Science.gov

Sample records for forest vegetation management

  1. 76 FR 69700 - Klamath National Forest; California; Pumice Vegetation Management Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-09

    ... Forest Service Klamath National Forest; California; Pumice Vegetation Management Project AGENCY: Forest... the environmental effects of implementing the Pumice Vegetation Management project. The project is... Haupt, Pumice Vegetation Management Project Team Leader, Goosenest Ranger District, 37805 Highway...

  2. 75 FR 54085 - Divide Ranger District, Rio Grande National Forest; Colorado; Big Moose Vegetation Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Divide Ranger District, Rio Grande National Forest; Colorado; Big Moose Vegetation Management Project AGENCY: Forest Service, Rio Grande National Forest, USDA. ACTION: Corrected Notice...

  3. 75 FR 49456 - Chequamegon-Nicolet National Forest; Wisconsin, Phelps Vegetation and Transportation Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-13

    ... Forest Service Chequamegon-Nicolet National Forest; Wisconsin, Phelps Vegetation and Transportation... Phelps Vegetation and Transportation Management Project area is approximately 53,055 acres in size; about... Need for Action Two major areas of focus were identified for this project-- vegetation...

  4. 76 FR 22075 - Divide Ranger District, Rio Grande National Forest; CO; Black Mesa Vegetation Management Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-20

    ... Vegetation Management Project AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of intent to prepare an... Mesa Vegetation Management Project Public Comment. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Diana McGinn at 719... for Action The purpose and need for the Black Mesa Vegetation Management Project is move...

  5. 78 FR 45495 - Conejos Peak Ranger District, Rio Grande National Forest; Colorado; Cumbres Vegetation Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-29

    ..., 2013. Andrea Jones, District Ranger. [FR Doc. 2013-17968 Filed 07/26/2013 at 8:45 a.m.; Publication... Forest Service Conejos Peak Ranger District, Rio Grande National Forest; Colorado; Cumbres Vegetation... Cumbres Vegetation Management Project. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Diana McGinn at 719-852-6241...

  6. A climate sensitive model of carbon transfer through atmosphere, vegetation and soil in managed forest ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loustau, D.; Moreaux, V.; Bosc, A.; Trichet, P.; Kumari, J.; Rabemanantsoa, T.; Balesdent, J.; Jolivet, C.; Medlyn, B. E.; Cavaignac, S.; Nguyen-The, N.

    2012-12-01

    For predicting the future of the forest carbon cycle in forest ecosystems, it is necessary to account for both the climate and management impacts. Climate effects are significant not only at a short time scale but also at the temporal horizon of a forest life cycle e.g. through shift in atmospheric CO2 concentration, temperature and precipitation regimes induced by the enhanced greenhouse effect. Intensification of forest management concerns an increasing fraction of temperate and tropical forests and untouched forests represents only one third of the present forest area. Predicting tools are therefore needed to project climate and management impacts over the forest life cycle and understand the consequence of management on the forest ecosystem carbon cycle. This communication summarizes the structure, main components and properties of a carbon transfer model that describes the processes controlling the carbon cycle of managed forest ecosystems. The model, GO+, links three main components, (i) a module describing the vegetation-atmosphere mass and energy exchanges in 3D, (ii) a plant growth module and a (iii) soil carbon dynamics module in a consistent carbon scheme of transfer from atmosphere back into the atmosphere. It was calibrated and evaluated using observed data collected on coniferous and broadleaved forest stands. The model predicts the soil, water and energy balance of entire rotations of managed stands from the plantation to the final cut and according to a range of management alternatives. It accounts for the main soil and vegetation management operations such as soil preparation, understorey removal, thinnings and clearcutting. Including the available knowledge on the climatic sensitivity of biophysical and biogeochemical processes involved in atmospheric exchanges and carbon cycle of forest ecosystems, GO+ can produce long-term backward or forward simulations of forest carbon and water cycles under a range of climate and management scenarios. This

  7. Influence of Vegetation and Management Conditions of Forest Cathcments on Their Runoff Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chikamori, H.

    2007-12-01

    There is rising concern that devastation of planted conifer forests due to poor management might change runoff characteristics and provoke severer flood disasters in Japan. Planted conifer forests in Japan were planted from 1960s to 1970s as a countermeasure to building materials shortage. Domestic forestry products, however, lost out in the price competition with imported products after 1970s, so that forestry has stagnated in Japan, which causes the shortage of forestry workers to maintain planted forests. In this study, runoff variations for the same rainfall pattern observed at neighboring catchments with different conditions were compared so that influence of vegetation and management conditions of forest cathcments on their runoff characteristics was examined. Besides, a Long-and-Short Term (LST) model was calibrated for each of the objective catchments to know the difference in hydrological components as surface flow, subsurface flow, groundwater flow, infiltration and percolation. In three observation sites, eleven catchments were selected as objectives. The areas of the catchments vary from 0.17 to 36 ha. First, runoff characteristics between conifer and broadleaf forests was compared. The result clearly showed that total runoff depth and peak runoff for storm events were both larger in conifer forests than in the broadleaf catchments, and that total infiltration was smaller in conifer than in broadleaf catchments. The result supports the fact that natural forests are generally considered to have functions of water retention and flood control. Second, runoff characteristics between well and poorly managed planted conifer forests was compared. The result, however, did not show the clear difference. It was difficult to find correlation between forest management condition of catchments and total amount of each hydrological process during some storm events, so that the existence of forest management impact on runoff characteristics could not be identified only

  8. Effects of ungulate management on vegetation at Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge, Hawai'i Island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hess, S.C.; Jeffrey, J.J.; Pratt, L.W.; Ball, D.L.

    2010-01-01

    We compiled and analysed data from 1987-2004 on vegetation monitoring during feral ungulate management at Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge, a tropical montane rainforest on the island of Hawai'i All areas in the study had previously been used by ungulates, but cattle (Bos taurus) were removed and feral pig (Sus scrofa) populations were reduced during the study period. We monitored six line-intercept transects, three in previously high ungulate use areas and three in previously low ungulate use areas. We measured nine cover categories with the line-intercept method: native ferns; native woody plants; bryophytes; lichens; alien grasses; alien herbs; litter; exposed soil; and coarse woody debris. Vegetation surveys were repeated four times over a 16-year period. Vegetation monitoring revealed a strong increase in native fern cover and slight decreases in cover of bryophytes and exposed soil. Mean cover of native plants was generally higher in locations that were formerly lightly grazed, while alien grass and herb cover was generally higher in areas that were heavily grazed, although these effects were not statistically significant. These responses may represent early serai processes in forest regeneration following the reduction of feral ungulate populations. In contrast to many other Hawaiian forests which have become invaded by alien grasses and herbs after ungulate removal, HFNWR has not experienced this effect.

  9. 78 FR 20883 - Tonto National Forest; Arizona; Salt River Allotments Vegetative Management EIS

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-08

    ... Availability of the Draft EIS (78 FR 12310) for more detailed information related to the Salt River Allotments...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Tonto National Forest; Arizona; Salt River Allotments Vegetative... that it is extending the public comment period for the Salt River Allotments Vegetative...

  10. Forest Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weicherding, Patrick J.; And Others

    This bulletin deals with forest management and provides an overview of forestry for the non-professional. The bulletin is divided into six sections: (1) What Is Forestry Management?; (2) How Is the Forest Measured?; (3) What Is Forest Protection?; (4) How Is the Forest Harvested?; (5) What Is Forest Regeneration?; and (6) What Is Forest…

  11. Vegetation composition, dynamics, and management of a bracken-grassland and northern-dry forest ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Scott E; Haney, Alan

    2003-06-01

    We investigated differences in vegetation composition and dynamics for two globally rare ecosystems, bracken-grasslands and northern-dry forests of northern Wisconsin. These ecosystems commonly have been viewed as degraded pine barrens. Bracken-grasslands contained a high dominance of exotic species, low native richness, and no obvious prairie species, suggesting logging-era anthropogenic origins. Differences in cover for common plants among ecosystems were examined using Mann-Whitney U tests of equivalence. Cover of all 8 graminoid species, 4 of 5 Ericaceae and Myricaceae species, and 10 of 17 species of forbs were significantly different between ecosystems. Vegetation changes over a 4-year period were examined through detrended correspondence analysis (DCA) and analysis of variance (ANOVA) repeated measures. DCA analyses of community composition failed to detect significant temporal trends within individual management units, although differences were apparent between ecosystems, regardless of sample year. In addition, no apparent patterns could be detected between years when comparing dominant individual species to management history (prescribed fire). This is contrary to what would be expected for a degraded pine barrens and questions the efficacy of using repeated prescribed fire as a management tool in bracken-grasslands. Methods for conservation and restoration of xeric ecosystems of northern Wisconsin have historically relied heavily on single species (e.g., sharp-tailed grouse) wildlife models, without full consideration of other factors. We suggest that stakeholders involved in these restoration projects examine historic processes and reference conditions prior to formulating management goals. Greater attention to the differentiation and individual management needs of pine barrens, northern-dry forests, and bracken-grasslands is needed. PMID:14565700

  12. Vegetation composition, dynamics, and management of a bracken-grassland and northern-dry forest ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Scott E; Haney, Alan

    2003-06-01

    We investigated differences in vegetation composition and dynamics for two globally rare ecosystems, bracken-grasslands and northern-dry forests of northern Wisconsin. These ecosystems commonly have been viewed as degraded pine barrens. Bracken-grasslands contained a high dominance of exotic species, low native richness, and no obvious prairie species, suggesting logging-era anthropogenic origins. Differences in cover for common plants among ecosystems were examined using Mann-Whitney U tests of equivalence. Cover of all 8 graminoid species, 4 of 5 Ericaceae and Myricaceae species, and 10 of 17 species of forbs were significantly different between ecosystems. Vegetation changes over a 4-year period were examined through detrended correspondence analysis (DCA) and analysis of variance (ANOVA) repeated measures. DCA analyses of community composition failed to detect significant temporal trends within individual management units, although differences were apparent between ecosystems, regardless of sample year. In addition, no apparent patterns could be detected between years when comparing dominant individual species to management history (prescribed fire). This is contrary to what would be expected for a degraded pine barrens and questions the efficacy of using repeated prescribed fire as a management tool in bracken-grasslands. Methods for conservation and restoration of xeric ecosystems of northern Wisconsin have historically relied heavily on single species (e.g., sharp-tailed grouse) wildlife models, without full consideration of other factors. We suggest that stakeholders involved in these restoration projects examine historic processes and reference conditions prior to formulating management goals. Greater attention to the differentiation and individual management needs of pine barrens, northern-dry forests, and bracken-grasslands is needed.

  13. 76 FR 315 - Sisters Ranger District; Deschutes National Forest; Oregon; Popper Vegetation Management Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-04

    ... and Range 9 east, Willamette Meridian. The project area is managed under the Northwest Forest Plan... proposed action to manage forest fuels and forest stand densities, including areas within a designated... acres). The project area also contains 1,336 acres of Riparian Reserves. The alternatives will...

  14. 76 FR 31933 - Tonto National Forest; AZ; Salt River Allotments Vegetative Management EIS

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-02

    ... subordinate role of a single resource use or activity within analysis area ecosystems. Since one tool under... fire would be managed to protect, maintain, and enhance Federal lands in a cost effective manner. A... property and natural/cultural resources. Sonoran Desert and riparian vegetation types would be...

  15. River management impacts on riparian forest vegetation along the Middle Rio Grande: 1935-2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrakis, Roy E.

    Riparian ecosystems of the southwestern United States are highly valuable to both the ecological and human communities which surround them. Over the past century, they have been subject to shifting management practices to maximize human use, control, ecosystem service, and conservation. This creates a complex relationship between water policy, management, and the natural ecosystem necessitating research on spatial and temporal dynamics of riparian vegetation. The San Acacia Reach of the Middle Rio Grande, a 60 mile stretch from the San Acacia Diversion Dam to San Marcial, has experienced multiple management and river flow fluctuations over the past 80 years, resulting in threats to riparian and aquatic ecosystems. This research was completed through the use and analysis of multi-source remote sensing data, GIS, and a review of the on-the-ground management decisions to better understand how the location and composition of the riparian vegetation has been affected by these shifting practices. This research focused on four phases, each highlighting different management practices and river flow patterns during the last 80-years. Each of these periods provides a unique opportunity to observe a direct relationship between river management and riparian land cover response and change. Overall, management practices reduced surface river flows and limited overbank flooding and resulted in changes in the composition, density, and spatial patterns of the vegetation, including increased non-native vegetation growth. Restoration efforts over the past few decades have begun to reduce the presence of non-native species. Despite these changes, this ecosystem was shown to be extremely resilient in maintaining its function/service throughout the entire study time frame.

  16. The role of forest fire severity on vegetation recovery after 18 years. Implications for forest management of Quercus suber L. in Iberian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francos, Marcos; Úbeda, Xavier; Tort, Joan; Panareda, Josep María; Cerdà, Artemio

    2016-10-01

    Wildfires are a widespread phenomenon in Mediterranean environments. Wildfires result in different fire severities, and then in contrasting plant cover and floristic composition. This paper analyses the recovery of the vegetation eighteen years after a wildfire in Catalonia. The Pinus pinaster ssp. forest was affected by three different severities in July 1994, and studied the spring of 1995 and again in 2008. After eighteen years (2012), our research found that burnt sites constitute a dense forest with a broad variety of species, including many young pines, shrubs and herbaceous plants, but that the risk of fire remains very high, due to the large quantity of fuel and the flammability of the species. The management of the post-fire is critical when high severity fires take places, and it is recommended that high-severity fires must be avoided for a sustainable forest management. We recommend that once the timber (Pinus plantations) production is not profitable, Quercus suber L. and Pinus pinaster ssp. forest should be promoted, and pine plantations avoided.

  17. Late Quaternary vegetation, biodiversity and fire dynamics on the southern Brazilian highland and their implication for conservation and management of modern Araucaria forest and grassland ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Behling, Hermann; Pillar, Valério DePatta

    2007-02-28

    Palaeoecological background information is needed for management and conservation of the highly diverse mosaic of Araucaria forest and Campos (grassland) in southern Brazil. Questions on the origin of Araucaria forest and grasslands; its development, dynamic and stability; its response to environmental change such as climate; and the role of human impact are essential. Further questions on its natural stage of vegetation or its alteration by pre- and post-Columbian anthropogenic activity are also important. To answer these questions, palaeoecological and palaeoenvironmental data based on pollen, charcoal and multivariate data analysis of radiocarbon dated sedimentary archives from southern Brazil are used to provide an insight into past vegetation changes, which allows us to improve our understanding of the modern vegetation and to develop conservation and management strategies for the strongly affected ecosystems in southern Brazil.

  18. 78 FR 20613 - Ochoco National Forest, Paulina Ranger District; Oregon; Wolf Creek Vegetation and Fuels...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-05

    ... Forest Service Ochoco National Forest, Paulina Ranger District; Oregon; Wolf Creek Vegetation and Fuels... analyze the effects of managing vegetation and fuels within the 24,506 acre Wolf project area, which is.... There is a need to manage vegetation towards to the historic range of variability to provide a range...

  19. Simulation of wetlands forest vegetation dynamics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phipps, R.L.

    1979-01-01

    A computer program, SWAMP, was designed to simulate the effects of flood frequency and depth to water table on southern wetlands forest vegetation dynamics. By incorporating these hydrologic characteristics into the model, forest vegetation and vegetation dynamics can be simulated. The model, based on data from the White River National Wildlife Refuge near De Witt, Arkansas, "grows" individual trees on a 20 x 20-m plot taking into account effects on the tree growth of flooding, depth to water table, shade tolerance, overtopping and crowding, and probability of death and reproduction. A potential application of the model is illustrated with simulations of tree fruit production following flood-control implementation and lumbering. ?? 1979.

  20. 77 FR 42694 - Helena National Forest, Montana, Telegraph Vegetation Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-20

    ... environmental impact statement called the Telegraph Vegetation Project was published in the 74 FR 58239. This... Forest Service Helena National Forest, Montana, Telegraph Vegetation Project AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA... National Forest will still prepare an environmental impact statement for the Telegraph Vegetation...

  1. A Forest Vegetation Database for Western Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Busing, Richard T.

    2004-01-01

    Data on forest vegetation in western Oregon were assembled for 2323 ecological survey plots. All data were from fixed-radius plots with the standardized design of the Current Vegetation Survey (CVS) initiated in the early 1990s. For each site, the database includes: 1) live tree density and basal area of common tree species, 2) total live tree density, basal area, estimated biomass, and estimated leaf area; 3) age of the oldest overstory tree examined, 4) geographic coordinates, 5) elevation, 6) interpolated climate variables, and 7) other site variables. The data are ideal for ecoregional analyses of existing vegetation.

  2. Evaluating models of climate and forest vegetation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, James S.

    1992-01-01

    Understanding how the biosphere may respond to increasing trace gas concentrations in the atmosphere requires models that contain vegetation responses to regional climate. Most of the processes ecologists study in forests, including trophic interactions, nutrient cycling, and disturbance regimes, and vital components of the world economy, such as forest products and agriculture, will be influenced in potentially unexpected ways by changing climate. These vegetation changes affect climate in the following ways: changing C, N, and S pools; trace gases; albedo; and water balance. The complexity of the indirect interactions among variables that depend on climate, together with the range of different space/time scales that best describe these processes, make the problems of modeling and prediction enormously difficult. These problems of predicting vegetation response to climate warming and potential ways of testing model predictions are the subjects of this chapter.

  3. 75 FR 5758 - Bridger-Teton National Forest, Big Piney Ranger District, WY; Piney Creeks Vegetation Treatment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-04

    ... Forest Service Bridger-Teton National Forest, Big Piney Ranger District, WY; Piney Creeks Vegetation... statement. SUMMARY: The Big Piney Ranger District is proposing to implement vegetation management in the Piney Creek drainages throughout the next five-seven years. The need for vegetation management in...

  4. Long-term forest management effects on streamflow and evapotranspiration: modeling the interaction of vegetation and climate at the catchment scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, C. R.; Vose, J.

    2011-12-01

    Forested watersheds, an important provider of ecosystems services related to water supply, can have their structure, function, and resulting streamflow substantially altered by land use and land cover. Using a retrospective analysis and synthesis of long-term climate and streamflow data (75 years) from six watersheds differing in management histories we explored whether streamflow, and thus evapotranspiration, responded differently to variation in annual temperature and extreme precipitation than unmanaged watersheds. We used a hybrid modeling approach that incorporated terms for the classic paired watershed regression, the response of the vegetation regrowth, and the interaction of vegetation regrowth and precipitation. We show significant increases in temperature and the frequency of extreme wet and dry years since the 1980s. Response models explained almost all streamflow variability (R2adj > 0.99). In all cases, changing land use altered streamflow. Observed watershed responses differed significantly in wet and dry extreme years in all but a stand managed as a coppice forest. Converting deciduous stands to pine altered the streamflow response to extreme annual precipitation the most; the apparent frequency of observed extreme wet years decreased on average by 7-fold. This effect was attributable partially to increased interception, but also to increased transpiration in the pine stand compared to the unmanaged, deciduous hardwood stand as indicated by sap flow studies on individual species. This increased soil water storage may reduce flood risk in wet years, but create conditions that could exacerbate drought. Forest management can potentially mitigate extreme annual precipitation associated with climate change; however, offsetting effects suggest the need for spatially-explicit analyses of risk and vulnerability, as well as an increased understanding of the relative contributions of interception and transpiration across species and community types. To address

  5. Improving survival and growth of planted Austrocedrus chilensis seedlings in disturbed patagonian forests of Argentina by managing understory vegetation.

    PubMed

    Pafundi, Leticia; Urretavizcaya, M Florencia; Defossé, Guillermo E

    2014-12-01

    This study was aimed at determining, under field conditions, early interactions between planted cypress seedlings and their associated shrubs in a mesic area of Andean Patagonia and, in a nursery, the effects of increasing light availability on cypress performance when soil water was not a limiting factor. The field experiment was performed in a former cypress-coihue mixed forest (42°02'S, 71°33'W), which was replaced in the 1970s by a plantation of radiata pine. In 2005, 800 cypress seedlings were planted under maqui shrubs in a clear-cut area of the pine stand. In 2007, two treatments were set: no-competition treatment ([NCT] i.e., the surrounding aboveground biomass was removed) and competition treatment ([CT] i.e., without disturbance). The nursery experiment (42°55'S, 71°21'W) consisted of two groups: "shade" (grown under shade cloth) and "sun" (grown at full sun) cypress seedlings. After one growing season, seedling survival and stem growth (in height and diameter) were determined at both sites. Furthermore, the growth rate of leaves, stems, and roots was determined in the nursery. In the field experiment, height growth and survival in NCT were significantly greater than in CT, and a competition process occurred between cypress and surrounding shrubs. In the nursery, sun plants grew more in diameter and increased root weight more than shade plants. Results also showed that in mesic areas of Patagonia, decreasing competition and increasing light levels produced stouter seedlings better adapted to support harsh environmental conditions. Therefore, the removal of protecting shrubs could be a good management practice to improve seedling establishment.

  6. Managing the world's forests.

    PubMed

    Sharma, N; Rowe, R

    1992-06-01

    Forests play a vital role in balancing natural systems: the stabilization of global climate and the management of water and land. 30% of the earth's total land area is forested. 66% of the tropical moist forests are in Latin America and the remainder in Africa and Asia. 75% of tropical dry forests are in Africa. Temperate forests are primarily in developed countries. Deforestation and misuse of forests occurs primarily in developing countries at significant social, economic, and environmental costs. Losses have occurred in fuelwood, fodder, timber, forest products, biological diversity, habitats, genetic materials for food and medicine. The World Bank's evolving role in forestry is briefly described. Agreement has not been reached among people or nations about the most appropriate means to balance conservation and development goals. The challenge is to stabilize existing forests and increase forest planting. The causes of forest degradation must be understood. Direct causes include agricultural encroachment, cattle ranching, fuelwood gathering, commercial logging, and infrastructure development. These direct causes are driven by economic, social, and political forces: market and policy failures, population growth, and poverty. The market failures include: 1) the lack of clearly defined property rights on forest resources for now and the future, 2) the conflict between individual and societal needs, 3) the difficulty in placing a value on nonmarket environmental services and joint products, and 4) the separation between private and social costs. The solution is action at the local, national, and global levels. Countries must establish forest policy. The existing government incentives which promote deforestation must be changed. For example, concession policy and royalty systems must be corrected; explicit and implicit export subsidies on timber and forest products must be stopped. Private incentives must be established to promote planting of trees, practicing

  7. Bonneville - Hood River Vegetation Management Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    1998-08-01

    To maintain the reliability of its electrical system, BPA, in cooperation with the U.S. Forest Service, needs to expand the range of vegetation management options used to clear unwanted vegetation on about 20 miles of BPA transmission line right-of-way between Bonneville Dam and Hood River; Oregon, within the Columbia Gorge National Scenic Area (NSA). We propose to continue controlling undesirable vegetation using a program of Integrated Vegetation Management (IVM) which includes manual, biological and chemical treatment methods. BPA has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1257) evaluating the proposed project. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required and BPA is issuing this FONSI.

  8. Vegetation structure determination using LIDAR data and the forest growth parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rybansky, M.; Brenova, M.; Cermak, J.; van Genderen, J.; Sivertun, Å.

    2016-06-01

    The goal of this paper is to identify the main vegetation factors in the terrain, which are important for the analysis of forest structure. Such an analysis is important for forestry, rescue operations management during crises situations and disasters such as fires, storms, earthquakes and military analysis (transportation, cover, concealment, etc.). For the forest structure determination, both LIDAR and the forest growth prediction analysis were used. As main results, the vegetation height, tree spacing and stem diameters were determined

  9. Atmospheric Deposition of Metals to Forest Vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindberg, Steven E.; Harriss, Robert C.; Turner, Ralph R.

    1982-03-01

    Atmospheric deposition during the growing season contributes one-third or more of the estimated total flux of lead, zinc, and cadium from the forest canopy to soils beneath an oak stand in the Tennessee Valley but less than 10 percent of the flux of manganese. The ratio of the wet to dry deposition flux to the vegetation during this period ranges from 0.1 for manganese to 0.8 for lead to ~ 3 to 4 for cadmium and zinc. Interactions between metal particles deposited on dry leaf surfaces and subsequent acid precipitation can result in metal concentrations on leaves that are considerably higher than those in rain alone.

  10. Atmospheric deposition of metals to forest vegetation.

    PubMed

    Lindberg, S E; Harriss, R C; Turner, R R

    1982-03-26

    Atmospheric deposition during the growing season contributes one-third or more of the estimated total flux of lead, zinc, and cadium from the forest canopy to soils beneath an oak stand in the Tennessee Valley but less than 10 percent of the flux of manganese. The ratio of the wet to dry deposition flux to the vegetation during this period ranges from 0.1 for manganese to 0.8 for lead to approximately 3 to 4 for cadmium and zinc. Interactions between metal particles deposited on dry leaf surfaces and subsequent acid precipitation can result in metal concentrations on leaves that are considerably higher than those in rain alone.

  11. Simulation of SAR backscatter for forest vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prajapati, Richa; Kumar, Shashi; Agrawal, Shefali

    2016-05-01

    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is one of the most recent imaging technology to study the forest parameters. The invincible characteristics of microwave acquisition in cloudy regions and night imaging makes it a powerful tool to study dense forest regions. A coherent combination of radar polarimetry and interferometry (PolInSAR) enhances the accuracy of retrieved biophysical parameters. This paper attempts to address the issue of estimation of forest structural information caused due to instability of radar platforms through simulation of SAR image. The Terai Central Forest region situated at Haldwani area in Uttarakhand state of India was chosen as the study area. The system characteristics of PolInSAR dataset of Radarsat-2 SAR sensor was used for simulation process. Geometric and system specifications like platform altitude, center frequency, mean incidence angle, azimuth and range resolution were taken from metadata. From the field data it was observed that average tree height and forest stand density were 25 m and 300 stems/ha respectively. The obtained simulated results were compared with the sensor acquired master and slave intensity images. It was analyzed that for co-polarized horizontal component (HH), the mean values of simulated and real master image had a difference of 0.3645 with standard deviation of 0.63. Cross-polarized (HV) channel showed better results with mean difference of 0.06 and standard deviation of 0.1 while co-polarized vertical component (VV) did not show similar values. In case of HV polarization, mean variation between simulated and real slave images was found to be the least. Since cross-polarized channel is more sensitive to vegetation feature therefore better simulated results were obtained for this channel. Further the simulated images were processed using PolInSAR inversion modelling approach using three different techniques DEM differencing, Coherence Amplitude Inversion and Random Volume over Ground Inversion. DEM differencing

  12. Climate and Management Controls on Forest Growth and Forest Carbon Balance in the Western United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelsey, Katharine Cashman

    Climate change is resulting in a number of rapid changes in forests worldwide. Forests comprise a critical component of the global carbon cycle, and therefore climate-induced changes in forest carbon balance have the potential to create a feedback within the global carbon cycle and affect future trajectories of climate change. In order to further understanding of climate-driven changes in forest carbon balance, I (1) develop a method to improve spatial estimates forest carbon stocks, (2) investigate the effect of climate change and forest management actions on forest recovery and carbon balance following disturbance, and (3) explore the relationship between climate and forest growth, and identify climate-driven trends in forest growth through time, within San Juan National Forest in southwest Colorado, USA. I find that forest carbon estimates based on texture analysis from LandsatTM imagery improve regional forest carbon maps, and this method is particularly useful for estimating carbon stocks in forested regions affected by disturbance. Forest recovery from disturbance is also a critical component of future forest carbon stocks, and my results indicate that both climate and forest management actions have important implications for forest recovery and carbon dynamics following disturbance. Specifically, forest treatments that use woody biomass removed from the forest for electricity production can reduce carbon emissions to the atmosphere, but climate driven changes in fire severity and forest recovery can have the opposite effect on forest carbon stocks. In addition to the effects of disturbance and recovery on forest condition, I also find that climate change is decreasing rates of forest growth in some species, likely in response to warming summer temperatures. These growth declines could result in changes of vegetation composition, or in extreme cases, a shift in vegetation type that would alter forest carbon storage. This work provides insight into both

  13. Climate and Vegetation Effects on Temperate Mountain Forest Evapotranspiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oishi, A. C.; Miniat, C.; Novick, K. A.; Brantley, S. T.; Vose, J. M.; Walker, J. T.

    2015-12-01

    Forest evapotranspiration (ET) can vary greatly at daily and seasonal time scales, but compared to carbon fluxes, often exhibits relatively consistent inter-annual behavior. The processes affecting ET involve physical and biological factors. Atmospheric conditions that promote high ET, consisting of high radiation and vapor pressure deficit (D), often occur during rainless periods when soil water supply may limit vegetation water use. In contrast, high soil water availability often coincides with frequent precipitation and low D. In mixed species forests, physiological differences in water use strategies (e.g. isohydric/anisohydric species), leaf habit (e.g., evergreen/deciduous species), and leaf phenology can produce conservative water use throughout wet and dry phases of the growing season and the year. Thus, the combination of these factors may explain some of the observed consistency in ET. We examine the respective roles of climate and vegetation on variability in ET in a mature, temperate forest, dominated by deciduous species with an evergreen rhododendron understory at the Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory in the southern Appalachian Mountains of North Carolina. Since 2012, the site has experienced one year with a warm spring, leading to a two-week advance of leaf-out, and one year with the greatest amount of precipitation in the 80-year climate station record. While eddy covariance-based estimates of net primary productivity increased with earlier spring leaf phenology and decreased during a warm dry period, seasonal patterns in ET were consistent among years, leading to similar annual water vapor fluxes (coefficient of variation = 0.05). We combine these data with estimates of soil evaporation from a sub-canopy eddy covariance system, and transpiration from sap flux measurements to quantify the daily and seasonal contributions of canopy, understory, and soil to inter-annual variability in ET. These results will improve our ability to predict forest responses

  14. 18 CFR 1304.203 - Vegetation management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Vegetation management...-Owned Residential Access Shoreland § 1304.203 Vegetation management. No vegetation management shall be approved on TVA-owned Residential Access Shoreland until a Vegetation Management Plan meeting...

  15. 18 CFR 1304.203 - Vegetation management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vegetation management...-Owned Residential Access Shoreland § 1304.203 Vegetation management. No vegetation management shall be approved on TVA-owned Residential Access Shoreland until a Vegetation Management Plan meeting...

  16. A Small Mammal Community in a Forest Fragment, Vegetation Corridor and Coffee Matrix System in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Mariana Ferreira; Passamani, Marcelo; Louzada, Júlio

    2011-01-01

    The objective of our work was to verify the value of the vegetation corridor in the conservation of small mammals in fragmented tropical landscapes, using a model system in the southeastern Minas Gerais. We evaluated and compared the composition and structure of small mammals in a vegetation corridor, forest fragments and a coffee matrix. A total of 15 species were recorded, and the highest species richness was observed in the vegetation corridor (13 species), followed by the forest fragments (10) and the coffee matrix (6). The absolute abundance was similar between the vegetation corridor and fragments (F = 22.94; p = 0.064), and the greatest differences occurred between the vegetation corridor and the matrix (F = 22.94; p = 0.001) and the forest fragments and the matrix (F = 22.94; p = 0.007). Six species showed significant habitat preference possibly related to the sensitivity of the species to the forest disturbance. Marmosops incanus was the species most sensitive to disturbance; Akodon montensis, Cerradomys subflavus, Gracilinanus microtarsus and Rhipidomys sp. displayed little sensitivity to disturbance, with a high relative abundance in the vegetation corridor. Calomys sp. was the species least affected by habitat disturbance, displaying a high relative abundance in the coffee matrix. Although the vegetation corridors are narrow (4 m width), our results support the hypothesis in which they work as a forest extension, share most species with the forest fragment and support species richness and abundance closer to forest fragments than to the coffee matrix. Our work highlights the importance and cost-effectiveness of these corridors to biodiversity management in the fragmented Atlantic Forest landscapes and at the regional level. PMID:21912591

  17. Opposing Responses of Bird Functional Diversity to Vegetation Structural Diversity in Wet and Dry Forest

    PubMed Central

    York, Alan; Swan, Matthew; Christie, Fiona; Di Stefano, Julian

    2016-01-01

    Disturbance regimes are changing worldwide, and the consequences for ecosystem function and resilience are largely unknown. Functional diversity (FD) provides a surrogate measure of ecosystem function by capturing the range, abundance and distribution of trait values in a community. Enhanced understanding of the responses of FD to measures of vegetation structure at landscape scales is needed to guide conservation management. To address this knowledge gap, we used a whole-of-landscape sampling approach to examine relationships between bird FD, vegetation diversity and time since fire. We surveyed birds and measured vegetation at 36 landscape sampling units in dry and wet forest in southeast Australia during 2010 and 2011. Four uncorrelated indices of bird FD (richness, evenness, divergence and dispersion) were derived from six bird traits, and we investigated responses of these indices and species richness to both vertical and horizontal vegetation diversity using linear mixed models. We also considered the extent to which the mean and diversity of time since fire were related to vegetation diversity. Results showed opposing responses of FD to vegetation diversity in dry and wet forest. In dry forest, where fire is frequent, species richness and two FD indices (richness and dispersion) were positively related to vertical vegetation diversity, consistent with theory relating to environmental variation and coexistence. However, in wet forest subject to infrequent fire, the same three response variables were negatively associated with vertical diversity. We suggest that competitive dominance by species results in lower FD as vegetation diversity increases in wet forest. The responses of functional evenness were opposite to those of species richness, functional richness and dispersion in both forest types, highlighting the value of examining multiple FD metrics at management-relevant scales. The mean and diversity of time since fire were uncorrelated with vegetation

  18. Wildlife species associated with non-coniferous vegetation in Pacific Northwest conifer forests: A review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hagar, J.C.

    2007-01-01

    Non-coniferous vegetation, including herbs, shrubs, and broad-leaved trees, makes a vital contribution to ecosystem function and diversity in Pacific Northwest conifer forests. However, forest management has largely been indifferent or detrimental to shrubs and trees that have low commercial value, in spite of a paradigm shift towards more holistic management in recent decades. Forest management practices that are detrimental to broad-leaved trees and shrubs are likely to decrease habitat diversity for wildlife, but the number of species that may be affected has not previously been enumerated. I reviewed life history accounts for forest-dwelling vertebrate wildlife species and derived a list of 78 species in Oregon and Washington that are associated with non-coniferous vegetation. The diversity of direct and indirect food resources provided was the primary functional basis for associations of most species with non-coniferous vegetation. Thus, a diversity of herbs and broad-leaved trees and shrubs provides the foundation for food webs that contribute to diversity at multiple trophic levels in Pacific Northwest conifer forests. Given the number of species associated with non-coniferous vegetation in conifer-dominated forests, maintaining habitats that support diverse plant communities, particularly broad-leaved trees and shrubs, will be an important component of management strategies intended to foster biodiversity. Silvicultural practices such as modified planting densities, and pre-commercial and commercial thinning, can be used to control stand density in order to favor the development of understory herbs, shrubs, and a diversity of tree species within managed stands. Allowing shrubs and hardwood trees to develop and persist in early seral stands by curtailing vegetation control also would benefit many species associated with non-coniferous vegetation.

  19. Managing swiss forests: when climate intervenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Combe, Jean

    For more than a century, forest management in Switzerland has been based on a philosophy attuned to nature. Silviculture which imitates natural cycles and processes is believed to promote the growth of healthy, stable forests. Because of the diversity of species and ages, which are often mixed on a small scale, forest stands are able to resist many extremes of climate and, in the event of damage (mainly due to windthrow and snow breakage), the natural forest ecosystem can recover rapidly from total destruction thanks to abundant natural regeneration. Over the long term, Swiss foresters have become accustomed to harvesting 20% of the annual production as "storm timber". The most serious natural disasters are mainly due to extremes of one single climatic factor; e.g. Hurricane Vivian in 1990, which toppled over almost five million m3 of timber — the equivalent of Switzerland's average yearly timber harvest. For a forest manager, however, it is interesting to analyse the less spectacular damage which occurs annually in natural forest stands and accounts for between 12 and 20% of the annual harvest. It appears that a combination of two or three climatic factors has a much greater effect on forest stability than an extreme of one single factor. Wind speeds of up to 100 km/hour may often be harmless to forests, whereas lower speeds may uproot mature trees over a wide area if the soil is waterlogged following a long period of rain. This kind of damage can occur throughout the year in coniferous stands, whereas broadleaved species growing in waterlogged soils may resist winds if this climatic combination comes when the vegetation period is over and they have lost their leaves. A number of such patterns of damage to forest stands is presented and their dependence on the occurrence of a combination of specific climatic factors is proposed.

  20. Watering the forest for the trees: an emerging priority for managing water in forest landscapes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grant, Gordon E.; Tague, Christina L.; Allen, Craig D.

    2013-01-01

    Widespread threats to forests resulting from drought stress are prompting a re-evaluation of priorities for water management on forest lands. In contrast to the widely held view that forest management should emphasize providing water for downstream uses, we argue that maintaining forest health in the context of a changing climate may require focusing on the forests themselves and on strategies to reduce their vulnerability to increasing water stress. Management strategies would need to be tailored to specific landscapes but could include thinning, planting and selecting for drought-tolerant species, irrigating, and making more water available to plants for transpiration. Hydrologic modeling reveals that specific management actions could reduce tree mortality due to drought stress. Adopting water conservation for vegetation as a priority for managing water on forested lands would represent a fundamental change in perspective and potentially involve trade-offs with other downstream uses of water.

  1. Terrestrial forest management plan for Palmyra Atoll

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hathaway, Stacie A.; McEachern, Kathryn; Fisher, Robert N.

    2011-01-01

    This 'Terrestrial Forest Management Plan for Palmyra Atoll' was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for The Nature Conservancy (TNC) Palmyra Program to refine and expand goals and objectives developed through the Conservation Action Plan process. It is one in a series of adaptive management plans designed to achieve TNC's mission toward the protection and enhancement of native wildlife and habitat. The 'Terrestrial Forest Management Plan for Palmyra Atoll' focuses on ecosystem integrity and specifically identifies and addresses issues related to assessing the status and distribution of resources, as well as the pressures acting upon them, most specifically nonnative and potentially invasive species. The plan, which presents strategies for increasing ecosystem integrity, provides a framework to implement and track the progress of conservation and restoration goals related to terrestrial resources on Palmyra Atoll. The report in its present form is intended to be an overview of what is known about historical and current forest resources; it is not an exhaustive review of all available literature relevant to forest management but an attempt to assemble as much information specific to Palmyra Atoll as possible. Palmyra Atoll is one of the Northern Line Islands in the Pacific Ocean southwest of the Hawai`ian Islands. It consists of many heavily vegetated islets arranged in a horseshoe pattern around four lagoons and surrounded by a coral reef. The terrestrial ecosystem consists of three primary native vegetation types: Pisonia grandis forest, coastal strand forest, and grassland. Among these vegetation types, the health and extent of Pisonia grandis forest is of particular concern. Overall, the three vegetation types support 25 native plant species (two of which may be extirpated), 14 species of sea birds, six shore birds, at least one native reptile, at least seven native insects, and six native land crabs. Green and hawksbill turtles forage at Palmyra Atoll

  2. Influence of environment, disturbance, and ownership on forest vegetation of coastal Oregon.

    PubMed

    Ohmann, Janet L; Gregory, Matthew J; Spies, Thomas A

    2007-01-01

    Information about how vegetation composition and structure vary quantitatively and spatially with physical environment, disturbance history, and land ownership is fundamental to regional conservation planning. However, current knowledge about patterns of vegetation variability across large regions that is spatially explicit (i.e., mapped) tends to be general and qualitative. We used spatial predictions from gradient models to examine the influence of environment, disturbance, and ownership on patterns of forest vegetation biodiversity across a large forested region, the 3-million-ha Oregon Coast Range (USA). Gradients in tree species composition were strongly associated with environment, especially climate, and insensitive to disturbance, probably because many dominant tree species are long-lived and persist throughout forest succession. In contrast, forest structure was strongly correlated with disturbance and only weakly with environmental gradients. Although forest structure differed among ownerships, differences were blurred by the presence of legacy trees that originated prior to current forest management regimes. Our multi-ownership perspective revealed biodiversity concerns and benefits not readily visible in single-ownership analyses, and all ownerships contributed to regional biodiversity values. Federal lands provided most of the late-successional and old-growth forest. State lands contained a range of forest ages and structures, including diverse young forest, abundant legacy dead wood, and much of the high-elevation true fir forest. Nonindustrial private lands provided diverse young forest and the greatest abundance of hardwood trees, including almost all of the foothill oak woodlands. Forest industry lands encompassed much early-successional forest, most of the mixed hardwood-conifer forest, and large amounts of legacy down wood. The detailed tree- and species-level data in the maps revealed regional trends that would be masked in traditional coarse

  3. Climate-induced changes in forest disturbance and vegetation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Overpeck, Jonathan T.; Rind, David; Goldberg, Richard

    1990-01-01

    New and published climate-model results are discussed which indicate that global warming favors increased rates of forest disturbance as a result of weather more likely to cause forest fires, convective wind storms, coastal flooding, and hurricanes. New sensitivity tests carried out with a vegetation model indicate that climate-induced increases in disturbance could, in turn, significantly alter the total biomass and compositional response of forests to future warming. An increase in disturbance frequency is also likely to increase the rate at which natural vegetation responses to future climate change. The results reinforce the hypothesis that forests could be significantly altered by the first part of the next century. The modeling also confirms the potential utility of selected time series of fossil pollen data for investigating the poorly understood natural patterns of century-scale climate variability.

  4. Vegetation recovery on closed paths in temperate deciduous forests.

    PubMed

    Roovers, Pieter; Bossuyt, Beatrijs; Gulinck, Hubert; Hermy, Martin

    2005-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate vegetation recovery on footpaths in woodland that have been closed for access for 6 years. A vegetation survey was conducted in four mesophile forests, in transects perpendicular to the trail. Analyses concentrated on the direction and rate of the recovery process. Vegetation on trail sides in these ecosystems recovered substantially. Non-metric multidimensional scaling based upon species composition separated the four sample locations and each cluster contained representatives of the three major trail zones: path centre, transition and undisturbed zones. Analysis of distribution of life forms, plant strategies and seedbank longevity indices showed no differences between trail zones. This indicates that vegetation on the path centre is likely to recover towards the plant composition of the undisturbed zone. Ellenberg values indicate that environmental variation is not related to former path structures, as significant variability was only observed between the forest sites. Furthermore, the analysis concentrated on characteristics of species relevant to the recovery process.

  5. Recovery of trailside vegetation from trampling in a tropical rain forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boucher, Douglas H.; Aviles, Jeannette; Chepote, Rafael; Domínguez Gil, Oscar E.; Vilchez, Braulio

    1991-03-01

    Practically no information exists on the impact of human trampling on tropical rain forest vegetation. We studied three trails with varying periods of use and recovery in a tropical rain forest in Costa Rica. Human impact on trailside plants was curvilinearly related to use, as found by other workers in temperate zone vegetation. Recovery in a period of two years and eight months had been rapid, and herbs and seedlings were more abundant along the recovering trail than in undisturbed forest. The results imply that a shifting mosaic of trails, analogous to the mosaic created by light gaps, may be the best management technique to minimize the impact of human visitors in tropical rain forests.

  6. Assessing rates of forest change and fragmentation in Alabama, USA, using the vegetation change tracker model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Li, M.; Huang, C.; Zhu, Z.; Shi, H.; Lu, H.; Peng, S.

    2009-01-01

    Forest change is of great concern for land use decision makers and conservation communities. Quantitative and spatial forest change information is critical for addressing many pressing issues, including global climate change, carbon budgets, and sustainability. In this study, our analysis focuses on the differences in geospatial patterns and their changes between federal forests and nonfederal forests in Alabama over the time period 1987-2005, by interpreting 163 Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) scenes using a vegetation change tracker (VCT) model. Our analysis revealed that for the most part of 1990 s and between 2000 and 2005, Alabama lost about 2% of its forest on an annual basis due to disturbances, but much of the losses were balanced by forest regeneration from previous disturbances. The disturbance maps revealed that federal forests were reasonably well protected, with the fragmentation remaining relatively stable over time. In contrast, nonfederal forests, which are predominant in area share (about 95%), were heavily disturbed, clearly demonstrating decreasing levels of fragmentation during the time period 1987-1993 giving way to a subsequent accelerating fragmentation during the time period 1994-2005. Additionally, the identification of the statistical relationships between forest fragmentation status and forest loss rate and forest net change rate in relation to land ownership implied the distinct differences in forest cutting rate and cutting patterns between federal forests and nonfederal forests. The forest spatial change information derived from the model has provided valuable insights regarding regional forest management practices and disturbance regimes, which are closely associated with regional economics and environmental concerns. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V.

  7. Managed forest reserves: preserving diversity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tappeiner, John; Poage, Nathan; Erickson, Janet L.

    2003-01-01

    Background As part of the Northwest Forest Plan, large areas have been designated on many federal forests in western Oregon to provide critical habitat for plants and animals that are associated with old-growth habitat. Some of the structural characteristics often considered typical of old forests include large-diameter overstory trees, large standing and fallen dead trees, and one or more understory layers (Figure 1). However, not all of these areas are currently in old-growth conditions. Many of them contain young (<40 years), uniformly dense Douglas-fir stands that regenerated after timber harvest. The original management goal for these stands was to produce high yields of timber and associated wood products. With implementation of the Northwest Forest Plan in 1994, the management objective shifted to accelerating development of old-growth characteristics by enhancing structural and biological diversity of these areas. A major challenge today is how to promote these structural characteristics in younger stands. Researchers have been asking if lessons can be learned from the development of our current old growth and applied to management of younger stands. Dr. John Tappeiner and his university and agency research partners are helping to answer this question by examining the differences in development between old-growth and young stands in western Oregon. Understanding how the structure of these old forests developed may provide a model for management of young stands, especially when the management goal is to provide habitat for species associated with older forests.

  8. Effects of Fireplace Use on Forest Vegetation and Amount of Woody Debris in Suburban Forests in Northwestern Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegetschweiler, K. Tessa; van Loon, Nicole; Ryser, Annette; Rusterholz, Hans-Peter; Baur, Bruno

    2009-02-01

    Urban forests are popular recreation areas in Europe. Several of these temperate broad-leaved forests also have a high conservation value due to sustainable management over many centuries. Recreational activities, particularly the use of fireplaces, can cause extensive damage to soil, ground vegetation, shrubs, and trees. Firewood collection depletes woody debris, leading to a loss of habitat for specialized organisms. We examined the effects of fireplace use on forest vegetation and the amount of woody debris by comparing disturbed and control plots in suburban forests in northwestern Switzerland. At frequently used fireplaces, we found reduced species densities in the ground vegetation and shrub layer and changes in plant species composition due to human trampling within an area of 150-200 m2. Picnicking and grilling also reduced the height and changed the age structure of shrubs and young trees. The amount of woody debris was lower in disturbed plots than in control plots. Pieces of wood with a diameter of 0.6-7.6 cm were preferentially collected by fireplace users. The reduction in woody debris volume extended up to a distance of 16 m from the fire ring, covering an area of 800 m2 at each picnic site. In order to preserve the ecological integrity of urban forests and to maintain their attractiveness as important recreation areas, we suggest depositing logging residues to be used as firewood and to restrict visitor movements near picnic sites.

  9. Extracting the vegetation phenology of tropical monsoon forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, R.; Xu, M.; Zuo, L.

    2015-12-01

    The monsoon forests cover over 40% of tropical forests, and play a significant role in terrestrial ecosystem carbon exchange and water-use efficiency of tropical ecosystems. The monsoons are changing under the global changes, and then impact the vegetation growth. However, the vegetation phenology in this area are difficult to describe, where the "V"-shaped seasonal growth trajectories of tropical monsoon forests are totally different from the normal seasonal trajectories such as the boreal forests. In this paper, a "V"-shaped curve is proposed to simulate the "V"-shaped seasonal trajectory. Current extractions of the onset of greenness are not suitable for "V"-shaped seasonal trajectory, which are seriously affected by the gaps in the rapid growth stage due to the heavy rain. For its insensitivity to the gaps or noise, the whole "V"-shaped curve was used to determine the phenology of tropical monsoon forest, and the lowest point in "V"-shaped curve was regarded as the phenology. The extracted phenology was showed to be correlated with the precipitation, and the validations with ground observations demonstrated that this new methodology has the ability to extract the phenology of tropical monsoon forest correctly. These phenology maps of tropical monsoon forest assist to understand the impact of climate changes in the monsoon regions.

  10. Snow and Vegetation Interactions at Boundaries in Alaska's Boreal Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiemstra, C. A.; Sturm, M.

    2012-12-01

    There has been increased attention on snow-vegetation interactions in Arctic tundra because of rapid climate-driven changes affecting that snow-dominated ecosystem. Yet, far less attention is paid to boreal forest snow-vegetation interactions even though climatic conditions are changing there as well. Further, it is the prevalent terrestrial biome on the planet. The forest is a variable patchwork of trees, shrubs, grasses, and forbs shaped by wind, fire, topography, water drainage, and permafrost. These patches and their boundaries have a corresponding effect on boreal snow distributions; however, measurements characterizing boreal snow are sparse and focus within patches (vs. between patches). Unfortunately, remote sensing approaches in such forested areas frequently fall short due to coarse footprint size and dense canopy cover. Over the last several years we have been examining the characteristics of snow cover within and across boundaries in the boreal forest, seeking to identify gradients in snow depth due to snow-vegetation interactions as well identifying methods whereby boreal forest surveys could be improved. Specifically, we collected end-of-season snow measurements in the Alaska boreal forest during long-distance traverses in the Tanana Basin in 2010 (26 sites) and within the Yukon Flats National Wildlife Refuge in 2011 (26 sites). At each site (all relatively flat), hundreds of snow depths were collected using a GPS-equipped Magnaprobe, which is an automated tool for measuring and locating individual snow depths. Corresponding canopy properties included NDVI determined from high-resolution satellite imagery; canopy properties were variable among the 1ha sites and some areas had recently burned. Among sites, NDVI had the largest correlation with snow depths; elevation was not significant. Vegetation transition zones play important roles in explaining observed snow depth. Similar to treeline work showing nutrient and energy gradients are influenced by

  11. Education and Training in Natural Forest Management. Training Discussion Paper No. 88.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longo, Alceu Natal

    A program for natural forest management in developing countries consists of several integrated projects. Although aimed at establishing norms and criteria for natural forest management in Mata Atlantica (Atlantic Forest) in southern Brazil, the norms also apply to other types of tropical vegetation in order to ensure continuous economic…

  12. Vegetation change impacts on soil organic carbon chemical composition in subtropical forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xiaoping; Meng, Miaojing; Zhang, Jinchi; Chen, Han Y. H.

    2016-07-01

    Changes in the chemical composition of soil organic carbon (SOC) might strongly affect the global carbon cycle as it controls the SOC decomposition rate. Vegetation change associated with long-term land use changes is known to strongly impact the chemical composition of SOC; however, data on the impacts of vegetation change following disturbance events of short durations and succession that occur frequently in forest ecosystems via diverse management objectives on SOC chemical composition are negligible. Here we examined the impacts of vegetation changes on the chemical composition of SOC by sampling soils of native broad-leaved forests, planted mixed broad-leaved and coniferous forests, and tea gardens in eastern China. We used nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to quantify SOC chemical composition. We found that among all components of SOC chemical composition, alkyl carbon (C) and aryl C were more liable to change with vegetation than other SOC components. Soil pH was negatively correlated to the relative abundances of alkyl C and N-alkyl C, and Shannon’s index of overstory plant species was positively correlated to the relative abundances of phenolic C and aromaticity. Our results suggest that vegetation changes following short disturbance events and succession may strongly alter SOC chemical composition in forest ecosystems.

  13. Vegetation change impacts on soil organic carbon chemical composition in subtropical forests

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xiaoping; Meng, Miaojing; Zhang, Jinchi; Chen, Han Y. H.

    2016-01-01

    Changes in the chemical composition of soil organic carbon (SOC) might strongly affect the global carbon cycle as it controls the SOC decomposition rate. Vegetation change associated with long-term land use changes is known to strongly impact the chemical composition of SOC; however, data on the impacts of vegetation change following disturbance events of short durations and succession that occur frequently in forest ecosystems via diverse management objectives on SOC chemical composition are negligible. Here we examined the impacts of vegetation changes on the chemical composition of SOC by sampling soils of native broad-leaved forests, planted mixed broad-leaved and coniferous forests, and tea gardens in eastern China. We used nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to quantify SOC chemical composition. We found that among all components of SOC chemical composition, alkyl carbon (C) and aryl C were more liable to change with vegetation than other SOC components. Soil pH was negatively correlated to the relative abundances of alkyl C and N-alkyl C, and Shannon’s index of overstory plant species was positively correlated to the relative abundances of phenolic C and aromaticity. Our results suggest that vegetation changes following short disturbance events and succession may strongly alter SOC chemical composition in forest ecosystems. PMID:27403714

  14. Vegetation change impacts on soil organic carbon chemical composition in subtropical forests.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaoping; Meng, Miaojing; Zhang, Jinchi; Chen, Han Y H

    2016-01-01

    Changes in the chemical composition of soil organic carbon (SOC) might strongly affect the global carbon cycle as it controls the SOC decomposition rate. Vegetation change associated with long-term land use changes is known to strongly impact the chemical composition of SOC; however, data on the impacts of vegetation change following disturbance events of short durations and succession that occur frequently in forest ecosystems via diverse management objectives on SOC chemical composition are negligible. Here we examined the impacts of vegetation changes on the chemical composition of SOC by sampling soils of native broad-leaved forests, planted mixed broad-leaved and coniferous forests, and tea gardens in eastern China. We used nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to quantify SOC chemical composition. We found that among all components of SOC chemical composition, alkyl carbon (C) and aryl C were more liable to change with vegetation than other SOC components. Soil pH was negatively correlated to the relative abundances of alkyl C and N-alkyl C, and Shannon's index of overstory plant species was positively correlated to the relative abundances of phenolic C and aromaticity. Our results suggest that vegetation changes following short disturbance events and succession may strongly alter SOC chemical composition in forest ecosystems. PMID:27403714

  15. Vegetation change impacts on soil organic carbon chemical composition in subtropical forests.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaoping; Meng, Miaojing; Zhang, Jinchi; Chen, Han Y H

    2016-07-11

    Changes in the chemical composition of soil organic carbon (SOC) might strongly affect the global carbon cycle as it controls the SOC decomposition rate. Vegetation change associated with long-term land use changes is known to strongly impact the chemical composition of SOC; however, data on the impacts of vegetation change following disturbance events of short durations and succession that occur frequently in forest ecosystems via diverse management objectives on SOC chemical composition are negligible. Here we examined the impacts of vegetation changes on the chemical composition of SOC by sampling soils of native broad-leaved forests, planted mixed broad-leaved and coniferous forests, and tea gardens in eastern China. We used nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to quantify SOC chemical composition. We found that among all components of SOC chemical composition, alkyl carbon (C) and aryl C were more liable to change with vegetation than other SOC components. Soil pH was negatively correlated to the relative abundances of alkyl C and N-alkyl C, and Shannon's index of overstory plant species was positively correlated to the relative abundances of phenolic C and aromaticity. Our results suggest that vegetation changes following short disturbance events and succession may strongly alter SOC chemical composition in forest ecosystems.

  16. [Dynamics of major forest vegetations in Tiantong National Forest Park during the last 30 years].

    PubMed

    Wu, Yang-Yang; Guo, Chun-Zi; Ni, Jian

    2014-06-01

    The study of vegetation succession and development is not only one of the hot spots of modern ecology, but also a key issue of the sustainable development of human society, especially under the circumstances of climate change and anthropogenic disturbance. A comparison of forest communities in the Tiantong National Forest Park (TNFP) in Zhejiang Province, eastern China from 1982 to 2012 was performed. Six forests in the park were investigated, including the typical evergreen broadleaved forest (EBLF, three sub-associations), evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved mixed forest (EDBLMF), evergreen conifer forest (ECF) and bamboo forest (BF). Data from two field investigations in 1982 and 2012, respectively, were used to analyze the changes of species composition, community structure and species diversity during the past 30 years. The spatial pattern and community structure of the forest vegetation in the TNFP did not obviously change. The spatial distribution of plant communities did not significantly shifted. The proportion of young trees and individuals in small diameters increased. The regeneration status of communities was healthy and the natural regeneration ability of communities was enhanced. The species diversity of the TNFP forests showed an increasing trend in the tree layer and a decreasing trend in the shrub and herb layers. Meanwhile, the evergreen component increased. Along with the changed climate, forest vegetation in the TNFP was developing towards the forward succession. Species diversity, especially the trees, increased with the increase of temperature. This demonstrated that, on one hand, forest vegetation in Tiantong had been well protected; on the other hand, there was a potential positive relationship between the EBLF succession and climate change. PMID:25223006

  17. [Dynamics of major forest vegetations in Tiantong National Forest Park during the last 30 years].

    PubMed

    Wu, Yang-Yang; Guo, Chun-Zi; Ni, Jian

    2014-06-01

    The study of vegetation succession and development is not only one of the hot spots of modern ecology, but also a key issue of the sustainable development of human society, especially under the circumstances of climate change and anthropogenic disturbance. A comparison of forest communities in the Tiantong National Forest Park (TNFP) in Zhejiang Province, eastern China from 1982 to 2012 was performed. Six forests in the park were investigated, including the typical evergreen broadleaved forest (EBLF, three sub-associations), evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved mixed forest (EDBLMF), evergreen conifer forest (ECF) and bamboo forest (BF). Data from two field investigations in 1982 and 2012, respectively, were used to analyze the changes of species composition, community structure and species diversity during the past 30 years. The spatial pattern and community structure of the forest vegetation in the TNFP did not obviously change. The spatial distribution of plant communities did not significantly shifted. The proportion of young trees and individuals in small diameters increased. The regeneration status of communities was healthy and the natural regeneration ability of communities was enhanced. The species diversity of the TNFP forests showed an increasing trend in the tree layer and a decreasing trend in the shrub and herb layers. Meanwhile, the evergreen component increased. Along with the changed climate, forest vegetation in the TNFP was developing towards the forward succession. Species diversity, especially the trees, increased with the increase of temperature. This demonstrated that, on one hand, forest vegetation in Tiantong had been well protected; on the other hand, there was a potential positive relationship between the EBLF succession and climate change.

  18. Management to conserve forest ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robbins, C.S.; McComb, William C.

    1984-01-01

    Historically, management of forests for wildlife has emphasized creation of openings and provision for a maximum of edge habitats. Wildlife managers have believed, quite logically, that increased sunlight enhances productivity among plants and insects, resulting in greater use by game animals and other wildlife. Recent studies comparing breeding bird populations of extensive forests with those of isolated woodlots have shown that the smaller woodlots, especially those under 35 ha (about 85 acres), lack many species that are typical of the larger tracts. The missing species can be predicted, and basically are the neotropical migrants. These long-distance migrants share several characteristics that make them especially vulnerable to reproductive failure in situations where predation and cowbird parasitism are high: they are primarily single-brooded, open nesters that lay small clutches on or near the ground. Edge habitats and forest openings attract cowbirds and predators. The edge species of birds, which are mostly permanent residents or short-distance migrants, are well adapted to survive and reproduce in small isolated woodlands without the benefit of special habitat management. The obligate forest interior species, on the other hand, are decreasing in those parts of North America where extensive forests are being replaced by isolated woodlands. If we are to preserve ecosystems intact for the benefit of future generations, and maintain a viable gene pool for the scarcer species, we must think in terms of retaining large, unbroken tracts of forest and of limiting disturbance in the more remote portions of these tracts.

  19. Forest ecosystems: Vegetation, disturbance, and economics: Chapter 5

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Littell, Jeremy S.; Hicke, Jeffrey A.; Shafer, Sarah L.; Capalbo, Susan M.; Houston, Laurie L.; Glick, Patty

    2013-01-01

    Forests cover about 47% of the Northwest (NW–Washington, Oregon, and Idaho) (Smith et al. 2009, fig. 5.1, table 5.1). The impacts of current and future climate change on NW forest ecosystems are a product of the sensitivities of ecosystem processes to climate and the degree to which humans depend on and interact with those systems. Forest ecosystem structure and function, particularly in relatively unmanaged forests where timber harvest and other land use have smaller effects, is sensitive to climate change because climate has a strong influence on ecosystem processes. Climate can affect forest structure directly through its control of plan physiology and life history (establishment, individual growth, productivity, and morality) or indirectly through its control of disturbance (fire, insects, disease). As climate changes, many forest processes will be affected, altering ecosystem services such as timber production and recreation. These changes have socioeconomic implications (e.g. for timber economies) and will require changes to current management of forests. Climate and management will interact to determine the forests of the future, and the scientific basis for adaptation to climate change in forests thus depends significantly on how forests will be affected.

  20. Forest edges: Effects on vegetation, environmental gradients and local avian communities in the Sierra Juarez, Oaxaca, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burcsu, Theresa Katherine

    Edge effects are among the most serious threats to forest integrity because as global forest cover decreases overall, forest edge influence increases proportionally, driving habitat change and loss. Edge effects occur at the division between adjacent habitat types. Our understanding of edge effects comes mainly from tropical wet, temperate and boreal forests. Because forest structure in moisture-limited forests differs from wetter forest types, edge dynamics are likely to differ as well. Moreover, dry forests in the tropics have been nearly eliminated or exist only as forest fragments, making edge influence an important conservation and management concern for remaining dry forests. This study addresses this gap in the edge influence knowledge by examining created, regenerating edges associated with forest management in a seasonally dry pine-oak forest of Oaxaca, creating a new data point in edge effects research. In this study I used Landsat TM imagery and a modified semivariance analysis to estimate the distance of edge influence for vegetation. I also used field methods to characterize forest structure and estimate edge influence on canopy and subcanopy vegetation. To finalize the project I extended the study to bird assemblages to identify responses and habitat preferences to local-scale changes associated with regenerating edges created by group-selection timber harvest. Remote sensing analysis estimated that the distance of edge influence was 30-90 m from the edge. Vegetation analysis suggested that edge effects were weak relative to wetter forest types and that remote sensing data did not provide an estimate that was directly applicable to field-measured vegetative edge effects. The bird assemblages likewise responded weakly to habitat change associated with edge effect. Open canopy structure, simple vertical stratigraphy, and topographic variation create forest conditions in which small openings do not create a high contrast to undisturbed forest. Thus, in

  1. 50 CFR 35.8 - Forest management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Forest management. 35.8 Section 35.8... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM WILDERNESS PRESERVATION AND MANAGEMENT General Rules § 35.8 Forest management. Forest management activities in a wilderness unit will be directed toward allowing...

  2. 50 CFR 35.8 - Forest management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Forest management. 35.8 Section 35.8... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM WILDERNESS PRESERVATION AND MANAGEMENT General Rules § 35.8 Forest management. Forest management activities in a wilderness unit will be directed toward allowing...

  3. 50 CFR 35.8 - Forest management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Forest management. 35.8 Section 35.8... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM WILDERNESS PRESERVATION AND MANAGEMENT General Rules § 35.8 Forest management. Forest management activities in a wilderness unit will be directed toward allowing...

  4. 50 CFR 35.8 - Forest management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Forest management. 35.8 Section 35.8... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM WILDERNESS PRESERVATION AND MANAGEMENT General Rules § 35.8 Forest management. Forest management activities in a wilderness unit will be directed toward allowing...

  5. 50 CFR 35.8 - Forest management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Forest management. 35.8 Section 35.8... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM WILDERNESS PRESERVATION AND MANAGEMENT General Rules § 35.8 Forest management. Forest management activities in a wilderness unit will be directed toward allowing...

  6. ForWarn Forest Disturbance Change Detection System Provides a Weekly Snapshot of US Forest Conditions to Aid Forest Managers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hargrove, W. W.; Spruce, J.; Kumar, J.; Hoffman, F. M.

    2012-12-01

    The Eastern Forest Environmental Threat Assessment Center and Western Wildland Environmental Assessment Center of the USDA Forest Service have collaborated with NASA Stennis Space Center to develop ForWarn, a forest monitoring tool that uses MODIS satellite imagery to produce weekly snapshots of vegetation conditions across the lower 48 United States. Forest and natural resource managers can use ForWarn to rapidly detect, identify, and respond to unexpected changes in the nation's forests caused by insects, diseases, wildfires, severe weather, or other natural or human-caused events. ForWarn detects most types of forest disturbances, including insects, disease, wildfires, frost and ice damage, tornadoes, hurricanes, blowdowns, harvest, urbanization, and landslides. It also detects drought, flood, and temperature effects, and shows early and delayed seasonal vegetation development. Operating continuously since January 2010, results show ForWarn to be a robust and highly capable tool for detecting changes in forest conditions. To help forest and natural resource managers rapidly detect, identify, and respond to unexpected changes in the nation's forests, ForWarn produces sets of national maps showing potential forest disturbances at 231m resolution every 8 days, and posts the results to the web for examination. ForWarn compares current greenness with the "normal," historically seen greenness that would be expected for healthy vegetation for a specific location and time of the year, and then identifies areas appearing less green than expected to provide a strategic national overview of potential forest disturbances that can be used to direct ground and aircraft efforts. In addition to forests, ForWarn also tracks potential disturbances in rangeland vegetation and agriculural crops. ForWarn is the first national-scale system of its kind based on remote sensing developed specifically for forest disturbances. The ForWarn system had an official unveiling and rollout in

  7. An Evaluation of Plotless Sampling Using Vegetation Simulations and Field Data from a Mangrove Forest

    PubMed Central

    Hijbeek, Renske; Koedam, Nico; Khan, Md Nabiul Islam; Kairo, James Gitundu; Schoukens, Johan; Dahdouh-Guebas, Farid

    2013-01-01

    In vegetation science and forest management, tree density is often used as a variable. To determine the value of this variable, reliable field methods are necessary. When vegetation is sparse or not easily accessible, the use of sample plots is not feasible in the field. Therefore, plotless methods, like the Point Centred Quarter Method, are often used as an alternative. In this study we investigate the accuracy of different plotless sampling methods. To this end, tree densities of a mangrove forest were determined and compared with estimates provided by several plotless methods. None of these methods proved accurate across all field sites with mean underestimations up to 97% and mean overestimations up to 53% in the field. Applying the methods to different vegetation patterns shows that when random spatial distributions were used the true density was included within the 95% confidence limits of all the plotless methods tested. It was also found that, besides aggregation and regularity, density trends often found in mangroves contribute to the unreliability. This outcome raises questions about the use of plotless sampling in forest monitoring and management, as well as for estimates of density-based carbon sequestration. We give recommendations to minimize errors in vegetation surveys and recommendations for further in-depth research. PMID:23826233

  8. Role of MODIS Vegetation Phenology Products in the U.S. for Warn Early Warning System for Forest Threats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spruce, Joseph; Hargrove, William; Norman, Steve; Gasser, Gerald; Smoot, James; Kuper, Philip

    2012-01-01

    U.S. forests occupy approx 751 million acres (approx 1/3 of total land). Several abiotic and biotic damage agents disturb, damage, kill, and/or threaten these forests. Regionally extensive forest disturbances can also threaten human life and property, bio-diversity and water supplies. timely regional forest disturbance monitoring products are needed to aid forest health management work at finer scales. daily MODIS data provide a means to monitor regional forest disturbances on a weekly basis, leveraging vegetation phenology. In response, the USFS and NASA began collaborating in 2006 to develop a Near Real Time (NRT) forest monitoring capability, based on MODIS NDVI data, as part of a national forest threat Early Warning System (EWS).

  9. [Estimation for vegetation carbon storage in Tiantong National Forest Park].

    PubMed

    Guo, Chun-Zi; Wu, Yang-Yang; Ni, Jian

    2014-11-01

    Based on the field investigation and the data combination from literature, vegetation carbon storage, carbon density, and their spatial distribution were examined across six forest community types (Schima superba--Castanopsis fargesii community, S. superba--C. fargesii with C. sclerophylla community, S. superba--C. fargesii with Distylium myricoides community, Illicium lanceolatum--Choerospondias axillaris community, Liquidambar formosana--Pinus massoniana community and Hedyotis auricularia--Phylostachys pubescens community) in Tiantong National Forest Park, Zhejiang Province, by using the allometric biomass models for trees and shrubs. Results showed that: Among the six communities investigated, carbon storage and carbon density were highest in the S. superba--C. fargesii with C. sclerophylla community (storage: 12113.92 Mg C; density: 165.03 Mg C · hm(-2)), but lowest in the I. lanceolatum--C. axillaris community (storage: 680.95 Mg C; density: 101.26 Mg C · hm(-2)). Carbon storage was significantly higher in evergreen trees than in deciduous trees across six communities. Carbon density ranged from 76.08 to 144.95 Mg C · hm(-2), and from 0. 16 to 20. 62 Mg C · hm(-2) for evergreen trees and deciduous trees, respectively. Carbon storage was highest in stems among tree tissues in the tree layer throughout communities. Among vegetation types, evergreen broad-leaved forest had the highest carbon storage (23092.39 Mg C), accounting for 81.7% of the total carbon storage in all forest types, with a car- bon density of 126.17 Mg C · hm(-2). Total carbon storage for all vegetation types in Tiantong National Forest Park was 28254.22 Mg C, and the carbon density was 96.73 Mg C · hm(-2).

  10. Tropical secondary forest management influences frugivorous bat composition, abundance and fruit consumption in Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Vleut, Ivar; Levy-Tacher, Samuel Israel; de Boer, Willem Frederik; Galindo-González, Jorge; Vazquez, Luis-Bernardo

    2013-01-01

    Most studies on frugivorous bat assemblages in secondary forests have concentrated on differences among successional stages, and have disregarded the effect of forest management. Secondary forest management practices alter the vegetation structure and fruit availability, important factors associated with differences in frugivorous bat assemblage structure, and fruit consumption and can therefore modify forest succession. Our objective was to elucidate factors (forest structural variables and fruit availability) determining bat diversity, abundance, composition and species-specific abundance of bats in (i) secondary forests managed by Lacandon farmers dominated by Ochroma pyramidale, in (ii) secondary forests without management, and in (iii) mature rain forests in Chiapas, Southern Mexico. Frugivorous bat species diversity (Shannon H') was similar between forest types. However, bat abundance was highest in rain forest and O. pyramidale forests. Bat species composition was different among forest types with more Carollia sowelli and Sturnira lilium captures in O. pyramidale forests. Overall, bat fruit consumption was dominated by early-successional shrubs, highest late-successional fruit consumption was found in rain forests and more bats consumed early-successional shrub fruits in O. pyramidale forests. Ochroma pyramidale forests presented a higher canopy openness, tree height, lower tree density and diversity of fruit than secondary forests. Tree density and canopy openness were negatively correlated with bat species diversity and bat abundance, but bat abundance increased with fruit abundance and tree height. Hence, secondary forest management alters forests' structural characteristics and resource availability, and shapes the frugivorous bat community structure, and thereby the fruit consumption by bats.

  11. Tropical secondary forest management influences frugivorous bat composition, abundance and fruit consumption in Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Vleut, Ivar; Levy-Tacher, Samuel Israel; de Boer, Willem Frederik; Galindo-González, Jorge; Vazquez, Luis-Bernardo

    2013-01-01

    Most studies on frugivorous bat assemblages in secondary forests have concentrated on differences among successional stages, and have disregarded the effect of forest management. Secondary forest management practices alter the vegetation structure and fruit availability, important factors associated with differences in frugivorous bat assemblage structure, and fruit consumption and can therefore modify forest succession. Our objective was to elucidate factors (forest structural variables and fruit availability) determining bat diversity, abundance, composition and species-specific abundance of bats in (i) secondary forests managed by Lacandon farmers dominated by Ochroma pyramidale, in (ii) secondary forests without management, and in (iii) mature rain forests in Chiapas, Southern Mexico. Frugivorous bat species diversity (Shannon H') was similar between forest types. However, bat abundance was highest in rain forest and O. pyramidale forests. Bat species composition was different among forest types with more Carollia sowelli and Sturnira lilium captures in O. pyramidale forests. Overall, bat fruit consumption was dominated by early-successional shrubs, highest late-successional fruit consumption was found in rain forests and more bats consumed early-successional shrub fruits in O. pyramidale forests. Ochroma pyramidale forests presented a higher canopy openness, tree height, lower tree density and diversity of fruit than secondary forests. Tree density and canopy openness were negatively correlated with bat species diversity and bat abundance, but bat abundance increased with fruit abundance and tree height. Hence, secondary forest management alters forests' structural characteristics and resource availability, and shapes the frugivorous bat community structure, and thereby the fruit consumption by bats. PMID:24147029

  12. Potential effects of forest management on surface albedo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otto, J.; Bréon, F.-M.; Schelhaas, M.-J.; Pinty, B.; Luyssaert, S.

    2012-04-01

    is closed. During this period, albedo is affected for a short time by forest operations. The modelling approach allowed us to estimate the importance of ground vegetation in the stand albedo. Given that ground vegetation depends on the light reaching the forest floor, ground vegetation could act as a natural buffer to dampen changes in albedo, allowing the stand to maintain optimal leaf temperature. Consequently, accounting for only the carbon balance component of forest management ignores albedo impacts and is thus likely to yield biased estimates of the climate benefits of forest ecosystems.

  13. Aboveground Biomass and Dynamics of Forest Attributes using LiDAR Data and Vegetation Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    V V L, P. A.

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, biomass estimation for tropical forests has received much attention because of the fact that regional biomass is considered to be a critical input to climate change. Biomass almost determines the potential carbon emission that could be released to the atmosphere due to deforestation or conservation to non-forest land use. Thus, accurate biomass estimation is necessary for better understating of deforestation impacts on global warming and environmental degradation. In this context, forest stand height inclusion in biomass estimation plays a major role in reducing the uncertainty in the estimation of biomass. The improvement in the accuracy in biomass shall also help in meeting the MRV objectives of REDD+. Along with the precise estimate of biomass, it is also important to emphasize the role of vegetation models that will most likely become an important tool for assessing the effects of climate change on potential vegetation dynamics and terrestrial carbon storage and for managing terrestrial ecosystem sustainability. Remote sensing is an efficient way to estimate forest parameters in large area, especially at regional scale where field data is limited. LIDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) provides accurate information on the vertical structure of forests. We estimated average tree canopy heights and AGB from GLAS waveform parameters by using a multi-regression linear model in forested area of Madhya Pradesh (area-3,08,245 km2), India. The derived heights from ICESat-GLAS were correlated with field measured tree canopy heights for 60 plots. Results have shown a significant correlation of R2= 74% for top canopy heights and R2= 57% for stand biomass. The total biomass estimation 320.17 Mt and canopy heights are generated by using random forest algorithm. These canopy heights and biomass maps were used in vegetation models to predict the changes biophysical/physiological characteristics of forest according to the changing climate. In our study we have

  14. Tropical Secondary Forest Management Influences Frugivorous Bat Composition, Abundance and Fruit Consumption in Chiapas, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Vleut, Ivar; Levy-Tacher, Samuel Israel; de Boer, Willem Frederik; Galindo-González, Jorge; Vazquez, Luis-Bernardo

    2013-01-01

    Most studies on frugivorous bat assemblages in secondary forests have concentrated on differences among successional stages, and have disregarded the effect of forest management. Secondary forest management practices alter the vegetation structure and fruit availability, important factors associated with differences in frugivorous bat assemblage structure, and fruit consumption and can therefore modify forest succession. Our objective was to elucidate factors (forest structural variables and fruit availability) determining bat diversity, abundance, composition and species-specific abundance of bats in (i) secondary forests managed by Lacandon farmers dominated by Ochroma pyramidale, in (ii) secondary forests without management, and in (iii) mature rain forests in Chiapas, Southern Mexico. Frugivorous bat species diversity (Shannon H’) was similar between forest types. However, bat abundance was highest in rain forest and O. pyramidale forests. Bat species composition was different among forest types with more Carollia sowelli and Sturnira lilium captures in O. pyramidale forests. Overall, bat fruit consumption was dominated by early-successional shrubs, highest late-successional fruit consumption was found in rain forests and more bats consumed early-successional shrub fruits in O. pyramidale forests. Ochroma pyramidale forests presented a higher canopy openness, tree height, lower tree density and diversity of fruit than secondary forests. Tree density and canopy openness were negatively correlated with bat species diversity and bat abundance, but bat abundance increased with fruit abundance and tree height. Hence, secondary forest management alters forests’ structural characteristics and resource availability, and shapes the frugivorous bat community structure, and thereby the fruit consumption by bats. PMID:24147029

  15. Effects of forest management on carbon and energy exchange of beech forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herbst, Mathias; Mund, Martina; Knohl, Alexander

    2014-05-01

    Atmospheric carbon and energy fluxes of a managed beech forest are compared with those of a nearby unmanaged, old-growth beech forest in central Germany. Both forests are located at similar altitude and they face similar meteorological conditions. They are also similar with respect to canopy height (37 m) and mean tree age (120 years). The managed forest is a monospecific, even-aged stand with species-rich ground vegetation and a leaf area index of about 4, whereas the old stand is clearly beech-dominated but interspersed with ash and sycamore trees. It has a multi-layer canopy made up of trees of various ages and its leaf area index is about 5. The comparison is based on 23 site-years of eddy covariance measurements of carbon and energy fluxes and on regular biomass measurements in terms of dendrometry and litter collection. On average the two forests did not differ significantly in annual net carbon uptake derived from eddy covariance data (508 and 483 g C m-2a-1 for the managed and the unmanaged forest, respectively), however the managed forest showed a much larger interannual variability in gross primary production than the unmanaged forest did. This trend agreed well with independent dendrometric measurements of net ecosystem production from both forests. In contrast, ecosystem respiration did neither vary significantly between the two forests nor between different years. The total annual evapotranspiration was higher at the unmanaged forest site (549 mm a-1 compared to 504 mm a-1 at the managed site), which was probably due to a higher interception loss from the denser canopy in the unmanaged forest. We discuss whether the conclusion can be drawn from this case study that common forest management activities improve the water use efficiency of European beech forests but make them more vulnerable, in terms of carbon uptake, against extreme meteorological conditions such as, for example, summer heat waves or late frosts in springtime. Regardless of this

  16. Can intensive management increase carbon storage in forests

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, P.

    1991-01-01

    A possible response to increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration is to attempt to increase the amount of carbon stored in terrestrial vegetation. One approach to increasing the size of the terrestrial carbon sink is to increase the growth of forests by utilizing intensive forest management practices. The paper uses data from the literature and from forest growth and yield models to analyze the impact of three management practices on carbon storage: thinning, fertilization, and control of competing vegetation. Using Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) as example species, results showed that thinning generally does not increase carbon storage, and may actually cause a decrease. The exception is thinning of very dense young stands.

  17. Importance of vegetation for manganese cycling in temperate forested watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herndon, Elizabeth M.; Jin, Lixin; Andrews, Danielle M.; Eissenstat, David M.; Brantley, Susan L.

    2015-02-01

    Many surface soils are enriched in metals due to anthropogenic atmospheric inputs. To predict the persistence of these contaminants in soils, factors that impact rates of metal removal from soils into streams must be understood. Experiments at containerized seedling (mesocosm), pedon, and catchment scales were used to investigate the influence of vegetation on manganese (Mn) transport at the Susquehanna/Shale Hills Critical Zone Observatory (SSHCZO) in Pennsylvania, USA, where past atmospheric inputs from industrial sources have enriched Mn in surface soils. Large quantities of Mn that were leached from soil components into solution were taken up by vegetation; as a result, only relatively small quantities of Mn were removed from soil into effluent and streams. Manganese uptake into vegetation exceeded Mn losses in soil leachate by 20-200X at all scales, and net Mn loss from soils decreased in the presence of vegetation due to uptake into plant tissues. The majority of Mn taken up by forest vegetation at SSHCZO each year was returned to the soil in leaf litter and consequently immobilized as Mn oxides that formed during litter decomposition. Thus, plant uptake of Mn combined with rapid oxidation of Mn during litter decomposition contribute to long-term retention. Current release rates of soluble Mn from SSHCZO soils were similar to release rates from the larger Susquehanna River Basin, indicating that the processes observed at SSHCZO may be widespread across the region. Indeed, although atmospheric deposition of Mn has declined, surface soils at SSHCZO and throughout the eastern United States remain enriched in Mn. If recycling through vegetation can attenuate the removal of Mn from soils, as observed in this study, then Mn concentrations in soils and river waters will likely decrease slowly over time following watershed contamination. Understanding the role of vegetation in regulating metal transport is important for evaluating the long-term effects of historical

  18. Forest floor vegetation response to nitrogen deposition in Europe.

    PubMed

    Dirnböck, Thomas; Grandin, Ulf; Bernhardt-Römermann, Markus; Beudert, Burkhardt; Canullo, Roberto; Forsius, Martin; Grabner, Maria-Theresia; Holmberg, Maria; Kleemola, Sirpa; Lundin, Lars; Mirtl, Michael; Neumann, Markus; Pompei, Enrico; Salemaa, Maija; Starlinger, Franz; Staszewski, Tomasz; Uziębło, Aldona Katarzyna

    2014-02-01

    Chronic nitrogen (N) deposition is a threat to biodiversity that results from the eutrophication of ecosystems. We studied long-term monitoring data from 28 forest sites with a total of 1,335 permanent forest floor vegetation plots from northern Fennoscandia to southern Italy to analyse temporal trends in vascular plant species cover and diversity. We found that the cover of plant species which prefer nutrient-poor soils (oligotrophic species) decreased the more the measured N deposition exceeded the empirical critical load (CL) for eutrophication effects (P = 0.002). Although species preferring nutrient-rich sites (eutrophic species) did not experience a significantly increase in cover (P = 0.440), in comparison to oligotrophic species they had a marginally higher proportion among new occurring species (P = 0.091). The observed gradual replacement of oligotrophic species by eutrophic species as a response to N deposition seems to be a general pattern, as it was consistent on the European scale. Contrary to species cover changes, neither the decrease in species richness nor of homogeneity correlated with nitrogen CL exceedance (ExCLemp N). We assume that the lack of diversity changes resulted from the restricted time period of our observations. Although existing habitat-specific empirical CL still hold some uncertainty, we exemplify that they are useful indicators for the sensitivity of forest floor vegetation to N deposition.

  19. Restoration treatments in urban park forests drive long-term changes in vegetation trajectories.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Lea R; Handel, Steven N

    2016-04-01

    Municipalities are turning to ecological restoration of urban forests as a measure to improve air quality, ameliorate urban heat island effects, improve storm water infiltration, and provide other social and ecological benefits. However, community dynamics following urban forest restoration treatments are poorly documented. This study examines the long-term effects of ecological restoration undertaken in New York City, New York, USA, to restore native forest in urban park natural areas invaded by woody non-native plants that are regional problems. In 2009 and 2010, we sampled vegetation in 30 invaded sites in three large public parks that were restored 1988-1993, and 30 sites in three large parks that were similarly invaded but had not been restored. Data from these matched plots reveal that the restoration treatment achieved its central goals. After 15-20 years, invasive species removal followed by native tree planting resulted in persistent structural and compositional shifts, significantly lower invasive species abundance, a more complex forest structure, and greater native tree recruitment. Together, these findings indicate that successional trajectories of vegetation dynamics have diverged between restored forests and invaded forests that were not restored. In addition, the data suggest that future composition of these urban forest patches will be novel assemblages. Restored and untreated sites shared a suite of shade-intolerant, quickly-growing tree species that colonize disturbed sites, indicating that restoration treatments created sites hospitable for germination and growth of species adapted to high light conditions and disturbed soils. These findings yield an urban perspective on the use of succession theory in ecological restoration. Models of ecological restoration developed in more pristine environments must be modified for use in cities. By anticipating both urban disturbances and ecological succession, management of urban forest patches can be

  20. Forest Resource Management Plans: A Sustainability Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pile, Lauren S.; Watts, Christine M.; Straka, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    Forest Resource Management Plans is the capstone course in many forestry and natural resource management curricula. The management plans are developed by senior forestry students. Early management plans courses were commonly technical exercises, often performed on contrived forest "tracts" on university-owned or other public lands, with a goal of…

  1. Detection and Characterization of Stress Symptoms in Forest Vegetation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heller, R. C.

    1971-01-01

    Techniques used at the Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station to detect advanced and previsual symptoms of vegetative stress are discussed. Stresses caused by bark beetles in coniferous stands of timber are emphasized because beetles induce stress more rapidly than most other destructive agents. Bark beetles are also the most damaging forest insects in the United States. In the work on stress symptoms, there are two primary objectives: (1) to learn the best combination of films, scales, and filters to detect and locate injured trees from aircraft and spacecraft, and (2) to learn if stressed trees can be detected before visual symptoms of decline occur. Equipment and techniques used in a study of the epidemic of the Black Hills bark beetle are described.

  2. Streamflow response to increasing precipitation extremes altered by forest management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Charlene N.; McGuire, Kevin J.; Miniat, Chelcy Ford; Vose, James M.

    2016-04-01

    Increases in extreme precipitation events of floods and droughts are expected to occur worldwide. The increase in extreme events will result in changes in streamflow that are expected to affect water availability for human consumption and aquatic ecosystem function. We present an analysis that may greatly improve current streamflow models by quantifying the impact of the interaction between forest management and precipitation. We use daily long-term data from paired watersheds that have undergone forest harvest or species conversion. We find that interactive effects of climate change, represented by changes in observed precipitation trends, and forest management regime, significantly alter expected streamflow most often during extreme events, ranging from a decrease of 59% to an increase of 40% in streamflow, depending upon management. Our results suggest that vegetation might be managed to compensate for hydrologic responses due to climate change to help mitigate effects of extreme changes in precipitation.

  3. Bird-vegetation associations in thinned and unthinned young Douglas-fir forests 10 years after thinning

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yegorova, Svetlana; Betts, Matthew G.; Hagar, Joan; Puettmann, Klaus J.

    2013-01-01

    Quantitative associations between animals and vegetation have long been used as a basis for conservation and management, as well as in formulating predictions about the influence of resource management and climate change on populations. A fundamental assumption embedded in the use of such correlations is that they remain relatively consistent over time. However, this assumption of stationarity has been rarely tested – even for forest birds, which are frequently considered to be 'indicator species' in management operations. We investigated the temporal dynamics of bird-vegetation relationships in young Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) forests over more than a decade following initial anthropogenic disturbance (commercial thinning). We modeled bird occurrence or abundance as a function of vegetation characteristics for eight common bird species for each of six breeding seasons following forest thinning. Generally, vegetation relationships were highly inconsistent in magnitude across years, but remained positive or negative within species. For 3 species, relationships that were initially strong dampened over time. For other species, strength of vegetation association was apparently stochastic. These findings indicate that caution should be used when interpreting weak bird-vegetation relationships found in short-term studies and parameterizing predictive models with data collected over the short term.

  4. Solid Waste Management in Recreational Forest Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spooner, Charles S.

    The Forest Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture, requested the Bureau of Solid Waste Management to conduct a study of National Forest recreation areas to establish waste generation rates for major recreation activities and to determine the cost of solid waste handling for selected Forest Service Districts. This report describes the 1968 solid…

  5. Forest Interpreter's Primer on Fire Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zelker, Thomas M.

    Specifically prepared for the use of Forest Service field-based interpreters of the management, protection, and use of forest and range resources and the associated human, cultural, and natural history found on these lands, this book is the second in a series of six primers on the multiple use of forest and range resources. Following an…

  6. Landscape development, forest fires, and wilderness management.

    PubMed

    Wright, H E

    1974-11-01

    fire. Major fires occur so often that the vegetation pattern is a record of fire history. All elements in the forest mosaic are in various stages of postfire succession, with only a few approaching climax. Fire interrupts the successful sequence toward climax. Geomorphic and edaphic factors in vegetational distribution are largely submerged by the fire regime, except for bog and other lowland vegetation. Fire recycles nutrients and renews succession. Nevertheless, despite the fire regime, the resulting long-term equilibrium of the forest mosaic, characterized by severe and irregular fluctuations of individual elements, reflects regional climate. In the BWCA and the western mountains, large virgin forests can be preserved for study and wilderness recreation. These wilderness areas must be managed to return them to the natural equilibrium which has been disturbed by 50 to 70 years of fire suppression. The goal should be to maintain virgin forests as primeval wilderness. This can be done by management that permits fire and other natural processes to determine the forest mosaic. Mechanized tree-felling and other human disturbances should be kept to an absolute minimum. Natural landforms also should be preserved for study and for certain nondestructive recreational activities. It is somewhat late for the Colorado River and other rivers of the West, because natural balances are upset by drainagebasin disturbances. Modification of plant cover on hillslopes changes infiltration and erosion rates and thus the stream discharge and sediment load, so the stream balance is altered from primeval conditions. Scenic Rivers legislation should thus be used to restore certain river systems and their drainage basins. Mountain meadows, badlands, desert plains, and patterned permafrost terrain are extremely fragile and sensitive. Intricate stream and weathering processes leave patterns easily obliterated by mechanized vehicles. Tire tracks can last for decades or centuries. The mineral

  7. Landscape development, forest fires, and wilderness management.

    PubMed

    Wright, H E

    1974-11-01

    fire. Major fires occur so often that the vegetation pattern is a record of fire history. All elements in the forest mosaic are in various stages of postfire succession, with only a few approaching climax. Fire interrupts the successful sequence toward climax. Geomorphic and edaphic factors in vegetational distribution are largely submerged by the fire regime, except for bog and other lowland vegetation. Fire recycles nutrients and renews succession. Nevertheless, despite the fire regime, the resulting long-term equilibrium of the forest mosaic, characterized by severe and irregular fluctuations of individual elements, reflects regional climate. In the BWCA and the western mountains, large virgin forests can be preserved for study and wilderness recreation. These wilderness areas must be managed to return them to the natural equilibrium which has been disturbed by 50 to 70 years of fire suppression. The goal should be to maintain virgin forests as primeval wilderness. This can be done by management that permits fire and other natural processes to determine the forest mosaic. Mechanized tree-felling and other human disturbances should be kept to an absolute minimum. Natural landforms also should be preserved for study and for certain nondestructive recreational activities. It is somewhat late for the Colorado River and other rivers of the West, because natural balances are upset by drainagebasin disturbances. Modification of plant cover on hillslopes changes infiltration and erosion rates and thus the stream discharge and sediment load, so the stream balance is altered from primeval conditions. Scenic Rivers legislation should thus be used to restore certain river systems and their drainage basins. Mountain meadows, badlands, desert plains, and patterned permafrost terrain are extremely fragile and sensitive. Intricate stream and weathering processes leave patterns easily obliterated by mechanized vehicles. Tire tracks can last for decades or centuries. The mineral

  8. Possible Impacts of the Invasive Plant Rubus niveus on the Native Vegetation of the Scalesia Forest in the Galapagos Islands

    PubMed Central

    Rentería, Jorge Luis; Gardener, Mark R.; Panetta, F. Dane; Atkinson, Rachel; Crawley, Mick J.

    2012-01-01

    Originally from Asia, Rubus niveus has become one of the most widespread invasive plant species in the Galapagos Islands. It has invaded open vegetation, shrubland and forest alike. It forms dense thickets up to 4 m high, appearing to displace native vegetation, and threaten the integrity of several native communities. This study used correlation analysis between a R. niveus cover gradient and a number of biotic (vascular plant species richness, cover and vegetation structure) and abiotic (light and soil properties) parameters to help understand possible impacts in one of the last remaining fragments of the Scalesia forest in Santa Cruz Island, Galapagos. Higher cover of R. niveus was associated with significantly lower native species richness and cover, and a different forest structure. Results illustrated that 60% R. niveus cover could be considered a threshold for these impacts. We suggest that a maximum of 40% R. niveus cover could be a suitable management target. PMID:23118934

  9. Scaling Forest Management Practices in Earth System Models: Case Study of Southeast and Pacific Northwest Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pourmokhtarian, A.; Becknell, J. M.; Hall, J.; Desai, A. R.; Boring, L. R.; Duffy, P.; Staudhammer, C. L.; Starr, G.; Dietze, M.

    2014-12-01

    A wide array of human-induced disturbances can alter the structure and function of forests, including climate change, disturbance and management. While there have been numerous studies on climate change impacts on forests, interactions of management with changing climate and natural disturbance are poorly studied. Forecasts of the range of plausible responses of forests to climate change and management are need for informed decision making on new management approaches under changing climate, as well as adaptation strategies for coming decades. Terrestrial biosphere models (TBMs) provide an excellent opportunity to investigate and assess simultaneous responses of terrestrial ecosystems to climatic perturbations and management across multiple spatio-temporal scales, but currently do not represent a wide array of management activities known to impact carbon, water, surface energy fluxes, and biodiversity. The Ecosystem Demography model 2 (ED2) incorporates non-linear impacts of fine-scale (~10-1 km) heterogeneity in ecosystem structure both horizontally and vertically at a plant level. Therefore it is an ideal candidate to incorporate different forest management practices and test various hypotheses under changing climate and across various spatial scales. The management practices that we implemented were: clear-cut, conversion, planting, partial harvest, low intensity fire, restoration, salvage, and herbicide. The results were validated against observed data across 8 different sites in the U.S. Southeast (Duke Forest, Joseph Jones Ecological Research Center, North Carolina Loblolly Pine, and Ordway-Swisher Biological Station) and Pacific Northwest (Metolius Research Natural Area, H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest, Wind River Field Station, and Mount Rainier National Park). These sites differ in regards to climate, vegetation, soil, and historical land disturbance as well as management approaches. Results showed that different management practices could successfully

  10. Forest insect pest management and forest management in China: an overview.

    PubMed

    Ji, Lanzhu; Wang, Zhen; Wang, Xiaowei; An, Linli

    2011-12-01

    According to the Seventh National Forest Inventory (2004-2008), China's forests cover an area of 195.45 million ha, or 20.36% of the total land area. China has the most rapidly increasing forest resources in the world. However, China is also a country with serious forest pest problems. There are more than 8,000 species of potential forest pests in China, including insects, plant diseases, rodents and lagomorphs, and hazardous plants. Among them, 300 species are considered as economically or ecologically important, and half of these are serious pests, including 86 species of insects. Forest management and utilization have a considerable influence on the stability and sustainability of forest ecosystems. At the national level, forestry policies always play a major role in forest resource management and forest health protection. In this paper, we present a comprehensive overview of both achievements and challenges in forest management and insect pest control in China. First, we summarize the current status of forest resources and their pests in China. Second, we address the theories, policies, practices and major national actions on forestry and forest insect pest management, including the Engineering Pest Management of China, the National Key Forestry Programs, the Classified Forest Management system, and the Collective Forest Tenure Reform. We analyze and discuss three representative plantations-Eucalyptus, poplar and Masson pine plantations-with respect to their insect diversity, pest problems and pest management measures.

  11. Forest Insect Pest Management and Forest Management in China: An Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Lanzhu; Wang, Zhen; Wang, Xiaowei; An, Linli

    2011-12-01

    According to the Seventh National Forest Inventory (2004-2008), China's forests cover an area of 195.45 million ha, or 20.36% of the total land area. China has the most rapidly increasing forest resources in the world. However, China is also a country with serious forest pest problems. There are more than 8,000 species of potential forest pests in China, including insects, plant diseases, rodents and lagomorphs, and hazardous plants. Among them, 300 species are considered as economically or ecologically important, and half of these are serious pests, including 86 species of insects. Forest management and utilization have a considerable influence on the stability and sustainability of forest ecosystems. At the national level, forestry policies always play a major role in forest resource management and forest health protection. In this paper, we present a comprehensive overview of both achievements and challenges in forest management and insect pest control in China. First, we summarize the current status of forest resources and their pests in China. Second, we address the theories, policies, practices and major national actions on forestry and forest insect pest management, including the Engineering Pest Management of China, the National Key Forestry Programs, the Classified Forest Management system, and the Collective Forest Tenure Reform. We analyze and discuss three representative plantations— Eucalyptus, poplar and Masson pine plantations—with respect to their insect diversity, pest problems and pest management measures.

  12. Vegetation management 1994 fiscal year end report

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, J.M.

    1995-02-01

    This year-end report evaluates vegetation management operations on the Hanford reservation conducted during fiscal year (FY) 1994 and proposed control methods to be used in FY 1995 and following years. The 1995 control methods proposed are based on an evaluation of past and current ALARA principles, employee safety, environmental impacts, applicable regulations, site esthetics, and other site-specific factors.

  13. 25 CFR 163.10 - Management of Indian forest land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Management of Indian forest land. 163.10 Section 163.10... Forest Management and Operations § 163.10 Management of Indian forest land. (a) The Secretary shall undertake forest land management activities on Indian forest land, either directly or through...

  14. 25 CFR 163.10 - Management of Indian forest land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Management of Indian forest land. 163.10 Section 163.10... Forest Management and Operations § 163.10 Management of Indian forest land. (a) The Secretary shall undertake forest land management activities on Indian forest land, either directly or through...

  15. 25 CFR 163.10 - Management of Indian forest land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Management of Indian forest land. 163.10 Section 163.10... Forest Management and Operations § 163.10 Management of Indian forest land. (a) The Secretary shall undertake forest land management activities on Indian forest land, either directly or through...

  16. 25 CFR 163.10 - Management of Indian forest land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Management of Indian forest land. 163.10 Section 163.10... Forest Management and Operations § 163.10 Management of Indian forest land. (a) The Secretary shall undertake forest land management activities on Indian forest land, either directly or through...

  17. 25 CFR 163.10 - Management of Indian forest land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Management of Indian forest land. 163.10 Section 163.10... Forest Management and Operations § 163.10 Management of Indian forest land. (a) The Secretary shall undertake forest land management activities on Indian forest land, either directly or through...

  18. [Variation of forest vegetation carbon storage and carbon sequestration rate in Liaoning Province, Northeast China].

    PubMed

    Zhen, Wei; Huang, Mei; Zhai, Yin-Li; Chen, Ke; Gong, Ya-Zhen

    2014-05-01

    The forest vegetation carbon stock and carbon sequestration rate in Liaoning Province, Northeast China, were predicted by using Canadian carbon balance model (CBM-CFS3) combining with the forest resource data. The future spatio-temporal distribution and trends of vegetation carbon storage, carbon density and carbon sequestration rate were projected, based on the two scenarios, i. e. with or without afforestation. The result suggested that the total forest vegetation carbon storage and carbon density in Liaoning Province in 2005 were 133.94 Tg and 25.08 t x hm(-2), respectively. The vegetation carbon storage in Quercus was the biggest, while in Robinia pseudoacacia was the least. Both Larix olgensis and broad-leaved forests had higher vegetation carbon densities than others, and the vegetation carbon densities of Pinus tabuliformis, Quercus and Robinia pseudoacacia were close to each other. The spatial distribution of forest vegetation carbon density in Liaoning Province showed a decrease trend from east to west. In the eastern forest area, the future increase of vegetation carbon density would be smaller than those in the northern forest area, because most of the forests in the former part were matured or over matured, while most of the forests in the later part were young. Under the scenario of no afforestation, the future increment of total forest vegetation carbon stock in Liaoning Province would increase gradually, and the total carbon sequestration rate would decrease, while they would both increase significantly under the afforestation scenario. Therefore, afforestation plays an important role in increasing vegetation carbon storage, carbon density and carbon sequestration rate.

  19. WebGIS Platform Adressed to Forest Fire Management Methodologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    André Ramos-Simões, Nuno; Neto Paixão, Helena Maria; Granja Martins, Fernando Miguel; Pedras, Celestina; Lança, Rui; Silva, Elisa; Jordán, António; Zavala, Lorena; Soares, Cristina

    2015-04-01

    Forest fires are one of the natural disasters that causes more damages in nature, as well as high material costs, and sometimes, a significant losses in human lives. In summer season, when high temperatures are attained, fire may rapidly progress and destroy vast areas of forest and also rural and urban areas. The forest fires have effect on forest species, forest composition and structure, soil properties and soil capacity for nutrient retention. In order to minimize the negative impact of the forest fires in the environment, many studies have been developed, e.g. Jordán et al (2009), Cerdà & Jordán (2010), and Gonçalves & Vieira (2013). Nowadays, Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographic Information System (GIS) technologies are used as support tools in fire management decisions, namely during the fire, but also before and after. This study presents the development of a user-friendly WebGIS dedicated to share data, maps and provide updated information on forest fire management for stakeholders in Iberia Peninsula. The WebGIS platform was developed with ArcGIS Online, ArcGIS for Desktop; HyperText Markup Language (HTML) and Javascript. This platform has a database that includes spatial and alphanumeric information, such as: origin, burned areas, vegetation change over time, terrain natural slope, land use, soil erosion and fire related hazards. The same database contains also the following relevant information: water sources, forest tracks and traffic ways, lookout posts and urban areas. The aim of this study is to provide the authorities with a tool to assess risk areas and manage more efficiently forest fire hazards, giving more support to their decisions and helping the populations when facing this kind of phenomena.

  20. Early vegetational changes on a forested wetland constructed for mitigation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perry, M.C.; Osenton, P.C.; Sibrel, C.B.

    1997-01-01

    Changes in vegetation were studied on 15 acres of a 35 acre forested wetland created as a mitigation site in Anne Arundel County, Maryland during 1994-96. Meter-square sampling on four different hydrologic elevations determined that grasses initially dominated the area, but decreased from 59 percent in 1994 to 51 percent in 1995 and 30 percent in 1996. Herbaceous non-grass plants (forbs) increased from 19 percent to 56 percent in the three-year period. Area with no plant cover decreased from 21 percent in 1994 to 11 percent in 1995, and 10 percent in 1996. Woody plants comprised 2 percent of the cover in 1994, increased to 4 percent in 1995, and remained at 4 percent in 1996. The increase of woody plants was mainly from natural regeneration (pioneer) plants. Monitoring of the transplanted trees and shrubs indicated 35 percent mortality and little growth of surviving plants. The pioneer woody plant forming most of the cover was black willow (Salix nigra). Differences in the vegetation were observed among the four elevations, although no differences were observed for the major vegetation classes between plots that were planted and those that were not planted with woody plants. Dominant grass species was redtop (Agrostis stolonifera), which comprised 51 percent of the cover in 1994 and 42 percent cover in 1995 and 23 percent in 1996. Other species that were common were bush clover (Lespedeza cuneata), Japanese clover (Lespedeza striata) and flat pea (Lathyrus sylvestris). All four of these dominant species were part of the original seed mixtures that were seeded on the site. A total of 134 species of plants was recorded on the site indicating a fairly diverse community for a newly established habitat.

  1. Biogeochemical effects of forest vegetation on acid precipitation-related water chemistry: a case study in southwest China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Li, Wei; Gao, Fang

    2010-10-01

    The elemental composition of rainwater, throughfall, and soil solutions of a forest ecosystem in the acid rain control region of southwest China was investigated during 2007-2008 to assess the acid buffering capacity of different forest covers. A possible seasonal distribution of wet deposition was identified. Sulfur was determined as the dominant acidification precursor in this region. The chemical composition of rainfall intercepted by the forest canopy was modified substantially; generally the ion concentrations were increased by dry deposition and foliar leaching. As an exception, the concentration of NH(4)(+) and NO(3)(-) decreased in throughfall, which was probably due to the absorption of nitrogen by the leaves. Elemental concentrations in soil solutions decreased with depth. The water conservation capacity of different forests was also evaluated. The most appropriate forest vegetation for water conservation and remediation of acid precipitation in this region was explored for the sake of ecosystem management, ecological restoration and economic development.

  2. Biogeochemical effects of forest vegetation on acid precipitation-related water chemistry: a case study in southwest China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Li, Wei; Gao, Fang

    2010-10-01

    The elemental composition of rainwater, throughfall, and soil solutions of a forest ecosystem in the acid rain control region of southwest China was investigated during 2007-2008 to assess the acid buffering capacity of different forest covers. A possible seasonal distribution of wet deposition was identified. Sulfur was determined as the dominant acidification precursor in this region. The chemical composition of rainfall intercepted by the forest canopy was modified substantially; generally the ion concentrations were increased by dry deposition and foliar leaching. As an exception, the concentration of NH(4)(+) and NO(3)(-) decreased in throughfall, which was probably due to the absorption of nitrogen by the leaves. Elemental concentrations in soil solutions decreased with depth. The water conservation capacity of different forests was also evaluated. The most appropriate forest vegetation for water conservation and remediation of acid precipitation in this region was explored for the sake of ecosystem management, ecological restoration and economic development. PMID:20859590

  3. Restoration treatments in urban park forests drive long-term changes in vegetation trajectories.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Lea R; Handel, Steven N

    2016-04-01

    Municipalities are turning to ecological restoration of urban forests as a measure to improve air quality, ameliorate urban heat island effects, improve storm water infiltration, and provide other social and ecological benefits. However, community dynamics following urban forest restoration treatments are poorly documented. This study examines the long-term effects of ecological restoration undertaken in New York City, New York, USA, to restore native forest in urban park natural areas invaded by woody non-native plants that are regional problems. In 2009 and 2010, we sampled vegetation in 30 invaded sites in three large public parks that were restored 1988-1993, and 30 sites in three large parks that were similarly invaded but had not been restored. Data from these matched plots reveal that the restoration treatment achieved its central goals. After 15-20 years, invasive species removal followed by native tree planting resulted in persistent structural and compositional shifts, significantly lower invasive species abundance, a more complex forest structure, and greater native tree recruitment. Together, these findings indicate that successional trajectories of vegetation dynamics have diverged between restored forests and invaded forests that were not restored. In addition, the data suggest that future composition of these urban forest patches will be novel assemblages. Restored and untreated sites shared a suite of shade-intolerant, quickly-growing tree species that colonize disturbed sites, indicating that restoration treatments created sites hospitable for germination and growth of species adapted to high light conditions and disturbed soils. These findings yield an urban perspective on the use of succession theory in ecological restoration. Models of ecological restoration developed in more pristine environments must be modified for use in cities. By anticipating both urban disturbances and ecological succession, management of urban forest patches can be

  4. Forest wildlife management and conservation.

    PubMed

    Lindenmayer, David B

    2009-04-01

    Forests are critical for the world's biodiversity, the regulation of the Earth's climate, and the provision of goods and services for humans. This review focuses on four broad topics: (1) key processes threatening forest biodiversity; (2) broad strategies for mitigating threatening processes; (3) climate change and forest biodiversity; and, (4) plantations and biodiversity. How key issues within these broad topics are addressed will have profound effects on forest biodiversity and the Earth's climate. A significant global problem for biodiversity conservation is the conversion of natural forests to other land uses, both in developing and developed nations; ways must be urgently identified to halt forest conversion. When forests are logged for timber or pulpwood and then regenerated, impacts on biodiversity are harder to quantify than when forests are converted to other land uses. Hence, the effectiveness of efforts to mitigate such impacts (where they occur) is frequently not well known. Climate change may result in substantial changes to forest ecosystems, and its effects may interact in additive or cumulative ways with other human disturbances in forests, although work on such combinations of impacts is in its infancy. The establishment of plantations of trees is frequently proposed to sequester large amounts of carbon and/or produce biofuels to mitigate the climate-change effects. However, there is potential for perverse outcomes, such as biodiversity loss where plantation establishment is narrowly focused and other environmental values are ignored.

  5. Assessment of vegetation change in a fire-altered forest landscape

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jakubauskas, Mark E.; Lulla, Kamlesh P.; Mausel, Paul W.

    1990-01-01

    This research focused on determining the degree to which differences in burn severity relate to postfire vegetative cover within a Michigan pine forest. Landsat MSS data from June 1973 and TM data from October 1982 were classified using an unsupervised approach to create prefire and postfire cover maps of the study area. Using a raster-based geographic information system (GIS), the maps were compared, and a map of vegetation change was created. An IR/red band ratio from a June 1980 Landsat scene was classified to create a map of three degres of burn severity, which was then compared with the vegetation change map using a GIS. Classification comparisons of pine and deciduous forest classes (1973 to 1982) revealed that the most change in vegetation occurred in areas subjected to the most intense burn. Two classes of regenerating forest comprised the majority of the change, while the remaining change was associated with shrub vegetation or another forest class.

  6. Distribution and physical traits of red wood ant mounds in a managed Rhodope mountains forest.

    PubMed

    Tsikas, Angelos; Karanikola, Paraskevi; Papageorgiou, Aristotelis C

    2016-07-01

    Red wood ants (RWA) are of great ecological importance for the forest ecosystem. Forestry practices, like clear-cutting, and trampling load, due to tourism, logging, and grazing stock, can greatly affect their colonies, disturbing their microhabitat. RWA in Greek forests have not been investigated so far. We herein report on the distribution and morphological traits of Formica lugubris mounds studied in Elatia forest (Rhodope mountains, Northern Greece), an all-aged managed mixed forest where selective logging practices are performed. Nearby vegetation, slope, canopy cover, shrub density, and distance from the nearest neighboring trees were also recorded. Mound density was shown to be much higher in this Greek forest compared to RWA mounds in other European-managed forests. Furthermore, we recorded a continuous nest establishment, despite forest management disturbances and trampling load. Our study suggests that single-tree selective forestry practices are essential for creating ideal microhabitats for the RWA and, therefore, for maintaining RWA populations.

  7. Distribution and physical traits of red wood ant mounds in a managed Rhodope mountains forest.

    PubMed

    Tsikas, Angelos; Karanikola, Paraskevi; Papageorgiou, Aristotelis C

    2016-07-01

    Red wood ants (RWA) are of great ecological importance for the forest ecosystem. Forestry practices, like clear-cutting, and trampling load, due to tourism, logging, and grazing stock, can greatly affect their colonies, disturbing their microhabitat. RWA in Greek forests have not been investigated so far. We herein report on the distribution and morphological traits of Formica lugubris mounds studied in Elatia forest (Rhodope mountains, Northern Greece), an all-aged managed mixed forest where selective logging practices are performed. Nearby vegetation, slope, canopy cover, shrub density, and distance from the nearest neighboring trees were also recorded. Mound density was shown to be much higher in this Greek forest compared to RWA mounds in other European-managed forests. Furthermore, we recorded a continuous nest establishment, despite forest management disturbances and trampling load. Our study suggests that single-tree selective forestry practices are essential for creating ideal microhabitats for the RWA and, therefore, for maintaining RWA populations. PMID:27345521

  8. Forest certification--an instrument to promote sustainable forest management?

    PubMed

    Rametsteiner, Ewald; Simula, Markku

    2003-01-01

    Forest certification was introduced in the early 1990s to address concerns of deforestation and forest degradation and to promote the maintenance of biological diversity, especially in the tropics. Initially pushed by environmental groups, it quickly evolved as a potential instrument to promote sustainable forest management (SFM). To date about 124 million ha or 3.2% of the world's forests have been certified by the different certification schemes created over the last decade. Forest certification shares the aim of promoting SFM with another tool, namely criteria and indicators (C&I) for SFM. C&I sets are mainly developed for the national level to describe and monitor status and trends in forests and forest management. They also provide an essential reference basis for forest certification standards, which set performance targets to be applied on a defined area. Progress in developing these two different tools has been significant. After 10 years of implementation, it is evident that the original intention to save tropical biodiversity through certification has largely failed to date. Most of certified areas are in the temperate and boreal zone, with Europe as the most important region. Only around ten per cent is located in tropical countries. The standards used for issuing certificates upon compliance are diverse, both between certification schemes and within one and the same scheme when applied in different regions. However, they are at least equal to legal requirements and often include elements that set actually higher standards. While the quality of actual audits of the standards is of varying quality, there are indications that independent audits are an incentive for improving forest management. As a voluntary market-based tool, forest certification is depending on the ability to cover the costs incurred and thus on often-elusive green consumer sentiment. Regardless of many difficulties, forest certification has been very successful in raising awareness and

  9. Forest certification--an instrument to promote sustainable forest management?

    PubMed

    Rametsteiner, Ewald; Simula, Markku

    2003-01-01

    Forest certification was introduced in the early 1990s to address concerns of deforestation and forest degradation and to promote the maintenance of biological diversity, especially in the tropics. Initially pushed by environmental groups, it quickly evolved as a potential instrument to promote sustainable forest management (SFM). To date about 124 million ha or 3.2% of the world's forests have been certified by the different certification schemes created over the last decade. Forest certification shares the aim of promoting SFM with another tool, namely criteria and indicators (C&I) for SFM. C&I sets are mainly developed for the national level to describe and monitor status and trends in forests and forest management. They also provide an essential reference basis for forest certification standards, which set performance targets to be applied on a defined area. Progress in developing these two different tools has been significant. After 10 years of implementation, it is evident that the original intention to save tropical biodiversity through certification has largely failed to date. Most of certified areas are in the temperate and boreal zone, with Europe as the most important region. Only around ten per cent is located in tropical countries. The standards used for issuing certificates upon compliance are diverse, both between certification schemes and within one and the same scheme when applied in different regions. However, they are at least equal to legal requirements and often include elements that set actually higher standards. While the quality of actual audits of the standards is of varying quality, there are indications that independent audits are an incentive for improving forest management. As a voluntary market-based tool, forest certification is depending on the ability to cover the costs incurred and thus on often-elusive green consumer sentiment. Regardless of many difficulties, forest certification has been very successful in raising awareness and

  10. Vegetation, soil, and flooding relationships in a blackwater floodplain forest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burke, M.K.; King, S.L.; Gartner, D.; Eisenbies, M.H.

    2003-01-01

    Hydroperiod is considered the primary determinant of plant species distribution in temperate floodplain forests, but most studies have focused on alluvial (sediment-laden) river systems. Few studies have evaluated plant community relationships in blackwater river systems of the South Atlantic Coastal Plain of North America. In this study, we characterized the soils, hydroperiod, and vegetation communities and evaluated relationships between the physical and chemical environment and plant community structure on the floodplain of the Coosawhatchie River, a blackwater river in South Carolina, USA. The soils were similar to previous descriptions of blackwater floodplain soils but had greater soil N and P availability, substantially greater clay content, and lower soil silt content than was previously reported for other blackwater river floodplains. Results of a cluster analysis showed there were five forest communities on the site, and both short-term (4 years) and long-term (50 years) flooding records documented a flooding gradient: water tupelo community > swamp tupelo > laurel oak = overcup oak > mixed oak. The long-term hydrologic record showed that the floodplain has flooded less frequently from 1994 to present than in previous decades. Detrended correspondence analysis of environmental and relative basal area values showed that 27% of the variation in overstory community structure could be explained by the first two axes; however, fitting the species distributions to the DCA axes using Gaussian regression explained 67% of the variation. Axes were correlated with elevation (flooding intensity) and soil characteristics related to rooting volume and cation nutrient availability. Our study suggests that flooding is the major factor affecting community structure, but soil characteristics also may be factors in community structure in blackwater systems. ?? 2003, The Society of Wetland Scientists.

  11. In search of radiation minima for balancing the needs of forest and water management in snow dominated watersheds (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, M.; Seyednasrollah, B.; Link, T. E.

    2013-12-01

    In upland snowfed forested watersheds, where the majority of melt recharge occurs, there is growing interest among water and forest managers to strike a balance between maximizing forest productivity and minimizing impacts on water resources. Implementation of forest management strategies that involve reduction of forest cover generally result in increased water yield and peak flows from forests, which has potentially detrimental consequences including increased erosion, stream destabilization, water shortages in late melt season, and degradation of water quality and ecosystem health. These ill effects can be partially negated by implementing optimal gap patterns and vegetation densities through forest management, that may minimize net radiation on snow-covered forest floor (NRSF). A small NRSF can moderate peak flows and increase water availability late in the melt season. Since forest canopies reduce direct solar (0.28 - 3.5 μm) radiation but increase longwave (3.5-100 μm) radiation at the snow surface, by performing detailed quantification of individual radiation components for a range of vegetation density and and gap configurations, we identify the optimal vegetation configurations. We also evaluate the role of site location, its topographic setting, local meteorological conditions and vegetation morphological characteristics, on the optimal configurations. The results can be used to assist forest managers to quantify the radiative regime alteration for various thinning and gap-creation scenarios, as a function of latitudinal, topographic, climatic and vegetation characteristics.

  12. Vegetation composition and structure of southern coastal plain pine forests: An ecological comparison

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hedman, C.W.; Grace, S.L.; King, S.E.

    2000-01-01

    Longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) ecosystems are characterized by a diverse community of native groundcover species. Critics of plantation forestry claim that loblolly (Pinus taeda) and slash pine (Pinus elliottii) forests are devoid of native groundcover due to associated management practices. As a result of these practices, some believe that ecosystem functions characteristic of longleaf pine are lost under loblolly and slash pine plantation management. Our objective was to quantify and compare vegetation composition and structure of longleaf, loblolly, and slash pine forests of differing ages, management strategies, and land-use histories. Information from this study will further our understanding and lead to inferences about functional differences among pine cover types. Vegetation and environmental data were collected in 49 overstory plots across Southlands Experiment Forest in Bainbridge, GA. Nested plots, i.e. midstory, understory, and herbaceous, were replicated four times within each overstory plot. Over 400 species were identified. Herbaceous species richness was variable for all three pine cover types. Herbaceous richness for longleaf, slash, and loblolly pine averaged 15, 13, and 12 species per m2, respectively. Longleaf pine plots had significantly more (p < 0.029) herbaceous species and greater herbaceous cover (p < 0.001) than loblolly or slash pine plots. Longleaf and slash pine plots were otherwise similar in species richness and stand structure, both having lower overstory density, midstory density, and midstory cover than loblolly pine plots. Multivariate analyses provided additional perspectives on vegetation patterns. Ordination and classification procedures consistently placed herbaceous plots into two groups which we refer to as longleaf pine benchmark (34 plots) and non-benchmark (15 plots). Benchmark plots typically contained numerous herbaceous species characteristic of relic longleaf pine/wiregrass communities found in the area. Conversely

  13. 25 CFR 163.25 - Forest management deductions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Forest management deductions. 163.25 Section 163.25... Forest Management and Operations § 163.25 Forest management deductions. (a) Pursuant to the provisions of 25 U.S.C. 413 and 25 U.S.C. 3105, a forest management deduction shall be withheld from the...

  14. Climate change impact on forest cover and vegetation in Betwa Basin, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmate, S. S.; Pandey, Ashish; Kumar, Dheeraj; Pandey, R. P.; Mishra, S. K.

    2014-07-01

    This paper evaluates the effect of climate change (described in terms of temperature and rainfall) on forest cover and vegetation (described in terms of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) in the Betwa river basin, a tributary of River Yamuna in Central India. Temperature and rainfall data of 18 stations, forest cover and vegetation (derived using 5 years data from Landsat images employing ERDAS Imagine and ArcGIS) were used in the analysis. The effect of climate change was studied for both the pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons. In this study, the simple regression method was used to evaluate their relationship. In pre-monsoon season, temperature and forest cover analysis shows regression coefficient value of 0.6876 and, temperature and vegetation analysis shows regression coefficient value of 0.5751. Further, in post-monsoon season analysis rainfall and forest cover shows regression coefficient value of 0.8417 and, temperature and vegetation analysis shows regression coefficient value of 0.6854. The study reveals that, in pre-monsoon season temperature was significantly related with forest cover and vegetation. In post-monsoon season rainfall exhibited positive response to forest cover and, temperature exhibited negative response to vegetation in the Betwa river basin.

  15. Wood-inhabiting fungi in southern Italy forest stands: morphogroups, vegetation types and decay classes.

    PubMed

    Granito, Vito Mario; Lunghini, Dario; Maggi, Oriana; Persiani, Anna Maria

    2015-01-01

    The authors conducted an ecological study of forests subjected to varying management. The aim of the study was to extend and integrate, within a multivariate context, knowledge of how saproxylic fungal communities behave along altitudinal/vegetational gradients in response to the varying features and quality of coarse woody debris (CWD). The intra-annual seasonal monitoring of saproxylic fungi, based on sporocarp inventories, was used to investigate saproxylic fungi in relation to vegetation types and management categories. We analyzed fungal species occurrence, recorded according to the presence/absence and frequency of sporocarps, on the basis of the harvest season, of coarse woody debris decay classes as well as other environmental and ecological variables. Two-way cluster analysis, DCA and Spearman's rank correlations, for indirect gradient analysis, were performed to identify any patterns of seasonality and decay. Most of the species were found on CWD in an intermediate decay stage. The first DCA axis revealed the vegetational/microclimate gradient as the main driver of fungal community composition, while the second axis corresponded to a strong gradient of CWD decay classes.

  16. Remote Measurement of Short-term Post-fire Vegetation Regrowth in Sierra Nevadan Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, R.; Dennison, P. E.; Huang, C.

    2014-12-01

    Forest ecosystems in the Sierra Nevada are greatly influenced by wildfire disturbance. A study of vegetation regrowth following fire is essential for us to better understand and evaluate the effects of disturbances on ecological processes, such as carbon and nitrogen storage, soil erosion, water quality and forest dynamics. The rate of short-term vegetation recovery, as measured by Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), was explored following fire over multiple years (1999-2006) in Sierra Nevadan forests. The role of both temporal (e.g. variations in multiple years' precipitation) and landscape factors (e.g. altitude, slope, aspect, pre-fire and immediate post-fire vegetation status, and burn severity) were investigated in explaining the short-term vegetation regrowth following fire using remote sensing on the landscape scale. Our results indicate that spatial-temporal variability existed in the short-term post-fire vegetation regrowth. Pre-fire vegetation status, burn severity, immediate post-fire wet season precipitation and elevation were found to play important roles in short-term post-fire vegetation recovery trends. Consistent with a local forest gap model, our results also corroborate that water availability may be the limiting factor for the post-fire vegetation regrowth in the lower elevation of Sierra Nevadan forests. In the future, post-disturbance vegetation regrowth trends and related controlling environmental factors following various forest disturbances (e.g. insect outbreak and forest harvest) other than wildfire can also be studied and compared using the methodology proposed in this study.

  17. Habitat use by Swainson's Warblers in a managed bottomland forest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Somershoe, S.G.; Hudman, S.P.; Chandler, C.R.

    2003-01-01

    The Swainson's Warbler (Limnothlypis swainsonii) is a locally distributed and relatively uncommon Neotropical migrant songbird that breeds in the bottomland forests of the southeastern United States and spends the nonbreeding season in the Caribbean Basin. Populations of Swainson's Warblers have declined during recent decades as bottomland forests have come under increasingly intensive management and large areas have been converted to other land uses. We examined the habitat around song perches used by male Swainson's Warblers at Big Hammock Wildlife Management Area, a managed bottomland forest along the Altamaha River in Tattnall County, Georgia. We quantified 20 features of habitat structure in areas occupied by Swainson's Warblers (occupied plots) and two sets of controls: unoccupied plots adjacent to occupied plots (adjacent control plots) and unoccupied plots throughout the management area (general control plots). Occupied plots and adjacent control plots both differed in structure from the general control plots. We detected no significant differences, however, in vegetation structure between occupied plots and adjacent control plots. General control plots tended to have a greater number of trees, greater basal area, and a complete canopy, whereas occupied and adjacent control plots had high densities of small stems, cane, herbaceous ground cover, and leaf litter; this latter pattern is typical of documented Swainson's Warbler breeding habitat. Lack of significant differences in vegetation structure may be due to great variation in habitat structure around song perches, small sample size, or scarcity of Swainson's Warblers. Future research should focus on quantifying habitat characteristics around nest sites, song perches, and feeding areas. Our results suggest that management of bottomland habitats by thinning forests and encouraging regeneration of canebrakes is needed for successful conservation of Swainson's Warblers.

  18. Fire and vegetation dynamics in high-elevation neotropical montane forests of the Dominican Republic.

    PubMed

    Sherman, Ruth E; Martin, Patrick H; Fahey, Timothy J; Degloria, Steve D

    2008-12-01

    In March and April 2005, severe fires burned over 1000 km2 of tropical montane forests in the Cordillera Central, Dominican Republic. The fire burned through our network of permanent vegetation plots, which were established in 1999 to examine interactions among environment, vegetation, and disturbance. We used QuickBird satellite imagery combined with field surveys to map the extent and severity of the fire across the landscape. The fire burned through 96% of the pine forest but quickly extinguished at the pine-cloud forest boundary along most of the ecotone. Topographic factors and fire severity had no influence on fire behavior at the ecotone. These observations support our original hypothesis that fire maintains the abrupt boundary between the pine and cloud forest vegetation in these mountains. Vegetation structure and composition played a direct role in regulating fire spread and behavior in this landscape.

  19. Differences in carbon uptake and water use between managed and unmanaged European beech forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herbst, M.; Mund, M.; Knohl, A.

    2013-12-01

    Based on 23 site-years of eddy covariance measurements made above a managed beech forest and a nearby unmanaged, old-growth forest in central Germany, a comparative analysis of the carbon and energy fluxes of the two forests was carried out. Both forests are located at similar altitude and they face similar meteorological conditions. They are also similar with respect to canopy height (37 m) and mean tree age (120 years). The managed beech forest is a monospecific, even-aged stand with species-rich ground vegetation and a leaf area index of about 4, whereas the old-growth forest is beech-dominated but interspersed with ash and sycamore trees. It has a multi-layer canopy consisting of trees of various ages ranging from 0 to 260 years and its leaf area index is about 5. On average the two forests did not differ significantly in annual net carbon uptake (508 and 483 g C m-2 a-1 for the managed and the unmanaged forest, respectively), however the managed forest showed a much larger interannual variability in gross primary production than the unmanaged forest did. This trend agreed well with independent dendrometric measurements made in both forests. In contrast, ecosystem respiration did neither vary significantly between the two forests nor between different years. The total annual evapotranspiration was slightly higher at the unmanaged forest site (549 mm a-1 compared to 504 mm a-1 at the managed site), which was probably due to a higher interception loss from the denser canopy in the unmanaged forest. We discuss whether the conclusion can be drawn from this case study that common forest management activities improve the water use efficiency of European beech forests but make them more vulnerable against extreme meteorological conditions such as, for example, summer heat waves or late frosts in spring.

  20. Insect pest management in forest ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahlsten, Donald L.; Rowney, David L.

    1983-01-01

    Understanding the role of insects in forest ecosystems is vital to the development of environmentally and economically sound pest management strategies in forestry Most of the research on forest insects has been confined to phytophagous species associated with economically important tree species The roles of most other insects in forest environments have generally been ignored, including the natural enemies and associates of phytophagous species identified as being important In the past few years several investigations have begun to reevaluate the role of phytophagous species responsible for perturbation in forest ecosystems, and it appears that these species may be playing an important role in the primary productivity of those ecosystems Also, there is an increasing awareness that forest pest managers have been treating the symptoms and not the causes of the problems in the forest Many insect problems are associated with poor sites or sites where trees are growing poorly because of crowding As a result, there is considerable emphasis on the hazard rating of stands of trees for their susceptibility to various phytophagous insects The next step is to manipulate forest stands to make them less susceptible to forest pest complexes A thinning study in California is used as an example and shows that tree mortality in ponderosa pine ( Pinus ponderosa) attributable to the western pine beetle ( Dendroctonus brevicomis) can be reduced by commercial thinning to reduce stocking

  1. 25 CFR 163.11 - Forest management planning and sustained yield management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Forest management planning and sustained yield management... GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.11 Forest management planning and... forest management plan shall be prepared and revised as needed for all Indian forest lands....

  2. 25 CFR 163.11 - Forest management planning and sustained yield management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Forest management planning and sustained yield management... GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.11 Forest management planning and... forest management plan shall be prepared and revised as needed for all Indian forest lands....

  3. 25 CFR 163.11 - Forest management planning and sustained yield management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Forest management planning and sustained yield management... GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.11 Forest management planning and... forest management plan shall be prepared and revised as needed for all Indian forest lands....

  4. 25 CFR 163.11 - Forest management planning and sustained yield management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Forest management planning and sustained yield management... GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.11 Forest management planning and... forest management plan shall be prepared and revised as needed for all Indian forest lands....

  5. Climate and Vegetation Effects on Temperate Mountain Forest Evapotranspiration

    EPA Science Inventory

    Current forest composition may be resilient to typical climatic variability; however, climate trends, combined with projected changes in species composition, may increase tree vulnerability to water stress. A shift in forest composition toward tree species with higher water use h...

  6. Vegetation classification in southern pine mixed hardwood forests using airborne scanning laser point data.

    SciTech Connect

    McGaughey, Robert J.; Reutebuch, Stephen E.

    2012-09-01

    Forests of the southeastern United States are dominated by a relatively small number of conifer species. However, many of these forests also have a hardwood component composed of a wide variety of species that are found in all canopy positions. The presence or absence of hardwood species and their position in the canopy often dictates management activities such as thinning or prescribed burning. In addition, the characteristics of the under- and mid-story layers, often dominated by hardwood species, are key factors when assessing suitable habitat for threatened and endangered species such as the Red Cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) (RCW), making information describing the hardwood component important to forest managers. General classification of cover types using LIDAR data has been reported (Song et al. 2002, Brennan and Webster 2006) but most efforts focusing on the identification of individual species or species groups rely on some type of imagery to provide more complete spectral information for the study area. Brandtberg (2007) found that use of intensity data significantly improved LIDAR detection and classification of three leaf-off deciduous eastern species: oaks (Quercus spp.), red maple (Acer rubrum L.), and yellow poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.). Our primary objective was to determine the proportion of hardwood species present in the canopy using only the LIDAR point data and derived products. However, the presence of several hardwood species that retain their foliage through the winter months complicated our analyses. We present two classification approaches. The first identifies areas containing hardwood and softwood (conifer) species (H/S) and the second identifies vegetation with foliage absent or present (FA/FP) at the time of the LIDAR data acquisition. The classification results were used to develop predictor variables for forest inventory models. The ability to incorporate the proportion of hardwood and softwood was important to the

  7. 75 FR 63434 - Kootenai National Forest, Lincoln County, Montana; Grizzly Vegetation and Transportation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ... EIS for this project was published in the Federal Register (72 FR 31821) on June 8, 2007, and the notice of the Final EIS (74 FR 24006) on May 22, 2009. The Record of Decision was issued concurrently... Forest Service Kootenai National Forest, Lincoln County, Montana; Grizzly Vegetation and...

  8. 77 FR 44144 - National Forest System Land Management Planning; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-27

    ... Forest Service 36 CFR Part 219 RIN 0596-AD02 National Forest System Land Management Planning; Correction...) published a National Forest System land management planning rule in the Federal Register, on April 9, 2012..., Subpart A--National Forest System Land Management Planning (36 CFR part 219, subpart A). One...

  9. Vegetation and fire in lowland dry forest at Wa’ahila Ridge on O’ahu, Hawai’i

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Pei-Luen; DeLay, John K.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Long-term ecological studies are critical for providing key insights in ecology, environmental change, natural resource management and biodiversity conservation. However, island fire ecology is poorly understood. No previous studies are available that analyze vegetative changes in burned and unburned dry forest remnants on Wa’ahila Ridge, Hawai’i. This study investigates vegetation succession from 2008 to 2015, following a fire in 2007 which caused significant differences in species richness, plant density, and the frequency of woody, herb, grass, and lichens between burned and unburned sites. These findings infer that introduced plants have better competitive ability to occupy open canopy lands than native plants after fire. This study also illustrates the essential management need to prevent alien plant invasion, and to restore the native vegetation in lowland areas of the Hawaiian Islands by removing invasive species out-planting native plants after fire.

  10. Vegetation and fire in lowland dry forest at Wa’ahila Ridge on O’ahu, Hawai’i

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Pei-Luen; DeLay, John K.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Long-term ecological studies are critical for providing key insights in ecology, environmental change, natural resource management and biodiversity conservation. However, island fire ecology is poorly understood. No previous studies are available that analyze vegetative changes in burned and unburned dry forest remnants on Wa’ahila Ridge, Hawai’i. This study investigates vegetation succession from 2008 to 2015, following a fire in 2007 which caused significant differences in species richness, plant density, and the frequency of woody, herb, grass, and lichens between burned and unburned sites. These findings infer that introduced plants have better competitive ability to occupy open canopy lands than native plants after fire. This study also illustrates the essential management need to prevent alien plant invasion, and to restore the native vegetation in lowland areas of the Hawaiian Islands by removing invasive species out-planting native plants after fire. PMID:27698574

  11. Global Survey of Anthropogenic Neighborhood Threats to Conservation of Grass-Shrub and Forest Vegetation

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ecological functions of natural vegetation are threatened when it is subsumed in anthropogenic landscapes. We report the first comparative global survey of anthropogenic landscape threats to forest and grass-shrub vegetation. Using a global land-cover map derived from remote...

  12. Visual Training for Sustainable Forest Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aik, Chong-Tek; Tway, Duane C.

    2004-01-01

    It is increasingly important for timber companies to train managers in the principles and practices of sustainable forest management. One of the most effective ways to conduct such training is through use of visual training methods. This is partly because visual representations encode large amounts of information and help learners to grasp…

  13. Regional impacts of Atlantic Forest deforestation on climate and vegetation dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holm, J. A.; Chambers, J. Q.

    2012-12-01

    The Brazilian Atlantic Forest was a large and important forest due to its high biodiversity, endemism, range in climate, and complex geography. The original Atlantic Forest was estimated to cover 150 million hectares, spanning large latitudinal, longitudinal, and elevation gradients. This unique environment helped contribute to a diverse assemblage of plants, mammals, birds, and reptiles. Unfortunately, due to land conversion into agriculture, pasture, urban areas, and increased forest fragmentation, only ~8-10% of the original Atlantic Forest remains. Tropical deforestation in the Americas can have considerable effects on local to global climates, and surrounding vegetation growth and survival. This study uses a fully coupled, global climate model (Community Earth System Model, CESM v.1.0.1) to simulate the full removal of the historical Atlantic Forest, and evaluate the regional climatic and vegetation responses due to deforestation. We used the fully coupled atmosphere and land surface components in CESM, and a partially interacting ocean component. The vegetated grid cell portion of the land surface component, the Community Landscape Model (CLM), is divided into 4 of 16 plant functional types (PFTs) with vertical layers of canopy, leaf area index, soil physical properties, and interacting hydrological features all tracking energy, water, and carbon state and flux variables, making CLM highly capable in predicting the complex nature and outcomes of large-scale deforestation. The Atlantic Forest removal (i.e. deforestation) was conducted my converting all woody stem PFTs to grasses in CLM, creating a land-use change from forest to pasture. By comparing the simulated historical Atlantic Forest (pre human alteration) to a deforested Atlantic Forest (close to current conditions) in CLM and CESM we found that live stem carbon, NPP (gC m-2 yr-1), and other vegetation dynamics inside and outside the Atlantic Forest region were largely altered. In addition to vegetation

  14. Vulnerability and Resilience of Temperate Forest Landscapes to Broad-Scale Deforestation in Response to Changing Fire Regimes and Altered Post-Fire Vegetation Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tepley, A. J.; Veblen, T. T.; Perry, G.; Anderson-Teixeira, K. J.

    2015-12-01

    In the face of on-going climatic warming and land-use change, there is growing concern that temperate forest landscapes could be near a tipping point where relatively small changes to the fire regime or altered post-fire vegetation dynamics could lead to extensive conversion to shrublands or savannas. To evaluate vulnerability and resilience to such conversion, we develop a simple model based on three factors we hypothesize to be key in predicting temperate forest responses to changing fire regimes: (1) the hazard rate (i.e., the probability of burning in the next year given the time since the last fire) in closed-canopy forests, (2) the hazard rate for recently-burned, open-canopy vegetation, and (3) the time to redevelop canopy closure following fire. We generate a response surface representing the proportions of the landscape potentially supporting closed-canopy forest and non-forest vegetation under nearly all combinations of these three factors. We then place real landscapes on this response surface to assess the type and magnitude of changes to the fire regime that would drive extensive forest loss. We show that the deforestation of much of New Zealand that followed initial human colonization and the introduction of a new ignition source ca. 750 years ago was essentially inevitable due to the slow rate of forest recovery after fire and the high flammability of post-fire vegetation. In North America's Pacific Northwest, by contrast, a predominantly forested landscape persisted despite two periods of widespread burning in the recent past due in large part to faster post-fire forest recovery and less pronounced differences in flammability between forests and the post-fire vegetation. We also assess the factors that could drive extensive deforestation in other regions to identify where management could reduce this potential and to guide field and modeling work to better understand the responses and ecological feedbacks to changing fire regimes.

  15. It's Not Really Over: Thurston County, Washington's Vegetation Management Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacGregor, Jean

    1992-01-01

    Describes the establishment and results of a study committee asked to review existing pesticide policy, vegetation management programs and provide improvement recommendations in Thurston County, Washington. (MCO)

  16. Lichen conservation in heavily managed boreal forests.

    PubMed

    McMullin, Richard Troy; Thompson, Ian D; Newmaster, Steven G

    2013-10-01

    Lichens are an important component of the boreal forest, where they are long lived, tend to accumulate in older stands, and are a major food source for the threatened woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou). To be fully sustainable, silvicultural practices in the boreal forest must include the conservation of ecological integrity. Dominant forest management practices, however, have short-term negative effects on lichen diversity, particularly the application of herbicides. To better understand the long-term effects of forest management, we examined lichen regeneration in 35 mixed black spruce (Picea mariana) and jack pine (Pinus banksiana) forest stands across northern Ontario to determine recovery following logging and postharvest silvicultural practices. Our forest stands were 25-40 years old and had undergone 3 common sivilcultural treatments that included harvested and planted; harvested, planted, and treated with N-[phosphonomethyl] glycine (glyphosate); and harvested, planted, and treated with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). Forest stands with herbicide treatments had lower lichen biomass and higher beta and gamma diversity than planted stands that were not treated chemically or control stands. In northwestern Ontario, planted stands that were not treated chemically had significantly greater (p < 0.05) alpha diversity than stands treated with herbicides or control stands. Our results show that common silvicultural practices do not emulate natural disturbances caused by wildfires in the boreal forest for the lichen community. We suggest a reduction in the amount of chemical application be considered in areas where lichen biomass is likely to be high and where the recovery of woodland caribou is an objective. PMID:23869621

  17. Forest restoration and forest communities: have local communities benefited from forest service contracting of ecosystem management?

    PubMed

    Moseley, Cassandra; Reyes, Yolanda E

    2008-08-01

    Conservation-based development programs have sought to create economic opportunities for people negatively impacted by biological diversity protection. The USDA Forest Service, for example, developed policies and programs to create contracting opportunities for local communities to restore public lands to replace jobs lost from reduced timber harvest. This article examines 12 years of Forest Service land management contracting in western Oregon, Washington, and northern California to evaluate if contractors located in communities near national forests have been awarded more land management contracts and contract value over time. We find that land management contracting spending has declined dramatically and, once we control for intervening factors, we find that local contractors have received a smaller proportion of land management contracts over time.

  18. Holocene changes in a park-forest vegetation mosaic in the Wind River Range, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Lynch, E.A. )

    1994-06-01

    The modern mod-elevation vegetation of the Rocky Mountains is a mosaic of conifer forests and open parks dominated by sagebrush (Artemisia spp.), grasses, and other herbs. It is not known how this pattern originated or how sensitive the balance between forest and park is to disturbance. Using pollen from sediments of five small ponds in Fish Creek Park, WY (elev. 2700 m), I reconstructed the last 8000 yrs of changes in the park-forest mosaic in an are about 16 km[sup 2]. Surface samples collected from 52 ponds in the Fish Creek Park area and from forest and park sites in Wyoming and Colorado indicate that park and forest pollen assemblages can be distinguished using multivariate statistical methods and conifer:herb pollen ratios. Fossil pollen from the five sediment cores shows that the distribution of the two vegetation types on the landscape has changed through the Holocene, and that the changes in vegetation are gradual. Past changes from park to forest have apparently occurred much more slowly than changes from forest to park, suggesting that areas subjected to recent clearcutting may remain unforested for centuries.

  19. Climate change. Managing forests after Kyoto.

    PubMed

    Schulze, D E; Wirth, C; Heimann, M

    2000-09-22

    The Kyoto protocol aims to reduce carbon emissions into the atmosphere. Part of the strategy is the active management of terrestrial carbon sinks, principally through afforestation and reforestation. In their Perspective, Schulze et al. argue that the preservation of old-growth forests may have a larger positive effect on the carbon cycle than promotion of regrowth.

  20. [Phenology of forest vegetation in northeast of China in ten years using remote sensing].

    PubMed

    Hou, Xue-Hui; Niu, Zheng; Gao, Shuai

    2014-02-01

    Plant phenology is the best indicator of terrestrial ecosystem response to climate change and it becomes a hot issue in the study of global change. The forest in northeast of China plays an important part in global forest ecosystem. In this paper, yearly integrated Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) of forest vegetation in northeast China was calculated based on Spot Vegetation datasets from 2001-2010, which has been filtered using Savtiky-Galoy method. And then, the yearly integrated NDVI profile was fitted using a logistic model. Two key parameters of forest phenology (start of season, SOS; end of season, EOS) were extracted according to the greatest rate of curvature of fitted cumulative NDVI and the length of forest phenology (length of season, LOS) was also analyzed. The main conclusions of this paper are (1) SOS mainly occurs in the 110th-140th day and EOS in 260th and 290th day. SOS displays a marked delayed from south to north while EOS gradually advances. However, the changes of SOS and EOS in ten years are not obvious. (2) Corresponding to the SOS and EOS, LOS of forest in study area mainly occurs in the 120th-160th day; however, it is spatially heterogeneous. LOS of forest in Greater Khingan Mountains is shorter (about 120-140 day) than forests in Xiao Hinggan Ling and Changbai Mountains (about 160 day). The results in this paper are concordant with records of phenology in situ measurements and previous researches in the same area. It indicates that forest phenophases using method in this paper from Spot Vegetation dataset is feasible.

  1. [Impact of traditionally managed forest units on the landscape connectivity of Sierra de Los Tuxtlas, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Aguilar Vásquez, Yunin; Aliphat Fernández, Mario Manuel; Caso Barrera, Laura; Del Amo Rodríguez, Silvia; Sánchez Gómez, Maria De Lourdes; Martínez-Carrera, Daniel

    2014-09-01

    The ever-increasing establishment of landscape mosaics is expressed as a surrounding matrix of agricultural activities, which frames patches or remnants of the original vegetation cover. Conservation actions should be aimed to establish or to increase those interactive systems, which help to maintain the land- scape flow through linkages. Spaces occupied by traditional management systems retain and support this func- tion. In this paper, we used Geographic Information Systems to evaluate the importance of traditionally managed forest units ('acahuales'-coffee plantations) and to assess landscape connectivity in the indigenous Popoluca area of Sierra de los Tuxtlas, Mexico. The cartographic material used to establish the types of vegetation and their coverture included the period 1991-2008. At landscape level, four indices were used to assess the general situation of the habitat network, and to identify the patches of high priority. Individually, indices evaluated if patches were important for their area, their potential flow or their connecting function. Results showed that the landscape is functioning as a single system, but having low connectivity. Values improved when traditionally managed forest patches were considered as viable habitat. We detected 367 patches of very high priority, 80% belonging to forests managed traditionally. Patches were important for their potential flow (size and topologi- cal relationships). Only 70 patches were significant for their function as biological corridors between largest forests located at the top of the volcanoes, and are mostly managed forest (75%). We concluded that the units of traditionally managed forest play a significant role in landscape connectivity maintenance.

  2. Conservation of the Ethiopian church forests: Threats, opportunities and implications for their management.

    PubMed

    Aerts, Raf; Van Overtveld, Koen; November, Eva; Wassie, Alemayehu; Abiyu, Abrham; Demissew, Sebsebe; Daye, Desalegn D; Giday, Kidane; Haile, Mitiku; TewoldeBerhan, Sarah; Teketay, Demel; Teklehaimanot, Zewge; Binggeli, Pierre; Deckers, Jozef; Friis, Ib; Gratzer, Georg; Hermy, Martin; Heyn, Moïra; Honnay, Olivier; Paris, Maxim; Sterck, Frank J; Muys, Bart; Bongers, Frans; Healey, John R

    2016-05-01

    In the central and northern highlands of Ethiopia, native forest and forest biodiversity is almost confined to sacred groves associated with churches. Local communities rely on these 'church forests' for essential ecosystem services including shade and fresh water but little is known about their region-wide distribution and conservation value. We (1) performed the first large-scale spatially-explicit assessment of church forests, combining remote-sensing and field data, to assess the number of forests, their size, shape, isolation and woody plant species composition, (2) determined their plant communities and related these to environmental variables and potential natural vegetation, (3) identified the main challenges to biodiversity conservation in view of plant population dynamics and anthropogenic disturbances, and (4) present guidelines for management and policy. The 394 forests identified in satellite images were on average ~2ha in size and generally separated by ~2km from the nearest neighboring forest. Shape complexity, not size, decreased from the northern to the central highlands. Overall, 148 indigenous tree, shrub and liana species were recorded across the 78 surveyed forests. Patch α-diversity increased with mean annual precipitation, but typically only 25 woody species occurred per patch. The combined results showed that >50% of tree species present in tropical northeast Africa were still present in the 78 studied church forests, even though individual forests were small and relatively species-poor. Tree species composition of church forests varied with elevation and precipitation, and resembled the potential natural vegetation. With a wide distribution over the landscape, these church forests have high conservation value. However, long-term conservation of biodiversity of individual patches and evolutionary potential of species may be threatened by isolation, small sizes of tree species populations and disturbance, especially when considering climate

  3. Conservation of the Ethiopian church forests: Threats, opportunities and implications for their management.

    PubMed

    Aerts, Raf; Van Overtveld, Koen; November, Eva; Wassie, Alemayehu; Abiyu, Abrham; Demissew, Sebsebe; Daye, Desalegn D; Giday, Kidane; Haile, Mitiku; TewoldeBerhan, Sarah; Teketay, Demel; Teklehaimanot, Zewge; Binggeli, Pierre; Deckers, Jozef; Friis, Ib; Gratzer, Georg; Hermy, Martin; Heyn, Moïra; Honnay, Olivier; Paris, Maxim; Sterck, Frank J; Muys, Bart; Bongers, Frans; Healey, John R

    2016-05-01

    In the central and northern highlands of Ethiopia, native forest and forest biodiversity is almost confined to sacred groves associated with churches. Local communities rely on these 'church forests' for essential ecosystem services including shade and fresh water but little is known about their region-wide distribution and conservation value. We (1) performed the first large-scale spatially-explicit assessment of church forests, combining remote-sensing and field data, to assess the number of forests, their size, shape, isolation and woody plant species composition, (2) determined their plant communities and related these to environmental variables and potential natural vegetation, (3) identified the main challenges to biodiversity conservation in view of plant population dynamics and anthropogenic disturbances, and (4) present guidelines for management and policy. The 394 forests identified in satellite images were on average ~2ha in size and generally separated by ~2km from the nearest neighboring forest. Shape complexity, not size, decreased from the northern to the central highlands. Overall, 148 indigenous tree, shrub and liana species were recorded across the 78 surveyed forests. Patch α-diversity increased with mean annual precipitation, but typically only 25 woody species occurred per patch. The combined results showed that >50% of tree species present in tropical northeast Africa were still present in the 78 studied church forests, even though individual forests were small and relatively species-poor. Tree species composition of church forests varied with elevation and precipitation, and resembled the potential natural vegetation. With a wide distribution over the landscape, these church forests have high conservation value. However, long-term conservation of biodiversity of individual patches and evolutionary potential of species may be threatened by isolation, small sizes of tree species populations and disturbance, especially when considering climate

  4. 25 CFR 163.37 - Forest management research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Forest management research. 163.37 Section 163.37 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.37 Forest management research. The Secretary, with the consent of...

  5. 25 CFR 163.37 - Forest management research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Forest management research. 163.37 Section 163.37 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.37 Forest management research. The Secretary, with the consent of...

  6. 25 CFR 163.37 - Forest management research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Forest management research. 163.37 Section 163.37 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.37 Forest management research. The Secretary, with the consent of...

  7. 25 CFR 163.25 - Forest management deductions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Forest management deductions. 163.25 Section 163.25 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.25 Forest management deductions. (a) Pursuant to the provisions...

  8. 25 CFR 163.25 - Forest management deductions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Forest management deductions. 163.25 Section 163.25 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.25 Forest management deductions. (a) Pursuant to the provisions...

  9. 25 CFR 163.25 - Forest management deductions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Forest management deductions. 163.25 Section 163.25 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.25 Forest management deductions. (a) Pursuant to the provisions...

  10. 25 CFR 163.25 - Forest management deductions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Forest management deductions. 163.25 Section 163.25 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.25 Forest management deductions. (a) Pursuant to the provisions...

  11. Carbon dynamics of intensively managed forest along a full rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreaux, V.; Bosc, A.; Bonnefond, J.; Burlett, R.; Lamaud, E.; Sartore, M.; Trichet, P.; Chipeaux, C.; Lambrot, C.; Kowalski, A. S.; Loustau, D.

    2012-12-01

    Temperate and tropical forests are increasingly exploited for wood and biomass extraction and only one third of forest area was considered as primary in the recent FRA in 2010. Management practices affect the soil-forest-atmosphere continuum through various effects on soil and surface properties. They result ultimately in either positive or negative changes in the biomass and soil carbon pools but, if any, few datasets or modeling tools are available for quantifying their impacts on the net carbon balance of forest stands. To analyse these effects, the net half-hourly fluxes of CO2, water vapour and heat exchanges were monitored for 23 years in two closed stands of maritime pines in southwestern France. Carbon content of the aboveground biomass was measured annually and soil pools 10-early in the younger stand and 5-yearly in the mature stand. For analysing the data collected and disentangling the climate and management effects, we used the three components process-based model GRAECO+ (Loustau et al. this session) linking a 3D radiative transfer and photosynthesis model, MAESTRA, a soil carbon model adapted from ROTH-C and a plant growth model. Eddy flux data were processed, gapfilled and partitioned using the methodological recommendations (Aubinet et al. 2000, Adv. Eco. Res:30, 114-173, Falge et al. 2001, Agr. For. Meteo. : 107, 43-69, Reichstein et al. 2005, Glob. Change Biol., 11:1424-1439). Analysis of the sequence showed that, whether by an increased sensitivity to soil drought compared to the pines or by a rapid re-colonization of the inter-row after understorey removal and plowing, the weeded vegetation contributed to create specific intra-annual dynamics of the fluxes and therefore, controls the dynamics of carbon balance of the stand. After three growing seasons, the stand was already a carbon sink, but the impact of thinning and weeded vegetation removal at the age of 5-year brought the balance to almost neutral. We interpret this change as the combined

  12. Ground-Vegetation Clutter Affects Phyllostomid Bat Assemblage Structure in Lowland Amazonian Forest.

    PubMed

    Marciente, Rodrigo; Bobrowiec, Paulo Estefano D; Magnusson, William E

    2015-01-01

    Vegetation clutter is a limiting factor for bats that forage near ground level, and may determine the distribution of species and guilds. However, many studies that evaluated the effects of vegetation clutter on bats have used qualitative descriptions rather than direct measurements of vegetation density. Moreover, few studies have evaluated the effect of vegetation clutter on a regional scale. Here, we evaluate the influence of the physical obstruction of vegetation on phyllostomid-bat assemblages along a 520 km transect in continuous Amazonian forest. We sampled bats using mist nets in eight localities during 80 nights (3840 net-hours) and estimated the ground-vegetation density with digital photographs. The total number of species, number of animalivorous species, total number of frugivorous species, number of understory frugivorous species, and abundance of canopy frugivorous bats were negatively associated with vegetation clutter. The bat assemblages showed a nested structure in relation to degree of clutter, with animalivorous and understory frugivorous bats distributed throughout the vegetation-clutter gradient, while canopy frugivores were restricted to sites with more open vegetation. The species distribution along the gradient of vegetation clutter was not closely associated with wing morphology, but aspect ratio and wing load differed between frugivores and animalivores. Vegetation structure plays an important role in structuring assemblages of the bats at the regional scale by increasing beta diversity between sites. Differences in foraging strategy and diet of the guilds seem to have contributed more to the spatial distribution of bats than the wing characteristics of the species alone.

  13. Horizontal Precipitation in a Semiarid Cloud Forest: A Feedback Between Vegetation and Water Availability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hildebrandt, A.; Eltahir, E. A.

    2005-12-01

    We investigate the particular hydrology of an endangered semiarid cloud forest in the governorate of Dhofar (Oman). This forest is currently overexploited by browsing cattle feeding on tree canopies, leading to degradation of forest into grassland. In this region the forests survive in a relatively dry climate (annual rainfall below 250mm/year, annual temperature 21degC) as a result of the microclimate provided by annual reoccurrence of seasonal cloud immersion, which coincides with the wet summer season. Besides decreasing incoming radiation, the cloud cover provides for an additional water source besides rainfall. Due to turbulent exchange cloud droplets are mixed from surrounding clouds into the vegetation canopy, where they are captured by leaves, and eventually drip down to the ground (horizontal precipitation). In Dhofar, horizontal precipitation was estimated to account for up to two times the rainfall amount, based on results of a field experiment in 2004. Horizontal precipitation, and therefore plant available water, depends on the surface roughness, which is greatly enhanced by the presence of tall vegetation. On the other hand, water availability determines vegetation height in a water limited environment. We included a model for horizontal precipitation into a dynamical vegetation model (IBIS) to investigate, if the degradation of forest into grassland leads to a decrease in plant available water that is strong enough to substantially limit net primary productivity and vegetation height. Our model results suggest that tree removal triggers a feedback leading to substantially smaller water gain by the vegetation, resulting in an overall drier environment that prevents re-establishment of tree vegetation, and sustains the landscape in a degraded state.

  14. Relative vegetation profiles in a Neotropical forest: comparison of lidar instrumentation and field-based measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, F. B.; Palace, M. W.; Ducey, M.; Czarnecki, C.; Zanin Shimbo, J.; Mota e Silva, J.

    2012-12-01

    Tropical forests are considered to be some of the most structurally complex forests in the world. Understanding vegetation height structure in these forests can aid in understanding the spatial temporal components of disturbance, from blowdowns to gap dynamics. Vegetation profiles can be used to better estimate carbon storage and flux across the landscape. Using light detection and ranging (lidar) data collected at La Selva, Costa Rica from four instruments (three airborne, one terrestrial) at four times since 2005, and field data collected in January 2012, we generated relative vegetation profiles for twenty plots in La Selva. Relative vegetation profiles were derived from lidar data by accounting for obscured plant material through a log transformation of the cumulative proportion of observations (percent canopy closure). Profiles were derived from field data using two different sets of allometric equations describing crown shape and tree height. We conducted a cluster analysis on similarity matrices developed in R (version 2.14.1) using three different metrics (sum of squares, Kullback-Leibler divergence, Kolmogorov-Smirnov D statistic) and identified general similarity between lidar profiles. Results were consistent across each of the three similarity metrics. Three distinct clusters were found, with profiles from three airborne lidar instruments, two profiles from a terrestrial lidar instrument, and profiles derived from field data forming the clusters. Our results indicate that although estimating lidar relative vegetation profiles from field data was not possible, terrestrial lidar relative vegetation profiles are generally similar to airborne relative vegetation profiles. Given the rapidity and repeatability of terrestrial lidar measurements, these results show promise for terrestrial lidar instruments to collect plot-specific data on forest structure and vertical distribution of plant material. Furthermore, identifying relationships between terrestrial and

  15. Advances in Remote Sensing for Vegetation Dynamics and Agricultural Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, Compton; Puma, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Spaceborne remote sensing has led to great advances in the global monitoring of vegetation. For example, the NASA Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS) group has developed widely used datasets from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) sensors as well as the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) map imagery and normalized difference vegetation index datasets. These data are valuable for analyzing vegetation trends and variability at the regional and global levels. Numerous studies have investigated such trends and variability for both natural vegetation (e.g., re-greening of the Sahel, shifts in the Eurasian boreal forest, Amazonian drought sensitivity) and crops (e.g., impacts of extremes on agricultural production). Here, a critical overview is presented on recent developments and opportunities in the use of remote sensing for monitoring vegetation and crop dynamics.

  16. Lidar Remote Sensing for Characterizing Forest Vegetation - Special Issue. Foreword

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Popescu, Sorin C.; Nelson, Ross F.

    2011-01-01

    The Silvilaser 2009 conference held in College Station, Texas, USA, was the ninth conference in the Silvilaser series, which started in 2002 with the international workshop on using lidar (Light Detection and Ranging) for analyzing forest structure, held in Victoria, British Columbia, Canada. Following the Canadian workshop, subsequent forestry-lidar conferences took place in Australia, Sweden, Germany, USA, Japan, Finland, and the United Kingdom (UK). By the time this Silvilaser 2009 special issue of PE&RS is published, the 10th international conference will have been held in Freiburg, Germany, and planning will be ongoing for the 11th meeting to take place in Tasmania, Australia, in October 2011. Papers presented at the 2005 conference held in Blacksburg, Virginia, USA, were assembled in a special issue of PE&RS published in December 2006. Other special issues resulting from previous conferences were published in journals such as the Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing (2003), the Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research (2004), and Japan s Journal of Forest Planning (2008). Given the conference history and the much longer record of publications on lidar applications for estimating forest biophysical parameters, which dates back to the early 1980s, we may consider lidar an established remote sensing technology for characterizing forest canopy structure and estimating forest biophysical parameters. Randy Wynne, a professor at Virginia Tech and the final keynote speaker at Silvilaser 2009, made the case that it was time to push 30 years of research into operations, along the lines of what has already been done to good effect in the Scandinavian countries. In Randy s words, it s time to "Just do it!" This special issue includes a selection of papers presented during the 2009 Silvilaser conference, which consisted of eight sections as follows: (1) biomass and carbon stock estimates, (2) tree species and forest type classification, (3) data fusion and integration, (4, 5

  17. Recent Forest Disturbance History in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem Reconstructed using Remote Sensing and Management Record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, F.; Huang, C.; Zhu, Z.

    2014-12-01

    The Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE), located in Central Rocky Mountains of United States, is of complex ecological and land management histories along with different land ownerships. What are effects of the different land management practices (such as those by national parks vs. national forests) on ecosystem disturbances and carbon balance? We present here the methods and results of a study on forest disturbance history over the GYE from 1984 to 2010 reconstructed from Landsat time series stacks and local management records. Annual forest fire, harvest and other disturbances were tracked and separated by integrating a model called Vegetation Change Tracker and the Support Vector Machine algorithm. Local management records were separated into training and validation data for the disturbance maps. Area statistics and rates of disturbances were quantified and compared across GYE land ownership over the multi-decade period and interpreted for implications of these changes for forest management and carbon analysis. Our results indicate that during the study interval (1984 - 2010), GYE National Parks (NPs) and Wilderness Area (WA) had higher percentages of area of forests disturbed compared to GYE National Forests (NF). Within the GYE NPs, over 45% of the forest lands were disturbed at least once during the study period, the majority (37%) was by wildfire. For GYE wilderness area, the total disturbance was 30% of forest with 19.4% by wildfire and 10.6% by other disturbances. In Bridger-Teton NF, 14.7% of forest was disturbed and 3.6%, 0.5% and 10.6% of forest were disturbed by fire, harvest and other disturbances, respectively. For Caribou-Targhee NF, 25% of total forest was disturbed during this time interval and 1.5%, 6.4% and 17.1% of forest were disturbed by fire, harvest and other disturbances, respectively.

  18. Disentangling Modern Fire-Climate-Vegetation Relationships across the Boreal Forest Biome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, A. M.; Boschetti, L.; Duffy, P.; Hu, F.; Higuera, P.

    2015-12-01

    Fire regimes differ between Eurasian and North American boreal forests, due in part to differences in climate and the dominant forest types. While North American boreal forests are dominated by stand-replacing fires, much of the Eurasian boreal forest is characterized by lower intensity surface fires. These different fire regimes have important consequences for continental-scale biogeochemical cycling and surface-energy fluxes1. Here, we use generalized linear models (GLM) and boosted regression trees (BRT) to explore the relative importance of vegetation, annual climatic factors, and their interactions in determining annual fire occurrence across Eurasian and North American boreal forests. We use remotely sensed burned area (MCD64A1), land cover (MCD12Q1), and observed climate data (CRU) from 2002-2012 at 0.25° spatial resolution to quantify these relationships at annual temporal scales and continental spatial scales. The spatial distribution of boreal fire occurrence was well explained with climate and vegetation variables, with similarities and differences in fire-climate-vegetation relationships between Eurasia and North America. For example, while GLMs indicate vegetation is a significant factor determining fire occurrence in both continents, the effect of climate differed. Spring temperature and precipitation are significant factors explaining fire occurrence in Eurasia, but no climate variables were significant for explaining fire occurrence in North America. BRTs complement this analysis, highlighting climatic thresholds to fire occurrence in both continents. The nature of these thresholds can vary among vegetation types, even within each continent, further implying regional sensitivity to climate-induced shifts in wildfire activity. To build on these results and better understand regional sensitivity of northern-high latitude fire regimes, future work will explore these relationships in forest-tundra and arctic tundra ecosystems, and apply historical

  19. Vegetation, land surface brightness, and temperature dynamics after aspen forest die-off

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Cho-ying; Anderegg, William R. L.

    2014-07-01

    Forest dynamics following drought-induced tree mortality can affect regional climate through biophysical surface properties. These dynamics have not been well quantified, particularly at the regional scale, and are a large uncertainty in ecosystem-climate feedback. We investigated regional biophysical characteristics through time (1995-2011) in drought-impacted (2001-2003), trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) forests by utilizing Landsat time series green and brown vegetation cover, surface brightness (total shortwave albedo), and daytime land surface temperature. We quantified the temporal dynamics and postdrought recovery of these characteristics for aspen forests experiencing severe drought-induced mortality in the San Juan National Forest in southwestern Colorado, USA. We partitioned forests into three categories from healthy to severe mortality (Healthy, Intermediate, and Die-off) by referring to field observations of aspen canopy mortality and live aboveground biomass losses. The vegetation cover of die-off areas in 2011 (26.9% of the aspen forest) was significantly different compared to predrought conditions (decrease of 7.4% of the green vegetation cover and increase of 12.1% of the brown vegetation cover compared to 1999). The surface brightness of the study region 9 years after drought however was comparable to predrought estimates (12.7-13.7%). Postdrought brightness was potentially influenced by understory shrubs, since they became the top layer green canopies in disturbed sites from a satellite's point of view. Satellite evidence also showed that the differences of land surface temperature among the three groups increased substantially (≥45%) after drought, possibly due to the reduction of plant evapotranspiration in the Intermediate and Die-off sites. Our results suggest that the mortality-affected systems have not recovered in terms of the surface biophysical properties. We also find that the temporal dynamics of vegetation cover holds

  20. Assessment of Climate Impact Changes on Forest Vegetation Dynamics by Satellite Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoran, Maria

    Climate variability represents the ensemble of net radiation, precipitation, wind and temper-ature characteristic for a region in a certain time scale (e.g.monthly, seasonal annual). The temporal and/or spatial sensitivity of forest vegetation dynamics to climate variability is used to characterize the quantitative relationship between these two quantities in temporal and/or spatial scales. So, climate variability has a great impact on the forest vegetation dynamics. Forest vegetation phenology constitutes an efficient bio-indicator of climate and anthropogenic changes impacts and a key parameter for understanding and modelling vegetation-climate in-teractions. Satellite remote sensing is a very useful tool to assess the main phenological events based on tracking significant changes on temporal trajectories of Normalized Difference Vege-tation Index (NDVIs), which requires NDVI time-series with good time resolution, over homo-geneous area, cloud-free and not affected by atmospheric and geometric effects and variations in sensor characteristics (calibration, spectral responses). Spatio-temporal vegetation dynamics have been quantified as the total amount of vegetation (mean NDVI) and the seasonal difference (annual NDVI amplitude) by a time series analysis of NDVI satellite images with the Harmonic ANalysis of Time Series algorithm. A climate indicator (CI) was created from meteorological data (precipitation over net radiation). The relationships between the vegetation dynamics and the CI have been determined spatially and temporally. The driest test regions prove to be the most sensitive to climate impact. The spatial and temporal patterns of the mean NDVI are the same, while they are partially different for the seasonal difference. The aim of this paper was to quantify this impact over a forest ecosystem placed in the North-Eastern part of Bucharest town, Romania, with Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) parameter extracted from IKONOS and LANDSAT TM and

  1. Ground-cover vegetation in wetland forests of the lower Suwannee River floodplain, Florida, and potential impacts of flow reductions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Darst, Melanie R.; Light, Helen M.; Lewis, Lori J.

    2002-01-01

    Ground-cover vegetation was surveyed in wetland forests in the lower Suwannee River floodplain, Florida, in a study conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Suwannee River Water Management District from 1996 to 1999. Increased water use in the basin, supplied primarily from ground water, could reduce ground-water discharge to the river and flows in the lower Suwannee River. Many of the 282 ground-cover species found in wetland forests of the floodplain have distributions that are related to flow-dependent hydrologic characteristics of forest types, and their distributions would change if flows were reduced. Overall species diversity in the floodplain might decrease, and the composition of ground-cover vegetation in all forest types might change with flow reductions. The study area included forests within the 10-year floodplain of the lower Suwannee River from its confluence with the Santa Fe River to the lower limit of forests near the Gulf of Mexico. The floodplain is divided into three reaches (riverine, upper tidal, and lower tidal) due to variations in hydrology, vegetation, and soils with proximity to the coast. The riverine (non-tidal) reach had the greatest number of total species (203) and species unique to that reach (81). Mitchella repens, Toxicodendron radicans, and Axonopus furcatus were the most frequently dominant species in riverine bottomland hardwoods. Free-floating aquatic species, such as Spirodela punctata and Lemna valdiviana, were the dominant species in the wettest riverine swamps. The upper tidal reach had the lowest number of total species (116), only two species unique to that reach, and the lowest density of ground cover (26 percent). Panicum commutatum and Crinum americanum were frequent dominant species in upper tidal forests. The lower tidal reach had the highest ground-cover density (43 percent) and the second highest number of total species (183) and number of species unique to that reach (55). Saururus cernuus

  2. Simulating post-wildfire forest trajectories under alternative climate and management scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azpeleta, Alicia; Fule, Peter; Shive, Kristen; Sieg, Carolyn; Sanchez-Meador, Andrew; Strom, Barbara

    2013-04-01

    To assess post-fire vegetation recovery under the influence of climate change, we applied the Climate-Forest Vegetation Simulator (Climate-FVS), a new version of a widely used forest management model, to compare alternative climate and management scenarios in a severely burned multi-species forest of Arizona, U.S.A. The incorporation of seven combinations of General Circulation Models (GCM) and emissions scenarios altered long-term (100 years) projections of future forest condition compared to a No Climate Change (NCC) scenario, which forecast a gradual increase to high levels of forest density and carbon storage. In contrast, emissions scenarios that included continued high greenhouse gas releases led to near-complete deforestation by 2111. GCM-emissions scenario combinations that were less severe reduced forest structure and carbon storage relative to NCC. Fuel reduction treatments that had been applied prior to the severe wildfire did have persistent effects, especially under NCC, but were overwhelmed by increasingly severe climate change. We tested six management strategies aimed at sustaining future forests: prescribed burning at 5, 10, or 20-year intervals, thinning 40% or 60% of stand basal area, and no-treatment. Severe climate change led to deforestation under all management regimes, but important differences emerged under the moderate scenarios: treatments that included regular prescribed burning fostered low density, wildfire-resistant forests composed of the naturally dominant species, ponderosa pine. Non-fire treatments under moderate climate change were forecast to become dense and susceptible to severe wildfire, with a shift to dominance by sprouting species. Current U.S.A. management requires modeling of future scenarios but does not mandate consideration of climate change effects. However, this study showed substantial differences in model outputs depending on climate and management actions. Managers should incorporate climate change into the

  3. Use and applicability of the vegetation component of the national site classification system. [Sumter National Forest, South Carolina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, C. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    Existing vegetation on a site in Sumter National Forest, South Carolina was classified using high altitude aerial optical bar color infrared photography in an effort to determine if the National Site Classification (NSC) system could be used in the heterogeneously forested southeastern United States where it had not previously been used. Results show that the revised UNESCO international classification and mapping of vegetation system, as incorporated into the NSCS, is general enough at the higher levels and specific enough at the lower levels to adequately accommodate densely forested, heterogeneous areas as well as the larger, more homogeneous regions of the Pacific Northwest. The major problem is of existing vegetation versus natural vegetation.

  4. Hidden Forests: The role of vegetated coastal habitats in the ocean carbon budget (Vladimir Ivanovich Vernadsky Medal Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, Carlos M.

    2016-04-01

    Vegetated coastal habitats, including mangrove forests, salt-marshes, seagrass meadows and macroalgal beds, provide the marine equivalent to terrestrial forests. However, in contrast to the traditional recognition of forests as significant components of the global carbon budget, the biogeochemical significance of vegetated coastal habitats has been largely ignored. However, the past decade has witness a paradigm shift, where vegetated coastal habitats have been recognized to play a globally significant role in the carbon budget of the ocean. Here I synthesize this evidence and consider how current representations of the ocean carbon budget need be reconsidered to incorporate the role of vegetated coastal habitats and globally relevant, sites of intense carbon cycling.

  5. Simulating secondary succession of elk forage values in a managed forest landscape, western Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jenkins, Kurt J.; Starkey, Edward E.

    1996-01-01

    Modern timber management practices often influence forage production for elk (Cervus elaphus) on broad temporal and spatial scales in forested landscapes. We incorporated site-specific information on postharvesting forest succession and forage characteristics in a simulation model to evaluate past and future influences of forest management practices on forage values for elk in a commercially managed Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii, PSME)-western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla, TSHE) forest in western Washington. We evaluated future effects of: (1) clear-cut logging 0, 20, and 40% of harvestable stands every five years; (2) thinning 20-year-old Douglas fir forests; and (3) reducing the harvesting cycle from 60 to 45 years. Reconstruction of historical patterns of vegetation succession indicated that forage values peaked in the 1960s and declined from the 1970s to the present, but recent values still were higher than may have existed in the unmanaged landscape in 1945. Increased forest harvesting rates had little short-term influence on forage trends because harvestable stands were scarce. Simulations of forest thinning also produced negligible benefits because thinning did not improve forage productivity appreciably at the stand level. Simulations of reduced harvesting cycles shortened the duration of declining forage values from approximately 30 to 15 years. We concluded that simulation models are useful tools for examining landscape responses of forage production to forest management strategies, but the options examined provided little potential for improving elk forages in the immediate future.

  6. Quantifying pollen-vegetation relationships to reconstruct forests using 19th-century forest composition and pollen data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dawson, Andria; Paciorek, Christopher J.; McLachlan, Jason S.; Goring, Simon; Williams, John W.; Jackson, Stephen T.

    2016-01-01

    Mitigation of climate change and adaptation to its effects relies partly on how effectively land-atmosphere interactions can be quantified. Quantifying composition of past forest ecosystems can help understand processes governing forest dynamics in a changing world. Fossil pollen data provide information about past forest composition, but rigorous interpretation requires development of pollen-vegetation models (PVMs) that account for interspecific differences in pollen production and dispersal. Widespread and intensified land-use over the 19th and 20th centuries may have altered pollen-vegetation relationships. Here we use STEPPS, a Bayesian hierarchical spatial PVM, to estimate key process parameters and associated uncertainties in the pollen-vegetation relationship. We apply alternate dispersal kernels, and calibrate STEPPS using a newly developed Euro-American settlement-era calibration data set constructed from Public Land Survey data and fossil pollen samples matched to the settlement-era using expert elicitation. Models based on the inverse power-law dispersal kernel outperformed those based on the Gaussian dispersal kernel, indicating that pollen dispersal kernels are fat tailed. Pine and birch have the highest pollen productivities. Pollen productivity and dispersal estimates are generally consistent with previous understanding from modern data sets, although source area estimates are larger. Tests of model predictions demonstrate the ability of STEPPS to predict regional compositional patterns.

  7. Quantifying pollen-vegetation relationships to reconstruct ancient forests using 19th-century forest composition and pollen data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, Andria; Paciorek, Christopher J.; McLachlan, Jason S.; Goring, Simon; Williams, John W.; Jackson, Stephen T.

    2016-04-01

    Mitigation of climate change and adaptation to its effects relies partly on how effectively land-atmosphere interactions can be quantified. Quantifying composition of past forest ecosystems can help understand processes governing forest dynamics in a changing world. Fossil pollen data provide information about past forest composition, but rigorous interpretation requires development of pollen-vegetation models (PVMs) that account for interspecific differences in pollen production and dispersal. Widespread and intensified land-use over the 19th and 20th centuries may have altered pollen-vegetation relationships. Here we use STEPPS, a Bayesian hierarchical spatial PVM, to estimate key process parameters and associated uncertainties in the pollen-vegetation relationship. We apply alternate dispersal kernels, and calibrate STEPPS using a newly developed Euro-American settlement-era calibration data set constructed from Public Land Survey data and fossil pollen samples matched to the settlement-era using expert elicitation. Models based on the inverse power-law dispersal kernel outperformed those based on the Gaussian dispersal kernel, indicating that pollen dispersal kernels are fat tailed. Pine and birch have the highest pollen productivities. Pollen productivity and dispersal estimates are generally consistent with previous understanding from modern data sets, although source area estimates are larger. Tests of model predictions demonstrate the ability of STEPPS to predict regional compositional patterns.

  8. Effects of waving vegetation on turbulence in a forest canopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiscox, A.; Rudnicki, M.; Miller, D. R.; Su, H.

    2013-12-01

    It is well known that the atmospheric flows in the canopy roughness sublayer (CRSL) strongly influence exchange between the biological elements of a forest and the atmosphere above. Despite several decades of research in this area, universally reliable theories do not yet exist. Most measures presenting flow statistics are for relatively short field campaigns, on the order of several weeks, giving no long-term climatology of flow within a canopy. It is often assumed that these conditions are representative of all time periods without much consideration to seasonal influences such as temperature or understory changes. Furthermore, little to no knowledge exists as to the effect of plant motion on these statistics. To address this, a field study has been underway for three years at the Howland Research Forest. The study site includes six three-dimensional sonic anemometers (3 at each of two towers), 149 tree sway sensors, and two pressure sensors to monitor turbulent fluctuations. The overall research goal of this project is to improve our understanding and modeling of the mechanisms underlying the aerodynamic interactions between turbulence structures in the canopy roughness sublayer (CRSL) and tree sway motions in a forest canopy. The work presented here concentrates on the variability of the long-term statistics of velocity profiles and turbulence in both time and space. Comparisons of these statistics in unstable and stable atmospheric conditions are also presented.

  9. Holocene fire and vegetation dynamics in a montane forest, North Cascade Range, Washington, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prichard, Susan J.; Gedalof, Ze'ev; Oswald, W. Wyatt; Peterson, David L.

    2009-07-01

    We reconstructed a 10,500-yr fire and vegetation history of a montane site in the North Cascade Range, Washington State based on lake sediment charcoal, macrofossil and pollen records. High-resolution sampling and abundant macrofossils made it possible to analyze relationships between fire and vegetation. During the early Holocene (> 10,500 to ca. 8000 cal yr BP) forests were subalpine woodlands dominated by Pinus contorta. Around 8000 cal yr BP, P. contorta sharply declined in the macrofossil record. Shade tolerant, mesic species first appeared ca. 4500 cal yr BP. Cupressus nootkatensis appeared most recently at 2000 cal yr BP. Fire frequency varies throughout the record, with significantly shorter mean fire return intervals in the early Holocene than the mid and late Holocene. Charcoal peaks are significantly correlated with an initial increase in macrofossil accumulation rates followed by a decrease, likely corresponding to tree mortality following fire. Climate appears to be a key driver in vegetation and fire regimes over millennial time scales. Fire and other disturbances altered forest vegetation at shorter time scales, and vegetation may have mediated local fire regimes. For example, dominance of P. contorta in the early Holocene forests may have been reinforced by its susceptibility to frequent, stand-replacing fire events.

  10. The applicability of ERTS-1 data covering the major landforms of Kenya. [landforms, vegetation, soils, forests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Omino, J. H. O. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Five investigators report on the applicability of ERTS-1 data covering the major landforms of Kenya. Deficiencies due to lack of equipment, repetitive coverage and interpretation know-how are also reported on. Revision of lake shorelines is an immediate benefit. Basement system metasediments are rapidly differentiated, but dune areas are not readily distinguishable from sandy soils. Forest, moorland, high altitude grass, tea, and conifer plantations are readily distinguished, with podocarpus forest especially distinguishable from podocarpus/juniperus forest. In the arid areas physiographic features, indicating the major soil types, are readily identified and mapped. Preliminary vegetation type analysis in the Mara Game Reserve indicates that in a typical savannah area about 36% of the vegetation types are distinguishable at a scale of 1:1 million as well as drainage patterns and terrain features.

  11. Methane production from mixed tropical savanna and forest vegetation in Venezuela

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crutzen, P. J.; Sanhueza, E.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.

    2006-04-01

    Measurements of methane concentrations in the boundary layer in the northern part of the Guayana shield, Venezuela, during the wet season (October 1988), showed the presence of substantial methane surface emissions. The measuring site is within the savanna climate region, but is affected by emissions from savanna and forest vegetation. From day versus night concentration measurements, with higher concentrations during night, a methane source strength near the site of 3-7×1011 molecules/cm2/s can be estimated, which includes emissions from small tracts of flooded soils, termites and especially tropical vegetation. Extrapolated to the entire savanna, this may imply a methane source of ~30-60 Tg yr-1 similar to the one calculated for tropical vegetation on the basis of recently published in vitro plant emission experiments by Keppler et al. (2006), which indicate emissions of ~30 Tg yr-1 for tropical savannas and grasslands and ~78 Tg yr-1 for tropical forests.

  12. 18 CFR 1304.203 - Vegetation management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... located to minimize removal of trees or other vegetation on the TVA land. (d) Grass may be planted and... corridor. (k) Planting of trees, shrubs, wildflowers, native grasses, and ground covers within the SMZ...

  13. 18 CFR 1304.203 - Vegetation management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... located to minimize removal of trees or other vegetation on the TVA land. (d) Grass may be planted and... corridor. (k) Planting of trees, shrubs, wildflowers, native grasses, and ground covers within the SMZ...

  14. 18 CFR 1304.203 - Vegetation management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... located to minimize removal of trees or other vegetation on the TVA land. (d) Grass may be planted and... corridor. (k) Planting of trees, shrubs, wildflowers, native grasses, and ground covers within the SMZ...

  15. Landscape and vegetation effects on avian reproduction on bottomland forest restorations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twedt, Daniel J.; Somershoe, Scott G.; Hazler, Kirsten R.; Cooper, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Forest restoration has been undertaken on >200,000 ha of agricultural land in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley, USA, during the past few decades. Decisions on where and how to restore bottomland forests are complex and dependent upon landowner objectives, but for conservation of silvicolous (forest-dwelling) birds, ecologists have espoused restoration through planting a diverse mix of densely spaced seedlings that includes fast-growing species. Application of this planting strategy on agricultural tracts that are adjacent to extant forest or within landscapes that are predominately forested has been advocated to increase forest area and enhance forested landscapes, thereby benefiting area-sensitive, silvicolous birds. We measured support for these hypothesized benefits through assessments of densities of breeding birds and reproductive success of 9 species on 36 bottomland forest restoration sites. Densities of thamnic (shrub-scrub dwelling) and silvicolous birds, such as yellow-breasted chat (Icteria virens), indigo bunting (Passerina cyanea), and white-eyed vireo (Vireo griseus) were positively associated with 1) taller trees, 2) greater stem densities, and 3) a greater proportion of forest within the landscape, whereas densities of birds associated with grasslands, such as dickcissel (Spiza americana) and red-winged blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus), were negatively associated with these variables. Vegetation structure, habitat edge, and temporal effects had greater influence on nest success than did landscape effects. Taller trees, increased density of woody stems, greater vegetation density, and more forest within the landscape were often associated with greater nest success. Nest success of grassland birds was positively related to distance from forest edge but, for thamnic birds, success was greater near edges. Moreover, nest success and estimated fecundity of thamnic species suggested their populations are self-sustaining on forest restoration sites, whereas

  16. Soil bacterial community structure responses to precipitation reduction and forest management in forest ecosystems across Germany.

    PubMed

    Felsmann, Katja; Baudis, Mathias; Gimbel, Katharina; Kayler, Zachary E; Ellerbrock, Ruth; Bruelheide, Helge; Bruehlheide, Helge; Bruckhoff, Johannes; Welk, Erik; Puhlmann, Heike; Weiler, Markus; Gessler, Arthur; Ulrich, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Soil microbial communities play an important role in forest ecosystem functioning, but how climate change will affect the community composition and consequently bacterial functions is poorly understood. We assessed the effects of reduced precipitation with the aim of simulating realistic future drought conditions for one growing season on the bacterial community and its relation to soil properties and forest management. We manipulated precipitation in beech and conifer forest plots managed at different levels of intensity in three different regions across Germany. The precipitation reduction decreased soil water content across the growing season by between 2 to 8% depending on plot and region. T-RFLP analysis and pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene were used to study the total soil bacterial community and its active members after six months of precipitation reduction. The effect of reduced precipitation on the total bacterial community structure was negligible while significant effects could be observed for the active bacteria. However, the effect was secondary to the stronger influence of specific soil characteristics across the three regions and management selection of overstorey tree species and their respective understorey vegetation. The impact of reduced precipitation differed between the studied plots; however, we could not determine the particular parameters being able to modify the response of the active bacterial community among plots. We conclude that the moderate drought induced by the precipitation manipulation treatment started to affect the active but not the total bacterial community, which points to an adequate resistance of the soil microbial system over one growing season. PMID:25875835

  17. Soil Bacterial Community Structure Responses to Precipitation Reduction and Forest Management in Forest Ecosystems across Germany

    PubMed Central

    Felsmann, Katja; Baudis, Mathias; Gimbel, Katharina; Kayler, Zachary E.; Ellerbrock, Ruth; Bruehlheide, Helge; Bruckhoff, Johannes; Welk, Erik; Puhlmann, Heike; Weiler, Markus; Gessler, Arthur; Ulrich, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Soil microbial communities play an important role in forest ecosystem functioning, but how climate change will affect the community composition and consequently bacterial functions is poorly understood. We assessed the effects of reduced precipitation with the aim of simulating realistic future drought conditions for one growing season on the bacterial community and its relation to soil properties and forest management. We manipulated precipitation in beech and conifer forest plots managed at different levels of intensity in three different regions across Germany. The precipitation reduction decreased soil water content across the growing season by between 2 to 8% depending on plot and region. T-RFLP analysis and pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene were used to study the total soil bacterial community and its active members after six months of precipitation reduction. The effect of reduced precipitation on the total bacterial community structure was negligible while significant effects could be observed for the active bacteria. However, the effect was secondary to the stronger influence of specific soil characteristics across the three regions and management selection of overstorey tree species and their respective understorey vegetation. The impact of reduced precipitation differed between the studied plots; however, we could not determine the particular parameters being able to modify the response of the active bacterial community among plots. We conclude that the moderate drought induced by the precipitation manipulation treatment started to affect the active but not the total bacterial community, which points to an adequate resistance of the soil microbial system over one growing season. PMID:25875835

  18. Forest-succession models and their ecological and management implications

    SciTech Connect

    West, D.; Smith, T.M.; Weinstein, D.A.; Shugart, H.H.

    1981-01-01

    Computer models of forest succession have been developed to an extent that allows their use as a tool for predicting forest ecosystem behavior over long periods of time. This paper outlines the use of one approach to forest succession modeling for a variety of problems including: (1) determining the effect of climate change on forests; (2) integrating information on wildlife habitat changes with the changes in forest structure associated with timber management; (3) assessing the potential effect of air pollutants on forest dynamics; and (4) determining the theoretical importance of disturbance on forest community diversity and function.

  19. The implications of new forest tenure reforms and forestry property markets for sustainable forest management and forest certification in China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Juan; Innes, John L

    2013-11-15

    This study examines issues existing in the southern collective forests in China, particularly prior to the implementation of new forest tenure reforms, such as continued illegal logging and timber theft, inadequate availability of finance and inconsistent forest-related policies. Such problems are believed to be hindering the adoption of sustainable forest management (SFM) and forest certification by forest farmers in China. Two strategies were introduced by the Chinese government with the purpose of addressing these issues, namely forest tenure reforms and their associated supporting mechanism, forestry property markets. Through two case studies in southern China, we investigated the effectiveness of the two strategies as well as their implications for the adoption of SFM and forest certification. The two cases were Yong'an in Fujian province and Tonggu in Jiangxi province. Personal interviews with open-ended questions were conducted with small-scale forest farmers who had already benefited from the two strategies as well as market officers working for the two selected forestry property markets. The study identified eight issues constraining the potential adoption of SFM and certification in China, including limited finance, poorly developed infrastructure and transport systems, insecure forest tenures, inconsistent forest policies, low levels of awareness, illegal forest management practices, lack of local cooperative organizations, and inadequate knowledge and technical transfer. We found that the new forest tenure reforms and forestry property markets had generally fulfilled their original objectives and had the capacity to assist in addressing many of the issues facing forests prior to the reforms.

  20. Supplement Analysis for the Transmission System Vegetation Management Program FEIS (DOE/EIS-0285/SA-130- Keeler-Tillamook)

    SciTech Connect

    Sherer, Brett M.

    2003-03-10

    Vegetation Management for the Keeler Tillamook 115 kV transmission line from structure 1/7 through structure 58/2, and along adjacent portions of the Keeler-Forest Grove #2 115KV transmission line. In addition the project includes 11miles of the 115KV Timber Tap.

  1. A survey of drought and Variation of Vegetation by statistical indexes and remote sensing (Case study: Jahad forest in Bandar Abbas)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamassoki, E.; Soleymani, Z.; Bahrami, F.; Abbasgharemani, H.

    2014-06-01

    The damages of drought as a climatic and creeping phenomenon are very enormous specially in deserts. Necessity of management and conflict with it is clear. In this case vegetation are damaged too, and even are changed faster. This paper describes the process of vegetation changes and surveys it with drought indexes such as statistical and remote sensing indexes and correlation between temperature and relative humidity by Geographical Information System (GIS) and Remote Sensing (RS) in forest park of Bandar Abbas in successive years. At the end the regression and determination-coefficient for showing the importance of droughts survey are computed. Results revealed that the correlation between vegetation and indexes was 0.5. The humidity had maximum correlation and when we close to 2009 the period of droughts increase and time intervals decrease that influence vegetation enormously and cause the more area lost its vegetation.

  2. Monitoring Post-Fire Vegetation Rehabilitation Projects: A Common Approach for Non-Forested Ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wirth, Troy A.; Pyke, David A.

    2007-01-01

    Emergency Stabilization and Rehabilitation (ES&R) and Burned Area Emergency Response (BAER) treatments are short-term, high-intensity treatments designed to mitigate the adverse effects of wildfire on public lands. The federal government expends significant resources implementing ES&R and BAER treatments after wildfires; however, recent reviews have found that existing data from monitoring and research are insufficient to evaluate the effects of these activities. The purpose of this report is to: (1) document what monitoring methods are generally used by personnel in the field; (2) describe approaches and methods for post-fire vegetation and soil monitoring documented in agency manuals; (3) determine the common elements of monitoring programs recommended in these manuals; and (4) describe a common monitoring approach to determine the effectiveness of future ES&R and BAER treatments in non-forested regions. Both qualitative and quantitative methods to measure effectiveness of ES&R treatments are used by federal land management agencies. Quantitative methods are used in the field depending on factors such as funding, personnel, and time constraints. There are seven vegetation monitoring manuals produced by the federal government that address monitoring methods for (primarily) vegetation and soil attributes. These methods vary in their objectivity and repeatability. The most repeatable methods are point-intercept, quadrat-based density measurements, gap intercepts, and direct measurement of soil erosion. Additionally, these manuals recommend approaches for designing monitoring programs for the state of ecosystems or the effect of management actions. The elements of a defensible monitoring program applicable to ES&R and BAER projects that most of these manuals have in common are objectives, stratification, control areas, random sampling, data quality, and statistical analysis. The effectiveness of treatments can be determined more accurately if data are gathered using

  3. Ten years post-wildfire recovery and health of Eucalypt forests and woodland in the Sydney Basin, Australia, using remotely sensed vegetation indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heath, J.; Chafer, C.; Bishop, T.; Van Ogtrop, F.

    2012-04-01

    The response of vegetation after a wildfire is dependent on factors such as fire intensity and vegetation type. Australian woody vegetation species have evolved two mechanisms of disturbance survival i) seed germination (obligate seeders) and ii) resprouting from dormant vegetative buds and/or lignotubers (obligate resprouters). The majority of post wildfire vegetation response studies conducted in Victoria, Australia have been in obligate seeder dominant communities. These studies have found that there is a significant delay in species germination as they rely on the seed bank. Those studies do not represent the response of vegetation in the Sydney Basin, which is dominated by obligate resprouter species. This study examines the vegetation recovery of four burnt subcatchments affected by the summer 2001/02 wildfire event and compared to three unburnt subcatchments. The study uses a 20 year time series of Landsat and SPOT satellite data assessing vegetation 10 years pre-wildfire and 10 years post-wildfire on an annual basis. Several vegetation indices were compared to assess the health and integrity of eucalypt forests and woodlands (NDVI, NDVIc, NBR). This study provides land managers with crucial information about the response of vegetation communities to wildfire within the Sydney Basin.

  4. Holocene vegetation and fire regimes in subalpine and mixed conifer forests, southern Rocky Mountains, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, R. Scott; Allen, C.D.; Toney, J.L.; Jass, R.B.; Bair, A.N.

    2008-01-01

    Our understanding of the present forest structure of western North America hinges on our ability to determine antecedent forest conditions. Sedimentary records from lakes and bogs in the southern Rocky Mountains of Colorado and New Mexico provide information on the relationships between climate and vegetation change, and fire history since deglaciation. We present a new pollen record from Hunters Lake (Colorado) as an example of a high-elevation vegetation history from the southern Rockies. We then present a series of six sedimentary records from ???2600 to 3500-m elevation, including sites presently at the alpine?subalpine boundary, within the Picea engelmannii?Abies lasiocarpa forest and within the mixed conifer forest, to determine the history of fire in high-elevation forests there. High Artemisia and low but increasing percentages of Picea and Pinus suggest vegetation prior to 13 500 calendar years before present (cal yr BP) was tundra or steppe, with open spruce woodland to ???11 900 cal yr BP. Subalpine forest (Picea engelmannii, Abies lasiocarpa) existed around the lake for the remainder of the Holocene. At lower elevations, Pinus ponderosa and/or contorta expanded 11 900 to 10 200 cal yr BP; mixed conifer forest expanded ???8600 to 4700 cal yr BP; and Pinus edulis expanded after ???4700 cal yr BP. Sediments from lake sites near the alpine?subalpine transition contained five times less charcoal than those entirely within subalpine forests, and 40 times less than bog sites within mixed conifer forest. Higher fire episode frequencies occurred between ???12 000 and 9000 cal yr BP (associated with the initiation or expansion of south-west monsoon and abundant lightning, and significant biomass during vegetation turnover) and at ???2000?1000 cal yr BP (related to periodic droughts during the long-term trend towards wetter conditions and greater biomass). Fire episode frequencies for subalpine?alpine transition and subalpine sites were on average 5 to 10 fire

  5. Net effect of 250 years of forest management in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luyssaert, Sebastiaan; Naudts, Kim; McGrath, Matthew M.; Ryder, James; Chen, Yiying; Otto, Juliane; Valade, Aude

    2015-04-01

    Globally, 70% of the forest is managed and the importance of management is still increasing both in relative and absolute terms. In Europe, almost all forest is intensively managed by humans. Forests not only influence the global carbon cycle, they also dramatically affect the water vapour and energy fluxes exchanged with the overlying atmosphere. Recently, forest management has become a top priority on the agenda of the political negotiations to mitigate climate change. However, the net effect of biogeochemical and biophysical impacts of forest management is poorly understood. To this aim, the land surface model ORCHIDEE was extended for studying the effects of forest management on the land-atmosphere interaction and forest management was reconstructed for Europe between 1600 and 2010. The effects of forest management on the C-budget was quantified by means of a factorial experiment between 1750 and 2000. Climate change alone was responsible for a cumulated terrestrial sink of 8.1 Pg between 1750 and 2000, land cover changes and forest management sequestered another 0.8 Pg. In the absence of forest management, climate change alone would not have been able to compensate for the losses due to land cover changes. The factorial experiment was extended by coupled land-atmopshere simulations to quantify the effects of forest management on the climate over Europe. The net effect of both biogeochemical and biophysical changes due to present day land management is an increase of the top of the atmosphere radiative forcing by 0.11 to 0.16 Wm-2 on top of the increase due to climate change. 0.09 to 0.14 Wm-2 can be attributed to forest management including litter raking, changes in management strategies and species changes.

  6. Driving factors of a vegetation shift from Scots pine to pubescent oak in dry Alpine forests.

    PubMed

    Rigling, Andreas; Bigler, Christof; Eilmann, Britta; Feldmeyer-Christe, Elisabeth; Gimmi, Urs; Ginzler, Christian; Graf, Ulrich; Mayer, Philipp; Vacchiano, Giorgio; Weber, Pascale; Wohlgemuth, Thomas; Zweifel, Roman; Dobbertin, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    An increasing number of studies have reported on forest declines and vegetation shifts triggered by drought. In the Swiss Rhone valley (Valais), one of the driest inner-Alpine regions, the species composition in low elevation forests is changing: The sub-boreal Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) dominating the dry forests is showing high mortality rates. Concurrently the sub-Mediterranean pubescent oak (Quercus pubescens Willd.) has locally increased in abundance. However, it remains unclear whether this local change in species composition is part of a larger-scale vegetation shift. To study variability in mortality and regeneration in these dry forests we analysed data from the Swiss national forest inventory (NFI) on a regular grid between 1983 and 2003, and combined it with annual mortality data from a monitoring site. Pine mortality was found to be highest at low elevation (below 1000 m a.s.l.). Annual variation in pine mortality was correlated with a drought index computed for the summer months prior to observed tree death. A generalized linear mixed-effects model indicated for the NFI data increased pine mortality on dryer sites with high stand competition, particularly for small-diameter trees. Pine regeneration was low in comparison to its occurrence in the overstorey, whereas oak regeneration was comparably abundant. Although both species regenerated well at dry sites, pine regeneration was favoured at cooler sites at higher altitude and oak regeneration was more frequent at warmer sites, indicating a higher adaptation potential of oaks under future warming. Our results thus suggest that an extended shift in species composition is actually occurring in the pine forests in the Valais. The main driving factors are found to be climatic variability, particularly drought, and variability in stand structure and topography. Thus, pine forests at low elevations are developing into oak forests with unknown consequences for these ecosystems and their goods and

  7. Ground-Vegetation Clutter Affects Phyllostomid Bat Assemblage Structure in Lowland Amazonian Forest

    PubMed Central

    Marciente, Rodrigo; Bobrowiec, Paulo Estefano D.; Magnusson, William E.

    2015-01-01

    Vegetation clutter is a limiting factor for bats that forage near ground level, and may determine the distribution of species and guilds. However, many studies that evaluated the effects of vegetation clutter on bats have used qualitative descriptions rather than direct measurements of vegetation density. Moreover, few studies have evaluated the effect of vegetation clutter on a regional scale. Here, we evaluate the influence of the physical obstruction of vegetation on phyllostomid-bat assemblages along a 520 km transect in continuous Amazonian forest. We sampled bats using mist nets in eight localities during 80 nights (3840 net-hours) and estimated the ground-vegetation density with digital photographs. The total number of species, number of animalivorous species, total number of frugivorous species, number of understory frugivorous species, and abundance of canopy frugivorous bats were negatively associated with vegetation clutter. The bat assemblages showed a nested structure in relation to degree of clutter, with animalivorous and understory frugivorous bats distributed throughout the vegetation-clutter gradient, while canopy frugivores were restricted to sites with more open vegetation. The species distribution along the gradient of vegetation clutter was not closely associated with wing morphology, but aspect ratio and wing load differed between frugivores and animalivores. Vegetation structure plays an important role in structuring assemblages of the bats at the regional scale by increasing beta diversity between sites. Differences in foraging strategy and diet of the guilds seem to have contributed more to the spatial distribution of bats than the wing characteristics of the species alone. PMID:26066654

  8. Use of Seasat satellite radar imagery for the detection of standing water beneath forest vegetation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdonald, H. C.; Waite, W. P.; Demarcke, J. S.

    1981-01-01

    The Seasat synthetic aperture radar, operating at a 23-cm, L-band wavelength, detected anomalous tonal patterns in areas having relatively uniform vegetable canopy. These anomalously high radar returns were shown to be related more to the underlying terrain (areas of standing water) than to the vegetation canopy. These results show that L-band radars, imaging forested terrain in a Seasat configuration, are sensitive to gross changes in vegetation, and may even penetrate the vegetation canopy, providing an unmistakable radar signature. Properly designed space imaging radar shuttle experiments, using multiple frequency and polarization radars of various depression angles, may provide documentation for a flood-monitoring capability. Height, configuration, and density of the biomass in conjunction with frequency and incidence angle of the imaging system are shown to be important factors in formulating a backscatter model, but the relative significance of each is yet to be determined.

  9. The importance of remnant native vegetation of Amazonian submontane forest for the conservation of lizards.

    PubMed

    Silva, D J; Santos-Filho, M; Canale, G R

    2014-08-01

    Forest fragmentation affects animal population dynamics mainly by loss of habitat and disruption of animal movement. Lizard assemblages are affected by environmental changes, but, depending on their ecological needs, some species might be more vulnerable than others. The southern Amazon suffers accelerated anthropic actions replacing natural environments by farmland (crops and pasture). This region is considerably drier than most of the northern Amazon, with stational semi-deciduous forests fragmented and isolated by pasture, and crops to a lesser extent. Here we report data on lizard assemblages using semi-deciduous forests, forest edge and the surrounding pasture in the southern Amazon in Mato Grosso, Brazil. Lizards were collected in 21 forest fragments (41 to 7,035 ha) surrounded by pasture; using pitfall traps placed on a degradation gradient - from pasture inwards forest fragment (up to 200 m). We collected 242 individuals (14 species, seven families) in 6,300 trap-days. The pattern of species occurrence was largely nested and this nesting was associated with three habitat guilds (generalist, edge-tolerant, and forest species). Although there was no obvious fragmentation effect on lizards diversity community-wise, Hoplocercus spinosus, Bachia dorbignyi, Micrablepharus maximiliani and Kentropyx calcarta were more vulnerable to such effects than all other ten species collected. We verified that assemblages inhabiting pasture and forest edge are a nested subset of assemblages from the forest core. The remnant native vegetation is not distributed homogeneously and lizards species can persist in different parts of the landscape, therefore we recommend the protection of forest remnants as an important conservation action for lizards of the southern Amazon. PMID:25296198

  10. The importance of remnant native vegetation of Amazonian submontane forest for the conservation of lizards.

    PubMed

    Silva, D J; Santos-Filho, M; Canale, G R

    2014-08-01

    Forest fragmentation affects animal population dynamics mainly by loss of habitat and disruption of animal movement. Lizard assemblages are affected by environmental changes, but, depending on their ecological needs, some species might be more vulnerable than others. The southern Amazon suffers accelerated anthropic actions replacing natural environments by farmland (crops and pasture). This region is considerably drier than most of the northern Amazon, with stational semi-deciduous forests fragmented and isolated by pasture, and crops to a lesser extent. Here we report data on lizard assemblages using semi-deciduous forests, forest edge and the surrounding pasture in the southern Amazon in Mato Grosso, Brazil. Lizards were collected in 21 forest fragments (41 to 7,035 ha) surrounded by pasture; using pitfall traps placed on a degradation gradient - from pasture inwards forest fragment (up to 200 m). We collected 242 individuals (14 species, seven families) in 6,300 trap-days. The pattern of species occurrence was largely nested and this nesting was associated with three habitat guilds (generalist, edge-tolerant, and forest species). Although there was no obvious fragmentation effect on lizards diversity community-wise, Hoplocercus spinosus, Bachia dorbignyi, Micrablepharus maximiliani and Kentropyx calcarta were more vulnerable to such effects than all other ten species collected. We verified that assemblages inhabiting pasture and forest edge are a nested subset of assemblages from the forest core. The remnant native vegetation is not distributed homogeneously and lizards species can persist in different parts of the landscape, therefore we recommend the protection of forest remnants as an important conservation action for lizards of the southern Amazon.

  11. Vegetation and disturbance history of two forest stands in northern New York using paleoecological data from small forest hollows

    SciTech Connect

    Kearsley, J.B.; Jackson, S.T.

    1995-06-01

    Pollen, macrofossils and charcoal from two small hollows (<0.05 ha) were analyzed to reconstruct the vegetational history of an outwash plain in the central Adirondack upland of New York. The basins are located 700 meters apart in contrasting modern vegetation at 461 in elevation. Dave`s Lost Hollow (DLH) is in a hemlock-dominated old-growth forest with yellow birch, red spruce and red maple, and Valhalla Hollow (VH) is surrounded by second-growth forest of white pine, balsam fir, paper birch and red maple. The record from DLH spans the entire Holocene, while VH provides data for the late Holocene. Modem pollen-vegetation data from 26 closed-canopy sites in the area provide evidence for the fine-scale sensing properties of closed- canopy pollen assemblages. We found abundant jack pine needles during the early Holocene at DLH. In contrast, data from the High Peaks, 30 km to the east, show white pine as the dominant pine species during that time period. DLH provides an early Holocene record for yellow birch in the region, whereas yellow birch was not present in the High Peaks until 6,000 yrs. B.P.

  12. Forest Vegetation Monitoring Protocol for National Parks in the North Coast and Cascades Network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodward, Andrea; Hutten, Karen M.; Boetsch, John R.; Acker, Steven A.; Rochefort, Regina M.; Bivin, Mignonne M.; Kurth, Laurie L.

    2009-01-01

    Plant communities are the foundation for terrestrial trophic webs and animal habitat, and their structure and species composition are an integrated result of biological and physical drivers (Gates, 1993). Additionally, they have a major role in geologic, geomorphologic and soil development processes (Jenny, 1941; Stevens and Walker, 1970). Throughout most of the Pacific Northwest, environmental conditions support coniferous forests as the dominant vegetation type. In the face of anthropogenic climate change, forests have a global role as potential sinks for atmospheric carbon (Goodale and others, 2002). Consequently, knowledge of the status of forests in the three large parks of the NCCN [that is, Mount Rainier (MORA), North Cascades (NOCA), and Olympic (OLYM) National Parks] is fundamental to understanding the condition of Pacific Northwest ecosystems. Diverse climate and soil properties across the Pacific Northwest result in a variety of forest types (Franklin and Dyrness, 1973; Franklin and others, 1988; Henderson and others, 1989, 1992). The mountainous terrain of Mount Rainier, North Cascades, and Olympic National Parks create steep elevational and precipitation gradients within and among the parks: collectively, these parks span from sea level to more than 4,200 m; and include areas with precipitation from 90 to more than 500 cm. The resulting forests range from coastal rainforests with dense understories and massive trees draped with epiphytes; to areas with drought-adapted Ponderosa pines; to high-elevation subalpine fir forests interspersed with meadows just below treeline (table 1). These forests, in turn, are the foundation for other biotic communities constituting Pacific Northwest ecosystems.

  13. Using a Global Vegetation Model to Plan Local Natural Resource Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Symstad, A.; King, D. A.; Bachelet, D. M.; Burkhart, B.; Roddy, D.; Schroeder, G.; Swanson, D.

    2012-12-01

    Like politics, all ecology is local. Vegetation structure, composition, and production are strongly affected by local soils, topography, climate, and management. Local effects can be particularly strong in vegetation transition zones, areas that are often especially sensitive to climate variability, and in national parks or reserves, where management often differs substantially from surrounding areas. Natural resource management planning for future climate conditions in the latter is complicated by government-mandated or publically expected management priorities, such as maintaining a viable population of individual species of interest or the character of a landscape. Wind Cave National Park (WCNP), a 13,000-ha natural area in the Black Hills of South Dakota, lies on a prairie-forest transition where grass production controls the population viability of important wildlife and fire strongly influences the extent and character of the forest within the park. Both of these processes are quite climate-sensitive and park managers have been looking for ways to prepare for the challenges of climate change. The dynamic global vegetation model MC1 incorporates ecosystem science (C, water and N cycling; wildfire; CO2 effects), climate (temperature, precipitation, humidity), and natural resource management practices (fire suppression, prescribed fire, grazing) to simulate vegetation dynamics, thereby providing a means for natural resource managers to anticipate the effects of climate change, their management actions, and the interactions of the two on critical resources at the park scale. We parameterized MC1 to approximate the historical balance between forest and grasslands at WCNP, then ran 100-year-long simulations into the future using three fire and grazing scenarios and statistically downscaled climate projections from three general circulation models (GCMs). Under all fire/climate scenario combinations some forest remains in the park, but with lower biomass due to

  14. 25 CFR 163.37 - Forest management research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Forest management research. 163.37 Section 163.37 Indians... Management and Operations § 163.37 Forest management research. The Secretary, with the consent of the authorized Indian representatives' is authorized to perform forestry research activities to improve the...

  15. 25 CFR 163.37 - Forest management research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Forest management research. 163.37 Section 163.37 Indians... Management and Operations § 163.37 Forest management research. The Secretary, with the consent of the authorized Indian representatives' is authorized to perform forestry research activities to improve the...

  16. 43 CFR 5003.2 - Notice of forest management decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... effective date of the decision. The notice in the newspaper shall reference 43 CFR subpart 5003... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Notice of forest management decisions... LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FOREST MANAGEMENT (5000) ADMINISTRATION OF...

  17. 43 CFR 5003.2 - Notice of forest management decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... effective date of the decision. The notice in the newspaper shall reference 43 CFR subpart 5003... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Notice of forest management decisions... LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FOREST MANAGEMENT (5000) ADMINISTRATION OF...

  18. 43 CFR 5003.2 - Notice of forest management decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... effective date of the decision. The notice in the newspaper shall reference 43 CFR subpart 5003... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Notice of forest management decisions... LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FOREST MANAGEMENT (5000) ADMINISTRATION OF...

  19. 43 CFR 5003.2 - Notice of forest management decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... effective date of the decision. The notice in the newspaper shall reference 43 CFR subpart 5003... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Notice of forest management decisions... LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FOREST MANAGEMENT (5000) ADMINISTRATION OF...

  20. Stratification of forest vegetation for timber inventory using Landsat and collateral data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodcock, C. E.; Strahler, A. H.; Logan, T. L.

    1980-01-01

    An automated forest stratification procedure based on Landsat and digital terrain data is reviewed. The system uses Landsat multispectral brightness values, a spatial texture channel, and digital terrain data information to divide Klamath National Forest vegetation into timber volume-homogeneous strata. The stratification process involves analyst-supervised class pooling editing, and the modeling of the regional type in a spatial manner using the digital terrain data. It is noted that for a given size and density class, the timber volume will change when the regional type changes, reflecting differences in growth potential.

  1. Multistage, multiseasonal and multiband imagery to identify and qualify non-forest vegetation resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Driscoll, R. S.; Francis, R. E.

    1970-01-01

    A description of space and supporting aircraft photography for the interpretation and analyses of non-forest (shrubby and herbaceous) native vegetation is presented. The research includes the development of a multiple sampling technique to assign quantitative area values of specific plant community types included within an assigned space photograph map unit. Also, investigations of aerial film type, scale, and season of photography for identification and quantity measures of shrubby and herbaceous vegetation were conducted. Some work was done to develop automated interpretation techniques with film image density measurement devices.

  2. 78 FR 44557 - Revision to Transmission Vegetation Management Reliability Standard; Notice of Compliance Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-24

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Revision to Transmission Vegetation Management Reliability Standard; Notice... conductors and vegetation; (2) modifying the Violation Risk Factor for Requirement R2; and (3) confirming...\\ Revisions to Reliability Standard for Transmission Vegetation Management, Order No. 777, 142 FERC ]...

  3. A framework for identifying carbon hotspots and forest management drivers.

    PubMed

    Timilsina, Nilesh; Escobedo, Francisco J; Cropper, Wendell P; Abd-Elrahman, Amr; Brandeis, Thomas J; Delphin, Sonia; Lambert, Samuel

    2013-01-15

    Spatial analyses of ecosystem system services that are directly relevant to both forest management decision making and conservation in the subtropics are rare. Also, frameworks that identify and map carbon stocks and corresponding forest management drivers using available regional, national, and international-level forest inventory datasets could provide insights into key forest structural characteristics and management practices that are optimal for carbon storage. To address this need we used publicly available USDA Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis data and spatial analyses to develop a framework for mapping "carbon hotspots" (i.e. areas of significantly high tree and understory aboveground carbon stocks) across a range of forest types using the state of Florida, USA as an example. We also analyzed influential forest management variables (e.g. forest types, fire, hurricanes, tenure, management activities) using generalized linear mixed modeling to identify drivers associated with these hotspots. Most of the hotspots were located in the northern third of the state some in peri-urban areas, and there were no identifiable hotspots in South Florida. Forest silvicultural treatments (e.g. site preparation, thinning, logging, etc) were not significant predictors of hotspots. Forest types, site quality, and stand age were however significant predictors. Higher site quality and stand age increased the probability of forests being classified as a hotspot. Disturbance type and time since disturbance were not significant predictors in our analyses. This framework can use globally available forest inventory datasets to analyze and map ecosystems service provision areas and bioenergy supplies and identify forest management practices that optimize these services in forests.

  4. A framework for identifying carbon hotspots and forest management drivers.

    PubMed

    Timilsina, Nilesh; Escobedo, Francisco J; Cropper, Wendell P; Abd-Elrahman, Amr; Brandeis, Thomas J; Delphin, Sonia; Lambert, Samuel

    2013-01-15

    Spatial analyses of ecosystem system services that are directly relevant to both forest management decision making and conservation in the subtropics are rare. Also, frameworks that identify and map carbon stocks and corresponding forest management drivers using available regional, national, and international-level forest inventory datasets could provide insights into key forest structural characteristics and management practices that are optimal for carbon storage. To address this need we used publicly available USDA Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis data and spatial analyses to develop a framework for mapping "carbon hotspots" (i.e. areas of significantly high tree and understory aboveground carbon stocks) across a range of forest types using the state of Florida, USA as an example. We also analyzed influential forest management variables (e.g. forest types, fire, hurricanes, tenure, management activities) using generalized linear mixed modeling to identify drivers associated with these hotspots. Most of the hotspots were located in the northern third of the state some in peri-urban areas, and there were no identifiable hotspots in South Florida. Forest silvicultural treatments (e.g. site preparation, thinning, logging, etc) were not significant predictors of hotspots. Forest types, site quality, and stand age were however significant predictors. Higher site quality and stand age increased the probability of forests being classified as a hotspot. Disturbance type and time since disturbance were not significant predictors in our analyses. This framework can use globally available forest inventory datasets to analyze and map ecosystems service provision areas and bioenergy supplies and identify forest management practices that optimize these services in forests. PMID:23171606

  5. Vegetation history of the walnut forests in Kyrgyzstan (Central Asia): natural or anthropogenic origin?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beer, Ruth; Kaiser, Franziska; Schmidt, Kaspar; Ammann, Brigitta; Carraro, Gabriele; Grisa, Ennio; Tinner, Willy

    2008-03-01

    Extensive forests of common walnut ( Juglans regia L.) occur in the mountains of the Fergana and the Chatkal Ranges of Kyrgyzstan (Central Asia), where they form a rich cultural landscape with a mosaic of natural and planted forest stands, fields, pastures, and drier open areas. These remote forests are likely to be an important genetic resource for J. regia, not only for in situ conservation but also as a resource for tree breeding. Pollen and charcoal analyses of the sediments of four lakes and two peat bogs in the core regions of the walnut forests provide new data to infer the vegetation history of the last 6800 years in the Fergana and Chatkal Ranges in Kyrgyzstan. Our results suggest that the potential natural forests or woods in the modern walnut forest region were dominated by Juniperus together with trees of Betula, Fraxinus, Rosaceae, and possibly Acer. A special focus was put on the vegetation history of J. regia, as it has been suggested that the walnut forests of Kyrgyzstan might be a refuge for this tree. However, our results suggest that the stands of J. regia are at the most 2000 years old, most of them even only about 1000 years old and probably of anthropogenic origin, confirming an old legend that is still orally transmitted in Kyrgyzstan. As with other old and widespread cultivated plants, it is not easy to reconstruct the original distribution and determine the borders of the past natural ranges. A review of paleoecological data points to refugia in southern Europe, Syria, Kyrgyzstan, China, and the Himalaya, where Juglans possibly outlived the last glaciation.

  6. Constructing Virtual Forest Scenes for Assessment of Sub-pixel Vegetation Structure From Imaging Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerace, A. D.; Yao, W.; van Aardt, J. A.; Romanczyk, P.; Kelbe, D.; van Leeuwen, M.; Kampe, T. U.

    2015-12-01

    Assessment of vegetation structure via remote sensing modalities has a long history for a range of sensor platforms. Imaging spectroscopy, while often used for biochemical measurements, also applies to structural assessment in that the Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HyspIRI), for instance, will provide an opportunity to monitor the global ecosystem. Establishing the linkage between HyspIRI data and sub-pixel vegetation structural variation therefore is of keen interest to the remote sensing and ecology communities. NASA's AVIRIS-C was used to collect airborne data during the 2013-2015 time frame, while ground truth data were limited to 2013 due to time-consuming and labor-intensive nature of field data collection. We augmented the available field data with a first-principles, physics-based simulation approach to refine our field efforts and to maintain larger control over within-pixel variation and associated assessments. Three virtual scenes were constructed for the study, corresponding to the actual vegetation structure of the NEON's Pacific Southwest site (Fresno, CA). They presented three typical forest types: oak savanna, dense coniferous forest, and conifer manzanita mixed forest. Airborne spectrometer and a field leaf area index sensor were simulated over these scenes using the Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Image Generation (DIRSIG) Model, a synthetic image generation model. After verifying the geometrical parameters and physical model with those replicative senses, more scenes could be constructed by changing one or more vegetation structural parameters, such as forest density, tree species, size, location, and within-pixel distribution. We constructed regression models of leaf area index (LAI, R2=0.92) and forest density(R2=0.97) with narrow-band vegetation indices through simulation. Those models can be used to improve the HyspIRI's suitability for consistent global vegetation structural assessments. The virtual scene and model can also be used in

  7. Energy, water and carbon balance of managed forests: comparing the future to the past

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loustau, Denis; Moreaux, Virginie; Moisy, Christophe; Picart, Delphine; Lafont, Sébastien; Benest, Fabienne; Lagouarde, Jean-PIerre; Bosc, Alexandre

    2014-05-01

    Intensification of forest management concerns a growing fraction of temperate and tropical forests. It is thought to affect wider areas in the near future for facing biomass, fiber and wood demands. Intensively managed forests are submitted to increased soil preparation, fertilization, drainage, thinning, clear-cutting, whole tree - harvesting and rotation shortening. They are composed of fast growing stands commonly planted with enhanced tree varieties or clones of eucalypts, pines, poplars, willows among others. Altogether these practices have substantial effects on forest exchanges with atmosphere and groundwater and therefore on local and regional climates and water resources. Using data collected from flux tower sites, MODIS products and forest and soil inventories together with our process based model of forest growth, GO+, we analysed the impacts of intensified management on forest canopy exchanges of heat, short and longwave radiations, water and CO2 and its interaction with soil and climate. Results obtained under present climate conditions evidenced interactions between intensification effects and soil and climate conditions. We show that biophysical impacts on radiative forcing potential, through albedo increase and convective fluxes of heat and water, are in the same order of magnitude than changes in the biogeochemical cycle of carbon. Drought affects dramatically the net carbon and water balances of forest stands independent of management and age. However, the effects of successive management operations (ploughing, vegetation burial, thinning) overtook climate impacts and make the young stands and intensive alternatives more independent and resilient to climate change impacts. The model applications to the analysis of future climate scenarios allowed to attributing the role of management alternatives, soil conditions and climate and their interactions. For intensively managed forests, the frequency of soil preparation operations, the management

  8. Remote sensing applications to forest vegetation classification and conifer vigor loss due to dwarf mistletoe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Douglass, R. W.; Meyer, M. P.; French, D. W.

    1972-01-01

    Criteria was established for practical remote sensing of vegetation stress and mortality caused by dwarf mistletoe infections in black spruce subboreal forest stands. The project was accomplished in two stages: (1) A fixed tower-tramway site in an infected black spruce stand was used for periodic multispectral photo coverage to establish basic film/filter/scale/season/weather parameters; (2) The photographic combinations suggested by the tower-tramway tests were used in low, medium, and high altitude aerial photography.

  9. Tropical rain forest conversion to pasture: Changes in vegetation and soil properties

    SciTech Connect

    Reiners, W.A. ); Bouwman, A.F. ); Parsons, W.F.J. Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences, Rugers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ ); Keller, M. )

    1994-05-01

    The effect of converting lowland tropical rainforest to pasture, and of subsequent succession of pasture lands to secondary forest, were examined in the Atlantic Zone of Costa Rica. Three replicate sites of each of four land-use types representing this disturbance-recovery sequence were sampled for changes in vegetation, pedological properties, and potential nitrogen mineralization and nitrification. The four land-use types included primary forest, actively grazed pasture (10-36 yr old), abandoned pasture (abandoned 4-10 yr) and secondary forest (abandoned 10-20 yr). Conversion and succession had obvious and significant effects on canopy cover, canopy height, species composition, and species richness; it appeared that succession of secondary forests was proceeding toward a floristic composition like that of the primary forests. Significant changes in soil properties associated with conversion of forest to pasture included: (1) a decrease in acidity and increase in some base exchange properties, (2) and increase in bulk density and a concomitant decrease in porosity, (3) higher concentrations of NH[sub 4][sup +], (4) lower concentrations of NO[sub 3][sup [minus

  10. Longleaf Pine Ground-Layer Vegetation in Francis Marion National Forest: Reintroduction, Restoration, and Vegetation Assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Glitzenstein, J.; Streng, D.; Wade, D.

    2001-01-01

    Study represents significant progress in understanding of compositional gradients in longleaf pine plant communities of Central South Carolina. Study shows the importance of water table depths as a controlling variable with vegetation patterns in the field and similar effects in a garden experiment. Grass planting study suggests that observed field distributions of dormant pine savannah grasses derive from complex interactive effects of fire history, hydrology and light environments. Use of regional longleaf data set to identify candidate species for introduction also appears to be a pioneering effort.

  11. Forest Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    NASA's Technology Applications Center, with other government and academic agencies, provided technology for improved resources management to the Cibola National Forest. Landsat satellite images enabled vegetation over a large area to be classified for purposes of timber analysis, wildlife habitat, range measurement and development of general vegetation maps.

  12. Diversity and composition of understory vegetation in the tropical seasonal rain forest of Xishuangbanna, SW China.

    PubMed

    Lü, Xiao-Tao; Yin, Jiang-Xia; Tang, Jian-Wei

    2011-03-01

    Tropical forests vegetation and community research have tended to focus on the tree component, and limited attention has been paid to understory vegetation. Species diversity and composition of the understory of tropical seasonal rain forest were inventoried in a 625 m2 area (for sapling layer) and a 100 m2 area (for herb/seedling layer) in three 1 ha plots. We found 3068 individuals belonging to 309 species, 192 genera and 89 families. The most important family as determined by the Family Importance Value (FIV) was Rubiaceae in both sapling and herb/seedling layers. In terms of Importance Value Index (IVI), the shrub Mycetia gracilis (Rubiaceae) was the most important species in the sapling layer and the pteridophyte Selaginella delicatula (Selaginellaceae) was the most ecological significant species in the herb/seedling layer. Much more vascular plant species were registered in the understory than in the tree layer totaled among the three plots. The species diversity did not differ significantly among the tree layer, sapling layer and herb/seedling layer. Given that we still know little about the understory plant community for growth forms other than trees, the results from the present study indicate that more attention should be paid to the understory vegetation during the decision-making process for biodiversity conservation in the tropical forests. PMID:21513205

  13. Targeting Forest Management through Fire and Erosion Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliot, William J.; Miller, Mary Ellen; MacDonald, Lee H.

    2013-04-01

    Forests deliver a number of ecosystem services, including clean water. When forests are disturbed by wildfire, the timing and quantity of runoff can be altered, and the quality can be severely degraded. A modeling study for about 1500 km2 in the Upper Mokelumne River Watershed in California was conducted to determine the risk of wildfire and the associated potential sediment delivery should a wildfire occur, and to calculate the potential reduction in sediment delivery that might result from fuel reduction treatments. The first step was to predict wildfire severity and probability of occurrence under current vegetation conditions with FlamMap fire prediction tool. FlamMap uses current vegetation, topography, and wind characteristics to predict the speed, flame length, and direction of a simulated flame front for each 30-m pixel. As the first step in the erosion modeling, a geospatial interface for the WEPP model (GeoWEPP) was used to delineate approximately 6-ha hillslope polygons for the study area. The flame length values from FlamMap were then aggregated for each hillslope polygon to yield a predicted fire intensity. Fire intensity and pre-fire vegetation conditions were used to estimate fire severity (either unburned, low, moderate or high). The fire severity was combined with soil properties from the STATSGO database to build the vegetation and soil files needed to run WEPP for each polygon. Eight different stochastic climates were generated to account for the weather variability within the basin. A modified batching version of GeoWEPP was used to predict the first-year post-fire sediment yield from each hillslope and subwatershed. Estimated sediment yields ranged from 0 to more than 100 Mg/ha, and were typical of observed values. The polygons that generated the greatest amount of sediment or that were critical for reducing fire spread were identified, and these were "treated" by reducing the amount of fuel available for a wildfire. The erosion associated with

  14. Participatory Forest Management in Ethiopia: Learning from Pilot Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ameha, Aklilu; Larsen, H. O.; Lemenih, Mulugeta

    2014-04-01

    Different arrangements of decentralized forest management have been promoted as alternatives to centralized and top down approaches to halt tropical deforestation and forest degradation. Ethiopia is one of the countries piloting one of these approaches. To inform future programs and projects it is essential to learn from existing pilots and experiences. This paper analyses five of the pilot participatory forest management (PFM) programs undertaken in Ethiopia. The study is based on the Forest User Group (FUG) members' analyses of the programs using selected outcome variables: forest income, change in forest conditions, forest ownership feelings and effectiveness of FUGs as forest managing institutions. These variables were assessed at three points in time—before the introduction of PFM, during the project implementation and after the projects ended. Data were collected using group discussions, key informant interviews and transect walks through the PFM forests. The results show that in all of the five cases the state of the forest is perceived to have improved with the introduction of PFM, and in four of the cases the improvement was maintained after projects ended. Regulated access to the forests following introduction of PFM was not perceived to have affected forest income negatively. There are, however, serious concerns about the institutional effectiveness of the FUGs after projects ended, and this may affect the success of the PFM approach in the longer term.

  15. Comparative study on carbon accumulation in soils under managed and unmanaged forests in Central Balkan Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naydenova, Lora; Zhiyanski, Miglena; Leifeld, Jens

    2014-05-01

    Each soil has a carbon storage capacity, which depends on many factors including type of soil, vegetation, precipitation and temperature. The aim of this work is to compare the carbon accumulation in forest floor layers and mineral soil horizons under managed and unmanaged spruce and beech forest ecosystems developed on Cambisols in Central Balkan Mountains, Bulgaria. We have investigated two managed and two unmanaged forests - pure stands of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst.). In each experimental site one representative soil profile was prepared with additional 4 sampling profiles for more precise determination of spatial variability of soil characteristic at site level. The forest floor was sampled in 3 repetitions per site, by a plastic frame (25:25 cm). The textural composition of soil, bulk density, coarse fraction content, pH, carbon and nitrogen content were analysed for forest floor layers and soil at different soil depths (0-10 cm, 10-20 cm, 20-30 cm and 30-50 cm). Both European beech and Norway spruce stands had higher accumulation of organic matter in the forest floor and the Ah horizon under unmanaged conditions. When managed, carbon contents tended to be higher in deeper horizons of the mineral soil, probably due to differences in microclimate after cutting. However, the variability in carbon storage was higher in managed sites which may reflect a higher degree of disturbance. Further work will analyse the soil carbon dynamics using radiocarbon as a tracer.

  16. [Impact of traditionally managed forest units on the landscape connectivity of Sierra de Los Tuxtlas, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Aguilar Vásquez, Yunin; Aliphat Fernández, Mario Manuel; Caso Barrera, Laura; Del Amo Rodríguez, Silvia; Sánchez Gómez, Maria De Lourdes; Martínez-Carrera, Daniel

    2014-09-01

    The ever-increasing establishment of landscape mosaics is expressed as a surrounding matrix of agricultural activities, which frames patches or remnants of the original vegetation cover. Conservation actions should be aimed to establish or to increase those interactive systems, which help to maintain the land- scape flow through linkages. Spaces occupied by traditional management systems retain and support this func- tion. In this paper, we used Geographic Information Systems to evaluate the importance of traditionally managed forest units ('acahuales'-coffee plantations) and to assess landscape connectivity in the indigenous Popoluca area of Sierra de los Tuxtlas, Mexico. The cartographic material used to establish the types of vegetation and their coverture included the period 1991-2008. At landscape level, four indices were used to assess the general situation of the habitat network, and to identify the patches of high priority. Individually, indices evaluated if patches were important for their area, their potential flow or their connecting function. Results showed that the landscape is functioning as a single system, but having low connectivity. Values improved when traditionally managed forest patches were considered as viable habitat. We detected 367 patches of very high priority, 80% belonging to forests managed traditionally. Patches were important for their potential flow (size and topologi- cal relationships). Only 70 patches were significant for their function as biological corridors between largest forests located at the top of the volcanoes, and are mostly managed forest (75%). We concluded that the units of traditionally managed forest play a significant role in landscape connectivity maintenance. PMID:25412538

  17. Canopy Profiling for Vegetation Mapping in South-Western Australian Forested Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schut, A. G. T.; Wardell-Johnson, G. W.; Baran, I.

    2012-09-01

    Anthropogenic climate change is already impacting native vegetation world-wide. Thus accurate mapping of current vegetation condition is necessary for benchmarking and conservation planning. We examine the potential for the mapping of native vegetation of forested ecosystems in south-western Australia using LiDAR data. Airborne LiDAR (distance between data points 1.2 m) and RGB imagery was acquired with a discrete 4-return Leica ALS 50-II system in April 2011 and vertical canopy profiles determined in Boyagin Nature Reserve. Elevation, slope and geomorphological descriptions of the terrain in combination with vertical canopy profiles based on presence/absence of returns within voxels were derived from the LiDAR data and processed at a spatial resolution of 4.0 meters. Based on these profiles, crown height and depth, ground cover, mean intensity of crown returns, presence of understory and number of vegetation layers were determined for each grid cell. Unsupervised classification revealed distinctive canopy profiles. Vegetation is strongly linked to geomorphology in this old landscape. Thus Kwongan shrubland occurs on the plateaus, Allocasuarina heugeliana woodland on the fringes of rock outcrops, Eucalyptus astringens and E. accedens woodland on breakaways and E. wandoo and Corymbia calophylla woodland in more fertile valley systems. The vegetation types present within distinctive spatial clusters were determined in two field visits. Vegetation types were mapped with an object-based image analysis approach at geomorphological, vegetation and tree scales using the geomorphology of the terrain and structural, textural and reflective characteristics of the canopy. All vertical profiles identified were present on each geomorphological unit. Tree species with a distinctive vertical profile such as Eucalyptus astringens and Allocasuarina heugeliana were defined and distinguished in combination with object-based geomorphological and spatial characteristics. Vegetation

  18. Native Grasses as a Management Alternative on Vegetated Closure Caps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwit, Charles; Collins, Beverly

    2008-06-01

    Capped waste sites often are vegetated with commercial turf grasses to increase evapotranspiration and prevent erosion and possible exposure of the barrier. Fertilizer, frequent watering, and mowing may be required to establish the turf grass and prevent invasion by trees and shrubs. Oldfield vegetation of grasses and forbs is a possible sustainable alternative to turf grass communities. To determine if oldfield vegetation can establish on caps, we (1) compared establishment of a dominant oldfield grass and a commercial turf grass under different combinations of new closure cap management: spring or summer planting and presence or absence of amendments to alleviate drought (watering, mulch) or increase soil fertility (fertilizer, lime, a nitrogen-fixing legume); (2) surveyed existing caps to determine if oldfield species establish naturally; and (3) performed a greenhouse experiment to compare growth of two native grasses under low and amended (added water, soil nutrients) conditions. Both the commercial grass and oldfield species established under new cap conditions; fertilizer, water, and mulch improved vegetation establishment in spring or summer, but legumes decreased grass cover. In the greenhouse, both native grasses grew best with amendments; however, substantial stem and root length were obtained with no fertilizer and only once-weekly watering. Existing vegetated caps supported planted grasses and naturally established oldfield species. Overall, the results indicate native grasses can establish on new caps and oldfields can serve as a management model; further work is needed to determine the management strategy to maintain herbaceous vegetation and slow woody species invasion.

  19. Using a LIDAR Vegetation Model to Predict UHF SAR Attenuation in Coniferous Forests

    PubMed Central

    Swanson, Alan; Huang, Shengli; Crabtree, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Attenuation of radar signals by vegetation can be a problem for target detection and GPS reception, and is an important parameter in models describing vegetation backscatter. Here we first present a model describing the 3D distribution of stem and foliage structure based on small footprint scanning LIDAR data. Secondly we present a model that uses ray-tracing methodology to record detailed interactions between simulated radar beams and vegetation components. These interactions are combined over the SAR aperture and used to predict two-way attenuation of the SAR signal. Accuracy of the model is demonstrated using UHF SAR observations of large trihedral corner reflectors in coniferous forest stands. Our study showed that the model explains between 66% and 81% of the variability in observed attenuation. PMID:22573972

  20. Using a LIDAR Vegetation Model to Predict UHF SAR Attenuation in Coniferous Forests.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Alan; Huang, Shengli; Crabtree, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Attenuation of radar signals by vegetation can be a problem for target detection and GPS reception, and is an important parameter in models describing vegetation backscatter. Here we first present a model describing the 3D distribution of stem and foliage structure based on small footprint scanning LIDAR data. Secondly we present a model that uses ray-tracing methodology to record detailed interactions between simulated radar beams and vegetation components. These interactions are combined over the SAR aperture and used to predict two-way attenuation of the SAR signal. Accuracy of the model is demonstrated using UHF SAR observations of large trihedral corner reflectors in coniferous forest stands. Our study showed that the model explains between 66% and 81% of the variability in observed attenuation. PMID:22573972

  1. Variation in Vegetation Structure and Soil Properties, and the Relation Between Understory Plants and Environmental Variables Under Different Phyllostachys pubescens Forests in Southeastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Changshun; Xie, Gaodi; Fan, Shaohui; Zhen, Lin

    2010-04-01

    Biodiversity maintenance and soil improvement are key sustainable forestry objectives. Research on the effects of bamboo forest management on plant diversity and soil properties are therefore necessary in bamboo-growing regions, such as southeastern China’s Shunchang County, that have not been studied from this perspective. We analyzed the effects of different Phyllostachys pubescens proportions in managed forests on vegetation structure and soil properties using pure Cunninghamia lanceolata forests as a contrast, and analyzed the relation between understory plants and environmental variables (i.e., topography, stand and soil characteristics) by canonical correspondence analysis (CCA). The forest with 80% P. pubescens and 20% hardwoods (such as Phoebe bournei, Jatropha curcas, Schima superba) maintained the highest plant diversity and best soil properties, with significantly higher plant diversity than the C. lanceolata forest, and better soil physicochemical and biological properties. The distribution of understory plants is highly related to environmental factors. Silvicultural disturbance strongly influenced the ability of different bamboo forests to maintain biodiversity and soil quality under extensive management, and the forest responses to management were consistent with the intermediate-disturbance hypothesis (i.e., diversity and soil properties were best at intermediate disturbance levels). Our results suggest that biodiversity maintenance and soil improvement are important management goals for sustainable bamboo management. To achieve those objectives, managers should balance the inputs and outputs of nutrients and protect understory plants by using appropriate fertilizer (e.g., organic fertilizer), adjusting stand structure, modifying utilization model and the harvest time, and controlling the intensity of culms and shoots harvests.

  2. Variation in vegetation structure and soil properties, and the relation between understory plants and environmental variables under different Phyllostachys pubescens forests in southeastern China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Changshun; Xie, Gaodi; Fan, Shaohui; Zhen, Lin

    2010-04-01

    Biodiversity maintenance and soil improvement are key sustainable forestry objectives. Research on the effects of bamboo forest management on plant diversity and soil properties are therefore necessary in bamboo-growing regions, such as southeastern China's Shunchang County, that have not been studied from this perspective. We analyzed the effects of different Phyllostachys pubescens proportions in managed forests on vegetation structure and soil properties using pure Cunninghamia lanceolata forests as a contrast, and analyzed the relation between understory plants and environmental variables (i.e., topography, stand and soil characteristics) by canonical correspondence analysis (CCA). The forest with 80% P. pubescens and 20% hardwoods (such as Phoebe bournei, Jatropha curcas, Schima superba) maintained the highest plant diversity and best soil properties, with significantly higher plant diversity than the C. lanceolata forest, and better soil physicochemical and biological properties. The distribution of understory plants is highly related to environmental factors. Silvicultural disturbance strongly influenced the ability of different bamboo forests to maintain biodiversity and soil quality under extensive management, and the forest responses to management were consistent with the intermediate-disturbance hypothesis (i.e., diversity and soil properties were best at intermediate disturbance levels). Our results suggest that biodiversity maintenance and soil improvement are important management goals for sustainable bamboo management. To achieve those objectives, managers should balance the inputs and outputs of nutrients and protect understory plants by using appropriate fertilizer (e.g., organic fertilizer), adjusting stand structure, modifying utilization model and the harvest time, and controlling the intensity of culms and shoots harvests.

  3. Effects of harvest management practices on forest biomass and soil carbon in eucalypt forests in New South Wales, Australia: Simulations with the forest succession model LINKAGES

    SciTech Connect

    Ranatunga, Kemachandra; Keenan, Rodney J.; Wullschleger, Stan D; Post, Wilfred M; Tharp, M Lynn

    2008-01-01

    Understanding long-term changes in forest ecosystem carbon stocks under forest management practices such as timber harvesting is important for assessing the contribution of forests to the global carbon cycle. Harvesting effects are complicated by the amount, type, and condition of residue left on-site, the decomposition rate of this residue, the incorporation of residue into soil organic matter and the rate of new detritus input to the forest floor from regrowing vegetation. In an attempt to address these complexities, the forest succession model LINKAGES was used to assess the production of aboveground biomass, detritus, and soil carbon stocks in native Eucalyptus forests as influenced by five harvest management practices in New South Wales, Australia. The original decomposition sub-routines of LINKAGES were modified by adding components of the Rothamsted (RothC) soil organic matter turnover model. Simulation results using the new model were compared to data from long-term forest inventory plots. Good agreement was observed between simulated and measured above-ground biomass, but mixed results were obtained for basal area. Harvesting operations examined included removing trees for quota sawlogs (QSL, DBH >80 cm), integrated sawlogs (ISL, DBH >20 cm) and whole-tree harvesting in integrated sawlogs (WTH). We also examined the impact of different cutting cycles (20, 50 or 80 years) and intensities (removing 20, 50 or 80 m{sup 3}). Generally medium and high intensities of shorter cutting cycles in sawlog harvesting systems produced considerably higher soil carbon values compared to no harvesting. On average, soil carbon was 2-9% lower in whole-tree harvest simulations whereas in sawlog harvest simulations soil carbon was 5-17% higher than in no harvesting.

  4. Reconstructing European forest management from 1600 to 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGrath, M. J.; Luyssaert, S.; Meyfroidt, P.; Kaplan, J. O.; Buergi, M.; Chen, Y.; Erb, K.; Gimmi, U.; McInerney, D.; Naudts, K.; Otto, J.; Pasztor, F.; Ryder, J.; Schelhaas, M.-J.; Valade, A.

    2015-04-01

    European forest use for fuel, timber and food dates back to pre-Roman times. Century-scale ecological processes and their legacy effects require accounting for forest management when studying today's forest carbon sink. Forest management reconstructions that are used to drive land surface models are one way to quantify the impact of both historical and today's large scale application of forest management on today's forest-related carbon sink and surface climate. In this study we reconstruct European forest management from 1600 to 2010 making use of diverse approaches, data sources and assumptions. Between 1600 and 1828, a demand-supply approach was used in which wood supply was reconstructed based on estimates of historical annual wood increment and land cover reconstructions. For the same period demand estimates accounted for the fuelwood needed in households, wood used in food processing, charcoal used in metal smelting and salt production, timber for construction and population estimates. Comparing estimated demand and supply resulted in a spatially explicit reconstruction of the share of forests under coppice, high stand management and forest left unmanaged. For the reconstruction between 1829 and 2010 a supply-driven back-casting method was used. The method used age reconstructions from the years 1950 to 2010 as its starting point. Our reconstruction reproduces the most important changes in forest management between 1600 and 2010: (1) an increase of 593 000 km2 in conifers at the expense of deciduous forest (decreasing by 538 000 km2), (2) a 612 000 km2 decrease in unmanaged forest, (3) a 152 000 km2 decrease in coppice management, (4) a 818 000 km2 increase in high stand management, and (5) the rise and fall of litter raking which at its peak in 1853 removed 50 Tg dry litter per year.

  5. Landsat Pathfinder tropical forest information management system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salas, W.; Chomentowski, W.; Harville, J.; Skole, D.; Vellekamp, K.

    1994-01-01

    A Tropical Forest Information Management System_(TFIMS) has been designed to fulfill the needs of HTFIP in such a way that it tracks all aspects of the generation and analysis of the raw satellite data and the derived deforestation dataset. The system is broken down into four components: satellite image selection, processing, data management and archive management. However, as we began to think of how the TFIMS could also be used to make the data readily accessible to all user communities we realized that the initial system was too project oriented and could only be accessed locally. The new system needed development in the areas of data ingest and storage, while at the same time being implemented on a server environment with a network interface accessible via Internet. This paper summarizes the overall design of the existing prototype (version 0) information management system and then presents the design of the new system (version 1). The development of version 1 of the TFIMS is ongoing. There are no current plans for a gradual transition from version 0 to version 1 because the significant changes are in how the data within the HTFIP will be made accessible to the extended community of scientists, policy makers, educators, and students and not in the functionality of the basic system.

  6. Post-fire succession of ground vegetation of central Siberia in Scots pine forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovaleva, N.; Ivanova, G. A.; Conard, S. G.

    2012-04-01

    Extensive wildfires have affected the Russian region in the last decade. Scots pine forests (Pinus sylvestris L.) are widespread in central Siberia and fire occurrence is high in these forests, whose dominant fire regime is one of frequent surface fires. We studied post- fire succession of ground vegetation has been studied on nine experimental fires of varying severity (from 620 to 5220 kW/m) in middle taiga Scots pine forests of central Siberia (Russia). It proved from our study that all species of the succession process are present from initial stages. We did not find any trend of ground vegetation diversity with the time during 8 years after the fire. Our investigation showed that post- fire recovery of the ground vegetation is determined by initial forest type, fire severity and litter burning depth. Fire severity had a clear effect in initial succession in study area and it clearly had an impact on percentage cover, biomass and structure of ground vegetation. In a lesser degree the small shrubs are damaged during ground fires. The dominating species (Vaccinium vitis-idaea and V. myrtillus) regained the cover values above or close to 6—8 years. The post- fire biomass of ground vegetation 93—100% consists of species (Vaccinium vitis-idaea and V. myrtillus) that survived after the fire and increased in the cover with the time. In pine forests mosses and lichens suffer to a greater degree after ground fires. Lichen layer was completely lost after the fires of any severity. Decrease of mosses species diversity takes place after ground fires. The post- fire cover and species diversity of the green mosses were progressively lower with increasing the fire severity during the observation period. Maximum changes are discovered in the post- fire structure of plant microgroups after the high- severity fire which resulted in intensive invasion by the post- fire mosses (Polytrichum strictum and P. commune). There is a positive trend of green moss microgroups recovery

  7. Foundation species loss affects vegetation structure more than ecosystem function in a northeastern USA forest.

    PubMed

    Orwig, David A; Barker Plotkin, Audrey A; Davidson, Eric A; Lux, Heidi; Savage, Kathleen E; Ellison, Aaron M

    2013-01-01

    Loss of foundation tree species rapidly alters ecological processes in forested ecosystems. Tsuga canadensis, an hypothesized foundation species of eastern North American forests, is declining throughout much of its range due to infestation by the nonnative insect Adelges tsugae and by removal through pre-emptive salvage logging. In replicate 0.81-ha plots, T. canadensis was cut and removed, or killed in place by girdling to simulate adelgid damage. Control plots included undisturbed hemlock and mid-successional hardwood stands that represent expected forest composition in 50-100 years. Vegetation richness, understory vegetation cover, soil carbon flux, and nitrogen cycling were measured for two years prior to, and five years following, application of experimental treatments. Litterfall and coarse woody debris (CWD), including snags, stumps, and fallen logs and branches, have been measured since treatments were applied. Overstory basal area was reduced 60%-70% in girdled and logged plots. Mean cover and richness did not change in hardwood or hemlock control plots but increased rapidly in girdled and logged plots. Following logging, litterfall immediately decreased then slowly increased, whereas in girdled plots, there was a short pulse of hemlock litterfall as trees died. CWD volume remained relatively constant throughout but was 3-4× higher in logged plots. Logging and girdling resulted in small, short-term changes in ecosystem dynamics due to rapid regrowth of vegetation but in general, interannual variability exceeded differences among treatments. Soil carbon flux in girdled plots showed the strongest response: 35% lower than controls after three years and slowly increasing thereafter. Ammonium availability increased immediately after logging and two years after girdling, due to increased light and soil temperatures and nutrient pulses from leaf-fall and reduced uptake following tree death. The results from this study illuminate ecological processes underlying

  8. Designing Forest Adaptation Experiments through Manager-Scientist Partnerships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagel, L. M.; Swanston, C.; Janowiak, M.

    2014-12-01

    Three common forest adaptation options discussed in the context of an uncertain future climate are: creating resistance, promoting resilience, and enabling forests to respond to change. Though there is consensus on the broad management goals addressed by each of these options, translating these concepts into management plans specific for individual forest types that vary in structure, composition, and function remains a challenge. We will describe a decision-making framework that we employed within a manager-scientist partnership to develop a suite of adaptation treatments for two contrasting forest types as part of a long-term forest management experiment. The first, in northern Minnesota, is a red pine-dominated forest with components of white pine, aspen, paper birch, and northern red oak, with a hazel understory. The second, in southwest Colorado, is a warm-dry mixed conifer forest dominated by ponderosa pine, white fir, and Douglas-fir, with scattered aspen and an understory of Gambel oak. The current conditions at both sites are characterized by overstocking with moderate-to-high fuel loading, vulnerability to numerous forest health threats, and are generally uncharacteristic of historic structure and composition. The desired future condition articulated by managers for each site included elements of historic structure and natural range of variability, but were greatly tempered by known vulnerabilities and projected changes to climate and disturbance patterns. The resultant range of treatments we developed are distinct for each forest type, and address a wide range of management objectives.

  9. Effect of land-use practice on soil moisture variability for soils covered with dense forest vegetation of Puerto Rico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsegaye, T.; Coleman, T.; Senwo, Z.; Shaffer, D.; Zou, X.

    1998-01-01

    Little is known about the landuse management effect on soil moisture and soil pH distribution on a landscape covered with dense tropical forest vegetation. This study was conducted at three locations where the history of the landuse management is different. Soil moisture was measured using a 6-cm three-rod Time Domain Reflectometery (TDR) probe. Disturbed soil samples were taken from the top 5-cm at the up, mid, and foothill landscape position from the same spots where soil moisture was measured. The results showed that soil moisture varies with landscape position and depth at all three locations. Soil pH and moisture variability were found to be affected by the change in landuse management and landscape position. Soil moisture distribution usually expected to be relatively higher in the foothill (P3) area of these forests than the uphill (P1) position. However, our results indicated that in the Luquillo and Guanica site the surface soil moisture was significantly higher for P1 than P3 position. These suggest that the surface and subsurface drainage in these two sites may have been poor due to the nature of soil formation and type.

  10. Forest management techniques for carbon dioxide storage

    SciTech Connect

    Fujimori, Takao

    1993-12-31

    In the global ecosystem concerning carbon dioxide content in the atmosphere, the forest ecosystem plays an important role. In effect, the ratio of forest biomass to total terrestrial biomass is about 90%, and the ratio of carbon stored in the forest biomass to that in the atmosphere is two thirds. When soils and detritus of forests are added, there is more C stored in forests than in the atmosphere, about 1.3 times or more. Thus, forests can be regarded as the great holder of C on earth. If the area of forest land on the earth is constantly maintained and forests are in the climax stage, the uptake of C and the release of C by and from the forests will balance. In this case, forests are neither sinks nor sources of CO{sub 2} although they store a large amount of C. However, when forests are deforested, they become a source of C; through human activities, forests have become a source of C. According to a report by the IPCC, 1.6{+-}1.2 PgC is annually added to the atmosphere by deforestation. According to the FAO (1992), the area of land deforested annually in the tropics from 1981 to 1990 was 16.9 x 10{sup 6} ha. This value is nearly half the area of Japanese land. The most important thing for the CO{sub 2} environment concerning forests is therefore how to reduce deforestation and to successfully implement a forestation or reforestation.

  11. Responses of five small mammal species to micro-scale variations in vegetation structure in secondary Atlantic Forest remnants, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Püttker, Thomas; Pardini, Renata; Meyer-Lucht, Yvonne; Sommer, Simone

    2008-01-01

    Background The Brazilian Atlantic Forest is highly endangered and only about 7% of the original forest remains, most of which consists of fragments of secondary forest. Small mammals in the Atlantic Forest have differential responses to this process of fragmentation and conversion of forest into anthropogenic habitats, and have varying abilities to occupy the surrounding altered habitats. We investigated the influence of vegetation structure on the micro-scale distribution of five small mammal species in six secondary forest remnants in a landscape of fragmented Atlantic Forest. We tested whether the occurrence of small mammal species is influenced by vegetation structure, aiming to ascertain whether species with different degrees of vulnerability to forest fragmentation (not vulnerable: A. montensis, O. nigripes and G. microtarsus; vulnerable: M. incanus and D. sublineatus; classification of vulnerability was based on the results of previous studies) are associated with distinct vegetation characteristics. Results Although vegetation structure differed among fragments, micro-scale distribution of most of the species was influenced by vegetation structure in a similar way in different fragments. Among the three species that were previously shown not to be vulnerable to forest fragmentation, A. montensis and G. microtarsus were present at locations with an open canopy and the occurrence of O. nigripes was associated to a low canopy and a dense understory. On the other hand, from the two species that were shown to be vulnerable to fragmentation, M. incanus was captured most often at locations with a closed canopy while the distribution of D. sublineatus was not clearly influenced by micro-scale variation in vegetation structure. Conclusion Results indicate the importance of micro-scale variation in vegetation structure for the distribution of small mammal species in secondary forest fragments. Species that are not vulnerable to fragmentation occurred at locations

  12. Tropical Forests, Savannas and Grasslands: Bridging the Knowledge Gap Between Ecology and Dynamic Global Vegetation Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baudena, M.; Dekker, S. C.; van Bodegom, P. M.; Cuesta, B.; Higgins, S. I.; Lehsten, V.; Reick, C. H.; Rietkerk, M.; Scheiter, S.; Yin, Z.; Zavala, M. A.; Brovkin, V.

    2014-12-01

    Due to global climate change, tropical forest, savanna, and grassland biomes, and the transitions between them, are expected to undergo major changes in the future. Dynamic Global Vegetation Models (DGVMs) are largely used to understand vegetation dynamics under present climate, and to predict its changes under future conditions. However, several DGVMs display high uncertainty in predicting vegetation in tropical areas. Here we present the results of a comparative analysis of three different DGVMs (JSBACH, LPJ-GUESS-SPITFIRE and aDGVM) with regard to their different representations of the ecological mechanisms and feedbacks that determine the forest, savanna and grassland biomes, in an attempt to bridge the knowledge gap between ecology and global modelling. We compared model outcomes to observed tree cover along a mean annual precipitation gradient in Africa. Through these comparisons, and by drawing on the large number of recent studies that have delivered new insights into the ecology of tropical ecosystems in general, and of savannas in particular, we identify two main mechanisms that need an improved representation in the DGVMs. The first mechanism encompasses water limitation to tree growth, and tree-grass competition for water, which are key factors in determining savanna occurrence in arid and semi-arid areas. The second is a grass-fire feedback, which maintains both forest and savannas in mesic areas. Grasses constitute the majority of the fuel load, and at the same time benefit from the openness of the landscape after fires, since they recover faster than trees. Additionally, these two mechanisms are better represented when the models also include tree life stages (adults and seedlings), and distinguish between fire-prone and shade-tolerant savanna trees, and fire-resistant and shade-intolerant forest trees. Including these basic elements could improve the predictive ability of the DGVMs, not only under current climate conditions but also and especially

  13. Cicada emergence in Southwestern riparian forest: influences of wildfire and vegetation composition.

    PubMed

    Smith, D Max; Kelly, Jeffrey F; Finch, Deborah M

    2006-08-01

    Annually emerging cicadas are a numerically and ecologically dominant species in Southwestern riparian forests. Humans have altered disturbance regimes that structure these forests such that floods are less common and wildfires occur more frequently than was historically the case. Impacts of these changes on primary consumers such as riparian cicadas are unknown. Because cicadas are consumed by a variety of animal species, disturbances that alter timing of their emergence or abundance could have consequences for species at higher trophic levels. We trapped emerging cicadas (Tibicen dealbatus) in burned and unburned riparian forest plots along the Middle Rio Grande in central New Mexico (USA) to determine effects of wildfire and vegetation structure on their density and phenology. We measured vegetation variables and soil temperature at cicada traps and related these variables to variation in emergence density and phenology. We also experimentally heated soil under emergence traps to examine the relationship between soil temperature and emergence phenology. Emergence density was similar in wildfire and unburned plots, though emergence date averaged earlier in wildfire plots and experimentally heated traps. We identified models containing cottonwood proximity (distance from the nearest cottonwood tree) and cottonwood canopy coverage as the most parsimonious explanations of emergence density at each trap. Model selection results were consistent with the literature and field observations that showed that cottonwood trees are an essential resource for T. dealbatus. Cottonwood canopy was also correlated with low soil temperatures, which are associated with later emergence dates. Failure of cottonwoods to reestablish following wildfire could result in cicadas emerging at lower densities and at earlier dates. For cicadas to emerge at densities and times that provide the greatest benefits to birds and other riparian-obligate secondary consumers, riparian forests should be

  14. Forests, savannas, and grasslands: bridging the knowledge gap between ecology and Dynamic Global Vegetation Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baudena, M.; Dekker, S. C.; van Bodegom, P. M.; Cuesta, B.; Higgins, S. I.; Lehsten, V.; Reick, C. H.; Rietkerk, M.; Scheiter, S.; Yin, Z.; Zavala, M. A.; Brovkin, V.

    2015-03-01

    The forest, savanna, and grassland biomes, and the transitions between them, are expected to undergo major changes in the future due to global climate change. Dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs) are very useful for understanding vegetation dynamics under the present climate, and for predicting its changes under future conditions. However, several DGVMs display high uncertainty in predicting vegetation in tropical areas. Here we perform a comparative analysis of three different DGVMs (JSBACH, LPJ-GUESS-SPITFIRE and aDGVM) with regard to their representation of the ecological mechanisms and feedbacks that determine the forest, savanna, and grassland biomes, in an attempt to bridge the knowledge gap between ecology and global modeling. The outcomes of the models, which include different mechanisms, are compared to observed tree cover along a mean annual precipitation gradient in Africa. By drawing on the large number of recent studies that have delivered new insights into the ecology of tropical ecosystems in general, and of savannas in particular, we identify two main mechanisms that need improved representation in the examined DGVMs. The first mechanism includes water limitation to tree growth, and tree-grass competition for water, which are key factors in determining savanna presence in arid and semi-arid areas. The second is a grass-fire feedback, which maintains both forest and savanna presence in mesic areas. Grasses constitute the majority of the fuel load, and at the same time benefit from the openness of the landscape after fires, since they recover faster than trees. Additionally, these two mechanisms are better represented when the models also include tree life stages (adults and seedlings), and distinguish between fire-prone and shade-tolerant forest trees, and fire-resistant and shade-intolerant savanna trees. Including these basic elements could improve the predictive ability of the DGVMs, not only under current climate conditions but also and

  15. Analysing land cover changes for understanding of forest dynamics using temporal forest management plans.

    PubMed

    Kadioğullari, Ali İhsan; Sayin, Mehmet Ali; Çelįk, Durmuş Ali; Borucu, Süleyman; Çįl, Bayram; Bulut, Sinan

    2014-04-01

    This study analyses forest dynamics and land use/land cover change over a 43-year period using spatial-stand-type maps of temporal forest management plans of Karaisalı Forest Enterprise in the Eastern Mediterranean Region of Turkey. Stand parameters (tree species, crown closures and developmental stages) of the dynamics and changes caused by natural or artificial intervention were introduced and mapped in a Geographic Information System (GIS) and subjected to fragmentation analysis using FRAGSTATS. The Karaisalı Forest Enterprise was first planned in 1969 and then the study area was planned under the Mediterranean Forest Use project in 1991 and five-term forest management plans were made. In this study, we analysed only four periods (excluding 1982 revision plans): 1969, 1991, 2002 and 2012. Between 1969 and 2012, overall changes included a net increase of 3,026 ha in forested areas. Cumulative forest improvement accounted for 2.12% and the annual rate of total forest improvement averaged 0.08%. In addition, productive forest areas increased from 36,174 to 70,205 ha between 1969 and 2012. This translates into an average annual productive forest improvement rate of 1.54%. At the same time, fully covered forest areas with crown closure of "3" (>70%) increased about 21,321 ha, and young forest areas in developmental stage of "a" (diameter at breast height (dbh) < 8 cm) increased from 716 to 13,305 ha over the 43-year study period. Overall changes show that productive and fully covered forest areas have increased egregiously with a focus on regenerated and young developmental stages. A spatial analysis of metrics over the 43-year study period indicated a more fragmented landscape resulting in a susceptible forest to harsh disturbances. PMID:24254492

  16. Assessing management effects on Oak forests in Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautam, Sishir; Pietsch, Stephan A.; Hasenauer, Hubert

    2010-05-01

    Historic land use as well as silvicultural management practices have changed the structures and species composition of central European forests. Such changes have effects on the growth of forests and contribute to global warming. As insufficient information on historic forest management is available it is hard to explain the effect of management on forests growth and its possible consequences to the environment. In this situation, the BIOME-BGC model, which integrates the main physical, biological and physiological processes based on current understanding of ecophysiology is an option for assessing the management effects through tracking the cycling of energy, water, carbon and nutrients within a given ecosystems. Such models are increasingly employed to simulate current and future forest dynamics. This study first compares observed standing tree volume, carbon and nitrogen content in soil in the high forests and coppice with standards stands of Oak forests in Austria. Biome BGC is then used to assess the effects of management on forest growth and to explain the differences with measured parameters. Close positive correlations and unbiased results and statistically insignificant differences between predicted and observed volumes indicates the application of the model as a diagnostic tool to assess management effects in oak forests. The observed data in 2006 and 2009 was further compared with the results of respective model runs. Further analysis on simulated data shows that thinning leads to an increase in growth efficiency (GE), nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) and water use efficiency (WUE), and to a decrease in the radiation use efficiency (RUE) in both forests. Among all studied growth parameters, only the difference in the NUE was statistically significant. This indicates that the difference in the yield of forests is mainly governed by the NUE difference in stands due to thinning. The coppice with standards system produces an equal amount of net primary

  17. Hydrological Networks and Associated Topographic Variation as Templates for the Spatial Organization of Tropical Forest Vegetation

    PubMed Central

    Detto, Matteo; Muller-Landau, Helene C.; Mascaro, Joseph; Asner, Gregory P.

    2013-01-01

    An understanding of the spatial variability in tropical forest structure and biomass, and the mechanisms that underpin this variability, is critical for designing, interpreting, and upscaling field studies for regional carbon inventories. We investigated the spatial structure of tropical forest vegetation and its relationship to the hydrological network and associated topographic structure across spatial scales of 10–1000 m using high-resolution maps of LiDAR-derived mean canopy profile height (MCH) and elevation for 4930 ha of tropical forest in central Panama. MCH was strongly associated with the hydrological network: canopy height was highest in areas of positive convexity (valleys, depressions) close to channels draining 1 ha or more. Average MCH declined strongly with decreasing convexity (transition to ridges, hilltops) and increasing distance from the nearest channel. Spectral analysis, performed with wavelet decomposition, showed that the variance in MCH had fractal similarity at scales of ∼30–600 m, and was strongly associated with variation in elevation, with peak correlations at scales of ∼250 m. Whereas previous studies of topographic correlates of tropical forest structure conducted analyses at just one or a few spatial grains, our study found that correlations were strongly scale-dependent. Multi-scale analyses of correlations of MCH with slope, aspect, curvature, and Laplacian convexity found that MCH was most strongly related to convexity measured at scales of 20–300 m, a topographic variable that is a good proxy for position with respect to the hydrological network. Overall, our results support the idea that, even in these mesic forests, hydrological networks and associated topographical variation serve as templates upon which vegetation is organized over specific ranges of scales. These findings constitute an important step towards a mechanistic understanding of these patterns, and can guide upscaling and downscaling. PMID:24204610

  18. Hydrological networks and associated topographic variation as templates for the spatial organization of tropical forest vegetation.

    PubMed

    Detto, Matteo; Muller-Landau, Helene C; Mascaro, Joseph; Asner, Gregory P

    2013-01-01

    An understanding of the spatial variability in tropical forest structure and biomass, and the mechanisms that underpin this variability, is critical for designing, interpreting, and upscaling field studies for regional carbon inventories. We investigated the spatial structure of tropical forest vegetation and its relationship to the hydrological network and associated topographic structure across spatial scales of 10-1000 m using high-resolution maps of LiDAR-derived mean canopy profile height (MCH) and elevation for 4930 ha of tropical forest in central Panama. MCH was strongly associated with the hydrological network: canopy height was highest in areas of positive convexity (valleys, depressions) close to channels draining 1 ha or more. Average MCH declined strongly with decreasing convexity (transition to ridges, hilltops) and increasing distance from the nearest channel. Spectral analysis, performed with wavelet decomposition, showed that the variance in MCH had fractal similarity at scales of ∼30-600 m, and was strongly associated with variation in elevation, with peak correlations at scales of ∼250 m. Whereas previous studies of topographic correlates of tropical forest structure conducted analyses at just one or a few spatial grains, our study found that correlations were strongly scale-dependent. Multi-scale analyses of correlations of MCH with slope, aspect, curvature, and Laplacian convexity found that MCH was most strongly related to convexity measured at scales of 20-300 m, a topographic variable that is a good proxy for position with respect to the hydrological network. Overall, our results support the idea that, even in these mesic forests, hydrological networks and associated topographical variation serve as templates upon which vegetation is organized over specific ranges of scales. These findings constitute an important step towards a mechanistic understanding of these patterns, and can guide upscaling and downscaling. PMID:24204610

  19. Hydrological networks and associated topographic variation as templates for the spatial organization of tropical forest vegetation.

    PubMed

    Detto, Matteo; Muller-Landau, Helene C; Mascaro, Joseph; Asner, Gregory P

    2013-01-01

    An understanding of the spatial variability in tropical forest structure and biomass, and the mechanisms that underpin this variability, is critical for designing, interpreting, and upscaling field studies for regional carbon inventories. We investigated the spatial structure of tropical forest vegetation and its relationship to the hydrological network and associated topographic structure across spatial scales of 10-1000 m using high-resolution maps of LiDAR-derived mean canopy profile height (MCH) and elevation for 4930 ha of tropical forest in central Panama. MCH was strongly associated with the hydrological network: canopy height was highest in areas of positive convexity (valleys, depressions) close to channels draining 1 ha or more. Average MCH declined strongly with decreasing convexity (transition to ridges, hilltops) and increasing distance from the nearest channel. Spectral analysis, performed with wavelet decomposition, showed that the variance in MCH had fractal similarity at scales of ∼30-600 m, and was strongly associated with variation in elevation, with peak correlations at scales of ∼250 m. Whereas previous studies of topographic correlates of tropical forest structure conducted analyses at just one or a few spatial grains, our study found that correlations were strongly scale-dependent. Multi-scale analyses of correlations of MCH with slope, aspect, curvature, and Laplacian convexity found that MCH was most strongly related to convexity measured at scales of 20-300 m, a topographic variable that is a good proxy for position with respect to the hydrological network. Overall, our results support the idea that, even in these mesic forests, hydrological networks and associated topographical variation serve as templates upon which vegetation is organized over specific ranges of scales. These findings constitute an important step towards a mechanistic understanding of these patterns, and can guide upscaling and downscaling.

  20. Remote sensing applications in agriculture and forestry. Applications of aerial photography and ERTS data to agricultural, forest and water resources management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Remote sensing techniques are being used in Minnesota to study: (1) forest disease detection and control; (2) water quality indicators; (3) forest vegetation classification and management; (4) detection of saline soils in the Red River Valley; (5) corn defoliation; and (6) alfalfa crop productivity. Results of progress, and plans for future work in these areas, are discussed.

  1. Adaptive forest management for drinking water protection under climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koeck, R.; Hochbichler, E.

    2012-04-01

    Drinking water resources drawn from forested catchment areas are prominent for providing water supply on our planet. Despite the fact that source waters stemming from forested watersheds have generally lower water quality problems than those stemming from agriculturally used watersheds, it has to be guaranteed that the forest stands meet high standards regarding their water protection functionality. For fulfilling these, forest management concepts have to be applied, which are adaptive regarding the specific forest site conditions and also regarding climate change scenarios. In the past century forest management in the alpine area of Austria was mainly based on the cultivation of Norway spruce, by the way neglecting specific forest site conditions, what caused in many cases highly vulnerable mono-species forest stands. The GIS based forest hydrotope model (FoHyM) provides a framework for forest management, which defines the most crucial parameters in a spatial explicit form. FoHyM stratifies the spacious drinking water protection catchments into forest hydrotopes, being operational units for forest management. The primary information layer of FoHyM is the potential natural forest community, which reflects the specific forest site conditions regarding geology, soil types, elevation above sea level, exposition and inclination adequately and hence defines the specific forest hydrotopes. For each forest hydrotope, the adequate tree species composition and forest stand structure for drinking water protection functionality was deduced, based on the plant-sociological information base provided by FoHyM. The most important overall purpose for the related elaboration of adaptive forest management concepts and measures was the improvement of forest stand stability, which can be seen as the crucial parameter for drinking water protection. Only stable forest stands can protect the fragile soil and humus layers and hence prevent erosion process which could endanger the water

  2. Rapid Shifts in Soil and Forest Floor Microbial Communities with Changes in Vegetation during Secondary Tropical Forest Succession

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, A.; Marin-Spiotta, E.; Balser, T. C.

    2012-12-01

    anaerobic gram-negative bacteria (c19:0) in the wet season, which suggests the presence of anaerobic microsites in these very clayey Oxisols. Enzymatic activity did not differ with succession but was highest in the dry season. We expect this may be due to decreased turnover of enzymes with low soil moisture. Interannual sampling has revealed a very rapid microbial response to changes in aboveground cover. Within a year following woody biomass encroachment, we detected a shift in the soil microbial community from a pasture-associated community to an early secondary forest community in one of our replicate pasture sites. This very rapid response in the belowground microbial community structure to changes in vegetation has not been strongly documented in the literature. This data supports a direct link between aboveground and belowground biotic community structures and highlights the importance of long-term repeated sampling of microbial communities in dynamic ecosystems. Our findings have implications for predicting rapid ecological responses to land-cover change.

  3. Management effects on carbon fluxes in boreal forests (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindroth, A.; Mölder, M.; Lagergren, F.; Vestin, P.; Hellström, M.; Sundqvist, E.; Norunda Bgs Team

    2010-12-01

    Disturbance by management or natural causes such as wind throw or fire are believed to be one of the main factors that are controlling the carbon balance of vegetation. In Northern Europe a large fraction of the forest area is managed with clear cutting and thinning as the main silvicultural methods. The effect of clear-cutting on carbon dioxide exchanges were studied in different chrono-sequences located in Sweden, Finland, UK and France, respectively. The combined results from these studies showed that a simple model could be developed describing relative net ecosystem exchange as a function of relative rotation length (age). A stand with a rotation length of 100 years, typical for Swedish conditions, looses substantial amounts of carbon during the first 12-15 years and the time it takes to reach cumulative balance after clear-cut, is 25-30 years. The mean net ecosystem exchange over the whole rotation length equals 50% of the maximum uptake. An interesting question is if it is possible to harvest without the substantial carbon losses that take place after clear-cutting. Selective harvest by thinning could potentially be such a method. We therefore studied the effect of thinning on soil and ecosystem carbon fluxes in a mixed pine and spruce forest in Central Sweden, the Norunda forest, located in the semi-boreal zone at 60.08°N, 17.48 °E. The CO2 fluxes from the forest were measured by eddy covariance method and soil effluxes were measured by automatic chambers. Maximum canopy height of the ca. 100 years-old forest was 28 m. The stand was composed of ca 72% pine, 28% before the thinning while the composition after the thinning became 82% pine and 18% spruce. The thinning was made in November/December 2008 in a half- circle from the tower with a radius of 200 m. The LAI decreased from 4.5 to 2.8 after the thinning operation. Immediately after the thinning, we found significantly higher soil effluxes, probably due to increased decomposition of dead roots. The

  4. Response of Federal Land Management Agencies to ozone impacts on vegetation

    SciTech Connect

    Musselman, R.C.; Fisher, R.W.

    1999-07-01

    The FLAG (Federal Land Manager's AQRV WorkGroup) Ozone Subgroup was organized to compile information known about response of vegetation to ozone in federally managed parks, forests, and wildlife refuges; to document areas of agreement among federal agencies regarding identification of ozone sensitive Air Quality Related Values (AQRVs); and standardize agency responses to New Source Review (NSR) permit applications. Subgroup members included air resource managers and ozone effects scientists from several agencies that manage federal lands. The subgroup identified sensitive AQRV receptors, determined information needed to evaluate permit applications under the NSR process, determined the form of an ozone parameter to use to relate plant response to ambient ozone, and agreed on specific definitions for vegetation injury and damage from ozone. The subgroup developed specific protocols for federal agencies to follow in response to NSR permit applications. These protocols were based on (1) ambient levels of ozone as measured by the W126 ozone metric and the number of peak ozone concentrations $100 ppb (N100), and (2) the presence or absence of ozone sensitive plant species and ozone-induced damage to vegetation.

  5. Downstream Effects of Diversion Dams on Riparian Vegetation Communities in the Routt National Forest, Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caskey, S. T.; Wohl, E. E.; Dwire, K. A.; Merritt, D. M.; Schnackenberg, L.

    2012-12-01

    The relationship between riparian vegetation and changes in fluvial processes as a response to flow diversion is not well understood. Water extraction affects the hydrologic flow regime (i.e., magnitude, duration, and frequency of flows) reducing peak and base-flows, which could negatively impact riparian vegetation. Vegetation communities are temporally and spatially variable and are strongly interrelated with alluvial landforms and hydrograph variability. This research compares riparian community characteristics on diverted and undiverted pool-riffle channels and low gradient valleys to examine changes associated with flow diversion in the Routt National Forest (RNF). The RNF is the only under-appropriated area in Colorado, making future water extraction proposals likely. Many small extraction canals siphon water from small, headwater streams in the RNF, but the site-specific or cumulative effects of these diversions on riverine ecosystems have not been investigated. Systematic investigation is necessary, however, to determine whether existing flow diversions have influenced riparian communities and, if so, which communities are most sensitive to diversions. A total of 36 sites were sampled with five channel cross sections established per site, extending into the riparian zone at distance of two times the active channel width, and vegetation was sampled using the line-point intercept method. Preliminary results suggest a shift in vegetation communities from typical riparian species composition to more upland vegetation. The relative sensitivity of these responses are different depending on valley type; low- gradient, unconfined areas are less tolerant of diversion than steeper, confined reaches. Additionally, when stratified by plant assemblage, Salix abundance is significantly reduced downstream of diversion. The results of this study contribute to the collective understanding of mountain headwater riparian vegetation community response to changes in flow

  6. Factors Influencing Local Communities' Satisfaction Levels with Different Forest Management Approaches of Kakamega Forest, Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guthiga, Paul M.; Mburu, John; Holm-Mueller, Karin

    2008-05-01

    Satisfaction of communities living close to forests with forest management authorities is essential for ensuring continued support for conservation efforts. However, more often than not, community satisfaction is not systematically elicited, analyzed, and incorporated in conservation decisions. This study attempts to elicit levels of community satisfaction with three management approaches of Kakamega forest in Kenya and analyze factors influencing them. Three distinct management approaches are applied by three different authorities: an incentive-based approach of the Forest Department (FD), a protectionist approach of the Kenya Wildlife Service (KWS), and a quasi-private incentive-based approach of Quakers Church Mission (QCM). Data was obtained from a random sample of about 360 households living within a 10-km radius around the forest margin. The protectionist approach was ranked highest overall for its performance in forest management. Results indicate that households are influenced by different factors in their ranking of management approaches. Educated households and those located far from market centers are likely to be dissatisfied with all the three management approaches. The location of the households from the forest margin influences negatively the satisfaction with the protectionist approach, whereas land size, a proxy for durable assets, has a similar effect on the private incentive based approach of the QCM. In conclusion, this article indicates a number of policy implications that can enable the different authorities and their management approaches to gain approval of the local communities.

  7. Late Quaternary dynamics of forest vegetation on northern Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacourse, Terri

    2005-01-01

    Pollen analysis of radiocarbon-dated lake sediment from northern Vancouver Island, southwest British Columbia reveals regional changes in forest vegetation over the last 12,200 14C yr (14,900 cal yr). Between at least 12,200 and 11,700 14C yr BP (14,900-13,930 cal yr BP), open woodlands were dominated by Pinus contorta, Alnus crispa, and various ferns. As P. contorta decreased in abundance, Alnus rubra and more shade-tolerant conifers (i.e., Picea and Tsuga mertensiana) increased. Increases in T. mertensiana, P. contorta, and A. crispa pollen accumulation rates (PARs) between 10,600 and 10,400 14C yr BP (11,660-11,480 cal yr BP) reflect a cool and moist climate during the Younger Dryas chronozone. Orbitally induced warming around 10,000 14C yr BP (11,090 cal yr BP) allowed the northward extension of Pseudotsuga menziesii, although Picea, Tsuga heterophylla, and A. rubra dominated early Holocene forests. By 7500 14C yr BP (8215 cal yr BP), shade-tolerant T. heterophylla was the dominant forest tree. Cupressaceae ( Thuja plicata and Chamaecyparis nootkatensis) was present by 7500 14C yr BP but reached its maximum after 3500 14C yr BP (3600 cal yr BP), when a cooler and wetter regional climate facilitated the development of temperate rainforest. The highest rates of vegetation change are associated with Lateglacial climate change and species with rapid growth rates and short life spans.

  8. Stakeholder perspectives on appropriate forest management in the Pacific Northwest

    SciTech Connect

    Kearney, A.R.; Bradley, G. . Coll. of Forest Resources); Kaplan, R.; Kaplan, S. )

    1999-02-01

    One potential source of the controversy over forest management in the Pacific Northwest is differences in stakeholders' conceptualizations, or perspectives, on appropriate forest management. This study explores the nature of stakeholders' perspectives and identifies some of the differences and commonalities among them. Study participants included 23 individuals from 3 forest stakeholder groups: the USDA Forest Service, timber industry, and environmentalists. Participants' perspectives on appropriate forest management were assessed using a conceptual content cognitive map (3CM) task. Results indicate the existence of a wide range of concerns including issues related to the focus, setting, and process of management. The pattern of differences and similarities among stakeholder groups with respect to these concerns was found to be complex and to deviate substantially from common stereotypes. In addition, participants' perceptions of the other stakeholder groups were found to be highly stereotypical and were not supported by the data.

  9. Importance of Nitrate Attenuation In A Small Wetland Following Forest Harvest: 18O/16O, 15N/14N in nitrate and 15N/14N) in vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spoelstra, J.; Schiff, S. L.; Semkin, R. G.; Jeffries, D. S.; Elgood, R. J.

    2004-05-01

    Forest harvest can result in elevated nitrate concentrations in streams and groundwater affecting forest regeneration and downstream aquatic ecosystems. Turkey Lakes Watershed, located near Sault Ste Marie, Ontario (TLW), exhibits relatively high nitrate export due to naturally high rates of nitrification. During a forest harvest experiment at the TLW, stable isotope techniques were used to investigate nitrate attenuation in an intermediate position natural wetland receiving high concentrations of nitrate following forest clear-cutting. Isotopic analysis of nitrate (18O/16O, 15N/14N) and vegetation (15N/14N) demonstrated that denitrification and plant uptake of nitrate resulted in significantly lower nitrate concentrations in wetland outflow compared to incoming stream water and groundwater. The 0.2-hectare forested swamp, too small to show up on standard topographic maps, retained 65 to 100 percent of upgradient nitrate inputs, elevated due to increased nitrification in soils. The 15N/14N enrichment factor associated with nitrate attenuation in wetland surface water was lower than observed during denitrification in groundwaters, suggesting that denitrification proceeded to completion in some areas of the wetland. Even small, shallow, carbon rich pockets of organic matter in topographic depressions can significantly affect biogeochemical fluxes of C, N, S and Ca. Future forest management practices designed to recognize and preserve small wetlands could significantly reduce the potentially detrimental effects of forest harvest on aquatic systems.

  10. Scaling estimates of vegetation structure in Amazonian tropical forests using multi-angle MODIS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moura, Yhasmin Mendes de; Hilker, Thomas; Gonçalves, Fabio Guimarães; Galvão, Lênio Soares; dos Santos, João Roberto; Lyapustin, Alexei; Maeda, Eduardo Eiji; de Jesus Silva, Camila Valéria

    2016-10-01

    Detailed knowledge of vegetation structure is required for accurate modelling of terrestrial ecosystems, but direct measurements of the three dimensional distribution of canopy elements, for instance from LiDAR, are not widely available. We investigate the potential for modelling vegetation roughness, a key parameter for climatological models, from directional scattering of visible and near-infrared (NIR) reflectance acquired from NASA's Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). We compare our estimates across different tropical forest types to independent measures obtained from: (1) airborne laser scanning (ALS), (2) spaceborne Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS)/ICESat, and (3) the spaceborne SeaWinds/QSCAT. Our results showed linear correlation between MODIS-derived anisotropy to ALS-derived entropy (r2 = 0.54, RMSE = 0.11), even in high biomass regions. Significant relationships were also obtained between MODIS-derived anisotropy and GLAS-derived entropy (0.52 ≤ r2 ≤ 0.61; p < 0.05), with similar slopes and offsets found throughout the season, and RMSE between 0.26 and 0.30 (units of entropy). The relationships between the MODIS-derived anisotropy and backscattering measurements (σ0) from SeaWinds/QuikSCAT presented an r2 of 0.59 and a RMSE of 0.11. We conclude that multi-angular MODIS observations are suitable to extrapolate measures of canopy entropy across different forest types, providing additional estimates of vegetation structure in the Amazon.

  11. Tropical Forest Vegetation Profiles and Biomass from Multibaseline Interferometric SAR at C- band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treuhaft, R.; Chapman, B.; Santos, J. R.; Dutra, L.; Goncalves, F.; Graca, P. A.; Drake, J.

    2007-12-01

    Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) involves the reception of SAR signals at two spatially separated ends of a baseline. The resulting phase and coherence observations from InSAR are both sensitive to the vertical structure of vegetation. However, multiple InSAR observations--more than one phase-coherence-pair--are needed to estimate parameters describing vertical structure. Multiple observations can be made with different baselines, polarizations, or frequencies. This talk reviews why InSAR is sensitive to vertical structure. It then describes an experiment in the tropical forests of La Selva Biological Station in Costa Rica in which 12-14 baselines were used to estimate vegetation vertical profiles at C-band. Calibration of the InSAR phases and coherences with nearby pastures was essential for interpreting the data for vegetation, rather than surface, characteristics. Relative density profiles from primary, secondary, and selectively logged forests will be shown along with profiles from abandoned pastures. Field methods used to validate the profiles involve measuring individual tree dimensions, and the production of field profiles will be described and compared to InSAR profiles. Lidar profiles will also be shown for comparison. Functions of the InSAR profiles will be used estimate biomass of 30 stands

  12. Using ecological forecasting of future vegetation transition and fire frequency change in the Sierra Nevada to assess fire management strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorne, J. H.; Schwartz, M. W.; Holguin, A. J.; Moritz, M.; Batllori, E.; Folger, K.; Nydick, K.

    2013-12-01

    Ecological systems may respond in complex manners as climate change progresses. Among the responses, site-level climate conditions may cause a shift in vegetation due to the physiological tolerances of plant species, and the fire return interval may change. Natural resource managers challenged with maintaining ecosystem health need a way to forecast how these processes may affect every location, in order to determine appropriate management actions and prioritize locations for interventions. We integrated climate change-driven vegetation type transitions with projected change in fire frequency for 45,203 km2 of the southern Sierra Nevada, California, containing over 10 land management agencies as well as private lands. This Magnitude of Change (MOC) approach involves classing vegetation types in current time according to their climate envelopes, and identifying which sites will in the future have climates beyond what that vegetation currently occurs in. Independently, fire models are used to determine the change in fire frequency for each site. We examined 82 vegetation types with >50 grid cell occurrences. We found iconic resources such as the giant sequoia, lower slope oak woodlands, and high elevation conifer forests are projected as highly vulnerable by models that project a warmer drier future, but not as much by models that project a warmer future that is not drier than current conditions. Further, there were strongly divergent vulnerabilities of these forest types across land ownership (National Parks versus US Forest Service lands), and by GCM. For example, of 50 giant sequoia (Sequoiadendron giganteum) groves and complexes, all but 3 (on Sierra National Forest) were in the 2 highest levels of risk of climate and fire under the GFDL A2 projection, while 15 groves with low-to-moderate risk were found on both the National Parks and National Forests 18 in the 2 under PCM A2. Landscape projections of potential MOC suggest that the region is likely to experience

  13. Understory vegetation as an indicator for floodplain forest restoration in the Mississippi River Alluvial Valley, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    De Steven, Diane; Faulkner, Stephen; Keeland, Bobby D.; Baldwin, Michael; McCoy, John W.; Hughes, Steven C.

    2015-01-01

    In the Mississippi River Alluvial Valley (MAV), complete alteration of river-floodplain hydrology allowed for widespreadconversion of forested bottomlands to intensive agriculture, resulting in nearly 80% forest loss. Governmental programs haveattempted to restore forest habitat and functions within this altered landscape by the methods of tree planting (afforestation)and local hydrologic enhancement on reclaimed croplands. Early assessments identified factors that influenced whetherplanting plus tree colonization could establish an overstory community similar to natural bottomland forests. The extentto which afforested sites develop typical understory vegetation has not been evaluated, yet understory composition may beindicative of restored site conditions. As part of a broad study quantifying the ecosystem services gained from restorationefforts, understory vegetation was compared between 37 afforested sites and 26 mature forest sites. Differences in vegetationattributes for species growth forms, wetland indicator classes, and native status were tested with univariate analyses;floristic composition data were analyzed by multivariate techniques. Understory vegetation of restoration sites was generallyhydrophytic, but species composition differed from that of mature bottomland forest because of young successional age anddiffering responses of plant growth forms. Attribute and floristic variation among restoration sites was related to variationin canopy development and local wetness conditions, which in turn reflected both intrinsic site features and outcomes ofrestoration practices. Thus, understory vegetation is a useful indicator of functional progress in floodplain forest restoration.

  14. 77 FR 25164 - Revision to Transmission Vegetation Management Reliability Standard; Notice Inviting Comments on...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-27

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Revision to Transmission Vegetation Management Reliability Standard; Notice... Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) on ``Applicability of the `Gallet Equation' to the Vegetation... technical questions raised by the Minimum Vegetation Clearance Distances as proposed in the North...

  15. New datasets for quantifying snow-vegetation-atmosphere interactions in boreal birch and conifer forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, T. D.; Essery, R.; Rutter, N.; Huntley, B.; Baxter, R.; Holden, R.; King, M.; Hancock, S.; Carle, J.

    2012-12-01

    Boreal forests exert a strong influence on weather and climate by modifying the surface energy and radiation balance. However, global climate and numerical weather prediction models use forest parameter values from simple look-up tables or maps that are derived from limited satellite data, on large grid scales. In reality, Arctic landscapes are inherently heterogeneous, with highly variable land cover types and structures on a variety of spatial scales. There is value in collecting detailed field data for different areas of vegetation cover, to assess the accuracy of large-scale assumptions. To address these issues, a consortium of researchers funded by the UK's Natural Environment Research Council have collected extensive data on radiation, meteorology, snow cover and canopy structure at two contrasting Arctic forest sites. The chosen study sites were an area of boreal birch forest near Abisko, Sweden in March/April 2011 and mixed conifer forest at Sodankylä, Finland in March/April 2012. At both sites, arrays comprising ten shortwave pyranometers and four longwave pyrgeometers were deployed for periods of up to 50 days, under forest plots of varying canopy structures and densities. In addition, downwelling longwave irradiance and global and diffuse shortwave irradiances were recorded at nearby open sites representing the top-of-canopy conditions. Meteorological data were recorded at all sub-canopy and open sites using automatic weather stations. Over the same periods, tree skin temperatures were measured on selected trees using contact thermocouples, infrared thermocouples and thermal imagery. Canopy structure was accurately quantified through manual surveys, extensive hemispherical photography and terrestrial laser scans of every study plot. Sub-canopy snow depth and snow water equivalent were measured on fine-scale grids at each study plot. Regular site maintenance ensured a high quality dataset covering the important Arctic spring period. The data have several

  16. Effects of Coffee Management Intensity on Composition, Structure, and Regeneration Status of Ethiopian Moist Evergreen Afromontane Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hundera, Kitessa; Aerts, Raf; Fontaine, Alexandre; Van Mechelen, Maarten; Gijbels, Pieter; Honnay, Olivier; Muys, Bart

    2013-03-01

    The effect of arabica coffee management intensity on composition, structure, and regeneration of moist evergreen Afromontane forests was studied in three traditional coffee-management systems of southwest Ethiopia: semiplantation coffee, semiforest coffee, and forest coffee. Vegetation and environmental data were collected in 84 plots from forests varying in intensity of coffee management. After controlling for environmental variation (altitude, aspect, slope, soil nutrient availability, and soil depth), differences in woody species composition, forest structure, and regeneration potential among management systems were compared using one way analysis of variance. The study showed that intensification of forest coffee cultivation to maximize coffee production negatively affects diversity and structure of Ethiopian moist evergreen Afromontane forests. Intensification of coffee productivity starts with the conversion of forest coffee to semiforest coffee, which has significant negative effects on tree seedling abundance. Further intensification leads to the conversion of semiforest to semiplantation coffee, causing significant diversity losses and the collapse of forest structure (decrease of stem density, basal area, crown closure, crown cover, and dominant tree height). Our study underlines the need for shade certification schemes to include variables other than canopy cover and that the loss of species diversity in intensively managed coffee systems may jeopardize the sustainability of coffee production itself through the decrease of ecosystem resilience and disruption of ecosystem services related to coffee yield, such as pollination and pest control.

  17. Effects of coffee management intensity on composition, structure, and regeneration status of ethiopian moist evergreen afromontane forests.

    PubMed

    Hundera, Kitessa; Aerts, Raf; Fontaine, Alexandre; Van Mechelen, Maarten; Gijbels, Pieter; Honnay, Olivier; Muys, Bart

    2013-03-01

    The effect of arabica coffee management intensity on composition, structure, and regeneration of moist evergreen Afromontane forests was studied in three traditional coffee-management systems of southwest Ethiopia: semiplantation coffee, semiforest coffee, and forest coffee. Vegetation and environmental data were collected in 84 plots from forests varying in intensity of coffee management. After controlling for environmental variation (altitude, aspect, slope, soil nutrient availability, and soil depth), differences in woody species composition, forest structure, and regeneration potential among management systems were compared using one way analysis of variance. The study showed that intensification of forest coffee cultivation to maximize coffee production negatively affects diversity and structure of Ethiopian moist evergreen Afromontane forests. Intensification of coffee productivity starts with the conversion of forest coffee to semiforest coffee, which has significant negative effects on tree seedling abundance. Further intensification leads to the conversion of semiforest to semiplantation coffee, causing significant diversity losses and the collapse of forest structure (decrease of stem density, basal area, crown closure, crown cover, and dominant tree height). Our study underlines the need for shade certification schemes to include variables other than canopy cover and that the loss of species diversity in intensively managed coffee systems may jeopardize the sustainability of coffee production itself through the decrease of ecosystem resilience and disruption of ecosystem services related to coffee yield, such as pollination and pest control.

  18. Temporal variations of low molecular mass organic acids during vegetation period in temperate forest soil affected by acidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tejnecky, V.; Drabek, O.; Bradová, M.; Němeček, K.; Šebek, O.; Zenáhlíková, J.; Boruvka, L.

    2011-12-01

    The Low Molecular Mass Organic Acids (LMMOA) are essential in processes affecting the soils and represent reactive fraction of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). LMMOA influence soil-chemistry behaviour, participate in transport of mineral nutrition and reduce potential toxicity of selected elements like Al. The aim of this research was to assess behaviour, amount and composition of LMMOA in forest soil under different vegetation cover. The researched area is located in the naturally acid Jizera Mountains (Czech Republic), which was further affected by acid deposition and improper forest management. Soil samples from organic F and H horizons, organo-mineral A horizon and spodic or cambic mineral B horizons were taken under beech and spruce stands monthly (from April to October). Both stands were located immediately next to each other. The collected soil samples were analyzed immediately in a "fresh" state. Contents of LMMOA in deionised water extract were determined by means of ion-exchange chromatography (ICS-1600, Dionex, USA) with suppressed conductivity and gradient elution of KOH mobile phase. The contents of LMMOAS were also determined in precipitation samples. In addition, other selected elements (Al, Fe, Ca, Na, Mg and K), Al speciation and main inorganic anions were determined in water extract and precipitation samples. The highest amounts of LMMOA (mainly lactic, acetic, formic, malic and oxalic acid) were observed in organic F and H horizons and measured amounts decreased with increasing soil profile depth. Higher contents were determined in soil under spruce forest than under beech forest. External inputs of LMMOA in a form of precipitation were assessed as less significant in comparison with the soil processes (e.g. soil biological activity, soil organic matter decomposition processes). LMMOA amounts were higher in spring and summer (from April to August), caused by increased biological activity, while lower amounts were observed during the autumn period

  19. Dalby Söderskog revisited: long-term vegetation changes in a south Swedish deciduous forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Oheimb, Goddert; Brunet, Jörg

    2007-03-01

    In this study, we report on 67 years of secondary succession in the temperate deciduous forest Dalby Söderskog, southern Sweden. In 2002 vegetation analyses were conducted in 74 systematically distributed plots and the results compared with similar investigations during the years 1935, 1969 and 1976. Additionally, a floristic survey of the forest was made and compared with inventories of the years 1925, 1935 and 1970. From 1970 to 2002, overall species richness of the forest continued to decline, but at a lower rate than before. In 2002, for the first time, shade-tolerant forest species constituted the largest group. In the upper tree layer Fraxinus excelsior became the most important species, at the expense of Quercus robur and Ulmus glabra. In the herb layer, no changes in total or mean species richness were exhibited at plot scale between 1976 and 2002. In contrast to the lack of quantitative changes in species richness, we observed major changes in species composition at the plot level. In particular, the former dominant species Mercurialis perennis had declined markedly. After release from a historical regime of livestock grazing and irregular cuttings, the predicted steady-state community dominated by Ulmus and Mercurialis only prevailed for a few decades before unexpected external events, in this particular case Dutch elm disease and invasion by the slug Arion lusitanicus, initiated a successional change. We conclude that unexpected diseases or pests or rare climatic extremes can play a decisive role in forest dynamics and strongly interact with more gradual autogenic changes of forest structure and composition.

  20. Forest management under uncertainty for multiple bird population objectives

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, C.T.; Plummer, W.T.; Conroy, M.J.; Ralph, C. John; Rich, Terrell D.

    2005-01-01

    We advocate adaptive programs of decision making and monitoring for the management of forest birds when responses by populations to management, and particularly management trade-offs among populations, are uncertain. Models are necessary components of adaptive management. Under this approach, uncertainty about the behavior of a managed system is explicitly captured in a set of alternative models. The models generate testable predictions about the response of populations to management, and monitoring data provide the basis for assessing these predictions and informing future management decisions. To illustrate these principles, we examine forest management at the Piedmont National Wildlife Refuge, where management attention is focused on the recovery of the Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) population. However, managers are also sensitive to the habitat needs of many non-target organisms, including Wood Thrushes (Hylocichla mustelina) and other forest interior Neotropical migratory birds. By simulating several management policies on a set of-alternative forest and bird models, we found a decision policy that maximized a composite response by woodpeckers and Wood Thrushes despite our complete uncertainty regarding system behavior. Furthermore, we used monitoring data to update our measure of belief in each alternative model following one cycle of forest management. This reduction of uncertainty translates into a reallocation of model influence on the choice of optimal decision action at the next decision opportunity.

  1. Turning First Nation Forest Values into Integrated Forest Management Plans: Two Models in Alberta.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natcher, David; Hickey, Cliff

    Canada's federal and provincial governments have called upon the forest industry to ensure protection of Aboriginal rights and include Aboriginal communities in forest management. The challenge is to design frameworks for multi-party cooperation in which multiple values and interests can be accommodated. To promote such cooperation, two research…

  2. Galling arthropod diversity in adjacent swamp forests and restinga vegetation in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mendonça, Milton De S; Piccardi, Hosana M F; Jahnke, Simone M; Dalbem, Ricardo V

    2010-01-01

    Galling arthropods create plant structures inside which they find shelter. Factors acting on galler diversity are still being discussed, with this fauna considered more diverse in xeric than mesic environments (higrothermic stress hypothesis, HSH), and also in more plant diverse sites. Here we compare galler abundance (N), equitability (E), species richness (S) and composition between adjacent restinga (xeric) and swamp forests (mesic) in Parque Estadual de Itapeva (29°21' S, 49°45' W), Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. Five trails, two in swamp forest and three in restingas, were sampled four times each (January/December 2005). After an effort of 60h/person, 621 galled plant individuals belonging to 104 gall morphotypes were recorded. This suggests a high galler diversity for the Park, comparable to the richest places known. No differences were found for N, E or S between restingas and swamp forests. However, faunal composition differs significantly between the vegetation types. The dominant (most abundant) species are different in either vegetation type, and are rare or absent on the other vegetation type. Such species composition analysis is still largely ignored for gallers, and stresses the fact that the HSH cannot explain this pattern, since the latter is based on preferences by the ovipositing galler for xeric sites instead of mesic ones. The two habitats differ in microclimate, but species richness, as would be predicted by the HSH, does not differ. This small scale pattern can perhaps be attributed to biogeographic processes on larger scales, as suggested by the resource synchronisation hypothesis.

  3. Vegetation assessment of forests of Pagan Island, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pratt, Linda W.

    2011-01-01

    During vegetation surveys in June–July 2010, 215 vascular plant species were observed on Pagan; 21 new island records of alien plants and 12 new island records of native plants were documented. Many of the new and recently sighted alien plants of the northern section of the island appeared to be in the incipient stage of invasion. Most of the new native plant sightings and a number of other rare tree and shrub species of Pagan were limited to forests of the rugged southern half of the island.

  4. Vegetation management with fire modifies peatland soil thermal regime.

    PubMed

    Brown, Lee E; Palmer, Sheila M; Johnston, Kerrylyn; Holden, Joseph

    2015-05-01

    Vegetation removal with fire can alter the thermal regime of the land surface, leading to significant changes in biogeochemistry (e.g. carbon cycling) and soil hydrology. In the UK, large expanses of carbon-rich upland environments are managed to encourage increased abundance of red grouse (Lagopus lagopus scotica) by rotational burning of shrub vegetation. To date, though, there has not been any consideration of whether prescribed vegetation burning on peatlands modifies the thermal regime of the soil mass in the years after fire. In this study thermal regime was monitored across 12 burned peatland soil plots over an 18-month period, with the aim of (i) quantifying thermal dynamics between burned plots of different ages (from <2 to 15 + years post burning), and (ii) developing statistical models to determine the magnitude of thermal change caused by vegetation management. Compared to plots burned 15 + years previously, plots recently burned (<2-4 years) showed higher mean, maximum and range of soil temperatures, and lower minima. Statistical models (generalised least square regression) were developed to predict daily mean and maximum soil temperature in plots burned 15 + years prior to the study. These models were then applied to predict temperatures of plots burned 2, 4 and 7 years previously, with significant deviations from predicted temperatures illustrating the magnitude of burn management effects. Temperatures measured in soil plots burned <2 years previously showed significant statistical disturbances from model predictions, reaching +6.2 °C for daily mean temperatures and +19.6 °C for daily maxima. Soil temperatures in plots burnt 7 years previously were most similar to plots burned 15 + years ago indicating the potential for soil temperatures to recover as vegetation regrows. Our findings that prescribed peatland vegetation burning alters soil thermal regime should provide an impetus for further research to understand the consequences of thermal regime

  5. On the potential of long wavelength imaging radars for mapping vegetation types and woody biomass in tropical rain forests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rignot, Eric J.; Zimmermann, Reiner; Oren, Ram

    1995-01-01

    In the tropical rain forests of Manu, in Peru, where forest biomass ranges from 4 kg/sq m in young forest succession up to 100 kg/sq m in old, undisturbed floodplain stands, the P-band polarimetric radar data gathered in June of 1993 by the AIRSAR (Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar) instrument separate most major vegetation formations and also perform better than expected in estimating woody biomass. The worldwide need for large scale, updated biomass estimates, achieved with a uniformly applied method, as well as reliable maps of land cover, justifies a more in-depth exploration of long wavelength imaging radar applications for tropical forests inventories.

  6. Prospective Scope of Forest Management Education at James Madison's Montpelier

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munsell, John F.; Hamilton, Rachel; Downing, Adam K.

    2009-01-01

    Urban sprawl and intergenerational transfers are fostering a new period of family forest ownership in the United States typified by larger numbers of younger owners with smaller parcels that are interested in managing their forests but often lacking requisite knowledge. At the same time, there is a general decline in the public's connection to…

  7. AmeriFlux US-Fmf Flagstaff - Managed Forest

    SciTech Connect

    Dor, Sabina; Kolb, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Fmf Flagstaff - Managed Forest. Site Description - Ponderosa pine forest subject to thinning in September 2006. Project webpage http://nau.edu/CEFNS/Forestry/Research/Carbon-Flux/Sites/

  8. Patterns and drivers of Holocene vegetational change near the prairie-forest ecotone in Minnesota: revisiting McAndrews' transect.

    PubMed

    Nelson, David M; Hu, Feng Sheng

    2008-07-01

    Holocene vegetational dynamics along the prairie-forest border of Minnesota were first documented in McAndrews' classic work. Despite numerous subsequent paleo-studies, a number of questions remain unanswered about the vegetation history of the region. Here, pollen, stable-isotope, mineral, and charcoal data are described from three lakes near McAndrews' sites. These data were compared with other paleoenvironmental records to reconstruct vegetation, aridity, and fire. The climate was relatively wet with increasing summer temperatures before approximately 8000 yr before present (BP). The rates of changes were asymmetric for the onset and termination of middle-Holocene aridity, with an abrupt increase at approximately 8000 yr BP and a gradual, but variable, decline from approximately 7800 to 4000 yr BP. Early-Holocene coniferous forests changed to mixed-grass prairie without an intervening period of tallgrass prairie or deciduous forest, whereas the retreat of prairie was characterized by transitions from mixed-grass to tallgrass prairie to deciduous forest and finally to coniferous forest. Within the middle Holocene, the composition and structures of grass-dominated vegetation varied both temporally and spatially. Fire primarily responded to changes in climate and fuel loads. Vegetation was more strongly influenced by climatic changes than by fire-regime shifts.

  9. Atmospheric pollutants in peri-urban forests of Quercus ilex: evidence of pollution abatement and threats for vegetation.

    PubMed

    García-Gómez, Héctor; Aguillaume, Laura; Izquieta-Rojano, Sheila; Valiño, Fernando; Àvila, Anna; Elustondo, David; Santamaría, Jesús M; Alastuey, Andrés; Calvete-Sogo, Héctor; González-Fernández, Ignacio; Alonso, Rocío

    2016-04-01

    Peri-urban vegetation is generally accepted as a significant remover of atmospheric pollutants, but it could also be threatened by these compounds, with origin in both urban and non-urban areas. To characterize the seasonal and geographical variation of pollutant concentrations and to improve the empirical understanding of the influence of Mediterranean broadleaf evergreen forests on air quality, four forests of Quercus ilex (three peri-urban and one remote) were monitored in different areas in Spain. Concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ammonia (NH3), nitric acid (HNO3) and ozone (O3) were measured during 2 years in open areas and inside the forests and aerosols (PM10) were monitored in open areas during 1 year. Ozone was the only air pollutant expected to have direct phytotoxic effects on vegetation according to current thresholds for the protection of vegetation. The concentrations of N compounds were not high enough to directly affect vegetation but could be contributing through atmospheric N deposition to the eutrophization of these ecosystems. Peri-urban forests of Q. ilex showed a significant below-canopy reduction of gaseous concentrations (particularly NH3, with a mean reduction of 29-38%), which indicated the feasibility of these forests to provide an ecosystem service of air quality improvement. Well-designed monitoring programs are needed to further investigate air quality improvement by peri-urban ecosystems while assessing the threat that air pollution can pose to vegetation.

  10. Atmospheric pollutants in peri-urban forests of Quercus ilex: evidence of pollution abatement and threats for vegetation.

    PubMed

    García-Gómez, Héctor; Aguillaume, Laura; Izquieta-Rojano, Sheila; Valiño, Fernando; Àvila, Anna; Elustondo, David; Santamaría, Jesús M; Alastuey, Andrés; Calvete-Sogo, Héctor; González-Fernández, Ignacio; Alonso, Rocío

    2016-04-01

    Peri-urban vegetation is generally accepted as a significant remover of atmospheric pollutants, but it could also be threatened by these compounds, with origin in both urban and non-urban areas. To characterize the seasonal and geographical variation of pollutant concentrations and to improve the empirical understanding of the influence of Mediterranean broadleaf evergreen forests on air quality, four forests of Quercus ilex (three peri-urban and one remote) were monitored in different areas in Spain. Concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ammonia (NH3), nitric acid (HNO3) and ozone (O3) were measured during 2 years in open areas and inside the forests and aerosols (PM10) were monitored in open areas during 1 year. Ozone was the only air pollutant expected to have direct phytotoxic effects on vegetation according to current thresholds for the protection of vegetation. The concentrations of N compounds were not high enough to directly affect vegetation but could be contributing through atmospheric N deposition to the eutrophization of these ecosystems. Peri-urban forests of Q. ilex showed a significant below-canopy reduction of gaseous concentrations (particularly NH3, with a mean reduction of 29-38%), which indicated the feasibility of these forests to provide an ecosystem service of air quality improvement. Well-designed monitoring programs are needed to further investigate air quality improvement by peri-urban ecosystems while assessing the threat that air pollution can pose to vegetation. PMID:26620865

  11. Forest Management Type Influences Diversity and Community Composition of Soil Fungi across Temperate Forest Ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Goldmann, Kezia; Schöning, Ingo; Buscot, François; Wubet, Tesfaye

    2015-01-01

    Fungal communities have been shown to be highly sensitive toward shifts in plant diversity and species composition in forest ecosystems. However, little is known about the impact of forest management on fungal diversity and community composition of geographically separated sites. This study examined the effects of four different forest management types on soil fungal communities. These forest management types include age class forests of young managed beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), with beech stands age of approximately 30 years, age class beech stands with an age of approximately 70 years, unmanaged beech stands, and coniferous stands dominated by either pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) or spruce (Picea abies Karst.) which are located in three study sites across Germany. Soil were sampled from 48 study plots and we employed fungal ITS rDNA pyrotag sequencing to assess the soil fungal diversity and community structure. We found that forest management type significantly affects the Shannon diversity of soil fungi and a significant interaction effect of study site and forest management on the fungal operational taxonomic units richness. Consequently distinct fungal communities were detected in the three study sites and within the four forest management types, which were mainly related to the main tree species. Further analysis of the contribution of soil properties revealed that C/N ratio being the most important factor in all the three study sites whereas soil pH was significantly related to the fungal community in two study sites. Functional assignment of the fungal communities indicated that 38% of the observed communities were Ectomycorrhizal fungi (ECM) and their distribution is significantly influenced by the forest management. Soil pH and C/N ratio were found to be the main drivers of the ECM fungal community composition. Additional fungal community similarity analysis revealed the presence of study site and management type specific ECM genera. This study extends our

  12. Management Impacts on Forest Floor and Soil Organic Carbon in Northern Temperate Forests of the US

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The role of forests in the global carbon cycle has been the subject of a great deal of research recently, but the impact of management practices on forest soil dynamics at the stand level has received less attention. This study used six forest management experimental sites in five northern states of the US to investigate the effects of silvicultural treatments (light thinning, heavy thinning, and clearcutting) on forest floor and soil carbon pools. Results No overall trend was found between forest floor carbon stocks in stands subjected to partial or complete harvest treatments. A few sites had larger stocks in control plots, although estimates were often highly variable. Forest floor carbon pools did show a trend of increasing values from southern to northern sites. Surface soil (0-5 cm) organic carbon content and concentration were similar between treated and untreated plots. Overall soil carbon (0-20 cm) pool size was not significantly different from control values in sites treated with partial or complete harvests. No geographic trends were evident for any of the soil properties examined. Conclusions Results indicate that it is unlikely that mineral soil carbon stocks are adversely affected by typical management practices as applied in northern hardwood forests in the US; however, the findings suggest that the forest floor carbon pool may be susceptible to loss. PMID:22206625

  13. Comparison of breeding bird and vegetation communities in primary and secondary forests of Great Smoky Mountains National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simons, Theodore R.; Shriner, Susan A.; Farnsworth, George L.

    2006-01-01

    We compared breeding bird communities and vegetation characteristics at paired point locations in primary (undisturbed) and mature secondary forest (70-100 years old) sites in Great Smoky Mountains National Park, USA to understand how sites logged prior to creation of the park compare to undisturbed sites following 70 years of protection from human disturbance. We found that bird and vegetation communities are currently similar, but retain some differences in species composition. Rank abundance curves for primary and secondary forest bird communities showed very similar patterns of species dominance. Species composition was also similar on the two sites which shared 24 of the 25 most frequently recorded species. Nonetheless, comparisons of density estimates derived from distance sampling showed three bird species were more abundant on primary forest sites and that one bird species was significantly more abundant on secondary forest sites. Notably, comparisons based on raw counts (unadjusted for potential differences in detectability) produced somewhat different results. Analyses of vegetation samples for the paired sites also showed relative similarity, but with some differences between primary and secondary forests. Primary forest sites had more large trees (trees greater than 50 cm diameter at breast height) and late successional species. Primary forest sites had a denser tall shrub layer while secondary forest sites had a denser canopy layer. Nonetheless, tree species richness, basal area of live trees and number of standing snags did not differ between primary and secondary forest sites. Results indicate that breeding bird communities on sites within the park that were logged commercially 70 years ago are currently quite similar to bird communities on sites with no history of human disturbance. Similarities between the bird communities on previously disturbed and undisturbed sites in Great Smoky Mountains National Park may exceed those on more fragmented

  14. Comparison of vegetation patterns and soil nutrient relations in an oak-pine forest and a mixed deciduous forest on Long Island, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, S.C.; Curtis, P.S.

    1980-11-01

    An analysis of soil nutrient relations in two forest communities on Long Island, NY, yielded a correlation between the fertility of the top-soil and vegetational composition. The oak-pine forest soils at Brookhaven National Laboratory contain lower average concentrations of NH/sub 3/, Ca, K, and organic matter than the mixed deciduous forest soils in the Stony Brook area. The pH of the topsoil is also more acidic at Brookhaven. The observed differences between localities are greater than within-locality differences between the two soil series tested (Plymouth and Riverhead), which are common to both localities. Nutrient concentrations in the subsoil are not consistently correlated with either locality or soil series, although organic matter and NH/sub 3/ show significantly higher concentrations at Stony Brook. Supporting data on density and basal area of trees and coverage of shrubs and herbs also reveals significant variation between the two forest communities. An ordination of the vegetation data shows higher similarity within than between localities, while no obvious pattern of within-locality variation due to soil series treatments is apparent. These data support the hypothesis that fertility gradients may influence forest community composition and structure. This hypothesis is discussed with reference to vegetation-soil interactions and other factors, such as frequency of burning, which may direct the future development of the Brookhaven oak-pine forest.

  15. A Field Investigation to Assess the Effects of Riparian Vegetation Management on Alluvial Channel Morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinzel, P. J.; Nelson, J. M.

    2004-12-01

    The Platte River in central Nebraska intersects a principal migratory route for North American waterfowl including several endangered and threatened avian species. Upstream water resource development has altered the regime of water and sediment inputs to the central Platte River. The once wide, braided channel has narrowed significantly over the last century and a dense riparian forest has been established along some reaches. A recovery program proposed for the Platte River will use adaptive management to restore habitats lost through vegetation encroachment and channel narrowing. The Cottonwood Ranch, a 2,650-acre parcel of land owned by Nebraska Public Power District (NPPD), is a recovery program property that is being enhanced for avian habitat. Vegetation has been removed from river banks and islands to promote lateral erosion and widening of the channel with the objective of increasing unobstructed views for cranes. Because riparian management activities also have the potential to cause geomorphic change downstream, the U.S. Geological Survey designed a monitoring study to detect what effects, if any, the management might have upon the local channel morphology and sediment-transport processes. The study required the measurement of cross-section elevation profiles and bed-material size gradations upstream, within, and downstream of the managed area prior to, and following, the management activities. However, since the monitoring study began in 2000, Platte River flows have been relatively low. Hence, up to this point, fluvial action has not stimulated substantial lateral erosion and downstream redistribution of sediments from the managed area. The monitoring protocol, while specifically developed to study the effects of vegetation clearing, could be applied to evaluate the geomorphic response of additional reaches of the Platte River to other proposed management activities, including sediment augmentation from island leveling and controlled releases from

  16. Management impacts on water quality of forests and rangelands. Forest Service general technical report (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Binkley, D.; Brown, T.C.

    1993-11-01

    The report compiles information about the effects of management practices on water quality in forests and rangelands. Chapter 1 summarizes water quality concerns on all types of lands. Chapters 2 through 9 focus on physical, chemical, and biological aspects of the forest and rangeland water quality. Chapter 10 describes the federal laws and state programs that are intended to control or monitor forest and rangeland management practices affecting water quality. The final chapter reviews available information about the economic efficiency of nonpoint source pollution programs on forestlands.

  17. Effects of coffee management on deforestation rates and forest integrity.

    PubMed

    Hylander, Kristoffer; Nemomissa, Sileshi; Delrue, Josefien; Enkosa, Woldeyohannes

    2013-10-01

    Knowledge about how forest margins are utilized can be crucial for a general understanding of changes in forest cover, forest structure, and biodiversity across landscapes. We studied forest-agriculture transitions in southwestern Ethiopia and hypothesized that the presence of coffee (Coffea arabica)decreases deforestation rates because of coffee's importance to local economies and its widespread occurrence in forests and forest margins. Using satellite images and elevation data, we compared changes in forest cover over 37 years (1973-2010) across elevations in 2 forest-agriculture mosaic landscapes (1100 km(2) around Bonga and 3000 km(2) in Goma-Gera). In the field in the Bonga area, we determined coffee cover and forest structure in 40 forest margins that differed in time since deforestation. Both the absolute and relative deforestation rates were lower at coffee-growing elevations compared with at higher elevations (-10/20% vs. -40/50% comparing relative rates at 1800 m asl and 2300-2500 m asl, respectively). Within the coffee-growing elevation, the proportion of sites with high coffee cover (>20%) was significantly higher in stable margins (42% of sites that had been in the same location for the entire period) than in recently changed margins (0% of sites where expansion of annual crops had changed the margin). Disturbance level and forest structure did not differ between sites with 30% or 3% coffee. However, a growing body of literature on gradients of coffee management in Ethiopia reports coffee's negative effects on abundances of forest-specialist species. Even if the presence of coffee slows down the conversion of forest to annual-crop agriculture, there is a risk that an intensification of coffee management will still threaten forest biodiversity, including the genetic diversity of wild coffee. Conservation policy for Ethiopian forests thus needs to develop strategies that acknowledge that forests without coffee production may have higher deforestation

  18. Effects of coffee management on deforestation rates and forest integrity.

    PubMed

    Hylander, Kristoffer; Nemomissa, Sileshi; Delrue, Josefien; Enkosa, Woldeyohannes

    2013-10-01

    Knowledge about how forest margins are utilized can be crucial for a general understanding of changes in forest cover, forest structure, and biodiversity across landscapes. We studied forest-agriculture transitions in southwestern Ethiopia and hypothesized that the presence of coffee (Coffea arabica)decreases deforestation rates because of coffee's importance to local economies and its widespread occurrence in forests and forest margins. Using satellite images and elevation data, we compared changes in forest cover over 37 years (1973-2010) across elevations in 2 forest-agriculture mosaic landscapes (1100 km(2) around Bonga and 3000 km(2) in Goma-Gera). In the field in the Bonga area, we determined coffee cover and forest structure in 40 forest margins that differed in time since deforestation. Both the absolute and relative deforestation rates were lower at coffee-growing elevations compared with at higher elevations (-10/20% vs. -40/50% comparing relative rates at 1800 m asl and 2300-2500 m asl, respectively). Within the coffee-growing elevation, the proportion of sites with high coffee cover (>20%) was significantly higher in stable margins (42% of sites that had been in the same location for the entire period) than in recently changed margins (0% of sites where expansion of annual crops had changed the margin). Disturbance level and forest structure did not differ between sites with 30% or 3% coffee. However, a growing body of literature on gradients of coffee management in Ethiopia reports coffee's negative effects on abundances of forest-specialist species. Even if the presence of coffee slows down the conversion of forest to annual-crop agriculture, there is a risk that an intensification of coffee management will still threaten forest biodiversity, including the genetic diversity of wild coffee. Conservation policy for Ethiopian forests thus needs to develop strategies that acknowledge that forests without coffee production may have higher deforestation

  19. Decomposing the uncertainty in climate impact projections of Dynamic Vegetation Models: a test with the forest models LANDCLIM and FORCLIM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cailleret, Maxime; Snell, Rebecca; von Waldow, Harald; Kotlarski, Sven; Bugmann, Harald

    2015-04-01

    Different levels of uncertainty should be considered in climate impact projections by Dynamic Vegetation Models (DVMs), particularly when it comes to managing climate risks. Such information is useful to detect the key processes and uncertainties in the climate model - impact model chain and may be used to support recommendations for future improvements in the simulation of both climate and biological systems. In addition, determining which uncertainty source is dominant is an important aspect to recognize the limitations of climate impact projections by a multi-model ensemble mean approach. However, to date, few studies have clarified how each uncertainty source (baseline climate data, greenhouse gas emission scenario, climate model, and DVM) affects the projection of ecosystem properties. Focusing on one greenhouse gas emission scenario, we assessed the uncertainty in the projections of a forest landscape model (LANDCLIM) and a stand-scale forest gap model (FORCLIM) that is caused by linking climate data with an impact model. LANDCLIM was used to assess the uncertainty in future landscape properties of the Visp valley in Switzerland that is due to (i) the use of different 'baseline' climate data (gridded data vs. data from weather stations), and (ii) differences in climate projections among 10 GCM-RCM chains. This latter point was also considered for the projections of future forest properties by FORCLIM at several sites along an environmental gradient in Switzerland (14 GCM-RCM chains), for which we also quantified the uncertainty caused by (iii) the model chain specific statistical properties of the climate time-series, and (iv) the stochasticity of the demographic processes included in the model, e.g., the annual number of saplings that establish, or tree mortality. Using methods of variance decomposition analysis, we found that (i) The use of different baseline climate data strongly impacts the prediction of forest properties at the lowest and highest, but

  20. Supplement Analysis for the Transmission System Vegetation Management Program FEIS

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2001-03-27

    BPA proposes to clear unwanted vegetation from a section of BPA's Ponderosa--Pilot Butte Transmission Line Right-of-way to facilitate relocation of structure 18/3. Work would begin in mid-March and end in April, 2001. (1) Description of right-of-way and vegetation management needed--The project involves cutting all tall growing trees and brush within BPA's 100-foot wide transmission line right-of-way. An encroachment by the City of Bend Sewer Treatment facility, and future expansion plans, compelled the relocation of this portion of the right-of-way. Structures 18/2 and 18/4 will be modified in place to accommodate the new angle of the right-of-way. Structure 18/3 will be moved approximately 300 feet westerly to allow for the expansion of the sewer treatment facility. Only vegetation within the new portion of the right-of-way, totaling approximately 3.5 acres, will be controlled. No herbicides will be used on this project. Vegetation to be controlled: Juniper trees are the only tall growing tree species within this portion of the right-of-way requiring treatment. The density of vegetation within the new right-of-way is light to medium. The right-of-way boundaries will be examined for danger trees and if found, danger trees will be marked and cut according to danger tree policy.

  1. Impacts of experimentally applied mountain biking and hiking on vegetation and soil of a deciduous forest.

    PubMed

    Thurston, E; Reader, R J

    2001-03-01

    Many recent trail degradation problems have been attributed to mountain biking because of its alleged capacity to do more damage than other activities, particularly hiking. This study compared the effects of experimentally applied mountain biking and hiking on the understory vegetation and soil of a deciduous forest. Five different intensities of biking and hiking (i.e., 0, 25, 75, 200 and 500 passes) were applied to 4-m-long x 1-m-wide lanes in Boyne Valley Provincial Park, Ontario, Canada. Measurements of plant stem density, species richness, and soil exposure were made before treatment, two weeks after treatment, and again one year after treatment. Biking and hiking generally had similar effects on vegetation and soil. Two weeks after treatment, stem density and species richness were reduced by up to 100% of pretreatment values. In addition, the amount of soil exposed increased by up to 54%. One year later, these treatment effects were no longer detectable. These results indicate that at a similar intensity of activity, the short-term impacts of mountain biking and hiking may not differ greatly in the undisturbed area of a deciduous forest habitat. The immediate impacts of both activities can be severe but rapid recovery should be expected when the activities are not allowed to continue. Implications of these results for trail recreation are discussed.

  2. Effects of subalpine grassland management on hydrology and vegetation productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatichi, Simone; Zeeman, Matthias; Fuhrer, Jürg; Burlando, Paolo

    2014-05-01

    Grassland and pastures are very typical land uses in subalpine and alpine environments. Grass is typically subjected to management practices that can change the biophysical structure of the plant canopy through defoliation and alter soil hydraulic properties. These changes are expected to impact hydrological and energy fluxes as well as vegetation primary productivity. In this study a mechanistic model is used to investigate the effects of management practices (grass cut, grazing, and the consequent soil compaction due to treading by animals) on water and carbon dynamics. The model is first confirmed using energy, water, and carbon fluxes measured at three eddy covariance stations above grasslands in Switzerland and discharge measured in a small experimental catchment. Successively, a series of virtual experiments are conceived to elucidate the impacts of management scenarios at the plot and catchment scales. Numerical results show that only the most severe management actions such as low grass cuts or heavy grazing intensities are able to influence the long-term hydrological behavior. Moderate grassland management practices are unlikely to be effective in modifying the system both at the local and catchment scale. An important exception is represented by the short-term effect of soil compaction that can reduce infiltration capacity leading to peak flow considerably higher than in undisturbed conditions. The productivity of vegetation in absence of nutrient limitation is affected by the different management scenarios with tolerable disturbances that lead to higher aboveground net primary production. Such a result can have important consequences in terms of grassland management planning.

  3. Large-Scale Variation in Forest Carbon Turnover Rate and its Relation to Climate - Remote Sensing vs. Global Vegetation Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalhais, N.; Thurner, M.; Beer, C.; Forkel, M.; Rademacher, T. T.; Santoro, M.; Tum, M.; Schmullius, C.

    2015-12-01

    While vegetation productivity is known to be strongly correlated to climate, there is a need for an improved understanding of the underlying processes of vegetation carbon turnover and their importance at a global scale. This shortcoming has been due to the lack of spatially extensive information on vegetation carbon stocks, which we recently have been able to overcome by a biomass dataset covering northern boreal and temperate forests originating from radar remote sensing. Based on state-of-the-art products on biomass and NPP, we are for the first time able to study the relation between carbon turnover rate and a set of climate indices in northern boreal and temperate forests. The implementation of climate-related mortality processes, for instance drought, fire, frost or insect effects, is often lacking or insufficient in current global vegetation models. In contrast to our observation-based findings, investigated models from the Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISI-MIP), including HYBRID4, JeDi, JULES, LPJml, ORCHIDEE, SDGVM, and VISIT, are able to reproduce spatial climate - turnover rate relationships only to a limited extent. While most of the models compare relatively well to observation-based NPP, simulated vegetation carbon stocks are severely biased compared to our biomass dataset. Current limitations lead to considerable uncertainties in the estimated vegetation carbon turnover, contributing substantially to the forest feedback to climate change. Our results are the basis for improving mortality concepts in global vegetation models and estimating their impact on the land carbon balance.

  4. Forest Management Intensity Affects Aquatic Communities in Artificial Tree Holes

    PubMed Central

    Petermann, Jana S.; Rohland, Anja; Sichardt, Nora; Lade, Peggy; Guidetti, Brenda; Weisser, Wolfgang W.; Gossner, Martin M.

    2016-01-01

    Forest management could potentially affect organisms in all forest habitats. However, aquatic communities in water-filled tree-holes may be especially sensitive because of small population sizes, the risk of drought and potential dispersal limitation. We set up artificial tree holes in forest stands subject to different management intensities in two regions in Germany and assessed the influence of local environmental properties (tree-hole opening type, tree diameter, water volume and water temperature) as well as regional drivers (forest management intensity, tree-hole density) on tree-hole insect communities (not considering other organisms such as nematodes or rotifers), detritus content, oxygen and nutrient concentrations. In addition, we compared data from artificial tree holes with data from natural tree holes in the same area to evaluate the methodological approach of using tree-hole analogues. We found that forest management had strong effects on communities in artificial tree holes in both regions and across the season. Abundance and species richness declined, community composition shifted and detritus content declined with increasing forest management intensity. Environmental variables, such as tree-hole density and tree diameter partly explained these changes. However, dispersal limitation, indicated by effects of tree-hole density, generally showed rather weak impacts on communities. Artificial tree holes had higher water temperatures (on average 2°C higher) and oxygen concentrations (on average 25% higher) than natural tree holes. The abundance of organisms was higher but species richness was lower in artificial tree holes. Community composition differed between artificial and natural tree holes. Negative management effects were detectable in both tree-hole systems, despite their abiotic and biotic differences. Our results indicate that forest management has substantial and pervasive effects on tree-hole communities and may alter their structure and

  5. Forest Management Intensity Affects Aquatic Communities in Artificial Tree Holes.

    PubMed

    Petermann, Jana S; Rohland, Anja; Sichardt, Nora; Lade, Peggy; Guidetti, Brenda; Weisser, Wolfgang W; Gossner, Martin M

    2016-01-01

    Forest management could potentially affect organisms in all forest habitats. However, aquatic communities in water-filled tree-holes may be especially sensitive because of small population sizes, the risk of drought and potential dispersal limitation. We set up artificial tree holes in forest stands subject to different management intensities in two regions in Germany and assessed the influence of local environmental properties (tree-hole opening type, tree diameter, water volume and water temperature) as well as regional drivers (forest management intensity, tree-hole density) on tree-hole insect communities (not considering other organisms such as nematodes or rotifers), detritus content, oxygen and nutrient concentrations. In addition, we compared data from artificial tree holes with data from natural tree holes in the same area to evaluate the methodological approach of using tree-hole analogues. We found that forest management had strong effects on communities in artificial tree holes in both regions and across the season. Abundance and species richness declined, community composition shifted and detritus content declined with increasing forest management intensity. Environmental variables, such as tree-hole density and tree diameter partly explained these changes. However, dispersal limitation, indicated by effects of tree-hole density, generally showed rather weak impacts on communities. Artificial tree holes had higher water temperatures (on average 2°C higher) and oxygen concentrations (on average 25% higher) than natural tree holes. The abundance of organisms was higher but species richness was lower in artificial tree holes. Community composition differed between artificial and natural tree holes. Negative management effects were detectable in both tree-hole systems, despite their abiotic and biotic differences. Our results indicate that forest management has substantial and pervasive effects on tree-hole communities and may alter their structure and

  6. Forest Management Intensity Affects Aquatic Communities in Artificial Tree Holes.

    PubMed

    Petermann, Jana S; Rohland, Anja; Sichardt, Nora; Lade, Peggy; Guidetti, Brenda; Weisser, Wolfgang W; Gossner, Martin M

    2016-01-01

    Forest management could potentially affect organisms in all forest habitats. However, aquatic communities in water-filled tree-holes may be especially sensitive because of small population sizes, the risk of drought and potential dispersal limitation. We set up artificial tree holes in forest stands subject to different management intensities in two regions in Germany and assessed the influence of local environmental properties (tree-hole opening type, tree diameter, water volume and water temperature) as well as regional drivers (forest management intensity, tree-hole density) on tree-hole insect communities (not considering other organisms such as nematodes or rotifers), detritus content, oxygen and nutrient concentrations. In addition, we compared data from artificial tree holes with data from natural tree holes in the same area to evaluate the methodological approach of using tree-hole analogues. We found that forest management had strong effects on communities in artificial tree holes in both regions and across the season. Abundance and species richness declined, community composition shifted and detritus content declined with increasing forest management intensity. Environmental variables, such as tree-hole density and tree diameter partly explained these changes. However, dispersal limitation, indicated by effects of tree-hole density, generally showed rather weak impacts on communities. Artificial tree holes had higher water temperatures (on average 2°C higher) and oxygen concentrations (on average 25% higher) than natural tree holes. The abundance of organisms was higher but species richness was lower in artificial tree holes. Community composition differed between artificial and natural tree holes. Negative management effects were detectable in both tree-hole systems, despite their abiotic and biotic differences. Our results indicate that forest management has substantial and pervasive effects on tree-hole communities and may alter their structure and

  7. Reconstructing European forest management from 1600 to 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGrath, M. J.; Luyssaert, S.; Meyfroidt, P.; Kaplan, J. O.; Bürgi, M.; Chen, Y.; Erb, K.; Gimmi, U.; McInerney, D.; Naudts, K.; Otto, J.; Pasztor, F.; Ryder, J.; Schelhaas, M.-J.; Valade, A.

    2015-07-01

    Because of the slow accumulation and long residence time of carbon in biomass and soils, the present state and future dynamics of temperate forests are influenced by management that took place centuries to millennia ago. Humans have exploited the forests of Europe for fuel, construction materials and fodder for the entire Holocene. In recent centuries, economic and demographic trends led to increases in both forest area and management intensity across much of Europe. In order to quantify the effects of these changes in forests and to provide a baseline for studies on future land-cover-climate interactions and biogeochemical cycling, we created a temporally and spatially resolved reconstruction of European forest management from 1600 to 2010. For the period 1600-1828, we took a supply-demand approach, in which supply was estimated on the basis of historical annual wood increment and land cover reconstructions. We made demand estimates by multiplying population with consumption factors for construction materials, household fuelwood, industrial food processing and brewing, metallurgy, and salt production. For the period 1829-2010, we used a supply-driven backcasting method based on national and regional statistics of forest age structure from the second half of the 20th century. Our reconstruction reproduces the most important changes in forest management between 1600 and 2010: (1) an increase of 593 000 km2 in conifers at the expense of deciduous forest (decreasing by 538 000 km2); (2) a 612 000 km2 decrease in unmanaged forest; (3) a 152 000 km2 decrease in coppice management; (4) a 818 000 km2 increase in high-stand management; and (5) the rise and fall of litter raking, which at its peak in 1853 resulted in the removal of 50 Tg dry litter per year.

  8. 36 CFR 221.3 - Disposal of national forest timber according to management plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... timber according to management plans. 221.3 Section 221.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TIMBER MANAGEMENT PLANNING § 221.3 Disposal of national forest timber according to management plans. (a) Management plans for national forest timber resources shall be...

  9. 36 CFR 221.3 - Disposal of national forest timber according to management plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... timber according to management plans. 221.3 Section 221.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TIMBER MANAGEMENT PLANNING § 221.3 Disposal of national forest timber according to management plans. (a) Management plans for national forest timber resources shall be...

  10. Seasonality and nitrogen supply modify carbon partitioning in understory vegetation of a boreal coniferous forest.

    PubMed

    Hasselquist, N J; Metcalfe, D B; Marshall, J D; Lucas, R W; Högberg, P

    2016-03-01

    Given the strong coupling between the carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycles, there is substantial interest in understanding how N availability affects C cycling in terrestrial ecosystems, especially in ecosystems limited by N. However, most studies in temperate and boreal forests have focused on the effects of N addition on tree growth. By comparison, less is known about the effects of N availability on the cycling of C in understory vegetation despite some evidence that dwarf shrubs, mosses, and lichens play an important role in the forest C balance. In this study, we used an in situ 13CO2 pulse-labeling technique to examine the short-term dynamics of C partitioning in understory vegetation in three boreal Pinus sylvestris forest stands exposed to different rates of N addition: a low and high N addition that receive annual additions of NH4NO3 of 20 and 100 kg N/ha, respectively, and this is a typo. It should be an unfertilized control. Labeling was conducted at two distinct periods (early vs. late growing season), which provided a seasonal picture of how N addition affects C dynamics in understory vegetation. In contrast to what has been found in trees, there was no obvious trend in belowground C partitioning in ericaceous plants in response to N additions or seasonality. Increasing N addition led to a greater percentage of 13C being incorporated into ericaceous leaves with a high turnover, whereas high rates of N addition strongly reduced the incorporation of 13C into less degradable moss tissues. Addition of N also resulted in a greater percentage of the 13C label being respired back to the atmosphere and an overall reduction in total understory carbon use efficiency. Taken together, our results suggest a faster cycling of C in understory vegetation with increasing N additions; yet the magnitude of this general response was strongly dependent on the amount of N added and varied seasonally. These results provide some of the first in situ C and N partitioning

  11. Wildfire exposure and fuel management on western US national forests.

    PubMed

    Ager, Alan A; Day, Michelle A; McHugh, Charles W; Short, Karen; Gilbertson-Day, Julie; Finney, Mark A; Calkin, David E

    2014-12-01

    Substantial investments in fuel management activities on national forests in the western US are part of a national strategy to reduce human and ecological losses from catastrophic wildfire and create fire resilient landscapes. Prioritizing these investments within and among national forests remains a challenge, partly because a comprehensive assessment that establishes the current wildfire risk and exposure does not exist, making it difficult to identify national priorities and target specific areas for fuel management. To gain a broader understanding of wildfire exposure in the national forest system, we analyzed an array of simulated and empirical data on wildfire activity and fuel treatment investments on the 82 western US national forests. We first summarized recent fire data to examine variation among the Forests in ignition frequency and burned area in relation to investments in fuel reduction treatments. We then used simulation modeling to analyze fine-scale spatial variation in burn probability and intensity. We also estimated the probability of a mega-fire event on each of the Forests, and the transmission of fires ignited on national forests to the surrounding urban interface. The analysis showed a good correspondence between recent area burned and predictions from the simulation models. The modeling also illustrated the magnitude of the variation in both burn probability and intensity among and within Forests. Simulated burn probabilities in most instances were lower than historical, reflecting fire exclusion on many national forests. Simulated wildfire transmission from national forests to the urban interface was highly variable among the Forests. We discuss how the results of the study can be used to prioritize investments in hazardous fuel reduction within a comprehensive multi-scale risk management framework.

  12. Wildfire exposure and fuel management on western US national forests.

    PubMed

    Ager, Alan A; Day, Michelle A; McHugh, Charles W; Short, Karen; Gilbertson-Day, Julie; Finney, Mark A; Calkin, David E

    2014-12-01

    Substantial investments in fuel management activities on national forests in the western US are part of a national strategy to reduce human and ecological losses from catastrophic wildfire and create fire resilient landscapes. Prioritizing these investments within and among national forests remains a challenge, partly because a comprehensive assessment that establishes the current wildfire risk and exposure does not exist, making it difficult to identify national priorities and target specific areas for fuel management. To gain a broader understanding of wildfire exposure in the national forest system, we analyzed an array of simulated and empirical data on wildfire activity and fuel treatment investments on the 82 western US national forests. We first summarized recent fire data to examine variation among the Forests in ignition frequency and burned area in relation to investments in fuel reduction treatments. We then used simulation modeling to analyze fine-scale spatial variation in burn probability and intensity. We also estimated the probability of a mega-fire event on each of the Forests, and the transmission of fires ignited on national forests to the surrounding urban interface. The analysis showed a good correspondence between recent area burned and predictions from the simulation models. The modeling also illustrated the magnitude of the variation in both burn probability and intensity among and within Forests. Simulated burn probabilities in most instances were lower than historical, reflecting fire exclusion on many national forests. Simulated wildfire transmission from national forests to the urban interface was highly variable among the Forests. We discuss how the results of the study can be used to prioritize investments in hazardous fuel reduction within a comprehensive multi-scale risk management framework. PMID:24997402

  13. Optimization of forest age-dependent light-use efficiency and its implications on climate-vegetation interactions in china

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Z.; Zhou, T.

    2015-04-01

    Forest's net primary productivity (NPP) is a key index in studying interactions of climate and vegetation, and accurate prediction of NPP is essential to understand the forests' response to climate change. The magnitude and trends of forest NPP not only depend on climate factors (e.g., temperature and precipitation), but also on the succession stages (i.e., forest stand age). Although forest stand age plays a significant role on NPP, it is usually ignored by remote sensing-based models. In this study, we used remote sensing data and meteorological data to estimate forest NPP in China based on CASA model, and then employed field observations to inversely estimate the parameter of maximum light-use efficiency (ɛmax) of forests in different stand ages. We further developed functions to describe the relationship between maximum light-use efficiency (ɛmax) and forest stand age, and estimated forest age-dependent NPP based on these functions. The results showed that ɛmax has changed according to forest types and the forest stand age. For deciduous broadleaf forest, the average ɛmax of young, middle-aged and mature forest are 0.68, 0.65 and 0.60 gC MJ-1. For evergreen broadleaf forest, the average ɛmax of young, middle-aged and mature forests are 1.05, 1.01 and 0.99 gC MJ-1. For evergreen needleleaf forest, the average ɛmax of young, middle-aged and mature forests are 0.72, 0.57 and 0.52 gC MJ-1.The NPP of young and middle-aged forests were underestimated based on a constant ɛmax. Young forests and middle-aged forests had higher ɛmax, and they were more sensitive to trends and fluctuations of climate change, so they led to greater annual fluctuations of NPP. These findings confirm the importance of considering forest stand age to the estimation of NPP and they are significant to study the response of forests to climate change.

  14. Role of MODIS Vegetation Phenology Products in the ForWarn System for Monitoring of Forest Disturbances in the Conterminous United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spruce, J.; Hargrove, W. W.; Norman, S.; Gasser, J.; Smoot, J.; Kuper, P.

    2012-12-01

    This presentation discusses MODIS vegetation phenology products used in the ForWarn Early Warning System (EWS) tool for near real time regional forest disturbance detection and surveillance at regional to national scales. The ForWarn EWS is being developed by the USDA Forest Service NASA, ORNL, and USGS to aid federal and state forest health management activities. ForWarn employs multiple historical land surface phenology products that are derived from MODIS MOD13 Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data. The latter is temporally processed into phenology products with the Time Series Product Tool (TSPT) and the Phenological Parameter Estimation Tool (PPET) software produced at NASA Stennis Space Center. TSPT is used to effectively noise reduce, fuse, and void interpolate MODIS NDVI data. PPET employs TSPT-processed NDVI time series data as an input, outputting multiple vegetation phenology products at a 232 meter resolution for 2000 to 2011, including NDVI magnitude and day of year products for seven key points along the growing season (peak of growing season and the minima, 20%, and 80% of the peak NDVI for both the left and right side of growing season), cumulative NDVI integral products for the most active part of the growing season and sequentially across the growing season at 8 day intervals, and maximum value NDVI products composited at 24 day intervals in which each product date has 8 days of overlap between the previous and following product dates. MODIS NDVI phenology products are also used to compute nationwide near real time forest change products every 8 days. These include percent change in forest NDVI products that compare the current NDVI from USGS eMODIS products to historical MODIS MOD13 NDVI. For each date, three forest change products are produced using three different maximum value NDVI baselines (from the previous year, three previous years, and all previous years). All change products are output with a rainbow color table in which

  15. Role of MODIS Vegetation Phenology Products in the ForWarn System for Monitoring of Forest Disturbances in the Conterminous United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spruce, Joseph P.; Hargrove, William; Norman, Steve; Gasser, Jerry; Smoot, James; Kuper, Philip D,

    2012-01-01

    This presentation discusses MODIS vegetation phenology products used in the ForWarn Early Warning System (EWS) tool for near real time regional forest disturbance detection and surveillance at regional to national scales. The ForWarn EWS is being developed by the USDA Forest Service NASA, ORNL, and USGS to aid federal and state forest health management activities. ForWarn employs multiple historical land surface phenology products that are derived from MODIS MOD13 Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data. The latter is temporally processed into phenology products with the Time Series Product Tool (TSPT) and the Phenological Parameter Estimation Tool (PPET) software produced at NASA Stennis Space Center. TSPT is used to effectively noise reduce, fuse, and void interpolate MODIS NDVI data. PPET employs TSPT-processed NDVI time series data as an input, outputting multiple vegetation phenology products at a 232 meter resolution for 2000 to 2011, including NDVI magnitude and day of year products for seven key points along the growing season (peak of growing season and the minima, 20%, and 80% of the peak NDVI for both the left and right side of growing season), cumulative NDVI integral products for the most active part of the growing season and sequentially across the growing season at 8 day intervals, and maximum value NDVI products composited at 24 day intervals in which each product date has 8 days of overlap between the previous and following product dates. MODIS NDVI phenology products are also used to compute nationwide NRT forest change products refreshed every 8 days. These include percent change in forest NDVI products that compare the current NDVI from USGS eMODIS products to historical MODIS MOD13 NDVI. For each date, three forest change products are produced using three different maximum value NDVI baselines (from the previous year, three previous years, and all previous years). All change products are output with a rainbow color table in which

  16. Automatic interpretation of ERTS data for forest management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirvida, L.; Johnson, G. R.

    1973-01-01

    Automatic stratification of forested land from ERTS-1 data provides a valuable tool for resource management. The results are useful for wood product yield estimates, recreation and wild life management, forest inventory and forest condition monitoring. Automatic procedures based on both multi-spectral and spatial features are evaluated. With five classes, training and testing on the same samples, classification accuracy of 74% was achieved using the MSS multispectral features. When adding texture computed from 8 x 8 arrays, classification accuracy of 99% was obtained.

  17. 75 FR 11508 - Revision of Land Management Plan for the Uwharrie National Forest

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-11

    ... activities on the forests is not a decision made in the forest plan but occurs through subsequent project... involvement and collaboration on revising the Uwharrie's Forest Plan has already occurred. Discussions with... Forest Service Revision of Land Management Plan for the Uwharrie National Forest AGENCY: Forest...

  18. The San Dimas Experimental Forest - Long Term Study of Fire, Water and Vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meixner, T.; Wohlgemuth, P.

    2001-12-01

    The San Dimas Experimental Forest was established in 1934. A large data base of fire history and stream flow has been generated for the forest. This database is now available electronically. San Dimas was selected as a perfect example of the hydrology, geology, and ecology of the mountains of southern California. As such the long term data set provides the best examples available of rainfall runoff relationships in a mountainous Mediterannean climate. The effect of fire on streamflow is a pertinent topic considering the current national discussion about changes in fire policy in the western United States. The data sets at San Dimas provide an opportunity to investigate what the short and long term impacts of fire are on water resources in chaparral ecosystems. In particular the fires of 1938 and 1960 provide an opportunity to investigate the effect of fire and the differential response of streamflow after each of these fires. Immediately after the fires the well known fire-flood response of chaparral watersheds is noted with extremely large flood peaks possibly due to the combined effects of removal of vegetation and litter by fire as well as the presence of hydrophobic soils. However longer term impacts of fire are notciable, lasting as long as 20 years and are most likely related to decreases in vegetation coverage and the linked decrease in evapotranspiration. After the 1960 fire several watersheds were type converted to annual and perrenial grasslands from their native chaparral. The increased streamflow caused by these conversions is still observable during both storm and baseflow periods. The known fire history and streamflow records of the forest permit continuing study on the effect of fire frequency on watershed hydrology, biogeochemistry, and geomorphology. >http://www.rfl.psw.fs.fed.us/prefire/sdefhtml/

  19. [Influences of petrophytia moss on vegetation development in evergreen broad-leaved forest].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhongsheng; Fang, Yanming

    2003-06-01

    In order to examine the role of Petrophytia moss in maintaining the stability and integrity of forest vegetation, the distribution patterns of vascular plants among Petrophytia moss layer were investigated in five heterogeneous patches of evergreen broad-leaved forest at Longwangshan, Zhejiang Province. The distribution and composition of vascular plants were jointly affected by various factors, such as disturbance degree in patch, moss growth condition, and water and soil conservation ability of moss layer. Original habitats patch 1 and patch 5 were kept well, and hence, the even depth, dry weight and maximum water-holding capacity of moss layer, as well as the dry weight of soil and the soil water-absorbing rate in moss layer for patch 1 and patch 5 were much more than other patches. For example, the even depth (cm) of moss layer were decreased in the order of patch 5(2.2) > patch 1(2.0) > patch 2(1.5) > patch 3(1.1) > patch 4(0.9); the ranking of vascular plant diversities among moss layer in each patch was patch 5(16) > patch 1(14) > patch 3(9) > patch 4(7), and the general cover of these plants was followed as patch 3(30.0%) > patch 1(28.5%) > patch 5 (26.5%) > patch 2 (17.0%) > patch 4(4.5%). It was concluded that Petrophytia moss had the roles of reserving water and soil, holding litter, concentrating nutrient elements, and corrupting rock, which could improve the environmental condition of rock surface, help to the regeneration of vascular plants, and bring positive effects on the restoration or conversation of vegetation in disturbance sites and on the extension of forest scale.

  20. Bird metacommunities in temperate South American forest: vegetation structure, area, and climate effects.

    PubMed

    Meynard, Christine N; Quinn, J F

    2008-04-01

    Spatial structure in metacommunities and their relationships to environmental gradients have been linked to opposing theories of community assembly. In particular, while the species sorting hypothesis predicts strong environmental influences, the neutral theory, the mass effect, and the patch dynamics frameworks all predict differing degrees of spatial structure resulting from dispersal and competition limitations. Here we study the relative influence of environmental gradients and spatial structure in bird assemblages of the Chilean temperate forest. We carried out bird and vegetation surveys in South American temperate forests at 147 points located in nine different protected areas in central Chile, and collected meteorological and productivity data for these localities. Species composition dissimilarities between sites were calculated, as well as three indices of bird local diversity: observed species richness, Chao estimate of richness, and Shannon diversity. A stepwise multiple regression and partial regression analyses were used to select a small number of environmental factors that predicted bird species diversity. Although diversity indices were spatially autocorrelated, environmental factors were sufficient to account for this autocorrelation. Moreover, community dissimilarities were not significantly related to distance between sites. We then tested a multivariate hypothesis about climate, vegetation, and avian diversity interactions using a structural equation modeling (SEM) approach. The SEM showed that climate and area of fragments have important indirect effects on avian diversity, mediated through changes in vegetation structure. Given the scale of this study, the metacommunity framework provides useful insights into the mechanisms driving bird assemblages in this region. Taken together, the weak spatial structure of community composition and diversity, as well as the strong environmental effects on bird diversity, support the interpretation that

  1. Supplement Analysis for the Transmission System Vegetation Management Program FEIS

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2001-04-01

    BPA proposes to clear danger trees from varying widths of the indicated transmission line rights-of way that are approaching electrical clearance zones in accordance with the National Electrical Safety Code and BPA Standards. See Section 1.1 of the attachment. BPA is clearing the danger trees to prevent them from falling or growing into the lines causing outages. This project meets the standards and guidelines for the Transmission System Vegetation Management Program Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) and Record of Decision (ROD). The planning step are described in the attached checklist. This Supplement Analysis finds that (1) the proposed actions are substantially consistent with the Transmission System Vegetation Management Program FEIS (DOE/EIS-0285) and ROD, and; (2) there are no new circumstances or information relevant to environmental concerns and bearing on the proposed actions or their impacts. Therefore, no further NEPA documentation is required.

  2. 78 FR 3879 - Ochoco National Forest, Paulina Ranger District; Oregon; Fox Canyon Cluster Allotment Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-17

    ... riparian conditions for streambank stability, riparian vegetation, and water temperature. These actions are... grazing for vegetation management. Riparian restoration activities would take place within the newly... activities, including vegetation and fuels management. Scoping Process Public comments about this...

  3. Effects of Harvesting Intensity and Herbivory by White-tailed Deer on Vegetation and Nutrient Uptake in a Northern Hardwood Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yorks, T. E.; Leopold, D. J.; Raynal, D. J.; Murdoch, P. S.; Burns, D. A.

    2003-12-01

    We quantified the response of vegetation and nutrient uptake in a northern hardwood forest in southeastern New York for three to four years after three intensities of harvesting: clearcutting, heavy timber stand improvement (TSI), light TSI (97, 29, and 10% basal area reductions, respectively). We also quantified effects of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) herbivory on nutrient retention by vegetation. Total biomass and nutrient accumulation in vegetation was higher after TSI than clearcutting in the first two years but was highest in the fenced clearcut in subsequent years, indicating that TSI or partial harvesting is a viable management tool for harvesting timber while consistently maintaining high rates of nutrient retention. After clearcutting, biomass and nutrient retention were initially dominated by woody stems <1.4 m tall and herbaceous vegetation, but saplings 0.1-5.0 cm DBH became the most important contributors to biomass and nutrient accumulation within four years. However, after both intensities of TSI, trees >5.0 cm DBH continued to account for most biomass and nutrient accumulation whereas understory vegetation accumulated little biomass or nutrients. Heavy TSI resulted in increased regeneration of only two tree species (Acer pensylvanicum, Fagus grandifolia), but clearcutting allowed these two species, mature forest species (A. saccharum, Betula alleghaniensis), and the early successional Prunus pensylvanica to regenerate. Several early successional shrub and herbaceous species were also important to nutrient retention after clearcutting, including Polygonum cilinode, Rubus spp., and Sambucus racemosa. Herbivory by white-tailed deer dramatically reduced biomass and nutrient accumulation by woody stems <5 cm DBH after clearcutting (5.5 vs. 0.7 Mg biomass/ha and 30.4 vs. 6.3 kg N/ha on fenced and unfenced clearcut sites, respectively, after four years), indicating the important influence this herbivore can have on nutrient retention in

  4. Islands in the Sky: Ecophysiological Cloud-Vegetation Linkages in Southern Appalachian Mountain Cloud Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinhardt, K.; Emanuel, R. E.; Johnson, D. M.

    2013-12-01

    Mountain cloud forest (MCF) ecosystems are characterized by a high frequency of cloud fog, with vegetation enshrouded in fog. The altitudinal boundaries of cloud-fog zones co-occur with conspicuous, sharp vegetation ecotones between MCF- and non-MCF-vegetation. This suggests linkages between cloud-fog and vegetation physiology and ecosystem functioning. However, very few studies have provided a mechanistic explanation for the sharp changes in vegetation communities, or how (if) cloud-fog and vegetation are linked. We investigated ecophysiological linkages between clouds and trees in Southern Appalachian spruce-fir MCF. These refugial forests occur in only six mountain-top, sky-island populations, and are immersed in clouds on up to 80% of all growing season days. Our fundamental research questions was: How are cloud-fog and cloud-forest trees linked? We measured microclimate and physiology of canopy tree species across a range of sky conditions (cloud immersed, partly cloudy, sunny). Measurements included: 1) sunlight intensity and spectral quality; 2) carbon gain and photosynthetic capacity at leaf (gas exchange) and ecosystem (eddy covariance) scales; and 3) relative limitations to carbon gain (biochemical, stomatal, hydraulic). RESULTS: 1) Midday sunlight intensity ranged from very dark (<30 μmol m-2 s-1, under cloud-immersed conditions) to very bright (>2500 μmol m-2 s-1), and was highly variable on minute-to-minute timescales whenever clouds were present in the sky. Clouds and cloud-fog increased the proportion of blue-light wavelengths 5-15% compared to sunny conditions, and altered blue:red and red:far red ratios, both of which have been shown to strongly affect stomatal functioning. 2) Cloud-fog resulted in ~50% decreased carbon gain at leaf and ecosystem scales, due to sunlight levels below photosynthetic light-saturation-points. However, greenhouse studies and light-response-curve analyses demonstrated that MCF tree species have low light

  5. 36 CFR 221.3 - Disposal of national forest timber according to management plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Disposal of national forest timber according to management plans. 221.3 Section 221.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TIMBER MANAGEMENT PLANNING § 221.3 Disposal of national forest...

  6. 36 CFR 221.3 - Disposal of national forest timber according to management plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Disposal of national forest timber according to management plans. 221.3 Section 221.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TIMBER MANAGEMENT PLANNING § 221.3 Disposal of national forest...

  7. 36 CFR 221.3 - Disposal of national forest timber according to management plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Disposal of national forest timber according to management plans. 221.3 Section 221.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TIMBER MANAGEMENT PLANNING § 221.3 Disposal of national forest...

  8. 76 FR 9537 - Sequoia National Forest; California; Piute Mountains Travel Management Plan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-18

    ... Forest Service Sequoia National Forest; California; Piute Mountains Travel Management Plan AGENCY: Forest... National Forest proposes to develop a travel management plan for the Piute Mountains, located in northeast Kern County, California. The Piute Mountains, with a mixed conifer and pine forest, are included in...

  9. 76 FR 35467 - Deer and Vegetation Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Fire Island National Seashore...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-17

    ... National Park Service Deer and Vegetation Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Fire Island... Intent to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for a Deer and Vegetation Management Plan, Fire...) for a Deer and Vegetation Management Plan at Fire Island National Seashore, New York. The purpose...

  10. 76 FR 41516 - Vegetation and Deer Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Morristown National...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-14

    ... National Park Service Vegetation and Deer Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Morristown...: Notice of Intent to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for a Vegetation and Deer Management Plan... Statement (EIS) for a Vegetation and Deer Management Plan at Morristown National Historical Park (NHP),...

  11. 75 FR 62809 - Transmission Vegetation Management Practices; Notice of Technical Conference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-13

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Transmission Vegetation Management Practices; Notice of Technical Conference... Technical Conference on Transmission Vegetation Management Programs on Tuesday, October 26, 2010 from 1 p.m... attend the conference. The purpose of the conference is to discuss current vegetation management...

  12. 75 FR 66752 - Transmission Vegetation Management Practices; Supplemental Notice of Technical Conference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-29

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Transmission Vegetation Management Practices; Supplemental Notice of... that a Technical Conference on Transmission Vegetation Management Practices would be held on Tuesday... Transmission Vegetation Management Practices Docket No. AD11-2-000 October 26, 2010 Agenda 1 p.m. Welcome...

  13. 137Cs in fungal sporocarps in relation to vegetation in a bog, pine swamp and forest along a transect.

    PubMed

    Vinichuk, M; Rosén, K; Dahlberg, A

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we estimated the relative importance of vegetation and fungi for radiocesium uptake and biological retention in adjacent bog, pine swamp, and forest. The measurements for (137)Cs activity concentration in sporocarps (i.e. fruitbodies of fungi) and vegetation along a bog to forest transect were combined with complementary published data to calculate estimates. Aboveground vegetation comprised 17.7% of the total fallout-derived radiocesium in the system in bog, 16.5% in pine swamp, and 40.6% in forest. In fungal sporocarps grown along a gradient, (137)Cs activity comprised <0.001% of the total radiocesium for peat bog, <0.02% for pine swamp, and 0.11% for forest. Total (137)Cs activity in sporocarps increased along the gradient due to increased production of sporocarps in the presence of trees from 0.006 (bog), 0.097 (pine swamp) and 0.67 (forest) g dwt m(-2). Based on calculation of the total vegetation biomass and through relationships between fungal biomass in sporocarps and as mycelia in soil, the total (137)Cs activity located in fungi was estimated as 0.1% in bog, 2% in pine swamp, and 11% in forest. An analysis of the time-dependency of (137)Cs in the sporocarps in forest between 1990 and 2011 suggested an ecological half-life for (137)Cs between 8 and 13 years. Although fungi comprised a relatively small fraction of the total radiocesium in the systems, its activity decreased slowly with time, and ecological residence time for (137)Cs in sporocarps of fungi was long, suggesting they will continue to contribute to the accumulation and cycling of this radionuclide in forest.

  14. Europe's forest management did not mitigate climate warming.

    PubMed

    Naudts, Kim; Chen, Yiying; McGrath, Matthew J; Ryder, James; Valade, Aude; Otto, Juliane; Luyssaert, Sebastiaan

    2016-02-01

    Afforestation and forest management are considered to be key instruments in mitigating climate change. Here we show that since 1750, in spite of considerable afforestation, wood extraction has led to Europe's forests accumulating a carbon debt of 3.1 petagrams of carbon. We found that afforestation is responsible for an increase of 0.12 watts per square meter in the radiative imbalance at the top of the atmosphere, whereas an increase of 0.12 kelvin in summertime atmospheric boundary layer temperature was mainly caused by species conversion. Thus, two and a half centuries of forest management in Europe have not cooled the climate. The political imperative to mitigate climate change through afforestation and forest management therefore risks failure, unless it is recognized that not all forestry contributes to climate change mitigation. PMID:26912701

  15. Europe's forest management did not mitigate climate warming.

    PubMed

    Naudts, Kim; Chen, Yiying; McGrath, Matthew J; Ryder, James; Valade, Aude; Otto, Juliane; Luyssaert, Sebastiaan

    2016-02-01

    Afforestation and forest management are considered to be key instruments in mitigating climate change. Here we show that since 1750, in spite of considerable afforestation, wood extraction has led to Europe's forests accumulating a carbon debt of 3.1 petagrams of carbon. We found that afforestation is responsible for an increase of 0.12 watts per square meter in the radiative imbalance at the top of the atmosphere, whereas an increase of 0.12 kelvin in summertime atmospheric boundary layer temperature was mainly caused by species conversion. Thus, two and a half centuries of forest management in Europe have not cooled the climate. The political imperative to mitigate climate change through afforestation and forest management therefore risks failure, unless it is recognized that not all forestry contributes to climate change mitigation.

  16. Forest management strategies for reducing carbon emissions, the French case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valade, Aude; Luyssaert, Sebastiaan; Bellassen, Valentin; Vallet, Patrick; Martin, Manuel

    2015-04-01

    International agreements now recognize the role of forest in the mitigation of climate change through the levers of in-situ sequestration, storage in products and energy and product substitution. These three strategies of carbon management are often antagonistic and it is still not clear which strategy would have the most significant impact on atmospheric carbon concentrations. With a focus on France, this study compares several scenarios of forest management in terms of their effect on the overall carbon budget from trees to wood-products. We elaborated four scenarios of forest management that target different wood production objectives. One scenario is 'Business as usual' and reproduces the current forest management and wood production levels. Two scenarios target an increase in bioenergy wood production, with either long-term or short-term goals. One scenario aims at increasing the production of timber for construction. For this, an empirical regression model was developed building on the rich French inventory database. The model can project the current forest resource at a time horizon of 20 years for characteristic variables diameter, standing volume, above-ground biomass, stand age. A simplified life-cycle analysis provides a full carbon budget for each scenario from forest management to wood use and allows the identification of the scenario that most reduces carbon emissions.

  17. Assessing naturalness in northern great lakes forests based on historical land-cover and vegetation changes.

    PubMed

    Gimmi, Urs; Radeloff, Volker C

    2013-08-01

    The concept of naturalness was developed to assess to what degree landscapes represent a natural state. Protected areas are often regarded as the remnants of untouched landscapes although many landscapes commonly perceived as pristine have a long history of human impact. Here, we introduced a historical perspective into the concept of naturalness and the analysis of the effectiveness of protected areas by analyzing historical trajectories in land-cover and forest communities for the Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore on Michigan's Upper Peninsula (USA). Distribution of land-cover and forest community types was reconstructed for pre-settlement time (around 1850), the height of agricultural expansion (1928), and modern conditions (2000). Naturalness of the landscape was assessed by analyzing similarity between pre-settlement and current conditions and by assessing landscape continuity (1850-1928-2000). We compared changes in the strictly protected park core zone with those in the inland buffer zone with ongoing sustainable logging, and a not protected area adjacent to the park. Forest was the dominant land-cover type over the entire study period. We detected a gradient in land-cover continuity from the core zone (81 % continuity) to the inland buffer zone (74 %) and the area outside the park (66 %). Northern hardwood was the dominating forest type in all time points with high continuity (76 %). In contrast, pine forests show a more dynamic pattern with more than 50 % of the initial forests switching to non-forest or early succession forest types by 1928. More than half of the study area was considered as "natural virgin" (no changes in land-cover and forest community type) with a higher portion within the park than in the adjacent area. In contrast, areas with low naturalness are more abundant outside the park. Our study demonstrates the value of integrating historical information into naturalness assessments and the results provide useful information for future

  18. Effects of late holocene forest disturbance and vegetation change on acidic mud pond, Maine, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, T.E.; Davis, R.B.

    1995-04-01

    The limnological effects of natural forest disturbance and succession were studied by analyzing the chemistry, charcoal, pollen, chrysophytes, and diatoms in sediments deposited from {approx}3500 to {approx}700 yr BP in Mud Pond, Maine. Fine-grained sediments rich in organic matter are interrupted every 100-500 yr ({bar X} = 280) by coarser, more minerogenic sediments, reflecting soil erosion. The disturbance horizons contain high concentrations of charcoal, indicating forest fires, low percentages of pollen of late-successional trees such as Tsuga, and high percentages of pollen and spores of early-successional plants such as shrubs and ferns. Within a few decades, pollen percentages of Alnus peak, followed by Betula. Tsuga pollen percentages increase for 200-400 yr after disturbances, and generally stabilize or decrease several decades before the next disturbance. Limnological responses to these changes are indicated by high percentages of diatoms and chrysophytes of waters of near neutral pH. Diatom-inferred pH typically increases abruptly from {approx}5.0 to {approx}6.1, and chrysophyte-inferred pH from {approx}5.5 to {approx}5.8 at disturbance horizons. These increases may be caused by increased wood ash and mineral soils after disturbances. This pulse is followed by a two-step recovery. First the inferred pH decreases nearly to the pre-disturbance condition. This response likely results from soil stabilization and uptake of base cations by successional vegetation. Second, a slower acidification of {approx}0.1 pH unit per century occurs as early successional shrubs and hardwood forest are replaced by old-growth conifer forest. Increasing percentages of pollen of Picea, Alnus, and Salix by 1350 yr BP, and decreasing percentages of hemlock and beech around 1350 yr BP imply cooler conditions. Large changes in diatom and chrysophyte assemblages in approximately this period may be related. 64 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Hydrocarbon and elemental carbon signatures in a tropical wetland: biogeochemical evidence of forest fire and vegetation changes.

    PubMed

    Tareq, Shafi M; Tanoue, Eiichiro; Tsuji, H; Tanaka, Noriyuki; Ohta, Keiichi

    2005-06-01

    Evidence of changing vegetation in the tropical wetland (Rawa Danau, west Java, Indonesia) over the past 7428 years is illustrated by elemental (soot) carbon (EC) and n-alkane composition of sedimentary geolipids. In this study, vegetation changes and relevant controlling factors (e.g. forest fire and climate change) were documented on a decadal to centennial scale. The n-alkane composition that changes with depth might record changes in sources of organic matter (OM) in the wetland. The presence of EC (0.01-0.24% of organic carbon: OC) during late (0-1700 cal. year BP) and mid (3500-4500 cal. year BP) Holocene (at depths 0-50 cm, and 160-210 cm) indicated that large-scale forest fires severely affected the tropical vegetation. The hydrocarbon indices (CPI: carbon preference index, MCN: mean carbon number, and HVI: hydrocarbon vegetation index) significantly correlated with one another while a comparison of EC profile with the profiles of hydrocarbon indices indicated that n-alkane composition of the geolipid in lake sediment could record signatures of changes in catchment vegetation. Forest fire and vegetation changes might be related to regional climatic shifts relating to ENSO activity as well as being influenced by human influences. PMID:15894051

  20. Modeling Amazon forest vegetation dynamics and community response to increased wind disturbance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holm, J. A.; Negron Juarez, R. I.; Chambers, J. Q.; Marra, D.; Rifai, S. W.; Knox, R. G.; Riley, W. J.; Koven, C. D.; McGroddy, M. E.; Urquiza-Muñoz, J. D.; Tello-Espinoza, R.; Ribeiro, G. H. P. M.; Higuchi, N.

    2015-12-01

    Determining the drivers of tree mortality in Amazonia is a complex task, yet essential to reliable prediction of carbon storage in a warmer climate. Past studies have shown an east-west gradient of forest disturbance and rainfall amount across Amazonia. This study uses remote sensing and dynamic vegetation modeling to take a deeper look at drivers of tree mortality and community composition shifts associated with varying mortality rates. Our analysis, using 20 years of Landsat 5 images, showed that ever-wet Amazonia (located in north-west Amazonia, i.e. NWA) was more susceptible to windthrows than the Central Amazon (i.e. CA), which has a a well-defined dry season. The higher frequency of windthrows in NWA forest correlates with higher frequency and intensity of deep convection events in this region, observed using Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) data. While a combination of factors including: soil characteristics (and by proxy rooting depth) and community composition exacerbate the regional gradient of disturbance, wind was the mechanistic agent of disturbance. Using an individual-based gap model for tropical forests populated with the most representative NWA tree species and increased mortality rates, we found a decrease of biomass in this region and a slight increase in NPP compared to a control simulation, a pattern that is similar to observations. The model predicted which species had the largest response in basal area change due to elevated disturbance, but there was a non-significant shift in community composition in the NWA forests. However, analysis found strong differences in community composition between the modeled NWA and CA regions, consistent with observed results. When CA forests were subject to higher mortality rate similar to the current NWA region, dissimilarity in community composition continued to persist. In addition the model identified species-specific maximum tree height and maximum diameter as the most influential predictors of

  1. Deer over-browsing of forest understory vegetation alters the pattern of nitrate loss to streamwater in forested watersheds in Ashiu, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukushima, K.; Sakai, M.; Sakaguchi, S.; Iwai, Y.; Hasegawa, A.; Nishioka, Y.; Fujii, H.; Tokuchi, N.; Yoshioka, T.; Takayanagi, A.

    2011-12-01

    Ecosystem degradation by large herbivorous mammals becomes a serious issue worldwide. Since 2000's in Japan, over-browsing of forest understory vegetation by Japanese deer (Cervus nippon centrails) has been pronounced. Loss of plant biodiversity and decreasing in biomass at the forest understory may result in the changes in streamwater chemistry and nutrient loss from forest ecosystem, but the knowledge remains still limited. The main goal of this study was to elucidate the effects of deer over-browsing on streamwater chemistry and nitrogen (N) loss; especially focusing on the seasonality of nitrate concentration and annual nitrate loss, by comparing a 13 ha watershed surrounded by the deer-excluded fence to its adjacent 19 ha control watershed, in cool-temperate forest in Ashiu, Japan. We have collected streamwater samples monthly at 4 first-order streams (0.3 - 2.3 ha) and 1 second-order stream (13 - 19 ha) within each watershed, and analyzed nitrate concentration by ion chromatography since June 2006 when the fence was established. The rate of streamwater discharge was obtained from a Parshall flume by measuring water level. Annual loss of nitrate was calculated by multiplying stream flow by the concentration. As for the understory vegetation, number of species, vegetation cover, and Shannon's H' as an indicator of biodiversity were observed in two 800 m2 plots established in the lower slope and upper slope within each watershed. Nitrogen uptake by understory vegetation was determined by cutting all grasses and seedlings within 145 1 m2 quadrats throughout watersheds and measuring dry weights and N contents by NC analyzer. In the fenced watershed, number of species, vegetation cover, and Shannon's H' of understories remarkably increased at the lower-stream slope and slightly increased at the upper-ridge slope, while in the unfenced watershed, they had no change or decreased at the both slope. The nitrate concentration of stream water was lower during plant

  2. Seasonal change in understory reflectance of boreal forests and influence on canopy vegetation indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, John R.; White, H. Peter; Chen, Jing M.; Peddle, Derek R.; McDermid, Greg; Fournier, Richard A.; Shepherd, Paul; Rubinstein, Irene; Freemantle, Jim; Soffer, Raymond; Ledrew, Ellsworth

    1997-12-01

    One objective of the Boreal Ecosystem-Atmospheric Study (BOREAS) is to increase our understanding of the nature of canopy spectral bidirectional reflectance in the visible/near-infrared regimes for open canopies typical of boreal forest stands. For such stands, the need to characterize the reflectance of the sunlit and shaded vegetated understory is critical. These variables are subject to temporal variability due to differences in species phenology and foliar display as well as diurnal and seasonal changes in solar illumination through a seasonally varying upper canopy foliar area. To provide for this need, a multiteam field effort was mounted to measure the nadir midday understory reflectance for the flux tower sites during 1994 BOREAS field campaigns between February and October, specifically during the winter focused field campaign (FFC-W), the spring thaw focused field campaign (FFC-T), and the three intensive field campaigns (IFC-1, IFC-2, and IFC-3) between June and September, which sample vegetation phenological change. This was accomplished by measuring at near-solar noon the sunlit and shaded nadir reflectance of the understory along a surveyed leaf area index (LAI) transect line at each flux tower site. Site-to-site comparisons of understory reflectance spectra reveal stand differences that become more significant as the season progresses. Mean midday understory reflectance spectra were observed to be remarkably consistent over the season for young jack pine stands, followed by somewhat increased variability for mature jack pine, and significant seasonal variability for black spruce stands. Derived vegetation indices for understories are generally consistent with extrapolations of previous relationships of canopy spectral vegetation indices (VIs) versus leaf area index to zero LAI. Inclusion of these "zeroLAI" understory-derived indices significantly enhance the correlation in the linear VI-LAI relationships.

  3. Opportunities to enhance contribution of model forests in the sustainable forest resources management (example from Yalova Model Forest).

    PubMed

    Bekiroğlu, Sultan; Özdemir, Mehmet; Özyürek, Ercan; Arslan, Avni

    2016-10-01

    Model forests are nongovernmental organizations at local, regional and international level which are mainly focused on reconciling the conflicts between the stakeholders. This is an innovative approach to organization, which has been receiving more and more attraction from increasing number of countries, which gradually increased the number of model forests for the last 25 years. If these organizations reach desired levels of structure, medium, impacts and assets their contribution in sustainable forest resources management will increase ipso facto. The very first model forest of Turkey was created in Yalova Province in 2010. Yalova Province has certain fundamental problems including but not limited to; population growth and unplanned urbanization caused by industrialization, uncontrolled increase in demand for fire wood and non-wooden products of forestry resources, questionable resource management decisions adopted in the past and low-income levels of the people especially those in the rural areas. The main objective of present case study is to analyze Yalova Model Forest (YMF) so as to determine the possible problems that may occur during implementation of sustainable management for forestry resources through a planning approach with multiple stakeholders. As a result of research, it has been revealed that YMF has certain significant structural, environmental and impact-related problems. In order to ensure continuity of YMF's contribution to sustainable forestry resources management, these problems need to be addressed promptly. PMID:27566934

  4. Opportunities to enhance contribution of model forests in the sustainable forest resources management (example from Yalova Model Forest).

    PubMed

    Bekiroğlu, Sultan; Özdemir, Mehmet; Özyürek, Ercan; Arslan, Avni

    2016-10-01

    Model forests are nongovernmental organizations at local, regional and international level which are mainly focused on reconciling the conflicts between the stakeholders. This is an innovative approach to organization, which has been receiving more and more attraction from increasing number of countries, which gradually increased the number of model forests for the last 25 years. If these organizations reach desired levels of structure, medium, impacts and assets their contribution in sustainable forest resources management will increase ipso facto. The very first model forest of Turkey was created in Yalova Province in 2010. Yalova Province has certain fundamental problems including but not limited to; population growth and unplanned urbanization caused by industrialization, uncontrolled increase in demand for fire wood and non-wooden products of forestry resources, questionable resource management decisions adopted in the past and low-income levels of the people especially those in the rural areas. The main objective of present case study is to analyze Yalova Model Forest (YMF) so as to determine the possible problems that may occur during implementation of sustainable management for forestry resources through a planning approach with multiple stakeholders. As a result of research, it has been revealed that YMF has certain significant structural, environmental and impact-related problems. In order to ensure continuity of YMF's contribution to sustainable forestry resources management, these problems need to be addressed promptly.

  5. Age of respired carbon in differently managed grassland and forest soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoening, Ingo; Trumbore, Susan; Solly, Emily; Muhr, Jan; Schrumpf, Marion

    2013-04-01

    pattern. In forests, older carbon is emitted from soils with a low pH value indicating a possible tree species effect. Preliminary results also suggest a link between the age of respired CO2 and the 14C root age. Overall, this study shows that the age of respired carbon, which reflects the age of soil carbon pools that are decomposing fastest, is sensitive to land use and management. The results demonstrate that the age of respired carbon is not only giving us information about decomposition rates but also reflects time lags in the vegetation.

  6. How extreme weather events can influence the way of thinking about forest management?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziemblińska, Klaudia; Merbold, Lutz; Urbaniak, Marek; Haeni, Matthias; Olejnik, Janusz

    2014-05-01

    One third of the total area of Poland, which is covered by forests, is currently managed by "The State National Forest Holding" - the biggest organization in Europe managing forests. Common management practice is based on clear-cutting the vegetation to maintaining forests and ensuring regrowth. While sufficient information exists on the quantity of harvested biomass and particularly its economic value, little knowledge exists on the overall environmental impact of such management including the carbon budgets of forests in Poland. At the same time these forests are very vulnerable to extreme events such as wind throws. Large wind throws can be used as an experimental platform to study both, the effects of extreme events itself but also the effects of management such as clear-cuts, due to the fact that after such kind of natural disasters similar steps then following clear-cuts are implemented. These activities include the removal of whole trees, collection of branches and pulling out stems with heavy machinery, causing additional disturbance. In this study, we aim at providing information to fill the current knowledge gap of changing C budget after clear-cuts and wind throws. We hypothesize large C losses after clear-cuts and ask whether one can improve current forest management to "save" C and/or enhance C sequestration? To answer this specific question we used the eddy covariance (EC) method to adequately measure the net ecosystem exchange of carbon dioxide (NEE) between a deforested area and the atmosphere (treatment) and compare it to measurements from an intact forest of the same type (control). Both sites have the same soil type (brunic arenosoil - after FAO classification) which is sandy and relatively not fertile. Moreover, main species and composition were similar. The treatment area was chosen after the occurrence of a 20min-lasting tornado in July 2012 in Western Poland. The storm resulted in the destruction of more than 500 ha of 75-year old pine forest

  7. Carbon sequestration in managed temperate coniferous forests under climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dymond, Caren C.; Beukema, Sarah; Nitschke, Craig R.; Coates, K. David; Scheller, Robert M.

    2016-03-01

    Management of temperate forests has the potential to increase carbon sinks and mitigate climate change. However, those opportunities may be confounded by negative climate change impacts. We therefore need a better understanding of climate change alterations to temperate forest carbon dynamics before developing mitigation strategies. The purpose of this project was to investigate the interactions of species composition, fire, management, and climate change in the Copper-Pine Creek valley, a temperate coniferous forest with a wide range of growing conditions. To do so, we used the LANDIS-II modelling framework including the new Forest Carbon Succession extension to simulate forest ecosystems under four different productivity scenarios, with and without climate change effects, until 2050. Significantly, the new extension allowed us to calculate the net sector productivity, a carbon accounting metric that integrates aboveground and belowground carbon dynamics, disturbances, and the eventual fate of forest products. The model output was validated against literature values. The results implied that the species optimum growing conditions relative to current and future conditions strongly influenced future carbon dynamics. Warmer growing conditions led to increased carbon sinks and storage in the colder and wetter ecoregions but not necessarily in the others. Climate change impacts varied among species and site conditions, and this indicates that both of these components need to be taken into account when considering climate change mitigation activities and adaptive management. The introduction of a new carbon indicator, net sector productivity, promises to be useful in assessing management effectiveness and mitigation activities.

  8. Interdisciplinary science for future governance and management of forests.

    PubMed

    Nordin, Annika; Sandström, Camilla

    2016-02-01

    The sustainable use of forests constitutes one of the great challenges for the future due to forests' large spatial coverage, long-term planning horizons and inclusion of many ecosystem services. The mission of the Future Forests programme is to provide a scientifically robust knowledge base for sustainable governance and management of forests preparing for a future characterized by globalization and climate change. In this introduction to the Special Issue, we describe the interdisciplinary science approach developed in close collaboration with actors in the Future Forests programme, and discuss the potential impacts of this science on society. In addition, we introduce the 13 scientific articles and present results produced by the programme. PMID:26744043

  9. Past, current and future fire frequency in the Canadian boreal forest: implications for sustainable forest management.

    PubMed

    Bergeron, Yves; Flannigan, Mike; Gauthier, Sylvie; Leduc, Alain; Lefort, Patrick

    2004-08-01

    Over the past decades, there has been an increasing interest in the development of forest management approaches that are based on an understanding of historical natural disturbance dynamics. The rationale for such an approach is that management to favor landscape compositions and stand structures similar to those of natural ecosystems should also maintain biological diversity and essential ecological functions. In fire-dominated landscapes, this approach is possible only if current and future fire frequencies are sufficiently low, comparing to pre-industrial fire frequency, that we can substitute fire by forest management. We address this question by comparing current and future fire frequency to historical reconstruction of fire frequency from studies realized in the Canadian boreal forest. Current and simulated future fire frequencies using 2 and 3 x CO2 scenarios are lower than the historical fire frequency for many sites, suggesting that forest management could potentially be used to recreate the forest age structure of fire-controlled pre-industrial landscapes. There are however, important limitations to the current even-age management.

  10. Comparison between two vegetation indices for measuring different types of forest damage in the north-eastern United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogelmann, J. E.

    1990-01-01

    The relative effectiveness of the Landsat TM-derived normalized difference vegetative index (NDVI) and the short-wave IR to NIR ratio (SWIR/NIR) index was examined in measurements of different types of damage in several forest communities. The forests examined included a site with well-defined fir waves in New Hampshire, a site undergoing well-documented coniferous forest decline in Vermont, and predominantly deciduous regions in Vermont and northwestern Massachusetts seriously impacted by pear thrips. Both NDVI and SWIR/NIR images were produced for each area. Results demonstrated that the SWIR/NIR index was superior to NDVI in distinguishing between high and low conifer damage at both fir-wave and forest decline sites; high and low deciduous-forest damage sites were easily separable using either NDVI or SWIR/NIR, but the NDVI was superior in separation between medium and low deciduous damage.

  11. Development of the BIOME-BGC model for the simulation of managed Moso bamboo forest ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Mao, Fangjie; Li, Pingheng; Zhou, Guomo; Du, Huaqiang; Xu, Xiaojun; Shi, Yongjun; Mo, Lufeng; Zhou, Yufeng; Tu, Guoqing

    2016-05-01

    Numerical models are the most appropriate instrument for the analysis of the carbon balance of terrestrial ecosystems and their interactions with changing environmental conditions. The process-based model BIOME-BGC is widely used in simulation of carbon balance within vegetation, litter and soil of unmanaged ecosystems. For Moso bamboo forests, however, simulations with BIOME-BGC are inaccurate in terms of the growing season and the carbon allocation, due to the oversimplified representation of phenology. Our aim was to improve the applicability of BIOME-BGC for managed Moso bamboo forest ecosystem by implementing several new modules, including phenology, carbon allocation, and management. Instead of the simple phenology and carbon allocation representations in the original version, a periodic Moso bamboo phenology and carbon allocation module was implemented, which can handle the processes of Moso bamboo shooting and high growth during "on-year" and "off-year". Four management modules (digging bamboo shoots, selective cutting, obtruncation, fertilization) were integrated in order to quantify the functioning of managed ecosystems. The improved model was calibrated and validated using eddy covariance measurement data collected at a managed Moso bamboo forest site (Anji) during 2011-2013 years. As a result of these developments and calibrations, the performance of the model was substantially improved. Regarding the measured and modeled fluxes (gross primary production, total ecosystem respiration, net ecosystem exchange), relative errors were decreased by 42.23%, 103.02% and 18.67%, respectively. PMID:26921563

  12. Coupled forest growth-hydrology modelling as an instrument for the assessment of effects of forest management on hydrology in forested catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutmöller, J.; Hentschel, S.; Hansen, J.; Meesenburg, H.

    2011-03-01

    The type and intensity of forest management directly influences regional catchment hydrology. Future forest management must optimise the effects of its practices to achieve sustainable management. With scenario analysis of forestry practices, the effects of different forest utilisation strategies on the hydrology of forested catchments can be temporally and spatially quantified. The approach adopted in this study necessitated the development of an interactive system for the spatially distributed modelling of hydrology in relation to forest stand development. Consequently, a forest growth model was used to simulate stand development assuming various forest management activities. Selected simulated forest growth parameters were entered into the hydrological model to simulate water fluxes under different conditions of forest structure. The approach enables the spatially differentiated quantification of changes in the water regime (e.g. increased evapotranspiration). The results of hydrological simulations in the study area, the Oker catchment (northern Harz Mountains), show that forests contribute to the protection of water systems because they have a balancing effect on the hydrological regime. As scenario simulations also suggest, however, forestry practices can also lead to substantial changes in water budgets of forested catchments. The preservation of the hydrological services of forests requires a sustainable and long-term forest conversion on the basis of current management directives for near natural silviculture. Management strategies on basis of moderate harvesting regimes are preferred because of their limited impact on the water budget.

  13. Recent advances in applying decision science to managing national forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marcot, Bruce G.; Thompson, Matthew P.; Runge, Michael C.; Thompson, Frank R.; McNulty, Steven; Cleaves, David; Tomosy, Monica; Fisher, Larry A.; Andrew, Bliss

    2012-01-01

    Management of federal public forests to meet sustainability goals and multiple use regulations is an immense challenge. To succeed, we suggest use of formal decision science procedures and tools in the context of structured decision making (SDM). SDM entails four stages: problem structuring (framing the problem and defining objectives and evaluation criteria), problem analysis (defining alternatives, evaluating likely consequences, identifying key uncertainties, and analyzing tradeoffs), decision point (identifying the preferred alternative), and implementation and monitoring the preferred alternative with adaptive management feedbacks. We list a wide array of models, techniques, and tools available for each stage, and provide three case studies of their selected use in National Forest land management and project plans. Successful use of SDM involves participation by decision-makers, analysts, scientists, and stakeholders. We suggest specific areas for training and instituting SDM to foster transparency, rigor, clarity, and inclusiveness in formal decision processes regarding management of national forests.

  14. Effects of point-source atmospheric pollution on boreal-forest vegetation of northwestern Siberia

    SciTech Connect

    Vlasova, T.M.; Kovalev, B.I.; Filipchuk, A.N.

    1992-03-01

    Atmospheric pollution from the Noril'sk Mining-Metallurgical Complex, in the form of heavy metals and sulfur components, has resulted in damage to plant communities in the area. Vegetation on over 550,000 ha has been detrimentally affected by the pollution fallout, primarily sulfur dioxide. Forests (mainly Larix sibirica) and most lichens have been killed within a 300,000-ha zone around Noril'sk and extending about 50 km to the south and southeast. Less severe damage to lichens and vascular plants extends 170 km to the south and 80 km to the east of the pollution source consistent with prevailing winds during the period of plant growth. Terricolous lichens are particularly vulnerable to the pollution products and among vascular plants Larix gmelinii, Picea obovata, Ledum palustre, Calamagrostis sp., and Salix lanata show least resistance.

  15. Mapping forest vegetation with ERTS-1 MSS data and automatic data processing techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Messmore, J.; Copeland, G. E.; Levy, G. F.

    1975-01-01

    This study was undertaken with the intent of elucidating the forest mapping capabilities of ERTS-1 MSS data when analyzed with the aid of LARS' automatic data processing techniques. The site for this investigation was the Great Dismal Swamp, a 210,000 acre wilderness area located on the Middle Atlantic coastal plain. Due to inadequate ground truth information on the distribution of vegetation within the swamp, an unsupervised classification scheme was utilized. Initially pictureprints, resembling low resolution photographs, were generated in each of the four ERTS-1 channels. Data found within rectangular training fields was then clustered into 13 spectral groups and defined statistically. Using a maximum likelihood classification scheme, the unknown data points were subsequently classified into one of the designated training classes. Training field data was classified with a high degree of accuracy (greater than 95 percent), and progress is being made towards identifying the mapped spectral classes.

  16. Calibrating and testing a gap model for simulating forest management in the Oregon Coast Range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pabst, R.J.; Goslin, M.N.; Garman, S.L.; Spies, T.A.

    2008-01-01

    The complex mix of economic and ecological objectives facing today's forest managers necessitates the development of growth models with a capacity for simulating a wide range of forest conditions while producing outputs useful for economic analyses. We calibrated the gap model ZELIG to simulate stand-level forest development in the Oregon Coast Range as part of a landscape-scale assessment of different forest management strategies. Our goal was to incorporate the predictive ability of an empirical model with the flexibility of a forest succession model. We emphasized the development of commercial-aged stands of Douglas-fir, the dominant tree species in the study area and primary source of timber. In addition, we judged that the ecological approach of ZELIG would be robust to the variety of other forest conditions and practices encountered in the Coast Range, including mixed-species stands, small-scale gap formation, innovative silvicultural methods, and reserve areas where forests grow unmanaged for long periods of time. We parameterized the model to distinguish forest development among two ecoregions, three forest types and two site productivity classes using three data sources: chronosequences of forest inventory data, long-term research data, and simulations from an empirical growth-and-yield model. The calibrated model was tested with independent, long-term measurements from 11 Douglas-fir plots (6 unthinned, 5 thinned), 3 spruce-hemlock plots, and 1 red alder plot. ZELIG closely approximated developmental trajectories of basal area and large trees in the Douglas-fir plots. Differences between simulated and observed conifer basal area for these plots ranged from -2.6 to 2.4 m2/ha; differences in the number of trees/ha ???50 cm dbh ranged from -8.8 to 7.3 tph. Achieving these results required the use of a diameter-growth multiplier, suggesting some underlying constraints on tree growth such as the temperature response function. ZELIG also tended to overestimate

  17. Browsing preference and ecological carrying capacity of sambar deer (Cervus unicolor brookei) on secondary vegetation in forest plantation.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Dahlan; Jiwan, Dawend

    2015-02-01

    The browsing preference and ecological carrying capacity (ECC) of sambar deer (Cervus unicolor brookei) in acacia plantations for management and conservation of the ecosystem were investigated at Sabal Forest Reserve in Sarawak, Malaysia. The identification of the species browsed by the sambar deer was based on an observation of the plant parts consumed. ECC estimation was based on body weight (BW) and the physiological stages of animals browsed in six fenced 4-ha paddocks. Sambar deer were found foraging on only 29 out of 42 species of secondary vegetation in the acacia plantation. The remaining species are too high for the deer to reach. Planted species, Shorea macrophylla are not palatable to the deer. This augurs well for the integration of sambar deer into shorea plantations. The most frequently exploited plants were Ficus spp. Sambar deer preferred woody species more than non-woody species and they are browser animals. By producing metabolizable energy of 19,000 to 27,000 MJ/ha, the ECC was five head/ha to 5.25 head/ha. Given its contribution to the conservation of wildlife and its capacity to sustain the ecosystem, the sambar deer integrated farming system offers a promising strategy for the future of tropical forestry management.

  18. Managing the forest for more than the trees: effects of experimental timber harvest on forest Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Summerville, Keith S

    2011-04-01

    Studies of the effects of timber harvest on forest insect communities have rarely considered how disturbance from a range of harvest levels interacts with temporal variation in species diversity to affect community resistance to change. Here I report the results of a landscape-scale, before-and-after, treatment-control experiment designed to test how communities of forest Lepidoptera experience (1) changes in species richness and composition and (2) shifts in species dominance one year after logging. I sampled Lepidoptera from 20 forest stands allocated to three harvest treatments (control, even-aged shelterwood or clearcuts, and uneven-aged group selection cuts) within three watersheds at Morgan-Monroe State Forest, Indiana, USA. Moths were sampled from all forest stands one year prior to harvest in 2007 and immediately post-harvest in 2009. Species composition was most significantly affected by temporal variation between years, although uneven-aged management also caused significant changes in lepidopteran community structure. Furthermore, species richness of Lepidoptera was higher in 2007 compared to 2009 across all watersheds and forest stands. The decrease in species richness between years, however, was much larger in even-aged and uneven-aged management units compared to the control. Furthermore, matrix stands within the even-aged management unit demonstrated the highest resistance to species loss within any management unit. Species dominance was highly resistant to effects of timber harvest, with pre- and post-harvest values for Simpson diversity nearly invariant. Counter to prediction, however, the suite of dominant taxa differed dramatically among the three management units post-harvest. My results suggest that temporal variation may have strong interactions with timber harvest, precipitating loss of nearly 50% species richness from managed stands regardless of harvest level. Even-aged management, however, appeared to leave the smallest "footprint" on moth

  19. A reconstruction of vegetation and paleohydrologycal changes from peatland in Kansk forest-steppe, Yenisei Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodionova, Alexandra

    2016-04-01

    Peatlands are an important natural archive for past climatic changes. Climatic changes throughout the Holocene have been reconstructed from peat using a wide array of biological and other proxies. Many different proxy indicators can be derived from peat cores allowing for a multi-proxy approach to climatic reconstructions. Peat-based climatic and environmental reconstructions are currently available from many sites in Yenisei Siberia, mainly for its northern territories. The purpose of this paper is to study some features of peatland development and environmental reconstructions from the Holocene period in the south part of Yenisei Siberia (Kansk forest-steppe zone). The main method used in this research is macrofossil analysis. It can be used to reconstruct the development of local vegetation and surface wetness on peatlands. The macrofossil analysis in the peat resulted from the study of the vegetation in a particular place over a period of time, and it allowed the reconstruction of environmental changes that have occurred since the Late Glacial. Then we used ecological scales of moisture and reconstructed surface wetness for the entire period of the bog formation. Radiocarbon dating was carried out at Sobolev Institute of Geology and Mineralogy, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk . Peatland "Pinchinskoye" was selected for investigation in Kansk forest-steppe. It is located on the right bank of the Yenisei River in the floodplain of Esaulovka River. Peat cores of 350 cm were selected in the southern part of the peatbog, including 225 cm of peat (with loam layers in the range of 90 to 135 cm), 75 cm of organic and mineral sapropel with the inclusion of fossil shells of mollusks and different plant macrofossils and 50 cm of the loam below. The process of peat accumulation dated back 8400 ± 140 years, which is the oldest date for the forest-steppe zone of Yenisei Siberia. The climate of Boreal period of the Holocene was chilly. Under these conditions, in the

  20. Fire, climate and vegetation linkages in the Bolivian Chiquitano seasonally dry tropical forest.

    PubMed

    Power, M J; Whitney, B S; Mayle, F E; Neves, D M; de Boer, E J; Maclean, K S

    2016-06-01

    South American seasonally dry tropical forests (SDTFs) are critically endangered, with only a small proportion of their original distribution remaining. This paper presents a 12 000 year reconstruction of climate change, fire and vegetation dynamics in the Bolivian Chiquitano SDTF, based upon pollen and charcoal analysis, to examine the resilience of this ecosystem to drought and fire. Our analysis demonstrates a complex relationship between climate, fire and floristic composition over multi-millennial time scales, and reveals that moisture variability is the dominant control upon community turnover in this ecosystem. Maximum drought during the Early Holocene, consistent with regional drought reconstructions, correlates with a period of significant fire activity between 8000 and 7000 cal yr BP which resulted in a decrease in SDTF diversity. As fire activity declined but severe regional droughts persisted through the Middle Holocene, SDTFs, including Anadenanthera and Astronium, became firmly established in the Bolivian lowlands. The trend of decreasing fire activity during the last two millennia promotes the idea among forest ecologists that SDTFs are threatened by fire. Our analysis shows that the Chiquitano seasonally dry biome has been more resilient to Holocene changes in climate and fire regime than previously assumed, but raises questions over whether this resilience will continue in the future under increased temperatures and drought coupled with a higher frequency anthropogenic fire regime.This article is part of the themed issue 'The interaction of fire and mankind'.

  1. Fire, climate and vegetation linkages in the Bolivian Chiquitano seasonally dry tropical forest.

    PubMed

    Power, M J; Whitney, B S; Mayle, F E; Neves, D M; de Boer, E J; Maclean, K S

    2016-06-01

    South American seasonally dry tropical forests (SDTFs) are critically endangered, with only a small proportion of their original distribution remaining. This paper presents a 12 000 year reconstruction of climate change, fire and vegetation dynamics in the Bolivian Chiquitano SDTF, based upon pollen and charcoal analysis, to examine the resilience of this ecosystem to drought and fire. Our analysis demonstrates a complex relationship between climate, fire and floristic composition over multi-millennial time scales, and reveals that moisture variability is the dominant control upon community turnover in this ecosystem. Maximum drought during the Early Holocene, consistent with regional drought reconstructions, correlates with a period of significant fire activity between 8000 and 7000 cal yr BP which resulted in a decrease in SDTF diversity. As fire activity declined but severe regional droughts persisted through the Middle Holocene, SDTFs, including Anadenanthera and Astronium, became firmly established in the Bolivian lowlands. The trend of decreasing fire activity during the last two millennia promotes the idea among forest ecologists that SDTFs are threatened by fire. Our analysis shows that the Chiquitano seasonally dry biome has been more resilient to Holocene changes in climate and fire regime than previously assumed, but raises questions over whether this resilience will continue in the future under increased temperatures and drought coupled with a higher frequency anthropogenic fire regime.This article is part of the themed issue 'The interaction of fire and mankind'. PMID:27216522

  2. Ambient ozone concentration and its impact on forest vegetation in Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Girgzdiene, Rasa; Serafinaviciūte, Brigita; Stakenas, Vidas; Bycenkiene, Steigvile

    2009-12-01

    Continuous ozone concentration measurements at rural sites in Lithuania have been performed since 1982. Long-term ozone data show an increasing trend 0.4 ppb y(-1) in annual mean concentrations during the period 1982-2008, although ozone peak values show an insignificant tendency to decrease. Several studies were performed to evaluate the ozone effect on the main plant species of Lithuanian forests. A strong positive correlation was found between values for the accumulated doses over a threshold of 40 ppb index and the defoliation of Fraxinus excelsior trees in Lithuanian forests during 1991-2008. A strong correlation was found between ozone exposure and the proportion of healthy F. excelsior, Betula sp., and Alnus incana, trees indicating that in Lithuania the deciduous species are more sensitive to ozone than conifers and that healthier trees may be better indicators of the changing environment. The results of the studies suggest that the observed levels of ozone are sufficiently high to have negative effects on the vegetation in Lithuania.

  3. Forest Intervention Areas (ZIF): a new approach for forest management in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valente, S.; Coelho, C.; Soares, J.

    2012-04-01

    Portugal is the EU eighth country with more forest and other wooded area cover by surface area. However, it is also at the top of the EU countries most affected by forest fires. Several factors have been launched as possible causes, namely arson and negligence, which has been combined with harsh climate, steep slopes and a weakened rural context, characterized by depopulation and ageing, forest mismanagement, farmland abandonment and absence of an effective spatial planning. Forest fires of 2003 and 2005, which were particularly severe and intense, highlighted the need to restructure the legal and institutional setting of forest management in Portugal. These events proved to be very harmful, not only for the socio-economic context, but also in terms of desertification, soil erosion, loss of water supply and losses on soil organic matter. The EU funded DESIRE project (1) aimed to established promising sustainable land management (SLM) conservation strategies in several areas throughout the world affected by desertification, promoting joint work between scientists and local stakeholders. Forest fires are one of the major causes of desertification in Portugal and Mação and Góis municipalities were selected as DESIRE study sites. The decision support methodology developed under DESIRE was based on the notion that stakeholder participation in decision-making will develop more legitimate, effective and successful decisions. The reduction of burned area was the goal defined in the Portuguese stakeholder workshops and the Forest Intervention Area (ZIF) was selected as the needed approach towards SLM. The aim of this communication is to present the outline and context of ZIF approach in Portugal and to explore the social perception over the success or failure of this approach at Mação municipality. ZIF is a territorial unit where the main land use is forestry. This approach assembles and organizes small forest holders and defines a joint intervention for forest

  4. Effects of soil conservation measures in a partially vegetated area after forest fires.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chang-Gi; Shin, Kwangil; Joo, Kwang Yeong; Lee, Kyu Song; Shin, Seung Sook; Choung, Yeonsook

    2008-07-25

    After forest fires on the east coast of Korea in 2000, some burnt areas were left untreated. Although 80% of the area was reasonably revegetated within 3 months, about 20% of the area was partially vegetated, mainly due to a low density of sprouters and poor growing conditions (eroded soil and steep slopes). Three years after the fires, the effect of soil conservation measures, such as mulching with wood chips, seeding with native plant species and log erosion barriers (LEBs), on runoff and soil erosion were examined using runoff plots. Wood chip mulching greatly reduced runoff and sediment yields and these effects were consistent regardless of the volume of rainfall. Neither seeding nor LEBs reduced runoff and sediment yields. No positive or negative effects of mulching, seeding or LEBs on ground vegetation cover were observed. The ineffectiveness of seeding and LEBs may have been due to the steep slope, the failure of germination and establishment of seeded plants, and the small diameter of logs. Treating hill slopes with mulch should be considered where post-fire regeneration is slow and there is an absence of organic material such as litter.

  5. Evaluation of Remotely Sensed Vegetation and Elevation Products in a Tropical Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leigh, H. W.; Neuenschwander, A. L.; Magruder, L. A.

    2014-12-01

    Space-based methods of remote sensing have enabled the generation of global or near-global elevation and vegetation products that have been applied to a wide spectrum of earth sciences, while airborne remote sensing platforms have enabled the collection of high resolution data products with regional coverage. In order to use small-footprint airborne data together with space-based products in future applications, it is necessary to understand how the data products are related, particularly in regards to accuracy and systematic biases. This work addresses the need for a better understanding of the quality of existing global elevation and vegetation products by validating a radar-derived, void-filled digital elevation model and a lidar-derived global canopy height model against ICESat waveforms and a small-footprint airborne lidar survey over tropical forests in the country of Gabon. The bare-earth digital terrain model and canopy height model obtained from the airborne lidar survey are validated against ICESat waveforms, and are then used to evaluate errors and biases in SRTMv3 and the 1km global canopy height model developed by Simard, et al. across the extent of the survey region near the city of Libreville, Gabon. ICESat waveforms are subsequently used to evaluate SRTMv3 and Simard, et al.'s canopy height model for the entire country of Gabon.

  6. The Influence of Soil Calcium Availability on Forest Vegetation and Nitrate Concentrations in Surface Waters.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christopher, S. F.; Page, B. D.; Mitchell, M. J.; Campbell, J. L.; Page, B. D.; Christopher, S. F.; Campbell, J. L.; Mitchell, M. J.; Bullen, T. D.

    2004-05-01

    Recently there has been a growing interest in the role of calcium (Ca2+) availability affecting nitrate production and export in forested watersheds. The relative abundance of calcium can affect soil pH, vegetation communities, litter quality, and consequently nutrient cycling rates. We evaluated two nearly adjacent subcatchments, S14 and S15, in the Archer Creek Catchment in the Adirondack Mountains of New York State with significant differences in stream water calcium (851 and 427 μ molc L-1, respectively) and nitrate (73 and 26 μ molc L-1, respectively). These differences in stream chemistry could not be attributed to variations in physiographic or hydrological characteristics, land use history, or atmospheric deposition. Soil analyses, however, indicate that S14 had significantly higher concentrations of Ca2+ and higher pH in both organic and mineral (0-10 cm) horizons. Additionally, nitrification rates in the organic horizon of S14 were also significantly higher relative to S15. Vegetation surveys show significantly greater stocking of sugar maple (Acer saccharum), American basswood (Tilia americana), and hophornbeam (Ostrya virginiana) in S14, and significantly greater American beech (Fagus grandifolia) and white pine (Pinus strobus) in S15. We are currently using calcium isotopes (44Ca/40Ca) to identify sources and pathways in the two catchments to determine if Ca2+ in the mineral soil (15-100 cm) is principally from mineralized organic matter or from weathered sources not fractionated by biological uptake.

  7. Interactions of aluminum with forest soils and vegetation: Implications for acid deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Maynard, A.A.

    1989-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that an important ecological consequence of acidic deposition is increased aluminum mobilization. There is concern that increased aluminum activity may produce toxic effects in forested ecosystems. My studies were concerned with the behavior of pedogenic and added aluminum in soils derived from chemically different parent material. Soil aluminum was related to the aluminum content of the vegetation found growing in the soils. In addition, aluminum levels of forest litter was compared to levels determined 40 years ago. Field, greenhouse, and laboratory investigations were conducted in which the effects of aluminum concentration on germination and early growth was determined. Soils were then used in greenhouse and laboratory studies to establish patterns of soil and plant aluminum behavior with implications to acid deposition. Results show that the amount of aluminum extracted was related to the pH value of the extracting solution and to the chemical characteristics of the soil. Some acid rain solutions extracted measurable amounts of aluminum from selected primary minerals. Germination and early growth of Pinus radiata was controlled by levels of aluminum in the soil or in solution. Field studies indicated that most forest species were sensitive to rising levels of aluminum in the soil. In general, ferns and fern allies were less sensitive to very high levels of aluminum in the soil, continuing to grow when more advanced dicots have disappeared. Aluminum tissue levels of all species were related to the concentration of aluminum in the soil as was the reappearance of species. Aluminum levels in leaf litter have risen at least 50% in the last 40 years. These values were consistent over 3 years. The implications to acid deposition were discussed.

  8. Deer herbivory reduces web-building spider abundance by simplifying forest vegetation structure

    PubMed Central

    Chips, Michael J.; Carson, Walter P.

    2016-01-01

    Indirect ecological effects are a common feature of ecological systems, arising when one species affects interactions among two or more other species. We examined how browsing by white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) indirectly affected the abundance and composition of a web-building spider guild through their effects on the structure of the ground and shrub layers of northern hardwood forests. We examined paired plots consisting of deer-free and control plots in the Allegheny Plateau region Pennsylvania and Northern Highlands region of Wisconsin. We recorded the abundance of seven types of webs, each corresponding to a family of web-building spiders. We quantified vegetation structure and habitat suitability for the spiders by computing a web scaffold availability index (WSAI) at 0.5 m and 1.0 m above the ground. At Northern Highlands sites, we recorded prey availability. Spider webs were twice as abundant in deer-free plots compared to control plots, while WSAI was 7–12 times greater in deerfree plots. Prey availability was lower in deer-free plots. With the exception of funnel web-builders, all spider web types were significantly more abundant in deer-free plots. Both deer exclusion and the geographic region of plots were significant predictors of spider community structure. In closed canopy forests with high browsing pressure, the low density of tree saplings and shrubs provides few locations for web-building spiders to anchor webs. Recruitment of these spiders may become coupled with forest disturbance events that increase tree and shrub recruitment. By modifying habitat structure, deer appear to indirectly modify arthropod food web interactions. As deer populations have increased in eastern North America over the past several decades, the effects of deer on web-building spiders may be widespread. PMID:27703868

  9. 18 CFR 1304.302 - Vegetation management on flowage easement shoreland.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vegetation management... STRUCTURES AND OTHER ALTERATIONS Activities on TVA Flowage Easement Shoreland § 1304.302 Vegetation management on flowage easement shoreland. Removal, modification, or establishment of vegetation on...

  10. 18 CFR 1304.302 - Vegetation management on flowage easement shoreland.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Vegetation management... STRUCTURES AND OTHER ALTERATIONS Activities on TVA Flowage Easement Shoreland § 1304.302 Vegetation management on flowage easement shoreland. Removal, modification, or establishment of vegetation on...

  11. Sustainable carbon uptake - important ecosystem service within sustainable forest management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zorana Ostrogović Sever, Maša; Anić, Mislav; Paladinić, Elvis; Alberti, Giorgio; Marjanović, Hrvoje

    2016-04-01

    Even-aged forest management with natural regeneration under continuous cover (i.e. close to nature management) is considered to be sustainable regarding the yield, biodiversity and stability of forest ecosystems. Recently, in the context of climate change, there is a raising question of sustainable forest management regarding carbon uptake. Aim of this research was to explore whether current close to nature forest management approach in Croatia can be considered sustainable in terms of carbon uptake throughout the life-time of Pedunculate oak forest. In state-owned managed forest a chronosequence experiment was set up and carbon stocks in main ecosystem pools (live biomass, dead wood, litter and mineral soil layer), main carbon fluxes (net primary production, soil respiration (SR), decomposition) and net ecosystem productivity were estimated in eight stands of different age (5, 13, 38, 53, 68, 108, 138 and 168 years) based on field measurements and published data. Air and soil temperature and soil moisture were recorded on 7 automatic mini-meteorological stations and weekly SR measurements were used to parameterize SR model. Carbon balance was estimated at weekly scale for the growing season 2011 (there was no harvesting), as well as throughout the normal rotation period of 140 years (harvesting was included). Carbon stocks in different ecosystem pools change during a stand development. Carbon stocks in forest floor increase with stand age, while carbon stocks in dead wood are highest in young and older stands, and lowest in middle-aged, mature stands. Carbon stocks in mineral soil layer were found to be stable across chronosequence with no statistically significant age-dependent trend. Pedunculate Oak stand, assuming successful regeneration, becomes carbon sink very early in a development phase, between the age of 5 and 13 years, and remains carbon sink even after the age of 160 years. Greatest carbon sink was reached in the stand aged 53 years. Obtained results

  12. Management Options for a High Elevation Forest in the Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jandl, R.; Jandl, N.; Schindlbacher, A.

    2013-12-01

    We explored different management strategies for a Cembran pine forest close to the timber line with respect to maintenance of the stand structure, the sequestration of carbon in the biomass and the soil, and the economical relevance of timber production. We used the forest growth simulation model Caldis for the implementation of three management intensities (zero managment, thinning every 30 years, thinning every 50 years) under two climate scenarios (IPCC A1B and B1). The soil carbon dynamics were analyzed with the simulation model Yasso07. The ecological evaluation of our simulation data showed that the extensive management with cutting interventions every 50 years allows the maintenance of the ecosystem carbon pool. Zero managment leads to the build-up of the carbon pool because the forest stand is rather unvulnerable to disturbances (bark beetle, storm). The more intensive mangement causes a decline in the ecosystem carbon pool. The economical evaluation showed the marginal relevance of the income generated by timber production. The main challenge is the compensation for the high harvesting costs (long-distance cable logging system). Even at extremely favorable market prices for timber from Cembran pine it is impossible to extract an appropriate amount of timber to justify the temporary instalment of the harvesting system and to maintain a stand density expected for a protection forest. We conclude that timber production is not a feasible object for mountain forests close to the timber line. Even in a warmer climate the productivity situation of forests close to the timberline will not change sufficiently. Therefore it will require public subsidies and personal efforts to maintain the silvicultural intensity at a level that is required for the sustainable maintenance of protection forests.

  13. The Influence of Vegetation Height Heterogeneity on Forest and Woodland Bird Species Richness across the United States

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Qiongyu; Swatantran, Anu; Dubayah, Ralph; Goetz, Scott J.

    2014-01-01

    Avian diversity is under increasing pressures. It is thus critical to understand the ecological variables that contribute to large scale spatial distribution of avian species diversity. Traditionally, studies have relied primarily on two-dimensional habitat structure to model broad scale species richness. Vegetation vertical structure is increasingly used at local scales. However, the spatial arrangement of vegetation height has never been taken into consideration. Our goal was to examine the efficacies of three-dimensional forest structure, particularly the spatial heterogeneity of vegetation height in improving avian richness models across forested ecoregions in the U.S. We developed novel habitat metrics to characterize the spatial arrangement of vegetation height using the National Biomass and Carbon Dataset for the year 2000 (NBCD). The height-structured metrics were compared with other habitat metrics for statistical association with richness of three forest breeding bird guilds across Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) routes: a broadly grouped woodland guild, and two forest breeding guilds with preferences for forest edge and for interior forest. Parametric and non-parametric models were built to examine the improvement of predictability. Height-structured metrics had the strongest associations with species richness, yielding improved predictive ability for the woodland guild richness models (r2 = ∼0.53 for the parametric models, 0.63 the non-parametric models) and the forest edge guild models (r2 = ∼0.34 for the parametric models, 0.47 the non-parametric models). All but one of the linear models incorporating height-structured metrics showed significantly higher adjusted-r2 values than their counterparts without additional metrics. The interior forest guild richness showed a consistent low association with height-structured metrics. Our results suggest that height heterogeneity, beyond canopy height alone, supplements habitat characterization and

  14. The influence of vegetation height heterogeneity on forest and woodland bird species richness across the United States.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qiongyu; Swatantran, Anu; Dubayah, Ralph; Goetz, Scott J

    2014-01-01

    Avian diversity is under increasing pressures. It is thus critical to understand the ecological variables that contribute to large scale spatial distribution of avian species diversity. Traditionally, studies have relied primarily on two-dimensional habitat structure to model broad scale species richness. Vegetation vertical structure is increasingly used at local scales. However, the spatial arrangement of vegetation height has never been taken into consideration. Our goal was to examine the efficacies of three-dimensional forest structure, particularly the spatial heterogeneity of vegetation height in improving avian richness models across forested ecoregions in the U.S. We developed novel habitat metrics to characterize the spatial arrangement of vegetation height using the National Biomass and Carbon Dataset for the year 2000 (NBCD). The height-structured metrics were compared with other habitat metrics for statistical association with richness of three forest breeding bird guilds across Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) routes: a broadly grouped woodland guild, and two forest breeding guilds with preferences for forest edge and for interior forest. Parametric and non-parametric models were built to examine the improvement of predictability. Height-structured metrics had the strongest associations with species richness, yielding improved predictive ability for the woodland guild richness models (r(2) = ∼ 0.53 for the parametric models, 0.63 the non-parametric models) and the forest edge guild models (r(2) = ∼ 0.34 for the parametric models, 0.47 the non-parametric models). All but one of the linear models incorporating height-structured metrics showed significantly higher adjusted-r2 values than their counterparts without additional metrics. The interior forest guild richness showed a consistent low association with height-structured metrics. Our results suggest that height heterogeneity, beyond canopy height alone, supplements habitat characterization and

  15. The influence of vegetation height heterogeneity on forest and woodland bird species richness across the United States.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qiongyu; Swatantran, Anu; Dubayah, Ralph; Goetz, Scott J

    2014-01-01

    Avian diversity is under increasing pressures. It is thus critical to understand the ecological variables that contribute to large scale spatial distribution of avian species diversity. Traditionally, studies have relied primarily on two-dimensional habitat structure to model broad scale species richness. Vegetation vertical structure is increasingly used at local scales. However, the spatial arrangement of vegetation height has never been taken into consideration. Our goal was to examine the efficacies of three-dimensional forest structure, particularly the spatial heterogeneity of vegetation height in improving avian richness models across forested ecoregions in the U.S. We developed novel habitat metrics to characterize the spatial arrangement of vegetation height using the National Biomass and Carbon Dataset for the year 2000 (NBCD). The height-structured metrics were compared with other habitat metrics for statistical association with richness of three forest breeding bird guilds across Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) routes: a broadly grouped woodland guild, and two forest breeding guilds with preferences for forest edge and for interior forest. Parametric and non-parametric models were built to examine the improvement of predictability. Height-structured metrics had the strongest associations with species richness, yielding improved predictive ability for the woodland guild richness models (r(2) = ∼ 0.53 for the parametric models, 0.63 the non-parametric models) and the forest edge guild models (r(2) = ∼ 0.34 for the parametric models, 0.47 the non-parametric models). All but one of the linear models incorporating height-structured metrics showed significantly higher adjusted-r2 values than their counterparts without additional metrics. The interior forest guild richness showed a consistent low association with height-structured metrics. Our results suggest that height heterogeneity, beyond canopy height alone, supplements habitat characterization and

  16. Improved estimates of forest vegetation structure and biomass with a LiDAR-optimized sampling design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawbaker, Todd J.; Keuler, Nicholas S.; Lesak, Adrian A.; Gobakken, Terje; Contrucci, Kirk; Radeloff, Volker C.

    2009-06-01

    LiDAR data are increasingly available from both airborne and spaceborne missions to map elevation and vegetation structure. Additionally, global coverage may soon become available with NASA's planned DESDynI sensor. However, substantial challenges remain to using the growing body of LiDAR data. First, the large volumes of data generated by LiDAR sensors require efficient processing methods. Second, efficient sampling methods are needed to collect the field data used to relate LiDAR data with vegetation structure. In this paper, we used low-density LiDAR data, summarized within pixels of a regular grid, to estimate forest structure and biomass across a 53,600 ha study area in northeastern Wisconsin. Additionally, we compared the predictive ability of models constructed from a random sample to a sample stratified using mean and standard deviation of LiDAR heights. Our models explained between 65 to 88% of the variability in DBH, basal area, tree height, and biomass. Prediction errors from models constructed using a random sample were up to 68% larger than those from the models built with a stratified sample. The stratified sample included a greater range of variability than the random sample. Thus, applying the random sample model to the entire population violated a tenet of regression analysis; namely, that models should not be used to extrapolate beyond the range of data from which they were constructed. Our results highlight that LiDAR data integrated with field data sampling designs can provide broad-scale assessments of vegetation structure and biomass, i.e., information crucial for carbon and biodiversity science.

  17. Ground vegetation monitoring in Swiss forests: comparison of survey methods and implications for trend assessments.

    PubMed

    Thimonier, Anne; Kull, Peter; Keller, Walter; Moser, Barbara; Wohlgemuth, Thomas

    2011-03-01

    At Swiss long-term forest ecosystem research sites, ground vegetation was assessed during the period 1994-2003/2008 following two approaches: (1) visual assessment of the cover of species occurring in sixteen 1 m(2) quadrats, distributed over a 43 × 43 m area, and (2) phytosociological relevés in concentric circular plots of 30, 200, and 500 m(2). We first compared the two approaches with respect to diversity assessment. The number of species recorded in the 16 quadrats was in general higher than in the 30 m(2) plot and it represented 42% to 108% of the number of species recorded in the 500 m(2) plot. In a second step, we tested whether any temporal trends were apparent. In a few cases, a decrease or increase in Landolt's mean indicator values for light, nitrogen availability, soil pH, soil moisture, or temperature was found to be significant. However, these changes were usually restricted to one approach or one area. The only clear trend was detected in an unmanaged former coppice beech stand, for which all survey approaches indicated canopy closure. At another site, vegetation reacted to the local opening of the canopy following windthrow. In a third step, we compared the leaf area index (LAI), measured with an LAI-2000 instrument (Licor, Inc.) over each quadrat, with the indicator value of the vegetation for light (L). Within a site, there was no clear relationship between LAI and L values per quadrat. In contrast, across all sites, the relationship between LAI and L, averaged per site for all available years, was highly significant. PMID:21049285

  18. Validation of Vegetation Canopy Lidar sub-canopy topography measurements for a dense tropical forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofton, M. A.; Rocchio, L. E.; Blair, J. B.; Dubayah, R.

    2002-11-01

    Large footprint (greater than 10 m wide) laser altimetry is a useful technique for mapping topography (including sub-canopy), canopy height and vertical structure in densely vegetated areas. In March 1998, the Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (LVIS), an airborne laser altimeter, mapped a ˜800 km 2 area of Costa Rica including the La Selva Biological Station using 25 m-diameter footprints as part of the pre-launch activities of the Vegetation Canopy Lidar (VCL) Mission. To investigate the utility of the lidar technique for making sub-canopy topography measurements, the precision and accuracy of the LVIS elevation measurements from this mission are assessed. Crossover analysis using laser shots whose recorded waveforms contained more than 50% of the total returned energy within their lowest reflections show the elevations have a precision of better than 1 m. Comparison of the LVIS elevations with coincident in situ ground elevation data reveals that the measurements are within ˜1.5 m of each other on less than 3° slopes. All measurements are within ˜5 m of each other (on slopes of up to 30°). These are very encouraging results given that the forests of this region are some of the densest, most complex on Earth, and that mapping their sub-canopy topography are near-impossible using any other remote sensing technique. Given the similarity of the measurement processes of the LVIS and VCL systems, these results suggest that the topographic measurements made by the VCL will meet stated accuracy goals under the majority of measurement conditions.

  19. Relating seasonal patterns of the AVHRR vegetation index to simulated photosynthesis and transpiration of forests in different climates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Running, Steven W.; Nemani, Ramakrishna R.

    1988-01-01

    Weekly AVHRR Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) values for 1983-1984 for seven sites of diverse climate in North America were correlated with results of an ecosystem simulation model of a hypothetical forest stand for the corresponding period at each site. The tendency of raw NDVI data to overpredict photosynthesis and transpiration on water limited sites was shown to be partially corrected by using an aridity index of annual radiation/annual precipitation. The results suggest that estimates of vegetation productivity using the global vegetation index are only accurate as annual integrations, unless unsubsampled local area coverage NDVI data can be tested against forest photosynthesis, transpiration and aboveground net primary production data measured at shorter time intervals.

  20. Vegetation management by electric utilities: Use of herbicides and other methods. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Horn, M.

    1995-06-01

    This report summarizes the essential elements and principles comprising electric utility vegetation management programs, defines management problems, and discusses possible research on vegetation management issues. The report particularly focuses on the use of herbicides and their effects on wildlife and human health. Legal and regulatory aspects and cost control issues are also covered. EPRI sponsored a workshop of utility managers and other individuals with vegetation management experience in August of 1993, which formed the basis for this report. Workshop participants discussed issues and identified areas of research and actions that would aid the industry in addressing problems of vegetation management. The author requested additional information from participants on their management practices, etc., and synthesized this information and the results of the discussions at the workshop to produce this report. The main topics covered in the report are: Vegetation management practices by electric utilities; Ecological and environmental aspects of electric utility vegetation management; Legal, regulatory, and economic aspects; and Industry needs for research and documentation. The report provides suggestions for developing and evaluating integrated vegetation management strategies for an environmentally cost-effective management program. Further, the report supports using a vegetation management model with a decision framework for an optimal integrated vegetation management plan, which would include both mechanical and chemical treatments.

  1. Empirical Relationship Between Leaf Biomass of Red Pine Forests and Enhanced Vegetation Index in South Korea Using LANDSAT-5 TM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusso, A.; Lee, J.; Son, Y.; Son, Y. M.

    2016-06-01

    Research on forest carbon (C) dynamics has been undertaken due to the importance of forest ecosystems in national C inventories. Currently, the C sequestration of South Korean forests surpasses that of other countries. In South Korea, Pinus densiflora (red pine) is the most abundant tree species. Thus, understanding the growth rate and biomass evolution of red pine forest in South Korea is important for estimating the forest C dynamics. In this paper, we derived empirical relationship between foliage biomass and the no blue band enhanced vegetation index (EVI-2) profile using both field work and multi-temporal Landsat-5 TM remote sensing data to estimate the productivity of forest biomass in South Korea. Our analysis combined a set of 84 Landsat-5 TM images from 28 different dates between 1986 and 2008 to study red pine forest development over time. Field data were collected from 30 plots (0.04 ha) that were irregularly distributed over South Korea. Individual trees were harvested by destructive sampling, and the age of trees were determined by the number of tree rings. The results are realistic (R2&thinsp=&thinsp0.81, p < 0.01) and suggest that the EVI-2 index is able to adequately represent the development profile of foliage biomass in red pine forest growth.

  2. Seasonal Variation in Fraction of Absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation and Vegetation Properties in Burned Forests in Interior Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwata, H.; Harazono, Y.; Iwama, C.; Ueyama, M.

    2011-12-01

    Wildfire is a major disturbance in boreal forest ecosystems, and it significantly influences carbon exchange processes. It is important to explicitly incorporate burned areas in estimating regional carbon dioxide (CO2) exchange. A simple approach to quantify regional CO2 exchange is an application of a light-use efficiency model with satellite data. The model calculates CO2 uptake from light-use efficiency and absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). In the regional application, the fraction of absorbed PAR (FAPAR) provided from MODIS satellite data, together with incident PAR, is often used to calculate absorbed PAR. In spite of the importance of FAPAR in estimating CO2 uptake, an earlier study revealed that the MODIS FAPAR data are overestimated for a burned boreal forest. This study aims to provide ground truth data to validate MODIS FAPAR in other burned boreal forests. It also focuses on obtaining an empirical relationship to estimate seasonal and interannual variation in FAPAR from satellite data such as the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) in the early stage of recovery after wildfire. We observed incident, reflected, and transmitted PAR to obtain FAPAR in one- and six-year-old burned black spruce forests. Vegetation properties such as NDVI, leaf area index (LAI), and vegetation cover were also observed to explain seasonal variation of FAPAR. CO2 flux was also continuously monitored using the eddy covariance technique. The analysis showed that MODIS FAPAR was overestimated in the two burned forests, and the degree of overestimation was especially large for the younger burned forest. The relationship between FAPAR and NDVI was similar at the two burned forests, implying that this single relationship can be applied to estimate FAPAR from MODIS NDVI regardless of age after wildfire for the early stage of recovery.

  3. Faunal impact on vegetation structure and ecosystem function in mangrove forests: A review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cannicci, Stefano; Burrows, Damien; Fratini, Sara; Smith, Thomas J.; Offenberg, Joachim; Dahdouh-Guebas, Farid

    2008-01-01

    The last 20 years witnessed a real paradigm shift concerning the impact of biotic factors on ecosystem functions as well as on vegetation structure of mangrove forests. Before this small scientific revolution took place, structural aspects of mangrove forests were viewed to be the result of abiotic processes acting from the bottom-up, while, at ecosystem level, the outwelling hypothesis stated that mangroves primary production was removed via tidal action and carried to adjacent nearshore ecosystems where it fuelled detrital based food-webs. The sesarmid crabs were the first macrofaunal taxon to be considered a main actor in mangrove structuring processes, thanks to a number of studies carried out in the Indo-Pacific forests in the late 1970s and early 1980s. Following these classical papers, a number of studies on Sesarmidae feeding and burrowing ecology were carried out, which leave no doubts about the great importance of these herbivorous crabs in structuring and functioning Old world ecosystems. Although Sesarmidae are still considered very important in shaping mangrove structure and functioning, recent literature emphasizes the significance of other invertebrates. The Ocypodidae have now been shown to have the same role as Sesarmidae in terms of retention of forest products and organic matter processing in New world mangroves. In both New and Old world mangroves, crabs process large amounts of algal primary production, contribute consistently to retention of mangrove production and as ecosystem engineers, change particle size distribution and enhance soil aeration. Our understanding of the strong impact of gastropods, by means of high intake rates of mangrove products and differential consumption of propagules, has changed only recently. The role of insects must also be stressed. It is now clear that older techniques used to assess herbivory rates by insects strongly underestimate their impact, both in case of leaf eating and wood boring species and that

  4. Monitoring the Effects of Forest Restoration Treatments on Post-Fire Vegetation Recovery with MODIS Multitemporal Data

    PubMed Central

    van Leeuwen, Willem J. D.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines how satellite based time-series vegetation greenness data and phenological measurements can be used to monitor and quantify vegetation recovery after wildfire disturbances and examine how pre-fire fuel reduction restoration treatments impact fire severity and impact vegetation recovery trajectories. Pairs of wildfire affected sites and a nearby unburned reference site were chosen to measure the post-disturbance recovery in relation to climate variation. All site pairs were chosen in forested uplands in Arizona and were restricted to the area of the Rodeo-Chediski fire that occurred in 2002. Fuel reduction treatments were performed in 1999 and 2001. The inter-annual and seasonal vegetation dynamics before, during, and after wildfire events can be monitored using a time series of biweekly composited MODIS NDVI (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer - Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) data. Time series analysis methods included difference metrics, smoothing filters, and fitting functions that were applied to extract seasonal and inter-annual change and phenological metrics from the NDVI time series data from 2000 to 2007. Pre- and post-fire Landsat data were used to compute the Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR) and examine burn severity at the selected sites. The phenological metrics (pheno-metrics) included the timing and greenness (i.e. NDVI) for the start, peak and end of the growing season as well as proxy measures for the rate of green-up and senescence and the annual vegetation productivity. Pre-fire fuel reduction treatments resulted in lower fire severity, which reduced annual productivity much less than untreated areas within the Rodeo-Chediski fire perimeter. The seasonal metrics were shown to be useful for estimating the rate of post-fire disturbance recovery and the timing of phenological greenness phases. The use of satellite time series NDVI data and derived pheno-metrics show potential for tracking vegetation cover dynamics

  5. Simulating boreal forest carbon dynamics after stand-replacing fire disturbance: insights from a global process-based vegetation model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yue, C.; Ciais, P.; Luyssaert, S.; Cadule, P.; Harden, J.; Randerson, J.; Bellassen, V.; Wang, T.; Piao, S.L.; Poulter, B.; Viovy, N.

    2013-01-01

    Stand-replacing fires are the dominant fire type in North American boreal forests. They leave a historical legacy of a mosaic landscape of different aged forest cohorts. This forest age dynamics must be included in vegetation models to accurately quantify the role of fire in the historical and current regional forest carbon balance. The present study adapted the global process-based vegetation model ORCHIDEE to simulate the CO2 emissions from boreal forest fire and the subsequent recovery after a stand-replacing fire; the model represents postfire new cohort establishment, forest stand structure and the self-thinning process. Simulation results are evaluated against observations of three clusters of postfire forest chronosequences in Canada and Alaska. The variables evaluated include: fire carbon emissions, CO2 fluxes (gross primary production, total ecosystem respiration and net ecosystem exchange), leaf area index, and biometric measurements (aboveground biomass carbon, forest floor carbon, woody debris carbon, stand individual density, stand basal area, and mean diameter at breast height). When forced by local climate and the atmospheric CO2 history at each chronosequence site, the model simulations generally match the observed CO2 fluxes and carbon stock data well, with model-measurement mean square root of deviation comparable with the measurement accuracy (for CO2 flux ~100 g C m−2 yr−1, for biomass carbon ~1000 g C m−2 and for soil carbon ~2000 g C m−2). We find that the current postfire forest carbon sink at the evaluation sites, as observed by chronosequence methods, is mainly due to a combination of historical CO2 increase and forest succession. Climate change and variability during this period offsets some of these expected carbon gains. The negative impacts of climate were a likely consequence of increasing water stress caused by significant temperature increases that were not matched by concurrent increases in precipitation. Our simulation

  6. Simulating boreal forest carbon dynamics after stand-replacing fire disturbance: insights from a global process-based vegetation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, C.; Ciais, P.; Luyssaert, S.; Cadule, P.; Harden, J.; Randerson, J.; Bellassen, V.; Wang, T.; Piao, S. L.; Poulter, B.; Viovy, N.

    2013-12-01

    Stand-replacing fires are the dominant fire type in North American boreal forests. They leave a historical legacy of a mosaic landscape of different aged forest cohorts. This forest age dynamics must be included in vegetation models to accurately quantify the role of fire in the historical and current regional forest carbon balance. The present study adapted the global process-based vegetation model ORCHIDEE to simulate the CO2 emissions from boreal forest fire and the subsequent recovery after a stand-replacing fire; the model represents postfire new cohort establishment, forest stand structure and the self-thinning process. Simulation results are evaluated against observations of three clusters of postfire forest chronosequences in Canada and Alaska. The variables evaluated include: fire carbon emissions, CO2 fluxes (gross primary production, total ecosystem respiration and net ecosystem exchange), leaf area index, and biometric measurements (aboveground biomass carbon, forest floor carbon, woody debris carbon, stand individual density, stand basal area, and mean diameter at breast height). When forced by local climate and the atmospheric CO2 history at each chronosequence site, the model simulations generally match the observed CO2 fluxes and carbon stock data well, with model-measurement mean square root of deviation comparable with the measurement accuracy (for CO2 flux ~100 g C m-2 yr-1, for biomass carbon ~1000 g C m-2 and for soil carbon ~2000 g C m-2). We find that the current postfire forest carbon sink at the evaluation sites, as observed by chronosequence methods, is mainly due to a combination of historical CO2 increase and forest succession. Climate change and variability during this period offsets some of these expected carbon gains. The negative impacts of climate were a likely consequence of increasing water stress caused by significant temperature increases that were not matched by concurrent increases in precipitation. Our simulation results

  7. The national Fire and Fire Surrogate study: Effects of fuel reduction methods on forest vegetation structure and fuels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schwilk, D.W.; Keeley, J.E.; Knapp, E.E.; Mciver, J.; Bailey, J.D.; Fettig, C.J.; Fiedler, C.E.; Harrod, R.J.; Moghaddas, J.J.; Outcalt, K.W.; Skinner, C.N.; Stephens, S.L.; Waldrop, T.A.; Yaussy, D.A.; Youngblood, A.

    2009-01-01

    Changes in vegetation and fuels were evaluated from measurements taken before and after fuel reduction treatments (prescribed fire, mechanical treatments, and the combination of the two) at 12 Fire and Fire Surrogate (FFS) sites located in forests with a surface fire regime across the conterminous United States. To test the relative effectiveness of fuel reduction treatments and their effect on ecological parameters we used an informationtheoretic approach on a suite of 12 variables representing the overstory (basal area and live tree, sapling, and snag density), the understory (seedling density, shrub cover, and native and alien herbaceous species richness), and the most relevant fuel parameters for wildfire damage (height to live crown, total fuel bed mass, forest floor mass, and woody fuel mass). In the short term (one year after treatment), mechanical treatments were more effective at reducing overstory tree density and basal area and at increasing quadratic mean tree diameter. Prescribed fire treatments were more effective at creating snags, killing seedlings, elevating height to live crown, and reducing surface woody fuels. Overall, the response to fuel reduction treatments of the ecological variables presented in this paper was generally maximized by the combined mechanical plus burning treatment. If the management goal is to quickly produce stands with fewer and larger diameter trees, less surface fuel mass, and greater herbaceous species richness, the combined treatment gave the most desirable results. However, because mechanical plus burning treatments also favored alien species invasion at some sites, monitoring and control need to be part of the prescription when using this treatment. ?? 2009 by the Ecological Society of America.

  8. Impact of grazing management with large herbivores on forest ground flora and bramble understorey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Uytvanck, Jan; Hoffmann, Maurice

    2009-07-01

    We investigated whether grazing management with large herbivores is appropriate to reduce expanding bramble ( Rubus sp.) in an ancient forest in Flanders (N. Belgium). We further studied interaction effects of four years (all year-round) grazing and Rubus cover on the presence, cover, and flowering of five forest ground flora species (unpalatable: Anemone nemorosa and Primula elatior; palatable: Hyacinthoides non-scripta, Vinca minor and Hedera helix). We collected data on eight transects and in 412 plots in adjacent grazed and ungrazed forest and used baseline datasets of 1996 and 2002 in the same area (i.e. before grazing). In a field experiment, we simulated grazing (by clipping) and trampling (by pressing a weight) in eight homogeneous A. nemorosa vegetation stands. Large Rubus thickets had a clear negative impact on cover and flowering of A. nemorosa due to competition for light. Four years of cattle grazing reduced bramble cover by more than 50%, but then the limiting factor for A. nemorosa cover and flowering shifted to trampling damage. We also found lower cover and flowering of H. non-scripta in grazed plots, as a consequence of direct grazing. The evergreen species V. minor and H. helix totally disappeared from the grazed forest. Simulated once-only effects of grazing and trampling had a small and short term negative impact on cover of A. nemorosa, but flowering was strongly reduced. Grazing reduced biomass with 25-30% in the following years. Year-round grazing with large herbivores is an appropriate measure for bramble control in forests, but negative effects on ground flora are possible if grazing pressure is high. A low or moderate grazing pressure (<0.25 animal units ha -1 y -1) should be maintained in landscape mosaics with grassland and forest; or intermittent periods of non-grazing should be provided to maintain forest ground flora diversity.

  9. Evaluating the coupled vegetation-fire model, LPJ-GUESS-SPITFIRE, against observed tropical forest biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spessa, Allan; Forrest, Matthew; Werner, Christian; Steinkamp, Joerg; Hickler, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    disturbance such as fire. SPITFIRE (SPread and InTensity of FIRe and Emissions) mechanistically simulates the number of fires, area burnt, fire intensity, crown fires, fire-induced plant mortality, and emissions of carbon, trace gases and aerosols from biomass burning. Originally developed as an embedded model within LPJ-DGVM, SPITFIRE has since been coupled to LPJ-GUESS. However, neither LPJ-DGVM-SPITFIRE nor LPJ-GUESS-SPITFIRE has been fully benchmarked, especially in terms of how well each model simulates vegetation patterns and biomass in areas where fire is known to be important. This information is crucial if we are to have confidence in the models in forecasting fire, emissions from biomass burning and fire-climate impacts on ecosystems. Here we report on the benchmarking of the LPJ-GUESS-SPITFIRE model. We benchmarked LPJ-GUESS-SPITFIRE driven by a combination of daily reanalysis climate data (Sheffield 2012), monthly GFEDv3 burnt area data (1997-2009) (van der Werf et al. 2010) and long-term annual fire statistics (1901 to 2000) (Mouillot and Field 2005) against new Lidar-based biomass data for tropical forests and savannas (Saatchi et al. 2011; Baccini et al., 2012). Our new work has focused on revising the way GUESS simulates tree allometry, light penetration through the tree canopy and sapling recruitment, and how GUESS-SPITFIRE simulates fire-induced mortality, all based on recent literature, as well as a more explicit accounting of land cover change (JRC's GLC 2009). We present how these combined changes result in a much improved simulation of tree carbon across the tropics, including the Americas, Africa, Asia and Australia. Our results are compared with respect to more empirical-based approaches to calculating emissions from biomass burning. We discuss our findings in terms of improved forecasting of fire, emissions from biomass burning and fire-climate impacts on ecosystems.

  10. Carbon stock and carbon turnover in boreal and temperate forests - Integration of remote sensing data and global vegetation models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thurner, Martin; Beer, Christian; Carvalhais, Nuno; Forkel, Matthias; Tito Rademacher, Tim; Santoro, Maurizio; Tum, Markus; Schmullius, Christiane

    2016-04-01

    Long-term vegetation dynamics are one of the key uncertainties of the carbon cycle. There are large differences in simulated vegetation carbon stocks and fluxes including productivity, respiration and carbon turnover between global vegetation models. Especially the implementation of climate-related mortality processes, for instance drought, fire, frost or insect effects, is often lacking or insufficient in current models and their importance at global scale is highly uncertain. These shortcomings have been due to the lack of spatially extensive information on vegetation carbon stocks, which cannot be provided by inventory data alone. Instead, we recently have been able to estimate northern boreal and temperate forest carbon stocks based on radar remote sensing data. Our spatially explicit product (0.01° resolution) shows strong agreement to inventory-based estimates at a regional scale and allows for a spatial evaluation of carbon stocks and dynamics simulated by global vegetation models. By combining this state-of-the-art biomass product and NPP datasets originating from remote sensing, we are able to study the relation between carbon turnover rate and a set of climate indices in northern boreal and temperate forests along spatial gradients. We observe an increasing turnover rate with colder winter temperatures and longer winters in boreal forests, suggesting frost damage and the trade-off between frost adaptation and growth being important mortality processes in this ecosystem. In contrast, turnover rate increases with climatic conditions favouring drought and insect outbreaks in temperate forests. Investigated global vegetation models from the Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISI-MIP), including HYBRID4, JeDi, JULES, LPJml, ORCHIDEE, SDGVM, and VISIT, are able to reproduce observation-based spatial climate - turnover rate relationships only to a limited extent. While most of the models compare relatively well in terms of NPP, simulated

  11. The science and politics of forest management in Northern Nicaragua after hurricane Felix (2007)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi Idarraga, Esteban

    This dissertation examines the ecological effects of hurricane Felix (2007) in Northern Nicaragua as well as the socio-political factors that influenced forest management efforts in hurricane impacted locations. Specifically, this research focused on the following questions: first, what were the regional damage patterns caused by hurricane Felix on the forests of Northern Nicaragua? Second, what stand and tree attributes explain observed post-hurricane damage patterns? And, third, why were post-hurricane management efforts unsuccessful? The first dissertation article characterizes the intensity and spatial distribution of forest damage after hurricane Felix using satellite imagery from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor and aerial photographs. Results indicated that Broadleaf forests experienced larger damage (>75% trees blown down) than Pine forest, and that Enhanced Vegetation Index data (EVI), obtained from the MODIS sensor, can adequately depict post-hurricane damage in tropical forests. The agreement between the obtained EVI damage map and the reference data set ranged from 91% in high-damage locations to 85% in low-damage locations, with 86% overall agreement. The second dissertation article describes the relationship between hurricane damage patterns and ecological variables at the local level. Specifically, it characterizes the relationship between tree-and-stand attributes (i.e. DBH, height, density, basal area) and wind damage, using field data. Findings indicate that tree attributes such as DBH and height strongly influenced the amount and type of wind damage and that stand attributes such as maximum canopy height and distance to the hurricane path were also predictive of the amount of damage. Observed differences in damage patterns among broadleaf and pine forests were strongly correlated with the height to diameter ratio (H/D). Field observations showed that while post-hurricane regeneration was abundant in broadleaf

  12. 78 FR 65962 - Revision of the Land Management Plan for the Flathead National Forest

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-04

    ... needed to support a strategic, efficient planning process. As public meetings, other opportunities for... forest planning process pursuant to the 2012 Forest Planning Rule. This process results in a Forest Land Management Plan which describes the strategic direction for management of forest resources for the next...

  13. A decision support system for managing forest fire casualties.

    PubMed

    Bonazountas, Marc; Kallidromitou, Despina; Kassomenos, Pavlos; Passas, Nikos

    2007-09-01

    Southern Europe is exposed to anthropogenic and natural forest fires. These result in loss of lives, goods and infrastructure, but also deteriorate the natural environment and degrade ecosystems. The early detection and combating of such catastrophes requires the use of a decision support system (DSS) for emergency management. The current literature reports on a series of efforts aimed to deliver DSSs for the management of the forest fires by utilising technologies like remote sensing and geographical information systems (GIS), yet no integrated system exists. This manuscript presents the results of scientific research aiming to the development of a DSS for managing forest fires. The system provides a series of software tools for the assessment of the propagation and combating of forest fires based on Arc/Info, ArcView, Arc Spatial Analyst, Arc Avenue, and Visual C++ technologies. The system integrates GIS technologies under the same data environment and utilises a common user interface to produce an integrated computer system based on semi-automatic satellite image processing (fuel maps), socio-economic risk modelling and probabilistic models that would serve as a useful tool for forest fire prevention, planning and management. Its performance has been demonstrated via real time up-to-date accurate information on the position and evolution of the fire. The system can assist emergency assessment, management and combating of the incident. A site demonstration and validation has been accomplished for the island of Evoia, Greece, an area particularly vulnerable to forest fires due to its ecological characteristics and prevailing wind patterns. PMID:16928418

  14. A decision support system for managing forest fire casualties.

    PubMed

    Bonazountas, Marc; Kallidromitou, Despina; Kassomenos, Pavlos; Passas, Nikos

    2007-09-01

    Southern Europe is exposed to anthropogenic and natural forest fires. These result in loss of lives, goods and infrastructure, but also deteriorate the natural environment and degrade ecosystems. The early detection and combating of such catastrophes requires the use of a decision support system (DSS) for emergency management. The current literature reports on a series of efforts aimed to deliver DSSs for the management of the forest fires by utilising technologies like remote sensing and geographical information systems (GIS), yet no integrated system exists. This manuscript presents the results of scientific research aiming to the development of a DSS for managing forest fires. The system provides a series of software tools for the assessment of the propagation and combating of forest fires based on Arc/Info, ArcView, Arc Spatial Analyst, Arc Avenue, and Visual C++ technologies. The system integrates GIS technologies under the same data environment and utilises a common user interface to produce an integrated computer system based on semi-automatic satellite image processing (fuel maps), socio-economic risk modelling and probabilistic models that would serve as a useful tool for forest fire prevention, planning and management. Its performance has been demonstrated via real time up-to-date accurate information on the position and evolution of the fire. The system can assist emergency assessment, management and combating of the incident. A site demonstration and validation has been accomplished for the island of Evoia, Greece, an area particularly vulnerable to forest fires due to its ecological characteristics and prevailing wind patterns.

  15. Spatially dynamic forest management to sustain biodiversity and economic returns.

    PubMed

    Mönkkönen, Mikko; Juutinen, Artti; Mazziotta, Adriano; Miettinen, Kaisa; Podkopaev, Dmitry; Reunanen, Pasi; Salminen, Hannu; Tikkanen, Olli-Pekka

    2014-02-15

    Production of marketed commodities and protection of biodiversity in natural systems often conflict and thus the continuously expanding human needs for more goods and benefits from global ecosystems urgently calls for strategies to resolve this conflict. In this paper, we addressed what is the potential of a forest landscape to simultaneously produce habitats for species and economic returns, and how the conflict between habitat availability and timber production varies among taxa. Secondly, we aimed at revealing an optimal combination of management regimes that maximizes habitat availability for given levels of economic returns. We used multi-objective optimization tools to analyze data from a boreal forest landscape consisting of about 30,000 forest stands simulated 50 years into future. We included seven alternative management regimes, spanning from the recommended intensive forest management regime to complete set-aside of stands (protection), and ten different taxa representing a wide variety of habitat associations and social values. Our results demonstrate it is possible to achieve large improvements in habitat availability with little loss in economic returns. In general, providing dead-wood associated species with more habitats tended to be more expensive than providing requirements for other species. No management regime alone maximized habitat availability for the species, and systematic use of any single management regime resulted in considerable reductions in economic returns. Compared with an optimal combination of management regimes, a consistent application of the recommended management regime would result in 5% reduction in economic returns and up to 270% reduction in habitat availability. Thus, for all taxa a combination of management regimes was required to achieve the optimum. Refraining from silvicultural thinnings on a proportion of stands should be considered as a cost-effective management in commercial forests to reconcile the conflict

  16. Effects of post-fire wood management strategies on vegetation recovery and land surface temperature (LST) estimated from Landsat images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlassova, Lidia; Pérez-Cabello, Fernando

    2016-02-01

    The study contributes remote sensing data to the discussion about effects of post-fire wood management strategies on forest regeneration. Land surface temperature (LST) and Normalized Differenced Vegetation Index (NDVI), estimated from Landsat-8 images are used as indicators of Pinus halepensis ecosystem recovery after 2008 fire in areas of three post-fire treatments: (1) salvage logging with wood extraction from the site on skidders in suspended position (SL); (2) snag shredding in situ leaving wood debris in place (SS) performed two years after the event; and (3) non-intervention control areas (CL) where all snags were left standing. Six years after the fire NDVI values ∼0.5 estimated from satellite images and field radiometry indicate considerable vegetation recovery due to efficient regeneration traits developed by the dominant plant species. However, two years after management activities in part of the burnt area, the effect of SL and SS on ecosystem recovery is observed in terms of both LST and NDVI. Statistically significant differences are detected between the intervened areas (SL and SS) and control areas of non-intervention (CL); no difference is registered between zones of different intervention types (SL and SS). CL areas are on average 1 °C cooler and 10% greener than those corresponding to either SL or SS, because of the beneficial effects of burnt wood residuals, which favor forest recovery through (i) enhanced nutrient cycling in soils, (ii) avoidance of soil surface disturbance and mechanical damage of seedlings typical to the managed areas, and (iii) ameliorated microclimate. The results of the study show that in fire-resilient ecosystems, such as P. halepensis forests, NDVI is higher and LST is lower in areas with no management intervention, being an indication of more favorable conditions for vegetation regeneration.

  17. Forest vegetation monitoring and foliar chemistry of red spruce and red maple at Acadia National Park in Maine.

    PubMed

    Wiersma, G Bruce; Elvir, Jose Alexander; Eckhoff, Janet D

    2007-03-01

    The USDA Forest Service Forest Health Monitoring (FHM) program indicators, including forest mensuration, crown condition classification, and damage and mortality indicators were used in the Cadillac Brook and Hadlock Brook watershed forests at Acadia National Park (ANP) along coastal Maine. Cadillac Brook watershed burned in a wildfire in 1947. Hadlock Brook watershed, undisturbed for several centuries, serves as the reference site. These two small watersheds have been gauged and monitored at ANP since 1998 as part of the Park Research and Intensive Monitoring of Ecosystems Network (PRIMENet). Forest vegetation at Hadlock Brook was dominated by late successional species such as Acer saccharum, Fagus grandifolia, Betula alleghaniensis, Acer rubrum and Picea rubens. Forest vegetation at Cadillac Brook, on the other hand, was younger and more diverse and included those species found in Hadlock as well as early successional species such as Betula papyrifera and Populus grandidentata. Differences in forest species composition and stand structure were attributed to the severe wildfire that affected the Cadillac Brook watershed. Overall, the forests at these ANP watersheds were healthy with a low percentage (

  18. Are Adolescents from a Forest Community Well-Informed about Forest Management?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz-Mallen, Isabel; Barraza, Laura

    2008-01-01

    The indigenous community of San Juan Nuevo Parangaricutiro in Mexico has been engaged in a successful Community Forest Enterprise employing sustainable management practices since 1981. These environmental practices do not seem to be reflected in the educational programmes developed at school. In this study, the environmental knowledge and interest…

  19. 25 CFR 163.11 - Forest management planning and sustained yield management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... implementation of integrated resource management plans which provide coordination for the comprehensive management of all natural resources on Indian land. If the integrated resource management planning process... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Forest management planning and sustained yield...

  20. Creating a Forest-Wide Context for Adaptive Management at Jackson Demonstration State Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liquori, M.; Helms, J.; Porter, D.

    2010-12-01

    At nearly 50,000 acres, Jackson Demonstration State Forest (JDSF) is the largest State-owned forest in California. In 2008, the CALFIRE Director appointed a 13-member Jackson Advisory Group to provide recommendations to the California State Board of Forestry for how to transition JDSF into a “world-class research forest”. After nearly 3 years of deliberations, we have developed a draft Research-Oriented Management Framework (ROMF) that, if adopted, will introduce a new model for adaptive management within the forestry sector. Our approach integrates several core elements. Scientific “Centers of Excellence” (including one focused on Coho recovery and/or watershed processes) would be developed around a Research-Oriented Landscape Allocation, that considers the existing distribution of forest attributes both within JDSF as well as within the broader coastal Redwood Region. The ROMF would establish an Experimental Basis for Management that seeks to leverage harvest activities with explicit experimental designs and monitoring objectives. Like many of the forests that comprise its customer-base, JDSF has a mandate to produce timber revenues. We view this as an opportunity to mimic the management constraint imposed on most private and conservation trust landowners to routinely harvest timber to support operational and capital costs. Timber revenues on JDSF would be used (in part) to support the research and monitoring program. Such a system would support both passive and active modes of forest manipulation and research, and would make JDSF research activities more relevant to stakeholders, potentially increasing opportunities for collaborative, landscape-scale studies that seek to resolve outstanding management issues and uncertainties. The ROMF also would seek to develop and improve practices related to sustainable forestry. Both Late-Seral Development Areas and Old-Forest Structure Zones would be established that will utilize uneven-aged management treatments to

  1. Quantifying understorey vegetation in the US Lake States: a proposed framework to inform regional forest carbon stocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Russell, Matthew B.; D'Amato, Anthony W.; Schulz, Bethany K.; Woodall, Christopher W.; Domke, Grant M.; Bradford, John B.

    2014-01-01

    The contribution of understorey vegetation (UVEG) to forest ecosystem biomass and carbon (C) across diverse forest types has, to date, eluded quantification at regional and national scales. Efforts to quantify UVEG C have been limited to field-intensive studies or broad-scale modelling approaches lacking field measurements. Although large-scale inventories of UVEG C are not common, species- and community-level inventories of vegetation structure are available and may prove useful in quantifying UVEG C stocks. This analysis developed a general framework for estimating UVEG C stocks by employing per cent cover estimates of UVEG from a region-wide forest inventory coupled with an estimate of maximum UVEG C across the US Lake States (i.e. Michigan, Minnesota and Wisconsin). Estimates of UVEG C stocks from this approach reasonably align with expected C stocks in the study region, ranging from 0.86 ± 0.06 Mg ha-1 in red pine-dominated to 1.59 ± 0.06 Mg ha-1 for aspen/birch-dominated forest types. Although the data employed here were originally collected to assess broad-scale forest structure and diversity, this study proposes a framework for using UVEG inventories as a foundation for estimating C stocks in an often overlooked, yet important ecosystem C pool.

  2. Vegetation correlates of gibbon density in the peat-swamp forest of the Sabangau catchment, Central Kalimantan, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Hamard, Marie; Cheyne, Susan M; Nijman, Vincent

    2010-06-01

    Understanding the complex relationship between primates and their habitats is essential for effective conservation plans. Peat-swamp forest has recently been recognized as an important habitat for the Southern Bornean gibbon (Hylobates albibarbis), but information is scarce on the factors that link gibbon density to characteristics of this unique ecosystem. Our aims in this study were firstly to estimate gibbon density in different forest subtypes in a newly protected, secondary peat-swamp forest in the Sabangau Catchment, Indonesia, and secondly to identify which vegetation characteristics correlate with gibbon density. Data collection was conducted in a 37.1 km(2) area, using auditory sampling methods and vegetation "speed plotting". Gibbon densities varied between survey sites from 1.39 to 3.92 groups/km(2). Canopy cover, tree height, density of large trees and food availability were significantly correlated with gibbon density, identifying the preservation of tall trees and good canopy cover as a conservation priority for the gibbon population in the Sabangau forest. This survey indicates that selective logging, which specifically targets large trees and disrupts canopy cover, is likely to have adverse effects on gibbon populations in peat-swamp forests, and calls for greater protection of these little-studied ecosystems.

  3. Effect of vegetation on air quality: the value of forest vegetation as a filter for industrial sources of air pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, C.E. Jr.; Ares, J.O.

    1980-01-01

    A general model that can be used to estimate the deposition of gaseous pollutants by forests is made with described. Then the model is used to estimate the deposition of fluoride as hydrogen fluoride (HF) around an aluminum refinery. A comparison of spatial and temporal concentration patterns is made with data collected around the ALUAR plant in Puerto Madryn, Argentina. Finally, the area of forest needed to remove a significant portion of the fluoride from the atmosphere is estimated.

  4. Vegetation profiles in tropical forests from multibaseline interferometric synthetic aperture radar, field, and lidar measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treuhaft, R. N.; Chapman, B. D.; Dos Santos, J. R.; GonçAlves, F. G.; Dutra, L. V.; GraçA, P. M. L. A.; Drake, J. B.

    2009-12-01

    This paper addresses the estimation of vertical vegetation density profiles from multibaseline interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) data from the AirSAR aircraft at C band over primary, secondary, and abandoned-pasture stands at La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica in 2004. Profiles were also estimated from field data taken in 2006 and lidar data taken with the LVIS, 25 m spot instrument in 2005. After motivating the study of tropical forest profiles based on their role in the global carbon cycle, ecosystem state, and biodiversity, this paper describes the InSAR, field, and lidar data acquisitions and analyses. Beyond qualitative agreement between profiles from the 3 measurement techniques, results show that InSAR and lidar profile-averaged mean height have RMS scatters about field-measured means of 3.4 m and 3.2 m, 16% and 15% of the average mean height, respectively. InSAR and lidar standard deviations of the vegetation distribution have RMS scatters about the field standard deviations of 1.9 m and 1.5 m, or 27% and 21%, respectively. Dominant errors in the profile-averaged mean height for each measurement technique were modeled. InSAR inaccuracies, dominated by ambiguities in finding the ground altitude and coherence calibration, together account for about 3 m of InSAR error in the mean height. The dominant, modeled error for the field measurements was the inaccuracy in modeling the trees as uniformly filled volumes of leaf area, inducing field errors in mean height of about 3 m. The dominant, modeled lidar error, also due to finding the ground, was 2 m.

  5. Environmental Development cum Forest Plantation Planning and Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katoch, C. D.

    This textbook covers environmental conservation through forest plantation planning and management for all levels of forestry professionals and non-professionals in India and abroad. The book is divided into six parts and 29 sections in sequential order. Part I contains details on site selection, site preparations, site clearance, layout, and…

  6. Supplement Analysis for the Transmission System Vegetation Management Program FEIS (DOE/EIS-0285/SA-82)

    SciTech Connect

    Howington, John

    2002-08-13

    Vegetation Management for twenty-four Substations in the Burley District. BPA proposes total vegetation management (bare ground) in the electrical substations, and, noxious weed management and maintenance of landscaping within the property boundaries of the listed facilities. These facilities are all located within the Burley District of the Idaho Falls Region.

  7. Supplement Analysis for the Transmission System Vegetation Management Program FEIS (DOE/EIS-0285/SA-74)

    SciTech Connect

    Howington, John

    2002-07-01

    Vegetation Management for five Substations in the Malin District. BPA proposes total vegetation management (bare ground) in the electrical substations, and, noxious weed management and maintenance of landscaping within the property boundaries of the listed facilities. These facilities are all located within the Malin District of the Redmond Region.

  8. Supplement Analysis for the Transmission System Vegetation Management Program FEIS (DOE/EIS-0285/SA-78)

    SciTech Connect

    Howington, John

    2002-07-01

    Vegetation Management for ten Substations in the Redmond District. BPA proposes total vegetation management (bare ground) in the electrical substations, and, noxious weed management and maintenance of landscaping within the property boundaries of the listed facilities. These facilities are all located within the Redmond District of the Redmond Region.

  9. Central Amazon Forest Enhanced Vegetation Index Seasonality Driven by Strongly Seasonal Leaf Flush

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, J.; Nelson, B. W.; Lopes, A. P.; Graca, P. M. L. D. A.; Tavares, J. V.; Prohaska, N.; Martins, G.; Saleska, S. R.

    2015-12-01

    We used an RGB camera mounted 50m above an upland forest canopy to quantify leaf phenology during 12 months for 267 upper canopy tree crowns at the Amazon Tall Tower site (59.0005ºW, 2.1433ºS). Daily images under overcast sky were selected and radiometrically intercalibrated to remove any seasonal bias from incoming radiant color balance. Seasonality of crown color was then recovered for each individual crown by plotting its greenness timeline (green chromatic coordinate). We detected rapid large-amplitude positive and negative changes in greenness. Rapid increase was attributed to leaf flush and occurred in 85% of all crowns, with 80% showing a single flush per year. The theory of photoperiod control of equatorial tropical forest leaf phenology predicts two annual peaks of leaf flush, so is not supported. Rapid negative change occurred in 42% of individuals and was caused by massive pre-flush leaf abscission (31% of all trees) or other non-green pre-flushing states (11%). Crown flushing was concentrated in the five driest months (55% of trees) compared to the five wettest months (10%). Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) for each of three crown phenostages was obtained from a single high spatial resolution QuickBird satellite image.These phenostages were identified using only the visible bands of QuickBird so they could be related to the same crown stages seen in the RGB tower camera images. Relative frequencies of the three crown level phenostages were monitored with the tower camera, allowing a monthly estimate of landscape-scale EVI. Free of the seasonal effects on orbital sensors from clouds, cloud shadows, aerosols or solar illumination angle and corrected for seasonal change in light quality, the camera- and QuickBird derived EVI served as an independent verification of MODIS EVI seasonality. Camera-based EVI was highly consistent with view- and solar-angle corrected MAIAC-EVI of a 3x3 km footprint centered on the tower (R = 0.95 between the two monthly curves

  10. Social and Environmental Impacts of Forest Management Certification in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Miteva, Daniela A.; Loucks, Colby J.; Pattanayak, Subhrendu K.

    2015-01-01

    In response to unsustainable timber production in tropical forest concessions, voluntary forest management certification programs such as the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) have been introduced to improve environmental, social, and economic performance over existing management practices. However, despite the proliferation of forest certification over the past two decades, few studies have evaluated its effectiveness. Using temporally and spatially explicit village-level data on environmental and socio-economic indicators in Kalimantan (Indonesia), we evaluate the performance of the FSC-certified timber concessions compared to non-certified logging concessions. Employing triple difference matching estimators, we find that between 2000 and 2008 FSC reduced aggregate deforestation by 5 percentage points and the incidence of air pollution by 31%. It had no statistically significant impacts on fire incidence or core areas, but increased forest perforation by 4 km2 on average. In addition, we find that FSC reduced firewood dependence (by 33%), respiratory infections (by 32%) and malnutrition (by 1 person) on average. By conducting a rigorous statistical evaluation of FSC certification in a biodiversity hotspot such as Indonesia, we provide a reference point and offer methodological and data lessons that could aid the design of ongoing and future evaluations of a potentially critical conservation policy. PMID:26132491

  11. Social and Environmental Impacts of Forest Management Certification in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Miteva, Daniela A; Loucks, Colby J; Pattanayak, Subhrendu K

    2015-01-01

    In response to unsustainable timber production in tropical forest concessions, voluntary forest management certification programs such as the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) have been introduced to improve environmental, social, and economic performance over existing management practices. However, despite the proliferation of forest certification over the past two decades, few studies have evaluated its effectiveness. Using temporally and spatially explicit village-level data on environmental and socio-economic indicators in Kalimantan (Indonesia), we evaluate the performance of the FSC-certified timber concessions compared to non-certified logging concessions. Employing triple difference matching estimators, we find that between 2000 and 2008 FSC reduced aggregate deforestation by 5 percentage points and the incidence of air pollution by 31%. It had no statistically significant impacts on fire incidence or core areas, but increased forest perforation by 4 km2 on average. In addition, we find that FSC reduced firewood dependence (by 33%), respiratory infections (by 32%) and malnutrition (by 1 person) on average. By conducting a rigorous statistical evaluation of FSC certification in a biodiversity hotspot such as Indonesia, we provide a reference point and offer methodological and data lessons that could aid the design of ongoing and future evaluations of a potentially critical conservation policy. PMID:26132491

  12. Social and Environmental Impacts of Forest Management Certification in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Miteva, Daniela A; Loucks, Colby J; Pattanayak, Subhrendu K

    2015-01-01

    In response to unsustainable timber production in tropical forest concessions, voluntary forest management certification programs such as the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) have been introduced to improve environmental, social, and economic performance over existing management practices. However, despite the proliferation of forest certification over the past two decades, few studies have evaluated its effectiveness. Using temporally and spatially explicit village-level data on environmental and socio-economic indicators in Kalimantan (Indonesia), we evaluate the performance of the FSC-certified timber concessions compared to non-certified logging concessions. Employing triple difference matching estimators, we find that between 2000 and 2008 FSC reduced aggregate deforestation by 5 percentage points and the incidence of air pollution by 31%. It had no statistically significant impacts on fire incidence or core areas, but increased forest perforation by 4 km2 on average. In addition, we find that FSC reduced firewood dependence (by 33%), respiratory infections (by 32%) and malnutrition (by 1 person) on average. By conducting a rigorous statistical evaluation of FSC certification in a biodiversity hotspot such as Indonesia, we provide a reference point and offer methodological and data lessons that could aid the design of ongoing and future evaluations of a potentially critical conservation policy.

  13. Overview of contemporary issues of forest research and management in China.

    PubMed

    He, Hong S; Shifley, Stephen R; Thompson, Frank R

    2011-12-01

    With 207 million ha of forest covering 22% of its land area, China ranks fifth in the world in forest area. Rapid economic growth, climate change, and forest disturbances pose new, complex challenges for forest research and management. Progress in meeting these challenges is relevant beyond China, because China's forests represent 34% of Asia's forests and 5% of the worlds' forests. To provide a broader understanding of these management challenges and of research and policies that address them, we organized this special issue on contemporary forest research and management issues in China. At the national level, papers review major forest types and the evolution of sustainable forestry, the development of China's forest-certification efforts, the establishment of a forest inventory system, and achievements and challenges in insect pest control in China. Papers focused on Northern China address historical, social, and political factors that have shaped the region's forests; the use of forest landscape models to assess how forest management can achieve multiple objectives; and analysis and modeling of fuels and fire behavior. Papers addressing Central and South China describe the "Grain for Green" program, which converts low productivity cropland to grassland and woodland to address erosion and soil carbon sequestration; the potential effects of climate change on CO(2) efflux and soil respiration; and relationships between climate and net primary productivity. China shares many forest management and research issues with other countries, but in other cases China's capacity to respond to forest management challenges is unique and bears watching by the rest of the world.

  14. Overview of Contemporary Issues of Forest Research and Management in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Hong S.; Shifley, Stephen R.; Thompson, Frank R.

    2011-12-01

    With 207 million ha of forest covering 22% of its land area, China ranks fifth in the world in forest area. Rapid economic growth, climate change, and forest disturbances pose new, complex challenges for forest research and management. Progress in meeting these challenges is relevant beyond China, because China's forests represent 34% of Asia's forests and 5% of the worlds' forests. To provide a broader understanding of these management challenges and of research and policies that address them, we organized this special issue on contemporary forest research and management issues in China. At the national level, papers review major forest types and the evolution of sustainable forestry, the development of China's forest-certification efforts, the establishment of a forest inventory system, and achievements and challenges in insect pest control in China. Papers focused on Northern China address historical, social, and political factors that have shaped the region's forests; the use of forest landscape models to assess how forest management can achieve multiple objectives; and analysis and modeling of fuels and fire behavior. Papers addressing Central and South China describe the "Grain for Green" program, which converts low productivity cropland to grassland and woodland to address erosion and soil carbon sequestration; the potential effects of climate change on CO2 efflux and soil respiration; and relationships between climate and net primary productivity. China shares many forest management and research issues with other countries, but in other cases China's capacity to respond to forest management challenges is unique and bears watching by the rest of the world.

  15. 76 FR 31932 - Beaverhead-Deerlodge National Forest, Pintler Ranger District; Montana; Flint Foothills...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-02

    ... Vegetation Management Project AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of intent to prepare an environmental impact statement. SUMMARY: The Flint Foothills Vegetation Management Project proposes to use... cutthroat trout from treatment activities; potential to increase runoff and erosion by removing...

  16. The effect of management on forest carbon fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noormets, A.; McNulty, D.; Sun, G.; domec, J.; Gavazi, M.; King, J. S.

    2013-12-01

    Intensification of land use is often considered a primary factor leading to accelerated mineralization of soil carbon. This is particularly evident in agricultural lands, but is also suggested under less intensive management practices, including commercial forestry. If true, such an effect would offset efforts to manage ecosystems for carbon sequestration and climate change mitigation. Yet, recent studies of carbon cycling in managed forests have not found unequivocal evidence of greater respiratory activity compared to unmanaged ones, which is a major process determining carbon balance of ecosystems. In the current study, we evaluated both direct and indirect effects of management on respiratory carbon emissions. The preliminary results indicate minimal systematic effect on respiration rates, whereas the increased frequency of harvest disturbances resulting in more frequent post-disturbance spikes in heterotrophic respiration leads to greater net loss of soil C over time. In contrast, the higher productivity of managed forests results in greater mean net carbon uptake, which partially offsets the respiration losses. The cumulative long-term effect of forest management on ecosystem carbon balance depends on the net balance between productivity and respiration processes, and likely will be more responsive to the fate of harvested biomass than the direct and indirect effects on respiratory dynamics.

  17. Managing for multiple resources under climate change: national forests.

    PubMed

    Joyce, Linda A; Blate, Geoffrey M; McNulty, Steven G; Millar, Constance I; Moser, Susanne; Neilson, Ronald P; Peterson, David L

    2009-12-01

    This study explores potential adaptation approaches in planning and management that the United States Forest Service might adopt to help achieve its goals and objectives in the face of climate change. Availability of information, vulnerability of ecological and socio-economic systems, and uncertainties associated with climate change, as well as the interacting non-climatic changes, influence selection of the adaptation approach. Resource assessments are opportunities to develop strategic information that could be used to identify and link adaptation strategies across planning levels. Within a National Forest, planning must incorporate the opportunity to identify vulnerabilities to climate change as well as incorporate approaches that allow management adjustments as the effects of climate change become apparent. The nature of environmental variability, the inevitability of novelty and surprise, and the range of management objectives and situations across the National Forest System implies that no single approach will fit all situations. A toolbox of management options would include practices focused on forestalling climate change effects by building resistance and resilience into current ecosystems, and on managing for change by enabling plants, animals, and ecosystems to adapt to climate change. Better and more widespread implementation of already known practices that reduce the impact of existing stressors represents an important "no regrets" strategy. These management opportunities will require agency consideration of its adaptive capacity, and ways to overcome potential barriers to these adaptation options.

  18. Measuring biodiversity and sustainable management in forests and agricultural landscapes

    PubMed Central

    Dudley, Nigel; Baldock, David; Nasi, Robert; Stolton, Sue

    2005-01-01

    Most of the world's biodiversity will continue to exist outside protected areas and there are also managed lands within many protected areas. In the assessment of millennium targets, there is therefore a need for indicators to measure biodiversity and suitability of habitats for biodiversity both across the whole landscape/seascape and in specific managed habitats. The two predominant land uses in many inhabited areas are forestry and agriculture and these are examined. Many national-level criteria and indicator systems already exist that attempt to assess biodiversity in forests and the impacts of forest management, but there is generally less experience in measuring these values in agricultural landscapes. Existing systems are reviewed, both for their usefulness in providing indicators and to assess the extent to which they have been applied. This preliminary gap analysis is used in the development of a set of indicators suitable for measuring progress towards the conservation of biodiversity in managed forests and agriculture. The paper concludes with a draft set of indicators for discussion, with suggestions including proportion of land under sustainable management, amount of produce from such land, area of natural or high quality semi-natural land within landscapes under sustainable management and key indicator species. PMID:15814357

  19. Measuring biodiversity and sustainable management in forests and agricultural landscapes.

    PubMed

    Dudley, Nigel; Baldock, David; Nasi, Robert; Stolton, Sue

    2005-02-28

    Most of the world's biodiversity will continue to exist outside protected areas and there are also managed lands within many protected areas. In the assessment of millennium targets, there is therefore a need for indicators to measure biodiversity and suitability of habitats for biodiversity both across the whole landscape/seascape and in specific managed habitats. The two predominant land uses in many inhabited areas are forestry and agriculture and these are examined. Many national-level criteria and indicator systems already exist that attempt to assess biodiversity in forests and the impacts of forest management, but there is generally less experience in measuring these values in agricultural landscapes. Existing systems are reviewed, both for their usefulness in providing indicators and to assess the extent to which they have been applied. This preliminary gap analysis is used in the development of a set of indicators suitable for measuring progress towards the conservation of biodiversity in managed forests and agriculture. The paper concludes with a draft set of indicators for discussion, with suggestions including proportion of land under sustainable management, amount of produce from such land, area of natural or high quality semi-natural land within landscapes under sustainable management and key indicator species.

  20. Projected Impacts of 21st Century Climate Change on Potential Habitat for Vegetation and Forest Types in Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soja, A. J.; Tchebakova, N. M.; Parfenova, E. I.; Cantin, A.; Conard, S. G.

    2015-12-01

    Global GCMs have demonstrated profound potential for projections to affect the distribution of terrestrial ecosystems and individual species at all hierarchical levels. We modeled progression of potential Russian ecotones and forest-forming species as the climate changes. Large-scale bioclimatic models were developed to predict Russian zonal vegetation (RuBCliM) and forest types (ForCliM) from three bioclimatic indices (1) growing degree-days above 5 degrees C; (2) negative degree-days below 0 C ; and (3) an annual moisture index (ratio of growing degree days to annual precipitation). The presence or absence of continuous permafrost was explicitly included in the models as limiting the forests and tree species distribution. All simulations to predict vegetation change across Russia were run by coupling our bioclimatic models with bioclimatic indices and the permafrost distribution for the baseline period and for the future 2020, 2050 and 2100 simulated by 3 GCMs (CGCM3.1, HadCM3 and IPSLCM4) and 3 climate change scenarios (A1B, A2 and B1). Under these climate scenarios, it is projected the zonobiomes will shift far northward to reach equilibrium with the change in climate. Under the warmer and drier projected future climate, about half of Russia would be suitable for the forest-steppe ecotone and grasslands, rather than for forests. Water stress tolerant light-needled taiga would have an increased advantage over water-loving dark-needled taiga. Permafrost-tolerant L. dahurica taiga would remain the dominant forest across permafrost. Increases in severe fire weather would lead to increases in large, high-severity fires, especially at boundaries between forest ecotones, which can be expected to facilitate a more rapid progression of vegetation towards a new equilibrium with the climate. Adaptation to climate change may be facilitated by: assisting migration of forests by seed transfers to establish genotypes that may be more ecologically suited as climate changes

  1. Surface ozone levels in the forest and vegetation areas of the Biga Peninsula, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Sari, Deniz; İncecik, Selahattin; Ozkurt, Nesimi

    2016-11-15

    Spatial and temporal variability of surface ozone in the rural, mountainous and suburban sites of Biga Peninsula, at the northwest of Turkey which is about 300km southwest of Istanbul was investigated using passive samplers and continuous analyzers. A total 10 passive samplers and two continuous analyzers were used between 1.1.2013 and 31.12.2014. OX levels in the study region were examined to understand NOx dependent or independent contribution to ozone. The influences of the meteorological parameters on ozone levels were also examined by wind speed and ambient temperature. The results clearly show that mountainous areas have higher cumulative exposure to ozone than suburban locations. In order to understand the long range transport sources contributing to the high ozone levels in the region backward trajectories were computed using HYSPLIT model and then clustering of trajectories are performed. The results clearly show the characteristics of pollutant transport from north to Biga Peninsula. Additionally, AOT40 (Accumulated hourly O3 concentrations Over a Threshold of 40ppb) cumulative index was calculated using daytime hourly measurements. The results indicate that the ozone values in the study area are much higher than the critical levels for forest and vegetation based on EU Directive 2008/50/EC. PMID:27474990

  2. Surface ozone levels in the forest and vegetation areas of the Biga Peninsula, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Sari, Deniz; İncecik, Selahattin; Ozkurt, Nesimi

    2016-11-15

    Spatial and temporal variability of surface ozone in the rural, mountainous and suburban sites of Biga Peninsula, at the northwest of Turkey which is about 300km southwest of Istanbul was investigated using passive samplers and continuous analyzers. A total 10 passive samplers and two continuous analyzers were used between 1.1.2013 and 31.12.2014. OX levels in the study region were examined to understand NOx dependent or independent contribution to ozone. The influences of the meteorological parameters on ozone levels were also examined by wind speed and ambient temperature. The results clearly show that mountainous areas have higher cumulative exposure to ozone than suburban locations. In order to understand the long range transport sources contributing to the high ozone levels in the region backward trajectories were computed using HYSPLIT model and then clustering of trajectories are performed. The results clearly show the characteristics of pollutant transport from north to Biga Peninsula. Additionally, AOT40 (Accumulated hourly O3 concentrations Over a Threshold of 40ppb) cumulative index was calculated using daytime hourly measurements. The results indicate that the ozone values in the study area are much higher than the critical levels for forest and vegetation based on EU Directive 2008/50/EC.

  3. 78 FR 68811 - National Advisory Committee for Implementation of the National Forest System Land Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-15

    ... Management Planning Rule AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The National Advisory Committee for Implementation of the National Forest System Land Management Planning Rule will meet... the National Forest System Land Management Planning Rule. The purpose of this meeting is to...

  4. 78 FR 9883 - National Advisory Committee for Implementation of the National Forest System Land Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-12

    ... Management Planning Rule AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The National Advisory Committee for Implementation of the National Forest System Land Management Planning Rule will meet... Forest System Land Management Rule. The meeting is also open to the public. The purpose of the meeting...

  5. 78 FR 46565 - National Advisory Committee for Implementation of the National Forest System Land Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-01

    ... Management Planning Rule AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The National Advisory Committee for Implementation of the National Forest System Land Management Planning Rule will meet... of the National Forest System Land Management Planning Rule. The purpose of this meeting is...

  6. 78 FR 69814 - Revision of the Land Management Plan for El Yunque National Forest

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-21

    ... preliminary ``need for change'' and a proposed action for the land management plan revision. DATES: A draft of...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Revision of the Land Management Plan for El Yunque National Forest AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of Initiating the development of a land management...

  7. Rising Carbon Dioxide Levels and Forest Management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent observations and scientific research indicate that climate change, with its greater extremes in meteorological trends and overall temperature increases, is likely to affect land resources. Natural resource managers need to continually update their knowledge concerning potential impacts of cl...

  8. Influence of forest management regimes on forest dynamics in the upstream region of the Hun River in northeastern China.

    PubMed

    Yao, Jing; He, Xingyuan; Wang, Anzhi; Chen, Wei; Li, Xiaoyu; Lewis, Bernard J; Lv, Xiaotao

    2012-01-01

    Balancing forest harvesting and restoration is critical for forest ecosystem management. In this study, we used LANDIS, a spatially explicit forest landscape model, to evaluate the effects of 21 alternative forest management initiatives which were drafted for forests in the upstream region of the Hun River in northeastern China. These management initiatives included a wide range of planting and harvest intensities for Pinus koraiensis, the historically dominant tree species in the region. Multivariate analysis of variance, Shannon's Diversity Index, and planting efficiency (which indicates how many cells of the target species at the final year benefit from per-cell of the planting trees) estimates were used as indicators to analyze the effects of planting and harvesting regimes on forests in the region. The results showed that the following: (1) Increased planting intensity, although augmenting the coverage of P. koraiensis, was accompanied by decreases in planting efficiency and forest diversity. (2) While selective harvesting could increase forest diversity, the abrupt increase of early succession species accompanying this method merits attention. (3) Stimulating rapid forest succession may not be a good management strategy, since the climax species would crowd out other species which are likely more adapted to future climatic conditions in the long run. In light of the above, we suggest a combination of 30% planting intensity with selective harvesting of 50% and 70% of primary and secondary timber species, respectively, as the most effective management regime in this area. In the long run this would accelerate the ultimate dominance of P. koraiensis in the forest via a more effective rate of planting, while maintaining a higher degree of forest diversity. These results are particularly useful for forest managers constrained by limited financial and labor resources who must deal with conflicts between forest harvesting and restoration. PMID:22723930

  9. Mapping SOC (Soil Organic Carbon) using LiDAR-derived vegetation indices in a random forest regression model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Will, R. M.; Glenn, N. F.; Benner, S. G.; Pierce, J. L.; Spaete, L.; Li, A.

    2015-12-01

    Quantifying SOC (Soil Organic Carbon) storage in complex terrain is challenging due to high spatial variability. Generally, the challenge is met by transforming point data to the entire landscape using surrogate, spatially-distributed, variables like elevation or precipitation. In many ecosystems, remotely sensed information on above-ground vegetation (e.g. NDVI) is a good predictor of below-ground carbon stocks. In this project, we are attempting to improve this predictive method by incorporating LiDAR-derived vegetation indices. LiDAR provides a mechanism for improved characterization of aboveground vegetation by providing structural parameters such as vegetation height and biomass. In this study, a random forest model is used to predict SOC using a suite of LiDAR-derived vegetation indices as predictor variables. The Reynolds Creek Experimental Watershed (RCEW) is an ideal location for a study of this type since it encompasses a strong elevation/precipitation gradient that supports lower biomass sagebrush ecosystems at low elevations and forests with more biomass at higher elevations. Sagebrush ecosystems composed of Wyoming, Low and Mountain Sagebrush have SOC values ranging from .4 to 1% (top 30 cm), while higher biomass ecosystems composed of aspen, juniper and fir have SOC values approaching 4% (top 30 cm). Large differences in SOC have been observed between canopy and interspace locations and high resolution vegetation information is likely to explain plot scale variability in SOC. Mapping of the SOC reservoir will help identify underlying controls on SOC distribution and provide insight into which processes are most important in determining SOC in semi-arid mountainous regions. In addition, airborne LiDAR has the potential to characterize vegetation communities at a high resolution and could be a tool for improving estimates of SOC at larger scales.

  10. Conceptualizing and communicating management effects on forest water quality.

    PubMed

    Futter, Martyn N; Högbom, Lars; Valinia, Salar; Sponseller, Ryan A; Laudon, Hjalmar

    2016-02-01

    We present a framework for evaluating and communicating effects of human activity on water quality in managed forests. The framework is based on the following processes: atmospheric deposition, weathering, accumulation, recirculation and flux. Impairments to water quality are characterized in terms of their extent, longevity and frequency. Impacts are communicated using a "traffic lights" metaphor for characterizing severity of water quality impairments arising from forestry and other anthropogenic pressures. The most serious impairments to water quality in managed boreal forests include (i) forestry activities causing excessive sediment mobilization and extirpation of aquatic species and (ii) other anthropogenic pressures caused by long-range transport of mercury and acidifying pollutants. The framework and tool presented here can help evaluate, summarize and communicate the most important issues in circumstances where land management and other anthropogenic pressures combine to impair water quality and may also assist in implementing the "polluter pays" principle.

  11. Hydrological niche separation explains seasonal and inter-annual variations of vegetation dynamics in seasonally dry tropical forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, X.; Medvigy, D.; Powers, J. S.; Becknell, J. M.; Guan, K.

    2015-12-01

    Despite ample water supply, vegetation dynamics are subject to seasonal water stress in large fraction of tropical forests. These seasonally dry tropical forests (SDTFs) account for over 40% of tropical forests, harbor high biodiversity, have large potential carbon sink due to forest recovery from human disturbance and also play a critical role in global carbon budget and inter-annual variations. Plants in this biome display notably diverse responses to seasonal and inter-annual variations of water availability, especially inter-specific variations in canopy seasonality and biomass growth. Current process-based dynamic vegetation models cannot represent these diversities and are shown to perform poorly on simulating drought responses of tropical forests, calling into question of their ability to accurately simulate future changes in SDTFs. Accumulated field observations, suggest that hydrological niche separation driven by coordinated plant functional traits is associated with plants' performance under drought. Yet, it remains not clear whether the physiology-level hydrological niche separation can explain the ecosystem-level diversity observed in SDTFs. Here, we test the theory with a model-data fusion approach. We implemented a new plant hydrodynamic module that is able to track leaf water potential at sub-daily scale in ED2 model. We further incorporated a hydrological niche separation scheme based on a meta-data analysis of key functional traits in SDTFs. Simulated ecological patterns with and without hydrological niche separation were then compared with remote-sensing and long-term field observations from an SDTF site in Palo Verde, Costa Rica. Using several numerical experiments, we specifically examine the following questions: (i) Whether hydrological niche separation can explain the diversity in canopy seasonality and biomass growth? (ii) How important are the yet uncertain belowground functional traits, especially root profile in determining canopy

  12. Sustainable forest management and impacts on forest responses to a changing climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stover, D. B.; Parker, G.; Riutta, T.; Capretz, R.; Murthy, I.; Haibao, R.; Bebber, D.

    2009-12-01

    Impacts from human activities at varying scales and intensities have a profound influence on forest carbon dynamics in addition to interactions with climate. As such, forest carbon stocks and fluxes are among the least well-defined elements of the global carbon cycle, and great uncertainty remains in predicting the effect of climate change on forest dynamics. In some cases, these management-climate interactions are well known, but often represent a fundamental gap in our understanding of ecosystem responses and are likely to be important in improving modeling of climate change, and in valuing forest carbon. To improve understanding of human induced forest management-climate interactions, a network of permanent study plots has been established in five sites around the world - in the US, UK, Brazil, India and China. The sites are near larger global monitoring (Smithsonian CTFS) plots to facilitate comparisons. At each site, a series of 1-ha plots have been placed in forest stands with differing management regimes and histories. Utilizing citizen scientists from HSBC bank, all trees >5 cm dbh are tagged, mapped, identified to species, and diameter is recorded within each plot. A subset of trees have dendrometer bands attached, to record seasonal growth. Dead wood and litterfall samples are taken, and microclimate is recorded with automatic sensors. Serial measurements will allow correlation of forest dynamics with weather. Although the studies are at an early stage current results indicate above-ground biomass estimates are 102-288 Mg ha-1 for intermediate and mature Liriodendron tulipifera-dominated stands in the US, respectively. In India, mature semi-natural evergreen forests biomass estimates are 192-235 Mg ha-1 while plantation and semi-natural core forests in the UK are estimated at 211-292 Mg ha-1. Successional Atlantic forests in Brazil are estimated to contain 192-235 Mg ha-1. In the US, initial results have demonstrated dramatic differences in microclimate

  13. Models for Forest Ecosystem Management: A European Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Pretzsch, H.; Grote, R.; Reineking, B.; Rötzer, Th.; Seifert, St.

    2008-01-01

    Background Forest management in Europe is committed to sustainability. In the face of climate change and accompanying risks, however, planning in order to achieve this aim becomes increasingly challenging, underlining the need for new and innovative methods. Models potentially integrate a wide range of system knowledge and present scenarios of variables important for any management decision. In the past, however, model development has mainly focused on specific purposes whereas today we are increasingly aware of the need for the whole range of information that can be provided by models. It is therefore assumed helpful to review the various approaches that are available for specific tasks and to discuss how they can be used for future management strategies. Scope Here we develop a concept for the role of models in forest ecosystem management based on historical analyses. Five paradigms of forest management are identified: (1) multiple uses, (2) dominant use, (3) environmentally sensitive multiple uses, (4) full ecosystem approach and (5) eco-regional perspective. An overview of model approaches is given that is dedicated to this purpose and to developments of different kinds of approaches. It is discussed how these models can contribute to goal setting, decision support and development of guidelines for forestry operations. Furthermore, it is shown how scenario analysis, including stand and landscape visualization, can be used to depict alternatives, make long-term consequences of different options transparent, and ease participation of different stakeholder groups and education. Conclusions In our opinion, the current challenge of forest ecosystem management in Europe is to integrate system knowledge from different temporal and spatial scales and from various disciplines. For this purpose, using a set of models with different focus that can be selected from a kind of toolbox according to particular needs is more promising than developing one overarching model

  14. Management of forest fires to maximize carbon sequestration in temperate and boreal forests

    SciTech Connect

    Guggenheim, D.E. |

    1996-12-31

    This study examines opportunities for applying prescribed burning strategies to forest stands to enhance net carbon sequestration and compared prescribed burning strategies with more conventional forestry-based climate change mitigation alternatives, including fire suppression and afforestation. Biomass burning is a major contributor to greenhouse gas accumulation in the atmosphere. Biomass burning has increased by 50% since 1850. Since 1977, the annual extent of burning in the northern temperate and boreal forests has increased dramatically, from six- to nine-fold. Long-term suppression of fires in North America, Russia, and other parts of the world has led to accumulated fuel load and an increase in the destructive power of wildfires. Prescribed burning has been used successfully to reduce the destructiveness of wildfires. However, across vast areas of Russia and other regions, prescribed burning is not a component of forest management practices. Given these factors and the sheer size of the temperate-boreal carbon sink, increasing attention is being focused on the role of these forests in mitigating climate change, and the role of fire management strategies, such as prescribed burning, which could work alongside more conventional forestry-based greenhouse gas offset strategies, such as afforestation.

  15. Studies of images of short-lived events using ERTS data. [forest fires, oil spills, vegetation damage, volcanoes, storm ridges, earthquakes, and floods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deutschman, W. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Detection of short-lived events has continued. Forest fires, oil spills, vegetation damage, volcanoes, storm ridges, earthquakes, and floods have been detected and analyzed.

  16. Electromagnetic wave scattering from a forest or vegetation canopy - Ongoing research at the University of Texas at Arlington

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karam, Mostafa A.; Amar, Faouzi; Fung, Adrian K.

    1993-01-01

    The Wave Scattering Research Center at the University of Texas at Arlington has developed a scattering model for forest or vegetation, based on the theory of electromagnetic-wave scattering in random media. The model generalizes the assumptions imposed by earlier models, and compares well with measurements from several forest canopies. This paper gives a description of the model. It also indicates how the model elements are integrated to obtain the scattering characteristics of different forest canopies. The scattering characteristics may be displayed in the form of polarimetric signatures, represented by like- and cross-polarized scattering coefficients, for an elliptically-polarized wave, or in the form of signal-distribution curves. Results illustrating both types of scattering characteristics are given.

  17. Incorporating grassland management in a global vegetation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Jinfeng; Viovy, Nicolas; Vuichard, Nicolas; Ciais, Philippe; Wang, Tao; Cozic, Anne; Lardy, Romain; Graux, Anne-Isabelle; Klumpp, Katja; Martin, Raphael; Soussana, Jean-François

    2013-04-01

    Grassland is a widespread vegetation type, covering nearly one-fifth of the world's land surface (24 million km2), and playing a significant role in the global carbon (C) cycle. Most of grasslands in Europe are cultivated to feed animals, either directly by grazing or indirectly by grass harvest (cutting). A better understanding of the C fluxes from grassland ecosystems in response to climate and management requires not only field experiments but also the aid of simulation models. ORCHIDEE process-based ecosystem model designed for large-scale applications treats grasslands as being unmanaged, where C / water fluxes are only subject to atmospheric CO2 and climate changes. Our study describes how management of grasslands is included in the ORCHIDEE, and how management affects modeled grassland-atmosphere CO2 fluxes. The new model, ORCHIDEE-GM (Grassland Management) is capable with a management module inspired from a grassland model (PaSim, version 5.0), of accounting for two grassland management practices (cutting and grazing). The evaluation of the results of ORCHIDEE-GM compared with those of ORCHIDEE at 11 European sites equipped with eddy covariance and biometric measurements, show that ORCHIDEE-GM can capture realistically the cut-induced seasonal variation in biometric variables (LAI: Leaf Area Index; AGB: Aboveground Biomass) and in CO2 fluxes (GPP: Gross Primary Productivity; TER: Total Ecosystem Respiration; and NEE: Net Ecosystem Exchange). But improvements at grazing sites are only marginal in ORCHIDEE-GM, which relates to the difficulty in accounting for continuous grazing disturbance and its induced complex animal-vegetation interactions. Both NEE and GPP on monthly to annual timescales can be better simulated in ORCHIDEE-GM than in ORCHIDEE without management. At some sites, the model-observation misfit in ORCHIDEE-GM is found to be more related to ill-constrained parameter values than to model structure. Additionally, ORCHIDEE-GM is able to simulate

  18. Map data in support of forest management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fosnight, E.A.; Greenlee, D.

    2000-01-01

    Now widely available and inexpensive, prepackaged map data are easy to use-and just as easy to use incorrectly. To select the proper scale and appropriate thematic attributes so that the data actually inform the project at hand, managers need to know the basics.

  19. Methodology for mapping non-forest wood elements using historic cadastral maps and aerial photographs as a basis for management.

    PubMed

    Skalos, Jan; Engstová, Barbora

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test a method for analysing long-term structural changes in non-forest wood elements, using a newly developed classification system and relevant landscape characteristics. Although these non-forest wood elements are biotopes that have positive effects for the ecological stability of the landscape little is known about their long-term dynamics. The newly developed knowledge of the historical impact of various landscape management practices on non-forest wood elements can be applied in landscape planning procedures (e.g. planning ecological networks) in order to ensure relevant landscape management in the future. The method was applied in two contrasting study sites, Honbice (244 ha) and Krida (268 ha), located in east Bohemia and north Bohemia, in the Czech Republic. The study was based on old cadastral maps (from 1839 to 1843), black and white aerial photographs (from 1938, 1950, 1966, 1975 to 2006) and field control data from 2006. At the Honbice study site, the proportion of non-forest wood elements increased from 2.0 to 2.9% of the study site, due to large plantations of scattered vegetation in the open landscape. On the other hand, more than half of the wood vegetation in the village was cut down between 1966 and 2006. In addition, the relative length of the tree alleys decreased from 0.021 km ha(-1) to 0.018 km ha(-1) between 1950 and 1966. At the Krida study site, there was a significant increase in non-forest vegetation (from 2.4 to 8.2%), due to abandonment of the landscape (former military area). As the village disappeared, the total amount of scattered vegetation grew, due to the natural succession process. The relative length of the tree alleys decreased from 0.009 km ha(-1) to 0.005 km ha(-1). The method that was applied and based on the analysis of long-term structural changes in non-forest wood elements, using a (newly developed) classification system and relevant landscape characteristics has proved to be a suitable

  20. Effects of biotic feedback and harvest management on boreal forest fire activity under climate change.

    PubMed

    Krawchuk, Meg A; Cumming, Steve G

    2011-01-01

    Predictions of future fire activity over Canada's boreal forests have primarily been generated from climate data following assumptions that direct effects of weather will stand alone in contributing to changes in burning. However, this assumption needs explicit testing. First, areas recently burned can be less likely to burn again in the near term, and this endogenous regulation suggests the potential for self-limiting, negative biotic feedback to regional climate-driven increases in fire. Second, forest harvest is ongoing, and resulting changes in vegetation structure have been shown to affect fire activity. Consequently, we tested the assumption that fire activity will be driven by changes in fire weather without regulation by biotic feedback or regional harvest-driven changes in vegetation structure in the mixedwood boreal forest of Alberta, Canada, using a simulation experiment that includes the interaction of fire, stand dynamics, climate change, and clear cut harvest management. We found that climate change projected with fire weather indices calculated from the Canadian Regional Climate Model increased fire activity, as expected, and our simulations established evidence that the magnitude of regional increase in fire was sufficient to generate negative feedback to subsequent fire activity. We illustrate a 39% (1.39-fold) increase in fire initiation and 47% (1.47-fold) increase in area burned when climate and stand dynamics were included in simulations, yet 48% (1.48-fold) and 61% (1.61-fold) increases, respectively, when climate was considered alone. Thus, although biotic feedbacks reduced burned area estimates in important ways, they were secondary to the direct effect of climate on fire. We then show that ongoing harvest management in this region changed landscape composition in a way that led to reduced fire activity, even in the context of climate change. Although forest harvesting resulted in decreased regional fire activity when compared to unharvested

  1. Rapid tree carbon stock recovery in managed Amazonian forests.

    PubMed

    Rutishauser, Ervan; Hérault, Bruno; Baraloto, Christopher; Blanc, Lilian; Descroix, Laurent; Sotta, Eleneide Doff; Ferreira, Joice; Kanashiro, Milton; Mazzei, Lucas; d'Oliveira, Marcus V N; de Oliveira, Luis C; Peña-Claros, Marielos; Putz, Francis E; Ruschel, Ademir R; Rodney, Ken; Roopsind, Anand; Shenkin, Alexander; da Silva, Katia E; de Souza, Cintia R; Toledo, Marisol; Vidal, Edson; West, Thales A P; Wortel, Verginia; Sist, Plinio

    2015-09-21

    While around 20% of the Amazonian forest has been cleared for pastures and agriculture, one fourth of the remaining forest is dedicated to wood production. Most of these production forests have been or will be selectively harvested for commercial timber, but recent studies show that even soon after logging, harvested stands retain much of their tree-biomass carbon and biodiversity. Comparing species richness of various animal taxa among logged and unlogged forests across the tropics, Burivalova et al. found that despite some variability among taxa, biodiversity loss was generally explained by logging intensity (the number of trees extracted). Here, we use a network of 79 permanent sample plots (376 ha total) located at 10 sites across the Amazon Basin to assess the main drivers of time-to-recovery of post-logging tree carbon (Table S1). Recovery time is of direct relevance to policies governing management practices (i.e., allowable volumes cut and cutting cycle lengths), and indirectly to forest-based climate change mitigation interventions.

  2. Rapid tree carbon stock recovery in managed Amazonian forests.

    PubMed

    Rutishauser, Ervan; Hérault, Bruno; Baraloto, Christopher; Blanc, Lilian; Descroix, Laurent; Sotta, Eleneide Doff; Ferreira, Joice; Kanashiro, Milton; Mazzei, Lucas; d'Oliveira, Marcus V N; de Oliveira, Luis C; Peña-Claros, Marielos; Putz, Francis E; Ruschel, Ademir R; Rodney, Ken; Roopsind, Anand; Shenkin, Alexander; da Silva, Katia E; de Souza, Cintia R; Toledo, Marisol; Vidal, Edson; West, Thales A P; Wortel, Verginia; Sist, Plinio

    2015-09-21

    While around 20% of the Amazonian forest has been cleared for pastures and agriculture, one fourth of the remaining forest is dedicated to wood production. Most of these production forests have been or will be selectively harvested for commercial timber, but recent studies show that even soon after logging, harvested stands retain much of their tree-biomass carbon and biodiversity. Comparing species richness of various animal taxa among logged and unlogged forests across the tropics, Burivalova et al. found that despite some variability among taxa, biodiversity loss was generally explained by logging intensity (the number of trees extracted). Here, we use a network of 79 permanent sample plots (376 ha total) located at 10 sites across the Amazon Basin to assess the main drivers of time-to-recovery of post-logging tree carbon (Table S1). Recovery time is of direct relevance to policies governing management practices (i.e., allowable volumes cut and cutting cycle lengths), and indirectly to forest-based climate change mitigation interventions. PMID:26394096

  3. Discriminating the Drivers of Edge Effects on Nest Predation: Forest Edges Reduce Capture Rates of Ship Rats (Rattus rattus), a Globally Invasive Nest Predator, by Altering Vegetation Structure

    PubMed Central

    Ruffell, Jay; Didham, Raphael K.; Barrett, Paul; Gorman, Nic; Pike, Rhonda; Hickey-Elliott, Andrée; Sievwright, Karin; Armstrong, Doug P.

    2014-01-01

    Forest edges can strongly affect avian nest success by altering nest predation rates, but this relationship is inconsistent and context dependent. There is a need for researchers to improve the predictability of edge effects on nest predation rates by examining the mechanisms driving their occurrence and variability. In this study, we examined how the capture rates of ship rats, an invasive nest predator responsible for avian declines globally, varied with distance from the forest edge within forest fragments in a pastoral landscape in New Zealand. We hypothesised that forest edges would affect capture rates by altering vegetation structure within fragments, and that the strength of edge effects would depend on whether fragments were grazed by livestock. We measured vegetation structure and rat capture rates at 488 locations ranging from 0–212 m from the forest edge in 15 forest fragments, seven of which were grazed. Contrary to the vast majority of previous studies of edge effects on nest predation, ship rat capture rates increased with increasing distance from the forest edge. For grazed fragments, capture rates were estimated to be 78% lower at the forest edge than 118 m into the forest interior (the farthest distance for grazed fragments). This relationship was similar for ungrazed fragments, with capture rates estimated to be 51% lower at the forest edge than 118 m into the forest interior. A subsequent path analysis suggested that these ‘reverse’ edge effects were largely or entirely mediated by changes in vegetation structure, implying that edge effects on ship rats can be predicted from the response of vegetation structure to forest edges. We suggest the occurrence, strength, and direction of edge effects on nest predation rates may depend on edge-driven changes in local habitat when the dominant predator is primarily restricted to forest patches. PMID:25412340

  4. Postfire management in forested public lands of the western USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beschta, R.L.; Rhodes, J.J.; Kauffman, J.B.; Gresswell, Robert E.; Minshall, G.W.; Frissell, C.A.; Perry, D.A.; Hauer, R.

    2004-01-01

    Forest ecosystems in the western United States evolved over many millennia in response to disturbances such as wildfires. Land use and management practices have altered these ecosystems, however, including fire regimes in some areas. Forest ecosystems are especially vulnerable to postfire management practices because such practices may influence forest dynamics and aquatic systems for decades to centuries. Thus, there is an increasing need to evaluate the effect of postfire treatments from the perspective of ecosystem recovery. We examined, via the published literature and our collective experience, the ecological effects of some common postfire treatments. Based on this examination, promising postfire restoration measures include retention of large trees, rehabilitation of firelines and roads, and, in some cases, planting of native species. The following practices are generally inconsistent with efforts to restore ecosystem functions after fire: seeding exotic species, livestock grazing, placement of physical structures in and near stream channels, ground-based postfire logging, removal of large trees, and road construction. Practices that adversely affect soil integrity, persistence or recovery of native species, riparian functions, or water quality generally impede ecological recovery after fire. Although research provides a basis for evaluating the efficacy of postfire treatments, there is a continuing need to increase our understanding of the effects of such treatments within the context of societal and ecological goals for forested public lands of the western United States.

  5. Occurrence patterns of lichens on stumps in young managed forests.

    PubMed

    Svensson, Måns; Dahlberg, Anders; Ranius, Thomas; Thor, Göran

    2013-01-01

    The increasing demand for forest-derived bio-fuel may decrease the amount of dead wood and hence also the amount of available substrate for saproxylic ( = dead-wood dependent) organisms. Cut stumps constitute a large portion of dead wood in managed boreal forests. The lichen flora of such stumps has received little interest. Therefore, we investigated which lichens that occur on stumps in young (4-19 years), managed forests and analyzed how species richness and occurrence of individual species were related to stump and stand characteristics. We performed lichen inventories of 576 Norway spruce stumps in 48 forest stands in two study areas in Central Sweden, recording in total 77 lichen species. Of these, 14 were obligately lignicolous, while the remaining were generalists that also grow on bark, soil or rocks. We tested the effect of characteristics reflecting successional stage, microclimate, substrate patch size, and the species pool in the surrounding area on (1) total lichen species richness, (2) species richness of obligately lignicolous lichens and (3) the occurrence of four obligately lignicolous lichen species. The most important variables were stump age, with more species on old stumps, and study area, with similar total species richness but differences in occupancy for individual species. Responses for total lichen species richness and species richness of obligately lignicolous lichens were overall similar, indicating similar ecological requirements of these two groups. Our results indicate that species richness measurements serve as poor proxies for the responses of individual, obligately lignicolous lichen species.

  6. The influence of vegetation and soil characteristics on active-layer thickness of permafrost soils in boreal forest.

    PubMed

    Fisher, James P; Estop-Aragonés, Cristian; Thierry, Aaron; Charman, Dan J; Wolfe, Stephen A; Hartley, Iain P; Murton, Julian B; Williams, Mathew; Phoenix, Gareth K

    2016-09-01

    Carbon release from thawing permafrost soils could significantly exacerbate global warming as the active-layer deepens, exposing more carbon to decay. Plant community and soil properties provide a major control on this by influencing the maximum depth of thaw each summer (active-layer thickness; ALT), but a quantitative understanding of the relative importance of plant and soil characteristics, and their interactions in determine ALTs, is currently lacking. To address this, we undertook an extensive survey of multiple vegetation and edaphic characteristics and ALTs across multiple plots in four field sites within boreal forest in the discontinuous permafrost zone (NWT, Canada). Our sites included mature black spruce, burned black spruce and paper birch, allowing us to determine vegetation and edaphic drivers that emerge as the most important and broadly applicable across these key vegetation and disturbance gradients, as well as providing insight into site-specific differences. Across sites, the most important vegetation characteristics limiting thaw (shallower ALTs) were tree leaf area index (LAI), moss layer thickness and understory LAI in that order. Thicker soil organic layers also reduced ALTs, though were less influential than moss thickness. Surface moisture (0-6 cm) promoted increased ALTs, whereas deeper soil moisture (11-16 cm) acted to modify the impact of the vegetation, in particular increasing the importance of understory or tree canopy shading in reducing thaw. These direct and indirect effects of moisture indicate that future changes in precipitation and evapotranspiration may have large influences on ALTs. Our work also suggests that forest fires cause greater ALTs by simultaneously decreasing multiple ecosystem characteristics which otherwise protect permafrost. Given that vegetation and edaphic characteristics have such clear and large influences on ALTs, our data provide a key benchmark against which to evaluate process models used to predict

  7. Correlations between the Heterogeneity of Permafrost Thaw Depth and Vegetation in Boreal Forests and Arctic Tundra in Alaska.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uy, K. L. Q.; Natali, S.; Kholodov, A. L.; Loranty, M. M.

    2015-12-01

    Global climate change induces rapid large scale changes in the far Northern regions of the globe, which include the thickening of the active layer of arctic and subarctic soils. Active layer depth, in turn, drives many changes to the hydrology and geochemistry of the soil, making an understanding of this layer essential to boreal forest and arctic tundra ecology. Because the structure of plant communities can affect the thermal attributes of the soil, they may drive variations in active layer depth. For instance, trees and tussocks create shade, which reduces temperatures, but also hold snow, which increases temperature through insulation; these aspects of vegetation can increase or decrease summer thaw. The goal of this project is to investigate correlations between the degree of heterogeneity of active layer depths, organic layer thickness, and aboveground vegetation to determine how these facets of Northern ecosystems interact at the ecosystem scale. Permafrost thaw and organic layer depths were measured along 20m transects in twenty-four boreal forest and tundra sites in Alaska. Aboveground vegetation along these transects was characterized by measuring tree diameter at breast height (DBH), tussock dimensions, and understory biomass. Using the coefficient of variation as a measure of heterogeneity, we found a positive correlation between thaw depth variability and tussock volume variability, but little correlation between the former and tree DBH variability. Soil organic layer depth variability was also positively correlated with thaw depth variability, but weakly correlated with tree and tussock heterogeneity. These data suggest that low vegetation and organic layer control the degree of variability in permafrost thaw at the ecosystem scale. Vegetation can thus affect the microtopography of permafrost and future changes in the plant community that affect vegetation heterogeneity will drive corresponding changes in the variability of the soil.

  8. The influence of vegetation and soil characteristics on active-layer thickness of permafrost soils in boreal forest.

    PubMed

    Fisher, James P; Estop-Aragonés, Cristian; Thierry, Aaron; Charman, Dan J; Wolfe, Stephen A; Hartley, Iain P; Murton, Julian B; Williams, Mathew; Phoenix, Gareth K

    2016-09-01

    Carbon release from thawing permafrost soils could significantly exacerbate global warming as the active-layer deepens, exposing more carbon to decay. Plant community and soil properties provide a major control on this by influencing the maximum depth of thaw each summer (active-layer thickness; ALT), but a quantitative understanding of the relative importance of plant and soil characteristics, and their interactions in determine ALTs, is currently lacking. To address this, we undertook an extensive survey of multiple vegetation and edaphic characteristics and ALTs across multiple plots in four field sites within boreal forest in the discontinuous permafrost zone (NWT, Canada). Our sites included mature black spruce, burned black spruce and paper birch, allowing us to determine vegetation and edaphic drivers that emerge as the most important and broadly applicable across these key vegetation and disturbance gradients, as well as providing insight into site-specific differences. Across sites, the most important vegetation characteristics limiting thaw (shallower ALTs) were tree leaf area index (LAI), moss layer thickness and understory LAI in that order. Thicker soil organic layers also reduced ALTs, though were less influential than moss thickness. Surface moisture (0-6 cm) promoted increased ALTs, whereas deeper soil moisture (11-16 cm) acted to modify the impact of the vegetation, in particular increasing the importance of understory or tree canopy shading in reducing thaw. These direct and indirect effects of moisture indicate that future changes in precipitation and evapotranspiration may have large influences on ALTs. Our work also suggests that forest fires cause greater ALTs by simultaneously decreasing multiple ecosystem characteristics which otherwise protect permafrost. Given that vegetation and edaphic characteristics have such clear and large influences on ALTs, our data provide a key benchmark against which to evaluate process models used to predict

  9. Climate change implications of shifting forest management strategy in a boreal forest ecosystem of Norway.

    PubMed

    Bright, Ryan M; Antón-Fernández, Clara; Astrup, Rasmus; Cherubini, Francesco; Kvalevåg, Maria; Strømman, Anders H

    2014-02-01

    Empirical models alongside remotely sensed and station measured meteorological observations are employed to investigate both the local and global direct climate change impacts of alternative forest management strategies within a boreal ecosystem of eastern Norway. Stand-level analysis is firstly executed to attribute differences in daily, seasonal, and annual mean surface temperatures to differences in surface intrinsic biophysical properties across conifer, deciduous, and clear-cut sites. Relative to a conifer site, a slight local cooling of −0.13 °C at a deciduous site and −0.25 °C at a clear-cut site were observed over a 6-year period, which were mostly attributed to a higher albedo throughout the year. When monthly mean albedo trajectories over the entire managed forest landscape were taken into consideration, we found that strategies promoting natural regeneration of coniferous sites with native deciduous species led to substantial global direct climate cooling benefits relative to those maintaining current silviculture regimes – despite predicted long-term regional warming feedbacks and a reduced albedo in spring and autumn months. The magnitude and duration of the cooling benefit depended largely on whether management strategies jointly promoted an enhanced material supply over business-as-usual levels. Expressed in terms of an equivalent CO2 emission pulse at the start of the simulation, the net climate response at the end of the 21st century spanned −8 to −159 Tg-CO2-eq., depending on whether near-term harvest levels increased or followed current trends, respectively. This magnitude equates to approximately −20 to −300% of Norway's annual domestic (production) emission impact. Our analysis supports the assertion that a carbon-only focus in the design and implementation of forest management policy in boreal and other climatically similar regions can be counterproductive – and at best – suboptimal if boreal forests are to be used as a

  10. Vegetation and soils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burke, M.K.; King, S.L.; Eisenbies, M.H.; Gartner, D.

    2000-01-01

    Intro paragraph: Characterization of bottomland hardwood vegetation in relatively undisturbed forests can provide critical information for developing effective wetland creation and restoration techniques and for assessing the impacts of management and development. Classification is a useful technique in characterizing vegetation because it summarizes complex data sets, assists in hypothesis generation about factors influencing community variation, and helps refine models of community structure. Hierarchical classification of communities is particularly useful for showing relationships among samples (Gauche 1982).

  11. Accuracy of vegetation height and terrain elevation derived from ICESat/GLAS in forested areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enßle, F.; Heinzel, J.; Koch, B.

    2014-09-01

    This paper focuses on accuracy assessment of canopy top elevation, ground elevation and vegetation height (VH) derived from space borne full-waveform LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) data across forested areas. Computed height metrics from LiDAR data which were acquired by the GLAS sensor aboard the ICESat (Ice Cloud and land Elevation Satellite) are compared against airborne laser scanning (ALS) based digital elevation models. Due to the dynamic topography of the sites under investigation, a wide range of slope angles could be investigated. ICESat's raw waveform data (GLA01) and the land surface altimetry data (GLA14) products are used to determine height metrics with different methods. GLA14 based elevation and vegetation heights are computed from range offset information. Values are provided for signal begin, signal end, land range and up to six Gaussian peaks for each received waveform. GLA01 based terrain heights are computed by locally weighted polynomial regression and peak detection on the received waveform itself. A range of different smoothing spans and noise threshold values on the original waveform, which is represented by 544 single values (bins), were tested. A new method based on the unsmoothed waveform was developed for the detection of the signal begin. By detecting the location above the noise threshold, where the signal rises at least for 5 bins (75 cm), achieved more precise results, than the given signal begin in the GLA14 product. For ground peak detection by smoothing of the waveform it was found that noise thresholds of 4 and 4.5 times the standard deviation plus the mean noise level give the best performance. For VH computation in areas of up to 10° terrain slope, a smoothing span of 10 bins achieved r2 = 0.58, whereas the GLA14 based method achieved r2 of 0.75 in flat terrain (0-5°). For these flat areas, best results in VH computation (r2 = 0.91) were achieved by using the new method for canopy top detection and the GLA14 based

  12. Supplement Analysis for the Transmission System Vegetation Management Program FEIS (DOE/EIS-0285/SA-81)

    SciTech Connect

    Howington, John

    2002-07-09

    BPA proposes total vegetation management (bare ground) in the electrical substations, and, noxious weed management and maintenance of landscaping within the property boundaries of the listed facilities. These facilities are all located within The Dalles District of the Redmond Region.

  13. Factors affecting collective action for forest fire management: a comparative study of community forest user groups in central Siwalik, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Sapkota, Lok Mani; Shrestha, Rajendra Prasad; Jourdain, Damien; Shivakoti, Ganesh P

    2015-01-01

    The attributes of social ecological systems affect the management of commons. Strengthening and enhancing social capital and the enforcement of rules and sanctions aid in the collective action of communities in forest fire management. Using a set of variables drawn from previous studies on the management of commons, we conducted a study across 20 community forest user groups in Central Siwalik, Nepal, by dividing the groups into two categories based on the type and level of their forest fire management response. Our study shows that the collective action in forest fire management is consistent with the collective actions in other community development activities. However, the effectiveness of collective action is primarily dependent on the complex interaction of various variables. We found that strong social capital, strong enforcement of rules and sanctions, and users' participation in crafting the rules were the major variables that strengthen collective action in forest fire management. Conversely, users' dependency on a daily wage and a lack of transparency were the variables that weaken collective action. In fire-prone forests such as the Siwalik, our results indicate that strengthening social capital and forming and enforcing forest fire management rules are important variables that encourage people to engage in collective action in fire management.

  14. Factors Affecting Collective Action for Forest Fire Management: A Comparative Study of Community Forest User Groups in Central Siwalik, Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapkota, Lok Mani; Shrestha, Rajendra Prasad; Jourdain, Damien; Shivakoti, Ganesh P.

    2015-01-01

    The attributes of social ecological systems affect the management of commons. Strengthening and enhancing social capital and the enforcement of rules and sanctions aid in the collective action of communities in forest fire management. Using a set of variables drawn from previous studies on the management of commons, we conducted a study across 20 community forest user groups in Central Siwalik, Nepal, by dividing the groups into two categories based on the type and level of their forest fire management response. Our study shows that the collective action in forest fire management is consistent with the collective actions in other community development activities. However, the effectiveness of collective action is primarily dependent on the complex interaction of various variables. We found that strong social capital, strong enforcement of rules and sanctions, and users' participation in crafting the rules were the major variables that strengthen collective action in forest fire management. Conversely, users' dependency on a daily wage and a lack of transparency were the variables that weaken collective action. In fire-prone forests such as the Siwalik, our results indicate that strengthening social capital and forming and enforcing forest fire management rules are important variables that encourage people to engage in collective action in fire management.

  15. Interactions with successional stage and nutrient status determines the life-form-specific effects of increased soil temperature on boreal forest floor vegetation

    PubMed Central

    Hedwall, Per-Ola; Skoglund, Jerry; Linder, Sune

    2015-01-01

    The boreal forest is one of the largest terrestrial biomes and plays a key role for the global carbon balance and climate. The forest floor vegetation has a strong influence on the carbon and nitrogen cycles of the forests and is sensitive to changes in temperature conditions and nutrient availability. Additionally, the effects of climate warming on forest floor vegetation have been suggested to be moderated by the tree layer. Data on the effects of soil warming on forest floor vegetation from the boreal forest are, however, very scarce. We studied the effects on the forest floor vegetation in a long-term (18 years) soil warming and fertilization experiment in a Norway spruce stand in northern Sweden. During the first 9 years, warming favored early successional species such as grasses and forbs at the expense of dwarf shrubs and bryophytes in unfertilized stands, while the effects were smaller after fertilization. Hence, warming led to significant changes in species composition and an increase in species richness in the open canopy nutrient limited forest. After another 9 years of warming and increasing tree canopy closure, most of the initial effects had ceased, indicating an interaction between forest succession and warming. The only remaining effect of warming was on the abundance of bryophytes, which contrary to the initial phase was strongly favored by warming. We propose that the suggested moderating effects of the tree layer are specific to plant life-form and conclude that the successional phase of the forest may have a considerable impact on the effects of climate change on forest floor vegetation and its feedback effects on the carbon and nitrogen cycles, and thus on the climate. PMID:25750720

  16. Usability of multiangular imaging spectroscopy data for analysis of vegetation canopy shadow fraction in boreal forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markiet, Vincent; Perheentupa, Viljami; Mõttus, Matti; Hernández-Clemente, Rocío

    2016-04-01

    Imaging spectroscopy is a remote sensing technology which records continuous spectral data at a very high (better than 10 nm) resolution. Such spectral images can be used to monitor, for example, the photosynthetic activity of vegetation. Photosynthetic activity is dependent on varying light conditions and varies within the canopy. To measure this variation we need very high spatial resolution data with resolution better than the dominating canopy element size (e.g., tree crown in a forest canopy). This is useful, e.g., for detecting photosynthetic downregulation and thus plant stress. Canopy illumination conditions are often quantified using the shadow fraction: the fraction of visible foliage which is not sunlit. Shadow fraction is known to depend on view angle (e.g., hot spot images have very low shadow fraction). Hence, multiple observation angles potentially increase the range of shadow fraction in the imagery in high spatial resolution imaging spectroscopy data. To investigate the potential of multi-angle imaging spectroscopy in investigating canopy processes which vary with shadow fraction, we obtained a unique multiangular airborne imaging spectroscopy data for the Hyytiälä forest research station located in Finland (61° 50'N, 24° 17'E) in July 2015. The main tree species are Norway spruce (Picea abies L. karst), Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh., Betula pendula Roth). We used an airborne hyperspectral sensor AISA Eagle II (Specim - Spectral Imaging Ltd., Finland) mounted on a tilting platform. The tilting platform allowed us to measure at nadir and approximately 35 degrees off-nadir. The hyperspectral sensor has a 37.5 degrees field of view (FOV), 0.6m pixel size, 128 spectral bands with an average spectral bandwidth of 4.6nm and is sensitive in the 400-1000 nm spectral region. The airborne data was radiometrically, atmospherically and geometrically processed using the Parge and Atcor software (Re Se applications Schl

  17. Significant increase in ecosystem C can be achieved with sustainable forest management in subtropical plantation forests.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiaohua; Blanco, Juan A

    2014-01-01

    Subtropical planted forests are rapidly expanding. They are traditionally managed for intensive, short-term goals that often lead to long-term yield decline and reduced carbon sequestration capacity. Here we show how it is possible to increase and sustain carbon stored in subtropical forest plantations if management is switched towards more sustainable forestry. We first conducted a literature review to explore possible management factors that contribute to the potentials in ecosystem C in tropical and subtropical plantations. We found that broadleaves plantations have significantly higher ecosystem C than conifer plantations. In addition, ecosystem C increases with plantation age, and reaches a peak with intermediate stand densities of 1500-2500 trees ha⁻¹. We then used the FORECAST model to simulate the regional implications of switching from traditional to sustainable management regimes, using Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) plantations in subtropical China as a study case. We randomly simulated 200 traditional short-rotation pure stands and 200 sustainably-managed mixed Chinese fir--Phoebe bournei plantations, for 120 years. Our results showed that mixed, sustainably-managed plantations have on average 67.5% more ecosystem C than traditional pure conifer plantations. If all pure plantations were gradually transformed into mixed plantations during the next 10 years, carbon stocks could rise in 2050 by 260.22 TgC in east-central China. Assuming similar differences for temperate and boreal plantations, if sustainable forestry practices were applied to all new forest plantation types in China, stored carbon could increase by 1,482.80 TgC in 2050. Such an increase would be equivalent to a yearly sequestration rate of 40.08 TgC yr⁻¹, offsetting 1.9% of China's annual emissions in 2010. More importantly, this C increase can be sustained in the long term through the maintenance of higher amounts of soil organic carbon and the production of timber products

  18. Significant Increase in Ecosystem C Can Be Achieved with Sustainable Forest Management in Subtropical Plantation Forests

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xiaohua; Blanco, Juan A.

    2014-01-01

    Subtropical planted forests are rapidly expanding. They are traditionally managed for intensive, short-term goals that often lead to long-term yield decline and reduced carbon sequestration capacity. Here we show how it is possible to increase and sustain carbon stored in subtropical forest plantations if management is switched towards more sustainable forestry. We first conducted a literature review to explore possible management factors that contribute to the potentials in ecosystem C in tropical and subtropical plantations. We found that broadleaves plantations have significantly higher ecosystem C than conifer plantations. In addition, ecosystem C increases with plantation age, and reaches a peak with intermediate stand densities of 1500–2500 trees ha−1. We then used the FORECAST model to simulate the regional implications of switching from traditional to sustainable management regimes, using Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) plantations in subtropical China as a study case. We randomly simulated 200 traditional short-rotation pure stands and 200 sustainably-managed mixed Chinese fir – Phoebe bournei plantations, for 120 years. Our results showed that mixed, sustainably-managed plantations have on average 67.5% more ecosystem C than traditional pure conifer plantations. If all pure plantations were gradually transformed into mixed plantations during the next 10 years, carbon stocks could rise in 2050 by 260.22 TgC in east-central China. Assuming similar differences for temperate and boreal plantations, if sustainable forestry practices were applied to all new forest plantation types in China, stored carbon could increase by 1,482.80 TgC in 2050. Such an increase would be equivalent to a yearly sequestration rate of 40.08 TgC yr−1, offsetting 1.9% of China’s annual emissions in 2010. More importantly, this C increase can be sustained in the long term through the maintenance of higher amounts of soil organic carbon and the production of timber

  19. Magnitude and Carbon Consequences of Forest Management in North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masek, J.; Kurz, W.; de Jong, B. H.

    2009-12-01

    The carbon balance of forests depends on the type, frequency and severity of recent disturbances (carbon source) and the rate of recovery from past disturbance (carbon sink). Harvest and land cover conversion represent significant forest disturbance agents over much of North America. For example, pine forests in the southeastern US are typically harvested at ~20 year intervals, and may occupy about half the regional landscape, resulting in regional landscape turnover rates of 2-3% per year. Inventory data are the primary source for quantifying information on harvest and conversion in the U.S., Mexico, and Canada. Recent inventory data from these countries indicate timber production of 424 million cu m, 163 million cu m, and 7 million cu m, respectively, with significant year-to-year variability associated with wood products demand and timber price. Areas affected by harvest activity vary as well, with 3.97 Mha (million hectares) and 1.04 Mha affected by harvest in the US and Canada, respectively. Forest cover conversion (deforestation) is thought to be relatively minor in the US and Canada, but recent estimates suggest that forest and woodland cover in Mexico declined by 300-500 Kha/yr during the 1990’s. Recently, satellite remote sensing data products on forest change have been generated that complement the traditional inventory approach. These products are particularly useful for “wall-to-wall” estimates of forest conversion and tracking small disturbances. The type and severity of disturbance cannot be easily determined using satellite observations, however, and therefore some care must be taken to reconcile these products with ground-based data. In this talk we review available resources for characterizing “carbon relevant” information on the magnitude (area, type of activity) of forest management in North America, and attempt a first-order comparison between remote sensing and inventory estimates. We also discuss strategies that might be employed to

  20. Fire regime in a Mexican forest under indigenous resource management.

    PubMed

    Fulé, Peter Z; Ramos-Gómez, Mauro; Cortés-Montaño, Citlali; Miller, Andrew M

    2011-04-01

    The Rarámuri (Tarahumara) people live in the mountains and canyons of the Sierra Madre Occidental of Chihuahua, Mexico. They base their subsistence on multiple-use strategies of their natural resources, including agriculture, pastoralism, and harvesting of native plants and wildlife. Pino Gordo is a Rarámuri settlement in a remote location where the forest has not been commercially logged. We reconstructed the forest fire regime from fire-scarred trees, measured the structure of the never-logged forest, and interviewed community members about fire use. Fire occurrence was consistent throughout the 19th and 20th centuries up to our fire scar collection in 2004. This is the least interrupted surface-fire regime reported to date in North America. Studies from other relict sites such as nature reserves in Mexico or the USA have all shown some recent alterations associated with industrialized society. At Pino Gordo, fires recurred frequently at the three study sites, with a composite mean fire interval of 1.9 years (all fires) to 7.6 years (fires scarring 25% or more of samples). Per-sample fire intervals averaged 10-14 years at the three sites. Approximately two-thirds of fires burned in the season of cambial dormancy, probably during the pre-monsoonal drought. Forests were dominated by pines and contained many large living trees and snags, in contrast to two nearby similar forests that have been logged. Community residents reported using fire for many purposes, consistent with previous literature on fire use by indigenous people. Pino Gordo is a valuable example of a continuing frequent-fire regime in a never-harvested forest. The Rarámuri people have actively conserved this forest through their traditional livelihood and management techniques, as opposed to logging the forest, and have also facilitated the fire regime by burning. The data contribute to a better understanding of the interactions of humans who live in pine forests and the fire regimes of these

  1. Management of Philippine tropical forests: Implications to global warming

    SciTech Connect

    Lasco, R.D.

    1997-12-31

    The first part of the paper presents the massive changes in tropical land management in the Philippines as a result of a {open_quotes}paradigm shift{close_quotes} in forestry. The second part of the paper analyzes the impacts of the above management strategies on global warming, in general, preserved forests are neither sinks not sources of greenhouse gasses (GHG). Reforestation activities are primarily net sinks of carbon specially the use of fast growing reforestation species. Estimates are given for the carbon-sequestering ability of some commonly used species. The last part of the paper policy recommendations and possible courses of action by the government to maximize the role of forest lands in the mitigation of global warming. Private sector initiatives are also explored.

  2. Second annual advanced forest herbicides course: A summary and some food for thought. R&D technical note No. 53

    SciTech Connect

    Bowers, C.

    1994-12-31

    Excepts from notes and reference materials provided at the advanced forest herbicides course, covering due diligence and the use of an Environmental Management System for companies in Ontario; autecology; herbicide mode of action and toxicology, chemistry and degradation, and metabolism; silvicultural efficacy of forest herbicides; herbicides as components of integrated vegetation management; droplet dispersal; low impact forest vegetation management; off-target movement; buffer zones and constraints; vegetation management; modelling labs; quantifying exposure; risk assessment; and addressing stakeholders` concerns.

  3. Current status and problems in certification of sustainable forest management in China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jingzhu; Xie, Dongming; Wang, Danyin; Deng, Hongbing

    2011-12-01

    Forest certification is a mechanism involving the regulation of trade of forest products in order to protect forest resources and improve forest management. Although China had a late start in adopting this process, the country has made good progress in recent years. As of July 31, 2009, 17 forest management enterprises and more than one million hectares of forests in China have been certified by the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC). Several major factors affect forest certification in China. The first set is institutional in nature. Forest management in China is based on centralized national plans and therefore lacks flexibility. A second factor is public awareness. The importance and value of forest certification are not widely understood and thus consumers do not make informed choices regarding certified forest products. The third major factor is the cost of certification. Together these factors have constrained the development of China's forest certification efforts. However, the process does have great potential. According to preliminary calculations, if 50% of China's commercial forests were certified, the economic cost of forest certification would range from US$0.66-86.63 million while the economic benefits for the forestry business sector could exceed US$150 million. With continuing progress in forest management practices and the development of international trade in forest products, it becomes important to improve the forest certification process in China. This can be achieved by improving the forest management system, constructing and perfecting market access mechanisms for certificated forest products, and increasing public awareness of environmental protection, forest certification, and their interrelationship.

  4. Current Status and Problems in Certification of Sustainable Forest Management in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jingzhu; Xie, Dongming; Wang, Danyin; Deng, Hongbing

    2011-12-01

    Forest certification is a mechanism involving the regulation of trade of forest products in order to protect forest resources and improve forest management. Although China had a late start in adopting this process, the country has made good progress in recent years. As of July 31, 2009, 17 forest management enterprises and more than one million hectares of forests in China have been certified by the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC). Several major factors affect forest certification in China. The first set is institutional in nature. Forest management in China is based on centralized national plans and therefore lacks flexibility. A second factor is public awareness. The importance and value of forest certification are not widely understood and thus consumers do not make informed choices regarding certified forest products. The third major factor is the cost of certification. Together these factors have constrained the development of China's forest certification efforts. However, the process does have great potential. According to preliminary calculations, if 50% of China's commercial forests were certified, the economic cost of forest certification would range from US0.66-86.63 million while the economic benefits for the forestry business sector could exceed US150 million. With continuing progress in forest management practices and the development of international trade in forest products, it becomes important to improve the forest certification process in China. This can be achieved by improving the forest management system, constructing and perfecting market access mechanisms for certificated forest products, and increasing public awareness of environmental protection, forest certification, and their interrelationship.

  5. Sub-canopy evapotranspiration from floating vegetation and open water in a swamp forest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Among previous studies, there are large discrepancies in the difference between evapotranspiration from wetland vegetation and evaporation from open water. In this study, we investigate evapotranspiration differences between water and vegetation in a scenario that has otherwise not been extensively ...

  6. Vegetation Structure and 3-D Reconstruction of Forests Using Ground-Based Echidna® Lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strahler, A. H.; Yao, T.; Zhao, F.; Yang, X.

    2009-12-01

    A ground-based, scanning, near-infrared lidar, the Echidna® validation instrument (EVI), built by CSIRO Australia, retrieves structural parameters of forest stands rapidly and accurately, and by merging multiple scans into a single point cloud provides 3-D stand reconstructions. Echidna lidar technology scans with pulses of light at 1064 nm wavelength and digitizes the light returns sufficiently finely to recover and distinguish the differing shapes of return pulses as they are scattered by leaves and trunks or larger branches. Instrument deployments in the New England region in 2007 and 2009 and in the southern Sierra Nevada of California in 2008 provided the opportunity to test the ability of the instrument to retrieve tree diameters, stem count density (stems/ha), basal area, and above-ground woody biomass from single scans at points beneath the forest canopy. In New England in 2007, mean parameters retrieved from five scans located within six 1-ha stand sites match manually-measured parameters with values of R2 = 0.94-0.99. Processing the scans to retrieve leaf area index (LAI) provided values within the range of those retrieved with other optical instruments and hemispherical photography. Foliage profiles, which measure leaf area with canopy height, showed distinctly different shapes for the stands, depending on species composition and age structure. Stand heights, obtained from foliage profiles, were not significantly different from RH100 values observed by the Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor in 2003. Data from the California 2008 and New England 2009 deployments were still being processed at the time of abstract submission. With further hardware and software development, Echidna® technology will provide rapid and accurate measurements of forest canopy structure that can replace manual field measurements, leading to more rapid and more accurate calibration and validation of structure mapping techniques using airborne and spaceborne remote sensors. Three

  7. 77 FR 62214 - Travel Management Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS), Eldorado National Forest...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-12

    ... amended the ENF LRMP. The Court pointed out that the error in the agency's Travel Management Decision was... Forest Service Travel Management Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS), Eldorado National Forest, El Dorado County, CA AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of intent to prepare...

  8. Supplement Analysis for the Transmission System Vegetation Management Program FEIS (DOE/EIS-0285/SA-64)

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchinson, Ken

    2002-04-26

    Vegetation Management for Substations and Non-Electric Facilities in the Walla Walla Region. BPA proposes to manage vegetation inside and around electrical substations and associated facilities. Vegetation management within the substation shall include the bare ground management of all graveled areas. These areas shall primarily be maintained with the use of herbicides. The management of vegetation outside the substation and associated facilities shall include: 1) bare ground management of perimeter roads and parking areas; 2) mechanical and/or spot herbicidal control of some broadleaves and noxious weeds; 3) mowing, fertilizing, and broadleaf control of landscaped lawn areas; 4) weed control in ornamental shrub areas; and 4) areas requiring only mechanical control to manage unwanted/danger trees, grasses, and shrubs.

  9. ForWarn: A Cross-Cutting Forest Resource Management and Decision Support System Providing the Capacity to Identify and Track Forest Disturbances Nationally

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hargrove, W. W.; Spruce, J.; Norman, S.; Christie, W.; Hoffman, F. M.

    2012-12-01

    The Eastern Forest Environmental Threat Assessment Center and Western Wildland Environmental Assessment Center of the USDA Forest Service have collaborated with NASA Stennis Space Center to develop ForWarn, a forest monitoring tool that uses MODIS satellite imagery to produce weekly snapshots of vegetation conditions across the lower 48 United States. Forest and natural resource managers can use ForWarn to rapidly detect, identify, and respond to unexpected changes in the nation's forests caused by insects, diseases, wildfires, severe weather, or other natural or human-caused events. ForWarn detects most types of forest disturbances, including insects, disease, wildfires, frost and ice damage, tornadoes, hurricanes, blowdowns, harvest, urbanization, and landslides. It also detects drought, flood, and temperature effects, and shows early and delayed seasonal vegetation development. Operating continuously since January 2010, results show ForWarn to be a robust and highly capable tool for detecting changes in forest conditions. ForWarn is the first national-scale system of its kind based on remote sensing developed specifically for forest disturbances. It has operated as a prototype since January 2010 and has provided useful information about the location and extent of disturbances detected during the 2011 growing season, including tornadoes, wildfires, and extreme drought. The ForWarn system had an official unveiling and rollout in March 2012, initiated by a joint NASA and USDA press release. The ForWarn home page has had 2,632 unique visitors since rollout in March 2012, with 39% returning visits. ForWarn was used to map tornado scars from the historic April 27, 2011 tornado outbreak, and detected timber damage within more than a dozen tornado tracks across northern Mississippi, Alabama, and Georgia. ForWarn is the result of an ongoing, substantive cooperation among four different government agencies: USDA, NASA, USGS, and DOE. Disturbance maps are available on the

  10. Simulating the effects of forest managements on carbon sequestration: TREPLEX- Management model development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, W.; Peng, C.; Lei, X.; Zhang, T.; Kneeshaw, D.; Larocque, G.

    2009-05-01

    With common concern surrounding the impact of increased atmospheric CO2 on global climate change, the role of forest management (i.e. thinning) on carbon sequestration is growing as a hotspot in the post Kyoto period. However, the combination strategies between forest management and carbon management are less established. Jack pine is one of the most important commercial and reforestation species in lake states of the United States and Canada, and the specie was reported to show stronger response to forest management like thinning. Obviously, there is an urgent need for understanding how harvesting intensity (i.e., thinning) affects C sequestration in jack pine stands. The aim of this study is to quantify and predict the biomass and carbon sequestration in thinned jack pine stands in eastern Canada. TRIPLEX is a generic hybrid model for predicting forest growth and carbon and nitrogen dynamics. The TRIPLEX-Management concept model was developed. The following carbon components were considered: above ground live biomass carbon, standing dead biomass carbon, harvested wood product carbon and soil organic carbon. Thinning was linked with LAI (Leaf Area Index), stand density and soil conditions and included in NPP and biomass production and allocation models. The model was also integrated with DBH distribution models, biomass allometric models, and wood products C models as well as the established height-diameter models. It is expected to optimize thinning regimes for carbon and forest management in order to mitigate climate change impacts.

  11. The impact of vegetation on REE fractionation in stream waters of a small forested catchment (the Strengbach case)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stille, P.; Steinmann, M.; Pierret, M.-C.; Gauthier-Lafaye, F.; Chabaux, F.; Viville, D.; Pourcelot, L.; Matera, V.; Aouad, G.; Aubert, D.

    2006-07-01

    Previous studies on waters of a streamlet in the Vosges Mountains (Eastern France) have shown that strontium and rare earth elements (REE) mainly originate from preferential dissolution of apatite during weathering. However, stream water REE patterns normalized to apatite are still depleted in the light REE (LREE, La-Sm) pointing to the presence of an additional LREE depleting process. Vegetation samples are strongly enriched in LREE compared to stream water and their Sr and Nd isotopic compositions are comparable with those of apatite and stream water. Thus, the preferential LREE uptake by vegetation might lead to an additional LREE depletion of surface runoff in the forested catchment. Mass balance calculations indicate, that the yearly LREE uptake by vegetation is comparable with the LREE export by the streamlet and, therefore, might be an important factor controlling LREE depletion in river water. This is underlined by the observation that rivers from arctic and boreal regions with sparse vegetation appear to be less depleted in LREE than rivers from tropical environments or boreal environments with a dense vegetation cover.

  12. Ecological Knowledge Among Communities, Managers and Scientists: Bridging Divergent Perspectives to Improve Forest Management Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Rist, Lucy; Shackleton, Charlie; Gadamus, Lily; Chapin, F Stuart; Gowda, C Made; Setty, Siddappa; Kannan, Ramesh; Shaanker, R Uma

    2016-04-01

    Multiple actors are typically involved in forest management, namely communities, managers and researchers. In such cases, suboptimal management outcomes may, in addition to other factors, be symptomatic of a divergence in perspectives among these actors driven by fundamental differences in ecological knowledge. We examine the degree of congruence between the understandings of actors surrounding key issues of management concern in three case studies from tropical, subtropical and boreal forests. We identify commonly encountered points of divergence in ecological knowledge relating to key management processes and issues. We use these to formulate seven hypotheses about differences in the bodies of knowledge that frequently underlie communication and learning failures in forest management contexts where multiple actors are involved and outcomes are judged to be suboptimal. Finally, we present a set of propositions to acknowledge and narrow these differences. A more complete recognition of the full triangulation between all actors involved, and of the influence that fundamental differences in ecological knowledge can exert, may help lead to a more fruitful integration between local knowledge and practice, manager knowledge and practice, and contemporary science in forest management. PMID:26661453

  13. Ecological Knowledge Among Communities, Managers and Scientists: Bridging Divergent Perspectives to Improve Forest Management Outcomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rist, Lucy; Shackleton, Charlie; Gadamus, Lily; Chapin, F. Stuart; Gowda, C. Made; Setty, Siddappa; Kannan, Ramesh; Shaanker, R. Uma

    2016-04-01

    Multiple actors are typically involved in forest management, namely communities, managers and researchers. In such cases, suboptimal management outcomes may, in addition to other factors, be symptomatic of a divergence in perspectives among these actors driven by fundamental differences in ecological knowledge. We examine the degree of congruence between the understandings of actors surrounding key issues of management concern in three case studies from tropical, subtropical and boreal forests. We identify commonly encountered points of divergence in ecological knowledge relating to key management processes and issues. We use these to formulate seven hypotheses about differences in the bodies of knowledge that frequently underlie communication and learning failures in forest management contexts where multiple actors are involved and outcomes are judged to be suboptimal. Finally, we present a set of propositions to acknowledge and narrow these differences. A more complete recognition of the full triangulation between all actors involved, and of the influence that fundamental differences in ecological knowledge can exert, may help lead to a more fruitful integration between local knowledge and practice, manager knowledge and practice, and contemporary science in forest management.

  14. Applications of turbidity monitoring to forest management in California.

    PubMed

    Harris, Richard R; Sullivan, Kathleen; Cafferata, Peter H; Munn, John R; Faucher, Kevin M

    2007-09-01

    Many California streams have been adversely affected by sedimentation caused by historic and current land uses, including timber harvesting. The impacts of timber harvesting and logging transportation systems on erosion and sediment delivery can be directly measured, modeled, or inferred from water quality measurements. California regulatory agencies, researchers, and land owners have adopted turbidity monitoring to determine effects of forest management practices on suspended sediment loads and water quality at watershed, project, and site scales. Watershed-scale trends in sediment discharge and responses to current forest practices may be estimated from data collected at automated sampling stations that measure turbidity, stream flow, suspended sediment concentrations, and other water quality parameters. Future results from these studies will provide a basis for assessing the effectiveness of modern forest practice regulations in protecting water quality. At the project scale, manual sampling of water column turbidity during high stream flow events within and downstream from active timber harvest plans can identify emerging sediment sources. Remedial actions can then be taken by managers to prevent or mitigate water quality impacts. At the site scale, manual turbidity sampling during storms or high stream flow events at sites located upstream and downstream from new, upgraded, or decommissioned stream crossings has proven to be a valuable way to determine whether measures taken to prevent post-construction erosion and sediment production are effective. Turbidity monitoring at the project and site scales is therefore an important tool for adaptive management. Uncertainty regarding the effects of current forest practices must be resolved through watershed-scale experiments. In the short term, this uncertainty will stimulate increased use of project and site-scale monitoring. PMID:17562100

  15. Structure of a forested urban park: implications for strategic management.

    PubMed

    Millward, Andrew A; Sabir, Senna

    2010-11-01

    Informed management of urban parks can provide optimal conditions for tree establishment and growth and thus maximize the ecological and aesthetic benefits that trees provide. This study assesses the structure, and its implications for function, of the urban forest in Allan Gardens, a 6.1 ha downtown park in the City of Toronto, Canada, using the Street Tree Resource Analysis Tool for Urban Forest Managers (STRATUM). Our goal is to present a framework for collection and analysis of baseline data that can inform a management strategy that would serve to protect and enhance this significant natural asset. We found that Allan Garden's tree population, while species rich (43), is dominated by maple (Acer spp.) (48% of all park trees), making it reliant on very few species for the majority of its ecological and aesthetic benefits and raising disease and pest-related concerns. Age profiles (using size as a proxy) showed a dominance of older trees with an inadequate number of individuals in the young to early middle age cohort necessary for short- to medium-term replacement. Because leaf area represents the single-most important contributor to urban tree benefits modelling, we calculated it separately for every park tree, using hemispheric photography, to document current canopy condition. These empirical measurements were lower than estimates produced by STRATUM, especially when trees were in decline and lacked full canopies, highlighting the importance of individual tree condition in determining leaf area and hence overall forest benefits. Stewardship of natural spaces within cities demands access to accurate and timely resource-specific data. Our work provides an uncomplicated approach to the acquisition and interpretation of these data in the context of a forested urban park.

  16. Sustained yield forestry in Sweden and Russia: how does it correspond to sustainable forest management policy?

    PubMed

    Elbakidze, Marine; Andersson, Kjell; Angelstam, Per; Armstrong, Glen W; Axelsson, Robert; Doyon, Frederik; Hermansson, Martin; Jacobsson, Jonas; Pautov, Yurij

    2013-03-01

    This paper analyzes how sustained yield (SY) forestry is defined and implemented in Sweden and Russia, two countries with different forest-industrial regimes. We first compare definitions of SY forestry in national legislation and policies. Then we study forest management planning in two large forest management units with respect to: delivered forest products and values, how the harvest level of timber is defined, where the harvest takes place, and what treatments are used to sustain desired forest products and values. In Sweden SY forestry is maximum yield based on high-input forest management, and in Russia it is forestry based on natural regeneration with minimum investments in silviculture. We conclude that how SY forestry contributes to SFM depends on the context. Finally, we discuss the consequences of SY forestry as performed in Sweden and Russia related to its ability to support diverse forest functions, as envisioned in sustainable forest