reserve size and the presence of top predators (jaguar and pumas) and negatively correlated with the number of dogs. We also found higher detection probabilities in less forested areas as compared to larger, intact forests. We suspect that smaller home ranges and higher movement rates in smaller, more degraded areas increased detection. Our data do not support the hypothesis of mesopredator release. Rather, our findings indicate that ocelots respond negatively to habitat loss, and thrive in large protected areas inhabited by top predators.

  3. Northwest Forest Plan–the first 20 years (1994-2013): status and trends of late-successional and old-growth forests

    Treesearch

    Raymond J. Davis; Janet L. Ohmann; Robert E. Kennedy; Warren B. Cohen; Matthew J. Gregory; Zhiqiang Yang; Heather M. Roberts; Andrew N. Gray; Thomas A. Spies

    2015-01-01

    This is the third in a series of periodic monitoring reports on LSOG or latesuccessional and old-growth (older) forest status trends on federally administered lands since implementation of the Northwest Forest Plan (NWFP or the Plan) in 1994. The objective of this monitoring is to determine if the NWFP is providing for conservation and management of older forests as...

  4. [Psychosocial factors and health status of employees].

    PubMed

    Dudek, Bohdan

    2005-01-01

    An issue of relationship between exposure to psychosocial factors and health status of employees is presented in this review. It is difficult to find hard evidence that could reliably confirm this relationship. Methodological difliculties encountered in measuring psychosocial factors and health effects and in designing research procedures are responsible for equivocal study results. However, a huge number of articles presenting the results of numerous studies make us convinced that many human organs are targets of dangerous impact of stress evoked by job conditions. Bearing in mind that work processes and working conditions become more and snore stressogenic. one can expect that in the near future psychosocial factors will form a group of the most dangerous health hazards. Therefore, it is an urgent challenge facing the occupational health service (OHS) to adapt its system of prevention to the specificity of threats, and thus better protect employees against harmful impact of the psychosocial factors.

  5. Childhood socioeconomic status and adult health.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Sheldon; Janicki-Deverts, Denise; Chen, Edith; Matthews, Karen A

    2010-02-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) exposures during childhood are powerful predictors of adult cardiovascular morbidity, cardiovascular mortality, all-cause mortality, and mortality due to a range of specific causes. However, we still know little about when childhood SES exposures matter most, how long they need to last, what behavioral, psychological, or physiological pathways link the childhood SES experience to adult health, and which specific adult health outcomes are vulnerable to childhood SES exposures. Here, we discuss the evidence supporting the link between childhood and adolescent SES and adult health, and explore different environmental, behavioral, and physiological pathways that might explain how early SES would influence adult health. We also address the ages when SES exposures matter most for setting adult health trajectories as well as the role of exposure duration in SES influences on later health. While early childhood exposures seem to be potent predictors of a range of health outcomes, we emphasize that later childhood and adolescent exposures are risks for other health outcomes.

  6. Development and status of Arkansas' primary forest products industry

    Treesearch

    Dennis M. May

    1990-01-01

    The development of Arkansas' primary forest products industry is presented by following the changes in numbers and types of mills operating through time as well as the State's production of roundwood to supply the changing industry.

  7. Tribes in Karnataka: Status of health research

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Subarna; Hegde, Harsha V.; Bhattacharya, Debdutta; Upadhya, Vinayak; Kholkute, Sanjiva D.

    2015-01-01

    The south Indian State of Karnataka, once part of several kingdoms and princely states of repute in the Deccan peninsula, is rich in its historic, cultural and anthropological heritage. The State is the home to 42,48,987 tribal people, of whom 50,870 belong to the primitive group. Although these people represent only 6.95 per cent of the population of the State, there are as many as 50 different tribes notified by the Government of India, living in Karnataka, of which 14 tribes including two primitive ones, are primarily natives of this State. Extreme poverty and neglect over generations have left them in poor state of health and nutrition. Unfortunately, despite efforts from the Government and non-Governmental organizations alike, literature that is available to assess the state of health of these tribes of the region remains scanty. It is however, interesting to note that most of these tribes who had been original natives of the forests of the Western Ghats have been privy to an enormous amount of knowledge about various medicinal plants and their use in traditional/folklore medicine and these practices have been the subject matter of various scientific studies. This article is an attempt to list and map the various tribes of the State of Karnataka and review the studies carried out on the health of these ethnic groups, and the information obtained about the traditional health practices from these people. PMID:26139788

  8. Assessment of calcium status in Maine forests: Review and future projection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huntington, T.G.

    2005-01-01

    Forest harvesting and acidic deposition can cause substantial decreases in the calcium (Ca) inventory of forest soils if such losses are not replenished through mineral weathering, atmospheric deposition, or fertilization. The net balance between losses and gains defines the forest Ca status. Site-specific studies have measured Ca pools and fluxes in Maine forests, but no synthesis has been published. In this paper, I review the literature on forest Ca and assess the current status and potential future trends. Forest soils in Maine are currently at lesser risk of Ca depletion compared with many forest soils in the central and southeastern United States, because levels of acidic deposition and rates of Ca accumulation in trees are lower in Maine. The rate of Ca accumulation in trees is reduced in Maine as a result of lower growth rates and a higher proportion of conifer trees that require less Ca than hardwoods. However, field-scale biogeochemical studies in Maine and New Hampshire, and regional estimates of harvest removals and soil inventories coupled with low weathering estimates, indicate that Ca depletion is a realistic concern in Maine. The synthesis of site-specific and regional data for Maine in conjunction with the depletion measured directly in surrounding areas indicates that the Ca status of many forest soils in Maine is likely declining. Ca status could decrease further in the future if forest growth rates increase in response to climate trends and recovery from insect-induced mortality and excessive harvesting in recent years. Proposed climate change induced reductions in spruce and fir and increases in hardwoods would also increase the risk of Ca depletion. ?? 2005 NRC.

  9. Economy, politics, and health status in Cuba.

    PubMed

    Rojas Ochoa, F; López Pardo, C M

    1997-01-01

    An economic contraction occurred in Cuba at the beginning of the 1990s, of a magnitude greater than in any developed country in the last half century. This resulted primarily from the disappearance of the European socialist bloc and simultaneous tightening of the U.S. government's blockade at a time when Cuba was engaged in correcting its main economic problems. The economic crisis affected a number of areas of Cuban society. The state adopted a series of measures to cope with the socioeconomic situation, which have yielded positive results in the social and economic fields, as well as some undesirable results. In the health sector, the economic crisis has mainly reduced the availability of resources and has adversely affected some health determinants and some aspects of the population's health status. Despite the prevailing economic difficulties, the government is determined to preserve the country's achievements in health, and to develop them still further. The solution is not privatization or the introduction of health insurance systems or similar measures. Rather, Cuba will seek greater rationality and economic efficiency in the health sector. It has ratified the principles that the state should continue to finance the health system and maintain universal coverage and accessibility through free services.

  10. Mixed signals from Kerala's improving health status.

    PubMed

    Michael, E J; Singh, B

    2003-03-01

    It can be said that health policy is about creating the conditions to free a population from disease and impairment, and so prolong the quality of life for all. If this is its purpose, then the practice of public health policy in the Indian state of Kerala presents a conundrum for health promotion analysts. On the one hand, Kerala has had remarkable success in reducing its infant mortality rates to around one-third of the Indian average, but on the other, its morbidity rates have risen to impose an economic cost more than three times the national level. This paper sets out to explain this apparent contradiction in outcomes, serving both to provide a review of Kerala's health status and as an illustrative guide for the interpretation of the effects of health policy in some other developing areas. While the essential health data for Kerala might imply an unsatisfactory future, the authors argue that the rapid improvements that have occurred simultaneously in public education are more likely to explain an increase in the effective reporting of disease conditions, thus suggesting a more optimistic scenario for future practice that can lead to a sustained improvement in health care.

  11. Urban Forest Health Needs Assessment Survey: Results and Recommendations

    Treesearch

    Jill D. Pokorny

    1998-01-01

    The survey was designed to query urban forestry professionals in the 20 northeastern and Midwest States and the District of Columbia, which are served by the Northeastern Area, to learn about their attitudes toward the general issue of urban forest health, identify specific training and information needs in the area of urban tree health management, and discover...

  12. [Community Health Agent: status adapted with Family Health Program reality?].

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Karina Tonini; Saliba, Nemre Adas; Moimaz, Suzely Adas Saliba; Arcieri, Renato Moreira; Carvalho, Maria de Lourdes

    2011-01-01

    This study analyses the status and work reality of Community Health Agents, with the purpose of contributing to the improvement of the Brazilian Health System (SUS) in small cities. It was discussed aspects related to their participation in the team of the Family Health Program (PSF) and their interaction with the community. It was observed a lack of motivation and experience, which compromises the quality of Agents performance in the community. It is known that these findings are reflex and consequence of an established context. It is necessary the team rethink their practice, specially the managers, having always as a fundament the principles that guide the SUS and PSF.

  13. Remote Sensing of Bioindicators for Forest Health Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kefauver, Shawn Carlisle

    The impacts of tropospheric ozone on forest health in Mediterranean type climates in California, USA and Catalonia, Spain were investigated using a combination of remote sensing, Geographic Information System (GIS), and field studies focused on sensitive bioindicator conifer species and ambient ozone monitoring. For the field validation of impacts of tropospheric ozone on conifer health, the Ozone Injury Index (OII) was applied to the bioindicator species Pinus ponderosa, Pinus jeffreyi, and Pinus uncinata. Combining these three tools, it was possible to build meaningful ecological models covering large areas to enhance our understanding of the biotic and abiotic interactions which affect forest health. Regression models predicting ozone injury improved considerably when incorporating ozone exposure with GIS related to plant water status, including water availability and water usage, as a proxies for estimating the stomatal conductance and ozone uptake R2=0.35, p = 0.016 in Catalonia, R2=0.36, p < 0.001 in Yosemite and R2=0.33, p = 0.007 in Sequoia/Kings Canyon National Parks in California). Individual OII components in Catalonia were modeled with improved success compared to the original full OII, in particular visible chlorotic mottling (R2=0.60, p < 0.001). The visual chlorotic mottling component of the OII was the most strongly correlated to remote sensing indices, in particular the photochemical reflectance index (PRI; R2=0.28, p=0.0044 for OIIVI-amount and R 2=0.33 and p=0.0016 for OIIVI -severity). Regression models assessing ozone injury to conifers using imaging spectroscopy techniques also improved when incorporating the GIS proxies of stomatal conductance (R 2=0.59, p<0.0001 for OII in California and R2=0.68, p<0.0001 for OIIVI in Catalonia). Finally, taking advantage of a time series of ambient ozone monitoring in Catalonia, it was found that all models improved when incorporating the cumulative exposure to ozone over a period of three years (R2=0.56, p

  14. [Carbon sequestration status of forest ecosystems in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region].

    PubMed

    Gao, Yang; Jin, Jing-Wei; Cheng, Ji-Min; Su, Ji-Shuai; Zhu, Ren-Bin; Ma, Zheng-Rui; Liu, Wei

    2014-03-01

    Based on the data of Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region forest resources inventory, field investigation and laboratory analysis, this paper studied the carbon sequestration status of forest ecosystems in Ningxia region, estimated the carbon density and storage of forest ecosystems, and analyzed their spatial distribution characteristics. The results showed that the biomass of each forest vegetation component was in the order of arbor layer (46.64 Mg x hm(-2)) > litterfall layer (7.34 Mg x hm(-2)) > fine root layer (6.67 Mg x hm(-2)) > shrub-grass layer (0.73 Mg x hm(-2)). Spruce (115.43 Mg x hm(-2)) and Pinus tabuliformis (94.55 Mg x hm(-2)) had higher vegetation biomasses per unit area than other tree species. Over-mature forest had the highest arbor carbon density among the forests with different ages. However, the young forest had the highest arbor carbon storage (1.90 Tg C) due to its widest planted area. Overall, the average carbon density of forest ecosystems in Ningxia region was 265.74 Mg C x hm(-2), and the carbon storage was 43.54 Tg C. Carbon density and storage of vegetation were 27.24 Mg C x hm(-2) and 4.46 Tg C, respectively. Carbon storage in the soil was 8.76 times of that in the vegetation. In the southern part of Ningxia region, the forest carbon storage was higher than in the northern part, where the low C storage was mainly related to the small forest area and young forest age structure. With the improvement of forest age structure and the further implementation of forestry ecoengineering, the forest ecosystems in Ningxia region would achieve a huge carbon sequestration potential.

  15. [Health status in the population using contraceptives].

    PubMed

    Rojas Bernal, T; Sojo Aranda, I; Cortés-Gallegos, V

    1997-11-01

    In order to partially understand the health status of women under contraceptive therapy and their possible social hazard of it, a descriptive, prospective and transversal study was undertaken in a 500 individuals, ages 20-35 years old, who currently were regulation their fertility. Data were obtained by means of predetermined questions from subjects attending several clinics of the IMSS. Anyone refusing to participate was discharged questions. The analysis excluded 8/500 due to incomplete responses. In 334/492, hormonal practice was in use; the IUD met 36.6% and the minor groups of 4.4 and 2.8% the method chosen was surgical or natural respectively. The IUD had been used over three years in 60/187, while in 39/145 were on the pill the same period of time; only 23/100 preferred the injectables. No previous medical advice was carried out in order to prescribe the contraceptive and furthermore in 461/492 no laboratory clinical tests were required before. In only 22% of the population the Pap-smear had been taken two years before and in 89/492 was never considered. The contraceptive strategies was induce risks in the future with no solid etiology if a prescription is decided, before the health status is evaluated. It looks like that present report is the first description associating health and risks in a non-selected population under contraceptive methodology.

  16. The status of men's health in Asia.

    PubMed

    Ng, Chirk Jenn; Teo, Chin Hai; Ho, Christopher Chee Kong; Tan, Wei Phin; Tan, Hui Meng

    2014-10-01

    This study aims to compare health status and its risk factors between men and women who are from countries of different income status in Asia. We have included 47 Asian countries and 2 regions in this study. Life expectancy, mortality rate from communicable disease, non-communicable disease and injuries, the prevalence of non-communicable diseases risk factors and their trends were extracted from the WHO and respective governmental database. Subgroup analysis was performed based on country income groups. Overall, men have shorter life expectancy and higher mortality rates compared to women. Men from higher-income countries lived longer compared to men from lower-income countries. There is a wide variation of male life expectancy in upper and lower middle income countries. The mean systolic blood pressure, fasting blood glucose and body mass index in Asia have also increased over the years. This study confirms that Asian men have poorer health compared to women besides the growing concerns on NCD risk factors. The findings from this study calls for a concerted effort to find solutions in addressing men's health problems in Asia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Socioeconomic status, race, and COPD health outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Eisner, Mark D.; Blanc, Paul D.; Omachi, Theodore A.; Yelin, Edward H.; Sidney, Stephen; Katz, Patricia P.; Ackerson, Lynn M.; Sanchez, Gabriela; Tolstykh, Irina; Iribarren, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    Background Although COPD is a common cause of death and disability, little is known about the effects of socioeconomic status (SES) and race-ethnicity on health outcomes. Methods We aimed to determine the independent impacts of SES and race-ethnicity on COPD severity status, functional limitations, and acute exacerbations of COPD among patients with access to health care. Data were used from the FLOW cohort study of 1,202 Kaiser Permanente Northern California Medical Care Plan members with COPD. Results Lower educational attainment and household income were consistently related to greater disease severity, poorer lung function, and greater physical functional limitations in cross-sectional analysis. Black race was associated with greater COPD severity, but these differences were no longer apparent after controlling for SES variables and other covariates (comorbidities, smoking, body mass index, and occupational exposures). Both lower education and income were independently related to a greater prospective risk of acute COPD exacerbation (HR 1.5; 95% CI 1.01 to 2.1; and HR 2.1; 95% CI 1.4 to 3.4, respectively). Conclusion Low SES is a risk factor for a broad array of adverse COPD health outcomes. Clinicians and disease management programs should consider SES as a key patient-level marker of risk for poor outcomes. PMID:19854747

  18. Status of mature and old-growth forests in the Pacific Northwest.

    PubMed

    Strittholt, James R; DellaSala, Dominick A; Jiang, Hong

    2006-04-01

    Nearly 10 million ha of federal lands in the Pacific Northwest have been managed under the Northwest Forest Plan since 1994. The plan reduced logging levels by 80%; only recently, however have inventories on status and condition of mature and old-growth forests become available. Our objectives were to (1) determine the areal extent of old (> 150 years) and mature (50-150 years) conifer forests based on 2000 Landsat 7 ETM+ imagery, (2) examine levels of protection, (3) determine the degree of additional protection afforded to old and mature conifer forests if late-successional reserves (LSRs) and inventoried roadless areas (IRAs) were fully protected, and (4) review management options to achieve greater protection of older forests. The historical extent of old-growth forest in the Pacific Northwest was roughly two-thirds (16,672,976 ha) of the total land area. Since the time of European settlement, approximately 72% of the original old-growth conifer forest has been lost, largely through logging and other developments. Of the remaining old growth, the Central and Southern Cascades and Klamath-Siskiyou account for nearly half Mature conifer area (4,758,596 ha) nearly equaled the amount of old conifer More than 78% of the old growth and 50% of mature forest were located on public lands. Approximately one-quarter (1,201,622 ha) of the old-growth conifer (or 7% of the historical old-growth area) was classified as GAP status 1 (strictly protected) or GAP status 2 (moderately protected). The total area of LSRs was slightly more than 3 million ha, approximately 36% (1,073,299 ha) of which contained old-growth conifer forest. Combined old and mature conifer within LSRs was approximately 59% of the total LSR area. The total amount of IRA for the Pacific Northwest was approximately 1,563,370 ha; of this, 526,912 ha (34%) was old growth. The combined area of old-growth conifer forest accounted for by protected areas (GAP 1 and 2), LSRs, and IRAs was 2,401,780 ha, which

  19. Status of growth and yield information for northern forest types

    Treesearch

    Dale S. Solomon

    1977-01-01

    Existing regional growth-and-yield information for most of the northern forest types is summarized by species. Present research is concentrated on growth-simulation models, constructed by either aggregating available information or through individual tree growth studies. A uniformity of more refined measurements is needed so that future growth models can be tried for...

  20. BLM forest lands report -- 2006 status and condition

    Treesearch

    Tim Bottomley; Jim Menlove

    2006-01-01

    The Bureau of Land Management (BLM), an agency within the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI), administers over 261 million surface acres of public land in the western United States, including Alaska. Approximately 69 million acres, or 26 percent, are classified as forested.

  1. The forest as a classroom: preparing for mental health practice.

    PubMed

    Eklund, Marthe Lyngås; Ruud, Ireen; Grov, Ellen Karine

    2016-01-01

    Positive effects of physical activity, health promotion and disease prevention, in treatment of mental illnesses are well documented. Mental health practice for nursing students highlights the important connection between physical activities and mental health. This study aims to examine the outcome from nursing students' participation using The forest as a classroom. Students' collaboration by problem solving, theoretical discussions and performance of activities in the forest serves as a repertoire of non-medical treatment strategies in mental health. The forest as a classroom was evaluated by means of an ad-hoc questionnaire including both standardized and open-ended questions. Data was analyzed by means of descriptive statistics and content analysis. The results indicated enhanced knowledge about physical activity and its impact on mental health. However, the nursing students' experience challenge preserving theoretical exercises outdoor because sensory stimulation took attention away from learning. For nursing students it is essential to build a repertoire of treatment activities to care for patients having mental health problems. This kind of approach is supported by the students' learning in the forest. The pilot study highlights the importance of multiple methods of learning in nursing education.

  2. Temperate forest health in an era of emerging megadisturbance.

    PubMed

    Millar, Constance I; Stephenson, Nathan L

    2015-08-21

    Although disturbances such as fire and native insects can contribute to natural dynamics of forest health, exceptional droughts, directly and in combination with other disturbance factors, are pushing some temperate forests beyond thresholds of sustainability. Interactions from increasing temperatures, drought, native insects and pathogens, and uncharacteristically severe wildfire are resulting in forest mortality beyond the levels of 20th-century experience. Additional anthropogenic stressors, such as atmospheric pollution and invasive species, further weaken trees in some regions. Although continuing climate change will likely drive many areas of temperate forest toward large-scale transformations, management actions can help ease transitions and minimize losses of socially valued ecosystem services. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  3. Conceptualization and Measurement of Health Status for Migrant Farmworkers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chi, Peter S. K.

    The multidimensional concept of health status (complete physical, mental and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity) was applied to migrant farmworkers, in an attempt to propose appropriate measures of the three dimensions of health and general health perceptions (GHP) of past, present and future health status. Data…

  4. 45 CFR 162.1401 - Health care claim status transaction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Health care claim status transaction. 162.1401 Section 162.1401 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES ADMINISTRATIVE DATA STANDARDS AND RELATED REQUIREMENTS ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Health Care Claim Status § 162.1401 Health care...

  5. 45 CFR 162.1401 - Health care claim status transaction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Health care claim status transaction. 162.1401 Section 162.1401 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services ADMINISTRATIVE DATA STANDARDS AND RELATED REQUIREMENTS ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Health Care Claim Status § 162.1401 Health care claim...

  6. Forest health monitoring indicators and their interpretability: a Lithuanian case study

    Treesearch

    Romualdas Kuknys; Algirdas Augustaitis

    1998-01-01

    Growth and productivity of forests are important indicators for understanding the general condition and health of forests. It is very important that indicators detected during monitoring procedures afford an opportunity for direct or indirect evaluation of forest productivity and its natural and anthropogenic changes. Analysis of the U.S. Forest Health Monitoring (FHM...

  7. Survival analysis for a large scale forest health issue: Missouri oak decline

    Treesearch

    C.W. Woodall; P.L. Grambsch; W. Thomas; W.K. Moser

    2005-01-01

    Survival analysis methodologies provide novel approaches for forest mortality analysis that may aid in detecting, monitoring, and mitigating of large-scale forest health issues. This study examined survivor analysis for evaluating a regional forest health issue - Missouri oak decline. With a statewide Missouri forest inventory, log-rank tests of the effects of...

  8. Urban forest health monitoring: large-scale assessments in the United States

    Treesearch

    Anne Buckelew Cumming; Daniel B. Twardus; David J. Nowak

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service (USFS), together with state partners, developed methods to monitor urban forest structure, function, and health at a large statewide scale. Pilot studies have been established in five states using protocols based on USFS Forest Inventory and Analysis and Forest Health Monitoring program data collection standards....

  9. Soil vital signs: A new Soil Quality Index (SQI) for assessing forest soil health

    Treesearch

    Michael C. Amacher; Katherine P. O' Neil; Charles H. Perry

    2007-01-01

    The Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program measures a number of chemical and physical properties of soils to address specific questions about forest soil quality or health. We developed a new index of forest soil health, the soil quality index (SQI), that integrates 19 measured physical and chemical properties of forest soils into a single number that serves as...

  10. Monitoring the effects of extreme climate disturbances on forest health in the northeast U.S.

    Treesearch

    Allan N.D. Auclair; Warren E. Heilman; Peter Busalacchi

    2002-01-01

    No methodology has been developed to date to predict when a forest population is at risk to specific climate and air pollution stressors. Yet, this information is important to natural resource managers who need frequent, updated assessments of forest health upon which to base management decisions and respond to public concerns on forest health. The USDA Forest Service...

  11. Community socioeconomic status and children's dental health.

    PubMed

    Gillcrist, J A; Brumley, D E; Blackford, J U

    2001-02-01

    Although a substantial decline in dental caries has occurred among U.S. children, not everyone has benefited equally. The first-ever surgeon general's report on oral health in America indicates that the burden of oral diseases is found in poor Americans. This study investigates the relationship between community socioeconomic status, or SES, and dental health of children. An oral health survey of 17,256 children, representing 93 percent of children residing in 62 Tennessee communities, was conducted in public elementary schools during the 1996-1997 school year. Portable dental equipment was used for examinations, and data from each examination were entered directly into a laptop computer. The authors performed analyses of covariance to examine the relationship between community SES (low/medium/high) and dental health, controlling for community fluoridation. Community SES was significantly related to caries experience in the primary teeth, the proportion of untreated caries in the primary and permanent teeth, dental treatment needs, dental sealants and incisor trauma. Overall, dental health was significantly worse for low-SES communities than for medium- and high-SES communities. The authors conclude that all specific dental indexes used to measure children's dental health in this study, with the exceptions of caries experience in the permanent teeth and sealant presence, were inversely related to the communities' SES. The percentage of children with dental sealants was directly related to the community's SES. Further improvements in oral health will necessitate that community-based preventive programs and access to quality dental care be made available to children who are identified as being at highest risk of experiencing oral disease.

  12. Health status of critically ill trauma patients.

    PubMed

    Aitken, Leanne M; Chaboyer, Wendy; Schuetz, Michael; Joyce, Christopher; Macfarlane, Bonnie

    2014-03-01

    To describe the recovery of trauma intensive care patients up to six months posthospital discharge. Injury is a leading cause of preventable mortality and morbidity worldwide, with approximately 10% of hospitalised trauma patients being admitted to intensive care. Intensive care patients experience significant ongoing physical and psychological burden after discharge; however, the patterns of recovery and the subgroups of intensive care patients who experience the greatest burden are not described. This prospective cohort study was conducted in one tertiary referral hospital in south-east Queensland, Australia. Following ethics approval, injured patients who required admission to intensive care provided consent. Participants completed questionnaires prior to hospital discharge (n = 123) and one (n = 93) and six months (n = 88) later. Data included demographic and socioeconomic details, pre-injury health, injury characteristics, acute care factors, postacute factors [self-efficacy, illness perception, perceived social support and psychological status as measured by the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10) and the PTSD Civilian Checklist] and health status (SF-36). All participants required ongoing support from healthcare providers in the six months after discharge from hospital, and approximately half required support services such as accommodation and home modifications. Approximately 20% of participants reported post-traumatic stress symptoms, while approximately half the participants reported psychological distress. Average quality of life scores were significantly below the Australian norms both one and six months postdischarge. Trauma intensive care patients rely on ongoing healthcare professional and social support services. Compromised health-related quality of life and psychological health persists at six months. Effective discharge planning and communication across the care continuum is essential to facilitate access to healthcare providers and other

  13. The impact of oral health literacy on periodontal health status

    PubMed Central

    Wehmeyer, Meggan M. H.; Corwin, Caleb L.; Guthmiller, Janet M.; Lee, Jessica Y.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to describe oral health literacy (OHL) among periodontal patients and to examine its association with periodontal health status. Methods This cross-sectional study included new and referred patients presenting to the University of North Carolina Graduate Periodontology Clinic. Sociodemographic and dental history information were collected. OHL was measured using a dental word recognition instrument, Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy-30 (REALD-30). Clinical periodontal examinations were completed. Results One hundred and twenty-eight participants enrolled and 121 completed all study examinations and instruments. Despite a high level of education among participants in our study, low levels of OHL were found in one-third (33 percent) of the study population. Thirty-one percent had moderate OHL (score of 22–25), 37 percent had high OHL (score ≥ 26). The mean REALD-30 score was 23. Fifty-three percent of participants had severe periodontitis, 29 percent had moderate periodontitis, and 18 percent had mild or no periodontitis. Bivariate analysis showed a significant association between OHL and periodontal status (P < 0.05). The effect of OHL on periodontal health status remained statistically significant (P < 0.002) even after controlling for smoking, race, and dental insurance. Conclusion Lower OHL was associated with more severe periodontal disease among new and referred patients presenting to the University of North Carolina Graduate Periodontology Clinics. PMID:23121152

  14. [Health status and intimate partner violence].

    PubMed

    Sanz-Barbero, Belén; Rey, Lourdes; Otero-García, Laura

    2014-01-01

    To describe the prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV) in Spain in the last year and at some point during the lifetime, to determine health status in women according to whether they had experienced IPV or not, and to analyze the individual variables associated with IPV in Spain. A cross-sectional study was performed of the database, Macrosurvey on Gender Violence in Spain 2011. This database includes data on 7,898 women older than 18 years old. The dependent variables were IPV-last year, IPV-ever in life. Covariates consisted of sociodemographic characteristics, socioeconomic status, maternal experience of IPV, social support, and self-care. The measure of association used was the OR with its 95% confidence interval (95% CI). A total of 3.6% of women had experienced IPV-last year and 12.2% ever in life. Female victims of IPV had poorer health than women who had not experienced IPV. Immigrant women living in Spain for 6 years or more were more likely to experience IPV-ever in life than Spanish women [OR (95% CI): 1.95 (1.50, 2.53)]. An interaction was found between nationality and the existence of children under 18 years old. Among women with children under 18 years old, immigrant women were more likely to experience IPV-last year than Spanish women [OR (95% CI): 1.99 (1.25, 3.17)]. Other variables associated with IPV were age, low socioeconomic status, low social support and having a mother who had experienced IPV. In Spain, some women have a higher probability of experiencing IPV. The variables associated with greater vulnerability to IPV should be taken into account when implementing measures to prevent or alleviate IPV. Copyright © 2013 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. Wage differences according to health status in France.

    PubMed

    Ben Halima, Mohamed Ali; Rococo, Emeline

    2014-11-01

    Many OECD countries have implemented anti-discrimination laws in recent decades. However, according to the annual report published in 2010 by the French High Authority for the Fight against Discrimination and for Equality, the second most commonly cited factor in discrimination claims since 2005 is a handicap or health status. The aim of this research is to estimate the level of unexplained components in the wage gap that can be attributed to wage discrimination based on health status in France in 2010 utilizing data from the Health, Healthcare and Insurance survey among 1594 individuals. Three health indicators are used: self-perceived health status, activity limitations and long-term chronic illness. To measure the wage gap according to an individual's health status, the analysis considers the endogenous selection of health status and unobserved differences in productivity. The results demonstrate that wage discrimination is experienced by individuals in poor health regardless of the health indicator utilized. The hourly wage rate among individuals with poor self-assessed health status is on average 14.2% lower than among individuals with good self-assessed health status. However, for individuals suffering from a long-term chronic illness or an activity limitation, the gap is 6.3% and 4.5%, respectively. The decomposition performed on wage differences according to health status by correcting for health status selection bias and controlling for unobserved differences in productivity indicates that the 'unexplained component' that can be attributed to wage discrimination is equal to 50%.

  16. Using Forest Health Monitoring to assess aspen forest cover change in the southern Rockies ecoregion

    Treesearch

    Paul Rogers

    2002-01-01

    Long-term qualitative observations suggest a marked decline in quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) primarily due to advancing succession and fire suppression. This study presents an ecoregional coarse-grid analysis of the current aspen situation using Forest Health Monitoring (FHM) data from Idaho, Wyoming, and Colorado. A...

  17. Effects of acid rain on forest nutrient status. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, D.W.; Cole, D.W.

    1985-04-01

    In five forest sites (three in eastern Tennessee and two in western Washington) the effect of natural carbonic acid production on soil leaching was equaled or exceeded by that of atmospheric acid inputs. In a nitrogen-fixing red alder site in Washington, however, internal leaching by nitrification and nitric acid formation far exceeded atmospheric H/sup +/ inputs at any site. All other sites retained NO/sub 3//sup -/, and soil SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ adsorption reduced the effectiveness of atmospheric H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ inputs on soil leaching in two of the Tennessee sites and in the Washington red alder site. Atmospheric sulfur inputs exceeded the forest sulfur requirement in all five sites. Decomposer invertebrates appeared to be affected negatively by unrealistically large applications of SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/, either as KHSO/sub 4/ or K/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. Forest floor buffering prevented large changes in pH with acid SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ treatments. Results indicate that effects of acid deposition on decomposer invertebrates are unlikely except at input levels much higher than ambient.

  18. Mechanisms by which Childhood Personality Traits Influence Adult Health Status

    PubMed Central

    Hampson, Sarah E.; Goldberg, Lewis R.; Vogt, Thomas M.; Dubanoski, Joan P.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To test a lifespan health-behavior model in which educational attainment and health behaviors (eating habits, smoking, and physical activity) were hypothesized as mechanisms to account for relations between teacher ratings of childhood personality traits and self-reported health status at midlife. Design The model was tested on 1,054 members of the Hawaii Personality and Health cohort, which is a population-based cohort participating in a longitudinal study of personality and health spanning 40 years from childhood to midlife. Outcome Self-reported health status as a latent construct indicated by general health, functional status, and body mass index. Results Childhood Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, and Intellect/Imagination influenced adult health status indirectly through educational attainment, healthy eating habits, and smoking. Several direct effects of childhood traits on health behaviors and health status were also observed. Conclusion The model extends past associations found between personality traits and health behaviors or health status by identifying a life-course pathway based on the health-behavior model through which early childhood traits influence adult health status. The additional direct effects of personality traits indicate that health-behavior mechanisms may not provide a complete account of relations between personality and health. PMID:17209705

  19. Using the β-binomial distribution to characterize forest health

    Treesearch

    S.J. Zarnoch; R.L. Anderson; R.M. Sheffield

    1995-01-01

    The β-binomial distribution is suggested as a model for describing and analyzing the dichotomous data obtained from programs monitoring the health of forests in the United States. Maximum likelihood estimation of the parameters is given as well as asymptotic likelihood ratio tests. The procedure is illustrated with data on dogwood anthracnose infection (caused...

  20. Using crown condition variables as indicators of forest health

    Treesearch

    Stanley J. Zarnoch; William A. Bechtold; K.W. Stolte

    2004-01-01

    Indicators of forest health used in previous studies have focused on crown variables analyzed individually at the tree level by summarizing over all species. This approach has the virtue of simplicity but does not account for the three-dimensional attributes of a tree crown, the multivariate nature of the crown variables, or variability among species. To alleviate...

  1. A prototype for forest health monitoring in Indiana state parks

    Treesearch

    Rachel Morse; KaDonna Randolph; John W., Jr. Moser

    2000-01-01

    In 1997, 25 Forest Health Monitoring (FHM) plots were established in two Indiana state parks and a nearby parcel of privately owned land using a new protocol that differs from the systematic grid of the national program. All plots were reassessed in 1998. Data analysis focuses upon establishing baseline conditions for the study sites and providing relevant information...

  2. The status of conservation of urban forests in eastern Amazonia.

    PubMed

    Amaral, D D; Vieira, I C G; Salomão, R P; Almeida, S S; Jardim, M A G

    2012-05-01

    This study aims to identify the remnant tree flora in six forest fragments in the metropolitan area of Belém and to analyze these fragments in terms of biological conservation, species richness and diversity in the local urban landscape. The fragments and their respective sampling areas were as follows: Amafrutas reserve (15 ha), Trambioca Is. reserve (2 ha), Bosque Rodrigues Alves city park (15 ha), Combu Is. reserve (10 ha), Gunma Park reserve (10 ha) and Mocambo reserve (5 ha). Inventories were built from lineal plots of 250 m² and included trees with DBH equal to or greater than 10 cm at a height of 1.3 m above ground. Sixty-nine families and 759 species, of which eight were officially listed as endangered (Brazilian National Flora: Ministry of Environment, Normative Instruction of September, 2008; Pará State Flora: Decree Nº. 802 of February 2008) were recorded. These endangered species are: Aspidosperma desmanthum Benth. ex Müll. Arg. (Apocynaceae), Cedrela odorata L. (Meliaceae), Eschweilera piresii S.A Mori (Lecythidaceae), Euxylophora paraensis Huber (Rutaceae), Hymenolobium excelsum Ducke (Leguminosae), Manilkara huberi (Ducke) Chevalier (Sapotaceae), Tabebuia impetiginosa (Mart. ex DC.) Standl. (Bignoniaceae), Mezilaurus itauba (Meisn.) Taub. ex Mez (Lauraceae) and Qualea coerulea Aubl. (Vochysiaceae). Emergency actions such as implementing management plans for already existing Conservation Units, the creation of new such units in areas of primary forest fragments (as in the case of the Amafrutas reserve), as well as the intensification of actions of surveillance and monitoring, should be undertaken by Federal, State, and Municipal environmental agencies so as to ensure the conservation of these last primary forest remnants in the metropolitan area of Belém.

  3. Assessment of calcium status in soils of red spruce forests in the northeastern United States

    Treesearch

    Gergory B. Lawrence; Mark B. David; Scott W. Bailey; Walter C. Shortle

    1997-01-01

    Long term changes in concentrations of available Ca in soils of red spruce forests have been documented, but remaining questions about the magnitude and regional extent of these changes have precluded an assessment of the current and future status of soil Ca. To address this problem, soil samples were collected in 1992-93 from 12 sites in New York, Vermont, New...

  4. Status Epilepticus: Epidemiology and Public Health Needs

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, Sebastián; Rincon, Fred

    2016-01-01

    Status epilepticus (SE) is defined as a continuous clinical and/or electrographic seizure activity lasting five minutes or more or recurrent seizure activity without return to baseline. There is a paucity of epidemiological studies of SE, as most research is derived from small population studies. The overall incidence of SE is 9.9 to 41 per 100,000/year, with peaks in children and the elderly and with febrile seizures and strokes as its main etiologies. The etiology is the major determinant of mortality. Governments and the academic community should predominantly focus on the primary prevention of etiologies linked to SE, as these are the most important risk factors for its development. This review describes the incidence, prevalence, etiology, risk factors, outcomes and costs of SE and aims to identify future research and public health needs. PMID:27537921

  5. Long-run health consequences of air pollution: Evidence from Indonesia's forest fires of 1997.

    PubMed

    Kim, Younoh; Knowles, Scott; Manley, James; Radoias, Vlad

    2017-08-01

    While many studies in the medical literature documented causal relationships between air pollution and negative health outcomes immediately following exposure, much less is known about the long run health consequences of pollution exposure. Using the 1997 Indonesian forest fires as a natural experiment, we estimate the long term effects of air pollution on health outcomes. We take advantage of the longitudinal nature of the Indonesia Family Life Survey (IFLS), which collects detailed individual data on a multitude of health outcomes, in both 1997 and 2007. We find significant negative effects of pollution, which persist in the long run. Men and the elderly are impacted the most, while children seem to recover almost completely from these early shocks. For the entire population, an extra standard deviation in the pollution level increases the likelihood of a poor general health status by almost 3%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Status and changes of mangrove forest in Mekong Delta: Case study in Tra Vinh, Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thu, Phan Minh; Populus, Jacques

    2007-01-01

    Because shrimp culture in the Mekong Delta develops rapidly, it has negatively impacted the environment, socio-economics and natural resources. In particular, mangrove forests have been altered by the shrimp culture. The area of mangrove forests in the region has been reduced and this is seen especially in Tra Vinh province. The results obtained from GIS (Geography Information System) and RS (Remote Sensing) show the status of mangrove forests in Tra Vinh province in 1965, 1995 (Northeastern part of Tra Vinh Province) and 2001. In 1965, the area of mangrove forests was 21,221 ha making up 56% of total land-use, while in 2001 it was 12,797 ha making up 37% of total land-use. Also based on GIS analysis, over the 36 years (1965-2001), the total coverage of mangrove forests have decreased by 50% since 1965. However, the speed of mangrove forest destruction in the period from 1965 to 1995 was much less than that in the period from 1995 to 2001. The average annual reduction in mangrove forest coverage in the first period (1965-1995) was 0.2% whereas it was 13.1% in the later period (1995-2001). For the long time, mangrove deforestation has been caused by war, collection of firewood and clearing for agriculture, and recently, shrimp farming has significantly contributed rate of mangrove destruction.

  7. Human Health Impacts of Forest Fires in the Southern United States: A Literature Review

    Treesearch

    Cynthia T. Fowler

    2003-01-01

    Forestry management practices can shape patterns of health, illness, and disease. A primary goal for owners federal, state, andprivate forests is to crap ecosystem management plans that simultaneously optimize forest health and human health. Fire-a major forest management issue in the United States-complicates these goals. Wildfires are natural phenomena with...

  8. Evaluation of Forest Health Conditions using Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatfield, M. C.; Heutte, T. M.

    2016-12-01

    US Forest Service Alaska Region Forest Health Protection (FHP) and University of Alaska Fairbanks, Alaska Center for Unmanned Aircraft Systems Integration (ACUASI) are evaluating capability of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) to monitor forest health conditions in Alaska's Interior Region. In July 2016, the team deployed UAS at locations in the Tanana Valley near Fairbanks in order to familiarize FHP staff with capabilities of UAS for evaluating insect and disease damage. While many potential uses of UAS to evaluate and monitor forest health can be envisioned, this project focused on use of a small UAS for rapid assessment of insect and disease damage. Traditional ground-based methods are limited by distance from ground to canopy and inaccessibility of forest stands due to terrain conditions. Observation from fixed-wing aircraft provide a broad overview of conditions but are limited by minimum safe flying altitude (500' AGL) and aircraft speed ( 100 mph). UAS may provide a crucial bridge to fill in gaps between ground and airborne methods, and offer significant cost savings and greater flexibility over helicopter-based observations. Previous uses of UAS for forest health monitoring are limited - this project focuses on optimizing choice of vehicle, sensors, resolution and area scanned from different altitudes, and use of visual spectrum vs NIR image collection. The vehicle selected was the ACUASI Ptarmigan, a small hexacopter (based on DJI S800 airframe and 3DR autopilot) capable of carrying a 1.5 kg payload for 15 min for close-range environmental monitoring missions. Sites were chosen for conditions favorable to UAS operation and presence of forest insect and disease agents including spruce broom rust, aspen leaf miner, birch leaf roller, and willow leafblotch miner. A total of 29 flights were conducted with 9000+ images collected. Mission variables included camera height, UAS speed, and medium- (Sony NEX-7) vs low-resolution (GoPro Hero) cameras. Invaluable

  9. Health status measurement in Toxic Oil Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gómez de la Cámara, A; Posada de la Paz, M; Abaitua Borda, I; Barainca Oyagüe, M T; Abraira Santos, V; Ruiz-Navarro, M D; Terracini, B

    1998-10-01

    Toxic Oil Syndrome (TOS) is a previously unreported condition which affected more than 20,000 people in Spain in 1981 and whose natural history is unknown. In 1993-94, a stratified random sample of 1400 survivors was drawn to measure their health status through clinical examination and their self-perception of well-being through the Nottingham Health Profile Questionnaire (NHPQ). Two-thirds of the sample population responded; indirect estimates suggest that selection bias was limited. Clear and intermediate signs of neuropathy were found in one-fifth and one-half of the patients, respectively. One-fourth and one-sixth showed some degree of scleroderma and contractures. All conditions were more frequent in women than in men and in age >50 than in younger ages. Although no concurrent control group was included in the study, prevalences of these conditions are well above expectations and are largely attributable to TOS. NHPQ scores increased with age in both sexes up to age 50, after which they reached a plateau (with values around 48 in men and 62 in women). Scores were associated to the occurrence of peripheral neurological changes, contractures, and scleroderma-like conditions. A multivariate analysis indicated age, sex, and severity of neurological conditions as major determinants of the NHPQ scores. This overall pattern of findings is peculiar to TOS and differs from the typical post-disaster nonspecific syndrome.

  10. Perceived health status in urban minority young adolescents.

    PubMed

    Honig, Judy

    2002-01-01

    To describe perceptions of health status among a sample of urban minority adolescents and the contribution of demographics, intrinsic motivation, general self-efficacy, risk taking, and stressful life experiences on the adolescent's perception of health status. Correlational design. A total of 71 adolescents were studied using the Adolescent Health Chart for perceived health status, the Health Self-Determinism Index for Children, the Self-Efficacy Scale, the Risk Taking Instrument, and the Life Events Checklist. There were no statistically significant effects of demographics on perceived health status. Scores of Perceived Health Status correlated with scores of self-efficacy (r = 0.56; p <.0001), risk-taking (r = 0.39; p <.001), negative events (r = 0.32; p <.01) and violent events (r = -0.41; p <.001). The study findings suggest that self-efficacy, risk taking, and life events are predictive of perceived health status in urban minority adolescents. The results contribute to the present body of knowledge about patterns of adolescent health as perceived by the adolescent. In addition to expanding the understanding of the minority adolescent experience in relation to health promotion attributes and health compromising behaviors, the results identify antecedents that are predictive of improved perceived health status for the urban adolescent.

  11. Forest health through silviculture: Proceedings of the 1995 National Silviculture Workshop

    Treesearch

    Lane G. Eskew

    1995-01-01

    Includes 32 papers documenting presentations at the 1995 Forest Service National Silviculture Workshop. The workshop's purpose was to review, discuss, and share silvicultural research information and management experience critical to forest health on National Forest System lands and other Federal and private forest lands. Papers focus on the role of natural...

  12. The health status of women in Oaxaca: determinants and consequences.

    PubMed

    Winter, M; Morris, E W; Murphy, A D

    1993-12-01

    Survey data from a sample of 575 women from the city of Oaxaca de Juárez, Mexico, are analyzed to ascertain the effect of the receipt of job-related benefits, including health benefits, on the self-reported health status of women, their rating of the health of the members of their household, and their satisfaction with the health of the members of their household. Health status depends on the woman's age, her socioeconomic status, and the number of children she has borne. Her rating of the health of the members of her household is related to her age, her socioeconomic status, and her rating of her own health. Satisfaction with the physical health of the members of the household is a function her health, her rating of the health of her household, her age, her socioeconomic status and the number of children she has borne. The overall conclusion is that, in this study, it is socioeconomic and demographic factors that are important in determining the woman's health status, rather than the receipt of job-related benefits. That she reports good health is an important factor in her view of her family's health and her satisfaction with her own health and that of her family.

  13. Decoupling social status and status certainty effects on health in macaques: a network approach

    PubMed Central

    Hannibal, Darcy L.; Nathman, Amy C.; Capitanio, John P.; Hsieh, Fushing; Atwill, Edward R.; McCowan, Brenda

    2016-01-01

    Background Although a wealth of literature points to the importance of social factors on health, a detailed understanding of the complex interplay between social and biological systems is lacking. Social status is one aspect of social life that is made up of multiple structural (humans: income, education; animals: mating system, dominance rank) and relational components (perceived social status, dominance interactions). In a nonhuman primate model we use novel network techniques to decouple two components of social status, dominance rank (a commonly used measure of social status in animal models) and dominance certainty (the relative certainty vs. ambiguity of an individual’s status), allowing for a more complex examination of how social status impacts health. Methods Behavioral observations were conducted on three outdoor captive groups of rhesus macaques (N = 252 subjects). Subjects’ general physical health (diarrhea) was assessed twice weekly, and blood was drawn once to assess biomarkers of inflammation (interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and C-reactive protein (CRP)). Results Dominance rank alone did not fully account for the complex way that social status exerted its effect on health. Instead, dominance certainty modified the impact of rank on biomarkers of inflammation. Specifically, high-ranked animals with more ambiguous status relationships had higher levels of inflammation than low-ranked animals, whereas little effect of rank was seen for animals with more certain status relationships. The impact of status on physical health was more straightforward: individuals with more ambiguous status relationships had more frequent diarrhea; there was marginal evidence that high-ranked animals had less frequent diarrhea. Discussion Social status has a complex and multi-faceted impact on individual health. Our work suggests an important role of uncertainty in one’s social status in status-health research. This work also suggests that

  14. Phosphorus status of soils from contrasting forested ecosystems in southwestern Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achat, D. L.; Bakker, M. R.; Zeller, B.; Derrien, D.; Barsukov, P.; Nikitich, P.

    2011-12-01

    Phosphorus is one of the most limiting nutrients in many ecosystems and mineral reserves available for fertilizer production are forecasted to last for no more than 100 yrs. Crop requirements for P are often lower in forests than in agriculture and P fertilization to forest ecosystems is not very common on a global scale. In southern Siberia, expected climate change would lead to higher overall precipitation, higher temperatures and subsequently to changes in land use (i.e. agricultural land could increase on detriment of forests). In the present work we evaluated P status in four forested ecosystems in southwestern Siberia including 1 site with lowland Populus tremula, and 3 upland sites in the Salair mountains with Populus tremula, Abies siberica or with small forest openings. The upland sites feature twice higher productivity than the lowland sites and it was suggested that thick snow cover on those sites would enable winter activity of microbial communities leading to faster soil degradation processes and higher nutrient availability. We thus wanted to test whether biological processes in the upland sites were of larger impact on P status than in the lowland sites. We combined 32P isotopic dilution techniques (for diffusive P), chemical extractions (for total P, organic P) and fumigation/incubation/respiration methods (for microbial P) to test this hypothesis. Additional soil analyses (C, N and othes) were performed. Results will be interpreted in the light of the exising knowledge on botany, climate, pedology and expected implications for future land use, would this occur to change.

  15. Ozone bioindicators and forest health: a guide to the evaluation, analysis, and interpretation of the ozone injury data in the Forest Inventory and Analysis Program

    Treesearch

    Gretchen C. Smith; John W. Coulston; Barbara M. O' Connell

    2008-01-01

    In 1994, the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) and Forest Health Monitoring programs of the U.S. Forest Service implemented a national ozone (O3) biomonitoring program designed to address specific questions about the area and percent of forest land subject to levels of O3 pollution that may negatively affect the forest...

  16. Anxiety, Depression, and Functional Status Are the Best Predictors of Health Status Patients With Heart Failure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-10-04

    living alone), clinical (comorbidities, NYHA class, EF), health perception, and emotional (anxiety, depression , and hostility measured using the Brief... depression . Conclusions: Although emotional variables are not routinely assessed clinically, clearly they have a major impact on health status.

  17. National Forest Health Monitoring Program, Monitoring Urban Forests in Indiana: Pilot Study 2002, Part 2: Statewide Estimates Using the UFORE Model

    Treesearch

    David Nowak; Anne Buckelew Cumming; Daniel Twardus; Robert Hoehn; Manfred Mielke

    2007-01-01

    Trees in cities can improve environmental quality and human health. Unfortunately, little is known about the urban forest resource and what and how it contributes to local, regional, and national societies and economies. To better understand the urban forest resource and its value, the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Health Monitoring Program...

  18. Illicit drug abuse affects periodontal health status.

    PubMed

    Kayal, Rayyan A; Elias, Wael Y; Alharthi, Kholoud J; Demyati, Abrar K; Mandurah, Jumana M

    2014-07-01

    To determine periodontal health status among drug addicts in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Drug addiction recovery patients were recruited from Al-Amal Rehabilitation Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between October and December 2012. A questionnaire was used to determine socio-demographic data, oral hygiene measures, and previous drug abuse. Full periodontal charting was carried out including probing depth, recession, attachment loss, bleeding on probing, and plaque index. A total of 57 male patients participated in the study. Cannabis was the drug of choice of most (66.7%) of the subjects, followed by amphetamines (52.6%), alcohol (43.9%), heroin (35.1%), and 8.8% reported using cocaine. All participants had some form of periodontitis with moderate chronic periodontitis affecting 60% of the sample, while mild periodontitis affected 29.1%, and severe periodontitis affected 10.9% of the sample. Cocaine and heroin users showed higher mean clinical attachment loss compared with non-users (p<0.05). Pocket depths of 5-6 mm were found in more than half of the sample. Cocaine users had the highest percentage (80%) of pocket depths that ranged from 5-6 mm. Illicit drug use, especially heroin and cocaine, is associated with more severe forms of periodontitis.

  19. Oral health status in epileptic children.

    PubMed

    Gurbuz, Taskin; Tan, Huseyin

    2010-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the oral hygiene status and dental treatment requirements in children with epilepsy. The treatment group consisted of 211 children with epilepsy (120 boys and 91 girls, 4-15 years old, mean age 7.85 + or - 2.98 years). The control group consisted of healthy children, matched by age and gender. Clinical features of the patients were obtained from hospital records. Clinical examinations were conducted, under standard light, using a plane buccal mirror, a dental probe and air drying to evaluate caries experience and to record the periodontal health of each child. Statistical analysis was performed using chi(2) test, Fisher exact test and anova. The number of decayed and missing teeth, the degree of abrasion and periodontal indexes were significantly worse in patients with epilepsy, compared to the control group (P < 0.001). Gingival enlargement was documented in 42% of patients on valproate monotherapy compared to only in 16% of patients on phenobarbital. Dental caries and halitosis were the most common oral disorders. Generalized tonic-clonic seizures often cause minor oral injuries and traumatized anterior teeth. Epileptic children are at an increased risk of developing caries and gingivitis compared with healthy subjects.

  20. Minority Populations in Minnesota: A Health Status Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Dept. of Health, Minneapolis. Center for Health Statistics.

    The social, economic, and health status advances experienced by Minnesota's White population have eluded significant numbers of the State's Black and Indian populations. This report contains statistical data and analyses of the health status of minorities in Minnesota. The information is meant to contribute to an intensified effort to improve the…

  1. Vitamin D Status of College Students: Implications for Health Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cress, Eileen McKenna

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is considered to be a pandemic with implications for compromised bone health and other chronic diseases. Few studies have examined vitamin D status in college-aged individuals where prevention of future health consequences is still possible. Serum vitamin D 25(OH)D status and vitamin D intake were examined in 98 college…

  2. Vitamin D Status of College Students: Implications for Health Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cress, Eileen McKenna

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is considered to be a pandemic with implications for compromised bone health and other chronic diseases. Few studies have examined vitamin D status in college-aged individuals where prevention of future health consequences is still possible. Serum vitamin D 25(OH)D status and vitamin D intake were examined in 98 college…

  3. The effect of physician supply on health status: Canadian evidence.

    PubMed

    Piérard, Emmanuelle

    2014-10-01

    We estimate the relationship between per capita supply of physicians, both general practitioners and specialists, and health status of Canadians. We use data from the Canadian National Population Health Survey and the Canadian Institute for Health Information. Two measures of quality of life, self-assessed health status and the Health Utility Index, are explored. Random effects ordered probits are used to model self-assessed health status, and quantile regressions are used for the Health Utility Index. A higher supply of general practitioners is correlated with better health outcomes as measured by both measures of health status, albeit for different age groups, and it is correlated with a higher HUI for some individuals who report having a chronic condition. A higher supply of specialists is correlated with worse health outcomes for the HUI for some individuals. It is possible that a higher supply of general practitioners increases the likelihood of diagnosing and treating health conditions in a timely manner and that this in turn affects health status. Specialists, due to the nature of their expertise could affect negatively health, both through the use of riskier procedures and due to their clientele being in relatively worse health. Based on our findings, we therefore would recommend maintaining a robust supply and distribution of GPs across Canada.

  4. Assessing human health risk in the USDA forest service

    SciTech Connect

    Hamel, D.R.

    1990-12-31

    This paper identifies the kinds of risk assessments being done by or for the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service. Summaries of data sources currently in use and the pesticide risk assessments completed by the agency or its contractors are discussed. An overview is provided of the agency`s standard operating procedures for the conduct of toxicological, ecological, environmental fate, and human health risk assessments.

  5. Biomass and health based forest cover delineation using spectral un-mixing

    Treesearch

    Mohan Tiruveedhula; Joseph Fan; Ravi R. Sadasivuni; Surya S. Durbha; David L. Evans

    2009-01-01

    Remote sensing is a well-suited source of information on various forest characteristics such as forest cover type, leaf area, biomass, and health. The use of appropriate layers helps to quantify the variables of interest. For example, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and greenness help explain variability in biomass as well as health of forests....

  6. Forest health in the Blue Mountains: a management strategy for fire-adapted ecosystems.

    Treesearch

    R.W. Mutch; S.F. Arno; J.K. Brown; C.E. Carlson; R.D. Ottmar; J.L. Peterson

    1993-01-01

    The fire-adapted forests of the Blue Mountains are suffering from a forest health problem of catastrophic proportions. Contributing to the decline of forest health are such factors as the extensive harvesting of the western larch and ponderosa pine overstory during the 1900s, attempted exclusion of fire from a fire-dependent ecosystem, and the continuing drought. The...

  7. Preliminary results of spatial modeling of selected forest health variables in Georgia

    Treesearch

    Brock Stewart; Chris J. Cieszewski; Eric L. Smith

    2009-01-01

    Variables relating to forest health monitoring, such as mortality, are difficult to predict and model. We present here the results of fitting various spatial regression models to these variables. We interpolate plot-level values compiled from the Forest Inventory and Analysis National Information Management System (FIA-NIMS) data that are related to forest health....

  8. Forests

    Treesearch

    Louis R. Iverson; Mark W. Schwartz

    1994-01-01

    Originally diminished by development, forests are coming back: forest biomass is accumulating. Forests are repositories for many threatened species. Even with increased standing timber, however, biodiversity is threatened by increased forest fragmentation and by exotic species.

  9. Neighborhood socioeconomic status, depression, and health status in the Look AHEAD (Action for health in diabetes) study

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Depression and diminished health status are common in adults with diabetes, but few studies have investigated associations with socio-economic environment. The objective of this manuscript was to evaluate the relationship between neighborhood-level SES and health status and depression. Individual-le...

  10. Nutrient status and plant growth effects of forest soils in the Basin of Mexico

    Treesearch

    Mark E. Fenn; V.M. Perea-Estrada; L.I. de Bauer; M. Pérez-Suárez; D.R. Parker; V.M. Cetina-Alcalá

    2006-01-01

    The nutrient status of forest soils in the Mexico City Air Basin was evaluated by observing plant growth responses to fertilization with N, P or both nutrients combined. P deficiency was the most frequent condition for soil from two high pollution sites and N deficiency was greatest at a low N deposition site. Concentrations of Pb and Ni, and to a lesser extent Zn and...

  11. Susceptibility of forests in the northeastern USA to nitrogen and sulfur deposition: critical load exceedance and forest health

    Treesearch

    N. Duarte; L.H. Pardo; M.J. Robin-Abbott

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess susceptibility to acidification and nitrogen (N) saturation caused by atmospheric deposition to northeastern US forests, evaluate the benefits and shortcomings of making critical load assessments using regional data, and assess the relationship between expected risk (exceedance) and forest health. We calculated the critical...

  12. New options for health care policy and health status insurance: citizens as customers.

    PubMed

    Sass, Hans-Martin

    2003-10-01

    Health education and health literacy programs have implications on health care policy and health care status insurance. There are many benefits of a transition from disease management to a health care system, which includes priorities in prediction, prevention, and health education. Health care and disease management could best be implemented by multiple-tier, market-oriented models of universal coverage allowing for competition among health status insurers and educational, pharmaceutical, nursing, and other health service providers. Promotion of health literacy will allow citizens to become educated customers and consumers of health care services. Internationally, health literacy might narrow the gap between economically richer and poorer countries.

  13. Assessment of soil calcium status in red spruce forests in the northeastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lawrence, G.B.; David, M.B.; Bailey, S.W.; Shortle, W.C.

    1997-01-01

    Long-term changes in concentrations of available Ca in soils of red spruce forests have been documented, but remaining questions about the magnitude and regional extent of these changes have precluded an assessment of the current and future status of soil Ca. To address this problem, soil samples were collected in 1992-93 from 12 sites in New York, Vermont, New Hampshire, and Maine to provide additional data necessary to synthesize all available research results on soil Ca in red spruce forests. Sites were chosen to encompass the range of environmental conditions experienced by red spruce. Concentrations of exchangeable Ca ranged from 2.13 to 21.6 cmol(c) kg-1 in the Oa horizon, and from 0.11 to 0.68 cmol(c) kg-1 in the upper 10 cm of the B horizon. These measurements expanded the range of exchangeable Ca reported in the literature for both horizons in northeastern red spruce forests. Exchangeable Ca was the largest Ca fraction in the forest floor at most sites (92% of acid-extractable Ca), but mineral Ca was the largest fraction at the three sites that also had the highest mineral-matter concentrations. The primary factor causing variability in Ca concentrations among sites was the mineralogy of parent material, but exchangeable concentrations in the B horizon of all sites were probably reduced by acidic deposition. Because the majority of Ca in the forest floor is in a readily leachable form, and Ca inputs to the forest floor from the mineral soil and atmospheric deposition have been decreasing in recent decades, the previously documented decreases in Ca concentrations in the forest floor over previous decades may extend into the future.

  14. Health status and satisfaction with health care: a longitudinal study among patients served by the Veterans Health Administration.

    PubMed

    Ren, X S; Kazis, L; Lee, A; Rogers, W; Pendergrass, S

    2001-01-01

    As the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) places high priority on becoming a performance-based organization, there is an increasing need to quantify and refine its outcome measurement system. Using panel data from VHA ambulatory care patients (1996-1998), we conducted cross-lagged correlations and ordinary least squares regression to examine the relationship between 2 VHA health care values: health status and satisfaction with care. The study results indicated that patients' health status was significantly associated with their satisfaction with care, indicating that patients with better health status were more likely to be satisfied with health care. Although satisfaction with care was both a consequence and a determinant of health status, the effects of health status on satisfaction seemed to be more important than the effects of satisfaction on health status. More research is needed for a better understanding of the dynamic relationship between health status and satisfaction with care.

  15. Status of the Southern Carpathian forests in the long-term ecological research network

    Treesearch

    Ovidiu Badea; Andrzej Bytnerowicz; Diana Silaghi; Stefan Neagu; Ion Barbu; Carmen Iacoban; Corneliu Iacob; Gheorghe Guiman; Elena Preda; Ioan Seceleanu; Marian Oneata; Ion Dumitru; Viorela Huber; Horia Iuncu; Lucian Dinca; Stefan Leca; Ioan Taut

    2012-01-01

    Air pollution, bulk precipitation, throughfall, soil condition, foliar nutrients, as well as forest health and growth were studied in 2006–2009 in a long-term ecological research (LTER) network in the Bucegi Mountains, Romania. Ozone (O 3 ) was high indicating a potential for phytotoxicity. Ammonia (NH 3 ) concentrations rose to levels that could contribute to...

  16. Effects of Social Capital on General Health Status

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Ayano

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the concept of social capital as a potential factor in understanding the controversial relationship between income inequality and individual health status, arguing a positive, important role for social capital. Most of the health research literature focuses on individual health status and reveals that social capital increases individual health. However, the difficulty in measuring social capital, together with what may be the nearly impossible task of attributing causality, should relegate the concept to a more theoretical role in health research. Nonetheless, social capital receives academic attention as a potentially important factor in health research. This paper finds that the mixed results of empirical research on income inequality and health status remain a problem in the context of defining a stable relationship between socioeconomic status and health status. Clearly, further research is needed to elaborate on the income inequality and health relationship. In addition, focused, rigorous examination of social capital in a health context is needed before health researchers can comfortably introduce it as a concept of influence or significance. PMID:24762345

  17. Status of the Southern Carpathian forests in the long-term ecological research network.

    PubMed

    Badea, Ovidiu; Bytnerowicz, Andrzej; Silaghi, Diana; Neagu, Stefan; Barbu, Ion; Iacoban, Carmen; Iacob, Corneliu; Guiman, Gheorghe; Preda, Elena; Seceleanu, Ioan; Oneata, Marian; Dumitru, Ion; Huber, Viorela; Iuncu, Horia; Dinca, Lucian; Leca, Stefan; Taut, Ioan

    2012-12-01

    Air pollution, bulk precipitation, throughfall, soil condition, foliar nutrients, as well as forest health and growth were studied in 2006-2009 in a long-term ecological research (LTER) network in the Bucegi Mountains, Romania. Ozone (O(3)) was high indicating a potential for phytotoxicity. Ammonia (NH(3)) concentrations rose to levels that could contribute to deposition of nutritional nitrogen (N) and could affect biodiversity changes. Higher that 50% contribution of acidic rain (pH < 5.5) contributed to increased acidity of forest soils. Foliar N concentrations for Norway spruce (Picea abies), Silver fir (Abies alba), Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris), and European beech (Fagus sylvatica) were normal, phosphorus (P) was high, while those of potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), and especially of manganese (Mn) were significantly below the typical European or Carpathian region levels. The observed nutritional imbalance could have negative effects on forest trees. Health of forests was moderately affected, with damaged trees (crown defoliation >25%) higher than 30%. The observed crown damage was accompanied by the annual volume losses for the entire research forest area up to 25.4%. High diversity and evenness specific to the stand type's structures and local climate conditions were observed within the herbaceous layer, indicating that biodiversity of the vascular plant communities was not compromised.

  18. Effects of Health Status and Health Behaviors on Depression Among Married Female Immigrants in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung A; Yang, Sook Ja; Chee, Yeon Kyung; Kwon, Kyoung Ja; An, Jisook

    2015-06-01

    This study examined the effects of health status and health behaviors on depression in married female immigrants in South Korea. Sampling 316 immigrant women from the Philippines, Vietnam, China, and other Asian countries, a cross-sectional research design was used with self-report questionnaires that assessed sociodemographic characteristics, health status, health behaviors, and depression. There were significant differences in stillbirth experience, induced abortion, morbidity, perceived health status, meal skipping, and physical activity between depressed and nondepressed immigrant women. After adjusting for sociodemographic variables, stillbirth experience, poorer perceived health status, more meal skipping, and less physical activity were associated with greater depressive symptoms. Both health status and health behaviors had significant impacts on depression, suggesting that development of nursing interventions and educational programs should be targeted towards improving maternal health, healthy lifestyle, and subjective health perception to promote married female immigrants' psychological well-being. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Social status, glucocorticoids, immune function, and health: can animal studies help us understand human socioeconomic-status-related health disparities?

    PubMed

    Cavigelli, Sonia A; Chaudhry, Hashim S

    2012-08-01

    For humans in developed nations, socioeconomic status (SES)--relative income, education and occupational position in a society--is a strong predictor of morbidity and mortality rates, with increasing SES predicting longer life span (e.g. Marmot et al., 1991). Mechanisms underlying this relationship have been examined, but the relative role of each mechanism still remains unknown. By understanding the relative role of specific mechanisms that underlie dramatic health disparities between high and low social status individuals we can begin to identify effective, targeted methods to alleviate health disparities. In the current paper, we take advantage of a growing number of animal studies that have quantified biological health-related correlates (glucocorticoid production and immune function) of social status and compare these studies to the current literature on human SES and health to determine if and how animal studies can further our understanding of SES-associated human health disparities. Specifically, we compared social-status related glucocorticoid production and immune function in humans and animals. From the review, we show that our present understanding of the relationships between social status and glucocorticoid production/immune function is still growing, but that there are already identifiable parallels (and non-parallels) between humans and animals. We propose timely areas of future study focused on (1) specific aspects of social status that may influence stress-related physiology, (2) mechanisms underlying long-term influences of social status on physiology and health, and (3) intervention studies to alleviate potentially negative physiological correlates of social status.

  20. Bone Related Health Status in Adolescent Cyclists

    PubMed Central

    Olmedillas, Hugo; González-Agüero, Alejandro; Moreno, Luís A.; Casajús, José A.; Vicente-Rodríguez, Germán

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To describe bone status and analyse bone mass in adolescent cyclists. Methods Male road cyclists (n = 22) who had been training for a minimum of 2 years and a maximum of 7 years with a volume of 10 h/w, were compared to age-matched controls (n = 22) involved in recreational sports activities. Subjects were divided in 2 groups based on age: adolescents under 17 yrs (cyclists, n = 11; controls, n = 13) and over 17 yrs (cyclists, n = 11; controls, n = 9). Peak oxygen uptake (VO2max) was measured on a cycloergometer. Whole body, lumbar spine, and hip bone mineral content (BMC), density (BMD) and bone area were assessed using dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Volumetric BMD (vBMD) and bone mineral apparent density (BMAD) were also estimated. Results The BMC of cyclists was lower for the whole body, pelvis, femoral neck and legs; BMD for the pelvis, hip, legs and whole body and legs bone area was lower but higher in the hip area (all, P≤0.05) after adjusting by lean mass and height. The BMC of young cyclists was 10% lower in the leg and 8% higher in the hip area than young controls (P≤0.05). The BMC of cyclists over 17 yrs was 26.5%, 15.8% and 14.4% lower BMC at the pelvis, femoral neck and legs respectively while the BMD was 8.9% to 24.5% lower for the whole body, pelvis, total hip, trochanter, intertrochanter, femoral neck and legs and 17.1% lower the vBMD at the femoral neck (all P≤0.05). Grouped by age interaction was found in both pelvis and hip BMC and BMD and in femoral neck vBMD (all P≤0.05). Conclusion Cycling performed throughout adolescence may negatively affect bone health, then compromising the acquisition of peak bone mass. PMID:21980360

  1. Immigration, Generational Status and Health Literacy in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Edward; Omariba, D. Walter R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Immigrants, a fast-growing population in Canada, score below the national average in health literacy, but the reasons behind the low scores are largely unknown. Also, there is a need to understand the long-term impact of immigration by examining health literacy by generational status. Objective: To examine health literacy differentials…

  2. Immigration, Generational Status and Health Literacy in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Edward; Omariba, D. Walter R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Immigrants, a fast-growing population in Canada, score below the national average in health literacy, but the reasons behind the low scores are largely unknown. Also, there is a need to understand the long-term impact of immigration by examining health literacy by generational status. Objective: To examine health literacy differentials…

  3. Soil Quality as an Indicator of Forest Health: an Overview and Initial Results from the USFS Forest Inventory and Analysis Soil Indicator Program

    Treesearch

    Katherine O' Neill; Michael Amacher; Craig Palmer; Barbara Conkling; Greg C. Liknes

    2003-01-01

    The Montreal Process was formed in 1994 to develop an internationally agreed upon set of criteria and indicators for the conservation and sustainable management of temperate and boreal forests. In response to this effort, the USDA Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) and Forest Health Monitonhg (FHM) programs implemented a national soil monitoring program...

  4. Using the beta-binomial distribution to characterize forest health

    SciTech Connect

    Zarnoch, S.J.; Anderson, R.L.; Sheffield, R.M.

    1995-12-31

    The beta-binomial distribution is suggested as a model for describing and analyzing the dichotomous data obtained from programs monitoring the health of forests in the United States. Maximum likelihood estimation of the parameters is given as well as asymptotic likelihood ratio tests. The procedure is illustrated with data on dogwood anthracnose infection (caused by Discula destructiva) in the southeastern United States. The parameters estimates have important biological interpretation, and tests of hypotheses are more meaningful than traditional statistical analyses. The value of a modeling approach to dichotomous data analysis is emphasized.

  5. Multi-scale modeling of relationships between forest health and climatic factors

    Treesearch

    Michael K. Crosby; Zhaofei Fan; Xingang Fan; Martin A. Spetich; Theodor D. Leininger

    2015-01-01

    Forest health and mortality trends are impacted by changes in climate. These trends can vary by species, plot location, forest type, and/or ecoregion. To assess the variation among these groups, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) data were obtained for 10 states in the southeastern United States and combined with downscaled climate data from the Weather Research and...

  6. A Common-Pool Resource Approach to Forest Health: The Case of the Southern Pine Beetle

    Treesearch

    John Schelhas; Joseph Molnar

    2012-01-01

    The southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis, is a major threat to pine forest health in the South, and is expected to play an increasingly important role in the future of the South’s pine forests (Ward and Mistretta 2002). Once a forest stand is infected with southern pine beetle (SPB), elimination and isolation of the infested and immediately...

  7. A synthesis of evaluation monitoring projects by the forest health monitoring program (1998-2007)

    Treesearch

    William A. Bechtold; Michael J. Bohne; Barbara L. Conkling; Dana L. Friedman; Borys M. Tkacz

    2012-01-01

    The national Forest Health Monitoring Program of the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, has funded over 200 Evaluation Monitoring projects. Evaluation Monitoring is designed to verify and define the extent of deterioration in forest ecosystems where potential problems have been identified. This report is a synthesis of results from over 150 Evaluation...

  8. Health of Idaho's Forests: A Summary of conditions, issues and implications

    Treesearch

    David Atkins; James Byler; Ladd Livingston; Paul Rogers; Dayle Bennett

    1999-01-01

    The desire for lasting and healthy forests in which to live, work and play is something we all share - not only in Idaho but across our nation. In Idaho we have a number of forest health issues confronting us, our forest ecosystems are not as resilient as desired and the ability to sustain our communities is at risk.

  9. Managing ecosystems for forest health: An approach and the effects on uses and values

    Treesearch

    Chadwick D. Oliver; Dennis E. Ferguson; Alan E. Harvey; Herbert S. Malany; John M. Mandzak; Robert W. Mutch

    1994-01-01

    Forest health is most appropriately based on the scientific paradigm of dynamic, constantly changing forest ecosystems. Many forests in the Inland West now support high levels of insect infestations, disease epidemics, fire susceptibilities, and imbalances in stand structures and habitats because of natural processes and past management practices. Impending,...

  10. Mortality rates associated with crown health for eastern forest tree species

    Treesearch

    Randall S. Morin; KaDonna C. Randolph; Jim. Steinman

    2015-01-01

    The condition of tree crowns is an important indicator of tree and forest health. Crown conditions have been evaluated during inventories of the US Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program since 1999. In this study, remeasured data from 55,013 trees on 2616 FIA plots in the eastern USA were used to assess the probability of survival among various tree...

  11. Correlation of sense of coherence with oral health behaviors, socioeconomic status, and periodontal status

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Kommuri Sahithi; Doshi, Dolar; Kulkarni, Suhas; Reddy, Bandari Srikanth; Reddy, Madupu Padma

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The sense of coherence (SOC) has been suggested to be highly applicable concept in the public health area because a strong SOC is stated to decrease the likelihood of perceiving the social environment as stressful. This reduces the susceptibility to the health-damaging effect of chronic stress by lowering the likelihood of repeated negative emotions to stress perception. Materials and Methods: The demographic data and general information of subjects' oral health behaviors such as frequency of cleaning teeth, aids used to clean teeth, and dental attendance were recorded in the self-administered questionnaire. The SOC-related data were obtained using the short version of Antonovsky's SOC scale. The periodontal status was recorded based on the modified World Health Organization 1997 pro forma. Results: The total of 780 respondents comprising 269 (34.5%) males and 511 (65.5%) females participated in the study. A significant difference was noted among the subjects for socioeconomic status based on gender (P = 0.000). The healthy periodontal status (community periodontal index [CPI] code 0) was observed for 67 (24.9%) males and 118 (23.1%) females. The overall SOC showed statistically negative correlation with socioeconomic status scale (r = −0.287). The CPI and loss of attachment (periodontal status) were significantly and negatively correlated with SOC. Conclusion: The present study concluded that a high level of SOC was associated with good oral health behaviors, periodontal status, and socioeconomic status.

  12. Changing Population Health Policy: A Model for Identifying Health Needs and Recommendations to Improve Health Status.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Shawnda M

    2016-06-01

    In the spring of 2014, the North Dakota Center for Rural Health (CRH) was tasked with completing an objective assessment of the state oral health environment. This included an assessment of oral health status, review of workforce needs, evaluation of current oral health programs, and policy recommendations to ameliorate identified oral health needs. The report was prepared for the North Dakota Legislative Health Services Interim Committee. This article highlights a research method developed and employed to identify current population health status and policy recommendations through statewide collaboration, transparent process, and objective analyses, regardless of the health specialty of focus. Evidenced-based decision making in health policy requires more than presentation of data. It requires input from the population or community utilizing or struggling to gain access to the given health service. It is now understood that health services researchers must employ a variety of research methods, include end users in the research process, tailor presentation of the findings for the appropriate audience, and include the population of study in the research, allowing them to provide recommended solutions when possible. Although the effort to be described focused specifically on oral health in North Dakota, the methodologies used to answer the research questions could, and are encouraged to, be employed in other states with regard to other specialty health disciplines and population health studies. The study sought to answer 3 questions: (1) What is the population health need?; (2) What is already being done?; and (3) What are the recommendations to improve population health? (Population Health Management 2016;19:216-223).

  13. Health Inequalities Policy in Korea: Current Status and Future Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang-il

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, health inequalities have become an important public health concern and the subject of both research and policy attention in Korea. Government reports, as well as many epidemiological studies, have provided evidence that a wide range of health outcomes and health-related behaviors are socioeconomically patterned, and that the magnitude of health inequalities is even increasing. However, except for the revised Health Plan 2010 targets for health equity, few government policies have explicitly addressed health inequalities. Although a number of economic and social policies may have had an impact on health inequalities, such impact has scarcely been evaluated. In this review, we describe the current status of research and policy on health inequalities in Korea. We also suggest future challenges of approaches and policies to reduce health inequalities and highlight the active and intensive engagement of many policy sectors and good evidence for interventions that will make meaningful reduction of health inequalities possible. PMID:22661869

  14. Health inequalities policy in Korea: current status and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Khang, Young-Ho; Lee, Sang-il

    2012-05-01

    In recent years, health inequalities have become an important public health concern and the subject of both research and policy attention in Korea. Government reports, as well as many epidemiological studies, have provided evidence that a wide range of health outcomes and health-related behaviors are socioeconomically patterned, and that the magnitude of health inequalities is even increasing. However, except for the revised Health Plan 2010 targets for health equity, few government policies have explicitly addressed health inequalities. Although a number of economic and social policies may have had an impact on health inequalities, such impact has scarcely been evaluated. In this review, we describe the current status of research and policy on health inequalities in Korea. We also suggest future challenges of approaches and policies to reduce health inequalities and highlight the active and intensive engagement of many policy sectors and good evidence for interventions that will make meaningful reduction of health inequalities possible.

  15. Quantifying spatial patterns in the Yakama Nation Tribal Forest and Okanogan-Wenatchee National Forest to assess forest health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilder, T. F.

    2013-05-01

    Over the past century western United States have experienced drastic anthropogenic land use change from practices such as agriculture, fire exclusion, and timber harvesting. These changes have complex social, cultural, economic, and ecological interactions and consequences. This research studied landscapes patterns of watersheds with similar LANDFIRE potential vegetation in the Southern Washington Cascades physiographic province, within the Yakama Nation Tribal Forest (YTF) and Okanogan-Wenatchee National Forest, Naches Ranger District (NRD). In the selected watersheds, vegetation-mapping units were delineated and populated based on physiognomy of homogeneous areas of vegetative composition and structure using high-resolution aerial photos. Cover types and structural classes were derived from the raw, photo-interpreted vegetation attributes for individual vegetation mapping units and served as individual and composite response variables to quantify and assess spatial patterns and forest health conditions between the two ownerships. Structural classes in both the NRD and YTF were spatially clustered (Z-score 3.1, p-value 0.01; Z-score 2.3, p-value 0.02, respectively), however, ownership and logging type both explained a significant amount of variance in structural class composition. Based on FRAGSTATS landscape metrics, structural classes in the NRD displayed greater clustering and fragmentation with lower interspersion relative to the YTF. The NRD landscape was comprised of 47.4% understory reinitiation structural class type and associated high FRAGASTAT class metrics demonstrated high aggregation with moderate interspersion. Stem exclusion open canopy displayed the greatest dispersal of structural class types throughout the NRD, but adjacencies were correlated to other class types. In the YTF, stem exclusion open canopy comprised 37.7% of the landscape and displayed a high degree of aggregation and interspersion about clusters throughout the YTF. Composite cover

  16. Nutrient status and plant growth effects of forest soils in the Basin of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Fenn, M E; Perea-Estrada, V M; de Bauer, L I; Pérez-Suárez, M; Parker, D R; Cetina-Alcalá, V M

    2006-03-01

    The nutrient status of forest soils in the Mexico City Air Basin was evaluated by observing plant growth responses to fertilization with N, P or both nutrients combined. P deficiency was the most frequent condition for soil from two high pollution sites and N deficiency was greatest at a low N deposition site. Concentrations of Pb and Ni, and to a lesser extent Zn and Co, were higher at the high pollution sites. However, positive plant growth responses to P and sometimes to N, and results of wheat root elongation bioassays, suggest that heavy metal concentrations were not directly phytotoxic. Further studies are needed to determine if heavy metal toxicity to mycorrhizal symbionts of eucalyptus (Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh.) from high pollution sites may explain the P deficiency and stunted growth. P deficiency is expected to limit the capacity for biotic N retention in N saturated forested watersheds in the Basin of Mexico dominated by Andisols.

  17. The Association Between Perceived Health Status and Health Information Communication Channels.

    PubMed

    Bounsanga, Jerry; Voss, Maren Wright; Crum, Anthony Bryan; Hung, Man

    2016-11-01

    Varying types of health information sources may influence health outcomes, but not much is known about their impact. The purpose of our study was to explore the association between health information sources and individuals' health status. A total of 14,966 participants who responded to the Annenberg National Health Communication Survey between 2005 and 2012 were included. Controlling for demographics, comorbidities, communication patterns, and socioeconomic status, we utilized regression analysis to examine the relationship between sources of health information and perceived health status. Included in the study were a total of 8,103 females and 6,863 males between 18 and 101 years old (M = 49.14, SD = 16.13). Health information from the Internet and pharmaceutical companies was significantly associated with better health status (p < .05), whereas information from social media, health care apps, news outlets, and health care companies was not. Information from the Internet was significantly associated with better health status, suggesting that health information from the Internet may have benefits. However, use of social media and health care apps did not relate to better health status, which may indicate that these sources are not as useful to consumers or that these sources have not yet saturated the health information marketplace.

  18. The third world health status of black American males.

    PubMed Central

    Gadson, Sandra L.

    2006-01-01

    In contrast to their white counterparts, black men in the United States live sicker and die younger. This longstanding phenomenon is sharply reflected in the poor international health status of black males. The NMA president discusses major health issues facing black males and posits a multidimensional strategy for addressing racial disparities in men's health, with a national focus on health promotion and disease prevention, improving healthcare quality and access, and eliminating structural inequities. PMID:16623060

  19. Nutritional status according to Mini Nutritional Assessment is related to functional status in geriatric patients--independent of health status.

    PubMed

    Schrader, E; Baumgärtel, C; Gueldenzoph, H; Stehle, P; Uter, W; Sieber, C C; Volkert, D

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between nutritional and functional status in acute geriatric patients including mobility and considering health status. Cross-sectional study. Hospital. 205 geriatric patients (median age 82.0 (IQR: 80-86) years, 69.3% women). Nutritional status was determined by Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) and patients were categorized as well-nourished (≥ 24 points), at risk of malnutrition (17-23.5 points) or as malnourished (< 17 points). Functional status was determined by Barthel Index (BI) and Timed 'Up and Go' Test (TUG) and related to MNA categories. Using binary multiple logistic regression the impact of nutritional status on functional status was examined, adjusted for health status. 60.3% of the patients were at risk of malnutrition and 29.8% were malnourished. Ability to perform basic activities of daily living (ADL) decreased with declining nutritional status. The proportion of patients unable to perform the TUG increased with worsening of nutritional status (45.0% vs. 50.4% vs. 77.0%, p<0.01). After adjusting for age, gender, number of diagnoses, disease severity and cognitive function, a higher MNA score significantly lowered the risk of being dependent in ADL (OR 0.85, 95 % CI 0.77-0.94) and inability to perform the TUG (OR 0.90, 95 % CI 0.82-0.99). Nutritional status according to MNA was related to ADL as well as to mobility in acute geriatric patients. This association remained after adjusting for health status.

  20. Employment status and perceived health status in younger and older people with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Krokavcova, Martina; Nagyova, Iveta; Rosenberger, Jaroslav; Gavelova, Miriam; Middel, Berrie; Gdovinova, Zuzana; Groothoff, Johan W; van Dijk, Jitse P

    2012-03-01

    This study explores how employment is associated with perceived physical and mental health status in people with multiple sclerosis (MS) adjusted for sociodemographic and clinical variables stratified by age. The sample consisted of 184 MS patients divided into a younger (<45 years) and an older (≥45 years) age group. Respondents underwent an interview, a neurological examination on disability [Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS)], and completed the Short Form-36 Health Survey. Of the respondents (mean age 40.5±6.2 years), 43.5% were employed. Significant differences between younger and older patients were found in employment, EDSS, disease duration, and five Short Form-36 Health Survey dimensions. Block-step multiple regression explained 32.4% of the variance in physical health and 14.5% in mental health in the younger group. Being employed was significantly related to good physical health, whereas EDSS diminished the effect of being employed on physical health. The most important variable for mental health was employment status in the younger group. For the older age group, 19.1% of the variance in physical health and 14.0% of the variance in mental health was explained by the studied variables. Male gender and a lower EDSS were significant explanatory variables of better physical health. Male gender significantly explained mental health in the older age group. In conclusion, employment status was an explanatory variable for physical health and mental health in the younger patients. EDSS played a significant role in physical health for all patients. A vocational rehabilitation program could prevent eventual nonemployment and improve health outcomes in older MS people.

  1. The health effects of jobs: status, working conditions, or both?

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Rennie M; Strazdins, Lyndall; Clements, Mark S; Broom, Dorothy H; Parslow, Ruth; Rodgers, Bryan

    2005-06-01

    This study investigates whether the association of job strain and insecurity with health differs by status. A cross-sectional study of 2,249 employed workers aged 40-44 years conducted in two regions in south-east Australia in 2000 used a self-completed questionnaire to collect data. Multivariate analyses were used to compare depression, anxiety, physical health and general practitioner (GP) visits over 12 months across categories of job strain and insecurity for three status groups (high, middle and low). High job strain and job insecurity were independently associated with poor mental health, poor physical health and visits to the GP for all status groups when adjusted for confounders. High job strain was associated with depression (OR = 2.46, 95% CI 1.96-3.07), anxiety (OR = 2.56, 95% Cl 2.05-3.20), lower mean physical health scores (-1.11, 95% CI -1.98 - -0.23), and more visits to the GP (IRR = 1.20, 95% CI 1.05-1.37). High job insecurity also showed significant associations with depression (OR = 3.03, 95% Cl 2.03-4.53), anxiety (OR = 2.66, 95% CI 1.81-3.91), and GP visits (IRR = 1.27, 95% CI 1.01-1.60). There were no significant differences by status in the associations of job strain and insecurity with outcomes. High-status workers were just as likely as low-status workers to be exposed to adverse work conditions and both status groups showed similar health effects. Exposure to insecure and high-strain jobs is likely to rise as economies and labour markets respond to globalisation and political change. High status may not protect employees from either exposure or impact, thus widening the population health consequences of adverse work conditions.

  2. Perceived health status and daily activity participation of older Malaysians.

    PubMed

    Ng, Sor Tho; Tengku-Aizan, Hamid; Tey, Nai Peng

    2011-07-01

    This article investigates the influence of perceived health status on the daily activity participation of older Malaysians. Data from the Survey on Perceptions of Needs and Problems of the Elderly, which was conducted in 1999, were used. The negative binomial regression results show that older persons with good perceived health status reported more varieties of daily activity participation, especially among the uneducated and those with below-average self-esteem. The multinomial logistic regression model suggests that older persons with good perceived health status tended to engage daily in paid work only or with leisure activities, whereas those perceived to have poor health were more likely to engage in leisure activities only or leisure and family role activities. Promotion of a healthy lifestyle at a younger age encourages every person to monitor and take responsibility for their own health, which is a necessary strategy to ensure active participation at an older age, and thus improve their well-being.

  3. Perception of weight and health status among women working at health centres of Tehran.

    PubMed

    Dorosty, Ahmad Reza; Mehdikhani, Sepideh; Sotoudeh, Gity; Rahimi, Abbas; Koohdani, Fariba; Tehrani, Parastoo

    2014-03-01

    Perception of body-weight status is an important determinant of weight-related behaviours and may affect the burden of weight disturbances as a public-health problem. No study has assessed self-perception of the weight status regarding body-fat distribution among health workers to date. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of the perception of weight and health status among 542 women working at health centres of Tehran. We assessed their perceived body-weight and health status and measured waist- and hip-circumference, weight, and height to calculate waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) as a measure of fat distribution and body mass index (BMI, kg/m2). Women reported their sociodemographic information, and the perceived weight and health status were compared with their actual fatness status, defined based on WHR and BMI, to determine misperception of weight status. Multivariate logistic regression models were performed to assess the predictive effects of various sociodemographic factors and actual fatness on the perception of weight and health status. The results showed that more than 40% of women with normal BMI overestimated their body-weight status while only 15.8% of these women had central obesity. BMI was the most important variable associated with misperceived weight status as normal-weight women had significantly more misperception (OR 8.16, 95% CI 4.82-13.82) than overweight/obese women. WHR did not show any significant relationships with perceived weight status. In addition, perception of health status was not associated with actual fatness indices. It is concluded, BMI was the main predictor of the perception of weight status in female employees. The importance of using body-fat distribution in the perceptions of weight and health status should be emphasized.

  4. Hybrid poplar plantations are suitable habitat for reintroduced forest herbs with conservation status.

    PubMed

    Boothroyd-Roberts, Kathleen; Gagnon, Daniel; Truax, Benoit

    2013-01-01

    Plantations of fast-growing tree species may be of use in conservation by accelerating the restoration of forest habitat on abandoned farmland and increasing connectivity in fragmented landscapes. The objective of this study was to determine if hybrid poplar plantations can be suitable habitats for the reintroduction of native forest plant species and, if so, which abiotic factors predict successful reintroduction. Four species of forest herb species (Trillium grandiflorum, Sanguinaria canadensis, Maianthemum racemosum, Asarum canadense), of which three have legal conservation status, were transplanted into experimental plantations of two hybrid poplar clones and nearby second-growth woodlots at six sites in southern Quebec, Canada. The transplanted individuals were protected from deer browsing with exclusion cages. After two years, the plant responses of all four species were stable or increased over two years in both types of hybrid poplar plantations. Sanguinaria showed a better response in the plantations than in the woodlots, preferring the rich post-agricultural soils of the plantations with low C:N ratios. Asarum and Maianthemum showed no significant difference between stand types, while Trillium grew better in the woodlots than in the plantations. Much of the variability in the response of the latter three species was unexplained by the measured environmental variables. These results suggest that certain forest herb species can be reintroduced as juvenile plants into plantations, knowing that their spontaneous recolonization is often limited by dispersal and/or seedling establishment. Plantations could also contribute to the conservation of biodiversity by providing an environment for the cultivation of forest herb species as an alternative to their destructive harvest from natural populations.

  5. Calcium oxalate contribution to calcium cycling in forests of contrasting nutrient status

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dauer, Jenny M.; Perakis, Steven S.

    2014-01-01

    Calcium oxalate (Ca oxalate) is an insoluble biomineral that forms in plants and fungi, and occurs in soils across many types of ecosystems. Assessing how Ca oxalate may shape ecosystem Ca cycling requires information on the distribution of Ca oxalate among plant biomass, detritus, and mineral soil, and how it varies with ecosystem Ca status. We compared two Douglas-fir forests of contrasting ecosystem Ca availability, and found that Ca oxalate was partitioned similarly among plant biomass, detritus and mineral soil major ecosystem compartments at both sites, and total pools of Ca oxalate were greater in the high-Ca forest. However, the proportional importance of Ca oxalate was greater in the low-Ca than high-Ca forest (18% versus 4% of actively cycling ecosystem Ca, respectively). And calcium oxalate in mineral soil, which is of particular interest as a potential long-term Ca reservoir, was a larger portion of total available Ca (exchangeable Ca plus Ca oxalate Ca) in the low-Ca site than the high-Ca site (9% versus 1% of available soil Ca, respectively). Calcium oxalate was the dominant form of Ca returned from plants to soil as leaf litterfall at the high-Ca site, yet calcium oxalate disappeared rapidly from decomposing litter (0.28 yr−1 or faster) at both sites. We conclude that accumulation of Ca oxalate in forest ecosystems appears most closely related to overall Ca supply for live biomass pools, and that the accumulation of Ca oxalate in forest floor and mineral soil is limited by rapid microbial degradation of putatively unavailable Ca oxalate.

  6. Gender differences in the relationship between housing, socioeconomic status, and self-reported health status.

    PubMed

    Dunn, James R; Walker, Jennifer D; Graham, Jennifer; Weiss, Christina B

    2004-01-01

    This study investigates gender differences in housing, socioeconomic status, and self-reported health status. The analysis focuses on the social and economic dimensions of housing, such as demand, control, material aspects (affordability, type of dwelling) and meaningful aspects (pride in dwelling, home as a refuge) of everyday life in the domestic environment. A random sample, cross-sectional telephone survey was administered in the city of Vancouver, Canada in June 1999 (n = 650). Survey items included measures of material and meaningful dimensions of housing, housing satisfaction, and standard measures of socioeconomic status and social support. The main outcome measure was self-reported health (excellent/very good/good vs. fair/poor). A three-stage analysis provides an overall picture of the sample characteristics for male and female respondents, detects significant relations between individual and housing characteristics and self-rated health status, and investigates male-female differences in the factors associated with fair/poor self-rated health. In multivariate analyses, a small number of socioeconomic dimensions of housing were associated with self-rated health status for women. For men, only one attribute of housing was associated with self-rated health: crowding was positively related to poor health, contradicting expectations and the findings for women. The self-reported strain of housework was unrelated to self-rated health for men, but strongly related to poor health for women. For men and women, satisfaction with social activities increased the likelihood of reporting better health. Future research should focus on the health effects of gendered differences in domestic and paid work, and on home and family roles and the interaction among gender, household crowding, and health.

  7. Health status and related factors in farmers by SF-12.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyungeun; Roh, Sooyong; Lee, Jihoon; Kwon, Soon Chan; Jeong, Mihye; Lee, Soo-Jin

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to understand farmers' health status by general characteristic, and to find out the related factors. All the 984 subjects were interviewed by means of a structured questionnaire and SF-12. Among them, only 812 were eligible for analysis. Statistical methods used included frequency, t-test, ANOVA, binary logistic regression with SPSS 19.0. In binary logistic regression, marital status, smoking, regular exercise and monthly day off were associated with physical component score. Marital status, smoking and score of pesticide protective device wearing were associated with mental component score. This study suggests that effort to develop health promotion programs for workers of agricultural industry considering these results can improve their perceived health status.

  8. Relationship between Health Literacy, Health-Related Behaviors and Health Status: A Survey of Elderly Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yong-Bing; Liu, Liu; Li, Yan-Fei; Chen, Yan-Li

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite the large volume of research dedicated to health-related behavior change, chronic disease costs continue to rise, thus creating a major public health burden. Health literacy, the ability to seek, understand, and utilize health information, has been identified as an important factor in the course of chronic conditions. Little research has been conducted on the relationship between health literacy and health-related behaviors and health status in elderly Chinese. The aim of this study was to elucidate the relationship between health literacy and health-related behaviors and health status in China. Methods: The subjects enrolled in this study were selected based on a stratified cluster random sampling design. Information involving >4500 older adults in 44 pension institutions in Urumqi, Changji, Karamay, and Shihezi of Xinjiang between September 2011 and June 2012 was collected. The Chinese Citizen Health Literacy Questionnaire (China Health Education Centre, 2008) and a Scale of the General Status were administered and the information was obtained through face-to-face inquiries by investigators. A total of 1452 respondents met the inclusion criteria. A total of 1452 questionnaires were issued and the valid response rate was 96.14% (1396 of 1452). Factors affecting health literacy and the relationship to health literacy were identified by one-way ANOVA and a multiple linear regression model. Results: The average health literacy level of the elderly in nursing homes was relatively low (71.74 ± 28.35 points). There were significant differences in the health literacy score among the factors of age, gender, race, education level, household income, marital conditions, and former occupation (p < 0.001). The health literacy score was significantly associated with smoking, drinking, physical exercise, and health examination (p < 0.001). The elderly with higher health literacy scores were significantly less likely to have risky behaviors (smoking, regular

  9. Using Community Health Assessment to Teach and Explore Health Status Disparities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Marianne; Levine, Jack

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Community health assessment (CHA) is a useful tool for identifying health status disparities at the community level. Developing the skills of master's level public health students to conduct CHA addresses a number of the Association of Schools of Public Health Core competencies for graduate public health education. Teaching…

  10. Adolescents' Health Status: Sex Differences Among Whites and Nonwhites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landsberger, Betty H.

    The purpose of this study was to determine differences in health status between the sexes in both white and nonwhite adolescents. Data from the 1969 Health Examination Survey's large sample of 12- to 17-year-olds were used to build a group of scales (Exam, Home and Youth Scales). The information obtained from each scale was combined to produce a…

  11. First molar health status in different craniofacial relationships

    PubMed Central

    Linjawi, Amal I

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association between the health status of permanent first molars and different craniofacial relationships among adolescents. Study design This is a retrospective study on patients’ records aged 11–15 years. Sex, skeletal relationship, vertical growth pattern, malocclusion, overjet, and overbite were assessed. The health status of permanent first molars was recorded from the orthopantomograms and intraoral photographs as “sound” and “not sound”. Chi-square, Mann–Whitney U and Kruskal–Wallis tests, and Pearson’s correlation coefficient were used to analyze and correlate the assessed variables. Significance level was set at P<0.05. Results A total of 210 records were evaluated; 81 were male, 68 had Class I and 91 had Class II skeletal relationships. More than half of the subjects had normal (n=67) to moderate deep bite (n=72); normal (n=91), moderately increased (n=54), to severely increased (n=50) overjet; and Class I (n=106) and Class II division 1 (n=75) malocclusion. Significant differences were found in the health status of the permanent first molars with respect to sex (P=0.034), vertical growth pattern (P=0.01), and overbite (P=0.047). Strong correlations were only found between the health status of the permanent first molars and the following variables: sex (P=0.036) and vertical growth pattern (P=0.004). Significant correlation was further found between the upper left first molar health status and sex (P=0.019) and the lower right first molar health status and the vertical growth pattern (P=0.001). No significant association was found with the anteroposterior craniofacial relationships (P>0.05). Conclusion Sex difference and vertical growth patterns were found to be potential predictors of the health status of the permanent first molars. No significant association was found with the anteroposterior craniofacial relationships. PMID:27462176

  12. The Forest Health Initiative, American chestnut (Castanea dentata) as a model for forest tree restoration: Biological Research Program

    Treesearch

    C. Dana Nelson; W.A. Powell; C.A. Maynard; K.M. Baier; A. Newhouse; S.A. Merkle; C.J. Nairn; L. Kong; J.E. Carlson; C. Addo-Quaye; M.E. Staton; F.V. Hebard; L.L. Georgi; A.G. Abbott; B.A. Olukolu; T. Zhebentyayeva

    2013-01-01

    The Forest Health Initiative (FHI) was developed and implemented to test the hypothesis that a coordinated effort in biotechnology research could lead to resistant trees capable of restoring a species in a relevant time frame. As a test case, the American chestnut (Castanea dentata) was chosen for study as it is an iconic forest tree species in the eastern United...

  13. Association between oral health status and nutritional status in south Brazilian independent-living older people.

    PubMed

    De Marchi, Renato José; Hugo, Fernando Neves; Hilgert, Juliana Balbinot; Padilha, Dalva Maria Pereira

    2008-06-01

    Evidence suggests that older people with partial tooth loss and edentulism change their diet and lack specific nutrients, but few studies have assessed whether poor oral status is associated with risk of malnutrition and malnutrition in independent-living older people. We evaluated if poor oral status was associated with risk of malnutrition and malnutrition in this population. A random sample of 471 south Brazilians > or =60 y of age was evaluated. Measurements included a questionnaire to assess sociodemographic, behavioral, general, and oral health data; nutritional status assessment, according to the Mini-Nutritional Assessment (MNA); and oral status assessment, by means of oral examinations assessing the number of teeth and use of dental prostheses. Correlates of risk of malnutrition/malnutrition according to the MNA were assessed by means of multivariate logistic regression. Participants who reported dissatisfaction with their gingival health and edentulous persons wearing only one denture were more likely to be at risk of malnutrition, according to the screening MNA. Dissatisfaction with gingival health was a risk indicator, whereas having one to eight natural teeth was protective against the risk of malnutrition/malnutrition according to the full MNA. In the present study, older people with a compromised oral status had higher odds for risk of malnutrition. The maintenance of a few teeth had a crucial role in increasing the chance of maintaining an adequate nutritional status in the studied population. In cases where edentulism was present, complete dental prosthetic use was associated with better nutritional status.

  14. Health status of migrant farmworkers: a literature review and commentary.

    PubMed Central

    Rust, G S

    1990-01-01

    I made a computerized search of MEDLINE files from 1966 through October 1989 followed by a review of this literature. Four hundred eighty-five articles were scanned; 152 were found specifically related to migrant families, while another 51 articles addressed the health of agricultural workers or farmers in general. Solid data exist on dental health, nutrition and, to a lesser extent, childhood health. Data also were prominent in several disease categories including certain infectious diseases, pesticide exposures, occupational dermatoses, and lead levels in children. Estimates of the size of the migrant and seasonal farmworker population vary widely. Basic health status indicators such as age-related death rates are unknown. Prevalence rates of the most common cause of death in the United States have yet to be studied. More research is needed into the health problems and health status of migrant and seasonal farmworker families. PMID:2205116

  15. [Work environment and health status of agricultural aviation personnel].

    PubMed

    Marks, E; Karpińska, B; Swiecicki, W

    1983-01-01

    The morbidity rate and present health status of flying agricultural aviation personnel under health care of the Main Military Medical Committee for aviation workers were analysed and compared with another group of helicopter pilots. A detailed clinical examination of 77 "Agro" pilots indicated more trauma cases than idiopathic diseases cases, some of those trauma cases were due to professional work. Analysis of the present health status indicated the predominance of pilots with just one health disturbance, pilots with no health disturbances taking the second position in the comparison. The health deviations did not differ from those in other populations, as classified by pilots' age. On the other hand, their percentage was higher than in helicopters pilots control group. Average age of "Agro" pilots was relatively high and number of hours spent in air considerable, too.

  16. [Improvement of the health care delivery system in war-time: monitoring of servicemen's health status].

    PubMed

    tiurin, M V; sokhranov, M V; Ivchenko, E V; Tsygan, V N; golitsyn, V M; Sil'nitskiĭ, A N; Sokolov, V P; Barsukov, A B

    2014-01-01

    Authors came to conclusion that the constant monitoring of servicemen's health status allows the commanding officer to receive detailed information about combat effectiveness. In case of battle injury or trauma the information used by the medical service will be the base for early health care delivery and organization of evacuation. The information about health status of injured may be used as a base for diagnosis at all stages of evacuation. Authors came to conclusion that individual monitoring of health status will help to further health care delivery system and first stages of medical evacuation.

  17. Respiratory health status of gilsonite workers.

    PubMed

    Keimig, D G; Castellan, R M; Kullman, G J; Kinsley, K B

    1987-01-01

    Gilsonite, a solidified hydrocarbon used in the manufacture of automotive body seam sealers, is mined only in the Uinta Basin of Eastern Utah and Western Colorado. Health effects of gilsonite dust exposure have not previously been published and exposure to gilsonite dust is not regulated. To examine potential respiratory health effects associated with gilsonite dust exposures, this cross-sectional study surveyed the 100 current male employees who had been exposed to gilsonite dust at 3 existing gilsonite companies. Total dust exposures up to 28 times the nuisance dust standard were found, and 5 of 99 (5%) workers had chest radiographs consistent with pneumoconiosis of low profusion. Increased prevalences of cough and phlegm were found in workers with high-exposure jobs, but no evidence for dust-related pulmonary function impairment was noted. To prevent pulmonary health effects, we recommend reducing dust exposures for those workers in jobs currently characterized by relatively high dust exposures.

  18. Status and trends of native birds in the Keauhou and Kilauea forest, Hawai`i Island.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Camp, Richard J.; Jacobi, James D.; Pratt, Thane K.; Gorresen, P. Marcos; Rubenstein, Tanya

    2010-01-01

    A Safe Harbor Agreement (SHA) is a voluntary arrangement between the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and non-Federal landowners to promote the protection, conservation, and recovery of listed species without imposing further land use restrictions on the landowners. Kamehameha Schools is considering entering into a SHA for their Keauhou and Kīlauea Forest lands on the island of Hawai′i. Bird surveys were conducted in 2008 to determine the current occurrence and density of listed species for the Keauhou and Kīlauea Forest, a prerequisite for establishing an agreement. Because of different management practices in the proposed SHA area we stratified the survey data into intact and altered forest strata. The listed passerines—′Akiapōlā′au (Hemignathus munroi), Hawai′i Creeper (Oreomystis mana), and Hawai′i ′Ākepa (Loxops coccineus)—occur in both strata but at low densities. The endangered ′Io (Hawaiian Hawk; Buteo solitarius) also occurs within both strata at low densities. This report was prepared for the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and Kamehameha Schools to provide information they can use to establish baseline levels for the SHA. In addition, we describe the status and trends of the non-listed native birds.

  19. The health status of women in the world-system.

    PubMed

    Dyches, H; Rushing, B

    1993-01-01

    The health status of women is examined within the context of a global political economy. The authors present a beginning attempt to model some key macrolevel processes linked to the health of women. In particular, a structural modeling technique known as LVPLS (or "soft modeling") is used to empirically test one recent formulation of world-system theory. The findings give added emphasis to the importance of the larger economic forces that affect women's health.

  20. A literal use of "forest health" safeguards against misuse and misapplication

    Treesearch

    Kenneth F. Raffa; Brian Aukema; Barbara J. Bentz; Allan Carroll; Nadir Erbilgin; Daniel A. Herms; Jeffrey A. Hicke; Richard W. Hofstetter; Steven Katovich; B. Staffan Lindgren; Jesse Logan; William Mattson; A. Steven Munson; Daniel J. Robison; Diana L. Six; Patrick C. Tobin; Philip A. Townsend; Kimberly F. Wallin

    2009-01-01

    "Forest Health" has become one of the most widely used terms in ecosystem management. Its popularity derives from powerful personal imagery, connecting the fragility of health with ecosystems. It addresses a need for an efficient term to describe the vitality of the world's forests, a usage we support. However, broad adoption has brought multiple usages...

  1. Spatial trends in relative stocking point to potential problems in forest health

    Treesearch

    David A. Gansner; Susan L. King; Stanford L. Arner; Richard H. Widmann; David A. Drake

    1995-01-01

    The term "forest health" means many things to many people and we do not know how to measure it. Baseline standards for conducting a physical examination of a stand of trees do not exist. One factor that can be considered when making judgments about the health of a particular forest tree species is change in the relative stocking of that species, that is the...

  2. Perceptions of Forest Health among Preservice Educators and Implication for Teaching Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monroe, Martha C.; Lauretta, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to (a) determine preservice educators' perceptions of forest health, (b) define the experiences which may have influenced their understanding, and (c) identify the approaches they might use to convey forest health information. Twelve interviews were conducted with preservice science and agriculture education…

  3. Perceptions of Forest Health among Preservice Educators and Implication for Teaching Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monroe, Martha C.; Lauretta, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to (a) determine preservice educators' perceptions of forest health, (b) define the experiences which may have influenced their understanding, and (c) identify the approaches they might use to convey forest health information. Twelve interviews were conducted with preservice science and agriculture education…

  4. [Health behaviour and changes in health behaviour - are education and social status relevant?].

    PubMed

    Altenhöner, T; Philippi, M; Böcken, J

    2014-01-01

    Individual health behaviour counts as an important factor for health status. A healthier lifestyle substantially contributes to better health. People burdened with lower health and with lower socio-economic status could benefit notably. So far it is not known exhaustively to what extent education and social status contribute to changes in health behaviour and which motifs play a decisive role. Based on cross-sectional data from the seventh wave of the "Gesundheitsmonitor", Bertelsmann Foundation, (n=1 436), the influence of social status and education on health behaviour and changes in behaviour was analysed. Specific health behaviour correlates with level of education and socio-economic status. In contrast, regarding health behaviour changes in the last 12 months prior to survey, no social class- or education-specific effect was found. Age, health status as well as fears and wishes in relation to health seem to be important causalities for changes of health-related behaviour. Interventions to foster healthy lifestyles should include class differences in specific health-related behaviour and personal reasons for behavioural changes. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Social capital, health, and elderly driver status

    PubMed Central

    Isbel, Stephen T.; Berry, Helen L.

    2016-01-01

    Driving a car enables many people to engage in meaningful activities that, in turn, help develop and maintain personal social capital. Social capital, a combination of community participation and social cohesion, is important in maintaining well-being. This paper argues that social capital can provide a framework for investigating the general role of transportation and driving a car specifically to access activities that contribute to connectedness and well-being among older people. This paper proposes theoretically plausible and empirically testable hypotheses about the relationship between driver status, social capital, and well-being. A longitudinal study may provide a new way of understanding, and thus of addressing, the well-being challenges that occur when older people experience restrictions to, or loss of, their driver’s license. PMID:27505020

  6. Health status of marginalised young people in unstable accommodation.

    PubMed

    Klineberg, Emily; Vatiliotis, Veronica; Kang, Melissa; Medlow, Sharon; Sullivan, Lucinda; Cummings, Michael; Pringle, Graeme; Steinbeck, Katharine

    2017-10-01

    More than 26 000 Australians aged 12-24 years experience homelessness, yet data on the health status of homeless youth remain limited. The aim of this study was to describe the health of young people attending a youth health service in Western Sydney who were experiencing homelessness. Retrospective case note review for clients aged 12-25 years attending Youth Health Services in Western Sydney. Extracted data included: homelessness status; demographics; physical health issues; mental health issues; involvement with juvenile justice; and disengagement from education or employment. Just under half of the 180 clients attending a Youth Health Service in Western Sydney were homeless, and an additional 15 young people who were not currently homeless nominated homelessness as a presenting issue. In comparison with currently domiciled young people, homeless youth were less likely to have a regular general practitioner and more likely to nominate a physical health concern as a presenting issue, although there was no difference between groups in terms of diagnosed mental or physical health conditions. Considered as a whole, the sample showed high rates of acute physical symptoms, physical trauma, psychological distress and self-harm. Youth homelessness is associated with risk of both poor physical and mental health. As much of youth homelessness is hidden, health-care providers need to ensure that they inquire about homelessness status, and have an awareness of potentially complex multi-morbidities in the physical and mental health of young marginalised people presenting to health services. © 2017 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  7. Measurement of health status in the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Patrick, D L; Bergner, M

    1990-01-01

    The use of health-related quality of life measures, especially those based on function, are likely to increase during the next decade. This increase, however, is most likely to occur in clinical research and clinical practice. Unless the necessary political will, resources, data, and policy researchers coexist, there will be relatively little advance in the use of health status measures for decision-making and policy. This prediction is based on the observation that policy research tends to rely on available national data, that currently these data provide limited information about health status, and that there appears to be insufficient interest and resources to broaden data collection or to develop methods that incorporate a broad spectrum of health outcomes (e.g. death, impairment, functional status, and perceptions) into a single instrument or measure of health on large populations and communities. This state of affairs is particularly unfortunate as we face a decade in which available health and medical care may become more limited and social inequity in access and health status may become more marked. The effect of social inequities and restrictions to health care on the health of the nation cannot continue to be determined with reference only to the structure and process of the health care system. Health and quality of life outcomes are what count. And, these outcomes cannot be determined without appropriate and inclusive measures of health-related quality of life. Of course, we hope our prediction is wrong and that the motivation and resources will be found to help resolve methodologic issues in the measurement of population health status and quality of life and to provide the necessary data. We hope that government agencies, employers, and private providers will begin to collect health-related quality of life data on the constituents and populations they serve. Even if these data are imperfect or primitive, the effects of improving accessibility and

  8. [Health status of the Hungarian population between 2000-2010].

    PubMed

    Baji, Petra; Brodszky, Valentin; Rencz, Fanni; Boncz, Imre; Gulácsi, László; Péntek, Márta

    2015-12-13

    So far, the latest survey which used the EQ-5D questionnaire to measure the health status of the Hungarian population was carried out in 2000. To explore the health state of the Hungarian population by socio-demographic characteristics, and to compare it with the results from 2000. As part of an international research project, a cross-sectional, online survey was carried out among the general population in 2010 using the EQ-5D-3L questionnaire. In total, 2281 respondents (female: 62.3%) completed the questionnaire with an average age of 40.8 years. The EQ-5D score ranged from 0.902 (in age-group 18-24) to 0.795 (65+). The authors found significant association between the EQ-5D score and all the socio-demographic variables (gender, age, education, income) included in the regression model (F(4,1967)=35.12, p=0.000). The results did not differ significantly from the health survey in 2000, except for the youngest population group (age 18-24), where significantly lower scores were found in the sample. While life expectance increased by 3 years between 2000 and 2010, the health status of the Hungarian population did not change significantly, and might even decreased among young adults in fact. Inequalities in health status by income and education remain significant. In international comparison, the health status of the Hungarian population remains among the worst ones.

  9. Self-assessed health status and neighborhood context.

    PubMed

    Baum, Scott; Kendall, Elizabeth; Parekh, Sanjoti

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, there has been growing interest in the relationship between the characteristics of neighborhoods and the health and well-being of residents. The focus on neighborhood as a health determinant is based on the hypothesis that residing in a disadvantaged neighborhood can negatively influence health outcomes beyond the effect of individual characteristics. In this article, we examine three possible ways of measuring neighborhood socio-economic status, and how they each impact on self-reported health status beyond the effect contributed by individual-level factors. Using individual-level data from the Household Income and Labor Dynamics Australia survey combined with neighborhood-level (suburb) data, we tested the proposition that how one measures neighborhood socio-economic characteristics may provide an important new insight into understanding the links between individual-level outcomes and neighborhood-level characteristics. The findings from the analysis illustrate that although individual-level factors may be important to understanding health outcomes, how one accounts for neighborhood-level socio-economic status may be equally important. The findings suggest that in developing place-based health programs, policy makers need to account for the complex interactions between individual drivers and the potential complexities of accounting for neighborhood socio-economic status.

  10. Health Status of Current National Guard Members

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-08-01

    will permit comparison to other population norms (e.g., Medical Outcomes Study Short Form Health Survey, SF36 (Ware 1993, 1994); SF36V (Kazis et al...Respondents should be aware that notwithstanding any other provision of law, no person shall be subject to any penalty for failing to comply with a...collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT

  11. Effects of acid deposition on calcium nutrition and health of Southern Appalachian spruce fir forests

    SciTech Connect

    McLaughlin, S.B.; Wullschleger, S.; Stone, A.; Wimmer, R.; Joslin, J.D.

    1995-02-01

    The role of acid deposition in the health of spruce fir forests in the Southern Appalachian Mountains has been investigated by a wide variety of experimental approaches during the past 10 years. These studies have proceeded from initial dendroecological documentation of altered growth patterns of mature trees to increasingly more focused ecophysiological research on the causes and characteristics of changes in system function associated with increased acidic deposition. Field studies across gradients in deposition and soil chemistry have been located on four mountains spanning 85 km of latitude within the Southern Appalachians. The conclusion that calcium nutrition is an important component regulating health of red spruce in the Southern Appalachians and that acid deposition significantly reduces calcium availability in several ways has emerged as a consistent result from multiple lines or research. These have included analysis of trends in wood chemistry, soil solution chemistry, foliar nutrition, gas exchange physiology, root histochemistry, and controlled laboratory and field studies in which acid deposition and/or calcium nutrition has been manipulated and growth and nutritional status of saplings or mature red spruce trees measured. This earlier research has led us to investigate the broader implications and consequences of calcium deficiency for changing resistance of spruce-fir forests to natural stresses. Current research is exploring possible relationships between altered calcium nutrition and shifts in response of Fraser fir to insect attack by the balsam wooly adelgid. In addition, changes in wood ultrastructural properties in relation to altered wood chemistry is being examined to evaluate its possible role in canopy deterioration, under wind and ice stresses typical of high elevation forests.

  12. Oral Health Status in Haemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Swapna, Lingam Amara; Reddy, Reddy Sudhakara; Ramesh, Tatapudi; Reddy, Reddy Lavanya; Vijayalaxmi, Nimma; Karmakar, Partha; Pradeep, Koppolu

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the oral and dental manifestations in non- diabetic and diabetic uraemic patients who were undergoing haemodialysis and to estimate and compare the salivary pH in these two groups. Material and Methods: Ninety Seven uraemic patients who were undergoing maintenance haemodialysis were included in the study. Subjective and objective findings were evaluated and recorded in a specially designed proforma. Predialytic unstimulated whole salivary pH was recorded by using pH-measuring strips. Dental health assessment consisted of DMFT and CPITN indices. Results: A subjective oral manifestation of dysguesia was found to be more significant in non-diabetic patients (p<0.008). Statistically, a high significance was observed with mucosal petechiae in 31.9% patients of diabetic group .The overall DMFT score was significantly higher in diabetic group. A moderate significance was found with a CPI score of 5 (p<0.015). The pH of saliva was significantly higher among diabetic patients. Conclusion: The diabetic subjects who were on haemodialysis were at a high risk for developing periodontal disease and they exhibited a potential threat for dental decay and xerostomia. A lower salivary pH and a poor glycaemic control may affect their oral health. Further research is required to clarify the combined influence of diabetic nephropathy on oral health. PMID:24179940

  13. Psychological Perspectives on Pathways Linking Socioeconomic Status and Physical Health

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Karen A.; Gallo, Linda C.

    2011-01-01

    Low socioeconomic status (SES) is a reliable correlate of poor physical health. Rather than treat SES as a covariate, health psychology has increasingly focused on the psychobiological pathways that inform understanding why SES is related to physical health. This review assesses the status of research that has examined stress and its associated distress, and social and personal resources as pathways. It highlights work on biomarkers and biological pathways related to SES that can serve as intermediate outcomes in future studies. Recent emphasis on the accumulation of psychobiological risks across the life course is summarized and represents an important direction for future research. Studies that test pathways from SES to candidate psychosocial pathways to health outcomes are few in number but promising. Future research should test integrated models rather than taking piecemeal approaches to evidence. Much work remains to be done, but the questions are of great health significance. PMID:20636127

  14. Health status detection for patients in physiological monitoring.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dongmei; Meng, Max Q-H

    2011-01-01

    A primary difficulty in physiological monitoring is detecting changes of health status for patients. In order to address this difficulty, we propose a new framework in patient-specific physiological monitoring by defining a density ratio using the training density and testing density to denote the changes of patient status, such as health, sub-health and abnormalities. We use a Least Square-based algorithm to estimate density ratio parameters without involving density estimation. For verifying the availability and efficacy of the proposed framework, we apply our approach to physiological monitoring data (11901 beats) from the Physionet database to do the pilot experiments. Results demonstrate that the approach is effective in detecting the patient status.

  15. [Health conditions and functional status of older adults in Mexico].

    PubMed

    Manrique-Espinoza, Betty; Salinas-Rodríguez, Aarón; Moreno-Tamayo, Karla Margarita; Acosta-Castillo, Isaac; Sosa-Ortiz, Ana Luisa; Gutiérrez-Robledo, Luis Miguel; Téllez-Rojo, Martha Ma

    2013-01-01

    To describe the health conditions and functional status of Mexicans older adults. Descriptive study with a sample of 8,874 adults aged 60 and over, based on a nationally representative study. We analyzed major indicators associated with health conditions and functional status, obtaining prevalence and statistical tests of differences in proportions. The main conditions of this population are: hypertension (40%), diabetes (24%) and hypercholesterolemia (20%). For mental health indicators, 17.6% had depressive symptoms, 7.3% cognitive decline, and 7.9% dementia. For functional status, 26.9% reported difficulty in daily activities and 24.6% in instrumental activities. It is required the implementation of a new model of care to address the increasing prevalence of chronic degenerative diseases in old age, as well as the increased disability and consequent dependence resulting from them.

  16. [Socioeconomic status and health: a discussion of two paradigms].

    PubMed

    Antunes, José Leopoldo Ferreira

    2008-06-01

    Socioeconomic status and its impact on health are in the mainstream of public health thinking. This text discusses two paradigms utilized in assessing socioeconomic status in epidemiologic studies. One paradigm refers to prestige-based measurements and positive differentiation among social strata. This paradigm is characterized by classifications assessing social capital and the access to goods and services. The other paradigm refers to the classification of social deprivation and negative differentiation among social strata. The proposal of State-funded reposition to the mostly deprived social strata is acknowledged as characteristic of this paradigm. The contrast between these paradigms, and their potential interaction and debate are discussed. Fostering reflection on methodological strategies to assess socioeconomic status in epidemiologic studies can contribute to the promotion of health and social justice.

  17. Health Status of Homeless and Marginally Housed Users of Mental Health Self-Help Agencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segal, Steven P.; Gomory, Tomi; Silverman, Carol J.

    1998-01-01

    Investigates the health status of 310 homeless and marginally housed people to determine the usefulness of mental health self-help agencies (SHAs) in addressing their physical health needs. Findings indicated that frequencies of health problems among respondents were similar to those of other homeless or marginally housed groups and that the study…

  18. Health Status of Homeless and Marginally Housed Users of Mental Health Self-Help Agencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segal, Steven P.; Gomory, Tomi; Silverman, Carol J.

    1998-01-01

    Investigates the health status of 310 homeless and marginally housed people to determine the usefulness of mental health self-help agencies (SHAs) in addressing their physical health needs. Findings indicated that frequencies of health problems among respondents were similar to those of other homeless or marginally housed groups and that the study…

  19. Selected Health Status Measures of Children from US Immigrant Families.

    PubMed

    Yu, Stella M; Lin, Sue C; Adirim, Terry

    2013-01-01

    Using the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health (N = 91,532), we studied the relationship between the joint effects of immigrant family type (foreign-born children, US-born children/one foreign-born parent, US-born children/both foreign-born parents, and US-born children/US-born parents) and race/ethnicity on various health measures (parent-reported physical and dental health, obesity/overweight, breast-feeding, school absence, injury, and chronic condition). We used weighted logistic regression to examine the independent effects of the 12-level joint variable on various health status measures while controlling for confounding factors. Overall, nearly one-third of families with both foreign-born parents were poor, and one-quarter of the parents in these households did not complete high school. Compared with non-Hispanic White US-born children, multivariable analyses indicate that all Hispanic children have higher odds of obesity, poor physical and dental health, with Hispanic foreign-born children 7 times as likely to report poor/fair physical health. Most children of immigrant parents were more likely to have been breast-fed and less likely to miss school more than 11 days. Child age and household poverty status were independently associated with most of the health status measures. Combined race/ethnicity and immigrant family type categories have heterogeneous associations with each health outcome measure examined. Culturally competent interventions and policies should be developed to serve these expanding communities.

  20. Dynamics of pregnant women's oral health status during preventive programme.

    PubMed

    Vasiliauskiene, Ingrida; Milciuviene, Simona; Bendoraitiene, Egle; Narbutaite, Julija; Slabsinskiene, Egle; Andruskeviciene, Vilija

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the efficiency of the applied preventive measures during pregnancy and to improve oral health status to pregnant women. Oral health status of 180 pregnant women was determined according to WHO criteria (WHO: Basic methods, 1997). Dental caries prevalence, DMF-T and DMF-S were evaluated. Gingival status was estimated according to Silness-Loe (GI) index. Women were asked about tooth brushing frequency; oral hygiene was evaluated according to Green-Vermilion (OHI-S) index. Participants were divided into test (89) and control (91) groups. During pregnancy, the following preventive measures were applied to the test group: fluoride varnish applications, mouthrinsing with 0.12% chlorhexine digluconate, professional oral hygiene. Oral health status was evaluated three times during pregnancy. Reduction in dental caries increment of the test group was 56.25% in comparison with the control group. The periodontal status has improved, oral hygiene index (OHI-S) has decreased from 1.48+/-0.05 to 0.94+/-0.06 in the test group, and from 1.49+/-0.06 to 1.9+/-0.06 in the control group. Results of the study showed that selected dental caries preventive measures were effective and significantly improved women's oral health during pregnancy.

  1. Child health and maternal stress: does neighbourhood status matter?

    PubMed

    Lagerberg, Dagmar; Magnusson, Margaretha; Sundelin, Claes

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional questionnaire study was to explore neighbourhood-level differences in health behaviour, maternal stress and sense of coherence, birth weight, child health and behaviour, and children's television watching habits. In total, 2006 pairs of Swedish mothers and children, aged approximately 20 months, from the general population participated in the study. A total of 1923 lived in neighbourhoods of average socioeconomic status in six counties, and 83 in a high-status neighbourhood in one of the counties. Data were collected in 2002-2003 and 2004-2005 through the Child Health Services. Socio-demographic confounders were adjusted for in multiple logistic regressions (maternal age, country of birth, education, marital status and parity). Compared with their counterparts in average neighbourhoods, mothers in the high-status neighbourhood were less frequently smokers and had been breastfeeding their children more. They felt less stress from social isolation and had a higher sense of coherence. All these differences except lower social isolation were non-significant after adjusting for socio-demographic characteristics. Privileged mothers felt more restricted by their parenting tasks (unadjusted comparison), and more privileged children were frequent television watchers. Child birth weight, health and behaviour were no better in the privileged than in average neighbourhoods. This paper adds to previous knowledge by showing that status-based geographic differences in important parenting and health parameters can be non-significant in an equitable society such as Sweden, where all families with young children have access to free high-quality health services. Individual characteristics could provide better explanations than neighbourhood status.

  2. An empirical test of the Health Empowerment Model: Does patient empowerment moderate the effect of health literacy on health status?

    PubMed

    Náfrádi, Lilla; Nakamoto, Kent; Csabai, Márta; Papp-Zipernovszky, Orsolya; Schulz, Peter J

    2017-09-06

    The Health Empowerment Model (Schulz & Nakamoto, 2013) advocates that the effects of health literacy and empowerment are intertwined on health outcomes. This study aims to test this assumption in the context of health status as a patient outcome. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a sample of 302 participants between June and December 2015. The participants' health literacy (using the NVS and S-TOFHLA tests), empowerment and self-reported health status were assessed. The participants having a high level of patient empowerment and concurrent adequate health literacy (the so-called 'effective self-managers') reported better health status compared to patients who had either lower health literacy and/or lower empowerment scores (P<0.05). Moreover, the meaningfulness (b=0.053, t(297)=2.29, P=0.02) and competence (b=0.07, t(297)=2.47, P=0.01) sub-dimensions of patient empowerment moderated the effect of the NVS on current health status. The study provides evidence for the independence of health literacy and empowerment and partial evidence for their interaction predicting health status. Our findings highlight that health literacy and patient empowerment (in particular its competence and meaningfulness sub-facets) are crucial patient-related variables, to be taken into consideration simultaneously, during screening and health promotion campaigns fostering health status in the general population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Forest cover associated with improved child health and nutrition: evidence from the Malawi Demographic and Health Survey and satellite data

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Kiersten B; Jacob, Anila; Brown, Molly E

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Healthy forests provide human communities with a host of important ecosystem services, including the provision of food, clean water, fuel, and natural medicines. Yet globally, about 13 million hectares of forests are lost every year, with the biggest losses in Africa and South America. As biodiversity loss and ecosystem degradation due to deforestation continue at unprecedented rates, with concomitant loss of ecosystem services, impacts on human health remain poorly understood. Here, we use data from the 2010 Malawi Demographic and Health Survey, linked with satellite remote sensing data on forest cover, to explore and better understand this relationship. Our analysis finds that forest cover is associated with improved health and nutrition outcomes among children in Malawi. Children living in areas with net forest cover loss between 2000 and 2010 were 19% less likely to have a diverse diet and 29% less likely to consume vitamin A-rich foods than children living in areas with no net change in forest cover. Conversely, children living in communities with higher percentages of forest cover were more likely to consume vitamin A-rich foods and less likely to experience diarrhea. Net gain in forest cover over the 10-year period was associated with a 34% decrease in the odds of children experiencing diarrhea (P = .002). Given that our analysis relied on observational data and that there were potential unknown factors for which we could not account, these preliminary findings demonstrate only associations, not causal relationships, between forest cover and child health and nutrition outcomes. However, the findings raise concerns about the potential short- and long-term impacts of ongoing deforestation and ecosystem degradation on community health in Malawi, and they suggest that preventing forest loss and maintaining the ecosystem services of forests are important factors in improving human health and nutrition outcomes. PMID:25276536

  4. Forest Cover Associated with Improved Child Health and Nutrition: Evidence from the Malawi Demographic and Health Survey and Satellite Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Kiersten B.; Jacob, Anila; Brown, Molly Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Healthy forests provide human communities with a host of important ecosystem services, including the provision of food, clean water, fuel, and natural medicines. Yet globally, about 13 million hectares of forests are lost every year, with the biggest losses in Africa and South America. As biodiversity loss and ecosystem degradation due to deforestation continue at unprecedented rates, with concomitant loss of ecosystem services, impacts on human health remain poorly understood. Here, we use data from the 2010 Malawi Demographic and Health Survey, linked with satellite remote sensing data on forest cover, to explore and better understand this relationship. Our analysis finds that forest cover is associated with improved health and nutrition outcomes among children in Malawi. Children living in areas with net forest cover loss between 2000 and 2010 were 19% less likely to have a diverse diet and 29% less likely to consume vitamin A-rich foods than children living in areas with no net change in forest cover. Conversely, children living in communities with higher percentages of forest cover were more likely to consume vitamin A-rich foods and less likely to experience diarrhea. Net gain in forest cover over the 10-year period was associated with a 34% decrease in the odds of children experiencing diarrhea (P5.002). Given that our analysis relied on observational data and that there were potential unknown factors for which we could not account, these preliminary findings demonstrate only associations, not causal relationships, between forest cover and child health and nutrition outcomes. However, the findings raise concerns about the potential short- and long-term impacts of ongoing deforestation and ecosystem degradation on community health in Malawi, and they suggest that preventing forest loss and maintaining the ecosystems services of forests are important factors in improving human health and nutrition outcomes.

  5. Dental health status of liver transplant candidates.

    PubMed

    Guggenheimer, James; Eghtesad, Bijan; Close, John M; Shay, Christine; Fung, John J

    2007-02-01

    A prerequisite dental evaluation is usually recommended for potential organ transplant candidates. This is based on the premise that untreated dental disease may pose a risk for infection and sepsis, although there is no evidence that this has occurred in organ transplant candidates or recipients. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of dental disease and oral health behaviors in a sample of liver transplant candidates (LTCs). Oral examinations were conducted on 300 LTCs for the presence of gingivitis, dental plaque, dental caries, periodontal disease, edentulism, and xerostomia. The prevalence of these conditions was compared with oral health data from national health surveys and examined for possible associations with most recent dental visit, smoking, and type of liver disease. Significant risk factors for plaque-related gingivitis included intervals of more than 1 yr since the last dental visit (P = 0.004), smoking (P = 0.03), and diuretic therapy (P = 0.005). Dental caries and periodontal disease were also significantly associated with intervals of more than 1 yr since the last dental visit (P = 0.004). LTCs with viral hepatitis or alcoholic cirrhosis had the highest smoking rate (78.8%). Higher rates of edentulism occurred among older LTCs who were less likely to have had a recent dental evaluation (mean 88 months). In conclusion, intervals of more than 1 yr since the last dental visit, smoking, and diuretic therapy appear to be the most significant determinants of dental disease and the need for a pretransplantation dental screening evaluation in LTCs. Edentulous patients should have periodic examinations for oral cancer.

  6. Forest health monitoring and forestry implications in the Czech Republic

    Treesearch

    Martin Cerny; Pavel Moravcik

    1998-01-01

    In recent years, a forest monitoring program in the Czech Republic was extended into more detailed monitoring that aimed to describe the extent of changes in forest vitality and identify the nature and the main causes of these changes on local and regional scales. Studies were undertaken in six mountain areas in the Czech Republic. The program of regional forest...

  7. Water and Forest Health: Drought Stress as a Core Driver of Forest Disturbances and Tree Mortality in Western North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, C. D.; Williams, P.

    2012-12-01

    Increasing warmth and dry climate conditions have affected large portions of western North America in recent years, causing elevated levels of both chronic and acute forest drought stress. In turn, increases in drought stress amplify the incidence and severity of the most significant forest disturbances in this region, including wildfire, drought-induced tree mortality, and outbreaks of damaging insects and diseases. Regional patterns of drought stress and various forest disturbances are reviewed, including interactions among climate and the various disturbance processes; similar global-scale patterns and trends of drought-amplified forest die-off and high-severity wildfire also are addressed. New research is presented that derives a tree-ring-based Forest Drought Stress Index (FDSI) for the three most widespread conifer species (Pinus edulis, Pinus ponderosa, and Pseudotsuga menziesii) in the southwestern US (Arizona, New Mexico), demonstrating nonlinear escalation of FDSI to levels unprecedented in the past 1000 years, in response to both drought and especially recent warming. This new work further highlights strong correlations between drought stress and amplified forest disturbances (fire, bark beetle outbreaks), and projects that by ca. 2050 anticipated regional warming will cause mean FDSI levels to reach extreme levels that may exceed thresholds for the survival of current tree species in large portions of their current range. Given recent trends of forest disturbance and projections for substantially warmer temperatures and greater drought stress for much of western North America in coming years, the growing risks to western forest health are becoming clear. This emerging understanding suggests an urgent need to determine potentials and methods for managing water on-site to maintain the vigor and resilience of western forests in the face of increasing levels of climate-induced water stress.

  8. Health Status Among 28,000 Women Veterans

    PubMed Central

    Frayne, Susan M; Parker, Victoria A; Christiansen, Cindy L; Loveland, Susan; Seaver, Margaret R; Kazis, Lewis E; Skinner, Katherine M

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND Male veterans receiving Veterans Health Administration (VA) care have worse health than men in the general population. Less is known about health status in women veteran VA patients, a rapidly growing population. OBJECTIVE To characterize health status of women (vs men) veteran VA patients across age cohorts, and assess gender differences in the effect of social support upon health status. DESIGN AND PATIENTS Data came from the national 1999 Large Health Survey of Veteran Enrollees (response rate 63%) and included 28,048 women and 651,811 men who used VA in the prior 3 years. MEASUREMENTS Dimensions of health status from validated Veterans Short Form-36 instrument; social support (married, living arrangement, have someone to take patient to the doctor). RESULTS In each age stratum (18 to 44, 45 to 64, and ≥65 years), Physical Component Summary (PCS) and Mental Component Summary (MCS) scores were clinically comparable by gender, except that for those aged ≥65, mean MCS was better for women than men (49.3 vs 45.9, P<.001). Patient gender had a clinically insignificant effect upon PCS and MCS after adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, and education. Women had lower levels of social support than men; in patients aged <65, being married or living with someone benefited MCS more in men than in women. CONCLUSIONS Women veteran VA patients have as heavy a burden of physical and mental illness as do men in VA, and are expected to require comparable intensity of health care services. Their ill health occurs in the context of poor social support, and varies by age. PMID:16637944

  9. Home warmth and health status of COPD patients.

    PubMed

    Osman, Liesl M; Ayres, Jon G; Garden, Carole; Reglitz, Karen; Lyon, Janice; Douglas, J Graham

    2008-08-01

    Home Energy Efficiency guidelines recommend domestic indoor temperatures of 21 degrees C for at least 9 h per day in living areas. Is health status of patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) associated with maintaining this level of warmth in their homes? In a cross-sectional observational study of patients, living in their own homes, living room (LR) and bedroom (BR) temperatures were measured at 30 min intervals over 1 week using electronic dataloggers. Health status was measured with the St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) and EuroQol: EQ VAS. Outdoor temperatures were provided by Met Office. One hundred and forty eight patients consented to temperature monitoring. Patients' mean age was 69 (SD 8.5) years, 67 (45%) male, mean percentage of predicted Forced Expiratory Volume in one second (FEV(1)) 41.7 (SD 17.4). Fifty-eight (39%) were current smokers. Independent of age, lung function, smoking and outdoor temperatures, poorer respiratory health status was significantly associated (P = 0.01) with fewer days with 9 h of warmth at 21 degrees C in the LR. A sub analysis showed that patients who smoked experienced more health effects than non-smokers (P < 0.01). Maintaining the warmth guideline of 21 degrees C in living areas for at least 9 h per day was associated with better health status for COPD patients. Patients who were continuing smokers were more vulnerable to reduction in warmth.

  10. The health status of minority populations in the United States.

    PubMed

    Nickens, H W

    1991-07-01

    There is increasing national recognition that while our nation's health care system is the most expensive in the world, the health care status of Americans overall ranks poorly compared with other Western, industrialized nations. In the United States we tend to look at minority-majority variations of health status, as well as the variations of many other indicators by race or ethnicity, because race and ethnicity are particularly important components of our society. In general, health status indicators of minority Americans are worse than those of whites. In some locales, death rates of minority Americans are comparable to those of Third World nations. At the same time, minority Americans make up a rapidly increasing proportion of the nation's population and work force. Our baseline national data on some minority groups, however, currently are inadequate to detect shifts in health status. Finally, the rapidly expanding problem of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome among some minority populations provides both an imperative and an opportunity to learn how model prevention programs should be designed and executed.

  11. [Self-perception of oral health status by the elderly].

    PubMed

    da Silva, S R; Castellanos Fernandes, R A

    2001-08-01

    To assess the self-perception of oral health status of the elderly and to analize the clinics, subjectives and sociodemographic factors that interfer in this perception. Results are based on interviews and clinical assessment of 201 subjects aged 60 years and over, who were dentate, functionally independents and used to go to a health care center in the town of Araraquara, SP, Brazil. A questionnaire with questions about social characteristics of the sampled population, their oral health status self-perception and the Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI) was applied. All subject underwent a clinical examination to determine the prevalence of the main oral diseases. Statistical analyses were performed to determine the association between social and clinic variables, and the GOHAI index with their oral health self-perceptions. In addition, analyses were made to identify self-assessment predictors. The clinical examination revealed that dental caries and periodontal disease had a significant prevalence, though 42.7% of the sample assessed their oral health status as regular. Social class, the GOHAI index, and the decayed and missing teeth were all associated with the self-assessment. The multivariate analysis showed that the self-assessment predictors were the GOHAI index, missing teeth and Community Periodontal Index and Treatment Needs index. These predictors accounted for 30% of the self-assessment variability. As the oral health self-perception had minor influence on the clinical conditions, developing educational and preventive actions for the elderly population are recommended.

  12. Southern Forest Resource Assessment - Technical Report

    Treesearch

    David N. Wear; John G. Greis

    2002-01-01

    The southern forest resource assessment provides a comprehensive analysis of the history, status, and likely future of forests in the Southern United States. Twenty-three chapters address questions regarding social/economic systems, terrestrial ecosystems, water and aquatic ecosystems, forest health, and timber management; 2 additional chapters provide a background on...

  13. Association between weight status and men's positive mental health: The influence of marital status.

    PubMed

    de Montigny, Francine; Cloutier, Lyne; Meunier, Sophie; Cyr, Caroline; Coulombe, Simon; Tremblay, Gilles; Auger, Nathalie; Roy, Bernard; Gaboury, Isabelle; Lavoie, Brigitte; Dion, Harold; Houle, Janie

    2016-12-19

    The purpose of this study was to (1) examine the association between weight status and men's positive mental health, defined as the presence of symptoms of emotional, psychological, and social well-being, and (2) evaluate the moderating effect of marital status. A total of 645 men aged between 19 and 71 years self-reported their height and weight and answered a questionnaire measuring their emotional, psychological, and social well-being. Analysis of variance revealed that mean levels of emotional, psychological, and social well-being did not significantly differ according to men's weight status. Moderation analyses indicated that, for men in a relationship (married or living common-law), there were no significant associations between overweight, obesity, and the three components of positive mental health. However, for single men, overweight was marginally associated with higher emotional well-being, while obesity was associated with lower psychological well-being and marginally associated with lower social well-being. Results of the present study suggest that health professionals and researchers should take the characteristics (such as marital status) of men with obesity and overweight into account when working with them. Mental health researchers may need to examine men in each weight category separately (e.g. obesity vs. overweight), since the association with positive mental health can differ from one category to another.

  14. Association between nutritional status and subjective health status in chronically ill children attending special schools.

    PubMed

    Joosten, Koen; van der Velde, Kelly; Joosten, Pieter; Rutten, Hans; Hulst, Jessie; Dulfer, Karolijn

    2016-04-01

    In hospitalized children with a chronic disease, malnutrition was associated with a lower subjective health status. In outpatient children with a chronic disease attending special schools, this association has never been studied. The aim of this study was to assess the association between nutritional status and subjective health status in chronically ill children attending special schools. Overall, 642 children, median age 9.8 years (IQR 7.7-11.5), 60 % male, 72 % Caucasian, were included in this prospective study in nine special schools for chronically ill children in the Netherlands. Overall malnutrition was assessed as: acute malnutrition (<-2 SDS for weight for height (WFH)) and chronic malnutrition (<-2 SDS for height for age). The malnutrition risk was assessed with the nutritional risk-screening tool STRONGkids. Subjective health status was assessed with EQ-5D. Overall, 16 % of the children had overall malnutrition: 3 % acute and 13 % chronic malnutrition. Nurses reported 'some/severe problems' on the health status dimensions mobility (15 %), self-care (17 %), usual activities (19 %), pain/discomfort (22 %), and anxiety/depression (22 %) in chronically ill children. Their mean visual analogue scale score (VAS) was 73.0 (SD 11.1). Malnutrition, medication usage, and younger age explained 38 % of the variance of the VAS score. The presence of overall malnutrition in chronically ill children attending special schools was associated with lower subjective health status, especially in younger children and in those with chronic medication usage. Therefore, it is important to develop and use profile-screening tools to identify these children.

  15. Access to health: women's status and utilization of maternal health services in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sharad Kumar; Sawangdee, Yothin; Sirirassamee, Buppha

    2007-09-01

    With the objective of reducing maternal and neonatal mortality, the Safe Motherhood Program was implemented in Nepal in 1997. It was launched as a priority programme during the ninth five-year plan period, 1997-2002, with the aim of increasing women's access to health care and raising their status. This paper examines the association of access to health services and women's status with utilization of prenatal, delivery, and postnatal care during the plan period. The 1996 Nepal Family Health Survey and the 2001 Nepal Demographic and Health Survey data were pooled and the likelihood of women's using maternal health care was examined in 2001 in comparison with 1996. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicates that the utilization of maternal health services increased over the period. Programme interventions such as outreach worker's visits, radio programmes on maternal health, maternal health information disseminated through various mass media sources and raising women's status through education were able to explain the observed change in utilization. Health worker visits and educational status of women showed a large association, but radio programmes and other mass media information were only partially successful in increasing use of maternal health services. Socioeconomic and demographic variables such as household economic status, number of living children and place of residence showed stronger association with use of maternal health services then did intervention programmes.

  16. The deterioration of health status among immigrants to Canada.

    PubMed

    De Maio, Fernando G; Kemp, Eagan

    2010-01-01

    A growing body of literature suggests that immigrants to Canada experience deterioration in their health status after settling in the country. While self-selection processes and Canadian immigration policy ensure that, at the time of arrival, immigrants are healthier than the Canadian-born population, this health advantage does not persist over time. This study uses new data from the Longitudinal Survey of Immigrants to Canada (N=7720) to examine how health transitions vary among immigrants. Logistic regression analyses indicate that visible minorities and immigrants who experienced discrimination or unfair treatment are most likely to experience a decline in self-reported health status. The results also confirm a clear inverse socioeconomic gradient with respect to increasing levels of feelings of sadness, depression and loneliness. These findings reflect important dimensions driving population health patterns in Canada, a country with a highly lauded health care system based on the principles of universality and comprehensiveness. Our findings suggest that discrimination and inequality partly drive the health transitions of immigrants. These factors, which largely operate outside of the formal health care system, need to be understood and addressed if health inequities are to be reduced.

  17. [Effect of nutritional status in childhood on health status in adulthood].

    PubMed

    Fan, Zhaoyang; Wang, Huijun; Zhang, Bing; Yu, Wentao; Zhai, Fengying

    2012-05-01

    To investigate the effect of nutritional status in childhood on health status in adulthood. Data were collected from the China Health and Nutrition Survey in 1991, 1993, 1997, 2001, 2004 and 2006, and the subjects were older than 2 and no more than 18 year-old at the Survey in 1991 and remained in the same cohort with completed records through all six surveys. Mixed effect linear model was used to study the trajectory of BMI. Proportional hazards model was used to study the hazard risk of hypertension in adulthood. Generally, the thinness or overweight-obesity status in childhood followed a same trend till adulthood. Nutritional status in childhood and the educational level of their parents appeared to be related to risk factors of hypertension in adulthood. The hazard ratio of not developing hypertension for additional 1 gram of protein intake per day in male subjects was 0.991, and which for additional 1 kcal of energy intake per day in female subjects was 0.9997. The nutritional health status in childhood keeps the same trajectory till adulthood.

  18. A cross-cultural comparison of health status values.

    PubMed Central

    Patrick, D L; Sittampalam, Y; Somerville, S M; Carter, W B; Bergner, M

    1985-01-01

    The extent to which the values attached to health states are similar in different cultures or social groups is important for understanding health and illness behaviors and for developing standardized health status measures. A cross-cultural study was conducted to compare the health status values obtained in a United States population (Seattle, Washington) with those from another English-speaking culture (London, England) on the Sickness Impact Profile, a standardized measure composed of 136 items. London judges rated the severity of dysfunction described in each item on an equal interval scale using the same methods of scaling and analysis employed in the Seattle study. A regression of English mean item values on US mean values yielded a slope of 1.00 and an intercept of -0.07, indicating that judges gave strikingly similar ratings to most items. Agreement was higher at the more severe end of the dysfunction continuum than at the least severe end, a finding consistent with the notion that what constitutes health is more difficult to define than what constitutes illness. While a universal conception of dysfunction may exist in English-speaking societies, the social and cultural determinants of health status values deserve more systematic study. PMID:4061712

  19. Oral health status and health-related quality of life: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Naito, Mariko; Yuasa, Hidemichi; Nomura, Yoshiaki; Nakayama, Takeo; Hamajima, Nobuyuki; Hanada, Nobuhiro

    2006-03-01

    This study was conducted in order to identify the literature on oral health status and health-related QOL, review the findings systematically, and assess the association between them. We performed a literature search of reports published between January 1973 and June 2004, using five databases including MEDLINE. Only studies that used validated generic health-related QOL instruments were selected. The reviewers evaluated selected articles independently and resolved disagreements by consensus. A total of 1,726 articles were retrieved and seven were selected for the review; five observational studies and two intervention studies. Four studies showed significant associations between oral health status and health-related QOL. Temporomandibular disorders were highly associated with reduced health-related QOL. Poor oral status linked to both craniomandibular and cervical spinal pain was associated with increased impairment of health-related QOL. Dissatisfaction with the teeth and mouth, and a sensation of dry mouth contributed to reduce health-related QOL. Providing edentulous patients with implant-supported full dentures contributed to improve health-related QOL. Assessment of health-related QOL in relation to oral health with validated instruments remains insufficient. The present findings suggest that oral health status could affect health-related QOL in some settings; however, further evidence is needed to support this interpretation.

  20. Legal status, emotional well-being and subjective health status of Latino immigrants.

    PubMed

    Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A; Zayas, Luis H; Spitznagel, Edward L

    2007-10-01

    Among the many stresses that undocumented Latino immigrants experience, worries about their legal status and preoccupation with disclosure and deportation can heighten the risk for emotional distress and impaired quality of health. To better document these effects, this study examined the relationship between deportation concern and emotional and physical well-being among a group of Latino immigrants in a midwestern city. One-hundred-forty-three persons were recruited through community sources. Fifty-six participants (39%) expressed concern with seeking services for fear of deportation, while 87 did not endorse this concern. Measures of emotional distress, Hispanic immigrant stress and subjective health status were administered. Results indicate that Latino immigrants with concerns about deportation are at heightened risk of experiencing negative emotional and health states (particularly anger), Hispanic immigrant stress associated with extrafamilial factors and substandard health status. Findings inform policymakers of culturally relevant stressors of undocumented Latino immigrants that help to create and perpetuate the health and mental health disparities of this group.

  1. Legal status, emotional well-being and subjective health status of Latino immigrants.

    PubMed Central

    Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A.; Zayas, Luis H.; Spitznagel, Edward L.

    2007-01-01

    Among the many stresses that undocumented Latino immigrants experience, worries about their legal status and preoccupation with disclosure and deportation can heighten the risk for emotional distress and impaired quality of health. To better document these effects, this study examined the relationship between deportation concern and emotional and physical well-being among a group of Latino immigrants in a midwestern city. One-hundred-forty-three persons were recruited through community sources. Fifty-six participants (39%) expressed concern with seeking services for fear of deportation, while 87 did not endorse this concern. Measures of emotional distress, Hispanic immigrant stress and subjective health status were administered. Results indicate that Latino immigrants with concerns about deportation are at heightened risk of experiencing negative emotional and health states (particularly anger), Hispanic immigrant stress associated with extrafamilial factors and substandard health status. Findings inform policymakers of culturally relevant stressors of undocumented Latino immigrants that help to create and perpetuate the health and mental health disparities of this group. PMID:17987916

  2. Neighborhood Socioeconomic Status, Depression, and Health Status in the Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) Study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Depression and diminished health status are common in adults with diabetes, but few studies have investigated associations with socio-economic environment. The objective of this manuscript was to evaluate the relationship between neighborhood-level SES and health status and depression. Methods Individual-level data on 1010 participants at baseline in Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes), a trial of long-term weight loss among adults with type 2 diabetes, were linked to neighborhood-level SES (% living below poverty) from the 2000 US Census (tracts). Dependent variables included depression (Beck Inventory), and health status (Medical Outcomes Study (SF-36) scale). Multi-level regression models were used to account simultaneously for individual-level age, sex, race, education, personal yearly income and neighborhood-level SES. Results Overall, the % living in poverty in the participants' neighborhoods varied, mean = 11% (range 0-67%). Compared to their counterparts in the lowest tertile of neighborhood poverty (least poverty), those in the highest tertile (most poverty) had significantly lower scores on the role-limitations(physical), role limitations(emotional), physical functioning, social functioning, mental health, and vitality sub-scales of the SF-36 scale. When evaluating SF-36 composite scores, those living in neighborhoods with more poverty had significantly lower scores on the physical health (β-coefficient [β] = -1.90 units, 95% CI: -3.40,-0.039), mental health (β = -2.92 units, -4.31,-1.53) and global health (β = -2.77 units, -4.21,-1.33) composite scores. Conclusion In this selected group of weight loss trial participants, lower neighborhood SES was significantly associated with poorer health status. Whether these associations might influence response to the Look AHEAD weight loss intervention requires further investigation. PMID:22182286

  3. Neighborhood socioeconomic status, depression, and health status in the Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) study.

    PubMed

    Gary-Webb, Tiffany L; Baptiste-Roberts, Kesha; Pham, Luu; Wesche-Thobaben, Jacquline; Patricio, Jennifer; Pi-Sunyer, F Xavier; Brown, Arleen F; Jones-Corneille, LaShanda; Brancati, Frederick L

    2011-05-19

    Depression and diminished health status are common in adults with diabetes, but few studies have investigated associations with socio-economic environment. The objective of this manuscript was to evaluate the relationship between neighborhood-level SES and health status and depression. Individual-level data on 1010 participants at baseline in Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes), a trial of long-term weight loss among adults with type 2 diabetes, were linked to neighborhood-level SES (% living below poverty) from the 2000 US Census (tracts). Dependent variables included depression (Beck Inventory), and health status (Medical Outcomes Study (SF-36) scale). Multi-level regression models were used to account simultaneously for individual-level age, sex, race, education, personal yearly income and neighborhood-level SES. Overall, the % living in poverty in the participants' neighborhoods varied, mean =11% (range 0-67%). Compared to their counterparts in the lowest tertile of neighborhood poverty (least poverty), those in the highest tertile (most poverty) had significantly lower scores on the role-limitations(physical), role limitations(emotional), physical functioning, social functioning, mental health, and vitality sub-scales of the SF-36 scale. When evaluating SF-36 composite scores, those living in neighborhoods with more poverty had significantly lower scores on the physical health (beta-coefficient [beta]= -1.90 units, 95% CI: -3.40,-0.039), mental health (beta= -2.92 units, -4.31,-1.53) and global health (beta= -2.77 units, -4.21,-1.33) composite scores. In this selected group of weight loss trial participants, lower neighborhood SES was significantly associated with poorer health status. Whether these associations might influence response to the Look AHEAD weight loss intervention requires further investigation.

  4. The Health Status of Children Living in Urban Appalachian Neighborhoods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, M. Kathryn; Obermiller, Phillip J.

    This study compares the health status of Appalachian children living in Cincinnati neighborhoods to that of children living in five predominantly low-income black neighborhoods and children living in the rest of Cincinnati. Age-specific, standardized morbidity ratio analyses were performed to compare the frequency of admissions to hospital and…

  5. The Health Status of Children Living in Urban Appalachian Neighborhoods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, M. Kathryn; Obermiller, Phillip J.

    This study compares the health status of Appalachian children living in Cincinnati neighborhoods to that of children living in five predominantly low-income black neighborhoods and children living in the rest of Cincinnati. Age-specific, standardized morbidity ratio analyses were performed to compare the frequency of admissions to hospital and…

  6. Metabolic health status and the obesity paradox in older adults

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The explanation for reduced mortality among older persons with overweight or class I obesity compared to those of desirable weight remains unclear. Our objective was to investigate the joint effects of body mass index (BMI) and metabolic health status on all-cause mortality in a cohort of advanced a...

  7. Childhood Sexual Abuse: Impact on a Community's Mental Health Status.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Kathryn D.

    1992-01-01

    This study examined the impact of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) on the mental health status of the Los Angeles Epidemiologic Catchment Area. A history of CSA was found to significantly increase an individual's odds of developing eight psychiatric disorders in adulthood. CSA's effect on the community level was also found to be substantial.…

  8. The Health Status of Adults on the Autism Spectrum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croen, Lisa A.; Zerbo, Ousseny; Qian, Yinge; Massolo, Maria L.; Rich, Steve; Sidney, Stephen; Kripke, Clarissa

    2015-01-01

    Compared to the general pediatric population, children with autism have higher rates of co-occurring medical and psychiatric illnesses, yet very little is known about the general health status of adults with autism. The objective of this study was to describe the frequency of psychiatric and medical conditions among a large, diverse, insured…

  9. The Health Status of Adults on the Autism Spectrum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croen, Lisa A.; Zerbo, Ousseny; Qian, Yinge; Massolo, Maria L.; Rich, Steve; Sidney, Stephen; Kripke, Clarissa

    2015-01-01

    Compared to the general pediatric population, children with autism have higher rates of co-occurring medical and psychiatric illnesses, yet very little is known about the general health status of adults with autism. The objective of this study was to describe the frequency of psychiatric and medical conditions among a large, diverse, insured…

  10. Language and immigrant status effects on disparities in Hispanic children's health status and access to health care.

    PubMed

    Avila, Rosa M; Bramlett, Matthew D

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this study is to estimate Hispanic/non-Hispanic (nH)-white health disparities and assess the extent to which disparities can be explained by immigrant status and household primary language. The 2007 National Survey of Children's Health was funded by the Maternal and Child Health Bureau, and conducted by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Center for Health Statistics as a module of the State and Local Area Integrated Telephone Survey. We calculated disparities for various health indicators between Hispanic and nH-white children, and used logistic regression to adjust them for socio-economic and demographic characteristics, primary language spoken in the household, and the child's immigrant status. Controlling for language and immigrant status greatly reduces health disparities, although it does not completely eliminate all disparities showing poorer outcomes for Hispanic children. English-speaking and nonimmigrant Hispanic children are more similar to nH-white children than are Hispanic children in non-English speaking households or immigrant children. Hispanic/nH-white health disparities among children are largely driven by that portion of the Hispanic population that is either newly-arrived to this country or does not speak primarily English in the household.

  11. Employment Status and Perceived Health Status in Younger and Older People with Multiple Sclerosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krokavcova, Martina; Nagyova, Iveta; Rosenberger, Jaroslav; Gavelova, Miriam; Middel, Berrie; Gdovinova, Zuzana; Groothoff, Johan W.; van Dijk, Jitse P.

    2012-01-01

    This study explores how employment is associated with perceived physical and mental health status in people with multiple sclerosis (MS) adjusted for sociodemographic and clinical variables stratified by age. The sample consisted of 184 MS patients divided into a younger (less than 45 years) and an older (greater than or equal to 45 years) age…

  12. Employment Status and Perceived Health Status in Younger and Older People with Multiple Sclerosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krokavcova, Martina; Nagyova, Iveta; Rosenberger, Jaroslav; Gavelova, Miriam; Middel, Berrie; Gdovinova, Zuzana; Groothoff, Johan W.; van Dijk, Jitse P.

    2012-01-01

    This study explores how employment is associated with perceived physical and mental health status in people with multiple sclerosis (MS) adjusted for sociodemographic and clinical variables stratified by age. The sample consisted of 184 MS patients divided into a younger (less than 45 years) and an older (greater than or equal to 45 years) age…

  13. Forest Health in North America: Some Perspectives on Actual and Potential Roles of Climate and Air Pollution

    Treesearch

    S. McLaughlin; K. Percy

    1999-01-01

    The perceived health of forest ecosystems over large temporal and spatial scales can be strongly influenced by the frames of reference chosen to evaluate both forest condition and the functional integrity of sustaining forest processes. North American forests are diverse in range, species composition, past disturbance history, and current management practices....

  14. Nurses' misperceptions of weight status associated with their body weight, demographics and health status.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Daqiau; Norman, Ian J; While, Alison E

    2014-03-01

    To assess the agreement between self-perceived weight status and BMI status, calculated from self-reported height and weight, in nurses and to evaluate the relationship between weight status misperceptions and personal body weight, demographics and health status. Cross-sectional questionnaire survey. A large university in London, UK. Four hundred and fifty-six student nurses and 588 qualified nurses attending university were surveyed; 355 student nurses and 409 qualified nurses completed questionnaires representing a response rate of 78 % and 70 %, respectively. The respondents were mainly female (90·0 %), 66·5 % were white and their mean age was 31 years. Sixty-eight per cent of qualified nurses and 77 % of student nurses correctly perceived their weight status. In logistic regression, (mixed) black ethnicity (OR = 2·53, 95 % CI 1·01, 6·32), overweight by BMI (OR = 3·10, 95 % CI 1·31, 7·33) and ≥3 family histories of obesity co-morbidities (OR = 2·51, 95 % CI 1·04, 6·08) were significantly associated with misperceptions in the sample of student nurses, whereas overweight by BMI (OR = 5·32, 95 % CI 2·66, 10·67) was the only significant variable in the sample of qualified nurses. A substantial proportion of nurses misclassified their weight status. Nurses' misperception of weight status was related to their own BMI status, ethnic background and obesity-related family histories. Being aware of this may help nurses not only promote their own healthy weight, but also fulfil their public health role to practise weight management successfully with both patients and the public. While limitations of the sample mean that the study findings cannot be generalized, they do provide grounds for future larger-scale research.

  15. The concept of race and health status in America.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, D R; Lavizzo-Mourey, R; Warren, R C

    1994-01-01

    Race is an unscientific, societally constructed taxonomy that is based on an ideology that views some human population groups as inherently superior to others on the basis of external physical characteristics or geographic origin. The concept of race is socially meaningful but of limited biological significance. Racial or ethnic variations in health status result primarily from variations among races in exposure or vulnerability to behavioral, psychosocial, material, and environmental risk factors and resources. Additional data that capture the specific factors that contribute to group differences in disease must be collected. However, reductions in racial disparities in health will ultimately require change in the larger societal institutions and structures that determine exposure to pathogenic conditions. More attention needs to be given to the ways that racism, in its multiple forms, affects health status. Socio-economic status is a central determinant of health status, overlaps the concept of race, but is not equivalent to race. Inadequate attention has been given to the range of variation in social, cultural, and health characteristics within and between racial or ethnic minority populations. There is a growing emphasis, both within and without the Federal Government, on the collection of racial or ethnic identifiers in health data systems, but noncoverage of the Asian and Pacific Islander population, Native Americans, and subgroups of the Hispanic population is still a major problem. However, for all racial or ethnic groups, we need not only more data but better data. We must be more active in directly measuring the health-related aspects of belonging to these social categories. PMID:8303011

  16. Alcohol consumption and health status in very old veterans.

    PubMed

    Denneson, Lauren M; Lasarev, Michael R; Dickinson, Kathryn C; Dobscha, Steven K

    2011-03-01

    Previous research has linked drinking with health, but has yet to address alcohol consumption and the relationship between drinking and health among very old veterans. To help fill this gap, the authors present a cross-sectional self-report study on 1105 veterans age 90 and older who completed the national Veteran's Affairs (VA) Survey of the Health Experiences of Patients (SHEP) for fiscal year (FY) 2005. Alcohol consumption was measured using Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test scores (AUDIT-C). Health status was measured using the Veterans Rand Health Survey: VR-12. Among men (n = 1063), 60% were abstainers. No significant differences in mental health component (MCS; F(3,1040) = 1.80, P = .15) or physical health component (PCS; F(3,1040) = 1.48, P = .22) scores were detected across consumption categories. Among women (n = 42), 47% were abstainers. These results suggest many very old veterans abstain from alcohol and, among men, the associations between health status and drinking observed in younger groups may not be present in very old age.

  17. Health status as geneologic burden in aging process.

    PubMed

    Blazeković-Milaković, S; Kern, J; Kulenović, M

    2000-06-01

    Knowledge of modern molecular biology is leading to the idea that aging and diseases of the aged are two different entities. Healthy life is relatively limited by the specific number of chronic conditions which are present more in old age. Up to now the idea of aging as a process in relation to the individual, organ, tissue, cell or a molecule. There are only few studies on the influence of aging within a single family and even less of aging within several generations of the same family. Genealogic level is one way of getting into the process of family system and aging throughout time. The aim of the study was to determine the significance of genealogical burden with regard to the health status in examinees with different cognitive capabilities. The difference according to sex and age was not significant between the two groups. Health status of the examinees proband in both groups showed 34.4% healthy examinees in the group D and 65.3% in group G. The difference between the two groups was statistically significant. The difference of health status of parents (II. generation) was statistically significant in both groups. Morbidity of diseases was not statistically significant. Most of the ancestors from the grandmothers and grandfathers (III generation) died. (group G--97.5%, group D--100%). Statistically significant difference is present among the diseases of the circulatory system and those of digestive system in this generation. Data on the ancestors of the IV. generation showed that all the relatives died in both groups. The health status of the examinees with higher impairment in the test of cognitive capabilities is worse and they come from the families with worse health status.

  18. Health Status and Leisure Behavior of Sexual Assault Victims: Educational Opportunities for Health and Leisure Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheffield, Emilyn A.; And Others

    The health status and leisure behavior of victims of sexual assault were studied. Data concerning present illness symptoms, past illness symptoms, negative health behavior, family health history, and female reproductive physiology illness symptoms were obtained and analyzed. Sexual assault victims were similar to nonvictims demographically except…

  19. Status and trends monitoring of riparian and aquatic habitat in the Olympic Experimental State Forest: Monitoring protocols

    Treesearch

    Teodora Minkova; Alex D. Foster

    2017-01-01

    Presented here are the monitoring protocols for the Status and Trends Monitoring of Riparian and Aquatic Habitats project in the Olympic Experimental State Forest (OESF). The procedures yield the empirical data needed to address key uncertainties regarding the integration of timber production and habitat conservation across landscapes and assess progress toward...

  20. Northwest Forest Plan—the first 20 years (1994-2013): status and trends of northern spotted owl habitats

    Treesearch

    Raymond J. Davis; Bruce Hollen; Jeremy Hobson; Julia E. Gower; David. Keenum

    2016-01-01

    This is the third in a series of periodic monitoring reports on northern spotted owl (Strix occidentalis caurina) habitat status and trends on federally administered lands since implementation of the Northwest Forest Plan (NWFP) in 1994. The objective of this monitoring is to determine if the NWFP is providing for conservation and management of...

  1. Assessing Bisexual Stigma and Mental Health Status: A Brief Report

    PubMed Central

    Bostwick, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    Bisexual women often report higher rates of depression and mental health problems than their heterosexual and lesbian counterparts. These disparities likely occur, in part, as a result of the unique stigma that bisexual women face and experience. Such stigma can in turn operate as a stressor, thereby contributing to poor mental health status. The current pilot study tested a new measure of bisexual stigma and its association with mental health. Results suggest a moderate positive correlation between the two, and point to areas for future consideration when measuring bisexual stigma. PMID:24683314

  2. The Impact of Preventive Health Behaviors and Risk Factors on Health Status of Ghanaians

    PubMed Central

    Saeed, Bashiru I. I.; Abdul-Aziz, A. R.; Nguah, Samuel Blay; Zhao, Xicang

    2013-01-01

    The article here investigated the impact of Preventive Health Behaviors and Risk Factors as measures of Health Status of Ghanaians. We carry out a cross-sectional analysis of 5573 adults who participated and had indicated that they needed to state their health description in the three years prior to the phase 2007 World Health Organization, a study on Global Ageing and Adult health (SAGE) conducted in Ghana. The ordinal logistic regression model was employed for analysis using R. The results suggest that, there is incontrovertible evidence showing a strong relationship between preventive health behaviors and health status of Ghanaians. Again, the lifestyle of Ghanaians clearly manifests in their positive correlation with the good and moderate health state due to the high percentage (38.96% and 39.04%) respectively. The outcome points to a potential link with the Ghanaian social and health policies. PMID:23985114

  3. Oral health status of a population with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Santa Eulalia-Troisfontaines, E; Martínez-Pérez, E-M; Miegimolle-Herrero, M; Planells-Del Pozo, P

    2012-03-01

    To determine the oral treatment needs of a sample of patients diagnosed with multiple sclerosis in the Community of Madrid (Spain). A cross-sectional epidemiological study was carried out with a sample of 64 patients who were aged 25 to 77 years. They were distributed into homogeneous age groups: < 46 years, 46-54 years and > 54 years. In order to evaluate the oral health status and treatment requirements, the parameters and guidelines of the WHO were used. The prevalence of caries was 100%, or very close in all three groups. As age increased, the morbidity rate decreased, but the mortality rate increased considerably. On analyzing gingival health, 65% of patients had calculus, 5% bleeding and 30% were healthy. The DMFT index found provided data that was, in general, very similar to that of the general population in Spain. However, the gingival health status found demonstrated that the population of multiple sclerosis patients requires specific assistance.

  4. [New approaches to assessment of military personnel health status].

    PubMed

    Sivashchenko, P P; Ivanov, V V; Grigor'ev, S G; Baranovskiĭ, A M

    2013-05-01

    For the first time were suggested some indices such as the index of ratio of one unit's (higher/highest formation) hospitalization, lost worktime, discharge and mortality to the primary morbidity for one military unit and the same index of ratio to the same criteria for the group of military unit. The mentioned peculiarities are intended for impartial and comprehensive estimation of Armed Forces of the Russian Federation military personnel health status and medical units (establishments) activity. These indices include as criteria of diseases prevalence, morbidity, hospitalization, discharge and mortality characteristics. Employment of the new tools provides the possibility of the military health care system analysis by means of such health status components as military labor character peculiarities of medical support, as well as medical service forces and resources availability in the Army, Navy and Air Force.

  5. Oral health status of children with autistic disorder in Chennai.

    PubMed

    Vishnu Rekha, C; Arangannal, P; Shahed, H

    2012-06-01

    To assess the oral health status of autistic children in Chennai. Oral health status was assessed for 483 children with autism, solicited from special education schools, autistic child centres and therapy centres. Conditions assessed were plaque accumulation, gingival health, dental caries, malocclusion, developmental anomalies, oral injuries and restorations. Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests of significance were used to compare groups. Proportions test was used to compare the significance of the parameters between boys and girls. Autistic children with primary dentition showed significantly higher incidence of dental caries (24%), when compared to other oral conditions. Children with mixed dentition had more gingivitis (50%) and children with permanent dentition had more gingivitis (48.96%) and malocclusion (71.15%). All the oral conditions were seen more in boys than girls. Autistic children have significantly poor oral hygiene and higher incidence of malocclusion and dental caries when compared to other oral conditions.

  6. Using forest health monitoring data to integrate above and below ground carbon information

    Treesearch

    Barbara L. Conkling; Coeli M. Hoover; William D. Smith; Craig J. Palmer

    2002-01-01

    The national Forest Health Monitoring (FHM) program conducted a remeasurement study in 1999 to evaluate the usefulness and feasibility of collecting data needed for investigating carbon budgets in forests. This study indicated that FHM data are adequate for detecting a 20% change over 10 years (2% change per year) in percent total carbon and carbon content (MgC/ha)...

  7. Lichens, ozone, and forest health - exploring cross-indicator analyses with FIA data

    Treesearch

    Susan Will-Wolf; Sarah Jovan

    2009-01-01

    Does air pollution risk represented by a lichen bioindicator of air pollution, an ozone bioindicator, or a combination of both, correlate with forest health as reflected by condition of tree crowns and other variables? We conducted pilot analyses to answer this question using Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) data from the Sierra Nevada region of California and the...

  8. Health of eastern North American sugar maple forests and factors affecting decline

    Treesearch

    Stephen B. Horsley; Robert P. Long; Scott W. Bailey; Richard A. Hallett; Philip M. Wargo

    2002-01-01

    Sugar maple (Acer saccharum) is a keystone species in the forests of the northeastern and Midwestern United States and eastern Canada. Its sustained health is an important issue in both managed and unmanaged forests. While sugar maple generally is healthy throughout its range, decline disease of sugar maple has occurred sporadically during the past...

  9. A forest health inventory assessment of red fir (Abies magnifica) in upper montane California

    Treesearch

    Leif Mortenson; Andrew N. Gray; David C. Shaw

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the forest health of red fir (Abies magnifica) and how it compared with commonly-associated species Jeffrey pine (Pinus jeffreyi), lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) and white fir (Abies concolor) in the upper montane forests of California. We evaluated tree mortality rates...

  10. Advance regeneration in the Inland West: Considerations for individual tree and forest health

    Treesearch

    Dennis E. Ferguson

    1994-01-01

    Advance conifer regeneration readily survives release from overstory competition in the Inland West, but foresters are concerned about the ability of released trees to attain normal growth rates. There are also concerns about forest health issues associated with managing advance regeneration. The best pre-release predictors of post-release growth response are pre-...

  11. The forest health monitoring national technical reports: examples of analyses and results from 2001-2004

    Treesearch

    Mark J. Ambrose; Barbara L. Conkling; Kurt H. Riitters; John W. Coulston

    2008-01-01

    This brochure presents examples of analyses included in the first four Forest Health Monitoring (FHM) national technical reports. Its purpose is to introduce the reader to the kinds of information available in these and subsequent FHM national technical reports. Indicators presented here include drought, air pollution, forest fragmentation, and tree mortality. These...

  12. The assessment of immigration status in health research.

    PubMed

    Loue, S; Bunce, A

    1999-09-01

    This report examines methodological issues relating to immigrant health, definition of immigrant, the assessment of immigrant status, and sampling strategies with immigrant populations. A literature review was conducted for the period 1977-98, utilizing various computer data bases to identify relevant studies. A total of 179 separate U.S.-based studies were reviewed. Twenty-two sample instruments and two revised versions of instruments for the assessment of immigration status were evaluated. In general, research relating to immigrants and their health has not attended to methodological issues inherent in such investigations. Instruments utilized to assess immigration status differ across studies, making cross-study comparisons difficult. Few studies have relied on probability sampling. Almost no data are available on field performance of instruments developed to assess immigration status. Development of an appropriate instrument requires consideration of the definition of immigrant to be used, the level of respondent knowledge to be presumed, the political and social climate that exists at the time of the survey administration, the populations and geographic locales with which the instrument will be utilized, the complexity of the instrument, and methods of the instrument administration. In view of the paucity of data pertaining to the field performance of instruments used to assess immigration status, any instrument considered for use must be field tested and revised appropriately before incorporation into a national survey. The appropriateness of any particular sampling strategy should be evaluated in the context of the field testing.

  13. Socioeconomic status and child health: what is the role of health care, health conditions, injuries and maternal health?

    PubMed

    Allin, Sara; Stabile, Mark

    2012-04-01

    There is a persistent relationship between socioeconomic status and health that appears to have its roots in childhood. Not only do children in families with lower income and with mothers with lower levels of education have worse health on average than those with greater socioeconomic advantage, but also the gradient appears to steepen with age. This study contributes to the literature on the relationship between socioeconomic status and child health by testing the hypothesis that the increasing effect of family income on children's health with age relates to the children's use of health care services. It also investigates the role of specific health conditions, injuries or maternal health in explaining the steepening gradient. Drawing on a nationally representative survey from Canada, the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth from the period 1994/95-2008/09, this study provides further evidence of a steepening socioeconomic gradient in child health with age. It finds that accounting for health care use does not explain the steepening gradient and that the protective effect of income appears to be greater for those who had contact with the health system, in particular with regard to physician care and prescription drug use.

  14. Health selection operating between classes and across employment statuses.

    PubMed

    Ki, Myung; Sacker, Amanda; Kelly, Yvonne; Nazroo, James

    2011-12-01

    The debate on health selection which describes the influence of health on subsequent social mobility is highly contested. The authors set out to examine the effect of health selection by looking at the effect of previous health status on changes in socio-economic position (SEP) over two time periods. Data were pooled from 13 waves (1991-2003) of the British Household Panel Survey (BHPS). Using a multilevel multinomial approach, the presence of health selection between classes and into/out of employment was concurrently tested and compared. In the descriptive analysis, poor health was consistently associated with moving downward, while the outcome was inverse for upward movement. After accounting for the data structure using multilevel analysis, health was a predictor for social mobility when leaving and entering employment, but the effect was minimal for transitions between classes for both men and women. The non-significant impact of health on mobility inside employment may reflect the presence of the significant impact of health on mobility between employment and non-employment. This implies that the effect of health was not evenly spread over all social mobility, but rather tends to concentrate on some types of mobility. The effect of each predictor on social mobility is more concentrated among specific transitions, and health and age were likely to be substantial in moving into/out of the labour force, whereas education was a relevant predictor for mobility into/out of upper classes, in particular, classes I/II.

  15. Managing organic debris for forest health: Reconciling fire hazard, bark beetles, wildlife, and forest nutrition needs

    Treesearch

    Chris Schnepf; Russell T. Graham; Sandy Kegley; Theresa B. Jain

    2009-01-01

    Forest organic debris includes tree limbs, boles (trunks), needles, leaves, snags, and other dead organic materials. It ranges in amount and composition depending on a forest's history, tree species, condition, and age. In the Inland Northwest (Idaho, western Montana, eastern Oregon, and eastern Washington) there is a lot of discussion and concern about removing...

  16. Visual analysis of forest health using story maps: a tale of two forest insect pests

    Treesearch

    Susan J. Crocker; Brian F. Walters; Randall S. Morin

    2015-01-01

    Historically, results of surveys conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the USDA Forest Service were conveyed in printed reports, featuring text, tables and static figures. Since the advent of the Internet and with the ubiquity of mobile smart devices, technology has changed how people consume information, as well as how they experience and...

  17. Using silviculture to increase forest health: a national forest/research/state and private demonstration area

    Treesearch

    Kurt W. Gottschalk; W. Russ. MacFarlane

    1994-01-01

    A cooperative area was established on the Glenwood Ranger District, Jefferson National Forest, to demonstrate the effectiveness of silvicultural treatments in minimizing gypsy effects to the public and forest resource professionals and provide additional research data on the effectiveness of the treatments versus direct insect treatments. The silvicultural treatments...

  18. Health status of people undergoing foreclosure in the Philadelphia region.

    PubMed

    Pollack, Craig Evan; Lynch, Julia

    2009-10-01

    We assessed the health status of people undergoing mortgage foreclosure in the Philadelphia region to determine if there was a relationship between foreclosure and health. Participants were recruited in partnership with a mortgage counseling agency. Participants' health status and health care use were compared with a community sample from the 2008 Southeastern Pennsylvania Household Health Survey. We used publicly filed foreclosure records to assess response bias. Of the 250 people recruited, 36.7% met screening criteria for major depression. The foreclosure sample was significantly more likely than the community sample to not have insurance coverage (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.28; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.49, 3.48) and to not have filled a prescription because of cost in the preceding year (AOR = 3.44; 95% CI = 2.45, 4.83). Approximately 9% of the participants reported that their own or a family member's medical condition was the primary reason they were undergoing foreclosure. More than a quarter of those in foreclosure (27.7%) stated that they owed money to medical creditors. Foreclosure affects already-vulnerable populations. Public health practitioners may be able to leverage current efforts to connect homeowners with mortgage counseling agencies to improve health care access.

  19. Health status and needs of Latino dairy farmworkers in Vermont.

    PubMed

    Baker, Daniel; Chappelle, David

    2012-01-01

    Vermont is a new Latino destination where many Spanish-speaking migrants have found work on dairy farms. One hundred twenty Latino workers were surveyed on 59 Vermont dairy farms to develop a demographic profile and evaluate their self-assessed health status and barriers to care. The study found, similar to other studies, the majority of workers were young, male Mexicans. However, the workers in this study, as compared to others, originated farther south in Mexico and there were significant regional differences in educational attainment. Workers defined health in terms of their ability to work and the majority believed themselves to be in good health. The majority felt that moving to the United States has not changed their health status. The most common health issue reported was back/neck pain, followed by dental and mental health issues. Workers are both physically and linguistically isolated and reported isolation as the most challenging aspect of dairy farm work. Fear of immigration law enforcement was the primary barrier to care. Community-based initiatives, including partnerships with colleges and universities, outreach to farm employers and the adoption of "bias-free policing" are strategies that can increase access to health care for Latino dairy farmworkers in the United States.

  20. Health Status of People Undergoing Foreclosure in the Philadelphia Region

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, Julia

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed the health status of people undergoing mortgage foreclosure in the Philadelphia region to determine if there was a relationship between foreclosure and health. Methods. Participants were recruited in partnership with a mortgage counseling agency. Participants' health status and health care use were compared with a community sample from the 2008 Southeastern Pennsylvania Household Health Survey. We used publicly filed foreclosure records to assess response bias. Results. Of the 250 people recruited, 36.7% met screening criteria for major depression. The foreclosure sample was significantly more likely than the community sample to not have insurance coverage (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.28; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.49, 3.48) and to not have filled a prescription because of cost in the preceding year (AOR = 3.44; 95% CI = 2.45, 4.83). Approximately 9% of the participants reported that their own or a family member's medical condition was the primary reason they were undergoing foreclosure. More than a quarter of those in foreclosure (27.7%) stated that they owed money to medical creditors. Conclusions. Foreclosure affects already-vulnerable populations. Public health practitioners may be able to leverage current efforts to connect homeowners with mortgage counseling agencies to improve health care access. PMID:19696373

  1. Ecological health of river basins in forested regions of eastern Washington and Oregon. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Wissmar, R.C.; Smith, J.E.; McIntosh, B.A.; Li, H.W.; Reeves, G.H.

    1994-02-01

    A retrospective examination of the history of the cumulative influences of past land water uses on the ecological health of select river basins in forest regions of eastern Washington and Oregon indicates the loss of fish and riparian habitat diversity and quality since the 19th century. The study focuses on impacts of timber harvest, fire management, live stock grazing, mining and irrigation management practices on stream and riparian ecosystems. An examination of past environmental management approaches for assessing stream, riparian, and watershed conditions in forest regions shows numerous advantages and shortcomings. Rcommendations for ecosystem management with emphasis on monitoring and restoration activities are provided.

  2. Marital status and health: exploring pre-widowhood.

    PubMed

    Williams, Beverly R; Sawyer, Patricia; Roseman, Jeffrey M; Allman, Richard M

    2008-07-01

    Health and function vary by marital status across the life-course, but little is known about older adults approaching spousal loss (pre-widowed). To explore health and function by marital status focusing on the pre-widowed and to examine factors associated with shorter time to spousal loss. PARTICIPANTS, DESIGN, AND MEASUREMENTS: We used 3 years of data from African American and white community-dwelling older adults in the UAB Study of Aging (N = 1000). Participants were categorized as "continuously married" (married at baseline and 3 years), "widowed" (widowed at baseline), "single" (never married/divorced); and "pre-widowed" (married at baseline and widowed within 3 years). Assessments included sociodemographic characteristics, and measures of depression, anxiety, life-space mobility, and self-reported health. chi(2) and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to examine baseline differences. Using Cox regression, we explored factors having independent and significant associations with shorter time to spousal loss among married older adults. There were significant differences by marital status category for sociodemographic factors, health, and function. Pre-widows differed from other categories by sociodemographic characteristics as well as levels of depression, anxiety and self-reported health. Among married older adults, being female and having lower self-reported health at baseline were independent significant hazards for shorter time to widowhood; while rural residence and providing spousal care were independent significant hazards for a longer progression to widowhood. Health deficits associated with spousal bereavement may be evident earlier in the marital transition than previously thought, warranting attention to the health of elderly persons whose spouses have chronic/life-limiting conditions.

  3. Selected Health Status Measures of Children from US Immigrant Families

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Stella M.; Lin, Sue C.; Adirim, Terry

    2013-01-01

    Using the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health (N = 91,532), we studied the relationship between the joint effects of immigrant family type (foreign-born children, US-born children/one foreign-born parent, US-born children/both foreign-born parents, and US-born children/US-born parents) and race/ethnicity on various health measures (parent-reported physical and dental health, obesity/overweight, breast-feeding, school absence, injury, and chronic condition). We used weighted logistic regression to examine the independent effects of the 12-level joint variable on various health status measures while controlling for confounding factors. Overall, nearly one-third of families with both foreign-born parents were poor, and one-quarter of the parents in these households did not complete high school. Compared with non-Hispanic White US-born children, multivariable analyses indicate that all Hispanic children have higher odds of obesity, poor physical and dental health, with Hispanic foreign-born children 7 times as likely to report poor/fair physical health. Most children of immigrant parents were more likely to have been breast-fed and less likely to miss school more than 11 days. Child age and household poverty status were independently associated with most of the health status measures. Combined race/ethnicity and immigrant family type categories have heterogeneous associations with each health outcome measure examined. Culturally competent interventions and policies should be developed to serve these expanding communities. PMID:23936667

  4. Forest certification in Bolivia: A status report and analysis of stakeholder perspectives

    Treesearch

    Omar Espinoza; Michael J. Dockry

    2014-01-01

    Forest certification systems are voluntary, market-based initiatives to promote the sustainable use of forests. The assumption is that consumers prefer sustainably sourced wood products. One of the major drivers for the creation of forest certification was to prevent deforestation in tropical forests. However, after 20 years of certification, only 10 percent of the...

  5. Weight and mental health status in Massachusetts, National Survey of Children's Health, 2007.

    PubMed

    Lu, Emily; Dayalu, Rashmi; Diop, Hafsatou; Harvey, Elizabeth M; Manning, Susan E; Uzogara, Stella G

    2012-12-01

    This study explores how weight status is related to mental health status among Massachusetts children, aged 10-17 years. We used data from the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health to examine the association between weight status (body mass index-for-age) and parent-reported mental health status among Massachusetts children (N = 827). Multivariable log binomial regression was performed to calculate the adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) of three mental health outcomes (behavioral, emotional, and social) as related to weight status, after controlling for covariates including physical activity, sex, race/ethnicity, maternal education, poverty status, special health needs, and neighborhood safety. Almost one-third (32.5 %) of Massachusetts children were either overweight or obese. Sex was a significant effect modifier of the association between weight status and negative emotions. After stratifying by sex and controlling for covariates, the relationship between weight status and negative emotions remained significant among girls (aPR = 1.8, 95 % CI 1.3-2.6). Children who did not exercise at all were significantly more likely to exhibit negative behaviors (aPR = 1.3, 95 % CI 1.0-1.6), negative emotions (boys' aPR = 3.3, 95 % CI 1.6-6.9; girls' aPR = 2.6, 95 % CI 1.5-4.5), and fewer social skills (aPR = 1.9, 95 % CI 1.3-2.9) than those who exercised at least 20 min every day of the week. Overweight/obese children, especially girls, were more likely than children of normal weight to have parent-reported negative emotions, suggesting an association between weight status and mental health. Lower levels of physical activity were associated with negative mental health outcomes, supporting the benefits of physical activity for all children.

  6. Health, United States, 1998, with Socioeconomic Status and Health Chartbook

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-01-01

    annual, 1984-87, 1988-91, and 1992-95 56 15. Cigarette smoking among adolescents 12-17 years of age by family income, race, and Hispanic origin...United States, 1992 16. Overweight among adolescents 12-17 years of age by family income, race, and Hispanic origin: United States, average...annual 1988-94 17. Sedentary lifestyle among adolescents 12-17 years of age by family income and sex: United States, 1992_ 65 67 69 39 Health

  7. Observation of influences of mental health promotion and mental intervention on mental health status of professionals

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Shu-Qiang; Zhang, Jian-Ling

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To observe the influences of mental health promotion and mental intervention on mental health status of professionals. Method: 2878 professionals for physical examination were selected and randomly divided into treatment group and control group, with 1443 professionals and 1435 professionals, respectively. Then, the difference of mental health status before and after mental intervention between two groups was compared. Results: In treatment group, the proportion of people with healthy mental and modest pressure after mental intervention was higher than that before mental intervention and that in control group after mental intervention (P<0.01); the proportion of people with psychological sub-heath and moderate pressure after mental intervention was significantly lower than that before mental intervention and that in control group after mental intervention (P<0.05). There was no significant difference in mental health status in control group before and after mental intervention (P>0.05). Mental health consciousness, health status, self pressure-relief capability, job satisfaction, and happiness index of professionals were up to 63.3%~78.8%. Conclusions: Mental health promotion and mental intervention may significantly improve mental health status of professionals. PMID:26221385

  8. Subjective socioeconomic status and health in cross-national comparison.

    PubMed

    Präg, Patrick; Mills, Melinda C; Wittek, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Research has established a robust association between subjective socioeconomic status (SES) and health outcomes, which holds over and above the associations between objective markers of SES and health. Furthermore, comparative research on health inequalities has shown considerable variation in the relationship between different objective markers of SES and health across countries. Drawing on data from 29 countries, we present the first cross-national study on the subjective SES-health relationship. For two health outcomes, namely self-rated health (SRH) and psychological wellbeing, we are able to confirm that subjective SES is related to health in all countries under study, even when income, education, and occupational prestige are accounted for. Furthermore, we document considerable variation in the strength of the subjective SES-health association across countries. This variation however is largely independent of country differences in income inequality and country affluence. The health benefits of a high subjective SES appear to be slightly larger in more affluent countries, but only for SRH, not for psychological wellbeing.

  9. Current Status and Problems in Certification of Sustainable Forest Management in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jingzhu; Xie, Dongming; Wang, Danyin; Deng, Hongbing

    2011-12-01

    Forest certification is a mechanism involving the regulation of trade of forest products in order to protect forest resources and improve forest management. Although China had a late start in adopting this process, the country has made good progress in recent years. As of July 31, 2009, 17 forest management enterprises and more than one million hectares of forests in China have been certified by the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC). Several major factors affect forest certification in China. The first set is institutional in nature. Forest management in China is based on centralized national plans and therefore lacks flexibility. A second factor is public awareness. The importance and value of forest certification are not widely understood and thus consumers do not make informed choices regarding certified forest products. The third major factor is the cost of certification. Together these factors have constrained the development of China's forest certification efforts. However, the process does have great potential. According to preliminary calculations, if 50% of China's commercial forests were certified, the economic cost of forest certification would range from US0.66-86.63 million while the economic benefits for the forestry business sector could exceed US150 million. With continuing progress in forest management practices and the development of international trade in forest products, it becomes important to improve the forest certification process in China. This can be achieved by improving the forest management system, constructing and perfecting market access mechanisms for certificated forest products, and increasing public awareness of environmental protection, forest certification, and their interrelationship.

  10. Current status and problems in certification of sustainable forest management in China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jingzhu; Xie, Dongming; Wang, Danyin; Deng, Hongbing

    2011-12-01

    Forest certification is a mechanism involving the regulation of trade of forest products in order to protect forest resources and improve forest management. Although China had a late start in adopting this process, the country has made good progress in recent years. As of July 31, 2009, 17 forest management enterprises and more than one million hectares of forests in China have been certified by the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC). Several major factors affect forest certification in China. The first set is institutional in nature. Forest management in China is based on centralized national plans and therefore lacks flexibility. A second factor is public awareness. The importance and value of forest certification are not widely understood and thus consumers do not make informed choices regarding certified forest products. The third major factor is the cost of certification. Together these factors have constrained the development of China's forest certification efforts. However, the process does have great potential. According to preliminary calculations, if 50% of China's commercial forests were certified, the economic cost of forest certification would range from US$0.66-86.63 million while the economic benefits for the forestry business sector could exceed US$150 million. With continuing progress in forest management practices and the development of international trade in forest products, it becomes important to improve the forest certification process in China. This can be achieved by improving the forest management system, constructing and perfecting market access mechanisms for certificated forest products, and increasing public awareness of environmental protection, forest certification, and their interrelationship.

  11. Quality of life, health status, and health service utilization related to a new measure of health literacy: FLIGHT/VIDAS.

    PubMed

    Ownby, Raymond L; Acevedo, Amarilis; Jacobs, Robin J; Caballero, Joshua; Waldrop-Valverde, Drenna

    2014-09-01

    Researchers have identified significant limitations in some currently used measures of health literacy. The purpose of this paper is to present data on the relation of health-related quality of life, health status, and health service utilization to performance on a new measure of health literacy in a nonpatient population. The new measure was administered to 475 English- and Spanish-speaking community-dwelling volunteers along with existing measures of health literacy and assessments of health-related quality of life, health status, and healthcare service utilization. Relations among measures were assessed via correlations and health status and utilization was tested across levels of health literacy using ANCOVA models. The new health literacy measure is significantly related to existing measures of health literacy as well as to participants' health-related quality of life. Persons with lower levels of health literacy reported more health conditions, more frequent physical symptoms, and greater healthcare service utilization. The new measure of health literacy is valid and shows relations to measures of conceptually related constructs such as quality of life and health behaviors. FLIGHT/VIDAS may be useful to researchers and clinicians interested in a computer administered and scored measure of health literacy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Monitoring the health of selected eastern arc forests in Tanzania

    Treesearch

    Seif Madoffe; Gerard D. Hertel; Paul Rodgers [Rogers; Barbra [Barbara] O' Connel; Raymond Killenga

    2006-01-01

    The eastern arc mountains (EAMs) are a chain of isolated mountains (534,000 ha) in Kenya and Tanzania surrounded by arid woodlands and influenced by the Indian Ocean. In 1900 there was three times the amount of forest cover there is today. Much of the original forests have been converted into agricultural crops. These mountains are recognized as a globally important...

  13. Urban Forest Health Monitoring in the United States

    Treesearch

    David J. Nowak; Daniel Twardus; Robert Hoehn; Manfred Mielke; Bill Smith; Jeffery T. Walton; Daniel E. Crane; Anne Cumming; Jack C. Stevens

    2006-01-01

    To better understand the urban forest resource and its numerous values, the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service has initiated a pilot program to sample the urban tree population in Indiana, Wisconsin, and New Jersey and statewide urban street tree populations in Maryland, Wisconsin, and Massachusetts. Results from the pilot study in Indiana revealed that...

  14. Informal employment and health status in Central America.

    PubMed

    López-Ruiz, María; Artazcoz, Lucía; Martínez, José Miguel; Rojas, Marianela; Benavides, Fernando G

    2015-07-24

    Informal employment is assumed to be an important but seldom studied social determinant of health, affecting a large number of workers around the world. Although informal employment arrangements constitute a permanent, structural pillar of many labor markets in low- and middle-income countries, studies about its relationship with health status are still scarce. In Central America more than 60% of non-agricultural workers have informal employment. Therefore, we aimed to assess differences in self-perceived and mental health status of Central Americans with different patterns of informal and formal employment. Employment profiles were created by combining employment relations (employees, self-employed, employers), social security coverage (yes/no) and type of contract--only for employees--(written, oral, none), in a cross-sectional study of 8,823 non-agricultural workers based on the I Central American Survey of Working Conditions and Health of 2011. Using logistic regression models, adjusted odds ratios (aOR) by country, age and occupation, of poor self-perceived and mental health were calculated by sex. Different models were first fitted separately for the three dimensions of employment conditions, then for employment profiles as independent variables. Poor self-perceived health was reported by 34% of women and 27% of men, and 30% of women and 26% of men reported poor mental health. Lack of social security coverage was associated with poor self-perceived health (women, aOR: 1.38, 95% CI: 1.13-1.67; men, aOR: 1.36, 95% CI: 1.13-1.63). Almost all employment profiles with no social security coverage were significantly associated with poor self-perceived and poor mental health in both sexes. Our results show that informal employment is a significant factor in social health inequalities among Central American workers, which could be diminished by policies aimed at increasing social security coverage.

  15. Health status of Gypsies and Travellers in England.

    PubMed

    Parry, Glenys; Van Cleemput, Patrice; Peters, Jean; Walters, Stephen; Thomas, Kate; Cooper, Cindy

    2007-03-01

    To provide the first valid and reliable estimate of the health status of Gypsies and Travellers in England by using standardised instruments to compare their health with that of a UK resident non-Traveller sample, drawn from different socioeconomic and ethnic groups, matched for age and sex. Epidemiological survey, by structured interview, of quota sample and concurrent age-sex-matched comparators. The homes or alternative community settings of the participants at five study locations in England. Gypsies and Travellers of UK or Irish origin (n = 293) and an age-sex-matched comparison sample (n = 260); non-Gypsies or Travellers from rural communities, deprived inner-city White residents and ethnic minority populations. Gypsies and Travellers reported poorer health status for the last year, were significantly more likely to have a long-term illness, health problem or disability, which limits daily activities or work, had more problems with mobility, self-care, usual activities, pain or discomfort and anxiety or depression as assessed using the EuroQol-5D health utility measure, and a higher overall prevalence of reported chest pain, respiratory problems, arthritis, miscarriage and premature death of offspring. No inequality was reported in diabetes, stroke and cancer. Significant health inequalities exist between the Gypsy and Traveller population in England and their non-Gypsy counterparts, even when compared with other socially deprived or excluded groups, and with other ethnic minorities.

  16. Health status of Gypsies and Travellers in England

    PubMed Central

    Parry, Glenys; Van Cleemput, Patrice; Peters, Jean; Walters, Stephen; Thomas, Kate; Cooper, Cindy

    2007-01-01

    Objective To provide the first valid and reliable estimate of the health status of Gypsies and Travellers in England by using standardised instruments to compare their health with that of a UK resident non‐Traveller sample, drawn from different socioeconomic and ethnic groups, matched for age and sex. Design Epidemiological survey, by structured interview, of quota sample and concurrent age–sex‐matched comparators. Setting The homes or alternative community settings of the participants at five study locations in England. Participants Gypsies and Travellers of UK or Irish origin (n = 293) and an age–sex‐matched comparison sample (n = 260); non‐Gypsies or Travellers from rural communities, deprived inner‐city White residents and ethnic minority populations. Results Gypsies and Travellers reported poorer health status for the last year, were significantly more likely to have a long‐term illness, health problem or disability, which limits daily activities or work, had more problems with mobility, self‐care, usual activities, pain or discomfort and anxiety or depression as assessed using the EuroQol‐5D health utility measure, and a higher overall prevalence of reported chest pain, respiratory problems, arthritis, miscarriage and premature death of offspring. No inequality was reported in diabetes, stroke and cancer. Conclusions Significant health inequalities exist between the Gypsy and Traveller population in England and their non‐Gypsy counterparts, even when compared with other socially deprived or excluded groups, and with other ethnic minorities. PMID:17325395

  17. Elder Mistreatment and Health Status of Rural Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Chokkanathan, Srinivasan

    2015-11-01

    There is limited information on the nature of and health factors associated with elder mistreatment in rural areas. To address this gap in the literature, the current study described the nature of such mistreatment and investigated the association between different types of mistreatment and health factors among 897 randomly selected elderly persons in rural India. The results show that elder mistreatment was widely prevalent (21%). Furthermore, the higher frequency of and simultaneous occurrence of multiple types of mistreatment (83.4%) suggest that mistreatment was a continuous stressor. The presence of overall mistreatment was positively associated with depression symptoms and subjective health status. The higher levels of chronicity and multiple mistreatments further increased depression symptoms and lowered the health status of those who were mistreated. Although women, more than men, were more likely to experience mistreatment, chronic mistreatment, and multiple mistreatments, there were no significant gender differences in the mistreatment-health relationship. These findings suggest that older adults with depression symptoms and poor health should be screened for mistreatment. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Assessment of the 1998–2001 drought impact on forest health in southeastern forests: an analysis of drought severity using FHM data

    Treesearch

    R. J. Klos; G. G. Wang; W. L. Bauerle

    2010-01-01

    Analyses of forest health indicators monitored through the Forest Health and Monitoring (FHM) program suggested that weather was the most important cause of tree mortality. Drought is of particular importance among weather variables because several global climate change scenarios predicted more frequent and/or intense drought in the Southeastern United States. During...

  19. Using physiological dysregulation to assess global health status: associations with self-rated health and health behaviors.

    PubMed

    Hampson, Sarah E; Goldberg, Lewis R; Vogt, Thomas M; Hillier, Teresa A; Dubanoski, Joan P

    2009-03-01

    Six measures of physiological dysregulation were derived from 11 clinically assessed biomarkers, and related to health outcomes and health behaviors for the Hawaii Personality and Health cohort (N = 470). Measures summing extreme scores at one tail of the biomarker distributions performed better than ones summing both tails, and continuous measures performed better than count scores. Health behaviors predicted men's dysregulation but not women's. Dysregulation and health behaviors predicted self-rated health for both men and women, and depressive symptoms predicted self-rated health only for women. These findings provide preliminary guidelines for constructing valid summary measures of global health status for use in health psychology.

  20. Health status: does it predict choice in further education?

    PubMed

    Koivusilta, L; Rimpelä, A; Rimpelä, M

    1995-04-01

    To study the significance of a young person's health to his or her choice of further education at age 16. A cross sectional population survey The whole of Finland. A representative sample of 2977 Finnish 16 year olds. The response rate was 83%. The three outcome variables reflected successive steps on the way to educational success: school attendance after the completion of compulsory schooling, the type of school, and school achievement for those at school. Continuing their education and choosing upper secondary school were most typical of young people from upper social classes. Female gender and living with both parents increased the probability of choosing to go on to upper secondary school. Over and above these background variables, some health factors had additional explanatory power. Continuing their education, attending upper secondary schools, and good achievement were typical of those who considered their health to be good. Chronically ill adolescents were more likely to continue their education than the healthy ones. School imposes great demands on young people, thus revealing differences in personal health resources. Adaptation to the norms of a society in which education is highly valued is related to satisfying health status. In a welfare state that offers equal educational opportunities for everyone, however, chronically ill adolescents can add to their resources for coping through schooling. Health related selection thus works differently for various indicators of health and in various kinds of societies. Social class differences in health in the future may be more dependent on personally experienced health problems than on medically diagnosed diseases.

  1. Mining Discriminative Patterns to Predict Health Status for Cardiopulmonary Patients

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Qian; Shang, Jingbo; Juen, Joshua; Han, Jiawei; Schatz, Bruce

    2017-01-01

    Smartphones are ubiquitous now, but it is still unclear what physiological functions they can monitor at clinical quality. Pulmonary function is a standard measure of health status for cardiopulmonary patients. We have shown that predictive models can accurately classify cardiopulmonary conditions from healthy status, as well as different severity levels within cardiopulmonary disease, the GOLD stages. Here we propose several universal models to monitor cardiopulmonary conditions, including DPClass, a novel learning approach we designed. We carefully prepare motion dataset covering status from GOLD 0 (healthy), GOLD 1 (mild), GOLD 2 (moderate), all the way to GOLD 3 (severe). Sixty-six subjects participate in this study. After de-identification, their walking data are applied to train the predictive models. The RBF-SVM model yields the highest accuracy while the DPClass model provides better interpretation of the model mechanisms. We not only provide promising solutions to monitor health status by simply carrying a smartphone, but also demonstrate how demographics influences predictive models of cardiopulmonary disease. PMID:28174760

  2. Effect of motivational interviewing-based health coaching on employees' physical and mental health status.

    PubMed

    Butterworth, Susan; Linden, Ariel; McClay, Wende; Leo, Michael C

    2006-10-01

    Motivational Interviewing (MI) based health coaching is a relatively new behavioral intervention that has gained popularity in public health because of its ability to address multiple behaviors, health risks, and illness self-management. In this study, 276 employees at a medical center self-selected to participate in either a 3-month health coaching intervention or control group. The treatment group showed significant improvement in both SF-12 physical (p = .035) and mental (p = .0001) health status compared to controls. Because of concerns of selection bias, a matched case-control analysis was also performed, eliciting similar results. These findings suggest that MI-based health coaching is effective in improving both physical and mental health status in an occupational setting.

  3. Status and distribution of mangrove forests of the world using earth observation satellite data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Giri, Chandra; Ochieng, E.; Tieszen, Larry L.; Zhu, Zhi-Liang; Singh, Ashbindu; Loveland, Thomas R.; Masek, Jeffery G.; Duke, Norm

    2011-01-01

    Aim  Our scientific understanding of the extent and distribution of mangrove forests of the world is inadequate. The available global mangrove databases, compiled using disparate geospatial data sources and national statistics, need to be improved. Here, we mapped the status and distributions of global mangroves using recently available Global Land Survey (GLS) data and the Landsat archive. Methods  We interpreted approximately 1000 Landsat scenes using hybrid supervised and unsupervised digital image classification techniques. Each image was normalized for variation in solar angle and earth–sun distance by converting the digital number values to the top-of-the-atmosphere reflectance. Ground truth data and existing maps and databases were used to select training samples and also for iterative labelling. Results were validated using existing GIS data and the published literature to map ‘true mangroves’. Results  The total area of mangroves in the year 2000 was 137,760 km2 in 118 countries and territories in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Approximately 75% of world's mangroves are found in just 15 countries, and only 6.9% are protected under the existing protected areas network (IUCN I-IV). Our study confirms earlier findings that the biogeographic distribution of mangroves is generally confined to the tropical and subtropical regions and the largest percentage of mangroves is found between 5° N and 5° S latitude. Main conclusions  We report that the remaining area of mangrove forest in the world is less than previously thought. Our estimate is 12.3% smaller than the most recent estimate by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations. We present the most comprehensive, globally consistent and highest resolution (30 m) global mangrove database ever created. We developed and used better mapping techniques and data sources and mapped mangroves with better spatial and thematic details than previous studies.

  4. Status and distribution of mangrove forests of the world using earth observation satellite data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Giri, C.; Ochieng, E.; Tieszen, L.L.; Zhu, Z.; Singh, A.; Loveland, T.; Masek, J.; Duke, N.

    2011-01-01

    Aim Our scientific understanding of the extent and distribution of mangrove forests of the world is inadequate. The available global mangrove databases, compiled using disparate geospatial data sources and national statistics, need to be improved. Here, we mapped the status and distributions of global mangroves using recently available Global Land Survey (GLS) data and the Landsat archive.Methods We interpreted approximately 1000 Landsat scenes using hybrid supervised and unsupervised digital image classification techniques. Each image was normalized for variation in solar angle and earth-sun distance by converting the digital number values to the top-of-the-atmosphere reflectance. Ground truth data and existing maps and databases were used to select training samples and also for iterative labelling. Results were validated using existing GIS data and the published literature to map 'true mangroves'.Results The total area of mangroves in the year 2000 was 137,760 km2 in 118 countries and territories in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Approximately 75% of world's mangroves are found in just 15 countries, and only 6.9% are protected under the existing protected areas network (IUCN I-IV). Our study confirms earlier findings that the biogeographic distribution of mangroves is generally confined to the tropical and subtropical regions and the largest percentage of mangroves is found between 5?? N and 5?? S latitude.Main conclusions We report that the remaining area of mangrove forest in the world is less than previously thought. Our estimate is 12.3% smaller than the most recent estimate by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations. We present the most comprehensive, globally consistent and highest resolution (30 m) global mangrove database ever created. We developed and used better mapping techniques and data sources and mapped mangroves with better spatial and thematic details than previous studies. ?? 2010 Blackwell

  5. [Health status of nursing workers in functional retraining and readaptation].

    PubMed

    Cacciari, Pâmella; Haddad, Maria do Carmo Lourenço; Vannuchi, Marli Terezinha Oliveira; Dalmas, José Carlos

    2013-12-01

    Cross-sectional descriptive study aimed to assess the health status of nursing staff retrained due to illness of a public university hospital in northern Paraná, Brazil. Data of 34 workers were collected through the application of the Medical Outcomes Studies 36 items - Short Form (MOS SF-36). The results showed that physical problems were the reason for retraining in 91.2 % of cases. Of the eight domains assessed by the MOS SF -36, the worst scores referred to bodily pain, vitality and general health and the best scores were attributed to aspects of the mental health component. Workers retrained due to physical reason had lower scores in all domains except emotional performance in relation to those with mental problem. The evaluation of the perceived health of these workers showed that retraining due to illness is a strategy developed to enhance the functional capacity of workers, despite their limitations.

  6. [Health economic evaluation reporting guideline and application status].

    PubMed

    Xiao, J; Sun, J F; Wang, Q Q; Qi, X; Yao, H Y

    2017-03-06

    Using the guidelines of health economic evaluation reporting is conducive to regulating the contents of this reporting, improving the quality of studies into health economics evaluation. This article summarized the history of the guidelines and specified the instrument used to study " Quality of Health Economic Studies (QHES)" and the checklist about Consolidated Health Economics Evaluation Reporting Standards (CHEERS)-the two specific evaluation contents in this guideline, the article also introduced its present application status of the guideline and its pros and cons. The checklist of CHEERS emphasized the evaluation of this report, while QHES instrument focused on quantitative evaluation on the quality of economic studies. Despite different emphasis, the two guides are actually mutually complemented.

  7. Certification programs for eHealth--status quo.

    PubMed

    Urbauer, Philipp; Herzog, Juliane; Pohn, Birgit; Forjan, Mathias; Sauermann, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    The skills of the workforce are a core factor for the quality of healthcare systems. On top of the basic education, postgraduate training is an important factor for continuously maintaining as well as improving the workforce qualification level. Advanced training often provides certification of the acquired skills. This paper analyses the status quo of international certification programs in the sector of eHealth (EU, US, Global). It uses available literature and observations from international educational expert's workgroups. It identifies gaps regarding certifications in eHealth and suggests steps for solutions. Despite little attention to legal and financial eHealth related content in certification programs in the EU as well as a low degree of harmonization of international certifications in general, there are strong activities especially in the international scope towards personal certification programs in eHealth. Major changes are to be expected within the coming years.

  8. Health status assessment via the World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Bell, D S; Kahn, C E

    1996-01-01

    We explored the use of the World Wide Web to collect health status information for medical outcomes research. The RAND 36-Item Health Survey 1.0 (RAND-36), which contains the 36 multiple-choice questions of the Medical Outcomes Study SF-36 "Short Form" and differs only in its simplified scoring scheme, was made available for anonymous use on the Internet. Participation in the survey was invited through health-related Internet news groups and mailing lists. Participants entered data and received, their scores using the World Wide Web protocol. Entries were recorded from 15 June 1995 to 14 June 1996 (1 year). The survey was completed anonymously by 4876 individuals with access to the World Wide Web. Two-thirds completed the survey within 5 minutes, and 97% did so within 10 minutes. The item-completion rate was 99.28%. Values of Cronbach's alpha of 0.76 to 0.90 for the scoring scales matched the high reliability found in the Medical Outcomes Study. The World Wide Web provides a method of rapidly measuring individual health status and may play an important role in advancing health services research and outcomes-based patient care.

  9. The current status of environmental health research in Australia.

    PubMed

    Gowland, Angela; Cook, Angus; Heyworth, Jane

    2012-01-01

    At present, the extent of environmental health research in Australia is unclear and there are no recent overarching reviews of national publications on the subject. This study investigates the current status of environmental health research in Australia using a bibliometric analysis. Three databases (Medline, Web of Science, and AUSTHealth) were used to access original, peer-reviewed journal articles with Australian data published between 1 January 2001 and 11 June 2010. A total of 337 articles from 174 different journal titles were used in the analysis and were classified according to 15 pre-determined environmental health areas. The highest number of articles related to water health and resources (66 articles), exposure to hazardous chemicals (57 articles), and air pollution including indoor air (58 articles). These areas made up 54% of the total publication output over the past 10 years. The amount of environmental health research published in Australia over the past 10 years, and the topics explored in these studies, is comparable to that of other countries of similar socio-economic status.

  10. Characterization of P status in forest soils: stocks, fluxes and models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achat, D. L.; Morel, C.; Bakker, M.; Augusto, L.; Gallet-Budynek, A.; Gonzalez, M.; Jonard, M.

    2010-12-01

    Phosphorus (P) is a critical limiting factor of plant growth and production in many ecosystems, which often require to be fertilized. However, there is an increasing concern regarding appropriate local and global management of phosphorus resources, since the existing finite phosphate reserves are rapidly being depleted. This implies to understand what processes (biological, physico-chemical) are governing soil P availability in agroecosystems, and in particular in forests, which will be increasingly managed for their C-sink potential in the future. We characterized the P status in forest soils of the largest managed pine forest in Europe (Landes of Gascogne, southwest of France) using isotopic and extraction methods, as well as modelling approaches. Total P concentration in topsoils were extremely low, ranging from 7 to 195 mg Pkg-1. The concentration of phosphate ions in solution decreased with depth and was related to the Al and Fe oxide content, which controlled the diffusion of P from the soil solid phase to the solution. The gross amount of diffusive P in one week as determined by 32P isotopic dilution in batch experiments was low, ranging from 0.2 to 52 mg P kg-1 in the topsoil layer, and could be predicted by pedotransfer functions built on the Al and Fe oxide and soil organic matter contents. Organic P represented 80% of total P in litter and 60% in the surface mineral soil layer, suggesting a higher contribution of biological processes to soil P cycling. Biological mineralization of organic P was quantified using a long-term incubation study (154 days) of a low-sorbing soil labelled with 33P, associated with a batch experiment with 32P labelled soil: gross mineralization of dead soil organic matter and diffusive phosphate P were low (<1 mg kg-1 ) compared to the remineralization of microbial P (14mg kg-1). A modelling approach combined to these isotopic measurements showed that 80 % of microbial P turned over very quickly (5-9 days), while 20% turned over

  11. The Contribution of Health Literacy to Disparities in Self-Rated Health Status and Preventive Health Behaviors in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Ian M.; Chen, Jing; Soroui, Jaleh S.; White, Sheida

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE Health literacy is associated with a range of poor health-related outcomes. Evidence that health literacy contributes to disparities in health is minimal and based on brief screening instruments that have limited ability to assess health literacy. The purpose of this study was to assess whether health literacy contributes, through mediation, to racial/ethnic and education-related disparities in self-rated health status and preventive health behaviors among older adults. METHODS We undertook a cross-sectional study of a nationally representative sample of 2,668 US adults aged 65 years and older from the 2003 National Assessment of Adult Literacy. Multiple regression analysis was used to assess for evidence of mediation. RESULTS Of older adults in the United States, 29% reported fair or poor health status, and 27% to 39% reported not utilizing 3 recommended preventive health care services in the year preceding the assessment (influenza vaccination 27%, mammography 34%, dental checkup 39%). Health literacy and the 4 health outcomes (self-rated health status and utilization of the 3 preventive health care services) varied by race/ethnicity and educational attainment. Regression analyses indicated that, after controlling for potential confounders, health literacy significantly mediated both racial/ethnic and education-related disparities in self-rated health status and receipt of influenza vaccination, but only education-related disparities in receipt of mammography and dental care. CONCLUSIONS Health literacy contributes to disparities associated with race/ethnicity and educational attainment in self-rated health and some preventive health behaviors among older adults. Interventions addressing low health literacy may reduce these disparities. PMID:19433837

  12. Association Between Oral Health and Cognitive Status: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Bei; Fillenbaum, Gerda G.; Plassman, Brenda L.; Guo, Liang

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES We have carried out a systematic review of longitudinal studies examining the association between oral health and cognitive decline. DESIGN Studies, published 01/1993-03/2013, were identified by search of English language publications in PubMed/Medline using relevant MeSH terms and title/abstract keywords, and from CINAHL using relevant subject headings. After applying eligibility criteria, and adding four studies identified from article references, 56 of the 1412 articles identified remained: 40 were cross-sectional, and 16 longitudinal; 11 of the latter examined the impact of oral health on change in cognitive health or dementia incidence, five examined the reverse. SETTING Sources of information included administrative data, subject evaluations in parent studies, medical and dental records, self-reports, and in-person evaluations. MEASUREMENTS Most studies used subjects whose oral or cognitive status was known, adding the missing piece using standard measures. The oral health information most frequently studied included number of teeth, periodontal and caries problems, and denture use. Cognition was most frequently evaluated using the MMSE, or by determination of dementia. RESULTS Some studies found that oral health measures such as number of teeth and periodontal disease were associated with increased risk of cognitive decline or incident dementia, while others did not find the association. Similarly, cognitive decline was not consistently associated with greater loss of teeth or number of caries. Methodological limitations likely play a major role in explaining the inconsistent findings. CONCLUSION It is unclear how or whether oral health and cognitive status are related. Additional research is needed in which there is greater agreement on how oral health and cognitive states are assessed, in order to better examine the linkages between these two health outcomes. PMID:27037761

  13. Health Status and Health Dynamics in an Empirical Model of Expected Longevity*

    PubMed Central

    Benítez-Silva, Hugo; Ni, Huan

    2010-01-01

    Expected longevity is an important factor influencing older individuals’ decisions such as consumption, savings, purchase of life insurance and annuities, claiming of Social Security benefits, and labor supply. It has also been shown to be a good predictor of actual longevity, which in turn is highly correlated with health status. A relatively new literature on health investments under uncertainty, which builds upon the seminal work by Grossman (1972), has directly linked longevity with characteristics, behaviors, and decisions by utility maximizing agents. Our empirical model can be understood within that theoretical framework as estimating a production function of longevity. Using longitudinal data from the Health and Retirement Study, we directly incorporate health dynamics in explaining the variation in expected longevities, and compare two alternative measures of health dynamics: the self-reported health change, and the computed health change based on self-reports of health status. In 38% of the reports in our sample, computed health changes are inconsistent with the direct report on health changes over time. And another 15% of the sample can suffer from information losses if computed changes are used to assess changes in actual health. These potentially serious problems raise doubts regarding the use and interpretation of the computed health changes and even the lagged measures of self-reported health as controls for health dynamics in a variety of empirical settings. Our empirical results, controlling for both subjective and objective measures of health status and unobserved heterogeneity in reporting, suggest that self-reported health changes are a preferred measure of health dynamics. PMID:18187217

  14. Exploration of health status, healthcare utilization, and health service expectations among Taiwanese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Meng-Che; Lin, Sheng-Hsiang; Chou, Yen-Yin; Lin, Shio-Jean

    2014-02-01

    There have been few reports about adolescent experiences with and expectations of health service utilization in an Asian societal setting. The aim of this study is to analyze the use of healthcare services in relation to health status and explore adolescents' preferences for youth-friendly service among Taiwanese high school students. A cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey was conducted on Taiwanese adolescents aged 12–18 years in 2010.We invited participants to rate their health status, report their previous healthcare service use, and rank their health service preferences.We used logistic regression analysis to investigate the association between self-rated health status and healthcare utilization and used nonparametric analysis to compare health service preferences among sociodemographic subgroups. A total of 4,907 students (97.2 % response rate) returned valid questionnaires for analysis. Poor health status and chronic illness were most salient factors independently associated with frequent healthcare service use. Only 40 % of respondents reported having a regular doctor, and pediatrics (57.7 %) was the most commonly identified professional source of medical care. A great majority (86.2 %) of respondents made clinical visits with parents. For characteristics of youth-friendly clinician, the top-ranked items included competency and patience, while having helpful and friendly personnel was highlighted for clinical setting. Family participation is critical in healthcare for adolescents in Asian cultures. Health service use is significantly influenced by health status and chronic illness in the general health insurance system. Understanding these background influences on expectations for healthcare may help to create youth-friendly health services that are more culturally appropriate.

  15. Oral health behavior of parents as a predictor of oral health status of their children.

    PubMed

    Bozorgmehr, Elham; Hajizamani, Abolghasem; Malek Mohammadi, Tayebeh

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. It is widely acknowledged that the behavior of parents affects their children's health. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between oral health behavior of parents and oral health status and behavior of their children in a sample of preschool children in Iran. Method and Material. A random sample of over-five-year-old preschool children and their parents were enrolled in the study. Selection of schools was by clustering method. Parents were asked to fill a piloted questionnaire which included demographic characteristics, socioeconomic status, oral health behaviors of children and their parents. Oral health status of children was examined. The parent and their children oral health relationship were tested using regression and correlation analysis. Results. About 222 parents and children participated in the study. There was a significant relationship between history of having dental problems in parents and dmft index in their children (P = 0.01). There was a significant relationship between parental frequency of tooth brushing and child frequency of tooth brushing (P = 0.05); however, there was no significant relationship between parental frequency of dental visits and those of their children (P = 0.1). Conclusion. The study concluded that some important health behaviors in parents, such as tooth brushing habits are important determinants of these behaviors in their young children. So promoting parent knowledge and attitude could affect their children oral health behavior and status.

  16. Health Status and Health Risks of the "Hidden Majority" of Adults with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emerson, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the health status of and health risks faced by adults with intellectual disability who do not use intellectual disability services. Self-report data collected from 1,022 people with mild intellectual disability in England indicated that people who do not use intellectual disability services are more likely to smoke tobacco…

  17. Health Status and Satisfaction with Health Care: Results from the Medical Outcomes Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Grant N.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Relations between self-assessed health status and satisfaction with health care were examined using two waves of data obtained from participants in the Medical Outcomes Study. Using a multisample covariance modeling framework, separate models were examined for patients with significant symptoms of depression (N=417) and patients with chronic…

  18. Domestic Violence and its Effect on Oral Health Behaviour and Oral Health Status

    PubMed Central

    P, Basavaraj; Singla, Ashish; Kote, Sunder; Singh, Shilpi; Jain, Swati; Singh, Khushboo; Vashishtha, Vaibhav

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Violence against women is one of the major public health and human rights problem in the world today. Hence, the present study was conducted with the aim to assess the effect of domestic violence on oral health behavior and oral health status of females attending community outreach programmes in and around Modinagar. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted through the community outreach programmes organized in Modinagar. A structured questionnaire was used to illicit information regarding socio demographic characteristics, oral health behavior and domestic violence. The dental health examination was done to record dental health status, intraoral and extraoral soft tissue injury, tooth fracture and tooth avulsion due to the injury. Results: Out of the total 304 women, 204(67.1%) reported positive domestic violence. Psychological violence was found to be severe whereas sexual violence was found to be mild in most of the cases. Significant difference was found between oral hygiene aids used , frequency of tooth brushing, periodontal status, missing teeth, intraoral soft tissue injuries and fractures between both the groups (p<0.05). Conclusion: The present study confirmed that domestic violence had significant influence on oral health behavior and oral health status of women. Thus, the dental professionals also should make an attempt to help victims gain access to support and referral services and to provide adequate treatment to them so as to make a positive difference in their lives. PMID:25584297

  19. Health Status and Health Risks of the "Hidden Majority" of Adults with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emerson, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the health status of and health risks faced by adults with intellectual disability who do not use intellectual disability services. Self-report data collected from 1,022 people with mild intellectual disability in England indicated that people who do not use intellectual disability services are more likely to smoke tobacco…

  20. Acid rain impacts on calcium nutrition and forest health

    Treesearch

    Donald H. DeHayes; Paul G. Schaberg; Gary J. Hawley; G. Richard Strimbeck

    1999-01-01

    Forest ecosystems throughout the world are exposed to acid rain, a complex solution consisting largely of H+, SO42-, NH4+, and NO3- pollutant ions derived from sulfur and nitrogen oxides. Although the public in...

  1. Planted forest health: The need for a global strategy.

    PubMed

    Wingfield, M J; Brockerhoff, E G; Wingfield, B D; Slippers, B

    2015-08-21

    Several key tree genera are used in planted forests worldwide, and these represent valuable global resources. Planted forests are increasingly threatened by insects and microbial pathogens, which are introduced accidentally and/or have adapted to new host trees. Globalization has hastened tree pest emergence, despite a growing awareness of the problem, improved understanding of the costs, and an increased focus on the importance of quarantine. To protect the value and potential of planted forests, innovative solutions and a better-coordinated global approach are needed. Mitigation strategies that are effective only in wealthy countries fail to contain invasions elsewhere in the world, ultimately leading to global impacts. Solutions to forest pest problems in the future should mainly focus on integrating management approaches globally, rather than single-country strategies. A global strategy to manage pest issues is vitally important and urgently needed.

  2. Forest Health Monitoring in Pennsylvania 1998-1999

    Treesearch

    Northeastern Research Station

    2002-01-01

    Pennsylvania has mature forests dominated by hardwood species. Red maple was common in all size classes. Most trees are healthy, with full crowns (low transparency, high density), little dieback, and little damage.

  3. Stress, Coping, Health Practices, and Health Status in Enlisted and Officer Air Force Women with Dependent Children

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-08-01

    Stress Scale, the Jaloweic Coping Scale, the Personal Lifestyle Questionaire , the Perceived Health Status Index and an demographic sheet devised by...AD-A218 164 (j) Stress, Coping, Health Practices, and Health Status in Enlisted and Officer Air Force Women with Dependent Children DTIC BY FEB 22...NO. 11. TiTLE (Include Security Classification) (UNCLASSIFIED) Stress, Coping, Health Practices, and Health Status in Enlisted and Officer Air Force

  4. Health and human rights: epistemological status and perspectives of development.

    PubMed

    Mpinga, Emmanuel Kabengele; London, Leslie; Chastonay, Philippe

    2011-08-01

    The health and human rights movement (HHR) shows obvious signs of maturation both internally and externally. Yet there are still many questions to be addressed. These issues include the movement's epistemological status and its perspectives of development. This paper discusses critically the conditions of emergence of HHR, its identity, its dominant schools of thought, its epistemological postures and its methodological issues. Our analysis shows that: (a) the epistemological status of HHR is ambiguous; (b) its identity is uncertain in the absence of a validated definition: is it an action movement, an interdisciplinary field, a domain, an approach, a setting or a scientific discipline? (c) its main schools of thoughts are defined as "advocacists", "ethicists", "interventionists", "normativists"; (d) the movement is in the maturation process as a discipline in which "interface", "distance", "interference" and "fusion" epistemological postures represent the fundamental steps; (e) parent disciplines (health sciences and law) competences, logics and cultures introduce duality and difficulties in knowledge production, validation and diffusion; (f) there is need to re-write the history of the HHR movement by inscribing it not only into the humanitarian or public health perspectives but also into the evolution of sciences and its social, political and economical conditions of emergence. The ambiguous epistemological status of this field, the need to re-write its history, the methodological duality in its research, the question of the competence of the knowledge validation, as well as the impact of HHR practice on national and international health governance are the challenges of its future development. To meet those challenges; we call for the creation and implementation of an international research agenda, the exploration of new research topics and the evaluation of the movement's contribution to the national and global public health and human rights governance.

  5. Changes in health insurance coverage and health status by race and ethnicity, 1997-2002.

    PubMed Central

    Wherry, Laura; Finegold, Kenneth

    2004-01-01

    Recent years have seen shifts in health insurance coverage associated with economic fluctuations and changes in health policy. The analysis presented here uses data from the National Survey of America's Families to examine changes in health insurance coverage and respondent-reported health status by race and ethnicity. The data indicate that public coverage increased for black, Hispanic and white children between 1997 and 2002. Uninsurance rates fell among children in low-income black, Hispanic and white families, remained constant among black and white children in higher-income families, and increased among higher-income Hispanic children. The health status of children was stable for blacks, Hispanics and whites except for a decline in health among higher-income Hispanic children. Black and white adults saw increases in public health insurance coverage but not in overall coverage. The uninsurance rate of Hispanic adults increased, despite expanded public coverage of higher-income Hispanic adults. None of these developments altered racial and ethnic disparities in health. Hispanics fared worse than blacks in both health status and insurance coverage, and blacks fared worse than whites. Given the anticipated growth of minority populations in the United States, the nation's health will deteriorate if policymakers allow current disparities to continue. PMID:15622687

  6. Effect of health development assistance on health status in sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Negeri, Keneni Gutema; Halemariam, Damen

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Data on the effect of health aid on the health status in developing countries are inconclusive. Moreover, studies on this issue in sub-Saharan Africa are scarce. Therefore, this study aims to analyze the effect of health development aid in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods Using panel data analytic method, as well as infant mortality rate as a proxy for health status, this study examines the effect of health aid on infant mortality rate in sub-Saharan Africa. The panel was constructed from data on 43 countries for the period 1990–2010. Fixed effect, random effect, and first difference generalized method of moments estimator were used for estimation. Results Health development aid has a statistically significant positive effect. A 1% increase of health development assistance per capita saves the lives of two infants per 1,000 live births (P=0.000) in the region. Conclusion Contrary to health aid pessimists’ view, this study observes the fact that health development assistance has strong favorable effect in improving health status in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:27103844

  7. Health literacy, cognitive ability, and functional health status among older adults.

    PubMed

    Serper, Marina; Patzer, Rachel E; Curtis, Laura M; Smith, Samuel G; O'Conor, Rachel; Baker, David W; Wolf, Michael S

    2014-08-01

    To investigate whether previously noted associations between health literacy and functional health status might be explained by cognitive function. Health Literacy and Cognition in Older Adults ("LitCog," prospective study funded by National Institute on Aging). Data presented are from interviews conducted among 784 adults, ages 55-74 years receiving care at an academic general medicine clinic or one of four federally qualified health centers in Chicago from 2008 to 2010. Study participants completed structured, in-person interviews administered by trained research assistants. Health literacy was measured using the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults, Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine, and Newest Vital Sign. Cognitive function was assessed using measures of long-term and working memory, processing speed, reasoning, and verbal ability. Functional health was assessed with SF-36 physical health summary scale and Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System short form subscales for depression and anxiety. All health literacy measures were significantly correlated with all cognitive domains. In multivariable analyses, inadequate health literacy was associated with worse physical health and more depressive symptoms. After adjusting for cognitive abilities, associations between health literacy, physical health, and depressive symptoms were attenuated and no longer significant. Cognitive function explains a significant proportion of the associations between health literacy, physical health, and depression among older adults. Interventions to reduce literacy disparities in health care should minimize the cognitive burden in behaviors patients must adopt to manage personal health. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  8. Status of the Longleaf Pine Forests of the West Gulf Coastal Plain

    Treesearch

    Kenneth W. Outcalt

    1997-01-01

    Datafrom the USDA Forest Service, forest inventory and analyses permanent field plot were used to track changes in longleaf pine (Pinuspalustris Mill.) communities in Texas and Louisiana between 1985 and 1995. The decline of longleaf forest has continued in Louisiana. Texas had much less longleaf type in 1985, but unlike Louisiana there has been a small increase in the...

  9. Moving from status to trends: Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) symposium 2012

    Treesearch

    Randall S. Morin; Greg C. Liknes

    2012-01-01

    These proceedings report invited presentations and contributions to the 2012 biennial Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Symposium, which was hosted by the Research and Development branch of the U.S. Forest Service. As the only comprehensive and continuous census of the forests in the United States, FIA provides strategic information needed to evaluate sustainability...

  10. Integrating studies in the Missouri Ozark Forest Ecosystem Project: Status and outlook

    Treesearch

    David Gwaze; Stephen Sheriff; John Kabrick; Larry. Vangilder

    2011-01-01

    The Missouri Ozark Forest Ecosystem Project (MOFEP), which was started in 1989 by the Missouri Department of Conservation, evaluates the effects of forest management practices (even-aged management, uneven-aged management, and no-harvest management) on upland oak-forest components in southern Missouri. MOFEP is a long-term, landscape-level, fully replicated, and...

  11. [Oral health status of adolescents in México City].

    PubMed

    Ortega-Maldonado, Miriam; Mota-Sanhua, Vanesa; López-Vivanco, Juan C

    2007-01-01

    Determining the oral health status (dental decay and gingivitis) of adolescents from Mexico City and affection pattern by tooth type and treatment needs. A cross-sectional study was designed for 590 adolescents aged 13 to 16 from an urban area of Mexico City. Oral exploration formed part of the health diagnosis provided by the Schools Promoting Health Programme. The DMFT (decayed, missing and filled teeth) index was used for determining dental decay. Diagnosis with no probe was used for evaluating gingivitis. Chi2 tests were applied and risks were calculated for evaluating the association between dental decay, gingivitis and affection pattern by tooth type according to sex and age. The prevalence of dental decay and gingivitis was 92,2 % and 13,7 %, respectively. DMFT index was 7,3. Being aged 14 and over represented a significant risk for dental decay (OR=3,1; CI95 %=1,5-6,4). The treatment needs index for dental decay was 95,7 %, representing an expenditure of 642 450 Mexican pesos (59 818,4 US dollars). Regarding adolescents' oral health status, dental caries was the affection having the highest prevalence and its risk increased with age. The DMFT index was twice as high as WHO standards.

  12. Correlates of the health statuses of the faculty at midlife

    PubMed Central

    Galeon, Galvin Alaan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Between the school years of 2009-2012, the turnover record of the University of San Jose-Recoletos (USJ-R), Cebu City, Philippines showed that permanent faculty members who left the institution were all midlifers. Their reasons varied from health issues to greener pasture elsewhere. Materials and Methods: This study then sought to explore the health statuses of the faculty midlifers of the USJ-R. The data were collected through survey conducted among the 106 faculty midlifers of the university. This study applied multivariate analyses to the survey data using Pearson-moment of correlation to determine the relationship between the sociodemographic profile of the research participants and their health statuses. Results: This research revealed that faculty midlifers are generally well physically. They showed emotional maturity and have positive outlook toward midlife. More so, their health conditions are significantly related with their sex, age, years of teaching, educational attainment, and income. Conclusion: At midlife, the faculty members of USJ-R can still generally be considered physically well. Thus, if they are well-managed, they can become relevant and better contributors to the attainment of the basic goals and objectives of the educational institution and the educational system in general. PMID:27134476

  13. Correlates of the health statuses of the faculty at midlife.

    PubMed

    Galeon, Galvin Alaan

    2016-01-01

    Between the school years of 2009-2012, the turnover record of the University of San Jose-Recoletos (USJ-R), Cebu City, Philippines showed that permanent faculty members who left the institution were all midlifers. Their reasons varied from health issues to greener pasture elsewhere. This study then sought to explore the health statuses of the faculty midlifers of the USJ-R. The data were collected through survey conducted among the 106 faculty midlifers of the university. This study applied multivariate analyses to the survey data using Pearson-moment of correlation to determine the relationship between the sociodemographic profile of the research participants and their health statuses. This research revealed that faculty midlifers are generally well physically. They showed emotional maturity and have positive outlook toward midlife. More so, their health conditions are significantly related with their sex, age, years of teaching, educational attainment, and income. At midlife, the faculty members of USJ-R can still generally be considered physically well. Thus, if they are well-managed, they can become relevant and better contributors to the attainment of the basic goals and objectives of the educational institution and the educational system in general.

  14. Oral health status of a population with multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Pérez, Eva M.; Miegimolle-Herrero, Mónica; Planells-del-Pozo, Paloma

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine the oral treatment needs of a sample of patients diagnosed with multiple sclerosis in the Community of Madrid (Spain). Patients and methods: A cross-sectional epidemiological study was carried out with a sample of 64 patients who were aged 25 to 77 years. They were distributed into homogeneous age groups: < 46 years, 46-54 years and > 54 years. In order to evaluate the oral health status and treatment requirements, the parameters and guidelines of the WHO were used. Results: The prevalence of caries was 100%, or very close in all three groups. As age increased, the morbidity rate decreased, but the mortality rate increased considerably. On analyzing gingival health, 65% of patients had calculus, 5% bleeding and 30% were healthy. Conclusions: The DMFT index found provided data that was, in general, very similar to that of the general population in Spain. However, the gingival health status found demonstrated that the population of multiple sclerosis patients requires specific assistance. Key words: Multiple sclerosis, oral health, dentures. PMID:22143682

  15. Texas' forests, 2008

    Treesearch

    James W. Bentley; Consuelo Brandeis; Jason A. Cooper; Christopher M. Oswalt; Sonja N. Oswalt; KaDonna Randolph

    2014-01-01

    This bulletin describes forest resources of the State of Texas at the time of the 2008 forest inventory. This bulletin addresses forest area, volume, growth, removals, mortality, forest health, timber product output, and the economy of the forest sector.

  16. 45 CFR 162.1403 - Operating rules for health care claim status transaction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Operating rules for health care claim status... DATA STANDARDS AND RELATED REQUIREMENTS ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Health Care Claim Status § 162.1403 Operating rules for health care claim status transaction. On and after January 1, 2013, the Secretary adopts...

  17. 45 CFR 162.1403 - Operating rules for health care claim status transaction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Operating rules for health care claim status... DATA STANDARDS AND RELATED REQUIREMENTS ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Health Care Claim Status § 162.1403 Operating rules for health care claim status transaction. On and after January 1, 2013, the Secretary adopts...

  18. 8 CFR 1245.14 - Adjustment of status of certain health care workers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Adjustment of status of certain health care... RESIDENCE § 1245.14 Adjustment of status of certain health care workers. An alien applying for adjustment of status to perform labor in a health care occupation as described in 8 CFR 1212.15(c) must present...

  19. 45 CFR 162.1403 - Operating rules for health care claim status transaction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Operating rules for health care claim status... DATA STANDARDS AND RELATED REQUIREMENTS ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Health Care Claim Status § 162.1403 Operating rules for health care claim status transaction. On and after January 1, 2013, the Secretary adopts...

  20. 8 CFR 1245.14 - Adjustment of status of certain health care workers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Adjustment of status of certain health care... RESIDENCE § 1245.14 Adjustment of status of certain health care workers. An alien applying for adjustment of status to perform labor in a health care occupation as described in 8 CFR 1212.15(c) must present...

  1. 8 CFR 1245.14 - Adjustment of status of certain health care workers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adjustment of status of certain health care... RESIDENCE § 1245.14 Adjustment of status of certain health care workers. An alien applying for adjustment of status to perform labor in a health care occupation as described in 8 CFR 1212.15(c) must present...

  2. 8 CFR 1245.14 - Adjustment of status of certain health care workers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Adjustment of status of certain health care... RESIDENCE § 1245.14 Adjustment of status of certain health care workers. An alien applying for adjustment of status to perform labor in a health care occupation as described in 8 CFR 1212.15(c) must present...

  3. 45 CFR 162.1403 - Operating rules for health care claim status transaction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Operating rules for health care claim status... DATA STANDARDS AND RELATED REQUIREMENTS ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Health Care Claim Status § 162.1403 Operating rules for health care claim status transaction. On and after January 1, 2013, the Secretary adopts...

  4. Perceived health status is associated with hours of exercise per week in older adults independent of physical health.

    PubMed

    McHugh, Joanna Edel; Lawlor, Brian A

    2013-11-01

    Perceived health status does not always reflect actual health status. We investigated the association between objective and self-rated measures of health status and hours of exercise per week in older adults. As part of the TRIL clinic assessment, we gathered information from 473 community dwelling adults over the age of 65, regarding hours spent per week exercising, depression, personality, perceived health status, and objective health status (in the form of a comorbidity count). Regression analyses were performed on these data to investigate whether perceived health status, objective health status, personality and mood are associated with hours of exercise per week. Perceived and objective health status were significantly but weakly correlated. Both perceived and objective health status, as well as depression, were independently associated with hours of exercise per week. We conclude that exercise uptake in older adults is contingent on both perceived and objective health status, as well as depression. Perceived health status has a stronger association with exercise uptake in older adults with lower depression levels. The current findings have implications for designing exercise interventions for older adults.

  5. Detecting changes in tree health and productivity in silver fir-beech forests of Slovenia

    Treesearch

    N. Torelli; W.C. Shortle; K. Cufar; F. Ferlin; K.T. Smith

    1999-01-01

    Cambial electrical resistance (CER) was used as an objective measure of vitality of silver fir (Abies alba) in the forests of Slovenia. Trees were rated during the growing season by CER and a subjective crown status index (CSI). Both CER and CSI were inversely correlated to annual ring width increment. Using both CER and CSI, fir were assigned to...

  6. Health status and health behaviours in neighbourhoods: A comparison of Glasgow, Scotland and Hamilton, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Kathi; Eyles, John; Ellaway, Anne; Macintyre, Sally; Macdonald, Laura

    2010-01-01

    Health status has been demonstrated to vary by neighbourhood socioeconomic status (SES). However, neighbourhood effects may vary between countries. In this study, neighbourhood variations in health outcomes are compared across four socially contrasting neighbourhoods in Glasgow, Scotland and Hamilton, Ontario Canada. Data came from the 2001 wave of the West of Scotland Twenty-07 Longitudinal Study and a 2000/2001 cross-sectional survey conducted in Hamilton. The results of the comparison point to important variations in the relationship between neighbourhood SES and health. While both cities display a socioeconomic gradient with respect to various measures of health and health behaviours, for some outcome measures the high SES neighbourhoods in Glasgow display distributions similar to those found in the low SES neighbourhoods in Hamilton. Our results suggest that a low SES neighbourhood in one country may not mean the same for health as a low SES neighbourhood in another country. As such, country context may explain the distribution of health status and health behaviours among socially contrasting neighbourhoods, and neighbourhood variations in health may be context specific. PMID:20022285

  7. Health literacy, socioeconomic status and self-rated health in Japan.

    PubMed

    Furuya, Yoko; Kondo, Naoki; Yamagata, Zentaro; Hashimoto, Hideki

    2015-09-01

    Health literacy (HL) is a key determinant of health in a contemporary society characterized by abundant information. Previous studies have suggested that basic or functional HL is positively associated with health, whereas evidences on the association between health and communicative/critical HL are scarce. Furthermore, confounding by socioeconomic status on HL-health association has been poorly tested. Using cross-sectional data from a nationally representative community-based survey in Japan, we investigated whether communicative/critical HL is associated with self-rated health independent of socioeconomic status. A total of 1237 subjects participated in this study; the response rate was 62%. To measure communicative/critical HL, we used three questions assessing the respondents' ability to select, to communicate to others and to evaluate specific health-related information. Potential confounders included demographic factors, household income, employment status, and educational attainment. A multivariate model revealed that good self-reported health was significantly associated with younger age [odds ratio (OR), 0.99; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.97-0.99], employment (OR, 2.89; 95% CI, 1.06-7.88) and higher communicative/critical HL scores (OR 2.75; 95%CI, 1.93-3.90). Respondents with lower education were likely to have poorer communicative/critical HL. These results imply that to close the health gap, policy interventions should focus on the promotion of HL among deprived sociodemographic groups.

  8. The Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health: tools and information available to support invasive species and forest health education

    Treesearch

    G.K. Douce; D.J. Moorhead; C.T. Bargeron; J.H. LaForest; K.A. Rawlins; J.E. Griffin

    2011-01-01

    The mission of the Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health at the University of Georgia (www.bugwood.org) is to serve a lead role in developing, consolidating, and disseminating formation and programs focused on invasive species, forest health, natural resource and agricultural management through technology development, program implementation, training,...

  9. Self-Esteem, Oral Health Behaviours, and Clinical Oral Health Status in Chinese Adults: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chin, Luzy Siu-Hei; Chan, Joanne Chung-Yan

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This is an exploratory study to examine the relations among self-esteem, oral health behaviours and clinical oral health status in Chinese adults. In addition, gender differences in clinical oral health status and oral health behaviours were explored. Methods: Participants were 192 patients from a private dental clinic in Hong Kong…

  10. Self-Esteem, Oral Health Behaviours, and Clinical Oral Health Status in Chinese Adults: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chin, Luzy Siu-Hei; Chan, Joanne Chung-Yan

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This is an exploratory study to examine the relations among self-esteem, oral health behaviours and clinical oral health status in Chinese adults. In addition, gender differences in clinical oral health status and oral health behaviours were explored. Methods: Participants were 192 patients from a private dental clinic in Hong Kong…

  11. Health status of hostel dwellers. Part III. Nutritional status of children 0--5 years.

    PubMed

    Ramphele, M A; Heap, M; Trollip, D K

    1991-06-15

    The standards laid down by the National Center for Health Statistics in the USA were used to assess the nutritional status of children (0--5 years) in the Zones, an urban migrant council-built hostel complex in Langa, outside Cape Town. Of the children, 5.7% were below the 3rd percentile of weight-for-age (acute undernutrition). There was a significant difference between age categories and an increase in age was associated with an increase in proportion of children below the 3rd percentile. Acute undernutrition was significantly higher for children born outside Cape Town. There was a significant difference between age groups and percentage of children below the 3rd percentile of height-for-age (chronic undernutrition). Chronic nutritional levels were also significantly higher for children not born in Cape Town. Yet there were no significant differences between proportions of children under the 3rd percentile of height-for-weight (current nutritional status) for age category or place of birth. These results suggested that while in town children were adequately nourished, this was not the case at their home-base. Chronic undernutrition findings indicated an incremental negative effect of the poverty of the home-base on the long-term health status of hostel migrant children.

  12. Associations between school deprivation indices and oral health status.

    PubMed

    Da Rosa, Patricia; Nicolau, Belinda; Brodeur, Jean-Marc; Benigeri, Mike; Bedos, Christophe; Rousseau, Marie-Claude

    2011-06-01

    Despite an overall improvement in oral health status in several countries over the past decades, chronic oral diseases (COD) remain a public health problem, occurring mostly among children in the lower social strata. The use of publicly available indicators at the school level may be an optimal strategy to identify children at high risk of COD in order to organize oral health promotion and intervention in schools. To investigate whether school deprivation indices were associated with schoolchildren oral health status. This ecological study used a sample of 316 elementary public schools in the province of Quebec, Canada. Data from two sources were linked using school identifiers: (i) Two school deprivation indices (in deciles) from the Ministry of Education, a poverty index based on the low income cut-offs established by Statistics Canada and a socioeconomic environment index defined by the proportions of maternal under-schooling and of unemployed parents and (ii) Oral health outcomes from the Quebec Schoolchildren Oral Health Survey 1998-99 aggregated at the school level. These included proportions of children with dental caries and reporting oral pain. The relation between school deprivation indices and oral health outcomes was assessed with linear regression for dental caries experience and logistic regression for oral pain. The mean DMF-S (mean number of decayed, missing and filled permanent teeth surfaces) by school was 0.7 (SD = 0.5); the average proportions of children with dental caries and reporting oral pain were 25.0% and 3.0%, respectively. The poverty index was not associated with oral health outcomes. For the socioeconomic environment index, dental caries experience was 6.9% higher when comparing schools in unfavourable socioeconomic environments to the most favourable ones [95% confidence interval (CI): 2.1, 11.7%]. Furthermore, the most deprived schools, as compared to least deprived ones, were almost three times as likely to have children reporting

  13. [Health status analysis of Guangzhou traffic police officers in 2013].

    PubMed

    Yang, Lie; Duan, Danping; Duan, Chuanwei; Li, Zhen; Liu, Yimin

    2014-06-01

    To analyze the health examination results of Guangzhou traffic police officers in 2013, and to investigate their health status and provide a scientific basis for the health management of traffic police officers. The physical examination data of the Guangzhou traffic police officers in 2013 were analyzed. The data were sorted in Excel and analyzed using SPSS software. The results showed that 82.95%of the Guangzhou traffic police officers who underwent physical examination in our hospital in 2013 had diseases or abnormal examination indices. The diseases or abnormal examination indices that ranked among the top three were hyperlipidemia (53.70%), hyperuricemia (46.51%), and overweight/obesity (43.43%). All diseases or abnormal examination indices except thyroid diseases were significantly higher in males than in females (P < 0.05). The proportion of diseases or abnormal examination indices varied significantly between different age groups (P < 0.05). Among the 345 female traffic police officers, the prevalence of mammary gland hyperplasia or mammary nodules was the highest, and the prevalence of mammary gland hyperplasia or mammary nodules, cervicitis, and uterine fibroids varied significantly between different age groups (P < 0.05). The health problems in Guangzhou traffic police officers are serious, especially chronic noninfectious diseases. Therefore, both society and individuals should take effective measures in order to deal with this problem. Regular health check-ups are necessary to promote good health for Guangzhou traffic police officers.

  14. Status of simulation in health care education: an international survey

    PubMed Central

    Qayumi, Karim; Pachev, George; Zheng, Bin; Ziv, Amitai; Koval, Valentyna; Badiei, Sadia; Cheng, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Simulation is rapidly penetrating the terrain of health care education and has gained growing acceptance as an educational method and patient safety tool. Despite this, the state of simulation in health care education has not yet been evaluated on a global scale. In this project, we studied the global status of simulation in health care education by determining the degree of financial support, infrastructure, manpower, information technology capabilities, engagement of groups of learners, and research and scholarly activities, as well as the barriers, strengths, opportunities for growth, and other aspects of simulation in health care education. We utilized a two-stage process, including an online survey and a site visit that included interviews and debriefings. Forty-two simulation centers worldwide participated in this study, the results of which show that despite enormous interest and enthusiasm in the health care community, use of simulation in health care education is limited to specific areas and is not a budgeted item in many institutions. Absence of a sustainable business model, as well as sufficient financial support in terms of budget, infrastructure, manpower, research, and scholarly activities, slows down the movement of simulation. Specific recommendations are made based on current findings to support simulation in the next developmental stages. PMID:25489254

  15. Status of simulation in health care education: an international survey.

    PubMed

    Qayumi, Karim; Pachev, George; Zheng, Bin; Ziv, Amitai; Koval, Valentyna; Badiei, Sadia; Cheng, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Simulation is rapidly penetrating the terrain of health care education and has gained growing acceptance as an educational method and patient safety tool. Despite this, the state of simulation in health care education has not yet been evaluated on a global scale. In this project, we studied the global status of simulation in health care education by determining the degree of financial support, infrastructure, manpower, information technology capabilities, engagement of groups of learners, and research and scholarly activities, as well as the barriers, strengths, opportunities for growth, and other aspects of simulation in health care education. We utilized a two-stage process, including an online survey and a site visit that included interviews and debriefings. Forty-two simulation centers worldwide participated in this study, the results of which show that despite enormous interest and enthusiasm in the health care community, use of simulation in health care education is limited to specific areas and is not a budgeted item in many institutions. Absence of a sustainable business model, as well as sufficient financial support in terms of budget, infrastructure, manpower, research, and scholarly activities, slows down the movement of simulation. Specific recommendations are made based on current findings to support simulation in the next developmental stages.

  16. [Morbidity Differences by Health Insurance Status in Old Age].

    PubMed

    Hajek, A; Bock, J-O; Saum, K-U; Schöttker, B; Brenner, H; Heider, D; König, H-H

    2016-06-28

    Background: Morbidity differences between older members of private and statutory health insurance Germany have rarely been examined. Thus, we aimed at determining these differences in old age. Methods: This study used data from 2 follow-up waves with a 3-year interval from a population-based prospective cohort study (ESTHER study) in Saarland, Germany. Morbidity was assessed by participants' GPs using a generic instrument (Cumulative Illness Rating Scale for Geriatrics). The between estimator was used which exclusively quantifies inter-individual variation. Adjusting for sex and age, we investigated the association between health insurance and morbidity in the main model. In additional models, we adjusted incrementally for the effect of education, family status and income. Results: Regression models not adjusting for income showed that members of private health insurance had a lower morbidity score than members of statutory health insurance. This effect is considerably lower in models adjusting for income, but remained statistically significant (except for men). Conclusion: Observed differences in morbidity between older members of private and statutory health insurance can partly be explained by income differences. Thus, our findings highlight the role of model specification in determining the relation between morbidity and health insurance. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Smoking, educational status and health inequity in India.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Rajeev

    2006-07-01

    Health related behaviours, especially smoking and tobacco use, are major determinants of health and lead to health inequities. Smoking leads to acute respiratory diseases, tuberculosis and asthma in younger age groups and non communicable diseases such as chronic lung disease, cardiovascular diseases and cancer in middle and older age. We observed an inverse association of educational status with tobacco use (smoking and other forms) in western Indian State of Rajasthan. In successive cross-sectional epidemiological studies- the Jaipur Heart Watch (JHW)- in rural (JHWR; n=3148, men=1982), and urban subjects: JHW-1 (n=2212, men=1415), JHW-2 (n=1124, men=550) and JHW-3 (n=458, men=226), we evaluated various cardiovascular risk factors. The greatest tobacco consumption was observed among the illiterate and low educational status subjects (nil, 1-5, 6-10, >10 yr of formal education) as compared to more literate in men (JHW-R 60, 51, 46 and 36% respectively; JHW-1 44, 52, 30 and 18% JHW-2 54, 43, 29 and 24%; and JHW-3 50, 27, 25 and 25%) as well as women (Mantel Haenzel test, P for trend <0.05). In the illiterate subjects the odds ratios (OR) and 95 per cent confidence intervals (CI) for smoking or tobacco use as compared to the highest educational groups in rural (men OR 2.68, CI 2.02, 3.57; women OR 3.13, CI 1.22, 8.08) as well as larger urban studies- JHW-1 (men OR 2.47, CI 1.70, 3.60; women OR 13.78, CI 3.35, 56.75) and JHW-2 (men OR 3.81; CI 1.90, 7.66; women OR 13.73, CI 1.84, 102.45) were significantly greater (P<0.01). Smoking significantly correlated with prevalence of coronary heart disease and hypertension. Other recent Indian studies and national surveys report similar associations. Health ethicists argue that good education and health lead to true development in an underprivileged society. We propose that improving educational status, a major social determinant of health, can lead to appropriate health related behaviours and prevent the epidemics of non

  18. Effects of TCMC on Transformation of Good Health Status to Suboptimal Health Status: A Nested Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tian; Chen, Jieyu; Sun, Xiaomin; Xiang, Lei; Zhou, Lin; Li, Fei; Lin, Changsong; Jiang, Pingping; Wu, Shengwei; Xiao, Ya; Cheng, Jingru; Luo, Ren; Liu, Yanyan; Zhao, Xiaoshan

    2015-01-01

    To explore the effects of traditional Chinese medicine constitution (TCMC) on transformation of good health status to suboptimal health status (SHS), we conducted a nested case-control study among college students in China. During the 18-month mean follow-up time, 543 cases of SHS (42.7%) occurred in 1273 healthy students. There was a significant (P = 0.000) and marked reduction in SHMS V1.0 total score in the case group at the 18-month follow-up (69.32 ± 5.45) compared with baseline (78.60 ± 4.70), but there was no significant change in the control group. Conditional logistic regression analysis showed that respondents reporting Yin-deficiency and Qi-deficiency were, respectively, 2.247 and 2.198 times more likely to develop SHS, while tendency to Yin-deficiency and tendency to Damp-heat were, respectively, 1.642 and 1.506 times more likely to develop SHS. However, the Balanced Constitution was a significant protective factor (OR 0.649; P < 0.05). Altogether, these findings demonstrate that Yin-deficiency, Qi-deficiency, tendency to Yin-deficiency, and tendency to Damp-heat appeared to induce a change in health status to SHS, while the Balanced Constitution seemed to restrain this change. We conclude that regulating the unbalanced TCMC (such as Yin-deficiency and Qi-deficiency) may prevent a healthy status developing into SHS or lead to the regression of SHS. PMID:26346320

  19. Oral health status of the Lengua Indians of Paraguay.

    PubMed

    Kieser, J A; Preston, C B

    1984-12-01

    The dental and oral health status of 202 Lengua Indians of Paraguay was determined using DMT, Russell's PI and the Greene & Vermillion OHIS. Caries experience in young Lenguas was shown to be positively associated with exposure to Western culture. Mean DMT increased from 8.36 for 15-19 yr-olds to 9.44 in 20-24 yr-olds. For the 25-29 yr age group the DMT was 9.10 whilst 30-34 yr-olds had a mean DMT of 8.67. The mean DMT of 9.64 for 35-40 yr-olds increased to 9.84 for the over 40 age group. Oral hygiene and periodontal status were found to be similar to those reported in other Chaco Indian groups.

  20. Health status: does it predict choice in further education?

    PubMed Central

    Koivusilta, L; Rimpelä, A; Rimpelä, M

    1995-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--To study the significance of a young person's health to his or her choice of further education at age 16. DESIGN--A cross sectional population survey SETTING--The whole of Finland. PARTICIPANTS--A representative sample of 2977 Finnish 16 year olds. The response rate was 83%. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS--The three outcome variables reflected successive steps on the way to educational success: school attendance after the completion of compulsory schooling, the type of school, and school achievement for those at school. Continuing their education and choosing upper secondary school were most typical of young people from upper social classes. Female gender and living with both parents increased the probability of choosing to go on to upper secondary school. Over and above these background variables, some health factors had additional explanatory power. Continuing their education, attending upper secondary schools, and good achievement were typical of those who considered their health to be good. Chronically ill adolescents were more likely to continue their education than the healthy ones. CONCLUSIONS--School imposes great demands on young people, thus revealing differences in personal health resources. Adaptation to the norms of a society in which education is highly valued is related to satisfying health status. In a welfare state that offers equal educational opportunities for everyone, however, chronically ill adolescents can add to their resources for coping through schooling. Health related selection thus works differently for various indicators of health and in various kinds of societies. Social class differences in health in the future may be more dependent on personally experienced health problems than on medically diagnosed diseases. PMID:7798039

  1. Health status of the elderly in the Marigot Health District, Dominica.

    PubMed

    Veen-de Vries, N R; Luteijn, A J; Nasiiro, R S; Meyboom-de Jong, B

    1999-06-01

    The health status and the prevalence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, glaucoma and visual disorders of 123 elderly people (56 men, 67 women) in the Marigot Health District, Dominica, were assessed by means of four questionnaires; collection of data from their medical records; physical examination, measurement of blood pressure, visual acuity and intra-ocular pressure (IOP); and testing for glucosuria. The overall health status was good, but 20% were dependent on care. 74% were independent in the activities in daily life, with only moderate limitations in activities. The health status decreased considerably in those over 75 years of age. There were slight perceived differences in health status between men and women. About 40% of the study population were known to be hypertensive, and another 13% had an elevated blood pressure on examination. Diabetes mellitus was present in 15%. 20% had a visual acuity of 0.1 or below, and 10% had an elevated IOP. During the study, a considerable number of new cases of hypertension, diabetes mellitus and elevated IOP were diagnosed. 50% of the study population who were on medication used this more than as prescribed. This study indicates a high prevalence of the secondary complications of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, cataract, glaucoma and osteo-arthritis that cause disability and dependency in the elderly population. Education, diagnosis at an early stage and appropriate treatment of these disorders may prevent or delay their development. We sugggest the development of a programme oriented approach of primary health care for the elderly to support this.

  2. Socioeconomic Status, Health Behaviors, Obesity and Self-Rated Health among Older Arabs in Israel.

    PubMed

    Khalaila, R N Rabia

    2017-03-01

    Socioeconomic inequalities in health are well documented. Recently, researchers have shown interest in exploring the mechanisms by which measures of SES operate through it to impact SRH, such as material, psychosocial and behavioral factors. To examine the relationships between SES indicators and self-rated health (SRH); and to determine whether health behaviors and obesity mediate the association between SES indicators and SRH. A secondary analysis of data previously collected through the third survey of socioeconomic and health status of the Arab population in Israel, in which the SRH of 878 Arab-Israelis age 50 or older were analyzed using logistic regression. The results showed that higher education level and current employment in old age are associated with better SRH. However, neither subjective economic status nor family income was associated with SRH. Greater physical activity was found to be related to good\\very good SRH, while obesity was associated with less than good SRH. Finally, health behaviors (physical activity) and obesity were revealed as mediators between SES indicators (education and employment status) and SRH. The results highlight the importance of high education level and employment status in old age to reduce health inequalities. The findings also show that the relationship between SES and SRH can operate through behavioral mechanisms (i.e., physical activity) and their consequences (i.e., obesity), that can, however, be changed in old age.

  3. Eastside forest ecosystem health assessment. Volume 1. Executive summary. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Everett, R.; Hessburg, P.; Jensen, M.; Bormann, B.

    1994-02-01

    The report responds to the request by Speaker Thomas Foley and Senator Mark Hatfield for a scientific evaluation of the effects of Forest Service Management practices on the sustainability of eastern Oregon and Washington ecosystems. The report recommends analysis methods and management practices that can be used to build an experimental approach to the restoration of stressed ecosystems.

  4. Health promotion behaviors in adolescents: prevalence and association with mental health status in a statewide sample.

    PubMed

    Adrian, Molly; Charlesworth-Attie, Sarah; Vander Stoep, Ann; McCauley, Elizabeth; Becker, Linda

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to estimate the proportion of adolescents meeting Healthy People 2020 health behavior recommendations for the prevention of chronic disease and to determine the association between mental health status (depression and/or conduct problems) and the likelihood of meeting these recommendations. The data used for this study are from the 2010 Washington State Healthy Youth Survey. Descriptive statistics and linear regression were utilized to estimate the proportion of adolescents meeting recommendations and associations between youth mental health status indicators and health-promoting behaviors. A small minority (5.8 %) of youth met all six recommendations in domains of tobacco abstinence, substance use abstinence, daily physical activity, breakfast consumption, weight below obese levels, and adequate sleep, though most (84.3 %) met at least three. At the aggregate level, the proportion of Washington State youth who met Healthy People 2020 guidelines exceeded targets, with the exception of substance use abstinence. A minority of youth reported guideline levels of daily physical activity (23.3 %) and sleep (39.8 %). Mental health status was strongly associated with the number of health-promoting behaviors adolescents endorsed. Interventions to increase the adoption of sleep hygiene and exercise habits should be added to an integrative positive youth development framework within school-, community-, and primary care-based adolescent health initiatives. Attention to adolescent mental health and shared risk factors may be critical for reducing barriers to healthy behavior.

  5. Effect of age, education and health status on community dwelling older men's health concerns.

    PubMed

    Tannenbaum, Cara

    2012-06-01

    A significant gap in evidence characterizes the process of establishing patient-centered health priorities for older men. A cross-sectional postal survey of 2325 Canadian community dwelling men aged 55-97 years old was conducted in 2008 to gauge older men's level of concern for 24 different health items, to determine the impact of age, education and health status on these perceptions, and to ascertain whether men perceive that their health concerns are being attended to. Health issues of greatest concern to men were mobility impairment (64% of respondents), memory loss (64%), and medication side effects (63%). Respondents with lower educational attainment expressed greater concern about their health and were almost 2-fold times more likely to report being concerned about stroke, heart disease and prostate disorders in analyses that controlled for age and health status. Physical and mental health were independently associated with various concerns about health, but old age was not a reliable predictor, with only younger men (<75 years old) differentially preoccupied by conditions such as erectile dysfunction. Health items of greatest concern to men tended to be those with the lowest screening or counseling rates: these included incontinence, osteoporosis, mobility impairment, falls, anxiety issues, memory loss and depression. An improved consumer-guided agenda for addressing older men's health in the coming decade is urgently required.

  6. Plant health sensing system for determining nitrogen status in plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomasson, J. A.; Sui, Ruixiu; Read, John J.; Reddy, K. R.

    2004-03-01

    A plant health sensing system was developed for determining nitrogen status in plants. The system consists of a multi-spectral optical sensor and a data-acquisition and processing unit. The optical sensor"s light source provides modulated panchromatic illumination of a plant canopy with light-emitting diodes, and the sensor measures spectral reflectance through optical filters that partition the energy into blue, green, red, and near-infrared wavebands. Spectral reflectance of plants is detected in situ, at the four wavebands, in real time. The data-acquisition and processing unit is based on a single board computer that collects data from the multi-spectral sensor and spatial information from a global positioning system receiver. Spectral reflectance at the selected wavebands is analyzed, with algorithms developed during preliminary work, to determine nitrogen status in plants. The plant health sensing system has been tested primarily in the laboratory and field so far, and promising results have been obtained. This article describes the development, theory of operation, and test results of the plant health sensing system.

  7. Health behaviors and weight status among urban and rural children

    PubMed Central

    Davis, AM; Boles, RE; James, RL; Sullivan, DK; Donnelly, JE; Swirczynski, DL; Goetz, J

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Pediatric overweight is currently reaching epidemic proportions but little information exists on differences in weight related behaviors between urban and rural children. Objective: To assess health behaviors and weight status among urban and rural school-age children. Methods Fifth-grade children at two urban and two rural schools were invited to participate in an assessment study of their health behaviors and weight status. A total of 138 children (mean age = 10 years; % female = 54.6) chose to participate. Results Children in rural and urban areas consumed equivalent calories per day and calories from fat, but rural children ate more junk food and urban children were more likely to skip breakfast. Urban children engaged in more metabolic equivalent tasks and had slightly higher total sedentary activity than rural children. The BMI percentile was equivalent across rural and urban children but rural children were more often overweight and urban children were more often at risk for overweight. Conclusions Although some variables were equivalent across urban and rural children, results indicate some key health behavior differences between groups. Results should be interpreted with caution as the sample size was small and there were demographic differences between urban and rural samples. PMID:18426334

  8. Health behaviors and weight status among urban and rural children.

    PubMed

    Davis, Ann M; Boles, Richard E; James, Rochelle L; Sullivan, Debra K; Donnelly, Joseph E; Swirczynski, Deborah L; Goetz, Jeannine

    2008-01-01

    Pediatric overweight is currently reaching epidemic proportions but little information exists on differences in weight related behaviors between urban and rural children. To assess health behaviors and weight status among urban and rural school-age children. Fifth-grade children at two urban and two rural schools were invited to participate in an assessment study of their health behaviors and weight status. A total of 138 children (mean age = 10 years; % female = 54.6) chose to participate. Children in rural and urban areas consumed equivalent calories per day and calories from fat, but rural children ate more junk food and urban children were more likely to skip breakfast. Urban children engaged in more metabolic equivalent tasks and had slightly higher total sedentary activity than rural children. The BMI percentile was equivalent across rural and urban children but rural children were more often overweight and urban children were more often at risk for overweight. Although some variables were equivalent across urban and rural children, results indicate some key health behavior differences between groups. Results should be interpreted with caution as the sample size was small and there were demographic differences between urban and rural samples.

  9. [Oral health and hygiene status in galician schoolchildren].

    PubMed

    Blanco, María; Pérez-Ríos, Mónica; Santiago-Pérez, María Isolina; Smyth, Ernesto

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the oral health and hygiene status in 12 year-old Galician schoolchildren. A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 1267 schoolchildren. The fieldwork was carried out in the 2010-2011 academic year. Information regarding socio-demographic status, dietary habits, and oral hygiene practices was obtained through a structured self-report questionnaire given to the children at school. Dental examination to evaluate plaque and caries was carried out according to World Health Organization criteria. The prevalence and mean with 95% confidence intervals were calculated and logistic regression models were ajusted. Out of a total of 1045 pupils who participated in the study, 35% showed incorrect removal of dental plaque, and the prevalence of caries was 39.3%. Those who belonged to a lower socioeconomic group showed a higher prevalence of caries. Those who brushed their teeth daily had better oral hygiene. Educational programmes need to be designed and implemented in order to improve dental health and hygiene. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Race, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status in research on child health.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Tina L; Goodman, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    An extensive literature documents the existence of pervasive and persistent child health, development, and health care disparities by race, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status (SES). Disparities experienced during childhood can result in a wide variety of health and health care outcomes, including adult morbidity and mortality, indicating that it is crucial to examine the influence of disparities across the life course. Studies often collect data on the race, ethnicity, and SES of research participants to be used as covariates or explanatory factors. In the past, these variables have often been assumed to exert their effects through individual or genetically determined biologic mechanisms. However, it is now widely accepted that these variables have important social dimensions that influence health. SES, a multidimensional construct, interacts with and confounds analyses of race and ethnicity. Because SES, race, and ethnicity are often difficult to measure accurately, leading to the potential for misattribution of causality, thoughtful consideration should be given to appropriate measurement, analysis, and interpretation of such factors. Scientists who study child and adolescent health and development should understand the multiple measures used to assess race, ethnicity, and SES, including their validity and shortcomings and potential confounding of race and ethnicity with SES. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends that research on eliminating health and health care disparities related to race, ethnicity, and SES be a priority. Data on race, ethnicity, and SES should be collected in research on child health to improve their definitions and increase understanding of how these factors and their complex interrelationships affect child health. Furthermore, the AAP believes that researchers should consider both biological and social mechanisms of action of race, ethnicity, and SES as they relate to the aims and hypothesis of the specific area of

  11. [Oral health status of pregnant women in Kumamoto Prefecture].

    PubMed

    Chiga, Sakura; Ohba, Takashi; Miyoshi, Junya; Tanoue, Daisuke; Kawase, Hiromi; Katoh, Takahiko; Katabuchi, Hidetaka

    2015-01-01

    As part of Kumamoto RAINBOW Project, which is a multifaceted implementation for the prevention of premature labor, we investigated pregnant women's oral health status and assessed the effects of dental care and oral hygiene instruction. We examined the oral health status of pregnant women both in the first and the second half of pregnancy in Kumamoto Prefecture from 2012 to 2014. The Community Periodontal Index (CPI) was used to assess the periodontal condition, and women having periodontal pockets with a depth ≥4 mm were defined as suffering from periodontitis. This project covered the cost of dental checkups. Of the 20,702 pregnant women enrolled in this project, 9,527 (46.0%) received dental checkups during the first half of pregnancy. The response rate of dental examinations in Kumamoto City (63.3%), the capital city of Kumamoto Prefecture, was significantly higher than that of the other local areas (32.0%). In Kumamoto City, 4,890 women (83.4%) had dental examinations at the city office when they received a maternal handbook. Three thousand forty-five women (32.0%) had periodontitis. Among 1,605 women who received oral examinations twice at dental clinics, 698 received nonsurgical interventions. Dental interventions significantly decreased the prevalence of periodontitis in pregnant women (55.1% to 45.1%). Dental examinations without interventions also significantly decreased the prevalence of periodontitis (44.6% to 39.9%). Pregnant women living in Kumamoto City had higher rate of visits to dental clinics for checkups than those in other areas. Periodontitis was found in one-third of pregnant women. Not only dental interventions, but also dental examinations improve pregnant women's oral health status.

  12. Forest management practices and the occupational safety and health administration logging standard

    Treesearch

    John R. Myers; David Elton Fosbroke

    1995-01-01

    The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has established safety and health regulations for the logging industry. These new regulations move beyond the prior OSHA pulpwood harvesting standard by including sawtimber harvesting operations. Because logging is a major tool used by forest managers to meet silvicultural goals, managers must be aware of what...

  13. Floristic and structural status of forests in permanent preservation areas of Moju river basin, Amazon region.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, J C; Vieira, I C G; Almeida, A S; Silva, C A

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study is to analyze the floristic patterns and the structure of disturbed and undisturbed upland forests, in Permanent Preservation Areas (PPAs) along the Moju river, in the Brazilian state of Pará. Trees with a diameter equal to or larger than 10cm at 1.30m from the ground (DBH) ≥10cm were analyzed for the upper stratum. For the middle stratum, individuals with DBH between 4.99 and 9.99cm were sampled. Forty-five families and 221 species were found in disturbed forests, and 43 families and 208 species in undisturbed forests. Floristic similarity was high between strata and between forest types, with values above 50%. Similarity was highest between middle strata. The most species-abundant families in undisturbed forests were Fabaceae, Sapotaceae, Chrysobalanaceae and Myrtaceae; the species with the highest density there were Eschweilera grandiflora, Licania sclerophylla and Zygia cauliflora. In disturbed forests, the dominant families were Fabaceae, Sapotaceae, Lecythidaceae and Melastomataceae. The Shannon-Wiener diversity index was 3.21 for undisturbed forests and 2.85 for disturbed forests. Non-metric multidimensional scaling (MDS) analysis did not group the forests by their floristic composition in both upper and middle strata. Overall, the PPA forests along the Moju river, even if disturbed, did not show major floristic changes but substantially change their structural characteristics.

  14. The status of whitebark pine along the Pacific Crest National Scenic Trail on the Umpqua National Forest.

    Treesearch

    Ellen Michaels Goheen; Donald J. Goheen; Katy Marshall; Robert S. Danchok; John A. Petrick; Diane E. White

    2002-01-01

    Because of concern over widespread population declines, the distribution, stand conditions, and health of whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis Englem.) were evaluated along the Pacific Crest National Scenic Trail on the Umpqua National Forest. Whitebark pine occurred on 76 percent of the survey transects. In general, whitebark pine was found in stands...

  15. Impact of Polypharmacy on Seniors' Self-Perceived Health Status.

    PubMed

    Rasu, Rafia; Agbor-Bawa, Walter; Rianon, Nahid

    2017-08-01

    Polypharmacy is common among older patients and is linked to increased risk of adverse health outcomes. This study aimed to explore the association of polypharmacy and self-perceived health status (SPHS) among geriatric patients. This cross-sectional analysis of longitudinal observational research used national survey data from 2005-2008. Multivariate logistic regressions examined the likelihood of having a good/poor SPHS and polypharmacy. Medical Expenditure Panel Survey data provided by Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality were used in this study. Overall, SPHS was assessed using the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey health and well-being variable. Polypharmacy status was defined when patients were taking ≥5 medications. The study included a total of 102,309,656 weighted individuals reported from the survey of 4775 actual individuals from 2005-2008. Patients' mean age was 74.7 years (standard error ± 0.138), and 58.1% were women, 87.3% were white, 55.2% were married, and 37.3% were from the southern region of the United States. Approximately 69.4% of patients reported polypharmacy. The most prevalent disease reported was hypertension (62.7%). We evaluated demographic and clinical characteristics based on SPHS and polypharmacy status. Overall, 78.09% of seniors reported their SPHS as good, whereas 21.91% reported their SPHS as poor. Among polypharmacy users, 72.52% reported good SPHS and 27.48% reported poor SPHS. Among older adults who were nonpolypharmacy users, 90.8% reported good and 9.02% reported poor SPHS. Logistic regression adjusted for demographic and socioeconomic factors showed that nonpolypharmacy users are approximately three times more likely to report their SPHS as good (odds ratio 2.75; 95% confidence interval 2.12-3.57, P < 0.001). Nonpolypharmacy users perceived their health status to be better than did polypharmacy users. Interventions to reduce polypharmacy may improve SPHS. One such intervention, medication reconciliation, may have a

  16. National Forest Health Monitoring Program, Monitoring Urban Forests in Indiana: Pilot Study 2002, Part 1: Analysis of Field Methods and Data Collection

    Treesearch

    US Forest Service, Northeastern Area, State and Private Forestry

    2006-01-01

    This report highlights findings from the first statewide urban forest health monitoring pilot study conducted in the State of Indiana in 2002. The report is in two parts. Part One summarizes analysis of the field methods and data collected on the urban nonforest plots of one panel in Indiana, and Part Two expands these data to statewide urban forest estimates with the...

  17. National Forest Health Monitoring Program Monitoring Urban Forests in Indiana: Pilot Study 2002, Part 1: Analysis of Field Methods and Data Collection

    Treesearch

    Matt Lake; Philip Marshall; Manfred Mielke; Anne Buckelew Cumming; Daniel Twardus

    2006-01-01

    This report highlights findings from the first statewide urban forest health monitoring pilot study conducted in the State of Indiana in 2002. The report is in two parts: Part One summarizes analysis of the field methods and data collected on the urban nonforest plots of one panel in Indiana, and Part Two expands these data to statewide urban forest estimates with the...

  18. Health status of hostel dwellers. Part IV. Immunisation of children.

    PubMed

    Ramphele, M A; Heap, M; Trollip, D K

    1991-06-15

    The immunisation status of children (0-5 years) living in the Zones, an urban migrant council-built hostel in Langa, was investigated to examine the effect of migrant labour and related to this, the effect of circular or oscillating migration between Cape Town and the eastern Cape (Transkei/Ciskei) on access to this preventive health care measure. 'Road-to-Health' cards were available for 69.4% of subjects--78.8% for those born in Cape Town and 50.8% for those born in Transkei. Immunisation of 'Road-to-Health' card holders ranged from 71.8% to 95%. The range dropped to 41-79.1% if it was assumed that children without 'Road-to-Health' cards (i.e. without positive proof of immunisation) had not been immunised. Children born in Cape Town have a significantly higher immunisation coverage than children born elsewhere (Transkei accounted for 82.7% of these children). Immunisations administered in Cape Town numbered 80.6%, while 62.6% of subjects were born in Cape Town. In Transkei, payment is required for immunisation, in Cape Town it is free. By implication, cost appeared to be an important reason for low coverage in Transkei. The findings of this study suggested that hostel migrant children who had access to the Cape Town health services through working parents had better immunisation coverage than children at the home-base who seldom or never reached the city.

  19. Educational attainment and self-rated health status among single mothers in rural Alabama.

    PubMed

    Zekeri, Andrew A

    2013-08-01

    Using previous data from a random sample of 300 single mothers from rural Alabama, multiple regression analysis indicated that food insecurity and employment status had a modest effect on self-rated health status, while educational attainment and income had the greatest effect. These variables explained 29% of the variance in health status. Social and economic policies that affect educational attainment and income distribution may have important consequences for health status in these rural areas.

  20. Measuring general animal health status: Development of an animal health barometer.

    PubMed

    Depoorter, Pieter; Van Huffel, Xavier; Diricks, Herman; Imberechts, Hein; Dewulf, Jeroen; Berkvens, Dirk; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2015-03-01

    The development of an animal health barometer, an instrument to measure the general health of the Belgian livestock population on a yearly basis and to monitor its evolution over time, is described. The elaboration of a set of 13 animal health indicators (AHIs) as the basis for the animal health barometer is discussed. These indicators were weighted by experts - including scientists, policy makers and agro-industrial representatives - to determine their relative weight in the barometer. The result of the barometer is expressed as a comparison with a previous year. Based on the results of the 13 AHIs, it is concluded that general animal health in Belgium shows a positive evolution since 2008. The animal health barometer provides a composite view of the status of livestock health in Belgium and is a tool to communicate in an intelligible, comprehensible manner on aspects of animal health to consumers and professional stakeholders in the animal production and food chain. Together with the food safety barometer (Baert et al., 2011. Food Res. Int. 44, 940) and the plant health barometer (Wilmart et al., 2014. Eur. J. Plant Pathol. doi: 10.1007/s10658-014-0547-x), the animal health barometer is one of the three instruments to provide a holistic view on the overall status of the safety of the food chain in Belgium. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Factors influencing self-perception of health status.

    PubMed

    Kaleta, Dorota; Polańska, Kinga; Dziankowska-Zaborszczyk, Elzbieta; Hanke, Wojciech; Drygas, Wojciech

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate subjective health status of Łódź adult population and to determine the factors affecting their self-perception of health. The study population consisted of randomly selected 1,056 adults aged 20-74 years from L6di district. Logistic regression model was applied to assess the factors influencing the self-perception of health. More than 30% of study subjects described their health as poor or very poor. There were no statistically significant differences between men and women regarding self-perception of health (p>0.05). Older people more frequently reported their health as poor and very poor compared to those younger than 25 years of age. Four percent of men and 10% of women younger than 25 years of age described their health as poor or very poor whereas in age category 45-54 years that percentage increased to more than 40% (men RR=16.3; p<0.001, women RR=7.5; p<0.001), in 55-64 to 60% (men RR=18.6; p<0.001, women RR=10.0; p<0.001) and for people older than 64 years of age to 60% for men (RR=12.6; p<0.01) and 72% for women (RR=13.4; p<0.001). People with lower educational degree perceived their health as worse compared to those with university diploma (men RR=5.3; p<0.001; women 4.6; p<0.001). The risk of indicating the health as poor or very poor was 3.4 times higher for unemployed men comparing to employed (p<0.001) and 1.5 for unemployed women compared to employed (p>0.05). Men indicating no leisure-time physical activity significantly more frequently described their health as poor or very poor than men with satisfactory level of recreational physical activity (RR=2.2; p<0.01). Current and former smoker men described their health as worse compared to non-smokers (current smokers RR=1.5; p>0.05; former smokers RR=1.8; p>0.05). Preventive programs aimed at improving self-perceived health should concentrate on increasing recreational physical activity and elimination of smoking. Those actions should in particular target people

  2. Forest health in the Blue Mountains: social and economic perspectives.

    Treesearch

    T.M. Quigley

    1992-01-01

    The Blue Mountains of northeast Oregon and southeast Washington are among the most insect- and disease-infested forests of North America. The communities, industries, rural residents, and economies that are highly dependent on the flow of natural resources are being stressed as uncertainty increases over future resource availability. This paper examines, from social...

  3. Health of whitebark pine forests after mountain pine beetle outbreaks

    Treesearch

    Sandra Kegley; John Schwandt; Ken Gibson; Dana Perkins

    2011-01-01

    Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis), a keystone high-elevation species, is currently at risk due to a combination of white pine blister rust (WPBR) (Cronartium ribicola), forest succession, and outbreaks of mountain pine beetle (MPB) (Dendroctonus ponderosae). While recent mortality is often quantified by aerial detection surveys (ADS) or ground surveys, little...

  4. Forest Health Monitoring in New Hampshire, 1996-1999

    Treesearch

    Northeastern Research Station

    2002-01-01

    New Hampshire has mature forests dominated by hardwood species but with significant softwood resources. The majority of the trees are healthy with full crowns (low transparency, high density), little dieback and little damage. Red maple had higher dieback and more damage than other species. Eastern white pine had lower crown densities and little damage.

  5. Forest Health Monitoring in Massachusetts, 1996-1999

    Treesearch

    Northeastern Research Station

    2002-01-01

    Massachusetts has mature forests dominated by hardwood species. Most of the trees are healthy, with full crowns (low transparency, high density), little dieback and little damage. Red maple trees made up almost one quarter of the trees and had slightly higher amounts of dieback, thinner crowns, and more damage than other common tree species.

  6. Forest Health Monitoring in Connecticut, 1996-1999

    Treesearch

    Northeastern Research Station

    2002-01-01

    Connecticut has mature forests dominated by hardwoods. Most trees are healthy with full crowns (low transparency and high density), little dieback and little damage. The exception is eastern hemlock, which was in poor condition, with thin crowns, more dieback and more damage, especially broken tops. These conditions are likely the result of attack by the hemlock woolly...

  7. Forest Health Monitoring in New York, 1996-1999

    Treesearch

    Northeastern Research Station

    2002-01-01

    New York has mature forests dominated by hardwood species, but with a significant and varied softwood resource. Most of the trees are healthy, with full crowns (low transparency, high density), little dieback and little damage. American beech tends to be in poorer condition, with thin crowns, higher dieback, and more damage, especially broken and dead branches.

  8. Forest Health Monitoring in Vermont, 1996-1999

    Treesearch

    Northeastern Research Station

    2002-01-01

    Vermont forests vary in size and age class. Trees are distributed evenly between hardwood and softwood species but hardwood dominated the seedling sample. Most of the trees are healthy, with full crowns (low transparency, high density), little dieback and little damage. White and green ash had higher transparencies and lower crown densities possibly explained by the...

  9. Forest Health Monitoring in Maine, 1996-1999.

    Treesearch

    Northeastern Research Station

    2002-01-01

    Maine has mixed-age forests dominated by softwood species. Most of the trees are healthy, with full crowns (low transparency, high density), little dieback and little damage. Red maple had higher amounts of dieback but seemed to maintain crown fullness. Eastern white pine and northern white cedar had lower densities as well as higher rates of damage.

  10. Anthropogenic calcium depletion: a unique threat to forest ecosystem health?

    Treesearch

    Paul G. Schaberg; Donald H. DeHayes; Gary J. Hawley

    2001-01-01

    Numerous anthropogenic factors can deplete calcium (Ca) from forest ecosystems. Because an adequate supply of Ca is needed to support fundamental biological functions, including cell membrane stability and stress response, the potential for Ca deficiency following the individual, cumulative, or potentially synergistic, influences of anthropogenic factors raises...

  11. A Geospatial Assessment of Mountain Pine Beetle Infestations and Their Effect on Forest Health in Okanogan-Wenatchee National Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allain, M.; Nguyen, A.; Johnson, E.; Williams, E.; Tsai, S.; Prichard, S.; Freed, T.; Skiles, J. W.

    2010-12-01

    Fire-suppression over the past century has resulted in an accumulation of forest litter and increased tree density. As nutrients are sequestered in forest litter and not recycled by forest fires, soil nutrient concentrations have decreased. The forests of Northern Washington are in poor health as a result of these factors coupled with sequential droughts. The mountain pine beetle (MPB) thrives in such conditions, giving rise to an outbreak in Washington’s Okanogan-Wenatchee National Forest. These outbreaks occur in three successive stages— the green, red, and gray stages. Beetles first infest the tree in the green phase, leading to discoloration of needles in the red phase and eventually death in the gray phase. With the use of geospatial technology, these outbreaks can be better mapped and assessed to evaluate forest health. Field work on seventeen randomly selected sites was conducted using the point-centered quarter method. The stratified random sampling technique ensured that the sampled trees were representative of all classifications present. Additional measurements taken were soil nutrient concentrations (sodium [Na+], nitrate [NO3-], and potassium [K+]), soil pH, and tree temperatures. Satellite imagery was used to define infestation levels and geophysical parameters, such as land cover, vegetation classification, and vegetation stress. ASTER images were used with the Ratio Vegetation Index (RVI) to explore the differences in vegetation, while MODIS images were used to analyze the Disturbance Index (DI). Four other vegetation indices from Landsat TM5 were used to distinguish the green, red and gray phases. Selected imagery from the Hyperion sensor was used to run a minimum distance supervised classification in ENVI, thus testing the ability of Hyperion imagery to detect the green phase. The National Agricultural Imagery Program (NAIP) archive was used to generate accurate maps of beetle-infested regions. This algorithm was used to detect bark beetle

  12. Green spaces and General Health: Roles of mental health status, social support, and physical activity.

    PubMed

    Dadvand, Payam; Bartoll, Xavier; Basagaña, Xavier; Dalmau-Bueno, Albert; Martinez, David; Ambros, Albert; Cirach, Marta; Triguero-Mas, Margarita; Gascon, Mireia; Borrell, Carme; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J

    2016-05-01

    Green spaces are associated with improved health, but little is known about mechanisms underlying such association. We aimed to assess the association between greenness exposure and subjective general health (SGH) and to evaluate mental health status, social support, and physical activity as mediators of this association. This cross-sectional study was based on a population-based sample of 3461 adults residing in Barcelona, Spain (2011). We characterized outcome and mediators using the Health Survey of Barcelona. Objective and subjective residential proximity to green spaces and residential surrounding greenness were used to characterize greenness exposure. We followed Baron and Kenny's framework to establish the mediation roles and we further quantified the relative contribution of each mediator. Residential surrounding greenness and subjective residential proximity to green spaces were associated with better SGH. We found indications for mediation of these associations by mental health status, perceived social support, and to less extent, by physical activity. These mediators altogether could explain about half of the surrounding greenness association and one-third of the association for subjective proximity to green spaces. We observed indications that mental health and perceived social support might be more relevant for men and those younger than 65years. The results for objective residential proximity to green spaces were not conclusive. In conclusion, our observed association between SGH and greenness exposure was mediated, in part, by mental health status, enhanced social support, and physical activity. There might be age and sex variations in these mediation roles.

  13. Status of the world's remaining closed forests: An assessment using satellite data and policy options

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Singh, A.; Shi, H.; Foresman, T.; Fosnight, E.A.

    2001-01-01

    Historically, it appears that some of the WRCF have survived because i) they lack sufficient quantity of commercially valuable species; ii) they are located in remote or inaccessible areas; or iii) they have been protected as national parks and sanctuaries. Forests will be protected when people who are deciding the fate of forests conclude than the conservation of forests is more beneficial, e.g. generates higher incomes or has cultural or social values, than their clearance. If this is not the case, forests will continue to be cleared and converted. In the future, the WRCF may be protected only by focused attention. The future policy options may include strategies for strong protection measures, the raising of public awareness about the value of forests, and concerted actions for reducing pressure on forest lands by providing alternatives to forest exploitation to meet the growing demands of forest products. Many areas with low population densities offer an opportunity for conservation if appropriate steps are taken now by the national governments and international community. This opportunity must be founded upon the increased public and government awareness that forests have vast importance to the welfare of humans and ecosystems' services such as biodiversity, watershed protection, and carbon balance. Also paramount to this opportunity is the increased scientific understanding of forest dynamics and technical capability to install global observation and assessment systems. High-resolution satellite data such as Landsat 7 and other technologically advanced satellite programs will provide unprecedented monitoring options for governing authorities. Technological innovation can contribute to the way forests are protected. The use of satellite imagery for regular monitoring and Internet for information dissemination provide effective tools for raising worldwide awareness about the significance of forests and intrinsic value of nature.

  14. Direct seeding southern pines: history and status of a technique developed for restoring cutover forests

    Treesearch

    J.P. Barnett

    2014-01-01

    Early in the 20th century the deforestation resulting from the “golden-age of lumbering” left millions of acres of forest land in the need for reforestation. The challenge was so extreme that foresters of the early 1930s estimated that it would take 900 to 1,000 years at the then rate of planting to reforest the denuded forest land that occurred throughout the Nation....

  15. [Health status hygienic assessment of primary military education establishment pupils].

    PubMed

    Avshits, I V; Shirinskiĭ, V A

    2010-01-01

    During a comprehensive study, the investigators have made a hygienic assessment of an academic process and the actual nutrition of military school pupils, revealed the specific features of functioning of the body's major systems in adolescents at a closed primary military education establishment, studied the body's adaptive reactions to a combination of factors during study, and hygienically evaluated the pupils' health. Their health has been shown to improve at a closed education establishment according to the basic parameters of the body's functional status and nonspecific resistance, physical development. Specific recommendations are proposed to correct daily diets for pupils of primary military education establishments in order to bring the actual nutrition of cadets in compliance with the standard physiological requirements for this group of pupils.

  16. SHARP: Automated monitoring of spacecraft health and status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, David J.; James, Mark L.; Martin, R. Gaius

    1991-01-01

    Briefly discussed here are the spacecraft and ground systems monitoring process at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). Some of the difficulties associated with the existing technology used in mission operations are highlighted. A new automated system based on artificial intelligence technology is described which seeks to overcome many of these limitations. The system, called the Spacecraft Health Automated Reasoning Prototype (SHARP), is designed to automate health and status analysis for multi-mission spacecraft and ground data systems operations. The system has proved to be effective for detecting and analyzing potential spacecraft and ground systems problems by performing real-time analysis of spacecraft and ground data systems engineering telemetry. Telecommunications link analysis of the Voyager 2 spacecraft was the initial focus for evaluation of the system in real-time operations during the Voyager spacecraft encounter with Neptune in August 1989.

  17. Health status of refugees from Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Catanzaro, A; Moser, R J

    1982-03-05

    More than 0.5 million refugees from Southeast Asia have immigrated to the United States. We undertook a prospective evaluation of 709 refugees within two months of their resettlement in San Diego. The sample included 164 Vietnamese, 356 Cambodians, 139 Laotians, and 50 Hmong. The prevalence of abnormalities was high: intestinal parasites, 61%; positive tuberculin test (PPD) results 55%; anemia, 37%; hepatitis B antigenemia, 14%; and abnormal VDRL test results, 12%. Except for hepatitis, significant differences were noted among the Vietnamese, Cambodian, Laotian, and Hmong subjects on each of these health status indicators. The refugee population should not be considered a homogeneous group of Indochinese, particularly by those responsible for their health care.

  18. Social Health Status in Iran: An Empirical Study

    PubMed Central

    AMINI RARANI, Mostafa; RAFIYE, Hassan; KHEDMATI MORASAE, Esmaeil

    2013-01-01

    Background: As social health is a condition-driven, dynamic and fluid concept, it seems necessary to construct and obtain a national and relevant concept of it for every society. Providing an empirical back up for Iran’s concept of social health was the aim of the present study. Methods: This study is an ecologic study in which available data for 30 provinces of Iran in 2007 were analyzed. In order to prove construct validity and obtain a social health index, an exploratory factor analysis was conducted on six indicators of population growth, willful murder, poverty, unemployment, insurance coverage and literacy. Results: Following the factor analysis, two factors of Diathesis (made up of high population growth, poverty, low insurance coverage and illiteracy) and Problem (made up of unemployment and willful murder) were extracted. The diathesis and problem explained 48.6 and 19.6% of social health variance respectively. From provinces, Sistan & Baluchistan had the highest rate of poverty and violence and the lowest rate of literacy and insurance coverage. In terms of social health index, Tehran, Semnan, Isfahan, Bushehr and Mazandaran had the highest ranks while Sistan and Baluchistan, Lurestan, Kohkiloyeh and Kermanshah occupied the lowest ones. Conclusion: There are some differences and similarities between Iranian concept of social health and that of other societies. However, a matter that makes our concept special and different is its attention to population. The increase in literacy rate and insurance coverage along with reduction of poverty, violence and unemployment rates can be the main intervention strategies to improve social health status in Iran. PMID:23515572

  19. Deported Mexican migrants: health status and access to care.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Niño, Julián Alfredo; Ramírez-Valdés, Carlos Jacobo; Cerecero-Garcia, Diego; Bojorquez-Chapela, Ietza

    2014-06-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the health status and access to care of forced-return Mexican migrants deported through the Mexico-United States border and to compare it with the situation of voluntary-return migrants. METHODS Secondary data analysis from the Survey on Migration in Mexico's Northern Border from 2012. This is a continuous survey, designed to describe migration flows between Mexico and the United States, with a mobile-population sampling design. We analyzed indicators of health and access to care among deported migrants, and compare them with voluntary-return migrants. Our analysis sample included 2,680 voluntary-return migrants, and 6,862 deportees. We employ an ordinal multiple logistic regression model, to compare the adjusted odds of having worst self-reported health between the studied groups. RESULTS As compared to voluntary-return migrants, deportees were less likely to have medical insurance in the United States (OR = 0.05; 95%CI 0.04;0.06). In the regression model a poorer self-perceived health was found to be associated with having been deported (OR = 1.71, 95%CI 1.52;1.92), as well as age (OR = 1.03, 95%CI 1.02;1.03) and years of education (OR = 0.94 95%CI 0.93;0.95). CONCLUSIONS According to our results, deportees had less access to care while in the United States, as compared with voluntary-return migrants. Our results also showed an independent and statistically significant association between deportation and having poorer self-perceived health. To promote the health and access to care of deported Mexican migrants coming back from the United States, new health and social policies are required.

  20. Deported Mexican migrants: health status and access to care

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Niño, Julián Alfredo; Ramírez-Valdés, Carlos Jacobo; Cerecero-Garcia, Diego; Bojorquez-Chapela, Ietza

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the health status and access to care of forced-return Mexican migrants deported through the Mexico-United States border and to compare it with the situation of voluntary-return migrants. METHODS Secondary data analysis from the Survey on Migration in Mexico’s Northern Border from 2012. This is a continuous survey, designed to describe migration flows between Mexico and the United States, with a mobile-population sampling design. We analyzed indicators of health and access to care among deported migrants, and compare them with voluntary-return migrants. Our analysis sample included 2,680 voluntary-return migrants, and 6,862 deportees. We employ an ordinal multiple logistic regression model, to compare the adjusted odds of having worst self-reported health between the studied groups. RESULTS As compared to voluntary-return migrants, deportees were less likely to have medical insurance in the United States (OR = 0.05; 95%CI 0.04;0.06). In the regression model a poorer self-perceived health was found to be associated with having been deported (OR = 1.71, 95%CI 1.52;1.92), as well as age (OR = 1.03, 95%CI 1.02;1.03) and years of education (OR = 0.94 95%CI 0.93;0.95). CONCLUSIONS According to our results, deportees had less access to care while in the United States, as compared with voluntary-return migrants. Our results also showed an independent and statistically significant association between deportation and having poorer self-perceived health. To promote the health and access to care of deported Mexican migrants coming back from the United States, new health and social policies are required. PMID:25119943

  1. Geography Matters: State-Level Variation in Children's Oral Health Care Access and Oral Health Status

    PubMed Central

    Fisher-Owens, Susan A.; Soobader, Mah-J; Gansky, Stuart A.; Isong, Inyang A.; Weintraub, Jane A.; Platt, Larry J.; Newacheck, Paul W.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To ascertain differences across states in children's oral health care access and oral health status and the factors that contribute to those differences Study Design Observational study using cross-sectional surveys Methods Using the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health, we examined state variation in parent's report of children's oral health care access (absence of a preventive dental visit) and oral health status. We assessed the unadjusted prevalences of these outcomes, then adjusted with child-, family-, and neighborhood-level variables using logistic regression; these results are presented directly and graphically. Using multilevel analysis, we then calculated the degree to which child-, family-, and community-level variables explained state variation. Finally, we quantified the influence of state-level variables on state variation. Results Unadjusted rates of no preventive dental care ranged 9.0-26.8% (mean 17.5%), with little impact of adjusting (10.3-26.7%). Almost 9% of population had fair/poor oral health; unadjusted range 4.1-14.5%. Adjusting analyses affected fair/poor oral health more than access (5.7-10.7%). Child, family and community factors explained ~¼ of the state variation in no preventive visit and ~½ of fair/poor oral health. State-level factors further contributed to explaining up to a third of residual state variation. Conclusion Geography matters: where a child lives has a large impact on his or her access to oral health care and oral health status, even after adjusting for child, family, community, and state variables. As state-level variation persists, other factors and richer data are needed to clarify the variation and drive changes for more egalitarian and overall improved oral health. PMID:26995567

  2. Health and safety needs of older farmers: part I. Work habits and health status.

    PubMed

    Lizer, Shannon K; Petrea, Robert E

    2007-12-01

    Farming is an occupation that blends the work and home environments and traditionally involves active participation of all family members, including older farmers. The work patterns of older farmers, including typical work hours, range of activities, and health status, are not well documented. This study, surveying a random sample of older Illinois farmers (N=87), focused on these gaps in the literature. Older farmers were found to work long hours in many farm tasks, more than would be expected in other occupational groups. Further, older farmers were found to have several chronic diseases at higher rates than the general population of the same age and gender; mental health implications were also identified. Rural occupational health nurses are in an optimal position to positively impact older farmers' mental and physical health status.

  3. Global Markets and the Health of American Forests: A Forest Service Perspective

    Treesearch

    Sally Collins; David Darr; David Wear; Hutch Brown

    2008-01-01

    The United States is rich in forests, yet about 39% of the softwood lumber used by Americans in 2005 came from other countries (WWPA 2006). In fact, the United States has not been “self-sufficient” in lumber (with exports exceeding imports) for more than 40 years. According to Haynes et al. (2007), the trade deficit in lumber has grown from 4.1 billion board feet (bbf...

  4. Effects of simulated N deposition on foliar nutrient status, N metabolism and photosynthetic capacity of three dominant understory plant species in a mature tropical forest.

    PubMed

    Mao, Qinggong; Lu, Xiankai; Mo, Hui; Gundersen, Per; Mo, Jiangming

    2017-08-16

    Anthropogenic increase of nitrogen (N) deposition has threatened forest ecosystem health at both regional and global scales. In N-limited ecosystems, atmospheric N input is regarded as an important nutrient source for plant growth. However, it remains an open question on how elevated N deposition affects plant growth in N-rich forest ecosystems. To address this question, we used a simulated N deposition experiment in an N-rich mature tropical forest of southern China, with N addition levels as 0kgNha(-1)yr(-1) (Control), 50kgNha(-1)yr(-1) (Low-N), 100kgNha(-1)yr(-1) (Middle-N) and 150kgNha(-1)yr(-1) (High-N), respectively. We measured foliar nutrient element status (e.g., N, P, K, Ca and Mg), N metabolism and photosynthesis capacity of three dominant understory plant species (Cryptocarya concinna and Cryptocarya chinensis as medium-light species; and Randia canthioides as shade tolerant species) in this forest. Results showed that two years of N addition greatly increased foliar N content, but decreased the content of nutrient cations (e.g., K, Ca and Mg). Nitrogen addition also increased N accumulation as organic forms as soluble protein and/or free amino acid (FAA), but not as chlorophyll in all three species. We further found that the photosynthesis capacity (Pmax) of C. concinna and C. chinensis decreased significantly with elevated N addition, with no effects on R. canthioides. However, photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency (PNUE) significantly declined with N addition for all three species, with significantly negative relationships between PNUE/Pmax and foliar N content. These findings suggest that excess N inputs can accelerate nutrient imbalance, and inhibit photosynthetic capacity of understory plant species, indicating continuous high N deposition can threat understory plant growth in N-rich tropical forests in the future. Meanwhile, PNUE can be used as a sensitive indicator to assess ecosystem N status under chronic N deposition. Copyright © 2017

  5. Health status, intention to seek health examination, and participation in health education among taxi drivers in jinan, china.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yan; Fan, Xiao-Sheng; Tian, Cui-Huan; Zhang, Wei; Li, Jie; Li, Shu-Qing

    2014-04-01

    Taxi drivers are exposed to various risk factors such as work overload, stress, an irregular diet, and a sedentary lifestyle, which make these individuals vulnerable to many diseases. This study was designed to assess the health status of this occupational group. The objective was to explore the health status, the intention to seek health examination, and participation in health education among taxi drivers in Jinan, China. The sample-size was determined scientifically. The systematic sampling procedure was used for selecting the sample. Four hundred taxi drivers were randomly selected from several taxi companies in Jinan. In total, 396 valid questionnaires (from 370 males and 26 females) were returned. Health status, intention to seek health examination, and participation in health education were assessed by a self-designed questionnaire. Other personal information including sex, age, ethnicity, marital status, years of employment as a taxi driver, education level, and habits were also collected. This survey revealed that 54.8% of taxi drivers reported illness in the last two weeks and 44.7% of participants reported chronic diseases. The prevalence rates of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, gastroenteritis, arthritis, and heart disease were 18.2%, 8.8%, 26%, 18.4%, and 4.8% of questioned taxi drivers, respectively. Significant self-reported symptoms included fatigue, waist and back pain, headache, dyspepsia, and dry throat affecting 49.7%, 26.2%, 23.5%, 26%, and 27% of participants, respectively. In total, 90.1% of subjects thought that it was necessary to receive a regular health examination. Only 17.9% of subjects had been given information about health education, and significantly, more than 87% of subjects who had been given information about health education reported that the information had been helpful. Taxi drivers' health was poor in our survey. Thus, using health education interventions to improve knowledge and change in behaviors are necessary and

  6. Religiosity dimensions and subjective health status in Greek students.

    PubMed

    Kioulos, K T; Bergiannaki, J D; Glaros, A; Vassiliadou, M; Alexandri, Z; Papadimitriou, G

    2015-01-01

    The quest for existential meaning constitutes a universal phenomenon traditionally manifested in official religions (religiosity) or personal modes of transcendence (spirituality). Religiosity and spirituality have been found to be associated with a variety of mental health and illness parameters. In the last decades there is an increasing number of publications with interesting results on the relationship between religiosity and mental health, both on a theoretical and a clinical level. Recent research suggests the presence of clinically important interactions between religious beliefs and mental health, although the exact nature of the associations remains unclear. The aim of the present study is to investigate subjective health status in relation to specific dimensions of religiosity and spirituality in Greek students; 202 students of the faculty of Theology of the University of Athens were interviewed using the Brief Multidimensional Measurement of Religiousness/Spirituality (BMMRS), which assesses the dimensions of "daily spiritual experiences", "meaning", "values/beliefs", "forgiveness", "private religious practices", "religious/spiritual coping", "religious support", "religious/ spiritual history", "commitment", "organizational religiousness", and "religious preferences". Subjective health status was measured by the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) which examines four areas of health in the following sub-scales: (a) somatic symptoms, (b) anxiety and insomnia, (c) social dysfunction and (d) severe depression. Pearson correlations coefficients and linear regression analyses were used to estimate the associations of GHQ-28 subscales with religiosity dimensions. High scores in each dimension of BMMRS corresponded to a low level of religiosity. The dimension of "daily spiritual experiences" was positively correlated with the subscales of anxiety/ insomnia, social dysfunction and severe depression, while the dimension of "values/beliefs" with social

  7. Evaluating the nodulation status of leguminous species from the Amazonian forest of Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Faria, Sergio M; Diedhiou, Abdala G; de Lima, Haroldo C; Ribeiro, Robson D; Galiana, Antoine; Castilho, Alexandre F; Henriques, João C

    2010-06-01

    Numerous leguminous species are used or have potential uses for timber production, pharmacological products, or land reclamation. Through N(2)-fixation, many leguminous trees contribute to the N-balance of tropical wetlands and rainforests. Therefore, studies of the N(2)-fixation ability of leguminous species appear to be crucial for the better use and conservation of these resources. The global nodulation inventory in the Leguminosae family is constantly being enriched with new records, suggesting the existence of undiscovered nodulated species, especially in tropical natural ecosystems and other hot spots of biodiversity. In this respect, the nodulation of leguminous species from the Amazonian forest of Porto Trombetas (Brazil) was surveyed. Overall, 199 leguminous species from flooded and non-flooded areas, were examined for their nodulation status by combining field observations, seedling inoculations, and screening of N(2)-fixing bacterial strains from the collected nodules. The results revealed a tendency for a higher relative frequency of nodulation in the species from the flooded areas (74%) compared with those from the non-flooded areas (67%). Nodulation was observed in the Caesalpinioideae, Mimosoideae, and Papilionoideae, with 25, 88, and 84% of the examined species in each subfamily, respectively. Of the 137 nodulated leguminous species, 32 including three Caesalpinoideae, 19 Mimosoideae, and 10 Papilionoideae are new records. One new nodulated genus (Cymbosema) was found in the Papilionoideae. Twelve non-nodulating leguminous species were also observed for the first time. The results are discussed based on the systematics of the Leguminosae family and the influence of available nutrients to the legume-bacteria symbiosis.

  8. Disparity in Health Screening and Health Utilization according to Economic Status.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Jung; Lee, Hyejin; Kim, Eun Ha; Cho, Mi Hee; Shin, Dong Wook; Yun, Jae Moon; Shin, Jung-Hyun

    2017-07-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has become the most common cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Health screening is associated with higher outpatient visits for detection and treatment of CVD-related diseases (diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and dyslipidemia). We examined the association between health screening, health utilization, and economic status. A sampled cohort database from the National Health Insurance Corporation was used. We included 306,206 participants, aged over 40 years, without CVD (myocardial infarction, stroke, and cerebral hemorrhage), CVD-related disease, cancer, and chronic renal disease. The follow-up period was from January 1, 2003 through December 31, 2005. Totally, 104,584 participants received at least one health screening in 2003-2004. The odds ratio of the health screening attendance rate for the five economic status categories was 1.27 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.24 to 1.31), 1.05 (95% CI, 1.02 to 1.08), 1, 1.16 (95% CI, 1.13 to 1.19) and 1.50 (95% CI, 1.46 to 1.53), respectively. For economic status 1, 3, and 5, respectively, the diagnostic rate after health screening was as follows: diabetes mellitus: 5.94%, 5.36%, and 3.77%; hypertension: 32.75%, 30.16%, and 25.23%; and dyslipidemia: 13.43%, 12.69%, and 12.20%. The outpatient visit rate for attendees diagnosed with CVD-related disease was as follows for economic status 1, 3, and 5, respectively: diabetes mellitus: 37.69%, 37.30%, and 43.70%; hypertension: 34.44%, 30.09%, and 32.31%; and dyslipidemia: 18.83%, 20.35%, and 23.48%. Thus, higher or lower economic status groups had a higher health screening attendance rate than the middle economic status group. The lower economic status group showed lower outpatient visits after screening, although it had a higher rate of CVD diagnosis.

  9. [Migrant population life style and health status characteristics].

    PubMed

    Kato, I; Tominaga, S; Suzuki, T

    1990-02-01

    To clarify migrant population characteristics, we examined the relationship between out-migration from study areas during a 3 year follow-up period and health status, life style, and socioeconomic factors obtained at the initial baseline survey in a cohort study involving 15, 493 males and 17,440 females. Characteristics of inter-prefectural out-migrants were summarized as follows: 1) A significantly higher proportion of inter-prefectural out-migrants were employees of relatively large companies, family members of these employees, white collar workers in the case of males, and housewives in the case of females. 2) Inter-prefectural out-migrants had relatively good health status and high participation in cancer screening tests. 3) The dietary habits of inter-prefectural out-migrants were more westernized and well-balanced. 4) Male inter-prefectural out-migrants had a higher proportion of heavy smokers and daily drinkers, while females had lower proportion of smokers and drinkers. When comparing in-migrants to out-migrants, the characteristics were similar for males, but opposite for females.

  10. Reconceptualizing determinants of health: barriers to improving the health status of First Nations peoples.

    PubMed

    Nesdole, Robert; Voigts, Debora; Lepnurm, Rein; Roberts, Rose

    2014-05-09

    Comparing the key determinants of health articulated by the Public Health Agency of Canada (the Agency) with the spiritual and cultural knowledge systems of First Nations peoples, as expressed by the Four Worlds International Institute for Human and Community Development (Four Worlds) and their 14 determinants of well-being and health, reveals differing philosophical perspectives. The key determinants of health can be interpreted as lacking a holistic and inclusive approach to public health services. As a result, many public health programs in Canada marginalize, ignore and suppress the needs of First Nations communities and people. Incorporating the Four Worlds guiding principles and its 14 health determinants model within the context of Canadian public health services geared towards First Nations populations provides the opportunity to develop a deeper understanding of social determinants of health. Therefore, when implementing public health initiatives to address the health status of First Nations people in Canada, it is important that the Agency incorporate the guiding principles of the Four Worlds: Development Comes from Within; No Vision, No Development; Individual and Community Transformations Must Go Hand in Hand; and Holistic Learning is the Key to Deep and Lasting Change. Reconceptualizing the key determinants of health to encompass the worldview expressed by the Four Worlds acknowledges the cultural wisdom of First Nations people and offers the potential to develop more inclusive public health services.

  11. Utilisation of oral health services, oral health needs and oral health status in a peri-urban informal settlement.

    PubMed

    Westaway, M S; Viljoen, E; Rudolph, M J

    1999-04-01

    Interviews were conducted with 294 black residents (155 females and 138 males) of a peri-urban informal settlement in Gauteng to ascertain utilisation of oral health services, oral health needs and oral health status. Only 37 per cent of the sample had consulted a dentist or medical practitioner, usually for extractions. Teenagers and employed persons were significantly less likely to utilise dentists than the older age groups and unemployed persons. Forty per cent were currently experiencing oral health problems such as a sore mouth, tooth decay and bleeding/painful gums. Two hundred and twelve (73 per cent) interviewees wanted dental treatment or advice. Residents who rated their oral health status as fair or poor appeared to have the greatest need for oral health services. The use of interviews appears to be a cost-effective method of determining oral morbidity.

  12. Adapting forest health assessments to changing perspectives on threats--a case example from Sweden.

    PubMed

    Wulff, Sören; Lindelöw, Åke; Lundin, Lars; Hansson, Per; Axelsson, Anna-Lena; Barklund, Pia; Wijk, Sture; Ståhl, Göran

    2012-04-01

    A revised Swedish forest health assessment system is presented. The assessment system is composed of several interacting components which target information needs for strategic and operational decision making and accommodate a continuously expanding knowledge base. The main motivation for separating information for strategic and operational decision making is that major damage outbreaks are often scattered throughout the landscape. Generally, large-scale inventories (such as national forest inventories) cannot provide adequate information for mitigation measures. In addition to broad monitoring programs that provide time-series information on known damaging agents and their effects, there is also a need for local and regional inventories adapted to specific damage events. While information for decision making is the major focus of the health assessment system, the system also contributes to expanding the knowledge base of forest conditions. For example, the integrated monitoring programs provide a better understanding of ecological processes linked to forest health. The new health assessment system should be able to respond to the need for quick and reliable information and thus will be an important part of the future monitoring of Swedish forests.

  13. The Health Status of American Indian and Alaska Native Males

    PubMed Central

    Rhoades, Everett R.

    2003-01-01

    Objectives. This study summarizes current health status information relating to American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) males compared with that of AI/ANfemales. Methods. I analyzed published data from the Indian Health Service for 1994 through 1996 to determine sex differences in morbidity and mortality rates and use of health care facilities. Results. AI/AN males’ death rates exceed those of AI/AN females for every age up to 75 years and for 6 of the 8 leading causes of death. Accidents, suicide, and homicide are epidemic among AI/AN males. Paradoxically, AI/AN males contribute only 37.9% of outpatient visits, versus 62.1% for females, and only 47% of hospitalizations excluding childbirth. Conclusions. AI/AN males suffer inordinately from a combination of increased burden of illness and lack of utilization of health care services. Programs targeted to anomie, loss of traditional male roles, and violence and alcoholism are among the most urgently needed. PMID:12721143

  14. Veterinary public health in India: current status and future needs.

    PubMed

    Ghatak, S; Singh, B B

    2015-12-01

    Veterinary public health (VPH) assumes huge significance in developing countries such as India. However, the implementation of VPH services throughout the country is still in its infancy. From 1970 onwards, many institutes, national and international organisations, professional societies, policies and personalities have contributed towards the development of VPH in India. Nevertheless, there is an urgent need to develop VPH still further as there are many issues, such as high population density, the re-emergence of zoonotic pathogens, environmental pollution and antimicrobial resistance, that require attention. The time has surely come to involve all stakeholders, ranging from primary producers (e.g., farmers) to policy-makers, so as to garner support for the holistic implementation of VPH services in India. To improve VPH activities and services, science-based policies enforced through stringent regulation are required to improve human, animal and environmental health. The emergence of the 'One Health' concept has ushered in new hopes for the resurrection of VPH in India. Applying tools such as the World Organisation for Animal Health (OlE) Day One Competencies and the OlE Tool for the Evaluation of Performance of Veterinary Services (PVS Tool) is essential to improve the quality of national Veterinary Services and to identify gaps and weaknesses in service provision, which can be remedied to comply with the OlE international standards. VPH initiatives started modestly but they continue to grow. The present review is focused on the current status and future needs of VPH in India.

  15. Measurement of socioeconomic status in health disparities research.

    PubMed Central

    Shavers, Vickie L.

    2007-01-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) is frequently implicated as a contributor to the disparate health observed among racial/ ethnic minorities, women and elderly populations. Findings from studies that examine the role of SES and health disparities, however, have provided inconsistent results. This is due in part to the: 1) lack of precision and reliability of measures; 2) difficulty with the collection of individual SES data; 3) the dynamic nature of SES over a lifetime; 4) the classification of women, children, retired and unemployed persons; 5) lack of or poor correlation between individual SES measures; and 6) and inaccurate or misleading interpretation of study results. Choosing the best variable or approach for measuring SES is dependent in part on its relevance to the population and outcomes under study. Many of the commonly used compositional and contextual SES measures are limited in terms of their usefulness for examining the effect of SES on outcomes in analyses of data that include population subgroups known to experience health disparities. This article describes SES measures, strengths and limitations of specific approaches and methodological issues related to the analysis and interpretation of studies that examine SES and health disparities. PMID:17913111

  16. Domestic violence and abuse, health status, and social functioning.

    PubMed

    McCaw, Brigid; Golding, Jacqueline M; Farley, Melissa; Minkoff, Jerome R

    2007-01-01

    Current and past history of domestic violence (DV), including physical, sexual, and emotional abuse is common among women patients seen in health care settings and is associated with a higher frequency of many health problems. However, the association of DV with self-assessed social functioning is less well known. We administered a telephone survey to a random sample of 391 women HMO members seen for a routine annual check-up. The survey included questions about current and past physical, sexual, and emotional violence and self-assessed social functioning and health status from the SF-36. We included questions about attitudes toward routine DV screening, likelihood of disclosure, and the health care setting as a resource. Seven percent of the women reported recent DV and 34% reported lifetime abuse. Abuse was related to limitations in social functioning (adjusted OR = 2.26). Among women with no recent history of abuse, those with a history of past physical (adjusted OR = 1.90), sexual (adjusted OR = 2.04), or emotional (adjusted OR = 2.20) abuse reported significantly poorer social functioning. Emotional abuse, even in the absence of a history of physical or sexual abuse, was strongly associated with limitations in social functioning (adjusted OR = 4.95). Most women believed it appropriate for clinicians to inquire routinely about DV (87%) and 83% believed that the health care setting was a source of help. Current and past DV, including emotional abuse, adversely affect social functioning. Therefore, clinicians in the health care setting have a unique and important opportunity to assist women victims of DV and abuse.

  17. Forest health in the Blue Mountains: Science perspectives. A management strategy for fire-adapted ecosystems. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Mutch, R.W.; Arno, S.F.; Brown, J.K.; Carlson, C.E.; Ottmar, R.D.

    1993-02-01

    The fire-adapted forests of the Blue Mountains are suffering from a forest health problem of catastrophic proportions. The composition of the forest at lower elevations has shifted from historically open-growth stands of primarily ponderosa pine and western larch to stands with dense understories of Douglas-fir and grand fir. Epidemic levels of insect infestations and large wildfires adversely affect visual quality, wildlife habitat, stream sedimentation, and timber values. A management strategy to restore forest health at lower elevations will require that the seral ponderosa pine and western larch stands be managed for much lower tree densities and a more open coniferous understory. A combination of silvicultural partial cutting and prescribed fire on a large scale will be needed to produce the desired future condition of healthy, open, and park-like forests.

  18. The Status of White Spruce Plantations on Lake States National Forests

    Treesearch

    Glen W. Erickson; H. Michael Rauscher

    1985-01-01

    Summarizes information about white spruce plantations as of 1982. Based on average site index, the Superior National Forest in Minnesota and the Hiawatha and Huron-Manistee in Michigan contain climate-soil-seed source complexes that are, on the average, less productive for white spruce than on the other National Forests

  19. Managing Gambel oak in southwestern ponderosa pine forests: the status of our knowledge

    Treesearch

    Scott R. Abella

    2008-01-01

    Gambel oak (Quercus gambelii) is a key deciduous species in southwestern ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests and is important for wildlife habitat, soil processes, and human values. This report (1) summarizes Gambel oak's biological characteristics and importance in ponderosa pine forests, (2) synthesizes literature on...

  20. How might FIA deliver more information on status and trends of non-timber forest products?

    Treesearch

    Stephen P. Prisley

    2015-01-01

    Data from the Forest Inventory and Analysis program (including the Timber Products Output portion) are critical for assessing the sustainability of US timber production. Private sector users of this information rely on it for strategic planning, and their strong support of the FIA program has helped to ensure funding and program viability. Non-timber forest products...