Science.gov

Sample records for forest preserve palos

  1. Environmental review for Site A/Plot M, Palos Forest Preserve, Cook County, Illinois

    SciTech Connect

    Biang, R.P.; Yuen, C.R.; Avci, H.I.; Haffenden, R.

    1993-06-01

    This report is an environmental review of two sites known as Site A and Plot M, which are located in the Palos Forest Preserve of the Forest Preserve District of Cook County, approximately 20 mi southwest of downtown Chicago and about 3 mi east of the current site of Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). An enlarged map of the area around the sites is shown in a figure. Site A covers about 19 acres, and Plot M covers about 1 acre. This document consists of the following sections: a review of the site history and environment, a description of the conceptual pathway models for both Site A and Plot M and a brief discussion of previous sampling events, a discussion of possible transport pathways, an evaluation of the Phase 2 Work Plan for Site A, a review of the applicable or relevant and appropriate regulations (ARARs), and recommendations for future study. The recommendations are based on an evaluation of previously collected data. Where data were sufficient, a geologic conceptual model was developed. If data were not sufficient to develop a model, recommendations for data collection are made. A new base map was developed for the site by using the base survey conducted in the 1940s, aerial photographs dating back to 1948, and site visits.

  2. Data for wells at the low-level radioactive-waste burial site in the Palos Forest Preserve, Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olimpio, J.C.

    1982-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is studying the geologic, hydrologic, and geochemical properties of the glacial drift and underlying bedrock at a low-level radioactive-waste burial site in the Palos Forest Preserve, 22 kilometers southwest of Chicago. Data collected from the 33 test wells drilled into the drift plus data from 4 wells drilled into the underlying dolomite bedrock are presented. Data include maps showing the location of the test wells, a general description of the drift, well-construction information, and lithologic descriptions of cores from the wells finished in the drift.

  3. Low-level radioactive-waste burial at the Palos Forest Preserve, Illinois; geology and hydrology of the glacial drift, as related to the migration of tritium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olimpio, Julio C.

    1984-01-01

    A low-level radioactive-waste burial site is located in Palos Forest Preserve, about 22 kilometers southwest of Chicago, Illinois. Between 1943 and 1949 the site, named Plot M, was filled with radioactive waste from the first Argonne National Laboratory and from the University of Chicago Metallurgical Laboratory. Since 1973, tritium concentration levels up to 14 nanocuries per liter have been measured in water samples collected from a well 360 meters from the burial site. The U.S. Geological Survey is studying the geologic, hydrologic, and geochemical properties of the glacial drift and underlying bedrock at the Plot M site to determine the factors that control the movement of radionuclides. Test wells were drilled into the drift to collect water and core samples for laboratory analysis, to gather geologic and hydrologic data, and to conduct geophysical surveys. Plot M is located in drift that ranges in thickness from 25 to 45 meters. The drift is a stratified sequence of clay- and silt-rich sediments that contain thin, interstratified sand layers. The silt content of the drift increases with depth. The permeability of the drift, as indicated by field and laboratory hydraulic conductivity tests, ranges from 1.0 x 10 -6 to 1.0 ? 10 -8 centimeters per second. A tritium plume, the contaminated zone in the drift in which tritium concentration levels exceed 10 nanocuries per liter of water, extends horizontally northward from Plot M at least 50 meters and vertically downward to bedrock. The center of the plume, where tritium concentration levels are as high as 50,000 nanocuries per liter, is approximately 15 meters beneath the burial site. The size, shape, and 'bull's-eye' concentration pattern indicate that the plume is a single slug and that the site no longer releases tritium into the drift. The leading edge, or front, of the plume (the 10 nanocuries per liter boundary) left the burial site in either the late 1940's or the early 1950's and intersected the underlying

  4. Rain forest preservation

    SciTech Connect

    Weiner, R.F. )

    1989-01-01

    The author discusses the possible impact the destruction of the tropical rain forest in South America has had on the atmosphere. Slash-and-burn agricultural practices have caused laterization of the soils, because rain forest vegetation carries nutrients, rather than the soil. The fact that the vegetation of the rain forest can help metabolize the excess carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is also mentioned.

  5. Managed forest reserves: preserving diversity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tappeiner, John; Poage, Nathan; Erickson, Janet L.

    2003-01-01

    Background As part of the Northwest Forest Plan, large areas have been designated on many federal forests in western Oregon to provide critical habitat for plants and animals that are associated with old-growth habitat. Some of the structural characteristics often considered typical of old forests include large-diameter overstory trees, large standing and fallen dead trees, and one or more understory layers (Figure 1). However, not all of these areas are currently in old-growth conditions. Many of them contain young (<40 years), uniformly dense Douglas-fir stands that regenerated after timber harvest. The original management goal for these stands was to produce high yields of timber and associated wood products. With implementation of the Northwest Forest Plan in 1994, the management objective shifted to accelerating development of old-growth characteristics by enhancing structural and biological diversity of these areas. A major challenge today is how to promote these structural characteristics in younger stands. Researchers have been asking if lessons can be learned from the development of our current old growth and applied to management of younger stands. Dr. John Tappeiner and his university and agency research partners are helping to answer this question by examining the differences in development between old-growth and young stands in western Oregon. Understanding how the structure of these old forests developed may provide a model for management of young stands, especially when the management goal is to provide habitat for species associated with older forests.

  6. Palos Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Palos Crater has been suggested as a future landing site for Mars Missions. This crater has a channel called Tinto Vallis, which enters from the south. This site was suggested as a landing site because it may contain lake deposits. Palos Crater is named in honor of the port city in Spain from which Christopher Columbus sailed on his way to the New World in August of 1492. The floor of Palos Crater appears to be layered in places providing further evidence that this site may in fact have been the location of an ancient lake.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  7. Tropical forest preservation using economic incentives

    SciTech Connect

    Katzman, M.T. ); Cale, W.G. Jr. )

    1990-12-01

    The authors address the problem of deforestation of the tropical forests in terms of economic factors. They outline the global effects, such as hydrological and climatological changes, that apparently small scale deforestation has, when the forest is destroyed in many different places. The authors suggest that industrialized nations should offer economic incentives for tropical nations to save their forests, since all the world will suffer the effects of tropical deforestation.

  8. Expansion of forest stands into tundra in the Noatak National Preserve, northwest Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Suarez, F.; Binkley, D.; Kaye, M.W.; Stottlemyer, R.

    1999-01-01

    Temperatures across the northern regions of North America have been increasing for 150 years, and forests have responded to this increase. In the Noatak National Preserve in Alaska, white spruce (Picea glauca [Moench] Voss) forests reach their northern limit, occurring primarily on well-drained sites and as gallery forests along streams. Rolling plateaus of tundra separate the white spruce forests into disjunct stands. We examined patterns of tree age, tree growth, and tree encroachment into tundra ecosystems in six stands along the Agashashok River. Warming over the past 150 years appears to have increased tree growth and resulted in forest expansion into adjacent tundra ecosystems. The forest/tundra ecotone shifted by about 80 to 100 m into the tundra in the past 200 years, as evidenced by declining maximum tree age with distance towards the tundra. The decadal-scale pattern of tree establishment at the farthest extent of trees into the tundra (the tundra-forest ecotone) correlated with the detrended growth index for trees within the forests; climate conditions that led to higher tree growth appeared to foster tree establishment in the tundra. This recent forest expansion has occurred across topographic boundaries, from well-drained soils on slopes onto poorly drained, flatter areas of tundra. Further expansion of the forests may be limited by more severe wind exposure and poor drainage that make the majority of tundra less suitable for trees.

  9. RESEARCH: Prospects for Preservation and Restoration of Riparian Forests in the Sacramento Valley, California, USA.

    PubMed

    Hunter; B Willett K; McCoy; Quinn; Keller

    1999-07-01

    / This GIS-based study analyzes the distribution and management of woody riparian vegetation in California's Sacramento Valley and discusses the prospects for its conservation. Although forests were the predominant floodplain vegetation prior to extensive settlement, only 3.3% of floodplain was covered by forest in the late 1980s. This remaining forest was fragmented into 2607 patches with an average area of 3.1 ha. Only 180 patches were >10 ha, with three patches >100 ha. Despite over two decades of conservation efforts, these forests are essentially unpreserved: Only 14.5% of extant forests are in public ownership or on land managed primarily for biological conservation. Some privately owned forests represent opportunities for preservation, but owing to their small size and scattered distribution, reforestation would be necessary to obtain a high cover of forest over large areas. Additionally, high property values, existing land uses, and regulated hydrology constrain conservation efforts. As a consequence of these constraints, and current distribution and ownership patterns, preservation or restoration of substantial areas of riparian forest would be extremely expensive and would divert conservation resources from other habitats in this rapidly developing state. Therefore, efforts to conserve these forests should satisfy two criteria: (1) that the specific goals are attainable with available funding and existing human uses, and (2) funding the effort will result in more effective regional conservation than would funding the conservation of other habitats.KEY WORDS: Central Valley; Conservation; Floodplains; Geographic information systems; Riparian vegetationhttp://link.springer-ny.com/link/service/journals/00267/bibs/24n1p65.html PMID:10341063

  10. Palo Verde College Facts, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palo Verde Coll., Blythe, CA.

    This is a 2001 report on Palo Verde College (PVC) (California) student demographics, enrollment status, citizenship, educational goals, and academic persistence. Student data were collected and analyzed to meet accrediting standards, improve institutional effectiveness, and fulfill the local district's mission. The report discusses enrollment…

  11. Variance-preserving mosaicing of multiple satellite images for forest parameter estimation: Radiometric normalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eivazi, Anna; Kolesnikov, Alexander; Junttila, Virpi; Kauranne, Tuomo

    2015-07-01

    Measuring, Reporting and Verification (MRV) systems of the United Nations programme on Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD+) aim to provide robust and reliable data on carbon credits over large areas. Multitemporal satellite mosaics are often the only cost-effective remote sensing data that allow such coverage. Although a number of methods for producing mosaics has been proposed, most of them are dependent on the order in which tiles to normalized are presented to the algorithm and suffer from loss of input scenes' variance which can substantially reduce the carbon credits. In this study we propose a variance-preserving mosaic (VPM) algorithm that considers all images at the same time, minimizes overall error of the normalization and aims to preserve average variance of input images. We have compared the presented method with a popular relative normalization algorithm commonly used nowadays. The proposed algorithm allows to avoid iterative pair-wise normalization, results in visually uniform mosaics while maintaining also the original image variance.

  12. Opal Creek Forest Preserve Act of 1994. Introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundred Third Congress, Second Session, August 8, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    The legislative text proposes to provide for the establishment and management of the Opal Creek Forest Reserve in Oregon. The purpose of the Act is to protect and preserve the forests and watersheds in the Reserve. And to promote and conduct research regarding old-growth forests and for educators to provide scientifically credible information to the public.

  13. Estimating Catchment-Scale Snowpack Variability in Complex Forested Terrain, Valles Caldera National Preserve, NM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harpold, A. A.; Brooks, P. D.; Biederman, J. A.; Swetnam, T.

    2011-12-01

    Difficulty estimating snowpack variability across complex forested terrain currently hinders the prediction of water resources in the semi-arid Southwestern U.S. Catchment-scale estimates of snowpack variability are necessary for addressing ecological, hydrological, and water resources issues, but are often interpolated from a small number of point-scale observations. In this study, we used LiDAR-derived distributed datasets to investigate how elevation, aspect, topography, and vegetation interact to control catchment-scale snowpack variability. The study area is the Redondo massif in the Valles Caldera National Preserve, NM, a resurgent dome that varies from 2500 to 3430 m and drains from all aspects. Mean LiDAR-derived snow depths from four catchments (2.2 to 3.4 km^2) draining different aspects of the Redondo massif varied by 30%, despite similar mean elevations and mixed conifer forest cover. To better quantify this variability in snow depths we performed a multiple linear regression (MLR) at a 7.3 by 7.3 km study area (5 x 106 snow depth measurements) comprising the four catchments. The MLR showed that elevation explained 45% of the variability in snow depths across the study area, aspect explained 18% (dominated by N-S aspect), and vegetation 2% (canopy density and height). This linear relationship was not transferable to the catchment-scale however, where additional MLR analyses showed the influence of aspect and elevation differed between the catchments. The strong influence of North-South aspect in most catchments indicated that the solar radiation is an important control on snow depth variability. To explore the role of solar radiation, a model was used to generate winter solar forcing index (SFI) values based on the local and remote topography. The SFI was able to explain a large amount of snow depth variability in areas with similar elevation and aspect. Finally, the SFI was modified to include the effects of shading from vegetation (in and out of

  14. The endemic headwater stream amphibians of the American Northwest: Associations with environmental gradients in a large forested preserve

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, M.J.; Bury, R.B.

    2002-01-01

    We used a large forested preserve (Olympic National Park, USA) to examine the habitat associations of a unique and environmentally sensitive stream amphibian fauna: Ascaphus truei Stegneger, Rhyacotriton olympicus (Gaige) and Dicamptodon copei Nussbaum. We quantified the relative abundance of stream amphibians and compared them to physical, topographic, climatic and landscape variables. All three species were associated with the south-west to north-east climate gradient, tending to be most abundant in the south-west. Although a habitat generalist relative to the other two species, Dicamptodon copei was absent from the north-eastern portion of the park. Ascaphus truei and Rhyacotriton olympicus were both associated with coarse substrates and steep gradients. Unlike studies in harvested forests, all stream amphibians were common in waters with unconsolidated surface geology (e.g. marine sediments that erode easily). Studies of ecological preserves can provide an important baseline for evaluating species associations with environmental gradients and can reveal patterns not evident in more disturbed landscapes.

  15. Conservation Strategies for Orangutans: Reintroduction versus Habitat Preservation and the Benefits of Sustainably Logged Forest

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Howard B.; Meijaard, Erik; Venter, Oscar; Ancrenaz, Marc; Possingham, Hugh P.

    2014-01-01

    The Sumatran orangutan is currently listed by the IUCN as critically endangered and the Bornean species as endangered. Unless effective conservation measures are enacted quickly, most orangutan populations without adequate protection face a dire future. Two main strategies are being pursued to conserve orangutans: (i) rehabilitation and reintroduction of ex-captive or displaced individuals; and (ii) protection of their forest habitat to abate threats like deforestation and hunting. These strategies are often mirrored in similar programs to save other valued and endangered mega-fauna. Through GIS analysis, collating data from across the literature, and combining this information within a modelling and decision analysis framework, we analysed which strategy or combination of strategies is the most cost-effective at maintaining wild orangutan populations, and under what conditions. We discovered that neither strategy was optimal under all circumstances but was dependent on the relative cost per orangutan, the timescale of management concern, and the rate of deforestation. Reintroduction, which costs twelve times as much per animal as compared to protection of forest, was only a cost-effective strategy at very short timescales. For time scales longer than 10–20 years, forest protection is the more cost-efficient strategy for maintaining wild orangutan populations. Our analyses showed that a third, rarely utilised strategy is intermediate: introducing sustainable logging practices and protection from hunting in timber production forest. Maximum long-term cost-efficiency is achieved by working in conservation forest. However, habitat protection involves addressing complex conservation issues and conflicting needs at the landscape level. We find a potential resolution in that well-managed production forests could achieve intermediate conservation outcomes. This has broad implications for sustaining biodiversity more generally within an economically productive landscape

  16. Conservation strategies for orangutans: reintroduction versus habitat preservation and the benefits of sustainably logged forest.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Howard B; Meijaard, Erik; Venter, Oscar; Ancrenaz, Marc; Possingham, Hugh P

    2014-01-01

    The Sumatran orangutan is currently listed by the IUCN as critically endangered and the Bornean species as endangered. Unless effective conservation measures are enacted quickly, most orangutan populations without adequate protection face a dire future. Two main strategies are being pursued to conserve orangutans: (i) rehabilitation and reintroduction of ex-captive or displaced individuals; and (ii) protection of their forest habitat to abate threats like deforestation and hunting. These strategies are often mirrored in similar programs to save other valued and endangered mega-fauna. Through GIS analysis, collating data from across the literature, and combining this information within a modelling and decision analysis framework, we analysed which strategy or combination of strategies is the most cost-effective at maintaining wild orangutan populations, and under what conditions. We discovered that neither strategy was optimal under all circumstances but was dependent on the relative cost per orangutan, the timescale of management concern, and the rate of deforestation. Reintroduction, which costs twelve times as much per animal as compared to protection of forest, was only a cost-effective strategy at very short timescales. For time scales longer than 10-20 years, forest protection is the more cost-efficient strategy for maintaining wild orangutan populations. Our analyses showed that a third, rarely utilised strategy is intermediate: introducing sustainable logging practices and protection from hunting in timber production forest. Maximum long-term cost-efficiency is achieved by working in conservation forest. However, habitat protection involves addressing complex conservation issues and conflicting needs at the landscape level. We find a potential resolution in that well-managed production forests could achieve intermediate conservation outcomes. This has broad implications for sustaining biodiversity more generally within an economically productive landscape

  17. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: Palo Duro Homes — Palo Duro Homes, Albuquerque, NM

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2014-09-01

    This builder was honored for Most DOE Zero Energy Ready Homes Built in the 2014 Housing Innovation Awards. By July 2014, Palo Duro had completed 152 homes since the program began in 2013 (under the original program title DOE Challenge Home), all of them certified to the stringent efficiency requirements of DOE’s Zero Energy Ready Home program.

  18. High levels of green-tree retention are required to preserve ground beetle biodiversity in boreal mixedwood forests.

    PubMed

    Work, Timothy T; Jacobs, Joshua M; Spence, John R; Volney, W Jan

    2010-04-01

    Recovery of biodiversity and other ecosystem functions to pre-disturbance levels is a central goal of natural disturbance-based approaches to ecosystem management. In boreal mixedwood forests, green-tree retention has been proposed as an alternative approach to traditional clearcutting that may minimize initial displacement of species assemblages and speed recovery of the biota. Here we evaluated the effectiveness of six levels of dispersed greentree retention for conservation of ground beetle biodiversity in four boreal mixedwood cover types that span a gradient of stand development following wildfire. Each cover type X treatment combination was replicated three times in an operational scale experiment using 10-ha compartments. Ground beetle assemblages (59 species and 45 419 individuals) responded to increasing levels of dispersed, green-tree retention, but even relatively high levels of retention (up to 50% retention) did not retain species assemblages characteristic of uncut forest stands. This latter effect was most pronounced in compartments in later successional stages; i.e., those with developing conifer understories, or mixed and/or conifer-dominated overstories. Beetle assemblages in high levels of retention (50-75%) were statistically similar across all cover types, although we detected modest differences among the 5-year recovery of assemblages, based on initial cover type differences. Thus, recovery to initial conditions likely will be slower in mixed and conifer stands than in deciduous stands. We suggest that recovery of beetle assemblages is strongly linked to stand reinitiation through deciduous "suckering" post-harvest. Increasing levels of harvest appear to homogenize carabid assemblages across the four dominant cover types, and thus higher levels of retention (>50%) will be required to preserve assemblages of later successional stages. Regional renewal of assemblages, however, will require landscape-level planning.

  19. Comparing the sustainability of different action policy possibilities: application to the issue of both household survival and forest preservation in the corridor of Fianarantsoa.

    PubMed

    Bernard, C; Martin, S

    2013-10-01

    A sustainability issue for the rain forest in the corridor of Fianarantsoa (Madagascar) is to preserve the forest while ensuring the development of the local population. The aim of this paper is to determine whether the current situation is sustainable or not according to different action policy possibilities. We propose a general procedure based on viability analysis: Translation of sustainability issues into constraints on the system state; elaboration of a mathematical model of system evolution rules in the form of controlled dynamical system; computations of the viability kernels according to different action policy possibilities. Among control variables, we focus on monetary transfer. Without monetary transfer, we show that the current situation of the rain forest corridor is not sustainable in our mathematical modeling framework. We then estimate the minimal maximal amount per year necessary to make the current situation sustainable.

  20. Heavy mineral provinces of the Palos Verdes margin, southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wong, F.L.

    2002-01-01

    Natural sources of sediment for the Palos Verdes margin, southern California, have been augmented by effluent discharged from Los Angeles County Sanitation District's sewage-treatment facility and by the reactivation of the Portuguese Bend landslide. Heavy minerals in very fine and fine sand (63-250 ??m) from beach and shelf sites off the Palos Verdes Peninsula distinguish effluent-affected sediment from unaffected deposits, and track the sediment contributed by the Portuguese Bend landslide. Heavy minerals also identify heterogeneous sediment sources for the nearshore zone and relate outer-shelf sediment to depositional cells north and south of the area.

  1. An Alpine-style Ordovician collision complex in the Sierra de Pie de Palo, Argentina: Record of subduction of Cuyania beneath the Famatina arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Staal, C. R.; Vujovich, G. I.; Currie, K. L.; Naipauer, M.

    2011-03-01

    The Caucete Group and structurally overlying Pie de Palo Complex in western Argentina are characterised by two generations of west-verging folds and thrust-related shear zones, which formed under amphibolite facies conditions. The Caucete Group is separated from the Pie de Palo Complex by the Pirquitas thrust. These structures are interpreted to have formed as a result of a progressive deformation, generated during Middle Ordovician, underthrusting of the Laurentian-derived Cuyania microcontinent beneath the active Famatina margin. Geometrical relationships are most simply explained if the Pie de Palo Complex was basement to the Caucete Group prior to Ordovician orogenesis. We propose that this basement-cover relationship was established during Cambrian rifting of the Cuyania microcontinent from Laurentia. The Pirquitas fault may have been initiated during this extension prior to its long-lived remobilization as a thrust. We cannot rule out the possibility that the Pie de Palo Complex was exotic with respect to the Caucete Group, but for this to be possible we have to introduce an extra generation of structures, for which no evidence is preserved. The deformation was characterised by early strain localization followed by a more homogeneously distributed non-coaxial flow during F 2. Thermal softening probably dominated over fabric softening during this stage.

  2. High Throughput Sequencing to Detect Differences in Methanotrophic Methylococcaceae and Methylocystaceae in Surface Peat, Forest Soil, and Sphagnum Moss in Cranesville Swamp Preserve, West Virginia, USA

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Evan; Nolan, Edward J.; Dillard, Zachary W.; Dague, Ryan D.; Semple, Amanda L.; Wentzell, Wendi L.

    2015-01-01

    Northern temperate forest soils and Sphagnum-dominated peatlands are a major source and sink of methane. In these ecosystems, methane is mainly oxidized by aerobic methanotrophic bacteria, which are typically found in aerated forest soils, surface peat, and Sphagnum moss. We contrasted methanotrophic bacterial diversity and abundances from the (i) organic horizon of forest soil; (ii) surface peat; and (iii) submerged Sphagnum moss from Cranesville Swamp Preserve, West Virginia, using multiplex sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA (V3 region) gene amplicons. From ~1 million reads, >50,000 unique OTUs (Operational Taxonomic Units), 29 and 34 unique sequences were detected in the Methylococcaceae and Methylocystaceae, respectively, and 24 potential methanotrophs in the Beijerinckiaceae were also identified. Methylacidiphilum-like methanotrophs were not detected. Proteobacterial methanotrophic bacteria constitute <2% of microbiota in these environments, with the Methylocystaceae one to two orders of magnitude more abundant than the Methylococcaceae in all environments sampled. The Methylococcaceae are also less diverse in forest soil compared to the other two habitats. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling analyses indicated that the majority of methanotrophs from the Methylococcaceae and Methylocystaceae tend to occur in one habitat only (peat or Sphagnum moss) or co-occurred in both Sphagnum moss and peat. This study provides insights into the structure of methanotrophic communities in relationship to habitat type, and suggests that peat and Sphagnum moss can influence methanotroph community structure and biogeography. PMID:27682082

  3. High Throughput Sequencing to Detect Differences in Methanotrophic Methylococcaceae and Methylocystaceae in Surface Peat, Forest Soil, and Sphagnum Moss in Cranesville Swamp Preserve, West Virginia, USA.

    PubMed

    Lau, Evan; Iv, Edward J Nolan; Dillard, Zachary W; Dague, Ryan D; Semple, Amanda L; Wentzell, Wendi L

    2015-04-02

    Northern temperate forest soils and Sphagnum-dominated peatlands are a major source and sink of methane. In these ecosystems, methane is mainly oxidized by aerobic methanotrophic bacteria, which are typically found in aerated forest soils, surface peat, and Sphagnum moss. We contrasted methanotrophic bacterial diversity and abundances from the (i) organic horizon of forest soil; (ii) surface peat; and (iii) submerged Sphagnum moss from Cranesville Swamp Preserve, West Virginia, using multiplex sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA (V3 region) gene amplicons. From ~1 million reads, >50,000 unique OTUs (Operational Taxonomic Units), 29 and 34 unique sequences were detected in the Methylococcaceae and Methylocystaceae, respectively, and 24 potential methanotrophs in the Beijerinckiaceae were also identified. Methylacidiphilum-like methanotrophs were not detected. Proteobacterial methanotrophic bacteria constitute <2% of microbiota in these environments, with the Methylocystaceae one to two orders of magnitude more abundant than the Methylococcaceae in all environments sampled. The Methylococcaceae are also less diverse in forest soil compared to the other two habitats. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling analyses indicated that the majority of methanotrophs from the Methylococcaceae and Methylocystaceae tend to occur in one habitat only (peat or Sphagnum moss) or co-occurred in both Sphagnum moss and peat. This study provides insights into the structure of methanotrophic communities in relationship to habitat type, and suggests that peat and Sphagnum moss can influence methanotroph community structure and biogeography.

  4. High Throughput Sequencing to Detect Differences in Methanotrophic Methylococcaceae and Methylocystaceae in Surface Peat, Forest Soil, and Sphagnum Moss in Cranesville Swamp Preserve, West Virginia, USA

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Evan; Nolan, Edward J.; Dillard, Zachary W.; Dague, Ryan D.; Semple, Amanda L.; Wentzell, Wendi L.

    2015-01-01

    Northern temperate forest soils and Sphagnum-dominated peatlands are a major source and sink of methane. In these ecosystems, methane is mainly oxidized by aerobic methanotrophic bacteria, which are typically found in aerated forest soils, surface peat, and Sphagnum moss. We contrasted methanotrophic bacterial diversity and abundances from the (i) organic horizon of forest soil; (ii) surface peat; and (iii) submerged Sphagnum moss from Cranesville Swamp Preserve, West Virginia, using multiplex sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA (V3 region) gene amplicons. From ~1 million reads, >50,000 unique OTUs (Operational Taxonomic Units), 29 and 34 unique sequences were detected in the Methylococcaceae and Methylocystaceae, respectively, and 24 potential methanotrophs in the Beijerinckiaceae were also identified. Methylacidiphilum-like methanotrophs were not detected. Proteobacterial methanotrophic bacteria constitute <2% of microbiota in these environments, with the Methylocystaceae one to two orders of magnitude more abundant than the Methylococcaceae in all environments sampled. The Methylococcaceae are also less diverse in forest soil compared to the other two habitats. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling analyses indicated that the majority of methanotrophs from the Methylococcaceae and Methylocystaceae tend to occur in one habitat only (peat or Sphagnum moss) or co-occurred in both Sphagnum moss and peat. This study provides insights into the structure of methanotrophic communities in relationship to habitat type, and suggests that peat and Sphagnum moss can influence methanotroph community structure and biogeography.

  5. Modeling Educational Content: The Cognitive Approach of the PALO Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez-Artacho, Miguel; Verdejo Maillo, M. Felisa

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a reference framework to describe educational material. It introduces the PALO Language as a cognitive based approach to Educational Modeling Languages (EML). In accordance with recent trends for reusability and interoperability in Learning Technologies, EML constitutes an evolution of the current content-centered…

  6. Age of Palos Verdes submarine debris avalanche, southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Normark, W.R.; McGann, M.; Sliter, R.

    2004-01-01

    The Palos Verdes debris avalanche is the largest, by volume, late Quaternary mass-wasted deposit recognized from the inner California Borderland basins. Early workers speculated that the sediment failure giving rise to the deposit is young, taking place well after sea level reached its present position. A newly acquired, closely-spaced grid of high-resolution, deep-tow boomer profiles of the debris avalanche shows that the Palos Verdes debris avalanche fills a turbidite leveed channel that extends seaward from San Pedro Sea Valley, with the bulk of the avalanche deposit appearing to result from a single failure on the adjacent slope. Radiocarbon dates from piston-cored sediment samples acquired near the distal edge of the avalanche deposit indicate that the main failure took place about 7500 yr BP. ?? 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Quaternary deformation around the Palo Negro area, Pampa Norte, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunetto, E.; Iriondo, M.; Zamboni, L.; Gottardi, G.

    2010-04-01

    The Pampa Norte region is a great plain characterized by low slopes and accumulation of hundreds of meters of thick loose sediments. A high morphostructure denominated San Guillermo block stands out in the central plain, the Tostado-Selva scarp forming its western boundary. It is located in an intraplate setting characterized by low tectonic activity. However recent uplift can be inferred by means of terrain analysis and the sedimentology of the Palo Negro Fm. Pond deposits (Palo Negro Fm.) observed in the scarp suggest topographic inversion during the Late Quaternary in the Palo Negro area. The morphology indicates that the deformation was widely distributed, forming a gentle (ca. 5 m amplitude and 13 km wavelength) asymmetric fold. Low sinuosity lineaments located in the base of the scarp, coincident with knick points in the topographic profile, can be interpreted as the projection of tip-lines by high-angle fault-propagation. This geometry is compatible with reverse kinematics on blind faults. A deformation style with reactivation of pre-existing faults is consistent with structural observations. Seismic reflectors suggest the presence of Cretaceous high-angle normal faults, and the orientation of lineaments is similar to the orientation of the graben systems and transverse accommodation zones originated during the opening of the South Atlantic Ocean. One OSL dating of 67.4 ± 5.1 kyr B.P (from Palo Negro Fm. supposed as deposited on a flat plain floor) and a height difference of 9.5 m measured in the Tostado-Selva scarp account for an averaged uplift rate of 0.14 mm/year.

  8. Fluctuating asymmetry and wing size of Argia tinctipennis Selys (Zygoptera: Coenagrionidae) in relation to riparian forest preservation status.

    PubMed

    Pinto, N S; Juen, L; Cabette, H S R; De Marco, P

    2012-06-01

    Effects of riparian vegetation removal on body size and wing fluctuating asymmetry (FA) of Argia tinctipennis Selys (Odonata: Coenagrionidae) were studied in the River Suiá-Miçú basin, which is part of the Xingu basin in Brazilian Amazonia. A total of 70 specimens (n = 33 from preserved and n = 37 from degraded areas) was measured. Five wing measures of each wing (totalizing ten measured characters) were taken. Preserved and degraded points presented non-overlapped variations of a Habitat Integrity Index, supporting the environmental differentiation between these two categories. FA increases in degraded areas approximately four times for the width between the nodus and proximal portion of the pterostigma of forewings (FW), two times for the width of the wing in the region of nodus of FW, and approximately 1.7 times for the number of postnodal cells of FW. The increase is almost five times for the width between the nodus and the proximal portion of the pterostigma of hind wings (HW), three times for the number of postnodal cells of HW, and approximately 1.6 times the width between quadrangle and nodus of HW. Individuals of preserved sites were nearly 3.3% larger than for degraded sites, based on mean hind wing length. Our results supports that the development of A. tinctipennis in degraded areas is affected by riparian vegetation removal and may reflect in wing FA variations. Consequently, these FA measures may be a useful tool for bioassessment using Odonata insects as a model. PMID:23950041

  9. Deposition and Accumulation of Emerging Contaminants in the Sediments of the Palos Verde Shelf, California

    EPA Science Inventory

    Deposition and Accumulation of Emerging Contaminants in the Sediments of the Palos Verde Shelf, California Mark G. Cantwell, David R. Katz, Julia Sullivan, Robert P. Eganhouse, Monique M. Perron, Robert M. Burgess The Palos Verdes shelf is located off the Southern California coa...

  10. Update-processing steam generator cleaning solvent at Palo Verde

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, G.

    1996-10-01

    Framatome Technologies Inc.(FTI) recently completed the steam generator chemical cleanings at the Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station Units 1, 2 and 3. Over 500,000 gallons of low-level radioactive solvents were generated during these cleanings and were processed on-site. Chemical cleaning solutions containing high concentrations of organic chelating wastes are difficult to reduce in volume using standard technologies. The process that was ultimately used at Palo Verde involved three distinct processing steps: The evaporation step was conducted using FTI`s submerged combustion evaporator (SCE) that has also been successfully used at Arkansas Nuclear One - Unit 1, Three Mile Island - Unit 1, and Oconee on similar waste. The polishing step of the distillate used ultrafiltration (UF) and reverse osmosis (RO) technology that was also used extensively by Ontario Hydro to assist in their processing of chemical cleaning solvent. This technology, equipment, and operations personnel were provided by Zenon Environmental, Inc. The concentrate from the evaporator was absorbed with a special {open_quotes}peat moss{close_quotes} based media that allowed it to be shipped and buried at the Environcare of Utah facility. This is the first time that this absorption media or burial site has been used for chemical cleaning solvent.

  11. Physical and chemical effects of grain aggregates on the Palos Verdes margin, southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drake, D.E.; Eganhouse, R.; McArthur, W.

    2002-01-01

    Large discharges of wastewater and particulate matter from the outfalls of the Los Angeles County Sanitation Districts onto the Palos Verdes shelf since 1937 have produced an effluent-affected sediment deposit characterized by low bulk density, elevated organic matter content, and a high percentage of fine silt and clay particles relative to underlying native sands and sandy silts. Comparison of the results of grain-size analyses using a gentle wet-sieving technique that preserves certain grain aggregates to the results of standard size analyses of disaggregated particles shows that high percentages (up to 50%) of the silt and clay fractions of the effluent-affected mud are incorporated in aggregates having intermediate diameters in the fine-to-medium sand size range (63-500 ??m), Scanning electron microscope images of the aggregates show that they are predominantly oval fecal pellets or irregularly shaped fragments of pellets. Deposit-feeding polychaete worms such as Capitella sp. and Mediomastus sp., abundant in the mud-rich effluent-affected sediment on Palos Verdes shelf, are probably responsible for most of the grain aggregates through fecal pellet production. Particle settling rates and densities, and the concentrations of organic carbon and p,p???-DDE, a metabolite of the hydrophobic pesticide DDT, were determined for seven grain-size fractions in the effluent-affected sediment. Fecal pellet grain densities ranged from about 1.2 to 1.5 g/cc, and their average settling rates were reduced to the equivalent of about one phi size relative to spherical quartz grains of the same diameter. However, repackaging of fine silt and clay grains into the sand-sized fecal pellets causes an effective settling rate increase of up to 3 orders of magnitude for the smallest particles incorporated in the pellets. Moreover, organic carbon and p,p???-DDE exhibit a bimodal distribution with relatively high concentrations in the finest size fraction (0-20 ??m), as expected, and a

  12. Search for neutrino oscillations at the palo verde nuclear reactors

    PubMed

    Boehm; Busenitz; Cook; Gratta; Henrikson; Kornis; Lawrence; Lee; McKinny; Miller; Novikov; Piepke; Ritchie; Tracy; Vogel; Wang; Wolf

    2000-04-24

    We report on the initial results from a measurement of the antineutrino flux and spectrum at a distance of about 800 m from the three reactors of the Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station using a segmented gadolinium-loaded scintillation detector. We find that the antineutrino flux agrees with that predicted in the absence of oscillations excluding at 90% C.L. nu;(e)-nu;(x) oscillations with Deltam(2)>1.12x10(-3) eV(2) for maximal mixing and sin (2)2straight theta>0.21 for large Deltam(2). Our results support the conclusion that the atmospheric neutrino oscillations observed by Super-Kamiokande do not involve nu(e).

  13. Identification of sites within the Palo Duro Basin. Volume 2. Palo Duro Location B. [Contains glossary, Swisher County site

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-11-01

    This three-volume document narrows to two sites for continued investigations for potential nuclear waste repository sites in the Palo Duro Basin of the Texas Panhandle. Volume 1 narrows a site previously identified in Deaf Smith County, Texas; Volume 2 narrows a site previously identified in Swisher County, Texas; and Volume 3 contains responses to comments received regarding the drafts of Volumes 1 and 2 (BMI/ONWI-531). These volumes discuss the methodology and logic used as well as the results that narrowed these sites. Each of the 10 site performance criteria was divided into descriptors related to site performance characteristics. Each descriptor was evaluated by a systematic logic to determine if it could be used as a discriminator. Then more- and less-preferred areas for groups of discriminators were defined and composite maps were prepared and evaluated to identify the sites.

  14. Identification of sites within the Palo Duro Basin. Volume 1. Palo Duro Location A. [Contains glossary, Deaf Smith site

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-11-01

    This three-volume document narrows to two sites for continued investigations for potential nuclear waste repository sites in the Palo Duro Basin of the Texas Panhandle. Volume 1 narrows a site previously identified in Deaf Smith County, Texas; Volume 2 narrows a site previously identified in Swisher County, Texas; and Volume 3 contains responses to comments received regarding the drafts of Volumes 1 and 2 (BMI/ONWI-531). These volumes discuss the methodology and logic used as well as the results that narrowed these sites. Each of the 10 site performance criteria was divided into descriptors related to site performance characteristics. Each descriptor was evaluated by a systematic logic to determine if it could be used as a discriminator. Then more- and less-preferred areas for groups of discriminators were defined and composite maps were prepared and evaluated to identify the sites.

  15. Identification of sites within the Palo Duro Basin. Volume 3. Responses to comments

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-11-01

    This document responds to comments received by the US Department of Energy (DOE) on the draft report entitled Identification of Sites Within the Palo Duro Basin: Volume I - Palo Duro Location A (in Deaf Smith County) and Volume II - Palo Duro Location B (in Swisher County), BMI/ONWI-531, February 1984. The purpose of the report was to review existing geologic, environmental, and socioeconomic data for previously identified potentially acceptable sites consisting of approximately 200 square miles in Swisher County and 400 square miles in Deaf Smith County in the Texas Panhandle and to narrow them to preferred smaller sites for possible further study for a nuclear waste repository. The smaller sites thus identified within the two counties would then be more comparable in size to those in salt deposits in Louisiana, Mississippi, and Utah.

  16. Permeability data base: Palo Duro Basin - Texas, Oklahoma, and New Mexico - unanalyzed data

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-05-01

    This is an unanalyzed computer listing of oil and gas well data being reviewed by Stone and Webster Engineering Corporation (SWEC). This file contains well data from counties in and surrounding the Palo Duro Basin of West Texas. These data files, compiled from Petroleum Information Services (PI) prior to October, 1983, are one part of an extensive program to define the geology and geohydrology of the Palo Duro Basin. The computer listing gives the well location by county, operator name, lease name, date drilled, total depth, deepest formation penetrated, and American Petroleum Institute (API) number. These data are preliminary. They have been neither analyzed nor evaluated.

  17. Formation pressure data file - Palo Duro Basin, Texas and New Mexico: unanalyzed data

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-05-01

    This is an unanalyzed computer listing of drill stem test data being reviewed by Stone and Webster Engineering Corporation (SWEC). This file contains well data from counties in and immediately surrounding the Palo Duro Basin of West Texas. These data files, compiled from Petroleum Information Services (PI) prior to October 1983, are one part of an extensive program to define the geology and geohydrology of the Palo Duro Basin. The computer listing supplies geologic, hydrologic, and formation pressure data obtained from the drill-stem tests. These data are preliminary. They have been neither analyzed nor evaluated.

  18. Domestic dogs in Atlantic forest preserves of south-eastern Brazil: a camera-trapping study on patterns of entrance and site occupancy rates.

    PubMed

    Srbek-Araujo, A C; Chiarello, A G

    2008-11-01

    Presence of exotic species in forest remnants is a major concern for the conservation of wild species, not only on islands, where potential impact is higher. Although the problem is widespread and increasing, there are few studies on Neotropical forests. Here we quantify the occurrence of domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) in an Atlantic forest reserve in south-eastern Brazil (Santa Lúcia Biological Station--SLBS). Throughout two years of monitoring with camera traps (2,142 camera-days), 25 records of 16 individual dogs were obtained in the interior of SLBS, making dogs the fourth most frequently recorded species of mammals in general and the first-ranking among Carnivora, ahead of the ocelot and puma, the top two terrestrial predators present in SLBS. Dogs entered the forest year round, in almost half of the sampled months (48%), and predominantly during daytime (89%). They were detected in various trails inside the reserve, but mostly in areas nearest to the reserve's border (<200 m from the edge). Record rates of domestic dogs did not correlate significantly with climate variables, with frequency of mammal records and richness in general, or with any particular mammal species (Spearman rank correlation, p > 0.05 in all cases), suggesting an erratic, non-seasonal pattern of entrance in the reserve. Data indicate that domestic dogs can be abundant and frequent visitors to little disturbed Atlantic forest reserves even when these are located in regions of low density of human population. The potential impact to native fauna is discussed.

  19. 36 CFR 801.5 - State Historic Preservation Officer responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State Historic Preservation Officer responsibilities. 801.5 Section 801.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ADVISORY COUNCIL ON HISTORIC PRESERVATION HISTORIC PRESERVATION REQUIREMENTS OF THE URBAN DEVELOPMENT ACTION GRANT...

  20. Sediment transport on the Palos Verdes shelf, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ferre, B.; Sherwood, C.R.; Wiberg, P.L.

    2010-01-01

    Sediment transport and the potential for erosion or deposition have been investigated on the Palos Verdes (PV) and San Pedro shelves in southern California to help assess the fate of an effluent-affected deposit contaminated with DDT and PCBs. Bottom boundary layer measurements at two 60-m sites in spring 2004 were used to set model parameters and evaluate a one-dimensional (vertical) model of local, steady-state resuspension, and suspended-sediment transport. The model demonstrated skill (Brier scores up to 0.75) reproducing the magnitudes of bottom shear stress, current speeds, and suspended-sediment concentrations measured during an April transport event, but the model tended to underpredict observed rotation in the bottom-boundary layer, possibly because the model did not account for the effects of temperature-salinity stratification. The model was run with wave input estimated from a nearby buoy and current input from four to six years of measurements at thirteen sites on the 35- and 65-m isobaths on the PV and San Pedro shelves. Sediment characteristics and erodibility were based on gentle wet-sieve analysis and erosion-chamber measurements. Modeled flow and sediment transport were mostly alongshelf toward the northwest on the PV shelf with a significant offshore component. The 95th percentile of bottom shear stresses ranged from 0.09 to 0.16 Pa at the 65-m sites, and the lowest values were in the middle of the PV shelf, near the Whites Point sewage outfalls where the effluent-affected layer is thickest. Long-term mean transport rates varied from 0.9 to 4.8 metric tons m-1 yr-1 along the 65-m isobaths on the PV shelf, and were much higher at the 35-m sites. Gradients in modeled alongshore transport rates suggest that, in the absence of a supply of sediment from the outfalls or PV coast, erosion at rates of ???0.2 mm yr-1 might occur in the region southeast of the outfalls. These rates are small compared to some estimates of background natural sedimentation

  1. Sediment transport on the Palos Verdes shelf, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferré, Bénédicte; Sherwood, Christopher R.; Wiberg, Patricia L.

    2010-04-01

    Sediment transport and the potential for erosion or deposition have been investigated on the Palos Verdes (PV) and San Pedro shelves in southern California to help assess the fate of an effluent-affected deposit contaminated with DDT and PCBs. Bottom boundary layer measurements at two 60-m sites in spring 2004 were used to set model parameters and evaluate a one-dimensional (vertical) model of local, steady-state resuspension, and suspended-sediment transport. The model demonstrated skill (Brier scores up to 0.75) reproducing the magnitudes of bottom shear stress, current speeds, and suspended-sediment concentrations measured during an April transport event, but the model tended to underpredict observed rotation in the bottom-boundary layer, possibly because the model did not account for the effects of temperature-salinity stratification. The model was run with wave input estimated from a nearby buoy and current input from four to six years of measurements at thirteen sites on the 35- and 65-m isobaths on the PV and San Pedro shelves. Sediment characteristics and erodibility were based on gentle wet-sieve analysis and erosion-chamber measurements. Modeled flow and sediment transport were mostly alongshelf toward the northwest on the PV shelf with a significant offshore component. The 95th percentile of bottom shear stresses ranged from 0.09 to 0.16 Pa at the 65-m sites, and the lowest values were in the middle of the PV shelf, near the Whites Point sewage outfalls where the effluent-affected layer is thickest. Long-term mean transport rates varied from 0.9 to 4.8 metric tons m -1 yr -1 along the 65-m isobaths on the PV shelf, and were much higher at the 35-m sites. Gradients in modeled alongshore transport rates suggest that, in the absence of a supply of sediment from the outfalls or PV coast, erosion at rates of ˜0.2 mm yr -1 might occur in the region southeast of the outfalls. These rates are small compared to some estimates of background natural sedimentation

  2. 76 FR 1197 - Arizona Public Service Company, Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station; Notice of Availability of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-07

    ... additional 20 years of operation for the Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station (PVNGS). Possible alternatives to the proposed action (license renewal) include no action and reasonable alternative energy sources... renewal for energy planning decision makers would be unreasonable. This recommendation is based on:...

  3. High-resolution mapping of the Palos outflow channel: Preliminary results.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauhala, A. I.; Kukkonen, S.; Kostama, V.-P.

    2013-09-01

    We have begun a high-resolution geomorphic mapping of the "Palos outflow channel" in order to further characterize the paleofluvial activity in the Amenthes region. Preliminary findings, such as multiple instances of hanging valleys, suggest a complex history of flooding.

  4. The offshore Palos Verdes fault zone near San Pedro, Southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fisher, M.A.; Normark, W.R.; Langenheim, V.E.; Calvert, A.J.; Sliter, R.

    2004-01-01

    High-resolution seismic-reflection data are combined with a variety of other geophysical and geological data to interpret the offshore structure and earthquake hazards of the San Pedro shelf, near Los Angeles, California. Prominent structures investigated include the Wilmington graben, the Palos Verdes fault zone, various faults below the west part of the San Pedro shelf and slope, and the deep-water San Pedro basin. The structure of the Palos Verdes fault zone changes markedly along strike southeastward across the San Pedro shelf and slope. Under the north part of the shelf, this fault zone includes several strands, with the main strand dipping west. Under the slope, the main fault strands exhibit normal separation and mostly dip east. To the southeast near Lasuen Knoll, the Palos Verdes fault zone locally is low angle, but elsewhere near this knoll, the fault dips steeply. Fresh seafloor scarps near Lasuen Knoll indicate recent fault movement. We explain the observed structural variation along the Palos Verdes fault zone as the result of changes in strike and fault geometry along a master right-lateral strike-slip fault at depth. Complicated movement along this deep fault zone is suggested by the possible wave-cut terraces on Lasuen Knoll, which indicate subaerial exposure during the last sea level lowstand and subsequent subsidence of the knoll. Modeling of aeromagnetic data indicates a large magnetic body under the west part of the San Pedro shelf and upper slope. We interpret this body to be thick basalt of probable Miocene age. This basalt mass appears to have affected the pattern of rock deformation, perhaps because the basalt was more competent during deformation than the sedimentary rocks that encased the basalt. West of the Palos Verdes fault zone, other northwest-striking faults deform the outer shelf and slope. Evidence for recent movement along these faults is equivocal, because we lack age dates on deformed or offset sediment.

  5. 36 CFR 801.5 - State Historic Preservation Officer responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false State Historic Preservation... HISTORIC PRESERVATION HISTORIC PRESERVATION REQUIREMENTS OF THE URBAN DEVELOPMENT ACTION GRANT PROGRAM § 801.5 State Historic Preservation Officer responsibilities. (a) The State Historic...

  6. 36 CFR 801.5 - State Historic Preservation Officer responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false State Historic Preservation... HISTORIC PRESERVATION HISTORIC PRESERVATION REQUIREMENTS OF THE URBAN DEVELOPMENT ACTION GRANT PROGRAM § 801.5 State Historic Preservation Officer responsibilities. (a) The State Historic...

  7. 36 CFR 801.5 - State Historic Preservation Officer responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false State Historic Preservation... HISTORIC PRESERVATION HISTORIC PRESERVATION REQUIREMENTS OF THE URBAN DEVELOPMENT ACTION GRANT PROGRAM § 801.5 State Historic Preservation Officer responsibilities. (a) The State Historic...

  8. 36 CFR 801.5 - State Historic Preservation Officer responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true State Historic Preservation... HISTORIC PRESERVATION HISTORIC PRESERVATION REQUIREMENTS OF THE URBAN DEVELOPMENT ACTION GRANT PROGRAM § 801.5 State Historic Preservation Officer responsibilities. (a) The State Historic...

  9. Preservation Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Reagan W.

    2004-01-01

    The long-term preservation of digital entities requires mechanisms to manage the authenticity of massive data collections that are written to archival storage systems. Preservation environments impose authenticity constraints and manage the evolution of the storage system technology by building infrastructure independent solutions. This seeming paradox, the need for large archives, while avoiding dependence upon vendor specific solutions, is resolved through use of data grid technology. Data grids provide the storage repository abstractions that make it possible to migrate collections between vendor specific products, while ensuring the authenticity of the archived data. Data grids provide the software infrastructure that interfaces vendor-specific storage archives to preservation environments.

  10. Urine Preservative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M. (Inventor); Nillen, Jeannie (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    Disclosed is CPG, a combination of a chlorhexidine salt (such as chlorhexidine digluconate, chlorhexidine diacetate, or chlorhexidine dichloride) and n-propyl gallate that can be used at ambient temperatures as a urine preservative.

  11. Human factors engineering control-room-design review/audit report: Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station, Arizona Public Service Company

    SciTech Connect

    Savage, J.W.; Lappa, D.A.

    1981-10-09

    A human factors engineering design review of the Palo Verde control room simulator was performed at the site on September 15 through September 17, 1981. Observed human factors design discrepancies were given priority ratings. This report summarizes the team's observations of the control room design and layout and of the control room operators' interface with the control room environment. A list of the human factors strengths observed in the Palo Verde control room simulator is given.

  12. Influence of the Portuguese Bend landslide on the character of the effluent-affected sediment deposit, Palos Verdes margin, southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kayen, R.E.; Lee, H.J.; Hein, J.R.

    2002-01-01

    Historic accretion of sediment on the Palos Verdes margin off Los Angeles County, CA, is dominated by two sources, effluent from Whites Point outfall and sediment eroded from the toe of Portuguese Bend landslide. In this paper, we document the recent history of sedimentation from these non-marine sources from 1937 until the late 1990s, and attempt to estimate the amount of material preserved on the shelf. Toward that end, we characterized offshore sediment by physical and geotechnical testing, using non-destructive gamma-ray whole-core logging techniques and conventional geotechnical strength tests, and X-ray diffraction. Results are reported within a geographic information system framework that allows for: (1) the evaluation of the spatial variability of the measured properties, and (2) assessment of the influence of these properties on processes affecting the effluent-affected Sediment layer. In the inner shelf, material eroded by wave action from the toe of the Portuguese Bend landslide since 1956 has contributed 5.7-9.4 million metric tons (Mmt) of sediment, from a total eroded mass of 12.1 Mmt. A lesser fraction (???2.7Mmt) of sediment is incorporated into the mid- and outer-shelf effluent-affected sediment layer. Evidence from X-ray diffractograms clearly indicates that landslide material has mixed with the mid- and outer-shelf effluent. From 1937-1987, it is estimated that 3.8 Mmt of solid anthropogenic effluent was discharged into the water column and onto the Palos Verdes Shelf.

  13. A checklist of metazoan parasites of fish from Tres Palos Lagoon, Guerrero, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Violante-González, Juan; Aguirre-Macedo, Ma Leopoldina; Mendoza-Franco, Edgar F

    2007-12-01

    An extensive survey of helminth parasites in fish species from Tres Palos Lagoon, in Guerrero, Mexico, resulted in identification of 39 metazoan parasite species (37 helminth and 2 crustaceans) in 13 fish species (n = 1,498). Specimen collection in this coastal lagoon was done between April 2000 and November 2003. Digenean species (18, 8 adult and 10 metacercariae) dominated the parasite fauna. The most widespread species of parasite were: Contracaecum sp. (Nematoda), Pseudoacanthostomum panamense, Austrodiplostomum compactum, Ascocotye (Phagicola) longa (Digenea), Neoechinorhynchus golvani (Acanthocephala), Ergasilus sp. (Copepoda), and Argulus sp. (Branchiura). Parasite fauna species composition exhibited a clear freshwater influence as 56.4% (22 of 39) of the identified species have a freshwater distribution in Mexico. For 32 of the parasite species, this report constitutes the first geographical host record for Tres Palos Lagoon, Guerrero, Mexico.

  14. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: Palo Duro Homes, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-09-01

    Palo Duro uses advanced framing techniques like 2x6 24-inch on-center framing, open headers above windows on non-load-bearing walls, 2-stud corners, ladder blocking where walls intersect, and single top and bottom plates. These techniques reduce the amount of lumber in the wall, allowing more room for insulation and reducing costs and installation time. The builder garnered a 2013 Housing Innovation Award in the production builder category.

  15. Risk-based inservice testing program modifications at Palo Verde nuclear generating station

    SciTech Connect

    Knauf, S.; Lindenlaub, B.; Linthicum, R.

    1996-12-01

    Arizona Public Service Company (APS) is investigating changes to the Palo Verde Inservice Testing (IST) Program that are intended to result in the reduction of the required test frequency for various valves in the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Section XI IST program. The analytical techniques employed to select candidate valves and to demonstrate that these frequency reductions are acceptable are risk based. The results of the Palo Verde probabilistic risk assessment (PRA), updated in June 1994, and the risk significant determination performed as part of the implementation efforts for 10 CFR 50.65 (the maintenance rule) were used to select candidate valves for extended test intervals. Additional component level evaluations were conducted by an `expert panel.` The decision to pursue these changes was facilitated by the ASME Risk-Based Inservice Testing Research Task Force for which Palo Verde is participating as a pilot plant. The NRC`s increasing acceptance of cost beneficial licensing actions and risk-based submittals also provided incentive to seek these changes. Arizona Public Service is pursuing the risk-based IST program modification in order to reduce the unnecessary regulatory burden of the IST program through qualitative and quantitative analysis consistent with maintaining a high level of plant safety. The objectives of this project at Palo Verde are as follows: (1) Apply risk-based technologies to IST components to determine their risk significance (i.e., high or low). (2) Apply a combination of deterministic and risk-based methods to determine appropriate testing requirements for IST components including improvement of testing methods and frequency intervals for high-risk significant components. (3) Apply risk-based technologies to high-risk significant components identified by the {open_quotes}expert panel{close_quotes} and outside of the IST program to determine whether additional testing requirements are appropriate.

  16. Pampa del Palo: an anomalous composite marine terrace on the uprising coast of southern Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortlieb, L.; Zazo, C.; Goy, J. L.; Dabrio, C.; Macharé, J.

    1996-11-01

    Quaternary sediments along the southern Perúvian coast occur as staircase terraces of coastal and shallow-marine deposits in response to continuous uplift related to the active boundary between the Nazca and South-American plates. However, near ILO (in the same coastal stretch) the emergent Pampa del Palo terrace consists of a relatively-thick, vertical stack of shallow-marine, coastal and lagoonal deposits that indicate a rather different geodynamic behaviour. Coastal deposits are correlatable with the successive marine highstands of isotopic stages 7 (?) and 5 (substages 5e and 5c). Combining aerial photo-interpretation, geomorphological mapping, sedimentological analysis, chronostratigraphical data, and structural observations, the Pampa del Palo feature is interpreted as a faulted block that moved independently of the remaining southern Peruvian coast and, for some time between the end of Middle Pleistocene (before ca. 220 ka) and the early Late Pleistocene (ca. 120 ka), it rose more slowly or was even down-faulted relative to the rest of the southern Peruvian margin. The independent block movements ceased after substage 5e, when the Pampa del Palo "terrace" was incorporated into the regional uplift of the area. Since ca. 100 ka, measured uplift rates in the Ilo area amounted up to {160 mm}/{10 3y } when the area has been affected by a few active, NE-SE trending faults only.

  17. Digital Preservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yakel, Elizabeth

    2001-01-01

    Reviews research on digital preservation issues, including born-digital and digitally recreated documents. Discusses electronic records research; metadata and other standards; electronic mail; Web-based documents; moving images media; selection of materials for digitization, including primary sources; administrative issues; media stability…

  18. Preservation & Restoration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online-Offline, 2000

    2000-01-01

    This theme issue on preservation and restoration presents selected resources for elementary and secondary education that include Web sites, CD-ROM and software, videos, books, magazines, and professional resources as well as classroom activities. Age levels are specified for most materials. I Sidebars discuss restoring a masterpiece, a bug's life,…

  19. Preservation Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noriega, Chon A.

    2005-01-01

    One must undertake multi-institutional efforts that include universities, archives, museums, libraries and community-based arts organizations and the artists to preserve Latino art history. Arts infrastructure can be strengthened by various Chicano Studies Research Center projects that are concerned with archive building and scholarship, and with…

  20. Digitizing Preservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Paul

    1994-01-01

    Discussion of digital imaging technology focuses on its potential use for preservation of library materials. Topics addressed include converting microfilm to digital; the high cost of conversion from paper or microfilm; quality; indexing; database management issues; incompatibility among imaging systems; longevity; cooperative pilot projects; and…

  1. Active basement uplift as seen with cosmogenic lenses: the Sierra Pie de Palo case (Western Argentina)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siame, L. L.; Sébrier, M.; Costa, C. H.; Ahumada, E. A.; Bellier, O.

    2013-12-01

    The Andean foreland of western Argentina (28°S-33°S) corresponds to retroarc deformations associated with the ongoing flat subduction of the Nazca plate beneath the South American lithosphere, and associated with high levels of seismic activity and crustal active faulting. To improve earthquake source identification and characterization in the San Juan region, data from seismology, structural geology and quantitative geomorphology can be integrated and combined to provide a seismotectonic model. In this model, the Andean back-arc of western Argentina has to be regarded as an obliquely converging foreland where Plio-Quaternary deformations are partitioned between strike-slip and thrust motions that are localized on the E-verging, thin-skinned Argentine Precordillera, and the W-verging thick-skinned Sierras Pampeanas, respectively. In this domain, the Sierra Pie de Palo is a key structure playing a major role in the partitioning of the Plio-Quaternary deformations. Located in the westernmost Sierras Pampeanas, the Sierra Pie de Palo forms a NNE striking, 80 km-long and 35-40 km-wide, ellipsoid range that reaches elevation as high as 3162 m. This mountain range is an actively growing basement fold associated with a high level of seismic activity (e.g., the November 23, 1977, Caucete, Mw 7.4 earthquake). To evaluate the degree of tectonic activity around the Sierra Pie de Palo, we combined a detailed morphometric analysis of the topography together with in situ-produced cosmogenic 10Be concentrations measured in (1) bedrock outcrops corresponding to the exhumed erosional regional surface, (2) surface boulders abandoned on alluvial fans deformed by active faults, and (3) in fluvial sediments sampled at the outlets of selected watersheds that drains out from the Sierra Pie de Palo. All together, our results allows: (1) assessing quantitative constraints on the rate of tectonic and denudation processes that are responsible for the active growth and erosion of the Sierra

  2. Ethanol extract of Cyclolepis genistoides D. Don (palo azul) induces formation of myotubes, which involves differentiation of C2C12 myoblast cells.

    PubMed

    Sato, Hiromi; Funaki, Asami; Kimura, Yuki; Sumitomo, Mai; Yoshida, Hiroya; Fukata, Hideki; Ueno, Koichi

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we examined the cell differentiation effect of an ethanol extract of Cyclolepis genistoides D. Don, a herbaceous perennial belonging to the family Asteraceae (vernacular name: palo azul). Palo azul has numerous physiological effects that contribute to the prevention of metabolic syndromes, although the mechanism remains unclear. We previously suggested that palo azul has antidiabetic activity via an adipose differentiation effect. Here, we focused on whether palo azul promoted the differentiation of myoblasts. The mouse muscle myoblast cell line C2C12 was cultured and differentiated using horse serum with or without an ethanol extract of palo azul (12.5-200 μg/mL). Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to evaluate differentiation markers, including insulin-like growth factor-1 and myogenin. To evaluate myotube formation, myosin heavy-chain (MHC) expression and localization were detected by immunohistochemistry. Palo azul increased the expression of the differentiation markers. Furthermore, immunohistochemistry analysis revealed increased formation of MHC myotubes after palo azul treatment along with increased diameter and fusion indices of the myotubes. The expression level of MHC was also increased. In conclusion, palo azul may increase muscle mass in the body and improve insulin resistance conditions by facilitating the formation of myotubes by promoting myocyte differentiation. PMID:27262535

  3. Health assessment for Hewlett-Packard, Palo Alto, Palo Alto, Santa Clara County, California, Region 9. CERCLIS No. CAD009122532. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-12-05

    The Hewlett-Packard, Palo Alto site is on the National Priorities List. The site is a gasoline station owned by the Hewlett-Packard Corporation which had five underground storage tanks. The environmental contamination (maximum concentrations reported) consists of trichloroethylene (520 ppb), benzene (110 ppb), xylenes (290 ppb), toluene (10 ppb), and chloroform (28 ppb) in ground water; benzene (36 ppm), toluene (290 ppm), xylenes (540 ppm), ethylbenzene (100 ppm), and total petroleum hydrocarbons (1,700 ppm) in subsurface soil beneath the site. The site is considered to be of potential public health concern because of the risk to human health caused by the possibility of exposure to hazardous substances via contaminated ground water. However, the potential appears to be minor at this time since there apparently are no ground water wells in use in the vicinity of the plume.

  4. 36 CFR 7.86 - Big Cypress National Preserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Big Cypress National Preserve. 7.86 Section 7.86 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, or the 80 percent efficiency level when...

  5. Palos Verdes Shelf oceanographic study; data report for observations December 2007–April 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenberger, Kurt J.; Noble, Marlene A.; Sherwood, Christopher R.; Martini, Marinna M.; Ferreira, Joanne T.; Montgomery, Ellyn T.

    2011-01-01

    Beginning in 1997, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) defined a contaminated section of the Palos Verdes Shelf region in southern California as a Superfund Site, initiating a continuing investigation of this area. The investigation involved the EPA, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), Los Angeles County Sanitation Districts (LACSD) data, and other allied agencies. In mid-2007, the Palos Verdes Shelf project team identified the need for additional data on the sediment properties and oceanographic conditions at the Palos Verdes Superfund Site and deployed seven bottom platforms, three subsurface moorings, and three surface moorings on the shelf. This additional data was needed to support ongoing modeling and feasibility studies and to improve our ability to model the fate of the effluent-affected deposit over time. It provided more detail on the spatial variability and magnitude of resuspension of the deposit during multiple storms that are expected to transit the region during a winter season. The operation began in early December 2007 and ended in early April 2008. The goal was to measure the sediment response (threshold of resuspension, suspended-sediment concentrations, and suspended-sediment transport rates) to bed stresses associated with waves and currents. Other objectives included determining the structure of the bottom boundary layer (BBL) relating nearbed currents with those measured at 10 m above bottom (mab) and comparing those with the long-term data from the LACSD Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) deployments for nearbed current speed and direction. Low-profile tripods with high-frequency ADCPs co-located with two of the large tripods were selected for this goal. This report describes the data obtained during the field program, the instruments and data-processing procedures used, and the archive that contains the data sets that have passed our quality-assurance procedures.

  6. Oil and gas well data file - Palo Duro Basin, Texas and New Mexico: unanalyzed data

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-05-01

    This is an unanalyzed computer listing of oil and gas well data being reviewed by Stone and Webster Engineering Corporation (SWEC). This file contains well data from counties in and surrounding the Palo Duro Basin of West Texas. These data files, compiled from Petroleum Information Services (PI) prior to October 1983, are one part of an extensive program to define the geology and geohydrology of the Pal Duro Basin. The computer listing gives the well location by county, operator name, lease name, date drilled, total depth, deepest formation penetrated, and American Petroleum Institute (API) number. These data are preliminary. They have been neither analyzed or evaluated.

  7. Sandstone distribution and lithofacies of the Triassic Dockum Group, Palo Duro Basin, Texas: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Johns, D.A.

    1988-01-01

    The Triassic Dockum Group in the Palo Duro Basin consists of many interbedded sequences of coarse- to fine-grained terrigenous clastic sedimentary strata. Four sandstone-dominated progradational sequences appear in the lower Dockum section. Sandstone in the first unit has a relatively uniform distribution across the basin, owing to deposition by broad alluvial fans and fan deltas. Sandstones in the remaining units and the upper Dockum are unevenly distributed owing to deposition by deltaic and fluvial systems. Sediment sources for Triassic strata in the Palo Duro Basin, according to net-sandstone trends, indicate deposition from the west, north, and east for the basal unit, dominantly from the east for units 2 and 3, and mixed western and eastern sources for unit 4 and the upper Dockum. Net-sandstone distribution patterns and lithofacies trends suggest proximal depositional environments in the present eastern and northeastern Dockum and more distal environments to the west and southwest. Paleodip was apparently from east to west over most of the Texas side of the basin, possibly changing in the area of the Texas-New Mexico border. Basement structural elements within the basin were subtly active during deposition and influenced the local accumulation of sandstone. 38 refs., 25 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. DDE in sediments of the Palos Verdes shelf, California: In situ transformation rates and geochemical fate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eganhouse, R.P.; Pontolillo, J.

    2008-01-01

    From 1947 to 1971 the world's largest manufacturer of DDT discharged process wastes into the sewers of Los Angeles County. Roughly 870-1450 t of DDT were released to the ocean off Palos Verdes, CA, a portion of which (???100 t) resides in sediments on the continental shelf and slope. The most abundant DDT compound in the sediments, p,p???-DDE, is degrading by reductive dechlorination, butthe rate of transformation and factors controlling it are not well understood. In order to estimate in situ transformation rates and predict the long-term fate of p,p???-DDE, box cores were collected in 1992 and 2003 from a single location on the Palos Verdes Shelf and analyzed for 8 DDT compounds and 84 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners. The PCBs show no evidence of dechlorination, and inventories did not change between 1992 and 2003. By contrast, the inventory of p,p???-DDE decreased by 43%, whereas that of p,p???-DDMU, the putative reductive dechlorination product increased by 34%. The first-order transformation rate for p,p???-DDE at the study site is 0.051 ?? 0.006 yr-1. A multistep reaction model suggests that inventories of p,p???-DDE and p,p???-DDMU will continue to decline, whereas that of p,p???-DDNU will reach a maximum around 2014.

  9. Evaluation of Polyethylene Passive Samplers to Estimate Deep Water PCB Concentrations at the Palos Verdes Shelf Superfund Site

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Palos Verdes Superfund site is located in over 50 meters of water on the continental shelf and slope off the coast of southern California (USA). The site includes 27 km2 of seabed contaminated over several decades by municipal treatment plant effluent discharged via outfall ...

  10. Summer sound-level characterization of the Deaf Smith County and Swisher County locations in the Palo Duro Basin, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-03-01

    A description of sound levels and sound sources in the Deaf Smith County and Swisher County locations in the Palo Duro Basin during a period representative of the summer season is presented. Included are data collected during the period August 4 through 8, 1982, for both locations. 3 references, 2 figures, 3 tables.

  11. Winter sound-level characterization of the Deaf Smith County location in the Palo Duro Basin, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-03-01

    A description of sound levels and sound sources in the Deaf Smith County location in the Palo Duro Basin during a period representative of the winter season is presented. Data were collected during the period February 26 through March 1, 1983. 4 references, 1 figure, 3 tables.

  12. Use of Polyethylene Passive Samplers to Estimate Dissolved Phase PCBs in the Water Column of the Palos Verdes Superfund Site

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Palos Verdes Superfund site is located in over 50 meters of water on the continental shelf and slope off the coast of southern California (USA). The site includes 27 km2 of seabed contaminated over several decades by municipal treatment plant effluent discharged via outfall ...

  13. 50 CFR 35.8 - Forest management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Forest management. 35.8 Section 35.8... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM WILDERNESS PRESERVATION AND MANAGEMENT General Rules § 35.8 Forest management. Forest management activities in a wilderness unit will be directed toward allowing...

  14. 50 CFR 35.8 - Forest management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Forest management. 35.8 Section 35.8... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM WILDERNESS PRESERVATION AND MANAGEMENT General Rules § 35.8 Forest management. Forest management activities in a wilderness unit will be directed toward allowing...

  15. 50 CFR 35.8 - Forest management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Forest management. 35.8 Section 35.8... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM WILDERNESS PRESERVATION AND MANAGEMENT General Rules § 35.8 Forest management. Forest management activities in a wilderness unit will be directed toward allowing...

  16. 50 CFR 35.8 - Forest management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Forest management. 35.8 Section 35.8... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM WILDERNESS PRESERVATION AND MANAGEMENT General Rules § 35.8 Forest management. Forest management activities in a wilderness unit will be directed toward allowing...

  17. 50 CFR 35.8 - Forest management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Forest management. 35.8 Section 35.8... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM WILDERNESS PRESERVATION AND MANAGEMENT General Rules § 35.8 Forest management. Forest management activities in a wilderness unit will be directed toward allowing...

  18. Form Follows Function: can Tropical Mountain Forest Competition Drive the Growth of Topography?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brocard, G. Y.; Willenbring, J. K.; Scatena, F. N.

    2014-12-01

    Forest succession theory maintains that trees drape existing landscapes as passive niche optimizers. Here, we explore the opposite view - that tree type can control the landscape morphology through canopy and soil structure differences between tree types. Using field observations combined with the analysis of a 1 m-resolution LiDAR DEM and cosmogenic nuclide geochemical techniques, we report links between topographic position, erosion rates, and tree distribution above 600 m in elevation in the pristine, tropical rainforest of the Luquillo Critical Zone Observatory, Puerto Rico. Above 600 m, flat ridges connect a subdued topographic surface and cap a relict landscape composed of 10s-of-meters-thick saprolite derived from a quartz dioritic bedrock. Erosion in the form of concave coves dissects this landscape, exposing the underlying corestones and bedrock and progressively creating a new landscape of greater local relief and higher erosion. To understand the origin of the increase in local relief we measured the respective contributions of ridges and coves to the stream signal by analyzing 10Be in soils and stream sediments. We find that, in the coves, erosion is systematically higher than on the ridges, confirming the increase in landscape dissection. Because the overall forest structure has not been altered by anthropogenic disturbances, the tree type represents a long-term feature of the landscape. We analyzed the distribution of tree associations over the LiDAR topography by classifying high-resolution multispectral images of the forest. Vegetation in the study area is dominated by Palm and Palo Colorado forests. We found an almost systematic association of the Palm forest with the coves and of the Palo Colorado with the ridges. These forest types vary in their potential to prevent or enhance soil erosion. The Palo Colorado generates greater soil coverage and rain interception rates. Therefore, we propose that soils are more vulnerable to erosion under the Palm

  19. Brief Therapy Based on Interrupting Ironic Processes: The Palo Alto Model

    PubMed Central

    Rohrbaugh, Michael J.; Shoham, Varda

    2009-01-01

    The model of brief therapy developed by Fisch, Weakland, Watzlawick, and colleagues in Palo Alto is based on identifying and interrupting ironic processes that occur when repeated attempts to solve a problem keep the problem going or make it worse. Formulations of ironic problem-solution loops provide a template for assessment and strategic intervention, indicating where to look to understand what keeps a problem going (look for “more of the same” solution) and what needs to happen for the complaint to be resolved (someone must apply “less of the same” solution). Supporting research is preliminary but suggests this approach may be well suited for change-resistant clients. PMID:19997533

  20. Problems plague startup of Palo Verde nukes: NRC proposes fines for QA deficiencies, records falsification

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    Defective coolant pump design in unit one and a failure to get adequate rate relief from the Arizona Corporation Commission to cover the 16% cost overruns are delaying commercial operation at Phoenix's Palo Verde nuclear plant. Arizona Public Service (APS) Company's deteriorating financial situation caused the utility to scrap a program to credit customers who purchase energy-saving devices and threatens more extreme action. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission fined APS for alleged quality assurance (QA) violations following a construction appraisal inspection at unit one and reports of falsified installation records. APS argues that its own inspectors would have found the missing bolts and the caps installed on pressure-sensing lines, but concedes the QA lapses. The company challenges NRC's report of a possible 150 falsifications, and concedes only one. The NRC imposes a $40,000 fine on each violation. (DCK)

  1. Flooding studies of proposed repository locations in the Palo Duro Basin of the Texas Panhandle

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-04-01

    This report contains the results of flooding studies of those stream channels that drain the proposed locations of a high-level nuclear-waste repository in Deaf Smith and Swisher Counties, Texas. Included are computations of the flood hydrographs and water surface profiles of the 100-year, 500-year, and probable maximum floods for Palo Duro Creek, Tule Creek, and Pleasant Draw. The hydrographs were produced according to the method of the Soil Conservation Service for ungaged watersheds, and the computations were made with computer programs developed by the US Army Corps of Engineers. The flood hydrographs were computed with the HEC-1 Flood Hydrograph Package and the water surface elevations with the HEC-2 Water Surface Profiles program. 76 refs., 19 figs., 16 tabs.

  2. Metazoan parasite community of blue sea catfish, Sciades guatemalensis (Ariidae), from Tres Palos Lagoon, Guerrero, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Violante-González, Juan; Aguirre-Macedo, Ma Leopoldina; Rojas-Herrera, Agustín; Guerrero, Salvador Gil

    2009-10-01

    The seasonal dynamic of the metazoan parasite community of the blue sea catfish (Sciades guatemalensis) from Tres Palos Lagoon, Guerrero, Mexico, was studied at the component community and infracommunity levels. A total of 382 fish were collected during the regional dry and rainy seasons (a total of seven seasons) between April 2000 and September 2007. Nine helminths were collected: Neotetraonchus sp., Pseudoacanthostomum panamense, Austrodiplostomum compactum, Clinostomum complanatum, Metadena sp., Pseudoleptorhynchoides lamothei, Neoechinorhynchus cf. golvani, Hysterothylacium perezi, and Contracaecum sp. The infection dynamics of some dominant helminths was influenced by environmental changes generated by the dry/rainy season cycle. Nested (non-random) species composition was observed in the infracommunities during almost all of the sample period. Variation in the intensity of nestedness was attributed to a sequential colonization process over time by the dominant helminths. PMID:19548005

  3. Recurrent motion on Precambrian-age basement faults, Palo Duro basin, Texas Panhandle

    SciTech Connect

    Budnik, R.T.

    1983-03-01

    The distribution of Late Precambrian through Quaternary strata in the Palo Duro basin and surrounding uplifts documents recurrent motion on Precambrian-age basement faults. Basement blocks have been uplifted with little tilting or folding of overlying strata along a system of northwest-southeast oriented faults, part of a regional trend extending from central Colorado to southwestern Oklahoma. The orientation of basement terranes in Colorado and that of a 50-mi (80-km) long mylonite zone in east-central New Mexico suggest a Precambrian age for the faults. An Arkosic sandstone overlies basement and underlies a Cambrian(.) quartzose sandstone in a few Palo Duro basin wells. It may represent debris shed from active fault blocks during the opening of the southern Oklahoma aulocogen in the Late Precambrian or Early Cambrian. Ordovician carbonates thin or are missing beneath Mississippian carbonates on some fault blocks, indicating a post-Ordovician-pre-Mississippian period of faulting. The greatest amount of deformation occurred during the Pennsylvanian. Thickness, distribution, and facies of sediments were controlled by the location of active faults. Lower Pennsylvanian strata thin by up to 50% across some structures. Fault blocks provided sources of arkosic debris and loci for carbonate buildups throughout the Pennsylvanian and Early Permian. Around the periphery of the basin, Late Pennsylvanian or Early Permian faulting caused a wedging out of older units beneath the Wolfcamp. Permian, Triassic, and Neogene units, along with present topography, all have been subtly affected by basement structures. The entire section thins over basement highs. Middle and Upper Permian evaporites are thicker in structural lows. The overlying Dockum Group (Triassic) and Ogallala Formation (Neogene), both nonmarine clastic units, become finer grained over basement highs. Present topographic highs coincide with some basement highs.

  4. Evapotranspiration estimates using remote-sensing data, Parker and Palo Verde valleys, Arizona and California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raymond, L.H.; Rezin, K.V.

    1986-01-01

    In 1981 the U.S. Geological Survey established an experimental project to assess the possible and practical use of remote sensing data to estimate evapotranspiration as an approximation of consumptive use in the lower Colorado River flood plain. The project area was in Parker Valley, Arizona. The approach selected was to measure the areas covered by each type of vegetation using remote sensing data in various types of analyses and to multiply each area by a predetermined water use rate. Two calibration and six remote sensing methods of classifying crop types were compared for cost, accuracy, consistency, and labor requirements. Included were one method each for field reconnaissance using 1982 data, low altitude (< than 5,000 ft) aerial photography using 1982 data, and visual photointerpretation of Landsat satellite images using 1981 and 1982 data; two methods for medium-altitude (15,000-18,000 ft) aerial photography using 1982 data; and three methods for digital Landsat satellite images using 1981 data. A test of the most promising digital processing method, which used three image dates, was made in part of Palo Verde Valley, California, where 1981 crop data were more complete than in Parker Valley. Of the eight methods studied, the three-date digital processing method was the most consistent and least labor-intensive; visual photointerpretation of Landsat images was the least expensive. Evapotranspiration estimates from crop classifications by all methods differed by a maximum of 6%. Total evapotranspiration calculated from crop data and phreatophyte maps in 1981 ranged from 12% lower in Palo Verde Valley to 17% lower in Parker Valley than consumptive use calculated by water budgets. The difference was greater in Parker Valley because the winter crop data were not included. (Author 's abstract)

  5. Evapotranspiration estimates using remote-sensing data, Parker and Palo Verde valleys, Arizona and California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raymond, Lee H.; Rezin, Kelly V.

    1989-01-01

    In 1981 the U.S. Geological Survey established an experimental project to assess the possible and practical use of remote-sensing data to estimate evapotranspiration as an approximation of consumptive use of water in the lower Colorado River flood plain. The project area was in Parker Valley, Arizona. The approach selected was to measure the areas covered by each type of vegetation, using remote-sensing data in various types of analyses, and to multiply each area by a predetermined water-use rate. Two calibration and six remote-sensing methods of classifying crop types were compared for cost, accuracy, consistency, and labor requirements. Included were one method each for field reconnaissance using 1982 data, low-altitude (less than 5,000 feet) aerial photography using 1982 data, and visual photointerpretation of Landsat satellite images using 1981 and 1982 data; two methods for medium-altitude (15,000-18,000 feet) aerial photography using 1982 data; and three methods for digital Landsat satellite images using 1981 data. A test of the most promising digital-processing method, which used three image dates, was made in part of Palo Verde Valley, California, where 1981 crop data were more complete than in Parker Valley. Of the eight methods studied, the two-date digital-processing method was the most consistent and least labor intensive for identifying two or three major crops; visual photointerpretation of Landsat images was the least expensive. Evapotranspiration estimates from crop classifications by all methods differed by a maximum of 6 percent. Total evapotranspiration calculated from crop data and phreatophyte maps in 1981 ranged from 11 percent lower in Palo Verde Valley to 17 percent lower in Parker Valley than consumptive use calculated by water budgets. The difference was greater in Parker Valley because the winter crop data were not included.

  6. Composition of fluid inclusions in Permian salt beds, Palo Duro Basin, Texas, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roedder, E.; d'Angelo, W. M.; Dorrzapf, A.F.; Aruscavage, P. J.

    1987-01-01

    Several methods have been developed and used to extract and chemically analyze the two major types of fluid inclusions in bedded salt from the Palo Duro Basin, Texas. Data on the ratio K: Ca: Mg were obtained on a few of the clouds of tiny inclusions in "chevron" salt, representing the brines from which the salt originally crystallized. Much more complete quantitative data (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Sr, Cl, SO4 and Br) were obtained on ??? 120 individual "large" (mostly ???500 ??m on an edge, i.e., ??? ??? 1.6 ?? 10-4 g) inclusions in recrystallized salt. These latter fluids have a wide range of compositions, even in a given piece of core, indicating that fluids of grossly different composition were present in these salt beds during the several (?) stages of recrystallization. The analytical results indicating very large inter-and intra-sample chemical variation verify the conclusion reached earlier, from petrography and microthermometry, that the inclusion fluids in salt and their solutes are generally polygenetic. The diversity in composition stems from the combination of a variety of sources for the fluids (Permian sea, meteoric, and groundwater, as well as later migrating ground-, formation, or meteoric waters of unknown age), and a variety of subsequent geochemical processes of dissolution, precipitation and rock-water interaction. The compositional data are frequently ambiguous but do provide constraints and may eventually yield a coherent history of the events that produced these beds. Such an understanding of the past history of the evaporite sequence of the Palo Duro Basin should help in predicting the future role of the fluids in the salt if a nuclear waste repository is sited there. ?? 1987.

  7. Depositional characteristics of middle to upper Miocene Point Fermin Submarine Fan, Palos Verdes, California

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, P.W.

    1987-05-01

    The Point Fermin submarine fan lies within the upper Monterey Formation of the Palos Verdes Peninsula, California. Exposures of sediment gravity flow deposits extend from the upper portion of the tuffaceous lithofacies of the Altamira shale member to the middle of the Valmonte Diatomite. Outstanding sea-cliff exposures display a three-dimensional view of a large (approximately 1000 ft across) backfilled channel, scoured into thin-bedded shale and sandstone deposits. Channel backfill deposits primarily consist of Catalina schist-bearing sandstone and breccia, and lenses of disorganized intraformational breccia and conglomerate. The exposures exhibit an overall thinning and fining-upward sequence. The coarse-grained basal portion of the sequence displays sedimentary structures and bedding characteristics which are indicative of mass deposition by extremely concentrated, viscous dispersions. Channelized breccia beds contain schist clasts up to 9 ft in diameter, and intraformation breccia lenses contain rip-up clasts of Monterey Shale up to 30 ft long. Inferred flow mechanisms are a combination of grain flow, high-density turbulent flow, and sandy debris flow. The coarseness of these deposits is indicative of a proximal source. Higher in the sequence, sedimentary structures in upper portions of individual beds are characteristic of low-density turbulent flows. This upward change in sedimentary structures within individual beds is indicative of the passage of a high-density gravity flow and the subsequent waning, low-density turbulent flow conditions which follow. Directional features indicate a mean southeasterly flow direction. These results (which contradict data from previous published reports), in conjunction with the overall coarseness of these deposits, suggest the source to be the Palos Verde uplift.

  8. Heavy minerals from the Palos Verdes Margin, Southern California: data and actor analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wong, Florence L.

    2001-01-01

    Heavy or high-density minerals in the 63-250-_m (micron) size fraction (very fine and fine sand) were analyzed from 36 beach and offshore sites (38 samples) of the Palos Verdes margin to determine the areal and temporal mineralogic distributions and the relation of those distributions to the deposit affected by material discharged from the Los Angeles County Sanitation District sewage system (Lee, 1994) (Figure 1). Data presented here were tabulated for a report to the Department of Justice (Wong, 1994). The results of the data analysis are discussed in Wong (in press). The study of heavy minerals is a common method of determining sources (provenance) and distributions of sediments (e.g., Van Andel and Poole, 1960). The choice of grain size is governed by ease of sample preparation, examination by optical microscopy, and comparability to previous studies. How representative the 63-250-_m heavy minerals are of the whole sample can be approximated by the amount of sand in the sample. Lee and others (1994) mapped a pre-effluent, effluent-affected, and surface layer in the study area off Palos Verdes. The amount of sand in the top and pre-effluent layers ranges from about 20 to 80 percent; in the middle of the effluent body, sand is less than 20 percent (Figure 2; MacArthur and others, 1994). Qualitatively, the 63-250-_m heavy minerals are more representative of the top and pre-effluent layer, but these minerals will also provide useful information about the middle layer.

  9. Geostatistical mapping of effluent-affected sediment distribution on the Palos Verdes Shelf

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, Christopher J. ); Lee, H J.; Hampton, M A.

    2001-12-01

    Geostatistical techniques were used to study the spatial continuity of the thickness of effluent-affected sediment in the offshore Palos Verdes margin area. The thickness data were measured directly from cores and indirectly from high-frequency subbottom profiles collected over the Palos Verdes Margin. Strong spatial continuity of the sediment thickness data was identified, with a maximum range of correlation in excess of 1.4 km. The spatial correlation showed a marked anisotropy, and was more than twice as continuous in the alongshore direction as in the cross-shelf direction. Sequential indicator simulation employing models fit to the thickness data variograms was used to map the distribution of the sediment, and to quantify the uncertainty in those estimates. A strong correlation between sediment thickness data and measurements of the mass of the contaminant p,p?-DDE per unit area was identified. A calibration based on the bivariate distribution of the thickness and p,p?-DDE data was applied using Markov-Bayes indicator simulation to extend the geostatistical study and map the contamination levels in the sediment. Integrating the map grids produced by the geostatistical study of the two variables indicated that 7.8 million cubic meters of effluent-affected sediment exist in the map area, containing approximately 61 to 72 Mg (metric tons) of p,p?-DDE. Most of the contaminated sediment (about 85% of the sediment and 89% of the p,p?-DDE) occurs in water depths less than 100 m. The geostatistical study also indicated that the samples available for mapping are well distributed and the uncertainty of the estimates of the thickness and contamination level of the sediments is lowest in areas where the contaminated sediment is most prevalent.

  10. Preservation of Digital Objects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galloway, Patricia

    2004-01-01

    Presents a literature review that covers the following topics related to preservation of digital objects: practical examples; stakeholders; recordkeeping standards; genre-specific problems; trusted repository standards; preservation methods; preservation metadata standards; and future directions. (Contains 82 references.) (MES)

  11. 36 CFR 7.86 - Big Cypress National Preserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... maintenance or upkeep on an existing structure. (4) The National Park Service reserves the right to full and... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Big Cypress National Preserve. 7.86 Section 7.86 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  12. 36 CFR 7.86 - Big Cypress National Preserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... maintenance or upkeep on an existing structure. (4) The National Park Service reserves the right to full and... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Big Cypress National Preserve. 7.86 Section 7.86 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  13. 36 CFR 7.86 - Big Cypress National Preserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... maintenance or upkeep on an existing structure. (4) The National Park Service reserves the right to full and... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Big Cypress National Preserve. 7.86 Section 7.86 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  14. 36 CFR 1600.28 - Preservation of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Preservation of records. 1600.28 Section 1600.28 Parks, Forests, and Public Property MORRIS K. UDALL SCHOLARSHIP AND EXCELLENCE IN NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY FOUNDATION PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF DOCUMENTS AND RECORDS Protection of...

  15. 36 CFR 1600.28 - Preservation of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Preservation of records. 1600.28 Section 1600.28 Parks, Forests, and Public Property MORRIS K. UDALL SCHOLARSHIP AND EXCELLENCE IN NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY FOUNDATION PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF DOCUMENTS AND RECORDS Protection of...

  16. 36 CFR 1600.28 - Preservation of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Preservation of records. 1600.28 Section 1600.28 Parks, Forests, and Public Property MORRIS K. UDALL SCHOLARSHIP AND EXCELLENCE IN NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY FOUNDATION PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF DOCUMENTS AND RECORDS Protection of...

  17. 36 CFR 1600.28 - Preservation of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Preservation of records. 1600.28 Section 1600.28 Parks, Forests, and Public Property MORRIS K. UDALL SCHOLARSHIP AND EXCELLENCE IN NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY FOUNDATION PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF DOCUMENTS AND RECORDS Protection of...

  18. 36 CFR 1600.9 - Preservation of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Preservation of records. 1600.9 Section 1600.9 Parks, Forests, and Public Property MORRIS K. UDALL SCHOLARSHIP AND EXCELLENCE IN NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY FOUNDATION PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF DOCUMENTS AND RECORDS Procedures...

  19. 36 CFR 1600.28 - Preservation of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Preservation of records. 1600.28 Section 1600.28 Parks, Forests, and Public Property MORRIS K. UDALL SCHOLARSHIP AND EXCELLENCE IN NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY FOUNDATION PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF DOCUMENTS AND RECORDS Protection of...

  20. Conservation of diversity in forest trees

    SciTech Connect

    Ledig, F.T.

    1988-07-01

    This article discusses the threat to forest from population growth and concomitant poverty. Deforestation, pollution, and climatic change threaten forest diversity; and because forests are the habitats for diverse organisms, the threat extends to all flora and fauna associated with forests. Three different objectives included under the rubric of gene conservation are discussed: protection, particularly of domesticated plants, from genetic vulnerability; protection of endangered species; and preservation of genes for future use.

  1. Exponential-time constitutive law for Palo Duro Unit 4 Salt from the J. Friemel No. 1 Well

    SciTech Connect

    Senseny, P.E.; Pfeifle, T.W.; Mellegard, K.D.

    1986-07-01

    Values for the nine parameters in the exponential-time constitutive law are presented for Palo Duro Unit 4 salt. The values given for the thermal expansion and two elastic parameters are taken from previous laboratory studies. The six remaining constitutive parameters are evaluated by analyzing data from 12 triaxial compression creep tests. The specimens tested in this study are from the J. Friemel No. 1 well in Deaf County, Texas. 15 refs., 15 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Dissolution of the Upper Seven Rivers and Salado salt in the interior Palo Duro Basin, Texas: Revision: Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    DeConto, R.T.; Murphy, P.J.

    1987-09-01

    The Upper Seven Rivers and Salado Formations contain the uppermost salts within the interior Palo Duro Basin, Stratigraphic and structural evidence based on geophysical well logs indicate that both dissolution and facies change have influenced the thickness of these uppermost salts. The magnitude of vertical salt loss due to dissolution is interminable at this time because original salt thickness is unknown. Gradual thinning of the Upper Seven Rivers Formation is recognized from south to north across the Palo Duro Basin. Anhydrites within the formation pinch out toward the basin margins, indicating that section loss is in part depositionally controlled. Additionally, informal subdivision of the Upper Seven Rivers Formation suggests that salt dissolution has occurred in the uppermost salt. A northeast-trending zone of thin Upper Seven Rivers Formation in portions of Deaf Smith, Randall, Castro, and Parmer Counties is possibly related to Tertiary dissolution. In New Mexico, local thinning of the Upper Seven Rivers Formation may be associated with faulting. Triassic erosion on uplifted fault blocks has affected the Upper Permian section. The Salado salt margin is located within the interior Palo Duro Basin. Geophysical well logs and core evidence indicate that the salt margin has migrated basinward as a result of dissolution. Permian dissolution probably contributed to some salt loss. 106 refs., 31 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. 36 CFR 296.12 - Relationship to Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Relationship to Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act. 296.12 Section 296.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property... § 296.12 Relationship to Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act. Issuance of a permit...

  4. 36 CFR 296.12 - Relationship to Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Relationship to Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act. 296.12 Section 296.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property... § 296.12 Relationship to Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act. Issuance of a permit...

  5. 36 CFR 296.12 - Relationship to Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Relationship to Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act. 296.12 Section 296.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property... § 296.12 Relationship to Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act. Issuance of a permit...

  6. 36 CFR 296.12 - Relationship to Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Relationship to Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act. 296.12 Section 296.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property... § 296.12 Relationship to Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act. Issuance of a permit...

  7. 36 CFR 296.12 - Relationship to Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Relationship to Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act. 296.12 Section 296.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property... § 296.12 Relationship to Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act. Issuance of a permit...

  8. 36 CFR 13.1404 - Preservation of natural, cultural, and archaeological resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Preservation of natural, cultural, and archaeological resources. 13.1404 Section 13.1404 Parks, Forests, and Public Property...-Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park § 13.1404 Preservation of natural, cultural, and...

  9. 36 CFR 13.1404 - Preservation of natural, cultural, and archaeological resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Preservation of natural, cultural, and archaeological resources. 13.1404 Section 13.1404 Parks, Forests, and Public Property...-Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park § 13.1404 Preservation of natural, cultural, and...

  10. 36 CFR 2.1 - Preservation of natural, cultural and archeological resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Preservation of natural, cultural and archeological resources. 2.1 Section 2.1 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.1 Preservation...

  11. Seafloor mapping of the southeast Iberian margin (from Cabo de Palos to Cabo de Gata)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lastras, Galderic; Leon, César; Elvira, Elena; Pascual, Laura; Muñoz, Araceli; de Cárdenas, Enrique; Acosta, Juan; Canals, Miquel

    2014-05-01

    We present the multibeam bathymetry and derived maps of the southeast Iberian margin from Cabo de Palos to Cabo de Gata, 37º35'N to 35º45'N and 2º10'W to 0º20'E, from the coastline down to the Algero-Balearic abyssal plain at depths exceeding 2600 m. The edition of of the maps is carried out within the Complementary Action VALORPLAT ("Scientific valorisation of multibeam bathymetry data from the Spanish continental shelf and slope"), funded by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitivity. The multibeam bathymetry data of the slope and abyssal plain were obtained during different surveys in 2004, 2006 and 2007 on board R/V Vizconde de Eza with a Simrad EM300 multibeam echo-sounder as part of the CAPESME Project, a collaboration between the Spanish Institute of Oceanography (IEO) and General Secretariat of Fisheries (SGP), primarily aiming at creating maps of the fishing grounds of the Mediterranean continental margins of Spain. Multibeam bathymetry data from the continental shelf were obtained within the ESPACE project, also in a cooperative frame between IEO and SGP. The map series is constituted by a general map at 1:400,000 scale and 14 detailed maps at 1:75,000 scale, which include inset maps on slope gradients and seafloor nature (rock or sediment type), the later obtained with rock dredges and Shipeck sediment dredges. Both the detailed maps and the general map are available in paper print, and the whole collection is also distributed in an edited USB. The geological features displayed in the different maps include the continental shelf, with abundant geomorphic features indicative of past sea-level changes, the continental slope carved by the Palos, Tiñoso, Cartagena Este, Cartagena Oeste, Águilas, Almanzora, Alias, Garrucha and Gata submarine canyons, the Mazarrón, Palomares and Al-Mansour escarpments, the Abubácer, Maimonides and Yusuf ridges, the Águilas and Al-Mansour seamounts, and the Algero-Balearic abyssal plain where prominent

  12. The dynamics of subtidal poleward flows over a narrow continental shelf, Palos Verdes, CA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Noble, M.A.; Ryan, H.F.; Wiberg, P.L.

    2002-01-01

    The Palos Verdes peninsula is a short, very narrow (< 3 km) shelf in southern California that is bracketed by two large embayments. In May 1992, arrays of up to 4 moorings and 2 benthic tripods were deployed in a yearlong study of the circulation processes over this shelf and the adjacent slope. Wind stress, coastal sea level, atmospheric pressure and wave records were obtained from offshore sites and from coastal stations surrounding Palos Verdes. Bottom stress calculated for the mid-shelf sites using a boundary-layer model and data from the above instruments indicated the bottom drag coefficient over this shelf is about 0.003 Currents flow toward the northwest along the shelf and upper slope. Speeds are generally around 20-30 cm/s. There was no obvious seasonal structure in the flow. The first EOF for subtidal alongshelf current accounted for nearly 70% of the variance at sites on the shelf and upper slope. The dominant fluctuations had periods between 5 and 20 days, periods longer than seen in the regional wind stress field. Coastal sea level and the alongshore gradient in sea level had a similar concentration of energy in the 5-20 day frequency band. About 30% of the alongshelf flow was coherent with the alongshelf pressure gradient; currents flowed down the pressure gradient with minimal phase lag. Winds accounted for only 15-20% of the variance in subtidal currents, but the measured effect of wind stress was large. A 1 dyne/cm2 wind stress was associated with a 20-30 cm/s alongshore current. Both the regional wind stress and the alongshelf pressure gradients had spatial scales much larger than found on this small shelf. Subtidal flows forced by these regional fields were set up in the adjacent, much broader basins. The currents amplified as they moved onto the narrow shelf between the basins. Hence, local wind-driven currents had anomalously large amplitudes. The momentum equations for alongshelf wind or pressure gradients did not balance because some of the

  13. Forest Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weicherding, Patrick J.; And Others

    This bulletin deals with forest management and provides an overview of forestry for the non-professional. The bulletin is divided into six sections: (1) What Is Forestry Management?; (2) How Is the Forest Measured?; (3) What Is Forest Protection?; (4) How Is the Forest Harvested?; (5) What Is Forest Regeneration?; and (6) What Is Forest…

  14. Managing the world's forests.

    PubMed

    Sharma, N; Rowe, R

    1992-06-01

    preservation, and setting up sustainable management systems. Property rights must be clearly defined and land use policies must spell out forest use patterns. A global strategy for forest management is needed for conservation, protection, reforestation, agricultural and rural development, sustainable use, and research with funding.

  15. Influence of impurities on the creep of salt from the Palo Duro Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, F.D.; Senseny, P.E.; Pfeifle, T.W.; Vogt, T.J.

    1987-05-01

    Twelve triaxial compression creep tests were performed on salt specimens from the Woods-Holtzclaw well in the Palo Duro Basin to assess the influence of impurities on creep deformation. Four nominal impurity levels were initially selected for investigation: pure salt, salt containing 10% anhydrite, salt containing 10% mud, and salt containing 20% mud. Subsequent petrological measurements show these idealized categories do not exist. Composition of the samples was measured by methods of wet chemistry coupled with ethylene diaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) digestion and point counting on full-size polished sections. Overall, the 12 specimens comprise 71.6--96.6% halite, 2.4--7.5% anhydrite, and 0.2--24.7% clay. Nine of the 12 specimens are similar to many other tested specimens from the Lower San Andres Unit 5. They range from 90--97% halite and average 94% with a standard deviation of 2%. The remaining 6% impurities are disseminated clay and anhydrite. The other three specimens from the Lower San Andres Unit 4 contain large amounts (average 20%) of uniformly distributed clays and average only 75% halite. 11 refs., 21 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. Background radiation in two locations in Deaf Smith and Swisher Counties within the Palo Duro Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-10-01

    Data on external background radiation doses resulting from cosmic, terrestrial, and fallout sources and on concentrations of radioactivity in environmental media are presented and discussed. Doses to individuals located at the approximate centers of two locations in Texas, one in Deaf Smith County and the other in Swisher County, are given, as are the population doses to people residing within 50 miles of each of the approximate centers. No adjustments have been made for the effects of buildings on radiation doses - that is, the shielding from external radiation afforded by the buildings and radiation from building materials are not accounted for. Concentrations of radioactivity in air, water, and milk in the region are also given. Because of the lack of specific information on background radiation at the locations, the external-dose rates to people and the radioactivity levels in environmental media for the region have been taken from the literature. A background radiation survey will be conducted in the Palo Duro Basin to obtain additional data. 26 references, 3 figures, 15 tables.

  17. In situ measurements of chlorinated hydrocarbons in the water column off the Palos Verdes Peninsula, California

    SciTech Connect

    Zeng, E.Y.; Yu, C.C.; Tran, K.

    1999-02-01

    Spatial distributions of DDT and its primary metabolites (DDTs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the water column off the Palos Verdes Peninsula, CA, were measured in the winter and summer of 1997 using an in situ sampling method. The concentrations of DDTs ranged from 0.6 to 15.8 ng/L, while those of PCBs ranged from 0.06 to 15.8 ng/L, while those of PCBs ranged from 0.06 to 1.14 ng/L at eight sampling stations. The spatial distribution patterns of DDTs and PCBs as well as the DDT/PCB concentration ratio in the water column were similar to those found in the sediment, and the vertical profiles of DDTs and PCBs at both sampling seasons exponentially decreased with increasing distance from the sea floor. In addition, the partitioning characteristics of DDTs and selected PCB congeners indicated a tendency of mobilization from sediment to water. All of these findings strongly suggest that contaminated sediments are a main source of DDT and PCB inputs to the water column surrounding the study site.

  18. Ecophysiology of coniferous forests

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, W.K.; Hinckley, T.M.

    1995-03-01

    This book focuses on a synthetic view of the resource physiology of conifer trees with an emphasis on developing a perspective that can integrate across the biological hierarchy. This objective is in concert with more scientific goals of maintaining biological diversity and the sustainability of forest systems. The preservation of coniferous forest ecosystems is a major concern today. The following chapters discuss different aspects of conifers. They include: genetics and the physiological ecology; long-term records of growth and distribution; plant hormones and ecophysiology; and physiological processes as related to winter dormancy, insects, climate, and air pollution. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  19. Formax Preserved Birds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheridan, Philip

    1978-01-01

    A quick, simple method for preserving bird specimens using borax and a formalin solution is described. Procedures for injecting and mounting the specimens are given along with certain restrictions on preserving specimens. (MA)

  20. 36 CFR 292.43 - Protection and preservation of cultural and paleontological resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Protection and preservation of cultural and paleontological resources. 292.43 Section 292.43 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NATIONAL RECREATION AREAS Hells Canyon National Recreation...

  1. 36 CFR 292.43 - Protection and preservation of cultural and paleontological resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Protection and preservation of cultural and paleontological resources. 292.43 Section 292.43 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NATIONAL RECREATION AREAS Hells Canyon National Recreation...

  2. 36 CFR 292.43 - Protection and preservation of cultural and paleontological resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Protection and preservation of cultural and paleontological resources. 292.43 Section 292.43 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NATIONAL RECREATION AREAS Hells Canyon National Recreation...

  3. Swimming ability in three Costa Rican dry forest rodents.

    PubMed

    Cook, W M; Timm, R M; Hyman, D E

    2001-01-01

    We investigated the swimming abilities of three Costa Rican dry forest rodents (Coues' rice rat. Oryzomys couesi, hispid cotton rat, Sigmodon hispidus, and spiny pocket mouse, Liomys salvini) associated with a large marsh, Laguna Palo Verde, using 90 s swim trials in a plastic container. Swimming ability was evaluated by observing the use of limbs and tail in the water, inclination to the surface, and diving and floating behavior. Rice rats could float, swim and dive, suggesting that they can exploit surface and underwater resources. Cotton rats swam at the water's surface, but were less skilled swimmers than rice rats. Spiny pocket mice tired quickly and had difficulty staying at the water's surface. Results suggest that differential swimming ability is related to the distribution of the three sympatric species within the marsh and adjacent forest habitats. PMID:12189799

  4. Depositional history of organic contaminants on the Palos Verdes Shelf, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eganhouse, R.P.; Pontolillo, J.

    2000-01-01

    During more than 60 years, sedimentation on the Palos Verdes Shelf has been dominated by time-varying inputs of municipal wastewater from the Los Angeles County Sanitation Districts (LACSD) and debris from the Portuguese Bend Landslide (PBL). The present study examines the depositional history of wastewater-derived organic contaminants at a site approximately 6-8 km downcurrent from the outfall system. Sediments at this location are impacted by contributions from both sources, but the relative influence of the sources has changed over time. Two classes of hydrophobic organic contaminants (chlorinated hydrocarbons, long-chain alkylbenzenes) were determined in sediment cores collected in 1981 and 1992. Using molecular stratigraphy, we determined average sedimentation rates (cm/year) and mass accumulation rates (g cm-2 year-1) for the following periods: 1955-1965, 1965-1971, 1971-1981 and 1981-1992. The results show that sedimentation and mass accumulation rates increased from 1955 to 1971 and decreased from 1971 to 1981. These trends are consistent with historical information on the emission of suspended solids from the outfall system, indicating that the discharge of wastes dominated sedimentation at the site during this period. In the 1980s and early 1990s, however, mass accumulation rates increased in spite of continually decreasing emissions of wastewater solids. Several lines of evidence indicate that this increase was due to mobilization of debris from the PBL during and after unusually strong winter storms in the 1980s. As a result, heavily contaminated sediments deposited during the years of greatest waste emissions (i.e. 1950-1970) have been buried to greater sub-bottom depths, thereby reducing their availability for mobilization to the overlying water column. These results highlight the dynamic nature of sedimentation in contaminated coastal ecosystems and its importance to the long-term fate and effects of toxic substances.

  5. Hydrographic and particle distributions over the Palos Verdes continental shelf: Spatial, seasonal and daily variability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, B.H.; Noble, M.A.; Dickey, T.D.

    2002-01-01

    Moorings and towyo mapping were used to study the temporal and spatial variability of physical processes and suspended particulate material over the continental shelf of the Palos Verdes Peninsula in southwestern Los Angeles, California during the late summer of 1992 and winter of 1992-93. Seasonal evolution of the hydrographic structure is related to seasonal atmospheric forcing. During summer, stratification results from heating of the upper layer. Summer insolation coupled with the stratification results in a slight salinity increase nearsurface due to evaporation. Winter cooling removes much of the upper layer stratification, but winter storms can introduce sufficient quantities of freshwater into the shelf water column again adding stratification through the buoyancy input. Vertical mixing of the low salinity surface water deeper into the water column decreases the sharp nearsurface stratification and reduces the overall salinity of the upper water column. Moored conductivity measurements indicate that the decreased salinity persisted for at least 2 months after a major storm with additional freshwater inputs through the period. Four particulate groups contributed to the suspended particulate load in the water column: phytoplankton, resuspended sediments, and particles in treated sewage effluent were observed in every towyo mapping cruise; terrigenous particles are introduced through runoff from winter rainstorms. Terrigenous suspended particulate material sinks from the water column in <9 days and phytoplankton respond to the stormwater input of buoyancy and nutrients within the same period. The suspended particles near the bottom have spatially patchy distributions, but are always present in hydrographic surveys of the shelf. Temporal variations in these particles do not show a significant tidal response, but they may be maintained in suspension by internal wave and tide processes impinging on the shelf. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A new species of Hysterothylacium (Nematoda: Anisakidae) parasite of Ariopsis guatemalensis (Osteichthyes: Ariidae) from Tres Palos lagoon, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Gopar-Merino, Luis; Osorio-Sarabia, David; García-Prieto, Luis

    2005-08-01

    Hysterothylacium perezi n. sp. is described from the intestine of the "cuatete" Ariopsis guatemalensis Günther, 1864 (Osteichthyes: Ariidae), in Tres Palos, a coastal lagoon located in the Mexican Pacific basin. The new species differs from all other species of Hysterothylacium Ward and Magath, 1917, in possessing a spinous postcloacal pad. In addition, H. perezi is readily distinguished from the 21 species described in fishes from America and Hawaii by having the greatest number of caudal papillae (47 to 51 pairs + 1 single, precloacal papillae). This species is the third described from hosts inhabiting estuarine environments in America and the fourth reported in Mexico. PMID:17089763

  7. Fernbank Forest Birds in the Summer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmalz, Georgann

    1991-01-01

    Provided is a listing of the common nesting birds and the neotropical migrant birds with nesting records in the approximate 65 acres of Fernbank Forest which is a preserve of mature urban hardwoods and pines within 10 miles of downtown Atlanta and a relic of what was once a large, uninterrupted tract of the Piedmont forest. (JJK)

  8. [Preservatives in ophthalmology].

    PubMed

    Messmer, E M

    2012-11-01

    Preservatives are a legal requirement for eye drops in multidose containers. Moreover, they are necessary for stabilization and intraocular penetration for a number of ophthalmic preparations. Most preservatives act in a relatively unspecific manner as detergents or by oxidative mechanisms and thereby cause side effects at the ocular surface. They may also affect the lens, trabecular meshwork and the retina. Benzalkonium chloride is the most commonly used preservative in ophthalmology and is more toxic than other or newer preservatives, such as polyquaternium-1 (Polyquad), sodium perborate, oxychloro-complex (Purite®) and SofZia. Preservative-free topical medication is highly recommended for patients with ocular surface disease, frequent eye drop administration, proven allergy to preservatives and contact lens wear.

  9. [Preservatives in ophthalmology].

    PubMed

    Messmer, E M

    2012-11-01

    Preservatives are a legal requirement for eye drops in multidose containers. Moreover, they are necessary for stabilization and intraocular penetration for a number of ophthalmic preparations. Most preservatives act in a relatively unspecific manner as detergents or by oxidative mechanisms and thereby cause side effects at the ocular surface. They may also affect the lens, trabecular meshwork and the retina. Benzalkonium chloride is the most commonly used preservative in ophthalmology and is more toxic than other or newer preservatives, such as polyquaternium-1 (Polyquad), sodium perborate, oxychloro-complex (Purite®) and SofZia. Preservative-free topical medication is highly recommended for patients with ocular surface disease, frequent eye drop administration, proven allergy to preservatives and contact lens wear. PMID:23179809

  10. Forest owners' perceptions of ecotourism: Integrating community values and forest conservation.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Piñeros, Sandra; Mayett-Moreno, Yesica

    2015-03-01

    The use of forest land for ecotourism has been well accepted due to its ability to provide income to local people and to conserve the forest. Preparing the forest with infrastructure to attract and educate visitors has been reported of importance. This study applied Q methodology in a small rural community of the State of Puebla, Mexico, to reveal forest owners' perceptions to build infrastructure in their forest as part of their ecotourism project. It also discloses forest owners' underlying motives to use their forest for ecotourism. Ecotourism is perceived as a complementary activity to farming that would allow women to be involved in community development. Low impact infrastructure is desired due to forest owners' perception to preserve the forest for the overall community well-being.

  11. Forest owners' perceptions of ecotourism: Integrating community values and forest conservation.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Piñeros, Sandra; Mayett-Moreno, Yesica

    2015-03-01

    The use of forest land for ecotourism has been well accepted due to its ability to provide income to local people and to conserve the forest. Preparing the forest with infrastructure to attract and educate visitors has been reported of importance. This study applied Q methodology in a small rural community of the State of Puebla, Mexico, to reveal forest owners' perceptions to build infrastructure in their forest as part of their ecotourism project. It also discloses forest owners' underlying motives to use their forest for ecotourism. Ecotourism is perceived as a complementary activity to farming that would allow women to be involved in community development. Low impact infrastructure is desired due to forest owners' perception to preserve the forest for the overall community well-being. PMID:25052016

  12. Urgent preservation of boreal carbon stocks and biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, Corey J A; Warkentin, Ian G; Sodhi, Navjot S

    2009-10-01

    Containing approximately one-third of all remaining global forests, the boreal ecosystem is a crucial store of carbon and a haven for diverse biological communities. Historically, fire and insects primarily drove the natural dynamics of this biome. However, human-mediated disturbances have increased in these forests during recent years, resulting in extensive forest loss for some regions, whereas others face heavy forest fragmentation or threat of exploitation. Current management practices are not likely to maintain the attendant boreal forest communities, nor are they adequate to mitigate climate change effects. There is an urgent need to preserve existing boreal forests and restore degraded areas if we are to avoid losing this relatively intact biodiversity haven and major global carbon sink.

  13. Reformatted data sets used in the Cooperative LACSD/USGS Palos Verdes Flow Study, 2000--2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Todd; Rosenberger, Kurt J.; Gartner, Anne L.

    2012-01-01

    Beginning in 1997, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) defined a contaminated section of the Palos Verdes shelf in southern California as a Superfund site, initiating a continuing investigation of this area. A number of agencies, including the EPA, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), conducted two oceanographic measurement programs in 2004 and 2007-2008 (SAIC, 2004, 2005; Rosenberger and others, 2010; Sherwood and others, unpublished data) to improve our understanding of the natural processes that resuspend and transport sediment in the area, especially in the region southeast of the Whites Point ocean outfall where earlier measurements were thought to be deficient. Los Angeles County Sanitation Districts (LACSD) deployed a simpler but much broader array of instruments on the Palos Verdes shelf and within the northern reaches of San Pedro Bay from 2000 to 2008 in order to characterize the current and temperature patterns within these regions. This program overlapped the two programs run by USGS and other agencies in 2004 and 2007. The LACSD data were made available to the USGS and the EPA in order to support their joint efforts to model the transport of the contaminated sediments in the region. This report describes the LACSD data sets, the instruments and data-processing procedures used, and the archive that contains the data sets that have passed our quality-assurance procedures.

  14. Seasonal patterns in metazoan parasite community of the "Fat Sleeper" Dormitator latifrons (Pisces: Eleotridae) from Tres Palos Lagoon, Guerrero, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Violante-González, Juan; Rojas-Herrera, Agustín; Aguirre-Macedo, Ma Leopoldina

    2008-09-01

    Dormitator is among the most important fish genera in the Mexican Pacific coastal lagoon systems. In Tres Palos Lagoon, the Fat Sleeper Dormitator latifrons is one of the most significant species based on catch volume, although it is only consumed locally. Very little information exists on this species' parasitofauna. Composition and temporal variation in the metazoan parasite community structure of Dormitator latifrons from Tres Palos Lagoon (99 degrees 47' W, 16 degrees 48' N), Guerrero, Mexico, were determined using seasonal samples taken between April 2000 and June 2002. Ten parasite species (55 817 individuals) were recovered from 219 examined hosts. These species included eight helminths (Ascocotyle (Phagicola) longa, Echinochasmus leopoldinae, Clinostomum complanatum, Pseudoacanthostomum panamense, Saccocoelioides lamothei, Parvitaenia cochlearii, Contracaecum sp. and Neoechinorhynchus golvani) and two crustaceans (Argulus sp. and Ergasilus sp.). Five of the helminth species exhibited seasonal variation in their infection dynamics associated with environmental changes during the dry and rainy seasons. The variations in the infection dynamics generated changes in the community structure over time. PMID:19419054

  15. Sediment transport on the Palos Verdes shelf over seasonal to decadal time scales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiberg, P.L.; Drake, D.E.; Harris, C.K.; Noble, M.

    2002-01-01

    We combine direct observations, longer-term wave data, and model calculations to characterize resuspension and transport of fine-grained, effluent-affected sediment on the Palos Verdes shelf. Near-bed waves, currents, and suspended sediment concentrations were monitored during the winter of 1992-93 with a bottom tripod and current-meter mooring at a 63-m-deep site. Wave conditions that winter were moderate (??? 2 year recurrence interval), and mean current was alongshelf to the northwest; currents were not significantly correlated with wave conditions. Seven wave events during the winter (December-March) produced near-bed wave orbital velocities at the study site in excess of 14 cm s-1, the observed threshold for significant resuspension. Three of these events occurred during the bottom tripod deployment and are characterized by the highest persistent suspended sediment concentrations in the tripod record. Suspended sediment flux was alongshelf to the northwest for 5 of the 6 wave events for which current data were available; one event occurred during low southeast currents. Measured suspended sediment concentration and grain size generally agree with values that were calculated using a shelf sediment transport model with no adjustment of parameters from values determined for two muddy sites on the northern California shelf. We extend our seasonal observations to a period of almost 2 decades by applying the observed thresholds for wave-driven resuspension to near-bed wave conditions calculated from NDBC Buoy 46025 surface wave data. An average of 10 resuspension events per year, with an average duration of 1.6 days, were identified at a water depth of 60 m; the number of events dropped to 3 per year at 90 m, beyond the shelf break. For the majority of these events, calculated net suspended sediment flux is toward the northwest (alongshelf) at an average rate of 140 kg m-1 h-1; about a third of the events have net southeastward flux at an average rate of 30 kg m-1 h

  16. Modes of fossil preservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schopf, J.M.

    1975-01-01

    The processes of geologic preservation are important for understanding the organisms represented by fossils. Some fossil differences are due to basic differences in organization of animals and plants, but the interpretation of fossils has also tended to be influenced by modes of preservation. Four modes of preservation generally can be distinguished: (1) Cellular permineralization ("petrifaction") preserves anatomical detail, and, occasionally, even cytologic structures. (2) Coalified compression, best illustrated by structures from coal but characteristic of many plant fossils in shale, preserves anatomical details in distorted form and produces surface replicas (impressions) on enclosing matrix. (3) Authigenic preservation replicates surface form or outline (molds and casts) prior to distortion by compression and, depending on cementation and timing, may intergrade with fossils that have been subject to compression. (4) Duripartic (hard part) preservation is characteristic of fossil skeletal remains, predominantly animal. Molds, pseudomorphs, or casts may form as bulk replacements following dissolution of the original fossil material, usually by leaching. Classification of the kinds of preservation in fossils will aid in identifying the processes responsible for modifying the fossil remains of both animals and plants. ?? 1975.

  17. Preservation--Everybody's Job.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schobernd, Elizabeth M.

    1999-01-01

    Outlines concepts essential for library material preservation. Describes the following components of a formal preservation program: (1) environmental control; (2) repair; (3) binding; (4) deacidification; (5) reformatting; (6) disaster preparedness; (7) education; and (8) administration. Suggests that libraries can improve their preservation…

  18. Calculating the Diffusive Flux of Persistent Organic Pollutants between Sediments and the Water Column on the Palos Verdes Shelf Superfund Site using Polymeric Passive Samplers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Passive samplers were used to determine water concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the surface sediments and near-bottom water of a marine Superfund site on the Palos Verdes Shelf, California, USA. Measured concentrations in the porewater and water column at...

  19. Using Passive Samplers to Calculate the Diffusive Flux of DDTs and PCBs from Sediments to Water Column at the Palos Verdes Shelf Superfund Site

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background/Objectives. The Palos Verdes Shelf (PVS) Superfund site is in over 50 meters of water on the continental shelf and slope off the coast of southern California (USA). The site includes over 25 km2 of sediments contaminated over several decades by municipal treatment pla...

  20. Passive Sampling to Measure Baseline Dissolved Persistent Organic Pollutant Concentrations in the Water Column of the Palos Verdes Shelf Superfund Site

    EPA Science Inventory

    Passive sampling was used to deduce water concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the vicinity of a marine Superfund site on the Palos Verdes Shelf, California, USA. Pre-calibrated solid phase microextraction (SPME) fibers and polyethylene (PE) strips that were...

  1. Grafts for Ridge Preservation

    PubMed Central

    Jamjoom, Amal; Cohen, Robert E.

    2015-01-01

    Alveolar ridge bone resorption is a biologic phenomenon that occurs following tooth extraction and cannot be prevented. This paper reviews the vertical and horizontal ridge dimensional changes that are associated with tooth extraction. It also provides an overview of the advantages of ridge preservation as well as grafting materials. A Medline search among English language papers was performed in March 2015 using alveolar ridge preservation, ridge augmentation, and various graft types as search terms. Additional papers were considered following the preliminary review of the initial search that were relevant to alveolar ridge preservation. The literature suggests that ridge preservation methods and augmentation techniques are available to minimize and restore available bone. Numerous grafting materials, such as autografts, allografts, xenografts, and alloplasts, currently are used for ridge preservation. Other materials, such as growth factors, also can be used to enhance biologic outcome. PMID:26262646

  2. Hypersensitivity to preservatives.

    PubMed

    Sasseville, Denis

    2004-01-01

    Preservatives are biocidal chemicals added to cosmetics, topical medicaments, consumer goods, foods, and industrial products to protect them against microbial spoilage and to protect the consumer against infection. The ideal preservative, both effective and devoid of irritant or sensitizing potential, is still to be discovered. The present paper reviews the most important classes of preservatives, namely parabens, formaldehyde-releasers, and isothiazolinones. The author also discusses newer agents such as Euxyl K 400 and isopropynyl butylcarbamate. Each preservative is described in terms of chemical and physical characteristics, antimicrobial efficacy, exposure, cutaneous adverse reactions, patch testing concentrations, patterns of cross-reactions, and reported rates of sensitization. The history of preservatives goes back to the 1930s, and ironically, the parabens, which the industry has sought to replace with "safer" alternatives, are still the most frequently used biocides in cosmetics and appear to be far less sensitizing than most of the newer agents.

  3. Self-preserving cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Varvaresou, A; Papageorgiou, S; Tsirivas, E; Protopapa, E; Kintziou, H; Kefala, V; Demetzos, C

    2009-06-01

    Preservatives are added to products for two reasons: first, to prevent microbial spoilage and therefore to prolong the shelf life of the product; second, to protect the consumer from a potential infection. Although chemical preservatives prevent microbial growth, their safety is questioned by a growing segment of consumers. Therefore, there is a considerable interest in the development of preservative-free or self-preserving cosmetics. In these formulations traditional/chemical preservatives have been replaced by other cosmetic ingredients with antimicrobial properties that are not legislated as preservatives according to the Annex VI of the Commission Directive 76/768/EEC and the amending directives (2003/15/EC, 2007/17/EC and 2007/22/EC). 'Hurdle Technology', a technology that has been used for the control of product safety in the food industry since 1970s, has also been applied for the production of self-preserving cosmetics. 'Hurdle Technology' is a term used to describe the intelligent combination of different preservation factors or hurdles to deteriorate the growth of microorganisms. Adherence to current good manufacturing practice, appropriate packaging, careful choice of the form of the emulsion, low water activity and low or high pH values are significant variables for the control of microbial growth in cosmetic formulations. This paper describes the application of the basic principles of 'Hurdle Technology' in the production of self-preserving cosmetics. Multifunctional antimicrobial ingredients and plant-derived essential oils and extracts that are used as alternative or natural preservatives and are not listed in Annex VI of the Cosmetic Directive are also reported.

  4. Ecological gradients within a Pennsylvanian mire forest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DiMichele, W.A.; Falcon-Lang, H. J.; Nelson, W.J.; Elrick, S.D.; Ames, P.R.

    2007-01-01

    Pennsylvanian coals represent remains of the earliest peat-forming rain forests, but there is no current consensus on forest ecology. Localized studies of fossil forests suggest intermixture of taxa (heterogeneity), while, in contrast, coal ball and palynological analyses imply the existence of pronounced ecological gradients. Here, we report the discovery of a spectacular fossil forest preserved over ???1000 ha on top of the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Herrin (No. 6) Coal of Illinois, United States. The forest was abruptly drowned when fault movement dropped a segment of coastal mire below sea level. In the largest study of its kind to date, forest composition is statistically analyzed within a well-constrained paleogeographic context. Findings resolve apparent conflicts in models of Pennsylvanian mire ecology by confirming the existence of forest heterogeneity at the local scale, while additionally demonstrating the emergence of ecological gradients at landscape scale. ?? 2007 The Geological Society of America.

  5. Forest Loss in Protected Areas and Intact Forest Landscapes: A Global Analysis.

    PubMed

    Heino, Matias; Kummu, Matti; Makkonen, Marika; Mulligan, Mark; Verburg, Peter H; Jalava, Mika; Räsänen, Timo A

    2015-01-01

    In spite of the high importance of forests, global forest loss has remained alarmingly high during the last decades. Forest loss at a global scale has been unveiled with increasingly finer spatial resolution, but the forest extent and loss in protected areas (PAs) and in large intact forest landscapes (IFLs) have not so far been systematically assessed. Moreover, the impact of protection on preserving the IFLs is not well understood. In this study we conducted a consistent assessment of the global forest loss in PAs and IFLs over the period 2000-2012. We used recently published global remote sensing based spatial forest cover change data, being a uniform and consistent dataset over space and time, together with global datasets on PAs' and IFLs' locations. Our analyses revealed that on a global scale 3% of the protected forest, 2.5% of the intact forest, and 1.5% of the protected intact forest were lost during the study period. These forest loss rates are relatively high compared to global total forest loss of 5% for the same time period. The variation in forest losses and in protection effect was large among geographical regions and countries. In some regions the loss in protected forests exceeded 5% (e.g. in Australia and Oceania, and North America) and the relative forest loss was higher inside protected areas than outside those areas (e.g. in Mongolia and parts of Africa, Central Asia, and Europe). At the same time, protection was found to prevent forest loss in several countries (e.g. in South America and Southeast Asia). Globally, high area-weighted forest loss rates of protected and intact forests were associated with high gross domestic product and in the case of protected forests also with high proportions of agricultural land. Our findings reinforce the need for improved understanding of the reasons for the high forest losses in PAs and IFLs and strategies to prevent further losses.

  6. Forest Loss in Protected Areas and Intact Forest Landscapes: A Global Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Heino, Matias; Kummu, Matti; Makkonen, Marika; Mulligan, Mark; Verburg, Peter H.; Jalava, Mika; Räsänen, Timo A.

    2015-01-01

    In spite of the high importance of forests, global forest loss has remained alarmingly high during the last decades. Forest loss at a global scale has been unveiled with increasingly finer spatial resolution, but the forest extent and loss in protected areas (PAs) and in large intact forest landscapes (IFLs) have not so far been systematically assessed. Moreover, the impact of protection on preserving the IFLs is not well understood. In this study we conducted a consistent assessment of the global forest loss in PAs and IFLs over the period 2000–2012. We used recently published global remote sensing based spatial forest cover change data, being a uniform and consistent dataset over space and time, together with global datasets on PAs’ and IFLs’ locations. Our analyses revealed that on a global scale 3% of the protected forest, 2.5% of the intact forest, and 1.5% of the protected intact forest were lost during the study period. These forest loss rates are relatively high compared to global total forest loss of 5% for the same time period. The variation in forest losses and in protection effect was large among geographical regions and countries. In some regions the loss in protected forests exceeded 5% (e.g. in Australia and Oceania, and North America) and the relative forest loss was higher inside protected areas than outside those areas (e.g. in Mongolia and parts of Africa, Central Asia, and Europe). At the same time, protection was found to prevent forest loss in several countries (e.g. in South America and Southeast Asia). Globally, high area-weighted forest loss rates of protected and intact forests were associated with high gross domestic product and in the case of protected forests also with high proportions of agricultural land. Our findings reinforce the need for improved understanding of the reasons for the high forest losses in PAs and IFLs and strategies to prevent further losses. PMID:26466348

  7. Analysis Preservation in ATLAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cranmer, Kyle; Heinrich, Lukas; Jones, Roger; South, David M.

    2015-12-01

    Long before data taking, ATLAS established a policy that all analyses need to be preserved. In the initial data-taking period, this has been achieved by various tools and techniques. ATLAS is now reviewing the analysis preservation with the aim of bringing coherence and robustness to the process and with a clearer view of the level of reproducibility that is reasonably achievable. The secondary aim is to reduce the load on the analysts. Once complete, this will serve for our internal preservation needs but also provide a basis for any subsequent sharing of analysis results with external parties.

  8. Mechanism of entanglement preservation

    SciTech Connect

    Tong Qingjun; An Junhong; Luo Honggang; Oh, C. H.

    2010-05-15

    We study the entanglement preservation of two qubits locally interacting with their reservoirs. We show that the existence of a bound state of the qubit and its reservoir and the non-Markovian effect are two essential ingredients and their interplay plays a crucial role in preserving the entanglement in the steady state. When the non-Markovian effect is neglected, the entanglement sudden death (ESD) is reproduced. On the other hand, when the non-Markovian is significantly strong but the bound state is absent, the phenomenon of the ESD and its revival is recovered. Our formulation presents a unified picture about the entanglement preservation and provides a clear clue on how to preserve the entanglement in quantum information processing.

  9. Tifft Farm Nature Preserve.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjamin, Thomas B.; Gannon, David J.

    1980-01-01

    Described are the creation, development, activities, and programs of Tifft Farm, a 264-acre nature preserve and environmental education center in Buffalo, New York, constructed on a sanitary landfill. (BT)

  10. Advances in lung preservation.

    PubMed

    Machuca, Tiago N; Cypel, Marcelo; Keshavjee, Shaf

    2013-12-01

    After a brief review of conventional lung preservation, this article discusses the rationale behind ex vivo lung perfusion and how it has shifted the paradigm of organ preservation from conventional static cold ischemia to the utilization of functional normothermia, restoring the lung's own metabolism and its reparative processes. Technical aspects and previous clinical experience as well as opportunities to address specific donor organ injuries in a personalized medicine approach are also reviewed. PMID:24206857

  11. High-resolution seafloor mapping surveys over the San Gregorio-Palo Colorado Fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paull, C. K.; Caress, D. W.; Thomas, H.; Lundsten, E.; Anderson, K.; Gwiazda, R.

    2011-12-01

    The San Gregorio-Palo Colorado Fault (SGPCF) is mapped as traversing the outer end of Monterey Bay and crossing Monterey Canyon near its intersection with Carmel Canyon. The location of the fault is based on offsets in seismic reflection profiles, lineations in the bathymetry, and locations of epicenters associated with small earthquakes. However, much of the offshore area where the trace of the SGPCF is postulated to be located is sediment bare, making it difficult to determine if there has been recent movement along this segment of the fault. High-resolution multibeam bathymetry (vertical precision of 0.15 m and horizontal resolution of 1.0 m) and 1-4.5 kHz chirp seismic reflection profiles have recently been collected in up to 1.6 km water depths on the northern flank of Monterey Canyon where the SGPCF is thought to cut across the canyon wall. The objective of these surveys was to look for indications of recent deformation associated with the SGPCF where accumulations of sediments could provide evidence of seafloor displacement along this segment of the fault since these sediments have been deposited. The surveys were conducted using an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) during two 17.5-hour-long dives. An inertial navigation system combined with a Doppler velocity sonar allowed the AUV to fly pre-programmed grids at 3 knots while maintaining an altitude of 50 m above the seafloor. These surveys are in addition to other recently published AUV surveys of the floor of Monterey Canyon extending out to 2.2 km water depths and including the zone where the SGPCF is mapped to cross the canyon floor. The lack of clear evidence of fault deformation along the SGPCF trace on the canyon floor is easily attributable to frequent sediment transport events within the canyon's channel, which would presumably overwrite sediment deformation associated with the SGPCF. The surveys presented here extend above the active canyon floor and cover the northern flank of Monterey Canyon

  12. Diagenetic fate of organic contaminants on the Palos Verdes Shelf, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eganhouse, R.P.; Pontolillo, J.; Leiker, T.J.

    2000-01-01

    Municipal wastes discharged through deepwater submarine outfalls since 1937 have contaminated sediments of the Palos Verdes Shelf. A site approximately 6-8 km downcurrent from the outfall system was chosen for a study of the diagenetic fate of organic contaminants in the waste-impacted sediments. Concentrations of three classes of hydrophobic organic contaminants (DDT + metabolites, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and the long-chain alkylbenzenes) were determined in sediment cores collected at the study site in 1981 and 1992. Differences between the composition of effluent from the major source of DDT (Montrose Chemical) and that found in sediments suggests that parent DDT was transformed by hydrolytic dehydrochlorination during the earliest stages of diagenesis. As a result, p,p'-DDE is the dominant DDT metabolite found in shelf sediments, comprising 60-70% of ??DDT. The p,p-DDE/p,p'-DDMU concentration ratio decreases with increasing sub-bottom depth in sediment cores, indicating that reductive dechlorination of p,p'-DDE is occurring. Approximately 9-23% of the DDE inventory in the sediments may have been converted to DDMU since DDT discharges began ca. 1953. At most, this is less than half of the decline in p,p'-DDE inventory that has been observed at the study site for the period 1981-1995. Most of the observed decrease is attributable to remobilization by processes such as sediment mixing coupled to resuspension, contaminant desorption, and current advection. Existing field data suggest that the in situ rate of DDE transformation is 102-103 times slower than rates determined in recent laboratory microcosm experiments (Quensen, J.F., Mueller, S.A., Jain, M.K., Tiedje, J.M., 1998. Reductive dechlorination of DDE to DDMU in marine sediment microcosms. Science, 280, 722-724.). This explains why the DDT composition (i.e. o,p'-, p,p'-isomers of DDE, DDD, DDT) of sediments from this site have not changed significantly since at least 1972. Congener-specific PCB

  13. Hydrogeologic investigations based on drill-stem test data: Palo Duro Basin Area, Texas and New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Bair, E.S.; O'Donnell, T.P.; Picking, L.W.

    1985-02-01

    Drill-stem test (DST) data were compiled from wildcat wells and DOE-sponsored wells in the Palo Duro Basin area of Texas and New Mexico. The data were used to construct pressure-depth diagrams and to map regional potentiometric surfaces, based on equivalent freshwater heads calculated from initial shut-in pressures of the Wolfcamp and Pennsylvanian brine aquifers, the two regionally important deep-basin aquifers downgradient of the proposed repository host rock. Eighty percent of the 5502 DSTs were screened from the data base containing DST data from various deep-basin geologic units because they did not comply with shut-in time and shut-in pressure agreement criteria. After screening, three sets of pressure-depth diagrams and potentiometric surfaces were constructed, corresponding to three levels of data refinement. These results indicate the possible need for more data from an areally extended study area.

  14. Lower Permian facies of the Palo Duro Basin, Texas: depositional systems, shelf-margin evolution, paleogeography, and petroleum potential

    SciTech Connect

    Handford, C.R.

    1980-01-01

    A Palo geological study suggests that potential hydrocarbon reservoirs occur in shelf-margin carbonates, delta-front sandstones, and fan-delta arkoses. Zones of porous (greater than 10 percent) dolomite are concentrated near shelf margins and have configurations similar to productive Lower Permian shelf-margin trends in New Mexico. Delta-front sandstones (log-computed porosity of 18 to 25 percent) are similar to producing deltaic sandstones of Morris Buie-Blaco Fields in North-Central Texas. Porous (18 percent) fan-delta sandstones along the south flank of the Amarillo Uplift may form reservoirs similiar to that of the Mobeetie Field on the north side of the Amarillo Uplife in Wheeler County, Texas. Potential hydrocarbon source beds occur in slope and basinal environments. Total organic carbon generally ranges from 1 to 2.3 percent by weight and averages 0.589 percent by weight.

  15. Temporal variation in the helminth parasite communities of the Pacific fat sleeper, Dormitator latifrons, from Tres Palos Lagoon, Guerrero, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Violante-González, Juan; Aguirre-Macedo, Maria Leopoldina; Vidal-Martínez, Victor Manuel

    2008-04-01

    Temporal variation in the helminth parasite communities of the Pacific fat sleeper, Dormitator latifrons, from Tres Palos Lagoon, Guerrero, Mexico, was studied at the component community and infracommunity levels. In total, 185 host specimens were collected between April 2000 and March 2001. Eight parasite species were identified: Clinostomum complanatum, Echinochasmus leopoldinae, Ascocotyle (Phagicola) longa, Pseudoacanthostomum panamense, Saccocoelioides sp., Parvitaenia cochlearii, Neoechinorhynchus golvani, and Contracaecum sp. The communities had low numbers of parasite species and diversity, and contained only generalist parasites. Nested (nonrandom) species composition was observed in the infracommunities during all climatic seasons. The variation in nestedness intensity was attributed to a process of sequential colonization by the most common parasite species, because some were more abundant in the dry season, and others were more abundant in the rainy season.

  16. Health assessment for Hewlett-Packard, Palo Alto, Santa Clara County, California, Region 9. CERCLIS No. CAD009122532. Preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-12-05

    The Hewlett-Packard, Palo Alto, site is listed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) on the National Priorities List (NPL). The site is a gasoline station owned by the Hewlett-Packard Corporation which had five underground storage tanks. By approximately 1985, the principally responsible party voluntarily removed the tanks. A plume of hazardous chemicals has been detected in groundwater beneath this area and is believed to be associated with the former underground tanks. The environmental pathway of concern is migration of contaminated groundwater. The human exposure pathways of concern are potential ingestion and dermal contact with contaminated groundwater, and inhalation of the volatile components of the contamination from domestic uses such as cooking, showering, and bathing. Based on the available information, the site is considered to be of potential public health concern because of the risk to human health caused by the possibility of exposure to hazardous substances via contaminated groundwater.

  17. Tectonic implications of space-time patterns of Cenozoic volcanism in the Palo Verde Mountain volcanic field, southeastern California

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, K.S.

    1981-01-01

    Variations in Cenozoic volcanism in the western United States are believed to correlate closely with changes in tectonic setting. A transition in volcanic association from calc-alkaline to fundamentally basaltic volcanism and subsequent crustal extension, appears to have coincided temporally with the initial collision of the East Pacific Rise with the continental margin trench off western North America, between 28 and 25 Ma. The volcanic stratigraphy of the Palo Verde Mountain volcanic field is broadly similar to other volcanic centers in southeastern California and can be divided into tripartite regional stratigraphy. A basal sequence of andesitic to rhyolitic lava flows, plugs, domes, and extensive pyroclastic deposits rests unconformably on pre-Cenozoic basement rocks. The basal sequence is intruded by cogenetic Cenozoic plutonic rocks and overlain by basaltic to rhyolitic lava flows, dikes, and a second widespread assemblage of pyroclastic deposits, cumulatively referred to as the silicic sequence. The youngest volcanic rocks of the field include olivine basalt flows and breccia which occur at scattered localities in the Palo Verde Mountains. The age, stratigraphy, and chemistry of the intermediate and basaltic composition volcanic rocks broadly supports previously cited volcanic-tectonic models, if modified to incorporate modern plate reconstruction theory. This modification results in a southeast migration of the transition to basaltic volcanism to southeastern California occurring significantly later in time than the previously cited ages of transition. Moreover, this southeast migration of the volcanic transition is coincident with the inception of Basin and Range faulting and the initiation of movement on the San Andreas fault south of the Transverse Ranges, corresponding to the southward migration of the Pacific-Cocos Ridge.

  18. Food Preservation beyond the Season.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanes, Phyllis

    1992-01-01

    Examines how current scientific knowledge of food preservation emerged from traditions handed down through the generations. Discusses various methods of preservation, their history, and current application. (LZ)

  19. 36 CFR 13.1109 - Off-road vehicle use in Glacier Bay National Preserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Off-road vehicle use in... National Park and Preserve Administrative Provisions § 13.1109 Off-road vehicle use in Glacier Bay National Preserve. The use of off-road vehicles is authorized only on designated routes and areas in Glacier...

  20. 36 CFR 13.1109 - Off-road vehicle use in Glacier Bay National Preserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Glacier Bay National Preserve. 13.1109 Section 13.1109 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Administrative Provisions § 13.1109 Off-road vehicle use in Glacier Bay...

  1. 36 CFR 13.1109 - Off-road vehicle use in Glacier Bay National Preserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Glacier Bay National Preserve. 13.1109 Section 13.1109 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Administrative Provisions § 13.1109 Off-road vehicle use in Glacier Bay...

  2. 36 CFR 13.1109 - Off-road vehicle use in Glacier Bay National Preserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Glacier Bay National Preserve. 13.1109 Section 13.1109 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Administrative Provisions § 13.1109 Off-road vehicle use in Glacier Bay...

  3. 36 CFR 13.1109 - Off-road vehicle use in Glacier Bay National Preserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Glacier Bay National Preserve. 13.1109 Section 13.1109 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Administrative Provisions § 13.1109 Off-road vehicle use in Glacier Bay...

  4. Tree species effects on pathogen-suppressive capacities of soil bacteria across two tropical dry forests in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Becklund, Kristen; Powers, Jennifer; Kinkel, Linda

    2016-11-01

    Antibiotic-producing bacteria in the genus Streptomyces can inhibit soil-borne plant pathogens, and have the potential to mediate the impacts of disease on plant communities. Little is known about how antibiotic production varies among soil communities in tropical forests, despite a long history of interest in the role of soil-borne pathogens in these ecosystems. Our objective was to determine how tree species and soils influence variation in antibiotic-mediated pathogen suppression among Streptomyces communities in two tropical dry forest sites (Santa Rosa and Palo Verde). We targeted tree species that co-occur in both sites and used a culture-based functional assay to quantify pathogen-suppressive capacities of Streptomyces communities beneath 50 focal trees. We also measured host-associated litter and soil element concentrations as potential mechanisms by which trees may influence soil microbes. Pathogen-suppressive capacities of Streptomyces communities varied within and among tree species, and inhibitory phenotypes were significantly related to soil and litter element concentrations. Average proportions of inhibitory Streptomyces in soils from the same tree species varied between 1.6 and 3.3-fold between sites. Densities and proportions of pathogen-suppressive bacteria were always higher in Santa Rosa than Palo Verde. Our results suggest that spatial heterogeneity in the potential for antibiotic-mediated disease suppression is shaped by tree species, site, and soil characteristics, which could have significant implications for understanding plant community composition and diversity in tropical dry forests.

  5. A History Worth Preserving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Cynthia

    2008-04-01

    The Manhattan Project transformed the course of American and world history, science, politics and society. If we can read about this in books and watch History Channel documentaries, why do we need to preserve some of the properties of this enormous undertaking? The presentation, ``A History Worth Preserving,'' will address why some of the physical properties need to be preserved and which ones we are struggling to maintain for future generations. The story of this effort begins in 1997 as the Department of Energy was posed to demolish the last remaining Manhattan Project properties at the Los Alamos laboratory. Located deep behind security fences, the ``V Site's'' asbestos-shingled wooden buildings looked like humble garages with over-sized wooden doors. The ``V Site'' properties were almost lost twice, first to bulldozers and then the Cerro Grande fire of 2000. Now, visitors can stand inside the building where J. Robert Oppenheimer and his crew once worked and imagine the Trinity ``gadget'' hanging from its hoist shortly before it ushered in the Atomic Age on July 16, 1945. As Richard Rhodes has commented, we preserve what we value of the physical past because it specifically embodies our social past. But many challenge whether the Manhattan Project properties ought to be preserved. Rather than recognize the Manhattan Project as a great achievement worthy of commemoration, some see it as a regrettable event, producing an instrument to take man's inhumanity to man to extremes. While these divergent views will no doubt persist, the significance of the Manhattan Project in producing the world's first atomic bombs is irrefutable. Preserving some of its tangible remains is essential so that future generations can understand what the undertaking entailed from its humble wooden sheds to enormous first-of-a-kind industrial plants with 125,000 people working in secret and living in frontier-like communities. With continuing pressure for their demolition, what progress has

  6. Moving Image Preservation in Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Stefano, Paula

    2003-01-01

    Examines the current practices of film and video preservation in libraries and examines barriers that have hindered the development of full-fledged preservation programs for them. Topics include advances in education and training; preservation paradigms; and mechanics of film production that affect preservation. (Author/LRW)

  7. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 9): Hewlett-Packard, 620-640 Page Mill Road, Palo Alto, CA, March 24, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    The Record of Decision (ROD) presents the selected remedial action for the Hewlett-Packard 640 Page Mill Road Superfund site (HP-640 PMR) in Palo Alto, California. Leaks from an underground waste solvent storage tank resulted in soil and groundwater contamination at the HP-640 PMR site. These interim response actions addressed the principal threats at the HP-640 PMR site, soil and groundwater contamination. The final remedy addresses threats remaining after the interim measures.

  8. Radioactive waste isolation in salt: peer review of the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation's report on the Organic Geochemistry of Deep Groundwaters from the Palo Duro Basin, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Fenster, D.F.; Brookins, D.G.; Harrison, W.; Seitz, M.G.; Lerman, A.; Stamoudis, V.C.

    1984-08-01

    This report summarizes Argonne's review of the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation's (ONWI's) final report entitled The Organic Geochemistry of Deep Ground Waters from the Palo Duro Basin, Texas, dated September 1983. Recommendations are made for improving the ONWI report. The main recommendation is to make the text consistent with the title and with the objective of the project as stated in the introduction. Three alternatives are suggested to accomplish this.

  9. Preservation: Issues and Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, Paul N., Ed.; Pilette, Roberta, Ed.

    A reference guide from leading experts in the field, this book covers the repair, maintenance, and preservation of library or archive collections, providing a definitive and authoritative analysis of how to plan for and ensure the long-term health of an institution's collection in this digital age. Chapters include: (1) "Defining the Library…

  10. Paints and Preservatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Larry E.; Miller, Larry E.

    The publication contains an outline for use by agriculture teachers in developing a teaching plan for a unit on paints and preservatives. The topics included are (1) recognizing, solving, and preventing paint problems and (2) operating and using power spray painting equipment. Items presented for each topic are: the situation, (intended to inform…

  11. Preserving Southwest Virginia's Folklore.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgin, Ramond

    1997-01-01

    Describes Southwest Virginia's rich tradition of folklore and culture and the need for its preservation. Summarizes the author's time-consuming process of preparing an inventory and indexing the vast archival collections gathered by students in American Folklore classes at Mountain Empire Community College and by the Southwest Virginia Folklore…

  12. Electronic Technologies and Preservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Donald J.

    Digital imaging technology, which is used to take a computer picture of documents at the page level, has significant potential as a tool for preserving deteriorating library materials. Multiple reproductions can be made without loss of quality; the end product is compact; reproductions can be made in paper, microfilm, or CD-ROM; and access over…

  13. Sharing the Preservation Burden

    SciTech Connect

    Giaretta, D.

    2008-07-01

    Preserving digitally encoded information which is not just to be rendered, as a document, but which must processed, like data, is even harder than one might think, because understandability of the information which is encoded in the digital object(s) is what is required. Information about Nuclear Waste will include both documents as well as data. Moreover one must be able to understand the relationship between the many individual pieces of information. Furthermore the volume of information involved will require us to allow automated processing of such information. Preserving the ability to understand and process digitally encoded information over long periods of time is especially hard when so many things will change, including hardware, software, environment and the tacit and implicit knowledge that people have. Since we cannot predict these changes this cannot be just a one-off action; continued effort is required. However it seems reasonable to say that no organization, project or person can ever say for certain that their ability to provide this effort is going to last forever. What can be done? Can anything be guaranteed? Probably not guaranteed - but at least one can try to reduce the risk of losing the information. We argue that if no single organization, project or person can guarantee funding or effort (or even interest), then somehow we must share the 'preservation load', and this is more than a simple chain of preservation consisting of handing on the collection of bits from one holder to the next. Clearly the bits must be passed on (but may be transformed along the way), however something more is required - because of the need to maintain understandability, not just access. This paper describes the tools, techniques and infrastructure components which the CASPAR project is producing to help in sharing the preservation burden. In summary: CASPAR is attempting to use OAIS concepts rigorously and to the fullest extent possible, supplementing these where

  14. Management to conserve forest ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robbins, C.S.; McComb, William C.

    1984-01-01

    Historically, management of forests for wildlife has emphasized creation of openings and provision for a maximum of edge habitats. Wildlife managers have believed, quite logically, that increased sunlight enhances productivity among plants and insects, resulting in greater use by game animals and other wildlife. Recent studies comparing breeding bird populations of extensive forests with those of isolated woodlots have shown that the smaller woodlots, especially those under 35 ha (about 85 acres), lack many species that are typical of the larger tracts. The missing species can be predicted, and basically are the neotropical migrants. These long-distance migrants share several characteristics that make them especially vulnerable to reproductive failure in situations where predation and cowbird parasitism are high: they are primarily single-brooded, open nesters that lay small clutches on or near the ground. Edge habitats and forest openings attract cowbirds and predators. The edge species of birds, which are mostly permanent residents or short-distance migrants, are well adapted to survive and reproduce in small isolated woodlands without the benefit of special habitat management. The obligate forest interior species, on the other hand, are decreasing in those parts of North America where extensive forests are being replaced by isolated woodlands. If we are to preserve ecosystems intact for the benefit of future generations, and maintain a viable gene pool for the scarcer species, we must think in terms of retaining large, unbroken tracts of forest and of limiting disturbance in the more remote portions of these tracts.

  15. Soil preservation by afforestation in changing climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galic, Z.; Orlovic, S.

    2012-04-01

    Observed climate changes in Vojvodina (northern part of Republic Serbia) are reflected in the increasing of average annual air temperature and decrasing of precipitation. The data suggest that the increase of average annual air temperature in the period 1998-2008 compared to period 1960-1991 was higher for 1°C. Reduction of rainfall was recorded for December, January, February and May. These decreasing of rainfall with an increase of average air temperature in the vegetation period (July 1.2°C and 1.7°C in August) leading to longer and more frequent dry periods. Forest aridity index (FAI) increase from period 1960-1991 continuously. In period 1960-1991 FAI for Vojvodina was 5,74 and in period from 2000-2010 the average FAI was 7,57. This increasing FAI means warmer and dryer weather in the main growth cycle and in the critical month. Longer and more frequent dry periods lead to unfavorable conditions for the growth of many tree species in region like Vojvodina. Soil erosion leads to the degradation of fertile soils in Vojvodina (about 83.24% of soils are used for agricultural production). The main soil type is chernozem. A significant role of chernozem protection and conservation is attributed to different forms of forest and non-forest greenery, such as protection forests, shelterbelts, tree rows, hunting preserves and other forms of amenity and ornamental greenery. This paper analyses the possibility of afforestation of tree and shurb species in different forms of protection forests, shelterbelts, tree rows, hunting preserves and other forms of amenity and ornamental greenery in Vojvodina considering future climate change. The selection of tree species is the base of establishment of different forms of «greenery» aimed at the prevention of destructive processes in future. Key words: climate change, soil degradation, afforestation Acknowledgement This paper was realized as a part of the project "Studying climate change and its influence on the environment

  16. Male adolescent fertility preservation.

    PubMed

    Moss, Jared L; Choi, Andrew Wonho; Fitzgerald Keeter, Mary Kate; Brannigan, Robert E

    2016-02-01

    Until the 1960s, few adolescents and young adults (AYAs) survived their initial cancer diagnoses. Now, ∼12,400 AYA patients are diagnosed with cancer each year, and almost 80% will now achieve a long-term cure. This dramatic improvement in survival is primarily due to multimodal treatments and combined chemotherapeutic regimens. Unfortunately, the increase in survival is often accompanied by treatment-related toxicities due to chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and surgical procedures. Despite guidelines published by the American Society of Clinical Oncology and numerous other professional organizations, high percentages of male AYA oncology patients are not properly counseled regarding their fertility preservation options before cancer treatment. Although administering fertility preservation care to adolescent males can be challenging in many ways, numerous studies show that this care can be delivered with high degrees of success and high levels of patient and parent satisfaction. The key to this success at many institutions has been the implementation of formalized integrated fertility preservation programs with infrastructure geared toward the delivery of comprehensive expedited care.

  17. Temporal Forest Change Detection and Forest Health Assessment using Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ya'acob, Norsuzila; Mohd Azize, Aziean Binti; Anis Mahmon, Nur; Laily Yusof, Azita; Farhana Azmi, Nor; Mustafa, Norfazira

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents the detection of Angsi and Berembun Reserve Forest change for years 1996 and 2013. Forest is an important part of our ecosystem. The main function is to absorb carbon oxide and produce oxygen in their cycle of photosynthesis to maintain a balance and healthy atmosphere. However, forest changes as time changes. Some changes are necessary as to give way for economic growth. Nevertheless, it is important to monitor forest change so that deforestation and development can be planned and the balance of ecosystem is still preserved. It is important because there are number of unfavorable effects of deforestation that include environmental and economic such as erosion of soil, loss of biodiversity and climate change. The forest change detection can be studied with reference of several satellite images using remote sensing application. Forest change detection is best done with remote sensing due to large and remote study area. The objective of this project is to detect forest change over time and to compare forest health indicated by Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) using remote sensing and image processing. The forest under study shows depletion of forest area by 12% and 100% increment of deforestation activities. The NDVI value which is associated with the forest health also shows 13% of reduction.

  18. Offshore survey provides answers to coastal stability and potential offshore extensions of landslides into Abalone Cove, Palos Verdes peninsula, Calif

    SciTech Connect

    Dill, R.F. ); Slosson, J.E. )

    1993-04-01

    The configuration and stability of the present coast line near Abalone Cove, on the south side of Palos Verdes Peninsula, California is related to the geology, oceanographic conditions, and recent and ancient landslide activity. This case study utilizes offshore high resolution seismic profiles, side-scan sonar, diving, and coring, to relate marine geology to the stability of a coastal region with known active landslides utilizing a desk top computer and off-the-shelf software. Electronic navigation provided precise positioning that when applied to computer generated charts permitted correlation of survey data needed to define the offshore geology and sea floor sediment patterns. A mackintosh desk-top computer and commercially available off-the-shelf software provided the analytical tools for constructing a base chart and a means to superimpose template overlays of topography, isopachs or sediment thickness, bottom roughness and sediment distribution patterns. This composite map of offshore geology and oceanography was then related to an extensive engineering and geological land study of the coastal zone forming Abalone Cove, an area of active landslides. Vibrocoring provided ground sediment data for high resolution seismic traverses. This paper details the systems used, present findings relative to potential landslide movements, coastal erosion and discuss how conclusions were reached to determine whether or not onshore landslide failures extend offshore.

  19. Geochemistry of Ca, Sr, Ba and Ra sulfates in some deep brines from the Palo Duro basin, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Langmuir, D.; Melchior, D.

    1985-11-01

    The geochemistry of Ca, Sr, Ba and Ra sulfates in some deep brines from the Palo Duro Basin of north Texas, was studied to define geochemical controls on radionuclides such as /sup 90/Sr and /sup 226/Ra. Published solubility data for gypsum, anhydrite, celestite, barite and RaSO/sub 4/ were first reevaluated, in most cases using the ion interaction approach of Pitzer, to determine solubility products of the sulfates as a function of temperature and pressure. Ionic strengths of the brines were from 2.9 to 4.8 m, their temperatures and pressures up to 40/sup 0/C and 130 bars. Saturation indices of the sulfates were computed with the ion-interaction approach in one brine from the arkosic granite wash facies and four from the carbonate Wolfcamp Formation. All five brines are saturated with respect to gypsum, anhydrite and celestite, and three of the five with respect to barite. All are undersaturated by from 5 to 6 orders of magnitude with respect to pure RaSO/sub 4/. /sup 226/Ra concentrations in the brines, which ranged from 10/sup -11.3/ to 10/sup -12.7/ m, are not controlled by RaSO/sub 4/ solubility or adsorption, but possibly by the solubility of trace Ra solid solutions in sulfates including celestite and barite.

  20. The geochemistry of Ca, Sr, Ba and Ra sulfates in some deep brines from the Palo Duro Basin, Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langmuir, Donald; Melchior, Daniel

    1985-11-01

    The geochemistry of Ca, Sr, Ba and Ra sulfates in some deep brines from the Palo Duro Basin of north Texas, was studied to define geochemical controls on radionuclides such as 90Sr and 226Ra. Published solubility data for gypsum, anhydrite, celestite, barite and RaSO 4 were first reevaluated, in most cases using the ion interaction approach of Pitzer, to determine solubility products of the sulfates as a function of temperature and pressure. Ionic strengths of the brines were from 2.9 to 4.8 m, their temperatures and pressures up to 40°C and 130 bars. Saturation indices of the sulfates were computed with the ion-interaction approach in one brine from the arkosic granite wash fades and four from the carbonate Wolfcamp Formation. All five brines are saturated with respect to gypsum, anhydrite and celestite, and three of the five with respect to barite. All are undersaturated by from 5 to 6 orders of magnitude with respect to pure RaSO 4. 226Ra concentrations in the brines, which ranged from 10 -11.3 to 10 -12.7 m, are not controlled by RaSO 4 solubility or adsorption, but possibly by the solubility of trace Ra solid solutions in sulfates including celestite and barite.

  1. Spatial and temporal distribution of contaminated, effluent-affected sediment on the Palos Verdes margin, southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, H.J.; Sherwood, C.R.; Drake, D.E.; Edwards, B.D.; Wong, F.; Hamer, M.

    2002-01-01

    A sedimentary deposit on the continental margin near the Palos Verdes Peninsula, California is comprised of sewage effluent and geologic materials and is contaminated with metals, pesticides (including DDT and associated compounds), and PCBs. The deposit was mapped with subbottom acoustic profilers, and sediment cores were analyzed for geochemical and physical properties to determine the volume of the deposit and the distribution and mass of contaminants. Mapping showed that the deposit ranges up to 60-cm thick, has a total volume exceeding 9 million m3, and covers over 40 km2. Virtually the entire effluent-affected deposit is contaminated with DDT and PCBs. Nearly half of the area of the deposit lies on the continental slope, but 70-75% of the volume of the deposit and total mass of DDT reside on the continental shelf. Analysis of data collected biennially since 1981 by the Sanitation Districts of Los Angeles County show that the mass of DDT has apparently decreased at some stations but has remained essentially constant at others. Temporal changes m mass per unit area of DDT are not statistically significant (at the 90% confidence level) at the most contaminated locations over a 16-yr period. The results of this mapping effort were used as a basis for modeling efforts described elsewhere in this issue. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Numerical analysis of the mobility of the Palos Verdes debris avalanche, California, and its implication for the generation of tsunamis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Locat, J.; Lee, H.J.; Locat, P.; Imran, J.

    2004-01-01

    Analysis of morphology, failure and post-failure stages of the Palos Verdes debris avalanche reveals that it may have triggered a significant tsunami wave. Our analysis of the failure itself indicates that the slope is stable under aseismic conditions but that a major earthquake (with a magnitude around 7) could have triggered the slide. A post-failure analysis, considering the debris avalanche as a bi-linear flow, shows that peak velocities of up to 45 m/s could have been reached and that the initial movement involved a mass of rock less than 10 km wide, 1 km long and about 50-80 m thick. Initial wave height estimates vary from 10 to 50 m. Tsunami waves propagating to the local shoreline would be significantly smaller. Such a range demonstrates our lack of proper knowledge of the transition from failure to post-failure behavior related to mass movements. Further investigations and analyses of terrestrial and submarine evidence are required for a proper hazard assessment related to tsunami generation in the Los Angeles area. ?? 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Coupled forest growth-hydrology modelling as an instrument for the assessment of effects of forest management on hydrology in forested catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutmöller, J.; Hentschel, S.; Hansen, J.; Meesenburg, H.

    2011-03-01

    The type and intensity of forest management directly influences regional catchment hydrology. Future forest management must optimise the effects of its practices to achieve sustainable management. With scenario analysis of forestry practices, the effects of different forest utilisation strategies on the hydrology of forested catchments can be temporally and spatially quantified. The approach adopted in this study necessitated the development of an interactive system for the spatially distributed modelling of hydrology in relation to forest stand development. Consequently, a forest growth model was used to simulate stand development assuming various forest management activities. Selected simulated forest growth parameters were entered into the hydrological model to simulate water fluxes under different conditions of forest structure. The approach enables the spatially differentiated quantification of changes in the water regime (e.g. increased evapotranspiration). The results of hydrological simulations in the study area, the Oker catchment (northern Harz Mountains), show that forests contribute to the protection of water systems because they have a balancing effect on the hydrological regime. As scenario simulations also suggest, however, forestry practices can also lead to substantial changes in water budgets of forested catchments. The preservation of the hydrological services of forests requires a sustainable and long-term forest conversion on the basis of current management directives for near natural silviculture. Management strategies on basis of moderate harvesting regimes are preferred because of their limited impact on the water budget.

  4. Preserving the Manhattan Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Cynthia

    2014-03-01

    When future generations look back on the 20th century, few events will rival the harnessing of nuclear energy as a turning point in world history, science and society. Yet, the Department of Energy has not always embraced its Manhattan Project origins. The presentation will focus on the progress made over the last 20 years to preserve the properties and first-hand accounts that for decades have been threatened with demolition and indifference. Since the mid-1950s, most remaining Manhattan Project properties at the Los Alamos National Laboratory had been abandoned. Among them was a cluster of wooden buildings called the ``V Site.'' This is where scientists assembled the ``Gadget,'' the world's first atomic device tested on July 16, 1945. Regardless of its significance, the ``V Site'' buildings like all the rest were slated for demolition. The Advisory Council on Historic Preservation (ACHP) toured the properties in November 1998. Most could not believe that the world's first atomic bomb was designed in such humble structures. The properties were declared to be ``monumental in their lack of monumentality.'' A Save America's Treasures grant for 700,000 was awarded to restore the properties. To raise the required matching funds, I left the Federal government and soon founded the Atomic Heritage Foundation. The presentation will trace the progress made over the last decade to generate interest and support nationwide to preserve the Manhattan Project heritage. Saving both the physical properties and first-hand accounts of the men and women have been a priority. Perhaps our most significant achievement may be legislation now under consideration by Congress to create a Manhattan Project National Historical Park. Seventy years later, the Manhattan Project is finally getting the recognition it deserves.

  5. Climate change. Managing forests after Kyoto.

    PubMed

    Schulze, D E; Wirth, C; Heimann, M

    2000-09-22

    The Kyoto protocol aims to reduce carbon emissions into the atmosphere. Part of the strategy is the active management of terrestrial carbon sinks, principally through afforestation and reforestation. In their Perspective, Schulze et al. argue that the preservation of old-growth forests may have a larger positive effect on the carbon cycle than promotion of regrowth.

  6. Forested wetlands

    SciTech Connect

    Lugo, A.E.; Brinson, M.; Brown, S.

    1990-01-01

    Forested wetlands have important roles in global biogeochemical cycles, supporting freshwater and saltwater commercial fisheries, and in providing a place for wildlife of all kinds to flourish. Scientific attention towards these ecosystems has lagged with only a few comprehensive works on forested wetlands of the world. A major emphasis of this book is to develop unifying principles and data bases on the structure and function of forested wetlands, in order to stimulate scientific study of them. Wetlands are areas that are inundated or saturated by surface-water or ground-water, at such a frequency and duration that under natural conditions they support organisms adapted to poorly aerated and/or saturated soil. The strategy of classifying the conditions that control the structure and behavior of forested wetlands by assuming that the physiognomy and floristic composition of the system will reflect the total energy expenditure of the ecosystem; and the structural and functional characteristics of forested wetlands from different parts of the world are the major topics covered.

  7. Preserving Perishables (Dormavac)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    A new commercial product that can preserve perishable commodities for weeks without freezing, so that they can be shipped fresh without the cost of air freight, has been developed by Grumman Corporation, Bethpage, Long Island, New York. The development benefited from the company's experience in developing the environmental control system for the Lunar Module, which delivered Apollo astronauts to the surface of the moon. Called Dormavac, the system provides a commodity-preserving environment within an aluminum container that can be transported by truck, rail or ship. Dormavac creates a cold-but above freezing-environment with high relative humidity and very low air pressure. The saturated air minimizes commodity weight loss and the air is automatically changed several times an hour to flush away odors and harmful gases released by the commodities. According to company literature, Dormavac significantly extends the transportation life of perishables. For example, pork has a normal cold storage life of about seven days, beef two weeks and tomatoes three weeks; with Dormavac, pork remains fresh for three weeks, beef more than six weeks and tomatoes seven weeks or more. Dormavac is manufactured and marketed by Grumman Allied Industries, Woodbury, New York. In developing the system, Grumman Allied drew upon the technological resources of another company subsidiary, Grumman Aerospace. Engineers who had earlier worked on Lunar Module environmental control brought their know-how and experience to the Dormavac development.

  8. Petrography and geochemistry of the Artesia Group, Palo Duro Basin, Texas Panhandle: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Havorka, S.D.; Fisher, R.S.; Nance, H.S.

    1988-01-01

    The Artesia Group of the Texas Panhandle is an evaporite red-bed sequence which has been intensely altered by interaction of evaporites with ground water. Comparison of the upper, most altered part of the sequence with the lower, least altered part allows identification of the diagenetic sequence. The least altered lower part of the Artesia Group includes anhydrite beds, anhydritic halite, mudstone-halite mixtures, mudstone, claystone, siltstone, and sandstone. Diagenetic processes include cementation by halite, replacement of gypsum by anhydrite and minor polyhalite, and minor replacement of halite by dolomite and anhydrite. Halite is present throughout the lower part of the Artesia Group as bedded halite, as isolated halite crystals and veins, and as halite cement in clastic beds. The altered interval in the upper part of the Artesia Group is characterized by mudstone-anhydrite-dolomite breccias, thin, wavy laminae of anhydrite and dolomite, and abundant fractures filled with fibrous anhydrite and gypsum in mudstone, claystone, siltstone, and thin anhydrite beds. Halite is absent, and removal of halite is interpreted as the principal cause of the alteration, either directly, by dissolution and collapse, or indirectly, by increasing porosity and allowing increased ground-water penetration. At the top of the Artesia Group, anhydrite has been hydrated to gypsum, and minor amounts of gypsum have been replaced by calcite. The geochemistry of preserved halite in the lower part of the Artesia Group shows that meteoric waters have been included in halite and that halite has been recycled by dissolution and reprecipitation. The occurrence of this type of alteration might indicate that the halite of the Artesia Group was invaded by waters from the overlying aquifers. However, the stratigraphic and textural relationships in the halite indicate that the alteration reflects continental influences in the clastic-dominated depositional environment. 32 refs., 45 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Organic geochemistry of deep ground waters from the Palo Duro Basin, Texas: implications for radionuclide complexation, ground-water origin, and petroleum exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Means, J.L.; Hubbard, N.J.

    1985-05-01

    This report describes the organic geochemistry of 11 ground-water samples from the Palo Duro Basin, Texas and discusses the implications of their organic geochemical compositions in terms of radionuclide complexation, ground-water origin, and the petroleum potential of two candidate repository sites in Deaf Smith and Swisher Counties. Short-chain aliphatic acid anions are the principal organic constituents present. Stability constant data and simple chemical equilibria calculations suggest that short-chain aliphatic acids are relatively weak complexing agents. The extent of complexation of a typical actinide by selected inorganic ligands present in these brines is expected to far outweigh actinide complexation by the aliphatic acid anions. Various lines of evidence suggest that some portion of the bromide concentrations in the brines is derived from the same source as the short-chain aliphatic acid anions. When the postulated organic components are subtracted from total bromide concentrations, the origins of the Palo Duro brines, based on chloride versus bromide relationships, appear largely consistent with origins based on isotopic evidence. The short-chain aliphatic acid anion content of the Palo Duro brines is postulated to have been much greater in the geologic past. Aliphatic acid anions are but one of numerous petroleum proximity indicators, which consistently suggest a greater petroleum exploration potential for the area surrounding the Swisher County site than the region encompassing the candidate site in Deaf Smith County. Short-chain aliphatic acid anions appear to provide a useful petroleum exploration tool as long as the complex reactions that may dimish their concentrations in ground water are recognized. 71 refs., 10 figs., 10 tabs.

  10. Radioactive waste isolation in salt: peer review of the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation's reports on preferred repository sites within the Palo Duro Basin, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Fenster, D.; Edgar, D.; Gonzales, S.; Domenico, P.; Harrison, W.; Engelder, T.; Tisue, M.

    1984-04-01

    Documents are being submitted to the Salt Repository Project Office (SRPO) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) by Battelle Memorial Institute's Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI) to satisfy milestones of the Salt Repository Project of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. Some of these documents are being reviewed by multidisciplinary groups of peers to ensure DOE of their adequacy and credibility. Adequacy of documents refers to their ability to meet the standards of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, as enunciated in 10 CFR 60, and the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act and the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. Credibility of documents refers to the validity of the assumptions, methods, and conclusions, as well as to the completeness of coverage. This report summarizes Argonne's review of ONWI's two-volume draft report entitled Identification of Preferred Sites within the Palo Duro Basin: Vol. 1 - Palo Duro Location A, and Vol. 2 - Palo Duro Location B, dated January 1984. Argonne was requested by DOE to review these documents on January 17 and 24, 1984 (see App. A). The review procedure involved obtaining written comments on the reports from three members of Argonne's core peer review staff and three extramural experts in related research areas. The peer review panel met at Argonne on February 6, 1984, and reviewer comments were integrated into this report by the review session chairman, with the assistance of Argonne's core peer review staff. All of the peer review panelists concurred in the way in which their comments were represented in this report (see App. B). A letter report and a draft of this report were sent to SRPO on February 10, 1984, and April 17, 1984, respectively. 5 references.

  11. Preserving reptiles for research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gotte, Steve W.; Jacobs, Jeremy F.; Zug, George R.; Dodd, C. Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    What are voucher specimens and why do we collect them? Voucher specimens are animals and/or their parts that are deposited in a research museum to document the occurrence of a taxon at a specific location in space and time (Pleijel et al., 2008; Reynolds and McDiarmid, 2012). For field biologists, vouchers are the repeatable element of a field study as they allow other biologists, now and in the future, to confirm the identity of species that were studied. The scientific importance of a voucher specimen or series of specimens is that other people are afforded the opportunity to examine the entire animal and confirm or correct identifications. A photographic record is somewhat useful for recording the occurrence of a species, but such records can be insufficient for reliable confirmation of specific identity. Even if a photo shows diagnostic characters of currently recognized taxa, it may not show characters that separate taxa that may be described in the future. Substantial cryptic biodiversity is being found in even relatively well-known herpetofaunas (Crawford et al., 2010), and specimens allow researchers to retroactively evaluate the true diversity in a study as understanding of taxonomy evolves. They enable biologists to study the systematic relationships of populations by quantifying variation in different traits. Specimens are also a source of biological data such as behaviour, ecology, epidemiology, and reproduction through examination of their anatomy, reproductive and digestive tracts, and parasites (Suarez and Tsutsui, 2004). Preserving reptiles as vouchers is not difficult, although doing it properly requires care, effort, and time. Poorly preserved vouchers can invalidate the results and conclusions of your study because of the inability to confirm the identity of your study animals. Good science requires repeatability of observations, and the absence of vouchers or poorly preserved ones prevents such confirmation. Due to space restrictions, we are

  12. Acoustic profiles and images of the Palos Verdes Margin: Implications concerning deposition from the White's Point outfall

    SciTech Connect

    Hampton, M A.; Karl, H; Murray, Christopher J. )

    2001-12-01

    Subbottom profiles and sidescan-sonar images collected on and around the Palos Verdes shelf show a surficial deposit interpreted to contain effluent from the White's Point diffusers, as well as showing several geologic features that affect the deposit's distribution. The effluent-affected deposit is visible in high-resolution subbottom profiles on the shelf and the adjacent San Pedro basin slope to water depths of 170 m. It has a maximum thickness of 75 cm and was mapped acoustically over an area of 10.8 km{sup 2}, which encompasses a volume of about 3.2 million m{sup 3}. The deposit's basal reflector is acoustically distinct over most of the mapped area, implying that the deposit has not been extensively mixed across its base, perhaps being relatively free of reworking since its initial deposition. Nearshore, the basal reflector is weak and fades away toward land, which could result from syndepositional intermixing of coarse native sediment (particularly from the Portuguese Bend landslide) with effluent in the high-energy nearshore zone, or postdepositionally by physical (wave) or biological mixing across the interface. The geometry of the deposit implies that effluent is dispersed primarily in a northwesterly and seaward direction from the diffusers. Dispersal across the shelf break is in some places strongly affected by topography, particularly by submarine canyons. The deposit overlies stratified and unstratified Quaternary sediment, up to 30 m thick, that in turn overlies the irregular erosional surface of deformed Miocene bedrock that crops out in places on the shelf and upper basin slope. The effluent-affected deposit rests on potentially unstable landslide deposits on the San Pedro basin slope. The acoustic profiles and side-scan images show evidence for active and inactive vents, probably of hot water and gas, some of which are within the boundary of the effluent-affected sediment deposit and could disrupt it if seepage occurs.

  13. Linking Slope Sedimentation, Gradient, Morphology, and Active Faulting: An Integrated Example from the Palos Verdes Slope, Southern California Borderland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maier, K. L.; Brothers, D. S.; Paull, C. K.; McGann, M.; Caress, D. W.; Conrad, J. E.

    2015-12-01

    Seafloor gradient variations associated with restraining and releasing bends along the active (1.6-1.9 mm/yr) right-lateral Palos Verdes Fault appear to control Holocene sediment thickness, depositional environment, and morphodynamic processes along a section of the continental slope offshore Los Angeles, California. Autonomous underwater mapping vehicle (AUV), remotely operated vehicle (ROV), and shipboard methods were used to acquire a dense grid of high-resolution chirp profiles (150 m line spacing; 11 cm vertical resolution), multibeam bathymetry (2 m grid), and targeted sediment core samples (<2 m length). Detailed interpretation of Holocene deposits in the chirp profiles combined with radiocarbon dating and laser particle-size analyses allow correlation of Holocene sediment thickness and seafloor gradient with sediment gravity flow deposits. Holocene down-slope flows appear to have been generated by mass wasting processes, primarily on the upper slope (~100-200 m water depth) where shipboard multibeam bathymetry reveals submarine landslide headwall scarps in a region that has been isolated from terrigenous sediment sources throughout the Holocene. Submarine landslides appear to have transformed into sandy and organic-rich turbidity currents that created up-slope migrating sediment waves, a low relief (<5 m) fault-bounded channel, and a series of depocenters. A down-slope gradient profile and a Holocene isopach down-slope profile show that the primary depocenter occurs within a small pull-apart basin associated with a decrease in seafloor gradient of ~1.5°. Holocene sediment-flow deposits vary in number, thickness, and character with subtle changes in seabed gradient (<0.5°) and depositional environment. These results help quantify morphodynamic sensitivity to seafloor gradients and have implications for down-slope flow dynamics, deep-water depositional architecture, Holocene sediment, nutrient, and contaminant transport, and turbidite paleoseismology along

  14. Prediction of the fate of p, p'-DDE in sediment on the Palos Verdes shelf, California, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherwood, Christopher R.; Drake, David E.; Wiberg, Patricia L.; Wheatcroft, Robert A.

    2002-05-01

    Long-term (60-yr) predictions of vertical profiles of p, p'-DDE concentrations in contaminated bottom sediments on the Palos Verdes shelf were calculated for three locations along the 60-m isobath using a numerical solution of the one-dimensional advection-diffusion equation. The calculations incorporated the following processes: sediment deposition (or erosion), depth-dependent solid-phase biodiffusive mixing, in situ diagenetic transformation, and loss of p, p'-DDE across the sediment-water interface by two mechanisms (resuspension of sediments by wave action and subsequent loss of p, p'-DDE to the water column by desorption, and desorption from sediments to porewater and subsequent molecular diffusion to the water column). A combination of field measurements, laboratory analyses, and calculations with supporting models was used to set parameters for the model. The model explains significant features observed in measurements made every 2 years from 1981 to 1997 by the County Sanitation Districts of Los Angeles (LACSD). Analyses of available data suggest that two sites northwest of the Whites Point sewage outfalls will remain depositional, even as particulate supply from the sewage-treatment plant and nearby Portuguese Bend Landslide decreases. At these sites, model predictions for 1991-2050 indicate that most of the existing inventory of p, p'-DDE will remain buried and that surface concentrations will gradually decrease. Analyses of data southeast of the outfalls suggest that erosion is likely to occur somewhere on the southeast edge of the existing effluent-affected deposit, and model predictions for such a site showed that erosion and biodiffusion will reintroduce the p, p'-DDE to the upper layer of sediments, with subsequent increases in surface concentrations and loss to the overlying water column.

  15. Prediction of the fate of p,p'-DDE in sediment on the Palos Verdes shelf, California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherwood, C.R.; Drake, D.E.; Wiberg, P.L.; Wheatcroft, R.A.

    2002-01-01

    Long-term (60-yr) predictions of vertical profiles of p,p???-DDE concentrations in contaminated bottom sediments on the Palos Verdes shelf were calculated for three locations along the 60-m isobath using a numerical solution of the one-dimensional advection-diffusion equation. The calculations incorporated the following processes: sediment deposition (or erosion), depth-dependent solid-phase biodiffusive mixing, in situ diagenetic transformation, and loss of p,p???-DDE across the sediment-water interface by two mechanisms (resuspension of sediments by wave action and subsequent loss of p,p???-DDE to the water column by desorption, and desorption from sediments to porewater and subsequent molecular diffusion to the water column). A combination of field measurements, laboratory analyses, and calculations with supporting models was used to set parameters for the model. The model explains significant features observed in measurements made every 2 years from 1981 to 1997 by the County Sanitation Districts of Los Angeles (LACSD). Analyses of available data suggest that two sites northwest of the Whites Point sewage outfalls will remain depositional, even as particulate supply from the sewage-treatment plant and nearby Portuguese Bend Landslide decreases. At these sites, model predictions for 1991-2050 indicate that most of the existing inventory of p,p???-DDE will remain buried and that surface concentrations will gradually decrease. Analyses of data southeast of the outfalls suggest that erosion is likely to occur somewhere on the southeast edge of the existing effluent-affected deposit, and model predictions for such a site showed that erosion and biodiffusion will reintroduce the p,p???-DDE to the upper layer of sediments, with subsequent increases in surface concentrations and loss to the overlying water column.

  16. Acoustic profiles and images of the Palos Verdes margin: Implications concerning deposition from the White's Point outfall

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hampton, M.A.; Karl, Herman A.; Murray, C.J.

    2002-01-01

    Subbottom profiles and sidescan-sonar images collected on and around the Palos Verdes Shelf show a surficial deposit interpreted to contain effluent from the White's Point diffusers, as well as showing several geologic features that affect the deposit's distribution. The effluent-affected deposit is visible in high-resolution subbottom profiles on the shelf and the adjacent San Pedro basin slope to water depths of 170 m. It has a maximum thickness of 75 cm and was mapped acoustically over an area of 10.8 km2, which encompasses a volume of about 3.2 million m3. The deposit's basal reflector is acoustically distinct over most of the mapped area. implying that the deposit has not been extensively mixed across its base, perhaps being relatively free of reworking since its initial deposition. Nearshore, the basal reflector is weak and fades away toward land, which could result from syndepositional intermixing of coarse native sediment (particularly from the Portuguese Bend landslide) with effluent in the high-energy nearshore zone, or postdepositionally by physical (wave) or biological mixing across the interface. The geometry of the deposit implies that effluent is dispersed primarily in a northwesterly and seaward direction from the diffusers. Dispersal across the shelf break is in some places strongly affected by topography, particularly by submarine canyons. The deposit overlies stratified and unstratified Quaternary sediment, up to 30m thick, that in turn overlies the irregular erosional surface of deformed Miocene bedrock that crops out in places on the shelf and upper basin slope. The effluent-affected deposit rests on potentially unstable landslide deposits on the San Pedro basin slope. The acoustic profiles and side-scan images show evidence for active and inactive vents, probably of hot water and gas, some of which are within the boundary of the effluent-affected sediment deposit and could disrupt it if seepage occurs. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights

  17. Antarctic science preserve polluted

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simarski, Lynn Teo

    Geophysicists are alarmed at the electromagnetic pollution of a research site in the Antarctic specifically set aside to study the ionosphere and magnetosphere. A private New Zealand communications company called Telecom recently constructed a satellite ground station within the boundaries of this Site of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI), protected since the mid-1970s. The placement of a commercial facility within this site sets an ominous precedent not only for the sanctity of other SSSIs, but also for Specially Protected Areas—preserves not even open to scientific research, such as certain penguin rookeries.The roughly rectangular, one-by-one-half mile site, located at Arrival Heights not far from McMurdo Station, is one of a number of areas protected under the Antarctic treaty for designated scientific activities. Many sites are set aside for geological or biological research, but this is the only one specifically for physical science.

  18. 36 CFR 1236.12 - What other records management and preservation considerations must be incorporated into the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Management and Preservation Considerations for Designing and Implementing Electronic Information Systems... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true What other records management... of electronic information systems? 1236.12 Section 1236.12 Parks, Forests, and Public...

  19. 36 CFR 1236.12 - What other records management and preservation considerations must be incorporated into the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Management and Preservation Considerations for Designing and Implementing Electronic Information Systems... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What other records management... of electronic information systems? 1236.12 Section 1236.12 Parks, Forests, and Public...

  20. 36 CFR 1236.12 - What other records management and preservation considerations must be incorporated into the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Management and Preservation Considerations for Designing and Implementing Electronic Information Systems... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What other records management... of electronic information systems? 1236.12 Section 1236.12 Parks, Forests, and Public...

  1. 36 CFR 13.954 - Where can I operate a snowmachine in Denali National Park and Preserve?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... snowmachine in Denali National Park and Preserve? 13.954 Section 13.954 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Denali National Park and Preserve Snowmachine (snowmobile) Operations § 13.954 Where can I operate...

  2. 36 CFR 13.954 - Where can I operate a snowmachine in Denali National Park and Preserve?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... snowmachine in Denali National Park and Preserve? 13.954 Section 13.954 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Denali National Park and Preserve Snowmachine (snowmobile) Operations § 13.954 Where can I operate...

  3. 36 CFR 13.954 - Where can I operate a snowmachine in Denali National Park and Preserve?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... snowmachine in Denali National Park and Preserve? 13.954 Section 13.954 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Denali National Park and Preserve Snowmachine (snowmobile) Operations § 13.954 Where can I operate...

  4. 36 CFR 13.954 - Where can I operate a snowmachine in Denali National Park and Preserve?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... snowmachine in Denali National Park and Preserve? 13.954 Section 13.954 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Denali National Park and Preserve Snowmachine (snowmobile) Operations § 13.954 Where can I operate...

  5. 36 CFR 13.954 - Where can I operate a snowmachine in Denali National Park and Preserve?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... snowmachine in Denali National Park and Preserve? 13.954 Section 13.954 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Denali National Park and Preserve Snowmachine (snowmobile) Operations § 13.954 Where can I operate...

  6. A Slippery Slope: Children's Perceptions of Their Role in Environmental Preservation in the Peruvian Amazon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galeano, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Despite international attention and attempts to preserve the environmental diversity of the Amazon, it is an accepted fact that those who inhabit the forest must be the ones who preserve it. This article presents an analysis of how children in small rural riverine communities along the Amazon understand the importance of environmental preservation…

  7. Wetland Mitigation Monitoring at the Fernald Preserve - 13200

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, Jane; Bien, Stephanie; Decker, Ashlee; Homer, John; Wulker, Brian

    2013-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is responsible for 7.2 hectares (17.8 acres) of mitigation wetland at the Fernald Preserve, Ohio. Remedial activities affected the wetlands, and mitigation plans were incorporated into site-wide ecological restoration planning. In 2008, the Fernald Natural Resource Trustees developed a comprehensive wetland mitigation monitoring approach to evaluate whether compensatory mitigation requirements have been met. The Fernald Preserve Wetland Mitigation Monitoring Plan provided a guideline for wetland evaluations. The Ohio Environmental Protection Agency (Ohio EPA) wetland mitigation monitoring protocols were adopted as the means for compensatory wetland evaluation. Design, hydrologic regime, vegetation, wildlife, and biogeochemistry were evaluated from 2009 to 2011. Evaluations showed mixed results when compared to the Ohio EPA performance standards. Results of vegetation monitoring varied, with the best results occurring in wetlands adjacent to forested areas. Amphibians, particularly ambystomatid salamanders, were observed in two areas adjacent to forested areas. Not all wetlands met vegetation performance standards and amphibian biodiversity metrics. However, Fernald mitigation wetlands showed substantially higher ratings compared to other mitigated wetlands in Ohio. Also, soil sampling results remain consistent with other Ohio mitigated wetlands. The performance standards are not intended to be 'pass/fail' criteria; rather, they are reference points for use in making decisions regarding future monitoring and maintenance. The Trustees approved the Fernald Preserve Wetland Mitigation Monitoring Report with the provision that long-term monitoring of the wetlands continues at the Fernald Preserve. (authors)

  8. Natural Resource Damages Settlement Projects at the Fernald Preserve - 12316

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, Jane; Schneider, Tom; Hertel, Bill; Homer, John

    2012-07-01

    This paper describes the development and implementation of two ecological restoration projects at the Fernald Preserve that are funded through a CERCLA natural resource damage settlement. The Paddys Run Tributary Project involves creation of vernal pool wetland habitat with adjacent forest restoration. The Triangle Area Project is a mesic tall-grass prairie establishment, similar to other efforts at the Fernald Preserve. The goal of the Fernald Natural Resource Trustees is to establish habitat for Ambystomatid salamander species, as well as grassland birds. Planning and implementation of on-property ecological restoration projects is one component of compensation for natural resource injury. As with the rest of the Fernald Preserve, ecological restoration has helped turn a DOE liability into a community asset. (authors)

  9. Forests & Trees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gage, Susan

    1989-01-01

    This newsletter discusses the disappearance of the world's forests and the resulting environmental problems of erosion and flooding; loss of genetic diversity; climatic changes such as less rainfall, and intensifying of the greenhouse effect; and displacement and destruction of indigenous cultures. The articles, lessons, and activities are…

  10. Forest Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    NASA's Technology Applications Center, with other government and academic agencies, provided technology for improved resources management to the Cibola National Forest. Landsat satellite images enabled vegetation over a large area to be classified for purposes of timber analysis, wildlife habitat, range measurement and development of general vegetation maps.

  11. Influence of relief on permanent preservation areas.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Alexandre Rosa; Chimalli, Tessa; Peluzio, João Batista Esteves; da Silva, Aderbal Gomes; dos Santos, Gleissy Mary Amaral Dino Alves; Lorenzon, Alexandre Simões; Teixeira, Thaisa Ribeiro; de Castro, Nero Lemos Martins; Soares Ribeiro, Carlos Antonio Alvares

    2016-01-15

    Many countries have environmental legislation to protecting natural resources on private property. In Brazil, the Brazilian Forestry Code determines specific areas to maintain with natural vegetation cover, known as areas of permanent preservation (APP). Currently, there are few studies that relate topographic variables on APP. In this context, we sought to evaluate the influence of relief on the conservation of areas of permanent preservation (APP) in the areas surrounding Caparaó National Park, Brazil. By using the chi-squared statistical test, we verified that the presence of forest cover is closely associated with altitude. The classes of APP in better conservation status are slopes in addition to hilltops and mountains, whereas APP streams and springs are among the areas most affected by human activities. The most deforested areas are located at altitudes below 1100.00 m and on slopes less than 45°. All orientations of the sides were significant for APP conservation status, with the southern, southeastern, and southwestern sides showing the lower degrees of impact. The methodology can be adjusted to environmental legislation to other countries. PMID:26476068

  12. The Arctic Forest of the Middle Eocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahren, A. Hope

    2007-05-01

    Lush forests, dominated by deciduous conifers, existed well north of the Arctic Circle during the middle Eocene (45 Ma). The Fossil Forest site, located on Axel Heiberg Island, Canada, has yielded a particularly rich assemblage of plant macro- and microfossils, as well as paleosols -- all exquisitely preserved. Methods ranging from classical paleobotany, to stable-isotope geochemistry, have been applied to materials excavated from the Fossil Forest and have revealed layers of diverse conifer forests with a rich angiosperm understory that successfully endured three months of continuous light and three months of continuous darkness. Paleoenvironmental reconstructions suggest a warm, ice-free environment, with high growing-season-relative humidity, and high rates of soil methanogenesis. Methods to evaluate intraseasonal variability highlight the switchover from stored to actively fixed carbon during the short annual growing season.

  13. Health assessment for Hewlett-Packard (620-640 Page Mill Road), Palo Alto, Santa Clara County, California, Region 9. CERCLIS No. CAD980884209. Preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-18

    The Hewlett-Packard (620-640 Page Mill Road) site was proposed for the National Priorities List on Update 7. The site is located on Page Mill Road in Palo Alto, California. Until 1986, the site was used as the location of an optoelectronic manufacturing operation. The site is currently vacant and will be converted into an office park complex. In 1981, waste solvents leaked out of an underground storage tank and contaminated the underlying soil and groundwater. The storage tank and some of the contaminated soil were excavated and disposed of off-site. An air stripping tower was constructed on-site to aid in the groundwater cleanup. The city of Palo Alto maintains several emergency water supply wells downgradient of the site. No site-related contamination has been reported in these public supply wells. The area surrounding the site is serviced by the public water system. However, there may be some private wells downgradient of the site. It is not known if these wells are currently being used for potable or nonpotable purposes or if they have been impacted by site-related contamination. In the absence of this information, it cannot be determined if the site poses a potential public health risk.

  14. Connections Among the Spatial and Temporal Structures in Tidal Currents, Internal Bores, and Surficial Sediment Distributions Over the Shelf off Palos Verdes, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Noble, Marlene A.; Rosenberger, Kurt J.; Xu, Jingping; Signell, Richard P.; Steele, Alex

    2009-01-01

    The topography of the Continental Shelf in the central portion of the Southern California Bight has rapid variations over relatively small spatial scales. The width of the shelf off the Palos Verdes peninsula, just northwest of Los Angeles, California, is only 1 to 3 km. About 7 km southeast of the peninsula, the shelf within San Pedro Bay widens to about 20 km. In 2000, the Los Angeles County Sanitation District began deploying a dense array of moorings in this complex region of the central Southern California Bight to monitor local circulation patterns. Moorings were deployed at 13 sites on the Palos Verdes shelf and within the northwestern portion of San Pedro Bay. At each site, a mooring supported a string of thermistors and an adjacent bottom platform housed an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler. These instruments collected vertical profiles of current and temperature data continuously for one to two years. The variable bathymetry in the region causes rapid changes in the amplitudes and spatial structures of barotropic tidal currents, internal tidal currents, and in the associated nonlinear baroclinic currents that occur at approximate tidal frequencies. The largest barotropic tidal constituent is M2, the principal semidiurnal tide. The amplitude of this tidal current changes over fairly short along-shelf length scales. Tidal-current amplitudes are largest in the transition region between the two shelves; they increase from about 5 cm/s over the northern San Pedro shelf to nearly 10 cm/s on the southern portion of the Palos Verdes Shelf. Tidal-current amplitudes are then reduced to less than 2 cm/s over the very narrow section of the northern Palos Verdes shelf that lies just 6 km upcoast of the southern sites. Models suggest that the amplitude of the barotropic M2 tidal currents, which propagate toward the northwest primarily as a Kelvin wave, is adjusting to the short topographic length scales in the region. Semidiurnal sea-level oscillations are, as expected

  15. Characterizing the forest fragmentation of Canada's national parks.

    PubMed

    Soverel, Nicholas O; Coops, Nicholas C; White, Joanne C; Wulder, Michael A

    2010-05-01

    different from their respective GPEs for all of the metrics assessed. The EOSD LC 2000 provides a heretofore unavailable dataset for characterizing broad trends in forest fragmentation in Canada's national parks and in their surrounding GPEs. The interpretation of forest fragmentation metrics must be guided by the underlying land cover context, as many forested ecosystems in Canada are naturally fragmented due to wetlands and topography. Furthermore, interpretation must also consider the management context, as some parks are designed to preserve fragmented habitats. An analysis of forest pattern such as that described herein provides a baseline, from which changes in fragmentation patterns over time could be monitored, enabled by earth observation data.

  16. Forest fires

    SciTech Connect

    Fuller, M.

    1991-01-01

    This book examines the many complex and sensitive issues relating to wildland fires. Beginning with an overview of the fires of 1980s, the book discusses the implications of continued drought and considers the behavior of wildland fires, from ignition and spread to spotting and firestorms. Topics include the effects of weather, forest fuels, fire ecology, and the effects of fire on plants and animals. In addition, the book examines firefighting methods and equipment, including new minimum impact techniques and compressed air foam; prescribed burning; and steps that can be taken to protect individuals and human structures. A history of forest fire policies in the U.S. and a discussion of solutions to fire problems around the world completes the coverage. With one percent of the earth's surface burning every year in the last decade, this is a penetrating book on a subject of undeniable importance.

  17. Entanglement preservation by continuous distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Mundarain, D.; Orszag, M.

    2009-05-15

    We study the two-qubit entanglement preservation for a system in the presence of independent thermal baths. We use a combination of filtering operations and distillation protocols as a series of frequent measurements on the system. It is shown that a small fraction of the total amount of available copies of the system preserves or even improves its initial entanglement during the evolution.

  18. User Experience and Heritage Preservation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orfield, Steven J.; Chapman, J. Wesley; Davis, Nathan

    2011-01-01

    In considering the heritage preservation of higher education campus buildings, much of the attention gravitates toward issues of selection, cost, accuracy, and value, but the model for most preservation projects does not have a clear method of achieving the best solutions for meeting these targets. Instead, it simply relies on the design team and…

  19. Collections Security: The Preservation Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patkus, Beth L.

    1998-01-01

    Provides a brief review of the basic elements of library security and preservation programs as a background for an exploration of security/preservation issues, problems, and policies. Discusses environmental control, disaster preparedness, fire protection, storage and handling, and controlling access to collections. (AEF)

  20. The Preservation of Digital Content

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cloonan, Michele Valerie; Sanett, Shelby

    2005-01-01

    The authors are conducting a three-part study to evaluate current trends in the preservation of digital content, with an emphasis on electronic records. The study emanated from the authors' work on the Preservation Task Force of the International Research on Permanent Authentic Records in Electronic Systems (InterPARES) project. This article…

  1. Preservation Methods for Digital Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajendran, L.; Venkatesan, M.; Kanthimathi, S.

    2005-01-01

    Going digital is the way to minimize handling of damaged materials, but the imaging process is demanding and must be done with oversight by preservation staff and with a high enough level of quality to ensure the reusability of the archival electronic file for as long as possible. This paper focuses on the scope and needs of digital preservation,…

  2. Preservation of Liquid Biological Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putcha, Lakshmi (Inventor); Nimmagudda, Ramalingeshwara R. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention provides a method of preserving a liquid biological sample, comprising the step of: contacting said liquid biological sample with a preservative comprising, sodium benzoate in an amount of at least about 0.15% of the sample (weight/volume) and citric acid in an amount of at least about 0.025% of the sample (weight/volume).

  3. Preserving Dignity in Later Life.

    PubMed

    São José, José Manuel

    2016-09-01

    This article examines how elders who receive social care in the community experience loss of dignity and how they preserve their dignity. Qualitative research revealed that loss of dignity is a major concern for these elders and that they preserve their dignity differently, ranging from actively engaging with life to detaching themselves from life. We conclude that, in later life, preserving dignity while receiving social care differs from preserving dignity in the context of health care, especially health care provided in institutional settings. Furthermore, preserving dignity in later life, while receiving social care, is a complex process, depending not only on performing activities and individual action and responsibility, but also on other actions, some of them involving a certain inactivity/passivity, and interactions with others, especially caregivers. This article offers some insights to developing better policies and care practices for promoting dignity in the context of community-based social care.

  4. Contact dermatitis caused by preservatives.

    PubMed

    Yim, Elizabeth; Baquerizo Nole, Katherine L; Tosti, Antonella

    2014-01-01

    Preservatives are biocidal chemicals added to food, cosmetics, and industrial products to prevent the growth of microorganisms. They are usually nontoxic and inexpensive and have a long shelf life. Unfortunately, they commonly cause contact dermatitis. This article reviews the most important classes of preservatives physicians are most likely to encounter in their daily practice, specifically isothiazolinones, formaldehyde and formaldehyde-releasers, iodopropynyl butylcarbamate, methyldibromoglutaronitrile, and parabens. For each preservative mentioned, the prevalence of sensitization, clinical presentation of contact dermatitis, patch testing concentrations, cross reactions, and related legislation will be discussed. Mandatory labeling of preservatives is required in some countries, but not required in others. Until policies are made, physicians and patients must be proactive in identifying potential sensitizers and removing their use. We hope that this article will serve as a guide for policy makers in creating legislation and future regulations on the use and concentration of certain preservatives in cosmetics and industrial products.

  5. Preserving Dignity in Later Life.

    PubMed

    São José, José Manuel

    2016-09-01

    This article examines how elders who receive social care in the community experience loss of dignity and how they preserve their dignity. Qualitative research revealed that loss of dignity is a major concern for these elders and that they preserve their dignity differently, ranging from actively engaging with life to detaching themselves from life. We conclude that, in later life, preserving dignity while receiving social care differs from preserving dignity in the context of health care, especially health care provided in institutional settings. Furthermore, preserving dignity in later life, while receiving social care, is a complex process, depending not only on performing activities and individual action and responsibility, but also on other actions, some of them involving a certain inactivity/passivity, and interactions with others, especially caregivers. This article offers some insights to developing better policies and care practices for promoting dignity in the context of community-based social care. PMID:27456751

  6. Tectonic geomorphology, deformation history, and slip-rate estimate along the Palos Verdes Fault, offshore Southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brothers, D. S.; Conrad, J. E.; Maier, K. L.; Paull, C. K.; McGann, M.

    2014-12-01

    The Palos Verdes Fault (PVF) is one of few active faults in Southern California that crosses the shoreline and can be studied using both terrestrial and subaqueous methodologies. Despite its proximity to metropolitan Los Angeles, the recent activity and earthquake hazards associated with the PVF are poorly constrained. To characterize the near seafloor fault morphology, Late Pleistocene-Holocene slip-rate and tectonic influences on slope sedimentary processes, a grid of high-resolution multibeam bathymetry and chirp sub-bottom profiles were acquired with the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute's (MBARI) Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV). The AUV surveys were focused along the continental slope ~25 km south of Long Beach in water depths between 250 and 600 m, where the PVF crosses the slope. AUV multibeam bathymetry data gridded at 2-m resolution and chirp profiles are merged with 25-m resolution ship-based multibeam bathymetry and seismic-reflection profiles. Vibracores collected with the MBARI Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) and ship-based USGS gravity cores provided radiocarbon dates for stratigraphic horizons offset by the PVF. Recent deformation is expressed as a well-defined seafloor lineation and offset Late Pleistocene-Holocene sub-bottom reflections. Curvilinear scarps associated with an upper submarine landslide (~450 m water depth), a buried slump block, and a lower submarine landslide (~525 m water depth) have been right-laterally offset by 55±3, 55±5, and 40±5 meters, respectively. The age of the upper scarp is bracketed between 23-31 kyr BP, which yields an average slip rate across the PVF of 1.6-2.4 mm/yr. However, our best estimate for the age of the upper landslide is ~ 31 kyr BP, which yields a right-lateral slip-rate of 1.8 mm/yr. Vertical growth faulting observed along a subtle transtensional fault-bend suggests that at least two surface ruptures occurred during the Holocene. In summary, these results indicate that the offshore

  7. Dispersal of forest insects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmanus, M. L.

    1979-01-01

    Dispersal flights of selected species of forest insects which are associated with periodic outbreaks of pests that occur over large contiguous forested areas are discussed. Gypsy moths, spruce budworms, and forest tent caterpillars were studied for their massive migrations in forested areas. Results indicate that large dispersals into forested areas are due to the females, except in the case of the gypsy moth.

  8. Forest soil carbon is threatened by intensive biomass harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achat, David L.; Fortin, Mathieu; Landmann, Guy; Ringeval, Bruno; Augusto, Laurent

    2015-11-01

    Forests play a key role in the carbon cycle as they store huge quantities of organic carbon, most of which is stored in soils, with a smaller part being held in vegetation. While the carbon storage capacity of forests is influenced by forestry, the long-term impacts of forest managers’ decisions on soil organic carbon (SOC) remain unclear. Using a meta-analysis approach, we showed that conventional biomass harvests preserved the SOC of forests, unlike intensive harvests where logging residues were harvested to produce fuelwood. Conventional harvests caused a decrease in carbon storage in the forest floor, but when the whole soil profile was taken into account, we found that this loss in the forest floor was compensated by an accumulation of SOC in deeper soil layers. Conversely, we found that intensive harvests led to SOC losses in all layers of forest soils. We assessed the potential impact of intensive harvests on the carbon budget, focusing on managed European forests. Estimated carbon losses from forest soils suggested that intensive biomass harvests could constitute an important source of carbon transfer from forests to the atmosphere (142-497 Tg-C), partly neutralizing the role of a carbon sink played by forest soils.

  9. Forest soil carbon is threatened by intensive biomass harvesting.

    PubMed

    Achat, David L; Fortin, Mathieu; Landmann, Guy; Ringeval, Bruno; Augusto, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    Forests play a key role in the carbon cycle as they store huge quantities of organic carbon, most of which is stored in soils, with a smaller part being held in vegetation. While the carbon storage capacity of forests is influenced by forestry, the long-term impacts of forest managers' decisions on soil organic carbon (SOC) remain unclear. Using a meta-analysis approach, we showed that conventional biomass harvests preserved the SOC of forests, unlike intensive harvests where logging residues were harvested to produce fuelwood. Conventional harvests caused a decrease in carbon storage in the forest floor, but when the whole soil profile was taken into account, we found that this loss in the forest floor was compensated by an accumulation of SOC in deeper soil layers. Conversely, we found that intensive harvests led to SOC losses in all layers of forest soils. We assessed the potential impact of intensive harvests on the carbon budget, focusing on managed European forests. Estimated carbon losses from forest soils suggested that intensive biomass harvests could constitute an important source of carbon transfer from forests to the atmosphere (142-497 Tg-C), partly neutralizing the role of a carbon sink played by forest soils. PMID:26530409

  10. Forest soil carbon is threatened by intensive biomass harvesting

    PubMed Central

    Achat, David L.; Fortin, Mathieu; Landmann, Guy; Ringeval, Bruno; Augusto, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    Forests play a key role in the carbon cycle as they store huge quantities of organic carbon, most of which is stored in soils, with a smaller part being held in vegetation. While the carbon storage capacity of forests is influenced by forestry, the long-term impacts of forest managers’ decisions on soil organic carbon (SOC) remain unclear. Using a meta-analysis approach, we showed that conventional biomass harvests preserved the SOC of forests, unlike intensive harvests where logging residues were harvested to produce fuelwood. Conventional harvests caused a decrease in carbon storage in the forest floor, but when the whole soil profile was taken into account, we found that this loss in the forest floor was compensated by an accumulation of SOC in deeper soil layers. Conversely, we found that intensive harvests led to SOC losses in all layers of forest soils. We assessed the potential impact of intensive harvests on the carbon budget, focusing on managed European forests. Estimated carbon losses from forest soils suggested that intensive biomass harvests could constitute an important source of carbon transfer from forests to the atmosphere (142–497 Tg-C), partly neutralizing the role of a carbon sink played by forest soils. PMID:26530409

  11. NONCONVEX REGULARIZATION FOR SHAPE PRESERVATION

    SciTech Connect

    CHARTRAND, RICK

    2007-01-16

    The authors show that using a nonconvex penalty term to regularize image reconstruction can substantially improve the preservation of object shapes. The commonly-used total-variation regularization, {integral}|{del}u|, penalizes the length of the object edges. They show that {integral}|{del}u|{sup p}, 0 < p < 1, only penalizes edges of dimension at least 2-p, and thus finite-length edges not at all. We give numerical examples showing the resulting improvement in shape preservation.

  12. Preservation of Liquid Biological Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putcha, Lakshmi (Inventor); Nimmagudda, Ramalingeshwara (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    The present invention related to the preservation of a liquid biological sample. The biological sample is exposed to a preservative containing at least about 0.15 g of sodium benzoate and at least about 0.025 g of citric acid per 100 ml of sample. The biological sample may be collected in a vessel or an absorbent mass. The biological sample may also be exposed to a substrate and/or a vehicle.

  13. Symmetries in Connection Preserving Deformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ormerod, Christopher M.

    2011-05-01

    We wish to show that the root lattice of Bäcklund transformations of the q-analogue of the third and fourth Painlevé equations, which is of type (A2+A1)(1), may be expressed as a quotient of the lattice of connection preserving deformations. Furthermore, we will show various directions in the lattice of connection preserving deformations present equivalent evolution equations under suitable transformations. These transformations correspond to the Dynkin diagram automorphisms.

  14. Yeasts preservation: alternatives for lyophilisation.

    PubMed

    Nyanga, Loveness K; Nout, Martinus J R; Smid, Eddy J; Boekhout, Teun; Zwietering, Marcel H

    2012-11-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the effect of two low-cost, low technology traditional methods for drying starter cultures with standard lyophilisation. Lyophilised yeast cultures and yeast cultures preserved in dry rice cakes and dry plant fibre strands were examined for viable cell counts during 6 months storage at 4 and 25 °C. None of the yeast cultures showed a significant loss in viable cell count during 6 months of storage at 4 °C upon lyophilisation and preservation in dry rice cakes. During storage at 25 °C in the dark, yeast cultures preserved in dry rice cakes, and lyophilised cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Issatchenkia orientalis showed no significant loss of viable cells up to 4 months of storage. Yeast cultures preserved in dry plant fibre strands had the greatest loss of viable count during the 6 months of storage at 25 °C. Preservation of yeasts cultures in dry rice cakes provided better survival during storage at 4 °C than lyophilisation. The current study demonstrated that traditional methods can be useful and effective for starter culture preservation in small-scale, low-tech applications.

  15. Tongass forest plan review. A newsletter for the forest plan revision. Issue 16

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    The Tongass National Forest is one of the oldest in the nation, dating to 1902 when the Archipelago Forest Reserve was set aside by presidential proclamation. President Theodore Roosevelt then signed an executive order in 1907 creating the Tongass National Forest from the reserve and additional lands. This revised plan provides for preserving 92 percent to the old-growth forest that was present in 1950 after 10 years of plan implementation, and 84 percent through the 100-year plan horizon. It also provides high levels of protection for fish and wildlife, and enhances the opportunity for growth in tourism. This plan includes guidelines for all resources, such as timber and mining activities, and ensure the long-term sustainability of resources.

  16. Montana's forest resources. Forest Service resource bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Conner, R.C.; O'Brien, R.A.

    1993-09-01

    The report includes highlights of the forest resource in Montana as of 1989. Also the study describes the extent, condition, and location of the State's forests with particular emphasis on timberland. Includes statistical tables, area by land classes, ownership, and forest type, growing stock and sawtimber volumes, growth, mortality, and removals for timberland.

  17. Returning forests analyzed with the forest identity

    PubMed Central

    Kauppi, Pekka E.; Ausubel, Jesse H.; Fang, Jingyun; Mather, Alexander S.; Sedjo, Roger A.; Waggoner, Paul E.

    2006-01-01

    Amid widespread reports of deforestation, some nations have nevertheless experienced transitions from deforestation to reforestation. In a causal relationship, the Forest Identity relates the carbon sequestered in forests to the changing variables of national or regional forest area, growing stock density per area, biomass per growing stock volume, and carbon concentration in the biomass. It quantifies the sources of change of a nation's forests. The Identity also logically relates the quantitative impact on forest expanse of shifting timber harvest to regions and plantations where density grows faster. Among 50 nations with extensive forests reported in the Food and Agriculture Organization's comprehensive Global Forest Resources Assessment 2005, no nation where annual per capita gross domestic product exceeded $4,600 had a negative rate of growing stock change. Using the Forest Identity and national data from the Assessment report, a single synoptic chart arrays the 50 nations with coordinates of the rates of change of basic variables, reveals both clusters of nations and outliers, and suggests trends in returning forests and their attributes. The Forest Identity also could serve as a tool for setting forest goals and illuminating how national policies accelerate or retard the forest transitions that are diffusing among nations. PMID:17101996

  18. Fraser River action plan: Forest industries

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    This research reviews the activities conducted under the Fraser River Action Plan with regard to forest industries and their effects on the Fraser River Basin environment. The review covers the following topics: Projects to cut pollution from wood preservatives and pulp/paper mills; ecological effects of pulp mill effluents; wood waste and its utilization; habitat conservation; environmentally sound forestry practices; riparian conservation; habitat and ecosystem protection; and the use of economic instruments as an alternative to regulation.

  19. Petrographic report on samples from units 4 and 5 salt, lower San Andres formation, J. Friemel No. 1 well, Deaf Smith County, Palo Duro Basin, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Fukui, L.M.; Hopping, R.B.

    1985-01-01

    This report presents the results of mineralogic and petrographic analyses performed on samples of salt-bearing rock from a potential repository site in the Palo Duro Basin, Texas. The samples are from Permian Units 4 and 5 salt, Lower San Andres Formation, J. Friemel No. 1 well, Deaf Smith County, Texas. The mineralogic and petrographic data were obtained from polished thin sections cut parallel to the axis of the core for each sample. The polished thin sections were examined in order to determine the abundances of soluble (halite) and insoluble components (anhydrite, clay, carbonate, quartz, gypsum, etc.). The information reported here includes mineral associations (detrital, authigenic, cement, alteration, etc.), texture, grain size, and sedimentary fabrics. The report also includes representative photomicrographs with superimposed bar scales. Photomicrographs of polished thin sections have the up-core direction designated. X-ray diffraction was also used for identification of soluble and insoluble minerals. 7 refs., 2 tabs.

  20. Pumping test and fluid sampling report, Mansfield No. 1 well, Palo Duro Basin: Report of the Geologic Project Manager, Permian Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-07-01

    This report describes pumping test and fluid sampling activities performed at the Mansfield No. 1 well in Oldham County about 10 miles north of Vega, Texas. The well site was selected by TBEG and is located along the northern margin of the Palo Duro Basin in an area of active dissolution with the Permian salt sections. The objectives of the pumping test and fluid sampling program were to collect data to determine the hydrologic characteristics (formation pressure and permeability) of deep water bearing formations, and to obtain formation fluid samples for analyses (gas and fluid chemistry) in order to evaluate fluid migration and age relationships in the Permian Basin. 4 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Depositional systems and hydrocarbon resource potential of the Pennsylvanian system, Palo Duro and Dalhart Basins, Testas Panhandle. Geological Circular 80-8

    SciTech Connect

    Dutton, S.P.

    1980-01-01

    Pennsylvanian clastic and carbonate strata were deposited in a variety of environments within the Palo Duro Basin. Maximum accumulation (totalling 750 m or 2400 ft) occurred along a northwest-southeast axis. Major facies include fan-delta sandstone and conglomerate, shelf and shelf-margin carbonate, deltaic sandstone and shale, and basinal shale and fine-grained sandstone. Erosion of Precambrian basement in the adjacent Amarillo and Sierra Grande Uplifts supplied arkosic sand (granite wash) to fan deltas along the northern margin of the basin. Distal fan-delta sandstones grade laterally and basinward into shallow-shelf limestone. Deep basinal shales were deposited only in a small area immediately north of the Matador Arch. Increased subsidence deepened and enlarged the basin throughout late Pennsylvanian time. Ultimately, the basin axis trended east-west with a narrow northwest extension. A carbonate shelf-margin complex having 60 to 120 m (200 to 400 ft) of depositional relief developed around the basin margin. The eastern shelf margin remained stationary, but the western shelf margin retreated landward throughout late Pennsylvanian time. Porous, dolomitized limestone occurs in a belt 16 to 32 km (10 to 20 mi) wide along the shelf margin. High-constructive elongate deltas prograded into the Palo Duro Basin from the east during late Pennsylvanian time. Prodelta mud and thin turbidite sands entered the basin through breaks in the eastern carbonate shelf margin. Potential hydrocarbon reservoirs re shelf-margin dolomite, fan-delta sandstone, and high-constructive delta sandstone. Basinal shales are fair to good hydrocarbon source rocks on the basis of total organic carbon content. Kerogen color and vitrinite reflectance data indicate that source beds may have reached the early stages of hydrocarbon maturation.

  2. Forest Health Detectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bal, Tara L.

    2014-01-01

    "Forest health" is an important concept often not covered in tree, forest, insect, or fungal ecology and biology. With minimal, inexpensive equipment, students can investigate and conduct their own forest health survey to assess the percentage of trees with natural or artificial wounds or stress. Insects and diseases in the forest are…

  3. Fertility preservation in Turner syndrome.

    PubMed

    Grynberg, Michaël; Bidet, Maud; Benard, Julie; Poulain, Marine; Sonigo, Charlotte; Cédrin-Durnerin, Isabelle; Polak, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Premature ovarian insufficiency is a relatively rare condition that can appear early in life. In a non-negligible number of cases the ovarian dysfunction results from genetic diseases. Turner syndrome (TS), the most common sex chromosome abnormality in females, is associated with an inevitable premature exhaustion of the follicular stockpile. The possible or probable infertility is a major concern for TS patients and their parents, and physicians are often asked about possible options to preserve fertility. Unfortunately, there are no recommendations on fertility preservation in this group. The severely reduced follicle pool even during prepubertal life represents the major limit for fertility preservation and is the root of numerous questions regarding the competence of gametes or ovarian tissue crybanked. In addition, patients suffering from TS show higher than usual rates of spontaneous abortion, fetal anomaly, and maternal morbidity and mortality, which should be considered at the time of fertility preservation and before reutilization of the cryopreserved gametes. Apart from fulfillment of the desire of becoming genetic parents, TS patients may be potential candidates for egg donation, gestational surrogacy, and adoption. The present review discusses the different options for preserving female fertility in TS and the ethical questions raised by these approaches.

  4. Fertility preservation in Turner syndrome.

    PubMed

    Grynberg, Michaël; Bidet, Maud; Benard, Julie; Poulain, Marine; Sonigo, Charlotte; Cédrin-Durnerin, Isabelle; Polak, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Premature ovarian insufficiency is a relatively rare condition that can appear early in life. In a non-negligible number of cases the ovarian dysfunction results from genetic diseases. Turner syndrome (TS), the most common sex chromosome abnormality in females, is associated with an inevitable premature exhaustion of the follicular stockpile. The possible or probable infertility is a major concern for TS patients and their parents, and physicians are often asked about possible options to preserve fertility. Unfortunately, there are no recommendations on fertility preservation in this group. The severely reduced follicle pool even during prepubertal life represents the major limit for fertility preservation and is the root of numerous questions regarding the competence of gametes or ovarian tissue crybanked. In addition, patients suffering from TS show higher than usual rates of spontaneous abortion, fetal anomaly, and maternal morbidity and mortality, which should be considered at the time of fertility preservation and before reutilization of the cryopreserved gametes. Apart from fulfillment of the desire of becoming genetic parents, TS patients may be potential candidates for egg donation, gestational surrogacy, and adoption. The present review discusses the different options for preserving female fertility in TS and the ethical questions raised by these approaches. PMID:26677790

  5. The vanishing forest. The human consequences of deforestation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This report highlights the rapid destruction of the world's remaining tropical rainforests. It stresses the devastating consequences, both in the short-term, as developers take over the forests from their indigenous inhabitants, and in the long-term, as deforestation threatens to destroy the vital natural resource, to bring out irreversible climatic changes, and to cause the loss of gene pools needed for future agricultural and medical progress. What we urgently need, this report argues, are policy changes that make forest conversion a vehicle of sustainable development so that human civilization can continue in the tropics, and so that forest areas of particular ecological value are preserved.

  6. New alternatives to cosmetics preservation.

    PubMed

    Papageorgiou, S; Varvaresou, A; Tsirivas, E; Demetzos, C

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, there is a considerable interest in the development of preservative-free or self-preserving cosmetics. The aim of our work was to develop new cosmetic formulations by replacing chemical preservatives with ingredients with antimicrobial properties that are not legislated as preservatives according to Annex VI of Commission Directive 76/768/EEC. This paper describes the preservative efficacy of the well-known antimicrobial extracts of Lonicera caprifoleum and Lonicera japonica in combination with glyceryl caprylate and/or levulinic acid, p-anisic acid, and ethanol. We prepared a series of acidic (pH = 5.5) aqueous and O/W formulations, i.e., tonic lotion, shampoo, shower gel, conditioning cream, anticellulite cream, cleansing milk and peeling cream, containing (0.2% w/w) Lonicera extracts, alone in the case of tonic lotion and in combination with (1% w/w) glyceryl caprylate in the other products, and we performed challenge tests according to the European Pharmacopoeia procedures and criteria. Formulations such as shampoo, shower gel, and conditioning cream fulfilled criterion A, while tonic lotion, anticellulite cream, cleansing milk, and peeling cream fulfilled criterion B, in regard to contamination from A. niger. Furthermore, we evaluated the efficacy of the antimicrobial systems in two states of use: the intact product and after three weeks of consumer use. The results showed that A. niger was also detected during use by consumers in the products that satisfied only criterion B in challenge tests. The addition of antimicrobial fragrance ingredients such (< or = 0.3% w/w) levulinic acid or (0.1% w/w) p-anisic acid and/or (5% w/w) ethanol afforded products that met criterion A in challenge tests and were also microbiologically safe during use. The small quantity (5% w/w) of ethanol gave an important assistance in order to boost the self-preserving system and to produce stable and safe products.

  7. Preservation at Stony Brook. Preservation Planning Program. Study Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Donald C.; And Others

    This final report is a product of a Preservation Planning Program (PPP) self-study conducted by the State University of New York (SUNY), Stony Brook, working with the Association of Research Libraries' (ARL) Office of Management Studies (OMS). The PPP is designed to put self-help tools into the hands of library staff responsible for developing…

  8. Forest dynamics.

    PubMed

    Frelich, Lee

    2016-01-01

    Forest dynamics encompass changes in stand structure, species composition, and species interactions with disturbance and environment over a range of spatial and temporal scales. For convenience, spatial scale is defined as individual tree, neighborhood, stand, and landscape. Whether a given canopy-leveling disturbance will initiate a sequence of development in structure with little change in composition or initiate an episode of succession depends on a match or mismatch, respectively, with traits of the dominant tree species that allow the species to survive disturbance. When these match, certain species-disturbance type combinations lock in a pattern of stand and landscape dynamics that can persist for several generations of trees; thus, dominant tree species regulate, as well as respond to, disturbance. A complex interaction among tree species, neighborhood effects, disturbance type and severity, landform, and soils determines how stands of differing composition form and the mosaic of stands that compose the landscape. Neighborhood effects (e.g., serotinous seed rain, sprouting, shading, leaf-litter chemistry, and leaf-litter physical properties) operate at small spatial extents of the individual tree and its neighbors but play a central role in forest dynamics by contributing to patch formation at stand scales and dynamics of the entire landscape. Dominance by tree species with neutral to negative neighborhood effects leads to unstable landscape dynamics in disturbance-prone regions, wherein most stands are undergoing succession; stability can only occur under very low-severity disturbance regimes. Dominance by species with positive effects leads to stable landscape dynamics wherein only a small proportion of stands undergo succession at any one time. Positive neighborhood effects are common in temperate and boreal zones, whereas negative effects are more common in tropical climates. Landscapes with positive dynamics have alternate categories of dynamics

  9. Forest dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Frelich, Lee

    2016-01-01

    Forest dynamics encompass changes in stand structure, species composition, and species interactions with disturbance and environment over a range of spatial and temporal scales. For convenience, spatial scale is defined as individual tree, neighborhood, stand, and landscape. Whether a given canopy-leveling disturbance will initiate a sequence of development in structure with little change in composition or initiate an episode of succession depends on a match or mismatch, respectively, with traits of the dominant tree species that allow the species to survive disturbance. When these match, certain species-disturbance type combinations lock in a pattern of stand and landscape dynamics that can persist for several generations of trees; thus, dominant tree species regulate, as well as respond to, disturbance. A complex interaction among tree species, neighborhood effects, disturbance type and severity, landform, and soils determines how stands of differing composition form and the mosaic of stands that compose the landscape. Neighborhood effects (e.g., serotinous seed rain, sprouting, shading, leaf-litter chemistry, and leaf-litter physical properties) operate at small spatial extents of the individual tree and its neighbors but play a central role in forest dynamics by contributing to patch formation at stand scales and dynamics of the entire landscape. Dominance by tree species with neutral to negative neighborhood effects leads to unstable landscape dynamics in disturbance-prone regions, wherein most stands are undergoing succession; stability can only occur under very low-severity disturbance regimes. Dominance by species with positive effects leads to stable landscape dynamics wherein only a small proportion of stands undergo succession at any one time. Positive neighborhood effects are common in temperate and boreal zones, whereas negative effects are more common in tropical climates. Landscapes with positive dynamics have alternate categories of dynamics

  10. Forest dynamics.

    PubMed

    Frelich, Lee

    2016-01-01

    Forest dynamics encompass changes in stand structure, species composition, and species interactions with disturbance and environment over a range of spatial and temporal scales. For convenience, spatial scale is defined as individual tree, neighborhood, stand, and landscape. Whether a given canopy-leveling disturbance will initiate a sequence of development in structure with little change in composition or initiate an episode of succession depends on a match or mismatch, respectively, with traits of the dominant tree species that allow the species to survive disturbance. When these match, certain species-disturbance type combinations lock in a pattern of stand and landscape dynamics that can persist for several generations of trees; thus, dominant tree species regulate, as well as respond to, disturbance. A complex interaction among tree species, neighborhood effects, disturbance type and severity, landform, and soils determines how stands of differing composition form and the mosaic of stands that compose the landscape. Neighborhood effects (e.g., serotinous seed rain, sprouting, shading, leaf-litter chemistry, and leaf-litter physical properties) operate at small spatial extents of the individual tree and its neighbors but play a central role in forest dynamics by contributing to patch formation at stand scales and dynamics of the entire landscape. Dominance by tree species with neutral to negative neighborhood effects leads to unstable landscape dynamics in disturbance-prone regions, wherein most stands are undergoing succession; stability can only occur under very low-severity disturbance regimes. Dominance by species with positive effects leads to stable landscape dynamics wherein only a small proportion of stands undergo succession at any one time. Positive neighborhood effects are common in temperate and boreal zones, whereas negative effects are more common in tropical climates. Landscapes with positive dynamics have alternate categories of dynamics

  11. Cryobiological preservation of Drosophila embryos

    SciTech Connect

    Mazur, P.; Schreuders, P.D.; Cole, K.W.; Hall, J.W. ); Mahowald, A.P. )

    1992-12-18

    The inability to cryobiologically preserve the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has required that fly stocks be maintained by frequent transfer of adults. This method is costly in terms of time and can lead to loss of stocks. Traditional slow freezing methods do not succeed because the embryos are highly sensitive to chilling. With the procedures described here, 68 percent of precisely staged 15-hour Oregon R (wild-type) embryos hatch after vitrification at -205[degree]C, and 40 percent of the resulting larvae develop into normal adult flies. These embryos are among the most complex organisms successfully preserved by cryobiology.

  12. Contrasting taxonomic and phylogenetic diversity responses to forest modifications: comparisons of taxa and successive plant life stages in South African scarp forest.

    PubMed

    Grass, Ingo; Brandl, Roland; Botzat, Alexandra; Neuschulz, Eike Lena; Farwig, Nina

    2015-01-01

    responses of taxonomic and phylogenetic diversity to forest modifications imply that biodiversity conservation in this subtropical landscape requires the preservation of natural and modified forests.

  13. Turnover of Species and Guilds in Shrub Spider Communities in a 100-Year Postlogging Forest Chronosequence.

    PubMed

    Haraguchi, Takashi F; Tayasu, Ichiro

    2016-02-01

    Disturbance of forests by logging and subsequent forest succession causes marked changes in arthropod communities. Although vegetation cover provides important habitat for arthropods, studies of the changes in their community structure associated with forest succession have been conducted mostly at ground level. To evaluate how forests of different ages contribute to arthropod biodiversity in shrub habitat, spiders were collected from shrubs in 12 forests ranging in age from 1 to 107 yr after logging. We found marked changes in spider community structure about 10 yr after logging: the number of species and individuals declined rapidly after this time. These changes were likely caused by a decrease in shrub cover in association with forest succession. Changes in spider species composition associated with stand age were small in forests at least 11 yr old and were not clustered by forest age. After the exclusion of species of which we sampled only one or two individuals incidentally, just 0.9 ± 0.5 (mean ± SD) species were unique to these older forests. The other 41.2 ± 4.3 species found in these forests were common to both older and young forests, although some of these species in common were found mainly in forests at least 11 yr old. These results suggest that preservation of old-growth forests contributes to the abundance of these common species, although old-growth forests contribute little to species diversity.

  14. Breast cancer and fertility preservation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, S. Samuel; Klemp, Jennifer; Fabian, Carol

    2014-01-01

    Objective To review the benefits of adjuvant systemic therapy given to women with breast cancer of reproductive age, its effects on fertility, and options for fertility preservation. Design Publications relevant to fertility preservation and breast cancer were identified through a PubMed database search. Conclusion(s) Most women who develop invasive breast cancer under age 40 will be advised to undergo adjuvant chemotherapy with or without extended antihormonal therapy to reduce the risk of recurrence and death from breast cancer. Adjuvant chemotherapy particularly with alkylating agents such as cyclophosphamide is gonadotoxic and markedly accelerates the rate of age-related ovarian follicle loss. Although loss of fertility is an important issue for young cancer survivors, there is often little discussion about fertility preservation before initiation of adjuvant therapy. Greater familiarity with prognosis and effects of different types of adjuvant therapy on the part of infertility specialists and fertility preservation options such cryopreservation of embryos, oocytes, and ovarian tissue on the part of oncologists would facilitate these discussions. Establishment of rapid fertility consultation links within cancer survivorship programs can help ensure that every young woman who is likely to undergo gonadotoxic cancer treatment is counseled about the effects of therapy and options available to her to increase the likelihood of childbearing after cancer treatment. PMID:21272867

  15. Preservation and Archives in Vietnam.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henchy, Judith

    This report, based on visits to Vietnamese libraries and archives between 1987 and 1997, examines the largely unexplored corpus of Vietnamese textual resources in research institutions and libraries there and elsewhere, the associated problems of bibliographic control, and issues of preservation. The following topics are addressed: the history of…

  16. Deforestation trends of tropical dry forests in central Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bianchi, Carlos A.; Haig, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    Tropical dry forests are the most threatened forest type in the world yet a paucity of research about them stymies development of appropriate conservation actions. The Paranã River Basin has the most significant dry forest formations in the Cerrado biome of central Brazil and is threatened by intense land conversion to pastures and agriculture. We examined changes in Paranã River Basin deforestation rates and fragmentation across three time intervals that covered 31 yr using Landsat imagery. Our results indicated a 66.3 percent decrease in forest extent between 1977 and 2008, with an annual rate of forest cover change of 3.5 percent. Landscape metrics further indicated severe forest loss and fragmentation, resulting in an increase in the number of fragments and reduction in patch sizes. Forest fragments in flatlands have virtually disappeared and the only significant forest remnants are mostly found over limestone outcrops in the eastern part of the basin. If current patterns persist, we project that these forests will likely disappear within 25 yr. These patterns may be reversed with creation of protected areas and involvement of local people to preserve small fragments that can be managed for restoration.

  17. Low-level efficacy of cosmetic preservatives.

    PubMed

    Lundov, M D; Johansen, J D; Zachariae, C; Moesby, L

    2011-04-01

    Preservation using combinations of preservatives has several advantages. This study shows that the concentration of some of the most frequently used allergenic preservatives can be markedly lowered when they are combined with phenoxyethanol. The antimicrobial efficacy of cosmetic preservatives and known allergens of various potency [diazolidinyl urea, methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone (MCI/MI), methylisothiazolinone (MI) and phenoxyethanol] was tested alone and in various combinations of two or three preservatives together. The preservatives were tested for minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values and possible synergy using fractional inhibitory concentration. MCI/MI was the only preservative showing low-level MIC against all four tested microorganisms: Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger. Different combinations of the preservatives indicated additive effects against the microorganisms. No combination of preservatives showed any inhibitory action on each other. Challenge tests with different concentrations and combinations were performed in a cosmetic cream. Diazolidinyl urea and MCI/MI alone were ineffective against C. albicans in a challenge test at concentrations up to 16 times higher than the observed MIC values. When combining phenoxyethanol with either one of the allergenic preservatives diazolidinyl urea, MCI/MI or MI, the cosmetic cream was adequately preserved at concentrations well below the preservatives' MIC values as well as 10-20 times below the maximum permitted concentrations. By using combinations of preservatives, effective preservation can be achieved with lower concentrations of allergenic preservatives.

  18. Hybrid Food Preservation Program Improves Food Preservation and Food Safety Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Sarah L.

    2014-01-01

    The growing trend in home food preservation raises concerns about whether the resulting food products will be safe to eat. The increased public demand for food preservation information led to the development of the comprehensive food preservation program, Preserve the Taste of Summer (PTTS). PTTS is a comprehensive hybrid food preservation program…

  19. Ecosystem management: Controlling biological invasion in an Illinois nature preserve

    SciTech Connect

    Thelen, C.S.; Schulz, K.E.

    1995-12-01

    Understanding the nature and effects of human interaction with the landscape is an important aspect of environmental decisionmaking. Often, human action alters the composition and distribution of organisms. In the North American central Midwest, human occupation has decimated native woodlands, which endure as habitat islands in a highly fragmented natural landscape dominated by intensive agriculture and permeated by invasive exotic species. The alterations in the landscape have affected the structure and function of the few remaining intact forests by altering the environment experienced by tree and herb species. A frequent invader of forest understories throughout the central Midwest is Vinca minor, a horticultural groundcover, yet this species has not previously been studied as a woodland invader. We tested the hypothesis that native understory species were excluded from colonized areas, and that tree seedling growth was suppressed. Using study plots in Knobeloch Woods Nature Preserve, St. Clair County, Illinois, we measured the effect of Vinca colonization on understory composition and diversity, by comparing colonized and uncolonized plots. We also related understory characteristics to soil and canopy properties. Finally, to evaluate an ongoing program to control the invasion in the field, we tested the hypothesis that simultaneous cutting and herbicide treatment had increased the diversity of native understory species. We hope with this study to provide fact-based recommendations for management of midwestern nature preserves experiencing exotic plant invasions.

  20. Will Passive Protection Save Congo Forests?

    PubMed

    Galford, Gillian L; Soares-Filho, Britaldo S; Sonter, Laura J; Laporte, Nadine

    2015-01-01

    Central Africa's tropical forests are among the world's largest carbon reserves. Historically, they have experienced low rates of deforestation. Pressures to clear land are increasing due to development of infrastructure and livelihoods, foreign investment in agriculture, and shifting land use management, particularly in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). The DRC contains the greatest area of intact African forests. These store approximately 22 billion tons of carbon in aboveground live biomass, yet only 10% are protected. Can the status quo of passive protection - forest management that is low or nonexistent - ensure the preservation of this forest and its carbon? We have developed the SimCongo model to simulate changes in land cover and land use based on theorized policy scenarios from 2010 to 2050. Three scenarios were examined: the first (Historical Trends) assumes passive forest protection; the next (Conservation) posits active protection of forests and activation of the national REDD+ action plan, and the last (Agricultural Development) assumes increased agricultural activities in forested land with concomitant increased deforestation. SimCongo is a cellular automata model based on Bayesian statistical methods tailored for the DRC, built with the Dinamica-EGO platform. The model is parameterized and validated with deforestation observations from the past and runs the scenarios from 2010 through 2050 with a yearly time step. We estimate the Historical Trends trajectory will result in average emissions of 139 million t CO2 year-1 by the 2040s, a 15% increase over current emissions. The Conservation scenario would result in 58% less clearing than Historical Trends and would conserve carbon-dense forest and woodland savanna areas. The Agricultural Development scenario leads to emissions of 212 million t CO2 year-1 by the 2040s. These scenarios are heuristic examples of policy's influence on forest conservation and carbon storage. Our results suggest that 1

  1. Will Passive Protection Save Congo Forests?

    PubMed

    Galford, Gillian L; Soares-Filho, Britaldo S; Sonter, Laura J; Laporte, Nadine

    2015-01-01

    Central Africa's tropical forests are among the world's largest carbon reserves. Historically, they have experienced low rates of deforestation. Pressures to clear land are increasing due to development of infrastructure and livelihoods, foreign investment in agriculture, and shifting land use management, particularly in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). The DRC contains the greatest area of intact African forests. These store approximately 22 billion tons of carbon in aboveground live biomass, yet only 10% are protected. Can the status quo of passive protection - forest management that is low or nonexistent - ensure the preservation of this forest and its carbon? We have developed the SimCongo model to simulate changes in land cover and land use based on theorized policy scenarios from 2010 to 2050. Three scenarios were examined: the first (Historical Trends) assumes passive forest protection; the next (Conservation) posits active protection of forests and activation of the national REDD+ action plan, and the last (Agricultural Development) assumes increased agricultural activities in forested land with concomitant increased deforestation. SimCongo is a cellular automata model based on Bayesian statistical methods tailored for the DRC, built with the Dinamica-EGO platform. The model is parameterized and validated with deforestation observations from the past and runs the scenarios from 2010 through 2050 with a yearly time step. We estimate the Historical Trends trajectory will result in average emissions of 139 million t CO2 year-1 by the 2040s, a 15% increase over current emissions. The Conservation scenario would result in 58% less clearing than Historical Trends and would conserve carbon-dense forest and woodland savanna areas. The Agricultural Development scenario leads to emissions of 212 million t CO2 year-1 by the 2040s. These scenarios are heuristic examples of policy's influence on forest conservation and carbon storage. Our results suggest that 1

  2. Will Passive Protection Save Congo Forests?

    PubMed Central

    Galford, Gillian L.; Soares-Filho, Britaldo S.; Sonter, Laura J.; Laporte, Nadine

    2015-01-01

    Central Africa’s tropical forests are among the world’s largest carbon reserves. Historically, they have experienced low rates of deforestation. Pressures to clear land are increasing due to development of infrastructure and livelihoods, foreign investment in agriculture, and shifting land use management, particularly in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). The DRC contains the greatest area of intact African forests. These store approximately 22 billion tons of carbon in aboveground live biomass, yet only 10% are protected. Can the status quo of passive protection — forest management that is low or nonexistent — ensure the preservation of this forest and its carbon? We have developed the SimCongo model to simulate changes in land cover and land use based on theorized policy scenarios from 2010 to 2050. Three scenarios were examined: the first (Historical Trends) assumes passive forest protection; the next (Conservation) posits active protection of forests and activation of the national REDD+ action plan, and the last (Agricultural Development) assumes increased agricultural activities in forested land with concomitant increased deforestation. SimCongo is a cellular automata model based on Bayesian statistical methods tailored for the DRC, built with the Dinamica-EGO platform. The model is parameterized and validated with deforestation observations from the past and runs the scenarios from 2010 through 2050 with a yearly time step. We estimate the Historical Trends trajectory will result in average emissions of 139 million t CO2 year-1 by the 2040s, a 15% increase over current emissions. The Conservation scenario would result in 58% less clearing than Historical Trends and would conserve carbon-dense forest and woodland savanna areas. The Agricultural Development scenario leads to emissions of 212 million t CO2 year-1 by the 2040s. These scenarios are heuristic examples of policy’s influence on forest conservation and carbon storage. Our results

  3. Use of RNAlater as a preservation method for parasitic coprology studies in wild-living chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Drakulovski, P; Locatelli, S; Butel, C; Pion, S; Krasteva, D; Mougdi-Pole, E; Delaporte, E; Peeters, M; Mallié, M

    2013-10-01

    We evaluated the use of an RNA stabilisation buffer, RNAlater (Ambion, Austin, Texas), as a preservation medium for parasitic coprology analysis of faecal samples collected from chimpanzees living in the wild (Pan troglodytes troglodytes). Thirty faecal samples collected in the forests of south-east Cameroon (Mambele area) from 2003 to 2011 were preserved in RNAlater at -80 °C and analysed for their parasite content. We identified and counted parasitic elements and assessed their shape, size and morphology in relation to the storage time of the samples. We found that parasite elements were identifiable in RNAlater preserved samples after as many as 7 years, showing that RNAlater could be an effective and reliable preservation medium for coprology. Thus, its use could be an interesting way to optimise sample collection for several types of studies (parasitology and bacteriology/virology) at once, especially considering the logistically challenging and time-consuming field campaigns needed to obtain these faecal samples.

  4. Suggestions for Forest Conservation Policy under Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choe, H.; Thorne, J. H.; Lee, D. K.; Seo, C.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change and the destruction of natural habitats by land-use change are two main factors in decreasing terrestrial biodiversity. Studying land-use and climate change and their impact under different scenarios can help suggest policy directions for future events. This study explores the spatial results of different land use and climate models on the extent of species rich areas in South Korea. We built land use models of forest conversion and created four 2050 scenarios: (1) a loss trend following current levels, resulting in 15.5% lost; (2) similar loss, but with forest conservation in areas with suitable future climates; (3) a reduction of forest loss by 50%; and (4) a combination of preservation of forest climate refugia and overall reduction of loss by 50%. Forest climate refugia were identified through the use of species distribution models run on 1,031 forest plant species to project current and 2050 distributions. We calculated change in species richness under four climate projections, permitting an assessment of forest refugia zones. We then crossed the four land use models with the climate-driven change in species richness. Forest areas predominantly convert to agricultural areas, while climate-suitable extents for forest plants decline and move northward, especially to higher elevations. Scenario 2, that has the higher level of deforestation but protects future species rich areas, conserves nearly as much future biodiversity as scenario 3, which reduced deforestation rates by 50%. This points to the importance of including biogeographic climate dynamics in forest policy. Scenario 4 was the most effective at conserving forest biodiversity. We suggest conserving forest areas with suitable climates for biodiversity conservation and the establishment of monoculture plantations targeted to areas where species richness will decline based on our results.

  5. Education Highlights: Forest Biomass

    ScienceCinema

    Barone, Rachel; Canter, Christina

    2016-07-12

    Argonne intern Rachel Barone from Ithaca College worked with Argonne mentor Christina Canter in studying forest biomass. This research will help scientists develop large scale use of biofuels from forest biomass.

  6. Chisholm Forest Fire

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    ... Larger Image A new look at smoke from the Chisholm forest fire, which ignited on May 23, 2001 about 160 kilometers north of ... stratosphere. Scientists have postulated a link between fires in northern forests and the observed enhancements in stratospheric ...

  7. Preserved entropy and fragile magnetism.

    PubMed

    Canfield, Paul C; Bud'ko, Sergey L

    2016-08-01

    A large swath of quantum critical and strongly correlated electron systems can be associated with the phenomena of preserved entropy and fragile magnetism. In this overview we present our thoughts and plans for the discovery and development of lanthanide and transition metal based, strongly correlated systems that are revealed by suppressed, fragile magnetism, quantum criticality, or grow out of preserved entropy. We will present and discuss current examples such as YbBiPt, YbAgGe, YbFe2Zn20, PrAg2In, BaFe2As2, CaFe2As2, LaCrSb3 and LaCrGe3 as part of our motivation and to provide illustrative examples.

  8. Preserved entropy and fragile magnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canfield, Paul C.; Bud’ko, Sergey L.

    2016-08-01

    A large swath of quantum critical and strongly correlated electron systems can be associated with the phenomena of preserved entropy and fragile magnetism. In this overview we present our thoughts and plans for the discovery and development of lanthanide and transition metal based, strongly correlated systems that are revealed by suppressed, fragile magnetism, quantum criticality, or grow out of preserved entropy. We will present and discuss current examples such as YbBiPt, YbAgGe, YbFe2Zn20, PrAg2In, BaFe2As2, CaFe2As2, LaCrSb3 and LaCrGe3 as part of our motivation and to provide illustrative examples.

  9. Preserved entropy and fragile magnetism.

    PubMed

    Canfield, Paul C; Bud'ko, Sergey L

    2016-08-01

    A large swath of quantum critical and strongly correlated electron systems can be associated with the phenomena of preserved entropy and fragile magnetism. In this overview we present our thoughts and plans for the discovery and development of lanthanide and transition metal based, strongly correlated systems that are revealed by suppressed, fragile magnetism, quantum criticality, or grow out of preserved entropy. We will present and discuss current examples such as YbBiPt, YbAgGe, YbFe2Zn20, PrAg2In, BaFe2As2, CaFe2As2, LaCrSb3 and LaCrGe3 as part of our motivation and to provide illustrative examples. PMID:27377181

  10. Technical Information/Website Preservation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    PintoRey, Christian R.

    2010-01-01

    This document reviews the work of the author in NASA's Motivating Undergraduates in Science and Technology (MUST) internship. The intern worked on the Space Shuttles hydraulic systems (i.e., Auxiliary Power Units (APU's) and Hydraulic Pump Units (HPU's)), and website preservation of the hydraulic technology captured in websites relating to the coming.the Space Shuttle Retirement. Several figures and pictures show an overview of the orbiter's hydraulic systems

  11. Phase-preserved optical elevator

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yuan; Zhang, Baile; Han, Tiancheng; Chen, Zhi; Duan, Yubo; Chu, Chia-Wei; Barbastathis, George; Qiu, Cheng Wei

    2013-01-01

    The unique superiority of transformation optics devices designed from coordinate transformation is their capability of recovering both ray trajectory and optical path length in light manipulation. However, very few experiments have been done so far to verify this dual-recovery property from viewpoints of both ray trajectory and optical path length simultaneously. The experimental difficulties arise from the fact that most previous optical transformation optics devices only work at the nano-scale; the lack of intercomparison between data from both optical path length and ray trajectory measurement in these experiments obscured the fact that the ray path was subject to a subwavelength lateral shift that was otherwise not easily perceivable and, instead, was pointed out theoretically [B. Zhang et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 233903, (2010)]. Here, we use a simple macroscopic transformation optics device of phase-preserved optical elevator, which is a typical birefringent optical phenomenon that can virtually lift an optical image by a macroscopic distance, to demonstrate decisively the unique optical path length preservation property of transformation optics. The recovery of ray trajectory is first determined with no lateral shift in the reflected ray. The phase preservation is then verified with incoherent white-light interferometry without ambiguity and phase unwrapping. PMID:23546046

  12. Nutritional aspects of food preservatives.

    PubMed

    Quattrucci, E; Masci, V

    1992-01-01

    Despite the benefits attributed to food preservatives, some concern still remains regarding their safety and possible influence on nutrients. Surprisingly, there is quite a lack of scientific knowledge in this field. In order to describe a few examples, the effects of the extensively used sulphite on thiamine, folates, pyridoxal and other nutrients have been reported. Among its antibrowning effects, inhibition of ascorbic acid browning is also considered. As far as sorbic acid is concerned, notwithstanding its easy reaction with protein, probably the acid environment of the stomach determines the breakdown of the sorbic-protein adducts. Detoxication of nitrite by tocopherol and ascorbic acid leads, in the last case, to dehydroascorbic acid and its oxidative products with loss of vitamin activity. Any oxidizing substance destroys ascorbic acid, vitamin E and free vitamin A. Phosphates are largely used with different aims, including preservation, in food processing. Their antimicrobial activity is due to both a direct effect and an interaction with other antimicrobials. Sequestering capacity of phosphates and its nutritional implications are discussed. Also mechanisms of action of organic acids are reported, focusing on sorbic acid effects on single amino acids and proteins. Finally, the little information available about the potential impact of food preservatives on nutritional functions is presented. PMID:1298657

  13. Evaluating Heterogeneous Conservation Effects of Forest Protection in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Payal; Baylis, Kathy

    2015-01-01

    Establishing legal protection for forest areas is the most common policy used to limit forest loss. This article evaluates the effectiveness of seven Indonesian forest protected areas introduced between 1999 and 2012. Specifically, we explore how the effectiveness of these parks varies over space. Protected areas have mixed success in preserving forest, and it is important for conservationists to understand where they work and where they do not. Observed differences in the estimated treatment effect of protection may be driven by several factors. Indonesia is particularly diverse, with the landscape, forest and forest threats varying greatly from region to region, and this diversity may drive differences in the effectiveness of protected areas in conserving forest. However, the observed variation may also be spurious and arise from differing degrees of bias in the estimated treatment effect over space. In this paper, we use a difference-in-differences approach comparing treated observations and matched controls to estimate the effect of each protected area. We then distinguish the true variation in protected area effectiveness from spurious variation driven by several sources of estimation bias. Based on our most flexible method that allows the data generating process to vary across space, we find that the national average effect of protection preserves an additional 1.1% of forest cover; however the effect of individual parks range from a decrease of 3.4% to an increase of 5.3% and the effect of most parks differ from the national average. Potential biases may affect estimates in two parks, but results consistently show Sebangau National Park is more effective while two parks are substantially less able to protect forest cover than the national average. PMID:26039754

  14. Evaluating heterogeneous conservation effects of forest protection in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Shah, Payal; Baylis, Kathy

    2015-01-01

    Establishing legal protection for forest areas is the most common policy used to limit forest loss. This article evaluates the effectiveness of seven Indonesian forest protected areas introduced between 1999 and 2012. Specifically, we explore how the effectiveness of these parks varies over space. Protected areas have mixed success in preserving forest, and it is important for conservationists to understand where they work and where they do not. Observed differences in the estimated treatment effect of protection may be driven by several factors. Indonesia is particularly diverse, with the landscape, forest and forest threats varying greatly from region to region, and this diversity may drive differences in the effectiveness of protected areas in conserving forest. However, the observed variation may also be spurious and arise from differing degrees of bias in the estimated treatment effect over space. In this paper, we use a difference-in-differences approach comparing treated observations and matched controls to estimate the effect of each protected area. We then distinguish the true variation in protected area effectiveness from spurious variation driven by several sources of estimation bias. Based on our most flexible method that allows the data generating process to vary across space, we find that the national average effect of protection preserves an additional 1.1% of forest cover; however the effect of individual parks range from a decrease of 3.4% to an increase of 5.3% and the effect of most parks differ from the national average. Potential biases may affect estimates in two parks, but results consistently show Sebangau National Park is more effective while two parks are substantially less able to protect forest cover than the national average.

  15. The Children's Rain Forest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Carol A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes a unit on rain forests in which first graders studied about rain forests, built a classroom rain forest, and created a bulletin board. They also graphed rainfall, estimated body water, and estimated the number of newspapers that could be produced from one canopy tree. (MKR)

  16. PREDON Scientific Data Preservation 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaconu, C.; Kraml, S.; Surace, C.; Chateigner, D.; Libourel, T.; Laurent, A.; Lin, Y.; Schaming, M.; Benbernou, S.; Lebbah, M.; Boucon, D.; Cérin, C.; Azzag, H.; Mouron, P.; Nief, J.-Y.; Coutin, S.; Beckmann, V.

    Scientific data collected with modern sensors or dedicated detectors exceed very often the perimeter of the initial scientific design. These data are obtained more and more frequently with large material and human efforts. A large class of scientific experiments are in fact unique because of their large scale, with very small chances to be repeated and to superseded by new experiments in the same domain: for instance high energy physics and astrophysics experiments involve multi-annual developments and a simple duplication of efforts in order to reproduce old data is simply not affordable. Other scientific experiments are in fact unique by nature: earth science, medical sciences etc. since the collected data is "time-stamped" and thereby non-reproducible by new experiments or observations. In addition, scientific data collection increased dramatically in the recent years, participating to the so-called "data deluge" and inviting for common reflection in the context of "big data" investigations. The new knowledge obtained using these data should be preserved long term such that the access and the re-use are made possible and lead to an enhancement of the initial investment. Data observatories, based on open access policies and coupled with multi-disciplinary techniques for indexing and mining may lead to truly new paradigms in science. It is therefore of outmost importance to pursue a coherent and vigorous approach to preserve the scientific data at long term. The preservation remains nevertheless a challenge due to the complexity of the data structure, the fragility of the custom-made software environments as well as the lack of rigorous approaches in workflows and algorithms. To address this challenge, the PREDON project has been initiated in France in 2012 within the MASTODONS program: a Big Data scientific challenge, initiated and supported by the Interdisciplinary Mission of the National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS). PREDON is a study group formed by

  17. Acid preservation systems for food products

    SciTech Connect

    Tiberio, J. E.; Cirigiano, M. C.

    1984-10-16

    Fumaric acid is used in combination with critical amounts of acetic acid to preserve acid containing food products from microbiological spoilage in the absence of or at reduced levels of chemical preservative.

  18. Reduced availability of large seeds constrains Atlantic forest regeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Janaina B. P.; Melo, Felipe P. L.; Santos, Bráulio A.; Tabarelli, Marcelo

    2012-02-01

    Secondary forests are expanding in defaunated fragmented tropical landscapes, but their resilience potential remains poorly understood. In this study we used a chronosequence of advancing (19-62-yr old) Atlantic forest regeneration following slash-and-burn agriculture to infer successional shifts in seed rain in terms of seed density, species richness, taxonomic and functional composition, and local spatial distribution. After monitoring seed rain during 12 months in 60 1-m2 seed traps, we recorded over 400,000 seeds belonging to 180 morphospecies. From early to late-successional stage, seed rain decreased in density, increased in per capita species richness, gradually changed in species composition, and became less aggregated spatially. Regardless the age of forest stand, vertebrate-dispersed seeds accounted for 67-75% of all species recorded. Large-seeded species typical of old-growth forests, on the other hand, accounted for only 5-8% of the species recorded in the seed rain, a proportion around five times smaller than that reported for the old-growth forests of the same study site (31%). Our results suggest that the secondary forests considered, which are embedded in one of the largest (3500 ha) and best preserved remnant of the severely fragmented Atlantic forest of Northeast Brazil, may fail attaining older successional stages due to the reduced availability of large-seeded late-successional species. This regeneration constraint may be even stronger in smaller, more isolated forest remnants of the region, potentially reducing their ability to provide ecosystem services.

  19. Regulations of the Forest Law, 29 June 1988.

    PubMed

    1988-01-01

    These Regulations set forth the administration and duties of various government departments under the Mexican Forest Law. They provide that the National Forest Administration is, among other things, to promote operations designed for the conservation, protection, and restoration of forest resources, especially with respect to disasters of any kind that affect forests, such as pestilence, fires, disease, floods, and acid rain, as well as other destructive and contaminating elements. Further provisions of the Regulations describe efforts to aid reforestation and silviculture to be undertaken by the Secretariat and activities with respect to use permits and forest management. In its efforts to aid reforestation, the Secretariat is to establish nurseries, give assistance to local bodies to establish nurseries, and support reforestation programs financially. Regulations of the General Law on Ecological Equilibrium and Environmental Protection with Respect to Environmental Impact of 6 June 1988 contain provisions requiring the Secretariat of Urban Development and Ecology to formulate general rules on the environmental impact involved in the use of forests. These rules are to set forth measures on prevention, improvement, preservation, restoration, and control. The Secretariat is also to issue ecological protection restrictions on the use of forest resources, which are to be relied on in the evaluation of proposed forest use projects. The Regulations also set forth procedures to be followed in examining use permit applications and information that must be included in such applications. See Diario Oficial, Vol. 417, No. 5, 7 June 1988, p. 28.

  20. An investigation of ground-water recharge by injection in the Palo Alto Baylands, California : hydraulic and chemical interactions; final report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamlin, S.N.

    1985-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Santa Clara Valley Water District, has completed a study of ground-water recharge by injection in the Palo Alto baylands along San Francisco Bay, California. Selected wells within the Water District 's injection-extraction network were monitored to determine hydraulic and chemical interactions affecting well-field operation. The well field was installed to prevent and eliminate saline contamination in the local shallow aquifer system. The primary focus of this study is on factors that affect injection efficiency, specifically well and aquifer clogging. Mixing and break-through curves for major chemical constituents indicate ion exchange, adsorption, and dissolution reactions. Freshwater breakthrough was detected in water-level data, which reflected fluid-density change as well as head buildup. Dissolution of calcium carbonate caused by dilution of saline ground water probably accounts for an apparent increase in specific capacity possibly related to improved aquifer permeability. Adsorption evidently removed trace elements during passage of injected water through the aquifer. In terms of hydraulic and chemical compatibility, the well field is a viable system for ground-water recharge. Aquifer heterogeneity and operational constraints reduce the efficiency of the system. Efficiency may be maximized by careful attention to extraction distribution and quantity and to injection distribution, quantity, and water quality. (USGS)

  1. Tortricid Moths Reared from the Invasive Weed Mexican Palo Verde, Parkinsonia aculeata, with Comments on their Host Specificity, Biology, Geographic Distribution, and Systematics

    PubMed Central

    Brown, John W.; Segura, Ricardo; Santiago-Jiménez, Quiyari; Rota, Jadranka; Heard, Tim A.

    2011-01-01

    As part of efforts to identify native herbivores of Mexican palo verde, Parkinsonia aculeata L. (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae), as potential biological control agents against this invasive weed in Australia, ten species of Tortricidae (Lepidoptera) were reared from Guatemala, Mexico, Nicaragua, and Venezuela: Amorbia concavana (Zeller), Platynota rostrana (Walker), Platynota helianthes (Meyrick), Platynota stultana Walsingham (all Tortricinae: Sparganothini), Rudenia leguminana (Busck), Cochylis sp. (both Tortricinae: Cochylini), Ofatulena duodecemstriata (Walsingham), O. luminosa Heinrich, Ofatulena sp. (all Olethreutinae: Grapholitini), and Crocidosema lantana Busck (Olethreutinae: Eucosmini). Significant geographic range extensions are provided for O. duodecemstriata and R. leguminana. These are the first documented records of P. aculeata as a host plant for all but O. luminosa. The four species of Sparganothini are polyphagous; in contrast, the two Cochylini and three Grapholitini likely are specialists on Leguminosae. Ofatulena luminosa is possibly host specific on P. aculeata. Host trials with Rudenia leguminana also provide some evidence of specificity, in contrast to historical rearing records. To examine the possibility that R. leguminana is a complex of species, two data sets of molecular markers were examined: (1) a combined data set of two mitochondrial markers (a 781-basepair region of cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) and a 685-basepair region of cytochrome c oxidase II) and one nuclear marker (a 531-basepair region of the 28S domain 2); and (2) the 650-basepair “barcode” region of COI. Analyses of both data sets strongly suggest that individuals examined in this study belong to more than one species. PMID:21521138

  2. Injection of treated wastewater for ground-water recharge in the Palo Alto Baylands, California, hydraulic and chemical interactions; preliminary report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamlin, S.N.

    1983-01-01

    An injection-extraction well network in the Palo Alto Baylands along the San Francisco Bay, California, was designed to flush the shallow aquifer system of saline water and prevent further inland saline contamination. Clogging processes and solution migration in the vicinity of one injection well were studied. Cyclic evaporative concentration of bay water and infiltration have generated a concentrated ground-water brine. Montmorillonite and illite are the primary clay minerals present in the shallow aquifer system. X-ray diffraction analysis of these clays showed a marked increase in the d-spacing of the crystal lattice when native hypersaline pure water was replaced by injection water. Chloride:magnesium and chloride:potassium ratios in the aquifer system changed during injection, most likely due to ionic exchange reaction. Similar variations in chloride:boron, chloride:iron, and chloride:manganese ratios probably resulted from reduction-oxidation reactions. Ground-water quality appears to have been chiefly affected by the processes of dilution and dispersion. Extraction pump test data yielded a transmissivity value of 960 feet squared per day and a storage coefficient of 0.0005. Vertical permeability of the upper confining layer is 0.08 feet per day. (USGS)

  3. Pesticide residue analyses and biomarker responses of native Costa Rican fish of the Poeciliidae and Cichlidae families to assess environmental impacts of pesticides in Palo Verde National Park.

    PubMed

    Mena, F; Fernández San Juan, M; Campos, B; Sánchez-Avila, J; Faria, M; Pinnock, M; de la Cruz, E; Lacorte, S; Soares, A M V M; Barata, C

    2014-01-01

    Pesticide chemical residues in water samples and biomarker responses in transplanted fish were used to monitor environmental hazards of pesticides in Palo Verde National Park (Costa Rica). The Costarican fish, Parachromis dovii (Ciclhidae) and Poecilia gillii (Poecillidae), were selected as sentinel species. Contaminant analyses detected up to 15 different pesticide residues in water with hexachlobenzene (2261 ng l(-1)), phorate (473 ng l(-1)), epoxiconazole (314) and bromacil (117 ng l(-1)) being the compounds found in higher concentrations. Biomarker responses evidenced impacts on cholinesterase activities in transplanted fish at Barbudal site probably due to the presence of organophosphate insecticides such as phorate. High enzyme activities of glutathione S-transferase and catalase and elevated levels of lipid peroxides were also observed at a site impacted by rice fields (Cabuyo); those effects could be associated with the presence of hexachloro benzene and triazole fungicides. In general, P. dovii biomarkers were affected to a greater extent than those of P. gillii in fish transplanted to sites associated with agriculture, which suggests the former species is a good candidate for future surveys.

  4. A saponite and chlorite-rich clay assemblage in permian evaporite and red-bed strata, Palo Duro Basin, Texas Panhandle

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, D.P.

    1987-01-01

    In this Department of Energy-funded project, the author describes lithology of core samples from two Department of Energy wells in Randall and Swisher Counties and determines clay mineralogy and X-ray diffraction response using 73 samples from the Randall County well and 40 samples from the Swisher County well. On the basis of his analyses, the author identifies the clay assemblage in the Palo Duro Basin evaporites as consisting of saponite, a magnesium-rich smectite; mixed-layer chlorite/smectite; chlorite/vermiculite; chlorite/swelling chlorite; vermiculite/swelling chlorite; chlorite, and illite. Chemical analyses reveal that the chemical composition of the mixed-layer clays is intermediate between normal aluminum-rich detrital clays and normal vermiculite and chlorite, magnesium clays of hydrothermal or metamorphic origin. The author postulates that rates and amounts of clay alteration are probably controlled by magnesium ion activity, brine salinity, brine pH, and sediment and clay residence time in the marine evaporite environment.

  5. 32 CFR 174.18 - Historic preservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the regulations implementing the National Historic Preservation Act (36 CFR 800.5(a)(2)(vii)). One way... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Historic preservation. 174.18 Section 174.18... Historic preservation. (a) The transfer, lease, or sale of National Register-eligible historic property...

  6. 32 CFR 174.18 - Historic preservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the regulations implementing the National Historic Preservation Act (36 CFR 800.5(a)(2)(vii)). One way... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Historic preservation. 174.18 Section 174.18... Historic preservation. (a) The transfer, lease, or sale of National Register-eligible historic property...

  7. 32 CFR 174.18 - Historic preservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the regulations implementing the National Historic Preservation Act (36 CFR 800.5(a)(2)(vii)). One way... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Historic preservation. 174.18 Section 174.18... Historic preservation. (a) The transfer, lease, or sale of National Register-eligible historic property...

  8. 32 CFR 174.18 - Historic preservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the regulations implementing the National Historic Preservation Act (36 CFR 800.5(a)(2)(vii)). One way... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Historic preservation. 174.18 Section 174.18... Historic preservation. (a) The transfer, lease, or sale of National Register-eligible historic property...

  9. 32 CFR 174.18 - Historic preservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the regulations implementing the National Historic Preservation Act (36 CFR 800.5(a)(2)(vii)). One way... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Historic preservation. 174.18 Section 174.18... Historic preservation. (a) The transfer, lease, or sale of National Register-eligible historic property...

  10. Commission on Preservation and Access Newsletter, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission on Preservation and Access Newsletter, 1996

    1996-01-01

    The Commission on Preservation and Access was established to foster and support collaboration among libraries and allied organizations in order to ensure the preservation of the published and documentary record in all formats and to provide enhanced access to scholarly information. The Commission's newsletter keeps preservation and access…

  11. 7 CFR 782.14 - Identity preservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Identity preservation. 782.14 Section 782.14... § 782.14 Identity preservation. (a) The importer and all subsequent buyers of the imported wheat shall preserve the identity of the Canadian-produced wheat. (b) Canadian-produced wheat may only be...

  12. 7 CFR 782.14 - Identity preservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Identity preservation. 782.14 Section 782.14... § 782.14 Identity preservation. (a) The importer and all subsequent buyers of the imported wheat shall preserve the identity of the Canadian-produced wheat. (b) Canadian-produced wheat may only be...

  13. Orthogonality preserving infinite dimensional quadratic stochastic operators

    SciTech Connect

    Akın, Hasan; Mukhamedov, Farrukh

    2015-09-18

    In the present paper, we consider a notion of orthogonal preserving nonlinear operators. We introduce π-Volterra quadratic operators finite and infinite dimensional settings. It is proved that any orthogonal preserving quadratic operator on finite dimensional simplex is π-Volterra quadratic operator. In infinite dimensional setting, we describe all π-Volterra operators in terms orthogonal preserving operators.

  14. Preservation Planning Program. Resource Notebook. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darling, Pamela W., Comp.

    Designed to be used with the Association of Research Libraries (ARL) "Preservation Planning Program Manual," this notebook provides access to background and technical information needed for planning and carrying out a variety of preservation programs and activities. Its contents, all drawn from the body of preservation literature available in late…

  15. Preservation Impacts on Educational Facilities Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shultz, James A.

    This paper examines the significance of facilities preservation for educational facilities planning and identifies various forms of facilities preservation applicable to educational facilities. It analyzes why educational facilities planners need to be aware of preservation considerations, reviews the relevant literature for preservation…

  16. Conceptualizing Forest Degradation.

    PubMed

    Ghazoul, Jaboury; Burivalova, Zuzana; Garcia-Ulloa, John; King, Lisa A

    2015-10-01

    Forest degradation is a global environmental issue, but its definition is problematic. Difficulties include choosing appropriate reference states, timescales, thresholds, and forest values. We dispense with many such ambiguities by interpreting forest degradation through the frame of ecological resilience, and with reference to forest dynamics. Specifically, we define forest degradation as a state of anthropogenically induced arrested succession, where ecological processes that underlie forest dynamics are diminished or severely constrained. Metrics of degradation might include those that reflect ecological processes shaping community dynamics, notably the regeneration of plant species. Arrested succession implies that management intervention is necessary to recover successional trajectories. Such a definition can be applied to any forest ecosystem, and can also be extended to other ecosystems. PMID:26411619

  17. Forested wetland habitat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duberstein, Jamie A.; Krauss, Ken W.; Kennish, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    A forested wetland (swamp) is a forest where soils are saturated or flooded for at least a portion of the growing season, and vegetation, dominated by trees, is adapted to tolerate flooded conditions. A tidal freshwater forested wetland is a forested wetland that experiences frequent but short-term surface flooding via tidal action, with average salinity of soil porewater less than 0.5 g/l. It is known locally as tidal várzea in the Amazon delta, Brazil. A tidal saltwater forested wetland (mangrove forest) is a forested wetland that experiences frequent but short-term surface flooding via tidal action, with average salinity often exceeding 3 g/l and reaching levels that can exceed seawater. Mangrove ecosystems are composed of facultative halophytes that generally experience better growth at moderate salinity concentrations.

  18. The empty forest revisited.

    PubMed

    Wilkie, David S; Bennett, Elizabeth L; Peres, Carlos A; Cunningham, Andrew A

    2011-03-01

    Tropical forests are among the most species-rich ecosystems on the planet. Some authors argue that predictions of a tropical forest extinction crisis based on analyses of deforestation rates are overly pessimistic since they do not take account of future agricultural abandonment as a result of rural-urban migration and subsequent secondary regrowth. Even if such regrowth occurs, it is crucial to consider threats to species that are not directly correlated with area of forest cover. Hunting is an insidious but significant driver of tropical forest defaunation, risking cascading changes in forest plant and animal composition. Ineffective legislation and enforcement along with a failure of decision makers to address the threats of hunting is fanning the fire of a tropical forest extinction crisis. If tropical forest ecosystems are to survive, the threat of unsustainable hunting must be adequately addressed now.

  19. The empty forest revisited.

    PubMed

    Wilkie, David S; Bennett, Elizabeth L; Peres, Carlos A; Cunningham, Andrew A

    2011-03-01

    Tropical forests are among the most species-rich ecosystems on the planet. Some authors argue that predictions of a tropical forest extinction crisis based on analyses of deforestation rates are overly pessimistic since they do not take account of future agricultural abandonment as a result of rural-urban migration and subsequent secondary regrowth. Even if such regrowth occurs, it is crucial to consider threats to species that are not directly correlated with area of forest cover. Hunting is an insidious but significant driver of tropical forest defaunation, risking cascading changes in forest plant and animal composition. Ineffective legislation and enforcement along with a failure of decision makers to address the threats of hunting is fanning the fire of a tropical forest extinction crisis. If tropical forest ecosystems are to survive, the threat of unsustainable hunting must be adequately addressed now. PMID:21449969

  20. Preserving mobility in older adults.

    PubMed Central

    Buchner, D M

    1997-01-01

    Age-related loss of strength contributes to impaired mobility and increases the risk of falls. Recent research has focused on 2 approaches to preventing age-related loss of strength--promoting physical activity and exercise (especially strength training) and using trophic factors to enhance muscle performance. Epidemiologic evidence strongly supports a role of regular physical activity in successful aging by preserving muscle performance, promoting mobility, and reducing fall risk. Randomized controlled trials provide convincing evidence that strength and endurance training improve muscle performance in older adults. Evidence is rapidly accumulating from randomized trials that endurance, strength, and balance training promote mobility and reduce fall risk, though exercise effects differ according to the type of exercise, details of the exercise program, and the target group of older adults. Because lifetime regular physical activity is recommended for all older adults, a reasonable strategy (especially for weak adults) is an activity program that includes strength training. In contrast, insufficient evidence exists to recommend the long-term use of trophic factors to preserve muscular performance. An intervention that merits additional study is avoiding the use of psychoactive drugs because drugs like benzodiazepines appear to be risk factors for inactivity and may have unrecognized direct effects on muscular performance. Because chronic illness is a risk factor for inactivity and disuse muscle atrophy, randomized trials comparing strength training with other interventions would be useful in understanding whether strength training has advantages in preserving muscle performance and improving health-related quality of life in a variety of chronic illnesses such as depressive illness. PMID:9348757

  1. Gap Dynamics and Structure of Two Old-Growth Beech Forest Remnants in Slovenia

    PubMed Central

    Rugani, Tihomir; Diaci, Jurij; Hladnik, David

    2013-01-01

    Context Due to a long history of intensive forest exploitation, few European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) old-growth forests have been preserved in Europe. Material and Methods We studied two beech forest reserves in southern Slovenia. We examined the structural characteristics of the two forest reserves based on data from sample plots and complete inventory obtained from four previous forest management plans. To gain a better understanding of disturbance dynamics, we used aerial imagery to study the characteristics of canopy gaps over an 11-year period in the Kopa forest reserve and a 20-year period in the Gorjanci forest reserve. Results The results suggest that these forests are structurally heterogeneous over small spatial scales. Gap size analysis showed that gaps smaller than 500 m2 are the dominant driving force of stand development. The percentage of forest area in canopy gaps ranged from 3.2 to 4.5% in the Kopa forest reserve and from 9.1 to 10.6% in the Gorjanci forest reserve. These forests exhibit relatively high annual rates of coverage by newly established (0.15 and 0.25%) and closed (0.08 and 0.16%) canopy gaps. New gap formation is dependant on senescent trees located throughout the reserve. Conclusion We conclude that these stands are not even-sized, but rather unevenly structured. This is due to the fact that the disturbance regime is characterized by low intensity, small-scale disturbances. PMID:23308115

  2. Preserving continence during robotic prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Ahlering, Thomas E; Gordon, Adam; Morales, Blanca; Skarecky, Douglas W

    2013-02-01

    Preservation of postoperative urinary continence remains the primary concern of all men and their surgeons following robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP). Without doubt, continence is the most important quality of life issue following radical prostatectomy. Identification of difficulties and lessons learned over time has helped focus efforts in order to improve urinary quality of life and continence. This review will examine definitions of continence and urinary quality of life evaluation, technical aspects and the impact of patient-related factors affecting time to and overall continence.

  3. Preservation of sweet sorghum biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Jasberg, B.K.; Montgomery, R.R.; Anderson, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    Sweet sorghum stalks (42% sugar, dry basis (d.b.)) and bagasse (10% sugar, d.b.) from a cane mill were stored to preserve sugar. Bagasse and stalks were stored outdoors in sealed containers (anaerobic conditions). Treatments included using carbon dioxide or sulfur dioxide atmospheres or surface spraying with propionic acid or aqueous ammonia. Stalks were also stored outdoors under aerobic conditions. Treatments included drying the stalks or spraying with propionic acid. After 200 days, propionic acid (anaerobic) and SO/sub 2/-treated stalks had 34% and 19% of the original sugar remaining, respectively. No other samples had more than 3% of the original sugar remaining. 28 references, 6 tables.

  4. Phenoxyethanol: protein preservative for taxonomists.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, M; Wilson, A C; Nolan, R A; Gorman, G C; Bailey, G S

    1969-02-14

    Pieces of chicken heart or skeletal muscle were placed in a dilute solution of the antimicrobial agent 2-phenoxyethanol and stored at room temperature. Under these conditions, the serum albumin, lactate dehydrogenase, and malate dehydrogenase in these tissues survived in easily detectable amounts for at least 2 weeks. The surviving proteins appeared to be identical with those of fresh tissues in physical, catalytic, and immunological properties. Phenoxyethanol also preserved heart and muscle proteins of representatives of other vertebrate classes. Tissue samples collected in the analysis by biochemical taxonomists.

  5. Potential for forest tree improvement via tissue culture

    SciTech Connect

    Karnosky, D.F.

    1981-02-01

    The culture of cells, tissues, and organs in vitro offers unparalleled opportunity for forest tree improvement. Vegetative propagation of selected superior genotypes and hybrids, production and culture of haploids, asexual hybridization via protoplast fusion, freeze preservation of valuable genotypes, and the selection of cell lines tolerant to stresses such as diseases, drought, heavy metals, or salts through tissue culture may someday provide forest geneticists efficient and economical methods to supplement tree improvement programs. Heat treatments and meristem culture currently provide a pratical means of eliminating harmful virus and mycoplasma diseases from vegatively propagated trees. For the most part, however, the forest tree tissue culture research is only in its infancy. Research must be expanded to realize the full potential available from tissue culture. Considerable effort will be necessary to solve the many problems now deterring practical use of tissue culture in forest tree improvement and reforestation programs. (Refs. 93).

  6. Guides to pollution prevention: Wood preserving industry

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    The guide provides an overview of the wood preserving industry and presents options for minimizing waste generation through source reduction and recycling. Treatment with both oilborne and waterborne preservatives is discussed in the guide. However, because in the United States, the majority of wood is treated with chromated copper arsenate, the guide focuses on waterborne preservatives. Process wastewater surface runoff water, and sludge are possible sources of contamination in the wood preserving industry, although in waterborne processes the majority of wastewater is reused. Process wastewater includes water from conditioning, kiln drying, treated wood washing, accumulations in doors or retort sumps, preservative formulation recovery, and rinsing.

  7. Patient attitudes toward fertility preservation.

    PubMed

    Schover, Leslie R

    2009-08-01

    The increased survival rates for pediatric cancer patients and for some malignancies that are common in young adults, such as testicular cancer and Hodgkin disease have led to an increased focus on preserving fertility. Research on the psychosocial aspects of cancer-related infertility is a recent development, but we know that both young men and women value parenthood after cancer. At least 75% of survivors who were childless at diagnosis would like future offspring. For those who do not become parents, long-term distress is common. Younger teens may have difficulty assessing whether parenthood will be important to them in the future, and informed consent protocols need to respect their desires rather than deferring too much to parents. We do not know whether parenting a non-biological child (adopted, conceived through third-party reproduction, or a stepchild) reduces distress as much as being able to have one's own genetic offspring. Survivors often have exaggerated concerns about their children's health risks, but still prefer to have biological children if possible. More research is needed on whether participating in fertility preservation reduces long-term distress about cancer-related fertility. Better evidence-based programs to educate families and reduce decisional conflict are needed.

  8. Allergic contact dermatitis to preservatives.

    PubMed

    Timm-Knudson, Vickie L; Johnson, Janis S; Ortiz, Karel J; Yiannias, James A

    2006-04-01

    In summary, a wide variety of skin care products contain preservatives. Patients who are allergic to one of these preservatives may have either localized or widespread dermatitis. Affected patients may find it difficult to avoid thimerosal without the help of the health care provider because the use of these allergens is so widespread. Patch testing is an invaluable tool for patients who struggle with dermatitis. Antigen-avoidance lists that facilitate patient education about what products to avoid are available from the manufacturers of patch test allergens (for example, TRUE Test or Chemotechnique). These lists are helpful starting points for patients in that they provide general categories (for example, shampoos, soaps, or creams) of products that the patient should avoid. With these printed guidelines alone, patients must read skin care product labels carefully, looking for the names of their allergens as identified by patch tests as well as for any synonyms and cross-reactors of these allergens. Thus, patients may feel overwhelmed by hearing the names of allergens that are long and complex. After an allergen has been identified, the nurse can play a key role in helping patients understand their dermatitis and its management. Nurses are in a unique position to spend time educating patients about how to uncover the sources of specific allergens and, subsequently, how to avoid them. The Contact Allergen Replacement Database can help in this educational process by giving patients a shopping list of specific items that are free of the specific allergens causing their allergic contact dermatitis.

  9. Forest Fires in a Random Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leuenberger, Michael; Kanevski, Mikhaïl; Vega Orozco, Carmen D.

    2013-04-01

    Forest fires in Canton Ticino (Switzerland) are very complex phenomena. Meteorological data can explain some occurrences of fires in time, but not necessarily in space. Using anthropogenic and geographical feature data with the random forest algorithm, this study tries to highlight factors that most influence the fire-ignition and to identify areas under risk. The fundamental scientific problem considered in the present research deals with an application of random forest algorithms for the analysis and modeling of forest fires patterns in a high dimensional input feature space. This study is focused on the 2,224 anthropogenic forest fires among the 2,401 forest fire ignition points that have occurred in Canton Ticino from 1969 to 2008. Provided by the Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research (WSL), the database characterizes each fire by their location (x,y coordinates of the ignition point), start date, duration, burned area, and other information such as ignition cause and topographic features such as slope, aspect, altitude, etc. In addition, the database VECTOR25 from SwissTopo was used to extract information of the distances between fire ignition points and anthropogenic structures like buildings, road network, rail network, etc. Developed by L. Breiman and A. Cutler, the Random Forests (RF) algorithm provides an ensemble of classification and regression trees. By a pseudo-random variable selection for each split node, this method grows a variety of decision trees that do not return the same results, and thus by a committee system, returns a value that has a better accuracy than other machine learning methods. This algorithm incorporates directly measurement of importance variable which is used to display factors affecting forest fires. Dealing with this parameter, several models can be fit, and thus, a prediction can be made throughout the validity domain of Canton Ticino. Comprehensive RF analysis was carried out in order to 1

  10. 3. View northeast, west facade of Lake Forest (original Forest ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. View northeast, west facade of Lake Forest (original Forest Cottage structure incorporated into renamed structure) - Lake Placid Club, Forest Wing, East side of Mirror Lake Drive, North of State Route 86 & Main, North Elba, Essex County, NY

  11. 4. View southeast, west facade of Lake Forest (original Forest ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. View southeast, west facade of Lake Forest (original Forest Cottage structure incorporated into renamed structure) - Lake Placid Club, Forest Wing, East side of Mirror Lake Drive, North of State Route 86 & Main, North Elba, Essex County, NY

  12. 7. View southwest, east facade of Lake Forest (original Forest ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. View southwest, east facade of Lake Forest (original Forest Cottage structure incorporated into renamed structure) - Lake Placid Club, Forest Wing, East side of Mirror Lake Drive, North of State Route 86 & Main, North Elba, Essex County, NY

  13. Saliva Preservative for Diagnostic Purposes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, Duane L.; Mehta, Satish K.

    2012-01-01

    Saliva is an important body fluid for diagnostic purposes. Glycoproteins, glucose, steroids, DNA, and other molecules of diagnostic value are found in saliva. It is easier to collect as compared to blood or urine. Unfortunately, saliva also contains large numbers of bacteria that can release enzymes, which can degrade proteins and nucleic acids. These degradative enzymes destroy or reduce saliva s diagnostic value. This innovation describes the formulation of a chemical preservative that prevents microbial growth and inactivates the degradative enzymes. This extends the time that saliva can be stored or transported without losing its diagnostic value. Multiple samples of saliva can be collected if needed without causing discomfort to the subject and it does not require any special facilities to handle after it is collected.

  14. Virtual Environments for Data Preservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckmann, Volker

    Data preservation in a wider sense includes also the ability to analyse data of past experiments. Because operation systems, such as Linux and Windows, are evolving rapidly, software packages can be outdated and not usable anymore already a few years after they have been written. Creating an image of the operation system is a way to be able to launch the analysis software on a computing infrastructure independent on the local operation system used. At the same time, virtualization also allows to launch the same software in collaborations across several institutes with very different computing infrastructure. At the François Arago Centre of the APC in Paris we provide user support for virtualization and computing environment access to the scientific community

  15. Abdominoplasty With Scarpa Fascia Preservation.

    PubMed

    Costa-Ferreira, António; Marco, Rebelo; Vásconez, Luis; Amarante, José

    2016-06-01

    The plane of dissection used during a full abdominoplasty has been implicated on the seroma rate. Avoiding the classic plane of dissection on top of the rectus fascia and using a more superficial plane of dissection has been suggested as a strategy to improve recovery and lower the complication rate. The authors have been applying this principle in their practice for more than a decade, and they performed 2 prospective comparative studies to evaluate the clinical effects of using a more superficial plane of dissection (with Scarpa fascia preservation) during a full abdominoplasty.The technique is presented and explained along with the results of both comparative studies.The results of both studies are discussed particularly the effects on drain volume (total and daily), the duration of drain usage and the avoidance of "long drainers." These are very relevant advantages of the technique that have not been discussed in the literature. The results and surgical strategies used by other authors which apply a more superficial plane of dissection are presented.Controversy still exits on the manipulation of the deep fat compartment by liposuction or direct fat excision. No manipulation is another option which should be considered but it has been questioned due to the risk of aesthetic compromise. A morphometric study performed on the surgical specimens of 41 female patients submitted to a full abdominoplasty validates that option.Based on this evidence, the authors recommend that surgeons consider performing abdominoplasties using a more superficial plane of dissection in the infraumbilical area with total preservation of Scarpa fascia and the deep fat compartment. The classic plane of dissection, on top of the deep fascia, should be avoided in the lower abdomen. PMID:27187249

  16. The Palos Verdes Fault offshore southern California: late Pleistocene to present tectonic geomorphology, seascape evolution and slip rate estimate based on AUV and ROV surveys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brothers, Daniel S.; Conrad, James E.; Maier, Katherine L.; Paull, Charles K.; McGann, Mary L.; Caress, David W.

    2015-01-01

    The Palos Verdes Fault (PVF) is one of few active faults in Southern California that crosses the shoreline and can be studied using both terrestrial and subaqueous methodologies. To characterize the near-seafloor fault morphology, tectonic influences on continental slope sedimentary processes and late Pleistocene to present slip rate, a grid of high-resolution multibeam bathymetric data, and chirp subbottom profiles were acquired with an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) along the main trace of PVF in water depths between 250 and 600 m. Radiocarbon dates were obtained from vibracores collected using a remotely operated vehicle (ROV) and ship-based gravity cores. The PVF is expressed as a well-defined seafloor lineation marked by subtle along-strike bends. Right-stepping transtensional bends exert first-order control on sediment flow dynamics and the spatial distribution of Holocene depocenters; deformed strata within a small pull-apart basin record punctuated growth faulting associated with at least three Holocene surface ruptures. An upper (shallower) landslide scarp, a buried sedimentary mound, and a deeper scarp have been right-laterally offset across the PVF by 55 ± 5, 52 ± 4 , and 39 ± 8 m, respectively. The ages of the upper scarp and buried mound are approximately 31 ka; the age of the deeper scarp is bracketed to 17–24 ka. These three piercing points bracket the late Pleistocene to present slip rate to 1.3–2.8 mm/yr and provide a best estimate of 1.6–1.9 mm/yr. The deformation observed along the PVF is characteristic of strike-slip faulting and accounts for 20–30% of the total right-lateral slip budget accommodated offshore Southern California.

  17. The Palos Verdes Fault offshore Southern California: Late Pleistocene to present tectonic geomorphology, seascape evolution, and slip rate estimate based on AUV and ROV surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brothers, Daniel S.; Conrad, James E.; Maier, Katherine L.; Paull, Charles K.; McGann, Mary; Caress, David W.

    2015-07-01

    The Palos Verdes Fault (PVF) is one of few active faults in Southern California that crosses the shoreline and can be studied using both terrestrial and subaqueous methodologies. To characterize the near-seafloor fault morphology, tectonic influences on continental slope sedimentary processes and late Pleistocene to present slip rate, a grid of high-resolution multibeam bathymetric data, and chirp subbottom profiles were acquired with an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) along the main trace of PVF in water depths between 250 and 600 m. Radiocarbon dates were obtained from vibracores collected using a remotely operated vehicle (ROV) and ship-based gravity cores. The PVF is expressed as a well-defined seafloor lineation marked by subtle along-strike bends. Right-stepping transtensional bends exert first-order control on sediment flow dynamics and the spatial distribution of Holocene depocenters; deformed strata within a small pull-apart basin record punctuated growth faulting associated with at least three Holocene surface ruptures. An upper (shallower) landslide scarp, a buried sedimentary mound, and a deeper scarp have been right-laterally offset across the PVF by 55 ± 5, 52 ± 4 , and 39 ± 8 m, respectively. The ages of the upper scarp and buried mound are approximately 31 ka; the age of the deeper scarp is bracketed to 17-24 ka. These three piercing points bracket the late Pleistocene to present slip rate to 1.3-2.8 mm/yr and provide a best estimate of 1.6-1.9 mm/yr. The deformation observed along the PVF is characteristic of strike-slip faulting and accounts for 20-30% of the total right-lateral slip budget accommodated offshore Southern California.

  18. Assessment of 1-chloro-4-[2,2-dichloro-1-(4-chlorophenyl)ethenyl]benzene (DDE) Transformation Rates on the Palos Verdes Shelf, CA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eganhouse, Robert P.; Pontolillo, James

    2008-01-01

    In 1953, the world's largest producer of DDT, Montrose Chemical Corporation, began to discharge process wastes into sewers of the Los Angeles County Sanitation Districts (LACSD), California. By 1971, when the sewer connection was terminated, approximately 1,500-2,000 metric tons of DDT had been introduced to the LACSD treatment plant in Carson, CA. After treatment, effluent from this plant was released to the ocean through a submarine outfall system on the Palos Verdes Shelf (PVS) near Los Angeles, resulting in the accumulation of highly contaminated marine sediments. Numerous investigations of the PVS have been undertaken since the late 1960s, but few have focused on the biogeochemical fate of DDT and its transformation products. In the early 1990s, it was shown that DDE, the major DDT compound in the sediments, was being reductively dechlorinated by microorganisms resident in sediments on the PVS. The U.S. Geological Survey undertook a study in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to provide a better understanding of the range of reductive dechlorination rates on the PVS and the environmental factors that control them. Existing data show that rates of reductive dechlorination are variable spatially. A comparison of data from two cores collected approximately 7 kilometers downcurrent from the outfall systems in 1992 and 2003 yielded an average first-order transformation rate of approximately 0.05 yr-1. A multistep reaction model suggests that inventories of DDE in PVS sediments at the study site will continue to decline, whereas the inventory of the metabolite DDNU will reach a maximum around 2014.

  19. South San Francisco Bay tidal marsh vegetation and elevation surveys-Corkscrew Marsh, Bird Island, and Palo Alto Baylands, California, 1983

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orlando, James L.; Drexler, Judy Z.; Dedrick, Kent G.

    2005-01-01

    Changes in the topography and ecology of the San Francisco Bay Estuary ('Estuary') during the past 200 years have resulted in the loss of nearly 80 percent of the historical salt marsh in the region. Currently, numerous projects are being undertaken by federal, state, and local governments in an attempt to restore wetland habitat and ecosystem function at a number of locations within the Estuary. Much information is needed concerning the historical topographic and ecologic characteristics of the Estuary to facilitate these restoration efforts. This report presents previously unpublished vegetation and elevation data collected in 1983 by the California State Lands Commission at Corkscrew marsh, Bird Island, and Palo Alto Baylands, all located in South San Francisco Bay. These precise and detailed elevation and plant surveys represent a snapshot of South Bay flora before invasion by the Atlantic smooth cordgrass, Spartina alterniflora. Such precise elevation data are rare for relatively undisturbed marshes in the San Francisco Bay; publication of these historical data may facilitate wetland restoration efforts. Marsh-surface and tidal-channel elevations were determined at a total of 962 stations by differential leveling to established tidal benchmark stations at each site and referenced to Mean Lower Low Water (MLLW) relative to the National Tidal Datum Epoch (1960-78). In addition, presence or absence of nine salt marsh species, percentage plant cover, and percentage bare soil were recorded for 1-square meter quadrats at 648 stations where elevations were determined. Collectively, over the three sites, salt marsh vegetation ranged in elevation from 0.98 to 2.94 m above MLLW. S. foliosa and Salicornia virginica were the most frequently observed plant species. Atriplex patula, Deschampsia cespitosa, and Limonium californicum were each recorded at only one of the three sites.

  20. Utilizing Tritium and CFC-12 to Determine Groundwater Sources in an Unconfined Aquifer Within the Abalone Cove Landslide, Palos Verdes, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Difilippo, E. L.; Hammond, D. E.; Douglas, R.; Clark, J. F.; Avisar, D.; Dunker, R.

    2004-12-01

    The Abalone Cove landslide occupies 80 acres of an ancient landslide complex on the Palos Verdes peninsula, and was re-activated in 1979. The uphill portion of the ancient landslide complex has remained stable in historic times. Water infiltration into the slide is a short term catalyst for mass movement in the area, so it is important to determine the sources of groundwater throughout the slide mass. Water may enter the slide mass through direct percolation of recent precipitation, inflow along the head scarp of the ancient landslide or by rising through the slide plane from a deeper aquifer. The objective of this contribution is to use geochemical tracers (tritium and CFC-12) in combination with numerical modeling to constrain the importance of each of these sources. Numerical models were constructed to predict geochemical tracer concentrations throughout the basin, assuming that the only source of water to the slide mass is percolation of recent precipitation. Predicted concentrations were then compared to measured tracer values. In the ancient landslide, predicted and measured tracer concentrations are in good agreement, indicating that most of the water in this area is recent precipitation falling within the basin. Groundwater recharged uphill of the ancient landslide contributes minor flow into the complex through the head scarp, with the majority of this water flowing beneath the ancient slide plane. However, predicted tracer concentrations in the toe of the Abalone Cove landslide are not consistent with measured values. Both CFC-12 and tritium concentrations indicate that water is older than predicted and communication between the slide mass and the aquifer beneath the slide plane must occur in this area. Infiltration of this deep circulating water may exert upward hydraulic pressure on the landslide slip surface, increasing the potential for movement. This hypothesis is consistent with the observation that current movement is only occurring in the area in

  1. Geology and geohydrology of the Palo Duro Basin, Texas Panhandle. Report on the progress of nuclear waste isolation feasibility studies, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Gustavson, T.C.; Presley, M.W.; Handford, C.R.; Finley, R.J.; Dutton, S.P.; Baumgardner, R.W. Jr.; McGillis, K.A.; Simpkins, W.W.

    1980-01-01

    Since early 1977, the Bureau of Economic Geology has been evaluating several salt-bearing basins within the State of Texas as part of the national nuclear repository program. The Bureau, a research unit of The University of Texas at Austin and the State of Texas, is carrying out a long-term program to gather and interpret all geologic and hydrologic information necessary for description, delineation, and evaluation of salt-bearing strata in the Palo Duro and Dalhart Basins of the Texas Panhandle. The program in FY 79 has been subdivided into four broad research tasks, which are addressed by a basin analysis group, a surface studies group, a geohydrology group, and a host-rock analysis group. The basin analysis group has delineated the structural and stratigraphic framework of the basins, initiated natural resource assessment, and integrated data from 8000 ft (2400 m) of core material into salt-stratigraphy models. Salt depth and thickness have been delineated for seven salt-bearing stratigraphic units. Concurrently, the surface studies group has collected ground and remotely sensed data to describe surficial processes, including salt solution, slope retreat/erosion mechanisms, geomorphic evolution, and fracture system development. The basin geohydrology group has begun evaluating both shallow and deep fluid circulation within the basins. The newly formed host-rock analysis group has initiated study of cores from two drilling sites for analysis of salt and the various lithologies overlying and interbedded with salt units. This paper, a summary report of progress in FY 79, presents principal conclusions and reviews methods used and types of data and maps generated.

  2. Evaluation of a main steam line break with induced, multiple tube ruptures: A comparison of NUREG 1477 (Draft) and transient methodologies Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station

    SciTech Connect

    Parrish, K.R.

    1995-09-01

    This paper presents the approach taken to analyze the radiological consequences of a postulated main steam line break event, with one or more tube ruptures, for the Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station. The analysis was required to support the restart of PVNGS Unit 2 following the steam generator tube rupture event on March 14, 1993 and to justify continued operation of Units 1 and 3. During the post-event evaluation, the NRC expressed concern that Unit 2 could have been operating with degraded tubes and that similar conditions could exist in Units 1 and 3. The NRC therefore directed that a safety assessment be performed to evaluate a worst case scenario in which a non-isolable main steam line break occurs inducing one or more tube failures in the faulted steam generator. This assessment was to use the generic approach described in NUREG 1477, Voltage-Based Interim Plugging Criteria for Steam Generator Tubes - Task Group Report. An analysis based on the NUREG approach was performed but produced unacceptable results for off-site and control room thyroid doses. The NUREG methodology, however, does not account for plant thermal-hydraulic transient effects, system performance, or operator actions which could be credited to mitigate dose consequences. To deal with these issues, a more detailed analysis methodology was developed using a modified version of the Combustion Engineering Plant Analysis Code, which examines the dose consequences for a main steam line break transient with induced tube failures for a spectrum equivalent to 1 to 4 double ended guillotine U-tube breaks. By incorporating transient plant system responses and operator actions, the analysis demonstrates that the off-site and control room does consequences for a MSLBGTR can be reduced to acceptable limits. This analysis, in combination with other corrective and recovery actions, provided sufficient justification for continued operation of PVNGS Units 1 and 3, and for the subsequent restart of Unit 2.

  3. Challenges to managing forests for carbon sequestration, bioenergy production, and natural adaptation (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Law, B. E.

    2010-12-01

    Managing forests for increasing carbon sequestration and bioenergy product is often cited as a way to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions, although the consequences to ecosystems are often unclear or overlooked. Forest carbon sequestration could be maintained or increased by avoided deforestation and forest degradation, afforestation and reforestation. There is much interest in bioenergy production by thinning existing forests and land-use conversion to plantations. Regional analysis in the western U.S. shows that thinning to prevent fire emissions or to provide stock for bioenergy from existing forests results in a decrease in forest carbon stocks and net biome production (NBP) and increased emissions. A separate DGVM model analysis predicts declines in water availability to some forests, leading to large increases in forest area burned and severity by the end of the 21st century with climate change, and suggests those forests could be thinned to reduce competition for water and minimize impacts. Land-use conversion and broad-scale repeated thinning ignores the potential consequences to habitat, species migration (natural adaptation), and other ecosystem services. To facilitate adaptation of forests to climate change, there is a need sustaining genetic and species diversity through forest preservation and landscape connectivity for migration of plant and animal species. Improved high-resolution regional analysis is needed to include these effects on potential future distribution of species in addition to carbon, water and nutrient cycling in the face of climate change.

  4. Ocular preservatives: associated risks and newer options.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Indu Pal; Lal, Shruti; Rana, Cheena; Kakkar, Shilpa; Singh, Harinder

    2009-01-01

    Presence of a preservative in an ocular medication has often been considered a culprit in damaging the epithelium. However, the inclusion of a preservative is equally necessary, especially in multiple-dose containers, in order to protect against dangerous organisms accidentally gaining access during instillation. Benzalkonium chloride (BAK), chlorobutanol, chlorhexidine acetate (CHA), and phenylmercuric nitrate or acetate are some commonly used preservatives in eye preparations. New preservatives with a wide range of activity and good safety profiles have been introduced in the market, such as stabilized oxychloro complex (SOC), sofZia, and sodium perborate. In the present review, we discuss various conventional and newly proposed and patented preservative molecules for ocular use. Reasons for discontinuing traditional preservatives and the need for less-toxic molecules are discussed at length, along with newer options coming up in this area.

  5. Female fertility preservation: a clinical perspective.

    PubMed

    Pavone, Mary E; Confino, Rafael; Steinberg, Marissa

    2016-08-01

    For patients with cancer, preserving the ability to start a family at a time of their choosing is especially important and may influence decisions pertaining to cancer treatment. For other women who have delayed childbearing for personal or professional reasons, fertility preservation offers the possibility of having a biological child regardless of age. Though these women may be interested in or benefit from fertility preservation, fertility preservation services remain underutilized. While embryo and oocyte cryopreservation remain the standard strategies for female fertility preservation recommended by the American Society of Reproductive Medicine, the American Society of Clinical Oncology and the European Society of Medical Oncology, other strategies (e.g. pharmacological protection of the ovaries and ovarian tissue cryopreservation) are the subject of increasing research. This review will present new data that have become available over the past few years pertaining to all available methods of fertility preservation. PMID:26847846

  6. Life in Tropical Rain Forests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NatureScope, 1989

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the diversity of rain forest life, the adaptations of rain forest plants and animals, and ways these organisms interact. Includes activities on canopy critters with a copyable sheet, rain forest revue, design a plant, and jungle sleuths. (RT)

  7. Hydrological niche separation explains seasonal and inter-annual variations of vegetation dynamics in seasonally dry tropical forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, X.; Medvigy, D.; Powers, J. S.; Becknell, J. M.; Guan, K.

    2015-12-01

    Despite ample water supply, vegetation dynamics are subject to seasonal water stress in large fraction of tropical forests. These seasonally dry tropical forests (SDTFs) account for over 40% of tropical forests, harbor high biodiversity, have large potential carbon sink due to forest recovery from human disturbance and also play a critical role in global carbon budget and inter-annual variations. Plants in this biome display notably diverse responses to seasonal and inter-annual variations of water availability, especially inter-specific variations in canopy seasonality and biomass growth. Current process-based dynamic vegetation models cannot represent these diversities and are shown to perform poorly on simulating drought responses of tropical forests, calling into question of their ability to accurately simulate future changes in SDTFs. Accumulated field observations, suggest that hydrological niche separation driven by coordinated plant functional traits is associated with plants' performance under drought. Yet, it remains not clear whether the physiology-level hydrological niche separation can explain the ecosystem-level diversity observed in SDTFs. Here, we test the theory with a model-data fusion approach. We implemented a new plant hydrodynamic module that is able to track leaf water potential at sub-daily scale in ED2 model. We further incorporated a hydrological niche separation scheme based on a meta-data analysis of key functional traits in SDTFs. Simulated ecological patterns with and without hydrological niche separation were then compared with remote-sensing and long-term field observations from an SDTF site in Palo Verde, Costa Rica. Using several numerical experiments, we specifically examine the following questions: (i) Whether hydrological niche separation can explain the diversity in canopy seasonality and biomass growth? (ii) How important are the yet uncertain belowground functional traits, especially root profile in determining canopy

  8. Preservation of the biomedical literature: an overview.

    PubMed Central

    Byrnes, M M

    1989-01-01

    The National Library of Medicine began to preserve its collection many years ago. This article presents a brief review of NLM's early conservation and microfilming programs, and describes the current activities of the library's new Preservation Section. Also mentioned are the complementary efforts of NLM staff who are involved in research into electronic imaging and the campaign to increase the use of alkaline paper in medical and scientific publishing. Goals of the National Preservation Plan for the Biomedical Literature are summarized and a report on progress in implementing the plan is provided. Results of the preservation needs assessment described in the accompanying article by Kirkpatrick are briefly analyzed. Recent efforts of the Commission on Preservation and Access, the National Endowment for the Humanities, the Research Libraries Group, and several international associations are described in terms of their potential benefit to preservation of the biomedical literature. The need to monitor new preservation technologies and preserve materials in audiovisual and electronic formats is emphasized. It is argued that with enough coordination, cooperation, and willingness among health sciences libraries to share the costs, the goal of preserving all of the important biomedical literature can be accomplished. PMID:2758180

  9. Fertility Preservation in Children and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Estes, Stephanie J

    2015-12-01

    Fertility preservation is the process by which either oocytes (eggs) or sperm undergo an intervention to preserve their use for future attempts at conception. Consideration of fertility preservation in the pediatric and adolescent population is important, as future childbearing is usually a central life goal. For postpubertal girls, both oocyte and embryo cryopreservation are standard of care and for postpubertal boys, sperm cryopreservation continues to be recommended. Although all the risks are unknown, it appears that fertility preservation in most cases does not worsen prognosis, allows for the birth of healthy children, and does not increase the chance of recurrence.

  10. The non-uniformity of fossil preservation.

    PubMed

    Holland, Steven M

    2016-07-19

    The fossil record provides the primary source of data for calibrating the origin of clades. Although minimum ages of clades are given by the oldest preserved fossil, these underestimate the true age, which must be bracketed by probabilistic methods based on multiple fossil occurrences. Although most of these methods assume uniform preservation rates, this assumption is unsupported over geological timescales. On geologically long timescales (more than 10 Myr), the origin and cessation of sedimentary basins, and long-term variations in tectonic subsidence, eustatic sea level and sedimentation rate control the availability of depositional facies that preserve the environments in which species lived. The loss of doomed sediments, those with a low probability of preservation, imparts a secular trend to fossil preservation. As a result, the fossil record is spatially and temporally non-uniform. Models of fossil preservation should reflect this non-uniformity by using empirical estimates of fossil preservation that are spatially and temporally partitioned, or by using indirect proxies of fossil preservation. Geologically, realistic models of preservation will provide substantially more reliable estimates of the origination of clades.This article is part of the themed issue 'Dating species divergences using rocks and clocks'. PMID:27325828

  11. The non-uniformity of fossil preservation.

    PubMed

    Holland, Steven M

    2016-07-19

    The fossil record provides the primary source of data for calibrating the origin of clades. Although minimum ages of clades are given by the oldest preserved fossil, these underestimate the true age, which must be bracketed by probabilistic methods based on multiple fossil occurrences. Although most of these methods assume uniform preservation rates, this assumption is unsupported over geological timescales. On geologically long timescales (more than 10 Myr), the origin and cessation of sedimentary basins, and long-term variations in tectonic subsidence, eustatic sea level and sedimentation rate control the availability of depositional facies that preserve the environments in which species lived. The loss of doomed sediments, those with a low probability of preservation, imparts a secular trend to fossil preservation. As a result, the fossil record is spatially and temporally non-uniform. Models of fossil preservation should reflect this non-uniformity by using empirical estimates of fossil preservation that are spatially and temporally partitioned, or by using indirect proxies of fossil preservation. Geologically, realistic models of preservation will provide substantially more reliable estimates of the origination of clades.This article is part of the themed issue 'Dating species divergences using rocks and clocks'.

  12. Habitat area requirements of breeding forest birds of the middle Atlantic states

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robbins, Chandler S.; Dawson, Deanna K.; Dowell, Barbara A.

    1989-01-01

    Conservation of birds requires an understanding of their nesting requirements, including area as well as structural characteristics of the habitat. Previous studies have shown that many neotropical migrant bird species seem to depend on extensive forested areas, but the specific area requirements of individual species have not been clarified sufficiently to aid in design and management of effective preserves. For this 5-year study, bird and vegetation data were obtained at 469 points in forests ranging in area from 0.1 ha to more than 3,000 ha in Maryland and adjacent states. Data were analyzed first by stepwise regression to identify habitat factors that had the greatest influence on relative abundance of each bird species. In the relatively undisturbed mature forests studied, degree of isolation and area were significant predictors of relative abundance for more bird species than were any habitat variables. For species for which forest area was a significant predictor of abundance, we used logistic regression to examine the relationship between forest area and the probability of detecting the species. In managing forest lands for wildlife, top priority should go toward providing for the needs of area-sensitive or rare species rather than increasing species diversity per se. Avian species that occur in small and disturbed forests are generalists that are adapted to survival under edge conditions and need no special assistance from man. Forest reserves with thousands of hectares are required to have the highest probability of providing for the least common species of forest birds in a region. However, if preservation of large contiguous forest tracts is not a realistic option, results of this study suggest 2 alternative approaches. First, if other habitat attributes also are considered, smaller forests may provide suitable breeding sites for relatively rare species. Second, smaller tracts in close proximity to other forests may serve to attract or retain area

  13. Late quaternary environments, Denali National Park and Preserve, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elias, S.A.; Short, S.K.; Waythomas, C.F.

    1996-01-01

    Late Quaternary pollen, plant macrofossils, and insect fossils were studied from sites along three rivers in the foothills north of the Alaska Range in Denali National Park and Preserve. The aim was to carry out a reconaissance of late Quaternary organic sediments in the region, emphasizing the mid-Wisconsin, or Boutellier interstadial interval. Samples of probable early- to mid-Boutellier age (ca. 60 000 to 40 000 B.P.) from Unit 2 at the Toklat High Bluffs site indicate open boreal woodland with dense alder shrub vegetation. Organic Unit 1 at the Foraker River Slump site indicates open taiga with shrubs of probable Boutellier age. Fossil evidence from the youngest horizon in this unit indicates graminoid tundra environments, marking the transition from interstadial to late Wisconsin glacial environments. Early Holocene samples from the Foraker exposures suggest birch shrub tundra; coniferous forest apparently became established only alter 6500 B.P. Local variations in forest composition at the Foraker and Sushana sites were probably the result of disturbances, such as fire.

  14. How to preserve the tundra in a warming climate?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Käyhkö, Jukka

    2014-05-01

    The warming climate of the polar regions may change much of the current arctic-alpine tundra to forest or dense scrubland. This modification requires adaptation by traditional livelihoods such as reindeer herding, which relies on diverse, seasonal pasturelands. Vegetation change may also trigger positive warming feedbacks, where more abundant forest-scrub vegetation will decrease the global albedo. NCoE Tundra team investigates the complex climate-animal-plant interaction of the tundra ecosystem and aim to unravel the capability of herbivorous mammals to control the expansion of woody vegetation. Our interdisciplinary approach involves several work packages, whose results will be summarised in the presentation. In the ecological WPs, we study the dynamics of the natural food chains involving small herbivorous and the impacts of reindeer on the vegetation and the population dynamics of those arctic-alpine plants, which are most likely to become threatened in a warmer climate. Our study demonstrates the potential of a relatively sparse reindeer stocks (2-5 heads per km2) together with natural populations of arvicoline rodents to prevent the expansion of erect woody plants at the arctic-alpine timberline. In the climatic WPs we study the impact of grazing-dependent vegetation differences on the fraction of solar energy converted to heat. In the socio-economic WPs, we study the conditions for maintaining the economic and cultural viability of reindeer herding while managing the land use so that the arctic-alpine biota would be preserved.

  15. Pinelands national reserve: An intergovernmental approach to nature preservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lilieholm, Robert J.; Romm, Jeff

    1992-05-01

    The Pinelands National Reserve was created in 1978 when private interests and federal, state, and local governments allied to protect 378,000 ha (935,000 acres) of New Jersey's Pine Barrens from encroaching development. An intergovernmental authority, the Pinelands Commission, manages the reserve by implementing a regional plan to guide development away from environmentally sensitive areas and into designated growth centers. Through transferable development rights, financial gains from development in growth centers are used to compensate owners and localities in the reserve who might otherwise have developed their lands. The national reserve strategy contrasts with other federal strategies for preserving unique environments in which the federal government exercises exclusive control (e.g., national parks, monuments, and recreation areas). This article describes the strategy applied in the Pinelands and discusses the conditions in which it may be more or less effective than other strategies used to protect unique or valued landscapes. It then compares the Pinelands model with the strategies and conditions of california's Redwood National Park and Point Reyes National Seashore to develop propositions about the circumstances in which one or another strategy is more likely to be viable. Finally, it applies these propositions to the possibilities for future forest preservation in New England.

  16. People and Forests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NatureScope, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Provides: (1) background information on how forests are managed and some of the problems facing forests around the world; (2) three activities dealing with these topics; and (3) three ready-to-copy pages for student use. Activities include an objective, recommended age level(s), recommended subject area(s), list of materials needed, and…

  17. The National Forests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clawson, Marion

    1976-01-01

    National forests are a valuable national asset in terms of wood, recreation, wilderness, wildlife, and water. Management is inefficient and uneconomic creating wasteful capital investment and below-potential economic output. Better national leadership, analysis of forests as a business enterprise, and recruitment of outside persons into Forest…

  18. Trading forest carbon

    EPA Science Inventory

    The nature of carbon in forests is discussed from the perspective of carbon trading. Carbon inventories, specifically in the area of land use and forestry are reviewed for the Pacific Northwest. Carbon turnover in forests is discussed as it relates to carbon sequestration. Scient...

  19. People & Tropical Rain Forests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NatureScope, 1989

    1989-01-01

    Discusses ways people who live in rain forests make a living and some of the products that enrich our lives. Provides activities covering forest people, tropical treats, jungle in the pantry, treetop explorers, and three copyable pages to accompany activities. (Author/RT)

  20. Pantropical forest hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumagai, T.; Kanamori, H.; Chappell, N. A.

    2015-12-01

    First, we show pantropical distributions of annual amount and seasonality of precipitation with world tropical forest map, derived from the global-scale gridded data. Then, using the atmospheric water balance method with the global-scale data, we built pantropical maps of evapotranspiration (ET), runoff (Q) and rainfall recycle (from precipitation) ratio (RR). Comparisons of the pantropical gridded-computations of ET, Q and RR with those from pantropical fields (mostly, experimental forest watersheds) data revealed differences in hydrologic component characteristics between temperate and tropical forests and how such tropical hydrologic components are generated. Furthermore, an application of Budyko's Radiation Dryness Index to our pantropical analyses allowed us to consider the limits of world tropical forests and future distribution of tropical forests under climate change conditions.

  1. 78 FR 73819 - Forest Resource Coordinating Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-09

    ... Forest Service Forest Resource Coordinating Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of...-18, 2013 meeting of the Forest Resource Coordinating Committee due to the Government partial shutdown... INFORMATION CONTACT: Maya Solomon, Forest Resource Coordinating Committee Program Coordinator; by phone...

  2. Importance of Preserving Raw Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Y.; Nagihara, S.; Williams, D. R.

    2015-12-01

    Our effort to make the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiment Package (ALSEP) data, acquired from 1969 to 1977, readily available to current and future researchers, as reported in this session last year, has made us realize some potentially serious problems that may be common to legacy scientific data. One such problem was the loss of key information contained in the original data. This happened (a) when the original investigators thought it was enough to archive only the data of interest to contemporary researchers; (b) when the data were reformatted to make them readily decipherable to current researchers by someone who did not fully understand the details of the data, thus introducing incorrectly translated information; (c) when errors associated with reading of the original data were not corrected; and (d) simply due to a programming error in reformatting. The only sure way to avoid such a problem is to archive the raw experimental data in addition to the processed data, even though they may not be readily decipherable to most current researchers. For such raw data to be useful, it is also important that complete metadata necessary to interpret the raw data be preserved.

  3. 7 CFR 782.14 - Identity preservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... § 782.14 Identity preservation. (a) The importer and all subsequent buyers of the imported wheat shall preserve the identity of the Canadian-produced wheat. (b) Canadian-produced wheat may only be commingled with U.S.-produced wheat by the end user, or when loaded onto a conveyance for direct delivery to...

  4. 7 CFR 782.14 - Identity preservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... § 782.14 Identity preservation. (a) The importer and all subsequent buyers of the imported wheat shall preserve the identity of the Canadian-produced wheat. (b) Canadian-produced wheat may only be commingled with U.S.-produced wheat by the end user, or when loaded onto a conveyance for direct delivery to...

  5. 7 CFR 782.14 - Identity preservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... § 782.14 Identity preservation. (a) The importer and all subsequent buyers of the imported wheat shall preserve the identity of the Canadian-produced wheat. (b) Canadian-produced wheat may only be commingled with U.S.-produced wheat by the end user, or when loaded onto a conveyance for direct delivery to...

  6. Working Together: Case Studies in Cooperative Preservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Condict Gaye

    This report examines regional and/or state cooperative preservation programs and related activities. The major part of the report is given over to case studies that present a synopsis of the key structural and program elements of cooperative preservation initiatives. These case studies include the: Office of Library and Archival Materials…

  7. Preservation Film: Platform for Digital Access Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, C. Lee

    Preservation efforts for an increasingly digitally oriented future have turned to advanced and improved methods of preservation on microfilm, which has a life expectancy of more than 500 years when properly prepared, stored, and managed, and can support a wide range of digital access systems. Computer controlled cameras can provide significantly…

  8. Preservation of Mohave History and Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsosie, Michael

    This report represents a project required by the Americans for Indian Opportunity Ambassador Program. The project involved the preservation of Mohave culture for the Mohave tribe, one of four tribes of the Colorado River Indian Tribes reservation. Preservation requires equal access to information as well as the freedom to disseminate information…

  9. Historic Preservation Vocabulary, Designations, and Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Stacy D.

    2011-01-01

    Preservationists use a common language that had its beginnings in the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966. This act created the Secretary of the Interior's Standards for the Treatment of Historic Properties, which defined the terms and treatments that have become the standard for preservation projects and plans. These terms have been used…

  10. 20 CFR 638.304 - Historical preservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Register of Historic Places” at 36 CFR part 800. ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Historical preservation. 638.304 Section 638... § 638.304 Historical preservation. The Job Corps Director shall review the “National Register...

  11. 20 CFR 638.304 - Historical preservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Register of Historic Places” at 36 CFR part 800. ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Historical preservation. 638.304 Section 638... § 638.304 Historical preservation. The Job Corps Director shall review the “National Register...

  12. Home Food Preservation Training for Extension Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goard, Linnette Mizer; Hill, Melinda; Shumaker, Katharine; Warrix, Marisa

    2013-01-01

    During times of economic downturn, there has been an increased interest in home food preservation. As the primary resource for current research-based recommendations, a team of Extension Family and Consumer Sciences educators with specialization in food safety and food preservation responded to this demand by developing a standardized food…

  13. [Application on food preservative of antimicrobial peptides].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hongyan; Mu, Yu; Zhao, Baohua

    2009-07-01

    Antimicrobial peptides are an integral component of the innate immune system, it can counteract outer membrane pathogen such as bacteria, fungi, viruses, protozoan and so on. Owing to the sterilization and innocuity, it has the potential to be crude food preservative. In this paper the uses of antibacterial peptides in the food preservative were analyzed.

  14. Building a New Historic Preservation Trades Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deeg, Rhonda L.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the experiences of the program coordinator of a new two-year preservation trades program at Harford Community College in Bel Air, Maryland. The two-year associate in applied sciences degree offered at Harford Community College (HCC) is a Technical Professional Studies program in Building Preservation and Restoration (BPR).…

  15. Corn, alfalfa and grass silage preservation principles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ensiling is the primary means of preserving moist forages for feeding livestock. In ensiling, the crop is stored anaerobically, and sugars in the crop are fermented by lactic acid bacteria naturally on the crop. The crop is preserved by the combination of the acids produced by the lactic acid bacter...

  16. A Big Problem for Magellan: Food Preservation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galvao, Cecilia; Reis, Pedro; Freire, Sofia

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present data related to how a Portuguese teacher developed the module "A big problem for Magellan: Food preservation." Students were asked to plan an investigation in order to identify which were the best food preservation methods in the XV and XVI centuries of Portuguese overseas navigation, and then establish a parallel between…

  17. SYNERGISTIC WOOD PRESERVATIVES FOR REPLACEMENT OF CCA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this project was to evaluate the potential synergistic combinations of environmentally-safe biocides as wood preservatives. These wood preservatives could be potential replacements for the heavy-metal based CCA.

    Didecyldimethylammonium chloride [DDAC] was...

  18. Preserving the Character of Historic Camps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stepenoff, Bonnie

    1991-01-01

    Historic buildings, trails, and other camp features form the character of a particular camp and provide an escape to the past. Rehabilitating and preserving old camp structures requires attention to details and maintenance considerations. The U.S. Department of the Interior publishes guidelines for identifying and preserving historical properties.…

  19. Whale Preservation. Grades Five to Nine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Racicot, Darlene

    Dedicated to the conservation and preservation of whales, dolphins, and porpoises through public education, this instructional unit for grades 5-9 provides current (1993) facts, lesson plans, activities, and conservation and preservation techniques. Interdisciplinary activities involve students in debates, critical thinking, research, and…

  20. Digital Preservation and Metadata: History, Theory, Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazinger, Susan S.

    This book addresses critical issues of digital preservation, providing guidelines for protecting resources from dealing with obsolescence, to responsibilities, methods of preservation, cost, and metadata formats. It also shows numerous national and international institutions that provide frameworks for digital libraries and archives. The first…

  1. Preservation of Scientific Serials: Three Current Examples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arms, William Y.

    2000-01-01

    Concentrates on three case studies as examples of typical publications where the definitive versions are already in electronic formats and maintained online, and discusses implications for long-term preservation selection; preservation requirements; publishers as archivists; stability for the next century; copyright; technology and standards;…

  2. Problems in the Preservation of Electronic Records.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Lim Siew; Ramaiah, Chennupati K.; Wal, Pitt Kuan

    2003-01-01

    Discusses issues related to the preservation of electronic records. Highlights include differences between physical and electronic records; volume of electronic records; physical media; authenticity; migration of electronic records; metadata; legal issues; improved storage media; and projects for preservation of electronic records. (LRW)

  3. Quantitative Evaluation of Tissue Preservation

    Cancer.gov

    Modern diagnostic pathology requires that both morphology and molecular integrity are preserved throughout processing and handling of the tissue. The major challenge for molecular analysis of breast cancer samples is to preserve the molecular integrity of the specimen while insuring the structural integrity needed for diagnostic pathology.

  4. Long-term preservation of Anammox bacteria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Deposit of useful microorganisms in culture collections requires long-term preservation and successful reactivation techniques. The goal of this study was to develop a simple preservation protocol for the long-term storage and reactivation of the anammox biomass. To achieve this, anammox biomass w...

  5. Preservation in the Age of Google: Digitization, Digital Preservation, and Dilemmas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Paul

    2010-01-01

    The cultural heritage preservation community now functions largely within the environment of digital technologies. This article begins by juxtaposing definitions of the terms "digitization for preservation" and "digital preservation" within a sociotechnical environment for which Google serves as a relevant metaphor. It then reviews two reports…

  6. Near field receiving water monitoring of trace metals in clams (macoma balthica) and sediments near the Palo Alto Water Quality Control Plant in South San Francisco Bay, California: 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moon, Edward; Luoma, Samuel N.; Cain, Daniel J.; Hornberger, Michelle I.; David, Carlos Primo C.

    2004-01-01

    Trace element concentrations were analyzed on samples of fine-grained sediments and clams (Macoma balthica) collected from a mudflat one kilometer south of the discharge of the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant in South San Francisco Bay. This report serves as a continuation of the Near Field Receiving Water Monitoring Study, which was started in 1994. The data for 2003, herein, are interpreted within that context. Metal concentrations in both sediments and clam tissue samples have been within the range of values produced by seasonal variability; however, copper and zinc, display continued decreases over the last decade. In 2003, copper in sediment was observed to drop below the ERL (Effects Range-Low) concentration for the third consecutive year and zinc concentrations never exceeded the ERL. Yearly average concentrations of copper, zinc and silver in Macoma balthica for 2003 are some of the lowest recorded since monitoring began in 1975. Mercury and selenium concentrations in sediments and clams at Palo Alto were similar to concentrations observed elsewhere in the San Francisco Bay.

  7. Near field receiving water monitoring of trace metals in clams (Macoma balthica) and sediments near the Palo Alto water quality control plant in south San Francisco Bay, California : 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moon, Edward; David, Carlos Primo C.; Luoma, Samuel N.; Cain, Daniel J.; Hornberger, Michelle I.; Lavigne, Irene R.

    2003-01-01

    This report presents trace element concentrations analyzed on samples of fine-grained sediments and clams (Macoma balthica) collected from a mudflat one kilometer south of the discharge of the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant in South San Francisco Bay. This report serves as a continuation of the Near Field Receiving Water Monitoring Study, which was started in 1994. The data for 2002, herein, are interpreted within that context. Metal concentrations in both sediments and clam tissue samples have been within the range of values produced by seasonal variability. However, copper and zinc, display continued decreases. Copper in sediment was observed to drop below the ERL (Effects Range-Low) concentration for the third consecutive year and zinc concentrations never exceeded the ERL. Yearly average concentrations of copper, zinc and silver in Macoma balthica for 2002 are some of the lowest recorded since monitoring began in 1975. Mercury and selenium concentrations in sediments and clams at Palo Alto were similar concentrations observed elsewhere in the San Francisco Bay.

  8. Forest structure in low-diversity tropical forests: a study of Hawaiian wet and dry forests.

    PubMed

    Ostertag, Rebecca; Inman-Narahari, Faith; Cordell, Susan; Giardina, Christian P; Sack, Lawren

    2014-01-01

    The potential influence of diversity on ecosystem structure and function remains a topic of significant debate, especially for tropical forests where diversity can range widely. We used Center for Tropical Forest Science (CTFS) methodology to establish forest dynamics plots in montane wet forest and lowland dry forest on Hawai'i Island. We compared the species diversity, tree density, basal area, biomass, and size class distributions between the two forest types. We then examined these variables across tropical forests within the CTFS network. Consistent with other island forests, the Hawai'i forests were characterized by low species richness and very high relative dominance. The two Hawai'i forests were floristically distinct, yet similar in species richness (15 vs. 21 species) and stem density (3078 vs. 3486/ha). While these forests were selected for their low invasive species cover relative to surrounding forests, both forests averaged 5->50% invasive species cover; ongoing removal will be necessary to reduce or prevent competitive impacts, especially from woody species. The montane wet forest had much larger trees, resulting in eightfold higher basal area and above-ground biomass. Across the CTFS network, the Hawaiian montane wet forest was similar to other tropical forests with respect to diameter distributions, density, and aboveground biomass, while the Hawai'i lowland dry forest was similar in density to tropical forests with much higher diversity. These findings suggest that forest structural variables can be similar across tropical forests independently of species richness. The inclusion of low-diversity Pacific Island forests in the CTFS network provides an ∼80-fold range in species richness (15-1182 species), six-fold variation in mean annual rainfall (835-5272 mm yr(-1)) and 1.8-fold variation in mean annual temperature (16.0-28.4°C). Thus, the Hawaiian forest plots expand the global forest plot network to enable testing of ecological theory for

  9. ESCRS Binkhorst lecture 2002: Pseudophakic preservative maculopathy.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Kensaku; Ibaraki, Nobuhiro; Goto, Yoko; Oogiya, Shin; Ishigaki, Junko; Ota, Ichiro; Miyake, Sampei

    2003-09-01

    Many antiglaucoma eyedrops are reported to cause cystoid macular edema (CME) in aphakia and pseudophakia. We review 4 clinical and laboratory studies that compare the incidence of CME in early postoperative pseudophakia in eyes that received preserved latanoprost and timolol, nonpreserved timolol, and the preserved and nonpreserved vehicle for these drugs and looked at the morphological damage to cells and the changes in the indicators of cytokine and prostaglandin (PG) synthesis caused by latanoprost and timolol and the preservative benzalkonium chloride. Based on the findings of these studies, which indicate that the preservative causes increased synthesis of PGs and other substances and intensified postoperative inflammation, the term pseudophakic preservative maculopathy is proposed for CME caused by antiglaucoma eyedrops.

  10. Deforestation and forest management in southern Ethiopia: investigations in the Chencha and Arbaminch areas.

    PubMed

    Assefa, Engdawork; Bork, Hans-Rudolf

    2014-02-01

    Long-term human impacts are considered to be the prime cause of unsustainable forest exploitation in Ethiopia. Yet there exist well-established systems and a wealth of local experience in maintaining and managing forests. This study explores the trends and driving forces of deforestation plus traditional practices regarding sustainable forest use and management in the Chencha and Arbaminch areas, Southern Ethiopia. Satellite image analysis (images from 1972, 1984 and 2006) combined with field surveys were used to detect and map changes in forest cover. Household interviews and group discussions with experienced and knowledgeable persons were also employed. The results show a 23 % decline in forest cover between 1972 and 2006 with the most significant change from 1986 to 2006. Change was greatest in the lowlands and remarkable episodic forest changes also occurred, suggesting nonlinear spatial and temporal forest cover dynamics. According to farmers, the main driver of deforestation is agricultural land expansion in response to local population increases and a decline in agricultural production. Growing local and regional fuel wood demand is another chief cause. Despite these issues, remarkable relicts of natural forests remain and trees on farmland, around homesteads and on fields in every village are basic elements of farm activities and social systems. This demonstrates the effect of cumulative traditional knowledge and long-term local experience with forest management and preservation. Therefore, these practices should be promoted and advanced through the integration of local knowledge and forest management practices in the design and implementation of sustainable environmental planning and management.

  11. Effects of landscape design of forest reserves on Saproxylic beetle diversity.

    PubMed

    Bouget, C; Parmain, G

    2016-02-01

    Increasing the density of natural reserves in the forest landscape may provide conservation benefits for biodiversity within and beyond reserve borders. We used 2 French data sets on saproxylic beetles and landscape cover of forest reserves (LCFR) to test this hypothesis: national standardized data derived from 252 assessment plots in managed and reserve stands in 9 lowland and 5 highland forests and data from the lowland Rambouillet forest, a forested landscape where a pioneer conservation policy led to creation of a dense network of reserves. Abundance of rare and common saproxylic species and total saproxylic species richness were higher in forest reserves than in adjacent managed stands only in highland forests. In the lowland regional case study, as LCFR increased total species richness and common species abundance in reserves increased. In this case study, when there were two or more reserve patches, rare species abundance inside reserves was higher and common species richness in managed stands was higher than when there was a single large reserve. Spillover and habitat amount affected ecological processes underlying these landscape reserve effects. When LCFR positively affected species richness and abundance in reserves or managed stands, >12-20% reserve cover led to the highest species diversity and abundance. This result is consistent with the target of 17% forested land area in reserves set at the Nagoya biodiversity summit in 2010. Therefore, to preserve biodiversity we recommend at least doubling the current proportion of forest reserves in European forested landscapes.

  12. Deforestation and Forest Management in Southern Ethiopia: Investigations in the Chencha and Arbaminch Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assefa, Engdawork; Bork, Hans-Rudolf

    2014-02-01

    Long-term human impacts are considered to be the prime cause of unsustainable forest exploitation in Ethiopia. Yet there exist well-established systems and a wealth of local experience in maintaining and managing forests. This study explores the trends and driving forces of deforestation plus traditional practices regarding sustainable forest use and management in the Chencha and Arbaminch areas, Southern Ethiopia. Satellite image analysis (images from 1972, 1984 and 2006) combined with field surveys were used to detect and map changes in forest cover. Household interviews and group discussions with experienced and knowledgeable persons were also employed. The results show a 23 % decline in forest cover between 1972 and 2006 with the most significant change from 1986 to 2006. Change was greatest in the lowlands and remarkable episodic forest changes also occurred, suggesting nonlinear spatial and temporal forest cover dynamics. According to farmers, the main driver of deforestation is agricultural land expansion in response to local population increases and a decline in agricultural production. Growing local and regional fuel wood demand is another chief cause. Despite these issues, remarkable relicts of natural forests remain and trees on farmland, around homesteads and on fields in every village are basic elements of farm activities and social systems. This demonstrates the effect of cumulative traditional knowledge and long-term local experience with forest management and preservation. Therefore, these practices should be promoted and advanced through the integration of local knowledge and forest management practices in the design and implementation of sustainable environmental planning and management.

  13. Forest pathology in Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gardner, D.E.

    2003-01-01

    Native Hawaiian forests are characterised by a high degree of endemism, including pathogens as well as their hosts. With the exceptions of koa (Acacia koa Gray), possibly maile (Alyxia oliviformis Gaud.), and, in the past, sandalwood (Santalum spp.), forest species are of little commercial value. On the other hand, these forests are immensely important from a cultural, ecological, and evolutionary standpoint. Forest disease research was lacking during the mid-twentieth century, but increased markedly with the recognition of ohia (Metrosideros polymorpha Gaud.) decline in the 1970s. Because many pathogens are themselves endemic, or are assumed to be, having evolved with their hosts, research emphasis in natural areas is on understanding host-parasite interactions and evolutionary influences, rather than disease control. Aside from management of native forests, attempts at establishing a commercial forest industry have included importation of several species of pine, Araucaria, and Eucalyptus as timber crops, and of numerous ornamentals. Diseases of these species have been introduced with their hosts. The attacking of native species by introduced pathogens is problematic - for example, Armillaria mellea (Vahl ex Fr.) Que??l. on koa and mamane (Sophora chrysophylla (Salisb.) Seem.). Much work remains to be done in both native and commercial aspects of Hawaiian forest pathology.

  14. Geotechnology-Based Modeling to Optimize Conservation of Forest Network in Urban Area.

    PubMed

    Teng, Mingjun; Zhou, Zhixiang; Wang, Pengcheng; Xiao, Wenfa; Wu, Changguang; Lord, Elizabeth

    2016-03-01

    Forest network development in urban areas faces the challenge from forest fragmentation, human-induced disturbances, and scarce land resources. Here, we proposed a geotechnology-based modeling to optimize conservation of forest network by a case study of Wuhan, China. The potential forest network and their priorities were assessed using an improved least-cost path model and potential utilization efficiency estimation. The modeling process consists of four steps: (i) developing species assemblages, (ii) identifying core forest patches, (iii) identifying potential linkages among core forest patches, and (iv) demarcating forest networks. As a result, three species assemblages, including mammals, pheasants, and other birds, were identified as the conservation targets of urban forest network (UFN) in Wuhan, China. Based on the geotechnology-based model, a forest network proposal was proposed to fulfill the connectivity requirements of selected species assemblages. The proposal consists of seven forest networks at three levels of connectivity, named ideal networks, backbone networks, and comprehensive network. The action priorities of UFN plans were suggested to optimize forest network in the study area. Additionally, a total of 45 forest patches with important conservation significance were identified as prioritized stepping-stone patches in the forest network development. Urban forest conserve was also suggested for preserving woodlands with priority conservation significance. The presented geotechnology-based modeling is fit for planning and optimizing UFNs, because of the inclusion of the stepping-stone effects, human-induced pressures, and priorities. The framework can also be applied to other areas after a sensitivity test of the model and the modification of the parameters to fit the local environment. PMID:26661451

  15. Geotechnology-Based Modeling to Optimize Conservation of Forest Network in Urban Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teng, Mingjun; Zhou, Zhixiang; Wang, Pengcheng; Xiao, Wenfa; Wu, Changguang; Lord, Elizabeth

    2016-03-01

    Forest network development in urban areas faces the challenge from forest fragmentation, human-induced disturbances, and scarce land resources. Here, we proposed a geotechnology-based modeling to optimize conservation of forest network by a case study of Wuhan, China. The potential forest network and their priorities were assessed using an improved least-cost path model and potential utilization efficiency estimation. The modeling process consists of four steps: (i) developing species assemblages, (ii) identifying core forest patches, (iii) identifying potential linkages among core forest patches, and (iv) demarcating forest networks. As a result, three species assemblages, including mammals, pheasants, and other birds, were identified as the conservation targets of urban forest network (UFN) in Wuhan, China. Based on the geotechnology-based model, a forest network proposal was proposed to fulfill the connectivity requirements of selected species assemblages. The proposal consists of seven forest networks at three levels of connectivity, named ideal networks, backbone networks, and comprehensive network. The action priorities of UFN plans were suggested to optimize forest network in the study area. Additionally, a total of 45 forest patches with important conservation significance were identified as prioritized stepping-stone patches in the forest network development. Urban forest conserve was also suggested for preserving woodlands with priority conservation significance. The presented geotechnology-based modeling is fit for planning and optimizing UFNs, because of the inclusion of the stepping-stone effects, human-induced pressures, and priorities. The framework can also be applied to other areas after a sensitivity test of the model and the modification of the parameters to fit the local environment.

  16. Geotechnology-Based Modeling to Optimize Conservation of Forest Network in Urban Area.

    PubMed

    Teng, Mingjun; Zhou, Zhixiang; Wang, Pengcheng; Xiao, Wenfa; Wu, Changguang; Lord, Elizabeth

    2016-03-01

    Forest network development in urban areas faces the challenge from forest fragmentation, human-induced disturbances, and scarce land resources. Here, we proposed a geotechnology-based modeling to optimize conservation of forest network by a case study of Wuhan, China. The potential forest network and their priorities were assessed using an improved least-cost path model and potential utilization efficiency estimation. The modeling process consists of four steps: (i) developing species assemblages, (ii) identifying core forest patches, (iii) identifying potential linkages among core forest patches, and (iv) demarcating forest networks. As a result, three species assemblages, including mammals, pheasants, and other birds, were identified as the conservation targets of urban forest network (UFN) in Wuhan, China. Based on the geotechnology-based model, a forest network proposal was proposed to fulfill the connectivity requirements of selected species assemblages. The proposal consists of seven forest networks at three levels of connectivity, named ideal networks, backbone networks, and comprehensive network. The action priorities of UFN plans were suggested to optimize forest network in the study area. Additionally, a total of 45 forest patches with important conservation significance were identified as prioritized stepping-stone patches in the forest network development. Urban forest conserve was also suggested for preserving woodlands with priority conservation significance. The presented geotechnology-based modeling is fit for planning and optimizing UFNs, because of the inclusion of the stepping-stone effects, human-induced pressures, and priorities. The framework can also be applied to other areas after a sensitivity test of the model and the modification of the parameters to fit the local environment.

  17. Phylobetadiversity among forest types in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest complex.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Leandro Da Silva; Bergamin, Rodrigo Scarton; Marcilio-Silva, Vinícius; Seger, Guilherme Dubal Dos Santos; Marques, Márcia Cristina Mendes

    2014-01-01

    Phylobetadiversity is defined as the phylogenetic resemblance between communities or biomes. Analyzing phylobetadiversity patterns among different vegetation physiognomies within a single biome is crucial to understand the historical affinities between them. Based on the widely accepted idea that different forest physiognomies within the Southern Brazilian Atlantic Forest constitute different facies of a single biome, we hypothesize that more recent phylogenetic nodes should drive phylobetadiversity gradients between the different forest types within the Atlantic Forest, as the phylogenetic divergence among those forest types is biogeographically recent. We compiled information from 206 checklists describing the occurrence of shrub/tree species across three different forest physiognomies within the Southern Brazilian Atlantic Forest (Dense, Mixed and Seasonal forests). We analyzed intra-site phylogenetic structure (phylogenetic diversity, net relatedness index and nearest taxon index) and phylobetadiversity between plots located at different forest types, using five different methods differing in sensitivity to either basal or terminal nodes (phylogenetic fuzzy weighting, COMDIST, COMDISTNT, UniFrac and Rao's H). Mixed forests showed higher phylogenetic diversity and overdispersion than the other forest types. Furthermore, all forest types differed from each other in relation phylobetadiversity patterns, particularly when phylobetadiversity methods more sensitive to terminal nodes were employed. Mixed forests tended to show higher phylogenetic differentiation to Dense and Seasonal forests than these latter from each other. The higher phylogenetic diversity and phylobetadiversity levels found in Mixed forests when compared to the others likely result from the biogeographical origin of several taxa occurring in these forests. On one hand, Mixed forests shelter several temperate taxa, like the conifers Araucaria and Podocarpus. On the other hand, tropical groups, like

  18. Trophic transfer and effects of DDT in male hornyhead turbot (Pleuronichthys verticalis) from Palos Verdes Superfund site, CA (USA) and comparisons to field monitoring.

    PubMed

    Crago, Jordan; Xu, Elvis Genbo; Kupsco, Allison; Jia, Fang; Mehinto, Alvine C; Lao, Wenjian; Maruya, Keith A; Gan, Jay; Schlenk, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    High concentrations of DDT and metabolites (ΣDDT) have been detected in sediment and the demersal flatfish hornyhead turbot (Pleuronichtys verticalis) collected from Palos Verdes (PV), California, USA, a site contaminated with over 100 metric tons of DDT throughout 1960s-70s. This study was conducted to assess the transfer of ΣDDT from PV-sediment into polychaetes (Neanthes arenaceodentata) and hornyhead turbot, and to investigate if the responses in turbots from two different laboratory exposures mimic those in turbots caught in PV (PV-turbot). Turbot fed PV-sediment-contaminated polychaete for 7 days had liver concentrations of ΣDDT similar to PV-turbot. After 28 days, ΣDDT also accumulated in livers of turbot gavaged with a ΣDDT mixture. In vitro cell bioassays indicated significant increases of 17β-estradiol equivalents (EEQ) in turbot bile extracts as compared to the control in the 7-day study. These responses corresponded to those measured in PV-fish. Glucocorticoid receptor (GR), anti-androgen receptor (anti-AR), estrogen receptor (ER) or aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) activities were also observed in extracts of PV-sediment, and PV-sediment-exposed worm. Anti-AR, AhR and GR activities were significantly higher in PV-sediment than reference sediment (San Diego, SD). Higher transcripts of hepatic VTG, ERα and ERβ were found in PV-turbot than SD-turbot, but were unaltered in fish exposed to sediment-contaminated worms for the 7-day study. In contrast, liver extracts from the 28-day treatment of ΣDDT showed lower EEQ but similar hepatic VTG and ERβ transcripts relative to those of PV-turbot. These data indicated that trophic transfer of sediment-associated DDT in 7-day exposures corresponded to field measurements of DDT residues and in vitro ER bioactivities, but failed to mimic in vivo biological effects observed in field fish. In contrast, treatment with ΣDDT alone for 28 days mimicked in vivo biological effects of DDTs in PV fish, but did not

  19. Potential depletion of surface water in the Colorado River and agricultural drains by groundwater pumping in the Parker-Palo Verde-Cibola area, Arizona and California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leake, Stanley A.; Owen-Joyce, Sandra J.; Heilman, Julian A.

    2013-01-01

    Water use along the lower Colorado River is allocated as “consumptive use,” which is defined to be the amount of water diverted from the river minus the amount that returns to the river. Diversions of water from the river include surface water in canals and water removed from the river by pumping wells in the aquifer connected to the river. A complication in accounting for water pumped by wells occurs if the pumping depletes water in drains and reduces measured return flow in those drains. In that case, consumptive use of water pumped by the wells is accounted for in the reduction of measured return flow. A method is needed to understand where groundwater pumping will deplete water in the river and where it will deplete water in drains. To provide a basis for future accounting for pumped groundwater in the Parker-Palo Verde-Cibola area, a superposition model was constructed. The model consists of three layers of finite-difference cells that cover most of the aquifer in the study area. The model was run repeatedly with each run having a pumping well in a different model cell. The source of pumped water that is depletion of the river, expressed as a fraction of the pumping rate, was computed for all active cells in model layer 1, and maps were constructed to understand where groundwater pumping depletes the river and where it depletes drains. The model results indicate that if one or more drains exist between a pumping well location and the river, nearly all of the depletion will be from drains, and little or no depletion will come from the Colorado River. Results also show that if a well pumps on a side of the river with no drains in the immediate area, depletion will come from the Colorado River. Finally, if a well pumps between the river and drains that parallel the river, a fraction of the pumping will come from the river and the rest will come from the drains. Model results presented in this report may be considered in development or refinement of strategies

  20. Possible Connections Between the Coronado Bank Fault Zone and the Newport-Inglewood, Rose Canyon, and Palos Verdes Fault Zones Offshore San Diego County, California.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sliter, R. W.; Ryan, H. F.

    2003-12-01

    High-resolution multichannel seismic-reflection and deep-tow Huntec data collected by the USGS were interpreted to map the Coronado Bank fault zone (CBFZ) offshore San Diego County, California. The CBFZ is comprised of several major strands (eastern, central, western) that change in both orientation and degree of deformation along strike. Between Coronado Bank and San Diego, the CBFZ trends N25W and occupies a narrow 7 km zone. Immediately north of La Jolla submarine canyon (LJSC), the easternmost strand changes orientation to almost due north and appears to be offset in a right-lateral sense across the canyon axis. The strand merges with a prominent fault that follows the base of the continental slope in about 600 m water depth. The central portion of the CBFZ is mapped as a negative flower structure and deforms seafloor sediment as far north as 15 km north of LJSC. Farther north, this structure is buried by more than 400 m of basin sediment. Along the eastern edge of the Coronado Bank, the western portion of the CBFZ is characterized by high angle normal faults that dip to the east. North of the Coronado Bank, the western segment follows the western edge of a basement high; it cuts through horizontal basin reflectors and in places deforms the seafloor. We mapped an additional splay of the CBFZ that trends N40W; it is only observed north and west of LJSC. Although the predominant trend of the CBFZ is about N40W, along strike deviations from this orientation of some of the strands indicate that these strands connect with other offshore fault zones in the area. Based on the limited data available, the trend of the CBFZ south of Coronado Bank suggests that it might connect with the Rose Canyon fault zone (RCFZ) that has been mapped in San Diego Bay. North of Coronado Bank, the CBFZ is a much broader fault zone (about 25 km wide) composed of diverging fault strands. The westernmost strand may merge with the western strand of the Palos Verdes fault zone (PVFZ) south of

  1. 78 FR 23903 - Forest Service

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ... Forest Service Dixie Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting... recommendations to the Forest Service concerning projects and funding consistent with Title II of the Act. The meeting is open to the public. The purpose of the meeting is to review proposals for forest projects...

  2. Using Our National Forests Wisely.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feuchter, Roy

    1987-01-01

    Lists nine steps camps can follow to insure successful use of national forests. Steps are identifying national forest resources; matching expectations with the right setting; using recreation opportunity guides; planning for safety; practicing forest etiquette; practicing fire prevention; knowing the forest environment; participating in volunteer…

  3. Testate amoebae from a cretaceous forest floor microbiocoenosis of france.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Alexander R; Girard, Vincent; Perrichot, Vincent; Schönborn, Wilfried

    2010-01-01

    Amber-preserved shells of testate amoebae often provide as many diagnostic features as the tests of modern taxa. Most of these well-preserved microfossils are morphologically assignable to modern species indicating either evolutionary stasis or convergent evolution. Here we describe two Lower Cretaceous testate amoebae that are clearly distinguishable from modern species. Centropyxis perforata n. sp. and Leptochlamys galippei n. sp. possessed perforate shells that were previously unknown in these genera. They are preserved in highly fossiliferous amber pieces from the Upper Albian (ca. 100 million years old) of Archingeay/Les Nouillers (Charente-Maritime, southwestern France). Syninclusions of soil and litter dwelling arthropods and microorganisms indicate a limnetic-terrestrial microhabitat at the floor of a coastal conifer forest.

  4. Fertility preservation in female classic galactosemia patients

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Almost every female classic galactosemia patient develops primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) as a diet-independent complication of the disease. This is a major concern for patients and their parents, and physicians are often asked about possible options to preserve fertility. Unfortunately, there are no recommendations on fertility preservation in this group. The unique pathophysiology of classic galactosemia with a severely reduced follicle pool at an early age requires an adjusted approach. In this article recommendations for physicians based on current knowledge concerning galactosemia and fertility preservation are made. Fertility preservation is only likely to be successful in very young prepubertal patients. In this group, cryopreservation of ovarian tissue is currently the only available technique. However, this technique is not ready for clinical application, it is considered experimental and reduces the ovarian reserve. Fertility preservation at an early age also raises ethical questions that should be taken into account. In addition, spontaneous conception despite POI is well described in classic galactosemia. The uncertainty surrounding fertility preservation and the significant chance of spontaneous pregnancy warrant counseling towards conservative application of these techniques. We propose that fertility preservation should only be offered with appropriate institutional research ethics approval to classic galactosemia girls at a young prepubertal age. PMID:23866841

  5. Psychological Counseling of Female Fertility Preservation Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, Angela K.; Klock, Susan C.; Pavone, Mary Ellen; Hirshfeld-Cytron, Jennifer; Smith, Kristin N.; Kazer, Ralph R.

    2015-01-01

    Young cancer patients are increasingly interested in preserving their fertility prior to undergoing gonadotoxic therapies. Although the medical safety and treatment protocols for fertility preservation have been well documented, limited research has addressed the emotional issues which arise in fertility preservation patients. We briefly review the literature on the psychosocial issues in adult female fertility preservation treatment and describe our experiences within this patient population patient. Our findings suggest that several important issues to be addressed during the psychological counseling of adult female fertility preservation patients include: 1) pre-existing psychological distress in patients undergoing treatment, 2) choice of fertility preservation strategy in the face of an uncertain relationship future, 3) decision making regarding use of third party reproduction (e.g., sperm/egg donation, gestational surrogacy), 4) treatment expectations regarding pregnancy and miscarriage, 5) ethical issues related to treatment including the creation, cryopreservation, and disposition of embryos/oocytes, and 6) decision regret from patients who declined fertility preservation. PMID:25996581

  6. Cracks preserve kimberlite melt composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brett, R. C.; Vigouroux-Caillibot, N.; Donovan, J. J.; Russell, K.

    2009-12-01

    The chemical composition of kimberlite melts has previously been estimated by measuring aphanitic intrusive rocks (deposit composition) or by partial melting experiments on carbonated lherzolites (source composition). Pervasively altered, degassed and contaminated material preclude the determination of the primitive melt composition. Here we present data on melt compositions trapped in unaltered olivine cracks that have been healed and overgrown prior to shallow level emplacement. During the ascent of kimberlite magma the prograding crack tip samples mantle peridotite xenoliths. Xenoliths rapidly disaggregate over the first few kilometers of transport producing a population of olivine xenocrysts that are released to the fluid-rich melt. Rapid ascent of the kimberlite magma causes depressurization and creates internal elastic stresses in the olivine crystals that can only be alleviated by volumetric expansion or brittle failure. On the time scales operative during kimberlite ascent volume expansion is negligible and brittle failure occurs. Small wetting angles between the fluid-rich melt and olivine allow infiltration of the melt into the crack. These very thin cracks (<5 µm) heal rapidly and preserve primary kimberlitic material en route to the surface. We use the electron microprobe with a focused beam (interaction volume less than 2 µm) to analyze the small volumes of material found in the healed cracks of the olivine. We analyzed for 18 elements including oxygen, which we obtained by utilizing a non-linear time dependent intensity acquisition and empirically determined mass absorption coefficients. By accurately knowing the amount of oxygen in a sample, we assign oxygen molecules to all other analyzed elements (e.g. MgO, Al2O3) and the remaining oxygen is assigned to hydrogen and carbon. The analysis total is used as a constraint on the proportion of each species. Mg/Ca ratios of the cracks vary from 0.6-5 indicating a compositional continuum between alkali

  7. Preservation Methods Alter Carbon and Nitrogen Stable Isotope Values in Crickets (Orthoptera: Grylloidea).

    PubMed

    Jesus, Fabiene Maria; Pereira, Marcelo Ribeiro; Rosa, Cassiano Sousa; Moreira, Marcelo Zacharias; Sperber, Carlos Frankl

    2015-01-01

    Stable isotope analysis (SIA) is an important tool for investigation of animal dietary habits for determination of feeding niche. Ideally, fresh samples should be used for isotopic analysis, but logistics frequently demands preservation of organisms for analysis at a later time. The goal of this study was to establish the best methodology for preserving forest litter-dwelling crickets for later SIA analysis without altering results. We collected two cricket species, Phoremia sp. and Mellopsis doucasae, from which we prepared 70 samples per species, divided among seven treatments: (i) freshly processed (control); preserved in fuel ethanol for (ii) 15 and (iii) 60 days; preserved in commercial ethanol for (iv) 15 and (v) 60 days; fresh material frozen for (vi) 15 and (vii) 60 days. After oven drying, samples were analyzed for δ15N, δ13C values, N(%), C(%) and C/N atomic values using continuous flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry. All preservation methods tested, significantly impacted δ13C and δ15N and C/N atomic values. Chemical preservatives caused δ13C enrichment as great as 1.5‰, and δ15N enrichment as great as 0.9‰; the one exception was M. doucasae stored in ethanol for 15 days, which had δ15N depletion up to 1.8‰. Freezing depleted δ13C and δ15N by up to 0.7 and 2.2‰, respectively. C/N atomic values decreased when stored in ethanol, and increased when frozen for 60 days for both cricket species. Our results indicate that all preservation methods tested in this study altered at least one of the tested isotope values when compared to fresh material (controls). We conclude that only freshly processed material provides adequate SIA results for litter-dwelling crickets.

  8. Preservation Methods Alter Carbon and Nitrogen Stable Isotope Values in Crickets (Orthoptera: Grylloidea)

    PubMed Central

    Jesus, Fabiene Maria; Pereira, Marcelo Ribeiro; Rosa, Cassiano Sousa; Moreira, Marcelo Zacharias; Sperber, Carlos Frankl

    2015-01-01

    Stable isotope analysis (SIA) is an important tool for investigation of animal dietary habits for determination of feeding niche. Ideally, fresh samples should be used for isotopic analysis, but logistics frequently demands preservation of organisms for analysis at a later time. The goal of this study was to establish the best methodology for preserving forest litter-dwelling crickets for later SIA analysis without altering results. We collected two cricket species, Phoremia sp. and Mellopsis doucasae, from which we prepared 70 samples per species, divided among seven treatments: (i) freshly processed (control); preserved in fuel ethanol for (ii) 15 and (iii) 60 days; preserved in commercial ethanol for (iv) 15 and (v) 60 days; fresh material frozen for (vi) 15 and (vii) 60 days. After oven drying, samples were analyzed for δ15N, δ13C values, N(%), C(%) and C/N atomic values using continuous flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry. All preservation methods tested, significantly impacted δ13C and δ15N and C/N atomic values. Chemical preservatives caused δ13C enrichment as great as 1.5‰, and δ15N enrichment as great as 0.9‰; the one exception was M. doucasae stored in ethanol for 15 days, which had δ15N depletion up to 1.8‰. Freezing depleted δ13C and δ15N by up to 0.7 and 2.2‰, respectively. C/N atomic values decreased when stored in ethanol, and increased when frozen for 60 days for both cricket species. Our results indicate that all preservation methods tested in this study altered at least one of the tested isotope values when compared to fresh material (controls). We conclude that only freshly processed material provides adequate SIA results for litter-dwelling crickets. PMID:26390400

  9. Preservation Methods Alter Carbon and Nitrogen Stable Isotope Values in Crickets (Orthoptera: Grylloidea).

    PubMed

    Jesus, Fabiene Maria; Pereira, Marcelo Ribeiro; Rosa, Cassiano Sousa; Moreira, Marcelo Zacharias; Sperber, Carlos Frankl

    2015-01-01

    Stable isotope analysis (SIA) is an important tool for investigation of animal dietary habits for determination of feeding niche. Ideally, fresh samples should be used for isotopic analysis, but logistics frequently demands preservation of organisms for analysis at a later time. The goal of this study was to establish the best methodology for preserving forest litter-dwelling crickets for later SIA analysis without altering results. We collected two cricket species, Phoremia sp. and Mellopsis doucasae, from which we prepared 70 samples per species, divided among seven treatments: (i) freshly processed (control); preserved in fuel ethanol for (ii) 15 and (iii) 60 days; preserved in commercial ethanol for (iv) 15 and (v) 60 days; fresh material frozen for (vi) 15 and (vii) 60 days. After oven drying, samples were analyzed for δ15N, δ13C values, N(%), C(%) and C/N atomic values using continuous flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry. All preservation methods tested, significantly impacted δ13C and δ15N and C/N atomic values. Chemical preservatives caused δ13C enrichment as great as 1.5‰, and δ15N enrichment as great as 0.9‰; the one exception was M. doucasae stored in ethanol for 15 days, which had δ15N depletion up to 1.8‰. Freezing depleted δ13C and δ15N by up to 0.7 and 2.2‰, respectively. C/N atomic values decreased when stored in ethanol, and increased when frozen for 60 days for both cricket species. Our results indicate that all preservation methods tested in this study altered at least one of the tested isotope values when compared to fresh material (controls). We conclude that only freshly processed material provides adequate SIA results for litter-dwelling crickets. PMID:26390400

  10. Trading forest carbon - OSU

    EPA Science Inventory

    Issues associate with trading carbon sequestered in forests are discussed. Scientific uncertainties associated with carbon measurement are discussed with respect to proposed accounting procedures. Major issues include: (1) Establishing baselines. (2) Determining additivity from f...

  11. Forest Fire Ecology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zucca, Carol; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Presents a model that integrates high school science with the needs of the local scientific community. Describes how a high school ecology class conducted scientific research in fire ecology that benefited the students and a state park forest ecologist. (MKR)

  12. Introduction: Female fertility preservation: innovations and questions.

    PubMed

    Frydman, René; Grynberg, Michaël

    2016-01-01

    Oocyte and ovarian tissue cryopreservation represents one of the most important advances in the field of reproductive medicine and biology. Preserving a woman's potential for becoming a genetic mother is now possible for numerous diseases that could impair female fertility either by themselves or as a result of their treatments. However, female fertility preservation is still at the pioneering level and is thus often considered an experimental treatment either from a technical standpoint or in the clinical situation in which it is discussed. As a consequence, many ethics issues are raised with fertility preservation treatment in infants, adolescents, and young women.

  13. On orthogonality preserving quadratic stochastic operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhamedov, Farrukh; Taha, Muhammad Hafizuddin Mohd

    2015-05-01

    A quadratic stochastic operator (in short QSO) is usually used to present the time evolution of differing species in biology. Some quadratic stochastic operators have been studied by Lotka and Volterra. In the present paper, we first give a simple characterization of Volterra QSO in terms of absolutely continuity of discrete measures. Further, we introduce a notion of orthogonal preserving QSO, and describe such kind of operators defined on two dimensional simplex. It turns out that orthogonal preserving QSOs are permutations of Volterra QSO. The associativity of genetic algebras generated by orthogonal preserving QSO is studied too.

  14. Introduction: Female fertility preservation: innovations and questions.

    PubMed

    Frydman, René; Grynberg, Michaël

    2016-01-01

    Oocyte and ovarian tissue cryopreservation represents one of the most important advances in the field of reproductive medicine and biology. Preserving a woman's potential for becoming a genetic mother is now possible for numerous diseases that could impair female fertility either by themselves or as a result of their treatments. However, female fertility preservation is still at the pioneering level and is thus often considered an experimental treatment either from a technical standpoint or in the clinical situation in which it is discussed. As a consequence, many ethics issues are raised with fertility preservation treatment in infants, adolescents, and young women. PMID:26612064

  15. On orthogonality preserving quadratic stochastic operators

    SciTech Connect

    Mukhamedov, Farrukh; Taha, Muhammad Hafizuddin Mohd

    2015-05-15

    A quadratic stochastic operator (in short QSO) is usually used to present the time evolution of differing species in biology. Some quadratic stochastic operators have been studied by Lotka and Volterra. In the present paper, we first give a simple characterization of Volterra QSO in terms of absolutely continuity of discrete measures. Further, we introduce a notion of orthogonal preserving QSO, and describe such kind of operators defined on two dimensional simplex. It turns out that orthogonal preserving QSOs are permutations of Volterra QSO. The associativity of genetic algebras generated by orthogonal preserving QSO is studied too.

  16. Preserving a Piece of the True Cross

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Vorkin, David H.

    2013-01-01

    I will discuss shared concerns of Curators and Collections Management Specialists at the National Air and Space Museum over the proper methods for identifying, documenting and preserving astronomical instrumentation in the Museum's purview as well as in the realm of modern astronomical research. Questions of "what" and "how" will be raised and discussed, including the issue of preserving the historical character of instrumentation deemed still useful to astronomy. As part of this discussion, we will also consider: "why" make the effort to preserve? What is the value of a personal physical encounter with the "real thing?"

  17. Preservation Methods Utilized for Space Food

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vodovotz, Yael; Bourland, Charles

    2000-01-01

    Food for manned space flight has been provided by NASA-Johnson Space Center since 1962. The various mission scenarios and space craft designs dictated the type of food preservation methodologies required to meet mission objectives. The preservation techniques used in space flight include freeze-dehydration, thermostabilization, irradiation, freezing and moisture adjustment. Innovative packaging material and techniques enhanced the shelf-stability of the food items. Future space voyages may include extended duration exploration missions requiring new packaging materials and advanced preservation techniques to meet mission goals of up to 5-year shelf-life foods.

  18. Integrated Forest Management Charter

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, Leslie A.

    2015-08-24

    The purpose of this charter is to establish, maintain, and implement programs for the protection, preservation, and enhancement of the land and water resources of Los Alamos National Laboratory in a changing climate.

  19. Airborne forest fire research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattingly, G. S.

    1974-01-01

    The research relating to airborne fire fighting systems is reviewed to provide NASA/Langley Research Center with current information on the use of aircraft in forest fire operations, and to identify research requirements for future operations. A literature survey, interview of forest fire service personnel, analysis and synthesis of data from research reports and independent conclusions, and recommendations for future NASA-LRC programs are included.

  20. Forests of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Cairns, M.A.; Dirzo, R.; Zadroga, F.

    1995-07-01

    Forest of Mexico as elsewhere provide essential goods and services for both local citizens and the international community. Benefits include climate regulation, biodiversity, and wood and nonwood products for local consumption and economic activity. Deforestation is a matter of great environmental and economic concern. This article assesses rates of deforestation, the present status of forest in Mexico, and the major factors responsible for deforestation in the tropical southeastern region.

  1. Preserving electronic records: Not the easiest task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eaton, Fynnette

    1993-01-01

    The National Archives and Records Administration has had a program for accessioning, describing, preserving and providing reference service to the electronic records (machine-readable records) created by Federal agencies for more than twenty years. Although there have been many changes in the name of the office, its basic mission has remained the same: to preserve and make available those records created by Federal agencies that the National Archives has determined to have value beyond the short-term need of the originating agency. A phrase that was once coined for a preservation conference still applies: the National Archives, when it decides to accept the transfer of records into its custody, is committing itself to preserving these records for perpetuity.

  2. Color-preserving daytime radiative cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Linxiao; Raman, Aaswath; Fan, Shanhui

    2013-11-01

    We introduce a general approach to radiatively lower the temperature of a structure, while preserving its color under sunlight. The cooling effect persists in the presence of considerable convective and conductive heat exchange and for different solar absorptances.

  3. 36 CFR 910.32 - Historic preservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND UNIFORM STANDARDS FOR URBAN PLANNING AND DESIGN OF DEVELOPMENT WITHIN THE PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE... with the Secretary of the Interior's “Standards for Historic Preservation Projects”: (36 CFR part...

  4. 36 CFR 910.32 - Historic preservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND UNIFORM STANDARDS FOR URBAN PLANNING AND DESIGN OF DEVELOPMENT WITHIN THE PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE... with the Secretary of the Interior's “Standards for Historic Preservation Projects”: (36 CFR part...

  5. 36 CFR 910.14 - Historic preservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND UNIFORM STANDARDS FOR URBAN PLANNING AND DESIGN OF DEVELOPMENT WITHIN THE PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE DEVELOPMENT AREA Urban Planning and Design Concerns § 910.14 Historic preservation. (a) The Development...

  6. 36 CFR 910.32 - Historic preservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND UNIFORM STANDARDS FOR URBAN PLANNING AND DESIGN OF DEVELOPMENT WITHIN THE PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE... with the Secretary of the Interior's “Standards for Historic Preservation Projects”: (36 CFR part...

  7. 36 CFR 910.32 - Historic preservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND UNIFORM STANDARDS FOR URBAN PLANNING AND DESIGN OF DEVELOPMENT WITHIN THE PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE... with the Secretary of the Interior's “Standards for Historic Preservation Projects”: (36 CFR part...

  8. Laboratory Exercise to Evaluate Hay Preservatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGraw, R. L.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Presented is a laboratory exercise designed to demonstrate the effects of moisture on hay preservation products in a manner that does not require large amounts of equipment or instructor time. Materials, procedures, and probable results are discussed. (CW)

  9. Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction

    PubMed Central

    Gladden, James D.; Linke, Wolfgang A.

    2014-01-01

    As part of this series devoted to heart failure (HF), we review the epidemiology, diagnosis, pathophysiology, and treatment of HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Gaps in knowledge and needed future research are discussed. PMID:24663384

  10. 36 CFR 910.32 - Historic preservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND UNIFORM STANDARDS FOR URBAN PLANNING AND DESIGN OF DEVELOPMENT WITHIN THE PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE... with the Secretary of the Interior's “Standards for Historic Preservation Projects”: (36 CFR part...

  11. Fertility preservation during cancer treatment: clinical guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Wallberg, Kenny A; Oktay, Kutluk

    2014-01-01

    The majority of children, adolescents, and young adults diagnosed with cancer today will become long-term survivors. The threat to fertility that cancer treatments pose to young patients cannot be prevented in many cases, and thus research into methods for fertility preservation is developing, aiming at offering cancer patients the ability to have biologically related children in the future. This paper discusses the current status of fertility preservation methods when infertility risks are related to surgical oncologic treatments, radiation therapy, or chemotherapy. Several scientific groups and societies have developed consensus documents and guidelines for fertility preservation. Decisions about fertility and imminent potentially gonadotoxic therapies must be made rapidly. Timely and complete information on the impact of cancer treatment on fertility and fertility preservation options should be presented to all patients when a cancer treatment is planned. PMID:24623991

  12. Color-preserving daytime radiative cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Linxiao; Raman, Aaswath; Fan, Shanhui

    2013-11-25

    We introduce a general approach to radiatively lower the temperature of a structure, while preserving its color under sunlight. The cooling effect persists in the presence of considerable convective and conductive heat exchange and for different solar absorptances.

  13. Hyperosmolar cold storage kidney preservative solution.

    PubMed

    Masuda, J Y; Bleich, R N; Beckerman, J H

    1975-04-01

    A hyperosmolar kidney preservative solution which can maintain kidneys from experimental animals viable for up to 72 hours is described. Using the criterion of a one-month failure rate, the cold storage preservation method was found to be superior to machine preservation methods. Sachs' solution was found to be superior to all other cold storage solutions. The most important aspect of the hyperosmolar kidney preservative solution appears to be its ability to maintain normal intracellular electrolyte composition and to prevent cellular damage due to swelling. The present formula requires that the basic solution and a magnesium chloride additive solution be prepared separately and combined before use. A stable combined solution is proposed which can be sterilized by membrane filtration. PMID:1130414

  14. 36 CFR 60.6 - Nominations by the State Historic Preservation Officer under approved State Historic Preservation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Historic Preservation Officer under approved State Historic Preservation programs. 60.6 Section 60.6 Parks... HISTORIC PLACES § 60.6 Nominations by the State Historic Preservation Officer under approved State Historic Preservation programs. (a) The State Historic Preservation Officer is responsible for identifying...

  15. 36 CFR 60.6 - Nominations by the State Historic Preservation Officer under approved State Historic Preservation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Historic Preservation Officer under approved State Historic Preservation programs. 60.6 Section 60.6 Parks... HISTORIC PLACES § 60.6 Nominations by the State Historic Preservation Officer under approved State Historic Preservation programs. (a) The State Historic Preservation Officer is responsible for identifying...

  16. 36 CFR 60.6 - Nominations by the State Historic Preservation Officer under approved State Historic Preservation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Historic Preservation Officer under approved State Historic Preservation programs. 60.6 Section 60.6 Parks... HISTORIC PLACES § 60.6 Nominations by the State Historic Preservation Officer under approved State Historic Preservation programs. (a) The State Historic Preservation Officer is responsible for identifying...

  17. [Dismemberment with unusual preservation of cadaver parts].

    PubMed

    Madea, B

    1994-01-01

    Report on a case of criminal dismembering of a corpse and the effect of vinyl on postmortem changes. Two years after murder a dismembered body, the body parts wrapped into plastic bags, were found buried 30-50 cm deep into loose earth. The whole body as well as the inner organs were very well preserved. Obviously the air-proof conditions in the plastic bag were a supporting factor for the good preservation. PMID:8198432

  18. Pancreas preservation for pancreas and islet transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Iwanaga, Yasuhiro; Sutherland, David E.R.; Harmon, James V.; Papas, Klearchos K.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of review To summarize advances and limitations in pancreas procurement and preservation for pancreas and islet transplantation, and review advances in islet protection and preservation. Recent findings Pancreases procured after cardiac death, with in-situ regional organ cooling, have been successfully used for islet transplantation. Colloid-free Celsior and histidine-tryptophan-ketoglutarate preservation solutions are comparable to University of Wisconsin solution when used for cold storage before pancreas transplantation. Colloid-free preservation solutions are inferior to University of Wisconsin solution for pancreas preservation prior to islet isolation and transplantation. Clinical reports on pancreas and islet transplants suggest that the two-layer method may not offer significant benefits over cold storage with the University of Wisconsin solution: improved oxygenation may depend on the graft size; benefits in experimental models may not translate to human organs. Improvements in islet yield and quality occurred from pancreases treated with inhibitors of stress-induced apoptosis during procurement, storage, isolation or culture. Pancreas perfusion may be desirable before islet isolation and transplantation and may improve islet yields and quality. Methods for real-time, noninvasive assessment of pancreas quality during preservation have been implemented and objective islet potency assays have been developed and validated. These innovations should contribute to objective evaluation and establishment of improved pancreas preservation and islet isolation strategies. Summary Cold storage may be adequate for preservation before pancreas transplants, but insufficient when pancreases are processed for islets or when expanded donors are used. Supplementation of cold storage solutions with cytoprotective agents and perfusion may improve pancreas and islet transplant outcomes. PMID:18685343

  19. Preservation of food products by irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    McGivney, W.T.

    1988-01-01

    The use of irradiation to preserve food has the potential to significantly enhance our capacity to maximize the quality and quantity of the food we consume. In a world in which distribution of food occurs across continents and in which malnourished populations are in dire need of basic food products, any safe, effective, and efficient means of preserving food is more than welcome. Irradiation, as a method for food preservation, has been studied for more than 30 years. This discussion focuses on this most recent method for the preservation of food with particular emphasis on its effects on the safety, nutritive, and aesthetic values of the food preserved by irradiation. The use of ionizing radiation as a method to preserve foods is one that has been demonstrated to be effective for a variety of food classes. Irradiation offers a means to decontaminate, disinfest, and retard the spoilage of the food supply. At the same time, it appears that the wholesomeness of these food products is maintained. Nutritive value can be sustained by use of effective doses of radiation. Concerns over the safety of irradiated food are rooted in questions regarding the potential induction of radioactivity, harmful radiolytic products, and pathogenic radiation-resistant or mutant strains of microorganisms. Research findings have allayed concerns over safety. However, more research is necessary to conclusively resolve these safety issues. Food irradiation is a promising technology that has and will contribute to our ability to feed the people of this world. This technology is but one of many available ways to preserve our greatest natural resource, the food supply. Enhancement of the ability to preserve food by irradiation will facilitate the distribution of food from fertile developed regions to the malnourished peoples of underdeveloped countries. 21 references.

  20. Forest health and global change.

    PubMed

    Trumbore, S; Brando, P; Hartmann, H

    2015-08-21

    Humans rely on healthy forests to supply energy, building materials, and food and to provide services such as storing carbon, hosting biodiversity, and regulating climate. Defining forest health integrates utilitarian and ecosystem measures of forest condition and function, implemented across a range of spatial scales. Although native forests are adapted to some level of disturbance, all forests now face novel stresses in the form of climate change, air pollution, and invasive pests. Detecting how intensification of these stresses will affect the trajectory of forests is a major scientific challenge that requires developing systems to assess the health of global forests. It is particularly critical to identify thresholds for rapid forest decline, because it can take many decades for forests to restore the services that they provide. PMID:26293952

  1. Water quality and fish dynamics in forested wetlands associated with an oxbow lake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andrews, Caroline S.; Miranda, Leandro E.; Kroger, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Forested wetlands represent some of the most distinct environments in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley. Depending on season, water in forested wetlands can be warm, stagnant, and oxygen-depleted, yet may support high fish diversity. Fish assemblages in forested wetlands are not well studied because of difficulties in sampling heavily structured environments. During the April–July period, we surveyed and compared the water quality and assemblages of small fish in a margin wetland (forested fringe along a lake shore), contiguous wetland (forested wetland adjacent to a lake), and the open water of an oxbow lake. Dissolved-oxygen levels measured hourly 0.5 m below the surface were higher in the open water than in either of the forested wetlands. Despite reduced water quality, fish-species richness and catch rates estimated with light traps were greater in the forested wetlands than in the open water. The forested wetlands supported large numbers of fish and unique fish assemblages that included some rare species, likely because of their structural complexity. Programs developed to refine agricultural practices, preserve riparian zones, and restore lakes should include guidance to protect and reestablish forested wetlands.

  2. Fertility preservation options in breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Kasum, Miro; von Wolff, Michael; Franulić, Daniela; Čehić, Ermin; Klepac-Pulanić, Tajana; Orešković, Slavko; Juras, Josip

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to analyse current options for fertility preservation in young women with breast cancer (BC). Considering an increasing number of BC survivors, owing to improvements in cancer treatment and delaying of childbearing, fertility preservation appears to be an important issue. Current fertility preservation options in BC survivors range from well-established standard techniques to experimental or investigational interventions. Among the standard options, random-start ovarian stimulation protocol represents a new technique, which significantly decreases the total time of the in vitro fertilisation cycle. However, in patients with oestrogen-sensitive tumours, stimulation protocols using aromatase inhibitors are currently preferred over tamoxifen regimens. Cryopreservation of embryos and oocytes are nowadays deemed the most successful techniques for fertility preservation in BC patients. GnRH agonists during chemotherapy represent an experimental method for fertility preservation due to conflicting long-term outcome results regarding its safety and efficacy. Cryopreservation of ovarian tissue, in vitro maturation of immature oocytes and other strategies are considered experimental and should only be offered within the context of a clinical trial. An early pretreatment referral to reproductive endocrinologists and oncologists should be suggested to young BC women at risk of infertility, concerning the risks and benefits of fertility preservation options.

  3. Preservation methods for kidney and liver

    PubMed Central

    Mangino, Martin J

    2009-01-01

    With the successful testing of the immunosuppressive effects of cyclosporine in transplant patients in 1978, the field of organ transplants began an exponential growth. With that, the field of organ preservation became increasingly important as the need to increase preservation time and improve graft function became paramount. However, for every patient that receives a transplanted organ, there are four more on the waiting list. In addition, a patient dies from the lack of a transplant almost every 1½ hour. To alleviate this donor crisis, there is a need to expand the donor pool to marginal donor organs. The main reason these organs are underutilized is because the current method of static preservation, simple cold storage, is ineffective. This article will provide a general review of the methods of preservation including simple cold storage, hypothermic machine perfusion, normothermic machine perfusion, and oxygen persufflation. In addition, the article will provide a review of how these dynamic preservation methods have improved the recovery and preservation of marginal donor organs including Donation after Cardiac Death and Fatty livers. PMID:20046672

  4. Database Design for Preservation Project Management: The California Newspaper Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayman, Lynne M.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a database designed to manage a serials preservation project in which issues from multiple repositories are gathered and collated for preservation microfilming. Management information, added to bibliographic and holdings records, supports the production of reports tracking preservation activity. (Author)

  5. From Stories to Stewardship: Reflecting on Place in the Northern Forest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Through school-based programs and community interviews, the Northern Forest Center has documented the history of place names in rural eastern Maine. The resulting book aims to move residents beyond local forestry-related conflicts by focusing on shared values, to preserve local sense of place, and to make children want to stay in or return to the…

  6. Microbiological preservation of cucumbers for bulk storage using acetic acid and food preservatives.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Díaz, I M; McFeeters, R F

    2008-08-01

    Microbial growth did not occur when cucumbers were preserved without a thermal process by storage in solutions containing acetic acid, sodium benzoate, and calcium chloride to maintain tissue firmness. The concentrations of acetic acid and sodium benzoate required to ensure preservation were low enough so that stored cucumbers could be converted to the finished product without the need to wash out and discard excess acid or preservative. Since no thermal process was required, this method of preservation would be applicable for storing cucumbers in bulk containers. Acid tolerant pathogens died off in less than 24 h with the pH, acetic acid, and sodium benzoate concentrations required to assure the microbial stability of cucumbers stored at 30 degrees C. Potassium sorbate as a preservative in this application was not effective. Yeast growth was observed when sulfite was used as a preservative.

  7. Macroinvertebrate diversity loss in urban streams from tropical forests.

    PubMed

    Docile, Tatiana N; Figueiró, Ronaldo; Portela, Clayton; Nessimian, Jorge L

    2016-04-01

    The increase of human activities in recent years has significantly interfered and affected aquatic ecosystems. In this present study, we investigate the effects of urbanization in the community structure of aquatic macroinvertebrates from Atlantic Forest streams. The sampling was conducted in the mountainous region of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil in 10 urban and 10 preserved streams during the dry season (August-September) of 2012. The streams were characterized for its environmental integrity conditions and physico-chemical properties of water. The macroinvertebrates were sampled on rocky substrates with a kicknet. A total of 5370 individuals were collected from all streams and were distributed among Ephemeroptera, Odonata, Plecoptera, Hemiptera, Megaloptera, Coleoptera, Trichoptera, Lepidoptera, and Diptera. In urban sites, all those orders were found, except Megaloptera, while only Mollusca was not found in preserved streams. We performed a non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) analysis that separated two groups distributed among sites in urban communities and another group outside this area. The dominance was significantly higher at urban sites, while the α diversity and equitability were greater in preserved sites. A canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) was also performed, indicating that most taxa associated with high values of the Habitat Integrity Index (HII) and a few genus of the order Diptera with the high values of ammonia, total nitrogen, associated to streams in urban sites. Urban and preserved streams differ by physical-chemical variables and aquatic macroinvertebrates. In urban streams, there is most dominance, while α diversity and equitability are higher in preserved streams.

  8. Agroecology in the tropics: Achieving a balance between land use and preservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gliessman, Stephen R.

    1992-11-01

    Agroecology is the application of ecological concepts and principles to the design and management of sustainable agricultural systems. An agroecological approach to agriculture has special importance in the humid tropics where agricultural development and the preservation of tropical forests are most often in direct conflict. It is proposed that a more sustainable approach to development is needed, where agroecosystems depend on low external inputs, function more on the use of locally available and renewable resources, have benign impacts on the environment, and are based on the knowledge and culture of the local inhabitants. Examples of traditional agroecosystem management in Mesoamerica that can provide this basis are presented. The preservation of both biological and cultural diversity are integral to the long-term sustainable management of natural resources in the tropics.

  9. Effects of pitfall trap preservative on collections of carabid beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCravy, K.W.; Willand, J.E.

    2007-01-01

    Effects of six pitfall trap preservatives (5% acetic acid solution, distilled water, 70% ethanol, 50% ethylene glycol solution, 50% propylene glycol solution, and 10% saline solution) on collections of carabid beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) were studied in a west-central Illinois deciduous forest from May to October 2005. A total of 819 carabids, representing 33 species and 19 genera, were collected. Saline produced significantly fewer captures than did acetic acid, ethanol, ethylene glycol, and propylene glycol, while distilled water produced significantly fewer captures than did acetic acid. Significant associations between numbers of captures and treatment were seen in four species: Amphasia interstitialis (Say), Calathus opaculus LeConte, Chlaenius nemoralis Say, and Cyclotrachelus sodalis (LeConte). Results of this study suggest that type of preservative used can have substantial effects on abundance and species composition of carabids collected in pitfall traps.

  10. The purpose of forests

    SciTech Connect

    Westoby, J.

    1987-01-01

    The writings and speeches in this book have been selected to illustrate Jack Westoby's contributions to international forestry over the last two decades and more, and to show something of the evolution of his thinking. The problems he addresses are ones central to international forest policy and to the proper social responsibilities of foresters. This paper covers the following topics: Part I is a selection of papers which Westoby wrote during the 1960s on forest industries and their part in propelling economic development. The papers of Part II explore the responsibilities and dilemmas of the forestry profession in deciding which, among conflicting interests, to serve. Part III develops and enlarges Westoby's ideas of what forestry should be about-which he earlier defined as making trees serve people.

  11. Forests as carbon sinks

    SciTech Connect

    Houghton, R.A.; Woodwell, R.M.

    1995-11-01

    When the nations of the world signed and later ratified the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC), they accepted the difficult challenge of stabilizing the composition of the atmosphere with respect to the greenhouse gases (GHGs). Success will require a reduction in both use of fossil fuels and rates of deforestation. Forests have a large enough influence on the atmosphere that one of the options for stabilizing the concentrations of GHGs in the atmosphere includes the use of forests as a carbon sink through reforestation of large areas. We identify in this paper the potential and the limitations of such projects. We discuss the implications of four approaches in management of forests globally: (i) continued deforestation, (ii) halting deforestation, (iii) net reforestation including agroforestry, and (iv) substituting the use of wood fuels for fossil fuels.

  12. Forest Mitigation Strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arcidiacono-Barsony, C.; Ciais, P.; Viovy, N.; Vuichard, N.; Friedlingstein, P.

    2011-01-01

    Deforestation is a major driver of climate change contributing ~ 12% of global anthropogenic CO2 atmospheric emissions. A climate mitigation mechanism called Reduction Emission from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD) has been developed to tackle emissions due to forest loss in developing countries. In light of the final document agreed at the 15th UN Conference of the Parties, REDD will be central in any post- 2012 climate agreement. Nonetheless, REDD's political, economical and scientific challenges should still be addressed. To aid the scientific community, a review of current and future deforestation estimates in terms of forest surface change, carbon density, and carbon flux has been prepared. In addition, current estimates of REDD mitigation potential and a simple case study have also been examined. Preliminary results are presented here.

  13. Reconstructing the palaeoenvironments of the early Pleistocene mammal faunas from the pollen preserved on fossil bones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravazzi, Cesare; Pini, Roberta; Breda, Marzia

    2009-12-01

    We carried out a systematic investigation on the pollen content of sediment adhering to skeletal elements of large mammals which originate from the long lacustrine record of Leffe (Early Pleistocene of the Italian Alps). Three local faunas were discovered during mining activities along the intermediate part (spanning from 1.5 to 0.95 Ma) of the basin succession. The excellent pollen preservation allowed testing the reproducibility of the pollen signal from single skeletons. A clear palaeoenvironmental patterning, consistent with the ecological preferences of the considered mammal species, emerged from the canonical correspondence analysis of pollen types diagnostic for vegetation communities. Edaphic factors related to seasonal river activity changes and to the development of swamp forests in the riverbanks are significantly associated to the occurrences of Hippopotamus cf. antiquus, whereas finds of Mammuthus meridionalis belong to fully forested landscapes dominated by conifer or mixed forests of oceanic, warm to cool-temperate climate. Rhinoceros habitats include variable forest cover under different climate states. Distinct cool-temperate, partially open vegetation could be recognized for large deer included Cervalces cf carnutorum. A palynostratigraphic correlation between individual spectra and a reference palynostratigraphic record allowed assignment of many fossil remains to a precise stratigraphic position. This procedure also shown that the Leffe local faunas include specimens accumulated under different environmental and climate states, as a consequence of high-frequency climate changes characterizing the Late Villafranchian Early Pleistocene.

  14. Global Forest Area Trends Underestimate Threats from Forest Fragmentation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Forest loss and fragmentation of the remainder threaten the ecological attributes and functions which depend upon forests1. Forest interior area is particularly valued because it is relatively remote from human influence2, 3, 4, 5. Recent global assessments report declines in t...

  15. Perceptions about Forest Schools: Encouraging and Promoting Archimedes Forest Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nawaz, Haq; Blackwell, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to find out parents' and children's perception of outdoor learning programmes with specific reference to Archimedes Forest Schools, known as Forest Schools. A review of existing research showed that there had been no rigorous evaluation of perception of forest schools. The study was conducted in the UK and mixed…

  16. Responses of soil buffering capacity to acid treatment in three typical subtropical forests.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jun; Wang, Ying-Ping; Yu, Mengxiao; Li, Kun; Shao, Yijing; Yan, Junhua

    2016-09-01

    Elevated anthropogenic acid deposition can significantly affect forest ecosystem functioning by changing soil pH, nutrient balance, and chemical leaching and so on. These effects generally differ among different forests, and the dominant mechanisms for those observed responses often vary, depending on climate, soil conditions and vegetation types. Using soil monoliths (0-40cm) from pine forest (pioneer), coniferous and broadleaved mixed forest (transitional) and broadleaved forest (mature) in southern China, we conducted a leaching experiment with acid treatments at different pH levels (control: pH≈4.5; pH=3.5; pH=2.5). We found that pH3.5 treatment significantly reduced dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations in leachate from the pioneer forest soil. pH2.5 treatment significantly increased concentrations of NO3(-), SO4(2-), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Al(3+), Fe(3+) and DOC in leachate from the pioneer forest soil, and also concentrations of NO3(-), SO4(2-), Mg(2+), Al(3+), Fe(3+) and DOC in leachate from the transitional forest soil. All acid treatments had no significant effects on concentrations of these chemicals in leachate from the mature forest soil. The responses can be explained by the changes in soil pH, acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) and concentrations of Al and Fe. Our results showed that acid buffering capacity of the pioneer or transitional forest soil was lower than that of the mature forest soil. Therefore preserving mature forests in southern China is important for reducing the adverse impacts of high acid deposition on stream water quality at present and into the future. PMID:27185346

  17. Effects of Fireplace Use on Forest Vegetation and Amount of Woody Debris in Suburban Forests in Northwestern Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegetschweiler, K. Tessa; van Loon, Nicole; Ryser, Annette; Rusterholz, Hans-Peter; Baur, Bruno

    2009-02-01

    Urban forests are popular recreation areas in Europe. Several of these temperate broad-leaved forests also have a high conservation value due to sustainable management over many centuries. Recreational activities, particularly the use of fireplaces, can cause extensive damage to soil, ground vegetation, shrubs, and trees. Firewood collection depletes woody debris, leading to a loss of habitat for specialized organisms. We examined the effects of fireplace use on forest vegetation and the amount of woody debris by comparing disturbed and control plots in suburban forests in northwestern Switzerland. At frequently used fireplaces, we found reduced species densities in the ground vegetation and shrub layer and changes in plant species composition due to human trampling within an area of 150-200 m2. Picnicking and grilling also reduced the height and changed the age structure of shrubs and young trees. The amount of woody debris was lower in disturbed plots than in control plots. Pieces of wood with a diameter of 0.6-7.6 cm were preferentially collected by fireplace users. The reduction in woody debris volume extended up to a distance of 16 m from the fire ring, covering an area of 800 m2 at each picnic site. In order to preserve the ecological integrity of urban forests and to maintain their attractiveness as important recreation areas, we suggest depositing logging residues to be used as firewood and to restrict visitor movements near picnic sites.

  18. Forest Pest Control. Manual 94.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Agricultural Experiment Station.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in forest pest control. The text discusses disease problems, insects, and herbicide use in both established forests and nurseries. (CS)

  19. Fighting Forest Fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Firefly is an airborne system for imaging forest fires. It uses satellite-based navigation for greater positioning accuracy and offers timeliness in fire location data delivery with on board data processing and a direct aircraft-to-fire camp communications link. Developed by Jet Propulsion Laboratory and the USFS, it has an infrared line scanner to identify fire boundaries and an infrared sensor system that can penetrate smoke to image the ground. Firefly is an outgrowth of a previous collaboration that produced FLAME, an airborne fire mapping instrument. Further refinements are anticipated by NASA and the United States Forest Service (USFS).

  20. Fertility preservation in young patients with cancer

    PubMed Central

    Suhag, Virender; Sunita, B. S.; Sarin, Arti; Singh, A. K.; Dashottar, S.

    2015-01-01

    Infertility can arise as a consequence of treatment of oncological conditions. The parallel and continued improvement in both the management of oncology and fertility cases in recent times has brought to the forefront the potential for fertility preservation in patients being treated for cancer. Many survivors will maintain their reproductive potential after the successful completion of treatment for cancer. However total body irradiation, radiation to the gonads, and certain high dose chemotherapy regimens can place women at risk for acute ovarian failure or premature menopause and men at risk for temporary or permanent azoospermia. Providing information about risk of infertility and possible interventions to maintain reproductive potential are critical for the adolescent and young adult population at the time of diagnosis. There are established means of preserving fertility before cancer treatment; specifically, sperm cryopreservation for men and in vitro fertilization and embryo cryopreservation for women. Several innovative techniques are being actively investigated, including oocyte and ovarian follicle cryopreservation, ovarian tissue transplantation, and in vitro follicle maturation, which may expand the number of fertility preservation choices for young cancer patients. Fertility preservation may also require some modification of cancer therapy; thus, patients’ wishes regarding future fertility and available fertility preservation alternatives should be discussed before initiation of therapy. PMID:26942145

  1. Constrained Graph Optimization: Interdiction and Preservation Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Schild, Aaron V

    2012-07-30

    The maximum flow, shortest path, and maximum matching problems are a set of basic graph problems that are critical in theoretical computer science and applications. Constrained graph optimization, a variation of these basic graph problems involving modification of the underlying graph, is equally important but sometimes significantly harder. In particular, one can explore these optimization problems with additional cost constraints. In the preservation case, the optimizer has a budget to preserve vertices or edges of a graph, preventing them from being deleted. The optimizer wants to find the best set of preserved edges/vertices in which the cost constraints are satisfied and the basic graph problems are optimized. For example, in shortest path preservation, the optimizer wants to find a set of edges/vertices within which the shortest path between two predetermined points is smallest. In interdiction problems, one deletes vertices or edges from the graph with a particular cost in order to impede the basic graph problems as much as possible (for example, delete edges/vertices to maximize the shortest path between two predetermined vertices). Applications of preservation problems include optimal road maintenance, power grid maintenance, and job scheduling, while interdiction problems are related to drug trafficking prevention, network stability assessment, and counterterrorism. Computational hardness results are presented, along with heuristic methods for approximating solutions to the matching interdiction problem. Also, efficient algorithms are presented for special cases of graphs, including on planar graphs. The graphs in many of the listed applications are planar, so these algorithms have important practical implications.

  2. Oxygen absorbers in food preservation: a review.

    PubMed

    Cichello, Simon Angelo

    2015-04-01

    The preservation of packaged food against oxidative degradation is essential to establish and improve food shelf life, customer acceptability, and increase food security. Oxygen absorbers have an important role in the removal of dissolved oxygen, preserving the colour, texture and aroma of different food products, and importantly inhibition of food spoilage microbes. Active packaging technology in food preservation has improved over decades mostly due to the sealing of foods in oxygen impermeable package material and the quality of oxygen absorber. Ferrous iron oxides are the most reliable and commonly used oxygen absorbers within the food industry. Oxygen absorbers have been transformed from sachets of dried iron-powder to simple self-adhesive patches to accommodate any custom size, capacity and application. Oxygen concentration can be effectively lowered to 100 ppm, with applications spanning a wide range of food products and beverages across the world (i.e. bread, meat, fish, fruit, and cheese). Newer molecules that preserve packaged food materials from all forms of degradation are being developed, however oxygen absorbers remain a staple product for the preservation of food and pharmaceutical products to reduce food wastage in developed nations and increased food security in the developing & third world. PMID:25829570

  3. Cancer and fertility: strategies to preserve fertility.

    PubMed

    Diedrich, K; Fauser, B C J M; Devroey, P

    2011-03-01

    Fertility preservation is a key component of cancer management in young people. The Fourth Evian Annual Reproduction Workshop Meeting was held in April 2009 to discuss cancer and fertility in young adults. Specialists in oncology, assisted reproduction, embryology and clinical genetics presented published data and ongoing research on cancer and fertility, with particular focus on strategies to preserve fertility. This report is based on the expert presentations and group discussions, supplemented with publications from literature searches and the authors' knowledge. Fertility preservation should be considered for all young people undergoing potentially gonadotoxic cancer treatment. A variety of options are required to facilitate safe and effective fertility preservation for individual patients. Sperm banking is a simple and low-cost intervention. Embryo cryopreservation is the only established method of female fertility preservation. Oocyte cryopreservation offers a useful option for women without a male partner. Emergency ovarian stimulation and cryopreservation of ovarian tissue (followed by tissue transplantation or in-vitro maturation of oocytes) are experimental techniques for women who require urgent cancer treatment. Further prospective studies are required to validate cryopreservation of oocytes and ovarian tissue, in-vitro maturation of oocytes and new vitrification techniques and to identify any long-term sequelae of slow freezing of embryos.

  4. Selective Preservation of Fossil Ghost Fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meacham, Amanda

    2016-04-01

    A unique type of fossil fish preservation has been discovered in the Angelo Member (Fossil Lake) of the Green River Formation. The Angelo Member is a predominately evaporative deposit dominated by dolomite, but contains facies of fossiliferous laminated calcimicrite. Fossil fish occurring in two beds conspicuously lack bones. Fish in the lower bed are only preserved as organic material, including skin, pigments, and eyes. Fish in the upper bed have three-dimensional etching where bones once existed but also contain skin, pigments, and eyes. The top third of the upper bed often contains calcite crystals that are pseudomorphs after trona and possibly halite. Preliminary mineralogical analysis and mapping of evaporate facies suggests that this unique preservation may be related to lake geochemical conditions, such as high pH and alkalinity. To our knowledge, this is the first time this type of preservation has been observed and studied. Fossils and sediments within these beds are being studied both vertically and laterally through the one-meter thick sequence containing the fossil fish using XRD, isotopic, SEM, thin section, and total organic carbon analysis. Nine quarries, 0.5-1 meter square, were excavated for both fossils and rock samples along with 17 additional rock sample locations across an approximately 25-kilometer square region. This investigation has the capability of reconstructing the paleoenvironment and lake chemistry of Fossil Lake during the deposition of the "ghost-fish" beds and solving the mystery of the "missing bones" and the unusual process of preservation.

  5. Oxygen absorbers in food preservation: a review.

    PubMed

    Cichello, Simon Angelo

    2015-04-01

    The preservation of packaged food against oxidative degradation is essential to establish and improve food shelf life, customer acceptability, and increase food security. Oxygen absorbers have an important role in the removal of dissolved oxygen, preserving the colour, texture and aroma of different food products, and importantly inhibition of food spoilage microbes. Active packaging technology in food preservation has improved over decades mostly due to the sealing of foods in oxygen impermeable package material and the quality of oxygen absorber. Ferrous iron oxides are the most reliable and commonly used oxygen absorbers within the food industry. Oxygen absorbers have been transformed from sachets of dried iron-powder to simple self-adhesive patches to accommodate any custom size, capacity and application. Oxygen concentration can be effectively lowered to 100 ppm, with applications spanning a wide range of food products and beverages across the world (i.e. bread, meat, fish, fruit, and cheese). Newer molecules that preserve packaged food materials from all forms of degradation are being developed, however oxygen absorbers remain a staple product for the preservation of food and pharmaceutical products to reduce food wastage in developed nations and increased food security in the developing & third world.

  6. THE ROMANCE AND ENGINEERING OF FOOD PRESERVATION.

    PubMed

    Woolrich, W R

    1944-02-11

    The engineering profession of the world can be expected to give more attention to the animal-plant food cycles in the years ahead and to determine new methods of preserving for complete utilization the critical and exhaustible supplies of plant foods for the generations yet to live. Coincidentally with this obligation which the engineer must assume, there is the romantic but very real task ahead of applying the same intensive interest in the ultimate preservation of foods as the agriculturists have displayed in producing them. The food preservation arts and sciences have now progressed forward far enough that the engineering profession can well assure the world that diets can henceforth be determined on the basis of what is good for man. With the coordination of our implements of electrical power, internal-combustion engine, propelled transportation, excellent network of road. ways and mechanical inventions, and with the competent support of the food technologists, the bacteriologists and the chemists, the engineering profession should be able to assure the multitudes that the world's ability to preserve is now prepared to equal the world's capacity to produce food. When complete coordination is effected, and production, preservation and distribution become daily realities, then the profession will have reached new heights in engineering, achievement, statesmanship and service.

  7. Forest Structure in Low-Diversity Tropical Forests: A Study of Hawaiian Wet and Dry Forests

    PubMed Central

    Ostertag, Rebecca; Inman-Narahari, Faith; Cordell, Susan; Giardina, Christian P.; Sack, Lawren

    2014-01-01

    The potential influence of diversity on ecosystem structure and function remains a topic of significant debate, especially for tropical forests where diversity can range widely. We used Center for Tropical Forest Science (CTFS) methodology to establish forest dynamics plots in montane wet forest and lowland dry forest on Hawai‘i Island. We compared the species diversity, tree density, basal area, biomass, and size class distributions between the two forest types. We then examined these variables across tropical forests within the CTFS network. Consistent with other island forests, the Hawai‘i forests were characterized by low species richness and very high relative dominance. The two Hawai‘i forests were floristically distinct, yet similar in species richness (15 vs. 21 species) and stem density (3078 vs. 3486/ha). While these forests were selected for their low invasive species cover relative to surrounding forests, both forests averaged 5–>50% invasive species cover; ongoing removal will be necessary to reduce or prevent competitive impacts, especially from woody species. The montane wet forest had much larger trees, resulting in eightfold higher basal area and above-ground biomass. Across the CTFS network, the Hawaiian montane wet forest was similar to other tropical forests with respect to diameter distributions, density, and aboveground biomass, while the Hawai‘i lowland dry forest was similar in density to tropical forests with much higher diversity. These findings suggest that forest structural variables can be similar across tropical forests independently of species richness. The inclusion of low-diversity Pacific Island forests in the CTFS network provides an ∼80-fold range in species richness (15–1182 species), six-fold variation in mean annual rainfall (835–5272 mm yr−1) and 1.8-fold variation in mean annual temperature (16.0–28.4°C). Thus, the Hawaiian forest plots expand the global forest plot network to enable testing of

  8. Preservation Concerns in Construction and Remodeling of Libraries: Planning for Preservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trinkley, Michael

    To help libraries and other holdings institutions better incorporate preservation concerns in construction, renovation, and routine maintenance, various techniques are presented that allow preservation concerns to be integrated. The following topics are considered: (1) site selection; (2) design of the building envelope; (3) the library interior;…

  9. Microbiological preservation of cucumbers for bulk storage by the use of acetic acid and food preservatives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microbial growth did not occur when cucumbers were preserved without a thermal process by storage in solutions containing acetic acid, sodium benzoate, and calcium chloride to maintain tissue firmness. The concentrations of acetic acid and sodium benzoate required to assure preservation were low en...

  10. Sediment dynamics in restored riparian forest with different widths and agricultural surroundings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stucchi Boschi, Raquel; Simões da Silva, Laura; Ribeiro Rodrigues, Ricardo; Cooper, Miguel

    2016-04-01

    The riparian forests are essential to maintaining the quality of water resources, aquifer recharge and biodiversity. Due to the ecological services provided by riparian forests, these areas are considered by the law as Permanent Preservation Areas, being mandatory maintenance and restoration. However, the obligation of restoration and the extent of the Permanent Preservation Areas as defined by the Brazilian Forest Code, based on water body width, elucidates the lack of accurate scientific data on the influence of the size of the riparian forest in maintaining their ecological functions, particularly regarding the retention of sediments. Studies that evaluate the ideal width of riparian forests to guarantee their ecological functions are scarce and not conclusive, especially when we consider newly restored forests, located in agricultural areas. In this study, we investigate the dynamics of erosion and sedimentation in restored riparian forests with different widths situated in agricultural areas. The two study areas are located in a Semideciduous Tropical Forest inserted in sugarcane landscapes of São Paulo state, Brazil. The installed plots had 60 and 100 m in length and the riparian forest has a width of 15, 30 and 50 m. The characteristics of the sediments inside the plots were evaluated by detailed morphological and micromorphological studies as well as physical characterization. The dynamics of deposition and the amount of deposited sediments have been assessed with graded metal stakes partially buried inside the plots. The intensity, frequency and distribution of rainfall, as well as the occurrence of extreme events, have been evaluated by data collected from rain gauges installed in the areas. We expect that smaller widths are not able to retain sediments originated from the adjacent sugarcane areas. We also believe that extreme events are responsible for generating most of the sediments. The results will be important to support the discussion about an

  11. Lessons from the Rain Forest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Shelley

    2002-01-01

    Presents a first-grade art project after students learned about the rain forest and heard the story, "The Great Kapok Tree: A Tale of the Amazon Rain Forest" (Lynn Cherry). Explains that the students created pictures of the rain forest. (CMK)

  12. Exceptionally preserved jellyfishes from the Middle Cambrian.

    PubMed

    Cartwright, Paulyn; Halgedahl, Susan L; Hendricks, Jonathan R; Jarrard, Richard D; Marques, Antonio C; Collins, Allen G; Lieberman, Bruce S

    2007-10-31

    Cnidarians represent an early diverging animal group and thus insight into their origin and diversification is key to understanding metazoan evolution. Further, cnidarian jellyfish comprise an important component of modern marine planktonic ecosystems. Here we report on exceptionally preserved cnidarian jellyfish fossils from the Middle Cambrian (approximately 505 million years old) Marjum Formation of Utah. These are the first described Cambrian jellyfish fossils to display exquisite preservation of soft part anatomy including detailed features of structures interpreted as trailing tentacles and subumbrellar and exumbrellar surfaces. If the interpretation of these preserved characters is correct, their presence is diagnostic of modern jellyfish taxa. These new discoveries may provide insight into the scope of cnidarian diversity shortly after the Cambrian radiation, and would reinforce the notion that important taxonomic components of the modern planktonic realm were in place by the Cambrian period.

  13. Cryopreservation for preservation of potato genetic resources

    PubMed Central

    Niino, Takao; Arizaga, Miriam Valle

    2015-01-01

    Cryopreservation is becoming a very important tool for the long-term storage of plant genetic resources and efficient cryopreservation protocols have been developed for a large number of plant species. Practical procedures, developed using in vitro tissue culture, can be a simple and reliable preservation option of potato genetic resources rather than maintaining by vegetative propagation in genebanks due their allogamous nature. Cryopreserved materials insure a long-term backup of field collections against loss of plant germplasm. Occurrence of genetic variation, in tissue culture cells during prolonged subcultures, can be avoided with suitable cryopreservation protocols that provide high regrowth, leading and facilitating a systematic and strategic cryo-banking of plant genetic resources. Cryopreservation protocols for potato reviewed here, can efficiently complement field and in vitro conservation, providing for preservation of genotypes difficult to preserve by other methods, wild types and other species decided as priority collections. PMID:25931979

  14. Modified multivisceral transplantation with splenopancreatic preservation.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Cal S; Fishbein, Thomas M

    2007-01-27

    A common requirement of multivisceral transplantation has been removal of the native duodenum, pancreas and spleen in the process of abdominal exenteration. Oftentimes, though, the indication for their removal has not been underlying disease states in those organs. In order to avoid adverse sequelae of pancreas and splenic removal for purely anatomic reasons, we have designed a new approach and have performed a multivisceral transplantation with splenopancreatic preservation. In this modified multivisceral technique, the native spleen and pancreas are preserved with venous outflow through a native portocaval shunt, and native pancreatic exocrine drainage is established to the donor jejunum. Risk of transplant pancreatic insufficiency, posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder, and postsplenectomy sepsis may be avoided utilizing this technique. This new modification of multivisceral transplantation allows pancreaticosplenic preservation while facilitating stomach replacement for those patients requiring intestinal replacement therapy. It represents another step towards minimizing morbidities associated with these lifesaving transplants.

  15. Exceptionally preserved jellyfishes from the Middle Cambrian.

    PubMed

    Cartwright, Paulyn; Halgedahl, Susan L; Hendricks, Jonathan R; Jarrard, Richard D; Marques, Antonio C; Collins, Allen G; Lieberman, Bruce S

    2007-01-01

    Cnidarians represent an early diverging animal group and thus insight into their origin and diversification is key to understanding metazoan evolution. Further, cnidarian jellyfish comprise an important component of modern marine planktonic ecosystems. Here we report on exceptionally preserved cnidarian jellyfish fossils from the Middle Cambrian (approximately 505 million years old) Marjum Formation of Utah. These are the first described Cambrian jellyfish fossils to display exquisite preservation of soft part anatomy including detailed features of structures interpreted as trailing tentacles and subumbrellar and exumbrellar surfaces. If the interpretation of these preserved characters is correct, their presence is diagnostic of modern jellyfish taxa. These new discoveries may provide insight into the scope of cnidarian diversity shortly after the Cambrian radiation, and would reinforce the notion that important taxonomic components of the modern planktonic realm were in place by the Cambrian period. PMID:17971881

  16. Data Preservation in High Energy Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Mount, Richard; Brooks, Travis; Le Diberder, Francois; Dubois-Felsmann, Gregory; Neal, Homer; Bellis, Matt; Boehnlein, Amber; Votava, Margaret; White, Vicky; Wolbers, Stephen; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Roser, Robert; Snider, Rick; Lucchesi, Donatella; Denisov, Dmitri; Soldner-Rembold, Stefan; Li, Qizhong; Varnes, Erich; Jonckheere, Alan; Gasthuber, Martin; Gulzow, Volker; /DESY /Marseille, CPPM /Dortmund U. /DESY /Gent U. /DESY, Zeuthen /KEK, Tsukuba /CC, Villeurbanne /CERN /INFN, Bari /Gjovik Coll. Engineering /Karlsruhe, Forschungszentrum /Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys. /Carleton U. /Cornell U. /Rutherford

    2012-04-03

    Data from high-energy physics (HEP) experiments are collected with significant financial and human effort and are mostly unique. At the same time, HEP has no coherent strategy for data preservation and re-use. An inter-experimental Study Group on HEP data preservation and long-term analysis was convened at the end of 2008 and held two workshops, at DESY (January 2009) and SLAC (May 2009). This document is an intermediate report to the International Committee for Future Accelerators (ICFA) of the reflections of this Study Group. Large data sets accumulated during many years of detector operation at particle accelerators are the heritage of experimental HEP. These data sets offer unique opportunities for future scientific studies, sometimes long after the shut-down of the actual experiments: new theoretical input; new experimental results and analysis techniques; the quest for high-sensitivity combined analyses; the necessity of cross checks. In many cases, HEP data sets are unique; they cannot and most likely will not be superseded by data from newer generations of experiments. Once lost, or in an unusable state, HEP data samples cannot be reasonably recovered. The cost of conserving this heritage through a collaborative, target-oriented long-term data preservation program would be small, compared to the costs of past experimental projects or to the efforts to re-do experiments. However, this cost is not negligible, especially for collaborations close or past their end-date. The preservation of HEP data would provide today's collaborations with a secure way to complete their data analysis and enable them to seize new scientific opportunities in the coming years. The HEP community will benefit from preserved data samples through reanalysis, combination, education and outreach. Funding agencies would receive more scientific return, and a positive image, from their initial investment leading to the production and the first analysis of preserved data.

  17. Moesin functionality in hypothermic liver preservation injury.

    PubMed

    Tian, Tao; Lindell, Susanne L; Kowalski, Chris; Mangino, Martin J

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine how expression and functionality of the cytoskeletal linker protein moesin is involved in hepatic hypothermic preservation injury. Mouse livers were cold stored in University of Wisconsin (UW) solution and reperfused on an isolated perfused liver (IPL) device for one hour. Human hepatocytes (HepG2) and human or murine sinusoidal endothelial cells (SECs) were cold stored and rewarmed to induce hypothermic preservation injury. The cells were transfected with: wild type moesin, an siRNA duplex specific for moesin, and the moesin mutants T558D and T558A. Tissue and cell moesin expression and its binding to actin were determined by Western blot. Liver IPL functional outcomes deteriorated proportional to the length of cold storage, which correlated with moesin disassociation from the actin cytoskeleton. Cell viability (LDH and WST-8) in the cell models progressively declined with increasing preservation time, which also correlated with moesin disassociation. Transfection of a moesin containing plasmid or an siRNA duplex specific for moesin into HepG2 cells resulted in increased and decreased moesin expression, respectively. Overexpression of moesin protected while moesin knock-down potentiated preservation injury in the HepG2 cell model. Hepatocytes expressing the T558A (inactive) and T558D (active) moesin binding mutants demonstrated significantly more and less preservation injury, respectively. Cold storage time dependently caused hepatocyte detachment from the matrix and cell death, which was prevented by the T558D active moesin mutation. In conclusion, moesin is causally involved in hypothermic liver cell preservation injury through control of its active binding molecular functionality.

  18. An edge preserving differential image coding scheme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rost, Martin C.; Sayood, Khalid

    1992-01-01

    Differential encoding techniques are fast and easy to implement. However, a major problem with the use of differential encoding for images is the rapid edge degradation encountered when using such systems. This makes differential encoding techniques of limited utility, especially when coding medical or scientific images, where edge preservation is of utmost importance. A simple, easy to implement differential image coding system with excellent edge preservation properties is presented. The coding system can be used over variable rate channels, which makes it especially attractive for use in the packet network environment.

  19. [Contact allergy to a new preservative].

    PubMed

    Senff, H; Exner, M; Görtz, J; Goos, M

    1989-01-01

    A 43 year old woman with no previous skin disease developed contact eczema on the face and neck after application of a lotion used for "smoothing wrinkels", available as a non-prescription item. Patch testing of the product and of one of its ingredients, Euxyl K 400, revealed strong positive reactions. Upon testing of the individual components of the preservative Euxyl K 400, the substance 1,2-dibromo-2,4-dicyanobutane showed a positive reaction even in the concentration of 0.004%. Due to the increasing use of Euxyl K 400 inclusion of the preservative in the patch test battery should be considered.

  20. Privacy-preserving restricted boltzmann machine.

    PubMed

    Li, Yu; Zhang, Yuan; Ji, Yue

    2014-01-01

    With the arrival of the big data era, it is predicted that distributed data mining will lead to an information technology revolution. To motivate different institutes to collaborate with each other, the crucial issue is to eliminate their concerns regarding data privacy. In this paper, we propose a privacy-preserving method for training a restricted boltzmann machine (RBM). The RBM can be got without revealing their private data to each other when using our privacy-preserving method. We provide a correctness and efficiency analysis of our algorithms. The comparative experiment shows that the accuracy is very close to the original RBM model. PMID:25101139

  1. Motion preservation surgery in the spine.

    PubMed

    Murtagh, Ryan; Castellvi, Antonio E

    2014-05-01

    The primary goal of motion preservation surgery in the spine is to maintain normal or near normal motion in an attempt to prevent adverse outcomes commonly seen with conventional spinal fusion, most notably the development of adjacent-level degenerative disc disease. Several different surgical approaches have been developed to preserve motion in the lumbar spine, including total disc replacement, partial disc (nucleus) replacement, interspinous spacers, dynamic stabilization devices, and total facet replacement devices. The design of devices varies greatly. The devices are created using a similar rationale but are unique in design relative to their lumbar counterparts. PMID:24792608

  2. An edge preserving differential image coding scheme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rost, Martin C.; Sayood, Khalid

    1991-01-01

    Differential encoding techniques are fast and easy to implement. However, a major problem with the use of differential encoding for images is the rapid edge degradation encountered when using such systems. This makes differential encoding techniques of limited utility especially when coding medical or scientific images, where edge preservation is of utmost importance. We present a simple, easy to implement differential image coding system with excellent edge preservation properties. The coding system can be used over variable rate channels which makes it especially attractive for use in the packet network environment.

  3. Privacy-Preserving Restricted Boltzmann Machine

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yu

    2014-01-01

    With the arrival of the big data era, it is predicted that distributed data mining will lead to an information technology revolution. To motivate different institutes to collaborate with each other, the crucial issue is to eliminate their concerns regarding data privacy. In this paper, we propose a privacy-preserving method for training a restricted boltzmann machine (RBM). The RBM can be got without revealing their private data to each other when using our privacy-preserving method. We provide a correctness and efficiency analysis of our algorithms. The comparative experiment shows that the accuracy is very close to the original RBM model. PMID:25101139

  4. Preserving America's Photographic Heritage - Phase 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelaz, M. W.; Cline, J. D.; Griffin, E.; Osborn, W.

    2004-12-01

    Our shared heritage of some 3 million photographic observations is seriously in jeopardy, and astronomy may well lose vital, unrepeatable data dating back over a century. A call for preservation of astronomical plates has been made by the international astronomical community. This project is in response, and aims to establish a national archive for astronomical plates at the Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute that will preserve and eventually digitize selections of the plate collections in North America. Our poster describes details of the storage, cleaning and cataloging procedures that have been planned, and provides an overview of what is anticipated for succeeding Phases.

  5. Introduction: Male fertility preservation: innovations and questions.

    PubMed

    Frydman, René; Grynberg, Michaël

    2016-02-01

    It is now well established that many benign or malignant diseases may by themselves or as result of treatment, impair male fertility. Therefore, preserving the potential of becoming a genetic father represents a major issue. Besides sperm cryopreservation, which is the most reliable method for male fertility preservation, other strategies have more recently emerged, especially in prepubertal boys. Prepubertal germ cell storage from testicular sperm extraction and derivation of male gametes from stem cells may represent a future hope, although raising many ethical issues. PMID:26746134

  6. Avian artificial insemination and semen preservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gee, G.F.; Risser, Arthur C.; Todd, Frank S.

    1983-01-01

    Summary: Artificial insemination is a practical propagation tool that has been successful with a variety of birds. Cooperative, massage, and electroejaculation and modifications of these three basic methods of semen collection are described for a variety of birds. Semen color and consistency and sperm number, moti!ity, and morphology, as discussed, are useful indicators of semen quality, but the most reliable test of semen quality is the production of fertile eggs. Successful cryogenic preservation of avian semen with DMSO or glycerol as the cryoprotectant has been possible. Although the methods for preservation require special equipment, use of frozen semen requires only simple insemination supplies

  7. Introduction: Male fertility preservation: innovations and questions.

    PubMed

    Frydman, René; Grynberg, Michaël

    2016-02-01

    It is now well established that many benign or malignant diseases may by themselves or as result of treatment, impair male fertility. Therefore, preserving the potential of becoming a genetic father represents a major issue. Besides sperm cryopreservation, which is the most reliable method for male fertility preservation, other strategies have more recently emerged, especially in prepubertal boys. Prepubertal germ cell storage from testicular sperm extraction and derivation of male gametes from stem cells may represent a future hope, although raising many ethical issues.

  8. Preserved irradiated homolgous cartilage for orbital reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Linberg, J V; Anderson, R L; Edwards, J J; Panje, W R; Bardach, J

    1980-07-01

    Human costal cartilage is an excellent implant material for orbital and periorbital reconstruction because of its light weight, strength, homogeneous consistency and the ease with which it can be carved. Its use has been limited by the necessity of a separate surgical procedure to obtain the material. Preserved irradiated homologous cartilage has been shown to have almost all the autogenous cartilage and is concenient to use. Preserved irradiated homologous cartilage transplants do not elicit rejection reactions, resist infection and rarely undergo absorption. PMID:7393528

  9. JPEG 2000 standards in digital preservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Richard

    2010-06-01

    Although JPEG 2000 is now a preferred format for archival image preservation, its use still requires care and consideration. This paper addresses how some of these issues can be addressed from a pragmatic perspective, and also looks at how the technology and file formats are developing to provide a full and consistent architecture for handling and searching large visual archives. New methods of addressing perceptual quality are discussed, showing that JPEG 2000 offers the best quality compression, although the metrics indicate that lower compression rates are recommended for preservation formats than might be assumed from previous simple metrics such as PSNR.

  10. [Hearing preservation: Better hearing with advanced technology].

    PubMed

    Rader, T; Helbig, S; Stöver, T; Baumann, U

    2014-05-01

    Preservation of residual hearing after cochlear implantation allows patients the synergetic use of electric and acoustic stimulation (EAS). The application of specific surgical and therapeutic techniques enables the reduction of inner ear trauma, which leads otherwise to complete hearing loss. Due to simultaneous electric and acoustic stimulation, speech understanding is improved especially in noise. EAS is a well-accepted therapeutic treatment for subjects with profound hearing loss in the higher frequencies and no or mild hearing loss in the low frequencies. Several Manufacturers offer individual soft electrodes specially designed for hearing preservation as well as combined electric-acoustic audio processors. PMID:24782208

  11. [Glaucoma medications, preservatives and the ocular surface.

    PubMed

    Aptel, F; Labbé, A; Baudouin, C; Bron, A; Lachkar, Y; Sellem, E; Renard, J-P; Nordmann, J-P; Rouland, J-F; Denis, P

    2014-10-14

    Several clinical and experimental studies have demonstrated that ocular surface disease is common in glaucoma patients receiving chronic glaucoma drops, and that the preservatives in these drops play a major role in the occurrence of ocular surface disease. These ocular surface changes may induce both symptoms reported by the patients and anterior segment clinical signs, and should be systematically assessed by history and exam in all glaucoma patients. In these patients with ocular surface disease, reducing the amount of preservatives administered to the eye should be strived for, rather than adding additional eye drops to alleviate or mask the side effects of the glaucoma drops. PMID:25440185

  12. Preservation of Newspapers: Theoretical Approaches and Practical Achievements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasenay, Damir; Krtalic, Maja

    2010-01-01

    The preservation of newspapers is the main topic of this paper. A theoretical overview of newspaper preservation is given, with an emphasis on the importance of a systematic and comprehensive approach. Efficient newspaper preservation implies understanding the meaning of preservation in general, as well as understanding specific approaches,…

  13. 43 CFR 15.12 - Closing of Preserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Closing of Preserve. 15.12 Section 15.12 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior KEY LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE § 15.12 Closing of Preserve. The Preserve may be closed to public use in the event of emergency...

  14. 43 CFR 15.12 - Closing of Preserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Closing of Preserve. 15.12 Section 15.12 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior KEY LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE § 15.12 Closing of Preserve. The Preserve may be closed to public use in the event of emergency...

  15. 43 CFR 15.12 - Closing of Preserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Closing of Preserve. 15.12 Section 15.12 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior KEY LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE § 15.12 Closing of Preserve. The Preserve may be closed to public use in the event of emergency...

  16. 43 CFR 15.12 - Closing of Preserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Closing of Preserve. 15.12 Section 15.12 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior KEY LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE § 15.12 Closing of Preserve. The Preserve may be closed to public use in the event of emergency...

  17. 43 CFR 15.12 - Closing of Preserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Closing of Preserve. 15.12 Section 15.12 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior KEY LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE § 15.12 Closing of Preserve. The Preserve may be closed to public use in the event of emergency...

  18. Forest Nursery Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katoch, C. D.

    This book is designed for forest nursery planning and management by all levels of forestry professionals and non-professionals in India and abroad, and focuses on the preparation of high quality, healthy seedlings necessary for successful afforestation programs. The book is divided into five parts that discuss: (1) details of nursery preparations…

  19. The Forest Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NatureScope, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Provides: (1) background information on plant and animal relationships in forest communities; (2) four activities dealing with these relationships; and (3) five ready-to-copy pages for students. Activities include objective(s), recommended age level(s), subject area(s), list of materials needed, and procedures. (JN)

  20. Agriculture, forest, and range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The findings and recommendations of the panel for developing a satellite remote-sensing global information system in the next decade are reported. User requirements were identified in five categories: (1) cultivated crops, (2) land resources, (3)water resources, (4)forest management, and (5) range management. The benefits from the applications of satellite data are discussed.

  1. Rain Forests: Tropical Treasures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braus, Judy, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Ranger Rick's NatureScope is a creative education series dedicated to inspiring in children an understanding and appreciation of the natural world while developing the skills they will need to make responsible decisions about the environment. The topic of this issue is "Rain Forests: Tropical Treasures." Contents are organized into the following…

  2. Forest Resource Information System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mrocznyski, R. P.

    1983-01-01

    Twenty-three processing functions aid in utilizing LANDSAT data for forest resource management. Designed to work primarily with digital data obtained from measurements recorded by multispectral remote sensors mounted on aerospace platforms. communication between processing functions, simplicity of control, and commonality of data files in LARSFRIS enhance usefulness of system as tool for research and development of remote sensing systems.

  3. Forest Resources: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bethel, J. S.; Schreuder, G. F.

    1976-01-01

    Concern for long-term availability of nonrenewable resources has fostered proposals for substitution with renewable resources. Forest products could become the basis for materials substitution and production. Further feasibility studies are needed to determine the technical, economic, energy, and environmental aspects of substitution. (MR)

  4. Forest Environment Learning Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szuhy, Donna L. T.; Shepard, Clint L.

    Environmental education, as a teaching methodology, is appropriate for all subject areas and environments. Two teaching approaches are presented with the 13 activities in this booklet serving as examples of their application to the forest environment and different disciplines. The first approach is based upon the understanding that learners retain…

  5. Forests of Stone.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidow, Beth

    1992-01-01

    Presents a geological tour of Arizona's Petrified Forest National Park, cited as containing the greatest record of life in the Triassic Period. Discusses ancient ecosystems, fossil records, geologic formations, petroglyphs, the Anasazi settlements, Painted Desert, and other park features. Includes an illustration of the fossilization process,…

  6. Minnesota's Forest Trees. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, William R.; Fuller, Bruce L.

    This bulletin describes 46 of the more common trees found in Minnesota's forests and windbreaks. The bulletin contains two tree keys, a summer key and a winter key, to help the reader identify these trees. Besides the two keys, the bulletin includes an introduction, instructions for key use, illustrations of leaf characteristics and twig…

  7. An Artful Forest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Possick, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors' kindergarteners and a fellow first-grade class turned their hallway into a forest! Not just any mural, this culmination of a month-long project was based on observing, questioning, taking field trips, conducting library research (including the internet) and asking experts. The students developed skills in forming…

  8. Rain Forest Murals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleiner, Cheryl

    2010-01-01

    The rain forest murals in the author's school began as a request from her principal to have students decorate the cafeteria with their own paintings. She decided to brainstorm ideas with her eighth-grade students. Taking into consideration the architectural space and the environmental concerns they wanted to convey, students chose the rain forest…

  9. Impact of spatial resolution on correlation between segmentation evaluation metrics and forest classification accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Švab Lenarčič, Andreja; Ritlop, Klemen; Äńurić, Nataša.; Čotar, Klemen; Oštir, Krištof

    2015-10-01

    Slovenia is one of the most forested countries in Europe. Its forest management authorities need information about the forest extent and state, as their responsibility lies in forest observation and preservation. Together with appropriate geographic information system mapping methods the remotely sensed data represent essential tool for an effective and sustainable forest management. Despite the large data availability, suitable mapping methods still present big challenge in terms of their speed which is often affected by the huge amount of data. The speed of the classification method could be maximised, if each of the steps in object-based classification was automated. However, automation is hard to achieve, since segmentation requires choosing optimum parameter values for optimal classification results. This paper focuses on the analysis of segmentation and classification performance and their correlation in a range of segmentation parameter values applied in the segmentation step. In order to find out which spatial resolution is still suitable for forest classification, forest classification accuracies obtained by using four images with different spatial resolutions were compared. Results of this study indicate that all high or very high spatial resolutions are suitable for optimal forest segmentation and classification, as long as appropriate scale and merge parameters combinations are used in the object-based classification. If computation interval includes all segmentation parameter combinations, all segmentation-classification correlations are spatial resolution independent and are generally high. If computation interval includes over- or optimal-segmentation parameter combinations, most segmentation-classification correlations are spatial resolution dependent.

  10. Effects of forests, roads and mistletoe on bird diversity in monoculture rubber plantations.

    PubMed

    Sreekar, Rachakonda; Huang, Guohualing; Yasuda, Mika; Quan, Rui-Chang; Goodale, Eben; Corlett, Richard T; Tomlinson, Kyle W

    2016-01-01

    Rising global demand for natural rubber is expanding monoculture rubber (Hevea brasilensis) at the expense of natural forests in the Old World tropics. Conversion of forests into rubber plantations has a devastating impact on biodiversity and we have yet to identify management strategies that can mitigate this. We determined the life-history traits that best predict bird species occurrence in rubber plantations in SW China and investigated the effects of surrounding forest cover and distance to roads on bird diversity. Mistletoes provide nectar and fruit resources in rubber so we examined mistletoe densities and the relationship with forest cover and rubber tree diameter. In rubber plantations, we recorded less than half of all bird species extant in the surrounding area. Birds with wider habitat breadths and low conservation value had a higher probability of occurrence. Species richness and diversity increased logarithmically with surrounding forest cover, but roads had little effect. Mistletoe density increased exponentially with rubber tree diameters, but was unrelated to forest cover. To maximize bird diversity in rubber-dominated landscapes it is therefore necessary to preserve as much forest as possible, construct roads through plantations and not forest, and retain some large rubber trees with mistletoes during crop rotations.

  11. Effects of forests, roads and mistletoe on bird diversity in monoculture rubber plantations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreekar, Rachakonda; Huang, Guohualing; Yasuda, Mika; Quan, Rui-Chang; Goodale, Eben; Corlett, Richard T.; Tomlinson, Kyle W.

    2016-02-01

    Rising global demand for natural rubber is expanding monoculture rubber (Hevea brasilensis) at the expense of natural forests in the Old World tropics. Conversion of forests into rubber plantations has a devastating impact on biodiversity and we have yet to identify management strategies that can mitigate this. We determined the life-history traits that best predict bird species occurrence in rubber plantations in SW China and investigated the effects of surrounding forest cover and distance to roads on bird diversity. Mistletoes provide nectar and fruit resources in rubber so we examined mistletoe densities and the relationship with forest cover and rubber tree diameter. In rubber plantations, we recorded less than half of all bird species extant in the surrounding area. Birds with wider habitat breadths and low conservation value had a higher probability of occurrence. Species richness and diversity increased logarithmically with surrounding forest cover, but roads had little effect. Mistletoe density increased exponentially with rubber tree diameters, but was unrelated to forest cover. To maximize bird diversity in rubber-dominated landscapes it is therefore necessary to preserve as much forest as possible, construct roads through plantations and not forest, and retain some large rubber trees with mistletoes during crop rotations.

  12. Effects of forests, roads and mistletoe on bird diversity in monoculture rubber plantations

    PubMed Central

    Sreekar, Rachakonda; Huang, Guohualing; Yasuda, Mika; Quan, Rui-Chang; Goodale, Eben; Corlett, Richard T.; Tomlinson, Kyle W.

    2016-01-01

    Rising global demand for natural rubber is expanding monoculture rubber (Hevea brasilensis) at the expense of natural forests in the Old World tropics. Conversion of forests into rubber plantations has a devastating impact on biodiversity and we have yet to identify management strategies that can mitigate this. We determined the life-history traits that best predict bird species occurrence in rubber plantations in SW China and investigated the effects of surrounding forest cover and distance to roads on bird diversity. Mistletoes provide nectar and fruit resources in rubber so we examined mistletoe densities and the relationship with forest cover and rubber tree diameter. In rubber plantations, we recorded less than half of all bird species extant in the surrounding area. Birds with wider habitat breadths and low conservation value had a higher probability of occurrence. Species richness and diversity increased logarithmically with surrounding forest cover, but roads had little effect. Mistletoe density increased exponentially with rubber tree diameters, but was unrelated to forest cover. To maximize bird diversity in rubber-dominated landscapes it is therefore necessary to preserve as much forest as possible, construct roads through plantations and not forest, and retain some large rubber trees with mistletoes during crop rotations. PMID:26903032

  13. Effects of forests, roads and mistletoe on bird diversity in monoculture rubber plantations.

    PubMed

    Sreekar, Rachakonda; Huang, Guohualing; Yasuda, Mika; Quan, Rui-Chang; Goodale, Eben; Corlett, Richard T; Tomlinson, Kyle W

    2016-01-01

    Rising global demand for natural rubber is expanding monoculture rubber (Hevea brasilensis) at the expense of natural forests in the Old World tropics. Conversion of forests into rubber plantations has a devastating impact on biodiversity and we have yet to identify management strategies that can mitigate this. We determined the life-history traits that best predict bird species occurrence in rubber plantations in SW China and investigated the effects of surrounding forest cover and distance to roads on bird diversity. Mistletoes provide nectar and fruit resources in rubber so we examined mistletoe densities and the relationship with forest cover and rubber tree diameter. In rubber plantations, we recorded less than half of all bird species extant in the surrounding area. Birds with wider habitat breadths and low conservation value had a higher probability of occurrence. Species richness and diversity increased logarithmically with surrounding forest cover, but roads had little effect. Mistletoe density increased exponentially with rubber tree diameters, but was unrelated to forest cover. To maximize bird diversity in rubber-dominated landscapes it is therefore necessary to preserve as much forest as possible, construct roads through plantations and not forest, and retain some large rubber trees with mistletoes during crop rotations. PMID:26903032

  14. Environmental preservation demand: Altruistic, bequest, and intrinsic motives

    SciTech Connect

    Whitehead, J.C.; Thompson, C.Y. )

    1993-01-01

    When the demand for environmental preservation is not explicitly revealed in markets, motivating attitudes toward environmental preservation become important. A survey approach allows revelation and measurement of demand for environmental preservation. Indices which measure the altruistic, bequest, intrinsic, and option to use motives and other attitudes are utilized as determinants in a model that measures the demand for environmental preservation. Demand is more likely with greater preservation motives. Preservation demand also depends on individual preferences for economic development, perceptions of affordability and responsibility for preservation of the wetlands. 17 refs., 3 tabs.

  15. Charcoal records reveal past occurrences of disturbances in the forests of the Kisangani region, Democratic Republic of the Congo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tshibamba Mukendi, John; Hubau, Wannes; Ntahobavuka, Honorine; Boyemba Bosela, Faustin; De Cannière, Charles; Beeckman, Hans

    2014-05-01

    Past disturbances have modified local density, structure and floristic composition of Central African rainforests. As such, these perturbations represent a driving force for forest dynamics and they were presumably at the origin of present-day forest mosaics. One of the most prominent disturbances within the forest is fire, leaving behind charcoal as a witness of past forest dynamics. Quantification and identification of ancient charcoal fragments found in soil layers (= pedoanthracology) allows a detailed reconstruction of forest history, including the possible occurrence of past perturbations. The primary objective of this study is to present palaeoenvironmental evidence for the existence of past disturbances in the forests of the Kisangani region (Democratic Republic of the Congo) using a pedoanthracological approach. We quantified and identified charcoal fragments from pedoanthracological excavations in the Yangambi, Yoko, Masako and Kole forest regions. Charcoal sampling was conducted in pit intervals of 10 cm, whereby pottery fragments were also registered and quantified. Floristic identifications were conducted using former protocols based on wood anatomy, which is largely preserved after charcoalification. 14 excavations were conducted and charcoal was found in most pit intervals. Specifically, 52 out of 56 sampled intervals from the Yangambi forest contained charcoal, along with 47 pit intervals from the Yoko forest reserve, 34 pit intervals from the Masako forest and 16 from the Kole forest. Highest specific anthracomasses were recorded in Yoko (167 mg charcoal per kg soil), followed by Yangambi (133 mg/kg), Masako (71,89 mg/kg) and finally Kole (42,4 mg/kg). Charcoal identifications point at a manifest presence of the family of Fabaceae (Caesalpinioideae). This family is characteristic for the tropical humid rainforest. The presence of charcoal fragments from these taxa, associated with pottery sherds on different depths within the profiles, suggests

  16. The State of the Art and Practice in Digital Preservation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyong-Ho; Slattery, Oliver; Lu, Richang; Tang, Xiao; McCrary, Victor

    2002-01-01

    The goal of digital preservation is to ensure long-term access to digitally stored information. In this paper, we present a survey of techniques used in digital preservation. We also introduce representative digital preservation projects and case studies that provide insight into the advantages and disadvantages of different preservation strategies. Finally, the pros and cons of current strategies, critical issues for digital preservation, and future directions are discussed. PMID:27446721

  17. When is a forest a forest? Forest concepts and definitions in the era of forest and landscape restoration.

    PubMed

    Chazdon, Robin L; Brancalion, Pedro H S; Laestadius, Lars; Bennett-Curry, Aoife; Buckingham, Kathleen; Kumar, Chetan; Moll-Rocek, Julian; Vieira, Ima Célia Guimarães; Wilson, Sarah Jane

    2016-09-01

    We present a historical overview of forest concepts and definitions, linking these changes with distinct perspectives and management objectives. Policies dealing with a broad range of forest issues are often based on definitions created for the purpose of assessing global forest stocks, which do not distinguish between natural and planted forests or reforests, and which have not proved useful in assessing national and global rates of forest regrowth and restoration. Implementing and monitoring forest and landscape restoration requires additional approaches to defining and assessing forests that reveal the qualities and trajectories of forest patches in a spatially and temporally dynamic landscape matrix. New technologies and participatory assessment of forest states and trajectories offer the potential to operationalize such definitions. Purpose-built and contextualized definitions are needed to support policies that successfully protect, sustain, and regrow forests at national and global scales. We provide a framework to illustrate how different management objectives drive the relative importance of different aspects of forest state, dynamics, and landscape context.

  18. When is a forest a forest? Forest concepts and definitions in the era of forest and landscape restoration.

    PubMed

    Chazdon, Robin L; Brancalion, Pedro H S; Laestadius, Lars; Bennett-Curry, Aoife; Buckingham, Kathleen; Kumar, Chetan; Moll-Rocek, Julian; Vieira, Ima Célia Guimarães; Wilson, Sarah Jane

    2016-09-01

    We present a historical overview of forest concepts and definitions, linking these changes with distinct perspectives and management objectives. Policies dealing with a broad range of forest issues are often based on definitions created for the purpose of assessing global forest stocks, which do not distinguish between natural and planted forests or reforests, and which have not proved useful in assessing national and global rates of forest regrowth and restoration. Implementing and monitoring forest and landscape restoration requires additional approaches to defining and assessing forests that reveal the qualities and trajectories of forest patches in a spatially and temporally dynamic landscape matrix. New technologies and participatory assessment of forest states and trajectories offer the potential to operationalize such definitions. Purpose-built and contextualized definitions are needed to support policies that successfully protect, sustain, and regrow forests at national and global scales. We provide a framework to illustrate how different management objectives drive the relative importance of different aspects of forest state, dynamics, and landscape context. PMID:26961011

  19. Landscape development, forest fires, and wilderness management.

    PubMed

    Wright, H E

    1974-11-01

    fire. Major fires occur so often that the vegetation pattern is a record of fire history. All elements in the forest mosaic are in various stages of postfire succession, with only a few approaching climax. Fire interrupts the successful sequence toward climax. Geomorphic and edaphic factors in vegetational distribution are largely submerged by the fire regime, except for bog and other lowland vegetation. Fire recycles nutrients and renews succession. Nevertheless, despite the fire regime, the resulting long-term equilibrium of the forest mosaic, characterized by severe and irregular fluctuations of individual elements, reflects regional climate. In the BWCA and the western mountains, large virgin forests can be preserved for study and wilderness recreation. These wilderness areas must be managed to return them to the natural equilibrium which has been disturbed by 50 to 70 years of fire suppression. The goal should be to maintain virgin forests as primeval wilderness. This can be done by management that permits fire and other natural processes to determine the forest mosaic. Mechanized tree-felling and other human disturbances should be kept to an absolute minimum. Natural landforms also should be preserved for study and for certain nondestructive recreational activities. It is somewhat late for the Colorado River and other rivers of the West, because natural balances are upset by drainagebasin disturbances. Modification of plant cover on hillslopes changes infiltration and erosion rates and thus the stream discharge and sediment load, so the stream balance is altered from primeval conditions. Scenic Rivers legislation should thus be used to restore certain river systems and their drainage basins. Mountain meadows, badlands, desert plains, and patterned permafrost terrain are extremely fragile and sensitive. Intricate stream and weathering processes leave patterns easily obliterated by mechanized vehicles. Tire tracks can last for decades or centuries. The mineral

  20. Landscape development, forest fires, and wilderness management.

    PubMed

    Wright, H E

    1974-11-01

    fire. Major fires occur so often that the vegetation pattern is a record of fire history. All elements in the forest mosaic are in various stages of postfire succession, with only a few approaching climax. Fire interrupts the successful sequence toward climax. Geomorphic and edaphic factors in vegetational distribution are largely submerged by the fire regime, except for bog and other lowland vegetation. Fire recycles nutrients and renews succession. Nevertheless, despite the fire regime, the resulting long-term equilibrium of the forest mosaic, characterized by severe and irregular fluctuations of individual elements, reflects regional climate. In the BWCA and the western mountains, large virgin forests can be preserved for study and wilderness recreation. These wilderness areas must be managed to return them to the natural equilibrium which has been disturbed by 50 to 70 years of fire suppression. The goal should be to maintain virgin forests as primeval wilderness. This can be done by management that permits fire and other natural processes to determine the forest mosaic. Mechanized tree-felling and other human disturbances should be kept to an absolute minimum. Natural landforms also should be preserved for study and for certain nondestructive recreational activities. It is somewhat late for the Colorado River and other rivers of the West, because natural balances are upset by drainagebasin disturbances. Modification of plant cover on hillslopes changes infiltration and erosion rates and thus the stream discharge and sediment load, so the stream balance is altered from primeval conditions. Scenic Rivers legislation should thus be used to restore certain river systems and their drainage basins. Mountain meadows, badlands, desert plains, and patterned permafrost terrain are extremely fragile and sensitive. Intricate stream and weathering processes leave patterns easily obliterated by mechanized vehicles. Tire tracks can last for decades or centuries. The mineral