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Sample records for forest production responses

  1. Responses of temperate forest productivity to insect and pathogen disturbances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flower, C. E.; Gonzalez-Meler, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    Climate forcing factors have been documented to directly (e.g. CO2 fertilization) or indirectly (e.g. temperature and vapor pressure deficit) affect net primary productivity (NPP) of forests. Climate variations can also affect the vulnerability of forests to pests and pathogens, causing diffuse or widespread mortality. The introduction of novel pests is causing rapid mortality of targeted species with undetermined effects on forest productivity: NPP could decrease or increase depending on the severity (proportion of basal area impacted) and species diversity. We attempted to document the impact of diffuse mortality caused by insect outbreaks on North American temperate forests through synthesis of literature. Despite the large number of studies (>500) only a few (12) documented NPP in a systematic manner. The magnitude of insect and pathogen disturbance was larger in western than eastern forests due to the redundancy and functional diversity of temperate deciduous and mixed deciduous forests. Recovery from disturbance was more rapid from diffuse short duration defoliation events relative to the long lasting impacts of wood boring insects. Forest resilience may decrease as insect disturbance increases, particularly with generalist invasive pests that target a variety of species. We conclude that these biotic interactions, particularly when caused by invasive pests, impose biological forcing to forest NPP at similar magnitude and time scales than climate forcing.

  2. Responses of temperate forest productivity to insect and pathogen disturbances.

    PubMed

    Flower, Charles E; Gonzalez-Meler, Miquel A

    2015-01-01

    Pest and pathogen disturbances are ubiquitous across forest ecosystems, impacting their species composition, structure, and function. Whereas severe abiotic disturbances (e.g., clear-cutting and fire) largely reset successional trajectories, pest and pathogen disturbances cause diffuse mortality, driving forests into nonanalogous system states. Biotic perturbations that disrupt forest carbon dynamics either reduce or enhance net primary production (NPP) and carbon storage, depending on pathogen type. Relative to defoliators, wood borers and invasive pests have the largest negative impact on NPP and the longest recovery time. Forest diversity is an important contributing factor to productivity: NPP is neutral, marginally enhanced, or reduced in high-diversity stands in which a small portion of the canopy is affected (temperate deciduous or mixed forests) but very negative in low-diversity stands in which a large portion of the canopy is affected (western US forests). Pests and pathogens reduce forest structural and functional redundancy, affecting their resilience to future climate change or new outbreaks. Therefore, pests and pathogens can be considered biotic forcing agents capable of causing consequences of similar magnitude to climate forcing factors.

  3. Survey response rates in the forest products literature from 2000 to 2015

    Treesearch

    Matt Bumgardner; Iris Montague; Jan Wiedenbeck

    2017-01-01

    A literature analysis was conducted to synthesize typical response rates from forest-productsindustry- based survey studies published from 2000 to mid-2015. One hundred and ninety-five surveys published in several forest products and forestry journals and proceedings (mostly North American based) were analyzed. Overall, the typical response rate was found to be about...

  4. Consumer and purchasing agent response to terms used to describe forest products from southeast Alaska

    Treesearch

    Allen M. Brackley; Valerie Barber

    2007-01-01

    This study surveys 204 consumers and purchasing agents and reports their reaction to terms used to describe forest products from southeast Alaska. Although 67 percent of the respondents would purchase products from old-growth trees, purchasing agents were more likely to refuse to purchase such products (negative response from 12 percent of consumers vs. 29 percent for...

  5. Wood production response to climate change will depend critically on forest composition and structure.

    PubMed

    Coomes, David A; Flores, Olivier; Holdaway, Robert; Jucker, Tommaso; Lines, Emily R; Vanderwel, Mark C

    2014-12-01

    Established forests currently function as a major carbon sink, sequestering as woody biomass about 26% of global fossil fuel emissions. Whether forests continue to act as a global sink will depend on many factors, including the response of aboveground wood production (AWP; MgC ha(-1 ) yr(-1) ) to climate change. Here, we explore how AWP in New Zealand's natural forests is likely to change. We start by statistically modelling the present-day growth of 97 199 individual trees within 1070 permanently marked inventory plots as a function of tree size, competitive neighbourhood and climate. We then use these growth models to identify the factors that most influence present-day AWP and to predict responses to medium-term climate change under different assumptions. We find that if the composition and structure of New Zealand's forests were to remain unchanged over the next 30 years, then AWP would increase by 6-23%, primarily as a result of physiological responses to warmer temperatures (with no appreciable effect of changing rainfall). However, if warmth-requiring trees were able to migrate into currently cooler areas and if denser canopies were able to form, then a different AWP response is likely: forests growing in the cool mountain environments would show a 30% increase in AWP, while those in the lowland would hardly respond (on average, -3% when mean annual temperature exceeds 8.0 °C). We conclude that response of wood production to anthropogenic climate change is not only dependent on the physiological responses of individual trees, but is highly contingent on whether forests adjust in composition and structure.

  6. Microbial nitrogen cycling response to forest-based bioenergy production.

    PubMed

    Minick, Kevan J; Strahm, Brian D; Fox, Thomas R; Sucre, Eric B; Leggett, Zakiya H

    2015-12-01

    Concern over rising atmospheric CO2 and other greenhouse gases due to fossil fuel combustion has intensified research into carbon-neutral energy production. Approximately 15.8 million ha of pine plantations exist across the southeastern United States, representing a vast land area advantageous for bioenergy production without significant landuse change or diversion of agricultural resources from food production. Furthermore, intercropping of pine with bioenergy grasses could provide annually harvestable, lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks along with production of traditional wood products. Viability of such a system hinges in part on soil nitrogen (N) availability and effects of N competition between pines and grasses on ecosystem productivity. We investigated effects of intercropping loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) with switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) on microbial N cycling processes in the Lower Coastal Plain of North Carolina, USA. Soil samples were collected from bedded rows of pine and interbed space of two treatments, composed of either volunteer native woody and herbaceous vegetation (pine-native) or pure switchgrass (pine-switchgrass) in interbeds. An in vitro 15N pool-dilution technique was employed to quantify gross N transformations at two soil depths (0-5 and 5-15 cm) on four dates in 2012-2013. At the 0-5 cm depth in beds of the pine-switchgrass treatment, gross N mineralization was two to three times higher in November and February compared to the pine-native treatment, resulting in increased NH4(+) availability. Gross and net nitrification were also significantly higher in February in the same pine beds. In interbeds of the pine-switchgrass treatment, gross N mineralization was lower from April to November, but higher in February, potentially reflecting positive effects of switchgrass root-derived C inputs during dormancy on microbial activity. These findings indicate soil N cycling and availability has increased in pine beds of the pine

  7. Forest response to elevated CO2 is conserved across a broad range of productivity

    PubMed Central

    Norby, Richard J.; DeLucia, Evan H.; Gielen, Birgit; Calfapietra, Carlo; Giardina, Christian P.; King, John S.; Ledford, Joanne; McCarthy, Heather R.; Moore, David J. P.; Ceulemans, Reinhart; De Angelis, Paolo; Finzi, Adrien C.; Karnosky, David F.; Kubiske, Mark E.; Lukac, Martin; Pregitzer, Kurt S.; Scarascia-Mugnozza, Giuseppe E.; Schlesinger, William H.; Oren, Ram

    2005-01-01

    Climate change predictions derived from coupled carbon-climate models are highly dependent on assumptions about feedbacks between the biosphere and atmosphere. One critical feedback occurs if C uptake by the biosphere increases in response to the fossil-fuel driven increase in atmospheric [CO2] (“CO2 fertilization”), thereby slowing the rate of increase in atmospheric [CO2]. Carbon exchanges between the terrestrial biosphere and atmosphere are often first represented in models as net primary productivity (NPP). However, the contribution of CO2 fertilization to the future global C cycle has been uncertain, especially in forest ecosystems that dominate global NPP, and models that include a feedback between terrestrial biosphere metabolism and atmospheric [CO2] are poorly constrained by experimental evidence. We analyzed the response of NPP to elevated CO2 (≈550 ppm) in four free-air CO2 enrichment experiments in forest stands. We show that the response of forest NPP to elevated [CO2] is highly conserved across a broad range of productivity, with a stimulation at the median of 23 ± 2%. At low leaf area indices, a large portion of the response was attributable to increased light absorption, but as leaf area indices increased, the response to elevated [CO2] was wholly caused by increased light-use efficiency. The surprising consistency of response across diverse sites provides a benchmark to evaluate predictions of ecosystem and global models and allows us now to focus on unresolved questions about carbon partitioning and retention, and spatial variation in NPP response caused by availability of other growth limiting resources. PMID:16330779

  8. Forest response to elevated CO2 is conserved across a broad range of productivity.

    PubMed

    Norby, Richard J; Delucia, Evan H; Gielen, Birgit; Calfapietra, Carlo; Giardina, Christian P; King, John S; Ledford, Joanne; McCarthy, Heather R; Moore, David J P; Ceulemans, Reinhart; De Angelis, Paolo; Finzi, Adrien C; Karnosky, David F; Kubiske, Mark E; Lukac, Martin; Pregitzer, Kurt S; Scarascia-Mugnozza, Giuseppe E; Schlesinger, William H; Oren, Ram

    2005-12-13

    Climate change predictions derived from coupled carbon-climate models are highly dependent on assumptions about feedbacks between the biosphere and atmosphere. One critical feedback occurs if C uptake by the biosphere increases in response to the fossil-fuel driven increase in atmospheric [CO(2)] ("CO(2) fertilization"), thereby slowing the rate of increase in atmospheric [CO(2)]. Carbon exchanges between the terrestrial biosphere and atmosphere are often first represented in models as net primary productivity (NPP). However, the contribution of CO(2) fertilization to the future global C cycle has been uncertain, especially in forest ecosystems that dominate global NPP, and models that include a feedback between terrestrial biosphere metabolism and atmospheric [CO(2)] are poorly constrained by experimental evidence. We analyzed the response of NPP to elevated CO(2) ( approximately 550 ppm) in four free-air CO(2) enrichment experiments in forest stands. We show that the response of forest NPP to elevated [CO(2)] is highly conserved across a broad range of productivity, with a stimulation at the median of 23 +/- 2%. At low leaf area indices, a large portion of the response was attributable to increased light absorption, but as leaf area indices increased, the response to elevated [CO(2)] was wholly caused by increased light-use efficiency. The surprising consistency of response across diverse sites provides a benchmark to evaluate predictions of ecosystem and global models and allows us now to focus on unresolved questions about carbon partitioning and retention, and spatial variation in NPP response caused by availability of other growth limiting resources.

  9. Divergence in Forest-Type Response to Climate and Weather: Evidence for Regional Links Between Forest-Type Evenness and Net Primary Productivity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradford, J.B.

    2011-01-01

    Climate change is altering long-term climatic conditions and increasing the magnitude of weather fluctuations. Assessing the consequences of these changes for terrestrial ecosystems requires understanding how different vegetation types respond to climate and weather. This study examined 20 years of regional-scale remotely sensed net primary productivity (NPP) in forests of the northern Lake States to identify how the relationship between NPP and climate or weather differ among forest types, and if NPP patterns are influenced by landscape-scale evenness of forest-type abundance. These results underscore the positive relationship between temperature and NPP. Importantly, these results indicate significant differences among broadly defined forest types in response to both climate and weather. Essentially all weather variables that were strongly related to annual NPP displayed significant differences among forest types, suggesting complementarity in response to environmental fluctuations. In addition, this study found that forest-type evenness (within 8 ?? 8 km2 areas) is positively related to long-term NPP mean and negatively related to NPP variability, suggesting that NPP in pixels with greater forest-type evenness is both higher and more stable through time. This is landscape- to subcontinental-scale evidence of a relationship between primary productivity and one measure of biological diversity. These results imply that anthropogenic or natural processes that influence the proportional abundance of forest types within landscapes may influence long-term productivity patterns. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC (outside the USA).

  10. Forest products issue.

    Treesearch

    Thornton T. Munger

    1935-01-01

    This issue of Forest Research Notes is devoted to abstracts of projects under way or recently completed by the Section of Forest Products. This section conducts research designed to contribute to better and more economic utilization of the products of the forest. As shown by the variety of subjects presented in these notes, the projects range from the statistics of...

  11. Modelling climate change responses in tropical forests: similar productivity estimates across five models, but different mechanisms and responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowland, L.; Harper, A.; Christoffersen, B. O.; Galbraith, D. R.; Imbuzeiro, H. M. A.; Powell, T. L.; Doughty, C.; Levine, N. M.; Malhi, Y.; Saleska, S. R.; Moorcroft, P. R.; Meir, P.; Williams, M.

    2014-11-01

    Accurately predicting the response of Amazonia to climate change is important for predicting changes across the globe. However, changes in multiple climatic factors simultaneously may result in complex non-linear responses, which are difficult to predict using vegetation models. Using leaf and canopy scale observations, this study evaluated the capability of five vegetation models (CLM3.5, ED2, JULES, SiB3, and SPA) to simulate the responses of canopy and leaf scale productivity to changes in temperature and drought in an Amazonian forest. The models did not agree as to whether gross primary productivity (GPP) was more sensitive to changes in temperature or precipitation. There was greater model-data consistency in the response of net ecosystem exchange to changes in temperature, than in the response to temperature of leaf area index (LAI), net photosynthesis (An) and stomatal conductance (gs). Modelled canopy scale fluxes are calculated by scaling leaf scale fluxes to LAI, and therefore in this study similarities in modelled ecosystem scale responses to drought and temperature were the result of inconsistent leaf scale and LAI responses among models. Across the models, the response of An to temperature was more closely linked to stomatal behaviour than biochemical processes. Consequently all the models predicted that GPP would be higher if tropical forests were 5 °C colder, closer to the model optima for gs. There was however no model consistency in the response of the An-gs relationship when temperature changes and drought were introduced simultaneously. The inconsistencies in the An-gs relationships amongst models were caused by to non-linear model responses induced by simultaneous drought and temperature change. To improve the reliability of simulations of the response of Amazonian rainforest to climate change the mechanistic underpinnings of vegetation models need more complete validation to improve accuracy and consistency in the scaling of processes from

  12. Amazon Forests' Response to Droughts: A Perspective from the MAIAC Product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, J.; Myneni, R.; Lyapustin, A.; Wang, Y.; Park, T.; Chen, C.; Yan, K.; Knyazikhin, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Amazon forests experienced two severe droughts at the beginning of the 21st century: one in 2005 and the other in 2010. How Amazon forests responded to these droughts is critical for the future of the Earth's climate system. It is only possible to assess Amazon forests' response to the droughts in large areal extent through satellite remote sensing. Here, we used the Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC) Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) vegetation index (VI) data to assess Amazon forests' response to droughts, and compared the results with those from the standard (Collection 5 and Collection 6) MODIS VI data. Overall, the MAIAC data reveal more realistic Amazon forests inter-annual greenness dynamics than the standard MODIS data. Our results from the MAIAC data suggest that: (1) the droughts decreased the greenness (i.e., photosynthetic activity) of Amazon forests; (2) the Amazon wet season precipitation reduction induced by El Niño events could also lead to reduced photosynthetic activity of Amazon forests; and (3) in the subsequent year after the water stresses, the greenness of Amazon forests recovered from the preceding decreases. However, as previous research shows droughts cause Amazon forests to reduce investment in tissue maintenance and defense, it is not clear whether the photosynthesis of Amazon forests will continue to recover after future water stresses, because of the accumulated damages caused by the droughts.

  13. Amazon Forests Response to Droughts: A Perspective from the MAIAC Product

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bi, Jian; Myneni, Ranga; Lyapustin, Alexei; Wang, Yujie; Park, Taejin; Chi, Chen; Yan, Kai; Knyazikhin, Yuri

    2016-01-01

    Amazon forests experienced two severe droughts at the beginning of the 21st century: one in 2005 and the other in 2010. How Amazon forests responded to these droughts is critical for the future of the Earth's climate system. It is only possible to assess Amazon forests' response to the droughts in large areal extent through satellite remote sensing. Here, we used the Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC) Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) vegetation index (VI) data to assess Amazon forests' response to droughts, and compared the results with those from the standard (Collection 5 and Collection 6) MODIS VI data. Overall, the MAIAC data reveal more realistic Amazon forests inter-annual greenness dynamics than the standard MODIS data. Our results from the MAIAC data suggest that: (1) the droughts decreased the greenness (i.e., photosynthetic activity) of Amazon forests; (2) the Amazon wet season precipitation reduction induced by El Niño events could also lead to reduced photosynthetic activity of Amazon forests; and (3) in the subsequent year after the water stresses, the greenness of Amazon forests recovered from the preceding decreases. However, as previous research shows droughts cause Amazon forests to reduce investment in tissue maintenance and defense, it is not clear whether the photosynthesis of Amazon forests will continue to recover after future water stresses, because of the accumulated damages caused by the droughts.

  14. Amazon Forests Response to Droughts: A Perspective from the MAIAC Product

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bi, Jian; Myneni, Ranga; Lyapustin, Alexei; Wang, Yujie; Park, Taejin; Chi, Chen; Yan, Kai; Knyazikhin, Yuri

    2016-01-01

    Amazon forests experienced two severe droughts at the beginning of the 21st century: one in 2005 and the other in 2010. How Amazon forests responded to these droughts is critical for the future of the Earth's climate system. It is only possible to assess Amazon forests' response to the droughts in large areal extent through satellite remote sensing. Here, we used the Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC) Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) vegetation index (VI) data to assess Amazon forests' response to droughts, and compared the results with those from the standard (Collection 5 and Collection 6) MODIS VI data. Overall, the MAIAC data reveal more realistic Amazon forests inter-annual greenness dynamics than the standard MODIS data. Our results from the MAIAC data suggest that: (1) the droughts decreased the greenness (i.e., photosynthetic activity) of Amazon forests; (2) the Amazon wet season precipitation reduction induced by El Niño events could also lead to reduced photosynthetic activity of Amazon forests; and (3) in the subsequent year after the water stresses, the greenness of Amazon forests recovered from the preceding decreases. However, as previous research shows droughts cause Amazon forests to reduce investment in tissue maintenance and defense, it is not clear whether the photosynthesis of Amazon forests will continue to recover after future water stresses, because of the accumulated damages caused by the droughts.

  15. Challenge and Response, Strategies for Survival in a Rapidly Changing Forest Products Industry

    Treesearch

    Al Schuler; Craig Adair; Paul Winistorfer

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. has long been the world's largest market for wood and wood products, fueled by its demand for wood-frame housing. But forest product markets are changing, both in terns of where the products originate (domestically or abroad),and what products are being produced and consumed.

  16. Forest production responses to irrigation and fertilization are not explained by shifts in allocation

    Treesearch

    David R. Coyle; Mark D. Coleman

    2005-01-01

    Production increases in intensively managed forests have been obtained by improving resource availability through water and nutrient amendments. Increased stem production has been attributed to shifts in growth from roots to shoot, and such shifts would have important implications for below ground carbon sequestration. We examined above and below ground growth and...

  17. Net primary production of a temperate deciduous forest exhibits a threshold response to increasing disturbance severity.

    PubMed

    Stuart-Haëntjens, Ellen J; Curtis, Peter S; Fahey, Robert T; Vogel, Christoph S; Gough, Christopher M

    2015-09-01

    The global carbon (C) balance is vulnerable to disturbances that alter terrestrial C storage. Disturbances to forests occur along a continuum of severity, from low-intensity disturbance causing the mortality or defoliation of only a subset of trees to severe stand- replacing disturbance that kills all trees; yet considerable uncertainty remains in how forest production changes across gradients of disturbance intensity. We used a gradient of tree mortality in an upper Great Lakes forest ecosystem to: (1) quantify how aboveground wood net primary production (ANPP,) responds to a range of disturbance severities; and (2) identify mechanisms supporting ANPPw resistance or resilience following moderate disturbance. We found that ANPPw declined nonlinearly with rising disturbance severity, remaining stable until >60% of the total tree basal area senesced. As upper canopy openness increased from disturbance, greater light availability to the subcanopy enhanced the leaf-level photosynthesis and growth of this formerly light-limited canopy stratum, compensating for upper canopy production losses and a reduction in total leaf area index (LAI). As a result, whole-ecosystem production efficiency (ANPPw/LAI) increased with rising disturbance severity, except in plots beyond the disturbance threshold. These findings provide a mechanistic explanation for a nonlinear relationship between ANPPw, and disturbance severity, in which the physiological and growth enhancement of undisturbed vegetation is proportional to the level of disturbance until a threshold is exceeded. Our results have important ecological and management implications, demonstrating that in some ecosystems moderate levels of disturbance minimally alter forest production.

  18. Modelling climate change responses in tropical forests: similar productivity estimates across five models, but different mechanisms and responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowland, L.; Harper, A.; Christoffersen, B. O.; Galbraith, D. R.; Imbuzeiro, H. M. A.; Powell, T. L.; Doughty, C.; Levine, N. M.; Malhi, Y.; Saleska, S. R.; Moorcroft, P. R.; Meir, P.; Williams, M.

    2015-04-01

    Accurately predicting the response of Amazonia to climate change is important for predicting climate change across the globe. Changes in multiple climatic factors simultaneously result in complex non-linear ecosystem responses, which are difficult to predict using vegetation models. Using leaf- and canopy-scale observations, this study evaluated the capability of five vegetation models (Community Land Model version 3.5 coupled to the Dynamic Global Vegetation model - CLM3.5-DGVM; Ecosystem Demography model version 2 - ED2; the Joint UK Land Environment Simulator version 2.1 - JULES; Simple Biosphere model version 3 - SiB3; and the soil-plant-atmosphere model - SPA) to simulate the responses of leaf- and canopy-scale productivity to changes in temperature and drought in an Amazonian forest. The models did not agree as to whether gross primary productivity (GPP) was more sensitive to changes in temperature or precipitation, but all the models were consistent with the prediction that GPP would be higher if tropical forests were 5 °C cooler than current ambient temperatures. There was greater model-data consistency in the response of net ecosystem exchange (NEE) to changes in temperature than in the response to temperature by net photosynthesis (An), stomatal conductance (gs) and leaf area index (LAI). Modelled canopy-scale fluxes are calculated by scaling leaf-scale fluxes using LAI. At the leaf-scale, the models did not agree on the temperature or magnitude of the optimum points of An, Vcmax or gs, and model variation in these parameters was compensated for by variations in the absolute magnitude of simulated LAI and how it altered with temperature. Across the models, there was, however, consistency in two leaf-scale responses: (1) change in An with temperature was more closely linked to stomatal behaviour than biochemical processes; and (2) intrinsic water use efficiency (IWUE) increased with temperature, especially when combined with drought. These results suggest

  19. Ash cap influences on site productivity and fertilizer response in forests of the Inland Northwest

    Treesearch

    Mariann T. Garrison-Johnston; Peter G. Mika; Dan L. Miller; Phil Cannon; Leonard R. Johnson

    2007-01-01

    Data from 139 research sites throughout the Inland Northwest were analyzed for effects of ash cap on site productivity, nutrient availability and fertilization response. Stand productivity and nitrogen (N) fertilizer response were greater on sites with ash cap than on sites without. Where ash was present, depth of ash had no effect on site productivity or N fertilizer...

  20. Forest response to elevated CO2 is conserved across a broad range of productivity

    SciTech Connect

    Norby, Richard J; DeLucia, E. H.; Gielen, Birgit; Califapietra, Carlo; Giardina, Christian P; King, John S.; Childs, Joanne; McCarthy, Heather R; Moore, D J; Ceulemans, Reinhart; DeAngelis, Paolo; Finzi, Adrien C; Karnosky, David; Kubiske, Mark E; Lukac, Martin; Pregitzer, Kurt; Scarascia-Mugnozza, Giuseppe E; Schlesinger, William H; Oren, Ram

    2005-11-01

    Climate change predictions derived from coupled carbon-climate models are highly dependent on assumptions about feedbacks between the biosphere and atmosphere. One critical feedback occurs if C uptake by the biosphere increases in response to the fossil-fuel driven increase in atmospheric [CO{sub 2}] ('CO{sub 2} fertilization'), thereby slowing the rate of increase in atmospheric [CO{sub 2}]. Carbon exchanges between the terrestrial biosphere and atmosphere are often first represented in models as net primary productivity (NPP). However, the contribution of CO{sub 2} fertilization to the future global C cycle has been uncertain, especially in forest ecosystems that dominate global NPP, and models that include a feedback between terrestrial biosphere metabolism and atmospheric [CO{sub 2}] are poorly constrained by experimental evidence. We analyzed the response of NPP to elevated CO{sub 2} ({approx}550 ppm) in four free-air CO{sub 2} enrichment experiments in forest stands. We show that the response of forest NPP to elevated [CO{sub 2}] is highly conserved across a broad range of productivity, with a stimulation at the median of 23 {+-} 2%. At low leaf area indices, a large portion of the response was attributable to increased light absorption, but as leaf area indices increased, the response to elevated [CO{sub 2}] was wholly caused by increased light-use efficiency. The surprising consistency of response across diverse sites provides a benchmark to evaluate predictions of ecosystem and global models and allows us now to focus on unresolved questions about carbon partitioning and retention, and spatial variation in NPP response caused by availability of other growth limiting resources.

  1. Invertebrate community response to coarse woody debris removal for bioenergy production from intensively managed forests.

    PubMed

    Grodsky, Steven M; Moorman, Christopher E; Fritts, Sarah R; Campbell, Joshua W; Sorenson, Clyde E; Bertone, Matthew A; Castleberry, Steven B; Wigley, T Bently

    2017-09-26

    Increased market viability of harvest residues as forest bioenergy feedstock may escalate removal of coarse woody debris in managed forests. Meanwhile, many forest invertebrates use coarse woody debris for cover, food, and reproduction. Few studies have explicitly addressed effects of operational-scale woody biomass harvesting on invertebrates following clearcutting. Therefore, we measured invertebrate community response to large-scale harvest residue removal and micro-site manipulations of harvest residue availability in recently clearcut, intensively managed loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) forests in North Carolina (NC; n = 4) and Georgia (GA; n = 4), USA. We captured 39,794 surface-active invertebrates representing 171 taxonomic groups using pitfall traps situated among micro-site locations (i.e., purposefully retained piles of hardwood stems and piles of conifer stems and areas without coarse woody debris in NC; windrows and no windrows in GA). Micro-site locations were located within six, large-scale treatments (7.16 - 14.3 ha) in clearcuts. Large-scale treatments represented intensive harvest residue removal, 15% and 30% harvest residue retention, and no harvest residue removal. In NC, ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) and crickets (Orthoptera: Gryllidae) were three times more abundant in treatments with no harvest residue removal than those with the most intensive harvest residue removal and were reduced in treatments that retained 15% or 30% of harvest residues, although not significantly. Invertebrate taxa richness was greater at micro-site locations with retained hardwood and pine (Pinus spp.) harvest residues than those with minimal amounts of coarse woody debris. In both states, relative abundances of several invertebrate taxa, including cave crickets (Orthoptera: Rhaphidophoridae), fungus gnats (Diptera: Mycetophilidae and Sciaridae), millipedes (Diplopoda), and wood roaches (Blattodea: Ectobiidae), were greater at micro-site locations with retained

  2. International Trade In Forest Products

    Treesearch

    Jeffrey P. Prestemon; Joseph Buongiomo; David N. Wear; Jacek P. Siry

    2003-01-01

    The 21st century continues a trend of rapid growth in both international trade of forest products and a concern for forests. These two trends are connected. Forces causing trade growth are linked to the loss of native forest resources in some countries and the accumulation of nonnative forest resources in other countries. Factors increasing trade...

  3. Forest fine-root production and nitrogen use under elevated CO2: Contrasting responses explained by a common principle

    SciTech Connect

    Franklin, Oscar; McMurtrie, Ross E; Iversen, Colleen M; Crous, Kristine; Finzi, Adrien C; Tissue, David Thomas; Ellsworth, David; Oren, Ram; Norby, Richard J

    2009-01-01

    Despite the importance of nitrogen (N) limitation of forest carbon (C) sequestration at rising atmospheric CO2 concentration, the mechanisms responsible are not well understood. To elucidate the interactive effects of elevated CO2 (eCO2) and soil N availability on forest productivity and C allocation, we hypothesized that 1) trees maximize fitness by allocating N and C to maximize their net growth, and 2) that N uptake is controlled by root exploration for N. We tested this model using data collected in FACE sites dominated by evergreen (Pinus taeda; Duke Forest) and deciduous (Liquidambar styraciflua; Oak Ridge National Laboratory ORNL) trees. The model explained 80-95% of variation in productivity and N-uptake data among eCO2, N fertilization and control treatments over six years. The model explains why fine-root production increased, and why N uptake increased despite reduced soil N availability under eCO2 at ORNL and Duke. In agreement with observations at other sites, soil N availability reduced below a critical level diminishes all eCO2 responses. At Duke, a negative feedback between reduced soil N availability and N uptake counteracted progressive reduction in soil N availability at eCO2. At ORNL, decreasing soil N availability was perpetuated as it generated no reduction in N uptake, due to strongly increased production of fast turnover fine-roots. This implies that species with fast root turnover could be more prone to progressive N limitation of carbon sequestration in woody biomass than species with slow root turnover, such as evergreens.

  4. Productivity of Western forests: a forest products focus.

    Treesearch

    Constance A. Harrington; Stephen H. Schoenholtz

    2005-01-01

    In August 20-23, 2004, a conference was held in Kamilche, WA, with the title “Productivity of Western Forests: A Forest Products Focus.” The meeting brought together researchers and practitioners interested in discussing the economic and biological factors influencing wood production and value. One of the underlying assumptions of the meeting organizers was that...

  5. Reptile and amphibian response to oak regeneration treatments in productive southern Appalachian hardwood forest

    Treesearch

    Cathryn H. Greenberg; Christopher E. Moorman; Amy L. Raybuck; Chad Sundol; Tara L. Keyser; Janis Bush; Dean M. Simon; Gordon S. Warburton

    2016-01-01

    Forest restoration efforts commonly employ silvicultural methods that alter light and competition to influence species composition. Changes to forest structure and microclimate may adversely affect some taxa (e.g., terrestrial salamanders), but positively affect others (e.g., early successional birds). Salamanders are cited as indicators of ecosystem health because of...

  6. Recreation and nontimber forest products

    Treesearch

    H. Ken Cordell; James L. Chamberlain

    2004-01-01

    Research on forest recreation over the last 60 years has been voluminous. Research on nontimber forest products (NTFP) has been much less voluminous. In this chapter the history of these two tracks of research has been reviewed. Not all studies are mentioned; rather, a representative selection of the subject matter is discussed. Forest recreation research had its...

  7. Long-term Increases in Flower Production by Growth Forms in Response to Anthropogenic Change in a Tropical Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pau, S.; Wright, S. J.

    2016-12-01

    There is mounting evidence that anthropogenic global change is altering the ecology of tropical forests. A limited number of studies have focused on long-term trends in tropical reproductive activity, yet differences in reproductive activity should have consequences for demography and ultimately forest carbon, water, and energy balance. Here we analyze a 28-year record of tropical flower production in response to anthropogenic climate change. We show that a multi-decadal increase in flower production is most strongly driven by rising atmospheric CO2, which had approximately 8x the effect of the Multivariate ENSO Index and approximately 13x the effect of rainfall or solar radiation. Interannual peaks in flower production were associated with greater solar radiation and low rainfall during El Niño years. Observed changes in solar radiation explained flower production better than rainfall (models including solar radiation accounted for 94% of cumulative AICc weight compared to 87% for rainfall). All growth forms (lianas, canopy trees, midstory trees, and shrubs) produced more flowers with increasing CO2 except for understory treelets. The increase in flower production was matched by a lengthening of flowering duration for canopy trees and midstory trees; duration was also longer for understory treelets. Given that anthropogenic CO2 emissions will continue to climb over the next century, the long-term increase in flower production may persist unless offset by increasing cloudiness in the tropics, or until rising CO2 and/or warming temperatures associated with the greenhouse effect pass critical thresholds for plant reproduction.

  8. Forest production for tropical America

    Treesearch

    F.H. Wadsworth

    1997-01-01

    This book is intended as a reference for those who are to make tropical American forests productive; the students in the forestry schools of the region. There has been a serious lack of a general reference as to what is already known about forest production that might be applicable within the American Tropics. The present book, which is to be translated, is intended...

  9. Forest Products Industry Technology Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2010-04-01

    This document describes the forest products industry's research and development priorities. The original technology roadmap published by the industry in 1999 and was most recently updated in April 2010.

  10. Forest response to elevated CO2 is conserved across a broad range of productivity

    Treesearch

    R. Norby; E. DeLucia; B. Gielen; C. Calfapietra; C. Giardina; J. King; J. Ledford; H. McCarthy; D. Moore; R. Ceulemans; P. De Angelis; A. C. Finzi; D. F. Karnosky; M. E. Kubiske; M. Lukac; K. S. Pregitzer; G. E. Scarascia-Mugnozza; W. Schlesinger and R. Oren.

    2005-01-01

    Climate change predictions derived from coupled carbon-climate models are highly dependent on assumptions about feedbacks between the biosphere and atmosphere. One critical feedback occurs if C uptake by the biosphere increases in response to the fossil-fuel driven increase in atmospheric [CO2] ("CO2 fertilization...

  11. Managing forest products for community benefit

    Treesearch

    Susan Charnley; Jonathan W. Long

    2014-01-01

    Forest products harvesting and use from national forest lands remain important to local residents and communities in some parts of the Sierra Nevada science synthesis area. Managing national forests for the sustainable production of timber, biomass, nontimber forest products, and forage for livestock can help support forestbased livelihoods in parts of the region where...

  12. Potential for forest products in interior Alaska.

    Treesearch

    George R. Sampson; Willem W.S. van Hees; Theodore S. Setzer; Richard C. Smith

    1988-01-01

    Future opportunities for producing Alaska forest products were examined from the perspective of timber supply as reported in timber inventory reports and past studies of forest products industry potential. The best prospects for increasing industrial production of forest products in interior Alaska are for softwood lumber. Current softwood lumber production in the...

  13. Non-timber forest products and forest stewardship plans

    Treesearch

    Becky Barlow; Tanner Filyaw; Sarah W. Workman

    2015-01-01

    To many woodland owners “harvesting” typically means the removal of timber from forests. In recent years many landowners have become aware of the role non-timber forest products (NTFPs) can play in supplemental management strategies to produce income while preserving other forest qualities. NTFPs are a diverse group of craft, culinary, and medicinal products that have...

  14. Shifts in biomass and productivity for a subtropical dry forest in response to simulated elevated hurricane disturbances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holm, Jennifer A.; Van Bloem, Skip J.; Larocque, Guy R.; Shugart, Herman H.

    2017-02-01

    Caribbean tropical forests are subject to hurricane disturbances of great variability. In addition to natural storm incongruity, climate change can alter storm formation, duration, frequency, and intensity. This model-based investigation assessed the impacts of multiple storms of different intensities and occurrence frequencies on the long-term dynamics of subtropical dry forests in Puerto Rico. Using the previously validated individual-based gap model ZELIG-TROP, we developed a new hurricane damage routine and parameterized it with site- and species-specific hurricane effects. A baseline case with the reconstructed historical hurricane regime represented the control condition. Ten treatment cases, reflecting plausible shifts in hurricane regimes, manipulated both hurricane return time (i.e. frequency) and hurricane intensity. The treatment-related change in carbon storage and fluxes were reported as changes in aboveground forest biomass (AGB), net primary productivity (NPP), and in the aboveground carbon partitioning components, or annual carbon accumulation (ACA). Increasing the frequency of hurricanes decreased aboveground biomass by between 5% and 39%, and increased NPP between 32% and 50%. Decadal-scale biomass fluctuations were damped relative to the control. In contrast, increasing hurricane intensity did not create a large shift in the long-term average forest structure, NPP, or ACA from that of historical hurricane regimes, but produced large fluctuations in biomass. Decreasing both the hurricane intensity and frequency by 50% produced the highest values of biomass and NPP. For the control scenario and with increased hurricane intensity, ACA was negative, which indicated that the aboveground forest components acted as a carbon source. However, with an increase in the frequency of storms or decreased storms, the total ACA was positive due to shifts in leaf production, annual litterfall, and coarse woody debris inputs, indicating a carbon sink into the

  15. National measures of forest productivity for timber

    Treesearch

    Peter J. Ince; John Fedkiw; H. Edward Dickerhoof; H. Fred Kaiser

    1989-01-01

    This report presents national measures of forest productivity for timber. These measures reveal trends in the relationship between quantity of timber produced by forests and the quantity of forest resources employed in timber production. Timber production is measured by net annual growth of timber and annual timber removals. Measures of timber productivity include...

  16. California's forest products industry: 1982.

    Treesearch

    James O. Howard

    1984-01-01

    This report presents the findings of a 100-percent survey of the primary forest products industry in California for 1982. The survey included the following sectors: lumber; veneer and plywood; pulp and board; shake and shingle; export; and post, pole, and piling. Tabular presentations include characteristics of the industry, nature and flow of logs consumed, and...

  17. Oregon's forest products industry: 1988.

    Treesearch

    James O. Howard; Franklin R. Ward

    1991-01-01

    This report presents the findings of a survey of all primary forest products industries in Oregon for 1988. The survey included the following sectors: lumber; veneer and plywood; pulp and board; shake and shingle; export; and post, pole, and piling. Tables, presented by sector and for the industry as a whole, include characteristics of the industry, nature and flow of...

  18. California's forest products industry: 1994.

    Treesearch

    Franklin R. Ward

    1997-01-01

    This report presents the findings of a survey of primary forest products industries in California for 1994. The survey included the following sectors: lumber; veneer; pulp and board; shake and shingle; export; and post, pole, and piling. Tables, presented by sector and for the industry as a whole, include characteristics of the industry, nature and flow of logs...

  19. Oregon's forest products industry: 1982.

    Treesearch

    James O. Howard

    1984-01-01

    This report presents the findings of a 100-percent survey of the primary forest products industry in Oregon for 1982. The survey included the following sectors: lumber; veneer and plywood; pulp and board; shake and shingle; export; and post, pole, and piling. Tabular presentations include characteristics of the industry, nature and flow of logs consumed, and...

  20. Oregon's forest products industry: 1985.

    Treesearch

    James O. Howard; Franklin R. Ward

    1988-01-01

    This report presents the findings of a 100-percent survey of the primary forest products industry in Oregon for 1985. The survey included the following sectors: lumber; veneer and plywood; pulp and board; shake and shingle; export; and post, pole, and piling. Tables, presented by sector and for the industry as a whole, include characteristics of the industry, nature...

  1. California's forest products industry: 1992.

    Treesearch

    Franklin R. Ward

    1995-01-01

    This report presents the findings of a survey of primary forest products industries in California for 1992. The survey included the following sectors: lumber; pulp and board; shake and shingle; export; and post, pole, and piling. Veneer and plywood mills are not included because they could not be presented without disclosing critical details. Tables, presented by...

  2. Oregon's forest products industry: 1994.

    Treesearch

    Franklin R. Ward

    1997-01-01

    This report presents the findings of a survey of primary forest products industries in Oregon for 1994. The survey included the following sectors: lumber; veneer; pulp and board; shake and shingle; export; and post, pole, and piling. Tables, presented by sector and for the industry as a whole, include characteristics of the industry, nature and flow of logs consumed,...

  3. Oregon's forest products industry: 1992.

    Treesearch

    Franklin R. Ward

    1995-01-01

    This report presents the findings of a survey of primary forest products industries in. Oregon for 1992. The survey included the following sectors: lumber; veneer and plywood; pulp and board; shake and shingle; export; and post, pole, and piling. Tables, presented by sector and for the industry as a whole, include characteristics of the industry, nature and flow of...

  4. California's forest products industry: 1988.

    Treesearch

    James O. Howard; Franklln R. Ward

    1991-01-01

    This report presents the findings of a survey of all primary forest products industries in California for 1988. The survey included the following sectors: lumber; veneer and plywood; pulp and board; shake and shingle; export; and post, pole, and piling. Tables, presented by sector and for the industry as a whole, include characteristics of the industry, nature and flow...

  5. California's forest products industry: 1985.

    Treesearch

    James O. Howard; Franklin R. Ward

    1988-01-01

    This report presents the findings of a 100-percent survey of the primary forest products industry in California for 1985. The survey included the following sectors: lumber; veneer and plywood; pulp and board; shake and shingle; export; and post, pole, and piling. Tables, presented by sector and for the industry as a whole, include characteristics of the industry,...

  6. Oregon's forest products industry: 1976.

    Treesearch

    James O. Howard; Bruce A. Hiserote

    1976-01-01

    This report presents the findings of a 100-percent canvas of the primary forest products industry in Oregon for 1976. Tabular presentation includes characteristics of the industry log consumption and disposition of mill residues. Accompanying the tables is a descriptive analysis of conditions and trends in the industry.

  7. Forest Products Laboratory natural finish

    Treesearch

    J. M. Black; D. F. Laughnan; E. A. Mraz

    1979-01-01

    A simple and durable exterior natural finish developed at the Forest Products Laboratory is described. The finish is classified as a semi-transparent oil-base penetrating stain that effectively retains much of the natural grain and texture of wood when exposed to the weather. The directions for preparation are included as are the recommendations for application to both...

  8. Response of a tropical tree to non-timber forest products harvest and reduction in habitat size

    PubMed Central

    Kouagou, M’Mouyohoun; Natta, Armand K.; Gado, Choukouratou

    2017-01-01

    Non-timber forest products (NTFPs) are widely harvested by local people for their livelihood. Harvest often takes place in human disturbed ecosystems. However, our understanding of NTFPs harvesting impacts in fragmented habitats is limited. We assessed the impacts of fruit harvest, and reduction in habitat size on the population structures of Pentadesma butyracea Sabine (Clusiaceae) across two contrasting ecological regions (dry vs. moist) in Benin. In each region, we selected three populations for each of the three fruit harvesting intensities (low, medium and high). Harvesting intensities were estimated as the proportion of fruits harvested per population. Pentadesma butyracea is found in gallery forests along rivers and streams. We used the width of gallery forests as a measure of habitat size. We found negative effects of fruit harvest on seedling and adult density but no significant effect on population size class distribution in both ecological regions. The lack of significant effect of fruit harvest on population structure may be explained by the ability of P. butyracea to compensate for the negative effect of fruit harvesting by increasing clonal reproduction. Our results suggest that using tree density and population structure to assess the ecological impacts of harvesting clonal plants should be done with caution. PMID:28850624

  9. Non-timber forest products in sustainable forest management

    Treesearch

    James L. Chamberlain; A.L. Hammett; Philip A. Araman

    2001-01-01

    The forests of Southern United States are the source of many non-timber forest products (NTFPs). The collection, trade and use of these products have been important to rural economies since Europeans settled in this country. At the same time the plants from which these products originate are crucial to healthy ecosystems. Over the last decade, the market demand and the...

  10. Are forest disturbances amplifying or canceling out climate change-induced productivity changes in European forests?

    PubMed Central

    Reyer, Christopher P O; Bathgate, Stephen; Blennow, Kristina; Borges, Jose G; Bugmann, Harald; Delzon, Sylvain; Faias, Sonia P; Garcia-Gonzalo, Jordi; Gardiner, Barry; Gonzalez-Olabarria, Jose Ramon; Gracia, Carlos; Hernández, Juan Guerra; Kellomäki, Seppo; Kramer, Koen; Lexer, Manfred J; Lindner, Marcus; van der Maaten, Ernst; Maroschek, Michael; Muys, Bart; Nicoll, Bruce; Palahi, Marc; Palma, João HN; Paulo, Joana A; Peltola, Heli; Pukkala, Timo; Rammer, Werner; Ray, Duncan; Sabaté, Santiago; Schelhaas, Mart-Jan; Seidl, Rupert; Temperli, Christian; Tomé, Margarida; Yousefpour, Rasoul; Zimmermann, Niklaus E; Hanewinkel, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies projecting future climate change impacts on forests mainly consider either the effects of climate change on productivity or on disturbances. However, productivity and disturbances are intrinsically linked because 1) disturbances directly affect forest productivity (e.g. via a reduction in leaf area, growing stock or resource-use efficiency), and 2) disturbance susceptibility is often coupled to a certain development phase of the forest with productivity determining the time a forest is in this specific phase of susceptibility. The objective of this paper is to provide an overview of forest productivity changes in different forest regions in Europe under climate change, and partition these changes into effects induced by climate change alone and by climate change and disturbances. We present projections of climate change impacts on forest productivity from state-of-the-art forest models that dynamically simulate forest productivity and the effects of the main European disturbance agents (fire, storm, insects), driven by the same climate scenario in seven forest case studies along a large climatic gradient throughout Europe. Our study shows that, in most cases, including disturbances in the simulations exaggerate ongoing productivity declines or cancel out productivity gains in response to climate change. In fewer cases, disturbances also increase productivity or buffer climate-change induced productivity losses, e.g. because low severity fires can alleviate resource competition and increase fertilization. Even though our results cannot simply be extrapolated to other types of forests and disturbances, we argue that it is necessary to interpret climate change-induced productivity and disturbance changes jointly to capture the full range of climate change impacts on forests and to plan adaptation measures. PMID:28855959

  11. Are forest disturbances amplifying or canceling out climate change-induced productivity changes in European forests?

    PubMed

    Reyer, Christopher P O; Bathgate, Stephen; Blennow, Kristina; Borges, Jose G; Bugmann, Harald; Delzon, Sylvain; Faias, Sonia P; Garcia-Gonzalo, Jordi; Gardiner, Barry; Gonzalez-Olabarria, Jose Ramon; Gracia, Carlos; Hernández, Juan Guerra; Kellomäki, Seppo; Kramer, Koen; Lexer, Manfred J; Lindner, Marcus; van der Maaten, Ernst; Maroschek, Michael; Muys, Bart; Nicoll, Bruce; Palahi, Marc; Palma, João Hn; Paulo, Joana A; Peltola, Heli; Pukkala, Timo; Rammer, Werner; Ray, Duncan; Sabaté, Santiago; Schelhaas, Mart-Jan; Seidl, Rupert; Temperli, Christian; Tomé, Margarida; Yousefpour, Rasoul; Zimmermann, Niklaus E; Hanewinkel, Marc

    2017-03-16

    Recent studies projecting future climate change impacts on forests mainly consider either the effects of climate change on productivity or on disturbances. However, productivity and disturbances are intrinsically linked because 1) disturbances directly affect forest productivity (e.g. via a reduction in leaf area, growing stock or resource-use efficiency), and 2) disturbance susceptibility is often coupled to a certain development phase of the forest with productivity determining the time a forest is in this specific phase of susceptibility. The objective of this paper is to provide an overview of forest productivity changes in different forest regions in Europe under climate change, and partition these changes into effects induced by climate change alone and by climate change and disturbances. We present projections of climate change impacts on forest productivity from state-of-the-art forest models that dynamically simulate forest productivity and the effects of the main European disturbance agents (fire, storm, insects), driven by the same climate scenario in seven forest case studies along a large climatic gradient throughout Europe. Our study shows that, in most cases, including disturbances in the simulations exaggerate ongoing productivity declines or cancel out productivity gains in response to climate change. In fewer cases, disturbances also increase productivity or buffer climate-change induced productivity losses, e.g. because low severity fires can alleviate resource competition and increase fertilization. Even though our results cannot simply be extrapolated to other types of forests and disturbances, we argue that it is necessary to interpret climate change-induced productivity and disturbance changes jointly to capture the full range of climate change impacts on forests and to plan adaptation measures.

  12. Are forest disturbances amplifying or canceling out climate change-induced productivity changes in European forests?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyer, Christopher P. O.; Bathgate, Stephen; Blennow, Kristina; Borges, Jose G.; Bugmann, Harald; Delzon, Sylvain; Faias, Sonia P.; Garcia-Gonzalo, Jordi; Gardiner, Barry; Gonzalez-Olabarria, Jose Ramon; Gracia, Carlos; Guerra Hernández, Juan; Kellomäki, Seppo; Kramer, Koen; Lexer, Manfred J.; Lindner, Marcus; van der Maaten, Ernst; Maroschek, Michael; Muys, Bart; Nicoll, Bruce; Palahi, Marc; Palma, João HN; Paulo, Joana A.; Peltola, Heli; Pukkala, Timo; Rammer, Werner; Ray, Duncan; Sabaté, Santiago; Schelhaas, Mart-Jan; Seidl, Rupert; Temperli, Christian; Tomé, Margarida; Yousefpour, Rasoul; Zimmermann, Niklaus E.; Hanewinkel, Marc

    2017-03-01

    Recent studies projecting future climate change impacts on forests mainly consider either the effects of climate change on productivity or on disturbances. However, productivity and disturbances are intrinsically linked because 1) disturbances directly affect forest productivity (e.g. via a reduction in leaf area, growing stock or resource-use efficiency), and 2) disturbance susceptibility is often coupled to a certain development phase of the forest with productivity determining the time a forest is in this specific phase of susceptibility. The objective of this paper is to provide an overview of forest productivity changes in different forest regions in Europe under climate change, and partition these changes into effects induced by climate change alone and by climate change and disturbances. We present projections of climate change impacts on forest productivity from state-of-the-art forest models that dynamically simulate forest productivity and the effects of the main European disturbance agents (fire, storm, insects), driven by the same climate scenario in seven forest case studies along a large climatic gradient throughout Europe. Our study shows that, in most cases, including disturbances in the simulations exaggerate ongoing productivity declines or cancel out productivity gains in response to climate change. In fewer cases, disturbances also increase productivity or buffer climate-change induced productivity losses, e.g. because low severity fires can alleviate resource competition and increase fertilization. Even though our results cannot simply be extrapolated to other types of forests and disturbances, we argue that it is necessary to interpret climate change-induced productivity and disturbance changes jointly to capture the full range of climate change impacts on forests and to plan adaptation measures.

  13. Minor forest products of the Pacific Northwest.

    Treesearch

    Elmer W. Shaw

    1949-01-01

    The evergreen forests of Washington and Oregon are the source of an interesting variety of so-called "minor products," Many of these forest sidelines are not well known. They are generally underestimated and quite often misunderstood. This is partly because the value and significance of these smaller, incidental products of the forest have long been...

  14. 29 CFR 780.115 - Forest products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Forest products. 780.115 Section 780.115 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR... Agricultural Or Horticultural Commodities § 780.115 Forest products. Trees grown in forests and the lumber...

  15. 29 CFR 780.159 - Forest products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Forest products. 780.159 Section 780.159 Labor Regulations... Other Unlisted Practices Which May Be within Section 3(f) § 780.159 Forest products. Trees grown in forests and the lumber derived therefrom are not agricultural or horticultural commodities, for the...

  16. 29 CFR 780.115 - Forest products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Forest products. 780.115 Section 780.115 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR... Agricultural Or Horticultural Commodities § 780.115 Forest products. Trees grown in forests and the lumber...

  17. 29 CFR 780.159 - Forest products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Forest products. 780.159 Section 780.159 Labor Regulations... Other Unlisted Practices Which May Be within Section 3(f) § 780.159 Forest products. Trees grown in forests and the lumber derived therefrom are not agricultural or horticultural commodities, for the...

  18. 29 CFR 780.115 - Forest products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Forest products. 780.115 Section 780.115 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR... Agricultural Or Horticultural Commodities § 780.115 Forest products. Trees grown in forests and the lumber...

  19. 29 CFR 780.115 - Forest products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Forest products. 780.115 Section 780.115 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR... Agricultural Or Horticultural Commodities § 780.115 Forest products. Trees grown in forests and the lumber...

  20. 29 CFR 780.115 - Forest products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Forest products. 780.115 Section 780.115 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR... Agricultural Or Horticultural Commodities § 780.115 Forest products. Trees grown in forests and the lumber...

  1. 29 CFR 780.159 - Forest products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Forest products. 780.159 Section 780.159 Labor Regulations... Other Unlisted Practices Which May Be within Section 3(f) § 780.159 Forest products. Trees grown in forests and the lumber derived therefrom are not agricultural or horticultural commodities, for the...

  2. 29 CFR 780.159 - Forest products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Forest products. 780.159 Section 780.159 Labor Regulations... Other Unlisted Practices Which May Be within Section 3(f) § 780.159 Forest products. Trees grown in forests and the lumber derived therefrom are not agricultural or horticultural commodities, for the...

  3. 29 CFR 780.159 - Forest products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Forest products. 780.159 Section 780.159 Labor Regulations... Other Unlisted Practices Which May Be within Section 3(f) § 780.159 Forest products. Trees grown in forests and the lumber derived therefrom are not agricultural or horticultural commodities, for the...

  4. Tree-ring analysis and modeling approaches yield contrary response of circumboreal forest productivity to climate change.

    PubMed

    Tei, Shunsuke; Sugimoto, Atsuko; Yonenobu, Hitoshi; Matsuura, Yojiro; Osawa, Akira; Sato, Hisashi; Fujinuma, Junichi; Maximov, Trofim

    2017-06-06

    Circumboreal forest ecosystems are exposed to a larger magnitude of warming in comparison with the global average, as a result of warming-induced environmental changes. However, it is not clear how tree growth in these ecosystems responds to these changes. In this study, we investigated the sensitivity of forest productivity to climate change using ring width indices (RWI) from a tree-ring width dataset accessed from the International Tree-Ring Data Bank and gridded climate datasets from the Climate Research Unit. A negative relationship of RWI with summer temperature and recent reductions in RWI were typically observed in continental dry regions, such as inner Alaska and Canada, southern Europe, and the southern part of eastern Siberia. We then developed a multiple regression model with regional meteorological parameters to predict RWI, and then applied to these models to predict how tree growth will respond to twenty-first-century climate change (RCP8.5 scenario). The projections showed a spatial variation and future continuous reduction in tree growth in those continental dry regions. The spatial variation, however, could not be reproduced by a dynamic global vegetation model (DGVM). The DGVM projected a generally positive trend in future tree growth all over the circumboreal region. These results indicate that DGVMs may overestimate future wood net primary productivity (NPP) in continental dry regions such as these; this seems to be common feature of current DGVMs. DGVMs should be able to express the negative effect of warming on tree growth, so that they simulate the observed recent reduction in tree growth in continental dry regions. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Method of determining forest production from remotely sensed forest parameters

    DOEpatents

    Corey, J.C.; Mackey, H.E. Jr.

    1987-08-31

    A method of determining forest production entirely from remotely sensed data in which remotely sensed multispectral scanner (MSS) data on forest 5 composition is combined with remotely sensed radar imaging data on forest stand biophysical parameters to provide a measure of forest production. A high correlation has been found to exist between the remotely sensed radar imaging data and on site measurements of biophysical 10 parameters such as stand height, diameter at breast height, total tree height, mean area per tree, and timber stand volume.

  6. Sustainable bioenergy production from Missouri's Ozark forests

    Treesearch

    Henry E. Stelzer; Chris Barnett; Verel W. Bensen

    2008-01-01

    The main source of wood fiber for energy resides in Missouri's forests. Alternative bioenergy systems that can use forest thinning residues are electrical energy, thermal energy, and liquid bio-fuel. By applying a thinning rule and accounting for wood fiber that could go into higher value wood products to all live biomass data extracted from the U.S. Forest...

  7. Non-timber forest products in Hawaii

    Treesearch

    Katie Kamelamela; James B. Friday; Tamara Ticktin; Ashley. Lehman

    2015-01-01

    Hawaiian forests provide a wide array of non-timber forest products for both traditional and modern uses. Flowers, vines, and ferns are collected for creating garlands or lei for hula dances and parades. Lei made from materials gathered in the forest are made for personal use and sold, especially during graduation times. Bamboo is harvested for structures and for...

  8. Nontimber forest product opportunities in Alaska.

    Treesearch

    David Pilz; Susan J. Alexander; Jerry Smith; Robert Schroeder; Jim. Freed

    2006-01-01

    Nontimber forest products from southern Alaska (also called special forest products) have been used for millennia as resources vital to the livelihoods and culture of Alaska Natives and, more recently, as subsistence resources for the welfare of all citizens. Many of these products are now being sold, and Alaskans seek additional income opportunities through...

  9. Eastern national forests: managing for nontimber products

    Treesearch

    James L. Chamberlain; Robert J. Bush; A.L. Hammett; Philip A. Araman

    2002-01-01

    Many products are harvested from the forests of the eastern United States that are not timber-based but originate from plant materials. Over the past decade, concern has grown about the sustainability of the forest resources from which these products originate, and an associated interest in managing for these products has materialized. A content analysis of the...

  10. 36 CFR 223.216 - Special Forest Products definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Special Forest Products definitions. 223.216 Section 223.216 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL...

  11. 36 CFR 223.277 - Forest botanical products definition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Forest botanical products definition. 223.277 Section 223.277 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL...

  12. 36 CFR 223.277 - Forest botanical products definition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Forest botanical products definition. 223.277 Section 223.277 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL...

  13. 36 CFR 223.216 - Special Forest Products definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Special Forest Products definitions. 223.216 Section 223.216 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL...

  14. 36 CFR 223.277 - Forest botanical products definition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Forest botanical products definition. 223.277 Section 223.277 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL...

  15. 36 CFR 223.277 - Forest botanical products definition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Forest botanical products definition. 223.277 Section 223.277 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL...

  16. 36 CFR 223.216 - Special Forest Products definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Special Forest Products definitions. 223.216 Section 223.216 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL...

  17. A Novel Tropical Dry Forests: A Response to Environmental Change.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lugo, A. E.; Molina, S.

    2015-12-01

    Dry Forest environments are favorable to human settlement and activities, leading to deforestation, agricultural enterprises, land degradation, and abandonment. As a result, tropical dry forests are vulnerable and experience a high rate of cover loss, which often requires restoration activities. We have studied the natural regeneration of dry forests in Puerto Rico following a variety of human activities including farming, cattle pasturing, charcoal production, and human dwellings. Our results show a high level of forest resilience to anthropogenic disturbances but also a change of species composition relative to undisturbed native forests. This novelty of forest composition represents a natural response to environmental changes induced by human activity and pre-adapts forests to conditions in the Anthropocene.

  18. Sustainable production of wood and non-wood forest products

    Treesearch

    Ellen M. Donoghue; Gary L. Benson; James L. Chamberlain

    2003-01-01

    The International Union of Forest Research Organizations (IUFRO) All Divisions 5 Conference in Rotorua, New Zealand, March 11-15, 2003, focused on issues surrounding sustainable foest management and forest products research. As the conference title "Forest Products Research: Providing for Sustainable Choices" suggests, the purpose of the conference was to...

  19. Climate Change Impacts on Forest Succession and Future Productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohan, J. E.; Melillo, J. M.; Clark, J. S.; Schlesinger, W. H.

    2012-12-01

    Change in ecosystem carbon (C) dynamics with forest succession is a long-studied topic in ecology, and secondary forests currently comprise a significant proportion of the global land base. Although mature forests are generally more important for conserving species and habitats, early successional trees and stands typically have higher rates of productivity, including net ecosystem productivity (NEP), which represents carbon available for sequestration. Secondary forests undergoing successional development are thus major players in the current global carbon cycle, yet how forests will function in the future under warmer conditions with higher atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations is unknown. Future forest C dynamics will depend, in part, on future species composition. Data from "Forests of the Future" research in a number of global change experiments provide insights into how forests may look in terms of dominant species composition, and thus function, in a future world. Studies at Free-Air Carbon Dioxide (FACE) experiments at Duke Forest and other facilities, plus climate warming experiments such as those at the Harvard Forest, suggest a common underlying principle of vegetation responses to environmental manipulation: Namely, that shade-tolerant woody species associating with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi show greater growth stimulation than ectomycorrhizal-associating (ECM) trees which are more common in temperate and boreal forests (Fig. 1 of relative growth rates standardized by pre-treatment rates). This may be due in part to the role of AM fungi in obtaining soil phosphorus and inorganic forms of nitrogen for plant associates. In combination, these results suggest a shift in future forest composition towards less-productive tree species that generally acquire atmospheric CO2 at lower annual rates, as well as a competitive advantage extended to woody vines such as poison ivy. Due to higher atmospheric CO2 and warmer temperatures, forests of the

  20. Forest seedling production in Israel

    Treesearch

    Nir Atzmon; David Brand

    2002-01-01

    Afforestation and reforestation in Israel are done on marginal lands, which consist of poor and shallow soils, with precipitation ranging from 650 mm in the north down to 200 mm in the south. Therefore, seedling quality is of great concern. All forest seedlings planted in Israel are produced by three forest nurseries which belong to the Forest Authority of Israel....

  1. Response of the Fine Root Production, Phenology, and Turnover Rate of Six Shrub Species from a Subtropical Forest to a Soil Moisture Gradient and Shading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, X.; Dai, X.; Wang, H.

    2015-12-01

    Knowledge of the fine root dynamics of different life forms in forest ecosystems is critical to understanding how the overall belowground carbon cycling is affected by climate change. However, our current knowledge regarding how endogenous or exogenous factors regulate the root dynamics of understory vegetation is limited. We selected a suite of study sites representing different habitats with gradients of soil moisture and solar radiation (shading or no shading). We assessed the fine root production phenology, the total fine root production, and the turnover among six understory shrub species in a subtropical climate, and examined the responses of the fine root dynamics to gradients in the soil moisture and solar radiation. The shrubs included three evergreen species, Loropetalum chinense, Vaccinium bracteatum, and Adinandra millettii, and three deciduous species, Serissa serissoides, Rubus corchorifolius, and Lespedeza davidii. We observed that variations in the annual fine root production and turnover among species were significant in the deciduous group but not in the evergreen group. Notably, V. bracteatum and S. serissoides presented the greatest responses in terms of root phenology to gradients in the soil moisture and shading: high-moisture habitat led to a decrease and shade led to an increase in fine root production during spring. Species with smaller fine roots of the 1st+2nd-order diameter presented more sensitive responses in terms of fine root phenology to a soil moisture gradient. Species with a higher fine root nitrogen-to -carbon ratio exhibited more sensitive responses in terms of fine root annual production to shading. Soil moisture and shading did not change the annual fine root production as much as the turnover rate. The fine root dynamics of some understory shrubs varied significantly with soil moisture and solar radiation status and may be different from tree species. Our results emphasize the need to study the understory fine root dynamics

  2. Idaho's Forest Products Industry: A Descriptive Analysis

    Treesearch

    Todd A. Morgan; Charles E. Keegan; Timothy P. Spoelma; Thale Dillon; A. Lorin Hearst; Francis G. Wagner; Larry T. DeBlander

    2004-01-01

    This report provides a description of the structure, capacity, and condition of Idaho's primary forest products industry; traces the flow of Idaho's 2001 timber harvest through the primary sectors; and quantifies volumes and uses of wood fiber. The economic contribution of the forest products industry to the State and historical industry changes are discussed...

  3. Forest production for tropical America. Agriculture handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Wadsworth, F.H.

    1997-12-01

    This book is concerned primarily with wood production. Without the direct economic returns possible therefrom, the other, less tangible benefits that accrue from forests are in jeopardy in the face of developmental pressures driven by more attractive direct financial incentives. Nevertheless, multiple benefits from forests are inseparable, so the goal should be to make forest productive for all purposes. Forest production, then, as here defined refers to all the values of forests, including those primarily esthetic. The text emphasizes two vital relations. One is that forestry is ecological. Forest managers must be oriented to accept ecological information fundamental to goals and practices. A rift between the two disciplines that exists elsewhere must not intensify in tropical America. Forest production is forestry, not ecology, but intimacy between the two disciplines is mutually vital. The second relation emphasized in the book is that in productive forest management the animal component is as crucial as the plants, The value of animals to forest ecosystems goes far beyond their physical attraction.

  4. Forest products research in IUFRO history and potential

    Treesearch

    Robert L. Youngs; John A. Youngquist

    1999-01-01

    When silviculture researchers in central Europe were gathering together to form IUFRO in 1892, forest products researchers were occupied with making useful forest products and conserving the forest resource through wise use. Forest products researchers did not become an active part of IUFRO until 50 years later. Research in forest products was stimulated by World War I...

  5. Contribution of Near Real Time MODIS-Based Forest Disturbance Detection Products to a National Forest Threat Early Warning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spruce, Joseph; Hargrove, William; Gasser, Gerald; Smoot, James; Kuper, Philip

    2011-01-01

    U.S. forests occupy approx. 751 million acres (approx. 1/3 of total land). These forests are exposed to multiple biotic and abiotic threats that collectively damage extensive acreages each year. Hazardous forest disturbances can threaten human life and property, bio-diversity and water supplies. Timely regional forest monitoring products are needed to aid forest management and decision making by the US Forest Service and its state and private partners. Daily MODIS data products provide a means to monitor regional forest disturbances on a weekly basis. In response, we began work in 2006 to develop a Near Real Time (NRT) forest monitoring capability, based on MODIS NDVI data, as part of a national forest threat early warning system (EWS)

  6. Managing the "other" forest: collecting and protecting nontimber forest products

    Treesearch

    Sally. Duncan

    2003-01-01

    Wild harvest of nontimber forest products (NTFP) contributes to an international commercial trade in plant material—thought to be thousands of tons of raw product valued at billions of dollars. From 1991 through 1998, international trade in pharmaceutical plants alone was valued at over $1 billion, with the United States second only to China in value of...

  7. Classifying forest productivity at different scales

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    Spatial scale is an important consideration when evaluating, using, or constructing forest productivity classifications. First, the factors which dominate spatial variability in forest productivity are scale dependent. For example, within a stand, spatial variability in productivity is dominated by microsite differences; within a national forest such as the Cherokee National Forest, spatial variability is dominated by topography and land-use history (e.g., years since harvest); within a large region such as the southeast, spatial variability is dominated by climatic patterns. Second, classifications developed at different spatial scales are often used for different purposes. For example, stand-level classifications are often keys or rules used in the field to judge the quality or potential of a site. National-forest classifications are often presented as maps or tables and may be used in forest land planning. Regional classifications may be maps or tables and may be used to quantify or predict resource availability. These scale-related differences in controlling factors and purposes will affect both the methods and the data used to develop classifications. In this paper, I will illustrate these points by describing and comparing three forest productivity classifications, each developed for a specific purpose at a specific scale. My objective is not to argue for or against any of these particular classifications but rather to heighten awareness of the critical role that spatial scale plays in the use and development of forest productivity classifications. 8 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Forest products in the global economy

    SciTech Connect

    Hayter, R.

    1987-01-01

    The various industries which comprise the forest product sector - most importantly timber, wood pulp and newsprint - are significant elements on the global economy. While world production and trade remain concentrated in the industrialized world many Third World countries have invested in forest products and these countries will play an important role in the future. This book presents a comprehensive survey of forest product manufacturing and trade throughout the world. It analyses the forest resource policies of producer countries and outlines output levels and growth rates. It examines world patterns of trade including both demand and supply and temperate and tropical producers. It considers the industry itself, its organisation, ownership and control, the technology employed and technology transfer. The book covers all the major countries involved in the industry including the USA, Canada, Japan, the Soviet bloc, South East Asia, West Africa and Northern Europe. It concludes with an assessment of likely future trends. CONTENTS. Introduction, origins and evolution, the forest resource, distribution, ownership and utilization, world patterns of production and trade, world patterns of demand, organization, technology and location, the coniferous belt producers, the tropical producers, the international transfer of technology in forest products, forest products in third world development, and future prospects.

  9. Implications For the Forest Products Industry

    Treesearch

    Richard A. Kluender

    2001-01-01

    Major changes have occurred in the Arkansas timber economy in the last 25 years.Global and domestic demand for forest products continues to expand,doubling every 42 years. Additionally,the U.S. per capita consumption rate of forest products is over three times the world average. Production continues to expand to meet rising global demand,but timber supplies have not...

  10. Forest Productivity, Leaf Area, and Terrain in Southern Appalachian Deciduous Forests

    Treesearch

    Paul V. Bolstad; James M. Vose; Steven G. McNulty

    2000-01-01

    Leaf area index (LAI) is an important structural characteristic of forest ecosystems which has been shown to be strongly related to forest mass and energy cycles and forest productivity. LAI is more easily measured than forest productivity, and so a strong relationship between LAI and productivity would be a valuable tool in forest management. While a linear...

  11. Forest response and recovery following disturbance (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schafer, K. V.; Clark, K. L.; Renninger, H. J.; Carlo, N.; Medvigy, D.

    2013-12-01

    Forest management and global climate change may modulate forest responses to disturbances such as drought, insect infestation or windthrow. Forest responses to drought and gypsy moth defoliation measured from 2005 to present in an oak/pine ecosystem in the Atlantic Coastal Plain (New Jersey Pinelands) show a relative conservatism of water use but longer lasting effects on carbon balance. While post-defoliation transpiration and evapotranspiration were similar to pre-defoliation levels, post-defoliation carbon fluxes have not returned to pre-disturbance levels even after five years of recovery due to a 25% reduction in basal area following tree mortality. Defoliation frequency also affects recovery with modeled carbon fluxes under various defoliation scenarios, showing pronounced reduction in productivity under frequent defoliation, but no effect if defoliation occurs at a rate of less than 15 years. Despite a relatively consistent seasonal water use through various disturbances, defoliation and drought affect water use differently. For example, canopy transpiration (EC) after defoliation and subsequent re-sprouting, was reduced by 25% compared to pre-defoliation levels, even though only half of the leaf area was replaced. However under severe drought conditions in 2006 and 2010, EC was only reduced by 8% and 18% respectively. Therefore, prolonged drought had a lesser effect on EC than reduced foliage or episodic defoliation, suggesting these trees have access to deeper soil moisture. These data also suggest that defoliation may make trees more sensitive to drought as evidenced by the higher reduction of Ec in 2010 compared to 2006 (pre-defoliation). Differential physiological responses of the various oak species as well as pitch pine may also create a species shift in an ecosystem that is also prone to fire. In this ecosystem, Quercus prinus showed consistently lower stomatal conductance, photosynthesis and maximum carboxylation rate compared to Quercus velutina

  12. Alaska forest products: using resources well.

    Treesearch

    Valerie. Rapp

    2003-01-01

    Despite abundant forest resources in the state, the Alaska forest products industry declined throughout the 1990s and early 21st century. In a state with lots of trees, mills are going out of business and most finished lumber used in the state is imported from the lower 48 United States and Canada. The Alaska Wood Utilization Research and Development Center (Wood...

  13. Special forest products: biodiversity meets the marketplace.

    Treesearch

    Nan C. Vance; Jane Thomas

    1997-01-01

    Although North American forests traditionally have been viewed as a source of wood and paper,a variety of profitable products are being discovered that come not only from trees, but from nonwoody plants, lichens, fungi, algae, and microorganisms. The northern temperate forests’ abundant biotic resources are being transformed into medicinals, botanicals, decoratives,...

  14. Influence of disturbance on temperate forest productivity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peters, Emily B.; Wythers, Kirk R.; Bradford, John B.; Reich, Peter B.

    2013-01-01

    Climate, tree species traits, and soil fertility are key controls on forest productivity. However, in most forest ecosystems, natural and human disturbances, such as wind throw, fire, and harvest, can also exert important and lasting direct and indirect influence over productivity. We used an ecosystem model, PnET-CN, to examine how disturbance type, intensity, and frequency influence net primary production (NPP) across a range of forest types from Minnesota and Wisconsin, USA. We assessed the importance of past disturbances on NPP, net N mineralization, foliar N, and leaf area index at 107 forest stands of differing types (aspen, jack pine, northern hardwood, black spruce) and disturbance history (fire, harvest) by comparing model simulations with observations. The model reasonably predicted differences among forest types in productivity, foliar N, leaf area index, and net N mineralization. Model simulations that included past disturbances minimally improved predictions compared to simulations without disturbance, suggesting the legacy of past disturbances played a minor role in influencing current forest productivity rates. Modeled NPP was more sensitive to the intensity of soil removal during a disturbance than the fraction of stand mortality or wood removal. Increasing crown fire frequency resulted in lower NPP, particularly for conifer forest types with longer leaf life spans and longer recovery times. These findings suggest that, over long time periods, moderate frequency disturbances are a relatively less important control on productivity than climate, soil, and species traits.

  15. Management of tropical forests for products and energy

    Treesearch

    John I. Zerbe

    1992-01-01

    Tropical forests have always been sources for prized timbers, rubber, tannin, and other forest products for use worldwide. However, with the recent concern regarding global change, the importance of effective forest products management and utilization has increased significantly. The USDA Forest Service's Forest Products Laboratory at Madison, Wisconsin, has...

  16. Hydrogeochemical responses of forested catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robbins Church, M.; Hornberger, George; Driscoll, Charles; Sklash, Michael; Hemond, Harold

    The AGU Chapman Conference on Hydrogeochemical Responses of Forested Catchments was held September 18-21, 1989, in Bar Harbor, Maine, and brought together geochemists with interests in determining the effects of different geochemical processes on resulting surface water chemistry and hydrologists with interests in explaining flow generation in catchments with the aim of fostering better communication between the two groups on the topic of geochemical and hydrological interactions in intermediate-size watersheds. An important point of consideration was the emphasis on intermediate-size watersheds, which we defined operationally as watersheds of sufficient size to yield flow and habitat suitable for supporting at least a marginal recreational fishery, for example, on the order of at least a few square kilometers in the northeast United States. This emphasis is important because it is the potential effects of pollutants, as modified by watershed geochemical and hydrological processes, in watersheds of this scale that drive much of the concern of the nation's regulatory agencies with regard to adverse environmental effects and required water quality legislation. A good example of this is the current concern over potential adverse effects of acidic deposition on surface water quality, especially in streams that support upland sport fisheries.

  17. Forest biogeochemistry in response to drought.

    PubMed

    Schlesinger, William H; Dietze, Michael C; Jackson, Robert B; Phillips, Richard P; Rhoades, Charles C; Rustad, Lindsey E; Vose, James M

    2016-07-01

    Trees alter their use and allocation of nutrients in response to drought, and changes in soil nutrient cycling and trace gas flux (N2 O and CH4 ) are observed when experimental drought is imposed on forests. In extreme droughts, trees are increasingly susceptible to attack by pests and pathogens, which can lead to major changes in nutrient flux to the soil. Extreme droughts often lead to more common and more intense forest fires, causing dramatic changes in the nutrient storage and loss from forest ecosystems. Changes in the future manifestation of drought will affect carbon uptake and storage in forests, leading to feedbacks to the Earth's climate system. We must improve the recognition of drought in nature, our ability to manage our forests in the face of drought, and the parameterization of drought in earth system models for improved predictions of carbon uptake and storage in the world's forests. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Non-timber forest products: alternative multiple-uses for sustainable forest management

    Treesearch

    James L. Chamberlain; Mary Predny

    2003-01-01

    Forests of the southern United States are the source of a great diversity of flora, much of which is gathered for non-timber forest products (NTFPs). These products are made from resources that grow under the forest canopy as trees, herbs, shrubs, vines, moss and even lichen. They occur naturally in forests or may be cultivated under the forest canopy or in...

  19. Forest vegetation dynamics and its response to climate changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoran, Maria A.; Zoran, Liviu Florin V.; Dida, Adrian I.

    2016-10-01

    Forest areas are experiencing rapid land cover change caused by human-induced land degradation and extreme climatic events. Satellite remote sensing provides a useful tool to capture the temporal dynamics of forest vegetation change in response to climate shifts, at spatial resolutions fine enough to capture the spatial heterogeneity. Frequent satellite data products, for example, can provide the basis for studying time-series of biophysical parameters related to vegetation dynamics. Vegetation index time series provide a useful way to monitor forest vegetation phenological variations. In this study, we used MODIS Terra/Aqua time-series data, along with yearly and monthly net radiation, air temperature, and precipitation data to examine the feedback mechanisms between climate and forest vegetation. Have been quantitatively described Normalized Difference Vegetation Index(NDVI) /Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI), Leaf Area Index (LAI), Evapotranspiration (ET) and Gross Primary Production (GPP) temporal changes for Cernica- Branesti forest area, a periurban zone of Bucharest city in Romania, from the perspective of vegetation phenology and its relation with climate changes and extreme climate events (summer heat waves). A time series from 2000 to 2016 of the MODIS Terra was analyzed to extract forest biophysical parameters anomalies. Forest vegetation phenology analyses were developed for diverse forest land-covers providing a useful way to analyze and understand the phenology associated to those landcovers. Correlations between NDVI/EVI , LAI, ET and GPP time series and climatic variables have been computed.

  20. California's forest products industry: a descriptive analysis.

    Treesearch

    Todd A. Morgan; Charles E. Keegan; Thale Dillon; Alfred L. Chase; Jeremy S. Fried; Marc N. Weber

    2004-01-01

    This report traces the flow of California’s 2000 timber harvest through the wood-using industries; provides a description of the structure, operations, and condition of California’s primary forest products industry; and briefly summarizes timber inventory and growth. Historical wood products industry changes are discussed, as well as trends in harvest, production, and...

  1. 36 CFR 261.6 - Timber and other forest products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Timber and other forest products. 261.6 Section 261.6 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROHIBITIONS General Prohibitions § 261.6 Timber and other forest products. Link to an amendment published at...

  2. 36 CFR 261.6 - Timber and other forest products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Timber and other forest products. 261.6 Section 261.6 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROHIBITIONS General Prohibitions § 261.6 Timber and other forest products. Link to an amendment published at...

  3. 36 CFR 261.6 - Timber and other forest products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Timber and other forest products. 261.6 Section 261.6 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROHIBITIONS General Prohibitions § 261.6 Timber and other forest products. Link to an amendment published at...

  4. 36 CFR 261.6 - Timber and other forest products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Timber and other forest products. 261.6 Section 261.6 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROHIBITIONS General Prohibitions § 261.6 Timber and other forest products. Link to an amendment published at...

  5. Criterion 2: Maintenance of productive capacity of forest ecosystems

    Treesearch

    Stephen R. Shifley; Francisco X. Aguilar; Nianfu Song; Susan I. Stewart; David J. Nowak; Dale D. Gormanson; W. Keith Moser; Sherri Wormstead; Eric J. Greenfield

    2012-01-01

    People rely on forests, directly and indirectly, for a wide range of goods and services. Measures of forest productive capacity are indicators of the ability of forests to sustainably supply goods and services over time. An ongoing emphasis on maintaining productive capacity of forests can help ensure that utilization of forest resources does not impair long term...

  6. Productivity of forest birds at Hakalau Forest NWR

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paxton, Eben; Cummins, George C; Kendall, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    Hawai‘i has some of the most endangered avian species in the world, which face numerous threats from habitat loss, disease, climate change, and introduced species. This report details the results of a two-year productivity study of all forest bird species at Hakalau National Wildlife Refuge, Hawai‘i Island. We found and monitored nests from seven native species and three common non-native species of forest birds at three sites across the refuge. In addition to gathering important baseline information on productivity of forest birds, we examined differences in productivity between years, sites, and as a function of nest height. The weather differed greatly between the two years, with much more rain occurring in 2014. The daily survival rate (DSR) of nests was found to have an inverse relationship with the amount of rainfall, and accordingly was much lower in 2014 compared to 2013. Nest success was lower at a regenerating forest site compared with mature rainforest, indicating negative environmental factors affecting nest success may be exacerbated in reforested areas which have lower canopies. Nest success was also impacted by nest height, with a positive relationship in the drier 2013, and a negative relationship in 2014 for the canopy nesting honeycreepers. The large difference in weather and DSR between years illustrates the need for long term demographic studies that can capture the vital rates of this community of birds.

  7. Why do forest products become less available?A pan-tropical comparison of drivers of forest-resource degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermans-Neumann, Kathleen; Gerstner, Katharina; Geijzendorffer, Ilse R.; Herold, Martin; Seppelt, Ralf; Wunder, Sven

    2016-12-01

    Forest products provide an important source of income and wellbeing for rural smallholder communities across the tropics. Although tropical forest products frequently become over-exploited, only few studies explicitly address the dynamics of degradation in response to socio-economic drivers. Our study addresses this gap by analyzing the factors driving changes in tropical forest products in the perception of rural smallholder communities. Using the poverty and environment network global dataset, we studied recently perceived trends of forest product availability considering firewood, charcoal, timber, food, medicine, forage and other forest products. We looked at a pan-tropical sample of 233 villages with forest access. Our results show that 90% of the villages experienced declining availability of forest resources over the last five years according to the informants. Timber and fuelwood together with forest foods were featured as the most strongly affected, though with marked differences across continents. In contrast, availability of at least one main forest product was perceived to increase in only 39% of the villages. Furthermore, the growing local use of forest resources is seen as the main culprit for the decline. In villages with both growing forest resource use and immigration—vividly illustrating demographic pressures—the strongest forest resources degradation was observed. Conversely, villages with little or no population growth and a decreased use of forest resources were most likely to see significant forest-resource increases. Further, villages are less likely to perceive resource declines when local communities own a significant share of forest area. Our results thus suggest that perceived resource declines have only exceptionally triggered adaptations in local resource-use and management patterns that would effectively deal with scarcity. Hence, at the margin this supports neo-Malthusian over neo-Boserupian explanations of local resource

  8. Recommendations for sustainable development of non-timber forest products

    Treesearch

    Gina H. Mohammed

    2001-01-01

    Non-timber forest products--or NTFPs--are considered here to be botanical products harvested or originating from forest-based species, but excluding primary timber products, industrial boards and composites, and paper products. A recent study of non-timber forest products in Ontario, Canada, identified at least 50 types of NTFPs and hundreds of specific products used...

  9. Inter-annual Variability of Aboveground Net Primary Productivity in Regenerating Tropical Dry Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powers, J. S.; Becknell, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    Globally, there are now more secondary forests regenerating following anthropogenic disturbance than primary forests. However, carbon dynamics in secondary tropical forests in general, and seasonally dry forests in particular, have not been as well studied as primary wet forests. Young, regenerating forests may be more sensitive to climatic variability than older forests because of their dynamic demographic rates. Similarly, seasonally dry tropical forests may be particularly sensitive to changes in precipitation, as tree growth is highly constrained by water availability. We examined how inter-annual variability in precipitation affected above-ground net primary productivity in chronosequences of dry forest in Costa Rica. Our sites included three forest cover types, whose distribution is linked to edaphic variation. Over our 6-yr dataset, annual rainfall varied from 1110 to 3040mm, with a 5-6 month dry season. ANPP ranged from 2.96 to 18.98 Mg ha-1 across sites that have been recovering for 7 to 67 years. Fine litter production dominated ANPP, and increased with forest age but not annual rainfall. By contrast, woody stem growth did not vary among forests that differed in age, but increased as a function of annual rainfall. These results differed by forest type. Lowland oak forests on low fertility soil had the lowest productivity and responses to rainfall, whereas forests on the highest fertility soils showed large increases in woody production with rainfall. Consistent with our expectation, younger forests on the intermediate soil type had higher variability in ANPP than older forests, but this was not significant for forests on the poor or high fertility soils. Our results highlight several important findings: 1) different components of ANPP vary in their responses to inter-annual variation in rainfall, 2) forest responses to climatic variability depend on species composition, which varies consistently with soil type in this landscape.

  10. 75 FR 64617 - National Forest Products Week, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-20

    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8587 of October 15, 2010 National Forest Products Week, 2010 By the President... anniversary of National Forest Products Week, we recognize the enduring value of forests as sustainable... we write on. National Forest Products Week draws attention to these invaluable resources, and to the...

  11. 29 CFR 780.1015 - Other forest products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Other forest products. 780.1015 Section 780.1015 Labor... Provisions Under Section 13(d) Requirements for Exemption § 780.1015 Other forest products. The homeworker may also harvest “other forest products” for use in making wreaths. The term other forest products...

  12. 29 CFR 780.1015 - Other forest products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Other forest products. 780.1015 Section 780.1015 Labor... Provisions Under Section 13(d) Requirements for Exemption § 780.1015 Other forest products. The homeworker may also harvest “other forest products” for use in making wreaths. The term other forest products...

  13. 29 CFR 780.1015 - Other forest products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Other forest products. 780.1015 Section 780.1015 Labor... Provisions Under Section 13(d) Requirements for Exemption § 780.1015 Other forest products. The homeworker may also harvest “other forest products” for use in making wreaths. The term other forest products...

  14. 29 CFR 780.1015 - Other forest products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Other forest products. 780.1015 Section 780.1015 Labor... Provisions Under Section 13(d) Requirements for Exemption § 780.1015 Other forest products. The homeworker may also harvest “other forest products” for use in making wreaths. The term other forest products...

  15. 29 CFR 780.1015 - Other forest products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Other forest products. 780.1015 Section 780.1015 Labor... Provisions Under Section 13(d) Requirements for Exemption § 780.1015 Other forest products. The homeworker may also harvest “other forest products” for use in making wreaths. The term other forest products...

  16. Forest products harvested in Hawaii-1969

    Treesearch

    Robert E. Burgan; Jr. Wesley H.C. Wong

    1971-01-01

    Primary forest products harvested in Hawaii in 1969 were valued at $331,000-a $3,000 drop from the value of the harvest surveyed in 1967. Sawlogs and veneer logs were the most important products. Koa and robusta eucalyptus were the primary sawlog species. Albizia and robusta eucalyptus provided most of the veneer logs.

  17. Nanotechnology for forest products. Part 1

    Treesearch

    Theodore Wegner; Phil Jones

    2005-01-01

    Nano-sized particles may be small, but for our industry they offer huge potential. Nanotechnology represents a major opportunity for the forest products industry to develop new products, substantially reduce processing costs, and open new markets in the coming decades.

  18. Biorefinery opportunities for the forest products industries

    Treesearch

    Alan W. Rudie

    2013-01-01

    Wood residues offer biorefinery opportunities for new products in our industries including fuel and chemicals. But industry must have two capabilities to succeed with biorefineries. Most forest products companies already have the first capability: knowing where the resource is, how to get it, and how much it will cost. They will need to integrate the acquisition of...

  19. Forest declines in response to environmental change

    Treesearch

    Philip M. Wargo; Allan N.D. Auclair

    2000-01-01

    Decline diseases are intimately linked to stress and environmental change. There is strong evidence that, as a category, decline diseases have increased significantly in response to the climate, air chemistry, and other changes documented in the northeastern United States over the past century, and particularly the last two decades. No other forest response to...

  20. Managing national forests of the eastern United States for non-timber forest products

    Treesearch

    James L. Chamberlain; Robert J. Bush; A.L. Hammett; Philip A. Araman

    2000-01-01

    Over the last decade, there has been a growing interest in the economic and ecological potential of non-timber forest products. In the United States, much of this increased interest stems from drastic changes in forest practices and policies in the Pacific Northwest region, a region that produces many non-timber forest products. The forests of the eastern United States...

  1. The mangement of national forests of eastern United States for non-timber forest products

    Treesearch

    James L. Chamberlain

    2000-01-01

    Many products are harvested fiom the forests of the United States in addition to timber. These non-timber forest products (NTFPs) are plants, parts of plants, or fungi that are harvested from within and on the edges of natural, disturbed or managed forests. Often, NTFPs are harvested from public forests for the socio-economic benefit they provide to rural collectors....

  2. U.S. forest products module : a technical document supporting the Forest Service 2010 RPA Assessment

    Treesearch

    Peter J. Ince; Andrew D. Kramp; Kenneth E. Skog; Henry N. Spelter; David N. Wear

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Forest Products Module (USFPM) is a partial market equilibrium model of the U.S. forest sector that operates within the Global Forest Products Model (GFPM) to provide long-range timber market projections in relation to global economic scenarios. USFPM was designed specifically for the 2010 RPA forest assessment, but it is being used also in other applications...

  3. Hydroelectricity production and forest conservation in watersheds.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhongwei; Li, Yiming; Xiao, Xiangming; Zhang, Lin; Gan, Yaling

    2007-09-01

    Globally, particularly in developing countries, hydroelectricity production and economic growth occur together with ecosystem/biodiversity conservation in watersheds. There is a relationship between hydroelectricity production and ecosystem/biodiversity conservation in watersheds, centering on the supply and demand for ecosystem services of river water flow regulation and sediment retention. Here we show that, in the upper reach of the Yangtze River, hydroelectricity production of Three Gorges Hydroelectric Power Plant can form a beneficial relationship with forest conservation through the paid use (compensating residents for their cooperation in the conservation) of ecosystem services launched by the National Natural Forest Protection Project. This interaction can provide additional incentives to encourage local communities' long-term cooperation in conserving and protecting the restored forest ecosystems. Hydroelectricity plants also obtain benefits from this interaction. The industrialization of ecosystem services supply provides an operational framework for this beneficial interaction. Sustainable forest ecosystem conservation will require developing new institutions and policies and must involve local communities in the conservation and protection of their local forests.

  4. Modeling Forest Productivity Using Envisat MERIS Data.

    PubMed

    Berberoglu, Suha; Evrendilek, Fatih; Ozkan, Coskun; Donmez, Cenk

    2007-10-05

    The aim of this study was to derive land cover products with a 300-m pixelresolution of Envisat MERIS (Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) to quantify netprimary productivity (NPP) of conifer forests of Taurus Mountain range along the EasternMediterranean coast of Turkey. The Carnegie-Ames-Stanford approach (CASA) was usedto predict annual and monthly regional NPP as modified by temperature, precipitation,solar radiation, soil texture, fractional tree cover, land cover type, and normalizeddifference vegetation index (NDVI). Fractional tree cover was estimated using continuoustraining data and multi-temporal metrics of 47 Envisat MERIS images of March 2003 toSeptember 2005 and was derived by aggregating tree cover estimates made from high-resolution IKONOS imagery to coarser Landsat ETM imagery. A regression tree algorithmwas used to estimate response variables of fractional tree cover based on the multi-temporal metrics. This study showed that Envisat MERIS data yield a greater spatial detailin the quantification of NPP over a topographically complex terrain at the regional scalethan those used at the global scale such as AVHRR.

  5. Modeling Forest Productivity Using Envisat MERIS Data

    PubMed Central

    Berberoglu, Suha; Evrendilek, Fatih; Ozkan, Coskun; Donmez, Cenk

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to derive land cover products with a 300-m pixel resolution of Envisat MERIS (Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) to quantify net primary productivity (NPP) of conifer forests of Taurus Mountain range along the Eastern Mediterranean coast of Turkey. The Carnegie-Ames-Stanford approach (CASA) was used to predict annual and monthly regional NPP as modified by temperature, precipitation, solar radiation, soil texture, fractional tree cover, land cover type, and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). Fractional tree cover was estimated using continuous training data and multi-temporal metrics of 47 Envisat MERIS images of March 2003 to September 2005 and was derived by aggregating tree cover estimates made from high-resolution IKONOS imagery to coarser Landsat ETM imagery. A regression tree algorithm was used to estimate response variables of fractional tree cover based on the multi-temporal metrics. This study showed that Envisat MERIS data yield a greater spatial detail in the quantification of NPP over a topographically complex terrain at the regional scale than those used at the global scale such as AVHRR.

  6. Does nitrogen and sulfur deposition affect forest productivity?

    Treesearch

    Brittany A. Johnson; Kathryn B. Piatek; Mary Beth Adams; John R. Brooks

    2010-01-01

    We studied the effects of atmospheric nitrogen and sulfur deposition on forest productivity in a 10-year-old, aggrading forest stand at the Fernow Experimental Forest in Tucker County, WV. Forest productivity was expressed as total aboveground wood biomass, which included stem and branch weight of standing live trees. Ten years after stand regeneration and treatment...

  7. Sustainable Harvest and marketing of rain forest products

    SciTech Connect

    Plotkin, M.J.; Famolare, L.M.

    1992-01-01

    The economics of nontimber rainforest products often make a strong case for forest protection and prevention of deforestation. This book contains 33 diverse papers falling into three catagories: tropical rainforests are underutilized sources of new plant products; increased use of tropical forest products should benefit human inhabitants of the rainforest; nontimber forest products many not be the panacea that some suggest.

  8. Nanotechnology for forest products. Part 2

    Treesearch

    Theodore Wegner; Phil Jones

    2005-01-01

    In planning for the Nanotechnology for the Forest products Industry Workshop, we considered many different options for organizing technical focus areas for breakout discussion sessions. We felt the fallowing R&D focus areas provide the best path forward for a nanotechnology roadmap by identifying the underlying science and technology needed: also, they foster...

  9. Forest products harvested in Hawaii - 1967

    Treesearch

    Herbert L. Wick

    1968-01-01

    A survey of the primary forest products harvested in Hawaii in 1967 showed a total value of $334,000, a 24 percent increase over the value in the 1958 survey. Compared with the earlier survey, the volume of sawlogs and treefern harvested has gone up while the volume of fuelwood and posts harvested has declined.

  10. Forest biogeochemistry in response to drought

    Treesearch

    William H. Schlesinger; Michael C. Dietze; Robert B. Jackson; Richard P. Phillips; Charles C. Rhoades; Lindsey E. Rustad; James M. Vose

    2015-01-01

    Trees alter their use and allocation of nutrients in response to drought, and changes in soil nutrient cycling and trace gas flux (N2O and CH4) are observed when experimental drought is imposed on forests. In extreme droughts, trees are increasingly susceptible to attack by pests and pathogens, which can lead to major changes in nutrient flux to the soil....

  11. Monitoring nontimber forest products using forest inventory data: an example with slippery elm bark

    Treesearch

    Jobriath S. Kauffman; Stephen P. Prisley; James L. Chamberlain

    2015-01-01

    The USDA Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysi (FIA) program collects data on a wealth of variables related to trees in forests. Some of these trees produce nontimber forest products (NTFPs) (e.g., fruit, bark and sap) that are harvested for culinary, decorative, building, and medicinal purposes. At least 11 tree species inventoried by FIA are valued for their...

  12. Nontimber forest products management on national forests in the United States.

    Treesearch

    Rebecca J. McLain; Eric T. Jones

    2005-01-01

    This study provides an overview of nontimber forest products (NTFP) programs on national forests in the United States. We conducted an email survey in 2003 to obtain data on NTFP management activities on national forests across the country. Program characteristics examined in the study included important NTFPs managed on national forests, presence of NTFP coordinators...

  13. Proceedings of the Alaska forest soil productivity workshop.

    Treesearch

    C.W. Slaughter; T. Gasbarro

    1988-01-01

    The Alaska Forest Soil Productivity Workshop addressed (1) the role of soil information for forest management in Alaska; (2) assessment, monitoring, and enhancement of soil productivity; and (3) Alaska research projects involved in studies of productivity of forests and soils. This proceedings includes 27 papers in five categories: agency objectives in monitoring and...

  14. Techniques in Experimental Mechanics Applicable to Forest Products Research

    Treesearch

    Leslie H. Groom; Audrey G. Zink

    1994-01-01

    The title of this publication-Techniques in Experimental Mechanics Applicable to Forest Products Research-is the theme of this plenary session from the 1994 Annual Meeting of the Forest Products Society (FPS). Although this session focused on experimental techniques that can be of assistance to researchers in the field of forest products, it is hoped that the...

  15. Non-timber forest products: alternatives for landowners

    Treesearch

    James L. Chamberlain; A.L. Hammett

    2002-01-01

    Recently a great deal of attention has been given to forest products that are plant-based but do not come from timber. These "alternative" products are found growing under the forest canopy as herbs, shrubs, vines, moss and even lichen. Although they have been gathered for generations, non-timber forest products have had less attention than "more...

  16. Developing New Coastal Forest Restoration Products Based on Landsat, ASTER, and MODIS Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spruce, Joseph P.; Graham, William; Smoot, James

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses an ongoing effort to develop new geospatial information products for aiding coastal forest restoration and conservation efforts in coastal Louisiana and Mississippi. This project employs Landsat, Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite data in conjunction with airborne elevation data to compute coastal forest cover type maps and change detection products. Improved forest mapping products are needed to aid coastal forest restoration and management efforts of State and Federal agencies in the Northern Gulf of Mexico (NGOM) region. In particular, such products may aid coastal forest land acquisition and conservation easement procurements. This region's forests are often disturbed and subjected to multiple biotic and abiotic threats, including subsidence, salt water intrusion, hurricanes, sea-level rise, insect-induced defoliation and mortality, altered hydrology, wildfire, and conversion to non-forest land use. In some cases, such forest disturbance has led to forest loss or loss of regeneration capacity. In response, a case study was conducted to assess and demonstrate the potential of satellite remote sensing products for improving forest type maps and for assessing forest change over the last 25 years. Change detection products are needed for assessing risks for specific priority coastal forest types, such as live oak and baldcypress-dominated forest. Preliminary results indicate Landsat time series data are capable of generating the needed forest type and change detection products. Useful classifications were obtained using 2 strategies: 1) general forest classification based on use of 3 seasons of Landsat data from the same year; and 2) classification of specific forest types of concern using a single date of Landsat data in which a given targeted type is spectrally distinct compared to adjacent forested cover. When available, ASTER data was

  17. Amazon Forest Responses to Drought and Fire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, D. C.

    2015-12-01

    Deforestation and agricultural land uses provide a consistent source of ignitions along the Amazon frontier during the dry season. The risk of understory fires in Amazon forests is amplified by drought conditions, when fires at the forest edge may spread for weeks before rains begin. Fire activity also impacts the regional response of intact forests to drought through diffuse light effects and nutrient redistribution, highlighting the complexity of feedbacks in this coupled human and natural system. This talk will focus on recent advances in our understanding of fire-climate feedbacks in the Amazon, building on research themes initiated under NASA's Large-scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA). NASA's LBA program began in the wake of the 1997-1998 El Niño, a strong event that exposed the vulnerability of Amazon forests to drought and fire under current climate and projections of climate change. With forecasts of another strong El Niño event in 2015-2016, this talk will provide a multi-scale synthesis of Amazon forest responses to drought and fire based on field measurements, airborne lidar data, and satellite observations of fires, rainfall, and terrestrial water storage. These studies offer new insights into the mechanisms governing fire season severity in the southern Amazon and regional variability in carbon losses from understory fires. The contributions from remote sensing to our understanding of drought and fire in Amazon forests reflect the legacy of NASA's LBA program and the sustained commitment to interdisciplinary research across the Amazon region.

  18. Rapid Increases in forest understory diversity and productivity following a mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) outbreak in pine forests.

    PubMed

    Pec, Gregory J; Karst, Justine; Sywenky, Alexandra N; Cigan, Paul W; Erbilgin, Nadir; Simard, Suzanne W; Cahill, James F

    2015-01-01

    The current unprecedented outbreak of mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) forests of western Canada has resulted in a landscape consisting of a mosaic of forest stands at different stages of mortality. Within forest stands, understory communities are the reservoir of the majority of plant species diversity and influence the composition of future forests in response to disturbance. Although changes to stand composition following beetle outbreaks are well documented, information on immediate responses of forest understory plant communities is limited. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of D. ponderosae-induced tree mortality on initial changes in diversity and productivity of understory plant communities. We established a total of 110 1-m2 plots across eleven mature lodgepole pine forests to measure changes in understory diversity and productivity as a function of tree mortality and below ground resource availability across multiple years. Overall, understory community diversity and productivity increased across the gradient of increased tree mortality. Richness of herbaceous perennials increased with tree mortality as well as soil moisture and nutrient levels. In contrast, the diversity of woody perennials did not change across the gradient of tree mortality. Understory vegetation, namely herbaceous perennials, showed an immediate response to improved growing conditions caused by increases in tree mortality. How this increased pulse in understory richness and productivity affects future forest trajectories in a novel system is unknown.

  19. Rapid Increases in Forest Understory Diversity and Productivity following a Mountain Pine Beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) Outbreak in Pine Forests

    PubMed Central

    Pec, Gregory J.; Karst, Justine; Sywenky, Alexandra N.; Cigan, Paul W.; Erbilgin, Nadir; Simard, Suzanne W.; Cahill, James F.

    2015-01-01

    The current unprecedented outbreak of mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) forests of western Canada has resulted in a landscape consisting of a mosaic of forest stands at different stages of mortality. Within forest stands, understory communities are the reservoir of the majority of plant species diversity and influence the composition of future forests in response to disturbance. Although changes to stand composition following beetle outbreaks are well documented, information on immediate responses of forest understory plant communities is limited. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of D. ponderosae-induced tree mortality on initial changes in diversity and productivity of understory plant communities. We established a total of 110 1-m2 plots across eleven mature lodgepole pine forests to measure changes in understory diversity and productivity as a function of tree mortality and below ground resource availability across multiple years. Overall, understory community diversity and productivity increased across the gradient of increased tree mortality. Richness of herbaceous perennials increased with tree mortality as well as soil moisture and nutrient levels. In contrast, the diversity of woody perennials did not change across the gradient of tree mortality. Understory vegetation, namely herbaceous perennials, showed an immediate response to improved growing conditions caused by increases in tree mortality. How this increased pulse in understory richness and productivity affects future forest trajectories in a novel system is unknown. PMID:25859663

  20. 78 FR 44523 - Burned Area Emergency Response, Forest Service

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-24

    ... Forest Service RIN 0596-AC73 Burned Area Emergency Response, Forest Service AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of interim directive; Correction and extension of comment period. SUMMARY: The Forest... directive which is necessary to allow the public more detailed information and time to review the...

  1. Integrated Forest Products Refinery (IFPR)

    SciTech Connect

    van Heiningen, Adriaan R. P.

    2010-05-29

    about 1% (on pulp). By using the wet-end retention aid guar gum during the adsorption process at a charge of 0.5% on pulp the yield gain may be increased to about 5%. Unfortunately, most of this yield increase is lost during subsequent alkaline treatments in the pulp bleach plant. It was found that by performing the adsorption at alkaline conditions the adsorption loss during alkaline treatment in the bleach plant is mostly avoided. Thus a permanent adsorption yield of about 3 and 1.5% (on pulp) was obtained with addition of guar gum at a charge of 0.5 and 0.1% respectively during adsorption of GL hardwood extract on pre-extracted kraft pulp at optimal conditions of pH 11.5, 90 C for 60 minutes at 5% consistency. The beatability of the adsorbed kraft pulps was improved. Also, significant physical strength improvements were achieved. Further study is needed to determine whether the improvements in pulp yield and paper properties make this an economic IFPR concept. Application of the wood solids of a hot water extract of Acer rubrum wood strands as a substitute for polystyrene used for production of SMC maintained the water adsorption properties of the final product. Further work on the physical properties of the hemicellulose containing SMCs need to be completed to determine the potential of wood extracts for the production of partially renewable SMCs. The discovery of the “near-neutral” green liquor extraction process for hardwood was formed the basis for a commercial Integrated Biorefinery that will extract hemicelluloses from wood chips to make biofuels and other specialty chemicals. The pulp production process will be maintained as is proposed in the present researched IFBR concept. This Integrated Biorefinery will be constructed by Red Shield Acquisition LLC (RSA) at the Old Town kraft pulp mill in Maine. RSA in collaboration with the University of Maine will develop and commercialize the hemicellulose extraction process, the conversion of the hemicellulose

  2. The importance of forest structure to biodiversity–productivity relationships

    PubMed Central

    Huth, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    While various relationships between productivity and biodiversity are found in forests, the processes underlying these relationships remain unclear and theory struggles to coherently explain them. In this work, we analyse diversity–productivity relationships through an examination of forest structure (described by basal area and tree height heterogeneity). We use a new modelling approach, called ‘forest factory’, which generates various forest stands and calculates their annual productivity (above-ground wood increment). Analysing approximately 300 000 forest stands, we find that mean forest productivity does not increase with species diversity. Instead forest structure emerges as the key variable. Similar patterns can be observed by analysing 5054 forest plots of the German National Forest Inventory. Furthermore, we group the forest stands into nine forest structure classes, in which we find increasing, decreasing, invariant and even bell-shaped relationships between productivity and diversity. In addition, we introduce a new index, called optimal species distribution, which describes the ratio of realized to the maximal possible productivity (by shuffling species identities). The optimal species distribution and forest structure indices explain the obtained productivity values quite well (R2 between 0.7 and 0.95), whereby the influence of these attributes varies within the nine forest structure classes. PMID:28280550

  3. Extreme warm temperatures alter forest phenology and productivity in Europe.

    PubMed

    Crabbe, Richard A; Dash, Jadu; Rodriguez-Galiano, Victor F; Janous, Dalibor; Pavelka, Marian; Marek, Michal V

    2016-09-01

    Recent climate warming has shifted the timing of spring and autumn vegetation phenological events in the temperate and boreal forest ecosystems of Europe. In many areas spring phenological events start earlier and autumn events switch between earlier and later onset. Consequently, the length of growing season in mid and high latitudes of European forest is extended. However, the lagged effects (i.e. the impact of a warm spring or autumn on the subsequent phenological events) on vegetation phenology and productivity are less explored. In this study, we have (1) characterised extreme warm spring and extreme warm autumn events in Europe during 2003-2011, and (2) investigated if direct impact on forest phenology and productivity due to a specific warm event translated to a lagged effect in subsequent phenological events. We found that warmer events in spring occurred extensively in high latitude Europe producing a significant earlier onset of greening (OG) in broadleaf deciduous forest (BLDF) and mixed forest (MF). However, this earlier OG did not show any significant lagged effects on autumnal senescence. Needleleaf evergreen forest (NLEF), BLDF and MF showed a significantly delayed end of senescence (EOS) as a result of extreme warm autumn events; and in the following year's spring phenological events, OG started significantly earlier. Extreme warm spring events directly led to significant (p=0.0189) increases in the productivity of BLDF. In order to have a complete understanding of ecosystems response to warm temperature during key phenological events, particularly autumn events, the lagged effect on the next growing season should be considered. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Where No (Observed) Forest has Gone Before: New Patterns in Forest Response to Climate Change and Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNulty, S.; Sun, G.; Boggs, J. L.; Ward, E. J.

    2014-12-01

    Insect outbreaks, wildfire, and drought have directly or indirectly impacted forest health, productivity and water use long before the advent of modern forestry practices. However, climate change may be acerbating these impacts are causing land managers to reconsider the use and timing of management tools. However, even as new methods are being devised to combat negative drought impacts, the forest response to chronic and increasingly severe episodic drought may be changing. Historically, the weakest (e.g., suppressed, understory) trees were the first to succumb to stress while the strongest (e.g., dominant, fast growing). However, recent studies have suggested that a combination of chronic and increasingly extreme episodic stress may be causing hereunto unobserved patterns in forest mortality with the more vigorously growing trees having higher rates of mortality than slower growing, more generally stressed individuals. I suggest that the forests have not altered their response to stress, but only that the level of stress, and the forest response to that stress has not previously been observed in recorded history. This extension of the forest stress response continuum has very significant implications to forest management under drought and associated disturbance. Therefore, this paper explores the causes and implications for maintaining forest resilience and sustainability under an increasingly variable climate.

  5. 76 FR 65097 - National Forest Products Week, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-20

    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8738 of October 14, 2011 National Forest Products Week, 2011 By the President... important part of our economy. During National Forest Products Week, we celebrate the value of our woodlands... forests, the Congress, by Public Law 86-753 (36 U.S.C. 123), as amended, has designated the week beginning...

  6. 77 FR 65095 - National Forest Products Week, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-24

    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8892 of October 19, 2012 National Forest Products Week, 2012 By the President... environments for us to explore. During National Forest Products Week, we celebrate sustainable uses of the... to our progress in the years ahead. This week, let us rededicate ourselves to managing our forests...

  7. 25 CFR 163.22 - Payment for forest products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Payment for forest products. 163.22 Section 163.22 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.22 Payment for forest products. (a) The basis of volume...

  8. 25 CFR 163.26 - Forest product harvesting permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Forest product harvesting permits. 163.26 Section 163.26 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.26 Forest product harvesting permits. (a) Except as provided in...

  9. 25 CFR 163.16 - Forest product sales without advertisement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Forest product sales without advertisement. 163.16 Section 163.16 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.16 Forest product sales without advertisement...

  10. 25 CFR 163.26 - Forest product harvesting permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Forest product harvesting permits. 163.26 Section 163.26 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.26 Forest product harvesting permits. (a) Except as provided in...

  11. 25 CFR 163.22 - Payment for forest products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Payment for forest products. 163.22 Section 163.22 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.22 Payment for forest products. (a) The basis of volume...

  12. 25 CFR 163.26 - Forest product harvesting permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Forest product harvesting permits. 163.26 Section 163.26 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.26 Forest product harvesting permits. (a) Except as provided in...

  13. 25 CFR 163.22 - Payment for forest products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Payment for forest products. 163.22 Section 163.22 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.22 Payment for forest products. (a) The basis of volume determination for...

  14. 25 CFR 163.14 - Sale of forest products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sale of forest products. 163.14 Section 163.14 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.14 Sale of forest products. (a) Consistent with the economic objectives of...

  15. 25 CFR 163.22 - Payment for forest products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Payment for forest products. 163.22 Section 163.22 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.22 Payment for forest products. (a) The basis of volume...

  16. 25 CFR 163.14 - Sale of forest products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sale of forest products. 163.14 Section 163.14 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.14 Sale of forest products. (a) Consistent with the economic objectives of...

  17. 25 CFR 163.16 - Forest product sales without advertisement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Forest product sales without advertisement. 163.16 Section 163.16 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.16 Forest product sales without advertisement...

  18. 25 CFR 163.14 - Sale of forest products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sale of forest products. 163.14 Section 163.14 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.14 Sale of forest products. (a) Consistent with the economic objectives of...

  19. 25 CFR 163.26 - Forest product harvesting permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Forest product harvesting permits. 163.26 Section 163.26 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.26 Forest product harvesting permits. (a) Except as provided in...

  20. 25 CFR 163.16 - Forest product sales without advertisement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Forest product sales without advertisement. 163.16 Section 163.16 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.16 Forest product sales without advertisement...

  1. 25 CFR 163.22 - Payment for forest products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Payment for forest products. 163.22 Section 163.22 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.22 Payment for forest products. (a) The basis of volume...

  2. 25 CFR 163.16 - Forest product sales without advertisement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Forest product sales without advertisement. 163.16 Section 163.16 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.16 Forest product sales without advertisement. (a) Sales of...

  3. 25 CFR 163.14 - Sale of forest products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Sale of forest products. 163.14 Section 163.14 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.14 Sale of forest products. (a) Consistent with the economic objectives of...

  4. 25 CFR 163.14 - Sale of forest products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sale of forest products. 163.14 Section 163.14 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.14 Sale of forest products. (a) Consistent with the economic objectives of...

  5. 25 CFR 163.26 - Forest product harvesting permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Forest product harvesting permits. 163.26 Section 163.26 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.26 Forest product harvesting permits. (a) Except as provided in...

  6. 25 CFR 163.16 - Forest product sales without advertisement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Forest product sales without advertisement. 163.16 Section 163.16 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.16 Forest product sales without advertisement...

  7. Canadian forest products shipped into the north-central region.

    Treesearch

    Eugene M. Carpenter

    1972-01-01

    Documents the imports of Canadian forest products into the north central region and relates import trends to the potential for expanding markets for the region's surplus volume of hardwood growing stock. More than 42% of the $2.1 billion of forest products imported from Canada in 1969 came into the north central region. The value of forest imports has increased...

  8. Key canopy traits drive forest productivity

    PubMed Central

    Reich, Peter B.

    2012-01-01

    Quantifying the mechanistic links between carbon fluxes and forest canopy attributes will advance understanding of leaf-to-ecosystem scaling and its potential application to assessing terrestrial ecosystem metabolism. Important advances have been made, but prior studies that related carbon fluxes to multiple canopy traits are scarce. Herein, presenting data for 128 cold temperate and boreal forests across a regional gradient of 600 km and 5.4°C (from 2.4°C to 7.8°C) in mean annual temperature, I show that stand-scale productivity is a function of the capacity to harvest light (represented by leaf area index, LAI), and to biochemically fix carbon (represented by canopy nitrogen concentration, %N). In combination, LAI and canopy %N explain greater than 75 per cent of variation in above-ground net primary productivity among forests, expressed per year or per day of growing season. After accounting for growing season length and climate effects, less than 10 per cent of the variance remained unexplained. These results mirror similar relations of leaf-scale and canopy-scale (eddy covariance) maximum photosynthetic rates to LAI and %N. Collectively, these findings indicate that canopy structure and chemistry translate from instantaneous physiology to annual carbon fluxes. Given the increasing capacity to remotely sense canopy LAI, %N and phenology, these results support the idea that physiologically based scaling relations can be useful tools for global modelling. PMID:22279168

  9. Factors Influencing Productivity Change in the Forest Products Industry,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-04-01

    substitution together with nonneutral technical progress" (p.179) Solow (1957) in a landmark study developed a method for estimating * technological change... Solow approach to measuring total factor productivity is the impli- 30 cit assumption of neutral technological change. In the case of the forest products...Three Mississippi Counties. Mississippi Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin No. 713. Solow , R. M. 1959. Investment and Economic Growth: Some

  10. Forest turnover rates follow global and regional patterns of productivity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stephenson, N.L.; van Mantgem, P.J.

    2005-01-01

    Using a global database, we found that forest turnover rates (the average of tree mortality and recruitment rates) parallel broad-scale patterns of net primary productivity. First, forest turnover was higher in tropical than in temperate forests. Second, as recently demonstrated by others, Amazonian forest turnover was higher on fertile than infertile soils. Third, within temperate latitudes, turnover was highest in angiosperm forests, intermediate in mixed forests, and lowest in gymnosperm forests. Finally, within a single forest physiognomic type, turnover declined sharply with elevation (hence with temperature). These patterns of turnover in populations of trees are broadly similar to the patterns of turnover in populations of plant organs (leaves and roots) found in other studies. Our findings suggest a link between forest mass balance and the population dynamics of trees, and have implications for understanding and predicting the effects of environmental changes on forest structure and terrestrial carbon dynamics. ??2005 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  11. California's forest products industry and timber harvest, 2012

    Treesearch

    Chelsea P. McIver; Joshua P. Meek; Micah G. Scudder; Colin B. Sorenson; Todd A. Morgan; Glenn A. Christensen

    2015-01-01

    This report traces the flow of California's 2012 timber harvest through the primary wood products industry and provides a description of the structure, condition, and economic impacts of California's forest products sector. Historical forest products industry changes are discussed, as well as trends in harvest, production, mill residue, and sales. Also...

  12. Quantifying deforestation and forest degradation with thermal response.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hua; Chen, Yajun; Song, Qinghai; Fu, Peili; Cleverly, James; Magliulo, Vincenzo; Law, Beverly E; Gough, Christopher M; Hörtnagl, Lukas; Di Gennaro, Filippo; Matteucci, Giorgio; Montagnani, Leonardo; Duce, Pierpaolo; Shao, Changliang; Kato, Tomomichi; Bonal, Damien; Paul-Limoges, Eugénie; Beringer, Jason; Grace, John; Fan, Zexin

    2017-12-31

    Deforestation and forest degradation cause the deterioration of resources and ecosystem services. However, there are still no operational indicators to measure forest status, especially for forest degradation. In the present study, we analysed the thermal response number (TRN, calculated by daily total net radiation divided by daily temperature range) of 163 sites including mature forest, disturbed forest, planted forest, shrubland, grassland, savanna vegetation and cropland. TRN generally increased with latitude, however the regression of TRN against latitude differed among vegetation types. Mature forests are superior as thermal buffers, and had significantly higher TRN than disturbed and planted forests. There was a clear boundary between TRN of forest and non-forest vegetation (i.e. grassland and savanna) with the exception of shrubland, whose TRN overlapped with that of forest vegetation. We propose to use the TRN of local mature forest as the optimal TRN (TRNopt). A forest with lower than 75% of TRNopt was identified as subjected to significant disturbance, and forests with 66% of TRNopt was the threshold for deforestation within the absolute latitude from 30° to 55°. Our results emphasized the irreplaceable thermal buffer capacity of mature forest. TRN can be used for early warning of deforestation and degradation risk. It is therefore a valuable tool in the effort to protect forests and prevent deforestation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Atypical forest products, processes, and uses: a developing component of National Forest management

    Treesearch

    Mike Higgs; John Sebelius; Mike Miller

    1995-01-01

    The silvicultural practices prescribed under an ecosystem management regimen will alter the volume and character of National Forests' marketable raw material base. This alteration will affect forest-dependent communities that have traditionally relied upon these resources for their economic and social well being. Community based atypical forest products, processes...

  14. Relationships between net primary productivity and forest stand age in U.S. forests

    Treesearch

    Liming He; Jing M. Chen; Yude Pan; Richard Birdsey; Jens. Kattge

    2012-01-01

    Net primary productivity (NPP) is a key flux in the terrestrial ecosystem carbon balance, as it summarizes the autotrophic input into the system. Forest NPP varies predictably with stand age, and quantitative information on the NPP-age relationship for different regions and forest types is therefore fundamentally important for forest carbon cycle modeling. We used four...

  15. Forest production dynamics along a wood density spectrum in eastern US forests

    Treesearch

    C.W. Woodall; M.B. Russell; B.F. Walters; A.W. D' Amato; K. Zhu; S.S. Saatchi

    2015-01-01

    Emerging plant economics spectrum theories were confirmed across temperate forest systems of the eastern US where the use of a forest stand's mean wood density elucidated forest volume and biomass production dynamics integrating aspects of climate, tree mortality/growth, and rates of site occupancy.

  16. A U.S. Forest Service special forest products appraisal system: background, methods, and assessment.

    Treesearch

    Jerry Smith; Lisa K. Crone; Susan J. Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Increasing concern over the management and harvest of special forest products (SFP) from national forest lands has led to the development of new Forest Service policy directives. In this paper, we present a brief history of SFPs in the Western United States, highlighting the issues that necessitated new management direction. The new policy directives that led to the...

  17. Amazon forest response to repeated droughts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldpausch, T. R.; Phillips, O. L.; Brienen, R. J. W.; Gloor, E.; Lloyd, J.; Lopez-Gonzalez, G.; Monteagudo-Mendoza, A.; Malhi, Y.; Alarcón, A.; Álvarez Dávila, E.; Alvarez-Loayza, P.; Andrade, A.; Aragao, L. E. O. C.; Arroyo, L.; Aymard C., G. A.; Baker, T. R.; Baraloto, C.; Barroso, J.; Bonal, D.; Castro, W.; Chama, V.; Chave, J.; Domingues, T. F.; Fauset, S.; Groot, N.; Honorio Coronado, E.; Laurance, S.; Laurance, W. F.; Lewis, S. L.; Licona, J. C.; Marimon, B. S.; Marimon-Junior, B. H.; Mendoza Bautista, C.; Neill, D. A.; Oliveira, E. A.; Oliveira dos Santos, C.; Pallqui Camacho, N. C.; Pardo-Molina, G.; Prieto, A.; Quesada, C. A.; Ramírez, F.; Ramírez-Angulo, H.; Réjou-Méchain, M.; Rudas, A.; Saiz, G.; Salomão, R. P.; Silva-Espejo, J. E.; Silveira, M.; Steege, H.; Stropp, J.; Terborgh, J.; Thomas-Caesar, R.; Heijden, G. M. F.; Vásquez Martinez, R.; Vilanova, E.; Vos, V. A.

    2016-07-01

    The Amazon Basin has experienced more variable climate over the last decade, with a severe and widespread drought in 2005 causing large basin-wide losses of biomass. A drought of similar climatological magnitude occurred again in 2010; however, there has been no basin-wide ground-based evaluation of effects on vegetation. We examine to what extent the 2010 drought affected forest dynamics using ground-based observations of mortality and growth from an extensive forest plot network. We find that during the 2010 drought interval, forests did not gain biomass (net change: -0.43 Mg ha-1, confidence interval (CI): -1.11, 0.19, n = 97), regardless of whether forests experienced precipitation deficit anomalies. This contrasted with a long-term biomass sink during the baseline pre-2010 drought period (1998 to pre-2010) of 1.33 Mg ha-1 yr-1 (CI: 0.90, 1.74, p < 0.01). The resulting net impact of the 2010 drought (i.e., reversal of the baseline net sink) was -1.95 Mg ha-1 yr-1 (CI:-2.77, -1.18; p < 0.001). This net biomass impact was driven by an increase in biomass mortality (1.45 Mg ha-1 yr-1 CI: 0.66, 2.25, p < 0.001) and a decline in biomass productivity (-0.50 Mg ha-1 yr-1, CI:-0.78, -0.31; p < 0.001). Surprisingly, the magnitude of the losses through tree mortality was unrelated to estimated local precipitation anomalies and was independent of estimated local pre-2010 drought history. Thus, there was no evidence that pre-2010 droughts compounded the effects of the 2010 drought. We detected a systematic basin-wide impact of the 2010 drought on tree growth rates across Amazonia, which was related to the strength of the moisture deficit. This impact differed from the drought event in 2005 which did not affect productivity. Based on these ground data, live biomass in trees and corresponding estimates of live biomass in lianas and roots, we estimate that intact forests in Amazonia were carbon neutral in 2010 (-0.07 Pg C yr-1 CI:-0.42, 0.23), consistent with results from an

  18. A modeling analysis of the interaction between forest age and forest responsiveness to increasing CO2 concentration.

    PubMed

    Kirschbaum, Miko U F

    2005-07-01

    Typically, forests have rotations of 10-200 years. On that time scale, anthropogenic increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration ([CO2]) and the associated changes in climate are expected to be substantial. These changes will, therefore, almost certainly affect the growth of presently established forest stands. Most studies on the effects of increasing [CO2] on tree growth have been made with young plants. However, the growth of trees within a forest stand varies with age. As a consequence, it is difficult to infer from the available experimental data how rising [CO2] will affect forest productivity over a full rotation. In this study, various mechanisms that may account for the slowing of forest growth with age were introduced into the forest growth model CenW, to assess how these processes affect the modeled growth response to increasing [CO2]. Inclusion of allocation shifts with tree height, individual tree mortality, changing respiration load and nutrient dynamics or age-based reductions in photosynthetic capacity had only small effects on the response to increasing [CO2]. However, when photosynthesis of mature trees was decreased as a function of size, then the growth response to increasing [CO2] was reduced because, at the same age, trees were larger in elevated than in ambient [CO2]. No simple and generally valid interactions between increasing [CO2] and forest age were identified because of the large number of interacting processes, all of which are incompletely understood. Important age x climate change interactions on productivity must occur in real forests and need to be considered to understand likely future trends. However, these interactions are complex and difficult to test. It is therefore not yet possible to predict with confidence the modification of the CO2 response by forest age.

  19. Forest thinnings for integrated lumber and paper production

    Treesearch

    J.Y. Zhu; C.T. Scott; R. Gleisner; D. Mann; D.W. Vahey; D.P. Dykstra; G.H. Quinn; L.L. Edwards

    2007-01-01

    Integrated lumber and paper productions using forest thinning materials from U.S. national forests can significantly reduce the cost of prescriptive thinning operations. Many of the trees removed during forest thinnings are in small-diameter classes (diameter at breast height

  20. Nontimber Forest Products in the Rural Household Economy

    Treesearch

    Erin O. Sills; Sharachchandra Lele; Thomas P. Holmes; Subhrendu K. Pattanayak

    2003-01-01

    Among the multiple outputs of forests, the category labeled nontimber forest products, or NTFPs, has drawn increased policy and research attention during the past 20 years. NTFPs have become recognized for their importance in the livelihoods of the many relatively poor households who live in or near forests, especially in the tropics. Policy concern about NTFPs takes...

  1. Forest Productivity and Timber Supply Modeling in the South

    Treesearch

    Frederick Cubbage; Jacek Siry; Robert Abt; David N. Wear; Steverson Moffat

    1998-01-01

    The South can increase forest productivity on industrial and nonindustrial private forest (NIPF) lands. As timber markets have improved and timber prices have increased, returns from intensive management are more profitable. The interaction of timber markets, inventory, and prices are analyzed in new southern timber supply models sponsored by the Southern Forest...

  2. Integrating forest products with ecosystem services: a global perspective

    Treesearch

    Robert L. Deal; Rachel. White

    2012-01-01

    Around the world forests provide a broad range of vital ecosystem services. Sustainable forest management and forest products play an important role in global carbon management, but one of the major forestry concerns worldwide is reducing the loss of forestland from development. Currently, deforestation accounts for approximately 20% of total greenhouse gas emissions....

  3. Contribution of Near Real Time MODIS-Based Forest Disturbance Detection Products to a National Forest Threat Early Warning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spruce, J.; Hargrove, W. W.; Gasser, J.; Smoot, J.; Kuper, P.

    2011-12-01

    maintained by the National Environmental Modeling and Analysis Center. The FCAV EWS has been used to aid multiple Federal and State agency forest management activities, including aerial disturbance detection surveys, as well as rapid response preliminary assessments of timber loss due to tornadoes, regional drought studies, and fire damage assessments. The FCAV allows end-users to assess the context of apparent forest vegetation change with respect to ancillary data, such as land cover, topography, hydrology, climate variables, and administrative boundaries. Such change products are being evaluated through case studies involving comparison with higher spatial resolution satellite, aerial, and field data. The presentation will include multiple examples in which regionally evident forest disturbances were successfully detected and monitored with the MODIS-based change products, as part of the FCAV. FCAV's MODIS forest change products enable end-users (e.g., resource managers) to view and monitor forest hazards at regional scales throughout the year and across the nation.

  4. Non-timber forest products enterprises in the south: perceived distribution and implications for sustainable forest management

    Treesearch

    J.L. Chamberlain; M. Predny

    2003-01-01

    Forests of the southern United States are the source of a great diversity of flora, much of which is gathered to produce non-timber forest products (NTFPs). These products are made from resources that grow under the forest canopy as trees, herbs, shrubs, vines, moss and even lichen. They occur naturally in forests or may be cultivated under the forest canopy or in...

  5. Forest Products Industry of the Future

    SciTech Connect

    Los Alamos Technical Associates, Inc

    2002-05-01

    Los Alamos Technical Associates, Inc (LATA) conducted an evaluation of the potential impact and value of a portion of the current portfolio of r&d projects supported by the Office of Industrial Technology and the Forest Products Industry of the Future. The mission of the evaluation was to (a) assess the potential impact of the projects to meet the critical goals of the industry as identified in the vision and roadmapping documents. (b) Evaluate the relationship between the current portfolio of projects and the Agenda 202 Implementation Plan. In addition, evaluate the relationship between the portfolio and the newly revised draft technology strategy being created by the industry. (c) Identify areas where current efforts are making significant progress towards meeting industry goals and identify areas where additional work my be required to meet these goals. (d) Make recommendations to the DOE and the Forest Products Industry on possible improvements in the portfolio and in the current methodology that DOE uses to assess potential impacts on its R&D activities.

  6. Thinking About Oak Forests as Responsive Ecosystems

    Treesearch

    Paul S. Johnson

    2004-01-01

    Like all forests, oak forests are continually responding to disturbances originating from both within and outside the forest. Oaks (Quercus spp.) owe their very existence to disturbance. In this context, silvicultural and other manage-ment practices can be thought of as planned disturbances designed to direct forest change in specific ways. The...

  7. Primary forest products industry and timber use, Nebraska, 1980.

    Treesearch

    James E. Blyth; Tom D. Wardle; W. Brad Smith

    1984-01-01

    Highlights recent Nebraska forest industry trends, production and receipts of saw logs in 1980, and production of other timber products in 1980. Reports on wood and bark residue generated at primary mills and the disposition of this residue.

  8. Primary forest products industry and timber use, Kansas, 1980.

    Treesearch

    James E. Blyth; Leonard K. Gould; W. Brad Smith

    1984-01-01

    Highlights recent Kansas forest industry trends, production and receipts of saw logs in 1980, and production of other timber products in 1980. Reports on wood and bark residue generated at primary mills and the disposition of this residue.

  9. Soil production in forested landscapes (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roering, J. J.; Booth, A. M.

    2009-12-01

    One of the most fundamental characteristics that defines landscapes is the presence or absence of a soil mantle. In actively eroding terrain, soil (and other natural resources that depend on it) persists only when the rate of soil production is not eclipsed by denudation. Despite successful efforts to empirically estimate long-term rates of soil production, little predictive capability exists as soil formation results from a complex interplay of biological, physical, and chemical processes. Here, we synthesize a suite of observations from the steep, forested Oregon Coast Range (OCR) and anlayze the role of trees in the conversion of bedrock to soil. Pit/mound topography on forest floors attests to the persistent, wholesale overturning of soil by tree root activity. Using airborne LiDAR data for our study site in the western Oregon Coast Range, we calculated how terrain roughness varies with spatial scale. At scales greater than 10m, the well-established ridge/valley structure of the landscape defines the topography; whereas for scales less than 7m, terrain roughness increases rapidly reflecting the stochastic nature of bioturbation associated with large, coniferous trees. Empirical estimates of soil production in the OCR by Heimsath et al (2001, ESPL) reveal that production rates decrease exponentially with depth and the decay constant is 2.68 (1/m). From dozens of soil pits in the OCR, we show that the density of trees roots declines exponentially with depth at a similar rate, 2.57 (1/m). In other words, rates of soil production appear to be well-correlated with root density. Bedrock is often excavated during tree turnover events and we documented that the volume of bedrock incorporated in overturned coniferous rootwads increases rapidly for tree diameters greater than 0.5m (which correponds to a 60-80 yr old Douglas fir tree in Western Oregon). Smaller (and thus younger) trees entrain negligible bedrock when overturned, suggesting that their root systems are

  10. Pine straw production: from forest to front yard

    Treesearch

    Janice F. Dyer; Rebecca J. Barlow; John S. Kush; John C. Gilbert

    2012-01-01

    Southern forestry may be undergoing a paradigm shift in which timber production is not necessarily the major reason for owning forested land. However, there remains interest in generating income from the land and landowners are exploring alternatives, including agroforestry practices and production of non-timber forest products (NTFPs). One such alternative more recent...

  11. Nontimber Output Assessments: Tracking Those Other Forest Products

    Treesearch

    J. Chamberlain; J. Munsell; S. Krugerc

    2014-01-01

    The Forest Service has been assessing timber product output (TPO) for more than 50 years by canvassing primary processors of industrial roundwood in each state on a 3–5 year cycle. TPO studies tracks what species are cut, from where they come, and what products are produced. Nontimber forest products (NTFPs) are important commodities and a valuable segment of the...

  12. Primary forest products industry and timber use, Iowa, 1972.

    Treesearch

    James E. Blyth; William A. Farris

    1975-01-01

    Discusses recent Iowa forest industry trends, and production of saw logs, veneer logs, pulpwood, and other roundwood products. Comments on outlook for Iowa forest industry and production and use of roundwood and primary wood-using plant wood and bark residue.

  13. Responses of dead forest fuel moisture to climate change

    Treesearch

    Yongqiang Liu

    2016-01-01

    Forest fuel moisture is an important factor for wildland fire behavior. Predicting future wildfire trends and controlled burned conditions is essential to effective natural resource management, but the associated effects of forest fuel moisture remain uncertain. This study investigates the responses of dead forest fuel moisture to climate change in the...

  14. Long-term response of Caribbean palm forests to hurricanes

    Treesearch

    Ariel Lugo; J.L. Frangi

    2016-01-01

    We studied the response of Prestoea montana (Sierra Palm, hereafter Palm) brakes and a Palm floodplain forest to hurricanes in the Luquillo Experimental Forest in Puerto Rico. Over a span of 78 years, 3 hurricanes passed over the study sites for which we have 64 years of measurements for Palm brakes and 20 years for the Palm floodplain forest. For each stand, species...

  15. 36 CFR 223.277 - Forest botanical products definition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., pine straw, roots, sedges, seeds, shrubs, transplants, tree sap, and wildflowers. Forest botanical products are not animals, animal parts, Christmas trees, fence material, firewood, insects, mine...

  16. Alternative Bioenergy: Small Scale Pellet Production from Forest Residues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cochran, Audra S.

    Forests can readily supply feedstock for alternative bioenergy production. Feedstock removal has the potential to benefit forest health and provide ecosystem services, while also generating profit for landowners, contractors and forest managers. However, many landowners are faced with the challenge of managing forest residuals to meet slash compliances and fire regulations. Currently, most residuals are burned or left on site to decompose. Every year, the north-central Idaho region produces over 16 million dry tons of unutilized forest residues. In a time where alternative energy sources are growing in demand, new approaches to utilize these residuals for bioenergy production are being examined. One approach is a portable, small-scale wood pellet mill that can be taken directly to the logging site. Utilizing forest residues for pellet production reduces residue burning and its potential negative impacts on air quality. This presentation focuses on the quality of wood pellets manufactured by a portable wood pellet mill utilizing various forms of forest residuals.

  17. Biomass removal and its effect on productivity of an artificially regenerated forest stand in the Missouri ozarks

    Treesearch

    Flex Jr. Ponder

    2007-01-01

    Intensive harvesting, which removes a greater proportion of the forest biomass than conventional harvesting and the associated nutrients, may cause a decline in forest productivity. Planted seedling response to three biomass removal levels (1. removal of boles only=OM1, 2. all surface organic matter removed, forest floor not removed=OM2, and 3. removal of all surface...

  18. Contribution of Near Real Time MODIS-Based Forest Disturbance Detection Products to a National Forest Threat Early Warning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spruce, Joseph P.; Hargrove, William; Glasser, Jerry; Kuper, Philip D.

    2011-01-01

    FCAV EWS has been used to aid multiple Federal and State agency forest management activities, including aerial disturbance detection surveys, as well as rapid response preliminary assessments of timber loss due to tornadoes, regional drought studies, and fire damage assessments. The FCAV allows end-users to assess the context of apparent forest vegetation change with respect to ancillary data, such as land cover, topography, hydrology, climate variables, and administrative boundaries. Such change products are being evaluated through case studies involving comparison with higher spatial resolution satellite, aerial, and field data. The presentation will include multiple examples in which regionally evident forest disturbances were successfully detected and monitored with the MODIS-based change products, as part of the FCAV. FCAV's MODIS forest change products enable end-users (e.g., resource managers) to monitor forest hazards at regional scales throughout the year and across the nation.

  19. Collection of nontimber forest products from state forests in the US south

    Treesearch

    Gregory E. Frey; James Chamberlain

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the harvest of nontimber forest products (NTFPs) in state forests of the US South. We asked the state forestry agencies in all 13 southern states about the products harvested and the policies regulating harvest, as well as evidence of illegal harvest and the effects of  harvest on biodiversity. Of the 12 southern states that have state forests, 7...

  20. Comparison of growth response to thinning in oak forests managed as coppice with standards and high forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautam, S.; Hasenauer, H.; Pietsch, S. A.

    2009-04-01

    The BIOME-BGC model integrates the main physical, biological and physiological processes based on current understanding of ecophysiology to assess forest ecosystem dynamics. This study evaluates the application of the model to assess the thinning effects on coppiced oak forests in Austria. We analyze the growth response, i.e. growth efficiency (GE), nitrogen use efficiency (NUE), water use efficiency (WUE) and radiation use efficiency (RUE) of oak forests to thinning. The results of coppice with standards and high forests simulations are analysed for differences in simulated growth response after thinning. The forest field data of the year 2006 and the respective model runs are used to evaluate model application. Strong positive relationship (r2 = 0.90) with unbiased results and statistically insignificant differences between predicted and observed volume allows the use of the model as a diagnostic tool to assess management effects. Results indicate that the coppice with standards exhibits a significantly higher yield by 2.97% (i.e. 10 cubic meters per hectare in one rotation), a higher harvest (49.9%) but a lower growing stock (19.69%) than the high forests. The higher growing stock and the lower extraction in the high forests confirm that the high forest sequestrates significantly more carbon than the coppice with standards. Results show that thinning leads to an increase in the GE, the NUE and the WUE, and to a decrease in the RUE. Although the coppice with standards forest ecosystem exhibits higher values in all studied growth parameters, only the difference in the NUE was statistically significant. This verifies that the difference in the yield between the coppice with standards and the high forests is mainly governed by the NUE difference in stands after thinning. The coppice with standards system produces an equal amount of net primary production while consuming significantly less nitrogen (16%) compared to the high forest system. In the coppice with

  1. The production, storage, and flow of carbon in Amazonian forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malhi, Yadvinder; Saatchi, Sassan; Girardin, Cecile; Aragão, Luiz E. O. C.

    The carbon stores and dynamics of tropical forests are the subject of major international scientific and policy attention. Research associated with the Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA) has generated substantial advances in our understanding of the cycling of carbon at selected forest sites in Brazilian Amazonia and generated new insights into how these processes may vary across the wider Amazonian region. Here we report on aspects of this new understanding. We present, in particular, a comprehensive synthesis of carbon cycling in three focal LBA sites (Manaus, Tapajõs, and Caxiuanã), drawing on studies of productivity, litterfall, respiration, physiology, and ecosystem fluxes. These studies are placed in the context of the wider Amazonian region by utilizing the results of the Amazon Forest Inventory Network (RAINFOR) and other forest plots. We discuss the basin-wide distribution of forest biomass derived by combining these plots and a suite of satellite data, and examine the dynamics of carbon cycling in the context of regional carbon stores in the forest. Particular attention is drawn to the strong relationship between forest productivity and turnover, which suggests that higher levels of forest productivity increase forest dynamism rather than forest biomass. We conclude by discussing what the scientific priorities should be for a synthetic region-wide understanding of the carbon dynamics and stores of Amazonian forests.

  2. Improving Post-Hurricane Katrina Forest Management with MODIS Time Series Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Mark David; Spruce, Joseph; Evans, David; Anderson, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Hurricane damage to forests can be severe, causing millions of dollars of timber damage and loss. To help mitigate loss, state agencies require information on location, intensity, and extent of damaged forests. NASA's MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) time series data products offers a potential means for state agencies to monitor hurricane-induced forest damage and recovery across a broad region. In response, a project was conducted to produce and assess 250 meter forest disturbance and recovery maps for areas in southern Mississippi impacted by Hurricane Katrina. The products and capabilities from the project were compiled to aid work of the Mississippi Institute for Forest Inventory (MIFI). A series of NDVI change detection products were computed to assess hurricane induced damage and recovery. Hurricane-induced forest damage maps were derived by computing percent change between MODIS MOD13 16-day composited NDVI pre-hurricane "baseline" products (2003 and 2004) and post-hurricane NDVI products (2005). Recovery products were then computed in which post storm 2006, 2007, 2008 and 2009 NDVI data was each singularly compared to the historical baseline NDVI. All percent NDVI change considered the 16-day composite period of August 29 to September 13 for each year in the study. This provided percent change in the maximum NDVI for the 2 week period just after the hurricane event and for each subsequent anniversary through 2009, resulting in forest disturbance products for 2005 and recovery products for the following 4 years. These disturbance and recovery products were produced for the Mississippi Institute for Forest Inventory's (MIFI) Southeast Inventory District and also for the entire hurricane impact zone. MIFI forest inventory products were used as ground truth information for the project. Each NDVI percent change product was classified into 6 categories of forest disturbance intensity. Stand age

  3. Proceedings: linking healthy forests and communities through Alaska value-added forest products.

    Treesearch

    Theodore L. Laufenberg; Bridget K. Brady

    2000-01-01

    The Alaska forest products industry is experiencing significant changes in its structure due to economic, ecological, and social pressures. Papers presented at this workshop brought together technical specialists and exhibitors from forest products industry, associations, universities, and private, state, and federal land management agencies. Topics included: policy...

  4. Keeping your forest soils healthy and productive.

    Treesearch

    Ole T. Helgerson; Richard E. Miller

    2008-01-01

    Soils are an integral structural part of your woodland and the larger forest ecosystem. Important forest soil functions include:Providing water, nutrients, and physical support for the growth of trees and other forest plantsAllowing an exchange of carbon dioxide, oxygen, and other gasses that affect root growth and...

  5. Forest Ecosystem Services As Production Inputs

    Treesearch

    Subhrendu Pattanayak; David T. Butry

    2003-01-01

    Are we cutting down tropical forests too rapidly and too extensively? If so, why? Answers to both questions are obscured in some ways by insufficient and unreliable data on the economic worth of forest ecosystem services. It is clear, however, that rapid, excessive cutting of forests can irreversibly and substantively impair ecosystem functions, thereby endangering the...

  6. Forest response to increased disturbance in the central Amazon and comparison to western Amazonian forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holm, J. A.; Chambers, J. Q.; Collins, W. D.; Higuchi, N.

    2014-10-01

    the climate and earth system, we evaluated the fidelity of tree mortality and disturbance in CLM. Similar to ZELIG-TROP, CLM predicted a net carbon loss of 49.9%, with an insignificant effect on aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP). Decreased leaf area index (LAI) was the driver of AGB loss in CLM, another forest attribute that does not significantly vary across the Amazon Basin, and the temporal variability in carbon stock and fluxes was not replicated in CLM. Our results suggest that (1) the variability between regions cannot be entirely explained by the variability in disturbance regime, but rather potentially sensitive to intrinsic environmental factors; or (2) the models are not accurately simulating all tropical forest characteristics in response to increased disturbances.

  7. Public use and potential impact on Missouri's forest products industry

    Treesearch

    Bruce E. Cutter; William B. Kurtz

    1993-01-01

    Management of public lands impacts Missouri's forest products industry in a significant manner, particularly in rural areas. In 1989, some 1,340 firms were involved in the forest products industry, employing approximately 29,200 workers. Total value-added in 1989 was in excess of $1 billion and the industry's activity generated another $400 million in related...

  8. Explaining the forest product selling behavior of private woodland owners

    Treesearch

    David N. Larsen; David A. Gansner; David A. Gansner

    1973-01-01

    A multiple-variable screening technique, AID, was used to explain the forest-product-sales behavior of private woodland owners. Results provide a basis for policy-related inferences and suggest an optimal strategy for encouraging sales of forest products.

  9. 78 FR 62957 - National Forest Products Week, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-23

    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 9044 of October 18, 2013 National Forest Products Week, 2013 By the President... recreation for workers and families across our country. During National Forest Products Week, we celebrate... week, we recommit to collaborating across land ownership and landscapes, and we look to a future where...

  10. 36 CFR 261.6 - Timber and other forest products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... or otherwise damaging any timber, tree, or other forest product, except as authorized by a special-use authorization, timber sale contract, or Federal law or regulation. (b) Cutting any standing tree... otherwise identifying any tree or other forest product in a manner similar to that employed by...

  11. Forest fruit production is higher on Sumatra than on Borneo.

    PubMed

    Wich, Serge A; Vogel, Erin R; Larsen, Michael D; Fredriksson, Gabriella; Leighton, Mark; Yeager, Carey P; Brearley, Francis Q; van Schaik, Carel P; Marshall, Andrew J

    2011-01-01

    Various studies have shown that the population densities of a number of forest vertebrates, such as orangutans, are higher on Sumatra than Borneo, and that several species exhibit smaller body sizes on Borneo than Sumatra and mainland Southeast Asia. It has been suggested that differences in forest fruit productivity between the islands can explain these patterns. Here we present a large-scale comparison of forest fruit production between the islands to test this hypothesis. Data on fruit production were collated from Sumatran and Bornean sites. At six sites we assessed fruit production in three forest types: riverine, peat swamp and dryland forests. We compared fruit production using time-series models during different periods of overall fruit production and in different tree size classes. We examined overall island differences and differences specifically for fruiting period and tree size class. The results of these analyses indicate that overall the Sumatran forests are more productive than those on Borneo. This difference remains when each of the three forest types (dryland, riverine, and peat) are examined separately. The difference also holds over most tree sizes and fruiting periods. Our results provide strong support for the hypothesis that forest fruit productivity is higher on Sumatra than Borneo. This difference is most likely the result of the overall younger and more volcanic soils on Sumatra than Borneo. These results contribute to our understanding of the determinants of faunal density and the evolution of body size on both islands.

  12. International trends in forest products consumption: is there convergence?

    Treesearch

    Joseph Buongiorno

    2009-01-01

    International data from 1961 to 2005 showed that the coefficient of variation of consumption per- capita across countries had tended to decrease over time for all forest products except sawnwood.  This convergence of per-capita consumption was confirmed by the trends in Theil's inequality coefficients: the distribution of forest products consumption across...

  13. 43 CFR 9265.4 - Sales of forest products, general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sales of forest products, general. 9265.4 Section 9265.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... Vegetative Resources Management § 9265.4 Sales of forest products, general. Commission of any of the acts...

  14. 43 CFR 9265.4 - Sales of forest products, general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Sales of forest products, general. 9265.4 Section 9265.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... Vegetative Resources Management § 9265.4 Sales of forest products, general. Commission of any of the acts...

  15. 43 CFR 9265.4 - Sales of forest products, general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Sales of forest products, general. 9265.4 Section 9265.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... Vegetative Resources Management § 9265.4 Sales of forest products, general. Commission of any of the acts...

  16. 43 CFR 9265.4 - Sales of forest products, general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Sales of forest products, general. 9265.4 Section 9265.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... Vegetative Resources Management § 9265.4 Sales of forest products, general. Commission of any of the acts...

  17. Forest Fruit Production Is Higher on Sumatra Than on Borneo

    PubMed Central

    Wich, Serge A.; Vogel, Erin R.; Larsen, Michael D.; Fredriksson, Gabriella; Leighton, Mark; Yeager, Carey P.; Brearley, Francis Q.; van Schaik, Carel P.; Marshall, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Various studies have shown that the population densities of a number of forest vertebrates, such as orangutans, are higher on Sumatra than Borneo, and that several species exhibit smaller body sizes on Borneo than Sumatra and mainland Southeast Asia. It has been suggested that differences in forest fruit productivity between the islands can explain these patterns. Here we present a large-scale comparison of forest fruit production between the islands to test this hypothesis. Methodology/Principal Findings Data on fruit production were collated from Sumatran and Bornean sites. At six sites we assessed fruit production in three forest types: riverine, peat swamp and dryland forests. We compared fruit production using time-series models during different periods of overall fruit production and in different tree size classes. We examined overall island differences and differences specifically for fruiting period and tree size class. The results of these analyses indicate that overall the Sumatran forests are more productive than those on Borneo. This difference remains when each of the three forest types (dryland, riverine, and peat) are examined separately. The difference also holds over most tree sizes and fruiting periods. Conclusions/Significance Our results provide strong support for the hypothesis that forest fruit productivity is higher on Sumatra than Borneo. This difference is most likely the result of the overall younger and more volcanic soils on Sumatra than Borneo. These results contribute to our understanding of the determinants of faunal density and the evolution of body size on both islands. PMID:21738627

  18. Harvesting minor forest products in the Pacific Northwest.

    Treesearch

    Thomas C. Adams

    1960-01-01

    Forests of the Pacific Northwest yield a number of secondary or so-called minor forest products. These include those smaller, side-line items of commercial value that can usually be harvested without intensive management or cultivation. They are generally only incidental to a primary use of the land for sawtimber or pulpwood production. In most cases they can be...

  19. Managing for wildlife habitat in Westside production forests.

    Treesearch

    Timothy B. Harrington; Gretchen E. Nicholas

    2007-01-01

    On October 18, 2006, a workshop was held in Vancouver, WA, with the title "Managing for wildlife habitat in Westside production forests." The purpose of the workshop was to provide prescriptions and guidelines for people who manage Westside forests (those west of the Cascade Mountains' crest) primarily for wood production, but because of mandate or...

  20. Sediment production from forest roads in western Oregon

    Treesearch

    Charlie Luce; Thomas A. Black

    1999-01-01

    Prevention and estimation of soil erosion from forest roads requires an understanding of how road design and maintenance affect sediment production. Seventy-four plots were installed on forest roads in the Oregon Coast Range to examine the relationship between sediment production and road attributes such as distance between culverts, road slope, soil texture,...

  1. Special Forest Products: A Southern Strategy for Research & Technology Transfer

    Treesearch

    Rod Sallee; Wayne Owen; Karen Kenna; Gary Kauffman; Marla Emery; Tony Johnson; Phil Araman; Dan Stratton; Greg Reams; Ray Sheffield; Vic Rudis; Susan Loeb; David White; Jim Chamberlain

    2004-01-01

    Increasing levels of collection of special forest products (SFPs) have tirggered concerns about the long-term social, ecological, and economic sustainability of the resources from which these products orginate. At this time, there is too little information to assess the current situation and to make informed decisions about managing the forest resources for these...

  2. Primary forest products industry and timber use, Michigan, 1977.

    Treesearch

    James E. Blyth; Jack Zollner; W. Brad Smith

    1981-01-01

    Discusses recent Michigan forest industry trends, timber removals for industrial roundwood in 1977, and production and receipts of pulpwood, saw logs, and other industrial roundwood products. Reports on associated logging and primary mill residues and the disposition of mill residue.

  3. Development and status of Arkansas' primary forest products industry

    Treesearch

    Dennis M. May

    1990-01-01

    The development of Arkansas' primary forest products industry is presented by following the changes in numbers and types of mills operating through time as well as the State's production of roundwood to supply the changing industry.

  4. Synergistic Ecoclimate Teleconnections from Forest Loss in Different Regions Structure Global Ecological Responses

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, Elizabeth S.; Swann, Abigail L. S.; Villegas, Juan C.; Breshears, David D.; Law, Darin J.; Saleska, Scott R.; Stark, Scott C.

    2016-11-16

    Forest loss in hotspots around the world impacts not only local climate where loss occurs, but also influences climate and vegetation in remote parts of the globe through ecoclimate teleconnections. The magnitude and mechanism of remote impacts likely depends on the location and distribution of forest loss hotspots, but the nature of these dependencies has not been investigated. We use global climate model simulations to estimate the distribution of ecologically-relevant climate changes resulting from forest loss in two hotspot regions: western North America (wNA), which is experiencing accelerated dieoff, and the Amazon basin, which is subject to high rates of deforestation. The remote climatic and ecological net effects of simultaneous forest loss in both regions differed from the combined effects of loss from the two regions simulated separately, as evident in three impacted areas. Eastern South American Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) increased due to changes in seasonal rainfall associated with Amazon forest loss and changes in temperature related to wNA forest loss. Eurasia's GPP declined with wNA forest loss due to cooling temperatures increasing soil ice volume. Southeastern North American productivity increased with simultaneous forest loss, but declined with only wNA forest loss due to changes in VPD. In conclusion, our results illustrate the need for a new generation of local-to-global scale analyses to identify potential ecoclimate teleconnections, their underlying mechanisms, and most importantly, their synergistic interactions, to predict the responses to increasing forest loss under future land use change and climate change.

  5. Synergistic Ecoclimate Teleconnections from Forest Loss in Different Regions Structure Global Ecological Responses.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Elizabeth S; Swann, Abigail L S; Villegas, Juan C; Breshears, David D; Law, Darin J; Saleska, Scott R; Stark, Scott C

    2016-01-01

    Forest loss in hotspots around the world impacts not only local climate where loss occurs, but also influences climate and vegetation in remote parts of the globe through ecoclimate teleconnections. The magnitude and mechanism of remote impacts likely depends on the location and distribution of forest loss hotspots, but the nature of these dependencies has not been investigated. We use global climate model simulations to estimate the distribution of ecologically-relevant climate changes resulting from forest loss in two hotspot regions: western North America (wNA), which is experiencing accelerated dieoff, and the Amazon basin, which is subject to high rates of deforestation. The remote climatic and ecological net effects of simultaneous forest loss in both regions differed from the combined effects of loss from the two regions simulated separately, as evident in three impacted areas. Eastern South American Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) increased due to changes in seasonal rainfall associated with Amazon forest loss and changes in temperature related to wNA forest loss. Eurasia's GPP declined with wNA forest loss due to cooling temperatures increasing soil ice volume. Southeastern North American productivity increased with simultaneous forest loss, but declined with only wNA forest loss due to changes in VPD. Our results illustrate the need for a new generation of local-to-global scale analyses to identify potential ecoclimate teleconnections, their underlying mechanisms, and most importantly, their synergistic interactions, to predict the responses to increasing forest loss under future land use change and climate change.

  6. Is the effect of forest structure on bird diversity modified by forest productivity?

    PubMed

    Verschuyl, Jacob P; Hansen, Andrew J; McWethy, David B; Sallabanks, Rex; Hutto, Richard L

    2008-07-01

    Currently, the most common strategy when managing forests for biodiversity at the landscape scale is to maintain structural complexity within stands and provide a variety of seral stages across landscapes. Advances in ecological theory reveal that biodiversity at continental scales is strongly influenced by available energy (i.e., climate factors relating to heat and light and primary productivity). This paper explores how available energy and forest structural complexity may interact to drive biodiversity at a regional scale. We hypothesized that bird species richness exhibits a hump-shaped relationship with energy at the regional scale of the northwestern United States. As a result, we hypothesized that the relationship between energy and richness within a landscape is positive in energy-limited landscapes and flat or decreasing in energy-rich landscapes. Additionally, we hypothesized that structural complexity explains less of the variation in species richness in energy-limited environments and more in energy-rich environments and that the slope of the relationship between structural complexity and richness is greatest in energy-rich environments. We sampled bird communities and vegetation across seral stages and biophysical settings at each of five landscapes arrayed across a productivity gradient from the Pacific Coast to the Rocky Mountains within the five northwestern states of the contiguous United States. We analyzed the response of richness to structural complexity and energy covariates at each landscape. We found that (1) richness had a hump-shaped relationship with available energy across the northwestern United States, (2) the landscape-scale relationships between energy and richness were positive or hump shaped in energy-limited locations and were flat or negative in energy-rich locations, (3) forest structural complexity explained more of the variation in bird species richness in energy-rich landscapes, and (4) the slope of the relationship between

  7. Optimization of Xylanase Production through Response Surface Methodology by Fusarium sp. BVKT R2 Isolated from Forest Soil and Its Application in Saccharification

    PubMed Central

    Ramanjaneyulu, Golla; Rajasekhar Reddy, Bontha

    2016-01-01

    Xylanses are hydrolytic enzymes with wide applications in several industries like biofuels, paper and pulp, deinking, food, and feed. The present study was aimed at hitting at high yield xylanase producing fungi from natural resources. Two highest xylanase producing fungal isolates—Q12 and L1 were picked from collection of 450 fungal cultures for the utilization of xylan. These fungal isolates—Q12 and L1 were identified basing on ITS gene sequencing analysis as Fusarium sp. BVKT R2 (KT119615) and Fusarium strain BRR R6 (KT119619), respectively with construction of phylogenetic trees. Fusarium sp. BVKT R2 was further optimized for maximum xylanase production and the interaction effects between variables on production of xylanase were studied through response surface methodology. The optimal conditions for maximal production of xylanase were sorbitol 1.5%, yeast extract 1.5%, pH of 5.0, Temperature of 32.5°C, and agitation of 175 rpm. Under optimal conditions, the yields of xylanase production by Fusarium sp. BVKT R2 was as high as 4560 U/ml in SmF. Incubation of different lignocellulosic biomasses with crude enzyme of Fusarium sp. BVKT R2 at 37°C for 72 h could achieve about 45% saccharification. The results suggest that Fusarium sp. BVKT R2 has potential applications in saccharification process of biomass. PMID:27713726

  8. Changes in Soil Nitrogen Storage and Dynamics in Response to Forest Management in Southeastern Pine Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boutton, T. W.; Foote, J. A.; Scott, D. A.

    2013-12-01

    , root N varied significantly through time. Soil δ15N was significantly impacted by harvest intensity and time. Soil δ15N values were always lowest (1.21-1.96‰) in the bole only treatment, while those in the more intensely harvested treatments were higher (1.41-2.72‰). Higher soil δ15N values suggest that N-losses following tree harvest were greater in the more intense harvest treatments, consistent with the smaller soil N pool sizes observed in those treatments. Neither soil compaction nor the harvest method x soil compaction interaction had an effect on any response variables. Results indicate that more severe forest harvest practices that maximized biomass and litter removal resulted in significant ecosystem N-losses that have not yet been replenished even 15 yrs following treatment. Since N is a limiting nutrient for tree growth in the sandy soils of the Gulf Coastal Plain, tree harvest practices that favor N-retention will help ensure the continuity of key ecosystem services and sustain the productivity of forestlands in this region.

  9. Non-timber forest products: local livelihoods and integrated forest management

    Treesearch

    Iain Davidson-Hunt; Luc C. Duchesne; John C. Zasada

    2001-01-01

    In October of 1999 a conference was held in Kenora, Ontario, Canada, to explore the non-timber forest products (NTFPs) of boreal and cold temperate forests. Up to this time, the concept of NTFP, was one that had been developed largely for tropical and subtropical forests. An extensive body of literature exists on a wide range of topics for the NTFPs of tropical and...

  10. 36 CFR 223.241 - Disposal of seized special forest products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Disposal of seized special forest products. 223.241 Section 223.241 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND...

  11. 36 CFR 223.278 - Sale of forest botanical products and collection of fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sale of forest botanical products and collection of fees. 223.278 Section 223.278 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND...

  12. 36 CFR 223.278 - Sale of forest botanical products and collection of fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sale of forest botanical products and collection of fees. 223.278 Section 223.278 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND...

  13. 36 CFR 223.217 - Authority to dispose of special forest products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Authority to dispose of special forest products. 223.217 Section 223.217 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND...

  14. 36 CFR 223.217 - Authority to dispose of special forest products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Authority to dispose of special forest products. 223.217 Section 223.217 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND...

  15. 36 CFR 223.217 - Authority to dispose of special forest products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Authority to dispose of special forest products. 223.217 Section 223.217 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND...

  16. 36 CFR 223.217 - Authority to dispose of special forest products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Authority to dispose of special forest products. 223.217 Section 223.217 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND...

  17. 36 CFR 223.278 - Sale of forest botanical products and collection of fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sale of forest botanical products and collection of fees. 223.278 Section 223.278 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND...

  18. 36 CFR 223.217 - Authority to dispose of special forest products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Authority to dispose of special forest products. 223.217 Section 223.217 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER Special Forest Products § 223...

  19. 36 CFR 223.278 - Sale of forest botanical products and collection of fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sale of forest botanical products and collection of fees. 223.278 Section 223.278 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER Forest Botanical Products §...

  20. 36 CFR 223.278 - Sale of forest botanical products and collection of fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sale of forest botanical products and collection of fees. 223.278 Section 223.278 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS,...

  1. Positive biodiversity-productivity relationship predominant in global forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liang, Jingjing; Crowther, Thomas W.; Picard, Nicolas; Wiser, Susan; Zhou, Mo; Alberti, Giorgio; Schulze, Ernst-Detlef; McGuire, Anthony David; ,

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem productivity has been explored in detail in herbaceous vegetation, but patterns in forests are far less well understood. Liang et al. have amassed a global forest data set from >770,000 sample plots in 44 countries. A positive and consistent relationship can be discerned between tree diversity and ecosystem productivity at landscape, country, and ecoregion scales. On average, a 10% loss in biodiversity leads to a 3% loss in productivity. This means that the economic value of maintaining biodiversity for the sake of global forest productivity is more than fivefold greater than global conservation costs.

  2. Impacts of insect-related forest mortality on hydrologic partitioning and forest productivity in the Southern Rocky Mountains, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molotch, N. P.

    2014-12-01

    Recent large-scale changes in forest cover over Western North America associated with insect-related forest mortality may have widespread impacts on water availability. These changes have potentially varied impacts on water availability as forest mortality influences rates of snow accumulation, snowmelt, and evapotranspiration. These changes may significantly alter runoff production and gross primary productivity in mountain forests. Analysis of remotely sensed vegetation greenness data indicate strong forest and understory growth dependencies associated with snow accumulation and snowmelt with peak snow water equivalent explaining 40-50% of inter-annual greenness variability in the Rocky Mountains. Examples of these dependencies will be presented based on the 2012 drought in the Southwestern US whereby near record low snow accumulation and record high potential evapotranspiration have resulted in record low forest greening as evident in the 30+ year satellite record. Forest response to aridity in 2012 was exacerbated by forest disturbance with greenness anomalies 90% greater in magnitude in Bark Beetle and Spruce Budworm affected areas versus undisturbed areas and 182% greater in magnitude in areas impacted by fire. Growing season length was inversely proportional to peak greenness with record high Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) values in April (14% above average) corresponding with record low NDVI values in July (7% below average). Gross primary productivity (GPP) estimates from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and from the Niwot Ridge, Colorado Ameriflux tower indicate record high April GPP (30% and 90% above average for MODIS and the tower, respectively) correspodning with record low July GPP (19% and 30% below average, respectively). Differences in these energy, water, ecosystem relationships among difference distrurbance regimes indicate that the sensitivity of ecosystems to changes in climate is heavily dependent on

  3. Nontimber forest products in Daniel Boone National Forest region--economic significance and potential for sustainability

    Treesearch

    Dasharathi Hembram; William L. Hoover

    2008-01-01

    Household members who gather nontimber forest products (NTFP) in and around the Daniel Boone National Forest (DBNF) in eastern Kentucky were interviewed. Participants reported that a wide variety of NTFP were economically and culturally important to them. Forty-three species of plants were sold commercially and 120 were used in households. Ginseng (Panax...

  4. Forest products cluster development in central Arizona—implications for landscape-scale forest restoration

    Treesearch

    David. Nicholls

    2014-01-01

    Since 2004, close to 50,000 ac of hazardous fuels have been mechanically treated in east-central Arizona as part of the USDA Forest Service's first 10-year stewardship project on national forest lands. The need for coordinated wood products and biomass utilization in Arizona is likely to increase as broad-scale restoration treatments across Arizona's national...

  5. Technical change in forest sector models: the global forest products model approach

    Treesearch

    Joseph Buongiorno; Sushuai Zhu

    2015-01-01

    Technical change is developing rapidly in some parts of the forest sector, especially in the pulp and paper industry where wood fiber is being substituted by waste paper. In forest sector models, the processing of wood and other input into products is frequently represented by activity analysis (input–output). In this context, technical change translates in changes...

  6. Overview of approaches to sustain forest productivity during forest road development and timber harvesting activities

    Treesearch

    Charles R. Blinn; Rick Dahlamn; James A. Mattson; Michael A. Thompson

    1999-01-01

    Various approaches are available to minimize impacts on forest productivity during forest road building and timber harvesting activities. These approaches include a variety of practices and technologies. They include practices such as reducing road and trail development, using designated trails, and leaving slash at the stump on nutrient deficient sites. Technology...

  7. Proceedings: hidden forest values—the first Alaska-wide nontimber forest products conference and tour.

    Treesearch

    comps. Alaska Boreal Forest Council

    2003-01-01

    The Hidden Forest Values Conference brought together a diverse assemblage of local, state, and federal agencies, tribal governments, traditional users, landholders, cottage enterprises and other nontimber forest products (NTFP) related businesses, scientists, and experts. The purpose of this forum was to exchange information, cooperate, and raise awareness of issues on...

  8. Liberation: Acceptable production of tropical forest timber.

    Treesearch

    Frank H. Wadsworth; Johan Zweede

    2006-01-01

    Reduced impact logging in an eastern Amazonian terra firme forest left more than half of the next crop trees growing at a rate corresponding to a rotation of more than a century to attain 60-cm dbh. Two years after the logging, in 20 ha of the logged forest, tree competitors around crop trees were eliminated. Competitors were defined as trees whose crowns overtopped...

  9. Gap analysis for forest productivity research investments

    Treesearch

    E.D. Vance

    2010-01-01

    The US forest sector is in the midst of an era of transition and opportunity. Expectations that forests are managed to sustain wildlife, water, soil, and other environmental values are increasing as are certification systems and state and national initiatives designed to insure those expectations are met.

  10. Forest stand structure, productivity, and age mediate climatic effects on aspen decline

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bell, David M.; Bradford, John B.; Lauenroth, William K.

    2014-01-01

    Because forest stand structure, age, and productivity can mediate the impacts of climate on quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) mortality, ignoring stand-scale factors limits inference on the drivers of recent sudden aspen decline. Using the proportion of aspen trees that were dead as an index of recent mortality at 841 forest inventory plots, we examined the relationship of this mortality index to forest structure and climate in the Rocky Mountains and Intermountain Western United States. We found that forest structure explained most of the patterns in mortality indices, but that variation in growing-season vapor pressure deficit and winter precipitation over the last 20 years was important. Mortality index sensitivity to precipitation was highest in forests where aspen exhibited high densities, relative basal areas, quadratic mean diameters, and productivities, whereas sensitivity to vapor pressure deficit was highest in young forest stands. These results indicate that the effects of drought on mortality may be mediated by forest stand development, competition with encroaching conifers, and physiological vulnerabilities of large trees to drought. By examining mortality index responses to both forest structure and climate, we show that forest succession cannot be ignored in studies attempting to understand the causes and consequences of sudden aspen decline.

  11. Forest stand structure, productivity, and age mediate climatic effects on aspen decline.

    PubMed

    Bell, David M; Bradford, John B; Lauenroth, William K

    2014-08-01

    Because forest stand structure, age, and productivity can mediate the impacts of climate on quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) mortality, ignoring stand-scale factors limits inference on the drivers of recent sudden aspen decline. Using the proportion of aspen trees that were dead as an index of recent mortality at 841 forest inventory plots, we examined the relationship of this mortality index to forest structure and climate in the Rocky Mountains and Intermountain Western United States. We found that forest structure explained most of the patterns in mortality indices, but that variation in growing-season vapor pressure deficit and winter precipitation over the last 20 years was important. Mortality index sensitivity to precipitation was highest in forests where aspen exhibited high densities, relative basal areas, quadratic mean diameters, and productivities, whereas sensitivity to vapor pressure deficit was highest in young forest stands. These results indicate that the effects of drought on mortality may be mediated by forest stand development, competition with encroaching conifers, and physiological vulnerabilities of large trees to drought. By examining mortality index responses to both forest structure and climate, we show that forest succession cannot be ignored in studies attempting to understand the causes and consequences of sudden aspen decline.

  12. Using the Global Forest Products Model (GFPM version 2012)

    Treesearch

    Joseph Buongiorno; Shushuai Zhu

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this manual is to enable users of the Global Forest Products Model to: • Install and run the GFPM software • Understand the input data • Change the input data to explore different scenarios • Interpret the output The GFPM is an economic model of global production, consumption and trade of forest products (Buongiorno et al. 2003). The GFPM2012 has data...

  13. Are Tropical Forest Responses to Rising Atmospheric CO2 Nutrient-Limited?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santiago, L. S.; Wright, S. J.; Turner, B. L.

    2013-12-01

    Tropical forests are responsible for a large proportion of terrestrial gross primary production and are thought to be especially sensitive to climate change, suggesting that their responses and subsequent feedbacks to the global climate system are likely to be large. However, a critical gap in our knowledge is the extent to which nutrients limit the ability of tropical forest vegetation to increase carbon gain from increasing atmospheric CO2 (the concentration-carbon feedback). We present data from the only long-term nutrient addition experiment in a lowland tropical forest to anticipate tropical forest responses to changes in climate and atmospheric chemistry and the corresponding vegetation feedback to climate. We investigated the consequences of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium limitation of forest productivity, microbial biomass and tree growth, in a full factorial fertilization experiment at the Barro Colorado Nature Monument in Panama. The 16 years of nutrient addition at have taught us important lessons regarding the function of tropical forest. We now know that fine root biomass decreases by up to 50% with K addition. We have also learned that tree growth is most enhanced by N and K addition, and that litterfall and microbial biomass were most enhanced by P addition. Different components of the ecosystem are limited by contrasting elements. Overall, the results demonstrate the potential for nutrients to limit the responses of tropical forests to rising atmospheric CO2.

  14. Gathering in Thoreau's backyard: nontimber forest product harvesting as practice

    Treesearch

    Paul Robbins; Marla Emery; Jennifer L. Rice

    2008-01-01

    Understanding of the gathering of nontimber forest products (NTFPs) in woodlands has focused heavily on politics surrounding public lands and harvester communities. Yet forest gathering may be far more universal. This paper reports the results of a survey of residents in New England, querying whether people gather wild things and for what purposes. The results suggest...

  15. Carbon debt and carbon sequestration parity in forest bioenergy production

    Treesearch

    S.R. Mitchell; M.E. Harmon; K.B. O' Connell

    2012-01-01

    The capacity for forests to aid in climate change mitigation efforts is substantial but will ultimately depend on their management. If forests remain unharvested, they can further mitigate the increases in atmospheric CO2 that result from fossil fuel combustion and deforestation. Alternatively, they can be harvested for bioenergy production and...

  16. Modeling belowground biomass of black cohosh, a medicinal forest product.

    Treesearch

    James Chamberlain; Gabrielle Ness; Christine Small; Simon Bonner; Elizabeth Hiebert

    2014-01-01

    Tens of thousands of kilograms of rhizomes and roots of Actaea racemosa L., a native Appalachian forest perennial, are harvested every year and used for the treatment of menopausal conditions. Sustainable management of this and other wild-harvested non-timber forest products requires the ability to effectively and reliably inventory marketable plant...

  17. Xylaria at the Forest Products Laboratory : past, present, and future

    Treesearch

    Regis B. Miller

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the history and current status of wood collections housed in the Center for Wood Anatomy Research at the Forest Products Laboratory, USDA Forest Service. The collections include the original Madison collection (MADw.) and the collection formerly housed at the Yale School of Forestry, Yale University (...

  18. How to Manage Oak Forests for Acorn Production

    Treesearch

    Paul Johnson

    1994-01-01

    Oak forests are life support systems for the many animals that live in them. Acorns, a staple product of oaks forests, are eaten by many species of birds and mammals including deer, bear, squirrels, mice, rabbits, foxes, raccoons, grackles, turkey, grouse, quail, blue jays, woodpeckers, and waterfowl. The population and health of wildlife often rise and fall with the...

  19. Forest productivity: an integrated research and development program

    Treesearch

    Daniel C. Dey; Thomas R. Crow; Don E. Riemenschneider

    2003-01-01

    In 2000, the North Central Research Station initiated the Forest Productivity Integrated Research Program (North Central Research Station 2001). This program combines the efforts of scientists from across the Station's 13 research work units to examine the current condition of the forests in the North Central Region and their prospects for producing wood and fiber...

  20. Recent changes in costs of shipping forest products by rail.

    Treesearch

    Kristine C. Jackson

    1988-01-01

    Costs for shipping lumber, plywood, and paper by rail are used by the USDA Forest Service in periodic timber assessments to measure the average cost of transporting forest products from producing locations to the point of final consumption. The Staggers Rail Act of 1980 authorized deregulation of the Nation's railroads. The purposes of this study were to determine...

  1. Water resource use and management by the United States forest products industry.

    PubMed

    Wiegand, P S; Flinders, C A; Ice, G G; Malmberg, B J; Fisher, R P

    2009-01-01

    The connections between forest products operations and water resources in the United States is considered and, where possible, quantified. Manufacture of wood, pulp, and paper products and the influences of forest management and forest products manufacture on water quality are discussed. Most fresh water in the US originates in forested areas. Responsible harvesting strategies, best management practices, and forest re-growth combine to minimize or eliminate changes in water availability and degradation of water quality due to harvesting. Relative to alternative land uses and large-scale disturbance events, forested areas produce the highest quality of fresh water. Water inputs for the manufacture of forest products total about 5.8 billion m(3) per year, an amount equal about 0.4% of the surface and groundwater yield from timberland. Approximately 88% of water used in manufacturing is treated and returned directly to surface waters, about 11% is converted to water vapor and released during the manufacturing process, and 1% is imparted to products or solid residuals. Extensive study and continued monitoring of treated effluents suggest few or no concerns regarding the compatibility of current effluents with healthy aquatic systems.

  2. Water Quality Response to Forest Biomass Utilization

    Treesearch

    Benjamin Rau; Augustine Muwamba; Carl Trettin; Sudhanshu Panda; Devendra Amatya; Ernest Tollner

    2017-01-01

    Forested watersheds provide approximately 80% of freshwater drinking resources in the United States (Fox et al. 2007). The water originating from forested watersheds is typically of high quality when compared to agricul¬tural watersheds, and concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus are nine times higher, on average, in agricultur¬al watersheds when compared to...

  3. Fish assemblage responses to forest cover

    Treesearch

    Chris L. Burcher; Matthew E. McTammany; E. Fred Benfield; Gene S. Helfman

    2008-01-01

    We investigated whether fish assemblage structure in southern Appalachian streams differed with historical and contemporary forest cover. We compared fish assemblages in 2nd?4th order streams draining watersheds that had increased forest cover between 1950 and 1993 (i.e., reforesting watersheds).

  4. Primary forest products industry and timber use, Minnesota, 1973.

    Treesearch

    James E. Blyth; Steven Wilhelm; Jerold T. Hahn

    1979-01-01

    Discusses recent Minnesota forest industry trends; timber removals for industrial roundwood in 1973; production and receipts in 1973 of pulpwood, saw logs, and other industrial roundwood products. Shows trends in pulpwood and veneer log production and compares saw log production in 1960 and 1973. Discusses primary wood-using mill residue and its disposition.

  5. Primary forest products industry and timber use, Michigan, 1972.

    Treesearch

    James E. Blyth; Allan H. Boelter; Carl W. Danielson

    1975-01-01

    Discusses recent Michigan forest industry trends; timber removals for industrial roundwood in 1972; production and receipts in 1972 of pulpwood, saw logs, veneer logs ,and other roundwood products. Shows trends in pulpwood and veneer-log production, and compares saw log production in 1969 and 1972. Discusses primary wood-using plant residue and its disposition.

  6. Primary forest products industry and timber use, Wisconsin, 1973.

    Treesearch

    James E. Blyth; Eugene F. Landt; James W. Whipple; Jerold T. Hahn

    1976-01-01

    Discusses recent Wisconsin forest industry trends; timber removals for industrial roundwood in 1973; production and receipts in 1973 of pulpwood, saw logs, veneer logs, and other industrial roundwood products. Shows trends in pulpwood and veneer log production and compares saw log production in 1967 and 1973. Discusses primary wood-using plant residue and its...

  7. Research strategies for increasing productivity of intensively managed forest plantations

    Treesearch

    E.D. Vance; D.A. Maguire; R.S. Zalesny

    2010-01-01

    Intensive management practices increase productivity of forest plantations by reducing site, stand, and biological limitations to dry matter production and by maximizing the allocation of production to harvestable tree components. The resulting increase allows greater fiber production from a smaller land base and provides market incentives to keep these lands under...

  8. Mass failures and other processes of sediment production in Pacific northwest forest landscapes

    Treesearch

    Frederick J. Swanson; Lee E. Benda; Stanley H. Duncan; Gordon E. Grant; Walter F. Megahan; Leslie M. Reid; Robert R. Ziemer

    1987-01-01

    Abstract - Accelerated sediment production by mass failures and other erosion processes is an important link between management of forest resources and fish resources. Dominant processes and the rates of sediment production vary greatly throughout the Pacific Northwest in response to geologic and climatic factors. The complex sediment routing systems characteristic...

  9. Production, prices, employment, and trade in northwest forest industries, first quarter 1993. Forest Service resource bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, D.D.

    1993-11-01

    The report includes current information on lumber and plywood production and prices; employment in the forest industries; international trade in logs, lumber, and plywood; volume and average prices of stumpage sold by public agencies; and other related items.

  10. Production, prices, employment, and trade in northwest forest industries, second quarter 1997. Forest Service resource bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, D.D.

    1998-03-01

    Provides current information on lumber and plywood production and prices; employment in the forest industries; international trade in logs, lumber, and plywood; volume and average prices of stumpage sold by public agencies; and other related items.

  11. Production, prices, employment, and trade in northwest forest industries, fourth quarter 1993. Forest Service resource bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, D.D.

    1994-05-01

    The report includes current information on lumber and plywood production and prices; employment in the forest industries; international trade in logs, lumber, and plywood, volume and average prices in stumpage sold by public agencies; and other related items.

  12. Production, prices, employment, and trade in northwest forest industries, third quarter 1992. Forest Service resource bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, D.D.

    1993-03-01

    The report includes current information on lumber and plywood production and prices; employment in the forest industries; international trade in logs, lumber, and plywood; volume and average prices of stumpage sold by public agencies; and other related items.

  13. Production, prices, employment, and trade in northwest forest industries, first quarter 1995. Forest Service resource bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, D.D.

    1995-09-01

    Provides current information on lumber and plywood production and prices; employment in the forest industries; international trade in logs, lumber, and plywood, volume and average prices of stumpage sold by public agencies; and other related items.

  14. Production, prices, employment, and trade in northwest forest industries, second quarter 1994. Forest Service resource bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, D.D.

    1995-01-01

    The report provides current information on lumber and plywood production and prices; employment in the forest industries; international trade in logs, lumber, and plywood, volume and average prices of stumpage sold by public agencies; and other related items.

  15. Production, prices, employment, and trade in northwest forest industries, third quarter 1996. Forest Service resource bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, D.D.

    1997-02-01

    Provides current information on lumber and plywood production and prices; employment in the forest industries; international trade in logs, lumber, and plywood; volume and average prices of stumpage sold by public agencies; and other related items.

  16. Production, prices, employment, and trade in northwest forest industries, second quarter 1992. Forest Service resource bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, D.D.

    1992-01-01

    The report provides current information on lumber and plywood production and prices; employment in the forest industries; international trade in logs, lumber, and plywood; volume and average prices of stumpage sold by public agencies; and other related items.

  17. Production, prices, employment, and trade in northwest forest industries, fourth quarter 1992. Forest Service resource bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, D.D.

    1993-07-01

    The report provides current information on lumber and plywood production and prices; employment in the forest industries; international trade in logs, lumber, and plywood; volume and average prices of stumpage sold by public agencies; and other related items.

  18. Production, prices, employment and trade in northwest forest industries, second quarter 1996. Forest Service resource bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, D.D.

    1996-11-01

    The report provides current information on lumber and plywood production and prices; employment in the forest industries; international trade in logs, lumber, and plywood; volume and average prices of stumpage sold by public agencies; and other related items.

  19. Production, prices, employment, and trade in northwest forest industries, second quarter 1993. Forest Service resource bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, D.D.

    1994-01-01

    The report includes current information on lumber and plywood production and prices, employment in the forest industries; international trade in logs, lumber and plywood; volume and average prices of stumpage sold by public agencies; and other related items.

  20. Production, prices, employment, and trade in northwest forest industries, first quarter 1994. Forest Service resource bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, D.D.

    1994-11-01

    The report provides current information on lumber and plywood production and prices; employment in the forest industries; international trade in logs, lumber, and plywood, volume and average prices of stumpage sold by public agencies; and other related items.

  1. Production, prices, employment, and trade in northwest forest industries, second quarter 1995. Forest Service resource bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, D.D.

    1996-01-01

    Provides current information on lumber and plywood production and prices; employment in the forest industries; international trade in logs, lumber, and plywood; volume and average prices of stumpage sold by public agencies; and other related items.

  2. Production, prices, employment, and trade in northwest forest industries, fourth quarter 1996. Forest Service resource bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, D.D.

    1997-07-01

    Provides current information on lumber and plywood production and prices; employment in the forest industries; international trade in logs, lumber, and plywood; volume and average prices of stumpage sold by public agencies; and other related items.

  3. Production, prices, employment, and trade in northwest forest industries, first quarter 1996. Forest Service resource bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, D.D.

    1996-07-01

    Provides current information on lumber and plywood production and prices; employment in the forest industries; international trade in logs, lumber, and plywood, volume and average prices of stumpage sold by public agencies; and other related items.

  4. A Bayesian Belief Network approach to assess the potential of non wood forest products for small scale forest owners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vacik, Harald; Huber, Patrick; Hujala, Teppo; Kurtilla, Mikko; Wolfslehner, Bernhard

    2015-04-01

    It is an integral element of the European understanding of sustainable forest management to foster the design and marketing of forest products, non-wood forest products (NWFPs) and services that go beyond the production of timber. Despite the relevance of NWFPs in Europe, forest management and planning methods have been traditionally tailored towards wood and wood products, because most forest management models and silviculture techniques were developed to ensure a sustained production of timber. Although several approaches exist which explicitly consider NWFPs as management objectives in forest planning, specific models are needed for the assessment of their production potential in different environmental contexts and for different management regimes. Empirical data supporting a comprehensive assessment of the potential of NWFPs are rare, thus making development of statistical models particularly problematic. However, the complex causal relationships between the sustained production of NWFPs, the available ecological resources, as well as the organizational and the market potential of forest management regimes are well suited for knowledge-based expert models. Bayesian belief networks (BBNs) are a kind of probabilistic graphical model that have become very popular to practitioners and scientists mainly due to the powerful probability theory involved, which makes BBNs suitable to deal with a wide range of environmental problems. In this contribution we present the development of a Bayesian belief network to assess the potential of NWFPs for small scale forest owners. A three stage iterative process with stakeholder and expert participation was used to develop the Bayesian Network within the frame of the StarTree Project. The group of participants varied in the stages of the modelling process. A core team, consisting of one technical expert and two domain experts was responsible for the entire modelling process as well as for the first prototype of the network

  5. Estimating forest productivity with Thematic Mapper and biogeographical data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Elizabeth A.; Iverson, Louis R.; Graham, Robin L.

    1989-01-01

    Spectral data from the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) on three forest exosystems (the southern Illinois, the Great Smoky Mountains regions in Tennessee and North Carolina, and the central Adirondack Mountains in New York) were used in conjunction with ground-collected measures of forest productivity and such information as the area's slope, aspect, elevation, and soil and vegetation types, to develop models of regional forest productivity. It is shown that the models developed may be used to estimate the productivity of a region with a high degree of confidence, but that the reliability of single-pixel estimates is poor. The characteristics of a given ecosystem determine which spectral values are most closely related to forest productivity. Thus, mid-IR, NIR, and visible bands are most significant in Illinois and New York, while the thermal band is relatively more important in the Smokies.

  6. 36 CFR 223.216 - Special Forest Products definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... Special forest products do not include sawtimber, pulpwood, non-sawlog material removed in log form, cull logs, small roundwood, house logs, telephone poles, derrick poles, minerals, animals, animal...

  7. Information system of forest growth and productivity by site quality type and elements of forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khlyustov, V.

    2012-04-01

    Information system of forest growth and productivity by site quality type and elements of forest V.K. Khlustov Head of the Forestry Department of Russian State Agrarian University named after K.A.Timiryazev doctor of agricultural sciences, professor The efficiency of forest management can be improved substantially by development and introduction of principally new models of forest growth and productivity dynamics based on regionalized site specific parameters. Therefore an innovative information system was developed. It describes the current state and gives a forecast for forest stand parameters: growth, structure, commercial and biological productivity depend on type of site quality. In contrast to existing yield tables, the new system has environmental basis: site quality type. The information system contains set of multivariate statistical models and can work at the level of individual trees or at the stand level. The system provides a graphical visualization, as well as export of the emulation results. The System is able to calculate detailed description of any forest stand based on five initial indicators: site quality type, site index, stocking, composition, and tree age by elements of the forest. The results of the model run are following parameters: average diameter and height, top height, number of trees, basal area, growing stock (total, commercial with distribution by size, firewood and residuals), live biomass (stem, bark, branches, foliage). The system also provides the distribution of mentioned above forest stand parameters by tree diameter classes. To predict the future forest stand dynamics the system require in addition the time slot only. Full set of forest parameters mention above will be provided by the System. The most conservative initial parameters (site quality type and site index) can be kept in the form of geo referenced polygons. In this case the system would need only 3 dynamic initial parameters (stocking, composition and age) to

  8. Monitoring Regional Forest Disturbances across the US with Near Real Time MODIS NDVI Products included in the ForWarn Forest Threat Early Warning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spruce, J.; Hargrove, W. W.; Gasser, J.; Norman, S. P.

    2013-12-01

    Forest threats across the US have become increasingly evident in recent years. These include regionally extensive disturbances (e.g., from drought, bark beetle outbreaks, and wildfires) that can occur across multiyear durations and result in extensive forest mortality. In addition, forests can be subject to ephemeral, sometimes yearly defoliation from various insects and types of storm damage. After prolonged severe disturbance, signs of forest recovery can vary in terms of satellite-based Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) values. The increased extent and threat of forest disturbances in part led to the enactment of the 2003 Healthy Forest Restoration Act, which mandated that a national forest threat Early Warning System (EWS) be deployed. In response, the US Forest Service collaborated with NASA, DOE Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and the USGS Eros Data Center to build the near real time ForWarn forest threat EWS for monitoring regionally evident forest disturbances, starting on-line operations in 2010. Given the diversity of disturbance types, severities, and durations, ForWarn employs multiple historical baselines used with current NDVI to derive a suite of six nationwide 'weekly' forest change products. ForWarn uses daily 232 meter MODIS Aqua and Terra satellite NDVI data, including MOD13 products for deriving historical baseline NDVIs and eMODIS products for compiling current NDVI. Separately pre-processing the current and historical NDVIs, the Time Series Product Tool and the Phenological Parameters Estimation Tool are used to temporally reduce noise, fuse, and aggregate MODIS NDVIs into 24 day composites refreshed every 8 days with 46 dates of forest change products per year. The 24 day compositing interval typically enables new disturbances to be detected, while minimizing the frequency of residual atmospheric contamination. ForWarn's three standard forest change products compare current NDVI to that from the previous year, previous 3 years, and

  9. Factors affecting the remotely sensed response of coniferous forest plantations

    SciTech Connect

    Danson, F.M. ); Curran, P.J. )

    1993-01-01

    Remote sensing of forest biophysical properties has concentrated upon forest sites with a wide range of green vegetation amount and thereby leaf area index and canopy cover. However, coniferous forest plantations, an important forest type in Europe, are managed to maintain a large amount of green vegetation with little spatial variation. Therefore, the strength of the remotely sensed signal will, it is hypothesized, be determined more by the structure of this forest than by its cover. Airborne Thematic Mapper (ATM) and SPOT-1 HRV data were used to determine the effects of this structural variation on the remotely sensed response of a coniferous forest plantation in the United Kingdom. Red and near infrared radiance were strongly and negatively correlated with a range of structural properties and with the age of the stands but weakly correlated with canopy cover. A composite variable, related to the volume of the canopy, accounted for over 75% of the variation in near infrared radiance. A simple model that related forest structural variables to the remotely sensed response was used to understand and explain this response from a coniferous forest plantation.

  10. Assessing socioeconomic impacts of climate change on U.S. forests, wood-product markets, and forest recreation

    Treesearch

    Lloyd C. Irland; Darius Adams; Ralph Alig; Carter J. Betz; Chi-Chung Chen; Mark Hutchins; Bruce A. McCarl; Ken Skog; Brent L. Sohngen

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the problems of projecting social and economic changes affecting forests and review recent efforts to assess the wood-market impacts of possible climate changes. To illustrate the range of conditions encountered in projecting socioeconomic change linked to forests, we consider two markedly different uses: forest products markets and forest...

  11. Special Forest Products on the Green Mountain and Finger Lakes National Forests: a research-based approach to management

    Treesearch

    Marla R. Emery; Clare. Ginger

    2014-01-01

    Special forest products (SFPs) are gathered from more than 200 vascular and fungal species on the Green Mountain National Forest (GMNF) and Finger Lakes National Forest (FLNF). This report documents those SFPs and proposes an approach to managing them in the context of legislation directing the U.S. Forest Service to institute a program of active SFP management. Based...

  12. Role of MODIS Vegetation Phenology Products in the U.S. for Warn Early Warning System for Forest Threats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spruce, Joseph; Hargrove, William; Norman, Steve; Gasser, Gerald; Smoot, James; Kuper, Philip

    2012-01-01

    U.S. forests occupy approx 751 million acres (approx 1/3 of total land). Several abiotic and biotic damage agents disturb, damage, kill, and/or threaten these forests. Regionally extensive forest disturbances can also threaten human life and property, bio-diversity and water supplies. timely regional forest disturbance monitoring products are needed to aid forest health management work at finer scales. daily MODIS data provide a means to monitor regional forest disturbances on a weekly basis, leveraging vegetation phenology. In response, the USFS and NASA began collaborating in 2006 to develop a Near Real Time (NRT) forest monitoring capability, based on MODIS NDVI data, as part of a national forest threat Early Warning System (EWS).

  13. Forest products industry of the future: Building a sustainable technology advantage for America`s forest products industry

    SciTech Connect

    1999-02-01

    The US forest, wood, and paper industry ranks as one of the most competitive forest products industries in the world. With annual shipments valued at nearly $267 billion, it employs over 1.3 million people and is currently among the top 10 manufacturing employers in 46 out of 50 states. Retaining this leadership position will depend largely on the industry`s success in developing and using advanced technologies. These technologies will enable manufacturing plants and forestry enterprises to maximize energy and materials efficiency and reduce waste and emissions, while producing high-quality, competitively priced wood and paper products. In a unique partnership, leaders in the forest products industry have teamed with the US Department of Energy`s Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) to encourage cooperative research efforts that will help position the US forest products industry for continuing prosperity while advancing national energy efficiency and environmental goals.

  14. Responses of Isolated Wetland Herpetofauna to Upland Forest Management

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, K.R.; Hanlin, H.G.; Wigley, T.B.; Guynn, D.C., Jr.

    2002-01-02

    Measurement of responses of herpetofauna at isolated wetlands in the Coastal Plain of South Carolina to disturbance of adjacent loblolly pine forest. Many species of isolated wetland herpetofauna in the Southeastern Coastal Plain may tolerate some disturbance in adjacent upland stands. Responses of isolated wetland herpetofauna to upland silviculture and the need for adjacent forested buffers likely depend on the specific landscape context in which the wetlands occur and composition of the resident herpetofaunal community.

  15. Primary forest products industry and timber use, Iowa, 1980.

    Treesearch

    James E. Blyth; John Tibben; W. Brad Smith

    1984-01-01

    Discusses recent Iowa forest industry trends, timber removals for industrial roundwood in 1980, production and receipts of saw logs in 1980, and production of other industrial roundwood products in 1980. Reports on wood and bark residue generated at primary mills and the disposition of this residue.

  16. Idaho's forest products industry and timber harvest, 2006

    Treesearch

    Jason P. Brandt; Todd A. Morgan; Charles E. Keegan; Jon M. Songster; Timothy P. Spoelma; Larry T. DeBlander

    2012-01-01

    This report traces the flow of Idaho's 2006 timber harvest through the primary wood-using industries; describes the structure, capacity, and condition of Idaho's primary forest products industry; and quantifies volumes and uses of wood fiber. Wood products industry historical trends and changes in harvest, production, employment, and sales are also examined...

  17. Montana's forest products industry and timber harvest, 2009

    Treesearch

    Chelsea P. McIver; Colin B. Sorenson; Charles E. Keegan; Todd A. Morgan; Jim Menlove

    2013-01-01

    This report traces the flow of Montana’s 2009 timber harvest through the primary wood-using industries; provides a description of the structure, capacity, and condition of Montana’s primary forest products industry; and quantifies volumes and uses of wood fiber. Historical wood products industry changes are discussed, as well as changes in harvest, production,...

  18. Wyoming's forest products industry and timber harvest, 2010

    Treesearch

    Chelsea P. McIver; Colin B. Sorenson; Charles E. Keegan; Todd A. Morgan; Mike T. Thompson

    2014-01-01

    This report traces the flow of Wyoming’s 2010 timber harvest through the primary wood-using industries; provides a description of the structure, capacity, and condition of Wyoming’s primary forest products industry, and quantifies volumes and uses of wood fiber. Historical wood products industry changes are discussed, as well as changes in harvest, production,...

  19. Wyoming's forest products industry and timber harvest, 2000

    Treesearch

    Todd A. Morgan; Timothy P. Spoelma; Charles E. Keegan; Alfred L. Chase; Mike T. Thompson

    2005-01-01

    This report traces the flow of Wyoming's 2000 timber harvest through the primary wood-using industries; provides a description of the structure, capacity, and condition of Wyoming's primary forest products industry; and quantifies volumes and uses of wood fiber. Historical wood products industry changes are discussed, as well as changes in harvest, production...

  20. Montana's forest products industry and timber harvest, 2004

    Treesearch

    Timothy P. Spoelma; Todd A. Morgan; Thale Dillon; Alfred L. Chase; Charles E. Keegan; Larry T. DeBlander

    2008-01-01

    This report traces the flow of Montana's 2004 timber harvest through the primary wood-using industries; provides a description of the structure, capacity, and condition of Montana's primary forest products industry; and quantifies volumes and uses of wood fiber. Historical wood products industry changes are discussed, as well as changes in harvest, production...

  1. Changes in forest productivity across Alaska consistent with biome shift.

    PubMed

    Beck, Pieter S A; Juday, Glenn P; Alix, Claire; Barber, Valerie A; Winslow, Stephen E; Sousa, Emily E; Heiser, Patricia; Herriges, James D; Goetz, Scott J

    2011-04-01

    Global vegetation models predict that boreal forests are particularly sensitive to a biome shift during the 21st century. This shift would manifest itself first at the biome's margins, with evergreen forest expanding into current tundra while being replaced by grasslands or temperate forest at the biome's southern edge. We evaluated changes in forest productivity since 1982 across boreal Alaska by linking satellite estimates of primary productivity and a large tree-ring data set. Trends in both records show consistent growth increases at the boreal-tundra ecotones that contrast with drought-induced productivity declines throughout interior Alaska. These patterns support the hypothesized effects of an initiating biome shift. Ultimately, tree dispersal rates, habitat availability and the rate of future climate change, and how it changes disturbance regimes, are expected to determine where the boreal biome will undergo a gradual geographic range shift, and where a more rapid decline.

  2. Usage of non-timber forest products by women in forest villages of Trabzon, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Toksoy, Devlet; Alkan, Suleyman; Hacisalihoglu, Sezgin

    2010-11-01

    Women are responsible for procuring the food for their family in many places in the world. The usage of the non-timber forest products (NTFPs) reaches to the beginning of the humanity NTFPs are used for food and medicine especially in the developing countries as a whole. In this research, totally 611 questionnaires were conducted with women participants by polling face to face in 68 forest villages in the research area. The main reason for studying with women is that; the gathering activities are usually done by women in that area and they also knew the used parts and how to use the NTFPs. Results showed that about 14.4% of the women in the research area are gathering the plants for food (17 species and 2-8 kg annually) and 9.2% of the women are gathering the plants for medicinal purposes (16 species and 1-4 kg annually). These plants are usually used for additional medicinal treatments. 4 species are used for livestock treatment and 2 species in the hand weaving.

  3. 76 FR 50715 - Information Collection; Forest Products Removal Permits and Contracts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-16

    ... regulations (36 CFR 223.8). Ensure that applicants purchasing timber harvest or forest products permits non... of timber or forest products. Upon receiving a permit, the permittee must comply with the terms of...: FS-2400-1, Forest Products Removal Permit and Cash Receipt, is used to sell timber or forest products...

  4. Relationships between net primary productivity and forest stand age in U.S. forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Liming; Chen, Jing M.; Pan, Yude; Birdsey, Richard; Kattge, Jens

    2012-09-01

    Net primary productivity (NPP) is a key flux in the terrestrial ecosystem carbon balance, as it summarizes the autotrophic input into the system. Forest NPP varies predictably with stand age, and quantitative information on the NPP-age relationship for different regions and forest types is therefore fundamentally important for forest carbon cycle modeling. We used four terms to calculate NPP: annual accumulation of live biomass, annual mortality of aboveground and belowground biomass, foliage turnover to soil, and fine root turnover in soil. For U.S. forests the first two terms can be reliably estimated from the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) data. Although the last two terms make up more than 50% of total NPP, direct estimates of these fluxes are highly uncertain due to limited availability of empirical relationships between aboveground biomass and foliage or fine root biomass. To resolve this problem, we developed a new approach using maps of leaf area index (LAI) and forest age at 1 km resolution to derive LAI-age relationships for 18 major forest type groups in the USA. These relationships were then used to derive foliage turnover estimates using species-specific trait data for leaf specific area and longevity. These turnover estimates were also used to derive the fine root turnover based on reliable relationships between fine root and foliage turnover. This combination of FIA data, remote sensing, and plant trait information allows for the first empirical and reliable NPP-age relationships for different forest types in the USA. The relationships show a general temporal pattern of rapid increase in NPP in the young ages of forest type groups, peak growth in the middle ages, and slow decline in the mature ages. The predicted patterns are influenced by climate conditions and can be affected by forest management. These relationships were further generalized to three major forest biomes for use by continental-scale carbon cycle models in conjunction with

  5. Sensitivity of tropical forest aboveground productivity to climate anomalies in SW Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofhansl, Florian; Kobler, Johannes; Ofner, Joachim; Drage, Sigrid; Pölz, Eva-Maria; Wanek, Wolfgang

    2014-12-01

    The productivity of tropical forests is driven by climate (precipitation, temperature, and light) and soil fertility (geology and topography). While large-scale drivers of tropical productivity are well established, knowledge on the sensitivity of tropical lowland net primary production to climate anomalies remains scarce. We here analyze seven consecutive years of monthly recorded tropical forest aboveground net primary production (ANPP) in response to a recent El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) anomaly. The ENSO transition period resulted in increased temperatures and decreased precipitation during the El Niño dry period, causing a decrease in ANPP. However, the subsequent La Niña wet period caused strong increases in ANPP such that drought-induced reductions were overcompensated. Most strikingly, the climatic controls differed between canopy production (CP) and wood production (WP). Whereas CP showed strong seasonal variation but was not affected by ENSO, WP decreased significantly in response to a 3°C increase in annual maximum temperatures during the El Niño period but subsequently recovered to above predrought levels during the La Niña period. Moreover, the climate sensitivity of tropical forest ANPP components was affected by local topography (water availability) and disturbance history (species composition). Our results suggest that projected increases in temperature and dry season length could impact tropical carbon sequestration by shifting ANPP partitioning toward decreased WP, thus decreasing the carbon storage of highly productive lowland forests. We conclude that the impact of climate anomalies on tropical forest productivity is strongly related to local site characteristics and will therefore likely prevent uniform responses of tropical lowland forests to projected global changes.

  6. Use of Current 2010 Forest Disturbance Monitoring Products for the Conterminous United States in Aiding a National Forest Threat Early Warning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spruce, Joseph P.; Hargrove, William; Gasser, J.; Smoot, J.; Kuper, P.

    2010-01-01

    This presentation discusses contributions of near real time (NRT) MODIS forest disturbance detection products for the conterminous United States to an emerging national forest threat early warning system (EWS). The latter is being developed by the USDA Forest Service s Eastern and Western Environmental Threat Centers with help from NASA Stennis Space Center and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Building off work done in 2009, this national and regional forest disturbance detection and viewing capability of the EWS employs NRT MODIS NDVI data from the USGS eMODIS group and historical NDVI data from standard MOD13 products. Disturbance detection products are being computed for 24 day composites that are refreshed every 8 days. Products for 2010 include 42 dates of the 24 day composites. For each compositing date, we computed % change in forest maximum NDVI products for 2010 with respect to each of three historical baselines of 2009, 2007-2009, and 2003-2009,. The three baselines enable one to view potential current, recent, and longer term forest disturbances. A rainbow color table was applied to each forest change product so that potential disturbances (NDVI drops) were identified in hot color tones and growth (NDVI gains) in cold color tones. Example products were provided to end-users responsible for forest health monitoring at the Federal and State levels. Large patches of potential forest disturbances were validated based on comparisons with available reference data, including Landsat and field survey data. Products were posted on two internet mapping systems for US Forest Service internal and collaborator use. MODIS forest disturbance detection products were computed and posted for use in as little as 1 day after the last input date of the compositing period. Such products were useful for aiding aerial disturbance detection surveys and for assessing disturbance persistence on both inter- and intra-annual scales. Multiple 2010 forest disturbance events were

  7. Use of Current 2010 Forest Disturbance Monitoring Products for the Conterminous United States in Aiding a National Forest Threat Early Warning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spruce, J.; Hargrove, W. W.; Gasser, J.; Smoot, J.; Kuper, P.

    2010-12-01

    This presentation discusses contributions of near real time (NRT) MODIS forest disturbance detection products for the conterminous United States to an emerging national forest threat early warning system (EWS). The latter is being developed by the USDA Forest Service’s Eastern and Western Environmental Threat Centers with help from NASA Stennis Space Center and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Building off work done in 2009, this national and regional forest disturbance detection and viewing capability of the EWS employs NRT MODIS NDVI data from the USGS eMODIS group and historical NDVI data from standard MOD13 products. Disturbance detection products are being computed for 24 day composites that are refreshed every 8 days. Products for 2010 include 42 dates of the 24 day composites. For each compositing date, we computed % change in forest maximum NDVI products for 2010 with respect to each of three historical baselines of 2009, 2007-2009, and 2003-2009. The three baselines enable one to view potential current, recent, and longer term forest disturbances. A rainbow color table was applied to each forest change product so that potential disturbances (NDVI drops) were identified in hot color tones and growth (NDVI gains) in cold color tones. Example products were provided to end-users responsible for forest health monitoring at the Federal and State levels. Large patches of potential forest disturbances were validated based on comparisons with available reference data, including Landsat and field survey data. Products were posted on two internet mapping systems for US Forest Service internal and collaborator use. MODIS forest disturbance detection products were computed and posted for use in as little as 1 day after the last input date of the compositing period. Such products were useful for aiding aerial disturbance detection surveys and for assessing disturbance persistence on both inter- and intra-annual scales. Multiple 2010 forest disturbance events were

  8. Forests of opportunities and mischief: disentangling the interactions between forests, parasites and immune responses.

    PubMed

    Renner, Swen C; Lüdtke, Bruntje; Kaiser, Sonja; Kienle, Julia; Schaefer, H Martin; Segelbacher, Gernot; Tschapka, Marco; Santiago-Alarcon, Diego

    2016-08-01

    Habitat characteristics determine the presence of individuals through resource availability, but at the same time, such features also influence the occurrence of parasites. We analyzed how birds respond to changes in interior forest structures, to forest management regimes, and to the risk of haemosporidian infections. We captured and took blood samples from blackcaps (Sylvia atricapilla) and chaffinches (Fringilla coelebs) in three different forest types (beech, mixed deciduous, spruce). We measured birds' body asymmetries, detected avian haemosporidians, and counted white blood cells as an immune measure of each individual per forest type. We used, to our knowledge for the first time, continuous forest structural parameters to quantify habitat structure, and found significant effects of habitat structure on parasite prevalence that previously have been undetected. We found three times higher prevalence for blackcaps compared with chaffinches. Parasite intensity varied significantly within host species depending on forest type, being lowest in beech forests for both host species. Structurally complex habitats with a high degree of entropy had a positive effect on the likelihood of acquiring an infection, but the effect on prevalence was negative for forest sections with a south facing aspect. For blackcaps, forest gaps also had a positive effect on prevalence, but canopy height had a negative one. Our results suggest that forest types and variations in forest structure influence the likelihood of acquiring an infection, which subsequently has an influence on host health status and body condition; however, responses to some environmental factors are host-specific. Copyright © 2016 Australian Society for Parasitology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Enhancing forest value productivity through fiber quality

    Treesearch

    D. Briggs

    2010-01-01

    Developing markets for carbon storage and bioenergy, shifting of the pulp and paper industry to biorefineries, and the potential of new technologies present the forest sector with exciting transformative opportunities and challenges. One of these challenges will be to understand the implications for fiber (wood) quality. This article provides a definitional context for...

  10. On the sustainable productivity of planted forests

    Treesearch

    Robert F. Powers

    1999-01-01

    Planted forests have more than a millennium of history and represent the world's best hope for meeting global wood requirements in the twenty-first century. Advances in genetic improvement, nursery practices, stand establishment, and tending, harvesting, and manufacturing have boosted plantation yields to a higher level than at any point in history. Despite this,...

  11. Sustaining the productivity of planted forests

    Treesearch

    R.F. Powers; A.E. Tiarks; J.A. Burger; M.C. Carter

    1996-01-01

    Conversion of natural forests to plantations, particularly in the tropics, has drawn global attention and concern. Moreover, plantation forestry is on the rise, especially in tropical and subtropical regions where growth rates are rapid. Even in the United States, where even-age silviculture is being deemphasized on public land (only about 15 percent of all plantings...

  12. Maintenance of productive capacity of forest ecosystems

    Treesearch

    W. Keith Moser; Patrick D. Miles; Aimee Stephens; Dale D. Gormanson; Stephen R. Shifley; Dave Wear; Robert J. Huggett; Ruhong. Li

    2016-01-01

    This chapter reports projected changes in forest area, age, volume, biomass, number of trees, and removals from 2010 to 2060 for alternative scenarios that bracket a range of possible future socioeconomic and climate conditions in the Northern United States, which consists of 20 central and northeastern States. As described in Chapter 2, the scenarios incorporate...

  13. Contrasting responses of forest ecosystems to rising atmospheric CO2: Implications for the global C cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Norby, Richard J; DeLucia, E. H.; Moore, D J

    2005-01-01

    In two parallel but independent experiments, Free Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) technology was used to expose plots within contrasting evergreen loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) and deciduous sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.) forests to the level of CO2 anticipated in 2050. Net primary production (NPP) and net ecosystem production (NEP) increased in both forests. In the year 2000, after exposing pine and sweetgum to elevated CO2 for approximately 5 and 3 years, a complete budget calculation revealed increases in net ecosystem production (NEP) of 41% and 44% in the pine forest and sweetgum forest, respectively, representing the storage of an additional 174 gC m-2 and 128 gC m-2 in these forests. The stimulation of NPP without corresponding increases in leaf area index or light absorption in either forest resulted in 23-27% stimulation in radiation-use efficiency, defined as NPP per unit absorbed photosynthetically active radiation. Greater plant respiration contributed to lower NPP in the loblolly pine forest than in the sweetgum forest, and these forests responded differently to CO2 enrichment. Where the pine forest added C primarily to long-lived woody tissues, exposure to elevated CO2 caused a large increase in the production of labile fine roots in the sweetgum forest. Greater allocation to more labile tissues may cause more rapid cycling of C back to the atmosphere in the sweetgum forest compared to the pine forest. Imbalances in the N cycle may reduce the response of these forests to experimental exposure to elevated CO2 in the future, but even at the current stimulation observed for these forests, the effect of changes in land use on C sequestration are likely to be larger than the effect of CO2-induced growth stimulation.

  14. Forest product use at an upper elevation village in Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metz, John J.

    1994-05-01

    This paper describes forest product use at Chimkhola, an upper elevation village of west central Nepal. Villagers have large herds of livestock that they use to fertilize agricultural fields by holding the animals on cropland for one to several weeks prior to planting. Herds are moved sequentially from one group of fields to another until all are planted, and then families take animals into the forests. Herders, therefore, live in temporary shelters away from the homestead throughout the year, and for much of the year feed their livestock fodder cut from forest trees. By combining repeated interviews of sample households, one-time interviews with a large sample of village families, and direct measurements of forest products being used, I found that livestock maintenance consumes 74% of the hand-harvested wild biomass: 26.4% for green fodder, 32.3% for fuelwood at the herder's hut, and 13.8% for construction of the herder's hut. Fuelwood burned at the homestead is the next largest consumer, 17.6%. Villagers also use small amounts of forest materials for house construction, charcoal, agricultural implements, and bamboo for baskets and mats. The large amounts used by herders and livestock at Chimkhola mean that wild vegetation use there far exceeds the measurements made by previous reliable studies at other communities. This system of forest use is, however, degrading Chimkhola's forests and gradually converting them to shrublands.

  15. Forest and wood products role in carbon sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Sampson, R.N.

    1997-12-31

    An evaluation of the use of U.S. forests and forest products for carbon emission mitigation is presented. The current role of forests in carbon sequestration is described in terms of regional differences and forest management techniques. The potential for increasing carbon storage by converting marginal crop and pasture land, increasing timberland growth, reducing wildfire losses, and changing timber harvest methods is examined. Post-harvest carbon flows, environmental impacts of wood products, biomass energy crops, and increased use of energy-conserving trees are reviewed for their potential in reducing or offsetting carbon emissions. It is estimated that these techniques could offset 20 to 40 percent of the carbon emitted annually in the U.S. 39 refs., 5 tabs.

  16. Modelling tropical forests response to logging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cazzolla Gatti, Roberto; Di Paola, Arianna; Valentini, Riccardo; Paparella, Francesco

    2013-04-01

    Tropical rainforests are among the most threatened ecosystems by large-scale fragmentation due to human activity such as heavy logging and agricultural clearance. Although, they provide crucial ecosystem goods and services, such as sequestering carbon from the atmosphere, protecting watersheds and conserving biodiversity. In several countries forest resource extraction has experienced a shift from clearcutting to selective logging to maintain a significant forest cover and understock of living biomass. However the knowledge on the short and long-term effects of removing selected species in tropical rainforest are scarce and need to be further investigated. One of the main effects of selective logging on forest dynamics seems to be the local disturbance which involve the invasion of open space by weed, vines and climbers at the expense of the late-successional state cenosis. We present a simple deterministic model that describes the dynamics of tropical rainforest subject to selective logging to understand how and why weeds displace native species. We argue that the selective removal of tallest tropical trees carries out gaps of light that allow weeds, vines and climbers to prevail on native species, inhibiting the possibility of recovery of the original vegetation. Our results show that different regime shifts may occur depending on the type of forest management adopted. This hypothesis is supported by a dataset of trees height and weed/vines cover that we collected from 9 plots located in Central and West Africa both in untouched and managed areas.

  17. Forest communities in the third millennium: linking research, business, and policy toward a sustainable non-timber forest product sector.

    Treesearch

    Iain Davidson-Hunt; Luc C. Duchesne; John C., eds. Zasada

    2001-01-01

    Contains a wide variety of papers given at the first international conference on non-timber forest products (NTFP) in cold temperate and boreal forests. Focuses on many facets of NTFPs: economics, society, biology, resource management, business development, and others.

  18. Nanotechnology for the Forest Products Industry Vision and Technology Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    Atalla, Rajai; Beecher, James; Caron, Robert; Catchmark, Jeffrey; Deng, Yulin; Glasser, Wolfgang; Gray, Derek; Haigler, Candace; Jones, Philip; Joyce, Margaret; Kohlman, Jane; Koukoulas, Alexander; Lancaster, Peter; Perine, Lori; Rodriguez, Augusto; Ragauskas, Arthur; Wegner, Theodore; Zhu, Junyong

    2005-03-01

    A roadmap for Nanotechnology in the Forest Products Industries has been developed under the umbrella of the Agenda 2020 program overseen by the CTO committee. It is expected that the use of new analytical techniques and methodologies will allow us to understand the complex nature of wood based materials and allow the dramatically enhanced use of the major strategic asset the US has in renewable, recyclable resources based on its well managed Forests.

  19. Ecological and biological considerations for sustainable management of non-timber forest products in northern forests

    Treesearch

    Luc C. Duchesne; John C. Zasada; Iain. Davidson-Hunt

    2001-01-01

    With a current output of over $241 million per year, non-timber forest products (NTFPs) contribute significantly to the welfare of rural and First Nations communities in Canada. Maple sap products, wild mushrooms, and wild fruits are the most important NTFPs for consumption both in Canada and abroad. However, because of increased access to international markets by...

  20. Sustainable forest management of tropical forests can reduce carbon emissions and stabilize timber production

    Treesearch

    N. Sasaki; G.P. Asner; Yude Pan; W. Knorr; P.B. Durst; H.O. Ma; I. Abe; A.J. Lowe; L.P. Koh

    2016-01-01

    The REDD+ scheme of the United Nations Framework Conventionon Climate Change has provided opportunities to manage tropical forests for timber production and carbon emission reductions. To determine the appropriate loggingtechniques, we analyzed potential timber production and carbon emission reductions under two logging techniques over a 40-year period of selective...

  1. Production, prices, employment, and trade in northwest forest industries, third quarter 1994. Forest Service resource bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, D.D.

    1995-03-01

    The report presents current information on the timber situation in Alaska, Washington, Oregon, California, Montana, Idaho, and British Columbia, including data on lumber and plywood production and prices; timber harvest; employment in forest products industries; international trade in logs, pulpwood, chips, lumber, and plywood; log prices in the Pacific Northwest; volume and average prices of stumpage sold by public agencies; and other related items.

  2. Production, prices, employment, and trade in northwest forest industries, fourth quarter 1995. Forest Service resource bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, D.D.

    1996-06-01

    This report presents current information on the timber situation in Alaska, Washington, Oregon, California, Montana, Idaho, and British Columbia, including data on lumber and plywood production and prices; timber harvest; employment in forest products industries; international trade in logs, pulpwood, chips, lumber, and plywood; log prices in the Pacific Northwest; volume and average prices of stumpage sold by public agencies; and other related items.

  3. Production, prices, employment, and trade in northwest forest industries, third quarter 1995. Forest Service resource bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, D.D.

    1996-03-01

    The report presents current information on the timber situation in Alaska, Washington, Oregon, California, Montana, Idaho, and British Columbia, including data on lumber and plywood production and prices; timber harvest; employment in forest products industries; international trade in logs, pulpwood, chips, lumber, and plywood; log prices in the Pacific Northwest; volume and average prices of stumpage sold by public agencies; and other related items.

  4. Production, prices, employment, and trade in northwest forest industries, fourth quarter 1994. Forest Service resource bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, D.D.

    1995-06-01

    The report presents current information on the timber situation in Alaska, Washington, Oregon, California, Montana, Idaho, and British Columbia, including data on lumber and plywood production and prices; timber harvest; employment in forest products industries; international trade in logs, pulpwood, chips, lumber, and plywood; log prices in the Pacific Northwest; volume and average prices of stumpage sold by public agencies; and other related items.

  5. Forest floor community metatranscriptomes identify fungal and bacterial responses to N deposition in two maple forests.

    PubMed

    Hesse, Cedar N; Mueller, Rebecca C; Vuyisich, Momchilo; Gallegos-Graves, La Verne; Gleasner, Cheryl D; Zak, Donald R; Kuske, Cheryl R

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic N deposition alters patterns of C and N cycling in temperate forests, where forest floor litter decomposition is a key process mediated by a diverse community of bacteria and fungi. To track forest floor decomposer activity we generated metatranscriptomes that simultaneously surveyed the actively expressed bacterial and eukaryote genes in the forest floor, to compare the impact of N deposition on the decomposers in two natural maple forests in Michigan, USA, where replicate field plots had been amended with N for 16 years. Site and N amendment responses were compared using about 74,000 carbohydrate active enzyme transcript sequences (CAZymes) in each metatranscriptome. Parallel ribosomal RNA (rRNA) surveys of bacterial and fungal biomass and taxonomic composition showed no significant differences in either biomass or OTU richness between the two sites or in response to N. Site and N amendment were not significant variables defining bacterial taxonomic composition, but they were significant for fungal community composition, explaining 17 and 14% of the variability, respectively. The relative abundance of expressed bacterial and fungal CAZymes changed significantly with N amendment in one of the forests, and N-response trends were also identified in the second forest. Although the two ambient forests were similar in community biomass, taxonomic structure and active CAZyme profile, the shifts in active CAZyme profiles in response to N-amendment differed between the sites. One site responded with an over-expression of bacterial CAZymes, and the other site responded with an over-expression of both fungal and different bacterial CAZymes. Both sites showed reduced representation of fungal lignocellulose degrading enzymes in N-amendment plots. The metatranscriptome approach provided a holistic assessment of eukaryote and bacterial gene expression and is applicable to other systems where eukaryotes and bacteria interact.

  6. Forest floor community metatranscriptomes identify fungal and bacterial responses to N deposition in two maple forests

    PubMed Central

    Hesse, Cedar N.; Mueller, Rebecca C.; Vuyisich, Momchilo; Gallegos-Graves, La Verne; Gleasner, Cheryl D.; Zak, Donald R.; Kuske, Cheryl R.

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic N deposition alters patterns of C and N cycling in temperate forests, where forest floor litter decomposition is a key process mediated by a diverse community of bacteria and fungi. To track forest floor decomposer activity we generated metatranscriptomes that simultaneously surveyed the actively expressed bacterial and eukaryote genes in the forest floor, to compare the impact of N deposition on the decomposers in two natural maple forests in Michigan, USA, where replicate field plots had been amended with N for 16 years. Site and N amendment responses were compared using about 74,000 carbohydrate active enzyme transcript sequences (CAZymes) in each metatranscriptome. Parallel ribosomal RNA (rRNA) surveys of bacterial and fungal biomass and taxonomic composition showed no significant differences in either biomass or OTU richness between the two sites or in response to N. Site and N amendment were not significant variables defining bacterial taxonomic composition, but they were significant for fungal community composition, explaining 17 and 14% of the variability, respectively. The relative abundance of expressed bacterial and fungal CAZymes changed significantly with N amendment in one of the forests, and N-response trends were also identified in the second forest. Although the two ambient forests were similar in community biomass, taxonomic structure and active CAZyme profile, the shifts in active CAZyme profiles in response to N-amendment differed between the sites. One site responded with an over-expression of bacterial CAZymes, and the other site responded with an over-expression of both fungal and different bacterial CAZymes. Both sites showed reduced representation of fungal lignocellulose degrading enzymes in N-amendment plots. The metatranscriptome approach provided a holistic assessment of eukaryote and bacterial gene expression and is applicable to other systems where eukaryotes and bacteria interact. PMID:25954263

  7. Forest floor community metatranscriptomes identify fungal and bacterial responses to N deposition in two maple forests

    DOE PAGES

    Hesse, Cedar N.; Mueller, Rebecca C.; Vuyisich, Momchilo; ...

    2015-04-23

    Anthropogenic N deposition alters patterns of C and N cycling in temperate forests, where forest floor litter decomposition is a key process mediated by a diverse community of bacteria and fungi. To track forest floor decomposer activity we generated metatranscriptomes that simultaneously surveyed the actively expressed bacterial and eukaryote genes in the forest floor, to compare the impact of N deposition on the decomposers in two natural maple forests in Michigan, USA, where replicate field plots had been amended with N for 16 years. Site and N amendment responses were compared using about 74,000 carbohydrate active enzyme transcript sequences (CAZymes)more » in each metatranscriptome. Parallel ribosomal RNA (rRNA) surveys of bacterial and fungal biomass and taxonomic composition showed no significant differences in either biomass or OTU richness between the two sites or in response to N. Site and N amendment were not significant variables defining bacterial taxonomic composition, but they were significant for fungal community composition, explaining 17 and 14% of the variability, respectively. The relative abundance of expressed bacterial and fungal CAZymes changed significantly with N amendment in one of the forests, and N-response trends were also identified in the second forest. Although the two ambient forests were similar in community biomass, taxonomic structure and active CAZyme profile, the shifts in active CAZyme profiles in response to N-amendment differed between the sites. One site responded with an over-expression of bacterial CAZymes, and the other site responded with an over-expression of both fungal and different bacterial CAZymes. Both sites showed reduced representation of fungal lignocellulose degrading enzymes in N-amendment plots. The metatranscriptome approach provided a holistic assessment of eukaryote and bacterial gene expression and is applicable to other systems where eukaryotes and bacteria interact.« less

  8. Forest floor community metatranscriptomes identify fungal and bacterial responses to N deposition in two maple forests

    SciTech Connect

    Hesse, Cedar N.; Mueller, Rebecca C.; Vuyisich, Momchilo; Gallegos-Graves, La Verne; Gleasner, Cheryl D.; Zak, Donald R.; Kuske, Cheryl R.

    2015-04-23

    Anthropogenic N deposition alters patterns of C and N cycling in temperate forests, where forest floor litter decomposition is a key process mediated by a diverse community of bacteria and fungi. To track forest floor decomposer activity we generated metatranscriptomes that simultaneously surveyed the actively expressed bacterial and eukaryote genes in the forest floor, to compare the impact of N deposition on the decomposers in two natural maple forests in Michigan, USA, where replicate field plots had been amended with N for 16 years. Site and N amendment responses were compared using about 74,000 carbohydrate active enzyme transcript sequences (CAZymes) in each metatranscriptome. Parallel ribosomal RNA (rRNA) surveys of bacterial and fungal biomass and taxonomic composition showed no significant differences in either biomass or OTU richness between the two sites or in response to N. Site and N amendment were not significant variables defining bacterial taxonomic composition, but they were significant for fungal community composition, explaining 17 and 14% of the variability, respectively. The relative abundance of expressed bacterial and fungal CAZymes changed significantly with N amendment in one of the forests, and N-response trends were also identified in the second forest. Although the two ambient forests were similar in community biomass, taxonomic structure and active CAZyme profile, the shifts in active CAZyme profiles in response to N-amendment differed between the sites. One site responded with an over-expression of bacterial CAZymes, and the other site responded with an over-expression of both fungal and different bacterial CAZymes. Both sites showed reduced representation of fungal lignocellulose degrading enzymes in N-amendment plots. The metatranscriptome approach provided a holistic assessment of eukaryote and bacterial gene expression and is applicable to other systems where eukaryotes and bacteria interact.

  9. Monitoring Regional Forest Disturbances across the US with near Real Time MODIS NDVI Products Resident to the ForWarn Forest Threat Early Warning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spruce, Joseph P.; Hargrove, William W.; Gasser, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    Forest threats across the US have become increasingly evident in recent years. Sometimes these have resulted in regionally evident disturbance progressions (e.g., from drought, bark beetle outbreaks, and wildfires) that can occur across multiyear durations and have resulted in extensive forest overstory mortality. In addition to stand replacement disturbances, other forests are subject to ephemeral, sometimes yearly defoliation from various insects and varying types and intensities of ephemeral damage from storms. Sometimes, after prolonged severe disturbance, signs of recovery in terms of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) can occur. The growing prominence and threat of forest disturbances in part have led to the formation and implementation of the 2003 Healthy Forest Restoration Act which mandated that national forest threat early warning system be developed and deployed. In response, the US Forest Service collaborated with NASA, DOE Oakridge National Laboratory, and the USGS Eros Data Center to build and roll-out the near real time ForWarn early warning system for monitoring regionally evident forest disturbances. Given the diversity of disturbance types, severities, and durations, ForWarn employs multiple historical baselines that are used with current NDVI to derive a suite of six forest change products that are refreshed every 8 days. ForWarn employs daily quarter kilometer MODIS NDVI data from the Aqua and Terra satellites, including MOD13 data for deriving historical baseline NDVIs and eMODIS 7 NDVI for compiling current NDVI. In doing so, the Time Series Product Tool and the Phenological Parameters Estimation Tool are used to temporally de-noise, fuse, and aggregate current and historical MODIS NDVIs into 24 day composites refreshed every 8 days with 46 dates of products per year. The 24 day compositing interval enables disturbances to be detected, while minimizing the frequency of residual atmospheric contamination. Forest change products are

  10. The importance of intraspecific variation in tree responses to elevated [CO2]: breeding and management of future forests

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    One strategy for managing forests to sustain or increase productivity under global climate change is to initiate breeding programs which maximize responses to elevated [CO2] within species. The basis for any breeding program is intraspecific variation in the traits of interest, and for forests, grow...

  11. Forest Productivity and Diversity: Using Ecological Theory and Landscape Models to Guide Sustainable Forest Management

    SciTech Connect

    Huston, M.A.

    1998-11-01

    distribution of various plants and animals. These models can be, used to predict the patterns of forest type and structure that develop in response to variation in productivity and disturbance across complex landscapes, as well as species diversity and the distribution and population fluctuations of threatened species in specific regions.

  12. Seasonal greenness variations in Amazon transitional forests in response to light, moisture, and land use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratana, P.; Huete, A. R.; Davies, K.; Restrepo-Coupe, N.

    2014-12-01

    The Amazon basin consists of structurally diverse tropical forest ecosystems resulting from unique functional responses to seasonal rainfall and radiation drivers, as well as fire and land use pressures. Dry season intensity and duration increase from the tropical wet rainforests at the equator to cerrado at the south, with transitional forests (dry forest, semi-deciduous forests, and cerradão) and the arc of deforestation between the two large biomes. Little known of this distinctive transitional forest composition and functional types, yet this zone is disappearing rapidly due to anthropological pressure and warming events. We hypothesize that these gradients in light, moisture, land use pressures, and forest functional types should be expressed in distinct canopy-level seasonal responses observable in satellite time series data. Yet, recent studies have raised concerns of concurrent seasonal sun geometry influences that confound the interpretation of satellite-derived greenness and suggest that observed tropical forest seasonality are optical artifacts of shifting sun- sensor view geometries. In this study we investigated forest seasonal variations and greenness dynamics across the transition zone, with 10+ years (2003-2013) of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) enhanced vegetation index (EVI) data derived from the MCD43A1 product, for a fixed sun angle and fully corrected for sun- sensor view geometries. EVI values were extracted across two latitudinal transects across the Amazon transition zone sampling the eastern and central regions of the basin. We found a clear pattern of shifting forest greenness seasonality resulting from earlier onsets of the dry season from south to the north, irrespective of, and asynchronous with the solstice to equinox sun-earth geometry. From this seasonal profiles dry season greening in the wet forests and browning in the southern tropical dry forests could be observed. In many of the transitional forests, a

  13. Disturbance and productivity interactions mediate stability of forest composition and structure.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Christopher D; Falk, Donald A; Lynch, Ann M; Swetnam, Thomas W; Wilcox, Craig P

    2017-04-01

    Fire is returning to many conifer-dominated forests where species composition and structure have been altered by fire exclusion. Ecological effects of these fires are influenced strongly by the degree of forest change during the fire-free period. Response of fire-adapted species assemblages to extended fire-free intervals is highly variable, even in communities with similar historical fire regimes. This variability in plant community response to fire exclusion is not well understood; however, ecological mechanisms such as individual species' adaptations to disturbance or competition and underlying site characteristics that facilitate or impede establishment and growth have been proposed as potential drivers of assemblage response. We used spatially explicit dendrochronological reconstruction of tree population dynamics and fire regimes to examine the influence of historical disturbance frequency (a proxy for adaptation to disturbance or competition), and potential site productivity (a proxy for underlying site characteristics) on the stability of forest composition and structure along a continuous ecological gradient of pine, dry mixed-conifer, mesic mixed-conifer, and spruce-fir forests following fire exclusion. While average structural density increased in all forests, species composition was relatively stable in the lowest productivity pine-dominated and highest productivity spruce-fir-dominated sites immediately following fire exclusion and for the next 100 years, suggesting site productivity as a primary control on species composition and structure in forests with very different historical fire regimes. Species composition was least stable on intermediate productivity sites dominated by mixed-conifer forests, shifting from primarily fire-adapted species to competition-adapted, fire-sensitive species within 20 years of fire exclusion. Rapid changes to species composition and stand densities have been interpreted by some as evidence of high-severity fire. We

  14. The Four Corners timber harvest and forest products industry, 2007

    Treesearch

    Steven W. Hayes; Todd A. Morgan; Erik C. Berg; Jean M. Daniels; Mike Thompson

    2012-01-01

    This report traces the flow of timber harvested in the "Four Corners" States (Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, and Utah) during calendar year 2007, describes the composition and operations of the region's primary forest products industry, and quantifies volumes and uses of wood fiber. Historical wood products industry changes are discussed, as well as...

  15. The Four Corners timber harvest and forest products industry, 2002

    Treesearch

    Todd A. Morgan; Thale Dillon; Charles E. Keegan; Alfred L. Chase; Mike T. Thompson

    2006-01-01

    This report traces the flow of timber harvested in the "Four Corners" States (Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, and Utah) during calendar year 2002, describes the composition and operations of the region's primary forest products industry, and quantifies volumes and uses of wood fiber. Historical wood products industry changes are discussed, as well as...

  16. The Four Corners timber harvest and forest products industry, 2012

    Treesearch

    Colin B. Sorenson; Steven W. Hayes; Todd A. Morgan; Eric A. Simmons; Micah G. Scudder; Chelsea P. McIver; Mike T. Thompson

    2016-01-01

    This report traces the flow of timber harvested in the "Four Corners" States (Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, and Utah) during calendar year 2012, describes the composition and operations of the region’s primary forest products industry, and quantifies volumes and uses of wood fiber. Recent changes in the wood products industry are discussed, as well as trends...

  17. Primary forest products industry and timber use, Missouri, 1980.

    Treesearch

    James E. Blyth; Shelby Jones; W. Brad Smith

    1983-01-01

    Discusses recent Missouri forest industry trends; timber removals for industrial roundwood in 1980; and production and receipts of saw logs, pulpwood, cooperage logs, charcoal wood, and other industrial roundwood products. Reports on associated primary mill wood and bark residue and the disposition of mill residue.

  18. Primary forest products industry and timber use, Indiana, 1980.

    Treesearch

    James E. Blyth; Donald H. McGuire; W. Brad Smith

    1982-01-01

    Discusses recent Indiana forest industry trends; timber removals for industrial roundwood in 1980; and production and receipts of saw logs, pulpwood, veneer logs, and other industrial roundwood products. Reports on associated primary mill wood and bark residue and the disposition of mill residue.

  19. Wood Products by Species and Quality in Upland Forests

    Treesearch

    David W. Patterson

    2004-01-01

    Products that can be produced from an upland forest depend on the species and quality of the trees present. Quality depends on growth rate and tree form. These variables are discussed as well as the products that can be produced such as veneer and plywood, grade lumber, handle stock, pallet stock, cross ties, and industrial lumber.

  20. Pulpwood production in southern forest survey territory, 1948

    Treesearch

    Alberti L. Tofte; William S. Stover

    1949-01-01

    Pulpwood production in the seven states of Southern Forest survey territory reached another all-time high in the 1948. Total production was 5,025,900 cords, an increase of 14 percent over 1947. Each of the seven states showed an increase (table 1).

  1. Forest management planning for timber production: a sequential approach

    Treesearch

    Krishna P. Rustagi

    1978-01-01

    Explicit forest management planning for timber production beyond the first few years at any time necessitates use of information which can best be described as suspect. The two-step approach outlined here concentrates on the planning strategy over the next few years without losing sight of the long-run productivity. Frequent updating of the long-range and short-range...

  2. Synergistic Ecoclimate Teleconnections from Forest Loss in Different Regions Structure Global Ecological Responses

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Elizabeth S.; Swann, Abigail L. S.; Villegas, Juan C.; Breshears, David D.; Law, Darin J.; Saleska, Scott R.; Stark, Scott C.

    2016-01-01

    Forest loss in hotspots around the world impacts not only local climate where loss occurs, but also influences climate and vegetation in remote parts of the globe through ecoclimate teleconnections. The magnitude and mechanism of remote impacts likely depends on the location and distribution of forest loss hotspots, but the nature of these dependencies has not been investigated. We use global climate model simulations to estimate the distribution of ecologically-relevant climate changes resulting from forest loss in two hotspot regions: western North America (wNA), which is experiencing accelerated dieoff, and the Amazon basin, which is subject to high rates of deforestation. The remote climatic and ecological net effects of simultaneous forest loss in both regions differed from the combined effects of loss from the two regions simulated separately, as evident in three impacted areas. Eastern South American Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) increased due to changes in seasonal rainfall associated with Amazon forest loss and changes in temperature related to wNA forest loss. Eurasia’s GPP declined with wNA forest loss due to cooling temperatures increasing soil ice volume. Southeastern North American productivity increased with simultaneous forest loss, but declined with only wNA forest loss due to changes in VPD. Our results illustrate the need for a new generation of local-to-global scale analyses to identify potential ecoclimate teleconnections, their underlying mechanisms, and most importantly, their synergistic interactions, to predict the responses to increasing forest loss under future land use change and climate change. PMID:27851740

  3. Synergistic Ecoclimate Teleconnections from Forest Loss in Different Regions Structure Global Ecological Responses

    DOE PAGES

    Garcia, Elizabeth S.; Swann, Abigail L. S.; Villegas, Juan C.; ...

    2016-11-16

    Forest loss in hotspots around the world impacts not only local climate where loss occurs, but also influences climate and vegetation in remote parts of the globe through ecoclimate teleconnections. The magnitude and mechanism of remote impacts likely depends on the location and distribution of forest loss hotspots, but the nature of these dependencies has not been investigated. We use global climate model simulations to estimate the distribution of ecologically-relevant climate changes resulting from forest loss in two hotspot regions: western North America (wNA), which is experiencing accelerated dieoff, and the Amazon basin, which is subject to high rates ofmore » deforestation. The remote climatic and ecological net effects of simultaneous forest loss in both regions differed from the combined effects of loss from the two regions simulated separately, as evident in three impacted areas. Eastern South American Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) increased due to changes in seasonal rainfall associated with Amazon forest loss and changes in temperature related to wNA forest loss. Eurasia's GPP declined with wNA forest loss due to cooling temperatures increasing soil ice volume. Southeastern North American productivity increased with simultaneous forest loss, but declined with only wNA forest loss due to changes in VPD. In conclusion, our results illustrate the need for a new generation of local-to-global scale analyses to identify potential ecoclimate teleconnections, their underlying mechanisms, and most importantly, their synergistic interactions, to predict the responses to increasing forest loss under future land use change and climate change.« less

  4. Phylogenetic Responses of Forest Trees to Global Change

    PubMed Central

    Senior, John K.; Schweitzer, Jennifer A.; O’Reilly-Wapstra, Julianne; Chapman, Samantha K.; Steane, Dorothy; Langley, Adam; Bailey, Joseph K.

    2013-01-01

    In a rapidly changing biosphere, approaches to understanding the ecology and evolution of forest species will be critical to predict and mitigate the effects of anthropogenic global change on forest ecosystems. Utilizing 26 forest species in a factorial experiment with two levels each of atmospheric CO2 and soil nitrogen, we examined the hypothesis that phylogeny would influence plant performance in response to elevated CO2 and nitrogen fertilization. We found highly idiosyncratic responses at the species level. However, significant, among-genetic lineage responses were present across a molecularly determined phylogeny, indicating that past evolutionary history may have an important role in the response of whole genetic lineages to future global change. These data imply that some genetic lineages will perform well and that others will not, depending upon the environmental context. PMID:23593164

  5. [Forest litter decomposition and its responses to global climate change].

    PubMed

    Yang, Wan-Qin; Deng, Ren-Ju; Zhang, Jian

    2007-12-01

    Litter decomposition is one of the important processes in forest ecosystem, which is controlled by both biotic and abiotic factors such as climate, litter quality, and soil organisms. Up to now, numerous studies have been made on the dynamics of aboveground litter in different forest ecosystems, nutrient release during its decomposition, and effects of biotic and abiotic factors on the decomposition, but less information has been reported on the decomposition of belowground forest litter. Recently, the responses of forest litter decomposition to global climate change characterized by elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration and temperature have got worldwide concern, but there remains uncertainty in research results. In the further study, more attention should be paid on the contribution of forest litter decomposition to soil organic carbon sequestration, the physical, chemical and biological processes of below- and above-ground litter decomposition, the responses of forest litter decomposition to the ecological factors (e.g. seasonal freeze-thaw cycle and drying-rewetting cycle) and their interactions, and the mechanisms of litter (especially belowground litter) decomposition responses to global climate change.

  6. Tree-ring widths are good proxies of annual variation in forest productivity in temperate forests.

    PubMed

    Xu, Kai; Wang, Xiangping; Liang, Penghong; An, Hailong; Sun, Han; Han, Wei; Li, Qiaoyan

    2017-05-16

    Tree rings have long been used to calibrate the net primary production (NPP) time-series predicted by process-based models, based on an implicit assumption that ring-width indices (RWI) can well reflect temporal NPP change. However, this assumption has seldom been tested systematically. In this study, 36 plots were set in three forest types from four sites along a latitudinal gradient in northeast China. For each plot, we constructed chronologies and stand NPP of the past 20 years to examine: is RWI a good proxy of inter-annual variation of forest NPP for different forest types under different climate? If it is, why? Our results indicate that RWI was closely related to stand NPP in most cases, and could be used as a good proxy of NPP in temperate forests. Standard and arstan chronologies were better related to NPP series than residual chronology. Stand NPP time-series were mainly determined by large trees, and the correlation between RWI and NPP was also higher for larger trees. We suggest that large trees and dominant species of canopy layer should be sampled for chronology construction. Large trees are major contributors of forest biomass and productivity, and should have priority in forest conservation in a rapid-warming world.

  7. 78 FR 22225 - Solicitation of Input From Stakeholders Regarding the Integrated Forest Products Research Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-15

    ... Forest Products Research Program AGENCY: National Institute of Food and Agriculture, Department of... Research (FPR) program and specifically design a response to current and emerging wood utilization issues... is to gather topic areas for research which will be used in developing the priority research areas...

  8. Ecosystem services: foundations, opportunities, and challenges for the forest products sector

    Treesearch

    Trista M. Patterson; Dana L. Coelho

    2009-01-01

    The ecosystem service concept has been proposed as a meaningful framework for natural resource management. In theory, it holds concomitant benefit and consequence for the forest product sector. However, numerous barriers impede practitioners from developing concrete and enduring responses to emerging ecosystem service markets, policies, and initiatives. Principal among...

  9. Gross primary production of global forest ecosystems has been overestimated

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jianyong; Yan, Xiaodong; Dong, Wenjie; Chou, Jieming

    2015-01-01

    Coverage rate, a critical variable for gridded forest area, has been neglected by previous studies in estimating the annual gross primary production (GPP) of global forest ecosystems. In this study, we investigated to what extent the coverage rate could impact forest GPP estimates from 1982 to 2011. Here we show that the traditional calculation without considering the coverage rate globally overestimated the forest gross carbon dioxide uptake by approximately 8.7%, with a value of 5.12 ± 0.23 Pg C yr−1, which is equivalent to 48% of the annual emissions from anthropogenic activities in 2012. Actually, the global annual GPP of forest ecosystems is approximately 53.71 ± 4.83 Pg C yr−1 for the past 30 years by taking the coverage rate into account. Accordingly, we argue that forest annual GPP calculated by previous studies has been overestimated due to the exaggerated forest area, and therefore, coverage rate may be a required factor to further quantify the global carbon cycle. PMID:26027557

  10. Idiosyncratic responses of Amazonian birds to primary forest disturbance.

    PubMed

    Moura, Nárgila G; Lees, Alexander C; Aleixo, Alexandre; Barlow, Jos; Berenguer, Erika; Ferreira, Joice; Mac Nally, Ralph; Thomson, James R; Gardner, Toby A

    2016-03-01

    As humans continue to alter tropical landscapes across the world, it is important to understand what environmental factors help determine the persistence of biodiversity in modified ecosystems. Studies on well-known taxonomic groups can offer critical insights as to the fate of biodiversity in these modified systems. Here we investigated species-specific responses of 44 forest-associated bird species with different behavioural traits to forest disturbance in 171 transects distributed across 31 landscapes in two regions of the eastern Brazilian Amazon. We investigated patterns of species occurrence in primary forests varyingly disturbed by selective-logging and fire and examined the relative importance of local, landscape and historical environmental variables in determining species occurrences. Within undisturbed and disturbed primary forest transects, we found that distance to forest edge and the biomass of large trees were the most important predictors driving the occurrence of individual species. However, we also found considerable variation in species responses to different environmental variables as well as inter-regional variation in the responses of the same species to the same environmental variables. We advocate the utility of using species-level analyses to complement community-wide responses in order to uncover highly variable and species-specific responses to environmental change that remain so poorly understood.

  11. Impacts of fire and climate change on long-term nitrogen availability and forest productivity in the New Jersey Pine Barrens

    Treesearch

    Melissa S. Lucash; Robert M. Scheller; Alec M. Kretchun; Kenneth L. Clark; John. Hom

    2014-01-01

    Increased wildfires and temperatures due to climate change are expected to have profound effects on forest productivity and nitrogen (N) cycling. Forecasts about how wildfire and climate change will affect forests seldom consider N availability, which may limit forest response to climate change, particularly in fire-prone landscapes. The overall objective of this study...

  12. Forest cover change, climate variability, and hydrological responses

    Treesearch

    Xiaohua Wei; Rita Winkler; Ge Sun

    2017-01-01

    Understanding ecohydrological response to environmental change is critical for protecting watershed functions, sustaining clean water supply, and other ecosystem services, safeguarding public safety, floods mitigation, and drought response. Understanding ecohyhdrological processes and their implications to forest and water management has become increasingly important...

  13. Positive biodiversity-productivity relationship predominant in global forests.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jingjing; Crowther, Thomas W; Picard, Nicolas; Wiser, Susan; Zhou, Mo; Alberti, Giorgio; Schulze, Ernst-Detlef; McGuire, A David; Bozzato, Fabio; Pretzsch, Hans; de-Miguel, Sergio; Paquette, Alain; Hérault, Bruno; Scherer-Lorenzen, Michael; Barrett, Christopher B; Glick, Henry B; Hengeveld, Geerten M; Nabuurs, Gert-Jan; Pfautsch, Sebastian; Viana, Helder; Vibrans, Alexander C; Ammer, Christian; Schall, Peter; Verbyla, David; Tchebakova, Nadja; Fischer, Markus; Watson, James V; Chen, Han Y H; Lei, Xiangdong; Schelhaas, Mart-Jan; Lu, Huicui; Gianelle, Damiano; Parfenova, Elena I; Salas, Christian; Lee, Eungul; Lee, Boknam; Kim, Hyun Seok; Bruelheide, Helge; Coomes, David A; Piotto, Daniel; Sunderland, Terry; Schmid, Bernhard; Gourlet-Fleury, Sylvie; Sonké, Bonaventure; Tavani, Rebecca; Zhu, Jun; Brandl, Susanne; Vayreda, Jordi; Kitahara, Fumiaki; Searle, Eric B; Neldner, Victor J; Ngugi, Michael R; Baraloto, Christopher; Frizzera, Lorenzo; Bałazy, Radomir; Oleksyn, Jacek; Zawiła-Niedźwiecki, Tomasz; Bouriaud, Olivier; Bussotti, Filippo; Finér, Leena; Jaroszewicz, Bogdan; Jucker, Tommaso; Valladares, Fernando; Jagodzinski, Andrzej M; Peri, Pablo L; Gonmadje, Christelle; Marthy, William; O'Brien, Timothy; Martin, Emanuel H; Marshall, Andrew R; Rovero, Francesco; Bitariho, Robert; Niklaus, Pascal A; Alvarez-Loayza, Patricia; Chamuya, Nurdin; Valencia, Renato; Mortier, Frédéric; Wortel, Verginia; Engone-Obiang, Nestor L; Ferreira, Leandro V; Odeke, David E; Vasquez, Rodolfo M; Lewis, Simon L; Reich, Peter B

    2016-10-14

    The biodiversity-productivity relationship (BPR) is foundational to our understanding of the global extinction crisis and its impacts on ecosystem functioning. Understanding BPR is critical for the accurate valuation and effective conservation of biodiversity. Using ground-sourced data from 777,126 permanent plots, spanning 44 countries and most terrestrial biomes, we reveal a globally consistent positive concave-down BPR, showing that continued biodiversity loss would result in an accelerating decline in forest productivity worldwide. The value of biodiversity in maintaining commercial forest productivity alone-US$166 billion to 490 billion per year according to our estimation-is more than twice what it would cost to implement effective global conservation. This highlights the need for a worldwide reassessment of biodiversity values, forest management strategies, and conservation priorities. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  14. Forest response and recovery following disturbance in upland forests of the Atlantic Coastal Plain.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Karina V R; Renninger, Heidi J; Carlo, Nicholas J; Vanderklein, Dirk W

    2014-01-01

    Carbon and water cycling of forests contribute significantly to the Earth's overall biogeochemical cycling and may be affected by disturbance and climate change. As a larger body of research becomes available about leaf-level, ecosystem and regional scale effects of disturbances on forest ecosystems, a more mechanistic understanding is developing which can improve modeling efforts. Here, we summarize some of the major effects of physical and biogenic disturbances, such as drought, prescribed fire, and insect defoliation, on leaf and ecosystem-scale physiological responses as well as impacts on carbon and water cycling in an Atlantic Coastal Plain upland oak/pine and upland pine forest. During drought, stomatal conductance and canopy stomatal conductance were reduced, however, defoliation increased conductance on both leaf-level and canopy scale. Furthermore, after prescribed fire, leaf-level stomatal conductance was unchanged for pines but decreased for oaks, while canopy stomatal conductance decreased temporarily, but then rebounded the following growing season, thus exhibiting transient responses. This study suggests that forest response to disturbance varies from the leaf to ecosystem level as well as species level and thus, these differential responses interplay to determine the fate of forest structure and functioning post disturbance.

  15. Forest response and recovery following disturbance in upland forests of the Atlantic Coastal Plain

    PubMed Central

    Schäfer, Karina V. R.; Renninger, Heidi J.; Carlo, Nicholas J.; Vanderklein, Dirk W.

    2014-01-01

    Carbon and water cycling of forests contribute significantly to the Earth's overall biogeochemical cycling and may be affected by disturbance and climate change. As a larger body of research becomes available about leaf-level, ecosystem and regional scale effects of disturbances on forest ecosystems, a more mechanistic understanding is developing which can improve modeling efforts. Here, we summarize some of the major effects of physical and biogenic disturbances, such as drought, prescribed fire, and insect defoliation, on leaf and ecosystem-scale physiological responses as well as impacts on carbon and water cycling in an Atlantic Coastal Plain upland oak/pine and upland pine forest. During drought, stomatal conductance and canopy stomatal conductance were reduced, however, defoliation increased conductance on both leaf-level and canopy scale. Furthermore, after prescribed fire, leaf-level stomatal conductance was unchanged for pines but decreased for oaks, while canopy stomatal conductance decreased temporarily, but then rebounded the following growing season, thus exhibiting transient responses. This study suggests that forest response to disturbance varies from the leaf to ecosystem level as well as species level and thus, these differential responses interplay to determine the fate of forest structure and functioning post disturbance. PMID:25018759

  16. How does forest productivity influence river export of plant wax?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feakins, S. J.; West, A. J.; Galy, V.; Malhi, Y.; Girardin, C.; Asner, G. P.; Ponton, C.; Wu, M. S.

    2016-12-01

    How much carbon, fixed in tropical forest photosynthesis, is exported by rivers? From the large biomass held in tropical forests only a small component enters rivers for export. The exported fraction of tropical forest production represents the component removed from the rapid photosynthesis-respiration cycle, with potential for long-term sequestration in downstream sediments. Along the journey downstream, the transported organic matter may be lost to respiration, or stored in deposits before remobilization and later export. Discriminating between carbon sources in rivers presents a challenge to answering the question posed. But, plant waxes are specific tracers of plant biosynthesis that we use to identify sourcing and transport by the river, and that represent a resilient component with sequestration potential. Thus, we quantify the fraction of fresh forest production that goes into plant wax in a series of 9 forest plots in the Madre de Dios River catchment, Peru and set this in the context of catchment scale NPP estimates. Downstream sampling in two seasons captures the suspended particulate load of plant waxes in transit. Paired analyses of carbon and hydrogen isotopes allow for source apportionment by elevation allowing insight into catchment integration processes. Downstream concentrations of plant wax n-alkanes in river are related to discharge to yield estimates of the instantaneous catchment export flux in two contrasting seasons. Ultimately we seek to constrain the flux of plant wax exported by the river, and to estimate what fraction of forest NPP makes that journey from land to sea.

  17. Forest herb layer response to long-term light deficit along a forest developmental series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plue, J.; Van Gils, B.; De Schrijver, A.; Peppler-Lisbach, C.; Verheyen, K.; Hermy, M.

    2013-11-01

    Temperate deciduous forest communities are slow-changing systems, with herbaceous understorey communities displaying a delayed response to overstorey canopy and light dynamics. While light availability constrains herbaceous understorey diversity and composition in space and time, its response in the long-term absence of light has seldom been quantified, particularly as it is often confounded by covariation in soil conditions. We studied a developmental high-forest series in two widespread NW-European temperate deciduous forest communities with different dominant canopy tree species: Stellario-Carpinetum (Oak-hornbeam canopy) and Milio-Fagetum (Beech canopy). All plots had soil conditions which were not significantly different, enabling investigation into the direct effects of the long-term absence of light on the herbaceous understorey, disentangled from the confounding effects of soil variation. Plant species richness measures declined with canopy cover continuity in the herb layer of the oak-hornbeam stands, whereas richness in the herb layer of the beech stands displayed a unimodal response. Nonetheless, in both plant communities, species richness and closed-forest species richness were negatively affected by the extended absence of light in stands with the longest period of continuous canopy cover. The long-term limitation or decline in quantitative and qualitative light availability as a result of extended periods of canopy cover was shown to be the primary driver behind losses in alpha-diversity, community composition turn-over and individual species dynamics. Heliophilous species were lost from both communities, while closed-forest species also declined, as a direct consequence of the prolonged period without ample light on the forest floor. This study demonstrates how the herb layer is affected by the absence of light on the forest floor mediated by long periods of continuous canopy cover. Despite different temporal responses in herb layer richness and

  18. Response of a reptile guild to forest harvesting.

    PubMed

    Todd, Brian D; Andrews, Kimberly M

    2008-06-01

    Despite the growing concern over reptile population declines, the effects of modern industrial silviculture on reptiles have been understudied, particularly for diminutive and often overlooked species such as small-bodied snakes. We created 4 replicated forest-management landscapes to determine the response of small snakes to forest harvesting in the Coastal Plain of the southeastern United States. We divided the replicated landscapes into 4 treatments that represented a range of disturbed habitats: clearcut with coarse woody debris removed; clearcut with coarse woody debris retained; thinned pine stand; and control (unharvested second-growth planted pines). Canopy cover and ground litter were significantly reduced in clearcuts, intermediate in thinned forests, and highest in unharvested controls. Bare soil, maximum air temperatures, and understory vegetation all increased with increasing habitat disturbance. Concomitantly, we observed significantly reduced relative abundance of all 6 study species (scarletsnake[Cemophora coccinea], ring-neck snake[Diadophis punctatus], scarlet kingsnake[Lampropeltis triangulum], red-bellied snake[Storeria occipitomaculata], southeastern crowned snake[Tantilla coronata], and smooth earthsnake[Virginia valeriae]) in clearcuts compared with unharvested or thinned pine stands. In contrast, the greatest relative snake abundance occurred in thinned forest stands. Our results demonstrate that at least one form of forest harvesting is compatible with maintaining snake populations. Our results also highlight the importance of open-canopy structure and ground litter to small snakes in southeastern forests and the negative consequences of forest clearcutting for small snakes.

  19. Recent Trends in the Asian Forest Products Trade and Their Impact on Alaska

    Treesearch

    Joseph A. Roos; Daisuke Sasatani; Allen M Brackley; Valerie Barber

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes patterns of forest products trade between Asia and Alaska. Secondary data were collected and analyzed to identify Alaska forest product trading partners and the species used. Some of the many trends occurring in the Asian forest products industry include the shift from solid wood products to engineered wood products, the evolution of China as “the...

  20. University of Maine Integrated Forest Product Refinery (IFPR) Technology Research

    SciTech Connect

    Pendse, Hemant P.

    2010-11-23

    This project supported research on science and technology that forms a basis for integrated forest product refinery for co-production of chemicals, fuels and materials using existing forest products industry infrastructure. Clear systems view of an Integrated Forest Product Refinery (IFPR) allowed development of a compelling business case for a small scale technology demonstration in Old Town ME for co-production of biofuels using cellulosic sugars along with pulp for the new owners of the facility resulting in an active project on Integrated Bio-Refinery (IBR) at the Old Town Fuel & Fiber. Work on production of advanced materials from woody biomass has led to active projects in bioplastics and carbon nanofibers. A lease for 40,000 sq. ft. high-bay space has been obtained to establish a Technology Research Center for IFPR technology validation on industrially relevant scale. UMaine forest bioproducts research initiative that began in April 2006 has led to establishment of a formal research institute beginning in March 2010.

  1. How to manage oak forests for acorn production

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, P.S.

    1994-03-01

    Oak forests are life support systems for the many animals that live in them. Acorns, a staple product of oak forests, are eaten by many species of birds and mammals including deer, bear, squirrels, mice, rabbits, foxes, raccoons, grackles, turkey, grouse, quail, blue jays, woodpeckers, and water-fowl. The population and health and wildlife often rise, and fall with the cyclic production of acorns. Acorns' importance to wildlife is related to several factors including their widespread occurrence, palatability, nutritiousness, and availability during the critical fall and winter period.

  2. Deformation response of conformally coated carbon nanotube forest.

    PubMed

    Abadi, Parisa Pour Shahid Saeed; Maschmann, Matthew R; Baur, Jeffery W; Graham, Samuel; Cola, Baratunde A

    2013-11-29

    The deformation mechanism and mechanical properties of carbon nanotube (CNT) forests conformally coated with alumina using atomic layer deposition (ALD) are investigated using in situ and ex situ micro-indentation. While micro-indentation of a CNT forest coated with a thin discontinuous layer using 20 ALD cycles results in a deformation response similar to the response of uncoated CNT forests, a similar test on a CNT forest coated with a sufficiently thick and continuous layer using 100 ALD cycles causes fracture of both the alumina coatings and the core CNTs. With a 10 nm coating, 4-fold and 14-fold stiffness increases are measured using a flat punch and a Berkovich tip, respectively. Indentation testing with the Berkovich tip also reveals increased recoverability at relatively low strains. The results show that ALD coated CNT forests could be useful for applications that require higher stiffness or recoverability. Also, fracturing of the nanotubes shows that upper limits exist in the loading of conformally coated CNT forests.

  3. Differences in forest plant functional trait distributions across land-use and productivity gradients.

    PubMed

    Mayfield, Margaret M; Dwyer, John M; Chalmandrier, Loïc; Wells, Jessie A; Bonser, Stephen P; Catterall, Carla P; DeClerck, Fabrice; Ding, Yi; Fraterrigo, Jennifer M; Metcalfe, Daniel J; Queiroz, Cibele; Vesk, Peter A; Morgan, John W

    2013-07-01

    Plant functional traits are commonly used as proxies for plant responses to environmental challenges, yet few studies have explored how functional trait distributions differ across gradients of land-use change. By comparing trait distributions in intact forests with those across land-use change gradients, we can improve our understanding of the ways land-use change alters the diversity and functioning of plant communities. We examined how the variation and distribution of trait values for seven plant functional traits differ between reference natural forest and three types of land-use conversion (pasture, old-field, or "legacy" sites-regrowth following logging), landscape productivity (NPP) and vegetation strata (tree or non-tree "understory"), in a meta-analysis of studies from 15 landscapes across five continents. Although trait variation often differed between land-uses within a landscape, these patterns were rarely consistent across landscapes. The variance and distribution of traits were more likely to differ consistently between natural forest and land-use conversion categories for understory (non-tree) plants than for trees. Landscape productivity did not significantly alter the difference in trait variance between natural forest and land-use conversion categories for any trait except dispersal. Our results suggest that even for traits well linked to plant environmental response strategies, broad classes of land-use change and landscape productivity are not generally useful indicators of the mechanisms driving compositional changes in human-modified forest systems.

  4. The distribution of nitrogen and phosphorus in forest floor layers of oak-hickory forests of varying productivity

    Treesearch

    Karyn S. Rodkey; Donald J. Kaczmarek; Phillip E. Pope

    1995-01-01

    The forest floor plays a major role in the storage and recycling of nutrients which, in turn, are important in maintaining the growth and productivity of forest ecosystems. The development of forest floor organic layers as influenced by litter quality and site quality is unclear. Previous studies in this lab have shown that the size and distribution of available...

  5. A GIS-derived integrated moisture index to predict forest composition and productivity of Ohio forests (U.S.A.)

    Treesearch

    Louis R. Iverson; Martin E. Dale; Charles T. Scott; Anantha Prasad; Anantha Prasad

    1997-01-01

    A geographic information system (GIS) approach was used in conjunction with forest-plot data to develop an integrated moisture index (IMI), which was then used to predict forest productivity (site index) and species composition for forests in Ohio. In this region, typical of eastern hardwoods across the Midwest and southern Appalachians, topographic aspect and position...

  6. Community occupancy responses of small mammals to restoration treatments in ponderosa pine forests, northern Arizona, USA.

    PubMed

    Kalies, E L; Dickson, B G; Chambers, C L; Covington, W W

    2012-01-01

    In western North American conifer forests, wildfires are increasing in frequency and severity due to heavy fuel loads that have accumulated after a century of fire suppression. Forest restoration treatments (e.g., thinning and/or burning) are being designed and implemented at large spatial and temporal scales in an effort to reduce fire risk and restore forest structure and function. In ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests, predominantly open forest structure and a frequent, low-severity fire regime constituted the evolutionary environment for wildlife that persisted for thousands of years. Small mammals are important in forest ecosystems as prey and in affecting primary production and decomposition. During 2006-2009, we trapped eight species of small mammals at 294 sites in northern Arizona and used occupancy modeling to determine community responses to thinning and habitat features. The most important covariates in predicting small mammal occupancy were understory vegetation cover, large snags, and treatment. Our analysis identified two generalist species found at relatively high occupancy rates across all sites, four open-forest species that responded positively to treatment, and two dense-forest species that responded negatively to treatment unless specific habitat features were retained. Our results indicate that all eight small mammal species can benefit from restoration treatments, particularly if aspects of their evolutionary environment (e.g., large trees, snags, woody debris) are restored. The occupancy modeling approach we used resulted in precise species-level estimates of occupancy in response to habitat attributes for a greater number of small mammal species than in other comparable studies. We recommend our approach for other studies faced with high variability and broad spatial and temporal scales in assessing impacts of treatments or habitat alteration on wildlife species. Moreover, since forest planning efforts are increasingly focusing on

  7. Climate and bark beetle effects on forest productivity -- linking dendroecology with forest landscape modeling

    Treesearch

    Alec M. Kretchun; E. Louise Loudermilk; Robert M. Scheller; Matthew D. Hurteau; Soumaya Belmecheri

    2016-01-01

    In forested systems throughout the world, climate influences tree growth and aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP). The effects of extreme climate events (i.e., drought) on ANPP can be compounded by biotic factors (e.g., insect outbreaks). Understanding the contribution of each of these influences on growth requires information at...

  8. California`s forest products industry: 1994. Forest Service resource bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, F.R.

    1997-06-01

    This report presents the findings of a survey of primary forest products industries in California for 1994. The survey included the following sectors: lumber; veneer; pulp and board; shake and shingle; export; and post, pole, and characteristics of the industry, nature and flow of logs consumed, and disposition of mill residues.

  9. Oregon`s forest products industry: 1994. Forest Service resource bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, F.R.

    1997-03-01

    This report presents the findings of a survey of primary forest products industries in Oregon for 1994. The survey included the following sectors: lumber; veneer; pulp and board; shake and shingle; export; and post, pole, and piling. Tables, presented by sector and for the industry as a whole, include characteristics of the industry, nature and flow of logs consumed, and disposition of mill residues.

  10. Effects of climate change and shifts in forest composition on forest net primary production

    Treesearch

    Jyh-Min Chiang; Louts [Louis] R. Iverson; Anantha Prasad; Kim J. Brown

    2008-01-01

    Forests are dynamic in both structure and species composition, and these dynamics are strongly influenced by climate. However, the net effects of future tree species composition on net primary production (NPP) are not well understood. The objective of this work was to model the potential range shifts of tree species (DISTRIB Model) and predict their impacts on NPP (...

  11. Harvested wood products and REDD+: looking beyond the forest border.

    PubMed

    Butarbutar, Tunggul; Köhl, Michael; Neupane, Prem Raj

    2016-12-01

    The focus of REDD+ is sensu stricto on maintaining forest carbon stocks. We extend the scope of sustainable management of forest from forests to timber utilization, and study carbon offsets resulting from the utilization of harvested timber for bio energy or harvested wood products (HWPs). The emission budget of harvesting operations depends on the loss of standing biomass by timber extracted from the forest site and logging losses on the one side, and on the other on the wood end use and the utilization of processing residues. We develop two scenarios to quantify the magnitude of CO2 emissions by (1) energetic utilization, and (2) energetic and material utilization of harvested timber and compare the substitution effects for different fossil energy sources. The direct energetic use of harvested timber does not compensate for the losses of forest carbon stock. Logging residuals and displacement factors reflecting different wood use constitute by far the most important factor in potential emission reductions. Substitution effects resulting from energetic use of mill residuals and from HWPs have only a subordinated contribution to the total emissions as well as the type of fossil fuel utilized to quantify substitution effects. Material substitution effects associated with harvested wood products show a high potential to increase the climate change benefits. The observation and perception of REDD+ should not be restricted to sustainable management and reduced impact logging practices in the forest domain but should be extended to the utilization of extracted timber. Substitution effects from material and energetic utilization of harvested timber result in considerable emission reductions, which can compensate for the loss of forest carbon, and eventually contribute to the overall climate change mitigation benefits from forestry sector.

  12. Birds in Anthropogenic Landscapes: The Responses of Ecological Groups to Forest Loss in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest

    PubMed Central

    Morante-Filho, José Carlos; Rhodes, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Habitat loss is the dominant threat to biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in terrestrial environments. In this study, we used an a priori classification of bird species based on their dependence on native forest habitats (forest-specialist and habitat generalists) and specific food resources (frugivores and insectivores) to evaluate their responses to forest cover reduction in landscapes in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. From the patch-landscapes approach, we delimited 40 forest sites, and quantified the percentage of native forest within a 2 km radius around the center of each site (from 6 - 85%). At each site, we sampled birds using the point-count method. We used a null model, a generalized linear model and a four-parameter logistic model to evaluate the relationship between richness and abundance of the bird groups and the native forest amount. A piecewise model was then used to determine the threshold value for bird groups that showed nonlinear responses. The richness and abundance of the bird community as a whole were not affected by changes in forest cover in this region. However, a decrease in forest cover had a negative effect on diversity of forest-specialist, frugivorous and insectivorous birds, and a positive effect on generalist birds. The species richness and abundance of all ecological groups were nonlinearly related to forest reduction and showed similar threshold values, i.e., there were abrupt changes in individuals and species numbers when forest amount was less than approximately 50%. Forest sites within landscapes with forest cover that was less than 50% contained a different bird species composition than more extensively forested sites and had fewer forest-specialist species and higher beta-diversity. Our study demonstrated the pervasive effect of forest reduction on bird communities in one of the most important hotspots for bird conservation and shows that many vulnerable species require extensive forest cover to persist. PMID:26083245

  13. Birds in Anthropogenic Landscapes: The Responses of Ecological Groups to Forest Loss in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest.

    PubMed

    Morante-Filho, José Carlos; Faria, Deborah; Mariano-Neto, Eduardo; Rhodes, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Habitat loss is the dominant threat to biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in terrestrial environments. In this study, we used an a priori classification of bird species based on their dependence on native forest habitats (forest-specialist and habitat generalists) and specific food resources (frugivores and insectivores) to evaluate their responses to forest cover reduction in landscapes in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. From the patch-landscapes approach, we delimited 40 forest sites, and quantified the percentage of native forest within a 2 km radius around the center of each site (from 6 - 85%). At each site, we sampled birds using the point-count method. We used a null model, a generalized linear model and a four-parameter logistic model to evaluate the relationship between richness and abundance of the bird groups and the native forest amount. A piecewise model was then used to determine the threshold value for bird groups that showed nonlinear responses. The richness and abundance of the bird community as a whole were not affected by changes in forest cover in this region. However, a decrease in forest cover had a negative effect on diversity of forest-specialist, frugivorous and insectivorous birds, and a positive effect on generalist birds. The species richness and abundance of all ecological groups were nonlinearly related to forest reduction and showed similar threshold values, i.e., there were abrupt changes in individuals and species numbers when forest amount was less than approximately 50%. Forest sites within landscapes with forest cover that was less than 50% contained a different bird species composition than more extensively forested sites and had fewer forest-specialist species and higher beta-diversity. Our study demonstrated the pervasive effect of forest reduction on bird communities in one of the most important hotspots for bird conservation and shows that many vulnerable species require extensive forest cover to persist.

  14. Impact response by a foamlike forest of coiled carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daraio, Chiara; Nesterenko, Vitali F.; Jin, Sungho; Wang, Wei; Rao, Apparao M.

    2006-09-01

    We studied the dynamic response of a foamlike forest of coiled carbon nanotubes under high strain rate deformation using a simple drop-ball test. The method is based on measuring the dynamic force between the ball and the foam on the substrate during the stages of penetration and restitution. The analysis of the forest's morphology after impact has shown no trace of plastic deformation and a full recovery of the foamlike layer of coiled carbon nanotubes under various impact velocities. The contact force exhibits a strongly nonlinear dependence on displacement and appears fundamentally different from the response of a forest of straight carbon nanotubes, and from the Hertzian type of plane-sphere interaction. "Brittle" fracture of the foamlike layer is observed after repeated high velocity impacts. Such layers of coiled nanotubes may be used as a strongly nonlinear spring in discrete systems for monitoring their dynamic behavior and as a nanostructure for localized microimpact protection.

  15. 29 CFR 780.1016 - Use of evergreens and forest products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of evergreens and forest products. 780.1016 Section 780... Labor Provisions Under Section 13(d) Requirements for Exemption § 780.1016 Use of evergreens and forest products. Harvesting of evergreens and other forest products is exempt only when these products will be...

  16. 29 CFR 780.1016 - Use of evergreens and forest products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Use of evergreens and forest products. 780.1016 Section 780... Labor Provisions Under Section 13(d) Requirements for Exemption § 780.1016 Use of evergreens and forest products. Harvesting of evergreens and other forest products is exempt only when these products will be...

  17. 29 CFR 780.1016 - Use of evergreens and forest products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Use of evergreens and forest products. 780.1016 Section 780... Labor Provisions Under Section 13(d) Requirements for Exemption § 780.1016 Use of evergreens and forest products. Harvesting of evergreens and other forest products is exempt only when these products will be...

  18. 29 CFR 780.1016 - Use of evergreens and forest products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Use of evergreens and forest products. 780.1016 Section 780... Labor Provisions Under Section 13(d) Requirements for Exemption § 780.1016 Use of evergreens and forest products. Harvesting of evergreens and other forest products is exempt only when these products will be...

  19. 29 CFR 780.1016 - Use of evergreens and forest products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Use of evergreens and forest products. 780.1016 Section 780... Labor Provisions Under Section 13(d) Requirements for Exemption § 780.1016 Use of evergreens and forest products. Harvesting of evergreens and other forest products is exempt only when these products will be...

  20. Mississippi's forest products industry: performance and contribution to the State's economy, 1970 to 1980.

    Treesearch

    Con H Schallau; Wilbur R. Maki; Bennett B. Foster; Clair H. Redmond

    1988-01-01

    The forest products industry is one of Mississippi's basic industries, and in 1980, it accounted for about one of six basic jobs. Mississippi was one of the majority of Southern States in which the forest products industry improved its competitive position during the 1970's. Between 1972 and 1977, growth in productivity of Mississippi's forest products...

  1. The influence of compositional and structural diversity on forest productivity

    Treesearch

    James N. Long; John D. Shaw

    2010-01-01

    Data from ~1500 ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa C. Lawson) stands in the western United States were used to examine the potential influence of compositional and structural diversity on forest productivity. Relative density, height and site quality were combined in a conceptually sound expression of the relationship between growth and growing stock for ponderosa pine-...

  2. Modeling Japan-South Seas trade in forest products.

    Treesearch

    J.R. Vincent

    1987-01-01

    The international trade of forest products has generated increasing research interest, yet experience with modeling such trade is limited. Primary issues include the effects of trade barriers and exchange rates on trade patterns and national welfare. This paper attempts to add to experience by modeling hardwood log, lumber, and plywood trade in a region that has been...

  3. Machine Vision Technology for the Forest Products Industry

    Treesearch

    Richard W. Conners; D.Earl Kline; Philip A. Araman; Thomas T. Drayer

    1997-01-01

    From forest to finished product, wood is moved from one processing stage to the next, subject to the decisions of individuals along the way. While this process has worked for hundreds of years, the technology exists today to provide more complete information to the decision makers. Virginia Tech has developed this technology, creating a machine vision prototype for...

  4. The South's outlook for sustainable forest bioenergy and biofuels production

    Treesearch

    David Wear; Robert Abt; Janaki Alavalapati; Greg Comatas; Mike Countess; Will McDow

    2010-01-01

    The future of a wood-based biofuel/bioenergy sector could hold important implications for the use, structure and function of forested landscapes in the South. This paper examines a set of questions regarding the potential effects of biofuel developments both on markets for traditional timber products and on the provision of various non-timber ecosystem services. In...

  5. Special forest products: species information guide for the Pacific Northwest.

    Treesearch

    Nan C. Vance; Melissa Borsting; David Pilz; Jim. Freed

    2001-01-01

    This guide is a collection of information about economically important vascular and nonvascular plants and fungi found in the Pacific Northwest that furnish special forest products. Many of these plants and fungi are also found in Alaska, northern Idaho, and western Montana. They contribute to many botanical, floral, woodcraft, and decorative industries and to the...

  6. Special forest products: an east-side perspective.

    Treesearch

    William E. Schlosser; Keith A. Blatner

    1997-01-01

    The special forest products industry has gained increasing attention, as timber harvest levels in the Pacific Northwest have declined, and has been heralded, at least by some, as a partial solution to the employment problems common throughout the rural areas of Washington, Oregon, Idaho, and Montana To date, relatively little work has been published on those portions...

  7. Culturally and economically important nontimber forest products of northern Maine

    Treesearch

    Michelle J. Baumflek; Marla R. Emery; Clare. Ginger

    2010-01-01

    Nontimber forest products (NTFPs) gathered for food, medicine, craft, spiritual, aesthetic, and utilitarian purposes make substantial contributions to the economic viability and cultural vitality of communities. In the St. John River watershed of northern Maine, people identifying with cultural groups including Acadian, Maliseet, Mi'kmaq, Scotch-Irish, and Swedish...

  8. Wyoming's forest products industry and timber harvest, 2005

    Treesearch

    Jason P. Brandt; Todd A. Morgan; Mike T. Thompson

    2009-01-01

    This report traces the flow of Wyoming's 2005 timber harvest through the primary timber-processing industry to the wholesale market and residue-using sectors. The structure, capacity, operations, and conditions of Wyoming's primary forest products industry are described; and volumes and uses of wood fiber are quantified. Historical and recent changes in...

  9. Timber production in selectively logged tropical forests in South America.

    Treesearch

    Michael Keller; Gregory P. Asner; Geoffrey Blate; Frank McGlocklin; John Merry; Marielos Peña-Claros; Johan Zweede

    2007-01-01

    Selective logging is an extensive land-use practice in South America. Governments in the region have enacted policies to promote the establishment and maintenance of economically productive and sustainable forest industries.However, both biological and policy constraints threaten to limit the viability of the industry over the long term.Biological constraints, such as...

  10. Light-emitting diode lighting for forest nursery seedling production

    Treesearch

    R. Kasten Dumroese; Jeremiah R. Pinto; Anthony S. Davis

    2015-01-01

    Crop lighting is an energy-intensive necessity for nursery production of high-quality native plants and forest tree seedlings. During the winter months (especially in northern USA latitudes) or overcast or cloudy days, the amount of solar radiation reaching greenhouse crops is insufficient resulting in growth cessation, early terminal bud formation, and failure of...

  11. Social values of specialty forest products to rural communities

    Treesearch

    Marla R. Emery

    1999-01-01

    Rural communities have long been known for their cultural distinctiveness, independent spirits, and, unfortunately, comparatively high poverty rates. A look at the promotion of Specialty Forest Products (SFP) as a rural development strategy against the backdrop of larger social trends such as welfare reform and economic restructuring suggests the need to ask hard...

  12. Deriving Forest Harvesting Machine Productivity from Positional Data

    Treesearch

    T.P. McDonald; S.E. Taylor; R.B. Rummer

    2000-01-01

    Automated production study systems will provide researchers a valuable tool for developing cost and impact models of forest operations under a wide range of conditions, making the development of true planning tools for tailoring logging systems to a particular site a reality. An automated time study system for skidders was developed, and in this study application of...

  13. A method for measuring sediment production from forest roads.

    Treesearch

    Keith. Kahklen

    2001-01-01

    Predicting sediment production from forest roads is necessary to determine their impact on watersheds and associated terrestrial and stream biota. A method is presented for measuring sediment originating from a road segment for individual storm events and quantifying the delivery to streams. Site selection criteria are listed to describe the characteristics for...

  14. United States trade in forest products, 1978 To 1987.

    Treesearch

    John T. Chmelik; David J. Brooks; Richard W. Haynes

    1989-01-01

    Tables summarize volume and unit value of United States trade in forest products. Import and export data are shown for 18 groups of commodities aggregated from 800 individual commodity items; original data were collected and reported by the U.S. Department of Commerce. Data given for each commodity group include detail on trading partners and information on shipments...

  15. International directory of documentation services concerning forestry and forest products

    Treesearch

    Peter A. Evans; Gary L. Skupa

    1981-01-01

    This directory lists 120 documentation services concerned with forestry, forest products, or related fields in 28 countries. The entry for each service includes title of service, cost, publisher, subject coverage, formatting data, input sources, indexing and data-handling methods, and availability of special services other than the primary ones of indexing and...

  16. Productivity of nonindustrial private forests in western Washington: alternative futures.

    Treesearch

    Ralph J. Alig; Darius M. Adams

    1995-01-01

    Nonindustrial private timberlands in western Washington have high productive potential and contribute harvest amounts somewhat more than proportional to their area. Of all private ownerships they are influenced the most by land use shifts and are affected in important ways by forest practice regulations. About 1 million acres of nonindustrial private timberland contain...

  17. Estimating aboveground net primary productivity in forest-dominated ecosystems

    Treesearch

    Brian D. Kloeppel; Mark E. Harmon; Timothy J. Fahey

    2007-01-01

    The measurement of net primary productivity (NPP) in forest ecosystems presents a variety of challenges because of the large and complex dimensions of trees and the difficulties of quantifying several components of NPP. As summarized by Clark et al. (2001a), these methodological challenges can be overcome, and more reliable spatial and temporal comparisons can be...

  18. Examining the ecosystem health and sustainability of the world's largest mangrove forest using multi-temporal MODIS products.

    PubMed

    Ishtiaque, Asif; Myint, Soe W; Wang, Chuyuan

    2016-11-01

    Sweeping across Bangladesh and India, the Sundarbans forest is the world's largest contiguous mangrove forest. Although the human population density is high at the edge, Sundarbans has not encountered significant areal transformation in the last four decades. However, we argue that forest degradation can occur discontinuously within the forest without alteration of the entire forest area. In this paper, we used MODIS land products to compare the spatiotemporal ecological dynamics of the Bangladesh and Indian part of this mangrove forest between 2000 and 2010. We used the following 5 ecological parameters for our analysis: the Percent Tree Cover (PTC), Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI), Net Primary Productivity (NPP), Leaf Area Index (LAI), and Evapotranspiration (ET). Our pixel-based time-series trend analysis for each MODIS image stack, using an ordinary least square (OLS) regression method, showed that forest degradation is happening in fragmented parcels within the forest. The degradation rate is comparatively higher in the Bangladesh part than in the Indian part of Sundarbans. Compartments 8, 10, 12, and 15 in the Bangladesh part, in particular, show high degradation, while compartment 48 and the southern edge of 45 show slight increases in PTC or EVI. Forest degradation in the Indian part of the forest is evident in the National Park and Reserve Forest blocks; however, no substantial degradation is evident in the western section. We have identified certain anthropogenic stressors (i.e., oil pollution, shrimp farming) and natural stressors (i.e., increased salinity, cyclones, forest fire) which might be responsible for the observed degradation. We have provided sustainable planning options and policy transformation alternatives for those areas under pressure from these stressors. We anticipate that our analysis of forest degradation will help management agencies, conservators, and policy makers achieve better management of this world's largest mangrove forest for

  19. Forest gradient response in Sierran landscapes: the physical template

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Urban, Dean L.; Miller, Carol; Halpin, Patrick N.; Stephenson, Nathan L.

    2000-01-01

    Vegetation pattern on landscapes is the manifestation of physical gradients, biotic response to these gradients, and disturbances. Here we focus on the physical template as it governs the distribution of mixed-conifer forests in California's Sierra Nevada. We extended a forest simulation model to examine montane environmental gradients, emphasizing factors affecting the water balance in these summer-dry landscapes. The model simulates the soil moisture regime in terms of the interaction of water supply and demand: supply depends on precipitation and water storage, while evapotranspirational demand varies with solar radiation and temperature. The forest cover itself can affect the water balance via canopy interception and evapotranspiration. We simulated Sierran forests as slope facets, defined as gridded stands of homogeneous topographic exposure, and verified simulated gradient response against sample quadrats distributed across Sequoia National Park. We then performed a modified sensitivity analysis of abiotic factors governing the physical gradient. Importantly, the model's sensitivity to temperature, precipitation, and soil depth varies considerably over the physical template, particularly relative to elevation. The physical drivers of the water balance have characteristic spatial scales that differ by orders of magnitude. Across large spatial extents, temperature and precipitation as defined by elevation primarily govern the location of the mixed conifer zone. If the analysis is constrained to elevations within the mixed-conifer zone, local topography comes into play as it influences drainage. Soil depth varies considerably at all measured scales, and is especially dominant at fine (within-stand) scales. Physical site variables can influence soil moisture deficit either by affecting water supply or water demand; these effects have qualitatively different implications for forest response. These results have clear implications about purely inferential approaches

  20. Estimating forest net primary production under changing climate: adding pests into the equation.

    PubMed

    Pinkard, E A; Battaglia, M; Roxburgh, S; O'Grady, A P

    2011-07-01

    The current approach to modelling pest impacts on forest net primary production (NPP) is to apply a constant modifier. This does not capture the large spatial and temporal variability in pest abundance and activity that can occur, meaning that overestimates or underestimates of pest impacts on forest NPP are likely. Taking a more mechanistic approach that incorporates an understanding of how physiology is influenced by pest attack, enables us to better capture system feedbacks and dynamics, thereby improving the capacity to predict into novel situations such as changing climate, and to account for both changes in pest activity and host responses to the growing environment now and into the future. We reviewed the effects of pests on forest NPP and found a range of responses and physiological mechanisms underlying those responses. Pest outbreaks can clearly be a major perturbation to forest NPP, and it seems likely that the frequency and intensity of pest outbreaks, and the ways in which host species respond to pest damage, will change in the future. We summarized these impacts in the form of a conceptual model at leaf, tree and stand scales, and compared the physiological processes embedded within that framework with the capacity of a representative range of NPP models to capture those processes. We found that some models can encapsulate some of the processes, but no model can comprehensively account for the range of physiological responses to pest attack experienced by trees. This is not surprising, given the paucity of empirical data for most of the world's forests, and that the models were developed primarily for other purposes. We conclude with a list of the key physiological processes and pathways that need to be included in forest growth models in order to adequately capture pest impacts on forest NPP under current and future climate scenarios, the equations that might enable this and the empirical data required to support them.

  1. N{sub 2}O production pathways in the subtropical acid forest soils in China

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Jinbo; Cai Zucong; Zhu Tongbin

    2011-07-15

    To date, N{sub 2}O production pathways are poorly understood in the humid subtropical and tropical forest soils. A {sup 15}N-tracing experiment was carried out under controlled laboratory conditions to investigate the processes responsible for N{sub 2}O production in four subtropical acid forest soils (pH<4.5) in China. The results showed that denitrification was the main source of N{sub 2}O emission in the subtropical acid forest soils, being responsible for 56.1%, 53.5%, 54.4%, and 55.2% of N{sub 2}O production, in the GC, GS, GB, and TC soils, respectively, under aerobic conditions (40%-52%WFPS). The heterotrophic nitrification (recalcitrant organic N oxidation) accounted for 27.3%-41.8% of N{sub 2}O production, while the contribution of autotrophic nitrification was little in the studied subtropical acid forest soils. The ratios of N{sub 2}O-N emission from total nitrification (heterotrophic+autotrophic nitrification) were higher than those in most previous references. The soil with the lowest pH and highest organic-C content (GB) had the highest ratio (1.63%), suggesting that soil pH-organic matter interactions may exist and affect N{sub 2}O product ratios from nitrification. The ratio of N{sub 2}O-N emission from heterotrophic nitrification varied from 0.02% to 25.4% due to soil pH and organic matter. Results are valuable in the accurate modeling of N2O production in the subtropical acid forest soils and global budget. - Highlights: {yields} We studied N{sub 2}O production pathways in subtropical acid forest soil under aerobic conditions. {yields} Denitrification was the main source of N{sub 2}O production in subtropical acid forest soils. {yields} Heterotrophic nitrification accounted for 27.3%-41.8% of N{sub 2}O production. {yields} While, contribution of autotrophic nitrification to N{sub 2}O production was little. {yields} Ratios of N{sub 2}O-N emission from nitrification were higher than those in most previous references.

  2. US forest products in the global economy

    Treesearch

    Dave Wear; Jeff Prestemon; Michaela O. Foster

    2015-01-01

    The United States’ shares of global industrial roundwood production and derivative products have declined precipitously since the 1990s. We evaluate the extent of these declines compared with those of major producing countries from 1961 to 2013. We find that the US global share of industrial roundwood peaked at 28% in 1999 but by 2013 was at 17%, with the decline...

  3. Opportunities for the forest products industries

    Treesearch

    Alan W. Rudie

    2011-01-01

    The concept of sustainable harvests is not new to lumber and paper companies—they have been concerned about it and been practicing it for decades, long before it became the headline in a newspaper article. After decades of static products and markets, the industry is offered an opportunity to add products in a new business sector—fuels and chemicals. Although paper...

  4. The global position of the U S forest products industry

    Treesearch

    Jeffrey P. Prestemon; David N. Wear; Michaela O. Foster

    2015-01-01

    The United States’ share of global industrial roundwood production has declined since the 1990s. We reviewed data from 1961-2013 to evaluate the extent of this decline for industrial roundwood and derived secondary forest products compared to other major producing countries. We find that the U.S. global share of industrial roundwood peaked at 28 percent in 1999 but...

  5. Quantifying the missing link between albedo and productivity of boreal forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hovi, Aarne; Liang, Jingjing; Korhonen, Lauri; Kobayashi, Hideki; Rautiainen, Miina

    2016-04-01

    Albedo and fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (FAPAR) determine the shortwave radiation balance and productivity of forests. Several studies have examined the relation between forest structure and albedo in the boreal zone. Studies regarding FAPAR are fewer and the relations between albedo and FAPAR are still poorly understood. To study these relations we simulated shortwave black sky albedo and canopy FAPAR, using the FRT forest reflectance model. We used two sets of field plots as input data. The plots were located in Alaska, USA (N = 584) and in Finland (N = 506) between Northern latitudes of 60° and 68° , and they represent naturally grown and more intensively managed (regularly thinned) forests, respectively. The simulations were carried out with sun zenith angles (SZA) typical to the biome, ranging from 40° to 80° . The simulated albedos in coniferous plots decreased with increasing tree height, whereas canopy FAPAR showed an opposite trend. The albedo of broadleaved plots was notably higher than that of coniferous plots. No species differences in canopy FAPAR were seen, except for pine forests in Finland that showed lowest FAPAR among species. Albedo and canopy FAPAR were negatively correlated (r ranged from -0.93 to -0.69) in coniferous plots. The correlations were notably weaker (r ranged from -0.64 to 0.05) if plots with broadleaved trees were included. To show the influence of forest management, we further examined the response of albedo and FAPAR to forest density (basal area) and fraction of broadleaved trees. Plots with low basal area showed high albedos but also low canopy FAPAR. When comparing the sparse plots to dense ones, the relative decrease in canopy FAPAR was larger than the relative increase in albedo. However, at large SZAs the basal area could be lowered to approx. 20 m2 ha-1 before FAPAR was notably reduced. Increasing the proportion of broadleaved trees from 0% to 100% increased the albedos to approximately

  6. A Long Term View of Forest Response to Environmental Change: 25 Years of Studying Harvard Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munger, J. W.; Wofsy, S. C.; Lindaas, J.; David, F.; David, O.

    2014-12-01

    Forests influence the budgets of greenhouse gases, and understanding how they will respond to environmental change is critical to accurately predicting future GHG trends. The time scale for climate change is long and forest growth is slow, thus very long measurement periods are required to observe meaningful forest response. We established an eddy flux tower within a mixed forest stand dominated by red oak and red maple at the Harvard Forest LTER site in 1989 where CO2, H2O and energy fluxes together with meteorological observations have been measured continuously. An array of plots for biometric measurements was established in 1993. Flux measurement at an adjacent hemlock stand began in 2000. Records of land use and disturbance and vegetation plot data extend back to 1907. The combined suite of measurements merges observations of instantaneous ecosystem responses to environmental forcing with details of vegetation dynamics and forest growth that represent the emergent properties relevant to long-term ecosystem change. Both the deciduous stand and hemlock stand are accumulating biomass. Each has added over 20 Mg-C ha-1 as woody biomass in trees >10cm dbh since 1990, even though the hemlock stand is older. Net carbon exchange shows enhanced uptake in early spring and late fall months in response to warmer temperatures and likely an increase in evergreen foliage at the deciduous site. Net carbon uptake efficiency at the deciduous stand has increased over time as well as indicated by peak NEE under optimum light conditions. The trend is only partly explained by variation in mean leaf area index and cannot be directly attributed to climate response. The combination of longer growing season and increased uptake efficiency yields a general trend of increasing annual NEE (Fig. 1). However, significant excursions in the trend highlight the sensitivity of forest carbon stocks. The pulse of high annual carbon uptake (peak 6 Mg-C ha-1y-1 in 2008) from 2000-2008 is only

  7. Sources or sinks? The responses of tropical forests to current and future climate and atmospheric composition.

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Deborah A

    2004-01-01

    How tropical rainforests are responding to the ongoing global changes in atmospheric composition and climate is little studied and poorly understood. Although rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) could enhance forest productivity, increased temperatures and drought are likely to diminish it. The limited field data have produced conflicting views of the net impacts of these changes so far. One set of studies has seemed to point to enhanced carbon uptake; however, questions have arisen about these findings, and recent experiments with tropical forest trees indicate carbon saturation of canopy leaves and no biomass increase under enhanced CO2. Other field observations indicate decreased forest productivity and increased tree mortality in recent years of peak temperatures and drought (strong El Niño episodes). To determine current climatic responses of forests around the world tropics will require careful annual monitoring of ecosystem performance in representative forests. To develop the necessary process-level understanding of these responses will require intensified experimentation at the whole-tree and stand levels. Finally, a more complete understanding of tropical rainforest carbon cycling is needed for determining whether these ecosystems are carbon sinks or sources now, and how this status might change during the next century. PMID:15212097

  8. Nut Production in Bertholletia excelsa across a Logged Forest Mosaic: Implications for Multiple Forest Use.

    PubMed

    Rockwell, Cara A; Guariguata, Manuel R; Menton, Mary; Arroyo Quispe, Eriks; Quaedvlieg, Julia; Warren-Thomas, Eleanor; Fernandez Silva, Harol; Jurado Rojas, Edwin Eduardo; Kohagura Arrunátegui, José Andrés Hideki; Meza Vega, Luis Alberto; Revilla Vera, Olivia; Quenta Hancco, Roger; Valera Tito, Jonatan Frank; Villarroel Panduro, Betxy Tabita; Yucra Salas, Juan José

    2015-01-01

    Although many examples of multiple-use forest management may be found in tropical smallholder systems, few studies provide empirical support for the integration of selective timber harvesting with non-timber forest product (NTFP) extraction. Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa, Lecythidaceae) is one of the world's most economically-important NTFP species extracted almost entirely from natural forests across the Amazon Basin. An obligate out-crosser, Brazil nut flowers are pollinated by large-bodied bees, a process resulting in a hard round fruit that takes up to 14 months to mature. As many smallholders turn to the financial security provided by timber, Brazil nut fruits are increasingly being harvested in logged forests. We tested the influence of tree and stand-level covariates (distance to nearest cut stump and local logging intensity) on total nut production at the individual tree level in five recently logged Brazil nut concessions covering about 4000 ha of forest in Madre de Dios, Peru. Our field team accompanied Brazil nut harvesters during the traditional harvest period (January-April 2012 and January-April 2013) in order to collect data on fruit production. Three hundred and ninety-nine (approximately 80%) of the 499 trees included in this study were at least 100 m from the nearest cut stump, suggesting that concessionaires avoid logging near adult Brazil nut trees. Yet even for those trees on the edge of logging gaps, distance to nearest cut stump and local logging intensity did not have a statistically significant influence on Brazil nut production at the applied logging intensities (typically 1-2 timber trees removed per ha). In one concession where at least 4 trees ha-1 were removed, however, the logging intensity covariate resulted in a marginally significant (0.09) P value, highlighting a potential risk for a drop in nut production at higher intensities. While we do not suggest that logging activities should be completely avoided in Brazil nut rich

  9. Nut Production in Bertholletia excelsa across a Logged Forest Mosaic: Implications for Multiple Forest Use

    PubMed Central

    Rockwell, Cara A.; Guariguata, Manuel R.; Menton, Mary; Arroyo Quispe, Eriks; Quaedvlieg, Julia; Warren-Thomas, Eleanor; Fernandez Silva, Harol; Jurado Rojas, Edwin Eduardo; Kohagura Arrunátegui, José Andrés Hideki; Meza Vega, Luis Alberto; Revilla Vera, Olivia; Valera Tito, Jonatan Frank; Villarroel Panduro, Betxy Tabita; Yucra Salas, Juan José

    2015-01-01

    Although many examples of multiple-use forest management may be found in tropical smallholder systems, few studies provide empirical support for the integration of selective timber harvesting with non-timber forest product (NTFP) extraction. Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa, Lecythidaceae) is one of the world’s most economically-important NTFP species extracted almost entirely from natural forests across the Amazon Basin. An obligate out-crosser, Brazil nut flowers are pollinated by large-bodied bees, a process resulting in a hard round fruit that takes up to 14 months to mature. As many smallholders turn to the financial security provided by timber, Brazil nut fruits are increasingly being harvested in logged forests. We tested the influence of tree and stand-level covariates (distance to nearest cut stump and local logging intensity) on total nut production at the individual tree level in five recently logged Brazil nut concessions covering about 4000 ha of forest in Madre de Dios, Peru. Our field team accompanied Brazil nut harvesters during the traditional harvest period (January-April 2012 and January-April 2013) in order to collect data on fruit production. Three hundred and ninety-nine (approximately 80%) of the 499 trees included in this study were at least 100 m from the nearest cut stump, suggesting that concessionaires avoid logging near adult Brazil nut trees. Yet even for those trees on the edge of logging gaps, distance to nearest cut stump and local logging intensity did not have a statistically significant influence on Brazil nut production at the applied logging intensities (typically 1–2 timber trees removed per ha). In one concession where at least 4 trees ha-1 were removed, however, the logging intensity covariate resulted in a marginally significant (0.09) P value, highlighting a potential risk for a drop in nut production at higher intensities. While we do not suggest that logging activities should be completely avoided in Brazil nut rich

  10. Monitoring the Philippine Forest Cover Change Using Ndvi Products of Remote Sensing Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, R. C.; Mouginis-Mark, P.; Wright, R.; Garbeil, H.; Craig, B.

    2004-12-01

    The Philippines has one of the world's fastest disappearing forest cover, which is being lost to natural processes and landscape-modifying human activities. Currently, forested landscape covers 24% (i.e., 7.2 million hectares) of the Philippines' total land area, of which only 800,000 hectares are considered as old-growth forests. Occasionally, volcanic activities and earthquakes cause large-scale impacts on the forest cover, but the systematic reduction of the country's forest has been sustained through unregulated logging operations and other human-induced landscape modification. Reforestation and watershed protection have become important public policy programs as forest denudation is linked to recent devastating landslides, debris flows and flashfloods. However, many watershed areas that are at risk to deforestation are hardly accessible to ground-based monitoring. A spaced-based monitoring system facilitates an efficient and timely response to changes in the quality and extent of the Philippine forest cover. This monitoring system relies in the generation of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) products from the red and infrared bands of remote sensing data, which correlates with the amount of chlorophyll in the vegetation. Given the existing forest classification maps, non-forested regions are masked in the data analysis, so that only forest-related changes in the vegetation are shown in the NDVI image difference products. A combination of two MODIS-bearing satellites, i.e., Terra and Aqua, acquire high temporal and moderate spatial resolution data, enabling the countrywide detection of vegetation changes within a certain observation period. MODIS data are calibrated for setting the pixel quality thresholds, which minimize the artifact of clouds and haze in the analysis. Areas showing dramatic changes are further investigated using higher resolution data, such as ASTER and Landsat 7 ETM. Sequential NDVI products of remote sensing data provide

  11. Microbial responses to experimental warming in a peatland forest ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kluber, L. A.; Hanson, P. J.; Schadt, C. W.

    2016-12-01

    The Spruce and Peatland Responses Under Climatic and Environmental Change (SPRUCE) experiment is a ten-year ecosystem manipulation experiment examining how peatland forests respond to increased temperature and CO2 levels. This experiment is expected to lead to various changes in ecosystem processes, including microbially mediated biogeochemical cycles that may ultimately alter the overall C balance of these ecosystems. The initial phase of this experiment began over the summer of 2014 by heating deep subsurface peat to +2.25, +4.5, +6.75 and +9.0 °C above ambient plots with a target heating zone of 1.5-2 meters depth. Whole ecosystem warming began the summer of 2015 with the addition of aboveground heating to the same target temperatures. The response of microbial communities to in-situ warming is assessed with qPCR and rRNA amplicon sequencing at eleven discrete depths across the peat profile to a depth of 200 cm. Additionally, metagenomic sequencing is used to characterize microbial metabolic and functional potential on four depths per profile. After one year of deep peat warming, microbial community structure and abundance of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, and methanogenic populations showed strong vertical stratification across the peat depth profile yet no clear response to the temperature treatments. In an effort to identify factors that may be limiting decomposition and microbial community change in deep peat, we conducted a microcosm incubation of deep peat (150-200 cm depth) at 6 and 15 °C to mimic ambient and +9 °C SPRUCE conditions. Additional treatments included elevated pH and the addition of N and P. Microcosms were monitored for CO2 and CH4 production, and microbial community dynamics were assessed using qPCR and amplicon sequencing. Increasing temperature elevated both CO2 and CH4 production while elevated pH only resulted in greater CH4 production. The effects of elevating temperature and pH in combination with N, P, or N+P additions were more

  12. 77 FR 17524 - Roseburg Forest Products, Composite Panels Division, Missoula, MT; Notice of Affirmative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Roseburg Forest Products, Composite Panels Division, Missoula, MT... workers and former workers of Roseburg Forest Products, Composite Panels Division, Missoula, Montana...

  13. 77 FR 35061 - Roseburg Forest Products Composite Panels Division Missoula, Montana; Notice of Negative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Roseburg Forest Products Composite Panels Division Missoula, Montana... former workers of Roseburg Forest Products, Composite Panels Division, Missoula, Montana (subject firm...

  14. Assessment of carbon pools in production forest, Pahang, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azian, M.; Nizam, M. S.; Samsudin, M.; Ismail, P.

    2016-11-01

    Forest is one of the main sources of carbon stock. Forest plays a key role in sustainable management by providing different aspects of forest ecosystem such as source of timber products, provide of clean water, food sources, etc. A study was conducted to assess carbon pools in selected production forest of Pahang, Malaysia. There are five main types of carbon pools that are recognized available in the forest, i.e. aboveground biomass (AGB), belowground biomass (BGB), deadwood, litter and soil; that these components of carbon pools can accumulate and release carbon into the atmosphere. Five sites with different years of logging period representing status of the forest were selected (i.e. before logging (PU), immediate after logging (P0), after 10 (P10), 20 (P20) and 30 (P30) years of logging). Twenty plots of 0.25 ha (50 m × 50 m) each were established with a total sampling area of 1.0 ha at each site. All trees with ≥10 cm diameter at breast height (dbh) were tagged, identified and measured. Soil at 0-30 cm, litter and dead wood were sampled and collected in every each of sub-plots to determine and assess carbon stocks within sites. The results indicated that AGB carbon had highest portion of carbon compared to soil, BGB, deadwood and litter, which comprised about 63% of the total carbon pools. It was followed by soil and BGB that comprised about 22% and 13%, respectively. Deadwood and litter contributes the same percentage which is about 1%. In terms of status of the forest, AGB contained the highest carbon which is range from 110.49 tC ha-1 to 164.49 tC ha-1 compared with soil (33.72 tC ha-1 to 68.51 tC ha-1), BGB tC ha-1 to 34 tC ha-1), deadwood (1.57 tC ha-1 to 5.55 tC ha-1) and litter (1.42 tC ha-1 to 2.19 tC ha-1). Results from this study will be very helpful as baseline of carbon storage in different status of forest from before harvesting to logged-over forest and the impact of harvesting on the carbon stock in Pahang and Peninsular Malaysia as a whole.

  15. Tropical forest responses to increasing [CO2]: current knowledge and opportunities for future research

    SciTech Connect

    Cernusak, Lucas; Winter, Klaus; Dalling, James; Holtum, Joseph; Jaramillo, Carlos; Korner, Christian; Leakey, Andrew D.B.; Norby, Richard J; Poulter, Benjamin; Turner, Benjamin; Wright, S. Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Elevated atmospheric [CO2] (ca) will undoubtedly affect the metabolism of tropical forests worldwide; however, critical aspects of how tropical forests will respond remain largely unknown. Here we review the current state of knowledge about physiological and ecological responses, with the aim of providing a framework that can help to guide future experimental research. Modelling studies have indicated that elevated ca can potentially stimulate photosynthesis more in the tropics than at higher latitudes, because suppression of photorespiration by elevated ca increases with temperature. However, canopy leaves in tropical forests could also potentially reach a high temperature threshold under elevated ca that will moderate the rise in photosynthesis. Belowground responses, including fine root production, nutrient foraging, and soil organic matter processing, will be especially important to the integrated ecosystem response to elevated CO2. Water-use efficiency will increase as ca rises, potentially impacting upon soil moisture status and nutrient availability. Recruitment may be differentially altered for some functional groups, potentially decreasing ecosystem carbon storage. Whole-forest CO2 enrichment experiments are urgently needed to test predictions of tropical forest functioning under elevated ca. Smaller scale experiments in the understory and in gaps would also be informative, and could provide stepping stones toward stand-scale manipulations.

  16. Nanotechnology applications in the forest products industry

    Treesearch

    Robert J. Moon; Charles R. Frihart; Theodore Wegner

    2006-01-01

    Nanotechnology is the study and engineering of matter at the dimensions of 1 to 100 nanometers, where the physical, chemical, or biological properties are fundamentally different from those of the bulk material. By expanding our understanding and control of matter at such levels, new avenues in product development can be opened. Nanoscale-based science has...

  17. World supply and demand for forests products

    SciTech Connect

    Lyke, J.; Brooks, D.J.

    1995-10-01

    This article summarizes the forestry issues of the future including increasing scarcity of traditional raw material with resulting substitution and technological change; changes in consumer tastes and preferences, including greater attention to the environmental consequences of production and consumption; and the incorporation of environmental considerations in economic and trade policies. The importance of fuelwood is highlighted in the figures. 14 refs., 3 figs.

  18. Forest response to increased disturbance in the Central Amazon and comparison to Western Amazonian forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holm, J. A.; Chambers, J. Q.; Collins, W. D.; Higuchi, N.

    2014-05-01

    suggests that: (1) the variability between regions cannot be entirely explained by the variability in disturbance regime, but rather potentially sensitive to intrinsic environmental factors; or (2) the models are not accurately simulating all forest characteristics in response to increased disturbances. Last, to help quantify the impacts of increased disturbances on climate and the earth system, we evaluated the fidelity of tree mortality and disturbance in a global land surface model: CLM. For a 100% increase in annual mortality rate, both ZELIG-TROP and CLM were in close agreement with each other and predicted a net carbon loss of 41.9 and 49.9%, respectively, with an insignificant effect on aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP). Likewise, a 20% increase in mortality every 50 years (i.e. periodic disturbance treatment) resulted in a reciprocal biomass loss of 18.3 and 18.7% in ZELIG-TROP and CLM, respectively.

  19. Measuring forest structure along productivity gradients in the Canadian boreal with small-footprint Lidar.

    PubMed

    Bolton, Douglas K; Coops, Nicholas C; Wulder, Michael A

    2013-08-01

    The structure and productivity of boreal forests are key components of the global carbon cycle and impact the resources and habitats available for species. With this research, we characterized the relationship between measurements of forest structure and satellite-derived estimates of gross primary production (GPP) over the Canadian boreal. We acquired stand level indicators of canopy cover, canopy height, and structural complexity from nearly 25,000 km of small-footprint discrete return Light Detection and Ranging (Lidar) data and compared these attributes to GPP estimates derived from the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). While limited in our capacity to control for stand age, we removed recently disturbed and managed forests using information on fire history, roads, and anthropogenic change. We found that MODIS GPP was strongly linked to Lidar-derived canopy cover (r = 0.74, p < 0.01), however was only weakly related to Lidar-derived canopy height and structural complexity as these attributes are largely a function of stand age. A relationship was apparent between MODIS GPP and the maximum sampled heights derived from Lidar as growth rates and resource availability likely limit tree height in the prolonged absence of disturbance. The most structurally complex stands, as measured by the coefficient of variation of Lidar return heights, occurred where MODIS GPP was highest as productive boreal stands are expected to contain a wider range of tree heights and transition to uneven-aged structures faster than less productive stands. While MODIS GPP related near-linearly to Lidar-derived canopy cover, the weaker relationships to Lidar-derived canopy height and structural complexity highlight the importance of stand age in determining the structure of boreal forests. We conclude that an improved quantification of how both productivity and disturbance shape stand structure is needed to better understand the current state of boreal forests in

  20. Interpreting forest biome productivity and cover utilizing nested scales of image resolution and biogeographical analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iverson, Louis R.; Cook, Elizabeth A.; Graham, Robin L.; Olson, Jerry S.; Frank, Thomas D.; Ying, KE

    1988-01-01

    The objective was to relate spectral imagery of varying resolution with ground-based data on forest productivity and cover, and to create models to predict regional estimates of forest productivity and cover with a quantifiable degree of accuracy. A three stage approach was outlined. In the first stage, a model was developed relating forest cover or productivity to TM surface reflectance values (TM/FOREST models). The TM/FOREST models were more accurate when biogeographic information regarding the landscape was either used to stratigy the landscape into more homogeneous units or incorporated directly into the TM/FOREST model. In the second stage, AVHRR/FOREST models that predicted forest cover and productivity on the basis of AVHRR band values were developed. The AVHRR/FOREST models had statistical properties similar to or better than those of the TM/FOREST models. In the third stage, the regional predictions were compared with the independent U.S. Forest Service (USFS) data. To do this regional forest cover and forest productivity maps were created using AVHRR scenes and the AVHRR/FOREST models. From the maps the county values of forest productivity and cover were calculated. It is apparent that the landscape has a strong influence on the success of the approach. An approach of using nested scales of imagery in conjunction with ground-based data can be successful in generating regional estimates of variables that are functionally related to some variable a sensor can detect.

  1. Streamflow response to increasing precipitation extremes altered by forest management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Charlene N.; McGuire, Kevin J.; Miniat, Chelcy Ford; Vose, James M.

    2016-04-01

    Increases in extreme precipitation events of floods and droughts are expected to occur worldwide. The increase in extreme events will result in changes in streamflow that are expected to affect water availability for human consumption and aquatic ecosystem function. We present an analysis that may greatly improve current streamflow models by quantifying the impact of the interaction between forest management and precipitation. We use daily long-term data from paired watersheds that have undergone forest harvest or species conversion. We find that interactive effects of climate change, represented by changes in observed precipitation trends, and forest management regime, significantly alter expected streamflow most often during extreme events, ranging from a decrease of 59% to an increase of 40% in streamflow, depending upon management. Our results suggest that vegetation might be managed to compensate for hydrologic responses due to climate change to help mitigate effects of extreme changes in precipitation.

  2. Response of birds to thinning young Douglas-fir forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hayes, John P.; Weikel, Jennifer M.; Huso, Manuela M. P.; Erickson, Janet L.

    2003-01-01

    As a result of recent fire history and decades of even-aged forest management, many coniferous forests in western Oregon are composed of young (20-50 yrs), densely stocked Douglas-fir stands. Often these stands are structurally simple - a single canopy layer with one or two overstory tree species - and have a relatively sparse understory. The lack of structural complexity in these stands may limit the availability of key habitat components for several species of vertebrates, including birds. Thinning may increase structural diversity by reducing competition among overstory trees and increasing the amount of sunlight reaching the forest floor, thereby increasing development of understory vegetation. Existing old-growth forests may have developed under lower densities than is typical of contemporary plantations. Thus, thinning also may be a tool for accelerating the development of late-successional forest conditions in some circumstances. In addition to the potential increases in structural and biological diversity, thinning frequently is used to optimize wood fiber production and to generate timber revenue.

  3. Monitoring Regional Forest Disturbances across the US with Near Real Time MODIS NDVI Products included in the ForWarn Forest Threat Early Warning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spruce, Joseph; Hargrove, William W.; Gasser, Gerald; Norman, Steve

    2013-01-01

    U.S. forests occupy approx.1/3 of total land area (approx. 304 million ha). Since 2000, a growing number of regionally evident forest disturbances have occurred due to abiotic and biotic agents. Regional forest disturbances can threaten human life and property, bio-diversity and water supplies. Timely regional forest disturbance monitoring products are needed to aid forest health management work. Near Real Time (NRT) twice daily MODIS NDVI data provide a means to monitor U.S. regional forest disturbances every 8 days. Since 2010, these NRT forest change products have been produced and posted on the US Forest Service ForWarn Early Warning System for Forest Threats.

  4. North Carolina's forest products industry: performance and contribution to the state's economy, 1970 to 1980.

    Treesearch

    Con H. Schallau; Wilbur R. Maki; Bennett B. Foster; Clair H. Redmond

    1985-01-01

    Employment and earnings in North Carolina's forest products industry, like those of most Southern States, grew significantly between 1970 and 1980. The forest products industry accounted for a larger share of the State's economic base in 1980 than in 1970. North Carolina had more forest products industry employment than any other State in the South. Moreover...

  5. Georgia's forest products industry: performance and contribution to the state's economy, 1970 to 1980.

    Treesearch

    Wilbur R. Maki; Con H. Schallau; Bennett B. Foster; Clair H. Redmond

    1985-01-01

    Employment and earnings in Georgia's forest products industry, like those of most Southern States, grew significantly between 1970 and 1980. The forest products industry accounted for nearly the same share of the State's economic base in 1980 as in 1970. Moreover, during this period, the State increased its share of the Nation's forest products industry...

  6. South Carolina's forest products industry: performance and contribution to the state's economy, 1970 to 1980.

    Treesearch

    Wilbur R. Maki; Con H. Schallau; Bennett B. Foster; Clair H. Redmond

    1986-01-01

    Employment and earnings in South Carolina's forest products industry, like those of most Southern States, grew significantly between 1970 and 1980. The forest products industry accounted for a larger share of the State's economic base in 1980 than in 1970. Moreover, during this period, the State increased its share of the Nation's forest products...

  7. Alabama's forest products industry: performance and contribution to the State's economy, 1970 to 1980.

    Treesearch

    Wilbur R. Maki; Con H Schallau; Bennett B. Foster; Clair H. Redmond

    1986-01-01

    Employment and earnings in Alabama's forest products industry, like those of most Southern States, grew significantly between 1970 and 1980. The forest products industry accounted for a larger share of the State's economic base. in 1980 than in 1970. Of the 13 Southern States, only 5 had more forest products industry employment than Alabama. Moreover, during...

  8. Texas' forest products industry: performance and contribution to the State's economy, 1970 to 1980.

    Treesearch

    Con H Schallau; Wilbur R. Maki; Bennett B. Foster; Clair H. Redmond

    1987-01-01

    Even though Texas consumes more forest products than it produces, its forest products industry has a conspicuous record. Between 1970 and 1980, employment in the forest products industry increased by 12,000. Only one Southern State, North Carolina, showed a larger absolute gain. Texas was also second to North Carolina in improving its comparative advantage during the...

  9. Medicinal and dietary supplements: specialty forest products with a long tradition

    Treesearch

    James L. Chamberlain; A.L. Hammett

    1999-01-01

    Over the last five years forest products other than timber-based products have received a great deal of attention. The markets for medicinal plants that are collected from the forests are growing rapidly. Some reports suggest this segment of the non-timber forest products industry is expanding faster than the timber-based industry. Plants used for their therapeutic...

  10. Calibrating and updating the Global Forest Products Model (GFPM version 2016 with BPMPD)

    Treesearch

    Joseph Buongiorno; Shushuai  Zhu

    2016-01-01

    The Global Forest Products Model (GFPM) is an economic model of global production, consumption, and trade of forest products. An earlier version of the model is described in Buongiorno et al. (2003). The GFPM 2016 has data and parameters to simulate changes of the forest sector from 2013 to 2030. Buongiorno and Zhu (2015) describe how to use the model for...

  11. Calibrating and Updating the Global Forest Products Model (GFPM version 2014 with BPMPD)

    Treesearch

    Joseph Buongiorno; Shushuai Zhu

    2014-01-01

    The Global Forest Products Model (GFPM) is an economic model of global production, consumption, and trade of forest products. An earlier version of the model is described in Buongiorno et al. (2003). The GFPM 2014 has data and parameters to simulate changes of the forest sector from 2010 to 2030. Buongiorno and Zhu (2014) describe how to use the model for simulation....

  12. Forecasting long-term acorn production with and without oak decline using forest inventory data

    Treesearch

    Cathryn H. Greenberg; Chad E. Keyser; Leah C. Rathburn; Anita K. Rose; Todd M. Fearer; Henry W. McNab

    2013-01-01

    Acorns are important as wildlife food and for oak regeneration, but production is highly variable, posing a challenge to forest managers targeting acorn production levels. Forest managers need tools to predict acorn production capability tailored to individual landscapes and forest management scenarios, adjusting for oak mortality and stand development over time. We...

  13. From deficit to surplus: An econometric analysis of US trade balance in forest products

    Treesearch

    Daowei Zhang; Ying Lin; Jeffrey P. Prestemon

    2017-01-01

    Although the US trade deficit has persisted since 1975, the country changed in 2009 from a net importer to a net exporter of forest products, emerging as the world's largest exporter of forest products. Drawing on recent data, we model the real dollar value of US exports, imports, and the trade balance in forest products to identify factors likely to explain this...

  14. Forest response to heat waves at the dry timberline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakir, D.; Rotenberg, E.; Tatrinov, F.; Ogee, J.; Maseyk, K.

    2012-04-01

    Predictions of climate change consistently indicate continuous warming and drying for the entire Mediterranean basin and other regions during the next century. Investigating forest functioning at the current dry and hot "timberline" has therefore implications for predicting future forest distribution. In such investigations we should consider the forest adjustments to extreme conditions both at the long-term average climate basis, as at the time-scale of episodic extreme events, such as heat waves and droughts. Investigating both aspects in a 45-yr old semi-arid pine forest at the dry timberline (<300 mm annual rainfall) we observe adjustments that improve carbon-, nitrogen- and water- use efficiencies. An important aspect in the ecosystem sustainability is its ability to rapidly recover from extreme conditions, both at the short-term and the seasonal scale. A remarkable example is provided by the episodes (usually 2-4 days) of Easterly dry and hot air that are common in spring (so-called "Hamsin" events). During these events air temperature increases and relative humidity decreases within hours by 10˚C and 40%, respectively. Net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) and photosynthesis (GPP) sharply decline, predominantly in response to the drastic increase in vapor pressure deficit (up to 6kPa), but then show full recovery to the pre-stress values within 24 h past the event. Similarly, following 5-6 months of seasonal drought, the forest resumes high photosynthetic activity within ~5 days following the first rain episode of about 10 mm in the fall. We show that these transient responses are useful in partitioning between the ecosystem responses to short-term atmosphere-driven stress and longer-term soil moisture stress. An ecosystem model (MuSICA) was used to test our understandings of underlying processes, and our ability to account for such differential responses.

  15. Forest Management Guidance Package: How to Conduct Forest Product Sales and Handle Forest Management Service Contracts,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-03-01

    Management Service Contracts 6 HQ, AIR FORCE ENGINEERING & SERVICES CENTER TYNDALL AIR FORCE BASE , FLORIDA 32403 DTIC E ECTE,.,.,P s7 SM...82TEW 08 16 14 -o ran ... .. p’,tole"" ,,I*. _ iin n •i ft ib to ni mi t I PREFACE ’ This document is intended to assist the base civil engineer in...this project. The author is a graduate of West Virginia University with a Ph.D. degree in Forest Resource Sciences . He is also a member of the 167th

  16. The role of temperature and temperature-induced drought on forest productivity in the Northern Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz Pérez, Guiomar; Vico, Giulia

    2017-04-01

    Forests play an important role in the climate system and the global carbon cycle and is of considerable socioeconomic importance for Northern countries. For example, Sweden has pursued more intensive forest harvesting as a way of fulfilling the requirements of the EU renewable energy directive. Due to ecological and economical role of forests, it is imperative to better understand the physical and biological processes leading to potential changes in productivity. There is no consensus regarding the net effect of raising temperatures on vegetation productivity in this area. There exist the idea that in response to warmer temperatures, forests located in cold regions may benefit from longer growing seasons and, consequently, become more productive. However, radial growth and wood density measurements suggest that in recent decades, there has been a "divergence" between warming and tree growth, with localized shifts to a negative relationship between temperature and growth. This unexpected adverse response of forests in northern areas under warming is consistent with the fact that they are becoming more vulnerable to warm-related disturbances including temperature-induced drought stress. Here we focus on satellite NDVI record as an indicator of greenness vegetation across the Northern Countries for the period 2000 to present and explore corresponding relationships with high-resolution gridded climate data from E-OBS. By focusing on the whole Sweden, we were able to assess whether the role played by each climatic driver (precipitation, temperature and a dryness index) differed in different locations. In particular, a Partial Least Square (PLS) regression analysis was conducted to investigate the model component structure among the potential drivers explaining the annual variations of the mean NDVI observed during the growing season. We observed how forests respond differently to climatic drivers and their extremes when the increasing temperature occurs together with

  17. Forests and ozone: productivity, carbon storage, and feedbacks.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; Shugart, Herman H; Shuman, Jacquelyn K; Lerdau, Manuel T

    2016-02-22

    Tropospheric ozone is a serious air-pollutant, with large impacts on plant function. This study demonstrates that tropospheric ozone, although it damages plant metabolism, does not necessarily reduce ecosystem processes such as productivity or carbon sequestration because of diversity change and compensatory processes at the community scale ameliorate negative impacts at the individual level. This study assesses the impact of ozone on forest composition and ecosystem dynamics with an individual-based gap model that includes basic physiology as well as species-specific metabolic properties. Elevated tropospheric ozone leads to no reduction of forest productivity and carbon stock and to increased isoprene emissions, which result from enhanced dominance by isoprene-emitting species (which tolerate ozone stress better than non-emitters). This study suggests that tropospheric ozone may not diminish forest carbon sequestration capacity. This study also suggests that, because of the often positive relationship between isoprene emission and ozone formation, there is a positive feedback loop between forest communities and ozone, which further aggravates ozone pollution.

  18. Forests and ozone: productivity, carbon storage, and feedbacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bin; Shugart, Herman H.; Shuman, Jacquelyn K.; Lerdau, Manuel T.

    2016-02-01

    Tropospheric ozone is a serious air-pollutant, with large impacts on plant function. This study demonstrates that tropospheric ozone, although it damages plant metabolism, does not necessarily reduce ecosystem processes such as productivity or carbon sequestration because of diversity change and compensatory processes at the community scale ameliorate negative impacts at the individual level. This study assesses the impact of ozone on forest composition and ecosystem dynamics with an individual-based gap model that includes basic physiology as well as species-specific metabolic properties. Elevated tropospheric ozone leads to no reduction of forest productivity and carbon stock and to increased isoprene emissions, which result from enhanced dominance by isoprene-emitting species (which tolerate ozone stress better than non-emitters). This study suggests that tropospheric ozone may not diminish forest carbon sequestration capacity. This study also suggests that, because of the often positive relationship between isoprene emission and ozone formation, there is a positive feedback loop between forest communities and ozone, which further aggravates ozone pollution.

  19. Forests and ozone: productivity, carbon storage, and feedbacks

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bin; Shugart, Herman H.; Shuman, Jacquelyn K.; Lerdau, Manuel T.

    2016-01-01

    Tropospheric ozone is a serious air-pollutant, with large impacts on plant function. This study demonstrates that tropospheric ozone, although it damages plant metabolism, does not necessarily reduce ecosystem processes such as productivity or carbon sequestration because of diversity change and compensatory processes at the community scale ameliorate negative impacts at the individual level. This study assesses the impact of ozone on forest composition and ecosystem dynamics with an individual-based gap model that includes basic physiology as well as species-specific metabolic properties. Elevated tropospheric ozone leads to no reduction of forest productivity and carbon stock and to increased isoprene emissions, which result from enhanced dominance by isoprene-emitting species (which tolerate ozone stress better than non-emitters). This study suggests that tropospheric ozone may not diminish forest carbon sequestration capacity. This study also suggests that, because of the often positive relationship between isoprene emission and ozone formation, there is a positive feedback loop between forest communities and ozone, which further aggravates ozone pollution. PMID:26899381

  20. Responses of aboveground and belowground forest carbon stocks to disturbances in boreal forests of Northeastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chao; He, Hong S.; Hawbaker, Todd J.; Liang, Yu; Gong, Peng; Wu, Wuzhiwei; Zhu, Zhiliang

    2016-04-01

    Boreal forests represents about 1/3 of forest area and 1/3 of forest carbon on earth. Carbon dynamics of boreal forests are sensitive to climate change, natural (e.g., fire) and anthropogenic (e.g., harvest) disturbances. Field-based studies suggest that disturbances alter species composition, stand structure, and litter decomposition, and have significant effects on boreal forest carbon dynamics. Most of these studies, however, covered a relatively short period of time (e.g., few decades), which is limited in revealing such long-term effects of disturbances. Models are therefore developed as important tools in exploring the long-term (e.g., hundreds of years) effects of disturbances on forest carbon dynamics. In this study, we applied a framework of coupling forest ecosystem and landscape model to evaluating the effect of fire, harvest and their interactions on carbon stocks in a boreal forest landscape of Northeastern China. We compared the simulation results under fire, harvest and fire-harvest interaction scenarios with the simulated value of succession scenario at 26 landtypes over 150 years at a 10-year time step. Our results suggest that aboveground and belowground carbon are significantly reduced by fire and harvest over 150years. Fire reduced aboveground carbon by 2.3±0.6 ton/ha, harvest by 6.0±1.4 ton/ha, and fire and harvest interaction by 8.0±1.9 tons/ha. Fire reduced belowground carbon by 4.6±3.4 ton/ha, harvest by 5.0±3.5 ton/ha, and fire-harvest interaction by 5.7±3.7 tons/ha. The divergent response of carbon stocks among landtypes and between disturbance scenarios was due to the spatial interactions between fire, harvest, and species composition. Our results indicated that boreal forests carbon stocks prediction needs to consider the effects of fire and harvest for improving the estimation accuracy.

  1. Using GPS to evaluate productivity and performance of forest machine systems

    Treesearch

    Steven E. Taylor; Timothy P. McDonald; Matthew W. Veal; Ton E. Grift

    2001-01-01

    This paper reviews recent research and operational applications of using GPS as a tool to help monitor the locations, travel patterns, performance, and productivity of forest machines. The accuracy of dynamic GPS data collected on forest machines under different levels of forest canopy is reviewed first. Then, the paper focuses on the use of GPS for monitoring forest...

  2. Impact of in-woods product merchandizing on profitable logging opportunities in southern upland hardwood forests

    Treesearch

    Dennis M. May; Chris B. LeDoux; John B. Tansey; Richard Widmann

    1994-01-01

    Procedures developed to assess available timber supplies from upland hardwood forest statistics reported by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) units, were modified to demonstrate the impact of three in-woods product-merchandizing options on profitable logging opportunities in upland hardwood forests in 14 Southern...

  3. Assessing bioenergy harvest risks: Geospatially explicit tools for maintaining soil productivity in western US forests

    Treesearch

    Mark Kimsey; Deborah Page-Dumroese; Mark Coleman

    2011-01-01

    Biomass harvesting for energy production and forest health can impact the soil resource by altering inherent chemical, physical and biological properties. These impacts raise concern about damaging sensitive forest soils, even with the prospect of maintaining vigorous forest growth through biomass harvesting operations. Current forest biomass harvesting research...

  4. Managing forests because carbon matters: integrating energy, products, and land management policy

    Treesearch

    Robert W. Malmsheimer; James L. Bowyer; Jeremy S. Fried; Edmund Gee; Robert Izlar; Reid A. Miner; Ian A. Munn; Elaine Oneil; William C. Stewart

    2011-01-01

    The United States needs many different types of forests: some managed for wood products plus other benefits, and some managed for nonconsumptive uses and benefits. The objective of reducing global greenhouse gases (GHG) requires increasing carbon storage in pools other than the atmosphere. Growing more forests and keeping forests as forests are only part of the...

  5. Decomposition of forest products buried in landfills

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xiaoming; Padgett, Jennifer M.; Powell, John S.; Barlaz, Morton A.

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • This study tracked chemical changes of wood and paper in landfills. • A decomposition index was developed to quantify carbohydrate biodegradation. • Newsprint biodegradation as measured here is greater than previous reports. • The field results correlate well with previous laboratory measurements. - Abstract: The objective of this study was to investigate the decomposition of selected wood and paper products in landfills. The decomposition of these products under anaerobic landfill conditions results in the generation of biogenic carbon dioxide and methane, while the un-decomposed portion represents a biogenic carbon sink. Information on the decomposition of these municipal waste components is used to estimate national methane emissions inventories, for attribution of carbon storage credits, and to assess the life-cycle greenhouse gas impacts of wood and paper products. Hardwood (HW), softwood (SW), plywood (PW), oriented strand board (OSB), particleboard (PB), medium-density fiberboard (MDF), newsprint (NP), corrugated container (CC) and copy paper (CP) were buried in landfills operated with leachate recirculation, and were excavated after approximately 1.5 and 2.5 yr. Samples were analyzed for cellulose (C), hemicellulose (H), lignin (L), volatile solids (VS), and organic carbon (OC). A holocellulose decomposition index (HOD) and carbon storage factor (CSF) were calculated to evaluate the extent of solids decomposition and carbon storage. Samples of OSB made from HW exhibited cellulose plus hemicellulose (C + H) loss of up to 38%, while loss for the other wood types was 0–10% in most samples. The C + H loss was up to 81%, 95% and 96% for NP, CP and CC, respectively. The CSFs for wood and paper samples ranged from 0.34 to 0.47 and 0.02 to 0.27 g OC g{sup −1} dry material, respectively. These results, in general, correlated well with an earlier laboratory-scale study, though NP and CC decomposition measured in this study were higher than

  6. Decomposition of forest products buried in landfills.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoming; Padgett, Jennifer M; Powell, John S; Barlaz, Morton A

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the decomposition of selected wood and paper products in landfills. The decomposition of these products under anaerobic landfill conditions results in the generation of biogenic carbon dioxide and methane, while the un-decomposed portion represents a biogenic carbon sink. Information on the decomposition of these municipal waste components is used to estimate national methane emissions inventories, for attribution of carbon storage credits, and to assess the life-cycle greenhouse gas impacts of wood and paper products. Hardwood (HW), softwood (SW), plywood (PW), oriented strand board (OSB), particleboard (PB), medium-density fiberboard (MDF), newsprint (NP), corrugated container (CC) and copy paper (CP) were buried in landfills operated with leachate recirculation, and were excavated after approximately 1.5 and 2.5yr. Samples were analyzed for cellulose (C), hemicellulose (H), lignin (L), volatile solids (VS), and organic carbon (OC). A holocellulose decomposition index (HOD) and carbon storage factor (CSF) were calculated to evaluate the extent of solids decomposition and carbon storage. Samples of OSB made from HW exhibited cellulose plus hemicellulose (C+H) loss of up to 38%, while loss for the other wood types was 0-10% in most samples. The C+H loss was up to 81%, 95% and 96% for NP, CP and CC, respectively. The CSFs for wood and paper samples ranged from 0.34 to 0.47 and 0.02 to 0.27gOCg(-1) dry material, respectively. These results, in general, correlated well with an earlier laboratory-scale study, though NP and CC decomposition measured in this study were higher than previously reported.

  7. Sustainable forest management and impacts on forest responses to a changing climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stover, D. B.; Parker, G.; Riutta, T.; Capretz, R.; Murthy, I.; Haibao, R.; Bebber, D.

    2009-12-01

    Impacts from human activities at varying scales and intensities have a profound influence on forest carbon dynamics in addition to interactions with climate. As such, forest carbon stocks and fluxes are among the least well-defined elements of the global carbon cycle, and great uncertainty remains in predicting the effect of climate change on forest dynamics. In some cases, these management-climate interactions are well known, but often represent a fundamental gap in our understanding of ecosystem responses and are likely to be important in improving modeling of climate change, and in valuing forest carbon. To improve understanding of human induced forest management-climate interactions, a network of permanent study plots has been established in five sites around the world - in the US, UK, Brazil, India and China. The sites are near larger global monitoring (Smithsonian CTFS) plots to facilitate comparisons. At each site, a series of 1-ha plots have been placed in forest stands with differing management regimes and histories. Utilizing citizen scientists from HSBC bank, all trees >5 cm dbh are tagged, mapped, identified to species, and diameter is recorded within each plot. A subset of trees have dendrometer bands attached, to record seasonal growth. Dead wood and litterfall samples are taken, and microclimate is recorded with automatic sensors. Serial measurements will allow correlation of forest dynamics with weather. Although the studies are at an early stage current results indicate above-ground biomass estimates are 102-288 Mg ha-1 for intermediate and mature Liriodendron tulipifera-dominated stands in the US, respectively. In India, mature semi-natural evergreen forests biomass estimates are 192-235 Mg ha-1 while plantation and semi-natural core forests in the UK are estimated at 211-292 Mg ha-1. Successional Atlantic forests in Brazil are estimated to contain 192-235 Mg ha-1. In the US, initial results have demonstrated dramatic differences in microclimate

  8. Varying rotation lengths in northern production forests: Implications for habitats provided by retention and production trees.

    PubMed

    Felton, Adam; Sonesson, Johan; Nilsson, Urban; Lämås, Tomas; Lundmark, Tomas; Nordin, Annika; Ranius, Thomas; Roberge, Jean-Michel

    2017-04-01

    Because of the limited spatial extent and comprehensiveness of protected areas, an increasing emphasis is being placed on conserving habitats which promote biodiversity within production forest. For this reason, alternative silvicultural programs need to be evaluated with respect to their implications for forest biodiversity, especially if these programs are likely to be adopted. Here we simulated the effect of varied rotation length and associated thinning regimes on habitat availability in Scots pine and Norway spruce production forests, with high and low productivity. Shorter rotation lengths reduced the contribution made by production trees (trees grown for industrial use) to the availability of key habitat features, while concurrently increasing the contribution from retention trees. The contribution of production trees to habitat features was larger for high productivity sites, than for low productivity sites. We conclude that shortened rotation lengths result in losses of the availability of habitat features that are key for biodiversity conservation and that increased retention practices may only partially compensate for this. Ensuring that conservation efforts better reflect the inherent variation in stand rotation lengths would help improve the maintenance of key forest habitats in production forests.

  9. Satellite Observation of El Nino Effects on Amazon Forest Phenology and Productivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asner, Gregory P.; Townsend, Alan R.; Braswell, Bobby H.

    2000-01-01

    Climate variability may affect the functioning of Amazon moist tropical forests, and recent modeling analyses suggest that the carbon dynamics of the region vary interannually in response to precipitation and temperature anomalies. However, due to persistent orbital and atmospheric artifacts in the satellite record, remote sensing observations have not provided quantitative evidence that climate variation affects Amazon forest phenology or productivity, We developed a method to minimize and quantify non-biological artifacts in NOAA AVHRR satellite data, providing a record of estimated forest phenological variation from 1982-1993. The seasonal Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) amplitude (a proxy for phenology) increased throughout much of the basin during El Nino periods when rainfall was anomalously low. Wetter La Nina episodes brought consistently smaller NDVI amplitudes. Using radiative transfer and terrestrial biogeochemical models driven by these satellite data, we estimate that canopy-energy absorption and net primary production of Amazon forests varied interannually by as much as 21% and 18%, respectively. These results provide large-scale observational evidence for interannual sensitivity to El Nino of plant phenology and carbon flux in Amazon forests.

  10. Satellite Observation of El Nino Effects on Amazon Forest Phenology and Productivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asner, Gregory P.; Townsend, Alan R.; Braswell, Bobby H.

    2000-01-01

    Climate variability may affect the functioning of Amazon moist tropical forests, and recent modeling analyses suggest that the carbon dynamics of the region vary interannually in response to precipitation and temperature anomalies. However, due to persistent orbital and atmospheric artifacts in the satellite record, remote sensing observations have not provided quantitative evidence that climate variation affects Amazon forest phenology or productivity, We developed a method to minimize and quantify non-biological artifacts in NOAA AVHRR satellite data, providing a record of estimated forest phenological variation from 1982-1993. The seasonal Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) amplitude (a proxy for phenology) increased throughout much of the basin during El Nino periods when rainfall was anomalously low. Wetter La Nina episodes brought consistently smaller NDVI amplitudes. Using radiative transfer and terrestrial biogeochemical models driven by these satellite data, we estimate that canopy-energy absorption and net primary production of Amazon forests varied interannually by as much as 21% and 18%, respectively. These results provide large-scale observational evidence for interannual sensitivity to El Nino of plant phenology and carbon flux in Amazon forests.

  11. Projecting biodiversity and wood production in future forest landscapes: 15 key modeling considerations.

    PubMed

    Felton, Adam; Ranius, Thomas; Roberge, Jean-Michel; Öhman, Karin; Lämås, Tomas; Hynynen, Jari; Juutinen, Artti; Mönkkönen, Mikko; Nilsson, Urban; Lundmark, Tomas; Nordin, Annika

    2017-07-15

    A variety of modeling approaches can be used to project the future development of forest systems, and help to assess the implications of different management alternatives for biodiversity and ecosystem services. This diversity of approaches does however present both an opportunity and an obstacle for those trying to decide which modeling technique to apply, and interpreting the management implications of model output. Furthermore, the breadth of issues relevant to addressing key questions related to forest ecology, conservation biology, silviculture, economics, requires insights stemming from a number of distinct scientific disciplines. As forest planners, conservation ecologists, ecological economists and silviculturalists, experienced with modeling trade-offs and synergies between biodiversity and wood biomass production, we identified fifteen key considerations relevant to assessing the pros and cons of alternative modeling approaches. Specifically we identified key considerations linked to study question formulation, modeling forest dynamics, forest processes, study landscapes, spatial and temporal aspects, and the key response metrics - biodiversity and wood biomass production, as well as dealing with trade-offs and uncertainties. We also provide illustrative examples from the modeling literature stemming from the key considerations assessed. We use our findings to reiterate the need for explicitly addressing and conveying the limitations and uncertainties of any modeling approach taken, and the need for interdisciplinary research efforts when addressing the conservation of biodiversity and sustainable use of environmental resources. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Analysis of the production and transaction costs of forest carbon offset projects in the USA.

    PubMed

    Galik, Christopher S; Cooley, David M; Baker, Justin S

    2012-12-15

    Forest carbon offset project implementation costs, comprised of both production and transaction costs, could present an important barrier to private landowner participation in carbon offset markets. These costs likewise represent a largely undocumented component of forest carbon offset potential. Using a custom spreadsheet model and accounting tool, this study examines the implementation costs of different forest offset project types operating in different forest types under different accounting and sampling methodologies. Sensitivity results are summarized concisely through response surface regression analysis to illustrate the relative effect of project-specific variables on total implementation costs. Results suggest that transaction costs may represent a relatively small percentage of total project implementation costs - generally less than 25% of the total. Results also show that carbon accounting methods, specifically the method used to establish project baseline, may be among the most important factors in driving implementation costs on a per-ton-of-carbon-sequestered basis, dramatically increasing variability in both transaction and production costs. This suggests that accounting could be a large driver in the financial viability of forest offset projects, with transaction costs likely being of largest concern to those projects at the margin. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Oregon`s forest products industry: 1992. Forest Service resource bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, F.R.

    1995-03-01

    The report presents the findings of a survey of primary forest products industries in Oregon for 1992. The survey included the following sectors; lumber; veneer and plywood; pulp and board; shake and shingle; export; and post, pole, and piling. Tables presented by sector and for the industry as a whole, include characteristics of the industry, nature and flow of logs consumed, and disposition of mill residues.

  14. California`s forest products industry: 1992. Forest Service resource bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, F.R.

    1995-03-01

    The report presents the findings of a survey of primary forest products industries in California for 1992. The survey included the following sectors: Lumber, pulp and board; shake and shingle; export; and post, pole, and piling. Veneer and plywood mills are not included because they could not be presented without disclosng critical details. Tables, presented by sector and for the industry as a whole, include characteristics of the industry, nature and flow of logs consumed, and disposition of mill residence.

  15. Fine-root responses to fertilization reveal multiple nutrient limitation in a lowland tropical forest.

    PubMed

    Wurzburger, Nina; Wright, S Joseph

    2015-08-01

    Questions remain as to which soil nutrients limit primary production in tropical forests. Phosphorus (P) has long been considered the primary limiting element in lowland forests, but recent evidence demonstrates substantial heterogeneity in response to nutrient addition, highlighting a need to understand and diagnose nutrient limitation across diverse forests. Fine-root characteristics including their abundance, functional traits, and mycorrhizal symbionts can be highly responsive to changes in soil nutrients and may help to diagnose nutrient limitation. Here, we document the response of fine roots to long-term nitrogen (N), P, and potassium (K) fertilization in a lowland forest in Panama. Because this experiment has demonstrated that N and K together limit tree growth and P limits fine litter production, we hypothesized that fine roots would also respond to nutrient addition. Specifically we hypothesized that N, P, and K addition would reduce the biomass, diameter, tissue density, and mycorrhizal colonization of fine roots, and increase nutrient concentration in root tissue. Most morphological root traits responded to the single addition of K and the paired addition of N and P, with the greatest response to all three nutrients combined. The addition of N, P, and K together reduced fine-root biomass, length, and tissue density, and increased specific root length, whereas root diameter remained unchanged. Nitrogen addition did not alter root N concentration, but P and K addition increased root P and K concentration, respectively. Mycorrhizal colonization of fine roots declined with N, increased with P, and was unresponsive to K addition. Although plant species composition remains unchanged after 14 years of fertilization, fine-root characteristics responded to N, P, and K addition, providing some of the strongest stand-level responses in this experiment. Multiple soil nutrients regulate fine-root abundance, morphological and chemical traits, and their association

  16. Sentinel Mission: Forest Fire Products Evaluation over China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, M.; Sanz, J.; Salvador, P.; Molina, V.; Cassanova, J.-P.; Qin, Xianlin

    2016-08-01

    Sentinel-2a and Sentinel-3a were launch the 23 June 2015 and 16 February 2016 respectively. These two platforms constitute a great improvement in the surface monitoring, especially in forest fires emergency management, evaluation and recovery.The multispectral sensor on board Sentinel-2a is a perfect tool to delineate burnt areas and identify severity with great spatial and temporal resolution while the surface thermal information provided by Sea and Land Surface Temperature Radiometer (SLSTR) on board Sentinel-3a constitute a source of hotspots. Both platforms will be complemented with their respective twins Sentinel-2b and Sentinel-3b in order to improve temporal resolution.This work tries to evaluate the constellation capacity to provide reliable forest fires products over China by comparison with Earth Observing System (EOS) and Landsat constellation products.

  17. Allocation trade-offs dominate the response of tropical forest growth to seasonal and interannual drought.

    PubMed

    Doughty, Christopher E; Malhi, Yadvinder; Araujo-Murakami, Alejandro; Metcalfe, Daniel B; Silva-Espejo, Javier E; Arroyo, Luzmila; Heredia, Juan P; Pardo-Toledo, Erwin; Mendizabal, Luz M; Rojas-Landivar, Victor D; Vega-Martinez, Meison; Flores-Valencia, Marcio; Sibler-Rivero, Rebeca; Moreno-Vare, Luzmarina; Viscarra, Laura Jessica; Chuviru-Castro, Tamara; Osinaga-Becerra, Marilin; Ledezma, Roxana

    2014-08-01

    What determines the seasonal and interannual variation of growth rates in trees in a tropical forest? We explore this question with a novel four-year high-temporal-resolution data set of carbon allocation from two forest plots in the Bolivian Amazon. The forests show strong seasonal variation in tree wood growth rates, which are largely explained by shifts in carbon allocation, and not by shifts in total productivity. At the deeper soil plot, there was a clear seasonal trade-off between wood and canopy NPP, while the shallower soils plot showed a contrasting seasonal trade-off between wood and fine roots. Although a strong 2010 drought reduced photosynthesis, NPP remained constant and increased in the six-month period following the drought, which indicates usage of significant nonstructural carbohydrate stores. Following the drought, carbon allocation increased initially towards the canopy, and then in the following year, allocation increased towards fine-root production. Had we only measured woody growth at these sites and inferred total NPP, we would have misinterpreted both the seasonal and interannual responses. In many tropical forest ecosystems, we propose that changing tree growth rates are more likely to reflect shifts in allocation rather than changes in overall productivity. Only a whole NPP allocation perspective can correctly interpret the relationship between changes in growth and changes in productivity.

  18. LiDAR remote sensing observations for forest assessment and recovery responses following disturbance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosette, J.; Suárez, J.; Fonweben, J.; North, P.

    2013-12-01

    LiDAR data covering 400 km2 in the Cowal and Trossacs Forest District, Scotland, U.K., were used to provide a low cost solution to update the database of public forests and to produce multi-scale cartographic products for supporting management decisions in the event of forest disturbance such as infestation or wind damage. All parameter estimates were directly obtained from the LiDAR data without the necessity of field calibration. This was achieved using a hybrid approach integrating current stand models for Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis bong. Carr) and LiDAR analysis. More conventional field methods offer percentage sampling, permitting only a proportion of stands to be surveyed each year and aiming to represent stand-level conditions. The use of LiDAR is advantageous in allowing a complete observation-based assessment throughout the forest and greatly-improved spatial representation of important forest parameters. Time-series analysis was performed using LiDAR data collected in the past 10 years. This analysis allowed us to establish growth trajectories in the forest stands, automatically discriminating areas of growth, those whose growth had been affected by disease and the occurrence of windthrow gaps. The results were compared to the cartography produced by the Forest District after a severe wind storm that affected the area in 2012. This analysis showed the ability of LiDAR to create a more precise location and extent of catastrophic damage and windthrow gaps. In addition, once windthrow has occurred, progression of further damage in existing canopy gaps can be observed. This approach additionally allows the impact of disease on forest growth and subsequent recovery response to be monitored.

  19. Primary forest products industry and industrial roundwood production, Michigan, 1969.

    Treesearch

    James E. Blyth; Allen H. Boelter

    1971-01-01

    Michigan loggers cut 173.8 million cubic feet of industrial roundwood products in 1969. Ninety percent was pulpwood and saw logs. Production is shifting from softwoods to hardwoods. The number of active primary wood-using mills declined rapidly from 1954 to 1969, but production per mill has expanded.

  20. Will Elevated CO2 Increase Forest Productivity? Evidence from an Australian FACE Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, L.

    2015-12-01

    Rising atmospheric CO2 may enhance forest productivity via CO2 fertilisation and increased soil moisture associated with water savings. Quantification of the response of forest productivity to rising CO2 concentrations is important, as increased forest productivity may contribute to the mitigation of anthropogenic climate change. Vegetation greenness indices derived from digital photographs have been correlated with a number of measures of ecosystem productivity including total biomass, leaf area index and gross primary productivity. Our study examines the effect of elevated CO2 on patterns in overstorey and understorey vegetation greenness at a Free Air CO2 Enrichment facility (EucFACE) situated within a temperate eucalypt forest in Sydney, Australia. EucFACE consists of six treatment areas, three subjected to ambient CO2 ('ambient') and three with ambient plus 150 ppm CO2 ('elevated'). Each treatment area had one camera monitoring canopy greenness for a 12 month period and four cameras monitoring one understorey vegetation plot (2.25 m2) each for a 15 month period. Vegetation greenness was measured daily using the green chromatic coordinate (GCC). Understorey and overstorey GCC and rates of understorey greening and browning were not affected by elevated CO2. Periodic differences in canopy greening and browning between CO2 treatments were observed, though these probably reflect an insect defoliation event in one treatment area. Increases in canopy and understorey GCC were associated with a combination of extended periods of high soil volumetric water content (VWC) (>0.1) and high maximum temperatures (>25 °C). Browning appeared to be associated with a combination of periods of high maximum temperatures and low VWC or low minimum temperatures. Our short term findings suggest that eucalypt forest productivity will be sensitive to changes in climate, but may be relatively insensitive to changes in CO2 in the near future.

  1. Necromass production: studies in undisturbed and logged Amazon Forests

    Treesearch

    MICHAEL PALACE; MICHAEL KELLER; HUDSON SILVA

    2008-01-01

    Necromass stocks account for up to 20% of carbon stored in tropical forests and have been estimated to be 14–19% of the annual aboveground carbon flux. Both stocks and fluxes of necromass are infrequently measured. In this study, we directly measured the production of fallen coarse necromass (>2 cm diameter) during 4.5 years using repeated surveys in undisturbed...

  2. Response of African humid tropical forests to recent rainfall anomalies.

    PubMed

    Asefi-Najafabady, Salvi; Saatchi, Sassan

    2013-01-01

    During the last decade, strong negative rainfall anomalies resulting from increased sea surface temperature in the tropical Atlantic have caused extensive droughts in rainforests of western Amazonia, exerting persistent effects on the forest canopy. In contrast, there have been no significant impacts on rainforests of West and Central Africa during the same period, despite large-scale droughts and rainfall anomalies during the same period. Using a combination of rainfall observations from meteorological stations from the Climate Research Unit (CRU; 1950-2009) and satellite observations of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM; 1998-2010), we show that West and Central Africa experienced strong negative water deficit (WD) anomalies over the last decade, particularly in 2005, 2006 and 2007. These anomalies were a continuation of an increasing drying trend in the region that started in the 1970s. We monitored the response of forests to extreme rainfall anomalies of the past decade by analysing the microwave scatterometer data from QuickSCAT (1999-2009) sensitive to variations in canopy water content and structure. Unlike in Amazonia, we found no significant impacts of extreme WD events on forests of Central Africa, suggesting potential adaptability of these forests to short-term severe droughts. Only forests near the savanna boundary in West Africa and in fragmented landscapes of the northern Congo Basin responded to extreme droughts with widespread canopy disturbance that lasted only during the period of WD. Time-series analyses of CRU and TRMM data show most regions in Central and West Africa experience seasonal or decadal extreme WDs (less than -600 mm). We hypothesize that the long-term historical extreme WDs with gradual drying trends in the 1970s have increased the adaptability of humid tropical forests in Africa to droughts.

  3. Response of African humid tropical forests to recent rainfall anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Asefi-Najafabady, Salvi; Saatchi, Sassan

    2013-01-01

    During the last decade, strong negative rainfall anomalies resulting from increased sea surface temperature in the tropical Atlantic have caused extensive droughts in rainforests of western Amazonia, exerting persistent effects on the forest canopy. In contrast, there have been no significant impacts on rainforests of West and Central Africa during the same period, despite large-scale droughts and rainfall anomalies during the same period. Using a combination of rainfall observations from meteorological stations from the Climate Research Unit (CRU; 1950–2009) and satellite observations of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM; 1998–2010), we show that West and Central Africa experienced strong negative water deficit (WD) anomalies over the last decade, particularly in 2005, 2006 and 2007. These anomalies were a continuation of an increasing drying trend in the region that started in the 1970s. We monitored the response of forests to extreme rainfall anomalies of the past decade by analysing the microwave scatterometer data from QuickSCAT (1999–2009) sensitive to variations in canopy water content and structure. Unlike in Amazonia, we found no significant impacts of extreme WD events on forests of Central Africa, suggesting potential adaptability of these forests to short-term severe droughts. Only forests near the savanna boundary in West Africa and in fragmented landscapes of the northern Congo Basin responded to extreme droughts with widespread canopy disturbance that lasted only during the period of WD. Time-series analyses of CRU and TRMM data show most regions in Central and West Africa experience seasonal or decadal extreme WDs (less than −600 mm). We hypothesize that the long-term historical extreme WDs with gradual drying trends in the 1970s have increased the adaptability of humid tropical forests in Africa to droughts. PMID:23878335

  4. [Response of forest bird communities to forest gap in winter in southwestern China].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Dong-Dong; Wu, Ying-Huan; Lu, Zhou; Jiang, Guang-Wei; Zhou, Fang

    2013-06-01

    Although forest gap ecology is an important field of study, research remains limited. By plot setting and point counted observation, the response of birds to forest gaps in winter as well as bird distribution patterns in forest gaps and intact canopies were studied in a north tropical monsoon forest of southwestern China from November 2011 to February 2012 in the Fangcheng Golden Camellia National Nature Reserve, Guangxi. The regression equation of bird species diversity to habitat factor was Y1=0.611+0.002 X13+0.043 X2+0.002 X5-0.003 X8+0.006 X10+0.008 X1 and the regression equation of bird species dominance index to habitat factor was Y3=0.533+0.001 X13+0.019 X2+0.002 X3-0.017 X4+0.002 X1. There were 45 bird species (2 orders and 13 families) recorded in the forest gap, accounting for 84.9% of all birds (n=45), with an average of 9.6 species (range: 2-22). Thirty-nine bird species (5 orders and 14 families) were recorded in non-gap areas, accounting for 73.6% of all birds (n=39), with an average of 5.3 species (range: 1-12). These results suggested that gap size, arbor average height (10 m from gap margin), arbor quantity (10 m from gap margin), shrub quantity (10 m from gap margin), herbal average coverage (1 m from gap margin) and bare land ratio were the key forest gap factors that influenced bird diversities. On the whole, bird diversity in the forest gap was greater than in the intact canopy. Spatial distributions in the forest gaps were also observed in the bird community. Most birds foraged in the "middle" and "canopy" layers in the vertical stratification. In addition, "nearly from" and "close from" contained more birds in relation to horizontal stratification. Feeding niche differentiation was suggested as the main reason for these distribution patterns.

  5. Evaluating citizen science data for forecasting species responses to national forest management.

    PubMed

    Mair, Louise; Harrison, Philip J; Jönsson, Mari; Löbel, Swantje; Nordén, Jenni; Siitonen, Juha; Lämås, Tomas; Lundström, Anders; Snäll, Tord

    2017-01-01

    The extensive spatial and temporal coverage of many citizen science datasets (CSD) makes them appealing for use in species distribution modeling and forecasting. However, a frequent limitation is the inability to validate results. Here, we aim to assess the reliability of CSD for forecasting species occurrence in response to national forest management projections (representing 160,366 km(2)) by comparison against forecasts from a model based on systematically collected colonization-extinction data. We fitted species distribution models using citizen science observations of an old-forest indicator fungus Phellinus ferrugineofuscus. We applied five modeling approaches (generalized linear model, Poisson process model, Bayesian occupancy model, and two MaxEnt models). Models were used to forecast changes in occurrence in response to national forest management for 2020-2110. Forecasts of species occurrence from models based on CSD were congruent with forecasts made using the colonization-extinction model based on systematically collected data, although different modeling methods indicated different levels of change. All models projected increased occurrence in set-aside forest from 2020 to 2110: the projected increase varied between 125% and 195% among models based on CSD, in comparison with an increase of 129% according to the colonization-extinction model. All but one model based on CSD projected a decline in production forest, which varied between 11% and 49%, compared to a decline of 41% using the colonization-extinction model. All models thus highlighted the importance of protected old forest for P. ferrugineofuscus persistence. We conclude that models based on CSD can reproduce forecasts from models based on systematically collected colonization-extinction data and so lead to the same forest management conclusions. Our results show that the use of a suite of models allows CSD to be reliably applied to land management and conservation decision making

  6. Changes in Forest Production, Biomass and Carbon: Results From the 2015 UN FAO Global Forest Resource Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navar, J.

    2015-12-01

    Forests are important sources of livelihoods to millions of people and contribute to national economic development of many countries. In addition, they are vital sources and sinks of carbon and contribute to the rate of climate change. The UN Food and Agriculture Organization has been collecting and presenting data on global forest resources and forest cover since 1948. This paper builds on data from FAO's 2015 Global Forest Resource Assessment (FRA) and presents information on growing stock, biomass, carbon stock, wood removals, and changes of forest area primarily designated for production and multiple use of the world's forests. Between 1990 and 2015, the total growing stock volume has increased in East Asia, Caribbean, Western and Central Asia, North America, Europe (including the Russian Federation), and Oceania with the highest relative increase in East Asia and the Caribbean. In all other subregions the total growing stock volume decreased. North and Central America, Europe and Asia report forest C stock increases while South America and Africa report strong decreases and Oceania reports stable forest C stocks. The annual rate of decrease of forest C stock weakened between 1990 and 2015. The total volume of annual wood removals including wood fuel removals increased between 1990 and 2011, but shows a remarkable decline during the 2008-2009 economic crisis. Forest areas designated for production purposes differ considerably between subregions. The percentage of production area out of total forest area ranges between 16 percent in South America and 53 percent in Europe. Globally about one quarter of the forest area is designated to multiple use forestry. The balance between biomass growth and removals shows considerable sub-regional differences and related implications for the sustainable use of forests.

  7. Net Primary Production of boreal forests in the Krasnoyarsk Territory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larko, Alexander; Chernetskiy, Maxim; Shevyrnogov, Anatoly

    One of the most important characteristics used in the biosphere change control is net primary production dynamics. (NPP) NPP shows the amount of pure carbon fixed in plants for a definite time period, essentially, this indicator reflects the intensity of a carbon biochemical cycle. Being the main indicator of the ecosystem condition, NPP has great significance, since it is also an indicator of biosphere carbon flux intensity. Its use is important for ecological investigations, carbon cycle calculation and the distribution of natural recourses. Ground true ecosystems determine most of seasonal and annual changes in the atmospheric CO2 concentration. Satellite methods of investigation are known to be effectively used for the calculation of the global NPP distribution. In its turn, the study of boreal forest NPP dynamics is required to introduce clarity into global models and to understand their role in the carbon cycle. At present, there is a number of calculation models for obtaining NPP. In the given work, an estimate of NPP for boreal forests of the Krasnoyarsk Territory is made. For the calculation, the GloPEM model employing TERRA/MODIS and TOMS data has been used. The obtained data have been compared with satellite temperature and ground true climatic data and, also, with the forest vegetation maps. The maps contained data about the biomass amount and the forest species composition, which allowed one to obtain the results showing the nonuniformity of NPP distribution depending on the climatic conditions, species composition and the latitude of the objects under study.

  8. Operational Application of Envisat ASAR in Tropical Production Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raimadoya, M.; Trisasongko, B.

    2003-04-01

    A joint research between European Space Agency (ESA) and Bogor Agricultural University (IPB), Indonesia, has been approved under Envisat AO (AO-ID 869). The research is intended to study the operational application of Advanced Synthetic-Aperture Radar (ASAR) for production forest management in Indonesia. Two test sites in forest plantation area of PT Riau Andalan Pulp and Paper (Riaupulp) in Riau Province, Central Sumatera, Indonesia, have been selected recently for the implementation of this joint research. This paper briefs the recent progress of this two-year research (2002-2004) activity. The main objective is to explore the potential of ASAR image analysis application, including POLINSAR, for better and more efficient operational management of tropical plantation forest and its environment. Several interesting operational applications have been identified for the test sites. First application is vegetative cover classification of Acacias, mixed hardwoods, shrubs, oil palms and bare lands. The second is biomass-related application, which study Envisat data on biomass monitoring related to forest plantation. The third is environmental study particularly for site degradation, including issues on monitoring of water bodies and burn site.

  9. Under What Circumstances Do Wood Products from Native Forests Benefit Climate Change Mitigation?

    PubMed Central

    Keith, Heather; Lindenmayer, David; Macintosh, Andrew; Mackey, Brendan

    2015-01-01

    Climate change mitigation benefits from the land sector are not being fully realised because of uncertainty and controversy about the role of native forest management. The dominant policy view, as stated in the IPCC’s Fifth Assessment Report, is that sustainable forest harvesting yielding wood products, generates the largest mitigation benefit. We demonstrate that changing native forest management from commercial harvesting to conservation can make an important contribution to mitigation. Conservation of native forests results in an immediate and substantial reduction in net emissions relative to a reference case of commercial harvesting. We calibrated models to simulate scenarios of native forest management for two Australian case studies: mixed-eucalypt in New South Wales and Mountain Ash in Victoria. Carbon stocks in the harvested forest included forest biomass, wood and paper products, waste in landfill, and bioenergy that substituted for fossil fuel energy. The conservation forest included forest biomass, and subtracted stocks for the foregone products that were substituted by non-wood products or plantation products. Total carbon stocks were lower in harvested forest than in conservation forest in both case studies over the 100-year simulation period. We tested a range of potential parameter values reported in the literature: none could increase the combined carbon stock in products, slash, landfill and substitution sufficiently to exceed the increase in carbon stock due to changing management of native forest to conservation. The key parameters determining carbon stock change under different forest management scenarios are those affecting accumulation of carbon in forest biomass, rather than parameters affecting transfers among wood products. This analysis helps prioritise mitigation activities to focus on maximising forest biomass. International forest-related policies, including negotiations under the UNFCCC, have failed to recognize fully the mitigation

  10. Under What Circumstances Do Wood Products from Native Forests Benefit Climate Change Mitigation?

    PubMed

    Keith, Heather; Lindenmayer, David; Macintosh, Andrew; Mackey, Brendan

    2015-01-01

    Climate change mitigation benefits from the land sector are not being fully realised because of uncertainty and controversy about the role of native forest management. The dominant policy view, as stated in the IPCC's Fifth Assessment Report, is that sustainable forest harvesting yielding wood products, generates the largest mitigation benefit. We demonstrate that changing native forest management from commercial harvesting to conservation can make an important contribution to mitigation. Conservation of native forests results in an immediate and substantial reduction in net emissions relative to a reference case of commercial harvesting. We calibrated models to simulate scenarios of native forest management for two Australian case studies: mixed-eucalypt in New South Wales and Mountain Ash in Victoria. Carbon stocks in the harvested forest included forest biomass, wood and paper products, waste in landfill, and bioenergy that substituted for fossil fuel energy. The conservation forest included forest biomass, and subtracted stocks for the foregone products that were substituted by non-wood products or plantation products. Total carbon stocks were lower in harvested forest than in conservation forest in both case studies over the 100-year simulation period. We tested a range of potential parameter values reported in the literature: none could increase the combined carbon stock in products, slash, landfill and substitution sufficiently to exceed the increase in carbon stock due to changing management of native forest to conservation. The key parameters determining carbon stock change under different forest management scenarios are those affecting accumulation of carbon in forest biomass, rather than parameters affecting transfers among wood products. This analysis helps prioritise mitigation activities to focus on maximising forest biomass. International forest-related policies, including negotiations under the UNFCCC, have failed to recognize fully the mitigation

  11. Forests

    Treesearch

    Louis R. Iverson; Mark W. Schwartz

    1994-01-01

    Originally diminished by development, forests are coming back: forest biomass is accumulating. Forests are repositories for many threatened species. Even with increased standing timber, however, biodiversity is threatened by increased forest fragmentation and by exotic species.

  12. Minnesota timber industry: An assessment of timber product output and use, 1990. Forest Service resource bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Hackett, R.L.; Dahlman, R.A.

    1993-01-01

    The bulletin includes recent Minnesota forest industry trends and report the results of a detailed study of forest industry, industrial roundwood production, and associated primary mill wood and bark residue in Minnesota in 1990. Such detailed information is necessary for intelligent planning and decisionmaking in wood procurement, forest resource management, and forest industry development. Likewise, researchers need current forest industry and industrial roundwood information for planning projects.

  13. The response of avian feeding guilds to tropical forest disturbance.

    PubMed

    Gray, Michael A; Baldauf, Sandra L; Mayhew, Peter J; Hill, Jane K

    2007-02-01

    Anthropogenic habitat disturbance is a major threat to tropical forests and understanding the ecological consequences of this disturbance is crucial for the conservation of biodiversity. There have been many attempts to determine the ecological traits associated with bird species' vulnerability to disturbance, but no attempt has been made to synthesize these studies to show consensus. We analyzed data from 57 published studies (covering 1214 bird species) that investigated the response of tropical bird assemblages to moderate forest disturbance (e.g., selective logging). Our results show that the mean abundance of species from six commonly reported feeding guilds responded differently to disturbance and that species' ecological traits (body size, local population size, and geographic range size) and evolutionary relationships may influence responses in some guilds. Granivore abundance increased significantly and insectivore and frugivore abundance decreased significantly following disturbance. These general conclusions were robust to the effects of ecological traits and phylogeny. Responses of carnivores, nectarivores, and omnivores were less clear, but analyses that accounted for phylogeny indicated that these guilds declined following disturbance. In contrast to the other guilds, the reported responses of carnivores and nectarivores differed among regions (Asia vs. Neotropics) and were influenced by the sampling protocols used in different studies (e.g., time since disturbance), which may explain the difficulty in detecting general responses to disturbance in these guilds. Overall, general patterns governed the responses of species to habitat disturbance, and the differential responses of guilds suggested that disturbance affects trophic organization and thus ecosystem functioning.

  14. Productivity of Northern Eurasian forests: Analysis of uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shvidenko, Anatoly; Schepaschenko, Dmitry; McCallum, Ian

    2010-05-01

    Indicators of biological productivity of forests (live and dead biomass, net primary production, net and gross growth) are crucial for both assessment of the impacts of terrestrial ecosystems on major biogeochemical cycles and practice of sustainable forest management. However, different information and the diversity of methods used in the assessments of forests productivity cause substantial variation in reported estimates. The paper contains a systems analysis of the existing methods, their uncertainties, and a description of available information. With respect to Northern Eurasian forests, the major reasons for uncertainties could be categorized as following: (1) significant biases that are inherent in a number of important sources of available information (e.g., forest inventory data, results of measurements of some indicators in situ); (2) inadequacy and oversimplification of models of different types (empirical aggregations, process-based models); (3) lack of data for some regions; and (4) upscaling procedure of 'point' observations. Based on as comprehensive as possible adherence to the principles of systems analysis, we made an attempt to provide a reanalysis of indicators of forests productivity of Russia aiming at obtaining the results for which uncertainties could be estimated in a reliable and transparent way. Within a landscape-ecosystem approach it has required (1) development of an expert system for refinement of initial data including elimination of recognized biases; (2) delineation of ecological regions based on gradients of major indicators of productivity; (3) transition to multidimensional models (e.g., for calculation of spatially distributed biomass expansion factors); (4) use of process-based elements in empirical models; and (5) development of some approaches which presumably do not have recognized biases. However, taking into account the fuzzy character of the problem, the above approach (as well as any other individually used method) is

  15. Impact of climate change on forests, forest products and the carbon cycle in the Congo Basin.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruijt, Bart; Jans, Wilma; Franssen, Wietse; Ludwig, Fulco

    2014-05-01

    Africa is widely seen as the continent most vulnerable to climate change. Current climate variability already has a large impact on the economies of developing countries. Large parts of African economies are highly climate sensitive, in particular agriculture, infrastructure and water sector. In this study we performed an analysis of climate change impacts in the Congo Basin on Forest ecosystem functioning and carbon storage. We emphasise the methodologies and validation involved in modelling the basin-wide carbon budgets. We also studied the potential shifts in broad classes of vegetation types, resulting from climate change. Finally, we compared annual productivity of the Congo forests with statistics of wood fuel and charcoal use for each of the countries in the region. The model simulations suggest that the region's forests will see increasing productivity under future climate, however, the effect of rising CO2 concentrations, stimulating growth, is highly uncertain. From these findings it follows that the potential in the region to implement UNFCCC-REDD+ projects is still very uncertain, but probably sustainable and feasible. The analysis shows that, averaged over 10 years, wood fuel and charcoal use amount to 50% and in some countries up to 100% or even more of the yearly vegetation carbon increase. These percentages generally increases with population density.

  16. Outlook for U. S. forest resources for energy and wood products

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, R.M.

    1984-01-01

    There will be increased demands placed on our forest resources in the future to generate energy an wood products. Recent legislation, such as the Resources Planning Act, will help to organize efforts to meet thes demands. Forest Service programs encourage intensive forest land management to produce more timber from our natural lands and greater utilization of our timber resources through more efficient production systems.

  17. Forest product trade impacts of an invasive species: modeling structure and intervention trade-offs

    Treesearch

    Jeffrey Prestemon; Shushuai Zhu; James A. Turner; Joseph Buongiorno; Ruhong Li

    2006-01-01

    Asian gypsy and nun moth introductions into the United States, possibly arriving on imported Siberian coniferous logs, threaten domestic forests and product markers and could have global market consequences. We simulate, using the Global Forest Products Model (a spatial equilibrium model of the world forest sector), the consequences under current policies of a...

  18. Naval stores research at the Forest Products Laboratory, past and present

    Treesearch

    Duane F. Zinkel

    1987-01-01

    As many of you may not be familiar with Forest Products Laboratory, allow me to introduce it to you. The Forest Products Laboratory is a Federal government laboratory of the United States Department of Agriculture and, more specifically, of the Forest Service. The Laboratory was built in Madison, Wisconsin in close cooperation with the University of Wisconsin to serve...

  19. Impact of biomass harvesting on forest soil productivity in the northern Rocky Mountains

    Treesearch

    Woongsoon Jang; Christopher R. Keyes; Deborah Page-Dumroese

    2015-01-01

    Biomass harvesting extracts an increased amount of organic matter from forest ecosystems over conventional harvesting. Since organic matter plays a critical role in forest productivity, concerns of potential negative long-term impacts of biomass harvesting on forest productivity (i.e., changing nutrient/water cycling, aggravating soil properties, and compaction) have...

  20. 25 CFR 163.19 - Contracts for the sale of forest products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Contracts for the sale of forest products. 163.19 Section 163.19 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.19 Contracts for the sale of forest products. (a) In sales...

  1. 25 CFR 163.19 - Contracts for the sale of forest products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Contracts for the sale of forest products. 163.19 Section 163.19 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.19 Contracts for the sale of forest products. (a) In sales...

  2. 25 CFR 163.19 - Contracts for the sale of forest products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Contracts for the sale of forest products. 163.19 Section 163.19 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.19 Contracts for the sale of forest products. (a) In sales...

  3. 25 CFR 163.19 - Contracts for the sale of forest products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Contracts for the sale of forest products. 163.19 Section 163.19 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.19 Contracts for the sale of forest products. (a) In sales...

  4. 25 CFR 163.19 - Contracts for the sale of forest products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Contracts for the sale of forest products. 163.19 Section 163.19 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.19 Contracts for the sale of forest products. (a) In sales...

  5. Special forest products in context: gatherers and gathering in the Eastern United States

    Treesearch

    Marla R. Emery; Clare Ginger; Siri Newman; Michael R.B. Giammusso

    2003-01-01

    This report provides an introduction to the people who gather special forest products (SFPs) in the eastern United States, the role these resources play in their lives, and implications for management on national forest lands, particularly in relation to the Pilot Program on Forest Botanicals (P. L. 106-113, ? 339(a)). SFPs encompass a wide variety of products and...

  6. Marketing of specialty forest products in the southeast: opportunities for research, education and outreach (poster abstract)

    Treesearch

    A.L. Hammett; J.L. Chamberlain

    1999-01-01

    The specialty forest products sector in the Southeast is growing rapidly - perhaps faster than in other sections of the country. In 1993, the state of Virginia exported almost 10 percent of the national total of wild harvested ginseng. On a yearly basis, the value of the specialty forest products extracted from Virginia?s forests has been estimated at $35 million. The...

  7. Mapping and imputing potential productivity of Pacific Northwest forests using climate variables

    Treesearch

    Gregory Latta; Hailemariam Temesgen; Tara Barrett

    2009-01-01

    Regional estimation of potential forest productivity is important to diverse applications, including biofuels supply, carbon sequestration, and projections of forest growth. Using PRISM (Parameter-elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model) climate and productivity data measured on a grid of 3356 Forest Inventory and Analysis plots in Oregon and Washington, we...

  8. Landscape and plant physiological controls on water dynamics and forest productivity within a watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jia; Jencso, Kelsey; Looker, Nathaniel; Martin, Justin; Hoylman, Zachary

    2015-04-01

    Across the Western U.S., declining snowpacks have resulted in increased water limitation, leading to reduced productivity in high elevation forests. While our current understanding of how forests respond to climate change is typically focused on measuring/modeling the physiological responses and climate feedbacks, our study aims to combine physiology with hydrology to examine how landscape topography modulates the sensitivity of forests to climate. In a forested watershed in Western Montana, we linked climate variability to the physical watershed characteristics and the physiological response of vegetation to examine forest transpiration and productivity rates. Across the entire watershed, we found a strong relationship between productivity and the topographic wetness index, a proxy for soil moisture storage. However, this relationship was highly dependent on the intensity of solar radiation, suggesting that at high elevations productivity was limited by temperature, while at low elevations productivity was limited by moisture. In order to identify the mechanisms responsible for this relationship, we then examined how different coniferous species respond to changing environmental and hydrologic regimes. We first examined transpiration and productivity rates at the hillslope scale at four plots, ranging in elevation and aspect across the watershed. We found trees growing in the hollows had higher transpiration and productivity rates than trees growing in the side slope, but that these differences were more pronounced at lower elevations. We then used oxygen isotope to examine water source use by different species across the watershed. We found that trees growing in the hollows used snowmelt for a longer period. This was most likely due to upslope subsidies of snowmelt water to the hollow areas. However, we found that trees growing at lower elevations used proportionally more snowmelt than trees at the higher elevations. This was most likely due to the trees at lower

  9. Forest Soil Productivity on the Southern Long-Term Soil Productivity Sites at Age 5

    Treesearch

    D. Andrew Scott; Allan E. Tiarks; Felipe G. Sanchez; Michael Elliott-Smith; Rick Stagg

    2004-01-01

    Forest management operations have the potential to reduce soil productivity through organic matter and nutrient removal and soil compaction. We measured pine volume, bulk density, and soil and foliar nitrogen and phosphorus at age 5 on the 13 southern Long-Term Soil Productivity study sites. The treatments were organic matter removal [bole only (BO), whole tree (WT),...

  10. 3 CFR 8442 - Proclamation 8442 of October 23, 2009. National Forest Products Week, 2009

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... States of America A Proclamation America’s forests have helped spur the growth and development that has... environment. This week, we recognize the value of forest products and the importance of their sustainable...

  11. Bird response to silviculture induced change in forest structure within bottomland hardwood forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twedt, D.J.; Somershoe, S.G.

    2008-01-01

    Silvicultural treatments prescribed to encourage development of desired stand structure (i.e., wildlife-forestry) should result in increased abundance of many bird species of management concern, especially species using dense understory habitat. Desired forest conditions within bottomland vary among sites, but average 60-70% overstory canopy that is heterogeneously distributed with >5 dominant trees/ha retained, and a basal area of 14-16 m2/ha. Desired mid-story and understory cover are between 25-40%. Cavity trees (small and large) as well as dead and/or stressed trees should be retained, ultimately providing >14 m3/ha coarse woody debris, and shade-intolerant tree regeneration should be present on 30-40% of the area. We assessed avian response to prescribed wildlife-forestry silviculture treatments via distance-adjusted point counts and constant effort mist-netting within forest stands on Tensas River National Wildlife Refuge in northeastern Louisiana. More species and individuals were detected within stands 1-13 years post-treatment than within untreated stands. Most species, especially species benefiting from disturbance, increased in density after treatment. A few species decreased in density, yet remained fairly relatively abundant post-treatment. Captures from netting suggested three generalized responses to wildlife-forestry silviculture: (1) species with rapid, short-duration positive response, (2) species with slower but more prolonged positive response, and (3) species which initially declined but had long-term positive population response. We recommend increased use of prescribed wildlife-forestry silvicultural prescriptions to enhance bottomland forest habitat for priority bird species.

  12. Forest sector and primary forest products industry contributions to the economies of the southern states: 2011 update

    Treesearch

    Consuelo Brandeis; Donald G. Hodges

    2015-01-01

    The analysis in this article provides an update on the southern forest sector economic activity after the downturn experienced in 2008–2009. The analysis was conducted using Impact Analysis for Planning (IMPLAN) software and data sets for 2009 and 2011 and results from the USDA Forest Service Timber Products Output latest survey of primary wood processing mills....

  13. Consequences of increasing bioenergy demand on wood and forests: an application of the global forest products model

    Treesearch

    Joseph Buongiorno; Ronald Raunikar; Shushuai Zhu

    2011-01-01

    The Global Forest Products Model (GFPM) was applied to project the consequences for the global forest sector of doubling the rate of growth of bioenergy demand relative to a base scenario, other drivers being maintained constant. The results showed that this would lead to the convergence of the price of fuelwood and industrial roundwood, raising the price of industrial...

  14. Redox potential: An indicator of site productivity in forest management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sajedi, Toktam; Prescott, Cindy; Lavkulich, Les

    2010-05-01

    Redox potential (Eh) is an integrated soil measurement that reflects several environmental conditions in the soil associated with aeration, moisture and carbon (organic matter) dynamics. Its measurement can be related to water table fluctuations, precipitation and landscape gradients, organic matter decomposition rates, nutrient dynamics, biological diversity and plant species distribution. Redox is an excellent indicator of soil biological processes, as it is largely a reflection of microbial activities which to a large extent govern carbon dynamics and nutrient cycling. Redox thus serves as an ecological indicator of site productivity at the ecosystem scale and may be used for management purposes as its magnitude can be altered by activities such as harvesting and drainage. A threshold value of 300 mv has been documented as the critical value below which anaerobic conditions in the soil develop. However, redox measurements and its impacts on ecosystem processes such as nutrient cycling and productivity, especially in forest ecosystems, have not received the attention that this "master" variable deserves, On northern Vancouver Island, Canada, regenerating stands of western redcedar-western hemlock (CH) sites exhibit symptoms of nutrient deficiencies and slow growth, but this phenomenon does not occur on adjacent western hemlock- amabalis fir (HA) sites. We tested the hypothesis that differences in nutrient supply and distribution of plant species was caused by differences in moisture regime and redox potential. Redox potential, pH, soil aeration depth (steel rods), organic matter thickness, bulk density, soil carbon store, plant species distribution and richness were measured at five old-growth and five 10-year-old cutover blocks. Results of investigations confirmed that CH forests were wetter, had redox values lower than the critical 300mv and a shallower aerated zone, compared with adjacent regenerating HA sites. Fifty percent of the CH plots had redox values

  15. Functional response of ungulate browsers in disturbed eastern hemlock forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Destefano, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Ungulate browsing in predator depleted North American landscapes is believed to be causing widespread tree recruitment failures. However, canopy disturbances and variations in ungulate densities are sources of heterogeneity that can buffer ecosystems against herbivory. Relatively little is known about the functional response (the rate of consumption in relation to food availability) of ungulates in eastern temperate forests, and therefore how “top down” control of vegetation may vary with disturbance type, intensity, and timing. This knowledge gap is relevant in the Northeastern United States today with the recent arrival of hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA; Adelges tsugae) that is killing eastern hemlocks (Tsuga canadensis) and initiating salvage logging as a management response. We used an existing experiment in central New England begun in 2005, which simulated severe adelgid infestation and intensive logging of intact hemlock forest, to examine the functional response of combined moose (Alces americanus) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) foraging in two different time periods after disturbance (3 and 7 years). We predicted that browsing impacts would be linear or accelerating (Type I or Type III response) in year 3 when regenerating stem densities were relatively low and decelerating (Type II response) in year 7 when stem densities increased. We sampled and compared woody regeneration and browsing among logged and simulated insect attack treatments and two intact controls (hemlock and hardwood forest) in 2008 and again in 2012. We then used AIC model selection to compare the three major functional response models (Types I, II, and III) of ungulate browsing in relation to forage density. We also examined relative use of the different stand types by comparing pellet group density and remote camera images. In 2008, total and proportional browse consumption increased with stem density, and peaked in logged plots, revealing a Type I response. In 2012

  16. When the forest dies: the response of forest soil fungi to a bark beetle-induced tree dieback.

    PubMed

    Stursová, Martina; Snajdr, Jaroslav; Cajthaml, Tomáš; Bárta, Jiří; Santrůčková, Hana; Baldrian, Petr

    2014-09-01

    Coniferous forests cover extensive areas of the boreal and temperate zones. Owing to their primary production and C storage, they have an important role in the global carbon balance. Forest disturbances such as forest fires, windthrows or insect pest outbreaks have a substantial effect on the functioning of these ecosystems. Recent decades have seen an increase in the areas affected by disturbances in both North America and Europe, with indications that this increase is due to both local human activity and global climate change. Here we examine the structural and functional response of the litter and soil microbial community in a Picea abies forest to tree dieback following an invasion of the bark beetle Ips typographus, with a specific focus on the fungal community. The insect-induced disturbance rapidly and profoundly changed vegetation and nutrient availability by killing spruce trees so that the readily available root exudates were replaced by more recalcitrant, polymeric plant biomass components. Owing to the dramatic decrease in photosynthesis, the rate of decomposition processes in the ecosystem decreased as soon as the one-time litter input had been processed. The fungal community showed profound changes, including a decrease in biomass (2.5-fold in the litter and 12-fold in the soil) together with the disappearance of fungi symbiotic with tree roots and a relative increase in saprotrophic taxa. Within the latter group, successive changes reflected the changing availability of needle litter and woody debris. Bacterial biomass appeared to be either unaffected or increased after the disturbance, resulting in a substantial increase in the bacterial/fungal biomass ratio.

  17. When the forest dies: the response of forest soil fungi to a bark beetle-induced tree dieback

    PubMed Central

    Štursová, Martina; Šnajdr, Jaroslav; Cajthaml, Tomáš; Bárta, Jiří; Šantrůčková, Hana; Baldrian, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Coniferous forests cover extensive areas of the boreal and temperate zones. Owing to their primary production and C storage, they have an important role in the global carbon balance. Forest disturbances such as forest fires, windthrows or insect pest outbreaks have a substantial effect on the functioning of these ecosystems. Recent decades have seen an increase in the areas affected by disturbances in both North America and Europe, with indications that this increase is due to both local human activity and global climate change. Here we examine the structural and functional response of the litter and soil microbial community in a Picea abies forest to tree dieback following an invasion of the bark beetle Ips typographus, with a specific focus on the fungal community. The insect-induced disturbance rapidly and profoundly changed vegetation and nutrient availability by killing spruce trees so that the readily available root exudates were replaced by more recalcitrant, polymeric plant biomass components. Owing to the dramatic decrease in photosynthesis, the rate of decomposition processes in the ecosystem decreased as soon as the one-time litter input had been processed. The fungal community showed profound changes, including a decrease in biomass (2.5-fold in the litter and 12-fold in the soil) together with the disappearance of fungi symbiotic with tree roots and a relative increase in saprotrophic taxa. Within the latter group, successive changes reflected the changing availability of needle litter and woody debris. Bacterial biomass appeared to be either unaffected or increased after the disturbance, resulting in a substantial increase in the bacterial/fungal biomass ratio. PMID:24671082

  18. A comparison of techniques for generating forest ownership spatial products

    Treesearch

    Brett J. Butler; Jaketon H. Hewes; Greg C. Liknes; Mark D. Nelson; Stephanie A. Snyder

    2014-01-01

    To fully understand forest resources, it is imperative to understand the social context in which the forests exist. A pivotal part of that context is the forest ownership. It is the owners, operating within biophysical and social constraints, who ultimately decide if the land will remain forested, how the resources will be used, and by whom. Forest ownership patterns...

  19. Multidisciplinary Research on Canopy Photosynthetic Productivity in a Cool-Temperate Deciduous Broadleaf Forest in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muraoka, H.; Noda, H. M.; Saitoh, T. M.; Nagai, S.

    2014-12-01

    Forest canopy has crucial roles in regulating energy and material exchange between the atmosphere and terrestrial ecosystems and in ecological processes with respect to carbon cycle and growth in the ecosystems. Challenges to the canopy of tall forests for such research involve the access to the leaves for ecophysiological observations, responses of leaves to the changing environments from seconds to years, and up-scaling the leaf-level phenomena to canopy and landscape-levels. A long-term, multidisciplinary approach has been conducted in a cool-temperate deciduous broadleaf forest in Takayama site (ca. 1400m a.s.l.) in central Japan. This forest canopy is dominated by Quercus crispula and Betula ermanii. We have been focusing on the phenology of photosynthetic productivity from a single leaf to canopy, and to landscape level, by combining leaf ecophysiological research, optical observations by spectroradiometers and time-laps cameras with the aid of "Phenological Eyes Network (PEN)", and process-based modellings. The canopy-level photosynthesis is then compared with the micrometeorolgical observation of CO2 flux at the site. So far we have been clarifying that (1) inter-annual variations in seasonal growth rate and senescence rate of leaf photosynthetic capacity and canopy leaf area are largely responsible for the inter-annual change in forest photosynthesis, and (2) spectral vegetation indices such as enhanced vegetation index (EVI) and chlorophyll index (CCI) can be the indicator to observe the phenology of forest canopy photosynthesis. In addition to these efforts since 2003, we established an open-field warming experiment on the branches of the canopy trees, to investigate the possible influence of temperature increase on leaf photosynthetic and optical properties and then to examine whether the optical satellite remote sensing can detect the changes in photosynthetic capacity and phenology by ongoing global warming.

  20. Forest response to increased disturbance in the Central Amazon and comparison to Western Amazonian forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holm, J. A.; Chambers, J. Q.; Collins, W.; Higuchi, N.

    2014-12-01

    Uncertainties surrounding vegetation response to increased disturbance rates associated with climate change remains a major global change issue for Amazon forests. Additionally, turnover rates in the Western Amazon are doubled compared to the Central Amazon, and notable gradients currently exist in specific wood density and aboveground biomass (AGB). This study investigates the extent to which the variation in disturbance regimes contributes to these regional gradients. To address these issues, we evaluated disturbance-recovery processes under scenarios of increased disturbance rates in a Central Amazon forest using first ZELIG-TROP, a dynamic vegetation gap model which we calibrated using long-term inventory data, and second using the Community Land Model (CLM), a global land surface model. Upon doubling the mortality rate in the Central Amazon to mirror the disturbance regime in the Western Amazon of ~2% mortality, the two regions continued to differ in multiple forest processes. With the inclusion of elevated natural disturbances, at steady-state, AGB significantly decreased by 41.9% with no significant difference between modeled AGB and empirical AGB from the western Amazon datasets (104 vs. 107 Mg C ha-1). However, different processes were responsible for the reductions in AGB between the models and empirical dataset. The empirical dataset suggests that a decrease in wood density drives the reduction in AGB. While decreased stand basal area was the driver of AGB loss in ZELIG-TROP, and decreased leaf area index (LAI) was the driver in CLM, two forest attributes that do not significantly vary across the Amazon Basin. Further comparisons found that stem density, specific wood density, and growth rates differed between the two Amazonian regions. This suggests that: 1) the variability between regions cannot be entirely explained by the variability in disturbance regime, but rather potentially sensitive to intrinsic environmental factors; or 2) the models are not