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Sample records for forest soil survey

  1. First forest soil survey gives significant results.

    Treesearch

    Robert F. Tarrant

    1947-01-01

    The first forest soil survey on national forest lands in the Pacific Northwest was completed last year on the Pringle Falls Experimental Forest when a detailed soil map covering four square miles was made by W.J. Leighty, Assistant Inspector, Bureau of Plant Industry, Soils and Agricultural Engineering. Arrangements for the survey were made by Region 6 of the Forest...

  2. Forest soils

    Treesearch

    Charles H. (Hobie) Perry; Michael C. Amacher

    2009-01-01

    Productive soils are the foundation of sustainable forests throughout the United States. Forest soils are generally subjected to fewer disturbances than agricultural soils, particularly those that are tilled, so forest soils tend to have better preserved A-horizons than agricultural soils. Another major contrast between forest and agricultural soils is the addition of...

  3. Assessment of the optimal time interval for repeated soil surveys at intensively monitored forest plots.

    PubMed

    de Vries, W; Reinds, G J; Bierkens, M F P

    2009-11-01

    Statistical methods were developed to assess required changes in the contents and pools of major nutrients and exchangeable base cations in the organic layer and the mineral soil of European forest soils, to derive significant differences. Furthermore a simple element retention model is described and applied to assess the variation time periods, as a function of site and soil characteristics and atmospheric inputs, that are needed before repeating soil surveys in order to assess significant differences in element pools. Time periods that are needed to assess a significant difference have been limited to N in the organic layer and base cations in the mineral layer, since those pools are liable to change caused by nitrogen or acid deposition. Results showed that a time interval of 10 years, which is generally considered for a repetition of the soil survey, might give a significant difference in N and exchangeable base cation pools for approximately 25% and 10% of the plots, only.

  4. Forest soil microbial communities: Using metagenomic approaches to survey permanent plots

    Treesearch

    Amy L. Ross-Davis; Jane E. Stewart; John W. Hanna; John D. Shaw; Andrew T. Hudak; Theresa B. Jain; Robert J. Denner; Russell T. Graham; Deborah S. Page-Dumroese; Joanne M. Tirocke; Mee-Sook Kim; Ned B. Klopfenstein

    2014-01-01

    Forest soil ecosystems include some of the most complex microbial communities on Earth (Fierer et al. 2012). These assemblages of archaea, bacteria, fungi, and protists play essential roles in biogeochemical cycles (van der Heijden et al. 2008) and account for considerable terrestrial biomass (Nielsen et al. 2011). Yet, determining the microbial composition of forest...

  5. Soil Surveys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    An accurate method of surveying the soil was developed by NASA and the Department of Agriculture. The method involves using ground penetrating radar to produce subsurface graphs. By examining printouts from the system's recorder, scientists can determine whether a site is appropriate for building, etc.

  6. Louisiana's sixth forest survey

    Treesearch

    James F. Rosson

    1993-01-01

    The sixth Louisiana forest survey was completed in November 1991.Previous surveys were done in 1935, 1954, 1964, 1974, and 1984. Information derived from the forest survey has become more and more detailed and comprehensive since the first survey in 1935 as a direct result of enhanced sampling techniques, expanded administrative budgets, and development of computer...

  7. Midcycle survey of Arkansas' forest resources

    Treesearch

    Roy C. Beltz; Randall Leister; Walter R. Smith

    1987-01-01

    This report summarizes an interim survey of Arkansas’ forest resources. Field work was completed in April 1985. The survey provides new estimates of forest area and inventory for both the State’s softwoods and hardwoods. This survey was cooperative effort with the Arkansas forestry commission, the soil conservation service, the statistical reporting service, and the...

  8. A metagenomic-based survey of microbial (de)halogenation potential in a German forest soil

    PubMed Central

    Weigold, Pascal; El-Hadidi, Mohamed; Ruecker, Alexander; Huson, Daniel H.; Scholten, Thomas; Jochmann, Maik; Kappler, Andreas; Behrens, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    In soils halogens (fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine) are cycled through the transformation of inorganic halides into organohalogen compounds and vice versa. There is evidence that these reactions are microbially driven but the key enzymes and groups of microorganisms involved are largely unknown. Our aim was to uncover the diversity, abundance and distribution of genes encoding for halogenating and dehalogenating enzymes in a German forest soil by shotgun metagenomic sequencing. Metagenomic libraries of three soil horizons revealed the presence of genera known to be involved in halogenation and dehalogenation processes such as Bradyrhizobium or Pseudomonas. We detected a so far unknown diversity of genes encoding for (de)halogenating enzymes in the soil metagenome including specific and unspecific halogenases as well as metabolic and cometabolic dehalogenases. Genes for non-heme, no-metal chloroperoxidases and haloalkane dehalogenases were the most abundant halogenase and dehalogenase genes, respectively. The high diversity and abundance of (de)halogenating enzymes suggests a strong microbial contribution to natural halogen cycling. This was also confirmed in microcosm experiments in which we quantified the biotic formation of chloroform and bromoform. Knowledge on microorganisms and genes that catalyze (de)halogenation reactions is critical because they are highly relevant to industrial biotechnologies and bioremediation applications. PMID:27353292

  9. A multiscale electrical survey of a lateritic soil system in the rain forest of Cameroon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robain, Henri; Descloitres, Marc; Ritz, Michel; Atangana, Quantin Yene

    1996-06-01

    Resistivity investigations were carried out on an elementary watershed in SW Cameroon, firstly to assess the applicability of direct-current (DC) resistivity methods to solve various pedological problems in intertropical regions, and subsequently to determine the relationships between electrical resistivities and pedological properties of lateritic soil systems. The survey included measurements in pits with a small Wenner fixed-spacing array (SWA), vertical electrical soundings (VES) and vertical electrical "quick soundings" (VEQS) both using the Schlumberger configuration. The VES data were interpreted using a conventional multilayer inversion program to obtain best-fit models. Constraints to the interpretation of these data were provided by SWA and pedological information from existing observation pits. The results of the interpretation reveal five distinct geoelectrical layers overlying a resistive bedrock. The first is a thin organo-mineral upper layer with low resistivities in the range 250-450 Ωm. The second layer corresponds to micro-aggregated clayey materials and is more resistive (1300-1800 Ωm). The third represents the main part of ferruginous materials and is even more resistive (2000-4500 Ωm). The fourth corresponds to unsaturated saprolite and the last to saturated saprolite (ground water) with resistivities ranging from 800 to 1500 Ωm and from 150 to 250 Ωm, respectively. Estimates of soil volumes for the entire study area were obtained from VEQS interpretations. Most of the soil cover corresponds to saprolite (74%, {1}/{4} being saturated by ground water), while topsoil and ferruginous materials represent 14 and 12%, respectively. Finally, geophysical results based upon 1-D inversion provide a satisfactory approximation of the various lateritic components' 3-D geometry over the watershed. The study provides original quantitative results concerning the behaviour of intertropical soil systems as well as some geomorphological keys for soil mapping

  10. Soil carbon storage estimation in a forested watershed using quantitative soil-landscape modeling

    Treesearch

    James A. Thompson; Randall K. Kolka

    2005-01-01

    Carbon storage in soils is important to forest ecosystems. Moreover, forest soils may serve as important C sinks for ameliorating excess atmospheric CO2. Spatial estimates of soil organic C (SOC) storage have traditionally relied upon soil survey maps and laboratory characterization data. This approach does not account for inherent variability...

  11. A survey of soil invertebrates in two aspen forests in northern Minnesota.

    Treesearch

    T.L. Wagner; William J. Mattson; J.A. Witter

    1977-01-01

    The survey in Koochiching County revealed 4 phyla, 7 classes, 23 orders, and 134 families of invertebrates. Insecta was the largest class having 11 orders and 84 families. Mites and Collembolla were most numerous averaging 90,000 and 16,000/m2, respectively, during summer.

  12. Data Recorders Speed Forest Surveys

    Treesearch

    George C. Keith; Roy C. Beltz

    1980-01-01

    Adapting computer and communications concepts to conduct and analyze forest surveys has been undertaken by the Renewable Resources Evaluation Research project of Southern Forest Experiment Station. How data is relayed from the faraway forest site to the unit's base without handwriting one note is described in this study.

  13. Midcycle survey of Mississippi's forest resources

    Treesearch

    Charles E. Thomas; William H. McWilliams

    1985-01-01

    To provide current forest resource data, the Forest Inventory and Analysis Unit of the U.S. Forest Service Southern Forest Experiment Station has conducted interim surveys within the regular 10-year survey cycles. This report summarizes the findings of a midcycle survey of Mississippi forest resources. Field work for the survey was completed in 1983....

  14. Proceedings of the California Forest Soils Council Conference on Forest Soils Biology and Forest Management

    Treesearch

    Robert F. Powers; Donald L. Hauxwell; Gary M. Nakamura

    2000-01-01

    Biotic properties of forest soil are the linkages connecting forest vegetation with an inert rooting medium to create a dynamic, functioning ecosystem. But despite the significance of these properties, managers have little awareness of the biotic world beneath their feet. Much of our working knowledge of soil biology seems anchored in myth and misunderstanding. To...

  15. Soil vital signs: A new Soil Quality Index (SQI) for assessing forest soil health

    Treesearch

    Michael C. Amacher; Katherine P. O' Neil; Charles H. Perry

    2007-01-01

    The Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program measures a number of chemical and physical properties of soils to address specific questions about forest soil quality or health. We developed a new index of forest soil health, the soil quality index (SQI), that integrates 19 measured physical and chemical properties of forest soils into a single number that serves as...

  16. Keeping your forest soils healthy and productive.

    Treesearch

    Ole T. Helgerson; Richard E. Miller

    2008-01-01

    Soils are an integral structural part of your woodland and the larger forest ecosystem. Important forest soil functions include:Providing water, nutrients, and physical support for the growth of trees and other forest plantsAllowing an exchange of carbon dioxide, oxygen, and other gasses that affect root growth and...

  17. Comparison of tropical forest surveys

    SciTech Connect

    Molofsky, J.; Hall, C.A.S.; Myers, N.

    1986-06-01

    This report examines the two most recent studies of tropical forest areas and rates of forest loss: Norman Myers' conversion of Tropical Moist Forests (1980), and the FAO/UNEP Tropical Forest Resources Assessment Project in order to identify and clarify discrepancies between them. The apparent discrepancy between their respective estimates of deforestation rates has been the basis of a continuing controversy. Myers' report was concerned principally with the conversion of virgin forests to other land use and the resulting extinction of tropical species. The FAO/UNEP report emphasized the availability of forest resources to meet the future fuelwood, housing, and economic needs of UN member states. The present paper attempts to identify more precisely the differences between the two studies in order to integrate the large tropical forest data base from these two sources into a cohesive whole. Specifically, we identify those countries covered in both surveys where the largest differences occur. Our study was not designed to assess all discrepancies between Myers and FAO but only the discrepancies for those countries where both investigators have given specific numbers.

  18. Role of forest soils in the national greenhouse gas inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jandl, R.

    2012-12-01

    In Austria the forests are a key category of the GHG budget. The role of forest soils as a sink or source of carbon has so far not been fully assessed and as a default position a stable soil carbon pool was reported. A combination from a modeling exercise and a field survey allowed the scrutinization of this assumption. The field data represent a repeated soil inventory after 20 years. Due to the spatial heterogeneity of chemical soil properties no clear conclusion of the temporal change of soil carbon was made. The data set from the field survey was used for the validation of a modeling exercise. We used the model Yasso07 that is well suited for the available site information in Austria. The measured and the simulated soil carbon change had an acceptable fit. The modeling exercise suggested a statistically insignificant loss of soil carbon during a committment period of the Kyoto Protocol. The standing biomass of the forest is still a carbon sink. Owing to the large forest area this insignificant soil carbon loss strongly reduces the carbon sink strength of the entire forest.

  19. Processing data from soil assessment surveys with the computer program SOILS.

    Treesearch

    John W. Hazard; Jeralyn Snellgrove; J. Michael. Geist

    1985-01-01

    Program SOILS processes data from soil assessment surveys following a design adopted by the Pacific Northwest Region of the USDA Forest Service. It accepts measurements from line transects and associated soil subsamples and generates estimates of the percentages of the sampled area falling in each soil condition class. Total disturbance is calculated by combining...

  20. [Research advances in forest soil respiration].

    PubMed

    Luan, Junwei; Xiang, Chenghua; Luo, Zongshi; Gong, Yuanbo

    2006-12-01

    Among the methods of measuring forest soil respiration, infrared CO2 analysis is the optimal one so far. Comparing with empirical model, the process-based model in simulating the production and transportation of soil CO2 has the advantage of considering the biological and physical processes of soil respiration. Generally, soil respiration is positively correlated with soil temperature and moisture, but there are still many uncertainties about the relationships between soil respiration and forest management activities such as firing, cutting, and fertilization. The relationships of soil respiration with vegetation type and soil microbial biomass, as well as the spatial heterogeneity of soil respiration, are the hotspots in recent researches. Some issues and future development in forest soil respiration research were discussed in this paper.

  1. Forest road sideslopes and soil conservation techniques

    Treesearch

    Johnny M. Grace

    2000-01-01

    Forest road sideslopes have been identified as one of the major sources of erosion losses from managed forest systems. Stabilization by vegetation has shown the greatest potential for mitigation of soil erosion on forest road sideslopes. Sediment and runoff production from a wood excelsior erosion mat, native species vegetative mix, and exotic species vegetative mix...

  2. Chemical evaluation of soil-solution in acid forest soils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lawrence, G.B.; David, M.B.

    1996-01-01

    Soil-solution chemistry is commonly studied in forests through the use of soil lysimeters.This approach is impractical for regional survey studies, however, because lysimeter installation and operation is expensive and time consuming. To address these problems, a new technique was developed to compare soil-solution chemistry among red spruce stands in New York, Vermont, New Hampshire, Maine. Soil solutions were expelled by positive air pressure from soil that had been placed in a sealed cylinder. Before the air pressure was applied, a solution chemically similar to throughfall was added to the soil to bring it to approximate field capacity. After the solution sample was expelled, the soil was removed from the cylinder and chemically analyzed. The method was tested with homogenized Oa and Bs horizon soils collected from a red spruce stand in the Adirondack Mountains of New York, a red spruce stand in east-central Vermont, and a mixed hardwood stand in the Catskill Mountains of New York. Reproducibility, effects of varying the reaction time between adding throughfall and expelling soil solution (5-65 minutes) and effects of varying the chemical composition of added throughfall, were evaluated. In general, results showed that (i) the method was reproducible (coefficients of variation were generally < 15%), (ii) variations in the length of reaction-time did not affect expelled solution concentrations, and (iii) adding and expelling solution did not cause detectable changes in soil exchange chemistry. Concentrations of expelled solutions varied with the concentrations of added throughfall; the lower the CEC, the more sensitive expelled solution concentrations were to the chemical concentrations of added throughfall. Addition of a tracer (NaBr) showed that the expelled solution was a mixture of added solution and solution that preexisted in the soil. Comparisons of expelled solution concentrations with concentrations of soil solutions collected by zero-tension and

  3. Missouri Ozark forest soils: perspectives and realities

    Treesearch

    R. David. Hammer

    1997-01-01

    Ozark forest soils are dynamic in space and time, and most formed in multiple parent materials. Erosion and mass movement have been variable and extensive. Soil attributes including texture, cation exchange capacity, and mineralogy are related to geologic strata and to geomorphic conditions. Soil organic carbon content is influenced by surface shape, position in...

  4. Detection of Infectious Tobamoviruses in Forest Soils

    PubMed Central

    Fillhart, Ronald C.; Bachand, George D.; Castello, John D.

    1998-01-01

    Our objectives were to evaluate elution and bait plant methods to detect infectious tobamoviruses in forest soils in New York State. Soils were collected from two forest sites: Whiteface Mountain (WF) and Heiberg Forest (HF). The effectiveness of four buffers to elute tomato mosaic tobamovirus (ToMV) from organic and mineral fractions of WF soil amended with ToMV was tested, and virus content was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The effectiveness of Chenopodium quinoa (Willd.) bait plants to detect the virus also was tested. Both methods then were utilized to detect tobamoviruses in 11 WF and 2 HF soil samples. A phosphate buffer (100 mM, pH 7.0) eluted more ToMV from soil than the other buffers tested. Mineral soil bound more virus than organic soil. Virus recoveries from virus-amended organic and mineral soils were 3 and 10%, respectively, and the detection sensitivity was 10 to 20 ng/g of soil. Roots of bait plants grown in all virus-amended soils tested positive by ELISA, and virus concentrations averaged 10 ng/g. Both ToMV and tobacco mosaic tobamovirus (TMV) were transmitted to C. quinoa by elution from one of two HF soil samples but not from the WF soil samples. A tobamovirus was detected by bait planting in 12 of 73 (16%) root extracts representing 5 of 13 soil samples (38%). Tobamovirus-like particles were seen by transmission electron microscopy in 6 of 12 infected root extracts. Tobamoviruses occur in forest soils in New York State. Abiotic soil transmission to trees may permit localized spread and persistence of these viruses in forest ecosystems. PMID:16349545

  5. Minimizing soil impacts from forest operations

    Treesearch

    Emily A. Carter

    2011-01-01

    Several studies were conducted by Forest Service researchers and University and Industrial collaborators that investigated the potential for lessening soil surface disturbances and compaction in forest operations through modifications of machine components or harvest systems. Specific machine modifications included change in tire size, use of dual tire systems,...

  6. Ectomycorrhizal mats alter forest soil biogeochemistry

    Treesearch

    Laurel A. Kluber; Kathryn M. Tinnesand; Bruce A. Caldwell; Susie M. Dunham; Rockie R. Yarwood; Peter J. Bottomley; David D. Myrold

    2010-01-01

    Dense hyphal mats formed by ectomycorrhizal (EcM) fungi are prominent features in Douglas-fir forest ecosystems, and have been estimated to cover up to 40% of the soil surface in some forest stands. Two morphotypes of EcM mats have been previously described: rhizomorphic mats, which have thick hyphal rhizomorphs and are found primarily in the organic horizon, and...

  7. Soil-calcium depletion linked to acid rain and forest growth in the eastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lawrence, Gregory B.; Huntington, T.G.

    1999-01-01

    Since the discovery of acid rain in the 1970's, scientists have been concerned that deposition of acids could cause depletion of calcium in forest soils. Research in the 1980's showed that the amount of calcium in forest soils is controlled by several factors that are difficult to measure. Further research in the 1990's, including several studies by the U.S. Geological Survey, has shown that (1) calcium in forest soils has decreased at locations in the northeastern and southeastern U.S., and (2) acid rain and forest growth (uptake of calcium from the soil by roots) are both factors contributing to calcium depletion.

  8. Method to measure soil matrix infiltration in forest soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jing; Lei, Tingwu; Qu, Liqin; Chen, Ping; Gao, Xiaofeng; Chen, Chao; Yuan, Lili; Zhang, Manliang; Su, Guangxu

    2017-09-01

    Infiltration of water into forest soil commonly involves infiltration through the matrix body and preferential passages. Determining the matrix infiltration process is important in partitioning water infiltrating into the soil through the soil body and macropores to evaluate the effects of soil and water conservation practices on hillslope hydrology and watershed sedimentation. A new method that employs a double-ring infiltrometer was applied in this study to determine the matrix infiltration process in forest soil. Field experiments were conducted in a forest field on the Loess Plateau at Tianshui Soil and Water Conservation Experimental Station. Nylon cloth was placed on the soil surface in the inner ring and between the inner and outer rings of infiltrometers. A thin layer of fine sands were placed onto the nylon cloth to shelter the macropores and ensure that water infiltrates the soil through the matrix only. Brilliant Blue tracers were applied to examine the exclusion of preferential flow occurrences in the measured soil body. The infiltration process was measured, computed, and recorded through procedures similar to those of conventional methods. Horizontal and vertical soil profiles were excavated to check the success of the experiment and ensure that preferential flow did not occur in the measured soil column and that infiltration was only through the soil matrix. The infiltration processes of the replicates of five plots were roughly the same, thereby indicating the feasibility of the methodology to measure soil matrix infiltration. The measured infiltration curves effectively explained the transient process of soil matrix infiltration. Philip and Kostiakov models fitted the measured data well, and all the coefficients of determination were greater than 0.9. The wetted soil bodies through excavations did not present evidence of preferential flow. Therefore, the proposed method can determine the infiltration process through the forest soil matrix. This

  9. The soil indicator of forest health in the Forest Inventory and Analysis Program

    Treesearch

    Michael C. Amacher; Charles H. Perry

    2010-01-01

    Montreal Process Criteria and Indicators (MPCI) were established to monitor forest conditions and trends to promote sustainable forest management. The Soil Indicator of forest health was developed and implemented within the USFS Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program to assess condition and trends in forest soil quality in U.S. forests regardless of ownership. The...

  10. Fumigant distribution in forest nursery soils

    Treesearch

    Dong Wang; Stephen W. Fraedrich; Jennifer Juzwik; Kurt Spokas; Yi Zhang; William C. Koskinen

    2006-01-01

    Adequate concentration, exposure time and distribution uniformity of activated fumigant gases are prerequisites for successful soil fumigation. Field experiments were conducted to evaluate gas phase distributions of methyl isothiocyanate (MITC) and chloropicrin (CP) in two forest-tree nurseries. Concentrations of MITC and CP in soil air were measured from replicated...

  11. Sulfate adsorption in Michigan forest soils

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonald, N.W.

    1987-01-01

    The occurrence of acidic atmospheric deposition raised concerns over adverse cation leaching effects on Michigan forest soils with low cation exchange capacities. Leaching effects of acid deposition depend on mobility of sulfate in the soil. Little was known, however, concerning the ability of these soils to adsorb sulfate. The objectives of this study were to determine the ability of representative Michigan forest soils to adsorb sulfate, to relate sulfate adsorption to soil properties, and to develop equations to predict sulfate adsorption in similar forest soils. Frigid zone soil series studied were Grayling (Typic Udipsamments), Rubicon (Entic Haplorthods), Kalkaska (Typic Haplorthods), and Montcalm (Eutric Glossoboralfs). Mesic zone series studied were Spinks (Psammentic Hapludals) and Oshtemo (Typic Hapludalfs). Six randomly located pedons of each series were sampled. Sulfate adsorption was determined by shaking 10 gram soil samples for 24 hours in 50 mL 0.01 M CaCl/sub 2/ solution containing 10 mg SO/sub 4/-S L/sup -1/. Solution filtrates were turbidimetrically analyzed for SO/sub 4/-S and adsorption was calculated from reduction in SO/sub 4/-S concentration. Bw, Bs, and Bh horizons of frigid zone soils and E and Bt horizons of mesic zone soils had the highest sulfate adsorbing abilities. No significant differences were found between series in total sulfate adsorptive capacity.

  12. Harvest impacts on soil carbon storage in temperate forests

    Treesearch

    L.E. Nave; E.D. Vance; C.W. Swanston; P.S. Curtis

    2010-01-01

    Forest soil carbon (C) storage is a significant component of the global C cycle, and is important for sustaining forest productivity. Although forest management may have substantial impacts on soil C storage, experimental data from forest harvesting studies have not been synthesized recently. To quantify the effects of harvesting on soil C, and to identify sources of...

  13. Critical Analysis of Forest Degradation in the Southern Eastern Ghats of India: Comparison of Satellite Imagery and Soil Quality Index

    PubMed Central

    Ramachandran, Andimuthu; Radhapriya, Parthasarathy; Jayakumar, Shanmuganathan; Dhanya, Praveen; Geetha, Rajadurai

    2016-01-01

    India has one of the largest assemblages of tropical biodiversity, with its unique floristic composition of endemic species. However, current forest cover assessment is performed via satellite-based forest surveys, which have many limitations. The present study, which was performed in the Eastern Ghats, analysed the satellite-based inventory provided by forest surveys and inferred from the results that this process no longer provides adequate information for quantifying forest degradation in an empirical manner. The study analysed 21 soil properties and generated a forest soil quality index of the Eastern Ghats, using principal component analysis. Using matrix modules and geospatial technology, we compared the forest degradation status calculated from satellite-based forest surveys with the degradation status calculated from the forest soil quality index. The Forest Survey of India classified about 1.8% of the Eastern Ghats’ total area as degraded forests and the remainder (98.2%) as open, dense, and very dense forests, whereas the soil quality index results found that about 42.4% of the total area is degraded, with the remainder (57.6%) being non-degraded. Our ground truth verification analyses indicate that the forest soil quality index along with the forest cover density data from the Forest Survey of India are ideal tools for evaluating forest degradation. PMID:26812397

  14. Critical Analysis of Forest Degradation in the Southern Eastern Ghats of India: Comparison of Satellite Imagery and Soil Quality Index.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Andimuthu; Radhapriya, Parthasarathy; Jayakumar, Shanmuganathan; Dhanya, Praveen; Geetha, Rajadurai

    2016-01-01

    India has one of the largest assemblages of tropical biodiversity, with its unique floristic composition of endemic species. However, current forest cover assessment is performed via satellite-based forest surveys, which have many limitations. The present study, which was performed in the Eastern Ghats, analysed the satellite-based inventory provided by forest surveys and inferred from the results that this process no longer provides adequate information for quantifying forest degradation in an empirical manner. The study analysed 21 soil properties and generated a forest soil quality index of the Eastern Ghats, using principal component analysis. Using matrix modules and geospatial technology, we compared the forest degradation status calculated from satellite-based forest surveys with the degradation status calculated from the forest soil quality index. The Forest Survey of India classified about 1.8% of the Eastern Ghats' total area as degraded forests and the remainder (98.2%) as open, dense, and very dense forests, whereas the soil quality index results found that about 42.4% of the total area is degraded, with the remainder (57.6%) being non-degraded. Our ground truth verification analyses indicate that the forest soil quality index along with the forest cover density data from the Forest Survey of India are ideal tools for evaluating forest degradation.

  15. Soil moisture in sessile oak forest gaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zagyvainé Kiss, Katalin Anita; Vastag, Viktor; Gribovszki, Zoltán; Kalicz, Péter

    2015-04-01

    By social demands are being promoted the aspects of the natural forest management. In forestry the concept of continuous forest has been an accepted principle also in Hungary since the last decades. The first step from even-aged stand to continuous forest can be the forest regeneration based on gap cutting, so small openings are formed in a forest due to forestry interventions. This new stand structure modifies the hydrological conditions for the regrowth. Without canopy and due to the decreasing amounts of forest litter the interception is less significant so higher amount of precipitation reaching the soil. This research focuses on soil moisture patterns caused by gaps. The spatio-temporal variability of soil water content is measured in gaps and in surrounding sessile oak (Quercus petraea) forest stand. Soil moisture was determined with manual soil moisture meter which use Time-Domain Reflectometry (TDR) technology. The three different sizes gaps (G1: 10m, G2: 20m, G3: 30m) was opened next to Sopron on the Dalos Hill in Hungary. First, it was determined that there is difference in soil moisture between forest stand and gaps. Second, it was defined that how the gap size influences the soil moisture content. To explore the short term variability of soil moisture, two 24-hour (in growing season) and a 48-hour (in dormant season) field campaign were also performed in case of the medium-sized G2 gap along two/four transects. Subdaily changes of soil moisture were performed. The measured soil moisture pattern was compared with the radiation pattern. It was found that the non-illuminated areas were wetter and in the dormant season the subdaily changes cease. According to our measurements, in the gap there is more available water than under the forest stand due to the less evaporation and interception loss. Acknowledgements: The research was supported by TÁMOP-4.2.2.A-11/1/KONV-2012-0004 and AGRARKLIMA.2 VKSZ_12-1-2013-0034.

  16. Proceedings of the Alaska forest soil productivity workshop.

    Treesearch

    C.W. Slaughter; T. Gasbarro

    1988-01-01

    The Alaska Forest Soil Productivity Workshop addressed (1) the role of soil information for forest management in Alaska; (2) assessment, monitoring, and enhancement of soil productivity; and (3) Alaska research projects involved in studies of productivity of forests and soils. This proceedings includes 27 papers in five categories: agency objectives in monitoring and...

  17. Soil and forest floor characteristics

    Treesearch

    Ralph E. J. Boerner; Sherri J. Morris; Kelly L. M. Decker; Todd F. Hutchinson

    2003-01-01

    The soils of the four study areas in southern Ohio were dominated by silt loams derived from sandstones and shales. The soils at Bluegrass Ridge (BR) had significantly more clay and sand and significantly less silt than soils of the other study areas. Total inorganic N (TIN) and available NH4 were greatest in soils from Watch Rock (WR) and least...

  18. Soil physical changes associated with forest harvesting operations on a organic soil

    Treesearch

    Johnny M. Grace; R.W. Skaggs; D.K. Cassel

    2006-01-01

    The influence of forest operations on forest soil and water continues to be an issue of concern in forest management. Research has focused on evaluating forest operation effects on numerous soil and water quality indicators. However, poorly drained forested watersheds with organic soil surface horizons have not been extensively investigated. A study was initiated in...

  19. The variations of aluminium species in mountainous forest soils and its implications to soil acidification.

    PubMed

    Bradová, Monika; Tejnecký, Václav; Borůvka, Luboš; Němeček, Karel; Ash, Christopher; Šebek, Ondřej; Svoboda, Miroslav; Zenáhlíková, Jitka; Drábek, Ondřej

    2015-11-01

    Aluminium (Al) speciation is a characteristic that can be used as a tool for describing the soil acidification process. The question that was answered is how tree species (beech vs spruce) and type of soil horizon affect Al speciation. Our hypotesis is that spruce and beech forest vegetation are able to modify the chemical characteristics of organic horizon, hence the content of Al species. Moreover, these characteristics are seasonally dependent. To answer these questions, a detailed chromatographic speciation of Al in forest soils under contrasting tree species was performed. The Jizera Mountains area (Czech Republic) was chosen as a representative mountainous soil ecosystem. A basic forestry survey was performed on the investigated area. Soil and precipitation samples (throughfall, stemflow) were collected under both beech and spruce stands at monthly intervals from April to November during the years 2008-2011. Total aluminium content and Al speciation, pH, and dissolved organic carbon were determined in aqueous soil extracts and in precipitation samples. We found that the most important factors affecting the chemistry of soils, hence content of the Al species, are soil horizons and vegetation cover. pH strongly affects the amount of Al species under both forests. Fermentation (F) and humified (H) organic horizons contain a higher content of water extractable Al and Al(3+) compared to organo-mineral (A) and mineral horizons (B). With increasing soil profile depth, the amount of water extractable Al, Al(3+) and moisture decreases. The prevailing water-extractable species of Al in all studied soils and profiles under both spruce and beech forests were organically bound monovalent Al species. Distinct seasonal variations in organic and mineral soil horizons were found under both spruce and beech forests. Maximum concentrations of water-extractable Al and Al(3+) were determined in the summer, and the lowest in spring.

  20. Gaseous mercury fluxes from forest soils in response to forest harvesting intensity: A field manipulation experiment

    Treesearch

    M. Mazur; C.P.J. Mitchell; C.S. Eckley; S.L. Eggert; R.K. Kolka; S.D. Sebestyen; E.B. Swain

    2014-01-01

    Forest harvesting leads to changes in soil moisture, temperature and incident solar radiation, all strong environmental drivers of soil-air mercury (Hg) fluxes. Whether different forest harvesting practices significantly alter Hg fluxes from forest soils is unknown.We conducted a field-scale experiment in a northern Minnesota deciduous forest wherein gaseous Hg...

  1. Forests and Soil Erosion across Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bathurst, J. C.

    2012-04-01

    Land use and climate change threaten the ability of Europe's forests to provide a vital service in limiting soil erosion, e.g. from forest fires and landslides. However, our ability to define the threat and to propose mitigation measures suffers from two deficiencies concerning the forest/erosion interface: 1) While there have been a considerable number of field studies of the relationship between forest cover and erosion in different parts of Europe, the data sets are scattered among research groups and a range of literature outlets. There is no comprehensive overview of the forest/erosion interface at the European scale, essential for considering regional variations and investigating the effects of future changes in land use and climate. 2) Compared with forest/water studies, we have a poorer quantitative appreciation of forest/erosion interactions. In the forest/water area it is possible to make quantitative statements such as that a 20% change in forest cover across a river catchment is needed for the effect on annual water yield to be measurable or that a forested catchment in upland UK has an annual water yield around 15% lower than an otherwise comparable grassland catchment. Comparable statements are not yet possible for forest/erosion interactions and there are uncertainties in the mathematical representation of forest/erosion interactions which limit our ability to make predictions, for example of the impact of forest loss in a given area. This presentation therefore considers the next step in improving our predictive capability. It proposes the integration of existing research and data to construct the "big picture" across Europe, i.e. erosion rates and sediment yields associated with forest cover and its loss in a range of erosion regimes (e.g. post-forest fire erosion or post-logging landslides). This would provide a basis for generalizations at the European scale. However, such an overview would not form a predictive capability. Therefore it is also

  2. FOREST SOIL INFORMATION FOR ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT IN THE WESTERN OREGON CASCADES BASED ON LANDTYPE MAPPING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Forest health monitoring and other environmental assessments require information on the spatial distribution of basic soil physical and chemical properties. Traditional soil surveys are not available for large areas of forestland in the western US but there are some soil resour...

  3. FOREST SOIL INFORMATION FOR ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT IN THE WESTERN OREGON CASCADES BASED ON LANDTYPE MAPPING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Forest health monitoring and other environmental assessments require information on the spatial distribution of basic soil physical and chemical properties. Traditional soil surveys are not available for large areas of forestland in the western US but there are some soil resour...

  4. Acid precipitation and forest soils

    Treesearch

    C. O. Tamm

    1976-01-01

    Many soil processes and properties may be affected by a change in chemical climate such as that caused by acidification of precipitation. The effect of additions of acid precipitation depends at first on the extent to which this acid is really absorbed by the soil and on the changes in substances with actual or potential acidity leaving the soil. There is for instance...

  5. Introductory Soil Science Exercises Using USDA Web Soil Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Post, Christopher J.; Mikhailova, Elena; McWhorter, Christopher M.

    2007-01-01

    The USDA, Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS) Web Soil Survey is a valuable teaching tool for soil science education. By incorporating the Web Soil Survey into an undergraduate-level course, students are able to use the most detailed digital soil survey information without the steep learning curve associated with geographic information…

  6. Introductory Soil Science Exercises Using USDA Web Soil Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Post, Christopher J.; Mikhailova, Elena; McWhorter, Christopher M.

    2007-01-01

    The USDA, Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS) Web Soil Survey is a valuable teaching tool for soil science education. By incorporating the Web Soil Survey into an undergraduate-level course, students are able to use the most detailed digital soil survey information without the steep learning curve associated with geographic information…

  7. Big trees of the Midsouth Forest Survey

    Treesearch

    Dennis M. May

    1990-01-01

    Forestry agencies and associations across the country maintain registers of champion big trees.Listings of the biggest trees encountered on the USDA Forest Service's continuing survey of the forest lands of seven Midsouth States have been prepared.The listings report the biggest trees encountered by species for each State and the Midsouth region.These listings...

  8. Dependence of soil respiration on soil temperature and soil moisture in successional forests in Southern China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tang, X.-L.; Zhou, G.-Y.; Liu, S.-G.; Zhang, D.-Q.; Liu, S.-Z.; Li, Ji; Zhou, C.-Y.

    2006-01-01

    The spatial and temporal variations in soil respiration and its relationship with biophysical factors in forests near the Tropic of Cancer remain highly uncertain. To contribute towards an improvement of actual estimates, soil respiration rates, soil temperature, and soil moisture were measured in three successional subtropical forests at the Dinghushan Nature Reserve (DNR) in southern China from March 2003 to February 2005. The overall objective of the present study was to analyze the temporal variations of soil respiration and its biophysical dependence in these forests. The relationships between biophysical factors and soil respiration rates were compared in successional forests to test the hypothesis that these forests responded similarly to biophysical factors. The seasonality of soil respiration coincided with the seasonal climate pattern, with high respiration rates in the hot humid season (April-September) and with low rates in the cool dry season (October-March). Soil respiration measured at these forests showed a clear increasing trend with the progressive succession. Annual mean (±SD) soil respiration rate in the DNR forests was (9.0 ± 4.6) Mg CO2-C/hm2per year, ranging from (6.1 ± 3.2) Mg CO2-C/hm2per year in early successional forests to (10.7 ± 4.9) Mg CO2-C/hm2 per year in advanced successional forests. Soil respiration was correlated with both soil temperature and moisture. The T/M model, where the two biophysical variables are driving factors, accounted for 74%-82% of soil respiration variation in DNR forests. Temperature sensitivity decreased along progressive succession stages, suggesting that advanced-successional forests have a good ability to adjust to temperature. In contrast, moisture increased with progressive succession processes. This increase is caused, in part, by abundant respirators in advanced-successional forest, where more soil moisture is needed to maintain their activities.

  9. Increasing Soil Calcium Availability Alters Forest Soil Carbon Stocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melvin, A.; Goodale, C. L.

    2011-12-01

    Acid deposition in the Northeastern U.S. has been linked to a loss of soil base cations, especially calcium (Ca). While much research has addressed the effects of Ca depletion on soil and stream acidification, few studies have investigated its effects on ecosystem carbon (C) balance. We studied the long-term effects of increased Ca availability on C cycling in a northern hardwood forest in the Adirondack Park, NY. In 1989, calcium carbonate (lime) was added to ~ 100 ha of the Woods Lake Watershed to ameliorate the effects of soil Ca depletion. An additional 100 ha were maintained as controls. We hypothesized that the lime addition would improve forest health and that this improvement would be evident in increased tree biomass, leaf litter, and fine root production. Within the forest floor, we anticipated that the increased pH associated with liming would stimulate microbial activity resulting in increased decomposition and basal soil respiration, and reduced C stocks. Additionally, we hypothesized that increased Ca availability could enhance Ca-OM complexation in the upper mineral soils, leading to increased C stocks in these horizons. Eighteen years after liming, soil pH and exchangeable Ca pools remained elevated in the forest floor and upper mineral soil of the limed plots. Forest floor C stocks were significantly larger in limed plots (68 vs. 31 t C ha-1), and were driven primarily by greater C accumulation in the forest floor Oa horizon. Mineral soil C stocks did not differ between limed and control soils. Liming did not affect tree growth, however a net decline in biomass was observed across the entire watershed. There was a trend for larger fine root and foliar litter inputs in limed plots relative to controls, but the observed forest floor accumulation appears to be driven primarily by a suppression of decomposition. Liming reduced basal soil respiration rates by 17 and 43 % in the Oe and Oa horizons, respectively. This research suggests that Ca may

  10. Oklahoma midcycle survey shows changed in forest resources

    Treesearch

    Charles E. Thomas

    1985-01-01

    This forest survey of Oklahoma is the fifth conducted by the forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) unit of the Southern Forest Experiment Station. The previous survey was made in 1976. Normally the next survey would have been 1986, but to aid the state in its current forest resource planning an abbreviated midcycle survey was made in 1981. A new sampling procedure based...

  11. Bibliography of Pacific Northwest forest soils publications through 1955.

    Treesearch

    Robert F. Tarrant

    1956-01-01

    During the past ten years, interest and development of research in forest soils has grown steadily in the Pacific Northwest. Prior to 1946, no full-time work in forest soils was being done in the region. Today, both private and public land-management organizations employ forest soils research technicians. In addition, two colleges in the region offer instruction in...

  12. 1957 bibliography of Pacific Northwest forest soils publications.

    Treesearch

    Robert F. Tarrant

    1958-01-01

    In 1956, The Forest Soils Committee of the Douglas-fir Region endorsed preparation of an annual bibliography dealing with forest soils research in the Pacific Northwest. The first list, published as Research Note No. 130, summarized all forest soils publications pertaining to the region through 1955. A summary of such publications appearing in 1956 was released as...

  13. Mercury isotope compositions in North American forest soils and litters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, W.; Obrist, D.; Bergquist, B. A.

    2013-12-01

    Soils represent one of the largest reservoirs of mercury on Earth, playing a critical role in the natural cycle of mercury by acting as both a sink and source. However, it is not well understood how soils sequestrate and remobilize Hg. Natural variations in stable Hg isotopes are being explored as a promising tool in studying the transformation and transport of Hg. However, Hg isotopic data in soils is scarce. In addition, the limited isotopic data that exists is significantly different from those of atmospheric Hg, which is one of the major sources of Hg to soils. For example, Hg mass independent fractionation (MIF, typically reported as Δ199Hg) is positive in atmospheric wet deposition, but most soils display negative Δ199Hg. MIF on 200Hg (Δ200Hg) is also observed in atmospheric wet deposition, but not in soils. The discrepancy between soils and atmospheric samples is still unexplained. In this study, we surveyed the Hg isotope compositions in soil profiles, litters and fresh vegetation from four different forest sites across United States (Thompson forest, WA, Truckee, CA, Niwot Ridge, CO and Howland, MA). The current results from the WA site show that soils primarily display negative mass dependent fractionation for the even isotopes (MDF, reported as δ202Hg) with values for δ202Hg of up to -2.0‰. Significant MIF for both odd isotopes is also observed in all WA soil samples and Δ199Hg is mostly negative (up to -0.4‰). No MIF on 200Hg is observed in these soils. The negative Δ199Hg in soils is inconsistent with the positive Δ199Hg reported in atmospheric wet deposition, suggesting that either Hg transformations within or on the surface of soils and/or plants alter its isotope composition after deposition or other types of Hg deposition (e.g., Hg(0) or Hg(II) dry deposition) is more predominant. The Δ199Hg/Δ201Hg ratio is close to 1 in the soils, which is consistent with the results of laboratory photochemical reduction of inorganic Hg

  14. Sewage Effluent Infiltrates Frozen Forest Soil

    Treesearch

    Alfred Ray Harris

    1976-01-01

    Secondarily treated sewage effluent, applied at the rate of 1 and 2 inches per week, infiltrated a frozen Sparta sand soil forested with jack pine and scrub oak. Maximum frost depth in treated plots averaged 60 cm and in check plots averages 35 cm. Nitrogen was mobile with some accumulation. Phosphorus was absorbed.

  15. Reduction of soil erosion on forest roads

    Treesearch

    Edward R. Burroughs; John G. King

    1989-01-01

    Presents the expected reduction in surface erosion from selected treatments applied to forest road traveledways, cutslopes, fillslopes, and ditches. Estimated erosion reduction is expressed as functions of ground cover, slope gradient, and soil properties whenever possible. A procedure is provided to select rock riprap size for protection of the road ditch.

  16. Multiple value forest surveys in the Midsouth states

    Treesearch

    Victor A. Rudis

    1990-01-01

    State-of-the-art achievement and limitations in integrating water, range, wildlife, and recreation ("nontimber") inventories with forest surveys of the USDA-Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment station, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Unit are reviewed.The FIA Unit surveys private and public forests in 7 Midsouth states:Alabama, Arkansas, Louisiana...

  17. Soil properties discriminating Araucaria forests with different disturbance levels.

    PubMed

    Bertini, Simone Cristina Braga; Azevedo, Lucas Carvalho Basilio; Stromberger, Mary E; Cardoso, Elke Jurandy Bran Nogueira

    2015-04-01

    Soil biological, chemical, and physical properties can be important for monitoring soil quality under one of the most spectacular vegetation formation on Atlantic Forest Biome, the Araucaria Forest. Our aim was to identify a set of soil variables capable of discriminating between disturbed, reforested, and native Araucaria forest soils such that these variables could be used to monitor forest recovery and maintenance. Soil samples were collected at dry and rainy season under the three forest types in two state parks at São Paulo State, Brazil. Soil biological, chemical, and physical properties were evaluated to verify their potential to differentiate the forest types, and discriminant analysis was performed to identify the variables that most contribute to the differentiation. Most of physical and chemical variables were sensitive to forest disturbance level, but few biological variables were significantly different when comparing native, reforested, and disturbed forests. Despite more than 20 years following reforestation, the reforested soils were chemically and biologically distinct from native and disturbed forest soils, mainly because of the greater acidity and Al3+ content of reforested soil. Disturbed soils, in contrast, were coarser in texture and contained greater concentrations of extractable P. Although biological properties are generally highly sensitive to disturbance and amelioration efforts, the most important soil variables to discriminate forest types in both seasons included Al3+, Mg2+, P, and sand, and only one microbial attribute: the NO2- oxidizers. Therefore, these five variables were the best candidates, of the variables we employed, for monitoring Araucaria forest disturbance and recovery.

  18. Soil Taxonomy and land evaluation for forest establishment

    Treesearch

    Haruyoshi Ikawa

    1992-01-01

    Soil Taxonomy, the United States system of soil classification, can be used for land evaluation for selected purposes. One use is forest establishment in the tropics, and the soil family category is especially functional for this purpose. The soil family is a bionomial name with descriptions usually of soil texture, mineralogy, and soil temperature classes. If the...

  19. Soil production in forested landscapes (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roering, J. J.; Booth, A. M.

    2009-12-01

    One of the most fundamental characteristics that defines landscapes is the presence or absence of a soil mantle. In actively eroding terrain, soil (and other natural resources that depend on it) persists only when the rate of soil production is not eclipsed by denudation. Despite successful efforts to empirically estimate long-term rates of soil production, little predictive capability exists as soil formation results from a complex interplay of biological, physical, and chemical processes. Here, we synthesize a suite of observations from the steep, forested Oregon Coast Range (OCR) and anlayze the role of trees in the conversion of bedrock to soil. Pit/mound topography on forest floors attests to the persistent, wholesale overturning of soil by tree root activity. Using airborne LiDAR data for our study site in the western Oregon Coast Range, we calculated how terrain roughness varies with spatial scale. At scales greater than 10m, the well-established ridge/valley structure of the landscape defines the topography; whereas for scales less than 7m, terrain roughness increases rapidly reflecting the stochastic nature of bioturbation associated with large, coniferous trees. Empirical estimates of soil production in the OCR by Heimsath et al (2001, ESPL) reveal that production rates decrease exponentially with depth and the decay constant is 2.68 (1/m). From dozens of soil pits in the OCR, we show that the density of trees roots declines exponentially with depth at a similar rate, 2.57 (1/m). In other words, rates of soil production appear to be well-correlated with root density. Bedrock is often excavated during tree turnover events and we documented that the volume of bedrock incorporated in overturned coniferous rootwads increases rapidly for tree diameters greater than 0.5m (which correponds to a 60-80 yr old Douglas fir tree in Western Oregon). Smaller (and thus younger) trees entrain negligible bedrock when overturned, suggesting that their root systems are

  20. Soil carbon sequestration and forest management: challenges and opportunities

    Treesearch

    Coeli M. Hoover

    2003-01-01

    The subject of the effects of forest management activities on soil carbon is a difficult one to address, but ongoing discussions of carbon sequestration as an emissions offset and the emergence of carbon-credit-trading systems necessitate that we broaden and deepen our understanding of the response of forest-soil carbon pools to forest management. There have been...

  1. Soggy soils and sustainability: forested wetlands in southeast Alaska.

    Treesearch

    Sally. Duncan

    2002-01-01

    The question has risen over whether forested wetlands in southeast Alaska are suitable for sustainable timber production. A significant factor limiting forest productivity in this region is excess soil moisture. Very little is known about the soil conditions that influence tree growth on forested wetlands. A research study was completed to provide information on the...

  2. Linkages between forest soils and water quality and quantity

    Treesearch

    Daniel G. Neary; George G. Ice; C. Rhett Jackson

    2009-01-01

    The most sustainable and best quality fresh water sources in the world originate in forest ecosystems. The biological, chemical, and physical characteristics of forest soils are particularly well suited to delivering high quality water to streams, moderating stream hydrology, and providing diverse aquatic habitat. Forest soils feature litter layers and...

  3. Investigation of soil carbon sequestration processes in a temperate deciduous forest using soil respiration experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schütze, Claudia; Marañón-Jiménez, Sara; Zöphel, Hendrik; Gimper, Sebastian; Dienstbach, Laura; Garcia Quirós, Inmaculada; Cuntz, Matthias; Rebmann, Corinna

    2016-04-01

    Considering the carbon cycles of terrestrial ecosystems, soils represent a major long-term carbon storage pool. However, the storage capacity depends on several impact parameters based on biotic factors (e.g. vegetation activity, microbial activity, nutrient availability, interactions between vegetation and microbial activity) and abiotic driving factors (e.g. soil moisture, soil temperature, soil composition). Especially, increases in vegetation and microbial activity can lead to raised soil carbon release detectable as higher soil respiration rates. Within the frame of the ICOS project, several soil respiration experiments are under consideration at the temperate deciduous forest site "Hohes Holz" (Central Germany). These experiments started in May 2014. Soil respiration data acquisition was carried out using 8 automatic continuous chambers (LI-COR) and 60 different plots for bi-weekly survey chamber measurements in order to clarify the controlling factors for soil CO2 emissions such as litter availability, above- and belowground vegetation, and activation of microbial activity with temperature, soil moisture and root occurrence. Hence, several treatments (trenched, non-trenched, litter supply) were investigated on different plots within the research area. The data analysis of the 20-month observation period reveals preliminary results of the study. Obviously, significant differences between the trenched and the non-trenched plots concerning the CO2 emissions occurred. Increased soil carbon releases are supposed to be associated to the activation of microbial mineralization of soil organic matter by root inputs. Furthermore, depending on the amount of litter supply, different levels of activation were observed. The data of the continuous chamber measurements with a temporal resolution of one hour sampling interval can be used to show the dependence on above described biogeochemical processes due to abiotic controlling factors. Especially, soil moisture as a

  4. Effect of soil compaction and biomass removal on soil CO2 efflux in a Missouri forest

    Treesearch

    Felix, Jr. Ponder

    2005-01-01

    Forest disturbances associated with harvesting activities can affect soil properties and soil respiration. A soda-lime technique was used to measure soil carbon dioxide (CO2) efflux rates in clearcut plots of a Missouri oak-hickory (Quercus spp. L.-Carya spp. Nutt.) forest 4 years after being treated with two levels of forest...

  5. Rapid soil development after windthrow disturbance in pristine forests.

    Treesearch

    B.T. Bormann; H. Spaltenstein; M.H. McClellan; F.C. Ugolini; K. Cromack; S.M. Nay

    1995-01-01

    1. We examined how rapidly soils can change during secondary succession by observing soil development on 350-year chronosequences in three pristine forest ecosystems in south-east Alaska. 2. Soil surfaces, created by different windthrow events of known or estimated age, were examined within each of three forest stands (0.5-2.0 ha plots; i.e. a within-stand...

  6. Long-Term Soil Chemistry Changes in Aggrading Forest Ecosystems

    Treesearch

    Jennifer D. Knoepp; Wayne T. Swank

    1994-01-01

    Assessing potential long-term forest productivity requires identification of the processes regulating chemical changes in forest soils. We resampled the litter layer and upper two mineral soil horizons, A and AB/BA, in two aggrading southern Appalachian watersheds 20 yr after an earlier sampling. Soils from a mixed-hardwood watershed exhibited a small but significant...

  7. Soil properties and soil nitrogen dynamics of prairie-like forest openings and surrounding forests in Kentucky's Knobs Region

    Treesearch

    C.C. Rhoades; S.P. Miller; M.M. Shea

    2004-01-01

    Herbaceous communities located within forest openings increase plant species diversity of forests in the Knobs Region of Kentucky. Although these grass-dominated communities are protected and managed for rare plant species conservation, it is unclear how soil conditions may delineate the grassland-forest boundary. We compared soil chemical and physical properties and...

  8. Using soil quality indicators for monitoring sustainable forest management

    Treesearch

    James A. Burger; Garland Gray; D. Andrew Scott

    2010-01-01

    Most private and public forest land owners and managers are compelled to manage their forests sustainably, which means management that is economically viable,environmentally sound, and socially acceptable. To meet this mandate, the USDA Forest Service protects the productivity of our nation’s forest soils by monitoring and evaluating management activities to ensure...

  9. Multiresource inventories - a new concept for forest survey

    Treesearch

    Joe P. McClure; Noel D. Cost; Herbert A. Knight

    1979-01-01

    A brief historical review shows why Forest Service Renewable Resources Units are capable of multiresource surveys. A practical approach to such surveys has been developed at the Southeastern Forest Experiment Station and demonstrated in South Carolina.

  10. Forest Soil Respiration: Identifying Sources and Controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Högberg, P.

    2008-12-01

    Most of the respiration in forests comes from the soil. This flux is composed of two components, autotrophic and heterotrophic respiration. In a strict sense the former should be plant belowground respiration only, but the term is used here to denote respiration by roots, their mycorrhizal fungal symbionts and other closely associated organisms dependent on recent photosynthate. Heterotrophs are organisms using organic matter, chiefly above- and belowground litters, as substrate (i.e. substrates of in general much higher ecosystem age). Because of the complexity of the plant-soil system, the component fluxes are difficult to study. I will discuss results of different approaches to partition soil respiratory components and to study their controls. The focus will be on northern boreal forests. In these generally strongly nitrogen-limited forests, the autotrophic respiration equals or exceeds the heterotrophic component. The large autotrophic component reflects high plant allocation of C to roots and mycorrhizal fungi in response to the low N supply. A physiological manipulation, girdling, which stops the flow of photosynthates to roots, showed that autotrophic respiration could account for as much as 70% in N-limited forests, but only 40% in fertilized forests. Also using girdling, we could show that a shift to lower summertime temperature leads to a decrease in heterotrophic but not in autotrophic activity, suggesting substrate (photosynthate) limitation of the latter. Physiological manipulations like girdling and trenching cannot be used to reveal the finer details of soil C dynamics. Natural abundance stable isotope (13C) and 14C approaches also have their limitations if a high resolution in terms of time, space and organism is required. A very high resolution can, of course, be obtained in studies of laboratory micro- or mesocosms, but the possibility to extend the interpretation of their results to the field may be questioned. In the CANIFLEX (CArbon NItrogen

  11. Priming effects in a subtropical forest soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qianru; Sun, Yue; Xu, Xingliang

    2015-04-01

    Priming effects can accelerate decomposition of soil organic carbon (SOC) and thus have great potential to change SOC dynamics. Although temperature and addition of fresh substrates could affect the intensity and direction of priming, it remains unclear how their interactions affect priming. Therefore we conducted an incubation experiment using a subtropical forest soil. We incubated the soil for 10 days at two temperatures: 15oC and 25oC, with four treatments: CK (only adding water), G (13C-glucose addition), NT (13C-glucose and nitrate additions) and AM (13C-glucose and ammonium additions). The results showed that glucose addition significantly accelerated the decomposition of SOC in both temperatures, indicates that positive priming occurs in this subtropical soil. While negative priming was observed in soils with simultaneous additions of glucose and nitrogen addition, especially at 25oC. The effect of temperature on PE was not significant. This indicates that mining of nitrogen is a major mechanism responsible for priming in this subtropical soil and there is no strong interaction between temperature and substrate additions to induce priming.

  12. Soils characterisation along ecological forest zones in the Eastern Himalayas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Alois; Dhendup, Kuenzang; Bahadur Rai, Prem; Gratzer, Georg

    2017-04-01

    Elevational gradients are commonly used to characterise vegetation patterns and, to a lesser extent, also to describe soil development. Furthermore, interactions between vegetation cover and soil characteristics are repeatedly observed. Combining information on soil development and easily to distinguish forest zones along elevational gradients, creates an added value for forest management decisions especially in less studied mountain regions. For this purpose, soil profiles along elevational gradients in the temperate conifer forests of Western and Central Bhutan, ranging from 2600-4000m asl were investigated. Thereby, 82 soil profiles were recorded and classified according to the World Reference Base for Soil Resources. Based on 19 representative profiles, genetic horizons were sampled and analysed. We aim to provide fundamental information on forest soil characteristics along these elevational transects. The results are presented with regard to ecological forest zones. The elevational distribution of the reference soil groups showed distinct distribution ranges for most of the soils. Cambisols were the most frequently recorded reference soil group with 58% of the sampled profiles, followed by Podzols in higher elevations, and Stagnosols, at intermediate elevations. Fluvisols occurred only at the lower end of the elevational transects and Phaeozems only at drier site conditions in the cool conifer dry forest zone. The humus layer thickness differs between forest zones and show a shift towards increased organic layer (O-layer) with increasing elevation. The reduced biomass productivity with increasing elevation and subsequently lower litter input compensates for the slow decomposition rates. The increasing O-layer thickness is an indicator of restrained intermixing of organic and mineral components by soil organisms at higher elevation. Overall, the soil types and soil characteristics along the elevational gradient showed a continuous and consistent change, instead

  13. Soil amendments effects on radiocesium translocation in forest soils.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Yuki; Ozawa, Hajime; Umemura, Mitsutoshi; Takenaka, Chisato

    2016-12-01

    We conducted an experiment to investigate the potential of phytoremediation by soil amendments in a forest area. To desorb radiocesium ((137)Cs) from variable charges in the soil, ammonium sulfate (NH4(+)) and elemental sulfur (S) (which decrease soil pH) were applied to forest soil collected from contaminated area at a rate of 40 and 80 g/m(2), respectively. A control condition with no soil treatment was also considered. We defined four groups of aboveground conditions: planted with Quercus serrata, planted with Houttuynia cordata, covered with rice straw as litter, and unplanted/uncovered (control). Cultivation was performed in a greenhouse with a regular water supply for four months. Following elemental sulfur treatment, soil pH values were significantly lower than pH values following ammonium sulfate treatment and no treatment. During cultivation, several plant species germinated from natural seeds. No clear differences in aboveground tissue (137)Cs concentrations in planted Q. serrata and H. cordata were observed among the treatments. However, aboveground tissue (137)Cs concentration values in the germinated plants following elemental sulfur treatment were higher than the values following the ammonium sulfate treatment and no treatment. Although biomass values for Q. serrata, H. cordata, and germinated plants following elemental sulfur treatment tended to be low, the total (137)Cs activities in the aboveground tissue of germinated plants were higher than those following ammonium sulfate treatment and no treatment in rice straw and unplanted conditions. Although no significant differences were observed, (137)Cs concentrations in rice straw following ammonium sulfate and elemental sulfur treatments tended to be higher than those in the control case. The results of this study indicate that elemental sulfur lowers the soil pH for a relatively long period and facilitates (137)Cs translocation to newly emerged and settled plants or litter, but affects plant

  14. Forest soil carbon is threatened by intensive biomass harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achat, David L.; Fortin, Mathieu; Landmann, Guy; Ringeval, Bruno; Augusto, Laurent

    2015-11-01

    Forests play a key role in the carbon cycle as they store huge quantities of organic carbon, most of which is stored in soils, with a smaller part being held in vegetation. While the carbon storage capacity of forests is influenced by forestry, the long-term impacts of forest managers’ decisions on soil organic carbon (SOC) remain unclear. Using a meta-analysis approach, we showed that conventional biomass harvests preserved the SOC of forests, unlike intensive harvests where logging residues were harvested to produce fuelwood. Conventional harvests caused a decrease in carbon storage in the forest floor, but when the whole soil profile was taken into account, we found that this loss in the forest floor was compensated by an accumulation of SOC in deeper soil layers. Conversely, we found that intensive harvests led to SOC losses in all layers of forest soils. We assessed the potential impact of intensive harvests on the carbon budget, focusing on managed European forests. Estimated carbon losses from forest soils suggested that intensive biomass harvests could constitute an important source of carbon transfer from forests to the atmosphere (142-497 Tg-C), partly neutralizing the role of a carbon sink played by forest soils.

  15. Forest soil carbon is threatened by intensive biomass harvesting.

    PubMed

    Achat, David L; Fortin, Mathieu; Landmann, Guy; Ringeval, Bruno; Augusto, Laurent

    2015-11-04

    Forests play a key role in the carbon cycle as they store huge quantities of organic carbon, most of which is stored in soils, with a smaller part being held in vegetation. While the carbon storage capacity of forests is influenced by forestry, the long-term impacts of forest managers' decisions on soil organic carbon (SOC) remain unclear. Using a meta-analysis approach, we showed that conventional biomass harvests preserved the SOC of forests, unlike intensive harvests where logging residues were harvested to produce fuelwood. Conventional harvests caused a decrease in carbon storage in the forest floor, but when the whole soil profile was taken into account, we found that this loss in the forest floor was compensated by an accumulation of SOC in deeper soil layers. Conversely, we found that intensive harvests led to SOC losses in all layers of forest soils. We assessed the potential impact of intensive harvests on the carbon budget, focusing on managed European forests. Estimated carbon losses from forest soils suggested that intensive biomass harvests could constitute an important source of carbon transfer from forests to the atmosphere (142-497 Tg-C), partly neutralizing the role of a carbon sink played by forest soils.

  16. Forest soil carbon is threatened by intensive biomass harvesting

    PubMed Central

    Achat, David L.; Fortin, Mathieu; Landmann, Guy; Ringeval, Bruno; Augusto, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    Forests play a key role in the carbon cycle as they store huge quantities of organic carbon, most of which is stored in soils, with a smaller part being held in vegetation. While the carbon storage capacity of forests is influenced by forestry, the long-term impacts of forest managers’ decisions on soil organic carbon (SOC) remain unclear. Using a meta-analysis approach, we showed that conventional biomass harvests preserved the SOC of forests, unlike intensive harvests where logging residues were harvested to produce fuelwood. Conventional harvests caused a decrease in carbon storage in the forest floor, but when the whole soil profile was taken into account, we found that this loss in the forest floor was compensated by an accumulation of SOC in deeper soil layers. Conversely, we found that intensive harvests led to SOC losses in all layers of forest soils. We assessed the potential impact of intensive harvests on the carbon budget, focusing on managed European forests. Estimated carbon losses from forest soils suggested that intensive biomass harvests could constitute an important source of carbon transfer from forests to the atmosphere (142–497 Tg-C), partly neutralizing the role of a carbon sink played by forest soils. PMID:26530409

  17. Forest statistics for Alabama: A report of the Southern forest survey

    Treesearch

    Philip R. Wheeler

    1953-01-01

    This report summarizes data on forest acreage, timber volume, growth, and drain collected by the Southern Forest Survey in Alabama, It is primarily the product of the new Forest Survey of the State, made between 1951 and 1953, but it also draws on the first Forest Survey of 1935-36 to show the changes in forest conditions during the intervening 1'7 years.21...

  18. Soil organic matter degradability in four Japanese forest soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriya, K.; Koarashi, J.; Atarashi-Andoh, M.; Moriizumi, J.; Yamazawa, H.; Ishizuka, S.

    2011-12-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) is the largest carbon reservoir in terrestrial ecosystems, and CO2 emission derived from SOC decomposition is considered to strongly influence atmospheric CO2 concentration. Therefore, it is important to understand what factors control the process of SOC decomposition. We studied the temperature sensitivity of SOC decomposition in forest surface soils by an incubation experiment at two temperatures. Soil samples were collected from the top 20 cm of mineral soils at four forest sites in Japan: AP (Appi: 40°00'N, 140°56'E), US (Ushiku: 35°57'N, 140°10'E), OG (Ogawa: 36°56'N, 140°35'E), and HO (Hitsujigaoka: 43°59'N, 141°23'E). The soil samples were sieved with a 4 mm-mesh and remaining roots in the samples were carefully removed by hand. Approximately a 75 g dry weight equivalent of the sample was adjusted to 50% of water holding capacity and put into a 1 L jar. Triplicate jars were enclosed after flushing their headspaces with CO2-free air and incubated at temperatures of 10°C and 20°C, respectively. We periodically collected 1 mL of headspace gas from the jars to measure CO2 concentration using a gas chromatograph. When the CO2 concentration in each jar reached 1.5% in volume, the headspace gas in the jar was collected to measure carbon isotope ratio of the CO2, and then the headspace of the jar was re-flushed and continued to incubate. The SOC decomposition rate at 20°C was consistently higher than that at 10°C, the order of which was AP ≤ US ≤ OG < HO. This order did not correspond to the orders of both mean annual temperature at the sites (AP < HO < OG < US), and total organic carbon content per dry soil weight (HO < US < AP < OG). Our result suggests that field temperature does not exert predominant control over SOC degradability in Japanese forest surface soils. Q10 values obtained for the AP, US, and OG soils was initially approximately 3 and increased up to 4 after one month of incubation. The increase in Q10 value

  19. Organic carbon stocks and sequestration rates of forest soils in Germany.

    PubMed

    Grüneberg, Erik; Ziche, Daniel; Wellbrock, Nicole

    2014-08-01

    The National Forest Soil Inventory (NFSI) provides the Greenhouse Gas Reporting in Germany with a quantitative assessment of organic carbon (C) stocks and changes in forest soils. Carbon stocks of the organic layer and the mineral topsoil (30 cm) were estimated on the basis of ca. 1.800 plots sampled from 1987 to 1992 and resampled from 2006 to 2008 on a nationwide grid of 8 × 8 km. Organic layer C stock estimates were attributed to surveyed forest stands and CORINE land cover data. Mineral soil C stock estimates were linked with the distribution of dominant soil types according to the Soil Map of Germany (1 : 1 000 000) and subsequently related to the forest area. It appears that the C pool of the organic layer was largely depending on tree species and parent material, whereas the C pool of the mineral soil varied among soil groups. We identified the organic layer C pool as stable although C was significantly sequestered under coniferous forest at lowland sites. The mineral soils, however, sequestered 0.41 Mg C ha(-1) yr(-1) . Carbon pool changes were supposed to depend on stand age and forest transformation as well as an enhanced biomass input. Carbon stock changes were clearly attributed to parent material and soil groups as sandy soils sequestered higher amounts of C, whereas clayey and calcareous soils showed small gains and in some cases even losses of soil C. We further showed that the largest part of the overall sample variance was not explained by fine-earth stock variances, rather by the C concentrations variance. The applied uncertainty analyses in this study link the variability of strata with measurement errors. In accordance to other studies for Central Europe, the results showed that the applied method enabled a reliable nationwide quantification of the soil C pool development for a certain period. © 2014 The Authors. Global Change Biology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Organic carbon stocks and sequestration rates of forest soils in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Grüneberg, Erik; Ziche, Daniel; Wellbrock, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    The National Forest Soil Inventory (NFSI) provides the Greenhouse Gas Reporting in Germany with a quantitative assessment of organic carbon (C) stocks and changes in forest soils. Carbon stocks of the organic layer and the mineral topsoil (30 cm) were estimated on the basis of ca. 1.800 plots sampled from 1987 to 1992 and resampled from 2006 to 2008 on a nationwide grid of 8 × 8 km. Organic layer C stock estimates were attributed to surveyed forest stands and CORINE land cover data. Mineral soil C stock estimates were linked with the distribution of dominant soil types according to the Soil Map of Germany (1 : 1 000 000) and subsequently related to the forest area. It appears that the C pool of the organic layer was largely depending on tree species and parent material, whereas the C pool of the mineral soil varied among soil groups. We identified the organic layer C pool as stable although C was significantly sequestered under coniferous forest at lowland sites. The mineral soils, however, sequestered 0.41 Mg C ha−1 yr−1. Carbon pool changes were supposed to depend on stand age and forest transformation as well as an enhanced biomass input. Carbon stock changes were clearly attributed to parent material and soil groups as sandy soils sequestered higher amounts of C, whereas clayey and calcareous soils showed small gains and in some cases even losses of soil C. We further showed that the largest part of the overall sample variance was not explained by fine-earth stock variances, rather by the C concentrations variance. The applied uncertainty analyses in this study link the variability of strata with measurement errors. In accordance to other studies for Central Europe, the results showed that the applied method enabled a reliable nationwide quantification of the soil C pool development for a certain period. PMID:24616061

  1. Nutrient properties of five West Virginia forest soils

    Treesearch

    L. R. Auchmoody

    1972-01-01

    Nutrient levels in five well-drained forest soils of the northern mountain section of West Virginia were generally associated with the type of parent rocks from which the soils had formed. But in some instances, different rock types yielded soils of similar nutrient composition. Soils formed from limestone and calcareous shale were usually higher in fertility than...

  2. Forest soil biology-timber harvesting relationships: a perspective

    Treesearch

    M. F. Jurgensen; M. J. Larsen; A. E. Harvey

    1979-01-01

    Timber harvesting has a pronounced effect on the soil microflora by wood removal and changing properties. This paper gives a perspective on soil biology-harvesting relationships with emphasis on the northern Rocky Mountain region. Of special significance to forest management operations are the effects of soil micro-organisms on: the availability of soil nutrients,...

  3. Influences of soil acidity on Streptomyces populations inhabiting forest soils.

    PubMed Central

    Hagedorn, C

    1976-01-01

    The Streptomyces populations inhabiting five acidic forest soils were examined. It was found that lowering the pH of a medium selective for streptomycetes (starch-casein agar) to the pH of the particular soil horizon being plated influenced both the total numbers and types of streptomycetes that were isolated from the soils examined in this study. On the acidified medium both the numbers of streptomycetes and the percentage of total bacteria on the plates represented by streptomycetes increased (as compared with the same medium with a pH of 7.2). These differences were greatest on the isolations from the most acid soils. The largest concentrations of streptomycetes were found in the surface horizon (0 to 15 cm) and the litter layer immediately over the surface mineral horizon. Acidity tolerance tests demonstrated that random samplings of isolates contained acidophilic, neutrophilic, and acidoduric strains, with the largest numbers of acidophiles being found on the acidified media from the most acid soils. There were no differences between overall utilization of selected carbohydrates among the isolates taken from either the neutral or acidic media, although a larger proportion of the acid media isolates produced acid from the carbohydrates. Evidence is presented which indicates that different types of streptomycetes were isolated on the acid media, and possible reasons for the presence of these acid-tolerant populations are discussed. PMID:10835

  4. Effects of forest biomass use for energy on the European forest litter and soil carbon stocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Repo, A.; Kindermann, G.; Böttcher, H.; Liski, J.

    2012-04-01

    Producing bioenergy from forest harvest residues has been considered as an effective means to cut greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere and simultaneously to fulfil the renewable energy targets agreed in the European Union. Previous studies have estimated technical, realizable and sustainable potentials of forest bioenergy in Europe. However, in some cases, using bioenergy may not be only beneficial for the global climate. Increasing removals of branches, thinning wood and stumps from forest to energy use decreases carbon input to litter and soil, and therefore decreases the amount of carbon stored in dead wood, litter and soil. The carbon stock changes resulting from an increase in forest biomass extraction rates can decrease the overall net greenhouse gas emission reduction potential of forest bioenergy significantly. The decrease in the forest litter and soil carbon stocks, and the consequent effect on national greenhouse gas balances is different for different European countries due to variability e.g. in climatic conditions, biomass extraction rates and tree species composition. In this study we assess the response of European forest litter and soil carbon stocks with respect to an increase in forest residue energy use to realizable bioenergy potential and combined climate change feedbacks. We use geographically explicit model runs assuming a shift of climate variables over 2011-2100 to investigate expected effects of regional climate change on forest soil carbon stocks and contrast there results with estimates of the effects of increased forest biomass removal and energy use on litter and soil carbon stocks in Europe. The models used are G4M Global Forestry Model and Yasso07 litter and soil carbon model. By adding soil and litter carbon effects of producing bioenergy from forest residues on the forest carbon balance, a more comprehensive greenhouse gas emission budget of forest bioenergy options can be calculated. Keywords: forest bioenergy, carbon

  5. Priming alters soil carbon dynamics during forest succession

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Na; Xu, Xingliang; Wang, Juan; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2017-04-01

    The mechanisms underlying soil carbon (C) dynamics during forest succession remain challenged. We examined priming of soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition along a vegetation succession: grassland, young and old-growth forests. Soil C was primed much more strongly in young secondary forest than in grassland or old-growth forest. Priming resulted in large C losses (negative net C balance) in young-forest soil, whereas C stocks increased in grassland and old-growth forest. Microbial composition assessed by phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) and utilization of easily available organics (13C-PLFA) indicate that fungi were responsible for priming in young-forest soils. Consequently, labile C inputs released by litter decomposition and root exudation determine microbial functional groups that decompose SOM during forest succession. These findings provide novel insights into connections between SOM dynamics and stabilization with microbial functioning during forest succession and show that priming is an important mechanism for contrasting soil C dynamics in young and old-growth forests.

  6. Modeling soil erosion and transport on forest landscape

    Treesearch

    Ge Sun; Steven G McNulty

    1998-01-01

    Century-long studies on the impacts of forest management in North America suggest sediment can cause major reduction on stream water quality. Soil erosion patterns in forest watersheds are patchy and heterogeneous. Therefore, patterns of soil erosion are difficult to model and predict. The objective of this study is to develop a user friendly management tool for land...

  7. Water repellency of two forest soils after biochar addition

    Treesearch

    D. S. Page-Dumroese; P. R. Robichaud; R. E. Brown; J. M. Tirocke

    2015-01-01

    Practical application of black carbon (biochar) to improve forest soil may be limited because biochar is hydrophobic. In a laboratory, we tested the water repellency of biochar application (mixed or surface applied) to two forest soils of varying texture (a granitic coarse-textured Inceptisol and an ash cap fine-textured Andisol) at four different application rates (0...

  8. Mapping forest soil organic matter on New Jersey's coastal plain

    Treesearch

    Brian J. Clough; Edwin J. Green; Richard B. Lathrop

    2012-01-01

    Managing forest soil organic matter (SOM) stocks is a vital strategy for reducing the impact of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions. However, the SOM pool is highly variable, and developing accurate estimates to guide management decisions has remained a difficult task. We present the results of a spatial model designed to map soil organic matter for all forested...

  9. Fire effects on temperate forest soil C and N storage

    Treesearch

    Lucas E. Nave; Eric D. Vance; Christopher W. Swanston; Peter S. Curtis

    2011-01-01

    Temperate forest soils store globally significant amounts of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N). Understanding how soil pools of these two elements change in response to disturbance and management is critical to maintaining ecosystem services such as forest productivity, greenhouse gas mitigation, and water resource protection. Fire is one of the principal disturbances acting...

  10. Comparison of proposed survey procedures for detection of forest carnivores

    Treesearch

    Kerry R. Foresman; Dean E. Pearson

    1998-01-01

    American marten (Martes americana), fisher (M. pennanti), wolverine (Gulo gulo), and lynx (Lynx lynx) are forest carnivores believed threatened by disturbance of late-successional forests. To manage forested ecosystems for these species, effective methods for their detection must be available. Recently, the U.S. Forest Service proposed standardized survey procedures...

  11. Nematodes inhabit soils of forest and clear-cut areas

    Treesearch

    Alex L. Shigo; George Yelenosky

    1960-01-01

    Nematodes are present in all forest soils, but their effects on forest trees are not known. The known destructive nature of these worms on other woody crops suggests that they may also be involved in causing some of the unexplainable losses in vigor and mortality of forest trees.

  12. Soil carbon in arid and semiarid forest ecosystems [Chapter 18

    Treesearch

    Daniel G. Neary; Steven T. Overby; Stephen C. Hart

    2002-01-01

    Forests of the semiarid and arid zones of the interior western United States (US) are some of the most unique in North America. They occupy 11 to 34% of the landscape at mostly higher elevations (USDA Forest Service, 1981). These forests are characterized by a high diversity of flora, fauna, climates, elevations, soils, geology, hydrology, and productivity. Within the...

  13. 7 CFR 611.11 - Soil survey information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Soil survey information. 611.11 Section 611.11..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONSERVATION OPERATIONS SOIL SURVEYS Soil Survey Operations § 611.11 Soil survey information. (a) Availability. NRCS disseminates soil survey information to the public by any of the means...

  14. 7 CFR 611.11 - Soil survey information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Soil survey information. 611.11 Section 611.11..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONSERVATION OPERATIONS SOIL SURVEYS Soil Survey Operations § 611.11 Soil survey information. (a) Availability. NRCS disseminates soil survey information to the public by any of the means...

  15. 7 CFR 611.11 - Soil survey information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Soil survey information. 611.11 Section 611.11..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONSERVATION OPERATIONS SOIL SURVEYS Soil Survey Operations § 611.11 Soil survey information. (a) Availability. NRCS disseminates soil survey information to the public by any of the means...

  16. 7 CFR 611.11 - Soil survey information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Soil survey information. 611.11 Section 611.11..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONSERVATION OPERATIONS SOIL SURVEYS Soil Survey Operations § 611.11 Soil survey information. (a) Availability. NRCS disseminates soil survey information to the public by any of the means...

  17. 7 CFR 611.11 - Soil survey information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Soil survey information. 611.11 Section 611.11..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONSERVATION OPERATIONS SOIL SURVEYS Soil Survey Operations § 611.11 Soil survey information. (a) Availability. NRCS disseminates soil survey information to the public by any of the means...

  18. Forest harvesting reduces the soil metagenomic potential for biomass decomposition.

    PubMed

    Cardenas, Erick; Kranabetter, J M; Hope, Graeme; Maas, Kendra R; Hallam, Steven; Mohn, William W

    2015-11-01

    Soil is the key resource that must be managed to ensure sustainable forest productivity. Soil microbial communities mediate numerous essential ecosystem functions, and recent studies show that forest harvesting alters soil community composition. From a long-term soil productivity study site in a temperate coniferous forest in British Columbia, 21 forest soil shotgun metagenomes were generated, totaling 187 Gb. A method to analyze unassembled metagenome reads from the complex community was optimized and validated. The subsequent metagenome analysis revealed that, 12 years after forest harvesting, there were 16% and 8% reductions in relative abundances of biomass decomposition genes in the organic and mineral soil layers, respectively. Organic and mineral soil layers differed markedly in genetic potential for biomass degradation, with the organic layer having greater potential and being more strongly affected by harvesting. Gene families were disproportionately affected, and we identified 41 gene families consistently affected by harvesting, including families involved in lignin, cellulose, hemicellulose and pectin degradation. The results strongly suggest that harvesting profoundly altered below-ground cycling of carbon and other nutrients at this site, with potentially important consequences for forest regeneration. Thus, it is important to determine whether these changes foreshadow long-term changes in forest productivity or resilience and whether these changes are broadly characteristic of harvested forests.

  19. Forest harvesting reduces the soil metagenomic potential for biomass decomposition

    PubMed Central

    Cardenas, Erick; Kranabetter, J M; Hope, Graeme; Maas, Kendra R; Hallam, Steven; Mohn, William W

    2015-01-01

    Soil is the key resource that must be managed to ensure sustainable forest productivity. Soil microbial communities mediate numerous essential ecosystem functions, and recent studies show that forest harvesting alters soil community composition. From a long-term soil productivity study site in a temperate coniferous forest in British Columbia, 21 forest soil shotgun metagenomes were generated, totaling 187 Gb. A method to analyze unassembled metagenome reads from the complex community was optimized and validated. The subsequent metagenome analysis revealed that, 12 years after forest harvesting, there were 16% and 8% reductions in relative abundances of biomass decomposition genes in the organic and mineral soil layers, respectively. Organic and mineral soil layers differed markedly in genetic potential for biomass degradation, with the organic layer having greater potential and being more strongly affected by harvesting. Gene families were disproportionately affected, and we identified 41 gene families consistently affected by harvesting, including families involved in lignin, cellulose, hemicellulose and pectin degradation. The results strongly suggest that harvesting profoundly altered below-ground cycling of carbon and other nutrients at this site, with potentially important consequences for forest regeneration. Thus, it is important to determine whether these changes foreshadow long-term changes in forest productivity or resilience and whether these changes are broadly characteristic of harvested forests. PMID:25909978

  20. [Soil carbon cycle of Pinus tabulaeformis forest in Huoditang forest region of Qinling Mountains].

    PubMed

    Kang, Bowen; Liu, Jianjun; Dang, Kunliang; Chen, Haibin

    2006-05-01

    With soil carbon cycle compartment model,this paper studied the carbon storage and flux of each carbon compartment of soil under Pinus tabulaeformis, a main forest type in the Huoditang forest region of Qinling Mountain. The results showed that the storage of soil organic carbon was 146.071 t x hm(-2), with 130.366 t x hm(-2) in mineral soil layer and 12.626 t x hm(-2) in litter layer. The storage was lower than the average value of forest soils in China and of oak Sharptooth forest soil in Huoditang, but higher than that of the soils under temperate coniferous forest and tropical forest. The annual carbon input into litter layer was 5.939 t x hm(-2), with 56.9% from above-ground litter and 43.1% from underground dead roots, while that into mineral soil layer via humic acid was 2. 034 t x hm(-2). The annual amount of carbon released from the respiration of P. zabulaeformis forest-soil system was 14. 012 t x hm(-2), with litter layer, mineral soil layer, dead root system, and live root system occupied 15.7%, 14.5%, 11.7% and 58.1%, respectively.

  1. Bioecology of pear thrips: distribution in forest soils

    Treesearch

    Margaret Skinner; Bruce L. Parker

    1991-01-01

    The vertical and horizontal distribution of pear thrips in Vermont sugar maple forest soils was investigated. In the fall, about 86% of the thrips were found in the upper 10 cm of soil, though a few were found as deep as 20 cm. No thrips were found in the leaf litter. Soil sampling tools to determine thrips populations within an entire forest were tested and a standard...

  2. Nitrous oxide emission inventory of German forest soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulte-Bisping, Hubert; Brumme, Rainer; Priesack, Eckart

    2003-02-01

    Annual fluxes of N2O trace gas emissions were assessed after stratifying German forest soils into Seasonal Emission Pattern (SEP) and Background Emission Pattern (BEP). Broad-leaved forests with soil pH(KCl) ≤ 3.3 were assigned to have SEP, broad-leaved forests with soil pH(KCl) > 3.3 and all needle-leaved forests to have BEP. BEPs were estimated by a relationship between annual N2O emissions and carbon content of the O-horizon. SEPs were primarily controlled by temperature and moisture and simulated by the model Expert-N after calibration to a 9-year record of N2O measurements. Analysis with different climate and soil properties indicated that the model reacts highly sensitive to changes in soil temperature, soil moisture, and soil texture. A geographic information system (ARC/INFO) was used for a spatial resolution of 1 km × 1 km grid where land cover, dominant soil units, and hygro climate classes were combined. The mean annual N2O emission flux from German forest soils was estimated as 0.32 kg ha-1 yr-1. Broad-leaved forests with SEP had the highest emissions (2.05 kg ha-1 yr-1) followed by mixed forests (0.38 kg ha-1 yr-1), broad-leaved forests (0.37 kg ha-1 yr-1), and needle-leaved forests with BEP (0.17 kg ha-1 yr-1). The annual N2O emission from German forest soils was calculated as 3.26 Gg N2O-N yr-1. Although needle-leaved trees cover about 57% of the entire forest area in Germany, their contribution is low (0.96 Gg N2O-N yr-1). Broad-leaved forests cover about 22% of the forest area but have 55% higher emissions (1.49 Gg N2O-N yr-1) than needle-leaved. Mixed forests cover 21% of the area and contribute 0.81 Gg N2O-N yr-1. Compared to the total N2O emissions in Germany of 170 Gg N yr-1, forest soils contribute only 1.9%. However, there are some uncertainties in this emission inventory, which are intensely discussed.

  3. Arkansas Forests, 1988 - 1996: Highlights Of The Timberland Resource From The Seventh Forest Survey Of Arkansas

    Treesearch

    James F. Rosson

    2001-01-01

    Abstract - Highlights of the seventh forest survey of Arkansas are presented. Key elements important in assessing the sustainability of the forest resource are discussed. These include forest area, volume, growth, removals, and status of softwood plantations. Forest area and volumes appear stable or increasing or both. However, the amount of...

  4. Forest statistics for eastern Oregon and eastern Washington from inventory phase of forest survey

    Treesearch

    R.W. Cowlin; F.L. Moravets

    1938-01-01

    The forest survey, a Nation-wide project authorized by Congress in 1928, consists of a complete and detailed investigation of the country's present and future forest resources in five major parts: (1) an inventory of the country's existing forest resources in terms of areas occupied by forest-cover types and of timber volumes, by species, in board feet and...

  5. Management impacts on forest floor and soil organic carbon in northern temperate forests of the US

    Treesearch

    Coeli M. Hoover

    2011-01-01

    The role of forests in the global carbon cycle has been the subject of a great deal of research recently, but the impact of management practices on forest soil dynamics at the stand level has received less attention. This study used six forest management experimental sites in five northern states of the US to investigate the effects of silvicultural treatments (light...

  6. Hardwoods in North Mississippi: Resource information from two forest surveys

    Treesearch

    Steven H. Bullard; Clay Robertson; Joshua Idassi; Joanne L. Faulkner

    1995-01-01

    The USDA Forest Service periodically conducts forest surveys for Mississippi and other states. Survey results for a 26-county area desiginated as "North Mississippi" were recently published in late 1993. We compare the hardwood acreages, volume, growth, removals, and other values to the survey results published in 1987 for this region.

  7. Persistence of Bidrin® in Two Forest Soils

    Treesearch

    Richard A. Werner

    1970-01-01

    A field study conducted on two forest soils, mineral and organic, indicated that high residues of the systemic insecticide Bidrin® were present in the upper 6 inches of soil for only 15 days following application. The rate of downward movement of the insecticide was fastest in the mineral soil. The total residue level during a 90-day period following application was...

  8. Soil organic carbon dynamics in the forest-grassland limit.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz-Pinés, Eugenio; Vázquez, Eduardo; Ortiz, Carlos; Schindlbacher, Andreas; Jandl, Robert; Kiese, Ralf; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus; Benito, Marta; Rubio, Agustin

    2014-05-01

    An upward shift of the treeline at the extent of former grasslands has been observed in the last decades in several regions along the world. Implications of the land use change from grasslands to forests are not clear yet in regard to soil organic carbon stocks, greenhouse gas fluxes and composition of the soil organic matter. In order to investigate the consequences of forest expansion at the regional scale, an extensive grassland—forest comparison was conducted at the altitudinal limit of the forest. We considered two contrasting geographical areas: one Mediterranean -The Sistema Central in Spain- and one temperate area -the Austrian Alps-. Ten and seven sites were investigated, respectively. At each of the sites, the forest floor and the topsoil was sampled in grasslands and adjacent coniferous forest areas. Mineral soils were incubated for 6 months in the laboratory under standardized conditions and both bulk concentration and the isotopic signature of soil organic carbon and nitrogen were determined across the study sites. Grasslands were not consistently different from forests in terms of soil organic carbon concentrations and cumulative soil carbon dioxide effluxes. However, soil C:N ratio was significantly narrower in grasslands than in forests, and this results was consistent for both Spanish and Austrian sites. Isotopic signature of C and N resulted to be significantly different between grasslands and forests for Spanish soils, only, suggesting a combined influence of land use change and climate. In Spain, grasslands soils were enriched in 15N but depleted in 13C as compared to forests soils. Interestingly, mean temperature negatively influenced C concentrations in Spanish grasslands, but had no clear effect on forests. Our results did not show a clear trend of net soil organic carbon gain or loss due to forest expansion, but rather a change in the characteristics of the soil mineralization conditions after vegetation shifted. Changes in transformation

  9. Biogeographic Distribution Patterns of Bacteria in Typical Chinese Forest Soils.

    PubMed

    Xia, Zongwei; Bai, Edith; Wang, Qingkui; Gao, Decai; Zhou, Jidong; Jiang, Ping; Wu, Jiabing

    2016-01-01

    Microbes are widely distributed in soils and play a very important role in nutrient cycling and ecosystem services. To understand the biogeographic distribution of forest soil bacteria, we collected 115 soil samples in typical forest ecosystems across eastern China to investigate their bacterial community compositions using Illumina MiSeq high throughput sequencing based on 16S rRNA. We obtained 4,667,656 sequences totally and more than 70% of these sequences were classified into five dominant groups, i.e., Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, and Planctomycetes (relative abundance >5%). The bacterial diversity showed a parabola shape along latitude and the maximum diversity appeared at latitudes between 33.50°N and 40°N, an area characterized by warm-temperate zones and moderate temperature, neutral soil pH and high substrate availability (soil C and N) from dominant deciduous broad-leaved forests. Pairwise dissimilarity matrix in bacterial community composition showed that bacterial community structure had regional similarity and the latitude of 30°N could be used as the dividing line between southern and northern forest soils. Soil properties and climate conditions (MAT and MAP) greatly accounted for the differences in the soil bacterial structure. Among all soil parameters determined, soil pH predominantly affected the diversity and composition of the bacterial community, and soil pH = 5 probably could be used as a threshold below which soil bacterial diversity might decline and soil bacterial community structure might change significantly. Moreover, soil exchangeable cations, especially Ca(2+) (ECa(2+)) and some other soil variables were also closely related to bacterial community structure. The selected environmental variables (21.11%) explained more of the bacterial community variation than geographic distance (15.88%), indicating that the edaphic properties and environmental factors played a more important role than

  10. Biogeographic Distribution Patterns of Bacteria in Typical Chinese Forest Soils

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Zongwei; Bai, Edith; Wang, Qingkui; Gao, Decai; Zhou, Jidong; Jiang, Ping; Wu, Jiabing

    2016-01-01

    Microbes are widely distributed in soils and play a very important role in nutrient cycling and ecosystem services. To understand the biogeographic distribution of forest soil bacteria, we collected 115 soil samples in typical forest ecosystems across eastern China to investigate their bacterial community compositions using Illumina MiSeq high throughput sequencing based on 16S rRNA. We obtained 4,667,656 sequences totally and more than 70% of these sequences were classified into five dominant groups, i.e., Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, and Planctomycetes (relative abundance >5%). The bacterial diversity showed a parabola shape along latitude and the maximum diversity appeared at latitudes between 33.50°N and 40°N, an area characterized by warm-temperate zones and moderate temperature, neutral soil pH and high substrate availability (soil C and N) from dominant deciduous broad-leaved forests. Pairwise dissimilarity matrix in bacterial community composition showed that bacterial community structure had regional similarity and the latitude of 30°N could be used as the dividing line between southern and northern forest soils. Soil properties and climate conditions (MAT and MAP) greatly accounted for the differences in the soil bacterial structure. Among all soil parameters determined, soil pH predominantly affected the diversity and composition of the bacterial community, and soil pH = 5 probably could be used as a threshold below which soil bacterial diversity might decline and soil bacterial community structure might change significantly. Moreover, soil exchangeable cations, especially Ca2+ (ECa2+) and some other soil variables were also closely related to bacterial community structure. The selected environmental variables (21.11%) explained more of the bacterial community variation than geographic distance (15.88%), indicating that the edaphic properties and environmental factors played a more important role than geographic

  11. Effects of Forest Gaps on Soil Properties in Castanopsis kawakamii Nature Forest.

    PubMed

    He, Zhongsheng; Liu, Jinfu; Su, Songjin; Zheng, Shiqun; Xu, Daowei; Wu, Zeyan; Hong, Wei; Wang, James Li-Ming

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the effects of forest gaps on the variations of soil properties in Castanopsis kawakamii natural forest. Soil physical and chemical properties in various sizes and development stages were studied in C. kawakamii natural forest gaps. The results showed that forest gaps in various sizes and development stages could improve soil pore space structure and water characteristics, which may effectively promote the water absorbing capacity for plant root growth and play an important role in forest regeneration. Soil pore space structure and water characteristics in small gaps showed more obvious improvements, followed by the medium and large gaps. Soil pore space structure and water characteristics in the later development stage of forest gaps demonstrated more obvious improvements, followed by the early and medium development stages. The contents of hydrolysable N and available K in various sizes and development stages of forest gaps were higher than those of non-gaps, whereas the contents of total N, total P, available P, organic matter, and organic carbon were lower. The contents of total N, hydrolysable N, available K, organic matter, and organic carbon in medium gaps were higher than those of large and small gaps. The disturbance of forest gaps could improve the soils' physical and chemical properties and increase the population species' richness, which would provide an ecological basis for the species coexistence in C. kawakamii natural forest.

  12. Keys to soil taxonomy by soil survey staff (sixth edition)

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    This publication, Keys to Soil Taxonomy, serves two purposes. It provides the taxonomic keys necessary for the classification of soils according to Soil Taxonomy in a form that can be used easily in the field, and it also acquaints users of Soil Taxonomy with recent changes in the classification system. This volume includes all revisions of the keys that have so far been approved, replacing the original keys in Soil Taxonomy: A Basic System of Soil Classification for Making and Interpreting Soil Surveys (1975), the work on which this abridged version, first published in 1983, is based. This publication incorporates all amendments approved to date and published in National Soil Taxonomy Handbook (NSTH) Issues 1-17.

  13. Local climatic conditions constrain soil yeast diversity patterns in Mediterranean forests, woodlands and scrub biome.

    PubMed

    Yurkov, Andrey M; Röhl, Oliver; Pontes, Ana; Carvalho, Cláudia; Maldonado, Cristina; Sampaio, José Paulo

    2016-02-01

    Soil yeasts represent a poorly known fraction of the soil microbiome due to limited ecological surveys. Here, we provide the first comprehensive inventory of cultivable soil yeasts in a Mediterranean ecosystem, which is the leading biodiversity hotspot for vascular plants and vertebrates in Europe. We isolated and identified soil yeasts from forested sites of Serra da Arrábida Natural Park (Portugal), representing the Mediterranean forests, woodlands and scrub biome. Both cultivation experiments and the subsequent species richness estimations suggest the highest species richness values reported to date, resulting in a total of 57 and 80 yeast taxa, respectively. These values far exceed those reported for other forest soils in Europe. Furthermore, we assessed the response of yeast diversity to microclimatic environmental factors in biotopes composed of the same plant species but showing a gradual change from humid broadleaf forests to dry maquis. We observed that forest properties constrained by precipitation level had strong impact on yeast diversity and on community structure and lower precipitation resulted in an increased number of rare species and decreased evenness values. In conclusion, the structure of soil yeast communities mirrors the environmental factors that affect aboveground phytocenoses, aboveground biomass and plant projective cover.

  14. Soil Organic Matter in Forest Ecosystems of the Forest-tundra zone of Central Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhortova, Liudmila

    2010-05-01

    Our study was conducted on 17 forest sample plots in the forest-tundra zone of Central Siberia, Krasnoyarsk region, Russia. They were covered by larch/feather moss/shrub and larch/grass forest types growing on cryozems and podburs (Cryosols). The investigation was aimed at estimating soil organic matter storage and structure in forest ecosystems growing along the northern tree line. Such ecosystems have low rates of exchange processes and biological productivity. Estimating soil carbon in these forest types is important for a deeper understanding of their role in biogeochemical cycles and forecasting consequences of climate changes. Soil organic matter was divided into pools by biodegradation resistance level and, hence, different roles of these pools in biological cycles. The soil organic matter was divided into an easily mineralizable (LMOM) fraction, which includes labile (insoluble) (LOM) and mobile (soluble) (MOM) organic compounds, and a stable organic matter fraction that is humus substances bound with soil matrix. The forest-tundra soil carbon was found to total 30.9 to 125.9 tons/ha. Plant residues were the main part of the soil easily mineralizable organic matter and contained from 13.3 to 62.4% of this carbon. Plant residue carbon was mainly allocated on the soil surface, in the forest litter. Plant residues in the soil (dead roots + other "mortmass") were calculated to contribute 10-30% of the plant residues carbon, or 2.5-15.1% of the total soil carbon. Soil surface and in-soil dead plant material included 60-95% of heavily decomposed residues that made up a forest litter fermentation subhorizon and an "other mortmass" fraction of the root detritus. Mobile organic matter (substances dissolved in water and 0.1N NaOH) of plant residues was found to allocate 15-25% of carbon. In soil humus, MOM contribution ranged 14 to 64%. Easily mineralizable organic matter carbon appeared to generally dominate forest-tundra soil carbon pool. It was measured to

  15. A comparison of soil-moisture loss from forested and clearcut areas in West Virginia

    Treesearch

    Charles A. Troendle

    1970-01-01

    Soil-moisture losses from forested and clearcut areas were compared on the Fernow Experimental Forest. As expected, hardwood forest soils lost most moisture while revegetated clearcuttings, clearcuttings, and barren areas lost less, in that order. Soil-moisture losses from forested soils also correlated well with evapotranspiration and streamflow.

  16. [Comparison of soil respiration in natural Castanopsis carlesii forest and plantation forest].

    PubMed

    Wu, Jun-Jun; Yang, Zhi-Jie; Weng, Fa-Jin; Liu, Xiao-Fei; Chen, Chao-Qi; Lin, Wei-Sheng; Wang, Xiao-Hong; Chen, Tan

    2014-06-01

    By using the Li-8100 open soil carbon flux system, the dynamic change of soil respiration rate in natural Castanopsis carlesii and plantation of Castanopsis carlesii forests in Geshikao Nature Reserve in Fujian Province of China were measured from January 2011 to December 2011, with the relationship between the dynamic changes and the relation affecting factors analyzed. The monthly variation of soil respiration in the two types of forests were both single-peaked,with the peaks appeared in early June [7.03 micromol x (m2 x s) (-1)] andlate July [5.12 micromol x (m2 x s)(-1)], respectively. The average annual soil respiration rates of the two forests were 3.74 micromol x (m2 x s)(-1) and 3.05 micromol x (m2 x s)(-1), respectively, showing significant difference. Soil temperature was the main factor affecting soil respiration, explaining 80.1% and 81.0% of the monthly variation of soil respiration. There was a significant positive correlation between the soil respiration rate and soil moisture content in natural Castanopsis carlesii forest, but lower correlation in plantation of Castanopsis carlesii forest. The soil respiration had extremely significant correlation with the litterfall mass of the current month and the month before. The Q10 values of soil respiration in natural Castanopsis carlesii and plantation of Castanopsis carlesii forests were 1.86 and 2.01, and the annual CO2 fluxes were 14.34 t x (hm2 x a)(-1) and 11.18 t x (hm2 x a)(-1), respectively. The soil respiration declined by 22.03% after natural forest was changed to plantation forest.

  17. A history of U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service forest survey, 1830-2004

    Treesearch

    Vernon J. LaBau; James T. Bones; Neal P. Kingsley; H. Gyde Lund; W. Brad Smith

    2007-01-01

    This article provides a summary of a new report on the history of the Forest Survey (Forest Inventory) in the United States as it evolved within the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service over a period of more than 100 years. It draws on the writings of several authors who have published on various aspects of the Forest Survey program. It reviews nine ground-...

  18. Approach of regionalisation c-stocks in forest soils on a national level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wellbrock, Nicole; Höhle, Juliane; Dühnelt, Petra; Holzhausen, Marieanna

    2010-05-01

    Introduction In December 2006, the German government decided to manage forests as carbon sinks to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in accordance with Article 3.4 of the Kyoto Protocol. The National Forest Monitoring data contribute to the fulfilment of these reporting commitments. In Germany, National Forest Monitoring includes the systematical extensive National Soil Condition Survey (BZE) and the detailed case studies (Level-II) which determine the processes within forests. This complex monitoring system is appropriate to Germany's greenhouse gas reporting (THG 2008 to 2012). The representative BZE plots can be used to obtain regional data for the National Carbon Stock Inventory. Here, an approach adopting a combination of geostatistics and regression analysis is preferred. The difficulty of showing the statistical significance of expected small changes while carbon stocks are generally high is one of the major challenges in carbon stock monitoring. However, through intensive preparation and cooperation with the forestry authorities of each federal state, the errors uncured in determining changes in carbon stocks in forest soils, which must be stipulated in greenhouse gas monitoring, could be minimised. In contrast to the detailed soil case studies, in which essentially the sources of error occur repeatedly in carbon stock change calculations, the BZE data can be stratified to form plots with homogenous properties, thereby reducing the standard error of estimate. Subsequently, the results of the stratification are projected across Germany, the reporting unit for greenhouse gas monitoring. National Forest Monitoring The BZE represents a national, systematic sampling inventory of the condition of forest soils. The first BZE inventory (BZE I: 1987 to 1993) was carried out on a systematic 8 x 8 km grid on the same sampling plots adopted in the Forest Condition Survey (WZE). In some areas the network of sampling plots involves 1900 grid points. The first BZE I survey

  19. Sample sizes to control error estimates in determining soil bulk density in California forest soils

    Treesearch

    Youzhi Han; Jianwei Zhang; Kim G. Mattson; Weidong Zhang; Thomas A. Weber

    2016-01-01

    Characterizing forest soil properties with high variability is challenging, sometimes requiring large numbers of soil samples. Soil bulk density is a standard variable needed along with element concentrations to calculate nutrient pools. This study aimed to determine the optimal sample size, the number of observation (n), for predicting the soil bulk density with a...

  20. Forest Soil Productivity on the Southern Long-Term Soil Productivity Sites at Age 5

    Treesearch

    D. Andrew Scott; Allan E. Tiarks; Felipe G. Sanchez; Michael Elliott-Smith; Rick Stagg

    2004-01-01

    Forest management operations have the potential to reduce soil productivity through organic matter and nutrient removal and soil compaction. We measured pine volume, bulk density, and soil and foliar nitrogen and phosphorus at age 5 on the 13 southern Long-Term Soil Productivity study sites. The treatments were organic matter removal [bole only (BO), whole tree (WT),...

  1. Effects of Forest Gaps on Soil Properties in Castanopsis kawakamii Nature Forest

    PubMed Central

    He, Zhongsheng; Liu, Jinfu; Su, Songjin; Zheng, Shiqun; Xu, Daowei; Wu, Zeyan; Hong, Wei; Wang, James Li-Ming

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the effects of forest gaps on the variations of soil properties in Castanopsis kawakamii natural forest. Soil physical and chemical properties in various sizes and development stages were studied in C. kawakamii natural forest gaps. The results showed that forest gaps in various sizes and development stages could improve soil pore space structure and water characteristics, which may effectively promote the water absorbing capacity for plant root growth and play an important role in forest regeneration. Soil pore space structure and water characteristics in small gaps showed more obvious improvements, followed by the medium and large gaps. Soil pore space structure and water characteristics in the later development stage of forest gaps demonstrated more obvious improvements, followed by the early and medium development stages. The contents of hydrolysable N and available K in various sizes and development stages of forest gaps were higher than those of non-gaps, whereas the contents of total N, total P, available P, organic matter, and organic carbon were lower. The contents of total N, hydrolysable N, available K, organic matter, and organic carbon in medium gaps were higher than those of large and small gaps. The disturbance of forest gaps could improve the soils’ physical and chemical properties and increase the population species’ richness, which would provide an ecological basis for the species coexistence in C. kawakamii natural forest. PMID:26496710

  2. Using Artificial Neural Network model to produce high resolution forest soil property maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, F.-R.; Zhao, Z.; Xing, Z.; Li, S.

    2012-04-01

    Soil property maps are considered as the most important input information for decision support and policy making in agriculture, forestry, flood control as well as environmental protection. Traditionally, soil property maps are mainly obtained from field surveys. Field soil survey is generally time consuming and expensive, which limited it application over a large area. As such, high resolution soil property maps are only available for small areas, very often, being obtained for research purposes. In this research, artificial neural network technology was used to generate high resolutions soil property maps. Hydrological parameters derived from digital elevation maps combined with information extracted from existing coarse resolution soil maps were used as input for the proposed model. Detailed soil survey information from Black Brook Watershed in Northern New Brunswick was used to test the model performance. We found that ANN models base model can be used to predict soil texture, soil drainage classes and soil organic matter content across landscape with reasonable accuracy. The high resolution soil maps derived with this method could be used for growth and yield assessment, silviculture design and making forest management plans.

  3. Variability in Soil Moisture in a Temperate Deciduous Forest Using Electrical Resistivity and Throughfall Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Y.; Van Dam, R. L.; Jayawickreme, D.

    2013-12-01

    In deciduous forests, soil moisture is an important driver of energy and carbon cycling, as well as ecosystem dynamics. The amount and distribution of soil moisture also influences soil microbial activity, nutrient fluxes, and groundwater recharge. Consequently, accurate characterization of interactions and interdependencies between vegetation and soil moisture is critical to forecast water resources and ecosystem health in a changing climate. Such relationships and processes are nevertheless difficult to measure, both in time and space because of our limited ability to monitor the subsurface at necessary scales and frequencies. Several recent studies have shown that electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), using an array of minimally invasive surface electrodes, is a promising method for in-situ soil moisture monitoring. To this point, however, only few studies have used ERT to investigate spatial variability of soil moisture in temperate deciduous forests and to explore any links between soil water and above ground ecosystem variables. In our study in a central Michigan (USA) maple forest during the 2012 growing season, we combined ERT with detailed vegetation surveys and throughfall measurements to obtain better insight into spatial variations in rainwater input and soil water patterns. Resistivity data were collected on a weekly basis along an array of 84 electrodes with a spacing of 1.5 m. The inversion results were temperature corrected, converted to soil moisture, and differenced to obtain 2D images of soil moisture changes. The throughfall data were obtained using a novel method based on dissolution of plaster-of-paris tablets that were positioned below funnels, at 19 locations in the forest. Our results show that: 1) resistivity changes spatially with vegetation distribution, 2) in-season temporal changes in resistivity are related to plant characteristics, in particular to tree count and basal area, and 3) our low-budget throughfall method was capable of

  4. Forest survey results for higher grade hardwood sawtimber

    Treesearch

    Roy C. Beltz

    1991-01-01

    The 1987 Forest Survey of Mississippi shows a slight increase in forest area and a substantial gain in hardwood inventory. Hardwood gains, appearing in all diameter classes, suggest an increase in quality but hardwood users generally believe quality is declining. By our analysis, volume of top quality hardwood declined while volume in other grades increased. Forest...

  5. Seedling growth responses to soil resources in the understory of a wet tropical forest.

    PubMed

    Holste, Ellen K; Kobe, Richard K; Vriesendorp, Corine F

    2011-09-01

    Plant growth responses to resources may be an important mechanism that influences species' distributions, coexistence, and community structure. Irradiance is considered the most important resource for seedling growth in the understory of wet tropical forests, but multiple soil nutrients and species have yet to be examined simultaneously with irradiance under field conditions. To identify potentially limiting resources, we modeled tree seedling growth as a function of irradiance and soil nutrients across five sites, spanning a soil fertility gradient in old-growth, wet tropical forests at La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica. We measured an array of soil nutrients including total nitrogen (total N), inorganic N (nitrate [NO3-] and ammonium [NH4+]), phosphate (PO4-), and sum of base cations (SBC; potassium, magnesium, and calcium). Shade in the forest understory did not preclude seedling growth correlations with soil nutrients. Irradiance was a significant predictor of growth in 52% of the species, inorganic N in 54% (NO3- in 32%; NH4+ in 34%), total N in 47%, SBC in 39%, and PO4- in 29%. Overall, growth was correlated with both irradiance and soil nutrients in 45% of species and with soil nutrients only in an additional 48%; rarely was irradiance alone correlated with growth. Contrary to expectations, the magnitudes of growth effects, assessed as the maximum growth response to significant resources for each species, were similar for irradiance and most soil nutrients. Among species whose growth correlated with soil nutrients, the rank importance of nutrient effects was SBC, followed by N (total N, NO3-, and/or NH4+) and PO4-. Species' growth responsiveness (i.e., magnitudes of effect) to irradiance and soil nutrients was negatively correlated with species' shade tolerance (survival under 1% full sun). In this broad survey of species and resources, the nearly ubiquitous effects of soil nutrients on seedling growth challenge the idea that soil nutrients are less

  6. Acidification of forest soil in Russia: From 1893 to present

    SciTech Connect

    Lapenis, A.G.; Lawrence, G.B.; Andreev, A.A.; Bobrov, A.A.; Torn, M.S.; Harden, J.W.

    2003-01-02

    It is commonly believed that fine-textured soils developed on carbonate parent material are well buffered from possible acidification. There are no data, however, that document resistance of such soils to acidic deposition exposure on a timescale longer than 30-40 years. In this paper, we report on directly testing the long-term buffering capacity of nineteenth century forest soils developed on calcareous silt loam. In a chemical analysis comparing archived soils with modern soils collected from the same locations similar to 100 years later, we found varying degrees of forest-soil acidification in the taiga and forest steppe regions. Land-use history, increases in precipitation, and acidic deposition were contributing factors in acidification. The acidification of forest soil was documented through decreases in soil pH and changes in concentrations of exchangeable calcium and aluminum, which corresponded with changes in communities of soil microfauna. Although acidification was found at all three analyzed locations, the trends in soil chemistry were most pronounced where the highest loading of acidic deposition had taken place.

  7. Acidification of forest soil in Russia: From 1893 to present

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lapenis, A.G.; Lawrence, G.B.; Andreev, A.A.; Bobrov, A.A.; Torn, M.S.; Harden, J.W.

    2004-01-01

    It is commonly believed that fine-textured soils developed on carbonate parent material are well buffered from possible acidification. There are no data, however, that document resistance of such soils to acidic deposition exposure on a timescale longer than 30-40 years. In this paper, we report on directly testing the long-term buffering capacity of nineteenth century forest soils developed on calcareous silt loam. In a chemical analysis comparing archived soils with modern soils collected from the same locations ???100 years later, we found varying degrees of forest-soil acidification in the taiga and forest steppe regions. Land-use history, increases in precipitation, and acidic deposition were contributing factors in acidification. The acidification of forest soil was documented through decreases in soil pH and changes in concentrations of exchangeable calcium and aluminum, which corresponded with changes in communities of soil microfauna. Although acidification was found at all three analyzed locations, the trends in soil chemistry were most pronounced where the highest loading of acidic deposition had taken place. Copyright 2004 by the American Geophysical Union.

  8. Maui Gravity and Soil Gas Surveys

    DOE Data Explorer

    John Akerley

    2010-04-01

    Contains a ground-based gravity survey of South Maui and a series of soil CO2 flux and temperature surveys encompassing Maui and the Big Island. The gravity survey was collected from approximately 284 km2 and consisted of 400 gravity stations with 400 m spacing. Locations were derived with full DGPS. Station and line location, Complete Bouger Anomaly, first vertical derivative and horizontal gradient maps were calculated and produced. The soil CO2 flux and temperature surveys were conducted on the islands of Hawaii and Maui in April and July 2010. Average soil temperatures were measured over 10 cm depth using a hand-held thermocouple. Soil CO2 fluxes were measured using a portable accumulation chamber instrument.

  9. Three new species of Aspergillus from Amazonian forest soil (Ecuador).

    PubMed

    Mares, Donatella; Andreotti, Elisa; Maldonado, Maria Elena; Pedrini, Paola; Colalongo, Chiara; Romagnoli, Carlo

    2008-09-01

    From an undisturbed natural forest soil in Ecuador, three fungal strains of the genus Aspergillus were isolated. Based on molecular and morphological features they are described as three new species, named A. quitensis, A. amazonicus, and A. ecuadorensis.

  10. 1956 bibliography of Pacific Northwest forest soils publications.

    Treesearch

    Robert F. Tarrant

    1957-01-01

    In 1956, a summary of references on Pacific Northwest forest soils research was developed to begin a systematic annual recording of regionally published material in this comparatively new field. This summary included references for all years through 1955.

  11. Survey of invasive ants at Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peck, Robert W.; Banko, Paul C.

    2011-01-01

    We conducted a survey for invasive ants at Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge, Hawai‘i Island, during 2009–2010 to evaluate potential threats to native arthropod communities and food webs. The focal area of the survey was the upper portion of the Hakalau Unit of the refuge, where native forest was being restored in abandoned cattle pastures. This area, between 1575 and 1940 m elevations, contained much alien kikuyu grass (Pennisetum clandestinum), but koa (Acacia koa) trees and other native species that were planted in the past 20 years were rapidly filling in the pasture. We surveyed for ants at predetermined points along roads, fences, and corridors of planted koa. Sampling methods primarily consisted of hand searching and pitfall traps, but bait cards were used additionally in some instances. Our results indicated that a single species, Cardiocondyla kagutsuchi, was widespread across the upper portion of the refuge. Cardiocondyla kagutsuchi seemed absent, or at least rare, in areas of tall, dense grass. Due to the undulating topography of the area, however, the dense grass cover was interspersed with outcroppings of exposed, gravelly soil. Presumably due to warming by the sun, many of the outcropped habitats supported colonies of C. kagutsuchi. We did not detect ants in the old-growth forest below the abandoned pastures, presumably because microhabitat conditions under the forest canopy were unsuitable. Although ecological impacts of C. kagutsuchi have not been reported, they may be limited by the small size of the ant, the relatively small size of colonies, and the apparent preference of the ant for disturbed areas that are dominated by alien species. Notably, our survey of Keanakolu-Mana Road between the Observatory Road (John A. Burns Way) and the town of Waimea detected a population of Argentine ants (Linepithema humile) approximately 5.1 km north of the Maulua Section of the refuge. We also surveyed for ants on the Kona Forest Unit of the refuge

  12. Effect of harvesting on forest soil and water in an organic soil watershed

    Treesearch

    J.M. Grace; R.W. Skaggs

    2006-01-01

    Timber harvest operations are necessary and common in forest management to provide profitability and satisfy demands for timber products. Harvesting operations, as with most forest operations, have received much attention in regards to soil and water issues. Harvesting operations have been reported to affect soil physical properties and hydrological characteristics...

  13. Soil-water relations of shallow forested soils during flash floods in West Virginia

    Treesearch

    James H. Patric

    1981-01-01

    On May 24, 1978, heavy rain caused flash flooding on densely forested land near Parsons, in Tucker County, West Virginia. Poststorm evidences of soil and water behavior were examined in detail on soils related to the Dekalb and Leetonia series. Other flash floods struck seven forested sections of the state in August. Less detailed observation after these storms...

  14. Forest Management Effects on Surface Soil Carbon and Nitrogen

    Treesearch

    Jennifer D. Knoepp; Wayne T. Swank

    1997-01-01

    Changes in surface soil C and N can result from forest management practices and may provide an index of impacts on long-term site productivity. Soil C and N were measured over time for five water- sheds in the southern Appalachians: two aggrading hardwood forests, one south- and one north-facing, undisturbed since the 1920s;a white pine (PinussfrobusL.) plantation...

  15. Contributions of ectomycorrhizal fungal mats to forest soil respiration

    Treesearch

    C. Phillips; L.A. Kluber; J.P. Martin; B.A. Caldwell; B.J. Bond

    2012-01-01

    Distinct aggregations of fungal hyphae and rhizomorphs, or “mats”, formed by some genera of ectomycorrhizal (EcM) fungi are common features of soils in coniferous forests of the Pacific Northwest. We measured in situ respiration rates of Piloderma mats and neighboring non-mat soils in an old-growth Douglas-fir forest in western Oregon to investigate whether there was...

  16. Phosphorus runoff from Coastal Plain forest soil in Louisiana

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Although not a common practice, poultry litter (PL) may be used for forest fertilization. Despite usually low soil phosphorus (P) and runoff under forest, repeated or high rates of PL application may cause appreciable P loss. Phosphorus in natural runoff under loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) fertiliz...

  17. FOREST SOIL CARBON SEQUESTRATION: ACCOUNTING FOR THIS VITAL ECOSYSTEM SERVICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Forests play a crucial role in supplying many goods and services that society depends upon on a daily basis including water supply, production of oxygen, soil protection, building materials, wildlife habitat and recreation. Forests also provide a significant amount of carbon seq...

  18. Atypical soil carbon distribution across a tropical steepland forest catena

    Treesearch

    Kristofer D. Johnson; F.N. Scatena; Whendee L. Silver

    2011-01-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) in a humid subtropical forest in Puerto Rico is higher at ridge locations compared to valleys, and therefore opposite to what is commonly observed in other forested hillslope catenas. To better understand the spatial distribution of SOC in this system, plots previously characterized by topographic position, vegetation type and stand age were...

  19. Forest Soil Disturbance Monitoring Protocol: Volume I: Rapid assessment

    Treesearch

    Deborah S. Page-Dumroese; Ann M. Abbott; Thomas M. Rice

    2009-01-01

    This volume of the Forest Soil Disturbance Monitoring Protocol (FSDMP) describes how to monitor forest sites before and after ground disturbing management activities for physical attributes that could influence site resilience and long-term sustainability. The attributes describe surface conditions that affect site sustainability and hydrologic function. Monitoring the...

  20. FOREST SOIL CARBON SEQUESTRATION: ACCOUNTING FOR THIS VITAL ECOSYSTEM SERVICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Forests play a crucial role in supplying many goods and services that society depends upon on a daily basis including water supply, production of oxygen, soil protection, building materials, wildlife habitat and recreation. Forests also provide a significant amount of carbon seq...

  1. Deadwood as Biogeochemical `Hot Spots' in Soil and Forest Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stutz, K. P.; Wambsganss, J.; Lang, F.

    2016-12-01

    Forest use removes substantial quantities of woody biomass. As such, a prominent feature of managed forests is the lack of deadwood, specifically coarse woody debris (CWD), when compared to undisturbed forests. Yet the extent to which this disruption of litter cycling impacts the biogeochemistry of soil and forest ecosystems remains unclear. We sampled 32 pairs of points near deadwood and points distant from deadwood at eight Fagus sylvatica (L.) stands in SW Germany. Metabolites released from deadwood influenced soil pH, cation exchange capacity, nutrient availability, pore size distribution, and soil organic matter fractions. The extent to which deadwood influenced these soil properties depended though on site conditions such as biological activity, bedrock type, and harvesting intensity. In another, smaller study of the same design, deadwood of Abies alba (Mill.) and F. sylvatica in a mixed stand influenced soil functioning to unequal extents. This was best explained by differences in the quality of decayed lignin and other metabolites from brown-rot and white-rot. These results suggest deadwood is a transient center of biological activity where biogeochemical exchanges and cycling occurs, and as such warrants the designation as a `hot spot'. At meter and sub-meter scales, those processes contribute to aggregation, mineral weathering, and horizon differentiation - i.e., soil development. And as with other, more-studied `hot spots' such as the rhizosphere, these centers of soil development would have an oversized influence in soil and forest ecosystems both spatially and temporally. Consequently the removal (or retention) of deadwood through forest disturbances could alter the resilience and tipping points of soils and forests.

  2. [Community diversity of soil arthropods in forest-steppe ecotone].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xin-yu; Gao, Bao-ji; Bi, Hua-ming; Wang, Wen-xun; Yuan, Sheng-liang; Hu, Yun-chuan

    2007-11-01

    An investigation on the community diversity of soil arthropods in the forest-steppe ecotone of north Hebei Province was conducted. A total of 10 420 individuals of soil arthropods were collected, which belonged to 25 groups, 6 classes and 24 orders. Acarina and Collembola were the dominant orders, and there were 8 groups of frequent orders and 15 groups of rare orders. The diversity index (H'), DG index, and evenness of soil arthropod community were relatively higher in forest zone, but lower in meadow-steppe zone. Soil pH had a higher degree of interconnection with the numbers of soil arthropod groups, while soil temperature and moisture content had a higher degree of interconnection with the numbers of soil arthropod individuals.

  3. Soil and vegetation response to soil compaction and forest floor removal after aspen harvesting. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Alban, D.H.; Host, G.E.; Elioff, J.D.; Shadis, D.

    1994-01-01

    Reduced soil porosity and organic matter removal have been identified as common factors associated with loss of forest productivity (Powers et al. 1990). In both agriculture and forestry, management activities can modify soil porosity and organic matter with resultant impacts on vegetative growth. As part of a nationwide long-term soil productivity (LTSP) study soil porosity and organic matter are being experimentally manipulated on large plots to determine the impacts of such manipulations on growth and species diversity for a wide range of forest types.

  4. Soil N fluxes in three contrasting dry tropical forests.

    PubMed

    Tokuchi, N; Nakanishi, A; Wachirinrat, C; Takeda, H

    2001-11-20

    A comparative study of N fluxes in soil among a dry dipterocarp forest (DDF), a dry evergreen forest (DEF), and a hill evergreen forest (HEF) in Thailand was done. N fluxes in soil were estimated using an ion exchange resin core method and a buried bag method. Soil C and N pools were 38 C Mg/ha/30 cm and 2.5 N Mg/ha/30 cm in DDF, 82 C Mg/ha/30 cm and 6.2 N Mg/ha/30 cm in DEF, and 167 C Mg/ha/30 cm and 9.3 N Mg/ha/30 cm in HEF. Low C concentration in the DDF and DEF sites was compensated by high fine soil content. In the highly weathered tropical soil, fine soil content seemed to be important for C accumulation. Temporal and vertical fluctuations of N fluxes were different among the sites. The highest N flux was exhibited at the onset of the wet season in DDF, whereas inorganic N production and estimated uptake of N were relatively stable during the wet season in DEF and HEF. It is suggested that N cycling in soil becomes stable in dry tropical forests to intermediate in temperate forests. N deposition may result in large changes of N cycling in the DDF and DEF due to low accumulations of C and N.

  5. Analysis of forest health monitoring surveys on the Allegheny National Forest (1998-2001)

    Treesearch

    Randall S. Morin; Andrew M Liebhold; K.W. Gottschalk; Chris W. Woodall; Daniel B. Twardus; Robert L. White; Stephen B. Horsley; Todd E. Ristau

    2006-01-01

    Describes forest vegetation and health conditions on the Allegheny National Forest (ANF). During the past 20 years, the ANF has experienced four severe droughts, several outbreaks of exotic and native insect defoliators, and the effects of other disturbance agents. An increase in tree mortality has raised concerns about forest health. Historical aerial surveys (1984-98...

  6. Digital soils survey map of the Patagonia Mountains, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Norman, Laura; Wissler, Craig; Guertin, D. Phillip; Gray, Floyd

    2002-01-01

    The ‘Soil Survey of Santa Cruz and Parts of Cochise and Pima Counties, Arizona,' a product of the USDA’s Soil Conservation Service and the Forest Service in cooperation with the Arizona Agricultural Experiment Station, released in 1979, was created according to the site conditions in 1971, when soil scientists identified soils types on aerial photographs. The scale at which these maps were published is 1:20,000. These soil maps were automated for incorporation into the hydrologic modeling within a GIS. The aerial photos onto which the soils units were drawn had not been orthoganalized, and contained distortion. A total of 15 maps composed the study area. These maps were scanned into TIFF format using an 8-bit black and white drum scanner at 100 dpi. The images were imported into ERDAS IMAGINE and the white borders were removed through subset decollaring processes. Five CD-ROM’s containing Digital Orthophoto Quarter Quads (DOQQ’s) were used to register and rectify the scanned soils maps. Polygonal data was then attributed according to the datasets.

  7. Soil warming affects soil organic matter chemistry of all density fractions of a mountain forest soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnecker, Jörg; Wanek, Wolfgang; Borken, Werner; Schindlbacher, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Rising temperatures enhance microbial decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM) and increase thereby the soil CO2 efflux. Elevated microbial activity might differently affect distinct SOM pools, depending on their stability and accessibility. Soil fractions derived from density fractionation have been suggested to represent SOM pools with different turnover times and stability against microbial decomposition. We here investigated the chemical and isotopic composition of bulk soil and three different density fractions of forest soils from a long term warming experiment in the Austrian Alps. At the time of sampling the soils in this experiment had been warmed during the snow-free period for 8 consecutive years. During that time no thermal adaptation of the microbial community could be identified and CO2 release from the soil continued to be elevated by the warming treatment. Our results which included organic C content, total N content, δ13C, δ 14C, δ 15N and the chemical composition, identified by pyrolysis-GC/MS, showed no significant differences in bulk soil between warming treatment and control. The differences in the three individual fractions (free particulate organic matter, occluded particulate organic matter and mineral associated organic matter) were mostly small and the direction of warming induced change was variable with fraction and sampling depth. We did however find statistically significant effects of warming in all density fractions from 0-10 cm depth, 10-20 cm depth or both. Our results also including significant changes in the supposedly more stable mineral associated organic matter fraction where δ 13C values decreased at both sampling depths and the relative proportion of N-bearing compounds decreased at a sampling depth of 10-20 cm. All the observed changes can be attributed to an interplay of enhanced microbial decomposition of SOM and increased root litter input. This study suggests that soil warming destabilizes all density fractions of

  8. Patterns of Mineral Soil Nitrate Retention with Forest Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuss, C. B.; Lovett, G. M.; Goodale, C. L.; Ollinger, S. V.; Lang, A.; Ouimette, A.

    2016-12-01

    Atmospheric deposition of nitrogen (N) has been elevated in the northeastern U.S. for decades and many of the region's forests have reached mature biomass and no longer have net N demands, leading biogeochemical models to predict increasing nitrate (NO3-) losses from forested watersheds. However, long-term monitoring at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest in New Hampshire shows an unexpected decline in stream NO3- concentrations in recent years, and suggests that poorly understood processes of retention in mineral soils may contribute to this pattern. The mineral soil is a large and heterogeneous pool of N, making changes with time difficult to quantify. We hypothesized that a reaccumulation of N in mineral soil organic matter in successional and recently matured forests is in part leading to current low NO3- losses. We used a chronosequence of four replicated forest age classes, ranging from young ( 25 y) to old growth (>200 y since disturbance) in the White Mountain region of New Hampshire to study how site age affects NO3- retention in mineral soil. We applied a 15NO3- tracer to the surface of the mineral soil beneath the forest floor and tracked the total recovery of 15N, as well as its distribution between particulate and mineral-associated (<53 mm) organic matter fractions, in the top 10 cm of mineral soil over the course of five weeks. We found the highest retention of 15N in the recently matured forests ( 100 y old), consistent with our hypothesis. Retention in the soil pool was lower in younger forests, likely due to greater root uptake to supply growth demands. The soils of the old growth forests retained low amounts of the tracer, suggesting that they are closer to N saturation. We found 15N in the mineral-associated fraction after 2 days, indicating that some NO3- is either abiotically incorporated into stabilized organic matter, or immobilized by microbes associated with mineral surfaces. We seek to combine these results with more detailed organic

  9. [Effects of different type urban forest plantations on soil fertility].

    PubMed

    Sun, Hui-zhen; Chen, Ming-yue; Cai, Chun-ju; Zhu, Ning

    2009-12-01

    Aimed to study the effects of different urban forest plantations on soil fertility, soil samples were collected from eight mono-cultured plantations (Larix gmelinii, Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica, Pinus tabulaeformis var. mukdensis, Phellodendron amurense, Juglans mandshurica, Fraxinus mandshurica, Betula platyphylla, and Quercus mongolica) and one mixed plantation (P. sylvestris var. mongolica + F. mandshurica + Picea koraiensis + P. amurense + B. platyphylla) established in Northeast Forestry University's Urban Forestry Demonstration Research Base in the 1950s, with two sites of neighboring farmland and abandoned farmland as the control. The soils in broadleaved forest plantations except Q. mongolica were near neutral, those in mixed plantation, L. gmelinii, P. sylvestris var. mongolica, and P. tabulaeformis var. mukdensis were slightly acidic, and that in Q. mongolica was acidic. The contents of soil organic matter, total N and P, available P and K, and hydrolysable N tended to decrease with soil depth. There existed significant differences in the chemical indices of the same soil layers among different plantations. The soil fertility was decreased in the order of F. mandshurica > P. amurense > mixed plantation > J. mandshurica > B. platyphylla > abandoned farmland > farmland > P. sylvestris var. mongolica > L. gmelinii > Q. mongolica > P. tabulaeformis var. mukdensis, suggesting that the soil fertility in broadleaved forest plantations except Q. mongolica and in mixed plantation increased, while that in needle-leaved forest plantations tended to decrease.

  10. Soil moisture and groundwater recharge under a mixed conifer forest

    Treesearch

    Robert R. Ziemer

    1978-01-01

    The depletion of soil moisture within the surface 7 m by a mixed conifer forest in the Sierra Nevada was measured by the neutron method every 2 weeks during 5 consecutive summers. Soil moisture recharge was measured periodically during the intervening winters. Groundwater fluctuations within the surface 17 m were continuously recorded during the same period.

  11. The forest ecosystem of southeast Alaska: 5. Soil mass movement.

    Treesearch

    Douglas N. Swanston

    1974-01-01

    Research in southeast Alaska has identified soil mass movement as the dominant erosion process, with debris avalanches and debris flows the most frequent events on characteristically steep, forested slopes. Periodically high soil water levels and steep slopes are controlling factors. Bedrock structure and the rooting characteristics of trees and other vegetation exert...

  12. Properties of Forested Loess Soils After Repeated Prescribed Burns

    Treesearch

    D.M. Moehring; C.X. Grano; J.R. Bassett

    1966-01-01

    Nine annual burns have had little effect on the nutrient content and structure of the surface 4 inches of loess soils on flat terrain.Because prescribed burns must often be repeated to obtain desired results, many foresters are apprehensive about the possible deleterious effects on soils. In 1954 the Timber Management Laboratory at Crossett, Arkansas, in co-...

  13. Tropical forest soil microbial communities couple iron and carbon biogeochemistry

    Treesearch

    Eric A. Dubinsky; Whendee L. Silver; Mary K. Firestone

    2010-01-01

    We report that iron-reducing bacteria are primary mediators of anaerobic carbon oxidation in upland tropical soils spanning a rainfall gradient (3500–5000 mm/yr) in northeast Puerto Rico. The abundant rainfall and high net primary productivity of these tropical forests provide optimal soil habitat for iron-reducing and iron-oxidizing bacteria. Spatially and temporally...

  14. The contribution of atmospheric deposition and forest harvesting to forest soil acidification in China since 1980

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Qichao; De Vries, Wim; Liu, Xuejun; Zeng, Mufan; Hao, Tianxiang; Du, Enzai; Zhang, Fusuo; Shen, Jianbo

    2016-12-01

    Soils below croplands and grasslands have acidified significantly in China since the 1980s in terms of pH decline in response to acid inputs caused by intensified fertilizer application and/or acid deposition. However, it is unclear what the rate is of pH decline of forest soils in China in response to enhanced acid deposition and wood production over the same period. We therefore gathered soil pH data from the Second National Soil Inventory of China and publications from the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) database in 1981-1985 and 2006-2010, respectively, to evaluate the long-term change of pH values in forest soils. We found that soil pH decreased on average by 0.36 units in the period 1981-1985 to 2006-2010., with most serious pH decline occurring in southwest China (0.63 pH units). The soil type with the strongest pH decline was the semi-Luvisol (0.44 pH units). The decrease in pH was significantly correlated with the acid input induced by atmospheric deposition and forest harvesting. On average, the contribution of atmospheric deposition to the total acid input was estimated at 84% whereas element uptake (due to forest wood growth and harvest) contributed 16% only. Atmospheric deposition is thus the major driver for the significant forest soil acidification across China.

  15. Long-term forest soil warming alters microbial communities in temperate forest soils

    PubMed Central

    DeAngelis, Kristen M.; Pold, Grace; Topçuoğlu, Begüm D.; van Diepen, Linda T. A.; Varney, Rebecca M.; Blanchard, Jeffrey L.; Melillo, Jerry; Frey, Serita D.

    2015-01-01

    Soil microbes are major drivers of soil carbon cycling, yet we lack an understanding of how climate warming will affect microbial communities. Three ongoing field studies at the Harvard Forest Long-term Ecological Research (LTER) site (Petersham, MA) have warmed soils 5°C above ambient temperatures for 5, 8, and 20 years. We used this chronosequence to test the hypothesis that soil microbial communities have changed in response to chronic warming. Bacterial community composition was studied using Illumina sequencing of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene, and bacterial and fungal abundance were assessed using quantitative PCR. Only the 20-year warmed site exhibited significant change in bacterial community structure in the organic soil horizon, with no significant changes in the mineral soil. The dominant taxa, abundant at 0.1% or greater, represented 0.3% of the richness but nearly 50% of the observations (sequences). Individual members of the Actinobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria and Acidobacteria showed strong warming responses, with one Actinomycete decreasing from 4.5 to 1% relative abundance with warming. Ribosomal RNA copy number can obfuscate community profiles, but is also correlated with maximum growth rate or trophic strategy among bacteria. Ribosomal RNA copy number correction did not affect community profiles, but rRNA copy number was significantly decreased in warming plots compared to controls. Increased bacterial evenness, shifting beta diversity, decreased fungal abundance and increased abundance of bacteria with low rRNA operon copy number, including Alphaproteobacteria and Acidobacteria, together suggest that more or alternative niche space is being created over the course of long-term warming. PMID:25762989

  16. Long-term forest soil warming alters microbial communities in temperate forest soils.

    PubMed

    DeAngelis, Kristen M; Pold, Grace; Topçuoğlu, Begüm D; van Diepen, Linda T A; Varney, Rebecca M; Blanchard, Jeffrey L; Melillo, Jerry; Frey, Serita D

    2015-01-01

    Soil microbes are major drivers of soil carbon cycling, yet we lack an understanding of how climate warming will affect microbial communities. Three ongoing field studies at the Harvard Forest Long-term Ecological Research (LTER) site (Petersham, MA) have warmed soils 5°C above ambient temperatures for 5, 8, and 20 years. We used this chronosequence to test the hypothesis that soil microbial communities have changed in response to chronic warming. Bacterial community composition was studied using Illumina sequencing of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene, and bacterial and fungal abundance were assessed using quantitative PCR. Only the 20-year warmed site exhibited significant change in bacterial community structure in the organic soil horizon, with no significant changes in the mineral soil. The dominant taxa, abundant at 0.1% or greater, represented 0.3% of the richness but nearly 50% of the observations (sequences). Individual members of the Actinobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria and Acidobacteria showed strong warming responses, with one Actinomycete decreasing from 4.5 to 1% relative abundance with warming. Ribosomal RNA copy number can obfuscate community profiles, but is also correlated with maximum growth rate or trophic strategy among bacteria. Ribosomal RNA copy number correction did not affect community profiles, but rRNA copy number was significantly decreased in warming plots compared to controls. Increased bacterial evenness, shifting beta diversity, decreased fungal abundance and increased abundance of bacteria with low rRNA operon copy number, including Alphaproteobacteria and Acidobacteria, together suggest that more or alternative niche space is being created over the course of long-term warming.

  17. Contributions of water supply from the weathered bedrock zone to forest soil quality

    Treesearch

    James H. Witty; Robert C. Graham; Kenneth R. Hubbert; James A. Doolittle; Jonathan A. Wald

    2003-01-01

    One measure of forest soil quality is the ability of the soil to support tree growth. In mediterranean-type ecosystems, such as most of California's forests, there is virtually no rainfall during the summer growing season, so trees must rely on water stored within the substrate. Water is the primary limitation to productivity in these forests. Many forest soils in...

  18. Contributions of ectomycorrhizal fungal mats to forest soil respiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, C. L.; Kluber, L. A.; Martin, J. P.; Caldwell, B. A.; Bond, B. J.

    2012-02-01

    Distinct aggregations of fungal hyphae and rhizomorphs, or "mats" formed by some genera of ectomycorrhizal (EcM) fungi are common features of soils in coniferous forests of the Pacific Northwest. We measured in situ respiration rates of Piloderma mats and neighboring non-mat soils in an old-growth Douglas-fir forest in Western Oregon to investigate whether there was an incremental increase in respiration from mat soils, and to estimate mat contributions to total soil respiration. We found that areas where Piloderma mats colonized the organic horizon often had higher soil surface flux than non-mats, with the incremental increase in respiration averaging 16 % across two growing seasons. Both soil physical factors and biochemistry were related to the higher surface flux of mat soils. When air-filled pore space was low (high soil moisture), soil CO2 production was concentrated into near-surface soil horizons where mats tend to colonize, resulting in greater apparent differences in respiration between mat and non-mat soils. Respiration rates were also correlated with the activity of chitin-degrading soil enzymes. This suggests that the elevated activity of fungal mats may be related to consumption or turnover of chitinous fungal cell-wall materials. We found Piloderma mats present across 57 % of the soil surface in the study area, and use this value to estimate a respiratory contribution from mats at the stand-scale of about 9 % of total soil respiration. The activity of EcM mats, which includes both EcM fungi and microbial associates, was estimated to constitute a substantial portion of total soil respiration in this old-growth Douglas-fir forest.

  19. The Timber Resources of Maine. A Report on the Forest Survey made by the U.S. Forest Service

    Treesearch

    Roland H. Ferguson; Franklin R. Longwood; Franklin R. Longwood

    1960-01-01

    This is a report on the timber resources of Maine. It is based on the findings of a forest survey made in 1954-58 by the Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, U.S. Forest Service. The Maine survey was part of a nationwide survey that is being made to evaluate the extent and condition of the Nation's forest resources.

  20. Polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenylethers in soils from planted forests and adjacent natural forests on a tropical island.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin; Wang, Shuai; Jiang, Yishan; Sun, Yingtao; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan

    2017-08-01

    Transformation from natural forests to planted forests in tropical regions is an expanding global phenomenon causing major modifications of land cover and soil properties, e.g. soil organic carbon (SOC). This study investigated accumulations of POPs in soils under eucalyptus and rubber forests as compared with adjacent natural forests on Hainan Island, China. Results showed that due to the greater forest filter effect and the higher SOC, the natural forest have accumulated larger amounts of POPs in the top 20 cm soil. Based on correlation and air-soil equilibrium analysis, we highlighted the importance of SOC in the distribution of POPs. It is assumed that the elevated mobility of POPs in the planted forests was caused by greater loss of SOC and extensive leaching in the soil profile. This suggests that a better understanding of global POPs fate should take into consideration the role of planted forests. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of soil structural development on soil hydraulic properties and hydraulic processes in forested hillslopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Y.; Kosugi, K.; Mizuyama, T.

    2010-12-01

    We evaluated the effects of the forest soil on flood and drought mitigation, and decrease of the danger of slope failures. Forest soils usually contain a primary textural pore system, which is determined by solid particle-size distribution and particle arrangements, accompanied by a secondary structural pore system formed by the effects of forest ecosystems. With this background, we investigated the effects of the pore structural development on the unsaturated hydraulic properties and rainwater dynamics on a forested hillslope. The undisturbed soil samples were collected from an entire forested hillslope. The undisturbed soils contain the primary and secondary pore systems, and were set to be as structural developed soils. The water retention curve and saturated hydraulic conductivity of each sample were measured. After that, each undisturbed soil was crushed to break up aggregate structure and packed into core sampler to prepare the structural undeveloped soil. We conducted same measurement of the structural undeveloped soils as those used for the structural developed soils. Generally, compared with the structural undeveloped soils, the structural developed soils had large median pore radius and width of pore size distribution, and large saturated hydraulic conductivity. We conducted 2-dimentional numerical simulations of hydraulic processes on a forested hillslope with the code programmed by Kosugi (2007), using the data sets of the structural developed and undeveloped soils. The peak flow of stream is formed by the direct discharge from the lower end of the slope, and the base flow is formed by the seepage into the bedrock (Kosugi, 2007). Furthermore, slope failure are caused by the positive pore water pressure in the soil layer. Therefore, for evaluating the effect of forest soil on hydraulic processes, we estimated the discharge rate of the lower end of the slope and the rate of the seepage into the bedrock from the soil layer, and the matric pressure head. As

  2. Characterization of soil microarthropod communities in Italian beech forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conti, F. D.; Menta, C.; Piovesan, G.

    2009-04-01

    The contribution of soil organisms to ecosystem functions such as decomposition, nutrient recycling and the maintenance of physico-chemical properties is well recognised, as is the fact that soil fauna plays an important role in the formation and stabilisation of soil structure. The diversity of soil fauna includes a quarter of described living species, the majority of which are insects and arachnids. Soil fauna plays an essential role in forests and agro-ecosystems by maintaining their functionality and productivity. The aim of this study is to evaluate the biodiversity of soil microarthropods communities in different Italian beech forest. Particular attention is paid to the role of fossorial microarthropods in the maintenance of soil structure and in the organic matter movements. Three beech forests are studied, two located in the North and one in the Centre of Italy. Microarthropods are extracted from litter and soil with a Berlese-Tullgren funnel, identified to order level (class level for myriapods) and counted using a microscope. Relative order abundance and biodiversity are expressed using the Shannon-Weaver diversity index (H) and evenness index (J). Soil biological quality is expressed using the QBS-ar index and Acari/Collembola ratio. The results show a richness of microarthropods: several orders, till 19 different groups, are determined and identified. Acari and collembola are the main represented taxa and, especially in litter samples, pseudoscorpions, different specimens of diplopods (or millipedes) and chilopods (centipedes) are found. Thus the presence in particular of diplopods offers the possibility of studying fossorial microarthropods functions in detail. Furthermore, both in soil and in litter samples, adapted groups are recognized, such as pauropods, symphyla, proturans and diplurans, with specific morphological characteristics that these species suited to soil habitat. Therefore they attest a good level of soil quality and high natural value

  3. The Forest as a Soil and Water Manager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bathurst, J. C.

    2012-04-01

    Forests provide a vital service in regulating stream flow and protecting soil from erosion. Loss of forest cover increases erosion (by raindrop impact, surface runoff, gullies, landslides and river bank failure) and the transfer of eroded soil or sediment to the river network. It also increases annual runoff and the peak discharges of at least small to moderate flood events, and thus the sediment transporting capability of streams. Adverse impacts include reservoir sedimentation, aquatic habitat degradation and river channel instability. Sediment also greatly increases the destructive effects of floods. The forest/erosion interface takes many forms, e.g. forest fire impact, forest/landslide interaction and impact of pre-plantation activities such as ditching. However, despite decades of study, data on forests and erosion remain relatively fragmented and there is no integrated overview at regional to continental scales, e.g. at the European scale. Further, quantitative understanding does not yet match qualitative understanding and lags behind our ability to make quantitative generalizations on, for example, the impact of forest cover on water yields and flood frequencies. This presentation therefore discusses our current understanding of the effect of forest cover on water runoff and soil erosion, highlighting in particular the type of quantitative data available and the quantitative methods which are available to predict the impact of changes in forest cover, including their limitations. It also considers the type of models needed to predict the impacts of land use and climate change on soil erosion and proposes a next step in improving our predictive capability for the forest/erosion interface through an integration of existing research to provide generalizations and an overview at regional to subcontinental scales.

  4. Methods of soil resampling to monitor changes in the chemical concentrations of forest soils

    Treesearch

    Gregory B. Lawrence; Ivan J. Fernandez; Paul W. Hazlett; Scott W. Bailey; Donald S. Ross; Thomas R. Villars; Angelica Quintana; Rock Ouimet; Michael R. McHale; Chris E. Johnson; Russell D. Briggs; Robert A. Colter; Jason Siemion; Olivia L. Bartlett; Olga Vargas; Michael R. Antidormi; Mary M. Koppers

    2016-01-01

    Recent soils research has shown that important chemical soil characteristics can change in less than a decade, often the result of broad environmental changes. Repeated sampling to monitor these changes in forest soils is a relatively new practice that is not well documented in the literature and has only recently been broadly embraced by the scientific community. The...

  5. Using soil temperature and moisture to predict forest soil nitrogen mineralization

    Treesearch

    Jennifer D. Knoepp; Wayne T. Swank

    2002-01-01

    Due to the importance of N in forest productivity ecosystem and nutrient cycling research often includes measurement of soil N transformation rates as indices of potential availability and ecosystem losses of N. We examined the feasibility of using soil temperature and moisture content to predict soil N mineralization rates (Nmin) at the Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory...

  6. Development of internal forest soil reference samples and testing of digestion methods

    Treesearch

    J.E. Hislop; J.W. Hornbeck; S.W. Bailey; R.A. Hallett

    1998-01-01

    Our research requires determinations of total elemental concentrations of forest soils. The lack of certified forest soil reference materials led us to develop internal reference samples. Samples were collected from three soil horizons (Oa, B, and C) at three locations having forested, acidic soils similar to those we commonly analyze. A shatterbox was used to...

  7. Method comparison for forest soil carbon and nitrogen estimates in the Delaware River basin

    Treesearch

    B. Xu; Yude Pan; A.H. Johnson; A.F. Plante

    2016-01-01

    The accuracy of forest soil C and N estimates is hampered by forest soils that are rocky, inaccessible, and spatially heterogeneous. A composite coring technique is the standard method used in Forest Inventory and Analysis, but its accuracy has been questioned. Quantitative soil pits provide direct measurement of rock content and soil mass from a larger, more...

  8. Soil warming, carbon-nitrogen interactions, and forest carbon budgets.

    PubMed

    Melillo, Jerry M; Butler, Sarah; Johnson, Jennifer; Mohan, Jacqueline; Steudler, Paul; Lux, Heidi; Burrows, Elizabeth; Bowles, Francis; Smith, Rose; Scott, Lindsay; Vario, Chelsea; Hill, Troy; Burton, Andrew; Zhou, Yu-Mei; Tang, Jim

    2011-06-07

    Soil warming has the potential to alter both soil and plant processes that affect carbon storage in forest ecosystems. We have quantified these effects in a large, long-term (7-y) soil-warming study in a deciduous forest in New England. Soil warming has resulted in carbon losses from the soil and stimulated carbon gains in the woody tissue of trees. The warming-enhanced decay of soil organic matter also released enough additional inorganic nitrogen into the soil solution to support the observed increases in plant carbon storage. Although soil warming has resulted in a cumulative net loss of carbon from a New England forest relative to a control area over the 7-y study, the annual net losses generally decreased over time as plant carbon storage increased. In the seventh year, warming-induced soil carbon losses were almost totally compensated for by plant carbon gains in response to warming. We attribute the plant gains primarily to warming-induced increases in nitrogen availability. This study underscores the importance of incorporating carbon-nitrogen interactions in atmosphere-ocean-land earth system models to accurately simulate land feedbacks to the climate system.

  9. Soil warming, carbon–nitrogen interactions, and forest carbon budgets

    PubMed Central

    Melillo, Jerry M.; Butler, Sarah; Johnson, Jennifer; Mohan, Jacqueline; Steudler, Paul; Lux, Heidi; Burrows, Elizabeth; Bowles, Francis; Smith, Rose; Scott, Lindsay; Vario, Chelsea; Hill, Troy; Burton, Andrew; Zhou, Yu-Mei; Tang, Jim

    2011-01-01

    Soil warming has the potential to alter both soil and plant processes that affect carbon storage in forest ecosystems. We have quantified these effects in a large, long-term (7-y) soil-warming study in a deciduous forest in New England. Soil warming has resulted in carbon losses from the soil and stimulated carbon gains in the woody tissue of trees. The warming-enhanced decay of soil organic matter also released enough additional inorganic nitrogen into the soil solution to support the observed increases in plant carbon storage. Although soil warming has resulted in a cumulative net loss of carbon from a New England forest relative to a control area over the 7-y study, the annual net losses generally decreased over time as plant carbon storage increased. In the seventh year, warming-induced soil carbon losses were almost totally compensated for by plant carbon gains in response to warming. We attribute the plant gains primarily to warming-induced increases in nitrogen availability. This study underscores the importance of incorporating carbon–nitrogen interactions in atmosphere–ocean–land earth system models to accurately simulate land feedbacks to the climate system. PMID:21606374

  10. Massiliapinisoli sp. nov., isolated from forest soil.

    PubMed

    Altankhuu, Khulan; Kim, Jaisoo

    2016-09-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, motile with a single polar flagellum, non-spore-forming and rod-shaped bacterial strain named T33T was isolated from forest soil collected at Kyonggi University, South Korea. The strain was catalase- and oxidase-positive, colonies grew on R2A agar at 32 °C. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and phylogenetic analysis revealed that T33T represented a member of the genus Massilia and is closely related to Massilia niastensis KACC 12599T (98.7 % sequence similarity), Massilia aerilata KACC 12505T (98.5 %), Massilia tieshanensis KACC 14940T (98.4 %), Massilia kyonggiensis KACC 17471T (98.1 %), Massilia norwichensis LMG 28164T (97.7 %), Massilia haematophila CCUG 38318T (97.4 %), Massilia consociata CCUG 58010T (97.3 %), and Massilia niabensis KACC 12632T (97.0 %). Ubiquinone Q-8 is the predominant respiratory quinone, and phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, and diphosphatidylglycerol are the major polar lipids. The major fatty acids are summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω6c and/or C16 : 1ω7c), summed feature 8 (C18 : 1ω6c and/or C18 : 1ω7c), and C16 : 0. DNA-DNA hybridization revealed <70 % relatedness between strain T33T and the most closely related type strains. The DNA G+C content of strain T33Tis 69.4 mol%. Based on physiological and biochemical test results, Massilia pinisoli T33T is proposed as a novel species of the genus Massilia. The type strain is T33T (=KACC 18748T=KEMB 9005-368T=JCM 31316T).

  11. Long term dynamic changes in soil organic matter following forest fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tessler, N.; Greenbaum, N.; Malkinson, D.; Wittenberg, L.

    2007-12-01

    Soil is an important component of the ecological system, providing a substrate for vegetation growth, habitat for animals and a site for regulation of eco-hydrological processes. After a disturbance, such as a forest fire, the soil undergoes changes that have not all been studied yet. Soil organic matter (OM) is one of the fundamental components of soils. After a fire, OM is destroyed and consequently, physical, chemical and biological properties related to OM are altered. Mt. Carmel, Israel, represents a typical Mediterranean ecosystem, with increasing number of forest fires. In the past decades, 9 large fires (> 100 hectare) and more than 350 smaller ones consumed thousand of hectares of natural and planted vegetation. The study is aimed at a) assessing long term rehabilitation processes of soil properties following forest fires; b) defining pedological indices of soil rehabilitation. Research methods included field and laboratory techniques - soil surveys and sampling in the field in addition to chemical analyses of soil properties. Soil survey and sampling were conducted in regions burnt during 1983, 1989, 1999, and 2005 and in non-burnt control areas. Laboratory analyses included: soil texture, organic matter content (OM), electrical conductivity (EC), phosphorus and other nutrients. Recovery rates of soil properties are related to fire severity and might be divided according to their rehabilitation rates (long or short-term processes). During the time scale in which the research was conducted it is apparent that following fires of all severities OM content remained significantly lower compared to the control values. Patterns of phosphorus levels were similar to the observed OM patterns, implying that these two factors are interconnected. Other components, however, such as pH and EC, which are also influenced by OM, exhibit different recovery patterns - pH values increased abruptly after the fire, and recovered within 1-7 years period (depending on fire

  12. Soil organic matter regulates molybdenum storage and mobility in forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marks, Jade A; Perakis, Steven; King, Elizabeth K; Pett-Ridge, Julie

    2015-01-01

    The trace element molybdenum (Mo) is essential to a suite of nitrogen (N) cycling processes in ecosystems, but there is limited information on its distribution within soils and relationship to plant and bedrock pools. We examined soil, bedrock, and plant Mo variation across 24 forests spanning wide soil pH gradients on both basaltic and sedimentary lithologies in the Oregon Coast Range. We found that the oxidizable organic fraction of surface mineral soil accounted for an average of 33 %of bulk soil Mo across all sites, followed by 1.4 % associated with reducible Fe, Al, and Mn-oxides, and 1.4 % in exchangeable ion form. Exchangeable Mo was greatest at low pH, and its positive correlation with soil carbon (C) suggests organic matter as the source of readily exchangeable Mo. Molybdenum accumulation integrated over soil profiles to 1 m depth (τMoNb) increased with soil C, indicating that soil organic matter regulates long-term Mo retention and loss from soil. Foliar Mo concentrations displayed no relationship with bulk soil Mo, and were not correlated with organic horizon Mo or soil extractable Mo, suggesting active plant regulation of Mo uptake and/or poor fidelity of extractable pools to bioavailability. We estimate from precipitation sampling that atmospheric deposition supplies, on average, over 10 times more Mo annually than does litterfall to soil. In contrast, bedrock lithology had negligible effects on foliar and soil Mo concentrations and on Mo distribution among soil fractions. We conclude that atmospheric inputs may be a significant source of Mo to forest ecosystems, and that strong Mo retention by soil organic matter limits ecosystem Mo loss via dissolution and leaching pathways.

  13. Methane emissions from upland forest soils and vegetation.

    PubMed

    Megonigal, J Patrick; Guenther, Alex B

    2008-04-01

    Most work on methane (CH(4)) emissions from natural ecosystems has focused on wetlands because they are hotspots of CH(4) production. Less attention has been directed toward upland ecosystems that cover far larger areas, but are assumed to be too dry to emit CH(4). Here we review CH(4) production and emissions in upland ecosystems, with attention to the influence of plant physiology on these processes in forests. Upland ecosystems are normally net sinks for atmospheric CH(4) because rates of CH(4) consumption exceed CH(4) production. Production of CH(4) in upland soils occurs in microsites and may be common in upland forest soils. Some forests switch from being CH(4) sinks to CH(4) sources depending on soil water content. Plant physiology influences CH(4) cycling by modifying the availability of electron donors and acceptors in forest soils. Plants are the ultimate source of organic carbon (electron donor) that microbes process into CH(4). The availability of O(2) (electron acceptor) is sensitive to changes in soil water content, and therefore, to transpiration rates. Recently, abiotic production of CH(4) from aerobic plant tissue was proposed, but has not yet been verified with independent data. If confirmed, this new source is likely to be a minor term in the global CH(4) budget, but important to quantify for purposes of greenhouse gas accounting. A variety of observations suggest that our understanding of CH(4) sources in upland systems is incomplete, particularly in tropical forests which are stronger sources then expected.

  14. A method of evaluating forest site quality from soil, forest cover, and indicator plants

    Treesearch

    Marinus Westveld

    1952-01-01

    Foresters have overlooked too long the importance of soil as a factor in successful timber production. Greatest production in amount and quality of wood at the smallest cost can be attained by growing the tree species that are best suited to the climate and the soil of the locality in question.

  15. Inhibition of methane consumption in forest soils by monoterpenes

    SciTech Connect

    Amaral, J.A.; Knowles, R.

    1998-04-01

    Selected monoterpenes were tested for their ability to inhibit atmospheric methane consumption by three forest soils from different vegetation types and by the cultured methanotrophic strain, Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b. Subsurface soil from coniferous (Pinus banksiana), deciduous (Populus tremuloides), and mixed hardwood (Tsuga canadensis and Prunus pensylvanica) stands was used under field-moist and slurry conditions. Most of the hydrocarbon monoterpenes tested significantly inhibited methane consumption by soils at environmentally relevant levels, with ({minus})-{alpha}-pinene being the most effective. With the exception of {beta}-myrcene, monoterpenes also strongly inhibited methane oxidation by Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b. Carbon dioxide production was stimulated in all of the soils by the monoterpenes tested. In one case, methane production was stimulated by ({minus})-{alpha}-pinene in an intact, aerobic core. Oxide and alcohol monoterpenoids stimulated methane production. Thus, monoterpenes appear to be potentially important regulators of methane consumption and carbon metabolism in forest soils.

  16. Biogeographical patterns of forest biomass allocation vary by climate, soil and forest characteristics in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hao; Song, Tongqing; Wang, Kelin; Wang, Genxuan; Liao, Jianxiong; Xu, Guanghua; Zeng, Fuping

    2015-04-01

    To explore whether the large-scale patterns of biomass allocation vary by climate, soil, and forest characteristics in terrestrial ecosystems, on the basis of the national forest inventory data (2004-2008) and our previous field measurements (2011-2012), we investigated the variation of four biomass allocation fractions (BAFs), and their relationship with environmental factors (e.g. climate and soil chemistry) and forest characteristics (e.g. stand age and stand density) across 11 of China’s forest types. Our results revealed that BAFs have significant latitudinal, longitudinal and altitudinal trends. Stepwise multiple regression models that involve the climate, soil and forest stand properties account for a part of the biogeographical variation in BAFs, and the stand age, stand density and mean growing season temperature mainly explain these variations. Reduced major axis regression models showed that BAFs differ in their sensitivity (slope of their response to environmental gradients) to climate, soil and forest characteristics among different forest types. The results of the current study do not support the isometric allocation hypothesis, which suggests that component biomass scales equivalently as total biomass across different plant species along environmental gradients.

  17. Modelling changes in forest soil chemistry at 16 Swedish coniferous forest sites following deposition reduction.

    PubMed

    Belyazid, Salim; Westling, Olle; Sverdrup, Harald

    2006-11-01

    The dynamic forest ecosystem model ForSAFE was applied at 16 coniferous forest sites in Sweden to investigate past and future changes in soil chemistry following changes in atmospheric deposition. The simulation shows a considerable historical soil acidification. Acidification in the southwest, where deposition has been greatest, was more expressed in the deepest soil layers, while it was more evenly distributed through the soil profile in central Sweden, and was greater in the upper soil layers in the north. The simulation also shows that a slight recovery took place after the reduction in emissions, but was counteracted by the effect of harvesting. The simulation predicts an increase in the number of acidified sites in the future. The results also suggest that future acidification will be mainly due to the enhanced tree growth resulting from the chronic high deposition of nitrogen and the removal of soil base cations through harvesting.

  18. Owl broadcast surveys in the Foothills Model Forest, Alberta, Canada

    Treesearch

    D. Lisa Takats; Geoffrey L. Holroyd

    1997-01-01

    Broadcast surveys are used to determine the presence and relative abundance of nocturnal owls, but there has been little effort to standardize such surveys. This paper examines broadcast survey data collected in 1995 and 1996 in the Foothills Model Forest, Alberta, Canada. Three hundred calls from six species of owls were recorded at 893 stops for a call rate of 0.34...

  19. Surveying and monitoring sudden oak death in southwest Oregon forests

    Treesearch

    Ellen Michaels Goheen; Alan Kanaskie; Mike McWilliams; Everett Hansen; Wendy Sutton; Nancy Osterbauer

    2006-01-01

    Phytophthora ramorum, the causal agent of sudden oak death, was first discovered in Oregon in July 2001 by aerial survey (Goheen and others 2002). Alerted to the situation in California and experienced in aerial tree mortality surveys, cooperators from the USDA Forest Service and the Oregon Department of Forestry planned a pilot survey for P...

  20. Ecotoxicology of mercury in tropical forest soils: Impact on earthworms.

    PubMed

    Buch, Andressa Cristhy; Brown, George Gardner; Correia, Maria Elizabeth Fernandes; Lourençato, Lúcio Fábio; Silva-Filho, Emmanoel Vieira

    2017-07-01

    Mercury (Hg) is one of the most toxic nonessential trace metals in the environment, with high persistence and bioaccumulation potential, and hence of serious concern to environmental quality and public health. Emitted to the atmosphere, this element can travel long distances, far from emission sources. Hg speciation can lead to Hg contamination of different ecosystem components, as well as biomagnification in trophic food webs. To evaluate the effects of atmospheric Hg deposition in tropical forests, we investigated Hg concentrations in earthworm tissues and soils of two Forest Conservation Units in State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Next, we performed a laboratory study of the biological responses (cast analysis and behavioral, acute, chronic and bioaccumulation ecotoxicological tests) of two earthworms species (Pontoscolex corethrurus and Eisenia andrei) to Hg contamination in tropical artificial soil (TAS) and two natural forest soils (NS) spiked with increasing concentration of HgCl2. Field results showed Hg concentrations up to 13 times higher in earthworm tissues than in forest soils, while in the laboratory Hg accumulation after 91-days of exposure was 25 times greater in spiked-soils with 128mgHgkg(-1) (dry wt) than in control (unspiked) soils. In all the toxicity tests P. corethrurus showed a higher adaptability or resistance to mercury than E. andrei. The role of earthworms as environmental bioremediators was confirmed in this study, showing their ability to greatly bioaccumulate trace metals while reducing Hg availability in feces. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Pedological memory in forest soil development

    Treesearch

    Jonathan D. Phillips; Daniel A. Marion

    2004-01-01

    Individual trees may have significant impacts on soil morphology. If these impacts are non-random such that some microsites are repeatedly preferentially affected by trees, complex local spatial variability of soils would result. A model of self-reinforcing pedologic influences of trees (SRPIT) is proposed to explain patterns of soil variability in the Ouachita...

  2. Old-growth forests can accumulate carbon in soils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhou, G.; Liu, S.; Li, Z.; Zhang, Dongxiao; Tang, X.; Zhou, C.; Yan, J.; Mo, J.

    2006-01-01

    Old-growth forests have traditionally been considered negligible as carbon sinks because carbon uptake has been thought to be balanced by respiration. We show that the top 20-centimeter soil layer in preserved old-growth forests in southern China accumulated atmospheric carbon at an unexpectedly high average rate of 0.61 megagrams of carbon hectare-1 year-1 from 1979 to 2003. This study suggests that the carbon cycle processes in the belowground system of these forests are changing in response to the changing environment. The result directly challenges the prevailing belief in ecosystem ecology regarding carbon budget in old-growth forests and supports the establishment of a new, nonequilibrium conceptual framework to study soil carbon dynamics.

  3. Estimating two-way tables based on forest surveys

    Treesearch

    Charles T. Scott

    2000-01-01

    Forest survey analysts usually are interested in tables of values rather than single point estimates. A common error is to include only plots on which nonzero values of the attribute were observed when computing the variance of a mean. Similarly, analysts often exclude nonforest plots from the analysis. The development of the correct estimates of forest area, attribute...

  4. Soil Respiration of Three Mangrove Forests on Sanibel Island, Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartwright, F.; Bovard, B. D.

    2011-12-01

    Carbon cycling studies conducted in mangrove forests have typically focused on aboveground processes. Our understanding of carbon storage in these systems is therefore limited by the lack information on belowground processes such as fine root production and soil respiration. To our knowledge there exist no studies investigating temporal patterns in and environmental controls on soil respiration in multiple types of mangrove ecosystems concurrently. This study is part of a larger study on carbon storage in three mangrove forests on Sanibel Island, Florida. Here we report on eight months of soil respiration data within these forests that will ultimately be incorporated into an annual carbon budget for each habitat type. Soil respiration was monitored in the following three mangrove habitat types: a fringe mangrove forest dominated by Rhizophora mangle, a basin mangrove forest dominated by Avicennia germinans, and a higher elevation forest comprised of a mix of Avicennia germinans and Laguncularia racemosa, and non-woody salt marsh species. Beginning in June of 2010, we measured soil emissions of carbon dioxide at 5 random locations within three-100 m2 plots within each habitat type. Sampling was performed at monthly intervals and conducted over the course of three days. For each day, one plot from each habitat type was measured. In addition to soil respiration, soil temperature, salinity and gravimetric moisture content were also measured. Our data indicate the Black mangrove forest, dominated by Avicennia germinans, experiences the highest rates of soil respiration with a mean rate of 4.61 ± 0.60 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1. The mixed mangrove and salt marsh habitat has the lowest soil carbon emission rates with a mean of 2.78 ± 0.40 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1. Soil carbon effluxes appear to peak in the early part of the wet season around May to June and are lower and relatively constant the remainder of the year. Our data also suggest there are important but brief periods where

  5. Atmospheric nitrous oxide uptake in boreal spruce forest soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siljanen, Henri; Welti, Nina; Heikkinen, Juha; Biasi, Christina; Martikainen, Pertti

    2017-04-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) uptake from the atmosphere has been found in forest soils but environmental factors controlling the uptake and its atmospheric impact are poorly known. We measured N2O fluxes over growing season in a boreal spruce forest having control plots and plots with long nitrogen fertilization history. Also methane (CH4) fluxes were measured to compare the atmospheric impact of N2O and CH4fluxes. Soil chemical and physical characteristics and climatic conditions were measured as background data. Nitrous oxide consumption and uptake mechanisms were measured in complementary laboratory incubation experiments using stable isotope approaches. Gene transcript numbers of nitrous oxide reductase (nosZ) I and II genes were quantified along the incubation with elevated N2O atmosphere. The spruce forests without fertilization history showed highest N2O uptake rates whereas pine forest had low emissions. Nitrous oxide uptake correlated positively with soil moisture, high soil silt content, and low temperature. Nitrous oxide uptake varied seasonally, being highest in spring and autumn when temperature was low and water content was high. The spruce forest was sink for CH4.Methane fluxes were decoupled from the N2O fluxes (i.e. when the N2O uptake was high the CH4 uptake was low). By using GWP approach, the cooling effect of N2O uptake was on average 30% of the cooling effect of CH4 uptake in spruce forest without fertilization. Anoxic conditions promoted higher N2O consumption rates in all soils. Gene transcription of nosZ-I genes were activated at beginning of the incubation. However, atypical/clade-II nosZ was not detected. These results suggests, that also N2O uptake rates have to be considered when accounting for the GHG budget of spruce forests.

  6. Increasing the efficiency of airphoto forest surveys by better definition of classes

    Treesearch

    C. Allen Bickford

    1953-01-01

    Aerial photographs are now commonly used in forest-inventory work. In the forest-survey work of the Northeastern Forest Experiment Station we are interested most in using them to estimate total volume of a forested area.

  7. Windthrows increase soil carbon stocks in a central Amazon forest

    SciTech Connect

    dos Santos, Leandro T.; Magnabosco Marra, Daniel; Trumbore, Susan; de Camargo, Plínio B.; Negrón-Juárez, Robinson I.; Lima, Adriano J. N.; Ribeiro, Gabriel H. P. M.; dos Santos, Joaquim; Higuchi, Niro

    2016-03-02

    Windthrows change forest structure and species composition in central Amazon forests. However, the effects of widespread tree mortality associated with wind disturbances on soil properties have not yet been described in this vast region. We investigated short-term effects (7 years after disturbance) of widespread tree mortality caused by a squall line event from mid-January of 2005 on soil carbon stocks and concentrations in a central Amazon terra firme forest. The soil carbon stock (averaged over a 0–30 cm depth profile) in disturbed plots (61.4 ± 8.2 Mg ha-1, mean ±95 % confidence interval) was marginally higher (p = 0.09) than that from undisturbed plots (47.7 ± 13.6 Mg ha-1). The soil organic carbon concentration in disturbed plots (2.0 ± 0.17 %) was significantly higher (p < 0.001) than that from undisturbed plots (1.36 ± 0.24 %). Moreover, soil carbon stocks were positively correlated with soil clay content (r2 = 0.332, r = 0.575 and p = 0.019) and with tree mortality intensity (r2 = 0.257, r = 0.506 and p = 0.045). Our results indicate that large inputs of plant litter associated with large windthrow events cause a short-term increase in soil carbon content, and the degree of increase is related to soil clay content and tree mortality intensity. The higher carbon content and potentially higher nutrient availability in soils from areas recovering from windthrows may favor forest regrowth and increase vegetation resilience.

  8. Windthrows increase soil carbon stocks in a central Amazon forest

    DOE PAGES

    dos Santos, Leandro T.; Magnabosco Marra, Daniel; Trumbore, Susan; ...

    2016-03-02

    Windthrows change forest structure and species composition in central Amazon forests. However, the effects of widespread tree mortality associated with wind disturbances on soil properties have not yet been described in this vast region. We investigated short-term effects (7 years after disturbance) of widespread tree mortality caused by a squall line event from mid-January of 2005 on soil carbon stocks and concentrations in a central Amazon terra firme forest. The soil carbon stock (averaged over a 0–30 cm depth profile) in disturbed plots (61.4 ± 8.2 Mg ha-1, mean ±95 % confidence interval) was marginally higher (p = 0.09) thanmore » that from undisturbed plots (47.7 ± 13.6 Mg ha-1). The soil organic carbon concentration in disturbed plots (2.0 ± 0.17 %) was significantly higher (p < 0.001) than that from undisturbed plots (1.36 ± 0.24 %). Moreover, soil carbon stocks were positively correlated with soil clay content (r2 = 0.332, r = 0.575 and p = 0.019) and with tree mortality intensity (r2 = 0.257, r = 0.506 and p = 0.045). Our results indicate that large inputs of plant litter associated with large windthrow events cause a short-term increase in soil carbon content, and the degree of increase is related to soil clay content and tree mortality intensity. The higher carbon content and potentially higher nutrient availability in soils from areas recovering from windthrows may favor forest regrowth and increase vegetation resilience.« less

  9. Spatial variability of soils in a seasonally dry tropical forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulla, Sandeep; Riotte, Jean; Suresh, Hebbalalu; Dattaraja, Handanakere; Sukumar, Raman

    2016-04-01

    Soil structures communities of plants and soil organisms in tropical forests. Understanding the controls of soil spatial variability can therefore potentially inform efforts towards forest restoration. We studied the relationship between soils and lithology, topography, vegetation and fire in a seasonally dry tropical forest in southern India. We extensively sampled soil (available nutrients, Al, pH, and moisture), rocks, relief, woody vegetation, and spatial variation in fire burn frequency in a permanent 50-ha plot. Lower elevation soils tended to be less moist and were depleted in several nutrients and clay. The availability of several nutrients was, in turn, linked to whole-rock chemical composition differences since some lithologies were associated with higher elevations, while the others tended to dominate lower elevations. We suggest that local-scale topography in this region has been shaped by the spatial distribution of lithologies, which differ in their susceptibility to weathering. Nitrogen availability was uncorrelated with the presence of trees belonging to Fabaceae, a family associated with N-fixing species. No effect of burning on soil parameters could be discerned at this scale.

  10. 50 Years of Soil Survey Horizons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brevik, E. C.

    2012-04-01

    Soil Survey Horizons (SSH) started in 1960 as the newsletter of the North Central Soil Survey, United States, with an editorial board consisting of Francis D. Hole, O.C. Rogers, and Donald F. Post. SSH was started to provide an outlet for field observations of soils because the founders of SSH felt that other outlets for such communications were disappearing. Francis Hole's office at the University of Wisconsin served as the point of publication for SSH through its first 15 years, but in 1975 the Soil Science Society of America (SSSA) began handling its publication. Initially SSSA published SSH but did not assume ownership or editorial control of the publication until 2005. Over the years there has been a steady increase in the amount of material published in each volume of SSH. Significant improvements to Soil Survey Horizons over the years have included a move to full 8.5" x 11" pages and publication in color. Future improvements will include online publication and expansion to an international audience, including recruitement of international members for the editorial board.

  11. Forest Management Type Influences Diversity and Community Composition of Soil Fungi across Temperate Forest Ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Goldmann, Kezia; Schöning, Ingo; Buscot, François; Wubet, Tesfaye

    2015-01-01

    Fungal communities have been shown to be highly sensitive toward shifts in plant diversity and species composition in forest ecosystems. However, little is known about the impact of forest management on fungal diversity and community composition of geographically separated sites. This study examined the effects of four different forest management types on soil fungal communities. These forest management types include age class forests of young managed beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), with beech stands age of approximately 30 years, age class beech stands with an age of approximately 70 years, unmanaged beech stands, and coniferous stands dominated by either pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) or spruce (Picea abies Karst.) which are located in three study sites across Germany. Soil were sampled from 48 study plots and we employed fungal ITS rDNA pyrotag sequencing to assess the soil fungal diversity and community structure. We found that forest management type significantly affects the Shannon diversity of soil fungi and a significant interaction effect of study site and forest management on the fungal operational taxonomic units richness. Consequently distinct fungal communities were detected in the three study sites and within the four forest management types, which were mainly related to the main tree species. Further analysis of the contribution of soil properties revealed that C/N ratio being the most important factor in all the three study sites whereas soil pH was significantly related to the fungal community in two study sites. Functional assignment of the fungal communities indicated that 38% of the observed communities were Ectomycorrhizal fungi (ECM) and their distribution is significantly influenced by the forest management. Soil pH and C/N ratio were found to be the main drivers of the ECM fungal community composition. Additional fungal community similarity analysis revealed the presence of study site and management type specific ECM genera. This study extends our

  12. Forest Management Type Influences Diversity and Community Composition of Soil Fungi across Temperate Forest Ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Goldmann, Kezia; Schöning, Ingo; Buscot, François; Wubet, Tesfaye

    2015-01-01

    Fungal communities have been shown to be highly sensitive toward shifts in plant diversity and species composition in forest ecosystems. However, little is known about the impact of forest management on fungal diversity and community composition of geographically separated sites. This study examined the effects of four different forest management types on soil fungal communities. These forest management types include age class forests of young managed beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), with beech stands age of approximately 30 years, age class beech stands with an age of approximately 70 years, unmanaged beech stands, and coniferous stands dominated by either pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) or spruce (Picea abies Karst.) which are located in three study sites across Germany. Soil were sampled from 48 study plots and we employed fungal ITS rDNA pyrotag sequencing to assess the soil fungal diversity and community structure. We found that forest management type significantly affects the Shannon diversity of soil fungi and a significant interaction effect of study site and forest management on the fungal operational taxonomic units richness. Consequently distinct fungal communities were detected in the three study sites and within the four forest management types, which were mainly related to the main tree species. Further analysis of the contribution of soil properties revealed that C/N ratio being the most important factor in all the three study sites whereas soil pH was significantly related to the fungal community in two study sites. Functional assignment of the fungal communities indicated that 38% of the observed communities were Ectomycorrhizal fungi (ECM) and their distribution is significantly influenced by the forest management. Soil pH and C/N ratio were found to be the main drivers of the ECM fungal community composition. Additional fungal community similarity analysis revealed the presence of study site and management type specific ECM genera. This study extends our

  13. Nutrient feedbacks to soil heterotrophic nitrogen fixation in forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perakis, Steven; Pett-Ridge, Julie C.; Catricala, Christina E.

    2017-01-01

    Multiple nutrient cycles regulate biological nitrogen (N) fixation in forests, yet long-term feedbacks between N-fixation and coupled element cycles remain largely unexplored. We examined soil nutrients and heterotrophic N-fixation across a gradient of 24 temperate conifer forests shaped by legacies of symbiotic N-fixing trees. We observed positive relationships among mineral soil pools of N, carbon (C), organic molybdenum (Mo), and organic phosphorus (P) across sites, evidence that legacies of symbiotic N-fixing trees can increase the abundance of multiple elements important to heterotrophic N-fixation. Soil N accumulation lowered rates of heterotrophic N-fixation in organic horizons due to both N inhibition of nitrogenase enzymes and declines in soil organic matter quality. Experimental fertilization of organic horizon soil revealed widespread Mo limitation of heterotrophic N-fixation, especially at sites where soil Mo was scarce relative to C. Fertilization also revealed widespread absence of P limitation, consistent with high soil P:Mo ratios. Responses of heterotrophic N-fixation to added Mo (positive) and N (negative) were correlated across sites, evidence that multiple nutrient controls of heterotrophic N-fixation were more common than single-nutrient effects. We propose a conceptual model where symbiotic N-fixation promotes coupled N, C, P, and Mo accumulation in soil, leading to positive feedback that relaxes nutrient limitation of overall N-fixation, though heterotrophic N-fixation is primarily suppressed by strong negative feedback from long-term soil N accumulation.

  14. A soil burn severity index for understanding soil-fire relations in tropical forests [Chinese version

    Treesearch

    Theresa B. Jain; William A. Gould; Russell T. Graham; David S. Pilliod; Leigh B. Lentile; Grizelle Gonzalez

    2008-01-01

    Methods for evaluating the impact of fires within tropical forests are needed as fires become more frequent and human populations and demands on forests increase. Short- and long-term fire effects on soils are determined by the prefire, fire, and postfire environments. We placed these components within a fire-disturbance continuum to guide our literature synthesis and...

  15. A soil burn severity index for understanding soil-fire relations in tropical forests

    Treesearch

    Theresa B. Jain; William A. Gould; Russell T. Graham; David S. Pilliod; Leigh B. Lentile; Grizelle Gonzalez

    2008-01-01

    Methods for evaluating the impact of fires within tropical forests are needed as fires become more frequent and human populations and demands on forests increase. Short- and long-term fire effects on soils are determined by the prefire, fire, and postfire environments. We placed these components within a fire-disturbance continuum to guide our literature synthesis and...

  16. DRAINMOD-FOREST: Integrated modeling of hydrology, soil carbon and nitrogen dynamics, and plant growth for drained forests

    Treesearch

    Shiying Tian; Mohamed A. Youssef; R. Wayne Skaggs; Devendra M. Amatya; G.M. Chescheir

    2012-01-01

    We present a hybrid and stand-level forest ecosystem model, DRAINMOD-FOREST, for simulating the hydrology, carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) dynamics, and tree growth for drained forest lands under common silvicultural practices. The model was developed by linking DRAINMOD, the hydrological model, and DRAINMOD-N II, the soil C and N dynamics model, to a forest growth model,...

  17. Forest condition in Latvia

    Treesearch

    Madis Sipols

    1998-01-01

    Systematic assessment and observation (survey, inventory) of forests in Latvia has been underway since the 1700's. Latvia's forests are in the boreal/temperate forest zone and cover 44 percent of the country. Forest growing conditions are subdivided into five site class types: forests on dry mineral, wet mineral, wet peat, drained mineral, drained peat soils...

  18. Land use, forest density, soil mapping, erosion, drainage, salinity limitations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yassoglou, N. J. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The results of analyses show that it is possible to obtain information of practical significance as follows: (1) A quick and accurate estimate of the proper use of the valuable land can be made on the basis of temporal and spectral characteristics of the land features. (2) A rather accurate delineation of the major forest formations in the test areas was achieved on the basis of spatial and spectral characteristics of the studied areas. The forest stands were separated into two density classes; dense forest, and broken forest. On the basis of ERTS-1 data and the existing ground truth information a rather accurate mapping of the major vegetational forms of the mountain ranges can be made. (3) Major soil formations are mapable from ERTS-1 data: recent alluvial soils; soil on quarternary deposits; severely eroded soil and lithosol; and wet soils. (4) An estimation of cost benefits cannot be made accurately at this stage of the investigation. However, a rough estimate of the ratio of the cost for obtaining the same amount information from ERTS-1 data and from conventional operations would be approximately 1:6 to 1:10, in favor of the ERTS-1.

  19. Shifts in soil testate amoeba communities associated with forest diversification.

    PubMed

    Bobrov, Anatoly A; Zaitsev, Andrei S; Wolters, Volkmar

    2015-05-01

    We studied changes of testate amoeba communities associated with the conversion of spruce monocultures into mixed beech-fir-spruce forests in the Southern Black Forest Mountains (Germany). In this region, forest conversion is characterized by a gradual development of beech undergrowth within thinned spruce tree stands leading to multiple age continuous cover forests with a diversified litter layer. Strong shifts in the abundance of testate amoeba observed in intermediate stages levelled off to monoculture conditions again after the final stage of the conversion process had been reached. The average number of species per conversion stage (i.e., local richness) did not respond strongly to forest conversion, but the total number of species (i.e., regional richness) was considerably higher in the initial stage than in the mixed forests, due to the large number of hygrophilous species inhabiting spruce monocultures. Functional diversity of the testate amoeba community, however, significantly increased during the conversion process. This shift was closely associated with improved C and N availability as well as higher niche diversity in the continuous cover stands. Lower soil acidity in these forests coincided with a higher relative abundance of eurytopic species. Our results suggest that testate amoeba communities are much more affected by physicochemical properties of the soil than directly by litter diversity.

  20. Nitrogen release from forest soils containing sulfide-bearing sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maileena Nieminen, Tiina; Merilä, Päivi; Ukonmaanaho, Liisa

    2014-05-01

    Soils containing sediments dominated by metal sulfides cause high acidity and release of heavy metals, when excavated or drained, as the aeration of these sediments causes formation of sulfuric acid. Consequent leaching of acidity and heavy metals can kill tree seedlings and animals such as fish, contaminate water, and corrode concrete and steel. These types of soils are called acid sulfate soils. Their metamorphic equivalents, such as sulfide rich black shales, pose a very similar risk of acidity and metal release to the environment. Until today the main focus in treatment of the acid sulfate soils has been to prevent acidification and metal toxicity to agricultural crop plants, and only limited attention has been paid to the environmental threat caused by the release of acidity and heavy metals to the surrounding water courses. Even less attention is paid on release of major nutrients, such as nitrogen, although these sediments are extremely rich in carbon and nitrogen and present a potentially high microbiological activity. In Europe, the largest cover of acid sulfate soils is found in coastal lowlands of Finland. Estimates of acid sulfate soils in agricultural use range from 1 300 to 3 000 km2, but the area in other land use classes, such as managed peatland forests, is presumably larger. In Finland, 49 500 km2 of peatlands have been drained for forestry, and most of these peatland forests will be at the regeneration stage within 10 to 30 years. As ditch network maintenance is often a prerequisite for a successful establishment of the following tree generation, the effects of maintenance operations on the quality of drainage water should be under special control in peatlands underlain by sulfide-bearing sediments. Therefore, identification of risk areas and effective prevention of acidity and metal release during drain maintenance related soil excavating are great challenges for forestry on coastal lowlands of Finland. The organic and inorganic nitrogen

  1. Assessing bioenergy harvest risks: Geospatially explicit tools for maintaining soil productivity in western US forests

    Treesearch

    Mark Kimsey; Deborah Page-Dumroese; Mark Coleman

    2011-01-01

    Biomass harvesting for energy production and forest health can impact the soil resource by altering inherent chemical, physical and biological properties. These impacts raise concern about damaging sensitive forest soils, even with the prospect of maintaining vigorous forest growth through biomass harvesting operations. Current forest biomass harvesting research...

  2. Emission and soil distribution of fumigants in forest tree nurseries

    Treesearch

    Dong Wang; Jennifer Juzwik; Stephen Fraedrich

    2005-01-01

    Production of tree seedlings in the majority of forest nurseries in the USA has relied on soil fumigation with methyl bromide (MeBr) to control soil-borne plant pathogens, weeds, parasitic nematodes and insects. Since the announcement of the scheduled MeBr phase-out, a number of nurseries throughout the United States have participated in research programs on MeBr...

  3. Changing Boreal Fire Regimes: Impacts on Permafrost Soils and Forest Succession in Siberian Larch Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, H. D.; Mack, M. C.; Natali, S.; Loranty, M. M.; Davydov, S. P.; Zimov, N.

    2014-12-01

    Fire activity has increased across the boreal forest biome in conjuction with climate warming and drying. Because these forests contain a large proportion of global terrestrial carbon (C) stocks, there has been great interest in understanding feedbacks between a changing fire regime and climate warming. An important mechanism by which increased fire activity may alter boreal C balance is by consuming the soil organic layer (SOL). Fire removal of the SOL may alter germination microsites and tree recruitment, thereby altering forest successional trajectories and C accumulation and storage. In permafrost soils, loss of the insulating SOL can increase soil temperature and active layer depth, impacting growth and survival conditions for both soil microbes and vegetation. To assess fire severity effects on permafrost soils and tree recruitment, we conducted plot-level experimental burns in July 2012 in a larch forest near Cherskii, Siberia. We achieved four burn severity treatments based on residual SOL depths: control, low (> 8 cm), moderate (5-8 cm), and high severity (2-5 cm). For two growing seasons post-fire, we measured thaw depth, soil moisture, and soil temperature. We sowed larch seeds in fall 2012 and 2013 and quantified seedling establishment and vegetation re-growth for two growing seasons. Immediately post-fire, thaw depth increased rapidly with increasing fire severity, and this trend has persisted for two years. In 2013 and 2014, thaw depth was ~ 40 cm deeper in high severity plots compared to controls, likely due to lower summer soil insulation, higher black char cover, and higher surface soil temperatures. We observed little to no larch recruitment in unburned and low severity plots, but new seedling density was ~5 seedlings m-2 in moderate and high severity plots, which had low cover of other vegetation types and high soil moisture. Findings suggest that increased fire severity may increase larch recruitment and provide favorable soil conditions for

  4. Impact of forest vegetation on soil characteristics: a correlation between soil biological and physico-chemical properties.

    PubMed

    Chandra, L R; Gupta, S; Pande, V; Singh, N

    2016-12-01

    Temperate and dry deciduous forest covers major portion of terrestrial ecosystem in India. The two forest types with different dominant tree species differ in litter quality and root exudates, thereby exerting species-specific impact on soil properties and microbial activity. This study aims to examine the influence of forest type or dominant tree species on soil physico-chemical properties and its relationship with microbial characters in temperate and dry deciduous forest types. We assessed soil physico-chemical properties among five different sites located within the selected forest stand covered by different dominant species. The soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC), nitrogen (MBN) and phosphorous (MBP) were recorded high in oak soil, i.e., the MBC/TOC ratio was significantly higher in dry deciduous forest. Basal respiration was recorded highest at oak-mixed soil while qCO2 was comparatively high in oak soil. Temperate forest displayed the highest MBC/MBN ratio, while dry deciduous forest had the highest MBC/MBP ratio. Moreover, the MBN/TN ratio was found high in dry deciduous forest, whereas MBP/TP ratio was high in temperate forest. Additionally, the enzyme activities were significantly higher in an oak-mixed soil among all the sites. The results displayed that the soil microbial characters and soil physico-chemical uniqueness are interrelated, and were significantly influenced by specific forest type and climatic variables.

  5. Mapping organic carbon stocks of Swiss forest soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nussbaum, M.; Papritz, A.; Baltensweiler, A.; Walthert, L.

    2012-04-01

    Carbon (C) sequestration into forest sinks offsets greenhouse gas emissions under the Kyoto protocol. Therefore, quantifying C stocks and fluxes in forest ecosystems is of interest for reporting greenhouse gas emissions. In Switzerland, the National Forest Inventory offers comprehensive data to quantify the above ground forest biomass and its change in time. Estimating stocks of soil organic C (SOC) in forests is more difficult because of its high spatial variability. To date the greenhouse gas inventory relies only on sparse data and regionally differentiated predictions of SOC stocks in forest soils are currently not possible. Recently, more soil data and new explanatory variables for statistical modeling like high resolution elevation data and satellite images became available. Based on data from 1'033 sites, we modeled SOC stocks to a depth of 1 m including the organic layer for the Swiss forested area. We used a novel robust restricted maximum likelihood method to fit a linear regression model with spatially correlated errors to the C stock data. For the regression analysis we used a broad range of covariates derived from climate data (precipitation, temperature, radiation), two elevation models (resolutions 25 and 2 m) and spectral variables representing vegetation. Furthermore, the main cartographic categories of an overview soil map were used to broadly represent the parent material. The numerous covariates, that partly correlated strongly, were reduced to a first subset using LASSO (Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator). This subset of covariates was then further reduced based on cross validation of the robustly fitted spatial model. The levels of categorical covariates were partly aggregated during this process and interactions between covariates were explored to account for nonlinear dependence of C stocks on the covariates. Using the final model, robust kriging prediction and error maps were computed with a resolution of one hectare.

  6. Associations between soil variables and vegetation structure and composition of Caribbean dry forests

    Treesearch

    Elvia M. Melendez-Ackerman; Julissa Rojas-Sandoval; Danny S. Fernandez; Grizelle Gonzalez; Hana Lopez; Jose Sustache; Mariely Morales; Miguel Garcia-Bermudez; Susan Aragon

    2016-01-01

    Soil–vegetation associations have been understudied in tropical dry forests when compared to the amount of extant research on this issue in tropical wet forests. Recent studies assert that vegetation in tropical dry forests is highly heterogeneous and that soil variability may be a contributing factor. In this study, we evaluated the relationship between soil variables...

  7. Long-term soil moisture patterns in a northern Minnesota forest

    Treesearch

    Salli F. Dymond; Randall K. Kolka; Paul V. Bolstad; Stephen D. Sebestyen

    2014-01-01

    Forest hydrological and biogeochemical processes are highly dependent on soil water. At the Marcell Experimental Forest, seasonal patterns of soil moisture have been monitored at three forested locations since 1966. This unique, long-term data set was used to analyze seasonal trends in soil moisture as well as the influence of time-lagged precipitation and modified...

  8. Carbon storage in coarse and fine fractions of Pacific Northwest old-growth forest soils.

    Treesearch

    P.S. Homann; S.M. Remillard; M.E. Harmon; B.T. Bormann

    2004-01-01

    Many assessments of soil C have been restricted to the 2-mm fractions of forest mineral soils. Our objective was to determine the importance of the >2mm fraction to whole-soil C pools in Pacific Northwest old-growth coniferous forests. Seventy-nine pedons in 18 western Washington and Oregon forests were...

  9. Soil carbon sequestration and changes in fungal and bacterial biomass following incorporation of forest residues

    Treesearch

    Matt D. Busse; Felipe G. Sanchez; Alice W. Ratcliff; John R. Butnor; Emily A. Carter; Robert F. Powers

    2009-01-01

    Sequestering carbon (C) in forest soils can benefit site fertility and help offset greenhouse gas emissions. However, identifying soil conditions and forest management practices which best promote C accumulation remains a challenging task. We tested whether soil incorporation of masticated woody residues alters short-term C storage at forested sites in western and...

  10. Soil heat flux measurements in an open forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Meulen, M. W. J.; Klaassen, W.

    1996-05-01

    The soil surface heat flux in an open oak forest was determined at four locations to account for the heterogeneity of the forest. Soil temperatures and soil water content were measured at several depths and an integration method with three layers was used. The thickness of the bottom layer was determined with a spectral method. The soil surface heat flux was compared with the net radiation above the canopy for four typical days in 1995. These data were fitted linearly. The slope of this parameterisation was 0.092, with a leaf area index of 2.5 (fully-leafed canopy). This result was compared with four other studies. To produce an exponential fit of the slope against the leaf area index the Beer-Bouguer law for radiation extinction in canopies and a soil surface heat flux proportional to the net radiation at the forest floor was used. An extinction coefficient of 0.36 was found. This result is recommended for future studies, if soil surface heat flux is requested and net radiation data above the canopy as well as leaf area index are available.

  11. Effects of fire on properties of forest soils: a review.

    PubMed

    Certini, Giacomo

    2005-03-01

    Many physical, chemical, mineralogical, and biological soil properties can be affected by forest fires. The effects are chiefly a result of burn severity, which consists of peak temperatures and duration of the fire. Climate, vegetation, and topography of the burnt area control the resilience of the soil system; some fire-induced changes can even be permanent. Low to moderate severity fires, such as most of those prescribed in forest management, promote renovation of the dominant vegetation through elimination of undesired species and transient increase of pH and available nutrients. No irreversible ecosystem change occurs, but the enhancement of hydrophobicity can render the soil less able to soak up water and more prone to erosion. Severe fires, such as wildfires, generally have several negative effects on soil. They cause significant removal of organic matter, deterioration of both structure and porosity, considerable loss of nutrients through volatilisation, ash entrapment in smoke columns, leaching and erosion, and marked alteration of both quantity and specific composition of microbial and soil-dwelling invertebrate communities. However, despite common perceptions, if plants succeed in promptly recolonising the burnt area, the pre-fire level of most properties can be recovered and even enhanced. This work is a review of the up-to-date literature dealing with changes imposed by fires on properties of forest soils. Ecological implications of these changes are described.

  12. Soil Quality as an Indicator of Forest Health: an Overview and Initial Results from the USFS Forest Inventory and Analysis Soil Indicator Program

    Treesearch

    Katherine O' Neill; Michael Amacher; Craig Palmer; Barbara Conkling; Greg C. Liknes

    2003-01-01

    The Montreal Process was formed in 1994 to develop an internationally agreed upon set of criteria and indicators for the conservation and sustainable management of temperate and boreal forests. In response to this effort, the USDA Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) and Forest Health Monitonhg (FHM) programs implemented a national soil monitoring program...

  13. Basic data on forest area and timber volumes from the southern forest survey, 1932-1936

    Treesearch

    William A. Duerr

    1932-01-01

    In Response to strong demand, estimates from the Forest Survey of 1932-1936 are presented in this report on forest acreage and timber volumes by county in the states of the lower South. Although these figures are old and are highly unreliable for individual counties, they are useful as source data in compiling information for groups of counties that differ from the...

  14. Preliminary assessment of soil erosion impact during forest restoration process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Yen-Jen; Chang, Cheng-Sheng; Tsao, Tsung-Ming; Wey, Tsong-Huei; Chiang, Po-Neng; Wang, Ya-Nan

    2014-05-01

    Taiwan has a fragile geology and steep terrain. The 921 earthquake, Typhoon Toraji, Typhoon Morakot, and the exploitation and use of the woodland by local residents have severely damaged the landscape and posed more severe challenges to the montane ecosystem. A land conservation project has been implemented by the Experimental Forest of National Taiwan University which reclaimed approximately 1,500 hectares of leased woodland from 2008 to 2010, primarily used to grow bamboo, tea trees, betel nut, fruit, and vegetable and about 1,298 hectares have been reforested. The process of forest restoration involves clear cutting, soil preparation and a six-year weeding and tending period which may affect the amount of soil erosion dramatically. This study tried to assess the impact of forest restoration from the perspective of soil erosion through leased-land recovery periods and would like to benefit the practical implementation of reforestation in the future. A new plantation reforested in the early 2013 and a nearby 29-year-old mature forest were chosen as experimental and comparison sites. A self-designed weir was set up in a small watershed of each site for the runoff and sediment yield observation. According to the observed results from May to August 2013, a raining season in Taiwan, the runoff and erosion would not as high as we expected, because the in-situ soil texture of both sites is sandy loam to sandy with high percentage of coarse fragment which increased the infiltration. There were around 200 kg to 250 kg of wet sand/soil yielded in mature forest during the hit of Typhoon Soulik while the rest of the time only suspended material be yielded at both sites. To further investigate the influence of the six-year weeding and tending period, long term observations are needed for a more completed assessment of soil erosion impact.

  15. Exotic Earthworm Influence on Nitrogen Cycling in FACE Forest Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Top, S. M.; Filley, T. R.

    2010-12-01

    Exotic earthworm invasion in northern North American forests has the potential to significantly alter nitrogen and carbon cycling in forest soils, through litter layer losses, loss of organic horizon, and changes in fine root density. Earthworm influence on nitrogen cycling is currently being investigated in the free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) sites at Rhinelander, WI. Because of the 13C depleted CO2 used in the FACE experiment and a 15N addition to the soil, this system affords an ideal opportunity to determine the impact of earthworm activity on soil organic matter dynamics by tracking the relative abundance and stable isotope compositions of biopolymers (amino acids, etc.) isolated in earthworms fecal pellets and soils. The 15N and 13C isotope composition of earthworm fecal matter from epigeic (litter and organic matter horizon dwelling) and endogeic (predominantly mineral soil dwelling) species highlighted their distinct role in litter, surface soil, and deeper soil movement through the soil. Specifically, endogeic fecal matter exhibited a lower uptake of FACE-derived C and a more enriched 15N signal. Nitrogen content of soil between the control and elevated CO2 treatments is not significantly different; however, elevated CO2 treatments exhibited relative depletion in both the soil and root 15N with respect to controls. The loss of 15N in the roots and the top 5 cm of the soil under elevated CO2, suggests that there is greater cycling power with increased below ground productivity and earthworm activity under elevated CO2, as higher abundances of earthworms exist in the elevated CO2 treatments. Amino acid extractions from the soil and fecal matter are ongoing and will help clarify the details regarding molecular nitrogen cycling.

  16. The influence of forest regrowth on soil permeability in the humid tropics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassler, Sibylle; Zimmermann, Beate; Elsenbeer, Helmut

    2010-05-01

    The humid tropics are subject to change in land use: on the one hand ongoing deforestation claims more area for agriculture and pastures, on the other hand reforestation efforts emerge. These changes in land use affect soil hydrological properties. Various studies have shown that a shift from primary forest to pasture leads to a rapid decrease in soil saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) through animal treading, implicitly enhancing the occurrence of overland flow. Recent information about the reverse process, the possible recovery of soil hydraulic properties during forest regrowth, suggests a slow recovery of Ks. To further explore this possibility with the help of a space-for-time substitution approach we surveyed Ks in the Panama Canal Zone. In a completely randomised sampling design we sampled several plots of four different land use classes: Pasture, secondary forest of two age classes (5-8 years and 12-15 years after pasture abandonment), and old-growth forest. Undisturbed soil cores were taken from the depths 0-6 and 6-12 cm and then subjected to the constant-head method. We also surveyed bulk density, soil organic carbon, soil texture and vegetation parameters (eg. basal area, diameter at breast height) to help interpret the observed Ks data. Our results support the notion of a slow recovery as they exhibit an increase in Ks after more than 10 years, if only for the depth of 0-6 cm. Other studies suggest that the decrease of Ks after deforestation is limited to a distinct shallow soil layer, thus the observed recovery effect in the upper layer is in logical accordance with these findings. We will use the ancillary information to elucidate the main determinants of Ks recovery. Quantification of the hydrological relevance of these findings is especially important as land use effects are obviously limited to only the upper soil layer. To evaluate the hydrological relevance we will compare the Ks measurements with prevailing rainfall intensities and data of

  17. Technology and research needs to support soil change studies in reserach and soil survey

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soil survey products must evolve to address the effects of management practices on the soil resource. There is a rising demand by soil survey customers interested in sustainable use of natural resources for information about land-use impacts on soil quality, ecological processes, and soil function. ...

  18. Quantifying soil and critical zone variability in a forested catchment through digital soil mapping

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Quantifying catchment scale soil property variation yields insights into critical zone evolution and function. The objective of this study was to quantify and predict the spatial distribution of soil properties within a high elevation forested catchment in southern AZ, USA using a combined set of di...

  19. Soil carbon and soil physical properties response to incorporating mulched forest slash

    Treesearch

    Felipe G. Sanchez; Emily A. Carter; John. F. Klepac

    2000-01-01

    A study was installed in the Lower Coastal Plain near Washington, NC, to test the hypothesis that incorporating organic matter in the form of comminuted forest slash would increase soil carbon and nutrient pools, and alter soil physical properties to favor pine growth. Two sites were selected, an organic and a mineral site, to compare the treatment effects on...

  20. Sewage sludge fertiliser use: implications for soil and plant copper evolution in forest and agronomic soils.

    PubMed

    Ferreiro-Domínguez, Nuria; Rigueiro-Rodríguez, Antonio; Mosquera-Losada, M Rosa

    2012-05-01

    Fertilisation with sewage sludge may lead to crop toxicity and environmental degradation. This study aims to evaluate the effects of two types of soils (forest and agronomic), two types of vegetation (unsown (coming from soil seed bank) and sown), and two types of fertilisation (sludge fertilisation and mineral fertilisation, with a no fertiliser control) in afforested and treeless swards and in sown and unsown forestlands on the total and available Cu concentration in soil, the leaching of this element and the Cu levels in plant. The experimental design was completely randomised with nine treatments and three replicates. Fertilisation with sewage sludge increased the concentration of Cu in soil and plant, but the soil values never exceeded the maximum set by Spanish regulations. Sewage sludge inputs increased both the total and Mehlich 3 Cu concentrations in agronomic soils and the Cu levels in plant developed in agronomic and forest soils, with this effect pronounced in the unsown swards of forest soils. Therefore, the use of high quality sewage sludge as fertiliser may improve the global productivity of forest, agronomic and silvopastoral systems without creating environmental hazards.

  1. Changes in Soil Nitrogen Storage and Dynamics in Response to Forest Management in Southeastern Pine Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boutton, T. W.; Foote, J. A.; Scott, D. A.

    2013-12-01

    Forest harvesting increases radiation reaching the soil surface, decreases transpiration and rainfall interception, and increases the amount of precipitation reaching and infiltrating into the soil. The magnitude of these impacts varies with intensity of tree harvest method, but generally results in warmer, moister soils that favor microbial activity and accelerate N cycling processes that can result in leaching and gaseous N losses from the ecosystem. More intense forest harvest (i.e., removal of increasing amounts of aboveground biomass) results in greater N losses, potentially limiting the productivity and sustainability of future rotations. This study determined the impact of forest harvest intensity, soil compaction, and their interaction on N-cycling in a loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) forest 15-years following treatment. We quantified N and δ15N in litter, root, and soil compartments at the Long Term Soil Productivity Experiment in Crockett National Forest in eastern Texas. Treatment plots of 0.4 ha were established in 1997 and consisted of three harvest methods (bole only, whole tree, and whole tree + forest floor removal) in factorial combination with three levels of soil compaction (none, intermediate, and severe); all treatment combinations were replicated (n=3). Sampling was conducted quarterly from March 2011 through March 2012. Litter N pool sizes were reduced significantly by increasing harvest intensity and varied significantly through time. Litter N was highest in the bole only treatment (10-13 g N m-2) and lowest in the whole tree+forest floor removal treatment (9-10 g N m-2). Soil total N storage in the 0-10-cm increment was also reduced significantly by increasing harvest intensity and was highest in the bole only treatment (74-99 g N m-2) and lowest in the whole tree+forest floor removal treatment (61-83 g N m-2). Tree harvest methods had no effect on the total root N pool (fine + coarse roots) in the upper 10 cm of the soil profile; however

  2. Molybdenum limitation of asymbiotic nitrogen fixation in tropical forest soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barron, Alexander R.; Wurzburger, Nina; Bellenger, Jean Phillipe; Wright, S. Joseph; Kraepiel, Anne M. L.; Hedin, Lars O.

    2009-01-01

    Nitrogen fixation, the biological conversion of di-nitrogen to plant-available ammonium, is the primary natural input of nitrogen to ecosystems, and influences plant growth and carbon exchange at local to global scales. The role of this process in tropical forests is of particular concern, as these ecosystems harbour abundant nitrogen-fixing organisms and represent one third of terrestrial primary production. Here we show that the micronutrient molybdenum, a cofactor in the nitrogen-fixing enzyme nitrogenase, limits nitrogen fixation by free-living heterotrophic bacteria in soils of lowland Panamanian forests. We measured the fixation response to long-term nutrient manipulations in intact forests, and to short-term manipulations in soil microcosms. Nitrogen fixation increased sharply in treatments of molybdenum alone, in micronutrient treatments that included molybdenum by design and in treatments with commercial phosphorus fertilizer, in which molybdenum was a `hidden' contaminant. Fixation did not respond to additions of phosphorus that were not contaminated by molybdenum. Our findings show that molybdenum alone can limit asymbiotic nitrogen fixation in tropical forests and raise new questions about the role of molybdenum and phosphorus in the tropical nitrogen cycle. We suggest that molybdenum limitation may be common in highly weathered acidic soils, and may constrain the ability of some forests to acquire new nitrogen in response to CO2 fertilization.

  3. Modeling Storm Water Runoff and Soil Interflow in a Managed Forest, Upper Coastal Plain of the Southeast US.

    Treesearch

    T.J. Callahan; J.D. Cook; Mark D. Coleman; Devendra M. Amatya; Carl C. Trettin

    2004-01-01

    The Forest Service-Savannah River is conducting a hectare-scale monitoring and modeling study on forest productivity in a Short Rotation Woody Crop plantation at the Savannah River Site, which is on Upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina. Detailed surveys, i.e., topography, soils, vegetation, and dainage network, of small (2-5 ha) plots have been completed in a 2 square...

  4. Successional changes of Collembola and soil microbiota during forest rotation.

    PubMed

    Chauvat, Matthieu; Zaitsev, Andrei S; Wolters, Volkmar

    2003-10-01

    Dynamic approaches to forest ecosystems are surprisingly rare. Here we report about successional changes in collembolan community structure and microbial performances during forest rotation. The study was carried out in a chronosequence of four spruce forest stands (5-, 25-, 45-, and 95 years old; Tharandter forest, Germany). CO2 release significantly increased after clear-cutting and the amount of C stored in the organic layer subsequently declined. The early phase of forest rotation was characterized by a very active decomposer microflora, stimulation of both fungi and bacteria as well as by a high abundance of surface-oriented Collembola. In addition, collembolan species turnover was accelerated. While the biomass of fungi further increased at intermediate stages of forest rotation, the metabolic activity of the microflora was low, the functional diversity of bacteria declined and the collembolan community became impoverished. Euedaphic species dominated during this stage of forest development. These changes can be explained by both reduction in microhabitat diversity and depletion of food sources associated with an accumulation of recalcitrant soil organic matter. Results of the General Regression Model procedure indicate a shift from specific associations between collembolan functional groups and microbiota at the early stage of forest rotation to a more diffuse pattern at intermediate stages. Though the hypothesis that Collembola are relatively responsive to changes in environmental conditions is confirmed, consistently high community similarity suggests a remarkable persistence of some components of microarthropod assemblages. Our study provides evidence for substantial ecosystem-level implications of changes in the soil food web during forest rotation. Moreover, correlations between bacterial parameters and Collembola point to the overarching impact of differences in the composition of the microbial community on microarthropods.

  5. Spatial variability of the dehydrogenase activity in forest soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Błońska, Ewa; Lasota, Jarosław

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the spatial variability of the dehydrogenase activity (DH) in forest soils using geostatistics. We have studied variability soil dehydrogenase and their relationship with variability of some physic-chemical properties. Two study areas (A and B) were set up in southern Poland in the Zlotoryja Forest District. Study areas were covered by different types of vegetation (A- broadleaf forest with beech, ash and sycamore), B- coniferous forest with Norway spruce). The soils were classified as Dystric Cambisols (WRB 2006). The samples for laboratory testing were collected from 49 places on each areas. 15 cm of surface horizon of soil were taken (with previously removed litter). Dehydrogenase activity was marked with Lenhard's method according to the Casida procedure. Soil pH, nitrogen (N) and soil organic carbon (C) content (by LECO CNS 2000 carbon analyzer) was marked. C/N ratio was calculated. Particle size composition was determined using laser diffraction. Statistical analysis were performed using STATISTICA 10 software. Geostatistical analysis and mapping were done by application of GS 9+ (Gamma Design) and Surfer 11 (Golden Software). The activity of DH ranged between 5,02 and 71,20 mg TPP• kg-1 •24 h-1 on the A area and between 0,94 and 16,47 mg TPP• kg-1 •24 h-1. Differences in spatial variability of the analised features were noted. The variability of dehydrogenase activity on the A study area was described by an exponential model, whereas on the B study area the spatial correlation has not been noted. The relationship of dehydrogenase activity with the remaining parameters of soil was noted only in the case of A study area. The variability of organic carbon content on the A and B study areas were described by an exponential model. The variability of nitrogen content on both areas were described by an spherical model.

  6. Soil moisture dynamics in an eastern Amazonian tropical forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruno, Rogério D.; da Rocha, Humberto R.; de Freitas, Helber C.; Goulden, Michael L.; Miller, Scott D.

    2006-08-01

    We used frequency-domain reflectometry to make continuous, high-resolution measurements for 22 months of the soil moisture to a depth of 10 m in an Amazonian rain forest. We then used these data to determine how soil moisture varies on diel, seasonal and multi-year timescales, and to better understand the quantitative and mechanistic relationships between soil moisture and forest evapotranspiration. The mean annual precipitation at the site was over 1900 mm. The field capacity was approximately 0.53 m3 m-3 and was nearly uniform with soil depth. Soil moisture decreased at all levels during the dry season, with the minimum of 0.38 m3 m-3 at 3 m beneath the surface. The moisture in the upper 1 m showed a strong diel cycle with daytime depletion due to evapotranspiration. The moisture beneath 1 m declined during both day and night due to the combined effects of evapotranspiration, drainage and a nighttime upward movement of water. The depth of active water withdrawal changed markedly over the year. The upper 2 m of soil supplied 56% of the water used for evapotranspiration in the wet season and 28% of the water used in the dry season. The zone of active water withdrawal extended to a depth of at least 10 m. The day-to-day rates of moisture withdrawal from the upper 10 m of soil during rain-free periods agreed well with simultaneous measurements of whole-forest evapotranspiration made by the eddy covariance technique. The forest at the site was well adapted to the normal cycle of wet and dry seasons, and the dry season had only a small effect on the rates of land-atmosphere water vapour exchange.

  7. LANDSAT, a data supplement to forest survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thiede, G.

    1981-01-01

    The use of LANDSAT in providing forest data on a county basis was investigated. Image interpretation and classification techniques and their accuracy are addressed. LANDSAT data was also used to detect and delineate defoliation caused by tent caterpillars.

  8. LANDSAT, a data supplement to forest survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thiede, G.

    1981-01-01

    The use of LANDSAT in providing forest data on a county basis was investigated. Image interpretation and classification techniques and their accuracy are addressed. LANDSAT data was also used to detect and delineate defoliation caused by tent caterpillars.

  9. Relative nitrogen mineralization and nitrification potentials in relation to soil chemistry in oak forest soils along a historical deposition gradient

    Treesearch

    Ralph E. J. Boerner; Elaine Kennedy Sutherland

    1996-01-01

    This study quantified soil nutrient status and N mineralization/nitrification potentials in soils of oak-dominated, unmanaged forest stands in seven USDA Forest Service experimental forests (EF) ranging along a historical and current acidic deposition gradient from southern Illinois to central West Virginia.

  10. Soil greenhouse gases fluxes in forest - fallow succession at the Central Forest Reserve in European Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komarova, Tatiana; Vasenev, Ivan

    2017-04-01

    One of the principal factors influencing the current level of the greenhouse fluxes are land-use changes, including the forest restoration in fallow lands, which is widespread at the Central Region of Russia. The comprehensive environmental studies of soil greenhouse fluxes have been done in comparable sites with different stages of the forest-fallow successions in the southern part of the Central Forest Reserve with spruce domination in the mature forest - representative southern-taiga ecosystems. Seasonal and diurnal dynamics CO2 fluxes measurements were carried out in situ using a mobile gas analyzer Li-820 with soil exposure chambers and parallel observation of air temperature, soil temperature and moisture. Also, every ten days the soil air has been sampled in the vials for further CO2, CH4 and N2O flux measurements by the stationary gas chromatograph. Within forest-fallow successions there are shown the litter gradual development, humus-accumulative horizon differentiation, soil acidity and bulk density increasing. At the same time there is enough obvious in the down part of past-arable horizon gradual restoration of the podzolic horizon. The monitoring results have shown the essential decreasing of soil CO2 fluxes (in 2 times) in frame of successions. The maximum CO2 fluxes have been fixed in July with optimal soil temperature/moisture ratio. In the middle of July the maximum CO2 emission is observed in fallow grassland (34,1 g CO2 / m2day), that is almost in 2-times more than in spruce-forest after fallow stage of 120-150 years. It is important that soil CO2 fluxes essentially increase with soil temperature rise (with up to R = 0,75) and drop soil moisture (with up to R = - 0,66). During the day, the most intense soil CO2 fluxes have been observed from case of 12:00 to 18:00. The maximum CO2 flux has been recorded at 15:00 in the fallow grassland (23 g CO2 / m2 day). In the forest-fallow stage of 10-15 years the maximum soil CO2 flux observed at 12 hours

  11. Forest soil mineral weathering rates: use of multiple approaches

    Treesearch

    Randy K. Kolka; D.F. Grigal; E.A. Nater

    1996-01-01

    Knowledge of rates of release of base cations from mineral dissolution (weathering) is essential to understand ecosystem elemental cycling. Although much studied, rates remain enigmatic. We compared the results of four methods to determine cation (Ca + Mg + K) release rates at five forested soils/sites in the northcentral U.S.A. Our premise was that multiple...

  12. Vegetation, Soil, and Flooding Relationships in a Blackwater Floodplain Forest

    Treesearch

    Marianne K. Burke; Sammy L. King; David Gartner; Mark H. Eisenbies

    2003-01-01

    Hydroperiod is considered the primary determinant of plant species distribution in temperate floodplain forests, but most studies have focused on alluvial (sediment-laden) river systems. Few studies have evaluated plant community relationships in blackwater river systems of the South Atlantic Coastal Plain of North America. In this study. we characterized the soils....

  13. 1958 bibliography of Pacific Northwest forest soils publications.

    Treesearch

    Robert F. Tarrant

    1959-01-01

    This fourth annual summary of references is compiled to maintain a systematic recording of publications in the comparatively new field of forest soils research in the Pacific Northwest. It is intended to serve both as a checklist and as a record of development of knowledge.

  14. Proceedings - Management and productivity of western-montane forest soils

    Treesearch

    Alan E. Harvey; Leon F. Neuenschwander

    1991-01-01

    Includes 35 papers and six poster synopses presenting state-of-the-art knowledge on the nature and problems of integrating soils information and expertise into management of inland western forest resources. Papers emphasize regional information, but include data from world literature and previously unpublished material from regional experts.

  15. Field assessment of wood stake decomposition in forest soil

    Treesearch

    Xiping Wang; Deborah Page-Dumroese; Martin F. Jurgensen; Robert J. Ross

    2007-01-01

    A pulse-echo acoustic method was investigated for evaluating wood stake decomposition in the field. A total of 58 wood stakes (29 loblolly pine, Pinus taeda, and 29 aspen, Populus tremuloides) that were vertically installed (full length) in forest soils were non-destructively tested by means of a laboratory-type acoustic...

  16. Soil erosion survey using remote sensing images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakab, Gergely; Kertész, Ádám; Madarász, Balázs; Pálinkás, Melinda; Tóth, Adrienn

    2016-04-01

    Soil erosion is one of the most effective soil degradation processes reducing crop production on arable fields significantly. It also leads to serious environmental hazards such as eutrophication, mud and flesh floods. Beyond the processes there is an urgent need to survey and descript the current degree of erosion of arable lands in order to provide adequate land use techniques and mitigate the harmful effects. Surveying soil erosion is a very time consuming process since soil loss and deposition take place next to each other resulting a rather diverse erosion pattern even within a plot. Remote sensing is a possible way to determine the degree of soil erosion without special efforts taken in the field. The application of images can provide high resolution erosion maps of almost any type of arable fields. The method is based on the identification of the origin of the surface soil layer, i.e. whether it represents an originally deeper laying horizon (e.g. B horizon), or the parent material. A case study was carried out on a Cambisol formed on loess parent material. The soil and the parent rock have various reflectance spectra in the visible range, so this strip was used for the investigations. For map creation "training sites" were used in ArcMap environment. The obtained results suggest that the method is highly effective and useful, however, other properties like moisture content and plant cover can limit automated application. In this case new training sites are needed. The study was supported by the National Research, Development and Innovation Office (NKFIH),), project Nr. 108755 and the support is gratefully acknowledged here. G. Jakab was supported by the János Bolyai Fellowship.

  17. Short-term effects of forest disturbances on soil nematode communities in European mountain spruce forests.

    PubMed

    Čerevková, A; Renčo, M; Cagáň, L

    2013-09-01

    The nematode communities in spruce forests were compared with the short-term effects of forest damage, caused by windstorm, wildfire and management practices of forest soils. Soil samples were collected in June and October from 2006 to 2008 in four different sites: (1) forest unaffected by the wind (REF); (2) storm-felled forest with salvaged timber (EXT); (3) modified forest affected by timber salvage (wood removal) and forest fire (FIR); and (4) storm-felled forest where timber had been left unsalvaged (NEX). Nematode analysis showed that the dominant species in all four investigated sites were Acrobeloides nanus and Eudorylaimus silvaticus. An increase of A. nanus (35% of the total nematode abundance) in the first year in the FIR site led to the highest total abundance of nematodes compared with other sites, where nematode abundance reached the same level in the third year. In the FIR site bacterial feeders appeared to be the most representative trophic group, although in the second and third year, after disturbance, the abundance of this trophic group gradually decreased. In the NEX site, the number of nematode species, population densities and Maturity Index were similar to that recorded for the FIR site. In EXT and NEX sites, the other dominant species was the plant parasitic nematode Paratylenchus microdorus. Analyses of nematodes extracted from different forest soil samples showed that the highest number of species and diversity index for species (H'spp) were in the REF site. Differences between the nematode fauna in REF and other localities were clearly depicted by cluster analysis. The greatest Structure Index and Enrichment Index values were also in REF. In the EXT site, the number of nematode species, their abundance, H'spp and Maturity Index were not significantly different from those recorded in the reference site.

  18. Forest-to-pasture conversion influences on soil organic carbon dynamics in a tropical deciduous forest.

    PubMed

    García-Oliva, Felipe; Casar, Isabel; Morales, Pedro; Maass, José M

    1994-09-01

    On a global basis, nearly 42% of tropical land area is classified as tropical deciduous forest (TDF) (Murphy and Lugo 1986). Currently, this ecosystem has very high deforestation rates; and its conversion to cattle pasture may result in losses of soil organic matter, decreases in soil fertility, and increases in CO2 flux to the atmosphere. The soil organic matter turnover rate in a TDF after pasture conversion was estimated in Mexico by determining natural abundances of(13)C. Changes in these values would be induced by vegetation changes from the C3 (forest) to the C4 (pasture) photosynthetic pathway. The rate of loss of remnant forest-soil organic matter (fSOM) was 2.9 t ha(-1) year(-1) in 7-year-old pasture and decreased to 0.66 t ha(-1) year(-1) by year 11. For up to 3 years, net fSOM level increased in pastures; this increment can be attributed to decomposition of remnant forest roots. The sand-associated SOM fraction was the most and the silt-associated fraction the least depleted. TDF conversion to pasture results in extremely high rates of loss of remnant fSOM that are higher than any reported for any tropical forest.

  19. Effects of drought on forest soil structure and hydrological soil functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gimbel, K.; Puhlmann, H.; Weiler, M.

    2012-04-01

    Climate change is predicted to severely affect precipitation patterns across central Europe. Soil structure is closely linked to the activity of soil microbiota and plant roots, which modify flow pathways along roots, organic matter and water repellence of soils. Through shrinkage and fracturing of soil aggregates, soil structure is also responding to changing climate (in particular drought) conditions. We investigate the possible effects on biogeochemical and hydropedological processes in response to predicted future reduced precipitation, and the interaction of these processes with the biodiversity of the forest understorey and soil biota. The hypotheses of this study are: (i) drought causes a change in soil structure, which affects hydrological soil functions (water infiltration, uptake and redistribution); (ii) changes in rooting patterns and microbial community composition, in response to drought, influence the hydrological soil functions. To test our hypotheses, we built adaptive roofing systems on nine sites in Germany, which allow a flexible reduction of precipitation in order to achieve the long-term minimum precipitation of a site. Here we present first measurements of our repeated measuring/sampling campaign, which will be conducted over a period of three years. The aim of our experiments is to analyze soil pore architecture and related flow and transport behaviour with dye tracer sprinkling experiments, soil column experiments with stable isotope (deuterium, oxygen-18) enriched water, computed tomography at soil monoliths (~70 l) and multi-step outflow experiments with 100 ml soil cores. Finally, we sketch our idea how to relate the observed temporal changes of soil structure and hydrological soil functions to the observed dynamics of hydrometeorological site conditions, soil moisture and desiccation as well as changes in rooting patterns, herb layer and soil microbiotic communities. The results of this study may help to assess future behavior of the

  20. 36 CFR 200.3 - Forest Service functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., including the five basic resources of timber, forest soil and water, range forage, wildlife and fish habitat... and engineering, and (iv) Forest resource economics including forest survey, forest economics, and...

  1. Visual aids for aerial observers on forest insect surveys.

    Treesearch

    A.T. Larsen

    1957-01-01

    Aerial surveys are widely used to detect, appraise, and map damage caused to forest trees by insects. The success of these surveys largely depends upon the ability of observers to distinguish differences in foliage color and tree condition. The observers' ability is influenced by several factors.

  2. Ecological surveys of Forest Service research natural areas in California

    Treesearch

    Todd Keeler-Wolf

    1990-01-01

    This report summarizes each of 68 ecological surveys conducted from 1975 through 1988 on candidate and established Research Natural Areas in the Pacific Southwest Region of the USDA Forest Service. These surveys represent an important but largely unknown contribution to the ecological literature of California. For each summary, information on location, target elements...

  3. EVALUATION OF METRIC PRECISION FOR A RIPARIAN FOREST SURVEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper evaluates the performance of a protocol to monitor riparian forests in western Oregon based on the quality of the data obtained from a recent field survey. Precision and accuracy are the criteria used to determine the quality of 19 field metrics. The field survey con...

  4. Does drought alter hydrological functions in forest soils?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gimbel, Katharina; Puhlmann, Heike; Weiler, Markus

    2014-05-01

    Climate change will probably alter precipitation patterns across central Europe, and (summer) droughts are expected to be more frequent and severe in future. Droughts may modify soil properties, such as the pore volume distribution, soil aggregation, water repellency and rooting patterns. These changes in soil properties affect the hydrological functioning of the soil like water retention, infiltration and percolation and thereby the site conditions for plants. The aim of this research is to investigate the effect of droughts on the hydrological functioning of forest soils. We conducted rainfall-reduction experiments in three woodlands (nine investigation sites) across Germany. We established adaptive roofing systems which allow a flexible reduction of the precipitation between 15 % and 65 % of the incoming precipitation depending on the actual precipitation. The impact of the imposed droughts on the soil properties was assessed by repeated analyses of soil aggregation, hydrophobicity and pore volume distribution. Hydrological functioning of the soil was assessed by means of repeated dye tracer sprinkling experiments. Comparing dye tracer images of 2011 with images taken after two years of imposed drought, we found a general shift in infiltration processes depending on the soil type. Sandy soils showed a shift from front-like infiltration towards a more fingered and scattered infiltration. Soils rich in clay tend to develop unstained (= not wetted) areas in the top layer, which might hint to evolving hydrophobicity. This was confirmed by field and laboratory hydrophobicity tests. Further, the same profiles were showing signs of lower permeability in the bottom layers. Similar to hydrophobicity, we want to link the results of soil aggregation and pore volume distribution to the changes in the infiltration pattern. Our study shows that changes in precipitation pattern can severely affect forest soil properties and their hydrological functions. The results of this

  5. A soil burn severity index for understanding soil-fire relations in tropical forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jain, T.B.; Gould, W.A.; Graham, R.T.; Pilliod, D.S.; Lentile, L.B.; Gonzalez, G.

    2008-01-01

    Methods for evaluating the impact of fires within tropical forests are needed as fires become more frequent and human populations and demands on forests increase. Short- and long-term fire effects on soils are determined by the prefire, fire, and postfire environments. We placed these components within a fire-disturbance continuum to guide our literature synthesis and develop an integrated soil burn severity index. The soil burn severity index provides a set of indicators that reflect the range of conditions present after a fire. The index consists of seven levels, an unburned level and six other levels that describe a range of postfire soil conditions. We view this index as a tool for understanding the effects of fires on the forest floor, with the realization that as new information is gained, the index may be modified as warranted. ?? Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences 2008.

  6. Urbanization in China drives soil acidification of Pinus massoniana forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Juan; Zhang, Wei; Mo, Jiangming; Wang, Shizhong; Liu, Juxiu; Chen, Hao

    2015-09-01

    Soil acidification instead of alkalization has become a new environmental issue caused by urbanization. However, it remains unclear the characters and main contributors of this acidification. We investigated the effects of an urbanization gradient on soil acidity of Pinus massoniana forests in Pearl River Delta, South China. The soil pH of pine forests at 20-cm depth had significantly positive linear correlations with the distance from the urban core of Guangzhou. Soil pH reduced by 0.44 unit at the 0-10 cm layer in urbanized areas compared to that in non-urbanized areas. Nitrogen deposition, mean annual temperature and mean annual precipitation were key factors influencing soil acidification based on a principal component analysis. Nitrogen deposition showed significant linear relationships with soil pH at the 0-10 cm (for ammonium N (-N), P < 0.05 for nitrate N (-N), P < 0.01) and 10-20 cm (for -N, P < 0.05) layers. However, there was no significant loss of exchangeable non-acidic cations along the urbanization gradient, instead their levels were higher in urban than in urban/suburban area at the 0-10 cm layer. Our results suggested N deposition particularly under the climate of high temperature and rainfall, greatly contributed to a significant soil acidification occurred in the urbanized environment.

  7. Urbanization in China drives soil acidification of Pinus massoniana forests.

    PubMed

    Huang, Juan; Zhang, Wei; Mo, Jiangming; Wang, Shizhong; Liu, Juxiu; Chen, Hao

    2015-09-24

    Soil acidification instead of alkalization has become a new environmental issue caused by urbanization. However, it remains unclear the characters and main contributors of this acidification. We investigated the effects of an urbanization gradient on soil acidity of Pinus massoniana forests in Pearl River Delta, South China. The soil pH of pine forests at 20-cm depth had significantly positive linear correlations with the distance from the urban core of Guangzhou. Soil pH reduced by 0.44 unit at the 0-10 cm layer in urbanized areas compared to that in non-urbanized areas. Nitrogen deposition, mean annual temperature and mean annual precipitation were key factors influencing soil acidification based on a principal component analysis. Nitrogen deposition showed significant linear relationships with soil pH at the 0-10 cm (for ammonium N(NH4+(-N)), P < 0.05; for nitrate N(NO3-(-N)), P < 0.01) and 10-20 cm (for NO3-(-N), P < 0.05) layers. However, there was no significant loss of exchangeable non-acidic cations along the urbanization gradient, instead their levels were higher in urban than in urban/suburban area at the 0-10 cm layer. Our results suggested N deposition particularly under the climate of high temperature and rainfall, greatly contributed to a significant soil acidification occurred in the urbanized environment.

  8. Urbanization in China drives soil acidification of Pinus massoniana forests

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Juan; Zhang, Wei; Mo, Jiangming; Wang, Shizhong; Liu, Juxiu; Chen, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Soil acidification instead of alkalization has become a new environmental issue caused by urbanization. However, it remains unclear the characters and main contributors of this acidification. We investigated the effects of an urbanization gradient on soil acidity of Pinus massoniana forests in Pearl River Delta, South China. The soil pH of pine forests at 20-cm depth had significantly positive linear correlations with the distance from the urban core of Guangzhou. Soil pH reduced by 0.44 unit at the 0–10 cm layer in urbanized areas compared to that in non-urbanized areas. Nitrogen deposition, mean annual temperature and mean annual precipitation were key factors influencing soil acidification based on a principal component analysis. Nitrogen deposition showed significant linear relationships with soil pH at the 0–10 cm (for ammonium N (-N), P < 0.05; for nitrate N (-N), P < 0.01) and 10–20 cm (for -N, P < 0.05) layers. However, there was no significant loss of exchangeable non-acidic cations along the urbanization gradient, instead their levels were higher in urban than in urban/suburban area at the 0–10 cm layer. Our results suggested N deposition particularly under the climate of high temperature and rainfall, greatly contributed to a significant soil acidification occurred in the urbanized environment. PMID:26400019

  9. Fertility of soils under spruce forests of the Khibiny Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlova, M. A.; Lukina, N. V.; Smirnov, V. E.; Krasnov, D. A.; Kamaev, I. O.

    2012-06-01

    The development of fertility of soils on different parent rocks is considered for different types of spruce forests in the Khibiny Mountains. The spruce forests of Mts. Kuel'por, Vud'yavrchorr, Chil'mana, and Saami were the objects for the study. The results showed that the fertility level of the soils of the Khibiny Mountains was determined by the combined influence of the parent rock's composition and the vegetation. The differences in the soil properties are mainly explained by the composition of the parent rocks. The pod-burs differ from the podzols by the higher contents of organic matter, nitrogen, and available nutrients. The podzols are the most acid soils there. The podburs of Mt Kuel'por developing on base-rich parent rocks are the most fertile. The differences in the fertility of the soils on the intrabiogeocenotic (tessera) level are related to the vegetation. The soils of the spruce and tall-grass tesseras are richer in nitrogen, calcium, and manganese as compared to the soils of the dwarf shrub-green moss, low-grass-dwarf shrub-green moss, and tussock grass-dwarf shrub tesseras.

  10. Temperature response of soil carbon decomposition depends strongly on forest management practice and soil layer on the eastern Tibetan Plateau.

    PubMed

    Yang, Kaijun; He, Ruoyang; Yang, Wanqin; Li, Zhijie; Zhuang, Liyan; Wu, Fuzhong; Tan, Bo; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Li; Tu, Lihua; Xu, Zhenfeng

    2017-07-06

    How forest management practice impacts the temperature response of soil carbon decomposition remains unclear in Tibetan boreal forests. Here, an experiment was conducted to compare soil carbon decomposition of two layers (organic and mineral) in three Tibetan forests (natural forest, NF; secondary forest, SF; spruce plantation, PF). Soils were incubated at two temperatures (10 °C and 20 °C) for 219 days. Increased temperature often stimulated carbon decomposition rates of organic layer but did not affect them in the mineral soils. Soil carbon decomposition rates in the organic layer followed a pattern of NF > SF > PF over the incubation period. Regardless of forest type, soil carbon decomposition rates and temperature coefficient (Q 10) were higher in the organic layers compared to mineral soils. Moreover, forest type conversion increased Q 10 values in each soil layer. Taken together, our results suggest that forest management practice has much stronger impacts on biochemical properties in the organic layers relative to mineral soils. Moreover, the temperature responses of soil carbon decomposition depend largely on forest management practice and soil layer in this specific area.

  11. Soil Organic Carbon (SOC) distribution in two differents soil types (Podzol and Andosol) under natural forest cover.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Álvarez-Romero, Marta; Papa, Stefania; Verstraeten, Arne; Cools, Nathalie; Lozano-García, Beatriz; Parras-Alcántara, Luis; Coppola, Elio

    2017-04-01

    Andosols are young soils that shall know a successive evolution towards pedological types where the dominant pedogenetic processes are more evident. Vegetation and climate influence Andosols evolution to other order of soils. In cold and wet climates or on acid vulcanite under heavy leaching young Andosols could change into Podzols (Van Breemn and Buurman, 1998). Were investigated a Podzol soil (World References Base, 2014) at Zoniën (Belgium), were and an Andosol soil (World References Base, 2014) at Lago Laceno (Avellino, Italy). This study shows the data on the SOC (Soil Organic Carbon) fractionation in two profiles from two natural pine forest soils. Together with the conventional activities of sampling and analysis of soil profile were examined surveys meant to fractionation and characterization of SOC, in particular: Total Organic Carbon (TOC) and Total Extractable Carbon (TEC) soil contents were determined by Italian official method of soil analysis (Mi.P.A.F. (2000)). Different soil C fractions were also determined: Humic Acid Carbon (HAC), Fulvic Acid Carbon (FAC), Not Humic Carbon (NHC) and Humin Carbon (Huc) fractions were obtained by difference. In the whole profile, therefore, were also assayed cellulose and lignin contents. The aim of this work was to compare the distribution of different soil organic components in a podzol and a soil with andic properties. The data show great similarity, among the selected profiles, in the organic components distribution estudied. References: - Mi.P.A.F. - Ministero per le Politiche Agricole e Forestali - Osservatorio Nazionale Pedologico e per la Qualità del Suolo (2000): Metodi Ufficiali di Analisi Chimica del Suolo. In: Franco Angeli (Editor), Collana di metodi analitici per l'agricoltura diretta da Paolo Sequi, n. 1124.2, Milano, Italy. - Van Breemn N. and Buurman P. (1998) Chapter 12 Formation of Andisols. In: Soil formation. Kluwer Ed., Wageningen, The Netherlands, 271-289. -Ussiri D.A.N., Johnson C

  12. Phylogenetic analysis on the soil bacteria distributed in karst forest

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, JunPei; Huang, Ying; Mo, MingHe

    2009-01-01

    Phylogenetic composition of bacterial community in soil of a karst forest was analyzed by culture-independent molecular approach. The bacterial 16S rRNA gene was amplified directly from soil DNA and cloned to generate a library. After screening the clone library by RFLP, 16S rRNA genes of representative clones were sequenced and the bacterial community was analyzed phylogenetically. The 16S rRNA gene inserts of 190 clones randomly selected were analyzed by RFLP and generated 126 different RFLP types. After sequencing, 126 non-chimeric sequences were obtained, generating 113 phylotypes. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the bacteria distributed in soil of the karst forest included the members assigning into Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Planctomycetes, Chloroflexi (Green nonsulfur bacteria), Bacteroidetes, Verrucomicrobia, Nitrospirae, Actinobacteria (High G+C Gram-positive bacteria), Firmicutes (Low G+C Gram-positive bacteria) and candidate divisions (including the SPAM and GN08). PMID:24031430

  13. Temperature of upland and peatland soils in a north central Minnesota forest

    Treesearch

    Dale S. Nichols

    1998-01-01

    Soil temperature strongly influences physical, chemical, and biological activities in soil. However, soil temperature data for forest landscapes are scarce. For 6 yr, weekly soil temperatures were measured at two upland and four peatland sites in north central Minnesota. One upland site supported mature aspen forest, the other supported short grass. One peatland site...

  14. Assessing soil quality: practicable standards for sustainable forest productivity in the United States

    Treesearch

    Robert F. Powers; Allan E. Tiarks; James R. Boyle

    1998-01-01

    Productive soils form the foundation for productive forests. But unfortunately, the significance of soil seems lost to modem society. Most of us are too far removed from the natural factors of production to appreciate the multiple roles of soil. Nor is its worth recognized well by many forest managers who too often see soil only in its capacity for logging roads and...

  15. Loblolly pine growth and soil nutrient stocks eight years after forest slash incorporation

    Treesearch

    Felipe G. Sanchez; Emily A. Carter; Zakiya H. Leggett

    2009-01-01

    Incorporation of forest slash during stand establishment is proposed as a means of increasing soil carbon and nutrient stocks. If effective, the increased soil carbon and nutrient status may result in increased aboveground tree growth. Eight years after study installation, the impact of forest slash incorporation into the soil on soil carbon and nutrient stocks, foliar...

  16. Mobility of poultry litter phosphorus in a Coastal Plain forest soil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Loss of phosphorus (P) from soils may eutrophy surface waters. Use of P-rich poultry litter (PL) for fertilization of forest soils is an environmentally beneficial alternative to use for pasture fertilization because forest soils are typically low in P compared to pasture soils. This study examined ...

  17. Pine straw harvesting effects on water content of a forest soil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study addresses concerns that harvesting pine straw from forests may decrease timber productivity by accelerating evaporation of soil water. Pine needles that accumulate on the forest floor help to conserve soil moisture, protect the soil surface against erosion, moderate soil temperature, inh...

  18. Agricultural legacies in forest environments: tree communities, soil properties, and light availability.

    PubMed

    Flinn, Kathryn M; Marks, P L

    2007-03-01

    Temperate deciduous forests across much of Europe and eastern North America reflect legacies of past land use, particularly in the diversity and composition of plant communities. Intense disturbances, such as clearing forests for agriculture, may cause persistent environmental changes that continue to shape vegetation patterns as landscapes recover. We assessed the long-term consequences of agriculture for environmental conditions in central New York forests, including tree community structure and composition, soil physical and chemical properties, and light availability. To isolate the effects of agriculture, we compared 20 adjacent pairs of forests that were never cleared for agriculture (primary forests) and forests that established 85-100 years ago on plowed fields (secondary forests). Tree communities in primary and secondary forests had similar stem density, though secondary forests had 14% greater basal area. Species composition differed dramatically between the two forest types, with primary forests dominated by Acer saccharum and Fagus grandifolia and secondary forests by Acer rubrum and Pinus strobus. Primary and secondary forests showed no consistent differences in soil physical properties or in the principal gradient of soil fertility associated with soil pH. Within stands, however, soil water content and pH were more variable in primary forests. Secondary forest soils had 15% less organic matter, 16% less total carbon, and 29% less extractable phosphorus in the top 10 cm than adjacent primary stands, though the ranges of the forest types mostly overlapped. Understory light availability in primary and secondary forests was similar. These results suggest that, within 100 years, post-agricultural stands have recovered conditions comparable to less disturbed forests in many attributes, including tree size and number, soil physical properties, soil chemical properties associated with pH, and understory light availability. The principal legacies of

  19. Soil moisture sensitivity of autotrophic and heterotrophic forest floor respiration in boreal xeric pine and mesic spruce forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ťupek, Boris; Launiainen, Samuli; Peltoniemi, Mikko; Heikkinen, Jukka; Lehtonen, Aleksi

    2016-04-01

    Litter decomposition rates of the most process based soil carbon models affected by environmental conditions are linked with soil heterotrophic CO2 emissions and serve for estimating soil carbon sequestration; thus due to the mass balance equation the variation in measured litter inputs and measured heterotrophic soil CO2 effluxes should indicate soil carbon stock changes, needed by soil carbon management for mitigation of anthropogenic CO2 emissions, if sensitivity functions of the applied model suit to the environmental conditions e.g. soil temperature and moisture. We evaluated the response forms of autotrophic and heterotrophic forest floor respiration to soil temperature and moisture in four boreal forest sites of the International Cooperative Programme on Assessment and Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Forests (ICP Forests) by a soil trenching experiment during year 2015 in southern Finland. As expected both autotrophic and heterotrophic forest floor respiration components were primarily controlled by soil temperature and exponential regression models generally explained more than 90% of the variance. Soil moisture regression models on average explained less than 10% of the variance and the response forms varied between Gaussian for the autotrophic forest floor respiration component and linear for the heterotrophic forest floor respiration component. Although the percentage of explained variance of soil heterotrophic respiration by the soil moisture was small, the observed reduction of CO2 emissions with higher moisture levels suggested that soil moisture response of soil carbon models not accounting for the reduction due to excessive moisture should be re-evaluated in order to estimate right levels of soil carbon stock changes. Our further study will include evaluation of process based soil carbon models by the annual heterotrophic respiration and soil carbon stocks.

  20. Soil sustainability study in Lithuanian alien forest stands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čiuldiene, Dovile; Skridlaite, Grazina; Žalūdiene, Gaile; Askelsson, Cecilia; Armolaitis, Kestutis

    2016-04-01

    Tree species are shifting their natural ranges in response to climate changes (Saltré et al., 2013). Northern red oak has originated from North America, but was planted in Europe already in twentieth century. At present, it is considered as invasive species in Poland and at invasive stage in the Lithuanian forests (Riepsas and Straigyte, 2008). European larch naturally grows in Central Europe, but its range has been extended by planting it as far as the Nordic countries. According to a pollen study in peat soils, European larch naturally grew in Lithuania in the sixteenth century and was reintroduced 200 years ago (Jankauskas, 1954). Therefore, the global warming could accelerate the expansion of European larch and Northern red oak into Lithuanian forests. An urgent need appeared to evaluate an impact of those warmth-tolerant species on soil mineral chemistry and quality. New results on the determination of mineral weathering rates in alien forest stands using a PROFILE soil chemistry model were obtained during a doctoral study at the Institute of Forestry. Soil minerals were studied by a Scanning Electron Microscopy at the Institute of Geology and Geography. The results provided a lot of new information on soil weathering rates in Lithuania. The 47 and 157-year-old European larch (Larix decidua Mill.), 45 and 55-year-old Northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) plantations and adjacent perennial grasslands were chosen for this study. The soils were classified as Luvisols and were developed from glaciofluvial deposits. The PROFILE model requires data of climate conditions (mean annual temperature and precipitation), chemical parameters of atmospheric deposition, forest plantation dendrometric and chemical (wood, foliage litter fall) characteristics, soil physical characteristics and mineral composition. A cation weathering rate (sum of Ca+Mg+ K) is 30% higher in a soil under the Northern red oak than in adjacent perennial grassland. Meanwhile, cation weathering rates

  1. Experimental soil warming effects on C, N, and major element cycling in a low elevation spruce-fir forest soil

    Treesearch

    Lindsey E. Rustad; Ivan J. Fernandez; Stephanie Arnold

    1996-01-01

    The effect of global warming on north temperate and boreal forest soils has been the subject of much recent debate. These soils serve as major reservoirs for C, N, and other nutrients necessary for forest growth and productivity. Given the uncertainties in estimates of organic matter turnover rates and storage, it is unclear whether these soils will serve as short or...

  2. [Vertical distribution of soil active carbon and soil organic carbon storage under different forest types in the Qinling Mountains].

    PubMed

    Wang, Di; Geng, Zeng-Chao; She, Diao; He, Wen-Xiang; Hou, Lin

    2014-06-01

    Adopting field investigation and indoor analysis methods, the distribution patterns of soil active carbon and soil carbon storage in the soil profiles of Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata (Matoutan Forest, I), Pinus tabuliformis (II), Pinus armandii (III), pine-oak mixed forest (IV), Picea asperata (V), and Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata (Xinjiashan Forest, VI) of Qinling Mountains were studied in August 2013. The results showed that soil organic carbon (SOC), microbial biomass carbon (MBC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and easily oxidizable carbon (EOC) decreased with the increase of soil depth along the different forest soil profiles. The SOC and DOC contents of different depths along the soil profiles of P. asperata and pine-oak mixed forest were higher than in the other studied forest soils, and the order of the mean SOC and DOC along the different soil profiles was V > IV > I > II > III > VI. The contents of soil MBC of the different forest soil profiles were 71.25-710.05 mg x kg(-1), with a content sequence of I > V > N > III > II > VI. The content of EOC along the whole soil profile of pine-oak mixed forest had a largest decline, and the order of the mean EOC was IV > V> I > II > III > VI. The sequence of soil organic carbon storage of the 0-60 cm soil layer was V > I >IV > III > VI > II. The MBC, DOC and EOC contents of the different forest soils were significanty correlated to each other. There was significant positive correlation among soil active carbon and TOC, TN. Meanwhile, there was no significant correlation between soil active carbon and other soil basic physicochemical properties.

  3. Soil biochemical responses to nitrogen addition in a bamboo forest.

    PubMed

    Tu, Li-hua; Chen, Gang; Peng, Yong; Hu, Hong-ling; Hu, Ting-xing; Zhang, Jian; Li, Xian-wei; Liu, Li; Tang, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Many vital ecosystem processes take place in the soils and are greatly affected by the increasing active nitrogen (N) deposition observed globally. Nitrogen deposition generally affects ecosystem processes through the changes in soil biochemical properties such as soil nutrient availability, microbial properties and enzyme activities. In order to evaluate the soil biochemical responses to elevated atmospheric N deposition in bamboo forest ecosystems, a two-year field N addition experiment in a hybrid bamboo (Bambusa pervariabilis × Dendrocalamopsis daii) plantation was conducted. Four levels of N treatment were applied: (1) control (CK, without N added), (2) low-nitrogen (LN, 50 kg N ha(-1) year(-1)), (3) medium-nitrogen (MN, 150 kg N ha(-1) year(-1)), and (4) high-nitrogen (HN, 300 kg N ha(-1) year(-1)). Results indicated that N addition significantly increased the concentrations of NH4(+), NO3(-), microbial biomass carbon, microbial biomass N, the rates of nitrification and denitrification; significantly decreased soil pH and the concentration of available phosphorus, and had no effect on the total organic carbon and total N concentration in the 0-20 cm soil depth. Nitrogen addition significantly stimulated activities of hydrolytic enzyme that acquiring N (urease) and phosphorus (acid phosphatase) and depressed the oxidative enzymes (phenol oxidase, peroxidase and catalase) activities. Results suggest that (1) this bamboo forest ecosystem is moving towards being limited by P or co-limited by P under elevated N deposition, (2) the expected progressive increases in N deposition may have a potential important effect on forest litter decomposition due to the interaction of inorganic N and oxidative enzyme activities, in such bamboo forests under high levels of ambient N deposition.

  4. Greenhouse Gas Fluxes from Forested Wetland and Upland Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savage, K. E.; Davidson, E. A.

    2015-12-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) are the most important greenhouse gases. Soils are the dominant natural source of N2O, and have been shown to be a small sink under N-limited conditions. Wetlands are a significant natural source of CH4, and dry upland soils a natural CH4 sink. Soils release CO2 produced by both autotrophic (root) and heterotrophic (microbial) respiration processes. Variation in soil moisture can be very dynamic, and it is one of the dominant factors controlling soil aeration, and hence the balance between aerobic (predominantly CO2 producing) and anaerobic (both CO2 and CH4 producing) respiration. The production and consumption of N2O is also highly dependent on spatial and temporal variation in soil moisture. Howland forest, ME is a mosaic of well drained upland, wetland and small transitional upland/wetland soils which makes for a unique and challenging environment to measure the effects of soil moisture on the net exchange of these important greenhouse gases. To quantify the flux of CO2, CH4 and N2O from the Howland forest soils, we utilized a previously developed automated chamber system for measuring CO2 efflux (Licor 6252 IRGA) from soils, and configured it to run in-line with a new model quantum cascade laser (QCL) system which measures N2O and CH4 (Aerodyne model QC-TILDAS-CS). This system allowed for simultaneous, high frequency, continuous measurement of all three greenhouse gases. Fourteen sampling chambers were deployed in an upland soil (8), nearby wetland (3) and a transitional upland/wetland (3). Each chamber was measured every 90 minutes. Upland soils were consistent sources of CO2 and sinks for CH4, however the N2O fluxes were transient between sources and sinks. The wetland soils were consistent sources of high CH4 emissions, low CO2 emissions and a consistently small N2O sink. The transitional upland/wetland soil was a consistent source of CO2 but was much more transient between CH4 and N2O sources and

  5. Rate of woody residue incorporation into Northern Rocky Mountain forest soils. Forest service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, A.E.; Larsen, M.J.; Jurgensen, M.F.

    1981-08-01

    The important properties contributed to forest soils by decayed wood in the Northern Rocky Mountains make it desirable to determine the time required to reconstitute such materials in depleted soils. The ratio of fiber production potential (growth) to total quantity of wood in a steady state ecosystem provides estimates varying from approximately 100 to 300 years, depending on habitat type, for replacement of decayed soil wood. Radiocarbon dating of decayed wood in various stages of incorporation into the soil ranged from 100 to 550 years, depending on site and depth in soil. Species identification of decayed wood indicated that Douglas-fir residue is the most persistent woody material in these Northern Rocky Mountain soils.

  6. Soil concentrations and soil-atmosphere exchange of alkylamines in a boreal Scots pine forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kieloaho, Antti-Jussi; Pihlatie, Mari; Launiainen, Samuli; Kulmala, Markku; Riekkola, Marja-Liisa; Parshintsev, Jevgeni; Mammarella, Ivan; Vesala, Timo; Heinonsalo, Jussi

    2017-03-01

    Alkylamines are important precursors in secondary aerosol formation in the boreal forest atmosphere. To better understand the behavior and sources of two alkylamines, dimethylamine (DMA) and diethylamine (DEA), we estimated the magnitudes of soil-atmosphere fluxes of DMA and DEA using a gradient-diffusion approximation based on measured concentrations in soil solution and in the canopy air space. The ambient air concentration of DMA used in this study was a sum of DMA and ethylamine. To compute the amine fluxes, we first estimated the soil air space concentration from the measured soil solution amine concentration using soil physical (temperature, soil water content) and chemical (pH) state variables. Then, we used the resistance analogy to account for gas transport mechanisms in the soil, soil boundary layer, and canopy air space. The resulting flux estimates revealed that the boreal forest soil with a typical long-term mean pH 5.3 is a possible source of DMA (170 ± 51 nmol m-2 day-1) and a sink of DEA (-1.2 ± 1.2 nmol m-2 day-1). We also investigated the potential role of fungi as a reservoir for alkylamines in boreal forest soil. We found high DMA and DEA concentrations both in fungal hyphae collected from field humus samples and in fungal pure cultures. The highest DMA and DEA concentrations were found in fungal strains belonging to decay and ectomycorrhizal fungal groups, indicating that boreal forest soil and, in particular, fungal biomass may be important reservoirs for these alkylamines.

  7. The Timber Resources of New Jersey. A report on the forest survey made by the U.S. Forest Service

    Treesearch

    Henry H. Webster; Carl H. Stoltenberg; Carl H. Stoltenberg

    1958-01-01

    This is a report on the timber resource of New Jersey. It is based on the findings of a forest survey made in 1955-56 by the Northeastern Forest Experiment Station in cooperation with the New Jersey Department of Conservation and Economic Development. The forest survey of New Jersey was part of a nationwide survey being made by the Forest Service, U.S. Department of...

  8. Soil bacterial community structure responses to precipitation reduction and forest management in forest ecosystems across Germany.

    PubMed

    Felsmann, Katja; Baudis, Mathias; Gimbel, Katharina; Kayler, Zachary E; Ellerbrock, Ruth; Bruelheide, Helge; Bruehlheide, Helge; Bruckhoff, Johannes; Welk, Erik; Puhlmann, Heike; Weiler, Markus; Gessler, Arthur; Ulrich, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Soil microbial communities play an important role in forest ecosystem functioning, but how climate change will affect the community composition and consequently bacterial functions is poorly understood. We assessed the effects of reduced precipitation with the aim of simulating realistic future drought conditions for one growing season on the bacterial community and its relation to soil properties and forest management. We manipulated precipitation in beech and conifer forest plots managed at different levels of intensity in three different regions across Germany. The precipitation reduction decreased soil water content across the growing season by between 2 to 8% depending on plot and region. T-RFLP analysis and pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene were used to study the total soil bacterial community and its active members after six months of precipitation reduction. The effect of reduced precipitation on the total bacterial community structure was negligible while significant effects could be observed for the active bacteria. However, the effect was secondary to the stronger influence of specific soil characteristics across the three regions and management selection of overstorey tree species and their respective understorey vegetation. The impact of reduced precipitation differed between the studied plots; however, we could not determine the particular parameters being able to modify the response of the active bacterial community among plots. We conclude that the moderate drought induced by the precipitation manipulation treatment started to affect the active but not the total bacterial community, which points to an adequate resistance of the soil microbial system over one growing season.

  9. Identification of Phytophthora species baited and isolated from forest soil and streams in northwestern Yunnan province, China

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Phytophthora species were surveyed by collecting soil samples and placing bait leaves in selected streams during June - October in the years 2005, 2006 and 2010 at three sites in oak forests in Diqing Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture of NW Yunnan province, China. Seventy-three isolates of Phytophthora ...

  10. The vulnerability of organic matter in Swiss forest soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González Domínguez, Beatriz; Niklaus, Pascal A.; Studer, Mirjam S.; Hagedorn, Frank; Wacker, Lukas; Haghipour, Negar; Zimmermann, Stephan; Walthert, Lorenz; Abiven, Samuel; McIntyre, Cameron

    2017-04-01

    Soils contain more carbon than atmosphere and terrestrial vegetation combined [1], and thus are key players in the carbon cycle. With climate change, the soil organic carbon (SOC) pool is vulnerable to loss through increased CO2 emissions, which in turn can amplify changes with this carbon feedback [2]. The objective of this study is to investigate the variation of indicators of SOC vulnerability (e.g. SOC mineralisation, turnover time, bulk soil and mineralised 14C signatures) and to evaluate climate, soil and terrain variables as primary drivers. To choose the study locations we used a statistics-based approach to select a balanced combination of 54 forest sites with de-correlated drivers of SOC vulnerability (i.e. proxies for soil temperature and moisture, pH, % clay, slope gradient and orientation). Sites were selected from the forest soil database of the Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research (WSL), which in May 2014, contained data from 1,050 soil profiles spread across Switzerland. We re-sampled soils at the 54 locations during summer 2014. With these samples we run a standardized laboratory soil incubation (i.e. 25°C; soils moisture -20kPa; sieved to ≤ 2 mm; 40 g equivalent dry mass; adjusted to 0.8 g cm-3 bulk density) and measured SOC mineralisation on days 4, 13, 30, 63, 121 and 181 by trapping the CO2 evolved from soils in sodium hydroxide traps [3]. Additionally, we measured the 14C signature of the carbon trapped during last stage of the incubation, and compare it to the 14C signature of the bulk soil. Based on the cumulative SOC mineralised, we found that despite the well-studied relationship between climate and SOC dynamics [4], temperature did not emerge as a predictor of SOC vulnerability. In parallel, moisture only had a minor role, with soils from drier sites being the most vulnerable. This indicates a possible limitation of heterotrophic activity due to water shortage. On the other hand, soil pH raised as the driver

  11. Observing and modeling links between soil moisture, microbes and CH4 fluxes from forest soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christiansen, Jesper; Levy-Booth, David; Barker, Jason; Prescott, Cindy; Grayston, Sue

    2017-04-01

    Soil moisture is a key driver of methane (CH4) fluxes in forest soils, both of the net uptake of atmospheric CH4 and emission from the soil. Climate and land use change will alter spatial patterns of soil moisture as well as temporal variability impacting the net CH4 exchange. The impact on the resultant net CH4 exchange however is linked to the underlying spatial and temporal distribution of the soil microbial communities involved in CH4 cycling as well as the response of the soil microbial community to environmental changes. Significant progress has been made to target specific CH4 consuming and producing soil organisms, which is invaluable in order to understand the microbial regulation of the CH4 cycle in forest soils. However, it is not clear as to which extent soil moisture shapes the structure, function and abundance of CH4 specific microorganisms and how this is linked to observed net CH4 exchange under contrasting soil moisture regimes. Here we report on the results from a research project aiming to understand how the CH4 net exchange is shaped by the interactive effects soil moisture and the spatial distribution CH4 consuming (methanotrophs) and producing (methanogens). We studied the growing season variations of in situ CH4 fluxes, microbial gene abundances of methanotrophs and methanogens, soil hydrology, and nutrient availability in three typical forest types across a soil moisture gradient in a temperate rainforest on the Canadian Pacific coast. Furthermore, we conducted laboratory experiments to determine whether the net CH4 exchange from hydrologically contrasting forest soils responded differently to changes in soil moisture. Lastly, we modelled the microbial mediation of net CH4 exchange along the soil moisture gradient using structural equation modeling. Our study shows that it is possible to link spatial patterns of in situ net exchange of CH4 to microbial abundance of CH4 consuming and producing organisms. We also show that the microbial

  12. [Effects of simulated warming on soil enzyme activities in two subalpine coniferous forests in west Sichuan].

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhen-feng; Tang, Zheng; Wan, Chuan; Xiong, Pei; Cao, Gang; Liu, Qing

    2010-11-01

    With open top chamber (OTC), this paper studied the effects of simulated warming on the activities of soil invertase, urease, catalase, polyphenol oxidase in two contrasting subalpine coniferous forests (a dragon spruce plantation and a natural conifer forest) in west Sichuan. The dynamic changes of soil temperature and soil moisture were monitored synchronously. In the whole growth season, simulated warming enhanced the daily mean temperature at soil depth 5 cm by 0.61 degrees C in the plantation, and by 0.55 degrees C in the natural forest. Conversely, the volumetric moisture at soil depth 10 cm was declined by 4.10% and 2.55%, respectively. Simulated warming also increased soil invertase, urease, catalase, and polyphenol oxidase activities. The interactive effect of warming and forest type was significant on soil urease and catalase, but not significant on soil invertase and polyphenol oxidase. The warming effect on soil catalase depended, to some extent, on season change. In all treatments, the soil enzyme activities in the natural forest were significantly higher than those in the plantation. The seasonal changes of test soil enzyme activities were highly correlated with soil temperature, but less correlated with soil moisture. This study indicated that warming could enhance soil enzyme activities, and the effect had definite correlations with forest type, enzyme category, and season change. The soil enzyme activities in the subalpine coniferous forests were mainly controlled by soil temperature rather than soil moisture.

  13. Soil C and N storage and microbial biomass in US southern pine forests: Influence of forest management

    Treesearch

    J.A. Foote; T.W. Boutton; D.A. Scott

    2015-01-01

    Land management practices have strong potential to modify the biogeochemistry of forest soils, with implications for the long-term sustainability and productivity of forestlands. The Long-Term Soil Productivity (LTSP) program, a network of 62 sites across the USA and Canada, was initiated to address concerns over possible losses of soil productivity due to soil...

  14. Nitrate formation in acid forest soils from the Adirondacks

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, T.M.; Kreitinger, J.P.; Alexander, M.

    1983-01-01

    Nitrate formation in three forest soils from the Adirondacks region of New York was studied in the laboratory. The organic and surface mineral layers of the soils has pH values ranging from 3.6 to 4.1. Nitrate was formed when the soils were treated with artificial rain at pH 3.5, 4.1, or 5.6. Compared to simulated rain at pH 5.6, simulated rain at pH 3.5 enhanced nitrate formation in one soil and inhibited it in two other soils. The rate of nitrate accumulation was about 10 times higher in the organic horizon than in the mineral horizon, and nitrate formation was not enhanced by ammonium additions. Nitrate formation in soil suspensions was dependent on the amount of soil in the suspension, and none was formed if little soil was present. Ammonium did not enhance nitrate production in the suspensions. It is suggested that nitrate formation in these acid soils is not limited by the ammonium supply. 19 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

  15. Chlorination rates in forest soils - the importance of environmental factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustavsson, M.; Karlsson, S.; Oberg, G.; Sandén, P.; Svensson, T.; Valinia, S.; Thiry, Y.; Bastviken, D.

    2011-12-01

    Transformation of chloride (Cl-) to organic chlorine (Clorg) occurs naturally in soil but it is poorly understood how and why transformation rates vary among environments. Even though formation of Clorg has been known for several decades, there are still few measurements of chlorination rates in soils. In the present study we compare organic matter (OM) chlorination rates, measured by 36Cl tracer experiments, in soils from eleven different locations. This comparison provides information on chlorination rates from different sites and gives an indication about how various environmental factors effect chlorination. A strong correlation was seen with environmental variables such as soil OM content and Cl- concentration and forest soil chlorination rates. Data presented support the hypothesis that OM levels give the framework for the soil chlorine cycling and that chlorination in more organic soils over time leads to a larger Clorg pool and in turn to a high internal supply of Cl- upon dechlorination. This can explain why soil Cl- locally can be more closely related to soil OM content and the amount organically bound chlorine than to Cl- deposition.

  16. [Bacterial community structure and diversity in soils of different forest ages and types in Bao- tianman forest, Henan Province, China].

    PubMed

    Bai, Xiao-xu; Shi, Rong-ju; You, Ye-ming; Sheng, Hua-fang; Han, Si-qin; Zhang, Ying

    2015-08-01

    To compare the microbial compositions and diversities in soils of different forest ages and types in Baotianman forest, Henan Province, China, genomic DNA of forest soils was extracted for amplifying the 16S rRNA V4 hyper variable region by PCR and sequencing by Illumina MiSeq. The BIPES, UCHIME and QIIME were employed to analyze the soil bacterial community. It was shown that 60 phyla were identified, with Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, and Verrucomicrobia representing the most dominant lineages and accounting for 29%, 18.5% and 10% of all sequences, respectively. At the genus level, 1209 genera were identified, the most abundant phylotypes were DA101 (6.3%), Acidobacteria-2 (5.9%), Candidatus Solibacter (2.9%) and Candidatus Nitrososphaera (2.6%). Different forest age and type soil samples had unique compositions and specific high and rare genus. Forest type and age both impacted the soil microbial community structure, and the influence of the former was stronger than the latter. The soil microbial diversity of the 80-year-old Quercus aliena forest was the lowest among all age and type forest soil samples. Soil pH, soil nitrogen and organic carbon contents were the most important factors affecting soil bacterial community structure.

  17. Soil microclimate monitoring in forested and meadow sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freyerova, Katerina; Safanda, Jan

    2016-04-01

    It is well known fact that forest microclimate differs from open area microclimate (Geiger 1965). Less attention is paid to soil temperatures and their long-term monitoring. To evaluate and compare these two environments from the soil microclimate point of view, Institute of Geophysics in Prague monitors soil and air temperatures in Bedřichov in the Jizerské Hory Mountains (Czech Republic). The soil temperatures are measured in three depths (20, 50 and 100 cm) in forest (700 m a. s. l.) and meadow (750 m a. s. l.). Air temperatures are measured at 2m height both in forest and meadow. Nowadays, we have more than three years long time series. The most of studies and experiments described in literature are short-term ones (in order of days or weeks). However, from short-term experiments the seasonal behaviour and trends can be hardly identified and conclusions on soil temperature reaction to climatic extremes such as heat waves, drought or freeze cannot be done with confidence. These drawbacks of the short-term experiments are discussed in literature (eg. Morecroft et al. 1998; Renaud et al. 2011). At the same, with progression of the global warming, the expected increasing frequency of climatic extremes will affect the future form of forest vegetation (Von Arx et al. 2012). The soil and air temperature series, both from the forest and meadow sites, are evaluated and interpreted with respect to long term temperature characteristics and seasonal trends. The emphasis is given on the soil temperature responses to extreme climatic situations. We examine variability between the localities and depths and spatial and temporal changes in this variability. This long-term monitoring allows us to better understand and examine the behaviour of the soil temperature in extreme weather situations. Therefore, we hope to contribute to better prediction of future reactions of this specific environments to the climate change. Literature Geiger, R., 1965. The climate near the ground

  18. Long-term changes in the acidity of a dekalb forest soil in the mid-region of the Susquehanna River Watershed

    Treesearch

    Joy R. Robert; William E. Sharpe

    1996-01-01

    Forest soil acidification has been reported to result in reduced forest productivity and forest decline. Soil acidification and forest decline may trigger changes in nutrient cycling in forest ecosystems with important consequences for drainage water chemistry and aquatic biota.

  19. A conceptual framework: redefining forest soil's critical acid loads under a changing climate.

    PubMed

    McNulty, Steven G; Boggs, Johnny L

    2010-06-01

    Federal agencies of several nations have or are currently developing guidelines for critical forest soil acid loads. These guidelines are used to establish regulations designed to maintain atmospheric acid inputs below levels shown to damage forests and streams. Traditionally, when the critical soil acid load exceeds the amount of acid that the ecosystem can absorb, it is believed to potentially impair forest health. The excess over the critical soil acid load is termed the exceedance, and the larger the exceedance, the greater the risk of ecosystem damage. This definition of critical soil acid load applies to exposure of the soil to a single, long-term pollutant (i.e., acidic deposition). However, ecosystems can be simultaneously under multiple ecosystem stresses and a single critical soil acid load level may not accurately reflect ecosystem health risk when subjected to multiple, episodic environmental stress. For example, the Appalachian Mountains of western North Carolina receive some of the highest rates of acidic deposition in the eastern United States, but these levels are considered to be below the critical acid load (CAL) that would cause forest damage. However, the area experienced a moderate three-year drought from 1999 to 2002, and in 2001 red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) trees in the area began to die in large numbers. The initial survey indicated that the affected trees were killed by the southern pine beetle (Dendroctonus frontalis Zimm.). This insect is not normally successful at colonizing these tree species because the trees produce large amounts of oleoresin that exclude the boring beetles. Subsequent investigations revealed that long-term acid deposition may have altered red spruce forest structure and function. There is some evidence that elevated acid deposition (particularly nitrogen) reduced tree water uptake potential, oleoresin production, and caused the trees to become more susceptible to insect colonization during the drought period

  20. Tropical forest soil microbial communities couple iron and carbon biogeochemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Dubinsky, E.A.; Silver, W.L.; Firestone, M.K.

    2009-10-15

    We report that iron-reducing bacteria are primary mediators of anaerobic carbon oxidation in upland tropical soils spanning a rainfall gradient (3500 - 5000 mm yr-1) in northeast Puerto Rico. The abundant rainfall and high net primary productivity of these tropical forests provide optimal soil habitat for iron-reducing and iron-oxidizing bacteria. Spatially and temporally dynamic redox conditions make iron-transforming microbial communities central to the belowground carbon cycle in these wet tropical forests. The exceedingly high abundance of iron-reducing bacteria (up to 1.2 x 10{sup 9} cells per gram soil) indicated that they possess extensive metabolic capacity to catalyze the reduction of iron minerals. In soils from the higher rainfall sites, measured rates of ferric iron reduction could account for up to 44 % of organic carbon oxidation. Iron reducers appeared to compete with methanogens when labile carbon availability was limited. We found large numbers of bacteria that oxidize reduced iron at sites with high rates of iron reduction and large numbers of iron-reducers. the coexistence of large populations of ironreducing and iron-oxidizing bacteria is evidence for rapid iron cycling between its reduced and oxidized states, and suggests that mutualistic interactions among these bacteria ultimately fuel organic carbon oxidation and inhibit CH4 production in these upland tropical forests.

  1. Presettlement Forests of the Black Swamp Area, Cache River,Woodruff County, Arkansas, from Notes of the First Land Survey

    Treesearch

    Thomas L. Foti

    2001-01-01

    Relationships between forest vegetation and soil were reconstructed from field notes of the 1846 Public Land Survey (PLS) along a portion of the Cache River including Black Swamp. Locations of corners were digitized long with species,diameter,and distance from section or quarter-section corners. Trees were grouped for analysis according to occurrence on groups of...

  2. Carbon Cycling in Wetland Forest Soils

    Treesearch

    Carl C. Trettin; Martin F. Jurgensen

    2003-01-01

    Wetlands comprise a small proportion (i.e., 2 to 3%) of earth's terrestrial surface, yet they contain a significant proportion of the terrestrial carbon (C) pool. Soils comprise the largest terrestrial C pool (ca. 1550 Pg C in upper 100 cm; Eswaran et al., 1993; Batjes, 1996), and wetlands contain the single largest component, with estimates ranging between 18...

  3. Comparison of the carbon stock in forest soil of sessile oak and beech forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horváth, Adrienn; Bene, Zsolt; Bidló, András

    2016-04-01

    Forest ecosystems are the most important carbon sinks. The forest soils play an important role in the global carbon cycle, because the global climate change or the increase of atmospheric CO2 level. We do not have enough data about the carbon stock of soils and its change due to human activities, which have similar value to carbon content of biomass. In our investigation we measured the carbon stock of soil in 10 stands of Quercus petraea and Fagus sylvatica. We took a 1.1 m soil column with soil borer and divided to 11 samples each column. The course organic and root residues were moved. After evaluation, we compared our results with other studies and the carbon stock of forests to each other. Naturally, the amount of SOC was the highest in the topsoil layers. However, we found significant difference between forest stands which stayed on the same homogenous bedrock, but very close to each other (e.g. distance was 1 or 2 km). We detected that different forest utilizations and tree species have an effect on the forest carbon as the litter as well (amount, composition). In summary, we found larger amount (99.1 C t/ha on average) of SOC in soil of stands, where sessile oak were the main stand-forming tree species. The amount of carbon was the least in turkey oak-sessile oak stands (85.4 C t/ha on average). We found the highest SOC (118.3 C t/ha) in the most mixed stand (silver lime-beech-red oak). In the future, it will be very important: How does climate change affect the spread of tree species or on carbon storage? Beech is more sensitive, but even sessile oak. These species are expected to replace with turkey oak, which is less sensitive to drought. Thus, it is possible in the future that we can expect to decrease of forest soil carbon stock capacity, which was confirmed by our experiment. Keywords: carbon sequestration, mitigation, Fagus sylvatica, Quercus petraea, litter Acknowledgements: Research is supported by the "Agroclimate.2" (VKSZ_12-1-2013-0034) EU

  4. Strategic survey framework for the Northwest Forest Plan survey and manage program.

    Treesearch

    Randy Molina; Dan McKenzie; Robin Lesher; Jan Ford; Jim Alegria; Richard. Cutler

    2003-01-01

    This document outlines an iterative process for assessing the information needs for all Northwest Forest Plan (NWFP) survey and manage species, designing and implementing strategic surveys (including field surveys and other information-gathering processes), and analyzing that information for use in the NWFP annual species review and adaptive-management processes. The...

  5. Evaporation Dynamics of Moss and Bare Soil in Boreal Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dempster, S.; Young, J. M.; Barron, C. G.; Bolton, W. R.

    2013-12-01

    Evaporation dynamics of mosses is a critical process in boreal and arctic systems and represents a key uncertainty in hydrology and climate models. At this point, moss evaporation is not well quantified at the plot or landscape scale. Relative to bare soil or litter evaporation, moss evaporation can be challenging to predict because the water flux is not isolated to the moss surface. Evaporation can originate from nearly 10 cm below the surface. Some mosses can wick moisture from even deeper than 10 cm, which subsequently evaporates. The goal of this study was to use field measurements to quantify the moss evaporation dynamics in a coniferous forest relative to bare ground or litter evaporation dynamics in a deciduous forest in Interior Alaska. Measurements were made in two ecosystem types within the boreal forest of Interior Alaska: a deciduous forest devoid of moss and a coniferous forest with a thick moss layer. A small clear chamber was attached to a LiCor 840 infrared gas analyzer in a closed loop system with a low flow rate. Water fluxes were measured for ~ 90 seconds on each plot in dry and wet soil and moss conditions. Additional measurements included: soil temperature, soil moisture, air temperature, barometric pressure, dew point, relative humidity, and wind speed. Thermal infrared images were also captured in congruence with water flux measurements to determine skin temperature. We found that the moss evaporation rate was over 100% greater than the soil evaporation rate (0.057 g/min vs. 0.024 g/min), and evaporation rates in both systems were most strongly driven by relative humidity and surface temperature. Surface temperature was lower at the birch site than the black spruce site because trees shade the surface beneath the birch. High fluxes associated with high water content were sustained for a longer period of time over the mosses compared to the bare soil. The thermal IR data showed that skin temperature lagged the evaporation flux, such that the

  6. Emissions of Greenhouse Gases from Wet Drained Forest Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Arnold, K.; Weslien, P.; Nilsson, M.; Hånell, B.; Klemedtsson, L.

    2003-04-01

    Ditching has commonly been used in order to improve forest productivity on wet soils. When wet soils are drained the methane emissions, which are usually substantial from wetlands, decrease and the uptake of carbon dioxide by the vegetation increases. However, there is also an increase in the emissions of carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide from the soil. The sizes of the fluxes depend on drainage depth and soil fertility. We have performed a study with the objective to examine the effect of tree species composition and site fertility on greenhouse gas emissions from drained temperate forest ecosystems. The fluxes of methane, carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide were measured during two years in seven temperate forest sites, one open mire, one undrained alder swamp, both to be used for comparison, and five drained forest sites of different fertilities covered with different tree species. The drained sites, chosen to represent the most common tree species in Sweden, were two spruce sites of different fertility, three sites dominated by pine, alder and birch respectively. All drained sites had a mean groundwater depth between 14 and 26 cm. Fluxes were measured with dark static chambers, ten chambers at each site. Gas samples were collected every week during summer and every month during the wintertime. The annual methane emissions (presented as means of all chambers +/- standard error) were much larger from the undrained sites, between 50 +/- 19.2 and 126 +/- 34.7 kg/ha compared to 0 +/- 1.5 to 17 +/- 8.3 kg/ha from the drained sites. The fluxes of carbon dioxide from the soil were higher at the drained sites but as most twice as large as from the undrained sites (8 +/- 1.6 ton/ha from the mire and 16 +/- 1.9 ton/ha from the drained alder during the first year of sampling). The emissions of nitrous oxide were highest from the drained alder site, 11 +/- 3.8 kg/ha the first sampling year and 7 +/- 2.9 the second. At all other sites the emissions were approximately 10 times

  7. Effects of Conversion from Boreal Forest to Arctic Steppe on Soil Communities and Ecosystem Carbon Pools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, P. D.; Natali, S.; Schade, J. D.; Zimov, N.; Zimov, S. A.

    2014-12-01

    The end of the Pleistocene marked the extinction of a great variety of arctic megafauna, which, in part, led to the conversion of arctic grasslands to modern Siberian larch forest. This shift may have increased the vulnerability of permafrost to thawing because of changes driven by the vegetation shift; the higher albedo of grassland and low insulation of snow trampled by animals may have decreased soil temperatures and reduced ground thaw in the grassland ecosystem, resulting in protection of organic carbon in thawed soil and permafrost. To test these hypothesized impacts of arctic megafauna, we examined an experimental reintroduction of large mammals in northeast Siberia, initiated in 1988. Pleistocene Park now contains 23 horses, three musk ox, one bison, and several moose in addition to the native fauna. The park is 16 square km with a smaller enclosure (< 1 km) where animals spend most of their time and our study was focused. We measured carbon-pools in forested sites (where scat surveys showed low animal use), and grassy sites (which showed higher use), within the park boundaries. We also measured thaw depth and documented the soil invertebrate communities in each ecosystem. There was a substantial difference in number of invertebrates per kg of organic soil between the forest (600 ± 250) and grassland (300 ± 250), though these differences were not statistically significant they suggest faster nutrient turnover in the forest or a greater proportion of decomposition by invertebrates than other decomposers. While thaw depth was deeper in the grassland (60 ± 4 cm) than in the forest (40 ± 6 cm), we did not detect differences in organic layer depth or percent organic matter between grassland and forest. However, soil in the grassland had higher bulk density, and higher carbon stocks in the organic and mineral soil layers. Although deeper thaw depth in the grassland suggests that more carbon is available to microbial decomposers, ongoing temperature monitoring

  8. Mechanisms for the retention of inorganic N in acidic forest soils of southern China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jin-bo; Cai, Zu-cong; Zhu, Tong-bin; Yang, Wen-yan; Müller, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying the retention of inorganic N in acidic forest soils in southern China are not well understood. Here, we simultaneously quantified the gross N transformation rates of various subtropical acidic forest soils located in southern China (southern soil) and those of temperate forest soils located in northern China (northern soil). We found that acidic southern soils had significantly higher gross rates of N mineralization and significantly higher turnover rates but a much greater capacity for retaining inorganic N than northern soils. The rates of autotrophic nitrification and NH3 volatilization in acidic southern soils were significantly lower due to low soil pH. Meanwhile, the relatively higher rates of NO3− immobilization into organic N in southern soils can counteract the effects of leaching, runoff, and denitrification. Taken together, these processes are responsible for the N enrichment of the humid subtropical forest soils in southern China. PMID:23907561

  9. Guidelines for sampling for dynamic soil properties for soil survey updates

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Dynamic soil property data can be collected during soil survey updates to add value to soil survey products and meet users’ needs. Producers and land managers need information about soil and ecosystem change in order to plan for long-term productivity, conduct monitoring and assessments and predict ...

  10. Effects of forest age on soil autotrophic and heterotrophic respiration differ between evergreen and deciduous forests.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Zeng, Wenjing; Chen, Weile; Yang, Yuanhe; Zeng, Hui

    2013-01-01

    We examined the effects of forest stand age on soil respiration (SR) including the heterotrophic respiration (HR) and autotrophic respiration (AR) of two forest types. We measured soil respiration and partitioned the HR and AR components across three age classes ~15, ~25, and ~35-year-old Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica (Mongolia pine) and Larix principis-rupprechtii (larch) in a forest-steppe ecotone, northern China (June 2006 to October 2009). We analyzed the relationship between seasonal dynamics of SR, HR, AR and soil temperature (ST), soil water content (SWC) and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI, a plant greenness and net primary productivity indicator). Our results showed that ST and SWC were driving factors for the seasonal dynamics of SR rather than plant greenness, irrespective of stand age and forest type. For ~15-year-old stands, the seasonal dynamics of both AR and HR were dependent on ST. Higher Q10 of HR compared with AR occurred in larch. However, in Mongolia pine a similar Q10 occurred between HR and AR. With stand age, Q10 of both HR and AR increased in larch. For Mongolia pine, Q10 of HR increased with stand age, but AR showed no significant relationship with ST. As stand age increased, HR was correlated with SWC in Mongolia pine, but for larch AR correlated with SWC. The dependence of AR on NDVI occurred in ~35-year-old Mongolia pine. Our study demonstrated the importance of separating autotrophic and heterotrophic respiration components of SR when stimulating the response of soil carbon efflux to environmental changes. When estimating the response of autotrophic and heterotrophic respiration to environmental changes, the effect of forest type on age-related trends is required.

  11. Hypholoma lateritium isolated from coarse woody debris, the forest floor, and mineral soil in a deciduous forest in New Hampshire

    Treesearch

    Therese A. Thompson; R. Greg Thorn; Kevin T. Smith

    2012-01-01

    Fungi in the Agaricomycetes (Basidiomycota) are the primary decomposers in temperate forests of dead wood on and in the forest soil. Through the use of isolation techniques selective for saprotrophic Agaricomycetes, a variety of wood decay fungi were isolated from a northern hardwood stand in the Bartlett Experimental Forest, New Hampshire, USA. In particular,

  12. Density and pathogenic activity of soil microbes associated with windthrows of temperate deciduous forests in the Allegany national Forest, Pennsylvania

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background/Question/Methods Forest disturbance caused by windthrow events has obvious impacts on forest structure and composition above-ground; however, changes in soil microbial communities are less obvious. Windthrows causing the formation of multiple forest gaps occurred in 2003 throughout the...

  13. Sensitivity of Soil Respiration to Variability in Soil Moisture and Temperature in a Humid Tropical Forest

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Tana E.; Detto, Matteo; Silver, Whendee L.

    2013-01-01

    Precipitation and temperature are important drivers of soil respiration. The role of moisture and temperature are generally explored at seasonal or inter-annual timescales; however, significant variability also occurs on hourly to daily time-scales. We used small (1.54 m2), throughfall exclusion shelters to evaluate the role soil moisture and temperature as temporal controls on soil CO2 efflux from a humid tropical forest in Puerto Rico. We measured hourly soil CO2 efflux, temperature and moisture in control and exclusion plots (n = 6) for 6-months. The variance of each time series was analyzed using orthonormal wavelet transformation and Haar-wavelet coherence. We found strong negative coherence between soil moisture and soil respiration in control plots corresponding to a two-day periodicity. Across all plots, there was a significant parabolic relationship between soil moisture and soil CO2 efflux with peak soil respiration occurring at volumetric soil moisture of approximately 0.375 m3/m3. We additionally found a weak positive coherence between CO2 and temperature at longer time-scales and a significant positive relationship between soil temperature and CO2 efflux when the analysis was limited to the control plots. The coherence between CO2 and both temperature and soil moisture were reduced in exclusion plots. The reduced CO2 response to temperature in exclusion plots suggests that the positive effect of temperature on CO2 is constrained by soil moisture availability. PMID:24312508

  14. Increasing microbial diversity and nitrogen cycling potential of burnt forest soil in Spain through post-fire management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereg, Lily; Mataix-Solera, Jorge; McMillan, Mary; García-Orenes, Fuensanta

    2016-04-01

    Microbial diversity and function in soils are increasingly assessed by the application of molecular methods such as sequencing and PCR technology. We applied these techniques to study microbial recovery in post-fire forest soils. The recovery of forest ecosystems following severe fire is influenced by post-fire management. The removal of burnt tree stumps (salvage logging) is a common practice in Spain following fire. In some cases, the use of heavy machinery in addition to the vulnerability of soils to erosion and degradation make this management potentially damaging to soil, and therefore to the ecosystem. We hypothesized that tree removal slows down the recovery of soil biological communities including microbial and plant communities and contributes to soil degradation in the burnt affected area. The study area is located in "Sierra de Mariola Natural Park" in Alcoi, Alicante (E Spain). A big forest fire (>500 has) occurred in July 2012. The forest is composed mainly of Pinus halepensis trees with an understory of typical Mediterranean shrubs species such as Quercus coccifera, Rosmarinus officinalis, Thymus vulgaris, Brachypodium retusum, etc. Soil is classified as a Typic Xerorthent (Soil Survey Staff, 2014) developed over marls. In February 2013, salvage logging (SL) treatment, with a complete extraction of the burned wood using heavy machinery, was applied to a part of the affected forest. Plots for monitoring the effects of SL were installed in this area and in a similar nearby control (C) area, where no SL treatment was done. The recovery of soil bacterial and fungal communities post-fire with and without tree removal was analysed by using Next-Generation sequencing and the abundance of functional genes, related to nitrogen cycling, in the soil was estimated using quantitative PCR (qPCR). We will present the methods used and the results of our study in this PICO presentation.

  15. The Forest Service Safety Survey: results from an employee-wide safety attitude survey

    Treesearch

    Vanessa R. Lane; Ken Cordell; Stanley J. Zarnoch; Gary T. Green; Neelam Poudyal; Susan Fox

    2014-01-01

    The Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture launched a Safety Journey in 2011 aimed at elevating safety consciousness and practice in the Agency. All employees were required to attend an engagement session during the year to introduce them to the Safety Journey. In September, a survey was launched to help Forest Service leadership better understand employee...

  16. LANDSAT-1 data, its use in a soil survey program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westin, F. C.; Frazee, C. J.

    1975-01-01

    The following applications of LANDSAT imagery were investigated: assistance in recognizing soil survey boundaries, low intensity soil surveys, and preparation of a base map for publishing thematic soils maps. The following characteristics of LANDSAT imagery were tested as they apply to the recognition of soil boundaries in South Dakota and western Minnesota: synoptic views due to the large areas covered, near-orthography and lack of distortion, flexibility of selecting the proper season, data recording in four parts of the spectrum, and the use of computer compatible tapes. A low intensity soil survey of Pennington County, South Dakota was completed in 1974. Low intensity inexpensive soil surveys can provide the data needed to evaluate agricultural land for the remaining counties until detailed soil surveys are completed. In using LANDSAT imagery as a base map for publishing thematic soil maps, the first step was to prepare a mosaic with 20 LANDSAT scenes from several late spring passes in 1973.

  17. Soil water repellency under stones, forest residue mulch and bare soil following wildfire.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Martinho A. S.; Prats, Sérgio A.; van Keulen, Daan; Vieira, Diana C. S.; Silva, Flávio C.; Keizer, Jan J.; Verheijen, Frank G. A.

    2017-04-01

    Soil water repellency (SWR) is a physical property that is commonly defined as the aptitude of soil to resist wetting. It has been documented for a wide range of soil and vegetation types, and can vary with soil organic matter (SOM) content and type, soil texture, soil moisture content (SMC) and soil temperature. Fire can induce, enhance or destroy SWR and, therefore, lead to considerable changes in soil water infiltration and storage and increase soil erosion by water, thereby weakening soil quality. In Portugal, wildfires occur frequently and affect large areas, on average some 100000 ha per year, but over 300000 ha in extreme years such as 2003 and 2005. This can have important implications in geomorphological and hydrological processes, as evidenced by the strong and sometimes extreme responses in post-fire runoff and erosion reported from various parts of the world, including Portugal. Thereby, the application of mulches from various materials to cover burned areas has been found to be an efficient stabilization treatment. However, little is known about possible side effects on SWR, especially long term effects. Forest SWR is very heterogeneous, as a result of variation in proximity to trees/shrubs, litter type and thickness, cracks, roots, and stones. This study targeted the spatial heterogeneity of soil water repellency under eucalypt plantation, five years after a wildfire and forest residue mulching application. The main objectives of this work were: 1) to assess the long-term effect of mulching application on the strength and spatial heterogeneity of topsoil SWR, by comparing SWR on bare soil, under stones, and under mulching remains; 2) to assess SWR at 1 cm depth between O and Ah horizons. The soil surface results showed that untreated bare soil areas were slightly more water repellent than mulched areas. However, under stones there were no SWR differences between mulched and control areas. At 1 cm depth, there was a marked mulching effect on SWR, even

  18. Production of high-resolution forest-ecosite maps based on model predictions of soil moisture and nutrient regimes over a large forested area.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qi; Meng, Fan-Rui; Bourque, Charles P-A; Zhao, Zhengyong

    2017-09-08

    Forest ecosite reflects the local site conditions that are meaningful to forest productivity as well as basic ecological functions. Field assessments of vegetation and soil types are often used to identify forest ecosites. However, the production of high-resolution ecosite maps for large areas from interpolating field data is difficult because of high spatial variation and associated costs and time requirements. Indices of soil moisture and nutrient regimes (i.e., SMR and SNR) introduced in this study reflect the combined effects of biogeochemical and topographic factors on forest growth. The objective of this research is to present a method for creating high-resolution forest ecosite maps based on computer-generated predictions of SMR and SNR for an area in Atlantic Canada covering about 4.3 × 10(6) hectares (ha) of forestland. Field data from 1,507 forest ecosystem classification plots were used to assess the accuracy of the ecosite maps produced. Using model predictions of SMR and SNR alone, ecosite maps were 61 and 59% correct in identifying 10 Acadian- and Maritime-Boreal-region ecosite types, respectively. This method provides an operational framework for the production of high-resolution maps of forest ecosites over large areas without the need for data from expensive, supplementary field surveys.

  19. Forest soil chemistry and terrain attributes in a Catskills watershed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, C.E.; Ruiz-Mendez, J. J.; Lawrence, G.B.

    2000-01-01

    Knowledge of soil chemistry is useful in assessing the sensitivity of forested areas to natural and anthropogenic disturbances, but characterizing large areas is expensive because of the large sample numbers required and the cost of soil chemical analyses. We collected and chemically analyzed soil samples from 72 sites within a 214-ha watershed in the Catskill Mountains of New York to evaluate factors that influence soil chemistry and whether terrain features could be used to predict soil chemical properties. Using geographic information system (GIS) techniques, we determined five terrain attributes at each sampling location: (i) slope, (ii) aspect, (iii) elevation, (iv) topographic index, and (v) flow accumulation. These attributes were ineffective in predicting the chemical properties of organic and mineral soil samples; together they explained only 4 to 25% of the variance in pH(w), effective cation-exchange capacity (CEC(e)), exchangeable bases, exchangeable acidity, total C, total N, and C/N ratio. Regressions among soil properties were much better; total C and pH(w) together explained 33 to 66% of the variation in exchangeable bases and CEC(e). Total C was positively correlated with N (r = 0.91 and 0.96 in Oa horizons and mineral soil, respectively), exchangeable bases (r = 0.65, 0.76), and CEC(e) (r = 0.54, 0.44), indicating the importance of organic matter to the chemistry of these acidic soils. The fraction of CEC(e) occupied by H explained 44% of the variation in pH(w). Soil chemical properties at this site vary on spatial scales finer than typical GIS analyses, resulting in relationships with poor predictive power. Thus, interrelationships among soil properties are more reliable for prediction.Knowledge of soil chemistry is useful in assessing the sensitivity of forested areas to natural and anthropogenic disturbances, but characterizing large areas is expensive because of the large sample numbers required and the cost of soil chemical analyses. We

  20. BOREAS TE-22 Allometric Forest Survey Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shugart, H. H.; Nielsen, Eric; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Papagno, Andrea (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmospheric Study (BOREAS) TE-22 (Terrestrial Ecology) team collected data sets in support of its efforts to characterize and interpret information on the forest structure of boreal vegetation in the Southern and Northern Study Areas (SSA and NSA) during the 1994 growing season. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  1. Methods of Soil Resampling to Monitor Changes in the Chemical Concentrations of Forest Soils.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Gregory B; Fernandez, Ivan J; Hazlett, Paul W; Bailey, Scott W; Ross, Donald S; Villars, Thomas R; Quintana, Angelica; Ouimet, Rock; McHale, Michael R; Johnson, Chris E; Briggs, Russell D; Colter, Robert A; Siemion, Jason; Bartlett, Olivia L; Vargas, Olga; Antidormi, Michael R; Koppers, Mary M

    2016-11-25

    Recent soils research has shown that important chemical soil characteristics can change in less than a decade, often the result of broad environmental changes. Repeated sampling to monitor these changes in forest soils is a relatively new practice that is not well documented in the literature and has only recently been broadly embraced by the scientific community. The objective of this protocol is therefore to synthesize the latest information on methods of soil resampling in a format that can be used to design and implement a soil monitoring program. Successful monitoring of forest soils requires that a study unit be defined within an area of forested land that can be characterized with replicate sampling locations. A resampling interval of 5 years is recommended, but if monitoring is done to evaluate a specific environmental driver, the rate of change expected in that driver should be taken into consideration. Here, we show that the sampling of the profile can be done by horizon where boundaries can be clearly identified and horizons are sufficiently thick to remove soil without contamination from horizons above or below. Otherwise, sampling can be done by depth interval. Archiving of sample for future reanalysis is a key step in avoiding analytical bias and providing the opportunity for additional analyses as new questions arise.

  2. Methods of soil resampling to monitor changes in the chemical concentrations of forest soils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lawrence, Gregory B.; Fernandez, Ivan J.; Hazlett, Paul W.; Bailey, Scott W.; Ross, Donald S.; Villars, Thomas R.; Quintana, Angelica; Ouimet, Rock; McHale, Michael; Johnson, Chris E.; Briggs, Russell D.; Colter, Robert A.; Siemion, Jason; Bartlett, Olivia L.; Vargas, Olga; Antidormi, Michael; Koppers, Mary Margaret

    2016-01-01

    Recent soils research has shown that important chemical soil characteristics can change in less than a decade, often the result of broad environmental changes. Repeated sampling to monitor these changes in forest soils is a relatively new practice that is not well documented in the literature and has only recently been broadly embraced by the scientific community. The objective of this protocol is therefore to synthesize the latest information on methods of soil resampling in a format that can be used to design and implement a soil monitoring program. Successful monitoring of forest soils requires that a study unit be defined within an area of forested land that can be characterized with replicate sampling locations. A resampling interval of 5 years is recommended, but if monitoring is done to evaluate a specific environmental driver, the rate of change expected in that driver should be taken into consideration. Here, we show that the sampling of the profile can be done by horizon where boundaries can be clearly identified and horizons are sufficiently thick to remove soil without contamination from horizons above or below. Otherwise, sampling can be done by depth interval. Archiving of sample for future reanalysis is a key step in avoiding analytical bias and providing the opportunity for additional analyses as new questions arise.

  3. Methods of Soil Resampling to Monitor Changes in the Chemical Concentrations of Forest Soils

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Gregory B.; Fernandez, Ivan J.; Hazlett, Paul W.; Bailey, Scott W.; Ross, Donald S.; Villars, Thomas R.; Quintana, Angelica; Ouimet, Rock; McHale, Michael R.; Johnson, Chris E.; Briggs, Russell D.; Colter, Robert A.; Siemion, Jason; Bartlett, Olivia L.; Vargas, Olga; Antidormi, Michael R.; Koppers, Mary M.

    2016-01-01

    Recent soils research has shown that important chemical soil characteristics can change in less than a decade, often the result of broad environmental changes. Repeated sampling to monitor these changes in forest soils is a relatively new practice that is not well documented in the literature and has only recently been broadly embraced by the scientific community. The objective of this protocol is therefore to synthesize the latest information on methods of soil resampling in a format that can be used to design and implement a soil monitoring program. Successful monitoring of forest soils requires that a study unit be defined within an area of forested land that can be characterized with replicate sampling locations. A resampling interval of 5 years is recommended, but if monitoring is done to evaluate a specific environmental driver, the rate of change expected in that driver should be taken into consideration. Here, we show that the sampling of the profile can be done by horizon where boundaries can be clearly identified and horizons are sufficiently thick to remove soil without contamination from horizons above or below. Otherwise, sampling can be done by depth interval. Archiving of sample for future reanalysis is a key step in avoiding analytical bias and providing the opportunity for additional analyses as new questions arise. PMID:27911419

  4. Rhizosphere activity and methane oxidation in a temperate forest soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moody, Catherine S.; Subke, Jens-Arne; Voke, Naomi R.; Holden, Robert D.; Ineson, Phil; Arn Teh, Yit

    2010-05-01

    Methane (CH4) concentrations in the Earth's atmosphere have increased dramatically over recent decades. An abundance of studies indicate that the magnitude of natural methane efflux from wetlands is likely to increase due to climate change. However, the role of vegetation and soils in upland methane oxidation are less well understood. Well-aerated soils are known to be sites of methane oxidation, and amongst a range of abiotic environmental parameters, soil moisture has been identified as critical regulator of the methane oxidation rates. However, the role of microbial activity within the soil, particularly C turnover in the plant rhizosphere, has not been investigated as a means for regulating methanotrophy. We combined a continuous soil CO2 efflux system (Li-Cor Biosciences, LI-8100) with a Cavity-Ringdown-Spectroscopy Fast Greenhouse Gas Analyser (Los Gatos Research Inc.) to measure soil CH4 oxidation in a pine forest in NE England. The soil has a shallow organic layer overlaying a well-draining sandy gley soil. Fluxes were measured from three different collar treatments: (1) excluding both root and ectomycorrhizal (EM) hyphae by trenching using deep collars, (2) excluding roots but allowing access by EM hyphae, and (3) unmodified forest soil (i.e. including both roots and EM hyphae). All collars were protected from natural throughfall, and received weekly-averaged amounts of throughfall based on collections in the stand. Data from two months in early summer 2009 indicate that CH4 oxidation in collars with an intact rhizosphere is more than twice that of either of the exclusion treatments (averaging approx. 90 g ha-1 d-1 in that period). We observed higher fluxes when soils were dryer (i.e. with increasing time since watering), indicating a significant influence of moisture. Despite the confounding effects of soil moisture associated with root water uptake in the unmodified soil collars, we argue that rhizosphere activity is an overlooked component in

  5. Reduced deep soil water uptake through forest conversion to pasture in Amazonia

    SciTech Connect

    Jipp, P.H.; Nepstad, D.C. Woods Hole Research Center, MA )

    1993-06-01

    Forests of eastern Amazonia are being replaced by pastures and secondary forests. We measured soil water storage and flux in adjacent forest and pasture ecosystems using Time Domain Reflectometry sensors installed in the walls of deep (9-m) shafts. The forest withdrew 597+/-25 mm of soil water stored below 1 m depth during the 1991 dry season (Jun-Dec), 1.7 times more than the pasture. Uptake from the bottom of the forest soil profile continued even after rainfall resumed in early 1992. The hydrologic impacts of tropical deforestation may be most severe for evergreen forests with deep rooting zones in areas of seasonal drought.

  6. Maximum temperature accounts for annual soil CO2 efflux in temperate forests of Northern China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhiyong; Xu, Meili; Kang, Fengfeng; Jianxin Sun, Osbert

    2015-07-16

    It will help understand the representation legality of soil temperature to explore the correlations of soil respiration with variant properties of soil temperature. Soil temperature at 10 cm depth was hourly logged through twelve months. Basing on the measured soil temperature, soil respiration at different temporal scales were calculated using empirical functions for temperate forests. On monthly scale, soil respiration significantly correlated with maximum, minimum, mean and accumulated effective soil temperatures. Annual soil respiration varied from 409 g C m(-2) in coniferous forest to 570 g C m(-2) in mixed forest and to 692 g C m(-2) in broadleaved forest, and was markedly explained by mean soil temperatures of the warmest day, July and summer, separately. These three soil temperatures reflected the maximum values on diurnal, monthly and annual scales. In accordance with their higher temperatures, summer soil respiration accounted for 51% of annual soil respiration across forest types, and broadleaved forest also had higher soil organic carbon content (SOC) and soil microbial biomass carbon content (SMBC), but a lower contribution of SMBC to SOC. This added proof to the findings that maximum soil temperature may accelerate the transformation of SOC to CO2-C via stimulating activities of soil microorganisms.

  7. Maximum temperature accounts for annual soil CO2 efflux in temperate forests of Northern China

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhiyong; Xu, Meili; Kang, Fengfeng; Jianxin Sun, Osbert

    2015-01-01

    It will help understand the representation legality of soil temperature to explore the correlations of soil respiration with variant properties of soil temperature. Soil temperature at 10 cm depth was hourly logged through twelve months. Basing on the measured soil temperature, soil respiration at different temporal scales were calculated using empirical functions for temperate forests. On monthly scale, soil respiration significantly correlated with maximum, minimum, mean and accumulated effective soil temperatures. Annual soil respiration varied from 409 g C m−2 in coniferous forest to 570 g C m−2 in mixed forest and to 692 g C m−2 in broadleaved forest, and was markedly explained by mean soil temperatures of the warmest day, July and summer, separately. These three soil temperatures reflected the maximum values on diurnal, monthly and annual scales. In accordance with their higher temperatures, summer soil respiration accounted for 51% of annual soil respiration across forest types, and broadleaved forest also had higher soil organic carbon content (SOC) and soil microbial biomass carbon content (SMBC), but a lower contribution of SMBC to SOC. This added proof to the findings that maximum soil temperature may accelerate the transformation of SOC to CO2-C via stimulating activities of soil microorganisms. PMID:26179467

  8. Climate Warming Can Increase Soil Carbon Fluxes Without Decreasing Soil Carbon Stocks in Boreal Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziegler, S. E.; Benner, R. H.; Billings, S. A.; Edwards, K. A.; Philben, M. J.; Zhu, X.; Laganiere, J.

    2016-12-01

    Ecosystem C fluxes respond positively to climate warming, however, the net impact of changing C fluxes on soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks over decadal scales remains unclear. Manipulative studies and global-scale observations have informed much of the existing knowledge of SOC responses to climate, providing insights on relatively short (e.g. days to years) and long (centuries to millennia) time scales, respectively. Natural climate gradient studies capture integrated ecosystem responses to climate on decadal time scales. Here we report the soil C reservoirs, fluxes into and out of those reservoirs, and the chemical composition of inputs and soil organic matter pools along a mesic boreal forest climate transect. The sites studied consist of similar forest composition, successional stage, and soil moisture but differ by 5.2°C mean annual temperature. Carbon fluxes through these boreal forest soils were greatest in the lowest latitude regions and indicate that enhanced C inputs can offset soil C losses with warming in these forests. Respiration rates increased by 55% and the flux of dissolved organic carbon from the organic to mineral soil horizons tripled across this climate gradient. The 2-fold increase in litterfall inputs to these soils coincided with a significant increase in the organic horizon C stock with warming, however, no significant difference in the surface mineral soil C stocks was observed. The younger mean age of the mineral soil C ( 70 versus 330 YBP) provided further evidence for the greater turnover of SOC in the warmer climate soils. In spite of these differences in mean radiocarbon age, mineral SOC exhibited chemical characteristics of highly decomposed material across all regions. In contrast with depth trends in soil OM diagenetic indices, diagenetic shifts with latitude were limited to increases in C:N and alkyl to O-alkyl ratios in the overlying organic horizons in the warmer relative to the colder regions. These data indicate that the

  9. Effects of Holocene vegetation change on soils across the forest-grassland transition, northern Minnesota, and implications for erosion processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, Joseph; Kasmerchak, Chase; Keita, Hawa; Liang, Mengyu; Gruley, Kristine

    2016-04-01

    Boundaries between forest and grassland in the midlatitudes and their shifts in response to Holocene climatic change, provide opportunities to detect effects of life on landscapes. In northern Minnesota, USA, paleoecological research has documented that grassland and/or savanna expanded eastward in the dry early to middle Holocene. In the late Holocene, forest cover expanded westward at the expense of savanna and grassland. We studied soils at 20 sites spanning the forest-grassland transition. A dramatic change in soil morphology coincides approximately, though not exactly, with that transition as recorded in 1870s-1880s land surveys, suggesting that soils change rapidly in response to forest expansion (we are attempting to constrain the timescale of response through radiocarbon dating of deep soil organic matter in which stable C isotopes record past presence of grassland). The key changes from grassland to forest are loss of organic matter below a thin surface A horizon and greatly enhanced mobility and downward translocation of clay - particularly smectite - in forest soils. This results in upper soil horizons that have relatively low smectite content and low microaggregate stability (as detected through laser diffraction analysis of aggregate disintegration in laboratory experiments), especially below the thin A horizon. The best explanation for this change appears to involve differences in how OM is added to and accumulated in the soil under forest and grassland; soil acidity and base saturation change more gradually eastward along a gradient more likely to reflect climate than vegetation. Evidence of bioturbation (especially gopher burrowing) is much more common at former grassland sites. In addition to mixing OM downward in the soil, burrowing moves detrital carbonates upward, probably enhancing OM accumulation and aggregate stability. Research on geomorphic response to Holocene climatic change in the Midwestern US has often emphasized higher potential

  10. Detrimental soil disturbance associated with timber harvest systems on National Forests in the Northern Region

    Treesearch

    Derrick Reeves; Deborah Page-Dumroese; Mark Coleman

    2011-01-01

    Maintaining site productivity on forested lands within the National Forest System is a Federal mandate. To meet this mandate, soil conditions on timber harvest units within the Northern Region of the USDA Forest Service cannot exceed a threshold of 15% areal extent of detrimental soil disturbance (DSD; defined as a combination of compaction, puddling, rutting, burning...

  11. Decomposition of soil organic matter from boreal black spruce forest: environmental and chemical controls

    Treesearch

    Kimberly P. Wickland; Jason C. Neff

    2007-01-01

    Black spruce forests are a dominant covertype in the boreal forest region, and they inhabit landscapes that span a wide range of hydrologic and thermal conditions. These forests often have large stores of soil organic carbon. Recent increases in temperature at northern latitudes may be stimulating decomposition rates of this soil carbon. It is unclear, however, how...

  12. Nature and Properties of Some Forest Soils in the Mhite Mountains of New Hampshire

    Treesearch

    M.C. Hoyle; M.C. Hoyle

    1973-01-01

    Forested, podzol soils in the White Mountains of New Hampshire have developed in granitic, glacial material. They are coarse textured, acidic, and infertile. As a result of the latter condition, these soils can sustain a forest, but that forest is not healthy and vigorous.

  13. Forest Soil Disturbance Monitoring Protocol: Volume II: Supplementary methods, statistics, and data collection

    Treesearch

    Deborah S. Page-Dumroese; Ann M. Abbott; Thomas M. Rice

    2009-01-01

    Volume I and volume II of the Forest Soil Disturbance Monitoring Protocol (FSDMP) provide information for a wide range of users, including technicians, field crew leaders, private landowners, land managers, forest professionals, and researchers. Volume I: Rapid Assessment includes the basic methods for establishing forest soil monitoring transects and consistently...

  14. Nitrogen fertilization decreases forest soil fungal and bacterial biomass in three long-term experiments

    Treesearch

    Matthew D. Wallenstein; Steven McNulty; Ivan J. Fernandez; Johnny Boggs; William H. Schlesinger

    2006-01-01

    We examined the effects of N fertilization on forest soil fungal and bacterial biomass at three long-term experiments in New England (Harvard Forest, MA; Mt. Ascutney, VT; Bear Brook, ME). At Harvard Forest, chronic N fertilization has decreased organic soil microbial biomass C (MBC) by an average of 54% and substrate induced respiration (SIR) was decreased by an...

  15. Spatial and vertical distribution of mercury in upland forest soils across the northeastern United States

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Justin B.; Friedland, Andrew J; Engerbretson, Teresa R.; Kaste, James M.; Jackson, Brian P.

    2013-01-01

    Assessing current Hg pools in forest soils of the northeastern U.S. is important for monitoring changes in Hg cycling. The forest floor, upper and lower mineral horizons were sampled at 17 long-term upland forest sites across the northeastern U.S. in 2011. Forest floor Hg concentration was similar across the study region (274 ± 13 μg kg−1) while Hg amount at northern sites (39 ± 6 g ha−1) was significantly greater than at western sites (11 ± 4 g ha−1). Forest floor Hg was correlated with soil organic matter, soil pH, latitude and mean annual precipitation and these variables explained approximately 70% of the variability when multiple regressed. Mercury concentration and amount in the lower mineral soil was correlated with Fe, soil organic matter and latitude, corresponding with Bs horizons of Spodosols (Podzols). Our analysis shows the importance of regional and soil properties on Hg accumulation in forest soils. PMID:23911621

  16. Changes in Forest Soil Properties in Different Successional Stages in Lower Tropical China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yuelin; Yang, Fangfang; Ou, Yangxu; Zhang, Deqiang; Liu, Juxiu; Chu, Guowei; Zhang, Yaru; Otieno, Dennis; Zhou, Guoyi

    2013-01-01

    Background Natural forest succession often affects soil physical and chemical properties. Selected physical and chemical soil properties were studied in an old-growth forest across a forest successional series in Dinghushan Nature Reserve, Southern China. Methodology/Principal Findings The aim was to assess the effects of forest succession change on soil properties. Soil samples (0–20 cm depth) were collected from three forest types at different succession stages, namely pine (Pinus massoniana) forest (PMF), mixed pine and broadleaf forest (PBMF) and monsoon evergreen broadleaf forest (MEBF), representing early, middle and advanced successional stages respectively. The soil samples were analyzed for soil water storage (SWS), soil organic matter (SOM), soil microbial biomass carbon (SMBC), pH, NH4+-N, available potassium (K), available phosphorus (P) and microelements (available copper (Cu), available zinc (Zn), available iron (Fe) and available boron (B)) between 1999 and 2009. The results showed that SWS, SOM, SMBC, Cu, Zn, Fe and B concentrations were higher in the advanced successional stage (MEBF stage). Conversely, P and pH were lower in the MEBF but higher in the PMF (early successional stage). pH, NH4+-N, P and K declined while SOM, Zn, Cu, Fe and B increased with increasing forest age. Soil pH was lower than 4.5 in the three forest types, indicating that the surface soil was acidic, a stable trend in Dinghushan. Conclusion/Significance These findings demonstrated significant impacts of natural succession in an old-growth forest on the surface soil nutrient properties and organic matter. Changes in soil properties along the forest succession gradient may be a useful index for evaluating the successional stages of the subtropical forests. We caution that our inferences are drawn from a pseudo-replicated chronosequence, as true replicates were difficult to find. Further studies are needed to draw rigorous conclusions regarding on nutrient dynamics in

  17. Changes in forest soil properties in different successional stages in lower tropical China.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuelin; Yang, Fangfang; Ou, Yangxu; Zhang, Deqiang; Liu, Juxiu; Chu, Guowei; Zhang, Yaru; Otieno, Dennis; Zhou, Guoyi

    2013-01-01

    Natural forest succession often affects soil physical and chemical properties. Selected physical and chemical soil properties were studied in an old-growth forest across a forest successional series in Dinghushan Nature Reserve, Southern China. The aim was to assess the effects of forest succession change on soil properties. Soil samples (0-20 cm depth) were collected from three forest types at different succession stages, namely pine (Pinus massoniana) forest (PMF), mixed pine and broadleaf forest (PBMF) and monsoon evergreen broadleaf forest (MEBF), representing early, middle and advanced successional stages respectively. The soil samples were analyzed for soil water storage (SWS), soil organic matter (SOM), soil microbial biomass carbon (SMBC), pH, NH4(+)-N, available potassium (K), available phosphorus (P) and microelements (available copper (Cu), available zinc (Zn), available iron (Fe) and available boron (B)) between 1999 and 2009. The results showed that SWS, SOM, SMBC, Cu, Zn, Fe and B concentrations were higher in the advanced successional stage (MEBF stage). Conversely, P and pH were lower in the MEBF but higher in the PMF (early successional stage). pH, NH4(+)-N, P and K declined while SOM, Zn, Cu, Fe and B increased with increasing forest age. Soil pH was lower than 4.5 in the three forest types, indicating that the surface soil was acidic, a stable trend in Dinghushan. These findings demonstrated significant impacts of natural succession in an old-growth forest on the surface soil nutrient properties and organic matter. Changes in soil properties along the forest succession gradient may be a useful index for evaluating the successional stages of the subtropical forests. We caution that our inferences are drawn from a pseudo-replicated chronosequence, as true replicates were difficult to find. Further studies are needed to draw rigorous conclusions regarding on nutrient dynamics in different successional stages of forest.

  18. Radionuclide behaviour in forest soils of Russian Federation and Ukraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shcheglov, A. I.; Tsvetnova, O. B.

    2012-04-01

    Behaviour of radionuclides in soil determines to a great extent the radionuclide root uptake and their further migration in food chains. The radionuclide fate in the soil is determined by a wide spectrum of simultaneously running, often competitive elementary processes, such as adsorption-desorption, diffusion-mass transport, retention-migration, etc. The intensity of each elementary process depends, in turn, on a combination of several factors such as nature of the radionuclide, physicochemical features of the fallout, soil properties, environmental regimes, etc. Radionuclide deposition in soils is known to be a basic criterion of the radioecological situation in the contaminated territory. Our long-term investigations performed in contaminated forests (30-km zone of Chernobyl NPP; Tula, Kaluga and Bryansk regions of the Russian Federation) had shown that radionuclide migration in the forest landscapes was determined primarily by the forest litter presence. The key factors of radionuclide redistribution within the soil litter are (i) permanent addition of the low-contaminated organic matter ("clean" litterfall), and (ii) high rate of transformation. The dynamics and intensity of decontamination processes depends on the forest litter sub-horizon. Leaf (A0l) layer exhibits the highest rate of decontamination: 137Cs content in this layer decreased twofold by the second year after the accident and reached its equilibrium value (about 1% of the total deposition) by the 4-5th year after the fallout. The corresponding quasi-equilibrium radionuclide content in A0f layer (10-20%) is reached by the 8-9th year after the accident. The corresponding equilibrium in A0h layer is not reached yet. Thus, the effective half-life of radionuclides in soils should be calculated for each sub-horizon separately, taking into account the above-discussed features of the radionuclide dynamics. The rate of annual radionuclide replacement from the forest litter to mineral layers depends on the

  19. Agricultural and forest resource surveys from space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffer, R. M.

    1973-01-01

    An overview is presented on the use of spaceborne remote sensors as aid to agriculture and forestry for soil mapping, crop yield predictions, acreage determinations, damage assessment, and numerous other benefits. Some results obtained by ERTS 1 are discussed in terms of the significance of information derived and the potential use of these data for better management of our natural resources.

  20. Soil carbon stock and soil characteristics at Tasik Chini Forest Reserve, Pahang, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nur Aqlili Riana, R.; Sahibin A., R.

    2015-09-01

    This study was carried out to determine soil carbon stock and soil characteristic at Tasik Chini Forest Reserve (TCFR), Pahang. A total of 10 (20 m x 25 m) permanent sampling plot was selected randomly within the area of TCFR. Soil samples were taken from all subplots using dutch auger based on soil depth of 0-20cm, 20-40cm, 40-60cm. Soil parameters determined were size distribution, soil water content, bulk density, organic matter, organic carbon content, pH and electrical conductivity. All parameters were determined following their respective standard methods. Results obtained showed that the soil in TCFR was dominated by clay texture (40%), followed by sandy clay loam (30%), loam (20%). Silty clay, clay loam and sandy loam constitutes about 10% of the soil texture. Range of mean percentage of organic matter and bulk density are from 2.42±0.06% to 11.64±0.39% and 1.01 to 1.04 (gcm-ł), respectively. Soil pH are relatively very acidic and mean of electrical conductivity is low. Soil carbon content ranged from 0.83±0.03 to 1.87±0.41%. All soil parameter showed a decreasing trend with depth except electrical conductivity. ANOVA test of mean percentage of organic matter, soil water content, soil pH and electrical conductivity showed a significant difference between plot (p<0.05). However there are no significant difference of mean bulk density between plots (p>0.05). There are no significant difference in mean percentage of soil water content, organic matter and bulk density between three different depth (p>0.05). There were a significant difference on percentage of soil carbon organic between plots and depth. The mean of soil organic carbon stock in soil to a depth of 60 cm calculated was 35.50 t/ha.

  1. Non-symbiotic Bradyrhizobium ecotypes dominate North American forest soils.

    PubMed

    VanInsberghe, David; Maas, Kendra R; Cardenas, Erick; Strachan, Cameron R; Hallam, Steven J; Mohn, William W

    2015-11-01

    The genus Bradyrhizobium has served as a model system for studying host-microbe symbiotic interactions and nitrogen fixation due to its importance in agricultural productivity and global nitrogen cycling. In this study, we identify a bacterial group affiliated with this genus that dominates the microbial communities of coniferous forest soils from six distinct ecozones across North America. Representative isolates from this group were obtained and characterized. Using quantitative population genomics, we show that forest soil populations of Bradyrhizobium represent ecotypes incapable of nodulating legume root hairs or fixing atmospheric nitrogen. Instead, these populations appear to be free living and have a greater potential for metabolizing aromatic carbon sources than their close symbiotic relatives. In addition, we identify fine-scaled differentiation between populations inhabiting neighboring soil layers that illustrate how diversity within Bradyrhizobium is structured by habitat similarity. These findings reconcile incongruent observations about this widely studied and important group of bacteria and highlight the value of ecological context to interpretations of microbial diversity and taxonomy. These results further suggest that the influence of this genus likely extends well beyond facilitating agriculture, especially as forest ecosystems are large and integral components of the biosphere. In addition, this study demonstrates how focusing research on economically important microorganisms can bias our understanding of the natural world.

  2. Dehydrogenase activity of forest soils depends on the assay used

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Januszek, Kazimierz; Długa, Joanna; Socha, Jarosław

    2015-01-01

    Dehydrogenases are exclusively intracellular enzymes, which play an important role in the initial stages of oxidation of soil organic matter. One of the most frequently used methods to estimate dehydrogenase activity in soil is based on the use of triphenyltetrazolium chloride as an artificial electron acceptor. The purpose of this study was to compare the activity of dehydrogenases of forest soils with varied physicochemical properties using different triphenyltetrazolium chloride assays. The determination was carried out using the original procedure by Casida et al., a modification of the procedure which involves the use of Ca(OH)2 instead of CaCO3, the Thalmann method, and the assay by Casida et al. without addition of buffer or any salt. Soil dehydrogenase activity depended on the assay used. Dehydrogenase determined by the Casida et al. method without addition of buffer or any salt correlated with the pH values of soils. The autoclaved strongly acidic samples of control soils showed high concentrations of triphenylformazan, probably due to chemical reduction of triphenyltetrazolium chloride. There is, therefore, a need for a sterilization method other than autoclaving, ie a process that results in significant changes in soil properties, thus helping to increase the chemical reduction of triphenyltetrazolium chloride.

  3. Increased mercury in forest soils under elevated carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Natali, Susan M.; Sa_udo-Wilhelmy, Sergio A.; Norby, Richard J; Finzi, Adrien C; Lerdau, Manuel T.

    2008-01-01

    Fossil fuel combustion is the primary anthropogenic source of both CO2 and Hg to the atmosphere. On a global scale, most Hg that enters ecosystems is derived from atmospheric Hg that deposits onto the land surface. Increasing concentrations of atmospheric CO2 may affect Hg deposition to terrestrial systems and storage in soils through CO2-mediated changes in plant and soil properties. We show, using free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiments, that soil Hg concentrations are almost 30% greater under elevated atmospheric CO2 in two temperate forests. There were no direct CO2 effects, however, on litterfall, throughfall or stemflow Hg inputs. Soil Hg was positively correlated with percent soil organic matter (SOM), suggesting that CO2-mediated changes in SOM have influenced soil Hg concentrations. Through its impacts on SOM, elevated atmospheric CO2 may increase the Hg storage capacity of soils and modulate the movement of Hg through the biosphere. Such effects of rising CO2, ones that transcend the typically studied effects on C and nutrient cycling, are an important next phase for research on global environmental change.

  4. Impact of Nitrogen Fertilization on Soil Organic Matter in Forest Soils (INFOSOM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forstner, Stefan J.; Tatzber, Michael; Keiblinger, Katharina M.; Schleppi, Patrick; Hagedorn, Frank; Gundersen, Per; Wanek, Wolfgang; Gerzabek, Martin; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sohpie

    2014-05-01

    Anthropogenic induced nitrogen (N) deposition has been reported to increase carbon (C) storage in boreal forest soils. However, it is unclear if this also applies to temperate forests where primary production, and hence C inputs to soil, are less limited by N. Likewise, litter decomposition and soil organic matter (SOM) stabilization have been shown to be affected by N inputs, although the exact mechanisms remain unclear. A major obstacle in assessing the net effect of increased N availability on soil C budgets is our limited understanding of the response of soil microorganisms and how this may feedback on SOM stabilization in the long run. To collectively address these questions we make use of two long-time forest N-addition experiments from Klosterhede, Denmark and Alptal, Switzerland which received 50-55 and 25 kg N ha-1 year-1, respectively, for over 20 years. At both sites 15N tracer has been applied with the N-addition treatment enabling isotope-specific analysis. Stands are dominated by Norway spruce (Picea abies) but differ in site characteristics such as soil type, elevation, and mean annual temperature. We investigate the effect of N addition on SOM quantity, quality and depth-distribution using state-of-the-art analytical techniques including isotope ratio mass spectroscopy (IRMS), solid state 13C-NMR, and mid-infrared spectroscopy. Effects on structure and function of soil microbial communities are assessed by standard soil microbiological methods including extracellular enzyme activities and complemented by soil metaproteomics, a rapidly developing novel approach. We hypothesize that long-term N addition will (1) foster the accumulation of soil organic matter (SOM) as well as (2) alter SOM quality and (3) its depth-distribution. Furthermore, N addition will also (4) induce changes in structure and function of microbial communities. First results on N effects on SOM quality and microbial activities in the Ah layer will be presented.

  5. Acid soil indicators in forest soils of the Cherry River Watershed, West Virginia.

    PubMed

    Farr, C; Skousen, J; Edwards, P; Connolly, S; Sencindiver, J

    2009-11-01

    Declining forest health has been observed during the past several decades in several areas of the eastern USA, and some of this decline is attributed to acid deposition. Decreases in soil pH and increases in soil acidity are indicators of potential impacts on tree growth due to acid inputs and Al toxicity. The Cherry River watershed, which lies within the Monongahela National Forest in West Virginia, has some of the highest rates of acid deposition in Appalachia. East and West areas within the watershed, which showed differences in precipitation, stream chemistry, and vegetation composition, were compared to evaluate soil acidity conditions and to assess their degree of risk on tree growth. Thirty-one soil pits in the West area and 36 pits in the East area were dug and described, and soil samples from each horizon were analyzed for chemical parameters. In A horizons, East area soils averaged 3.7 pH with 9.4 cmol(c) kg(-1) of acidity compared to pH 4.0 and 6.2 cmol(c) kg(-1) of acidity in West area soils. Extractable cations (Ca, Mg, and Al) were significantly higher in the A, transition, and upper B horizons of East versus West soils. However, even with differences in cation concentrations, Ca/Al molar ratios were similar for East and West soils. For both sites using the Ca/Al ratio, a 50% risk of impaired tree growth was found for A horizons, while a 75% risk was found for deeper horizons. Low concentrations of base cations and high extractable Al in these soils translate into a high degree of risk for forest regeneration and tree growth after conventional tree harvesting.

  6. Differential controls on soil carbon density and mineralization among contrasting forest types in a temperate forest ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    You, Ye-Ming; Wang, Juan; Sun, Xiao-Lu; Tang, Zuo-Xin; Zhou, Zhi-Yong; Sun, Osbert Jianxin

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the controls on soil carbon dynamics is crucial for modeling responses of ecosystem carbon balance to global change, yet few studies provide explicit knowledge on the direct and indirect effects of forest stands on soil carbon via microbial processes. We investigated tree species, soil, and site factors in relation to soil carbon density and mineralization in a temperate forest of central China. We found that soil microbial biomass and community structure, extracellular enzyme activities, and most of the site factors studied varied significantly across contrasting forest types, and that the associations between activities of soil extracellular enzymes and microbial community structure appeared to be weak and inconsistent across forest types, implicating complex mechanisms in the microbial regulation of soil carbon metabolism in relation to tree species. Overall, variations in soil carbon density and mineralization are predominantly accounted for by shared effects of tree species, soil, microclimate, and microbial traits rather than the individual effects of the four categories of factors. Our findings point to differential controls on soil carbon density and mineralization among contrasting forest types and highlight the challenge to incorporate microbial processes for constraining soil carbon dynamics in global carbon cycle models. PMID:26925871

  7. Vegetation, soil, and flooding relationships in a blackwater floodplain forest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burke, M.K.; King, S.L.; Gartner, D.; Eisenbies, M.H.

    2003-01-01

    Hydroperiod is considered the primary determinant of plant species distribution in temperate floodplain forests, but most studies have focused on alluvial (sediment-laden) river systems. Few studies have evaluated plant community relationships in blackwater river systems of the South Atlantic Coastal Plain of North America. In this study, we characterized the soils, hydroperiod, and vegetation communities and evaluated relationships between the physical and chemical environment and plant community structure on the floodplain of the Coosawhatchie River, a blackwater river in South Carolina, USA. The soils were similar to previous descriptions of blackwater floodplain soils but had greater soil N and P availability, substantially greater clay content, and lower soil silt content than was previously reported for other blackwater river floodplains. Results of a cluster analysis showed there were five forest communities on the site, and both short-term (4 years) and long-term (50 years) flooding records documented a flooding gradient: water tupelo community > swamp tupelo > laurel oak = overcup oak > mixed oak. The long-term hydrologic record showed that the floodplain has flooded less frequently from 1994 to present than in previous decades. Detrended correspondence analysis of environmental and relative basal area values showed that 27% of the variation in overstory community structure could be explained by the first two axes; however, fitting the species distributions to the DCA axes using Gaussian regression explained 67% of the variation. Axes were correlated with elevation (flooding intensity) and soil characteristics related to rooting volume and cation nutrient availability. Our study suggests that flooding is the major factor affecting community structure, but soil characteristics also may be factors in community structure in blackwater systems. ?? 2003, The Society of Wetland Scientists.

  8. The 1930s survey of forest resources in Washington and Oregon.

    Treesearch

    Constance A. Harrington

    2003-01-01

    Forest resources in Washington and Oregon were surveyed in the early 1930s by employees of the Pacific Northwest Forest Experiment Station (the original name of the current Pacific Northwest Research Station). This was the first of many periodic forest surveys conducted nationwide by the USDA Forest Service. Many publications and maps were produced from the Washington...

  9. Pulpwood production in southern forest survey territory, 1948

    Treesearch

    Alberti L. Tofte; William S. Stover

    1949-01-01

    Pulpwood production in the seven states of Southern Forest survey territory reached another all-time high in the 1948. Total production was 5,025,900 cords, an increase of 14 percent over 1947. Each of the seven states showed an increase (table 1).

  10. A survey of fishes of the McCormick Forest.

    Treesearch

    Ronald A. Raisanen; J. Kirwin Werner

    1977-01-01

    The four drainage systems of the Cyrus H. McCormick Experimental Forest were surveyed from May through October, 1975 to determine the distribution and relative abundance of fish. More than 2,500 fish were collected. Game species, such as brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) large mouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui), and northern...

  11. Urban Forest Health Needs Assessment Survey: Results and Recommendations

    Treesearch

    Jill D. Pokorny

    1998-01-01

    The survey was designed to query urban forestry professionals in the 20 northeastern and Midwest States and the District of Columbia, which are served by the Northeastern Area, to learn about their attitudes toward the general issue of urban forest health, identify specific training and information needs in the area of urban tree health management, and discover...

  12. Northeastern forest survey revised cubic-foot volume equations

    Treesearch

    Charles T. Scott

    1981-01-01

    Cubic-foot volume equations are presented for the 17 species groups used in the forest survey of the 14 northeastern states. The previous cubic- foot volume equations were simple linear in form; the revised cubic-foot volume equations are nonlinear.

  13. Nitrogen dynamics in oak forest soils along a historical deposition gradient

    Treesearch

    Ralph E. J. Boerner; Elaine Kennedy Sutherland

    1995-01-01

    This study quantified soil nutrient status and N mineralization/nitrification potentials in soils of oakdominated, unmanaged forest stands in seven experimental forests ranging along a historical and current acidic deposition gradient from southern Illinois to central West Virginia, U.S.A. Among these seven sites (that spanned 8.5º of longitude) soil pH and Ca...

  14. Evidence that soil aluminum enforces site fidelity of southern New England forest trees

    Treesearch

    S. W. Bigelow; C. D. Canham

    2010-01-01

    Tree species composition of hardwood forests of the northeastern United States corresponds with soil chemistry, and differential performance along soil calcium (Ca) gradients has been proposed as a mechanism for enforcing this fidelity of species to site. We conducted studies in a southern New England forest to test if surface-soil Ca is more important than other...

  15. Managing ponderosa pine forests in central Oregon: who will speak for the soil?

    Treesearch

    Matt D. Busse; Gregg M. Riegel

    2005-01-01

    The soils of the central Oregon pumice plateau are relatively young and infertile, yet support an array of plant diversity and growth in the region's pine forests. Whether these coarse-textured, pumice and ash soils are resilient to forest disturbance is not well understood. We present results from a long-term experiment that examined changes in soil quality in...

  16. An improved technique for taking hydraulic conductivity cores from forest soils

    Treesearch

    Gerald M. Aubertin

    1969-01-01

    Describes a large-diameter, heavy-duty soil sampler that makes it possible to obtain long, relatively undisturbed sample columns from stony, root-filled forest soils. The resultant samples include the roots, root channels, stones, and macro-voids common to forested soils.

  17. Soil quality standards and guidelines for forest sustainability in northwestern North America

    Treesearch

    Deborah Page-Dumroese; Martin Jurgensen; William Elliot; Thomas Rice; John Nesser; Thomas Collins; Robert. Meurisse

    2000-01-01

    Soil quality standards and guidelines of the USDA Forest Service were some of the first in the world to be developed to evaluate changes in forest soil productivity and sustainability after harvesting and site preparation. International and national development of criteria and indicators for maintenance of soil productivity make it imperative to have adequate threshold...

  18. Soil respiration response to prescribed burning and thinning in mixed-conifer and hardwood forests

    Treesearch

    Amy Concilio; Siyan Ma; Qinglin Li; James LeMoine; Jiquan Chen; Malcolm North; Daryl Moorhead; Randy Jensen

    2005-01-01

    The effects of management on soil carbon efflux in different ecosystems are still largely unknown yet crucial to both our understanding and management of global carbon flux. To compare the effects of common forest management practices on soil carbon cycling, we measured soil respiration rate (SRR) in a mixed-conifer and hardwood forest that had undergone various...

  19. Evolution of soil, ecosystem, and critical zone research at the USDA FS Calhoun Experimental Forest

    Treesearch

    Daniel deB. Richter; Allan R. Bacon; Sharon A. Billings; Dan Binkley; Marilyn Buford; Mac Callaham; Amy E. Curry; Ryan L. Fimmen; A. Stuart Grandy; Paul R. Heine; Michael Hofmockel; Jason A. Jackson; Elisabeth LeMaster; Jianwei Li; Daniel Markewitz; Megan L. Mobley; Mary W. Morrison; Michael S. Strickland; Thomas Waldrop; Carol G. Wells

    2015-01-01

    The US Department of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service Calhoun Experimental Forest was organized in 1947 on the southern Piedmont to engage in research that today is called restoration ecology, to improve soils, forests, and watersheds in a region that had been severely degraded by nearly 150 years farming. Today, this 2,050-ha research forest is managed by the Sumter...

  20. Organic matter content of soil after logging of fir and redwood forests

    Treesearch

    Philip B. Durgin

    1980-01-01

    Organic matter in soil controls a variety of soil properties. A study in Humboldt County, California, evaluated changes in percentages of organic matter in soil as a function of time after timber harvest and soil depth in fir and redwood forests. To assess organic matter content, samples were taken from cutblocks of various ages in soil to depths of 1.33 m. Results...

  1. Assessing soil compaction on Forest Inventory & Analysis phase 3 field plots using a pocket penetrometer

    Treesearch

    Michael C. Amacher; Katherine P. O' Neill

    2004-01-01

    Soil compaction is an important indicator of soil quality, yet few practical methods are available to quantitatively measure this variable. Although an assessment of the areal extent of soil compaction is included as part of the soil indicator portion of the Forest Inventory & Analysis (FIA) program, no quantitative measurement of the degree of soil compaction...

  2. Nature and extent of macropores in forest soils and their influence on subsurface water movement

    Treesearch

    Gerald M. Aubertin; Gerald M. Aubertin

    1971-01-01

    Rain, falling on a sloping forested soil, may enter the soil quickly and move considerable distances through the soil by way of macropores. A macropore is a large pore, cavity, passageway, channel, tunnel, or void in the soil, through which water usually drains by gravity. Large quantities of water can move through the soil by way of these macropores-without...

  3. Validating visual disturbance types and classes used for forest soil monitoring protocols

    Treesearch

    D. S. Page-Dumroese; A. M. Abbott; M. P. Curran; M. F. Jurgensen

    2012-01-01

    We describe several methods for validating visual soil disturbance classes used during forest soil monitoring after specific management operations. Site-specific vegetative, soil, and hydrologic responses to soil disturbance are needed to identify sensitive and resilient soil properties and processes; therefore, validation of ecosystem responses can provide information...

  4. Modelling daily soil respiration in lowland oak forest during and after soil water saturation events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marjanovic, Hrvoje; Zorana Ostrogovic, Masa; Alberti, Giorgio; Peressotti, Alessandro

    2013-04-01

    Lowland forests of pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L.) in Croatia are acclimated to high soil water content and flooding during the cold part of the year (November - March). Changes in weather pattern and increasing frequency of extreme events, like high precipitation episodes or flooding events out of dormancy period, are becoming more likely. However, the response of these forest ecosystems to flooding during vegetation period is not well investigated. It is well known that soil respiration (SR) depends on soil water content. Nevertheless, some of the most popular daily time-step SR models, like the one of Reichstein et al (2003), do not take into account the effects of soil water saturation which leads to hypoxia in soil and decline of SR. Therefore, we propose a modification of the SR model of Reichstein et. al (2003) that takes into account the effects of high soil water content on SR. In a 37 years old forest of pedunculate oak, located in Jastrebarsko forest (N45.619, E15.688), we measured soil CO2 efflux, every four hours during years 2009 and 2010, using a closed dynamic system with 2-4 chambers. Measured effluxes were averaged to obtain a daily average CO2 efflux. Measurements have shown that high soil water content (i.e. greater that field capacity) strongly decreases soil CO2 efflux, while subsequent soil draining produces bursts in efflux, particularly in spring. Assuming that the measured CO2 efflux corresponds to the total SR, we parameterized the original Reichstein et al (2003) daily time-step SR model and models based on the original but with different modifications (added seasonality in LAI term, modification in soil water status term, addition of new pulse term due to soil draining) and their combinations. Performance of each model was assessed using standard statistical measures (R2, RMSE, Mean Absolute Error, Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency). Modification of soil water status term significantly improved daily SR estimate (RMSE 0.67) compared to

  5. Changes in soil respiration components and their specific respiration along three successional forests in the subtropics

    DOE PAGES

    Han, Tianfeng; Liu, Juxiu; Wang, Gangsheng; ...

    2016-01-16

    1.Understanding how soil respiration components change with forest succession is critical for modelling and predicting soil carbon (C) processes and its sequestration below-ground. The specific respiration (a ratio of respiration to biomass) is increasingly being used as an indicator of forest succession conceptually based on Odum's theory of ecosystem development. However, the hypothesis that specific soil respiration declines with forest succession remains largely untested. 2.We used a trenching method to partition soil respiration into heterotrophic respiration and autotrophic respiration (RH and RA) and then evaluated the specific RH and specific RA in three successional forests in subtropical China. 3.Our resultsmore » showed a clear seasonality in the influence of forest succession on RH, with no significant differences among the three forests in the dry season but a higher value in the old-growth forest than the other two forests in the wet season. RA in the old-growth forest tended to be the highest among the three forests. Both the specific RH and specific RA decreased with the progressive maturity of three forests. 4.Lastly, our results highlight the importance of forest succession in determining the variation of RH in different seasons. With forest succession, soil microbes and plant roots become more efficient to conserve C resources, which would result in a greater proportion of C retained in soils.« less

  6. Acid precipitation and ionic movements in Adironack forest soils

    SciTech Connect

    Mollitor, A.V.; Raynal, D.J.

    1982-01-01

    To examine potential effects of acid precipitation on forest soils in a hardwood and in a coniferous stand in the central Adirondacks of New York State, solution chemistry was studied in five strata of these ecosystems. Bulk precipitation, throughfall, and soil leachates were sampled and analyzed for pH, NO/sub 3/, SO/sub 4/, K, Ca, Mg, and Na. A subset of the samples were analyzed for Al. Organic anion concentrations were estimated from ionic charge balances. Concentrations of NO/sub 3/, H, and K in B horizon leachates were not significantly different than precipitation concentrations, while concentrations of SO/sub 4/, Ca, Mg, and Na in water leaving the sola were significantly greater than precipitation concentrations. Patterns of movement for most ions were similar for both study sites, but concentrations were generally greater in the conifer system. Cation leaching from the hardwood site appears about equally influenced by SO/sub 4/ and organic anion leaching. Sulfate and organic anion concentrations were greater in the conifer site but organic anion leaching dominated. Sulfate appears highly mobile in these soils. Chronic leaching by H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ combined with internally generated organic acids may represent a threat to the nutrient status of many Adirondack forest soils.

  7. [Effects of climate change on forest soil organic carbon storage: a review].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiao-yu; Zhang, Cheng-yi; Guo, Guang-fen

    2010-07-01

    Forest soil organic carbon is an important component of global carbon cycle, and the changes of its accumulation and decomposition directly affect terrestrial ecosystem carbon storage and global carbon balance. Climate change would affect the photosynthesis of forest vegetation and the decomposition and transformation of forest soil organic carbon, and further, affect the storage and dynamics of organic carbon in forest soils. Temperature, precipitation, atmospheric CO2 concentration, and other climatic factors all have important influences on the forest soil organic carbon storage. Understanding the effects of climate change on this storage is helpful to the scientific management of forest carbon sink, and to the feasible options for climate change mitigation. This paper summarized the research progress about the distribution of organic carbon storage in forest soils, and the effects of elevated temperature, precipitation change, and elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration on this storage, with the further research subjects discussed.

  8. Soil microbial communities and metabolic function of a Northern Alabama forest ecosystem

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Thinning, prescribed burning, and their combinations, are common forest management practices to restore degraded forest communities and to prevent uncontrollable wildfires. However, their impacts on soil microbial communities, which are vital to global element cycling, are traditionally overlooked. ...

  9. Using advanced surface complexation models for modelling soil chemistry under forests: Solling forest, Germany.

    PubMed

    Bonten, Luc T C; Groenenberg, Jan E; Meesenburg, Henning; de Vries, Wim

    2011-10-01

    Various dynamic soil chemistry models have been developed to gain insight into impacts of atmospheric deposition of sulphur, nitrogen and other elements on soil and soil solution chemistry. Sorption parameters for anions and cations are generally calibrated for each site, which hampers extrapolation in space and time. On the other hand, recently developed surface complexation models (SCMs) have been successful in predicting ion sorption for static systems using generic parameter sets. This study reports the inclusion of an assemblage of these SCMs in the dynamic soil chemistry model SMARTml and applies this model to a spruce forest site in Solling Germany. Parameters for SCMs were taken from generic datasets and not calibrated. Nevertheless, modelling results for major elements matched observations well. Further, trace metals were included in the model, also using the existing framework of SCMs. The model predicted sorption for most trace elements well.

  10. Assessing relationships between forest structure and soil erosion in mountainous forest using a Cesium-137 tracer technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Kwanghun; Reineking, Björn

    2016-04-01

    The fallout radionuclides (FRNs) particularly Cesium-137 are known as a quantitatively reliable means of estimating sediment redistribution rates within agricultural landscapes and forested area. However, fewer studies have done using FRNs in forested areas even though understanding soil redistribution patterns in mountainous forest areas is one of the important issues for forest management. The objective of this study is to figure out key forest structures affecting soil redistribution rate. In this study, we estimated soil loss and gain rate at 50 points with various forest types and topography in steep mountainous forest area in the Experimental Forest of Kangwon National University in Kangwon Province, South Korea by the Cesium-137 tracing technique. The results show the factors related to the topography such as slope and water accumulation have little effect on soil redistribution rate. The shrub and small tree layer affect more on soil redistribution rate. Additionally, the data shows relatively higher erosion rate in Korean Pine tree plantation area (Pinus koraiensis Sieb. et Zucc.) than semi-natural deciduous and Quercus forests where shrubs and small trees are more prevalent.

  11. Unravelling the importance of forest age stand and forest structure driving microbiological soil properties, enzymatic activities and soil nutrients content in Mediterranean Spanish black pine(Pinus nigra Ar. ssp. salzmannii) Forest.

    PubMed

    Lucas-Borja, M E; Hedo, J; Cerdá, A; Candel-Pérez, D; Viñegla, B

    2016-08-15

    This study aimed to investigate the effects that stand age and forest structure have on microbiological soil properties, enzymatic activities and nutrient content. Thirty forest compartments were randomly selected at the Palancares y Agregados managed forest area (Spain), supporting forest stands of five ages; from 100 to 80years old to compartments with trees that were 19-1years old. Forest area ranging from 80 to 120years old and without forest intervention was selected as the control. We measured different soil enzymatic activities, soil respiration and nutrient content (P, K, Na, Mg, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb and Ca) in the top cm of 10 mineral soils in each compartment. Results showed that the lowest forest stand age and the forest structure created by management presented lower values of organic matter, soil moisture, water holding capacity and litterfall and higher values of C/N ratio in comparison with the highest forest stand age and the related forest structure, which generated differences in soil respiration and soil enzyme activities. The forest structure created by no forest management (control plot) presented the highest enzymatic activities, soil respiration, NH4(+) and NO3(-). Results did not show a clear trend in nutrient content comparing all the experimental areas. Finally, the multivariate PCA analysis clearly clustered three differentiated groups: Control plot; from 100 to 40years old and from 39 to 1year old. Our results suggest that the control plot has better soil quality and that extreme forest stand ages (100-80 and 19-1years old) and the associated forest structure generates differences in soil parameters but not in soil nutrient content. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Soil drainage and vegetation controls of nitrogen transformation rates in forest soils, southern Quebec

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullah, Sami; Moore, Tim R.

    2009-03-01

    We investigated the influence of soil drainage class and tree species on nitrogen (N) mineralization and nitrification rates in two forest catenas in southern Quebec. Monthly net N mineralization and nitrification rates were determined along transects running from well-drained to poorly drained soils for 2 years through in situ incubation of homogenized soils. Potential N transformation rates in soils under American beech, sugar maple, and eastern hemlock trees were determined through incubation of homogenized soils in the laboratory under two different moisture regimes (50 and 100% water by volume) mimicking well-drained and poorly drained soil conditions in the two watersheds. Field-based N mineralization rates averaged 38 ± 6 mg m-2 d-1 in well-drained soils, while those in the poorly drained soils averaged 17 ± 5 mg N m-2 d-1. Similarly, net nitrification rates in well-drained soils (18 ± 4 mg N m-2 d-1) were 3 times greater than those in poorly drained soils (6 ± 3 mg N m-2 d-1). Laboratory-based potential N mineralization rates in soils ranked sugar maple > American beech > eastern hemlock under both well-drained (incubated at 50% water by volume) and poorly drained soil conditions (incubated at 100% water by volume). Potential nitrification rates ranked sugar maple > American beech > eastern hemlock under well-drained soil conditions, while under poorly drained conditions, American beech > sugar maple ≥ eastern hemlock. Nitrification enzyme activity determined through a soil slurry method correlated significantly with field-based nitrification rates. Differences in soil volumetric water contents, leaf litter N input, and soil C:N ratios, as surrogates of soil drainage and floristic heterogeneity, respectively, correlated significantly with field-based N mineralization and nitrification rates. Field-based N mineralization and nitrification rates were higher in summer than in early spring and autumn. Soil drainage class and tree species exert marked

  13. Soil Bacterial Community Structure Responses to Precipitation Reduction and Forest Management in Forest Ecosystems across Germany

    PubMed Central

    Felsmann, Katja; Baudis, Mathias; Gimbel, Katharina; Kayler, Zachary E.; Ellerbrock, Ruth; Bruehlheide, Helge; Bruckhoff, Johannes; Welk, Erik; Puhlmann, Heike; Weiler, Markus; Gessler, Arthur; Ulrich, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Soil microbial communities play an important role in forest ecosystem functioning, but how climate change will affect the community composition and consequently bacterial functions is poorly understood. We assessed the effects of reduced precipitation with the aim of simulating realistic future drought conditions for one growing season on the bacterial community and its relation to soil properties and forest management. We manipulated precipitation in beech and conifer forest plots managed at different levels of intensity in three different regions across Germany. The precipitation reduction decreased soil water content across the growing season by between 2 to 8% depending on plot and region. T-RFLP analysis and pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene were used to study the total soil bacterial community and its active members after six months of precipitation reduction. The effect of reduced precipitation on the total bacterial community structure was negligible while significant effects could be observed for the active bacteria. However, the effect was secondary to the stronger influence of specific soil characteristics across the three regions and management selection of overstorey tree species and their respective understorey vegetation. The impact of reduced precipitation differed between the studied plots; however, we could not determine the particular parameters being able to modify the response of the active bacterial community among plots. We conclude that the moderate drought induced by the precipitation manipulation treatment started to affect the active but not the total bacterial community, which points to an adequate resistance of the soil microbial system over one growing season. PMID:25875835

  14. Recharge forest revisited: soils of Brookhaven National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Grafton, J.

    1980-11-01

    Soil samples were collected from terrestrial systems 44 months after they had been subjected to 22 months of sewage spray application. Data on pH, % organic matter, exchangeable hydrogen, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, calcium, manganese, iron, aluminum, nitrate, and ammonia were generated for each soil horizon in three plots from two forest types. The three plots represent a control, treatment with primary sewage, and treatment with secondary sewage. There were no replicates. Differences in soil chemistry and/or structure between the three plots were assumed to be due to sewage application. Residual difference for a parameter, or changes remaining after 44 months, were considered significant if at least one Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) by horizon produced an F value corresponding to a p of .05. Analyses, data, and pH graphs are presented for future reference.

  15. Threshold Responses to Soil Moisture Deficit by Trees and Soil in Tropical Rain Forests: Insights from Field Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Meir, Patrick; Wood, Tana E.; Galbraith, David R.; Brando, Paulo M.; Da Costa, Antonio C. L.; Rowland, Lucy; Ferreira, Leandro V.

    2015-01-01

    Many tropical rain forest regions are at risk of increased future drought. The net effects of drought on forest ecosystem functioning will be substantial if important ecological thresholds are passed. However, understanding and predicting these effects is challenging using observational studies alone. Field-based rainfall exclusion (canopy throughfall exclusion; TFE) experiments can offer mechanistic insight into the response to extended or severe drought and can be used to help improve model-based simulations, which are currently inadequate. Only eight TFE experiments have been reported for tropical rain forests. We examine them, synthesizing key results and focusing on two processes that have shown threshold behavior in response to drought: (1) tree mortality and (2) the efflux of carbon dioxdie from soil, soil respiration. We show that: (a) where tested using large-scale field experiments, tropical rain forest tree mortality is resistant to long-term soil moisture deficit up to a threshold of 50% of the water that is extractable by vegetation from the soil, but high mortality occurs beyond this value, with evidence from one site of increased autotrophic respiration, and (b) soil respiration reaches its peak value in response to soil moisture at significantly higher soil moisture content for clay-rich soils than for clay-poor soils. This first synthesis of tropical TFE experiments offers the hypothesis that low soil moisture–related thresholds for key stress responses in soil and vegetation may prove to be widely applicable across tropical rain forests despite the diversity of these forests. PMID:26955085

  16. Threshold Responses to Soil Moisture Deficit by Trees and Soil in Tropical Rain Forests: Insights from Field Experiments.

    PubMed

    Meir, Patrick; Wood, Tana E; Galbraith, David R; Brando, Paulo M; Da Costa, Antonio C L; Rowland, Lucy; Ferreira, Leandro V

    2015-09-01

    Many tropical rain forest regions are at risk of increased future drought. The net effects of drought on forest ecosystem functioning will be substantial if important ecological thresholds are passed. However, understanding and predicting these effects is challenging using observational studies alone. Field-based rainfall exclusion (canopy throughfall exclusion; TFE) experiments can offer mechanistic insight into the response to extended or severe drought and can be used to help improve model-based simulations, which are currently inadequate. Only eight TFE experiments have been reported for tropical rain forests. We examine them, synthesizing key results and focusing on two processes that have shown threshold behavior in response to drought: (1) tree mortality and (2) the efflux of carbon dioxdie from soil, soil respiration. We show that: (a) where tested using large-scale field experiments, tropical rain forest tree mortality is resistant to long-term soil moisture deficit up to a threshold of 50% of the water that is extractable by vegetation from the soil, but high mortality occurs beyond this value, with evidence from one site of increased autotrophic respiration, and (b) soil respiration reaches its peak value in response to soil moisture at significantly higher soil moisture content for clay-rich soils than for clay-poor soils. This first synthesis of tropical TFE experiments offers the hypothesis that low soil moisture-related thresholds for key stress responses in soil and vegetation may prove to be widely applicable across tropical rain forests despite the diversity of these forests.

  17. Effect of soil compaction and organic matter removal on two earthworm populations and some soil properties in a hardwood forest

    Treesearch

    D. Jordan; V. C. Hubbard; F., Jr. Ponder; E. C. Berry

    1999-01-01

    Earthworms can alter the physical, chemical, and biological properties of a forest ecosystem. Any physical manipulation to the soil ecosystem may, in turn, affect the activities and ecology of earthworms. The effects of organic matter removal (logs and forest floor) and soil compaction on earthworm activities were measured in a central hardwood region (oakhickory)...

  18. SOC storage in Swiss forest soils - driven by climate or historical land-use?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gosheva, Sia; Walthert, Lorenz; Niklaus, Pascal; Zimmermann, Stephan; Hagedorn, Frank

    2015-04-01

    Soils store the most carbon of all terrestrial ecosystems, with forest soils being particularly carbon-rich (Schmidt et al. 2011; Hagedorn et al. 2010; Jobaggy & Jackson 2000). The C balance of soils might be altered by land-use changes such as in Switzerland, where the forest cover has increased by approximately 22% in the last century (Ginzler et al. 2011). The objectives of this study were 1) to determine whether historical forest cover change has an impact on soil organic carbon (SOC) storage in Swiss forests, and 2) to estimate the influence of climate on C-stocks in the organic layer and the mineral soil. In our study, we reconstructed forest cover changes for the last 150 years for the coordinates of 1000 soil profiles from the soil database of the Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research (WSL). We evaluated historical and modern topographic maps using ArcGIS, classifying current forest sites into permanently (≥150y) forested and newly forested sites (<150y). To identify the impact of climate and historic land-use change on SOC storage, we statistically analyzed the influence of the estimated forest ages of the sites and of potentially additional drivers such as topography, climate, and soil properties on SOC stocks. Contrary to our expectations, our results indicate slightly higher SOC stocks in younger forest sites compared to permanently forested ones. This result could be observed in both organic layer (28,65 vs. 22,23 t C ha-1) and mineral soil (131,38 vs. 113,68 t C ha-1). We attribute the slightly smaller SOC stocks in the younger forests to their inherently higher SOC-stocks, as associated with favorable land previously used for grassland. Moreover, we observed higher SOC stocks under coniferous than under deciduous forest - however, this was only evident in the organic layer, but not in the mineral soil. Soil carbon increased significantly with decreasing mean annual temperature (MAT) and increasing precipitation (MAP), in

  19. High abundance of Crenarchaeota in a temperate acidic forest soil.

    PubMed

    Kemnitz, Dana; Kolb, Steffen; Conrad, Ralf

    2007-06-01

    The objective of the study was to elucidate the depth distribution and community composition of Archaea in a temperate acidic forest soil. Numbers of Archaea and Bacteria were measured in the upper 18 cm of the soil, and soil cores were sampled on two separate occasions using quantitative PCR targeting 16S rRNA genes. Maximum numbers of Archaea were 0.6-3.8 x 10(8) 16S rRNA genes per gram of dry soil. Numbers of Bacteria were generally higher, but Archaea always accounted for a high percentage of the total gene numbers (12-38%). The archaeal community structure was analysed by the construction of clone libraries and by terminal restriction length polymorphism (T-RFLP) using the same Archaea-specific primers. With the reverse primer labelled, T-RFLP analysis led to the detection of four T-RFs. Three had lengths of 83, 185 and 218 bp and corresponded to uncultured Crenarchaeota. One (447 bp) was assigned to Thermoplasmales. Labelling of the forward primer allowed further separation of the T-RF into Crenarchaeota Group I.1c and Group I.1b, and indicated that Crenarchaeota of the Group I.1c were the predominant 16S rRNA genotype (soil. The abundance of Archaea and concentration of ammonia and nitrate decreased with soil depth. Hence it is unclear if the detected Crenarchaeota Group I.1c participated in ammonia oxidation or had another phenotype.

  20. Nitrogen-induced reduction in soil respiration of European forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berridge, Callum; Fleischer, Katrin; Bistinas, Ioannis; Ekici, Altug; Dolman, Albertus

    2014-05-01

    Soil heterotrophic respiration is parameterized in vegetation models as a temperature-dependent decay function, and is usually spatially constant. We test this fundamental assumption with chamber-based observations of the soil carbon efflux along a >1,100km transect throughout European forests, where the latitude is kept constant to control for insolation. We find a modest, but significant, inter-site linear correlation between air temperature and carbon efflux (r2 = 0.32, p=0.02), but not at 5cm depth soil temperature (r2 = -0.02, p=0.4). Average midday respiration increased West-East and correlates well with distance from the coast (r2 = 0.55, p<0.02). Since soil carbon content proved to be a poor explanatory variable (r2=0.04, p=0.5), we turn our attention to nitrogen deposition to find a strong inverse relationship (r2=-0.5, p<0.01; linear model). We are thus able to reject the null hypothesis that there is no spatial variation in soil efflux amongst comparable sites along the same latitude. Critically, we compliment our analysis with independently measured FLUXNET data that accord with our field observations. In both cases, nitrogen is a more reliable predictor of carbon efflux at the inter-site, grid-size scale than temperature. We explain the reduction in soil respiration as a result of nitrogen inhibition of decomposition.

  1. Does drought alter hydrological functions in forest soils?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gimbel, Katharina F.; Puhlmann, Heike; Weiler, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Climate change is expected to impact the water cycle and severely affect precipitation patterns across central Europe and in other parts of the world, leading to more frequent and severe droughts. Usually when projecting drought impacts on hydrological systems, it is assumed that system properties, like soil properties, remain stable and will not be affected by drought events. To study if this assumption is appropriate, we address the effects of drought on the infiltration behavior of forest soils using dye tracer experiments on six sites in three regions across Germany, which were forced into drought conditions. The sites cover clayey-, loamy- and sandy-textured soils. In each region, we compared a deciduous and a coniferous forest stand to address differences between the main tree species. The results of the dye tracer experiments show clear evidence for changes in infiltration behavior at the sites. The infiltration changed at the clayey plots from regular and homogeneous flow to fast preferential flow. Similar behavior was observed at the loamy plots, where large areas in the upper layers remained dry, displaying signs of strong water repellency. This was confirmed by water drop penetration time (WDPT) tests, which revealed, in all except one plot, moderate to severe water repellency. Water repellency was also accountable for the change of regular infiltration to fingered flow in the sandy soils. The results of this study suggest that the drought history or, more generally, the climatic conditions of a soil in the past are more important than the actual antecedent soil moisture status regarding hydrophobicity and infiltration behavior; furthermore, drought effects on infiltration need to be considered in hydrological models to obtain realistic predictions concerning water quality and quantity in runoff and groundwater recharge.

  2. Turnover of organic matter in forest soils under increased N deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kammer, A.; Hagedorn, F.; Schmidt, M. W. I.

    2009-04-01

    Soils contain the largest fraction of the terrestrial carbon pool. However, if soils act as a carbon source or sink under the ongoing climate change is still uncertain. For instant, recent studies are controversial whether anthropogenic induced N deposition into forest ecosystems accelerates, suppresses or does not affect soil organic matter decomposition. Several studies have indicated a substrate specific N effect on soil organic matter decay. While increased N deposition seems to inhibit the degradation of lignin and its derivatives, it might accelerate the decomposition of labile litter components. Besides CO2 release, N addition may also alter the leaching of dissolved organic carbon, which is likely an important process of carbon transport within the soil profile. So far, only a few studies have surveyed the dissolved organic carbon production under increased N deposition. To gain more insight into potentially varying effects of N addition on different substrates in a forest soil, we performed a labeled litter experiment in a productive beech forest in Switzerland. At the end of November 2007 we replaced native litter with 13C labeled beech leaves (-40.7‰) and beech wood (-38.4‰), which enabled us to trace the fate of 13C in CO2 as well as in leached dissolved organic carbon. To simulate an increased N deposition, we added a NH4NO3-solution (+60 kg N ha-1y-1) biweekly and during one year. Our results suggest that the initial stage of leaf litter decomposition was completed after three winter month despite of a mean air temperature of only 0.6°C. In this initial stage, N addition intensified microbial CO2-release by up to 25%. However, N addition had the opposite effect afterwards with strongly reduced litter respiration on the N treatment sites (-28%). Since N addition reduced carbon loss from the leaf layer by 15% on average, we suppose a corresponding surplus of the carbon input into the soil compared to the control sites. In contrast to the leaf layer

  3. Post-fire soil water repellency in highly repellent forest soils in Victoria, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cawson, Jane; Nyman, Petter; Sheridan, Gary; Lane, Patrick; Smith, Hugh

    2010-05-01

    In this study soil water repellency was monitored seasonally following prescribed burns to better understand the effects of fire severity on soil hydrological properties. The study sites consisted of dry eucalypt forest with clay loam soil. This forest type is common in south-eastern Australia and is frequently burnt by both wildfires and prescribed burns. A feature of the soil at these sites is that it is strongly repellent in the absence of fire. This potentially complicates the relationship between fire and soil water repellency. The sites were burnt by prescribed fires and lighting patterns were used to manipulate the fire behaviour and achieve a range of fire severities. Since soil temperatures during a fire are thought to drive changes in soil water repellency, soil temperatures were measured during the burns using thermocouples and heat-sensitive liquids. Other indicators of fire severity and soil heating were also measured including surface fuel consumption, fire behaviour, fuel moisture and soil moisture. Following the burn, water repellency was measured in situ, using the Critical Surface Tension test at seven depths (between 0 -10 cm) within patches of each fire severity class. These measurements were repeated overtime (in spring and then in autumn) to reveal temporal trends relating to post-fire recovery and seasonal climatic influences. Initial analysis of the data from immediately following the burn shows only small differences in water repellency between the fire severities and between the burnt and unburnt areas. However, during the wet spring period the distinction between the fire severities and between the burnt and unburnt areas was much more obvious for some locations with water repellency persisting more strongly in the burnt areas. These results suggest that for soils with pre-existing water repellency there is a complex relationship between fire and water repellency, where seasonal climatic influences may delay the appearance of fire

  4. Microbial Community Structure and Function of Soil Following Ecosystem Conversion from Native Forests to Teak Plantation Forests

    PubMed Central

    de Gannes, Vidya; Bekele, Isaac; Dipchansingh, Denny; Wuddivira, Mark N.; De Cairies, Sunshine; Boman, Mattias; Hickey, William J.

    2016-01-01

    Soil microbial communities can form links between forest trees and functioning of forest soils, yet the impacts of converting diverse native forests to monoculture plantations on soil microbial communities are limited. This study tested the hypothesis that conversion from a diverse native to monoculture ecosystem would be paralleled by a reduction in the diversity of the soil microbial communities. Soils from Teak (Tectona grandis) plantations and adjacent native forest were examined at two locations in Trinidad. Microbial community structure was determined via Illumina sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes and fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions, and by phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis. Functional characteristics of microbial communities were assessed by extracellular enzyme activity (EEA). Conversion to Teak plantation had no effect on species richness or evenness of bacterial or fungal communities, and no significant effect on EEA. However, multivariate analyses (nested and two-way crossed analysis of similarity) revealed significant effects (p < 0.05) of forest type (Teak vs. native) upon the composition of the microbial communities as reflected in all three assays of community structure. Univariate analysis of variance identified two bacterial phyla that were significantly more abundant in the native forest soils than in Teak soils (Cyanobacteria, p = 0.0180; Nitrospirae, p = 0.0100) and two more abundant in Teak soils than in native forest (candidate phyla TM7, p = 0.0004; WS6, p = 0.044). Abundance of an unidentified class of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) was significantly greater in Teak soils, notable because Teak is colonized by AMF rather than by ectomycorrihzal fungi that are symbionts of the native forest tree species. In conclusion, microbial diversity indices were not affected in the conversion of native forest to teak plantation, but examination of specific bacterial taxa showed that there were significant differences in

  5. An Integrated Spatially Dynamic Disturbance and Forest Soil Carbon Model: Preliminary Results from Willow Creek Experimental Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheller, R. M.; Hua, D.; Bolstad, P. V.

    2008-12-01

    Total forest carbon (C) storage is determined by forest succession, multiple interacting disturbances, climate and the edaphic properties of a site or region, including soil texture and depth. How these complex processes interact will determine forest carbon dynamics at landscape and regional scales. We have developed a new succession extension for the LANDIS-II forest landscape simulation model that incorporates the belowground soil C dynamics of the Century soil model. This extension simulates three primary soil organic matter (SOM) pools (fast, slow, passive), litter dynamics, and nitrogen (N) feedbacks to overstory production. The extension was validated against data from the Willow Creek experimental forest in Wisconsin, USA. We subsequently initialized the full model to simulate forest dynamics of 10,000 ha of the surrounding forest landscape. We simulated a representative harvest regime and a historic wind throw regime (50 year wind rotation period, including light, moderate, and extreme events), two common disturbances in mesic forests of the Lake States. We also simulated forest change and total C storage assuming no atmospheric N deposition and N deposition equivalent to 2008 rates. Our results indicate a strong feedback from harvesting to litter C and the fast and slow SOM pools. The passive SOM pool was not significantly altered. Wind disturbance had a negligible effect on all pools. Simulations without N deposition significantly underestimated contemporary forest productivity and the system was more sensitive to disturbances when N deposition was excluded. In conclusion, we have developed a robust model of above and belowground C and N cycling that can readily plug into an existing forest modeling framework to simulate landscape and regional scale forest dynamics and the interactions among forest disturbances, climate change, and soil processes.

  6. A guide for the use of digital elevation model data for making soil surveys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klingebiel, A.A.; Horvath, Emil H.; Reybold, William U.; Moore, D.G.; Fosnight, E.A.; Loveland, T.R.

    1988-01-01

    The intent of this publication is twofold: (1) to serve as a user guide for soil scientists and others interested in learning about the value and use of digital elevation model (DEM) data in making soil surveys and (2) to provide documentation of the Soil Landscape Analysis Project (SLAP). This publication provides a step-by-step guide on how digital slope-class maps are adjusted to topographic maps and orthophotoquads to obtain accurate slope-class maps, and how these derivative maps can be used as a base for soil survey premaps. In addition, guidance is given on the use of aspect-class maps and other resource data in making pre-maps. The value and use of tabular summaries are discussed. Examples of the use of DEM products by the authors and by selected field soil scientists are also given. Additional information on SLAP procedures may be obtained from USDA, Soil Conservation Service, Soil Survey Division, P.O. Box 2890, Washington, D.C. 20013, and from references (Horvath and others, 1987; Horvath and others, 1983; Klingebiel and others, 1987; and Young, 1987) listed in this publication. The slope and aspect products and the procedures for using these products have evolved during 5 years of cooperative research with the USDA, Soil Conservation Service and Forest Service, and the USDI, Bureau of Land Management.

  7. Effect of soil bulk density on forest tree seedlings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kormanek, Mariusz; Banach, Jacek; Sowa, Paweł

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents the results of an analysis of the influence of soil bulk density in a forest nursery plot on the growth and quality parameters of Scots pine and European beech seedlings. Particular density variants were obtained using a tractor device exerting controlled pressure on the soil, while field examinations were performed on an area of `Kłaj' forest nursery in Niepołomice Forest District. Three series of plots were prepared for each species, applying a unit pressure of the values of 50, 100, 150, 200, 250 kPa, corresponding to the dry bulk density in the range of 1.03-1.19 g cm-3, and control plots without the pressure. Seeds of the examined species were sown on the prepared plots, and after 6 months of growth the seedlings were subjected to biometric analysis determining differentiation in root neck diameter, length of the above-ground part and root system, as well as dry mass of particular parts of the plant. The quality of the seedlings was also determined using the method of Schmidt-Vogt. The results obtained show that the change in dry bulk density soil significantly affected most of the growth parameters of the examined seedlings. Especially high negative correlations were obtained for the length and dry mass of the root system. A significant influence of dry bulk density variant on all growth parameters of Scots pine seedlings, and on some parameters of European beech was demonstrated. An increase in soil bulk density clearly caused also a deterioration of European beech seedlings quality

  8. Distinct temperature sensitivity of soil carbon decomposition in forest organic layer and mineral soil.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wenhua; Li, Wei; Jiang, Ping; Wang, Hui; Bai, Edith

    2014-10-01

    The roles of substrate availability and quality in determining temperature sensitivity (Q10) of soil carbon (C) decomposition are still unclear, which limits our ability to predict how soil C storage and cycling would respond to climate change. Here we determined Q10 in surface organic layer and subsurface mineral soil along an elevation gradient in a temperate forest ecosystem. Q10 was calculated by comparing the times required to respire a given amount of soil C at 15 and 25°C in a 350-day incubation. Results indicated that Q10 of the organic layer was 0.22-0.71 (absolute difference) higher than Q10 of the mineral soil. Q10 in both the organic layer (2.5-3.4) and the mineral soil (2.1-2.8) increased with decreasing substrate quality during the incubation. This enhancement of Q10 over incubation time in both layers suggested that Q10 of more labile C was lower than that of more recalcitrant C, consistent with the Arrhenius kinetics. No clear trend of Q10 was found along the elevation gradient. Because the soil organic C pool of the organic layer in temperate forests is large, its higher temperature sensitivity highlights its importance in C cycling under global warming.

  9. Distinct temperature sensitivity of soil carbon decomposition in forest organic layer and mineral soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wenhua; Li, Wei; Jiang, Ping; Wang, Hui; Bai, Edith

    2014-10-01

    The roles of substrate availability and quality in determining temperature sensitivity (Q10) of soil carbon (C) decomposition are still unclear, which limits our ability to predict how soil C storage and cycling would respond to climate change. Here we determined Q10 in surface organic layer and subsurface mineral soil along an elevation gradient in a temperate forest ecosystem. Q10 was calculated by comparing the times required to respire a given amount of soil C at 15 and 25°C in a 350-day incubation. Results indicated that Q10 of the organic layer was 0.22-0.71 (absolute difference) higher than Q10 of the mineral soil. Q10 in both the organic layer (2.5-3.4) and the mineral soil (2.1-2.8) increased with decreasing substrate quality during the incubation. This enhancement of Q10 over incubation time in both layers suggested that Q10 of more labile C was lower than that of more recalcitrant C, consistent with the Arrhenius kinetics. No clear trend of Q10 was found along the elevation gradient. Because the soil organic C pool of the organic layer in temperate forests is large, its higher temperature sensitivity highlights its importance in C cycling under global warming.

  10. Soil water samplers in ion balance studies on acidic forest soils

    SciTech Connect

    Rasmussen, L.; Joergensen, P.; Kruse, S.

    1986-04-01

    During the last years an increasing consciousness has appeared of the injurious effects of acid rain on the forest ecosystems both in Europe and North America. At several localities ion balance studies have been implemented in order to evaluate the impact of the atmospheric deposition of acidic substances and heavy metals on the forest ecosystem. In many localities the leaching of material to the ground water or output from the ecosystem has to be determined by means of tensiometer measurements and soil water sampling. Many different soil water samplers are available on the market and they show useful applicability under the given circumstances. But in many cases soil water samples taken with different equipment give incommensurable results leading to differing explanations of the effects of acid precipitation on elements and their cycling in the ecosystem. The purpose of the present study is twofold. Firstly, the sorption characteristics of different types of soil water samplers are examined under acidic soil conditions both by installation in the field and by laboratory experiments. Secondly, a new method is introduced for current and constant soil water sampling under varying soil suctions in the unsaturated zone.

  11. Distinct temperature sensitivity of soil carbon decomposition in forest organic layer and mineral soil

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wenhua; Li, Wei; Jiang, Ping; Wang, Hui; Bai, Edith

    2014-01-01

    The roles of substrate availability and quality in determining temperature sensitivity (Q10) of soil carbon (C) decomposition are still unclear, which limits our ability to predict how soil C storage and cycling would respond to climate change. Here we determined Q10 in surface organic layer and subsurface mineral soil along an elevation gradient in a temperate forest ecosystem. Q10 was calculated by comparing the times required to respire a given amount of soil C at 15 and 25°C in a 350-day incubation. Results indicated that Q10 of the organic layer was 0.22–0.71 (absolute difference) higher than Q10 of the mineral soil. Q10 in both the organic layer (2.5–3.4) and the mineral soil (2.1–2.8) increased with decreasing substrate quality during the incubation. This enhancement of Q10 over incubation time in both layers suggested that Q10 of more labile C was lower than that of more recalcitrant C, consistent with the Arrhenius kinetics. No clear trend of Q10 was found along the elevation gradient. Because the soil organic C pool of the organic layer in temperate forests is large, its higher temperature sensitivity highlights its importance in C cycling under global warming. PMID:25270905

  12. Chloride and organic chlorine in forest soils: storage, residence times, and influence of ecological conditions.

    PubMed

    Redon, Paul-Olivier; Abdelouas, Abdesselam; Bastviken, David; Cecchini, Sébastien; Nicolas, Manuel; Thiry, Yves

    2011-09-01

    Recent studies have shown that extensive chlorination of natural organic matter significantly affects chlorine (Cl) residence time in soils. This natural biogeochemical process must be considered when developing the conceptual models used as the basis for safety assessments regarding the potential health impacts of 36-chlorine released from present and planned radioactive waste disposal facilities. In this study, we surveyed 51 French forested areas to determine the variability in chlorine speciation and storage in soils. Concentrations of total chlorine (Cl(tot)) and organic chlorine (Cl(org)) were determined in litterfall, forest floor and mineral soil samples. Cl(org) constituted 11-100% of Cl(tot), with the highest concentrations being found in the humus layer (34-689 mg Cl(org) kg(-1)). In terms of areal storage (53 - 400 kg Cl(org) ha(-1)) the mineral soil dominated due to its greater thickness (40 cm). Cl(org) concentrations and estimated retention of organochlorine in the humus layer were correlated with Cl input, total Cl concentration, organic carbon content, soil pH and the dominant tree species. Cl(org) concentration in mineral soil was not significantly influenced by the studied environmental factors, however increasing Cl:C ratios with depth could indicate selective preservation of chlorinated organic molecules. Litterfall contributions of Cl were significant but generally minor compared to other fluxes and stocks. Assuming steady-state conditions, known annual wet deposition and measured inventories in soil, the theoretical average residence time calculated for total chlorine (inorganic (Cl(in)) and organic) was 5-fold higher than that estimated for Cl(in) alone. Consideration of the Cl(org) pool is therefore clearly important in studies of overall Cl cycling in terrestrial ecosystems.

  13. Soil-Web: An online soil survey for California, Arizona, and Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaudette, D. E.; O'Geen, A. T.

    2009-10-01

    Digital soil survey products represent one of the largest and most comprehensive inventories of soils information currently available. The complex structure of these databases, intensive use of codes and scientific jargon make it difficult for non-specialists to utilize digital soil survey resources. A project was initiated to construct a web-based interface to digital soil survey products (STATSGO and SSURGO) for California, Arizona, and Nevada that would be accessible to the general public. A collection of mature, open source applications (including Mapserver, PostGIS and Apache Web Server) were used as a framework to support data storage, querying, map composition, data presentation, and contextual links to related materials. Application logic was written in the PHP language to "glue" together the many components of an online soil survey. A comprehensive website ( http://casoilresource.lawr.ucdavis.edu/map) was created to facilitate access to digital soil survey databases through several interfaces including: interactive map, Google Earth and HTTP-based application programming interface (API). Each soil polygon is linked to a map unit summary page, which includes links to soil component summary pages. The most commonly used soil properties, land interpretations and ratings are presented. Graphical and tabular summaries of soil profile information are dynamically created, and aid with rapid assessment of key soil properties. Quick links to official series descriptions (OSD) and other such information are presented. All terminology is linked back to the USDA-NRCS Soil Survey Handbook which contains extended definitions. The Google Earth interface to Soil-Web can be used to explore soils information in three dimensions. A flexible web API was implemented to allow advanced users of soils information to access our website via simple web page requests. Soil-Web has been successfully used in soil science curriculum, outreach activities, and current research projects

  14. Long-term growth of temperate broadleaved forests no longer benefits soil C accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Yu-he; Guo, Ke; Fang, Shi-bo; Xu, Xiao-niu; Wang, Zhi-gao; Wang, Shu-dong

    2017-01-01

    It is widely recognized that the long-term growth of forests benefits biomass carbon (C) sequestration, but it is not known whether the long-term growth of forests would also benefit soil C sequestration. We selected 79 representative soil profiles and investigated the influence of the forest stand age on the soil C dynamics of three soil layers (0–10, 10–20 and 20–30 cm) in temperate broadleaved forests in East China. The results suggest that the soil C density in temperature broadleaved forests significantly changes with the stand age, following a convex parabolic curve. At an early stand age, the soil C density usually increases, reaching its peak value at a pre-mature stand age (approximately 50 years old). At later stand ages, the soil C density usually decreases. Therefore, our results reveal a turning point in the soil C density at a pre-mature stand age. The long-term growth of temperate broadleaved forests after pre-mature stand age no longer benefits soil C accumulation, probably promotes topsoil C loss. In addition, we found that the soil C density in the upper soil layer usually changes with the forest stand development more significantly than that in deeper soil layers. PMID:28176873

  15. Long-term growth of temperate broadleaved forests no longer benefits soil C accumulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Yu-He; Guo, Ke; Fang, Shi-Bo; Xu, Xiao-Niu; Wang, Zhi-Gao; Wang, Shu-Dong

    2017-02-01

    It is widely recognized that the long-term growth of forests benefits biomass carbon (C) sequestration, but it is not known whether the long-term growth of forests would also benefit soil C sequestration. We selected 79 representative soil profiles and investigated the influence of the forest stand age on the soil C dynamics of three soil layers (0-10, 10-20 and 20-30 cm) in temperate broadleaved forests in East China. The results suggest that the soil C density in temperature broadleaved forests significantly changes with the stand age, following a convex parabolic curve. At an early stand age, the soil C density usually increases, reaching its peak value at a pre-mature stand age (approximately 50 years old). At later stand ages, the soil C density usually decreases. Therefore, our results reveal a turning point in the soil C density at a pre-mature stand age. The long-term growth of temperate broadleaved forests after pre-mature stand age no longer benefits soil C accumulation, probably promotes topsoil C loss. In addition, we found that the soil C density in the upper soil layer usually changes with the forest stand development more significantly than that in deeper soil layers.

  16. Long-term growth of temperate broadleaved forests no longer benefits soil C accumulation.

    PubMed

    Ji, Yu-He; Guo, Ke; Fang, Shi-Bo; Xu, Xiao-Niu; Wang, Zhi-Gao; Wang, Shu-Dong

    2017-02-08

    It is widely recognized that the long-term growth of forests benefits biomass carbon (C) sequestration, but it is not known whether the long-term growth of forests would also benefit soil C sequestration. We selected 79 representative soil profiles and investigated the influence of the forest stand age on the soil C dynamics of three soil layers (0-10, 10-20 and 20-30 cm) in temperate broadleaved forests in East China. The results suggest that the soil C density in temperature broadleaved forests significantly changes with the stand age, following a convex parabolic curve. At an early stand age, the soil C density usually increases, reaching its peak value at a pre-mature stand age (approximately 50 years old). At later stand ages, the soil C density usually decreases. Therefore, our results reveal a turning point in the soil C density at a pre-mature stand age. The long-term growth of temperate broadleaved forests after pre-mature stand age no longer benefits soil C accumulation, probably promotes topsoil C loss. In addition, we found that the soil C density in the upper soil layer usually changes with the forest stand development more significantly than that in deeper soil layers.

  17. The influence of vegetation and soil characteristics on active-layer thickness of permafrost soils in boreal forest.

    PubMed

    Fisher, James P; Estop-Aragonés, Cristian; Thierry, Aaron; Charman, Dan J; Wolfe, Stephen A; Hartley, Iain P; Murton, Julian B; Williams, Mathew; Phoenix, Gareth K

    2016-09-01

    Carbon release from thawing permafrost soils could significantly exacerbate global warming as the active-layer deepens, exposing more carbon to decay. Plant community and soil properties provide a major control on this by influencing the maximum depth of thaw each summer (active-layer thickness; ALT), but a quantitative understanding of the relative importance of plant and soil characteristics, and their interactions in determine ALTs, is currently lacking. To address this, we undertook an extensive survey of multiple vegetation and edaphic characteristics and ALTs across multiple plots in four field sites within boreal forest in the discontinuous permafrost zone (NWT, Canada). Our sites included mature black spruce, burned black spruce and paper birch, allowing us to determine vegetation and edaphic drivers that emerge as the most important and broadly applicable across these key vegetation and disturbance gradients, as well as providing insight into site-specific differences. Across sites, the most important vegetation characteristics limiting thaw (shallower ALTs) were tree leaf area index (LAI), moss layer thickness and understory LAI in that order. Thicker soil organic layers also reduced ALTs, though were less influential than moss thickness. Surface moisture (0-6 cm) promoted increased ALTs, whereas deeper soil moisture (11-16 cm) acted to modify the impact of the vegetation, in particular increasing the importance of understory or tree canopy shading in reducing thaw. These direct and indirect effects of moisture indicate that future changes in precipitation and evapotranspiration may have large influences on ALTs. Our work also suggests that forest fires cause greater ALTs by simultaneously decreasing multiple ecosystem characteristics which otherwise protect permafrost. Given that vegetation and edaphic characteristics have such clear and large influences on ALTs, our data provide a key benchmark against which to evaluate process models used to predict

  18. Soil chemical properties affect the reaction of forest soil bacteria to drought and rewetting stress.

    PubMed

    Chodak, Marcin; Gołębiewski, Marcin; Morawska-Płoskonka, Justyna; Kuduk, Katarzyna; Niklińska, Maria

    Reaction of soil bacteria to drought and rewetting stress may depend on soil chemical properties. The objectives of this study were to test the reaction of different bacterial phyla to drought and rewetting stress and to assess the influence of different soil chemical properties on the reaction of soil bacteria to this kind of stress. The soil samples were taken at ten forest sites and measured for pH and the contents of organic C (Corg) and total N (Nt), Zn, Cu, and Pb. The samples were kept without water addition at 20 - 30 °C for 8 weeks and subsequently rewetted to achieve moisture equal to 50 - 60 % of their maximum water-holding capacity. Prior to the drought period and 24 h after the rewetting, the structure of soil bacterial communities was determined using pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes. The drought and rewetting stress altered bacterial community structure. Gram-positive bacterial phyla, Actinobacteria and Firmicutes, increased in relative proportion after the stress, whereas the Gram-negative bacteria in most cases decreased. The largest decrease in relative abundance was for Gammaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes. For several phyla the reaction to drought and rewetting stress depended on the chemical properties of soils. Soil pH was the most important soil property influencing the reaction of a number of soil bacterial groups (including all classes of Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Acidobacteria, and others) to drought and rewetting stress. For several bacterial phyla the reaction to the stress depended also on the contents of Nt and Corg in soil. The effect of heavy metal pollution was also noticeable, although weaker compared to other chemical soil properties. We conclude that soil chemical properties should be considered when assessing the effect of stressing factors on soil bacterial communities.

  19. Soil respiration in tropical seasonal forest of Southern Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avilov, Vitaly; Anichkin, Alexandr; Descherevskaya, Olga; Evdokimova, Elena; Nguyen Van, Thinh; Novichonok, Artyom; Do Phong, Luu; Kurbatova, Julia; Lopes de Gerenyu, Valentin

    2013-04-01

    Soil respiration was monitored as a part of a complex research of carbon balance in Nam Cat Tien National Park in Southern Vietnam (NCT site in AsiaFlux index). The study area is described as a tropical monsoon valley tall-stand forest at altitude about 156 m above sea level, mean annual air temperature is 26.2°C, with fluctuations of monthly averaged temperatures within 4°C; mean annual precipitation is 2470 mm with a distinct alternation of wet and dry seasons (Dong Phu weather station, 1976-1990). Measurements were made every 10-15 days during year 2012 at 6 plots that differ in soil and forest type, mostly in Lagerstroemia- or Dipterocarpus-dominated tree stands. Five chambers Ø162 mm were installed at each plot. CO2 concentration was defined with LI-820 gas analyser and 20 ml syringes (three syringes/samples per chamber) up to August 2012, and by means of closed-loop continuous field analysis from August on. Our studies have shown significant temporal and spatial variability of soil respiration in tropical rainforest. Namely, highest annual CO2 efflux rates were calculated for cambisols under lagerstroemia-dominated tree stand and for light sandy fluvisols under dipterocarpus-dominated tree stand (1694.3±546.0 and 1628.1±442.7 gC•m-2•y-1 respectively). Noteworthy is that the content of organic carbon in these soils varies utterly. Lowest annual CO2 efflux rate was calculated for clay-slate leptosols under dipterocarpus-dominated tree stand (972.7±716.5 gC•m-2•y-1). We also observed a significant impact of termites activity on site-scale spatial variability of soil respiration. Seasonal patterns of soil respiration rates were conformed for all plots except one on sandy soils. The beginning of rainy season in April did not result in higher soil respiration rates, but rates did rise in August - October, at the end of rainy season. Apparently this pattern is related to the accumulation of decomposed organic matter in soil and to the deficient

  20. Helping People Understand Soils - Perspectives from the US National Cooperative Soil Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reich, Paul; Cheever, Tammy; Greene, Linda; Southard, Susan; Levin, Maxine; Lindbo, David L.; Monger, Curtis

    2017-04-01

    Throughout the history of the US National Cooperative Soil Survey (NCSS), soil science education has been a part of the mission to better understand one of our most precious natural resources: the Soil. The poster will highlight the many products and programs related to soils that USDA NRCS (soils.usda.gov) has developed over the years for K-12 and college/professional education. NRCS scientific publications covering topics on soil properties, soil classification, soil health and soil quality have become an important part of the university soil science curriculum. Classroom lesson plans and grade appropriate materials help K-12 teachers introduce soil concepts to students and include detailed instructions and materials for classroom demonstrations of soil properties. A Handbook for Collegiate Soils Contests support universities that conduct Collegiate Soil Judging contests.

  1. Soil Respiration Declines Following Beetle - Induced Forest Mortality in a Lodgepole Pine Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borkhuu, B.; Peckham, S. D.; Norton, U.; Ewers, B. E.; Pendall, E.

    2014-12-01

    Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) forests in northern Colorado and southeast Wyoming have been undergoing a major mortality event owing to mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) infestation since 2007. We studied biotic and abiotic drivers of growing season soil respiration in four mature stands experiencing different levels of mortality between 2008 and 2012 in the Medicine Bow Mountains, southeastern Wyoming, USA. For five years, beetle infestation significantly altered forest structure. Stand mortality was 30% and more than 80% in stands with the lowest and highest mortality, respectively. Understory vegetation cover increased by 50% for five years following beetle infestation. Needlefall was increased by more than 50% during first two years of beetle infestation compared to the pre-disturbance period. We did not observe an immediate increase in soil respiration following beetle infestation as suggested by some researchers. Soil respiration rates in midsummer ranged from 1.4 ± 0.1 μmol m-2 s-1 in stands with highest mortality to 3.1 ± 0.2 μmol m-2s-1 in uninfested stand. Live tree basal area was the dominant factor controlling soil respiration, explaining more than 60% of the interannual and spatial variations in response to the disturbance. In addition, soil respiration was significantly correlated with fine root biomass, which explained 55% of variations, providing strong evidence that autotrophic respiration dominated the forest soil respiration flux. Furthermore, the seasonality of soil respiration was controlled mainly by mean monthly precipitation and mid-day photosynthetically active radiation. Each factor predicted from 30% to 50% of seasonal soil respiration variability with the highest correlation coefficients in stand with the lowest mortality. Our results clearly indicate that the reduction of photosynthesis in trees over the infestation period significantly reduced soil respiration. The remaining activity in dead stands may

  2. Delta15N of soil N and plants in a N-saturated, subtropical forest of southern China.

    PubMed

    Koba, K; Isobe, K; Takebayashi, Y; Fang, Y T; Sasaki, Y; Saito, W; Yoh, M; Mo, J; Liu, L; Lu, X; Zhang, T; Zhang, W; Senoo, K

    2010-09-15

    We investigated the delta(15)N profile of N (extractable NH(4)(+), NO(3)(-), and organic N (EON)) in the soil of a N-saturated subtropical forest. The order of delta(15)N in the soil was EON > NH(4)(+) > NO(3)(-). Although the delta(15)N of EON had been expected to be similar to that of bulk soil N, it was higher than that of bulk soil N by 5 per thousand. The difference in delta(15)N between bulk soil N and EON (Delta(15)N(bulk-EON)) was correlated significantly with the soil C/N ratio. This correlation implies that carbon availability, which determines the balance between N assimilation and dissimilation of soil microbes, is responsible for the high delta(15)N of EON, as in the case of soil microbial biomass delta(15)N. A thorough delta(15)N survey of available N (NH(4)(+), NO(3)(-), and EON) in the soil profiles from the organic layer to 100 cm depth revealed that the delta(15)N of the available N forms did not fully overlap with the delta(15)N of plants. This mismatch in delta(15)N between that of available N and that of plants reflects apparent isotopic fractionation during N uptake by plants, emphasizing the high N availability in this N-saturated forest. Copyright 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Seasonal changes of principal anions contents and other soil properties in acidified forest soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drabek, O.; Tejnecky, V.; Bradová, M.; Němeček, K.; Šebek, O.; Zenáhlíková, J.; Boruvka, L.

    2011-12-01

    Acidification of forest soil is a natural degradation process enhanced by anthropogenic activities. The depositions of principal inorganic anions are the main external acidity inputs to forest ecosystems. The aim of the study was to describe seasonal changes of sulphate and nitrate behaviour in soils and influence of their depositions on the selected forest soil properties. The following soil properties were investigated: soil pH, DOC, selected elements contents and Al species content. The Jizera Mountains area (Czech Republic) was chosen as a representative soil mountainous ecosystem affected by acidification. Soil and precipitation samples were collected at monthly intervals from April to October during the years 2008-2010 under beech and spruce stands. Prevailing soil types were classified as Alumic Cambisols under beech and Entic Podzols under spruce stands (according to FAO classification). Soil samples were collected from surface fermentation (F) and humified (H) organic horizons and subsurface B horizons (cambic or spodic). The collected soil samples were analyzed immediately in a "fresh" state. Unsieved fresh samples were extracted by deionised water and content of anions (sulphate, nitrate, chloride and fluoride) in these extracts were determined by ion-exchange chromatography (IC); the Al speciation was performed by means of HPLC/IC. The extracts were also used for determination of main elements content (Al, Ca, Mg, Ca, Na and Fe) by means of ICP-OES. Content of anions and main elements content, pH and conductivity were determined also in the precipitation samples (throughfall, stemflow and bulk). Statistically significant differences in distributions of monitored anions between the tested soil horizons were observed. The highest content of sulphate was determined in F and B horizons. On the contrary, contents of nitrate were highest in F horizons and lowest in B horizons. Higher annual variability in the investigated characteristics was proven for

  4. Pyrogenic Carbon in forest soils across climate and soil property gradients in Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reisser, Moritz; González Domínguez, Beatriz R.; Hagedorn, Frank; Abiven, Samuel

    2016-04-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) is an important measure for soil quality. Usually a high organic matter content in soils is favourable for most ecosystems. As a very stable component, pyrogenic organic carbon (PyC) can be of major interest to investigate to potential of organic matter, to persist very long in soils. Recent studies have shown, that the mean residence time of organic matter is not only due to its intrinsic chemical nature, but also to a variety of abiotic and biotic variables set by the ecosystem. Especially for PyC it is unclear, whether its content is related to fire regime, soil properties or other climatic conditions. In this study we wanted to investigate, how climatic and soil-related conditions are influencing the persistence of PyC in soils. Therefore we used a sample set from Swiss forest soil (n = 54), which was designed for the purpose of having most differing climatic conditions (aridity and temperature) and a large range of soil properties (pH between 3.4 and 7.6; clay content between 4.7 % and 60 %). The soils were sampled in the first 20 cm of the mineral horizon on a representative plot area of 40 x 40 m. The soils were sieved to 2 mm and dried prior to the analysis. We used the benzene polycarboxylic acids (BPCA) molecular marker method to quantify and characterize PyC in these soil samples. Despite the large span in environmental conditions, we observed rather small differences in the contribution of PyC to SOC between warmer and colder, as well as between wetter and dryer soils. The PyC content in SOC lies well in range with a global average for forest soils estimated in other studies. Stocks of PyC vary more than the content, because of the large range of SOC contents in the samples. The influence of other parameters like soil properties is still under investigation. Qualitative investigation of the BPCAs showed that the degree of condensation, defined by the relative amount of B6CA in the total BPCA, was higher in warmer soils. This

  5. Seasonal Changes of Soil Respiration Sources in a Boreal Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czimczik, C. I.; Trumbore, S. E.

    2004-12-01

    We studied how seasonal changes in soil temperature and moisture during the growing season (May-September) control soil respiration and potential sources (roots and microbial) at different forest recovery stages after fire. We investigated six black spruce stands in the BOREAS Northern Study Area in Canada (55N, 98W) on clay soils with underlying permafrost covering 0-150 yrs since fire. We measured the rate of CO2 respired at the soil surface and CO2 concentrations at various soil depths and its isotopic composition with dynamic chambers and soil probes. We sampled monthly, in 2004 we started automated continuous measurements. We determined the 14C signature of root-respired CO2 in field incubations and that of microbial-respired CO2 in laboratory incubations. The Δ 14C signature of CO2 was determined with accelerator mass spectrometry. In both years CO2 fluxes from the soil surface increased from 6-21 mg C m-2hr-1 in spring to 35-135 mg in summer, and decreased to 25-65 mg in autumn. Fluxes were highest 40 yrs since fire. In early recovery stages burning intensity is a confounding factor to stand age, affecting the available C source and soil temperature and moisture. The 14C signature of the soil respired CO2 followed the same trend with time since fire in both years. In early spring, fluxes were dominated by microbial respiration, the fraction of root respiration increased throughout the growing season. In autumn of the warm year 2003, soils of early recovery stages became a source of old mineral soil carbon to the atmosphere, while root respiration dominated in older stands. The incubations suggest that microorganisms within certain depth of the organic layer respire CO2 with a constant Δ 14C signature. However, increases in CO2 fluxes at each depth with seasonal increases in temperature and moisture change the Δ 14C of the CO2 measured at the soil surface. Microbial respiration and its temperature and moisture response were highest in fresh litter. In

  6. [Effects of exotic Larix kaempferi on forest soil quality and bacterial diversity].

    PubMed

    Yang, Xin; Cao, Jing; Dong, Mao-Xing; Ma, Xiao-Jun

    2008-10-01

    The study on the soil quality and bacterial diversity under 8-30 years old exotic Larix kaempferi, native Pinus tabulaeformis, and secondary deciduous broadleaf forest stands in Xiaolong-shan Mountains of Gansu, Northwest China showed that the soil pH under different forest stands had no distinct variation, but soil moisture content was increased with increasing age of forest stands. Soil organic matter and nitrogen contents were the highest under secondary deciduous forest, followed by under L. kaermpferi, and P. tabulaeformis. However, the soils under different ages of forest stands had no obvious variations in their organic matter and nitrogen contents, suggesting that tree species was the main factor affecting soil quality. Compared with P. tabulaeformis, exotic L. kaempferi could significantly increase soil organic matter and nitrogen contents. PCR-DGGE banding patterns suggested that the soil under secondary deciduous broadleaf forest had the highest bacterial diversity, followed by under L. kaempferi, and P. tabulaeformis. The sequenced DGGE bands were classified into three bacterial groups, i. e., Proteobacteria, Cytophaga - Flavobacterium - Bacteroides, and high G + C content gram-positive type, among which, Proteobacteria occurred most frequently. Further detailed analyses suggested that the soil bacterial compositions under exotic Larix stands were more similar to each other than those under pine and secondary deciduous broadleaf forests. It was concluded that exotic L. kaempferi induced the changes of microbial diversity in the forest soils of this region.

  7. Denitrification and N2O emission from forested and cultivated alluvial clay soil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ullah, S.; Breitenbeck, G.A.; Faulkner, S.P.

    2005-01-01

    Restored forested wetlands reduce N loads in surface discharge through plant uptake and denitrification. While removal of reactive N reduces impact on receiving waters, it is unclear whether enhanced denitrification also enhances emissions of the greenhouse gas N2O, thus compromising the water-quality benefits of restoration. This study compares denitrification rates and N2O:N2 emission ratios from Sharkey clay soil in a mature bottomland forest to those from an adjacent cultivated site in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley. Potential denitrification of forested soil was 2.4 times of cultivated soil. Using intact soil cores, denitrification rates of forested soil were 5.2, 6.6 and 2.0 times those of cultivated soil at 70, 85 and 100% water-filled pore space (WFPS), respectively. When NO3 was added, N2O emissions from forested soil were 2.2 times those of cultivated soil at 70% WFPS. At 85 and 100% WFPS, N2O emissions were not significantly different despite much greater denitrification rates in the forested soil because N2O:N2 emission ratios declined more rapidly in forested soil as WFPS increased. These findings suggest that restoration of forested wetlands to reduce NO3 in surface discharge will not contribute significantly to the atmospheric burden of N2O. ?? Springer 2005.

  8. Aspen increase soil moisture, nutrients, organic matter and respiration in Rocky Mountain forest communities.

    PubMed

    Buck, Joshua R; St Clair, Samuel B

    2012-01-01

    Development and change in forest communities are strongly influenced by plant-soil interactions. The primary objective of this paper was to identify how forest soil characteristics vary along gradients of forest community composition in aspen-conifer forests to better understand the relationship between forest vegetation characteristics and soil processes. The study was conducted on the Fishlake National Forest, Utah, USA. Soil measurements were collected in adjacent forest stands that were characterized as aspen dominated, mixed, conifer dominated or open meadow, which includes the range of vegetation conditions that exist in seral aspen forests. Soil chemistry, moisture content, respiration, and temperature were measured. There was a consistent trend in which aspen stands demonstrated higher mean soil nutrient concentrations than mixed and conifer dominated stands and meadows. Specifically, total N, NO(3) and NH(4) were nearly two-fold higher in soil underneath aspen dominated stands. Soil moisture was significantly higher in aspen stands and meadows in early summer but converged to similar levels as those found in mixed and conifer dominated stands in late summer. Soil respiration was significantly higher in aspen stands than conifer stands or meadows throughout the summer. These results suggest that changes in disturbance regimes or climate scenarios that favor conifer expansion or loss of aspen will decrease soil resource availability, which is likely to have important feedbacks on plant community development.

  9. Aspen Increase Soil Moisture, Nutrients, Organic Matter and Respiration in Rocky Mountain Forest Communities

    PubMed Central

    Buck, Joshua R.; St. Clair, Samuel B.

    2012-01-01

    Development and change in forest communities are strongly influenced by plant-soil interactions. The primary objective of this paper was to identify how forest soil characteristics vary along gradients of forest community composition in aspen-conifer forests to better understand the relationship between forest vegetation characteristics and soil processes. The study was conducted on the Fishlake National Forest, Utah, USA. Soil measurements were collected in adjacent forest stands that were characterized as aspen dominated, mixed, conifer dominated or open meadow, which includes the range of vegetation conditions that exist in seral aspen forests. Soil chemistry, moisture content, respiration, and temperature were measured. There was a consistent trend in which aspen stands demonstrated higher mean soil nutrient concentrations than mixed and conifer dominated stands and meadows. Specifically, total N, NO3 and NH4 were nearly two-fold higher in soil underneath aspen dominated stands. Soil moisture was significantly higher in aspen stands and meadows in early summer but converged to similar levels as those found in mixed and conifer dominated stands in late summer. Soil respiration was significantly higher in aspen stands than conifer stands or meadows throughout the summer. These results suggest that changes in disturbance regimes or climate scenarios that favor conifer expansion or loss of aspen will decrease soil resource availability, which is likely to have important feedbacks on plant community development. PMID:23285012

  10. The characteristics of soil and water loss in Pinus Massoniana forest in Quaternary red soil area of south China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yuejun; Huang, Yanhe; Jie, Yang

    2017-08-01

    The soil and water loss in Pinus massoniana forests is an urgent environmental problem in the red soil region of southern China.Using the method of field monitoring, by analogy and statistical analysis, The characteristics of soil and water loss of Pinus massoniana forests in Quaternary red soil region under 30 rainfall were analyzed,the results show that the relationship models of rainfall,runoff and sediment of pure Pinus massoniana plot were slightly different from the naked control plot,were all the univariate quadratic linear regression models.the contribution of runoff and sediment in different rain types were different, and the water and soil loss in Pinus massoniana forest was most prominent under moderate rain.The merging effect of sparse Pinus massoniana forest on raindrop, aggravated the degree of soil and water loss to some extent.

  11. Do Forest Age and Soil Depth Affect Carbon and Nitrogen Adsorption in Mineral Horizons?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spina, P. G.; Lovett, G. M.; Fuss, C. B.; Goodale, C. L.; Lang, A.; Fahey, T.

    2015-12-01

    Mineral soils retain large amounts of organic matter through sorption on the surfaces of mineral soils, the largest pools of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) in the forests of the northeastern U.S. In addition to determining organic matter storage, adsorption and desorption processes are important controllers of runoff chemistry. We are studying adsorption dynamics of mineral soils collected from a chronosequence of hardwood forest sites in the White Mountains, NH to determine how soils vary in their DOM adsorption capacities as a function of effective C and N saturation. We hypothesize that forest age determines proximity to saturation because young forests may need to mine soil organic matter (SOM) in mineral soils to obtain nitrogen to meet growth demands, while the soils of older forests have had time to reaccumulate SOM, eventually reaching C and N saturation. Consequently, we expect adsorption capacities to first increase with forest age in young forests, as the trees mine C and N from mineral surfaces. They will then decrease with forest age in older forests as mining slows and C and N begin to re-accumulate. Batch experiments were conducted with mineral soil samples and dilutions of forest floor leachate. However, preliminary results from a mature forest site (about 100 years old), which we predicted to be a low point of C and N saturation from decades of mining, contradict expectations. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) adsorption in its shallow mineral soil layers (0-3 cm below E or A horizons) are lower than younger sites ranging from 20 to about 40 years old. In addition to forest age, soil depths also affect N retention dynamics in forest soils. We hypothesized that deeper mineral soils might have greater adsorption capacities due to the fact that they are exposed to less DOC and DON leaching from organic layers and therefore less saturated. Results from the same mature forest site confirm this. Soils from 3-10 cm depth have more potential to adsorb DOC and

  12. Transforming Pinus pinaster forest to recreation site: preliminary effects on LAI, some forest floor, and soil properties.

    PubMed

    Öztürk, Melih; Bolat, İlyas

    2014-04-01

    This study investigates the effects of forest transformation into recreation site. A fragment of a Pinus pinaster plantation forest was transferred to a recreation site in the city of Bartın located close to the Black Sea coast of northwestern Turkey. During the transformation, some of the trees were selectively removed from the forest to generate more open spaces for the recreationists. As a result, Leaf Area Index (LAI) decreased by 0.20 (about 11%). Additionally, roads and pathways were introduced into the site together with some recreational equipment sealing parts of the soil surface. Consequently, forest environment was altered with a semi-natural landscape within the recreation site. The purpose of this study is to assess the effects of forest transformation into recreation site particularly in terms of the LAI parameter, forest floor, and soil properties. Preliminary monitoring results indicate that forest floor biomass is reduced by 26% in the recreation site compared to the control site. Soil temperature is increased by 15% in the recreation site where selective removal of trees expanded the gaps allowing more light transmission. On the other hand, the soil bulk density which is an indicator of soil compaction is unexpectedly slightly lower in the recreation site. Organic carbon (C(org)) and total nitrogen (N(total)) together with the other physical and chemical parameter values indicate that forest floor and soil have not been exposed to much disturbance. However, subsequent removal of trees that would threaten the vegetation, forest floor, and soil should not be allowed. The activities of the recreationists are to be concentrated on the paved spaces rather than soil surfaces. Furthermore, long-term monitoring and management is necessary for both the observation and conservation of the site.

  13. [Microelement contents of litter, soil fauna and soil in Pinus koraiensis and broad-leaved mixed forest].

    PubMed

    Yin, Xiu-qin; Li, Jin-xia; Dong, Wei-hua

    2007-02-01

    The analysis on the Mn, Zn and Cu contents of litter, soil fauna and soil in Pinus korazenszis and broad-leaved mixed forest in Liangshui Natural Reserve of Xiaoxing' an Mountains showed that the test microelement contents in the litter, soil fauna and soil all followed the sequence of Mn > Zn > Cu, but varied with these environmental components, being in the sequence of soil > litter > soil fauna for Mn, soil fauna > litter and soil for Zn, and soil fauna > soil > litter for Cu. The change range of test microelement contents in litter was larger in broad-leaved forest than in coniferous forest. Different soil fauna differed in their microelement-enrichment capability, e. g. , earthworm, centipede, diplopod had the highest content of Mn, Zn and Cu, respectively. The contents of test microelements in soil fauna had significant correlations with their environmental background values, litter decomposition rate, food habit of soil fauna, and its absorbing selectivity and enrichment to microelements. The microelements contained in 5-20 cm soil layer were more than those in 0-5 cm soil layer, and their dynamics differed in various soil layers.

  14. Uncoupling the complexity of forest soil variation: influence of terrain attributes, spectral indices, and spatial variability

    EPA Science Inventory

    Growing concern over climate and management induced changes to soil nutrient status has prompted interest in understanding the spatial distribution of forest soil properties. Recent advancements in remotely sensed geospatial technologies are providing an increasing array of data...

  15. Uncoupling the complexity of forest soil variation: influence of terrain attributes, spectral indices, and spatial variability

    EPA Science Inventory

    Growing concern over climate and management induced changes to soil nutrient status has prompted interest in understanding the spatial distribution of forest soil properties. Recent advancements in remotely sensed geospatial technologies are providing an increasing array of data...

  16. Sensitivity of boreal forest carbon balance to soil thaw

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goulden, M.L.; Wofsy, S.C.; Harden, J.W.; Trumbore, S.E.; Crill, P.M.; Gower, S.T.; Fries, T.; Daube, B.C.; Fan, S.-M.; Sutton, D.J.; Bazzaz, A.; Munger, J.W.

    1998-01-01

    We used eddy covariance; gas-exchange chambers; radiocarbon analysis; wood, moss, and soil inventories; and laboratory incubations to measure the carbon balance of a 120-year-old black spruce forest in Manitoba, Canada. The site lost 0.3 ?? 0.5 metric ton of carbon per hectare per year (ton C ha-1 year-1) from 1994 to 1997, with a gain of 0.6 ?? 0.2 ton C ha-1 year-1 in moss and wood offset by a loss of 0.8 ?? 0.5 ton C ha-1 year-1 from the soil. The soil remained frozen most of the year, and the decomposition of organic matter in the soil increased 10-fold upon thawing. The stability of the soil carbon pool (~150 tons C ha-1) appears sensitive to the depth and duration of thaw, and climatic changes that promote thaw are likely to cause a net efflux of carbon dioxide from the site.

  17. National Woodland Owner Survey: family forest ownerships with 1 to 9 acres, 2011-2013

    Treesearch

    Brett J. Butler; Stephanie A. Snyder

    2017-01-01

    This report summarizes results from the 2011-2013 National Woodland Owner Survey (NWOS) conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis program for family forest ownerships with forest holdings of 1-9 acres. Summaries are based on responses from 1,025 family ownerships with 1-9 acres of forest across 39 U.S. states. Survey summary tables are...

  18. Early forest soils and their role in Devonian global change

    SciTech Connect

    Retallack, G.J.

    1997-04-25

    A paleosol in the Middle Devonian Aztec Siltstone of Victoria Land, Antarctica, is the most ancient known soil of well-drained forest ecosystems. Clay enrichment and chemical weathering of subsurface horizons in this and other Devonian forested paleosols culminate a long-term increase initiated during the Silurian. From Silurian into Devonian time, red clayey calcareous paleosols show a greater volume of roots and a concomitant decline in the density of animal burrows. These trends parallel the decline in atmospheric carbon dioxide determined from isotopic records of pedogenic carbonate in these same paleosols. The drawdown of carbon dioxide began well before the Devonian appearance of coals, large logs, and diverse terrestrial plants and animals, and it did not correlate with temporal variation in volcanic or metamorphic activity. The early Paleozoic greenhouse may have been curbed by the evolution of rhizospheres with an increased ratio of primary to secondary production and by more effective silicate weathering during Silurian time. 14 refs., 3 figs.

  19. Early Forest Soils and Their Role in Devonian Global Change

    PubMed

    Retallack

    1997-04-25

    A paleosol in the Middle Devonian Aztec Siltstone of Victoria Land, Antarctica, is the most ancient known soil of well-drained forest ecosystems. Clay enrichment and chemical weathering of subsurface horizons in this and other Devonian forested paleosols culminate a long-term increase initiated during the Silurian. From Silurian into Devonian time, red clayey calcareous paleosols show a greater volume of roots and a concomitant decline in the density of animal burrows. These trends parallel the decline in atmospheric carbon dioxide determined from isotopic records of pedogenic carbonate in these same paleosols. The drawdown of carbon dioxide began well before the Devonian appearance of coals, large logs, and diverse terrestrial plants and animals, and it did not correlate with temporal variation in volcanic or metamorphic activity. The early Paleozoic greenhouse may have been curbed by the evolution of rhizospheres with an increased ratio of primary to secondary production and by more effective silicate weathering during Silurian time.

  20. Quantifying soil and critical zone variability in a forested catchment through digital soil mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holleran, M.; Levi, M.; Rasmussen, C.

    2015-01-01

    Quantifying catchment-scale soil property variation yields insights into critical zone evolution and function. The objective of this study was to quantify and predict the spatial distribution of soil properties within a high-elevation forested catchment in southern Arizona, USA, using a combined set of digital soil mapping (DSM) and sampling design techniques to quantify catchment-scale soil spatial variability that would inform interpretation of soil-forming processes. The study focused on a 6 ha catchment on granitic parent materials under mixed-conifer forest, with a mean elevation of 2400 m a.s.l, mean annual temperature of 10 °C, and mean annual precipitation of ~ 85 cm yr-1. The sample design was developed using a unique combination of iterative principal component analysis (iPCA) of environmental covariates derived from remotely sensed imagery and topography, and a conditioned Latin hypercube sampling (cLHS) scheme. Samples were collected by genetic horizon from 24 soil profiles excavated to the depth of refusal and characterized for soil mineral assemblage, geochemical composition, and general soil physical and chemical properties. Soil properties were extrapolated across the entire catchment using a combination of least-squares linear regression between soil properties and selected environmental covariates, and spatial interpolation or regression residual using inverse distance weighting (IDW). Model results indicated that convergent portions of the landscape contained deeper soils, higher clay and carbon content, and greater Na mass loss relative to adjacent slopes and divergent ridgelines. The results of this study indicated that (i) the coupled application of iPCA and cLHS produced a sampling scheme that captured the greater part of catchment-scale soil variability; (ii) application of relatively simple regression models and IDW interpolation of residuals described well the variance in measured soil properties and predicted spatial correlation of soil

  1. Soil Quality of Restinga Forest: Organic Matter and Aluminum Saturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues Almeida Filho, Jasse; Casagrande, José Carlos; Martins Bonilha, Rodolfo; Soares, Marcio Roberto; Silva, Luiz Gabriel; Colato, Alexandre

    2013-04-01

    The restinga vegetation (sand coastal plain vegetation) consists of a mosaic of plant communities, which are defined by the characteristics of the substrates, resulting from the type and age of the depositional processes. This mosaic complex of vegetation types comprises restinga forest in advanced (high restinga) and medium regeneration stages (low restinga), each with particular differentiating vegetation characteristics. Of all ecosystems of the Atlantic Forest, restinga is the most fragile and susceptible to anthropic disturbances. The purpose of this study was evaluating the organic matter and aluminum saturation effects on soil quality index (SQI). Two locations were studied: State Park of the Serra do Mar, Picinguaba, in the city of Ubatuba (23°20' e 23°22' S / 44°48' e 44°52' W), and State Park of Cardoso Island in the city of Cananéia (25°03'05" e 25°18'18" S / 47°53'48" e 48° 05'42" W). The soil samples were collect at a depth of 0-10 cm, where concentrate 70% of vegetation root system. Was studied an additive model to evaluate soil quality index. The shallow root system development occurs due to low calcium levels, whose disability limits their development, but also can reflect on delay, restriction or even in the failure of the development vegetation. The organic matter is kept in the soil restinga ecosystem by high acidity, which reduces the decomposition of soil organic matter, which is very poor in nutrients. The base saturation, less than 10, was low due to low amounts of Na, K, Ca and Mg, indicating low nutritional reserve into the soil, due to very high rainfall and sandy texture, resulting in high saturation values for aluminum. Considering the critical threshold to 3% organic matter and for aluminum saturation to 40%, the IQS ranged from 0.95 to 0.1 as increased aluminum saturation and decreased the soil organic matter, indicating the main limitation to the growth of plants in this type of soil, when deforested.

  2. Significant and persistent impact of timber harvesting on soil microbial communities in Northern coniferous forests.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Martin; Howes, Charles G; VanInsberghe, David; Yu, Hang; Bachar, Dipankar; Christen, Richard; Henrik Nilsson, Rolf; Hallam, Steven J; Mohn, William W

    2012-12-01

    Forest ecosystems have integral roles in climate stability, biodiversity and economic development. Soil stewardship is essential for sustainable forest management. Organic matter (OM) removal and soil compaction are key disturbances associated with forest harvesting, but their impacts on forest ecosystems are not well understood. Because microbiological processes regulate soil ecology and biogeochemistry, microbial community structure might serve as indicator of forest ecosystem status, revealing changes in nutrient and energy flow patterns before they have irreversible effects on long-term soil productivity. We applied massively parallel pyrosequencing of over 4.6 million ribosomal marker sequences to assess the impact of OM removal and soil compaction on bacterial and fungal communities in a field experiment replicated at six forest sites in British Columbia, Canada. More than a decade after harvesting, diversity and structure of soil bacterial and fungal communities remained significantly altered by harvesting disturbances, with individual taxonomic groups responding differentially to varied levels of the disturbances. Plant symbionts, like ectomycorrhizal fungi, and saprobic taxa, such as ascomycetes and actinomycetes, were among the most sensitive to harvesting disturbances. Given their significant ecological roles in forest development, the fate of these taxa might be critical for sustainability of forest ecosystems. Although abundant bacterial populations were ubiquitous, abundant fungal populations often revealed a patchy distribution, consistent with their higher sensitivity to the examined soil disturbances. These results establish a comprehensive inventory of bacterial and fungal community composition in northern coniferous forests and demonstrate the long-term response of their structure to key disturbances associated with forest harvesting.

  3. Phosphate addition enhanced soil inorganic nutrients to a large extent in three tropical forests.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Feifei; Lu, Xiankai; Liu, Lei; Mo, Jiangming

    2015-01-21

    Elevated nitrogen (N) deposition may constrain soil phosphorus (P) and base cation availability in tropical forests, for which limited evidence have yet been available. In this study, we reported responses of soil inorganic nutrients to full factorial N and P treatments in three tropical forests different in initial soil N status (N-saturated old-growth forest and two less-N-rich younger forests). Responses of microbial biomass, annual litterfall production and nutrient input were also monitored. Results showed that N treatments decreased soil inorganic nutrients (except N) in all three forests, but the underlying mechanisms varied depending on forests: through inhibition on litter decomposition in the old-growth forest and through Al(3+) replacement of Ca(2+) in the two younger forests. In contrast, besides great elevation in soil available P, P treatments induced 60%, 50%, 26% increases in sum of exchangeable (K(+)+Ca(2+)+Mg(2+)) in the old-growth and the two younger forests, respectively. These positive effects of P were closely related to P-stimulated microbial biomass and litter nutrient input, implying possible stimulation of nutrient return. Our results suggest that N deposition may result in decreases in soil inorganic nutrients (except N) and that P addition can enhance soil inorganic nutrients to support ecosystem processes in these tropical forests.

  4. Phosphate addition enhanced soil inorganic nutrients to a large extent in three tropical forests

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Feifei; Lu, Xiankai; Liu, Lei; Mo, Jiangming

    2015-01-01

    Elevated nitrogen (N) deposition may constrain soil phosphorus (P) and base cation availability in tropical forests, for which limited evidence have yet been available. In this study, we reported responses of soil inorganic nutrients to full factorial N and P treatments in three tropical forests different in initial soil N status (N-saturated old-growth forest and two less-N-rich younger forests). Responses of microbial biomass, annual litterfall production and nutrient input were also monitored. Results showed that N treatments decreased soil inorganic nutrients (except N) in all three forests, but the underlying mechanisms varied depending on forests: through inhibition on litter decomposition in the old-growth forest and through Al3+ replacement of Ca2+ in the two younger forests. In contrast, besides great elevation in soil available P, P treatments induced 60%, 50%, 26% increases in sum of exchangeable (K++Ca2++Mg2+) in the old-growth and the two younger forests, respectively. These positive effects of P were closely related to P-stimulated microbial biomass and litter nutrient input, implying possible stimulation of nutrient return. Our results suggest that N deposition may result in decreases in soil inorganic nutrients (except N) and that P addition can enhance soil inorganic nutrients to support ecosystem processes in these tropical forests. PMID:25605567

  5. Modification to degradation of hexazinone in forest soils amended with sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huili; Wang, Chengjun; Chen, Fan; Ma, Meiping; Lin, Zhenkun; Wang, Wenwei; Xu, Zhengti; Wang, Xuedong

    2012-01-15

    Influences of one sewage sludge on degradation of hexazinone and formation of its major metabolites were investigated in four forest soils (A, B, C and D), collected in Zhejiang Province, China. In non-amended forest soils, the degradation half-life of hexazinone was 21.4, 30.4, 19.4 and 32.8 days in forest soil A, B, C and D, respectively. Degradation could start in soil A and C without lag period because the two soils had been contaminated by this herbicide for a long time, possibly leading to completion of acclimation period of hexazinone-degrading bacteria. In forest soils amended with sewage sludge, the degradation rate constant increased by 17.3% in soil A, 48.2% in soil B, 8.1% in soil C and 51.6% in soil D, respectively. The higher degradation rates (soil A and C) in non-amended soils accord with the lower rate increase in sewage sludge-amended soils. Under non-sterile conditions, biological mechanism accounted for 51.8-62.4% of hexazinone degradation in four soils. Under sterile conditions, the four soils had the similar chemical degradation capacity for hexazinone. In non-amended soil B, only one metabolite (B) was detected, while two metabolites (B and C) were found in sewage sludge-amended soil B. Similarly situated in agricultural soils, N-demethylation at 6-position of triazine ring, hydroxylation at the 4-positon of cyclohexyl group, and removal of the dimethylamino group with formation of a carbonyl group at 6-position of triazine ring appear to be the principal mechanism involved in hexazinone degradation in sewage sludge-amended forest soils. These data will improve understanding of the actual pollution risk as a result of forest soil fertilization with sewage sludge.

  6. Sorption and speciation of selenium in boreal forest soil.

    PubMed

    Söderlund, Mervi; Virkanen, Juhani; Holgersson, Stellan; Lehto, Jukka

    2016-11-01

    Sorption and speciation of selenium in the initial chemical forms of selenite and selenate were investigated in batch experiments on humus and mineral soil samples taken from a 4-m deep boreal forest soil excavator pit on Olkiluoto Island, on the Baltic Sea coast in southwestern Finland. The HPLC-ICP-MS technique was used to monitor any possible transformations in the selenium liquid phase speciation and to determine the concentrations of selenite and selenate in the samples for calculation of the mass distribution coefficient, Kd, for both species. Both SeO3(2-) and SeO4(2-) proved to be resistant forms in the prevailing soil conditions and no changes in selenium liquid phase speciation were seen in the sorption experiments in spite of variations in the initial selenium species, incubation time or conditions, pH, temperature or microbial activity. Selenite sorption on the mineral soil increased with time in aerobic conditions whilst the opposite trend was seen for the anaerobic soil samples. Selenite retention correlated with the contents of organic matter and weakly crystalline oxides of aluminum and iron, solution pH and the specific surface area. Selenate exhibited poorer sorption on soil than selenite and on average the Kd values were 27-times lower. Mineral soil was more efficient in retaining selenite and selenate than humus, implicating the possible importance of weakly crystalline aluminum and iron oxides for the retention of oxyanions in Olkiluoto soil. Sterilization of the soil samples decreased the retention of selenite, thus implying some involvement of soil microbes in the sorption processes or a change in sample composition, but it produced no effect for selenate. There was no sorption of selenite by quartz, potassium feldspar, hornblende or muscovite. Biotite showed the best retentive properties for selenite in the model soil solution at about pH 8, followed by hematite, plagioclase and chlorite. The Kd values for these minerals were 18, 14, 8 and 7

  7. The temporal changes in saturated hydraulic conductivity of forest soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornél Szegedi, Balázs

    2015-04-01

    I investigated the temporal variability of forest soils infiltration capacity through compaction. I performed the measurements of mine in The Botanical Garden of Sopron between 15.09.2014 - 15.10.2014. I performed the measurements in 50-50 cm areas those have been cleaned of vegetation, where I measured the bulk density and volume of soil hydraulic conductivity with Tension Disk Infiltrometer (TDI) in 3-3 repetitions. I took undisturbed 160 cm3 from the upper 5 cm layer of the cleaned soil surface for the bulk density measurements. Then I loosened the top 10-15 cm layer of the soil surface with spade. After the cultivation of the soil I measured the bulk density and volume of water conductivity also 3-3 repetitions. Later I performed the hydraulic conductivity (Ksat) using the TDI and bulk density measurements on undisturbed samples on a weekly basis in the study area. I illustrated the measured hydraulic conductivity and bulk density values as a function of cumulative rainfall by using simple graphical and statistical methods. The rate of the soil compaction pace was fast and smooth based on the change of the measured bulk density values. There was a steady downward trend in hydraulic conductivity parallel the compaction. The cultivation increased the hydraulic conductivity nearly fourfold compared to original, than decreased to half by 1 week. In the following the redeposition rate declined, but based on the literature data, almost 3-4 months enough to return the original state before cultivation of the soil hydraulic conductivity and bulk density values. This publication has been supported by AGRARKLIMA.2 VKSZ_12-1-2013-0034 project.

  8. Spatial heterogeneity of radiocesium concentration on a forest floor soil in a broadleaf and mixed forest in Fukushima, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takada, Momo; Yamada, Toshihiro; Takahara, Teruhiko; Okuda, Toshinori

    2015-04-01

    Radiocesium in Fukushima forests derived from the nuclear power plant accident still remains in the surface of forest floors. Its distribution is known to show spatial heterogeneity, but little is reported about causes generating it. Horizontal distribution of radiocesium within a forest community needs to be clarified for understanding spatio-temporal dynamics of radiocesium within a forest community and its outflow from the ecosystem to others (e.g. downstream). Here, we hypothesized as follows; environmental spatial heterogeneity of a forest floor within a forest community generated by vegetation creates the spatial variation of distribution of radiocesium. We examined whether the radiocesium accumulates at the bases of trees, and the amount of the radiocesium is related to tree size and morphological characteristics of the tree such as tree species and bark properties. The field surveys were conducted in a broadleaf and mixed forest dominated by Japanese oak (Quercus crispula) and Japanese fir (Abies firma) in Soma city in Fukushima Prefecture in August and November, 2014. A 20 m × 20 m plot was established in the study site. Top soils (0 - 5 cm) were collected from 121 points in a grid system of every 2 m interval within the plot and additional 136 points from south and north sides at bases of all trees (≥ 5 cm of diameters at breast height) in the plot. Diameters at breast height of all the trees were measured, and the tree species were identified. The soil samples were dried and measured by a germanium detector. Activity concentrations of Cs-137 were decay-correlated to the data of the first field survey. Average concentration of Cs-137 radioactivity in the plot was 14,007 Bq/kg and its coefficient of variance was 74 %, showing large spatial variation of radiocesium distribution on the forest floor. Average concentration collected in the grid points 2 m apart each other was 10,826 Bq/kg, while average concentration from the bases of all trees was 16

  9. Invariant community structure of soil bacteria in subtropical coniferous and broadleaved forests

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoli; Wang, Xiaoling; Zhang, Weixin; Shao, Yuanhu; Zou, Xiaoming; Liu, Tao; Zhou, Lixia; Wan, Songze; Rao, Xingquan; Li, Zhian; Fu, Shenglei

    2016-01-01

    Soil bacteria may be influenced by vegetation and play important roles in global carbon efflux and nutrient cycling under global changes. Coniferous and broadleaved forests are two phyletically distinct vegetation types. Soil microbial communities in these forests have been extensively investigated but few studies have presented comparable data regarding the characteristics of bacterial communities in subtropical forests. We investigated soil bacterial biomass and community composition in three pairs of coniferous and broadleaved forests across a subtropical climatic gradient. We found that bacterial biomass differed between the coniferous and broadleaved forests across the subtropical climate gradient; however, this difference disappeared at some individual sites. In contrast, the same 90 bacterial genera were found in both forest types, and their relative abundances didn’t differ between the forest types, with the exception of one genus that was more abundant in broadleaved forests. Soil nitrogen or moisture was associated with bacterial groups in the coniferous and broadleaved forests, respectively. Thus, we inferred that these forests can respond differently to future changes in nitrogen deposition or precipitation. This study highlights soil bacterial invariant community composition in contrasting subtropical forests and provides a new perspective on the potential response and feedback of forests to global changes. PMID:26754326

  10. Invariant community structure of soil bacteria in subtropical coniferous and broadleaved forests.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoli; Wang, Xiaoling; Zhang, Weixin; Shao, Yuanhu; Zou, Xiaoming; Liu, Tao; Zhou, Lixia; Wan, Songze; Rao, Xingquan; Li, Zhian; Fu, Shenglei

    2016-01-12

    Soil bacteria may be influenced by vegetation and play important roles in global carbon efflux and nutrient cycling under global changes. Coniferous and broadleaved forests are two phyletically distinct vegetation types. Soil microbial communities in these forests have been extensively investigated but few studies have presented comparable data regarding the characteristics of bacterial communities in subtropical forests. We investigated soil bacterial biomass and community composition in three pairs of coniferous and broadleaved forests across a subtropical climatic gradient. We found that bacterial biomass differed between the coniferous and broadleaved forests across the subtropical climate gradient; however, this difference disappeared at some individual sites. In contrast, the same 90 bacterial genera were found in both forest types, and their relative abundances didn't differ between the forest types, with the exception of one genus that was more abundant in broadleaved forests. Soil nitrogen or moisture was associated with bacterial groups in the coniferous and broadleaved forests, respectively. Thus, we inferred that these forests can respond differently to future changes in nitrogen deposition or precipitation. This study highlights soil bacterial invariant community composition in contrasting subtropical forests and provides a new perspective on the potential response and feedback of forests to global changes.

  11. The carbon balance of forest soils: detectability of changes in soil carbon stocks in temperate and Boreal forests.

    PubMed

    Conen, Frauz; Zerva, Argyro; Arrouays, Dominique; Jolivet, Claude; Jarvis, Paul G; Grace, John; Mencuccini, Maurizio

    2005-01-01

    Estimating soil carbon content as the product of mean carbon concentration and bulk density can result in considerable overestimation. Carbon concentration and soil mass need to be measured on the same sample and carbon contents calculated for each individual sample before averaging. The effect of this bias is likely to be smaller (but still greater than zero) when the primary objective is to determine stock changes over time. Variance and mean carbon content are significantly and positively related to each other, although some sites showed much higher variability than predicted by this relationship, as a likely consequence of their particular site history, forest management, and micro-topography. Because of the proportionality between mean and variance, the number of samples required to detect a fixed change in soil carbon stocks varied directly with the site mean carbon content from less than 10 to several thousands across the range of carbon stocks normally encountered in temperate and Boreal forests. This raises important questions about how to derive an optimal sampling strategy across such a varied range of conditions so as to achieve the aims of the Kyoto Protocol. Overall, on carbon-poor forest sites with little or no disturbance to the soil profile, it is possible to detect changes in total soil organic carbon over time of the order of 0.5 kg (C) m(-2) with manageable sample sizes even using simple random sampling (i.e., about 50 samples per sampling point). More efficient strategies will reveal even smaller differences. On disturbed forest sites (ploughed, windthrow) this is no longer possible (required sample sizes are much larger than 100). Soils developed on coarse aeolian sediments (sand dunes), or where buried logs or harvest residues of the previous rotation are present, can also exhibit large spatial variability in soil carbon. Generally, carbon-rich soils will always require larger numbers of samples. On these sites, simple random sampling is

  12. Clay minerals, metallic oxides and oxy-hydroxides and soil organic carbon distribution within soil aggregates in temperate forest soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gartzia-Bengoetxea, Nahia; Fernández-Ugalde, Oihane; Virto, Iñigo; Arias-González, Ander

    2017-04-01

    Soil mineralogy is of primary importance for key environmental services provided by soils like carbon sequestration. However, current knowledge on the effects of clay mineralogy on soil organic carbon (SOC) stabilization is based on limited and conflicting data. In this study, we investigated the relationship between clay minerals, metallic oxides and oxy-hydroxides and SOC distribution within soil aggregates in mature Pinus radiata D.Don forest plantations. Nine forest stands located in the same geographical area of the Basque Country (North of Spain) were selected. These stands were planted on different parent material (3 on each of the following: sandstone, basalt and trachyte). There were no significant differences in climate and forest management among them. Moreover, soils under these plantations presented similar content of clay particles. We determined bulk SOC storage, clay mineralogy, the content of Fe-Si-Al-oxides and oxyhydroxides and the distribution of organic C in different soil aggregate sizes at different soil depths (0-5 cm and 5-20 cm). The relationship between SOC and abiotic factors was investigated using a factor analysis (PCA) followed by stepwise regression analysis. Soils developed on sandstone showed significantly lower concentration of SOC (29 g C kg-1) than soils developed on basalts (97 g C kg-1) and trachytes (119 g C kg-1). The soils on sandstone presented a mixed clay mineralogy dominated by illite, with lesser amounts of hydroxivermiculite, hydrobiotite and kaolinite, and a total absence of interstratified chlorite/vermiculite. In contrast, the major crystalline clay mineral identified in the soils developed on volcanic rocks was interstratified chlorite/vermiculite. Nevertheless, no major differences were observed between basaltic and trachytic soils in the clay mineralogy. The selective extraction of Fe showed that the oxalate extractable iron was significantly lower in soils on sandstone (3.7%) than on basalts (11.2%) and

  13. Soil-atmosphere exchange of methane in adjacent cultivated and floodplain forest soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke, Roger A.; Meyer, Judith L.; Cruse, Jennifer M.; Birkhead, Karen M.; Paul, Michael J.

    1999-04-01

    The soil-atmosphere exchange of methane was measured in adjacent cultivated (corn) and forest (upper floodplain, mixed hardwood) habitats of the southeastern U.S. piedmont for a period of 3 years using closed chambers. We have evaluated the effect of the following factors on soil-atmosphere methane exchange: (1) interannual variability of climatic conditions, (2) landscape position (i.e., river levee versus terrace), and (3) disturbance ranging from intense (cultivation) through moderate (approximately annual flooding events that last from weeks to months) to subtle (approximately annual flooding of a few days duration). We found that mean methane consumption in the cultivated and forested terrace sites was <0.3 mg CH4 m-2 d-1, whereas the mean consumption rate in forested levee sites was about 1.4 mg CH4 m-2 d-1 over the course of the 3 years. Moisture levels in the upper soil (0-5 cm) appear to exert little control of methane exchange in any of the habitats. We observed little seasonal variation in methane flux in the levee sites, in contrast to results observed by others in higher-latitude and tropical forests. Our results suggest that very subtle differences in landscape position and disturbance impact the strength of the soil methane sink. We cannot conclude that agricultural development destroyed the methane sink capacity of these floodplain terrace soils because it was probably already quite low due to periodic disturbance by flooding. Limited measurements of nitrogen cycling suggest that methane flux differences observed among the different habitats are not obviously related to differences in N mineralization or nitrification as in other ecosystems.

  14. Towards complete and harmonized assessment of soil carbon stocks and balance in forests: The ability of the Yasso07 model across a wide gradient of climatic and forest conditions in Europe.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Laura; Jandl, Robert; Blujdea, Viorel N B; Lehtonen, Aleksi; Kriiska, Kaie; Alberdi, Iciar; Adermann, Veiko; Cañellas, Isabel; Marin, Gheorghe; Moreno-Fernández, Daniel; Ostonen, Ivika; Varik, Mats; Didion, Markus

    2017-12-01

    Accurate carbon-balance accounting in forest soils is necessary for the development of climate change policy. However, changes in soil organic carbon (SOC) occur slowly and these changes may not be captured through repeated soil inventories. Simulation models may be used as alternatives to SOC measurement. The Yasso07 model presents a suitable alternative because most of the data required for the application are readily available in countries with common forest surveys. In this study, we test the suitability of Yasso07 for simulating SOC stocks and stock changes in a variety of European forests affected by different climatic, land use and forest management conditions and we address country-specific cases with differing resources and data availability. The simulated SOC stocks differed only slightly from measured data, providing realistic, reasonable mean SOC estimations per region or forest type. The change in the soil carbon pool over time, which is the target parameter for SOC reporting, was generally found to be plausible although not in the case of Mediterranean forest soils. As expected under stable forest management conditions, both land cover and climate play major roles in determining the SOC stock in forest soils. Greater mean SOC stocks were observed in northern latitudes (or at higher altitude) than in southern latitudes (or plains) and conifer forests were found to store a notably higher amount of SOC than broadleaf forests. Furthermore, as regards change in SOC, an inter-annual sink effect was identified for most of the European forest types studied. Our findings corroborate the suitability of Yasso07 to assess the impact of forest management and land use change on the SOC balance of forests soils, as well as to accurately simulate SOC in dead organic matter (DOM) and mineral soil pools separately. The obstacles encountered when applying the Yasso07 model reflect a lack of available input data. Future research should focus on improving our knowledge of

  15. Temperature and Soil Moisture Regimes In and Adjacent to the Fernow Experimental Forest

    Treesearch

    Jerry T. Crews; Linton Wright

    2000-01-01

    The effects of elevation, aspect, ambient air temperature, and soil moisture on soil temperature were examined in and adjacent to the Fernow Experimental Forest in West Virginia to determine the extent of frigid soils. The mean annual temperature of frigid soils ranges from 1? to 7?C at a depth of 50 cm; the difference between mean winter and mean summer temperatures...

  16. Effects of Soil Texture on Belowground Carbon and Nutrient Storage in a Lowland Amazonian Forest Ecosystem.

    Treesearch

    Whendee L. Silver; Jason Neff; Megan McGroddy; Ed Veldkamp; Michael Keller; Raimundo Cosme

    2000-01-01

    Soil texture plays a key role in belowground C storage in forest ecosystems and strongly influences nutrient availability and retention, particularly in highly weathered soils. We used field data and the Century ecosystem model to explore the role of soil texture in belowground C storage, nutrient pool sizes, and N fluxes in highly weathered soils in an Amazonian...

  17. Influence of soil thickness on stand characteristics in a Sierra Nevada mixed-conifer forest

    Treesearch

    Marc D. Meyer; Malcolm P. North; Andrew N. Gray; Harold S. J. Zald

    2007-01-01

    Soil thickness can be an important factor influencing vegetation, yet few spatially explicit studies have examined soil horizon thickness and vegetation composition in summer drought forests. We compared seismic and soil penetration measurements of combined A + C and Cr horizon thickness, soil moisture and temperature, and stand variables in a contiguous 4-ha mixed-...

  18. Soil organic carbon quality in forested mineral wetlands at different mean annual temperature.

    Treesearch

    Cinzia Fissore; Christian P. Giardina; Randall K. Kolka; Carl C. Trettin

    2009-01-01

    Forested mineral soil wetlands (FMSW) store large stocks of soil organic carbon (SOC), but little is known on: (i) whether the quality of SOC stored in these soils (proportion of active versus more resistant SOC compounds) differs from SOC in upland soils; (ii) how the quality of SOC in FMSW varies with mean annual temperature (MAT); and (iii) whether SOC decomposition...

  19. Determining soil hydrologic characteristics on a remote forest watershed by continuous monitoring of soil water pressures, rainfall and runoff.

    Treesearch

    L.R. Ahuja; S. A. El-Swaify

    1979-01-01

    Continuous monitoring of soil-water pressures, rainfall and runoff under natural conditions was tested as a technique for determining soil hydrologic characteristics of a remote forest watershed plot. A completely battery-powered (and thus portable) pressure transducer–scanner–recorder system was assembled for monitoring of soil-water pressures in...

  20. Fungi unearthed: transcripts encoding lignocellulolytic and chitinolytic enzymes in forest soil.

    PubMed

    Kellner, Harald; Zak, Donald R; Vandenbol, Micheline

    2010-06-04

    Fungi are the main organisms responsible for the degradation of biopolymers such as lignin, cellulose, hemicellulose, and chitin in forest ecosystems. Soil surveys largely target fungal diversity, paying less attention to fungal activity. Here we have focused on the organic horizon of a hardwood forest dominated by sugar maple that spreads widely across Eastern North America. The sampling site included three plots receiving normal atmospheric nitrogen deposition and three that received an extra 3 g nitrogen m(2) y(1) in form of sodium nitrate pellets since 1994, which led to increased accumulation of organic matter in the soil. Our aim was to assess, in samples taken from all six plots, transcript-level expression of fungal genes encoding lignocellulolytic and chitinolytic enzymes. For this we collected RNA from the forest soil, reverse-transcribed it, and amplified cDNAs of interest, using both published primer pairs as well as 23 newly developed ones. We thus detected transcript-level expression of 234 genes putatively encoding 26 different groups of fungal enzymes, notably major ligninolytic and diverse aromatic-oxidizing enzymes, various cellulose- and hemicellulose-degrading glycoside hydrolases and carbohydrate esterases, enzymes involved in chitin breakdown, N-acetylglucosamine metabolism, and cell wall degradation. Among the genes identified, 125 are homologous to known ascomycete genes and 105 to basidiomycete genes. Transcripts corresponding to all 26 enzyme groups were detected in both control and nitrogen-supplemented plots. Many of these enzyme groups are known to be important in soil turnover processes, but the contribution of some is probably underestimated. Our data highlight the importance of ascomycetes, as well as basidiomycetes, in important biogeochemical cycles. In the nitrogen-supplemented plots, we have detected no transcript-level gap likely to explain the observed increased carbon storage, which is more likely due to community changes and

  1. The Timber Resources of Delaware. A Report on tbe Forest survey made by the U.S. Forest Service.

    Treesearch

    Roland H. Ferguson; Roland H. Ferguson

    1959-01-01

    This is a report on the findings of the first comprehensive survey of the timber resources of Delaware. It describes, as of 1957, the area and condition of the forest land, the volume of standing timber, the annual growth and mortality of the forest growing stock, and the extent of timber cutting. The survey made by the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture,...

  2. The timber resources of Pennsylvania. A report on the forest survey made by the U.S. Forest Service

    Treesearch

    Roland H. Ferguson; Roland H. Ferguson

    This is a report on the timber resources of Pennsylvania. It is based on the findings of a survey made by the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture as part of a nationwide forest appraisal. The survey data show--as of January 1955--the area and condition of the forest land and the volume and quality of the standing timber. They also include, for the year 1954...

  3. Changes in soil moisture drive soil methane uptake along a fire regeneration chronosequence in a eucalypt forest landscape.

    PubMed

    Fest, Benedikt; Wardlaw, Tim; Livesley, Stephen J; Duff, Thomas J; Arndt, Stefan K

    2015-11-01

    Disturbance associated with severe wildfires (WF) and WF simulating harvest operations can potentially alter soil methane (CH4 ) oxidation in well-aerated forest soils due to the effect on soil properties linked to diffusivity, methanotrophic activity or changes in methanotrophic bacterial community structure. However, changes in soil CH4 flux related to such disturbances are still rarely studied even though WF frequency is predicted to increase as a consequence of global climate change. We measured in-situ soil-atmosphere CH4 exchange along a wet sclerophyll eucalypt forest regeneration chronosequence in Tasmania, Australia, where the time since the last severe fire or harvesting disturbance ranged from 9 to >200 years. On all sampling occasions, mean CH4 uptake increased from most recently disturbed sites (9 year) to sites at stand 'maturity' (44 and 76 years). In stands >76 years since disturbance, we observed a decrease in soil CH4 uptake. A similar age dependency of potential CH4 oxidation for three soil layers (0.0-0.05, 0.05-0.10, 0.10-0.15 m) could be observed on incubated soils under controlled laboratory conditions. The differences in soil CH4 uptake between forest stands of different age were predominantly driven by differences in soil moisture status, which affected the diffusion of atmospheric CH4 into the soil. The observed soil moisture pattern was likely driven by changes in interception or evapotranspiration with forest age, which have been well described for similar eucalypt forest systems in south-eastern Australia. Our results imply that there is a large amount of variability in CH4 uptake at a landscape scale that can be attributed to stand age and soil moisture differences. An increase in severe WF frequency in response to climate change could potentially increase overall forest soil CH4 sinks.

  4. Soil microbial community composition does not predominantly determine the variance of heterotrophic soil respiration across four subtropical forests.

    PubMed

    Wei, Hui; Xiao, Guoliang; Guenet, Bertrand; Janssens, Ivan A; Shen, Weijun

    2015-01-19

    To explore the importance of soil microbial community composition on explaining the difference in heterotrophic soil respiration (R(h)) across forests, a field investigation was conducted on Rh and soil physiochemical and microbial properties in four subtropical forests in southern China. We observed that Rh differed significantly among forests, being 2.48 ± 0.23, 2.31 ± 0.21, 1.83 ± 0.08 and 1.56 ± 0.15 μmol m(-2) s(-1) in the climax evergreen broadleaf forest (BF), the mixed conifer and broadleaf forest (CF), the conifer plantation (CP), and the native broadleaved species plantation (BP), respectively. Both linear mixed effect model and variance decomposition analysis indicated that soil microbial community composition derived from phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) was not the first-order explanatory variable for the R(h) variance across the forests, with the explanatory power being 15.7%. Contrastingly, vegetational attributes such as root biomass (22.6%) and soil substrate availability (18.6%) were more important for explaining the observed R(h) variance. Our results therefore suggest that vegetation attributes and soil carbon pool size, rather than soil microbial community composition, should be preferentially considered to understand the spatial R(h) variance across the subtropical forests in southern China.

  5. Effects of biochar on organic nitrogen mineralization of Northeast forest soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Siyao; Tao, Jun; Luo, Xianxiang

    2016-04-01

    These years,Biochar,as a new environmental functional material,received widespread attention of scholars both in China and abroad.Biochar is applied as a soil conditioner which is because it will improve the soil texture and increase plant yields. But the influence of nitrogen cycle while biochar is added to the forest soil is still controversial. This article takes forest soil as the object of research, aiming at learning the effects of different biochar on nitrogen mineralization of forest soil,and that in the case of different incubation temperature.The results show that it can reduce the net mineralization of soil organic nitrogen. That means the addition of biochar could suppress the mineralization of forest soil organic nitrogen.In a certain range,high temperature significantly facilitate to the mineralization of soill organic nitrogen while the existence of biochar also inhibits of that.

  6. Comparison of soil organic matter dynamics at five temperate deciduous forests with physical fractionation and radiocarbon measurements

    Treesearch

    Karis J. McFarlane; Margaret S. Torn; Paul J. Hanson; Rachel C. Porras; Christopher W. Swanston; Mac A. Callaham; Thomas P. Guilderson

    2013-01-01

    Forest soils represent a significant pool for carbon sequestration and storage, but the factors controlling soil carbon cycling are not well constrained.We compared soil carbon dynamics at five broadleaf forests in the Eastern US that vary in climate, soil type, and soil ecology: two sites at the University of Michigan Biological Station (MI-Coarse, sandy;MI-Fine,...

  7. Response of soil respiration to acid rain in forests of different maturity in southern China.

    PubMed

    Liang, Guohua; Liu, Xingzhao; Chen, Xiaomei; Qiu, Qingyan; Zhang, Deqiang; Chu, Guowei; Liu, Juxiu; Liu, Shizhong; Zhou, Guoyi

    2013-01-01

    The response of soil respiration to acid rain in forests, especially in forests of different maturity, is poorly understood in southern China despite the fact that acid rain has become a serious environmental threat in this region in recent years. Here, we investigated this issue in three subtropical forests of different maturity [i.e. a young pine forest (PF), a transitional mixed conifer and broadleaf forest (MF) and an old-growth broadleaved forest (BF)] in southern China. Soil respiration was measured over two years under four simulated acid rain (SAR) treatments (CK, the local lake water, pH 4.5; T1, water pH 4.0; T2, water pH 3.5; and T3, water pH 3.0). Results indicated that SAR did not significantly affect soil respiration in the PF, whereas it significantly reduced soil respiration in the MF and the BF. The depressed effects on both forests occurred mostly in the warm-wet seasons and were correlated with a decrease in soil microbial activity and in fine root biomass caused by soil acidification under SAR. The sensitivity of the response of soil respiration to SAR showed an increasing trend with the progressive maturity of the three forests, which may result from their differences in acid buffering ability in soil and in litter layer. These results indicated that the depressed effect of acid rain on soil respiration in southern China may be more pronounced in the future in light of the projected change in forest maturity. However, due to the nature of this field study with chronosequence design and the related pseudoreplication for forest types, this inference should be read with caution. Further studies are needed to draw rigorous conclusions regarding the response differences among forests of different maturity using replicated forest types.

  8. Response of Soil Respiration to Acid Rain in Forests of Different Maturity in Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaomei; Qiu, Qingyan; Zhang, Deqiang; Chu, Guowei; Liu, Juxiu; Liu, Shizhong; Zhou, Guoyi

    2013-01-01

    The response of soil respiration to acid rain in forests, especially in forests of different maturity, is poorly understood in southern China despite the fact that acid rain has become a serious environmental threat in this region in recent years. Here, we investigated this issue in three subtropical forests of different maturity [i.e. a young pine forest (PF), a transitional mixed conifer and broadleaf forest (MF) and an old-growth broadleaved forest (BF)] in southern China. Soil respiration was measured over two years under four simulated acid rain (SAR) treatments (CK, the local lake water, pH 4.5; T1, water pH 4.0; T2, water pH 3.5; and T3, water pH 3.0). Results indicated that SAR did not significantly affect soil respiration in the PF, whereas it significantly reduced soil respiration in the MF and the BF. The depressed effects on both forests occurred mostly in the warm-wet seasons and were correlated with a decrease in soil microbial activity and in fine root biomass caused by soil acidification under SAR. The sensitivity of the response of soil respiration to SAR showed an increasing trend with the progressive maturity of the three forests, which may result from their differences in acid buffering ability in soil and in litter layer. These results indicated that the depressed effect of acid rain on soil respiration in southern China may be more pronounced in the future in light of the projected change in forest maturity. However, due to the nature of this field study with chronosequence design and the related pseudoreplication for forest types, this inference should be read with caution. Further studies are needed to draw rigorous conclusions regarding the response differences among forests of different maturity using replicated forest types. PMID:23626790

  9. Long lasting effects of the conversion from natural forest to poplar plantation on soil microbial communities.

    PubMed

    Vitali, Francesco; Mastromei, Giorgio; Senatore, Giuliana; Caroppo, Cesarea; Casalone, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we evaluate the long-lasting effects on soil microbial communities of a change within a single land-use category, specifically the conversion from natural forest to forest plantation. To minimize the effects of impacts other than land-use (i.e., climatic and anthropogenic), we chose three sites within a Natural Park, with homogeneous orographic and soil texture characteristics. We compared microbial diversity in a total of 156 soil samples from two natural mixed forests and a similar forest converted to poplar plantation about thirty years ago. The diversity and structure of bacterial and fungal communities were investigated by terminal restriction fragments length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of the 16S-rRNA gene and the ITS-rDNA regions, respectively. Bacterial and fungal communities from the forest plantation, compared to those from natural forest soils, showed different community structure and lower α-diversity values, consistently with the significantly higher pH values and lower organic matter content of those soils. β-diversity values, the number of measured and estimated dominant OTUs, and their distribution among the three sites showed that microbial communities from the two natural forests were much more similar to each other than they were to communities from the poplar plantation, suggesting an effect of the forest conversion on the composition and diversity of soil microbial communities. α-diversity in cultivated forest soils had narrower temporal fluctuations than in natural forest soils, suggesting higher temporal stability of microbial communities. Overall, we demonstrated that the conversion from natural forest to forest plantation altered soil microbial communities, changing their structure, lowering their diversity, and causing a spatial and temporal homogenization. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. [Soil microbial functional diversity of different altitude Pinus koraiensis forests].

    PubMed

    Han, Dong-xue; Wang, Ning; Wang, Nan-nan; Sun, Xue; Feng, Fu-juan

    2015-12-01

    In order to comprehensively understand the soil microbial carbon utilization characteristics of Pinus koraiensis forests, we took the topsoil (0-5 cm and 5-10 cm) along the 700-1100 m altitude in Changbai Mountains and analyzed the vertical distributed characteristics and variation of microbial functional diversity along the elevation gradient by Biolog microplate method. The results showed that there were significant differences in functional diversity of microbial communities at different elevations. AWCD increased with the extension of incubation time and AWCD at the same soil depth gradually decreased along with increasing altitude; Shannon, Simpson and McIntosh diversity index also showed the same trend with AWCD and three different diversity indices were significantly different along the elevation gradient; Species diversity and functional diversity showed the same variation. The utilization intensities of six categories carbon sources had differences while amino acids were constantly the most dominant carbon source. Principal component analysis (PCA) identified that soil microbial carbon utilization at different altitudes had obvious spatial differentiation, as reflected in the use of carbohydrates, amino acids and carboxylic acids. In addition, the cluster of the microbial diversity indexes and AWCD values of different altitudes showed that the composition of vegetation had a significant impact on soil microbial composition and functional activity.

  11. Acidobacterial community responses to agricultural management of soybean in Amazon forest soils.

    PubMed

    Navarrete, Acácio A; Kuramae, Eiko E; de Hollander, Mattias; Pijl, Agata S; van Veen, Johannes A; Tsai, Siu M

    2013-03-01

    This study focused on the impact of land-use changes and agricultural management of soybean in Amazon forest soils on the abundance and composition of the acidobacterial community. Quantitative real-time PCR (q-PCR) assays and pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene were applied to study the acidobacterial community in bulk soil samples from soybean croplands and adjacent native forests, and mesocosm soil samples from soybean rhizosphere. Based on qPCR measurements, Acidobacteria accounted for 23% in forest soils, 18% in cropland soils, and 14% in soybean rhizosphere of the total bacterial signals. From the 16S rRNA gene sequences of Bacteria domain, the phylum Acidobacteria represented 28% of the sequences from forest soils, 16% from cropland soils, and 17% from soybean rhizosphere. Acidobacteria subgroups 1-8, 10, 11, 13, 17, 18, 22, and 25 were detected with subgroup 1 as dominant among them. Subgroups 4, 6, and 7 were significantly higher in cropland soils than in forest soils, which subgroups responded to decrease in soil aluminum. Subgroups 6 and 7 responded to high content of soil Ca, Mg, Mn, and B. These results showed a differential response of the Acidobacteria subgroups to abiotic soil factors, and open the possibilities to explore acidobacterial subgroups as early-warning bioindicators of agricultural soil management effects in the Amazon area.

  12. Controls of Soil Spatial Variability in a Dry Tropical Forest

    PubMed Central

    Pulla, Sandeep; Riotte, Jean; Suresh, H. S.; Dattaraja, H. S.; Sukumar, Raman

    2016-01-01

    We examined the roles of lithology, topography, vegetation and fire in generating local-scale (<1 km2) soil spatial variability in a seasonally dry tropical forest (SDTF) in southern India. For this, we mapped soil (available nutrients, Al, total C, pH, moisture and texture in the top 10cm), rock outcrops, topography, all native woody plants ≥1 cm diameter at breast height (DBH), and spatial variation in fire frequency (times burnt during the 17 years preceding soil sampling) in a permanent 50-ha plot. Unlike classic catenas, lower elevation soils had lesser moisture, plant-available Ca, Cu, Mn, Mg, Zn, B, clay and total C. The distribution of plant-available Ca, Cu, Mn and Mg appeared to largely be determined by the whole-rock chemical composition differences between amphibolites and hornblende-biotite gneisses. Amphibolites were associated with summit positions, while gneisses dominated lower elevations, an observation that concurs with other studies in the region which suggest that hillslope-scale topography has been shaped by differential weathering of lithologies. Neither NO3−-N nor NH4+-N was explained by the basal area of trees belonging to Fabaceae, a family associated with N-fixing species, and no long-term effects of fire on soil parameters were detected. Local-scale lithological variation is an important first-order control over soil variability at the hillslope scale in this SDTF, by both direct influence on nutrient stocks and indirect influence via control of local relief. PMID:27100088

  13. An ecohydrological framework for water yield changes of forested catchments due to forest decline and soil acidification

    SciTech Connect

    Caspary, H.J. )

    1990-06-01

    The effect of forest decline on water resources is not well described, for there have been no long-term measurements on catchments with declining forests. The precipitation/runoff relationship of the declining forests of the Eyach catchment in the Northern Black Forest/Federal Republic of Germany is analyzed. The uninhabited catchment is subdivided into four subcatchments (7, 10, 30, 52 km{sup 2}) and is totally covered with coniferous forest, mostly Norway spruce. Long-term monitoring from 1973 to 1986 indicates a significant increase in water yield and the runoff coefficient for the growing season, although there has been no extensive cutting in the catchment. An ecohydrological systems model was developed by the incorporation of field data and plant physiological processes to describe the increase in water yield. Field data include hydrological, hydrogeological, geological, soil-physical, soil-chemical, water-chemical, air-chemical, pollutant deposition, forest inventory, and forest decline field measurements from the Eyach catchment and comparable neighboring regions. The model indicates that the observed increase in water yield is likely to be caused by a reduction of forest transpiration. This change in water yield is linked to forest decline and soil acidification caused by anthropogenic sources of air pollution.

  14. Phosphorus limits Eucalyptus grandis seedling growth in an unburnt rain forest soil

    PubMed Central

    Tng, David Y. P.; Janos, David P.; Jordan, Gregory J.; Weber, Ellen; Bowman, David M. J. S.

    2014-01-01

    Although rain forest is characterized as pyrophobic, pyrophilic giant eucalypts grow as rain forest emergents in both temperate and tropical Australia. In temperate Australia, such eucalypts depend on extensive, infrequent fires to produce conditions suitable for seedling growth. Little is known, however, about constraints on seedlings of tropical giant eucalypts. We tested whether seedlings of Eucalyptus grandis experience edaphic constraints similar to their temperate counterparts. We hypothesized that phosphorous addition would alleviate edaphic constraints. We grew seedlings in a factorial experiment combining fumigation (to simulate nutrient release and soil pasteurization by fire), soil type (E. grandis forest versus rain forest soil) and phosphorus addition as factors. We found that phosphorus was the principal factor limiting E. grandis seedling survival and growth in rain forest soil, and that fumigation enhanced survival of seedlings in both E. grandis forest and rain forest soil. We conclude that similar to edaphic constraints on temperate giant eucalypts, mineral nutrient and biotic attributes of a tropical rain forest soil may hamper E. grandis seedling establishment. In rain forest soil, E. grandis seedlings benefited from conditions akin to a fire-generated ashbed (i.e., an “ashbed effect”). PMID:25339968

  15. Phosphorus limits Eucalyptus grandis seedling growth in an unburnt rain forest soil.

    PubMed

    Tng, David Y P; Janos, David P; Jordan, Gregory J; Weber, Ellen; Bowman, David M J S

    2014-01-01

    Although rain forest is characterized as pyrophobic, pyrophilic giant eucalypts grow as rain forest emergents in both temperate and tropical Australia. In temperate Australia, such eucalypts depend on extensive, infrequent fires to produce conditions suitable for seedling growth. Little is known, however, about constraints on seedlings of tropical giant eucalypts. We tested whether seedlings of Eucalyptus grandis experience edaphic constraints similar to their temperate counterparts. We hypothesized that phosphorous addition would alleviate edaphic constraints. We grew seedlings in a factorial experiment combining fumigation (to simulate nutrient release and soil pasteurization by fire), soil type (E. grandis forest versus rain forest soil) and phosphorus addition as factors. We found that phosphorus was the principal factor limiting E. grandis seedling survival and growth in rain forest soil, and that fumigation enhanced survival of seedlings in both E. grandis forest and rain forest soil. We conclude that similar to edaphic constraints on temperate giant eucalypts, mineral nutrient and biotic attributes of a tropical rain forest soil may hamper E. grandis seedling establishment. In rain forest soil, E. grandis seedlings benefited from conditions akin to a fire-generated ashbed (i.e., an "ashbed effect").

  16. Soil erosion after forest fires in the Valencia region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Pelayo, Óscar; Keizer, Jan Jacob; Cerdà, Artemi

    2014-05-01

    Soil erosion after forest fire is triggered by the lack of vegetation cover and the degradation of the physical, biological and chemical properties (Martí et al., 2012; Fernández et al., 2012; Guénon, 2013). Valencia region belongs to the west Mediterranean basin ("Csa", Köppen climate classification), with drought summer periods that enhance forest fire risk. The characteristics of the climate, lithology and land use history makes this region more vulnerable to soil erosion. In this area, fire recurrence is being increased since late 50s (Pausas, 2004) and post-fire erosion studies became more popular from 80's until nowadays (Cerdá and Mataix-Solera, 2009). Research in Valencia region has contributed significantly to a better understanding of the effect of spatial and temporal scale on runoff and sediment yield measurements. The main achievements concerns: a) direct measurement of erosion rates under a wide range of methodologies (natural vs simulated rainfall, open vs closed plots); from micro- to meso-plot and catchment scale in single (Rubio et al., 1994; Cerdà et al., 1995; Cerdà 1998a; 1998b; Llovet et al., 1998; Cerdà, 2001; Calvo-Cases et al., 2003; Andreu et al., 2001; Mayor et al., 2007; Cerdà and Doerr, 2008) and multiples fires (Campo et al., 2006; González-Pelayo et al., 2010a). Changes in soil properties (Sanroque et al., 1985; Rubio et al., 1997; Boix-Fayós, 1997; Gimeno-Garcia et al., 2000; Guerrero et al., 2001; Mataix-Solera et al., 2004; González-Pelayo et al., 2006; Arcenegui et al., 2008; Campo et al., 2008; Bodí et al., 2012), in post-fire vegetation patterns (Gimeno-García et al., 2007) and, studies on mitigation strategies (Bautista et al., 1996; Abad et al., 2000). b) Progress to understanding post-fire erosion mechanism and sediment movement (Boix-Fayós et al., 2005) by definition of thresholds for sediment losses; fire severity, slope angle, bedrock, rain characteristics, vegetation pattern and ecosystem resilience (Mayor

  17. Tropical Soil Carbon Stocks do not Reflect Aboveground Forest Biomass Across Geological and Rainfall Gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cusack, D. F.; Markesteijn, L.; Turner, B. L.

    2016-12-01

    Soil organic carbon (C) dynamics present a large source of uncertainty in global C cycle models, and inhibit our ability to predict effects of climate change. Tropical wet and seasonal forests exert a disproportionate influence on the global C cycle relative to their land area because they are the most C-rich ecosystems on Earth, containing 25-40% of global terrestrial C stocks. While significant advances have been made to map aboveground C stocks in tropical forests, determining soil C stocks using remote sensing technology is still not possible for closed-canopy forests. It is unclear to what extent aboveground C stocks can be used to predict soil C stocks across tropical forests. Here we present 1-m-deep soil organic C stocks for 42 tropical forest sites across rainfall and geological gradients in Panama. We show that soil C stocks do not correspond to aboveground plant biomass or to litterfall productivity in these humid tropical forests. Rather, soil C stocks were strongly and positively predicted by fine root biomass, soil clay content, and rainfall (R2 = 0.47, p < 0.05). Fine root biomass, in turn, was most strongly predicted by total extractable soil base cations (R2 = 0.24, p < 0.05, negative relationship). Our measures of tropical soil C and its relationships with climatic and soil chemical characteristics form an important basis for improving model estimates of soil C stocks and predictions of climate change effects on tropical C storage.

  18. Contrasting soil thermal responses to fire in Alaskan tundra and boreal forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yueyang; Rocha, Adrian V.; O'Donnell, Jonathan A.; Drysdale, Jessica A.; Rastetter, Edward B.; Shaver, Gaius R.; Zhuang, Qianlai

    2015-02-01

    Recent fire activity throughout Alaska has increased the need to understand postfire impacts on soils and permafrost vulnerability. Our study utilized data and modeling from a permafrost and ecosystem gradient to develop a mechanistic understanding of the short- and long-term impacts of tundra and boreal forest fires on soil thermal dynamics. Fires influenced a variety of factors that altered the surface energy budget, soil moisture, and the organic-layer thickness with the overall effect of increasing soil temperatures and thaw depth. The postfire thickness of the soil organic layer and its impact on soil thermal conductivity was the most important factor determining postfire soil temperatures and thaw depth. Boreal and tundra ecosystems underlain by permafrost experienced smaller postfire soil temperature increases than the nonpermafrost boreal forest from the direct and indirect effects of permafrost on drainage, soil moisture, and vegetation flammability. Permafrost decreased the loss of the insulating soil organic layer, decreased soil drying, increased surface water pooling, and created a significant heat sink to buffer postfire soil temperature and thaw depth changes. Ecosystem factors also played a role in determining postfire thaw depth with boreal forests taking several decades longer to recover their soil thermal properties than tundra. These factors resulted in tundra being less sensitive to postfire soil thermal changes than the nonpermafrost boreal forest. These results suggest that permafrost and soil organic carbon will be more vulnerable to fire as climate warms.

  19. Comparing soil organic carbon dynamics in plantation and secondary forest in wet tropics in Puerto Rico

    Treesearch

    LI YIQING; MING XU; ZOU XIAOMING; PEIJUN SHI§; YAOQI ZHANG

    2005-01-01

    We compared the soil carbon dynamics between a pine plantation and a secondary forest, both of which originated from the same farmland abandoned in 1976 with the same cropping history and soil conditions, in the wet tropics in Puerto Rico from July 1996 to June 1997. We found that the secondary forest accumulated the heavy-fraction organic carbon (HF-OC) measured by...

  20. A conceptual framework: redifining forests soil's critical acid loads under a changing climate

    Treesearch

    Steven G. McNulty; Johnny L. Boggs

    2010-01-01

    Federal agencies of several nations have or are currently developing guidelines for critical forest soil acid loads. These guidelines are used to establish regulations designed to maintain atmospheric acid inputs below levels shown to damage forests and streams. Traditionally, when the critical soil acid load exceeds the amount of acid that the ecosystem can absorb, it...

  1. Spatial patterns in oxygen and redox sensitive biogeochemistry in tropical forest soils

    Treesearch

    Daniel Liptzin; Whendee L. Silver

    2015-01-01

    Humid tropical forest soils are characterized by warm temperatures, abundant rainfall, and high rates of biological activity that vary considerably in both space and time. These conditions, together with finely textured soils typical of humid tropical forests lead to periodic low redox conditions, even in well-drained upland environments. The relationship between redox...

  2. Visually Determined Soil Disturbance Classes Used as Indices of Forest Harvesting Disturbance

    Treesearch

    W. Michael Aust; James A. Burger; Emily A. Carter; David P. Preston; Steven C. Patterson

    1998-01-01

    Visual estimates of soil and site disturbances are used by foresters, soil scientists, logging supervisors. and machinery operators to minimize harvest disturbances to forest sites, to evaluate compliance with forestry Best Management Practices (BMPs), and to determine the need for ameliorative practices such as tnechanical site preparation. Although estimates are...

  3. Site-specific critical acid load estimates for forest soils in the Osborn Creek watershed, Michigan

    Treesearch

    Trevor Hobbs; Jason Lynch; Randy. Kolka

    2017-01-01

    Anthropogenic acid deposition has the potential to accelerate leaching of soil cations, and in turn, deplete nutrients essential to forest vegetation. The critical load concept, employing a simple mass balance (SMB) approach, is often used to model this process. In an evaluation under the U.S. Forest Service Watershed Condition Framework program, soils in all 6th level...

  4. Sustained effects of atmospheric [CO2] and nitrogen availability on forest soil CO2 efflux

    Treesearch

    A. Christopher Oishi; Sari Palmroth; Kurt H. Johnsen; Heather R. McCarthy; Ram. Oren

    2014-01-01

    Soil CO2 efflux (Fsoil) is the largest source of carbon from forests and reflects primary productivity as well as how carbon is allocated within forest ecosystems. Through early stages of stand development, both elevated [CO2] and availability of soil nitrogen (N; sum of mineralization, deposition, and fixation) have been shown to increase gross primary productivity,...

  5. LBA-ECO TG-07 Soil Trace Gas Flux and Root Mortality, Tapajos National Forest

    Treesearch

    R.K. Varner; M.M. Keller

    2009-01-01

    This data set reports the results of an experiment that tested the short-term effects of root mortality on the soil-atmosphere fluxes of nitrous oxide, nitric oxide, methane, and carbon dioxide in a tropical evergreen forest. Weekly trace gas fluxes are provided for treatment and control plots on sand and clay tropical forest soils in two comma separated ASCII files....

  6. Water content measurement in forest soils and decayed wood using time domain reflectometry

    Treesearch

    Andrew Gray; Thomas Spies

    1995-01-01

    The use of time domain reflectometry to measure moisture content in forest soils and woody debris was evaluated. Calibrations were developed on undisturbed soil cores from four forest stands and on point samples from decayed logs. An algorithm for interpreting irregularly shaped traces generated by the reflectometer was also developed. Two different calibration...

  7. Long-term soil changes from forest harvesting and residue management in the northern Rocky Mountains

    Treesearch

    Woongsoon Jang; Deborah S. Page-Dumroese; Christopher R. Keyes

    2016-01-01

    Soil changes associated with forest harvesting, differing utilization levels, and post-harvest prescribed burning were determined using an empirical study to investigate the long-term impacts on soil physical and chemical properties at Coram Experimental Forest in northwestern Montana. In 1974, two replications of three regeneration cuttings (shelterwood,...

  8. Different soil respiration responses to litter manipulation in three subtropical successional forests.

    PubMed

    Han, Tianfeng; Huang, Wenjuan; Liu, Juxiu; Zhou, Guoyi; Xiao, Yin

    2015-12-11

    Aboveground litter inputs have been greatly altered by human disturbances and climate change, which have important effects on soil respiration. However, the knowledge of how soil respiration responds to altered litter inputs is limited in tropical and subtropical forests. We conducted an aboveground litterfall manipulation experiment in three successional forests in the subtropics to examine the soil respiration responses to different litter inputs from January 2010 to July 2012. The soil respiration decreased by 35% in the litter exclusion treatments and increased by 77% in the doubled litter additions across all three forests. The reduction in soil respiration induced by the litter exclusion was greatest in the early successional forest, which may be related to a decrease in the soil moisture and shifts in the microbial community. The increase in soil respiration produced by the doubled litter addition was largest in the mature forest, which was most probably due to its relatively high quantity and quality of litterfall. Our results suggest that the effect of reduced litter inputs on the soil respiration lessened with forest succession but that the doubled litter inputs resulted in a stronger priming effect in the mature forest than in the other two forests.

  9. Aspen development on similar soils in Minnesota and British Columbia after compaction and forest floor removal

    Treesearch

    Douglas M. Stone; Richard Kabzems

    2002-01-01

    Forest management practices that decrease soil porosity and remove organic matter can reduce site productivity. We evaluated effects of four treatments-merchantable bole harvest (MBH) with three levels of soil compaction (none, light, or heavy), and total woody vegetation harvest plus forest floor removal (FFR)-on fifth-year regeneration and growth of aspen (...

  10. Effects of fertilization on phosphorus pools in the volcanic soil of a managed tropical forest

    Treesearch

    Dean F. Meason; Travis W. Idol; J.B. Friday; Paul G. Scowcroft

    2009-01-01

    Acacia koa forests benefit from phosphorus fertilisation, but it is unknown if fertilisation is a short or long term effect on P availability. Past research suggests that P cycling in soils with high P sorption capacity, such as Andisols, was through organic pathways. We studied leaf P and soil P fractions in a tropical forest Andisol for 3 years...

  11. Thirty years of change in forest soils of the Allegheny Plateau, Pennsylvania

    Treesearch

    S.W. Bailey; S.B. Horsley; R.P. Long

    2005-01-01

    Numerous studies have investigated the potential depletion of available base cation pools from forest soils in regions impacted by acid deposition. However, these studies mostly used indirect methods. Retrospective studies, providing direct evidence of chemical changes in forest soils, are relatively rare due to a lack of appropriate sampling, documentation, and...

  12. Response of forest soil properties to urbanization gradients in three metropolitan areas

    Treesearch

    Richard V. Pouyat; Ian D. Yesilonis; Katalin Szlavecz; Csaba Csuzdi; Elizabeth Hornung; Zoltan Kors& #243; s; Jonathan Russell-Anelli; Vincent Giorgio

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the effects of urban environments on the chemical properties of forest soils in the metropolitan areas of Baltimore, New York, and Budapest. We hypothesized that soils in forest patches in each city will exhibit changes in chemistry corresponding to urbanization gradients, but more strongly with various urban metrics than distance to the urban core....

  13. Different soil respiration responses to litter manipulation in three subtropical successional forests

    PubMed Central

    Han, Tianfeng; Huang, Wenjuan; Liu, Juxiu; Zhou, Guoyi; Xiao, Yin

    2015-01-01

    Aboveground litter inputs have been greatly altered by human disturbances and climate change, which have important effects on soil respiration. However, the knowledge of how soil respiration responds to altered litter inputs is limited in tropical and subtropical forests. We conducted an aboveground litterfall manipulation experiment in three successional forests in the subtropics to examine the soil respiration responses to different litter inputs from January 2010 to July 2012. The soil respiration decreased by 35% in the litter exclusion treatments and increased by 77% in the doubled litter additions across all three forests. The reduction in soil respiration induced by the litter exclusion was greatest in the early successional forest, which may be related to a decrease in the soil moisture and shifts in the microbial community. The increase in soil respiration produced by the doubled litter addition was largest in the mature forest, which was most probably due to its relatively high quantity and quality of litterfall. Our results suggest that the effect of reduced litter inputs on the soil respiration lessened with forest succession but that the doubled litter inputs resulted in a stronger priming effect in the mature forest than in the other two forests. PMID:26656136

  14. Different soil respiration responses to litter manipulation in three subtropical successional forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Tianfeng; Huang, Wenjuan; Liu, Juxiu; Zhou, Guoyi; Xiao, Yin

    2015-12-01

    Aboveground litter inputs have been greatly altered by human disturbances and climate change, which have important effects on soil respiration. However, the knowledge of how soil respiration responds to altered litter inputs is limited in tropical and subtropical forests. We conducted an aboveground litterfall manipulation experiment in three successional forests in the subtropics to examine the soil respiration responses to different litter inputs from January 2010 to July 2012. The soil respiration decreased by 35% in the litter exclusion treatments and increased by 77% in the doubled litter additions across all three forests. The reduction in soil respiration induced by the litter exclusion was greatest in the early successional forest, which may be related to a decrease in the soil moisture and shifts in the microbial community. The increase in soil respiration produced by the doubled litter addition was largest in the mature forest, which was most probably due to its relatively high quantity and quality of litterfall. Our results suggest that the effect of reduced litter inputs on the soil respiration lessened with forest succession but that the doubled litter inputs resulted in a stronger priming effect in the mature forest than in the other two forests.

  15. Fire and fire-suppression impacts on forest-soil carbon [Chapter 13

    Treesearch

    Deborah Page-Dumroese; Martin F. Jurgensen; Alan E. Harvey

    2003-01-01

    The potential of forest soils to sequester carbon (C) depends on many biotic and abiotic variables, such as: forest type, stand age and structure, root activity and turnover, temperature and moisture conditions, and soil physical, chemical, and biological properties (Birdsey and Lewis, Chapter 2; Johnson and Kern, Chapter 4; Pregitzer, Chapter 6; Morris and Paul,...

  16. Soil properties and aspen development five years after compaction and forest floor removal

    Treesearch

    Douglas M. Stone; John D. Elioff

    1998-01-01

    Forest management activities that decrease soil porosity and remove organic matter have been associated with declines in site productivity. In the northern Lake States region, research is in progress in the aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx. and P. grandidentata Michx.) forest type to determine effects of soil compaction and organic...

  17. Methodology for estimating soil carbon for the forest carbon budget model of the United States, 2001

    Treesearch

    L. S. Heath; R. A. Birdsey; D. W. Williams

    2002-01-01

    The largest carbon (C) pool in United States forests is the soil C pool. We present methodology and soil C pool estimates used in the FORCARB model, which estimates and projects forest carbon budgets for the United States. The methodology balances knowledge, uncertainties, and ease of use. The estimates are calculated using the USDA Natural Resources Conservation...

  18. Soil functional types: surveying the biophysical dimensions of soil security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cécillon, Lauric; Barré, Pierre

    2015-04-01

    Soil is a natural capital that can deliver key ecosystem services (ES) to humans through the realization of a series of soil processes controlling ecosystem functioning. Soil is also a diverse and endangered natural resource. A huge pedodiversity has been described at all scales, which is strongly altered by global change. The multidimensional concept soil security, encompassing biophysical, economic, social, policy and legal frameworks of soils has recently been proposed, recognizing the role of soils in global environmental sustainability challenges. The biophysical dimensions of soil security focus on the functionality of a given soil that can be viewed as the combination of its capability and its condition [1]. Indeed, all soils are not equal in term of functionality. They show different processes, provide different ES to humans and respond specifically to global change. Knowledge of soil functionality in space and time is thus a crucial step towards the achievement soil security. All soil classification systems incorporate some functional information, but soil taxonomy alone cannot fully describe the functioning, limitations, resistance and resilience of soils. Droogers and Bouma [2] introduced functional variants (phenoforms) for each soil type (genoform) so as to fit more closely to soil functionality. However, different genoforms can have the same functionality. As stated by McBratney and colleagues [1], there is a great need of an agreed methodology for defining the reference state of soil functionality. Here, we propose soil functional types (SFT) as a relevant classification system for the biophysical dimensions of soil security. Following the definition of plant functional types widely used in ecology, we define a soil functional type as "a set of soil taxons or phenoforms sharing similar processes (e.g. soil respiration), similar effects on ecosystem functioning (e.g. primary productivity) and similar responses to global change (land-use, management or

  19. Nitrogen Alters Fungal Communities in Boreal Forest Soil: Implications for Carbon Cycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allison, S. D.; Treseder, K. K.

    2005-12-01

    One potential effect of climate change in high latitude ecosystems is to increase soil nutrient availability. In particular, greater nitrogen availability could impact decomposer communities and lead to altered rates of soil carbon cycling. Since fungi are the primary decomposers in many high-latitude ecosystems, we used molecular techniques and field surveys to test whether fungal communities and abundances differed in response to nitrogen fertilization in a boreal forest ecosystem. We predicted that fungi that degrade recalcitrant carbon would decline under nitrogen fertilization, while fungi that degrade labile carbon would increase, leading to no net change in rates of soil carbon mineralization. The molecular data showed that basidiomycete fungi dominate the active fungal community in both fertilized and unfertilized soils. However, we found that fertilization reduced peak mushroom biomass by 79%, although most of the responsive fungi were ectomycorrhizal and therefore their capacity to degrade soil carbon is uncertain. Fertilization increased the activity of the cellulose-degrading enzyme beta-glucosidase by 78%, while protease activity declined by 39% and polyphenol oxidase, a lignin-degrading enzyme, did not respond. Rates of soil respiration did not change in response to fertilization. These results suggest that increased nitrogen availability does alter the composition of the fungal community, and its potential to degrade different carbon compounds. However, these differences do not affect the total flux of CO2 from the soil, even though the contribution to CO2 respiration from different carbon pools may vary with fertilization. We conclude that in the short term, increased nitrogen availability due to climate warming or nitrogen deposition is more likely to alter the turnover of individual carbon pools rather than total carbon fluxes from the soil. Future work should determine if changes in fungal community structure and associated differences in

  20. A history of Soil Survey in England and Wales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallett, S.; Deeks, L.

    2012-04-01

    Early soil mapping in Britain was dominated, as in the USA, by soil texture with maps dating back to the early 1900's identifying surface texture and parent rock materials. Only in the 1920's did Dokuchaev's work in Russia involving soil morphology and the development of the soil profile start to gain popularity, drawing in the influence of climate and topography on pedogenesis. Intentions to create a formal body at this time responsible for soil survey were not implemented and progress remained slow. However, in 1939 definite steps were taken to address this and the soil survey was created. In 1947, its activities were transferred from Bangor to the research branch of the Rothamsted experimental station in Hertfordshire under Professor G.W. Robinson. Soon after, a number of regional offices were also established to act as a link with the National Agricultural Advisory Service. At this time a Pedology Department was established at Rothamsted, focussing on petrological, X-ray, spectrographic and chemical analyses. Although not a Rothamsted Department itself, the Survey did fall under the 'Lawes Agricultural Trust'. A Soil Survey Research Advisory Board was also formed to act as a liaison with the Agricultural Field Council. In Scotland by contrast, soil survey activities became centred on the Macaulay Institute in Aberdeen. Developments in the survey of British soils were accompanied in parallel by the development of soil classification systems. In 1930 a Soils Correlation Committee had been formed to ensure consistency in methods and naming of soil series and to ensure the classification was applied uniformly. In England and Wales the zonal system adopted was similar to that used in the USA, where soil series were named after the location where they were first described. American soil scientists such as Veitch and Lee provided stimulus to the development of mapping methods. In Scotland a differing classification was adopted, being similar to that used in Canada

  1. A network of experimental forests and ranges: Providing soil solutions for a changing world

    Treesearch

    Mary Beth. Adams

    2010-01-01

    The network of experimental forests and ranges of the USDA Forest Service represents significant opportunities to provide soil solutions to critical issues of a changing world. This network of 81 experimental forests and ranges encompasses broad geographic, biological, climatic and physical scales, and includes long-term data sets, and long-term experimental...

  2. Remote sensing-based estimation of annual soil respiration at two contrasting forest sites

    DOE PAGES

    Gu, Lianhong; Huang, Ni; Black, T. Andrew; ...

    2015-11-23

    Soil respiration (Rs), an important component of the global carbon cycle, can be estimated using remotely sensed data, but the accuracy of this technique has not been thoroughly investigated. In this article, we proposed a methodology for the remote estimation of annual Rs at two contrasting FLUXNET forest sites (a deciduous broadleaf forest and an evergreen needleleaf forest).

  3. Impact of biomass harvesting on forest soil productivity in the northern Rocky Mountains

    Treesearch

    Woongsoon Jang; Christopher R. Keyes; Deborah Page-Dumroese

    2015-01-01

    Biomass harvesting extracts an increased amount of organic matter from forest ecosystems over conventional harvesting. Since organic matter plays a critical role in forest productivity, concerns of potential negative long-term impacts of biomass harvesting on forest productivity (i.e., changing nutrient/water cycling, aggravating soil properties, and compaction) have...

  4. Climate impacts on soil carbon processes along an elevation gradient in the tropical Luquillo Experimental Forest

    Treesearch

    Dingfang Chen; Mei Yu; Grizelle González; Xiaoming Zou; Qiong Gao

    2017-01-01

    Tropical forests play an important role in regulating the global climate and the carbon cycle. With the changing temperature and moisture along the elevation gradient, the Luquillo Experimental Forest in Northeastern Puerto Rico provides a natural approach to understand tropical forest ecosystems under climate change. In this study, we conducted a soil translocation...

  5. The effect of fire intensity on soil respiration in Siberia boreal forest

    Treesearch

    S. Baker; A. V. Bogorodskaya

    2010-01-01

    Russian boreal forests have an annual wildfire activity averaging 10 to 20 million ha, which has increased in recent years. This wildfire activity, in response to changing climate has the potential to significantly affect the carbon storage capacity of Siberian forests. A better understanding of the effect of fire on soil respiration rates in the boreal forest of...

  6. Factors for Microbial Carbon Sources in Organic and Mineral Soils from Eastern United States Deciduous Forests

    SciTech Connect

    Stitt, Caroline R.

    2013-09-16

    Forest soils represent a large portion of global terrestrial carbon; however, which soil carbon sources are used by soil microbes and respired as carbon dioxide (CO2) is not well known. This study will focus on characterizing microbial carbon sources from organic and mineral soils from four eastern United States deciduous forests using a unique radiocarbon (14C) tracer. Results from the dark incubation of organic and mineral soils are heavily influenced by site characteristics when incubated at optimal microbial activity temperature. Sites with considerable differences in temperature, texture, and location differ in carbon source attribution, indicating that site characteristics play a role in soil respiration.

  7. Soil actinomycetes in the National Forest Park in northeastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirokikh, I. G.; Shirokikh, A. A.

    2017-01-01

    The taxonomic and functional structure of actinomycete complexes in the litters and upper horizons of the soils under an artificial coniferous-broad-leaved forest located around the town of Chanchun (Tszilin province, PRC). The complex of actinomycetes included representatives of the Streptomyces, Micromonospora, Streptosporangium, and Streptoverticillium genera and oligosporous forms. In the actinomycete complexes, streptomycetes prevailed in the abundance (61-95%) and frequency of occurrence (100%). In the parcels of Korean pine ( Pinus koraiensis) and Mongolian oak ( Quercus mongolica), streptomycetes of 19 species from 8 series and 4 sections were isolated. The most representative, as in European forest biomes, was the Cinereus Achromogenes series. A distinguishing feature of the streptomycete complex in the biomes studied was the high participation of species from the Imperfectus series. The verification of the functional activity of natural isolates made it possible to reveal strains with high antagonistic and cellulolytic abilities. A high similarity of actinomycete complexes was found in Eurasian forest ecosystems remote from each other, probably due to the similarity of plant polymers decomposable by actinomycetes.

  8. Mapping physical properties of Swiss forest soils by robust external-drift kriging from legacy soil data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papritz, Andreas; Ramirez Lopez, Leo; Baltensweiler, Andri; Walthert, Lorenz

    2015-04-01

    Climate change scenario predict for Switzerland increasing summer temperature and decreasing precipitation. In coming decades forests will therefore likely experience more often drought. However, it is not clear to what extent these changes will occur and where in Switzerland they will be most pronounced. Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere-Transfer (SVAT) models allow to explore likely changes in the water regime of forest under changing climate. Such process models require information of soil physical properties that largely control water storage in forest soils. Spatial information on physical properties of forest soils is currently lacking in Switzerland. Therefore one objective of the project "Soils and water regime of Swiss forests and forest sites under present and future climate BOWA-CH" (http://www.wsl.ch/fe/boden/projekte/bowa_ch/index_EN) was to predict basic physical properties of forest soils at high spatial resolution for the whole Swiss territory. Based on legacy data of about 2000 forest soil profiles, we mapped particle size composition, volumetric content of rock fragments, soil organic carbon (SOC) content and soil density for fixed-depth soil layers (0-10, 10-30, 30-60, ..., 120-150 cm) by robust external drift kriging (Nussbaum et al., 2014). Comprehensive, digitally available information on climate, topography, vegetation and geology were used as covariates for statistical modelling. Preliminary sets of covariates were chosen by LASSO, and the selection was refined by cross-validating the model for the external drift. External validation with 20 % of the data revealed that clay and sand content, soil density and SOC could be predicted with acceptable precision. Predictions of rock fragment content and silt content were less precise, and the developed model failed to spatially predict soil depth. This is unfortunate because soil depth and rock fragment content largely control water storage in soils. Nussbaum, M., Papritz, A., Baltensweiler, A

  9. Soil micronutrients at the plot scale under agricultural and forest soil uses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva Días, Rosane; Vidal Vázquez, Eva; dos Santos Batista Bonini, Carolina; Marasca, Indiamara; Paz-Ferreiro, Jorge

    2013-04-01

    Land use practices affect soil properties and nutrient supply. Very limited data are available on the heavy metal extractability in northwest Spain. The aim of this study is to analyze long-term effects of land use on the supply, variability and spatial distribution of soil nutrients, which was undertaken by comparison of a forest and a cultivated stand, rich in organic matter content. The study was carried out in an acid, rich in organic matter soil developed over sediments at the province of Lugo, northwestern of Spain. Adjacent plots with were marked on regular square grids with 2-m spacing. Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu were extracted both by Mehlich-3 and DTPA solutions and determined by ICP-MS. General soil chemical and physical properties were routinely analyzed. In arable land microelement concentration ranges were as follows: Fe (100 and 135 mg/Kg), Mn (7.6 and 21.5 mg/Kg), Zn (0.6 and 3.7 mg/Kg), Cu (0.2 and 0.7 mg/Kg). In forest land, these ranges were: Fe (62 and 309 mg/Kg), Mn (0.2 and 2.1 mg/Kg), Zn (0.2 and 2.9 mg/Kg), Cu (0.1 and 0.2 mg/Kg), Microelement concentrations extracted both with DTPA and Mehlich-3 were higher in the cultivated than in the forest stand, being Fe-DTPA the exception. Coefficients of variation were higher for the microelement content of the soil under forest. Principal component analysis was performed to evaluate associations between extractable microelements and general physico-chemical properties. At the study scale, nutrient management is the main factor affecting the agricultural site, whereas soil-plant interactions are probably driving the higher variation within the forest site. Patterns of spatial variability of the study nutrients at the small plot scale were assessed by geostatistical techniques. Results are discussed in the frame of organic matter decline with conventional tillage and sustainable land use.

  10. Planned burning vs. wildfire impact on soil methane flux - implications for forest fire management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fest, Benedikt; Wardlaw, Tim; Livesley, Stephen; Arndt, Stefan

    2014-05-01

    Soils in forests ecosystem represent the largest land based methane sink and therefore provide an important ecosystem service. Fire can alter soil properties linked to soil methane uptake potential but this has rarely been studied to date. We measured soil methane flux in a dry-sclerophyll eucalypt forest (Victoria, Australia) that had different planned burning frequency treatments applied (every 3 and 10 years) in the last 27 years. We also studied soil methane flux along a wildfire chronosequence spanning over 200 years (Tasmania, Australia). Our data show that planned fires and wildfires had contrasting effects on methane uptake of the forest soils. The repeated planned burning treatments did not alter methane flux patterns of forest soil. In the wildfire chronosequence the methane uptake capacity of the forest soil was closely related to structural changes during stand development likely linked to stand water use, with drier forest stands having greater methane uptake. Our data demonstrate that unmanaged wildfire can have substantial impact on the methane sink capacity of forest ecosystems in Australia while the less intense planned fires have little effect. The effects of fire were more related to changes in stand structure rather than impacts of fire on soils per se.

  11. DRAINMOD-FOREST: Integrated Modeling of Hydrology, Soil Carbon and Nitrogen Dynamics, and Plant Growth for Drained Forests.

    PubMed

    Tian, Shiying; Youssef, Mohamed A; Skaggs, R Wayne; Amatya, Devendra M; Chescheir, G M

    2012-01-01

    We present a hybrid and stand-level forest ecosystem model, DRAINMOD-FOREST, for simulating the hydrology, carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) dynamics, and tree growth for drained forest lands under common silvicultural practices. The model was developed by linking DRAINMOD, the hydrological model, and DRAINMOD-N II, the soil C and N dynamics model, to a forest growth model, which was adapted mainly from the 3-PG model. The forest growth model estimates net primary production, C allocation, and litterfall using physiology-based methods regulated by air temperature, water deficit, stand age, and soil N conditions. The performance of the newly developed DRAINMOD-FOREST model was evaluated using a long-term (21-yr) data set collected from an artificially drained loblolly pine ( L.) plantation in eastern North Carolina, USA. Results indicated that the DRAINMOD-FOREST accurately predicted annual, monthly, and daily drainage, as indicated by Nash-Sutcliffe coefficients of 0.93, 0.87, and 0.75, respectively. The model also predicted annual net primary productivity and dynamics of leaf area index reasonably well. Predicted temporal changes in the organic matter pool on the forest floor and in forest soil were reasonable compared to published literature. Both predicted annual and monthly nitrate export were in good agreement with field measurements, as indicated by Nash-Sutcliffe coefficients above 0.89 and 0.79 for annual and monthly predictions, respectively. This application of DRAINMOD-FOREST demonstrated its capability for predicting hydrology and C and N dynamics in drained forests under limited silvicultural practices. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  12. Epigeous fruiting bodies of ectomycorrhizal fungi as indicators of soil fertility and associated nitrogen status of boreal forests.

    PubMed

    Kranabetter, J M; Friesen, J; Gamiet, S; Kroeger, P

    2009-10-01

    Soil fertility and associated nitrogen (N) status was a key ecosystem attribute, and surveys of ectomycorrhizal fungal (EMF) communities via epigeous fruiting bodies could provide an effective biotic indicator of forest soil productivity. We explored the utility of aboveground EMF communities in this regard by surveying sporocarps over a 3-year period from contrasting plant associations of southern old-growth boreal forests of British Columbia (Canada). Cumulative richness ranged from 39 to 89 EMF species per plot (0.15 ha) and followed a skewed parabolic correlation with foliar N concentrations and soil N availability. EMF species composition was consistently distinct in ordinations and strongly correlated to the increasing rates of N mineralization aligned with soil productivity. Approximately 40 EMF species were specialists, as they collectively indicated oligotrophic, mesotrophic, and eutrophic nutrient regimes, while the remaining species were categorized as broadly tolerant (distributed over 100% of the N gradient), partially intolerant (approximately 70%), or satellites (rare). The functional organization of EMF communities reflected by distribution classes could help define the ecological integrity of forests, which was characterized in this boreal landscape by an average allotment of 20 broadly tolerant, 25 partially intolerant, 15 specialist, and ten satellite species per plot. Epigeous fruiting bodies provided a disparate yet complementary view to the belowground assessment of EMF communities that was valuable in identifying indicators for ecosystem monitoring.

  13. Dominant Tree Species and Soil Type Affect the Fungal Community Structure in a Boreal Peatland Forest.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hui; Terhonen, Eeva; Kovalchuk, Andriy; Tuovila, Hanna; Chen, Hongxin; Oghenekaro, Abbot O; Heinonsalo, Jussi; Kohler, Annegret; Kasanen, Risto; Vasander, Harri; Asiegbu, Fred O

    2016-05-01

    Boreal peatlands play a crucial role in global carbon cycling, acting as an important carbon reservoir. However, little information is available on how peatland microbial communities are influenced by natural variability or human-induced disturbances. In this study, we have investigated the fungal diversity and community structure of both the organic soil layer and buried wood in boreal forest soils using high-throughput sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. We have also compared the fungal communities during the primary colonization of wood with those of the surrounding soils. A permutational multivariate analysis of variance (PERMANOVA) confirmed that the community composition significantly differed between soil types (P< 0.001) and tree species (P< 0.001). The distance-based linear models analysis showed that environmental variables were significantly correlated with community structure (P< 0.04). The availability of soil nutrients (Ca [P= 0.002], Fe [P= 0.003], and P [P= 0.003]) within the site was an important factor in the fungal community composition. The species richness in wood was significantly lower than in the corresponding soil (P< 0.004). The results of the molecular identification were supplemented by fruiting body surveys. Seven of the genera of Agaricomycotina identified in our surveys were among the top 20 genera observed in pyrosequencing data. Our study is the first, to our knowledge, fungal high-throughput next-generation sequencing study performed on peatlands; it further provides a baseline for the investigation of the dynamics of the fungal community in the boreal peatlands. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  14. Dominant Tree Species and Soil Type Affect the Fungal Community Structure in a Boreal Peatland Forest

    PubMed Central

    Terhonen, Eeva; Kovalchuk, Andriy; Tuovila, Hanna; Chen, Hongxin; Oghenekaro, Abbot O.; Heinonsalo, Jussi; Kohler, Annegret; Kasanen, Risto; Vasander, Harri; Asiegbu, Fred O.

    2016-01-01

    Boreal peatlands play a crucial role in global carbon cycling, acting as an important carbon reservoir. However, little information is available on how peatland microbial communities are influenced by natural variability or human-induced disturbances. In this study, we have investigated the fungal diversity and community structure of both the organic soil layer and buried wood in boreal forest soils using high-throughput sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. We have also compared the fungal communities during the primary colonization of wood with those of the surrounding soils. A permutational multivariate analysis of variance (PERMANOVA) confirmed that the community composition significantly differed between soil types (P < 0.001) and tree species (P < 0.001). The distance-based linear models analysis showed that environmental variables were significantly correlated with community structure (P < 0.04). The availability of soil nutrients (Ca [P = 0.002], Fe [P = 0.003], and P [P = 0.003]) within the site was an important factor in the fungal community composition. The species richness in wood was significantly lower than in the corresponding soil (P < 0.004). The results of the molecular identification were supplemented by fruiting body surveys. Seven of the genera of Agaricomycotina identified in our surveys were among the top 20 genera observed in pyrosequencing data. Our study is the first, to our knowledge, fungal high-throughput next-generation sequencing study performed on peatlands; it further provides a baseline for the investigation of the dynamics of the fungal community in the boreal peatlands. PMID:26896139

  15. Controls on soil organic matter content within a northern hardwood forest

    Treesearch

    K.D. Johnson; F.N. Scatena; A.H. Johnson; Y. Pan

    2009-01-01

    Forest soils can act as both sinks and sources for atmospheric CO2 and therefore have an important role in the global carbon cycle. Yet the controls on forest soil organic matter content (SOM) distribution at the scale of operational land management scales within forest types are rarely quantified in detail. To identify factors that influence the...

  16. Soil organic carbon stock and change of forests in China 1980s-2010s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Zhang, G.; Xu, Z.; Gao, X.; Yu, G.; Zuo, L.; Hou, R.; Gao, J.; Chen, J.; Hao, Y.; An, T.

    2015-12-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) accounts for about 45% carbon stock of global forest ecosystems. The assessment of carbon stock and carbon change of forest soil in China is absence, though huge carbon sinks has been observed in biomass both of China and global forests in decades. This reveals less understanding of SOC than biomass of forests at large scale. We estimated the bulk density, SOC density and carbon stock of forest soil in China based on 1662 soil profiles collected in the first forest soil inventory during 2012-2014. We also analyzed the carbon stock change, and the effect of afforestation to both of the carbon stock change and SOC density change of forest soil in China 1980s-2010s. The results indicate that, for the forest soil in China 2010s, the average bulk density is 1.18 g cm-3, the mean SOC density is 114.7 Mg ha-1, and the SOC stock is 23.82 Pg C. During the period of 1980s-2010s, the SOC stock increased 2.45 Pg C, about 81.5 Tg C yr-1, which is a little less than the biomass carbon change of forests in China. Moreover, not the SOC density, but the increased forest area by afforestation is the major contribution to the SOC sink. The SOC density increased after afforestation for the soil great groups formed under cropland and desert, but decreased for the most soil great groups formed under grassland in 1980s-2010s. Therefore, if both of forest area and SOC density could be increased in China, the carbon sequestration ability would be enhanced and the effect of climate change would be released.

  17. Quantification of soil fauna metabolites and dead mass as humification sources in forest soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chertov, O. G.

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of publications on soil food webs (FWs) allowed calculation of the contents of soil fauna metabolites and dead mass, which can serve as materials for humification. Excreta production of FWmicrofauna reaches 570 kg/ha annually, but the liquid excreta of protozoa and nematodes compose about 25%. The soil fauna dead mass can be also maximally about 580 kg/ha per year. However, up to 70% of this material is a dead mass of bacteria, protozoa, and nematodes. The undecomposed forest floor (L) has low values of these metabolites in comparison with the raw humus organic layer (F + H). The mass of these metabolites is twice lower in Ah. Theoretical assessment of earthworms' role in SOM formation shows that the SOM amount in fresh coprolites can be 1.4 to 4.5-fold higher than SOM in the bulk soil in dependence on food assimilation efficiency, the soil: litter ratio in the earthworms' ration, and SOM quantity in the bulk soil. Excreta production varies from 0.2 to 1.9% of the total SOM pool annually, including 0.15-1.5% of excrements of arthropods and enchytraeidae, but the amount of arthropods' dead mass comprises 0.2-0.4%. The calculated values of the SOM increase due to earthworms' coprolites are of the same order (0.9-2.7% of SOM pool annually). These values of SOM-forming biota metabolites and dead mass are close to the experimental and simulated data on labile and stable SOM fractions decomposition in forest soils (about 2% annually). Therefore, these biota's products can play a role to restock SOM decrease due to mineralization.

  18. [Responses of forest soil carbon pool and carbon cycle to the changes of carbon input].

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing-kui

    2011-04-01

    Litters and plant roots are the main sources of forest soil organic carbon (C). This paper summarized the effects of the changes in C input on the forest soil C pool and C cycle, and analyzed the effects of these changes on the total soil C, microbial biomass C, dissoluble organic C, and soil respiration. Different forests in different regions had inconsistent responses to C input change, and the effects of litter removal or addition and of root exclusion or not differed with tree species and regions. Current researches mainly focused on soil respiration and C pool fractions, and scarce were about the effects of C input change on the changes of soil carbon structure and stability as well as the response mechanisms of soil organisms especially soil fauna, which should be strengthened in the future.

  19. The impact of clearcutting in boreal forests of Russia on soils: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dymov, A. A.

    2017-07-01

    Data on the impact of tree logging in boreal forests of Russia on soils are systematized. Patterns of soil disturbances and transformation of microclimatic parameters within clearcutting areas are discussed. Changes in the conditions of pedogenesis in secondary forests are analyzed. It is suggested that the changes in forest soils upon reforestation of clearcutting areas might be considered as specific post-logging soil successions. Data characterizing changes in the thickness of litter horizons and in the intensity of elementary pedogenic processes, acidity, and the content of exchangeable bases in soils of clearcutting areas in the course of their natural reforestation are considered. The examples of human-disturbed (turbated) soil horizons and newly formed anthropogenic soils on clearcutting areas are described. It is suggested that the soils on mechanically disturbed parts of clearcutting areas can be separated as a specific group of detritus turbozems.

  20. Climate change and wildfire influence the methane uptake capacity in Australian eucalypt forest soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arndt, Stefan; Fest, Benedikt; Hinko-Najera, Nina; Wardlaw, Tim; Livesley, Stephen

    2014-05-01

    Forest ecosystems comprise the largest soil sink for the greenhouse gas methane and climate change and fire can have significant impacts on this important process. We present data from a number of long-term field studies that investigated the impacts of reduced rainfall and fire regimes on soil methane flux in Australian forest systems. Long term soil methane flux measurements with automated chambers indicated that around 90% of soil methane uptake variability in dry- and wet-sclerophyll Eucalyptus obliqua (L. Her.) forests was explained by soil moisture through influencing methane diffusivity. The application of rainfall reduction shelters in the dry-sclerophyll eucalypt forest caused an average reduction of 14.6% in soil volumetric water content but an increase in soil methane uptake of around 38%, again a consequence of increased methane diffusivity. Consequently, the potential reductions in rainfall in large parts of Australia are likely to result in an increase in methane uptake. Wildfire disturbance also altered forest soil methane uptake and here the methane uptake capacity was related to stand age dependent changes in stand structure likely linked to changes in stand water use. Stands that had dryer soils displayed greater methane uptake, indicating that soil methane uptake changes during forest stand development. Wildfire can therefore have significant impacts on landscape level methane uptake.

  1. Fire severity influences the response of soil microbes to a boreal forest fire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holden, Sandra R.; Rogers, Brendan M.; Treseder, Kathleen K.; Randerson, James T.

    2016-03-01

    Wildfire activity is projected to increase in boreal forests as a result of climate warming. The consequences of increased wildfire activity for soil carbon (C) storage in boreal forests may depend on the sensitivity of soil microbes to fire severity, but microbial responses to boreal forest fire severity are not well known. Here, we combine remote sensing of fire severity and field sampling to characterize the response of soil microbial biomass per g soil, microbial respiration of CO2 per g soil, and fungal groups to fire severity in a boreal forest ecosystem. We used remote sensing measurements of differenced normalized burn ratio from Landsat as a measure of fire severity. Our results demonstrate that fire severity controls soil microbial responses to boreal forest fires. In comparison to unburned stands, burned stands had a 52% and 56% reduction in soil microbial biomass and basal respiration, respectively. Within burned stands, we found that microbial biomass and basal respiration significantly declined with increasing fire severity. In addition, mycorrhizal taxa and basidiomycetes displayed particularly low tolerances for severe fire. Although wildfires result in the immediate loss of soil C, our study provides evidence that decreases in microbial biomass and respiration following high severity fires may reduce the capacity of the soil microbial community to decompose soil C over longer time scales. Therefore, models of C cycle responses to climate warming may need to represent the sensitivity of microbial biomass and fungal community composition to fire severity in boreal forests.

  2. Fire Severity Influences the Response of Soil Microbes to a Boreal Forest Fire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treseder, K. K.; Holden, S. R.; Rogers, B. M.; Randerson, J. T.

    2016-12-01

    Wildfire activity is projected to increase in boreal forests as a result of climate warming. The consequences of increased wildfire activity for soil carbon (C) storage in boreal forests may depend on the sensitivity of soil microbes to fire severity, but microbial responses to boreal forest fire severity are not well known. Here, we combine remote sensing of fire severity and field sampling to characterize the response of soil microbial biomass per g soil, microbial respiration of CO2 per g soil, and fungal groups to fire severity in a boreal forest ecosystem. We used remote sensing measurements of differenced normalized burn ratio (dNBR) from Landsat as a measure of fire severity. Our results demonstrate that fire severity controls soil microbial responses to boreal forest fires. In comparison to unburned stands, burned stands had a 52% and 56% reduction in soil microbial biomass and basal respiration, respectively. Within burned stands, we found that microbial biomass and basal respiration significantly declined with increasing fire severity. In addition, mycorrhizal taxa and basidiomycetes displayed particularly low tolerances for severe fire. Although wildfires result in the immediate loss of soil C, our study provides evidence that decreases in microbial biomass and respiration following high severity fires may reduce the capacity of the soil microbial community to decompose soil C over longer time scales. Therefore, models of C cycle responses to climate warming may need to represent the sensitivity of microbial biomass and fungal community composition to fire severity in boreal forests.

  3. Biogeography and organic matter removal shape long-term effects of timber harvesting on forest soil microbial communities

    Treesearch

    Roland C Wilhelm; Erick Cardenas; Kendra R Maas; Hilary Leung; Larisa McNeil; Shannon Berch; William Chapman; Graeme Hope; J M Kranabetter; Stephane Dubé; Matt Busse; Robert Fleming; Paul Hazlett; Kara L Webster; David Morris; D Andrew Scott; William W Mohn

    2017-01-01

    The growing demand for renewable, carbon-neutral materials and energy is leading to intensified forest land-use. The long-term ecological challenges associated with maintaining soil fertility in managed forests are not yet known, in part due to the complexity of soil microbial communities and the heterogeneity of forest soils. This study determined the long-term...

  4. Characterization of soil microbial community dynamics related to C and P cycling along a forest to pasture gradient

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In the Appalachian Mountains region landscape fragmentation due to farming practices results in areas with gradual blending of forests and pastures ecosystems. Soil nutrient cycling in the open land-forest boundary may be significantly different than in the forest soil or in the pasture soil and th...

  5. Short- and medium-term effects of fuel reduction mulch treatments on soil nitrogen availability in Colorado conifer forests

    Treesearch

    C. C. Rhoades; M. A. Battaglia; M. E. Rocca; M. G. Ryan

    2012-01-01

    Mechanical fuel reduction treatments have been implemented on millions of hectares of western North American forests. The redistribution of standing forest biomass to the soil surface by mulching treatments has no ecological analog, and this practice may alter soil processes and forest productivity. We evaluated the effects of mulch addition on soil nitrogen...

  6. Possible method for dissolved organic carbon speciation in forest soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drabek, O.; Tejnecký, V.; Ash, C.; Hubova, P.; Boruvka, L.

    2013-12-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is a natural part of dissolved organic matter and it plays an important role in the biogeochemistry of soil processes. Low Molecular Mass Organic Acids (LMMOA) are an essential part of DOC. These acids play a key role in chemical processes that affect the entire soil environment. Knowing the amount of DOC and the speciation of LMMOA is required for realistic equilibrium modelling of soil chemical processes and transport mechanisms. There have been a number of proposed methods for the quantitative analysis of DOC and for speciation of LMMOA. The first aim of this contribution is to introduce and test a modified spectroscopic method for the determination of water-extractable organic carbon (WEOC) from forest soils. In general this method is based on the oxidization of WEOC by chromium-sulphuric acid. The presented method can be used as an economical alternative to the classical, more financially demanding elemental analysis. However, the main aim is to test the reliability of the method for LMMOA speciation. Ion exchange chromatography (IC) with hydroxide elution has proven to be a useful tool for the determination of LMMOA in many different water-based samples. However, the influence of multivalent cations (often present in environmental samples) on IC results has not yet been sufficiently studied. In order to assess the influence of Al, Fe, Mn, Mg and Ca on the amount of LMMOA determined by IC, an extensive set of model solutions was prepared and immediately analysed by means of IC. Moreover, the influence of pH on determined amounts of LMMOA in model solutions and representative soil aqueous extracts was investigated. These experimental results were compared to expected values and also to results provided by the chemical equilibrium model - PHREEQC. Based on the above listed research, some modifications to the common IC method for LMMOA speciation are presented.

  7. The cost-effectiveness of biodiversity surveys in tropical forests.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Toby A; Barlow, Jos; Araujo, Ivanei S; Avila-Pires, Teresa Cristina; Bonaldo, Alexandre B; Costa, Joana E; Esposito, Maria Cristina; Ferreira, Leandro V; Hawes, Joseph; Hernandez, Malva I M; Hoogmoed, Marinus S; Leite, Rafael N; Lo-Man-Hung, Nancy F; Malcolm, Jay R; Martins, Marlucia B; Mestre, Luiz A M; Miranda-Santos, Ronildon; Overal, William L; Parry, Luke; Peters, Sandra L; Ribeiro-Junior, Marco Antônio; da Silva, Maria N F; da Silva Motta, Catarina; Peres, Carlos A

    2008-02-01

    The identification of high-performance indicator taxa that combine practical feasibility and ecological value requires an understanding of the costs and benefits of surveying different taxa. We present a generic and novel framework for identifying such taxa, and illustrate our approach using a large-scale assessment of 14 different higher taxa across three forest types in the Brazilian Amazon, estimating both the standardized survey cost and the ecological and biodiversity indicator value for each taxon. Survey costs varied by three orders of magnitude, and dung beetles and birds were identified as especially suitable for evaluating and monitoring the ecological consequences of habitat change in our study region. However, an exclusive focus on such taxa occurs at the expense of understanding patterns of diversity in other groups. To improve the cost-effectiveness of biodiversity research we encourage a combination of clearer research goals and the use of an objective evidence-based approach to selecting study taxa.

  8. Responses of Soil Fungal Populations and Communities to the Thinning of Cryptomeria Japonica Forests

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Wan-Rou; Wang, Pi-Han; Chen, Wen-Cheng; Lai, Chao-Ming; Winder, Richard Scott

    2016-01-01

    Forest management activities, such as tree thinning, alter forest ecology, including key components of forest ecosystems, including fungal communities. In the present study, we investigate the effects of forest thinning intensity on the populations and structures of fungal soil communities in the Cryptomeria japonica forests of central Taiwan as well as the dynamics of soil fungi communities in these forests after a thinning disturbance. Although the populations of soil fungi significantly increased in the first 6 months after thinning, these increases had subsided by 9 months. This pulse was attributed to a transient increase in the populations of rapid colonizers. A multiple regression analysis positively correlated fungal populations with organic matter content and cellulase activity. Thinning initially provided large amounts of fresh leaves and roots as nutrient-rich substrates for soil fungi. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles indicated that soil fungal communities significantly differed among plots with 0% (control), 25%, and 50% tree thinning in the first 21 months post-thinning, with no significant differences being observed after 21 months. The fungal communities of these forest soils also changed with the seasons, and an interactive relationship was detected between seasons and treatments. Seasonal variations in fungal communities were the most pronounced after 50% tree thinning. The results of the present study demonstrate that the soil fungi of Taiwanese C. japonica forests are very sensitive to thinning disturbances, but recover stability after a relatively short period of time. PMID:26903369

  9. Responses of Soil Fungal Populations and Communities to the Thinning of Cryptomeria Japonica Forests.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wan-Rou; Wang, Pi-Han; Chen, Wen-Cheng; Lai, Chao-Ming; Winder, Richard Scott

    2016-01-01

    Forest management activities, such as tree thinning, alter forest ecology, including key components of forest ecosystems, including fungal communities. In the present study, we investigate the effects of forest thinning intensity on the populations and structures of fungal soil communities in the Cryptomeria japonica forests of central Taiwan as well as the dynamics of soil fungi communities in these forests after a thinning disturbance. Although the populations of soil fungi significantly increased in the first 6 months after thinning, these increases had subsided by 9 months. This pulse was attributed to a transient increase in the populations of rapid colonizers. A multiple regression analysis positively correlated fungal populations with organic matter content and cellulase activity. Thinning initially provided large amounts of fresh leaves and roots as nutrient-rich substrates for soil fungi. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles indicated that soil fungal communities significantly differed among plots with 0% (control), 25%, and 50% tree thinning in the first 21 months post-thinning, with no significant differences being observed after 21 months. The fungal communities of these forest soils also changed with the seasons, and an interactive relationship was detected between seasons and treatments. Seasonal variations in fungal communities were the most pronounced after 50% tree thinning. The results of the present study demonstrate that the soil fungi of Taiwanese C. japonica forests are very sensitive to thinning disturbances, but recover stability after a relatively short period of time.

  10. Soil Survey: Fraser Alpine Area, Colorado

    Treesearch

    J. L. Retzer

    1962-01-01

    The Fraser Alpine Area is a rough, mountainous area that lies approximately 50 miles west of Denver, Colo., and covers approximately 134 square miles. About seven-eighths of it is above timberline, and all is within the boundaries of Arapaho National Forest, U.S. Forest Service. The land in the Area is not suitable for cultivation and has never been farmed.

  11. Anthropogenic and geogenic radionuclides content in an undisturbed Slovenian forest soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    P, Jankong; L, Mabit; A, Toloza; v, Zupanc

    2010-05-01

    The measurements of natural background radiation and anthropogenic radionuclides in terrestrial environment, especially in soil, have been carried out in many countries for several decades to establish base line data of radiation level. So far, the knowledge of radionuclides concentration levels in Slovenia is limited to a few investigations and the use of anthropogenic 137Cs radionuclide has not yet been used as soil landscape tracer in Slovenia. Therefore, the purposes of this study were: (i) to collect the inventory information of naturally occurring isotope (40K, 226Ra, 232Th, 235U and 238U) and man-made radionuclides (137Cs) as well as their depth/vertical distribution in soil; (ii) to complete radio-ecological survey information in Slovenia and provide information regarding the external dose-rate based on the depth distributions of the gamma emitters in the soil of the study area; and (iii) to establish a reference inventory value of 137Cs fallout in order to prepare for a future investigation to test 137Cs as soil tracer under Slovenian agro-environment. To estimate the natural level of radioactivity and the initial fallout of 137Cs, twenty soil profiles (0-40cm) divided into four increments of 10 cm were collected in an undisturbed forest located in East Slovenia in Šalamenci close to the Hungarian and Austrian borders at the beginning of the Pannonian plains. Depending on the depth increment, the average activity concentration of 137Cs, 40K, 226Ra, 232Th, 235U and 238U were found to be respectively from 0.47 ± 0.27 to 70 ± 33 Bq kg-1, from 535 ± 16 to 703 ± 20 Bq kg-1, from 51 ± 3 to 49 ± 2 Bq kg-1, from 54 ± 6 to 62 ± 4 Bq kg-1, from 7.8 ± 0.8 to 8.1 ± 0.3 Bq kg-1and from 58 ± 22 to 68 ± 27 Bq kg-1. On average the top soil mass activity of 40K is 7 to 8 times higher than that of 137Cs and the depth distribution of this isotope, instead of showing a constant amount along the soil profile, presents an increase with depth. The external gamma

  12. Soil Organic Carbon assessment on two different forest management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández Minguillón, Alex; Sauras Yera, Teresa; Vallejo Calzada, Ramón

    2017-04-01

    Soil Organic Carbon assessment on two different forest management. A.F. Minguillón1, T. Sauras1, V.R: Vallejo1. 1 Departamento de Biología Evolutiva, Ecología y Ciencias Ambientales, Universidad de Barcelona, Avenida Diagonal 643, 03080 Barcelona, Spain. Soils from arid and semiarid zones are characterized by a low organic matter content from scarce plant biomass and it has been proposed that these soils have a big capacity to carbon sequestration. According to IPCC ARS WG2 (2014) report and WG3 draft, increase carbon storage in terrestrial ecosystems has been identified such a potential tool for mitigation and adaptation to climate change. In ecological restoration context improve carbon sequestration is considered a management option with multiple benefits (win-win-win). Our work aims to analyze how the recently developed restoration techniques contributed to increases in terrestial ecosystem carbon storage. Two restoration techniques carried out in the last years have been evaluated. The study was carried out in 6 localities in Valencian Community (E Spain) and organic horizons of two different restoration techniques were evaluated; slash brush and thinning Aleppo pine stands. For each technique, carbon stock and its physical and chemical stability has been analysed. Preliminary results point out restoration zones acts as carbon sink due to (1) the relevant necromass input produced by slash brush increases C stock on the topsoil ;(2) Thinning increase carbon accumulation in vegetation.

  13. Production and retention of methylmercury in inundated boreal forest soils.

    PubMed

    Rolfhus, Kristofer R; Hurley, James P; Bodaly, Richard A Drew; Perrine, Gregory

    2015-03-17

    The Flooded Uplands Dynamics Experiment (FLUDEX) was an ecosystem-scale study examining the production of methylmercury (MeHg) and greenhouse gases from reservoirs constructed on an upland boreal forest landscape in order to quantify their dependence upon carbon stores. We detail the within-reservoir production and storage of MeHg before, during, and nine years after the experiment. The reservoirs were net MeHg producers during the first two years of flooding, and net demethylating systems afterward. During years 1-3, a rapid pulse of MeHg and total Hg was observed in floodwater, followed by substantial increases in MeHg in seston and sediment. Resampling of the dry reservoirs nine years after the experiment ended indicated that organic soil MeHg was still 8 to 52-fold higher than preflood conditions, and averaged 86% of the levels recorded at the end of the third flooding year. Both total Hg and MeHg retention in soil were a strong function of organic carbon content. The time scale of soil MeHg retention may help explain the decadal time lag frequently observed for the decrease of piscivorous fish Hg concentrations in new reservoirs. Predicted extreme precipitation events associated with climate change may serve to make landscapes more susceptible to this process.

  14. Mercury in litterfall and upper soil horizons in forested ecosystems in Vermont, USA.

    PubMed

    Juillerat, Juliette I; Ross, Donald S; Bank, Michael S

    2012-08-01

    Mercury (Hg) is an atmospheric pollutant that, in forest ecosystems, accumulates in foliage and upper soil horizons. The authors measured soil and litterfall Hg at 15 forest sites (northern hardwood to mixed hardwood/conifer) throughout Vermont, USA, to examine variation among tree species, forest type, and soils. Differences were found among the 12 tree species sampled from at least two sites, with Acer pensylvanicum having significantly greater litterfall total Hg concentration. Senescent leaves had greater Hg concentrations if they originated lower in the canopy or had higher surface:weight ratios. Annual litterfall Hg flux had a wide range, 12.6 to 28.5 µg/m(2) (mean, 17.9 µg/m(2) ), not related to forest type. Soil and Hg pools in the Oi horizon (litter layer) were not related to the measured Hg deposition flux in litterfall or to total modeled Hg deposition. Despite having lower Hg concentrations, upper mineral soil (A horizons) had greater Hg pools than organic soil horizons (forest floor) due to greater bulk density. Significant differences were found in Hg concentration and Hg/C ratio among soil horizons but not among forest types. Overall, our findings highlight the importance of site history and the benefits of collecting litterfall and soils simultaneously. Observed differences in forest floor Hg pools were strongly correlated with carbon pools, which appeared to be a function of historic land-use patterns. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  15. Increasing soil temperature in a northern hardwood forest: effects on elemental dynamics and primary productivity

    Treesearch

    Patrick J. McHale; Myron J. Mitchell; Dudley J. Raynal; Francis P. Bowles

    1996-01-01

    To investigate the effects of elevated soil temperatures on a forest ecosystem, heating cables were buried at a depth of 5 cm within the forest floor of a northern hardwood forest at the Huntington Wildlife Forest (Adirondack Mountains, New York). Temperature was elevated 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5?C above ambient, during May - September in both 1993 and 1994. Various aspects of...

  16. Climate response of the soil nitrogen cycle in three forest types of a headwater Mediterranean catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupon, Anna; Gerber, Stefan; Sabater, Francesc; Bernal, Susana

    2015-05-01

    Future changes in climate may affect soil nitrogen (N) transformations, and consequently, plant nutrition and N losses from terrestrial to stream ecosystems. We investigated the response of soil N cycling to changes in soil moisture, soil temperature, and precipitation across three Mediterranean forest types (evergreen oak, beech, and riparian) by fusing a simple process-based model (which included climate modifiers for key soil N processes) with measurements of soil organic N content, mineralization, nitrification, and concentration of ammonium and nitrate. The model describes sources (atmospheric deposition and net N mineralization) and sinks (plant uptake and hydrological losses) of inorganic N from and to the 0-10 cm soil pool as well as net nitrification. For the three forest types, the model successfully recreated the magnitude and temporal pattern of soil N processes and N concentrations (Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient = 0.49-0.96). Changes in soil water availability drove net N mineralization and net nitrifica