Science.gov

Sample records for forest vegetation management

  1. Synthesis: Ecological Impacts of Forest Vegetation Management

    Treesearch

    Jerry L. Michael; M. Hermy

    2002-01-01

    Ecological impacts of forest vegetation management are highly complex with many interactions. Interactions are bounded on the one hand by hierarchical levels from genes to species to ecosystems and on the other hand by the tools used and the intensity of management applied to each level of possible interactions. Some impacts are easy to measure, but impacts become more...

  2. Forest Vegetation Simulator translocation techniques with the Bureau of Land Management's Forest Vegetation Information system database

    Treesearch

    Timothy A. Bottomley

    2008-01-01

    The BLM uses a database, called the Forest Vegetation Information System (FORVIS), to store, retrieve, and analyze forest resource information on a majority of their forested lands. FORVIS also has the capability of easily transferring appropriate data electronically into Forest Vegetation Simulator (FVS) for simulation runs. Only minor additional data inputs or...

  3. Forest Vegetation Management: Developments in the Science and Practice

    Treesearch

    James H. Miller

    2006-01-01

    The practices of forest vegetation management (FVM) have been widely adopted and continue to undergo country-specific modifications through extensive research. Beginnings of this component discipline of silviculture were in weed science in the 1960s and focused primarily on translating developing herbicide technology underway in agriculture to forestry uses. It was an...

  4. Forest vegetation management and protection of stream quality

    Treesearch

    Jerry L. Michael

    2002-01-01

    Globally, forest management activities significantly alter portions of the forest ecosystem on a temporal scale at the local level. Along with this alteration in the landscape comes changes in wildlife habitat and potentially the associated aquatic ecosystem. Most timber producing countries in the world have instituted forest regulations in an effort to respond to...

  5. 78 FR 20883 - Tonto National Forest; Arizona; Salt River Allotments Vegetative Management EIS

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-08

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Tonto National Forest; Arizona; Salt River Allotments Vegetative... that it is extending the public comment period for the Salt River Allotments Vegetative Management... Availability of the Draft EIS (78 FR 12310) for more detailed information related to the Salt River...

  6. 75 FR 49456 - Chequamegon-Nicolet National Forest; Wisconsin, Phelps Vegetation and Transportation Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-13

    ... Management Project AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of intent to prepare an environmental impact... Phelps Vegetation and Transportation Management Project area is approximately 53,055 acres in size; about... of all Under Analysis,'' then select Phelps Vegetation and Transportation Management Project.'' It...

  7. 75 FR 54085 - Divide Ranger District, Rio Grande National Forest; Colorado; Big Moose Vegetation Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-03

    ... [Federal Register Volume 75, Number 171 (Friday, September 3, 2010)] [Notices] [Page 54085] [FR Doc No: 2010-22037] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Divide Ranger District, Rio Grande National Forest; Colorado; Big Moose Vegetation Management Project AGENCY: Forest Service, Rio...

  8. A climate sensitive model of carbon transfer through atmosphere, vegetation and soil in managed forest ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loustau, D.; Moreaux, V.; Bosc, A.; Trichet, P.; Kumari, J.; Rabemanantsoa, T.; Balesdent, J.; Jolivet, C.; Medlyn, B. E.; Cavaignac, S.; Nguyen-The, N.

    2012-12-01

    For predicting the future of the forest carbon cycle in forest ecosystems, it is necessary to account for both the climate and management impacts. Climate effects are significant not only at a short time scale but also at the temporal horizon of a forest life cycle e.g. through shift in atmospheric CO2 concentration, temperature and precipitation regimes induced by the enhanced greenhouse effect. Intensification of forest management concerns an increasing fraction of temperate and tropical forests and untouched forests represents only one third of the present forest area. Predicting tools are therefore needed to project climate and management impacts over the forest life cycle and understand the consequence of management on the forest ecosystem carbon cycle. This communication summarizes the structure, main components and properties of a carbon transfer model that describes the processes controlling the carbon cycle of managed forest ecosystems. The model, GO+, links three main components, (i) a module describing the vegetation-atmosphere mass and energy exchanges in 3D, (ii) a plant growth module and a (iii) soil carbon dynamics module in a consistent carbon scheme of transfer from atmosphere back into the atmosphere. It was calibrated and evaluated using observed data collected on coniferous and broadleaved forest stands. The model predicts the soil, water and energy balance of entire rotations of managed stands from the plantation to the final cut and according to a range of management alternatives. It accounts for the main soil and vegetation management operations such as soil preparation, understorey removal, thinnings and clearcutting. Including the available knowledge on the climatic sensitivity of biophysical and biogeochemical processes involved in atmospheric exchanges and carbon cycle of forest ecosystems, GO+ can produce long-term backward or forward simulations of forest carbon and water cycles under a range of climate and management scenarios. This

  9. Integrating Vegetation Classification, Mapping, and Strategic Inventory for Forest Management

    Treesearch

    C. K. Brewer; R. Bush; D. Berglund; J. A. Barber; S. R. Brown

    2006-01-01

    Many of the analyses needed to address multiple resource issues are focused on vegetation pattern and process relationships and most rely on the data models produced from vegetation classification, mapping, and/or inventory. The Northern Region Vegetation Mapping Project (R1-VMP) data models are based on these three integrally related, yet separate processes. This...

  10. Application of the Forest Vegetation Simulator in evaluating management for old-growth characteristics in southwestern mixed conifer forests

    Treesearch

    Claudia M. Regan; Wayne D. Shepperd; Robert A. Obedzinski

    1995-01-01

    We used the Forest Vegetation Simulator (FVS) and GRAFM graphics display to investigate conditions associated with the stability of an old-growth stand and to evaluate the potential for two managed stands of contrasting but representative conditions to develop structures similar to the old-growth stand. Simulations indicate that the example old-growth stand can retain...

  11. Effects of ungulate management on vegetation at Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge, Hawai'i Island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hess, S.C.; Jeffrey, J.J.; Pratt, L.W.; Ball, D.L.

    2010-01-01

    We compiled and analysed data from 1987-2004 on vegetation monitoring during feral ungulate management at Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge, a tropical montane rainforest on the island of Hawai'i All areas in the study had previously been used by ungulates, but cattle (Bos taurus) were removed and feral pig (Sus scrofa) populations were reduced during the study period. We monitored six line-intercept transects, three in previously high ungulate use areas and three in previously low ungulate use areas. We measured nine cover categories with the line-intercept method: native ferns; native woody plants; bryophytes; lichens; alien grasses; alien herbs; litter; exposed soil; and coarse woody debris. Vegetation surveys were repeated four times over a 16-year period. Vegetation monitoring revealed a strong increase in native fern cover and slight decreases in cover of bryophytes and exposed soil. Mean cover of native plants was generally higher in locations that were formerly lightly grazed, while alien grass and herb cover was generally higher in areas that were heavily grazed, although these effects were not statistically significant. These responses may represent early serai processes in forest regeneration following the reduction of feral ungulate populations. In contrast to many other Hawaiian forests which have become invaded by alien grasses and herbs after ungulate removal, HFNWR has not experienced this effect.

  12. Modelling in forest management

    Treesearch

    Mark J. Twery

    2004-01-01

    Forest management has traditionally been considered management of trees for timber. It really includes vegetation management and land management and people management as multiple objectives. As such, forest management is intimately linked with other topics in this volume, most especially those chapters on ecological modelling and human dimensions. The key to...

  13. Vegetation composition, dynamics, and management of a bracken-grassland and northern-dry forest ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Scott E; Haney, Alan

    2003-06-01

    We investigated differences in vegetation composition and dynamics for two globally rare ecosystems, bracken-grasslands and northern-dry forests of northern Wisconsin. These ecosystems commonly have been viewed as degraded pine barrens. Bracken-grasslands contained a high dominance of exotic species, low native richness, and no obvious prairie species, suggesting logging-era anthropogenic origins. Differences in cover for common plants among ecosystems were examined using Mann-Whitney U tests of equivalence. Cover of all 8 graminoid species, 4 of 5 Ericaceae and Myricaceae species, and 10 of 17 species of forbs were significantly different between ecosystems. Vegetation changes over a 4-year period were examined through detrended correspondence analysis (DCA) and analysis of variance (ANOVA) repeated measures. DCA analyses of community composition failed to detect significant temporal trends within individual management units, although differences were apparent between ecosystems, regardless of sample year. In addition, no apparent patterns could be detected between years when comparing dominant individual species to management history (prescribed fire). This is contrary to what would be expected for a degraded pine barrens and questions the efficacy of using repeated prescribed fire as a management tool in bracken-grasslands. Methods for conservation and restoration of xeric ecosystems of northern Wisconsin have historically relied heavily on single species (e.g., sharp-tailed grouse) wildlife models, without full consideration of other factors. We suggest that stakeholders involved in these restoration projects examine historic processes and reference conditions prior to formulating management goals. Greater attention to the differentiation and individual management needs of pine barrens, northern-dry forests, and bracken-grasslands is needed.

  14. Forest Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weicherding, Patrick J.; And Others

    This bulletin deals with forest management and provides an overview of forestry for the non-professional. The bulletin is divided into six sections: (1) What Is Forestry Management?; (2) How Is the Forest Measured?; (3) What Is Forest Protection?; (4) How Is the Forest Harvested?; (5) What Is Forest Regeneration?; and (6) What Is Forest…

  15. Manual herbicide application methods for managing vegetation in Appalachian hardwood forests

    Treesearch

    Jeffrey D. Kochenderfer; James N. Kochenderfer; Gary W. Miller

    2012-01-01

    Four manual herbicide application methods are described for use in Appalachian hardwood forests. Stem injection, basal spray, cut-stump, and foliar spray techniques can be used to control interfering vegetation and promote the development of desirable reproduction and valuable crop trees in hardwood forests. Guidelines are presented to help the user select the...

  16. Historical vegetation change in Oakland and its implications for urban forest management

    Treesearch

    David J. Nowak

    1993-01-01

    The history of Oakland, California's urban forest was researched to determine events that could influence future urban forests. Vegetation in Oakland has changed drastically from a preurbanized area with approximately 2% tree cover to a present tree cover of 19%. Species composition of trees was previously dominated by coast live oak (Quercus agrifolia...

  17. Forest Management

    Treesearch

    S. Hummel; K. L. O' Hara

    2008-01-01

    Global variation in forests and in human cultures means that a single method for managing forests is not possible. However, forest management everywhere shares some common principles because it is rooted in physical and biological sciences like chemistry and genetics. Ecological forest management is an approach that combines an understanding of universal processes with...

  18. Mapping vegetation and fuels for fire management on the Gila National Forest Complex, New Mexico

    Treesearch

    Robert E. Keane; Scott A. Mincemoyer; Kirsten M. Schmidt; Donald G. Long; Janice L. Garner

    2000-01-01

    (Please note: This PDF is part of a CD-ROM package only and was not printed on paper.) Fuels and vegetation spatial data layers required by the spatially explicit fire growth model FARSITE were developed for all lands in and around the Gila National Forest in New Mexico. Satellite imagery, terrain modeling, and biophysical simulation were used to create the three...

  19. Using forest vegetation simulator to aid communications between natural resource managers and stakeholders

    Treesearch

    Randall P. Rawls; Edward F. Loewenstein

    2006-01-01

    Due to differences in perspective, natural resource managers and members of the general public often find it difficult to communicate with each other concerning alternative management scenarios. Natural resource managers often consider and describe the forest in numeric terms such as number of trees, basal area, and volume per acre. Members of the general public are...

  20. Effects of forest management on understory and overstory vegetation: a retrospective study.

    Treesearch

    David R. Thysell; Andrew B. Carey

    2000-01-01

    Management for wood production through long rotations and thinning (MT) and management for biodiversity through legacy retention, protection, and no subsequent manipulation (ML) are two approaches to managing second-growth forests in the Pacific Northwest. We describe how these two strategies have affected tree size, tree density, and native and exotic vascular plant...

  1. 75 FR 9388 - Prescott National Forest, Bradshaw Ranger District; Arizona; Bradshaw Vegetation Management Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-02

    ... Management Project AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of intent to prepare an environmental impact statement. SUMMARY: This project is a proposal to improve the health of fire adapted ecosystems while simultaneously reducing hazardous fuels on the Bradshaw Ranger District. The project area encompasses about...

  2. Understanding the effects of fire management practices on forest health: implications for weeds and vegetation structure

    Treesearch

    Anne E. Black; Peter Landres

    2012-01-01

    Current fire policy to restore ecosystem function and resiliency and reduce buildup of hazardous fuels implies a larger future role for fire (both natural and human ignitions) (USDA Forest Service and U.S. Department of the Interior 2000). Yet some fire management (such as building fire line, spike camps, or helispots) potentially causes both short- and longterm...

  3. River management impacts on riparian forest vegetation along the Middle Rio Grande: 1935-2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrakis, Roy E.

    Riparian ecosystems of the southwestern United States are highly valuable to both the ecological and human communities which surround them. Over the past century, they have been subject to shifting management practices to maximize human use, control, ecosystem service, and conservation. This creates a complex relationship between water policy, management, and the natural ecosystem necessitating research on spatial and temporal dynamics of riparian vegetation. The San Acacia Reach of the Middle Rio Grande, a 60 mile stretch from the San Acacia Diversion Dam to San Marcial, has experienced multiple management and river flow fluctuations over the past 80 years, resulting in threats to riparian and aquatic ecosystems. This research was completed through the use and analysis of multi-source remote sensing data, GIS, and a review of the on-the-ground management decisions to better understand how the location and composition of the riparian vegetation has been affected by these shifting practices. This research focused on four phases, each highlighting different management practices and river flow patterns during the last 80-years. Each of these periods provides a unique opportunity to observe a direct relationship between river management and riparian land cover response and change. Overall, management practices reduced surface river flows and limited overbank flooding and resulted in changes in the composition, density, and spatial patterns of the vegetation, including increased non-native vegetation growth. Restoration efforts over the past few decades have begun to reduce the presence of non-native species. Despite these changes, this ecosystem was shown to be extremely resilient in maintaining its function/service throughout the entire study time frame.

  4. The role of forest fire severity on vegetation recovery after 18 years. Implications for forest management of Quercus suber L. in Iberian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francos, Marcos; Úbeda, Xavier; Tort, Joan; Panareda, Josep María; Cerdà, Artemio

    2016-10-01

    Wildfires are a widespread phenomenon in Mediterranean environments. Wildfires result in different fire severities, and then in contrasting plant cover and floristic composition. This paper analyses the recovery of the vegetation eighteen years after a wildfire in Catalonia. The Pinus pinaster ssp. forest was affected by three different severities in July 1994, and studied the spring of 1995 and again in 2008. After eighteen years (2012), our research found that burnt sites constitute a dense forest with a broad variety of species, including many young pines, shrubs and herbaceous plants, but that the risk of fire remains very high, due to the large quantity of fuel and the flammability of the species. The management of the post-fire is critical when high severity fires take places, and it is recommended that high-severity fires must be avoided for a sustainable forest management. We recommend that once the timber (Pinus plantations) production is not profitable, Quercus suber L. and Pinus pinaster ssp. forest should be promoted, and pine plantations avoided.

  5. Designing forest vegetation management strategies based on the mechanisms and dynamics of crop tree competition by neighbouring vegetation

    Treesearch

    P. Balandier; C. Collet; James H. Miller; P.E. Reynolds; S.M. Zedaker

    2006-01-01

    Plant interactions can be defined as the ways plants act upon the growth, fitness, survival and reproduction of other plants, largely by modifying their environment. These interactions can be positive (facilitation) or negative (competition or exploitation). During plantation establishment or natural forest regeneration after a disturbance, high light levels and,...

  6. 76 FR 22075 - Divide Ranger District, Rio Grande National Forest; CO; Black Mesa Vegetation Management Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-20

    ... private lands; cut potential hazard trees along private property, roads, and other infrastructure; and... achieving long-term desired conditions described in the Forest Plan for this area following extensive tree...) Harvesting dead and dying trees to provide wood products, while reducing the continuous extent of large...

  7. Vegetative conditions and management options in even-age stands on the Monongahela National Forest

    Treesearch

    Gary W. Miller; James N. Kochenderfer; James Knibbs; John E. Baumgras

    2001-01-01

    In 1998, personnel with the Northeastern Research Station and the Monongahela National Forest initiated a comprehensive survey of even-age stands that regenerated between 1964 and 1990. Preliminary results indicate that clearcutting was successful in regenerating these young stands with a variety of woody and herbaceous plant species. Early cleanings using crop-tree...

  8. 75 FR 63434 - Kootenai National Forest, Lincoln County, Montana; Grizzly Vegetation and Transportation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ... Management Project AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ] ACTION: Notice of intent to prepare a supplemental... Impact Statement (SEIS) for the Grizzly Vegetation and Transportation Management Project (Grizzly Project). The Grizzly Project includes vegetation management, fuels reduction, watershed...

  9. Prescribed grazing for management of invasive vegetation in a hardwood forest understory

    Treesearch

    Ronald A. Rathfon; Songlin Fei; Jason Tower; Kenneth Andries; Michael. Neary

    2014-01-01

    Land managers considering prescribed grazing (PG) face a lack of information on animal stocking rates, timing of grazing, and duration of grazing to achieve desired conditions in natural ecosystems under invasion stress from a variety of nonnative invasive plant (NNIP) species. In this study we tested PG treatments using goats for reducing NNIP brush species and...

  10. A Forest Vegetation Database for Western Oregon

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-06-01

    Panel 2C, a second, subsetted measurement in the CVS cycle, was used for Forest Service data except in Siuslaw National Forest where Panel 1 was used...The reason for using Panel 1 data in Siuslaw National Forest was that the full set of plots was sampled on Panel 1, yielding a higher number of...Station’s website (see above) on Current Vegetation Survey data. USDA data included nine National Forest areas (Deschutes, Fremont, Mt. Hood, Rogue

  11. Managing Sierra Nevada forests

    Treesearch

    Malcolm North

    2012-01-01

    There has been widespread interest in applying new forest practices based on concepts presented in U.S. Forest Service General Technical Report PSW-GTR-220, "An Ecosystem Management Strategy for Sierran Mixed-Conifer Forests." This collection of papers (PSW-GTR-237) summarizes the state of the science in some topics relevant to this forest management approach...

  12. Simulation of wetlands forest vegetation dynamics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phipps, R.L.

    1979-01-01

    A computer program, SWAMP, was designed to simulate the effects of flood frequency and depth to water table on southern wetlands forest vegetation dynamics. By incorporating these hydrologic characteristics into the model, forest vegetation and vegetation dynamics can be simulated. The model, based on data from the White River National Wildlife Refuge near De Witt, Arkansas, "grows" individual trees on a 20 x 20-m plot taking into account effects on the tree growth of flooding, depth to water table, shade tolerance, overtopping and crowding, and probability of death and reproduction. A potential application of the model is illustrated with simulations of tree fruit production following flood-control implementation and lumbering. ?? 1979.

  13. Forest vegetation simulation tools and forest health assessment

    Treesearch

    Richard M. Teck; Melody Steele

    1995-01-01

    A Stand Hazard Rating System for Central ldaho forests has been incorporated into the Central ldaho Prognosis variant of the Forest Vegetation Simulator to evaluate how insects, disease and fire hazards within the Deadwood River Drainage change over time. A custom interface, BOISE.COMPUTE.PR, has been developed so hazard ratings can be electronically downloaded...

  14. The Fire and Fuels Extension to the Forest Vegetation Simulator

    Treesearch

    Elizabeth Reinhardt; Nicholas L. Crookston

    2003-01-01

    The Fire and Fuels Extension (FFE) to the Forest Vegetation Simulator (FVS) simulates fuel dynamics and potential fire behaviour over time, in the context of stand development and management. Existing models of fire behavior and fire effects were added to FVS to form this extension. New submodels representing snag and fuel dynamics were created to complete the linkages...

  15. Managing forests after fires

    Treesearch

    Rhonda. Mazza

    2007-01-01

    Fire is a part of the forest ecosystem, and its effects have been well documented in the scientific literature. But controversy remains about the effects of management options in a burned forest, and the scientific basis for decisionmaking about postfire management is uncertain and has not been effectively articulated. Management concerns after a fire...

  16. Forecasting landscape-scale, cumulative effects of forest management on vegetation and wildlife habitat: a case study of issues, limitations, and opportunities

    Treesearch

    Stephen R. Shifley; Frank R. Thompson; William D. Dijak; Zhaofei F. Fan

    2008-01-01

    Forest landscape disturbance and succession models have become practical tools for large-scale, long-term analyses of the cumulative effects of forest management on real landscapes. They can provide essential information in a spatial context to address management and policy issues related to forest planning, wildlife habitat quality, timber harvesting, fire effects,...

  17. A Forest Vegetation Database for Western Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Busing, Richard T.

    2004-01-01

    Data on forest vegetation in western Oregon were assembled for 2323 ecological survey plots. All data were from fixed-radius plots with the standardized design of the Current Vegetation Survey (CVS) initiated in the early 1990s. For each site, the database includes: 1) live tree density and basal area of common tree species, 2) total live tree density, basal area, estimated biomass, and estimated leaf area; 3) age of the oldest overstory tree examined, 4) geographic coordinates, 5) elevation, 6) interpolated climate variables, and 7) other site variables. The data are ideal for ecoregional analyses of existing vegetation.

  18. Evaluating models of climate and forest vegetation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, James S.

    1992-01-01

    Understanding how the biosphere may respond to increasing trace gas concentrations in the atmosphere requires models that contain vegetation responses to regional climate. Most of the processes ecologists study in forests, including trophic interactions, nutrient cycling, and disturbance regimes, and vital components of the world economy, such as forest products and agriculture, will be influenced in potentially unexpected ways by changing climate. These vegetation changes affect climate in the following ways: changing C, N, and S pools; trace gases; albedo; and water balance. The complexity of the indirect interactions among variables that depend on climate, together with the range of different space/time scales that best describe these processes, make the problems of modeling and prediction enormously difficult. These problems of predicting vegetation response to climate warming and potential ways of testing model predictions are the subjects of this chapter.

  19. Bonneville - Hood River Vegetation Management Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    1998-08-01

    To maintain the reliability of its electrical system, BPA, in cooperation with the U.S. Forest Service, needs to expand the range of vegetation management options used to clear unwanted vegetation on about 20 miles of BPA transmission line right-of-way between Bonneville Dam and Hood River; Oregon, within the Columbia Gorge National Scenic Area (NSA). We propose to continue controlling undesirable vegetation using a program of Integrated Vegetation Management (IVM) which includes manual, biological and chemical treatment methods. BPA has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1257) evaluating the proposed project. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required and BPA is issuing this FONSI.

  20. Performance of the Forest Vegetation Simulator in managed white spruce plantations influenced by eastern spruce budworm in northern Minnesota

    Treesearch

    Matthew B. Russell; Anthony W. D' Amato; Michael A. Albers; Christopher W. Woodall; Klaus J. Puettmann; Michael R. Saunders; Curtis L. VanderSchaaf

    2015-01-01

    Silvicultural strategies such as thinning may minimize productivity losses from a variety of forest disturbances, including forest insects. This study analyzed the 10-year postthinning response of stands and individual trees in thinned white spruce (Picea glauca [Moench] Voss) plantations in northern Minnesota, USA, with light to moderate defoliation...

  1. Forest management and economics

    SciTech Connect

    Buongiorno, J.; Gilless, J.K.

    1987-01-01

    This volume provides a survey of quantitative methods, guiding the reader through formulation and analysis of models that address forest management problems. The authors use simple mathematics, graphics, and short computer programs to explain each method. Emphasizing applications, they discuss linear, integer, dynamic, and goal programming; simulation; network modeling; and econometrics, as these relate to problems of determining economic harvest schedules in even-aged and uneven-aged forests, the evaluation of forest policies, multiple-objective decision making, and more.

  2. Improving Survival and Growth of Planted Austrocedrus chilensis Seedlings in Disturbed Patagonian Forests of Argentina by Managing Understory Vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pafundi, Leticia; Urretavizcaya, M. Florencia; Defossé, Guillermo E.

    2014-12-01

    This study was aimed at determining, under field conditions, early interactions between planted cypress seedlings and their associated shrubs in a mesic area of Andean Patagonia and, in a nursery, the effects of increasing light availability on cypress performance when soil water was not a limiting factor. The field experiment was performed in a former cypress-coihue mixed forest (42°02'S, 71°33'W), which was replaced in the 1970s by a plantation of radiata pine. In 2005, 800 cypress seedlings were planted under maqui shrubs in a clear-cut area of the pine stand. In 2007, two treatments were set: no-competition treatment ([NCT] i.e., the surrounding aboveground biomass was removed) and competition treatment ([CT] i.e., without disturbance). The nursery experiment (42°55'S, 71°21'W) consisted of two groups: "shade" (grown under shade cloth) and "sun" (grown at full sun) cypress seedlings. After one growing season, seedling survival and stem growth (in height and diameter) were determined at both sites. Furthermore, the growth rate of leaves, stems, and roots was determined in the nursery. In the field experiment, height growth and survival in NCT were significantly greater than in CT, and a competition process occurred between cypress and surrounding shrubs. In the nursery, sun plants grew more in diameter and increased root weight more than shade plants. Results also showed that in mesic areas of Patagonia, decreasing competition and increasing light levels produced stouter seedlings better adapted to support harsh environmental conditions. Therefore, the removal of protecting shrubs could be a good management practice to improve seedling establishment.

  3. Improving survival and growth of planted Austrocedrus chilensis seedlings in disturbed patagonian forests of Argentina by managing understory vegetation.

    PubMed

    Pafundi, Leticia; Urretavizcaya, M Florencia; Defossé, Guillermo E

    2014-12-01

    This study was aimed at determining, under field conditions, early interactions between planted cypress seedlings and their associated shrubs in a mesic area of Andean Patagonia and, in a nursery, the effects of increasing light availability on cypress performance when soil water was not a limiting factor. The field experiment was performed in a former cypress-coihue mixed forest (42°02'S, 71°33'W), which was replaced in the 1970s by a plantation of radiata pine. In 2005, 800 cypress seedlings were planted under maqui shrubs in a clear-cut area of the pine stand. In 2007, two treatments were set: no-competition treatment ([NCT] i.e., the surrounding aboveground biomass was removed) and competition treatment ([CT] i.e., without disturbance). The nursery experiment (42°55'S, 71°21'W) consisted of two groups: "shade" (grown under shade cloth) and "sun" (grown at full sun) cypress seedlings. After one growing season, seedling survival and stem growth (in height and diameter) were determined at both sites. Furthermore, the growth rate of leaves, stems, and roots was determined in the nursery. In the field experiment, height growth and survival in NCT were significantly greater than in CT, and a competition process occurred between cypress and surrounding shrubs. In the nursery, sun plants grew more in diameter and increased root weight more than shade plants. Results also showed that in mesic areas of Patagonia, decreasing competition and increasing light levels produced stouter seedlings better adapted to support harsh environmental conditions. Therefore, the removal of protecting shrubs could be a good management practice to improve seedling establishment.

  4. Implications of Increasing Forest Density and Vegetation Water Demand on Drought Impacts in California Montane Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saksa, P. C.; Safeeq, M.; Dymond, S.

    2016-12-01

    Vegetation density has been increasing over the past 30 years at mid-elevation southern Sierra mixed-conifer catchments and northern California coastal conifer catchments, as shown from Landsat mean annual values of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). Forest vegetation in these regions is being maintained or even increased during the recent drought, despite record low precipitation levels statewide and heavy tree mortality at lower elevation Sierra pine-dominated forests. The increase in vegetation density suggests an increase in forest water use, exacerbating the effects of the drought on runoff and water supply. Between 1984 and 2015, mean annual NDVI increased in the southern Sierra from 0.47 to 0.56 (+19%) in the Providence Creek basin (1730-2115m elevation) and from 0.53 to 0.62 (+17%) in Bull Creek basin (2145-2490m), while NDVI increased along the northern California coast from 0.75 to 0.88 (+17%) in the Caspar Creek basin (40-300m). Previous research has shown an exponential relationship exists between NDVI and measured annual evapotranspiration (ET), indicating even greater increases in ET than NDVI over the three decades. This increase in vegetation has also led to more competition for plant available water, and can be used to explain the large tree mortality occurring in the pine forests at lower elevations, which did not occur during previous drought periods. Preliminary results of a hydro-ecological model, RHESSys, suggest intensive vegetation treatments in these regions can reduce evapotranspiration and modify the catchment-scale water balance. Forest management strategies for implementation of thinning and fuels treatments to reduce forest density may be effective in limiting vegetation mortality during future drought events.

  5. [Carbon sequestration potential of forest vegetation in Jiangxi and Zhejiang provinces based on national forest inventory].

    PubMed

    Nie, Hao; Wang, Shao-qiang; Zhou, Lei; Wang, Jing-yuan; Zhang, You; Deng, Ze-wen; Yang, Feng-ting

    2011-10-01

    Based on the sixth national forest inventory (1999-2003) and the investigation data of 1030 forest sampling plots in subtropical China collected from publications, and by using stand growth empirical equation, this paper estimated the carbon sequestration potential of forest vegetation under natural growth in Jiangxi and Zhejiang provinces in 2004-2013. In the meanwhile, the effects of three forest management measures, including interplanting, selective thinning, and fertilization, on the future forest carbon sequestration were explored by using the survey data of 455 sampling plots. In 2004-2013, the mean annual carbon sequestration potential of forest vegetation under natural growth in Jiangxi and Zhejiang could reach 11.37 and 4.34 Tg C a(-1) (1 Tg=10(12) g), respectively. Interplanting could generate the largest carbon sequestration potential of forest vegetation, followed by selective thinning, and fertilization, resulting in an increase in the potential by (6.54 +/- 3.9) Tg C a(-1), (3.81 +/- 2.02) Tg C a(-1), and (2.35 +/- 0.6) Tg C a(-1) in Jiangxi and by (2.64 +/- 1.28) Tg C a(-1), (1.42 +/- 0.69) Tg C a(-1), and (1.15 +/- 0.29) Tg C a(-1) in Zhejiang, respectively.

  6. Proceedings of the California Forest Soils Council Conference on Forest Soils Biology and Forest Management

    Treesearch

    Robert F. Powers; Donald L. Hauxwell; Gary M. Nakamura

    2000-01-01

    Biotic properties of forest soil are the linkages connecting forest vegetation with an inert rooting medium to create a dynamic, functioning ecosystem. But despite the significance of these properties, managers have little awareness of the biotic world beneath their feet. Much of our working knowledge of soil biology seems anchored in myth and misunderstanding. To...

  7. Vegetation structure determination using LIDAR data and the forest growth parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rybansky, M.; Brenova, M.; Cermak, J.; van Genderen, J.; Sivertun, Å.

    2016-06-01

    The goal of this paper is to identify the main vegetation factors in the terrain, which are important for the analysis of forest structure. Such an analysis is important for forestry, rescue operations management during crises situations and disasters such as fires, storms, earthquakes and military analysis (transportation, cover, concealment, etc.). For the forest structure determination, both LIDAR and the forest growth prediction analysis were used. As main results, the vegetation height, tree spacing and stem diameters were determined

  8. Biotic and abiotic processes of eastside ecosystems: The effects of management on plant and community ecology, and on stand and landscape vegetation dynamics. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, C.G.; Clausnitzer, R.R.; Mehringer, P.J.; Oilver, C.D.

    1994-02-01

    Paleo-vegetation studies have shown that vegetation has changed in composition and extent in the intermountain Pacific Northwest over the past 20,000 years. Today, both natural and human-induced disturbances have long-term influence on the structure and composition of eastside vegetation. Disturbance may enhance landscape diversity, therefore, the scale of modifying events and activities needs to shift from species and stand to the landscape level. Knowledge of plant succession is the foundation of a sound vegetation management program where the primary goal is to retard, arrest, or accelerate the natural forces of vegetation change.

  9. Vegetational designs for insect-habitat management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altieri, Miguel A.

    1983-01-01

    Insect habitats in anthropocentric ecosystems consist of crop plants or forest trees and the coexisting non-crop vegetation. The manipulation of the spatial and temporal arrangement of these plant communities can trigger direct or indirect effects on insect pest populations and their associated natural enemy complexes. In this article habitat management is viewed as a technique to design plant associations that support populations of natural enemies or that exert deterrent effects on herbivorous insects.

  10. Managing the world's forests.

    PubMed

    Sharma, N; Rowe, R

    1992-06-01

    Forests play a vital role in balancing natural systems: the stabilization of global climate and the management of water and land. 30% of the earth's total land area is forested. 66% of the tropical moist forests are in Latin America and the remainder in Africa and Asia. 75% of tropical dry forests are in Africa. Temperate forests are primarily in developed countries. Deforestation and misuse of forests occurs primarily in developing countries at significant social, economic, and environmental costs. Losses have occurred in fuelwood, fodder, timber, forest products, biological diversity, habitats, genetic materials for food and medicine. The World Bank's evolving role in forestry is briefly described. Agreement has not been reached among people or nations about the most appropriate means to balance conservation and development goals. The challenge is to stabilize existing forests and increase forest planting. The causes of forest degradation must be understood. Direct causes include agricultural encroachment, cattle ranching, fuelwood gathering, commercial logging, and infrastructure development. These direct causes are driven by economic, social, and political forces: market and policy failures, population growth, and poverty. The market failures include: 1) the lack of clearly defined property rights on forest resources for now and the future, 2) the conflict between individual and societal needs, 3) the difficulty in placing a value on nonmarket environmental services and joint products, and 4) the separation between private and social costs. The solution is action at the local, national, and global levels. Countries must establish forest policy. The existing government incentives which promote deforestation must be changed. For example, concession policy and royalty systems must be corrected; explicit and implicit export subsidies on timber and forest products must be stopped. Private incentives must be established to promote planting of trees, practicing

  11. Assessing forest vegetation and fire simulation model performance after the Cold Springs wildfire, Washington USA

    Treesearch

    Susan Hummel; Maureen Kennedy; E. Ashley. Steel

    2012-01-01

    Given that resource managers rely on computer simulation models when it is difficult or expensive to obtain vital information directly, it is important to evaluate how well a particular model satisfies applications for which it is designed. The Forest Vegetation Simulator (FVS) is used widely for forest management in the US, and its scope and complexity continue to...

  12. Forest tenure and sustainable forest management

    Treesearch

    J.P. Siry; K. McGinley; F.W. Cubbage; P. Bettinger

    2015-01-01

    We reviewed the principles and key literature related to forest tenure and sustainable forest management, and then examined the status of sustainable forestry and land ownership at the aggregate national level for major forested countries. The institutional design principles suggested by Ostrom are well accepted for applications to public, communal, and private lands....

  13. Simulation of SAR backscatter for forest vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prajapati, Richa; Kumar, Shashi; Agrawal, Shefali

    2016-05-01

    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is one of the most recent imaging technology to study the forest parameters. The invincible characteristics of microwave acquisition in cloudy regions and night imaging makes it a powerful tool to study dense forest regions. A coherent combination of radar polarimetry and interferometry (PolInSAR) enhances the accuracy of retrieved biophysical parameters. This paper attempts to address the issue of estimation of forest structural information caused due to instability of radar platforms through simulation of SAR image. The Terai Central Forest region situated at Haldwani area in Uttarakhand state of India was chosen as the study area. The system characteristics of PolInSAR dataset of Radarsat-2 SAR sensor was used for simulation process. Geometric and system specifications like platform altitude, center frequency, mean incidence angle, azimuth and range resolution were taken from metadata. From the field data it was observed that average tree height and forest stand density were 25 m and 300 stems/ha respectively. The obtained simulated results were compared with the sensor acquired master and slave intensity images. It was analyzed that for co-polarized horizontal component (HH), the mean values of simulated and real master image had a difference of 0.3645 with standard deviation of 0.63. Cross-polarized (HV) channel showed better results with mean difference of 0.06 and standard deviation of 0.1 while co-polarized vertical component (VV) did not show similar values. In case of HV polarization, mean variation between simulated and real slave images was found to be the least. Since cross-polarized channel is more sensitive to vegetation feature therefore better simulated results were obtained for this channel. Further the simulated images were processed using PolInSAR inversion modelling approach using three different techniques DEM differencing, Coherence Amplitude Inversion and Random Volume over Ground Inversion. DEM differencing

  14. Using FIA data in the Forest Vegetation Simulator

    Treesearch

    John D. Shaw

    2009-01-01

    The Forest Vegetation Simulator (FVS) is a national system of forest growth models maintained by the USDA Forest Service. It is the official tool for stand growth projection on National Forest lands, but it is also used widely on other ownerships. Model extensions and post-processors permit FVS users to perform a broad range of functions, including silvicultural...

  15. Vegetation carbon sequestration in Chinese forests from 2010 to 2050.

    PubMed

    He, Nianpeng; Wen, Ding; Zhu, Jianxing; Tang, Xuli; Xu, Li; Zhang, Li; Hu, Huifeng; Huang, Mei; Yu, Guirui

    2017-04-01

    Forests store a large part of the terrestrial vegetation carbon (C) and have high C sequestration potential. Here, we developed a new forest C sequestration (FCS) model based on the secondary succession theory, to estimate vegetation C sequestration capacity in China's forest vegetation. The model used the field measurement data of 3161 forest plots and three future climate scenarios. The results showed that logistic equations provided a good fit for vegetation biomass with forest age in natural and planted forests. The FCS model has been verified with forest biomass data, and model uncertainty is discussed. The increment of vegetation C storage in China's forest vegetation from 2010 to 2050 was estimated as 13.92 Pg C, while the average vegetation C sequestration rate was 0.34 Pg C yr(-1) with a 95% confidence interval of 0.28-0.42 Pg C yr(-1) , which differed significantly between forest types. The largest contributor to the increment was deciduous broadleaf forest (37.8%), while the smallest was deciduous needleleaf forest (2.7%). The vegetation C sequestration rate might reach its maximum around 2020, although vegetation C storage increases continually. It is estimated that vegetation C sequestration might offset 6-8% of China's future emissions. Furthermore, there was a significant negative relationship between vegetation C sequestration rate and C emission rate in different provinces of China, suggesting that developed provinces might need to compensate for undeveloped provinces through C trade. Our findings will provide valuable guidelines to policymakers for designing afforestation strategies and forest C trade in China. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Forest Fuels Management in Europe

    Treesearch

    Gavriil Xanthopoulos; David Caballero; Miguel Galante; Daniel Alexandrian; Eric Rigolot; Raffaella Marzano

    2006-01-01

    Current fuel management practices vary considerably between European countries. Topography, forest and forest fuel characteristics, size and compartmentalization of forests, forest management practices, land uses, land ownership, size of properties, legislation, and, of course, tradition, are reasons for these differences.Firebreak construction,...

  17. Forest vegetation dynamics and its response to climate changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoran, Maria A.; Zoran, Liviu Florin V.; Dida, Adrian I.

    2016-10-01

    Forest areas are experiencing rapid land cover change caused by human-induced land degradation and extreme climatic events. Satellite remote sensing provides a useful tool to capture the temporal dynamics of forest vegetation change in response to climate shifts, at spatial resolutions fine enough to capture the spatial heterogeneity. Frequent satellite data products, for example, can provide the basis for studying time-series of biophysical parameters related to vegetation dynamics. Vegetation index time series provide a useful way to monitor forest vegetation phenological variations. In this study, we used MODIS Terra/Aqua time-series data, along with yearly and monthly net radiation, air temperature, and precipitation data to examine the feedback mechanisms between climate and forest vegetation. Have been quantitatively described Normalized Difference Vegetation Index(NDVI) /Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI), Leaf Area Index (LAI), Evapotranspiration (ET) and Gross Primary Production (GPP) temporal changes for Cernica- Branesti forest area, a periurban zone of Bucharest city in Romania, from the perspective of vegetation phenology and its relation with climate changes and extreme climate events (summer heat waves). A time series from 2000 to 2016 of the MODIS Terra was analyzed to extract forest biophysical parameters anomalies. Forest vegetation phenology analyses were developed for diverse forest land-covers providing a useful way to analyze and understand the phenology associated to those landcovers. Correlations between NDVI/EVI , LAI, ET and GPP time series and climatic variables have been computed.

  18. 18 CFR 1304.203 - Vegetation management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vegetation management...-Owned Residential Access Shoreland § 1304.203 Vegetation management. No vegetation management shall be approved on TVA-owned Residential Access Shoreland until a Vegetation Management Plan meeting the...

  19. 18 CFR 1304.203 - Vegetation management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...-Owned Residential Access Shoreland § 1304.203 Vegetation management. No vegetation management shall be approved on TVA-owned Residential Access Shoreland until a Vegetation Management Plan meeting the... specifically approved in the Vegetative Management Plan. (m) Restricted use herbicides and pesticides shall not...

  20. Establishment and Data Collection of Vegetation-related Studies on the Missouri Ozark Forest Ecosystem Project Study Sites

    Treesearch

    Brian L. Brookshire; Daniel C. Dey

    2000-01-01

    The Missouri Ozark Forest Ecosystem Project (MOFEP) is an experiment designed to determine the effects of forest management practices on important ecosystem attributes. MOFEP treatments evaluated include even-aged, uneven-aged, and no management treatments. Forest vegetation provides a common ecological link among many organisms and ecological processes, and therefore...

  1. Simulating post-wildfire forest trajectories under alternative climate and management scenarios

    Treesearch

    Alicia Azpeleta Tarancon; Peter Z. Fule; Kristen L. Shive; Carolyn H. Sieg; Andrew Sanchez Meador; Barbara Strom

    2014-01-01

    Post-fire predictions of forest recovery under future climate change and management actions are necessary for forest managers to make decisions about treatments. We applied the Climate-Forest Vegetation Simulator (Climate-FVS), a new version of a widely used forest management model, to compare alternative climate and management scenarios in a severely burned...

  2. Choosing forest residues management alternatives.

    Treesearch

    John M. Pierovich; Richard C. Smith

    1973-01-01

    Forest residues management involves disposal, modification, or utilization of wood products. The costs and benefits of the several alternatives available to forest managers must be evaluated in relation to land management goals and constraints in four areas: (1) unused wood fiber, (2) conflagrations, (3) impairment of forest resources, and (4) opposition to treatment...

  3. Forest operations for ecosystem management

    Treesearch

    Robert B. Rummer; John Baumgras; Joe McNeel

    1997-01-01

    The evolution of modern forest resource management is focusing on ecologically sensitive forest operations. This shift in management strategies is producing a new set of functional requirements for forest operations. Systems to implement ecosystem management prescriptions may need to be economically viable over a wider range of piece sizes, for example. Increasing...

  4. Improving longleaf pine mortality predictions in the Southern Variant of the Forest Vegetation Simulator

    Treesearch

    R. Justin DeRose; John D. Shaw; Giorgio Vacchiano; James N. Long

    2008-01-01

    The Southern Variant of the Forest Vegetation Simulator (FVS-SN) is made up of individual submodels that predict tree growth, recruitment and mortality. Forest managers on Ft. Bragg, North Carolina, discovered biologically unrealistic longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) size-density predictions at large diameters when using FVS-SN to project red-cockaded...

  5. Third Forest Vegetation Simulator Conference; 2007 February 13-15; Fort Collins, CO

    Treesearch

    Robert N. Havis; Nicholas L. Crookston

    2008-01-01

    The Forest Vegetation Simulator (FVS) is a suite of computer modeling tools for predicting the long-term effects of alternative forest management actions. FVS was developed in the early 1980s and is used throughout the United Sates and British Columbia. The Third FVS conference, held February 13-15, 2007, in Fort Collins Colorado, contains 20 papers. They describe the...

  6. Development of FVSOntario: A Forest Vegetation Simulator Variant and application software for Ontario

    Treesearch

    Murray E. Woods; Donald C. E. Robinson

    2008-01-01

    The Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources is leading a government-industry partnership to develop an Ontario variant of the Forest Vegetation Simulator (FVS). Based on the Lake States variant and the PrognosisBC user-interface, the FVSOntarioproject is motivated by a need to model the impacts of intensive forest management...

  7. An overview of the fire and fuels extension to the forest vegetation simulator

    Treesearch

    Sarah J. Beukema; Elizabeth D. Reinhardt; Werner A. Kurz; Nicholas L. Crookston

    2000-01-01

    The Fire and Fuels Extension (FFE) to the Forest Vegetation Simulator (FVS) has been developed to assess the risk, behavior, and impact of fire in forest ecosystems. This extension to the widely-used stand-dynamics model FVS simulates the dynamics of snags and surface fuels as they are affected by stand management (of trees or fuels), live tree growth and mortality,...

  8. Effects of fire season on vegetation in longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) forests

    Treesearch

    Bryan T. Mudder; G. Geoff Wang; Joan L. Walker; J. Drew Lanham; Ralph Costa

    2010-01-01

    Forest managers in the Southeastern United States are interested in the restoration of not only longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) trees, but also the characteristic forest structure and ground-layer vegetation of the longleaf pine ecosystem. Season of burn, fire intensity, and fire frequency are critical components of a fire regime that supports...

  9. The Forest Vegetation Simulator: A review of its structure, content, and applications

    Treesearch

    Nicholas L. Crookston; Gary E. Dixon

    2005-01-01

    The Forest Vegetation Simulator (FVS) is a distance-independent, individual-tree forest growth model widely used in the United States to support management decisionmaking. Stands are the basic projection unit, but the spatial scope can be many thousands of stands. The temporal scope is several hundred years at a resolution of 5­10 years. Projections start with a...

  10. Forest nutrition management

    SciTech Connect

    Binkley, D.

    1986-01-01

    This book draws on the fields of silviculture, soil studies, ecology, and economics to provide information on how to enhance the nutritional status of forest soils in order to increase their long-term stand productivity. It covers the use of fertilizers to enhance biological nitrogen fixation and how the nutrition status of forests is affected by other operations, such as harvesting and site preparation. Methods for assessing nutrient status, the economics of nutrition management, and models to aid in decision-making are included.

  11. Characterizing forest vegetation of the Tanana Valley: what can forest inventory and analysis deliver?

    Treesearch

    Bethany Schulz

    2015-01-01

    Vegetation profile data were collected as part of a forest inventory project in the Tanana Valley in interior Alaska, providing a means of characterizing the forest vegetation. The black spruce forest type was most common, followed by Alaska paper birch, and white spruce, quaking aspen, and balsam poplar. For individual tree species, black spruce was recorded on 68...

  12. Integrating silviculture, forest management, and forest policy

    Treesearch

    Chadwick D. Oliver

    1997-01-01

    Much progress has been made in developing and implementing individual silvicultural operations such as regeneration, thinning, and harvesting by various means. Similarly, foresters have made progress at managing flows of timber and other commodity values. Present concern that forests provide an even greater variety of commodity and non-commodity values can be...

  13. Climate and Vegetation Effects on Temperate Mountain Forest Evapotranspiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oishi, A. C.; Miniat, C.; Novick, K. A.; Brantley, S. T.; Vose, J. M.; Walker, J. T.

    2015-12-01

    Forest evapotranspiration (ET) can vary greatly at daily and seasonal time scales, but compared to carbon fluxes, often exhibits relatively consistent inter-annual behavior. The processes affecting ET involve physical and biological factors. Atmospheric conditions that promote high ET, consisting of high radiation and vapor pressure deficit (D), often occur during rainless periods when soil water supply may limit vegetation water use. In contrast, high soil water availability often coincides with frequent precipitation and low D. In mixed species forests, physiological differences in water use strategies (e.g. isohydric/anisohydric species), leaf habit (e.g., evergreen/deciduous species), and leaf phenology can produce conservative water use throughout wet and dry phases of the growing season and the year. Thus, the combination of these factors may explain some of the observed consistency in ET. We examine the respective roles of climate and vegetation on variability in ET in a mature, temperate forest, dominated by deciduous species with an evergreen rhododendron understory at the Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory in the southern Appalachian Mountains of North Carolina. Since 2012, the site has experienced one year with a warm spring, leading to a two-week advance of leaf-out, and one year with the greatest amount of precipitation in the 80-year climate station record. While eddy covariance-based estimates of net primary productivity increased with earlier spring leaf phenology and decreased during a warm dry period, seasonal patterns in ET were consistent among years, leading to similar annual water vapor fluxes (coefficient of variation = 0.05). We combine these data with estimates of soil evaporation from a sub-canopy eddy covariance system, and transpiration from sap flux measurements to quantify the daily and seasonal contributions of canopy, understory, and soil to inter-annual variability in ET. These results will improve our ability to predict forest responses

  14. Characteristics of sustainable forest management

    Treesearch

    Stephen R. Shifley; Francisco X. Aguilar; Nianfu Song; Susan I. Stewart; David J. Nowak; Dale D. Gormanson; W. Keith Moser; Sherri Wormstead; Eric J. Greenfield

    2012-01-01

    Forests can provide numerous benefits to society today, tomorrow, and far into the future. Many in society seek sustainable forest management to ensure that future generations enjoy those benefits. The foundation of professional forest management is “the use of the natural resources for the greatest good of the greatest number for the longest time” (Gifford Pinchot...

  15. Vegetation management in Eucalyptus

    Treesearch

    Clyde L. Elmore

    1983-01-01

    Weeds and weed control are a major problem in the growth and management of Eucalyptus trees. Annual, biennial and perennial weed species are common in sites to be planted. These weeds should be controlled before planting. Preplant, preemergence and postemergence herbicides are discussed. Safe preemergence herbicides include oryzalin, napropamide, oxadiazon, linuron and...

  16. Watering the Forest for the Trees: An Emerging Priority for Managing Water in Forested Landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, G. E.; Tague, C.; Allen, C. D.

    2011-12-01

    Widespread threats to forests due to drought prompt re-thinking priorities for water management on forest lands. In contrast to the widely held view that forest management should emphasize providing water for downstream uses, we argue that maintaining forest health in the face of environmental change may require conserving water on forest lands specifically to reduce drought stress on vegetation. Management strategies to accomplish this include actions to: 1) conserve, retain, and store water on the landscape, either as snow or soil water; 2) reduce losses to evaporation and runoff; 3) increase plant available water through thinning or irrigation; and 4) encourage drought-tolerant species. Hydrologic modeling reveals that specific management actions could reduce tree mortality due to drought stress. Adopting water conservation for vegetation as a priority for managing water on forest lands would represent a fundamental change in perspective and potentially involve tradeoffs with other downstream uses of water.

  17. Understanding the effects of fire management practices on forest health: Implications for weeds and vegetation structure (Project INT-F-04-01) [Chapter 14

    Treesearch

    Anne E. Black; Peter Landres

    2011-01-01

    Current fire policy to restore ecosystem function and resiliency and reduce buildup of hazardous fuels implies a larger future role for fire (both natural and human ignitions) (USDA and USDOI 2000). Yet some fire management (such as building fire line, spike camps, or heli-spots) potentially causes both short- and long-term impacts to forest health. In the short run,...

  18. [Spatiotemporal variation of carbon storage in forest vegetation in Sichuan Province].

    PubMed

    Huang, Cong-De; Zhang, Jian; Yang, Wan-Qin; Tang, Xiao

    2007-12-01

    Based on the modeling of forest biomass and timber volume and the 1974-2004 forest inventory data, the spatiotemporal variation of carbon density and storage in forest vegetation in Sichuan Province was studied. The results showed that the forest carbon storage was increased from 300.02 Tg in 1974 to 469.96 Tg in 2004, with an annual increment of 1.51%, which suggested that the forests in Sichuan Province were the sink of CO2. However, owing to the increase of plantations, the average carbon density of forest vegetation decreased from 49.91 Mg x hm(-2) to 37.39 Mg x Shm(-2), implying that Sichuan forests had a great potential of carbon sequestration through artificial forest management. The carbon storage in Sichuan forests had a spatial heterogeneity, and the ranked order was northwest alpine gorge area > southwest mountainous area > low-mountain area > hilly area > western plain. Forest carbon density increased from southwest area to northwest area, with the order of hilly area < northern plain < southwest mountain area < low-mountain area < northwest alpine gorge area. It was suggested that forest management according to different sub-regions would improve the potential of carbon sequestration in Sichuan forests.

  19. A Small Mammal Community in a Forest Fragment, Vegetation Corridor and Coffee Matrix System in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Mariana Ferreira; Passamani, Marcelo; Louzada, Júlio

    2011-01-01

    The objective of our work was to verify the value of the vegetation corridor in the conservation of small mammals in fragmented tropical landscapes, using a model system in the southeastern Minas Gerais. We evaluated and compared the composition and structure of small mammals in a vegetation corridor, forest fragments and a coffee matrix. A total of 15 species were recorded, and the highest species richness was observed in the vegetation corridor (13 species), followed by the forest fragments (10) and the coffee matrix (6). The absolute abundance was similar between the vegetation corridor and fragments (F = 22.94; p = 0.064), and the greatest differences occurred between the vegetation corridor and the matrix (F = 22.94; p = 0.001) and the forest fragments and the matrix (F = 22.94; p = 0.007). Six species showed significant habitat preference possibly related to the sensitivity of the species to the forest disturbance. Marmosops incanus was the species most sensitive to disturbance; Akodon montensis, Cerradomys subflavus, Gracilinanus microtarsus and Rhipidomys sp. displayed little sensitivity to disturbance, with a high relative abundance in the vegetation corridor. Calomys sp. was the species least affected by habitat disturbance, displaying a high relative abundance in the coffee matrix. Although the vegetation corridors are narrow (4 m width), our results support the hypothesis in which they work as a forest extension, share most species with the forest fragment and support species richness and abundance closer to forest fragments than to the coffee matrix. Our work highlights the importance and cost-effectiveness of these corridors to biodiversity management in the fragmented Atlantic Forest landscapes and at the regional level. PMID:21912591

  20. Burned Forest Vegetation Recovery Monitoring Method Using Satellite Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Guifen; Qin, Xianlin; Yin, Lingyu; Zu, Xiaofeng; Deng, Guang; Cassanova, Jose-Luis

    2016-08-01

    To the monitoring technology needs for the effect on forest growth and restoration of alpine region by forest fires, Yajiang County in Sichuan province of People Republic of China has been selected as the experimental area. By means of the analysed results on the factors, such as the vegetation spectral characteristics, Normalized difference vegetation index(NDVI) of the burned forest area(samples of different severity (light, moderate and severe) have been selected) and normal vegetation region by using the time-series images of the NO.1 high- resolution satellite (GF-1).The results showed that the trends of the burned forest recovery was correlated with the damage degree by forest fire. The more serious forest burned, the slower the restoration.

  1. Climate Change Impacts and Vulnerabilities Assessment on Forest Vegetation Through Time-Series Multisensor Satellite Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoran, Maria; Savastru, Dan; Dida, Adrian

    2016-08-01

    Sustaining forest resources in Romania requires a better understanding of forest ecosystem processes, and how management decisions and climate and anthropogenic change may affect these processes in the future. Spatio- temporal forest vegetation dynamics have been quantified as the total amount of vegetation (mean NDVI) and the seasonal difference (annual NDVI amplitude) by a time series analysis of NDVI LAI satellite images over 2000 - 2015 period for a forest ecosystem placed in the North-Eastern part of Bucharest town, Romania, from MODIS Terra/Aqua, LANDSAT TM/ETM and Sentinel satellite and meteorological data. For investigated test area, considerable NDVI decline was observed for drought events during 2003, 2007 and 2010 years. Under stress conditions, it is evident that environmental factors such as soil type, parent material, and topography are not correlated with NDVI dynamics. EO-based estimates of forest biophysical variables were shown to be similar to predictions derived from forest field inventories.

  2. Influence of different forest management practices and vegetation cover on runoff generation and sediment flux in the Coastal Range of Southern Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohr, Christian; Bronstert, Axel; Huber, Anton; Iroumé, Andrés.

    2010-05-01

    Favorable climatic and hydrological conditions make Chile to one of the leading timber and cellulose exporting nations with one of the biggest growing rates worldwide. The intensification of this sector comes along with large-scale land use changes affecting the soil's water conservation function of the geoecosystem. This research focuses on the influence of different forest management practices and vegetation cover on the runoff-generation and the sediment transport in Pinus radiata D.Don planted micro-catchments in the coastal range of southern Chile. One catchment is kept as control without silvicultural intervention during the whole study (catchment Nr. 1) and another was thinned selectively in the rainy season 2009 (catchment Nr. 2). Two catchments are harvested by clear-cuts, whereby one clear-cut already took place in June-Aug. 2009 during the rainy season (catchment Nr. 3) and the other is planned for the dry season in February 2010 (catchment Nr. 4). One catchment - formerly planted with Pinus radiata - was already clear cut in 2007 (catchment Nr. 5). For long-term research, the catchments are equipped with V-notched weirs, sediment sampling devices, rainfall redistribution test-plots and TDR-clusters. Single events of stronger precipitation and runoff are sampled and a self-designed rainfall-simulator is used to gain additional information of the infiltration, overland flow and sediment transport processes. Annual interception loss is approx. 20 % of the yearly avaraged precipitation of 1300mm. During the calibration period, all catchments show high similarities in discharge and a dominance of subsurface flow. In all catchments, diel cycles of different amplitude within the streamflow were registered. By the beginning of the rainy season in May, the soils in all catchments were saturated completely up to depth of 250cm. Only catchment 5 showed higher and irregular contents of soil water due to missing vegetation cover and recent morphodynamics. To the end

  3. Historic range of variability for upland vegetation in the Medicine Bow National Forest, Wyoming

    Treesearch

    Gregory K. Dillon; Dennis H. Knight; Carolyn B. Meyer

    2005-01-01

    An approach for synthesizing the results of ecological research pertinent to land management is the analysis of the historic range of variability (HRV) for key ecosystem variables that are affected by management activities. This report provides an HRV analysis for the upland vegetation of the Medicine Bow National Forest in southeastern Wyoming. The variables include...

  4. Historic range of variability for upland vegetation in the Bighorn National Forest, Wyoming

    Treesearch

    Carolyn B. Meyer; Dennis H. Knight; Gregory K. Dillon

    2005-01-01

    An approach for synthesizing the results of ecological research pertinent to land management is the analysis of the historic range of variability (HRV) for key ecosystem variables that are affected by management activities. This report provides an HRV analysis for the upland vegetation of the Bighorn National Forest in northcentral Wyoming. The variables include live...

  5. Effects of forest thinning on bird-vegetation relationships in young Douglas-fir forests

    Treesearch

    Svetlana Yegorova

    2013-01-01

    Forest thinning has been widely used in the Pacifi c Northwest as a technique to accelerate latesuccessional vegetation characteristics and promote mature forest habitats for wildlife. Th inning treatments aff ect tree and understory vegetation development. Th e eff ects of thinning on bird abundance and occurrence vary by bird species and change over time, presumably...

  6. Forest vegetation cover assessment on Mona Island, Puerto Rico

    Treesearch

    Thomas J. Brandeis; Elvia J. Meléndez-Ackerman; Eileen H. Helmer

    2012-01-01

    Permanent plots were installed on the Mona Island natural reserve as part of the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service’s forest vegetation assessment and monitoring efforts in the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. In addition to tree, sapling, and seedling measurements, the data collected included detailed descriptions of percent cover of vascular plants in four...

  7. Screenometer: a device for sampling vegetative screening in forested areas

    Treesearch

    Victor A. Rudis

    1985-01-01

    A-device for estimating the degree to which vegetation and other obstructions screen forested areas has been adapted to an extensive sampling design for forest surveys. Procedures are recommended to assure that uniform measurements can be made. Examination of sources of sampling variation (observers, points within sampled locations, series of observations within points...

  8. Repeatability and implementation of a forest vegetation indicator.

    Treesearch

    Andrew N. Gray; David L. Azuma

    2005-01-01

    The composition, diversity, and structure of vascular plants are important indicators of forest health. Changes in species diversity, structural diversity, and the abundance of non-native species are common national concerns, and are part of the international criteria for assessing sustainability of forestry practices. The vegetation indicator for the national Forest...

  9. Vegetation and environmental features of forest and range ecosystems

    Treesearch

    George A. Garrison; Ardell J. Bjugstad; Don A. Duncan; Mont E. Lewis; Dixie R. Smith

    1977-01-01

    This publication describes the 34 ecosystems into which all the land of the 48 contiguous states has been classified in the Forest-Range Environmental Study (FRES) of the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. The description of each ecosystem discusses physiography, climate, vegetation, fauna, soils, and land use. For a number of the ecosystems, the...

  10. Opposing Responses of Bird Functional Diversity to Vegetation Structural Diversity in Wet and Dry Forest

    PubMed Central

    York, Alan; Swan, Matthew; Christie, Fiona; Di Stefano, Julian

    2016-01-01

    Disturbance regimes are changing worldwide, and the consequences for ecosystem function and resilience are largely unknown. Functional diversity (FD) provides a surrogate measure of ecosystem function by capturing the range, abundance and distribution of trait values in a community. Enhanced understanding of the responses of FD to measures of vegetation structure at landscape scales is needed to guide conservation management. To address this knowledge gap, we used a whole-of-landscape sampling approach to examine relationships between bird FD, vegetation diversity and time since fire. We surveyed birds and measured vegetation at 36 landscape sampling units in dry and wet forest in southeast Australia during 2010 and 2011. Four uncorrelated indices of bird FD (richness, evenness, divergence and dispersion) were derived from six bird traits, and we investigated responses of these indices and species richness to both vertical and horizontal vegetation diversity using linear mixed models. We also considered the extent to which the mean and diversity of time since fire were related to vegetation diversity. Results showed opposing responses of FD to vegetation diversity in dry and wet forest. In dry forest, where fire is frequent, species richness and two FD indices (richness and dispersion) were positively related to vertical vegetation diversity, consistent with theory relating to environmental variation and coexistence. However, in wet forest subject to infrequent fire, the same three response variables were negatively associated with vertical diversity. We suggest that competitive dominance by species results in lower FD as vegetation diversity increases in wet forest. The responses of functional evenness were opposite to those of species richness, functional richness and dispersion in both forest types, highlighting the value of examining multiple FD metrics at management-relevant scales. The mean and diversity of time since fire were uncorrelated with vegetation

  11. Opposing Responses of Bird Functional Diversity to Vegetation Structural Diversity in Wet and Dry Forest.

    PubMed

    Sitters, Holly; York, Alan; Swan, Matthew; Christie, Fiona; Di Stefano, Julian

    2016-01-01

    Disturbance regimes are changing worldwide, and the consequences for ecosystem function and resilience are largely unknown. Functional diversity (FD) provides a surrogate measure of ecosystem function by capturing the range, abundance and distribution of trait values in a community. Enhanced understanding of the responses of FD to measures of vegetation structure at landscape scales is needed to guide conservation management. To address this knowledge gap, we used a whole-of-landscape sampling approach to examine relationships between bird FD, vegetation diversity and time since fire. We surveyed birds and measured vegetation at 36 landscape sampling units in dry and wet forest in southeast Australia during 2010 and 2011. Four uncorrelated indices of bird FD (richness, evenness, divergence and dispersion) were derived from six bird traits, and we investigated responses of these indices and species richness to both vertical and horizontal vegetation diversity using linear mixed models. We also considered the extent to which the mean and diversity of time since fire were related to vegetation diversity. Results showed opposing responses of FD to vegetation diversity in dry and wet forest. In dry forest, where fire is frequent, species richness and two FD indices (richness and dispersion) were positively related to vertical vegetation diversity, consistent with theory relating to environmental variation and coexistence. However, in wet forest subject to infrequent fire, the same three response variables were negatively associated with vertical diversity. We suggest that competitive dominance by species results in lower FD as vegetation diversity increases in wet forest. The responses of functional evenness were opposite to those of species richness, functional richness and dispersion in both forest types, highlighting the value of examining multiple FD metrics at management-relevant scales. The mean and diversity of time since fire were uncorrelated with vegetation

  12. Forest vegetation of eastern Washington and northern Idaho

    Treesearch

    R. Daubenmire; Jean B. Daubenmire

    1968-01-01

    The forest vegetation of the northern Rocky Mountains is potentially a rather simple mosaic determined by macroclimate, microclimate, soil fertility and soil drainage. In actuality, however, the vegetation consists mainly of a wide variety of intergrading, disturbance-induced communities that are difficult to treat except as developmental series related to...

  13. Wildlife species associated with non-coniferous vegetation in Pacific Northwest conifer forests: A review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hagar, J.C.

    2007-01-01

    Non-coniferous vegetation, including herbs, shrubs, and broad-leaved trees, makes a vital contribution to ecosystem function and diversity in Pacific Northwest conifer forests. However, forest management has largely been indifferent or detrimental to shrubs and trees that have low commercial value, in spite of a paradigm shift towards more holistic management in recent decades. Forest management practices that are detrimental to broad-leaved trees and shrubs are likely to decrease habitat diversity for wildlife, but the number of species that may be affected has not previously been enumerated. I reviewed life history accounts for forest-dwelling vertebrate wildlife species and derived a list of 78 species in Oregon and Washington that are associated with non-coniferous vegetation. The diversity of direct and indirect food resources provided was the primary functional basis for associations of most species with non-coniferous vegetation. Thus, a diversity of herbs and broad-leaved trees and shrubs provides the foundation for food webs that contribute to diversity at multiple trophic levels in Pacific Northwest conifer forests. Given the number of species associated with non-coniferous vegetation in conifer-dominated forests, maintaining habitats that support diverse plant communities, particularly broad-leaved trees and shrubs, will be an important component of management strategies intended to foster biodiversity. Silvicultural practices such as modified planting densities, and pre-commercial and commercial thinning, can be used to control stand density in order to favor the development of understory herbs, shrubs, and a diversity of tree species within managed stands. Allowing shrubs and hardwood trees to develop and persist in early seral stands by curtailing vegetation control also would benefit many species associated with non-coniferous vegetation.

  14. Photo series for quantifying forest residues in managed lands of the Medicine Bow National Forest

    Treesearch

    John B. Popp; John E. Lundquist

    2006-01-01

    This photo series presents a visual representation of a range of fuel loading conditions specifically found on the Medicine Bow National Forest. The photos are grouped by forest type and past management practices. This field guide describes the distribution of different types of woody fuels and includes some vegetation data.

  15. Landscape ecology and forest management

    Treesearch

    Thomas R. Crow

    1999-01-01

    Almost all forest management activities affect landscape pattern to some extent. Among the most obvious impacts are those associated with forest harvesting and road building. These activities profoundly affect the size, shape, and configuration of patches in the landscape matrix. Even-age management such as clearcutting has been applied in blocks of uniform size, shape...

  16. Silviculture and forest management under a rapidly changing climate

    Treesearch

    Carl N. Skinner

    2007-01-01

    Climate determines where and how forests grow. Particularly in the West, precipitation patterns regulate forest growth rates. Wet years promote "boom" vegetative conditions, while drought years promote "bust." Are managers safe in assuming that tomorrow’s climate will mimic that of the last several decades? For the last ~100 to ~150 years, climate...

  17. Managing swiss forests: when climate intervenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Combe, Jean

    For more than a century, forest management in Switzerland has been based on a philosophy attuned to nature. Silviculture which imitates natural cycles and processes is believed to promote the growth of healthy, stable forests. Because of the diversity of species and ages, which are often mixed on a small scale, forest stands are able to resist many extremes of climate and, in the event of damage (mainly due to windthrow and snow breakage), the natural forest ecosystem can recover rapidly from total destruction thanks to abundant natural regeneration. Over the long term, Swiss foresters have become accustomed to harvesting 20% of the annual production as "storm timber". The most serious natural disasters are mainly due to extremes of one single climatic factor; e.g. Hurricane Vivian in 1990, which toppled over almost five million m3 of timber — the equivalent of Switzerland's average yearly timber harvest. For a forest manager, however, it is interesting to analyse the less spectacular damage which occurs annually in natural forest stands and accounts for between 12 and 20% of the annual harvest. It appears that a combination of two or three climatic factors has a much greater effect on forest stability than an extreme of one single factor. Wind speeds of up to 100 km/hour may often be harmless to forests, whereas lower speeds may uproot mature trees over a wide area if the soil is waterlogged following a long period of rain. This kind of damage can occur throughout the year in coniferous stands, whereas broadleaved species growing in waterlogged soils may resist winds if this climatic combination comes when the vegetation period is over and they have lost their leaves. A number of such patterns of damage to forest stands is presented and their dependence on the occurrence of a combination of specific climatic factors is proposed.

  18. Watering the forest for the trees: an emerging priority for managing water in forest landscapes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grant, Gordon E.; Tague, Christina L.; Allen, Craig D.

    2013-01-01

    Widespread threats to forests resulting from drought stress are prompting a re-evaluation of priorities for water management on forest lands. In contrast to the widely held view that forest management should emphasize providing water for downstream uses, we argue that maintaining forest health in the context of a changing climate may require focusing on the forests themselves and on strategies to reduce their vulnerability to increasing water stress. Management strategies would need to be tailored to specific landscapes but could include thinning, planting and selecting for drought-tolerant species, irrigating, and making more water available to plants for transpiration. Hydrologic modeling reveals that specific management actions could reduce tree mortality due to drought stress. Adopting water conservation for vegetation as a priority for managing water on forested lands would represent a fundamental change in perspective and potentially involve trade-offs with other downstream uses of water.

  19. Coppice abandonment and its implications for species diversity in forest vegetation.

    PubMed

    Müllerová, Jana; Hédl, Radim; Szabó, Péter

    2015-05-01

    Coppicing, once a common type of management in European broadleaved forests, was abandoned in many places after WWII. This form of management provided a variety of structural and microclimatic conditions for tree and understorey vegetation. After the abandonment of this intensive management, succession towards mature close forests ensued, and suitable habitats for species ecologically connected to coppicing were reduced. In our study, we chose a region in central Europe where coppicing was the dominant type of forest management until the first half of the 20(th) century but was abandoned after WWII. We investigated long-term changes in both woody and herbaceous species composition in the Lower Morava UNESCO Biosphere Reserve using historical sources and vegetation plot resurveys from the 17(th) to the 21(st) century. The impact of coppice abandonment on vegetation composition and on the conservation value of forests was evaluated. Dominant tree species appeared to be very stable throughout the past four centuries, but changes occurred in their proportions. A shift from species rich oak-hornbeam woodland towards species poorer communities with increasing proportions of lime, ash and maple was observed after the abandonment of coppicing. The observed tendencies partly differed according to site and data source. The conservation value of forests was measured as the occurrence of red-list species, which were considerably reduced after coppice abandonment. To stop the process of biodiversity loss and support the goals of nature conservation, the re-establishment of coppice management is proposed.

  20. Terrestrial forest management plan for Palmyra Atoll

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hathaway, Stacie A.; McEachern, Kathryn; Fisher, Robert N.

    2011-01-01

    This 'Terrestrial Forest Management Plan for Palmyra Atoll' was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for The Nature Conservancy (TNC) Palmyra Program to refine and expand goals and objectives developed through the Conservation Action Plan process. It is one in a series of adaptive management plans designed to achieve TNC's mission toward the protection and enhancement of native wildlife and habitat. The 'Terrestrial Forest Management Plan for Palmyra Atoll' focuses on ecosystem integrity and specifically identifies and addresses issues related to assessing the status and distribution of resources, as well as the pressures acting upon them, most specifically nonnative and potentially invasive species. The plan, which presents strategies for increasing ecosystem integrity, provides a framework to implement and track the progress of conservation and restoration goals related to terrestrial resources on Palmyra Atoll. The report in its present form is intended to be an overview of what is known about historical and current forest resources; it is not an exhaustive review of all available literature relevant to forest management but an attempt to assemble as much information specific to Palmyra Atoll as possible. Palmyra Atoll is one of the Northern Line Islands in the Pacific Ocean southwest of the Hawai`ian Islands. It consists of many heavily vegetated islets arranged in a horseshoe pattern around four lagoons and surrounded by a coral reef. The terrestrial ecosystem consists of three primary native vegetation types: Pisonia grandis forest, coastal strand forest, and grassland. Among these vegetation types, the health and extent of Pisonia grandis forest is of particular concern. Overall, the three vegetation types support 25 native plant species (two of which may be extirpated), 14 species of sea birds, six shore birds, at least one native reptile, at least seven native insects, and six native land crabs. Green and hawksbill turtles forage at Palmyra Atoll

  1. Ordination of Woody Vegetation in a Ouachita National Forest Watershed

    Treesearch

    Denise Marion; George Malanson

    2004-01-01

    Abstract - Species response to competition and other environmental gradients has important implications for forest ecosystem managers who desire to both maintain diversity and provide a sustained flow of forest goods and services. Woody species on a 140-acre watershed in the Ouachita National Forest are ordinated with detrended correspondence...

  2. Environmental assessment: Tenderfoot Creek Experimental Forest Vegetative Treatment Research Project

    Treesearch

    Gloria E. Flora; Ward McCaughey

    1998-01-01

    The Tenderfoot Creek Experimental Forest (TCEF) is a 9,125 acre experimental forest located in the western portion of the Little Belt Mountains. The TCEF was established as an experimental forest in 1961 for the development of management techniques for harvesting lodgepole pine while maintaining soil stability. The research emphasis was expanded in 1991 to develop and...

  3. Forests in transition: Post-epidemic vegetation conditions [Chapter 4

    Treesearch

    Rob Hubbard; Michael Battaglia; Chuck Rhoades; Jim Thinnes; Tom Martin; Jeff Underhill; Mark Westfahl

    2014-01-01

    More than 23 million acres of lodgepole pine forests across the western U.S. have experienced overstory mortality following the recent mountain pine beetle (MPB) epidemic (USDA Forest Service 2013). Unknowns regarding the immediate and long-term consequences of the epidemic challenge the ability of managers to make informed decisions aimed at sustaining forest health...

  4. Influence of environment, disturbance, and ownership on forest vegetation of coastal Oregon.

    PubMed

    Ohmann, Janet L; Gregory, Matthew J; Spies, Thomas A

    2007-01-01

    Information about how vegetation composition and structure vary quantitatively and spatially with physical environment, disturbance history, and land ownership is fundamental to regional conservation planning. However, current knowledge about patterns of vegetation variability across large regions that is spatially explicit (i.e., mapped) tends to be general and qualitative. We used spatial predictions from gradient models to examine the influence of environment, disturbance, and ownership on patterns of forest vegetation biodiversity across a large forested region, the 3-million-ha Oregon Coast Range (USA). Gradients in tree species composition were strongly associated with environment, especially climate, and insensitive to disturbance, probably because many dominant tree species are long-lived and persist throughout forest succession. In contrast, forest structure was strongly correlated with disturbance and only weakly with environmental gradients. Although forest structure differed among ownerships, differences were blurred by the presence of legacy trees that originated prior to current forest management regimes. Our multi-ownership perspective revealed biodiversity concerns and benefits not readily visible in single-ownership analyses, and all ownerships contributed to regional biodiversity values. Federal lands provided most of the late-successional and old-growth forest. State lands contained a range of forest ages and structures, including diverse young forest, abundant legacy dead wood, and much of the high-elevation true fir forest. Nonindustrial private lands provided diverse young forest and the greatest abundance of hardwood trees, including almost all of the foothill oak woodlands. Forest industry lands encompassed much early-successional forest, most of the mixed hardwood-conifer forest, and large amounts of legacy down wood. The detailed tree- and species-level data in the maps revealed regional trends that would be masked in traditional coarse

  5. White-tailed deer impact on the vegetation dynamics of a northern hardwood forest

    Treesearch

    Stephen B. Horsley; Susan L. Stout; David S. deCalesta; David S. deCalesta

    2003-01-01

    Considerable controversy has arisen over the management of white-tailed deer in eastern landscapes where there is evidence of damage to forest vegetation, crops, and wildlife habitat attributable to deer. We examined the impact of 4, 8, 15, and 25 deer/km2 on herbaceous layer abundance and tree seedling density, height development, species composition, and diversity...

  6. Presettlement fire regime and vegetation mapping in Southeastern Coastal Plain forest ecosystems

    Treesearch

    Andrew D. Bailey; Robert Mickler; Cecil Frost

    2007-01-01

    Fire-adapted forest ecosystems make up 95 percent of the historic Coastal Plain vegetation types in the Southeastern United States. Fire suppression over the last century has altered the species composition of these ecosystems, increased fuel loads, and increased wildfire risk. Prescribed fire is one management tool used to reduce fuel loading and restore fire-adapted...

  7. Intentional systems management: managing forests for biodiversity.

    Treesearch

    A.B. Carey; B.R. Lippke; J. Sessions

    1999-01-01

    Conservation of biodiversity provides for economic, social, and environmental sustainability. Intentional management is designed to manage conflicts among groups with conflicting interests. Our goal was to ascertain if intentional management and principles of conservation of biodiversity could be combined into upland and riparian forest management strategies that would...

  8. Bark beetle responses to vegetation management practices

    Treesearch

    Joel D. McMillin; Christopher J. Fettig

    2009-01-01

    Native tree-killing bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) are a natural component of forest ecosystems. Eradication is neither possible nor desirable and periodic outbreaks will occur as long as susceptible forests and favorable climatic conditions co-exist. Recent changes in forest structure and tree composition by natural processes and management...

  9. Climate-induced changes in forest disturbance and vegetation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Overpeck, Jonathan T.; Rind, David; Goldberg, Richard

    1990-01-01

    New and published climate-model results are discussed which indicate that global warming favors increased rates of forest disturbance as a result of weather more likely to cause forest fires, convective wind storms, coastal flooding, and hurricanes. New sensitivity tests carried out with a vegetation model indicate that climate-induced increases in disturbance could, in turn, significantly alter the total biomass and compositional response of forests to future warming. An increase in disturbance frequency is also likely to increase the rate at which natural vegetation responses to future climate change. The results reinforce the hypothesis that forests could be significantly altered by the first part of the next century. The modeling also confirms the potential utility of selected time series of fossil pollen data for investigating the poorly understood natural patterns of century-scale climate variability.

  10. Climate-induced changes in forest disturbance and vegetation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Overpeck, Jonathan T.; Rind, David; Goldberg, Richard

    1990-01-01

    New and published climate-model results are discussed which indicate that global warming favors increased rates of forest disturbance as a result of weather more likely to cause forest fires, convective wind storms, coastal flooding, and hurricanes. New sensitivity tests carried out with a vegetation model indicate that climate-induced increases in disturbance could, in turn, significantly alter the total biomass and compositional response of forests to future warming. An increase in disturbance frequency is also likely to increase the rate at which natural vegetation responses to future climate change. The results reinforce the hypothesis that forests could be significantly altered by the first part of the next century. The modeling also confirms the potential utility of selected time series of fossil pollen data for investigating the poorly understood natural patterns of century-scale climate variability.

  11. Recovery of trailside vegetation from trampling in a tropical rain forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boucher, Douglas H.; Aviles, Jeannette; Chepote, Rafael; Domínguez Gil, Oscar E.; Vilchez, Braulio

    1991-03-01

    Practically no information exists on the impact of human trampling on tropical rain forest vegetation. We studied three trails with varying periods of use and recovery in a tropical rain forest in Costa Rica. Human impact on trailside plants was curvilinearly related to use, as found by other workers in temperate zone vegetation. Recovery in a period of two years and eight months had been rapid, and herbs and seedlings were more abundant along the recovering trail than in undisturbed forest. The results imply that a shifting mosaic of trails, analogous to the mosaic created by light gaps, may be the best management technique to minimize the impact of human visitors in tropical rain forests.

  12. Vegetation recovery on closed paths in temperate deciduous forests.

    PubMed

    Roovers, Pieter; Bossuyt, Beatrijs; Gulinck, Hubert; Hermy, Martin

    2005-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate vegetation recovery on footpaths in woodland that have been closed for access for 6 years. A vegetation survey was conducted in four mesophile forests, in transects perpendicular to the trail. Analyses concentrated on the direction and rate of the recovery process. Vegetation on trail sides in these ecosystems recovered substantially. Non-metric multidimensional scaling based upon species composition separated the four sample locations and each cluster contained representatives of the three major trail zones: path centre, transition and undisturbed zones. Analysis of distribution of life forms, plant strategies and seedbank longevity indices showed no differences between trail zones. This indicates that vegetation on the path centre is likely to recover towards the plant composition of the undisturbed zone. Ellenberg values indicate that environmental variation is not related to former path structures, as significant variability was only observed between the forest sites. Furthermore, the analysis concentrated on characteristics of species relevant to the recovery process.

  13. Ground vegetation reduces forest floor net CH4 uptake in a boreal upland forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pihlatie, Mari; Kieloaho, Antti-Jussi; Halmeenmäki, Elisa; Ryhti, Kira; Heinonsalo, Jussi

    2017-04-01

    Boreal upland forests are considered as an important sink for the greenhouse gas methane (CH4) due to CH4 oxidizing microbes in the soil. Recent studies have reported significant CH4 emissions from trees in both upland and wetland forests, however, contribution of ground vegetation to the net CH4 exchange has not been assessed. As the processes and process drivers of the CH4 emissions from vegetation are still poorly understood, partitioning the CH4 exchange in forest ecosystems to soil, ground vegetation and trees is a way to improve our understanding of the CH4 cycling processes in forest ecosystems. We measured the forest floor CH4 exchange at a Scots pine dominated boreal upland forest in Southern Finland (SMEAR II station) during the growing season 2015. The forest floor consisted of mostly shrubs of bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus), lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea), heather (Calluna vulgaris), and forest floor mosses (Pleurozium schreberi, Hylocomium splendens, and Dicranum polysetum). We measured the CH4 fluxes using transparent chambers under three vegetation treatments: normal vegetation (normal), shrubs only (shrubs), and non-vegetated (cut), and under three soil trenching treatments: control, 50 μm mesh (roots of trees and shrubs excluded), and 1 μm mesh (roots of trees and shrubs, and microbes excluded). Forest floor acted as a sink of CH4 in all the vegetation and trenching treatments. Presence of ground layer vegetation significantly reduced the forest floor CH4 uptake, whereas soil trenching did not affect the CH4 exchange. Over the period of May - October 2015, the mean forest floor CH4 fluxes were -53.7 (± 3.1 SE), -96.7 (± 3.7), and -91.4 (± 4.3) μg CH4 m2 h-1 from normal, shrubs and cut treatments, respectively. The presence of ground vegetation hence nearly halved the forest floor CH4 uptake compared to the shrubs only and cut treatments. As the largest difference between normal and shrubs treatments were the absence of mosses, our

  14. Assessing rates of forest change and fragmentation in Alabama, USA, using the vegetation change tracker model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Li, M.; Huang, C.; Zhu, Z.; Shi, H.; Lu, H.; Peng, S.

    2009-01-01

    Forest change is of great concern for land use decision makers and conservation communities. Quantitative and spatial forest change information is critical for addressing many pressing issues, including global climate change, carbon budgets, and sustainability. In this study, our analysis focuses on the differences in geospatial patterns and their changes between federal forests and nonfederal forests in Alabama over the time period 1987–2005, by interpreting 163 Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) scenes using a vegetation change tracker (VCT) model. Our analysis revealed that for the most part of 1990 s and between 2000 and 2005, Alabama lost about 2% of its forest on an annual basis due to disturbances, but much of the losses were balanced by forest regeneration from previous disturbances. The disturbance maps revealed that federal forests were reasonably well protected, with the fragmentation remaining relatively stable over time. In contrast, nonfederal forests, which are predominant in area share (about 95%), were heavily disturbed, clearly demonstrating decreasing levels of fragmentation during the time period 1987–1993 giving way to a subsequent accelerating fragmentation during the time period 1994–2005. Additionally, the identification of the statistical relationships between forest fragmentation status and forest loss rate and forest net change rate in relation to land ownership implied the distinct differences in forest cutting rate and cutting patterns between federal forests and nonfederal forests. The forest spatial change information derived from the model has provided valuable insights regarding regional forest management practices and disturbance regimes, which are closely associated with regional economics and environmental concerns.

  15. Effects of fireplace use on forest vegetation and amount of woody debris in suburban forests in northwestern Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Hegetschweiler, K Tessa; van Loon, Nicole; Ryser, Annette; Rusterholz, Hans-Peter; Baur, Bruno

    2009-02-01

    Urban forests are popular recreation areas in Europe. Several of these temperate broad-leaved forests also have a high conservation value due to sustainable management over many centuries. Recreational activities, particularly the use of fireplaces, can cause extensive damage to soil, ground vegetation, shrubs, and trees. Firewood collection depletes woody debris, leading to a loss of habitat for specialized organisms. We examined the effects of fireplace use on forest vegetation and the amount of woody debris by comparing disturbed and control plots in suburban forests in northwestern Switzerland. At frequently used fireplaces, we found reduced species densities in the ground vegetation and shrub layer and changes in plant species composition due to human trampling within an area of 150-200 m(2). Picnicking and grilling also reduced the height and changed the age structure of shrubs and young trees. The amount of woody debris was lower in disturbed plots than in control plots. Pieces of wood with a diameter of 0.6-7.6 cm were preferentially collected by fireplace users. The reduction in woody debris volume extended up to a distance of 16 m from the fire ring, covering an area of 800 m(2) at each picnic site. In order to preserve the ecological integrity of urban forests and to maintain their attractiveness as important recreation areas, we suggest depositing logging residues to be used as firewood and to restrict visitor movements near picnic sites.

  16. Description of Vegetation in Several Periodically Burned Longleaf Pine Forests on the Kisatchie National Forest

    Treesearch

    James D. Haywood; Finis L. Harris

    1999-01-01

    Abstract - In January 1993, the Kisatchie National Forest and Southern Research Station began a cooperative project on two Ranger Districts to monitor how prescribed burning affects tree, shrub, and herbaceous vegetation in upland longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) forests in Louisiana. Longleaf pine is the dominant species on...

  17. Seeing the trees for the forest: mapping vegetation biodiversity in coastal Oregon forests.

    Treesearch

    Sally. Duncan

    2003-01-01

    In order to address policy issues relating to biodiversity, productivity, and sustainability, we need detailed understanding of forest vegetation at broad geographic and time scales. Most existing maps developed from satellite imagery describe only general characteristics of the upper canopy. Detailed vegetation data are available from regional grids of field plots,...

  18. Snow and Vegetation Interactions at Boundaries in Alaska's Boreal Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiemstra, C. A.; Sturm, M.

    2012-12-01

    There has been increased attention on snow-vegetation interactions in Arctic tundra because of rapid climate-driven changes affecting that snow-dominated ecosystem. Yet, far less attention is paid to boreal forest snow-vegetation interactions even though climatic conditions are changing there as well. Further, it is the prevalent terrestrial biome on the planet. The forest is a variable patchwork of trees, shrubs, grasses, and forbs shaped by wind, fire, topography, water drainage, and permafrost. These patches and their boundaries have a corresponding effect on boreal snow distributions; however, measurements characterizing boreal snow are sparse and focus within patches (vs. between patches). Unfortunately, remote sensing approaches in such forested areas frequently fall short due to coarse footprint size and dense canopy cover. Over the last several years we have been examining the characteristics of snow cover within and across boundaries in the boreal forest, seeking to identify gradients in snow depth due to snow-vegetation interactions as well identifying methods whereby boreal forest surveys could be improved. Specifically, we collected end-of-season snow measurements in the Alaska boreal forest during long-distance traverses in the Tanana Basin in 2010 (26 sites) and within the Yukon Flats National Wildlife Refuge in 2011 (26 sites). At each site (all relatively flat), hundreds of snow depths were collected using a GPS-equipped Magnaprobe, which is an automated tool for measuring and locating individual snow depths. Corresponding canopy properties included NDVI determined from high-resolution satellite imagery; canopy properties were variable among the 1ha sites and some areas had recently burned. Among sites, NDVI had the largest correlation with snow depths; elevation was not significant. Vegetation transition zones play important roles in explaining observed snow depth. Similar to treeline work showing nutrient and energy gradients are influenced by

  19. Ecological modeling for forest management in the Shawnee National Forest

    Treesearch

    Richard G. Thurau; J.F. Fralish; S. Hupe; B. Fitch; A.D. Carver

    2008-01-01

    Land managers of the Shawnee National Forest in southern Illinois are challenged to meet the needs of a diverse populace of stakeholders. By classifying National Forest holdings into management units, U.S. Forest Service personnel can spatially allocate resources and services to meet local management objectives. Ecological Classification Systems predict ecological site...

  20. Rare Plants of the Redwood Forest and Forest Management Effects

    Treesearch

    Teresa Sholars; Clare Golec

    2007-01-01

    Coast redwood forests are predominantly a timber managed habitat type, subjected to repeated disturbances and short rotation periods. What does this repeated disturbance mean for rare plants associated with the redwood forests? Rare plant persistence through forest management activities is influenced by many factors. Persistence of rare plants in a managed landscape is...

  1. Managed forest reserves: preserving diversity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tappeiner, John; Poage, Nathan; Erickson, Janet L.

    2003-01-01

    Background As part of the Northwest Forest Plan, large areas have been designated on many federal forests in western Oregon to provide critical habitat for plants and animals that are associated with old-growth habitat. Some of the structural characteristics often considered typical of old forests include large-diameter overstory trees, large standing and fallen dead trees, and one or more understory layers (Figure 1). However, not all of these areas are currently in old-growth conditions. Many of them contain young (<40 years), uniformly dense Douglas-fir stands that regenerated after timber harvest. The original management goal for these stands was to produce high yields of timber and associated wood products. With implementation of the Northwest Forest Plan in 1994, the management objective shifted to accelerating development of old-growth characteristics by enhancing structural and biological diversity of these areas. A major challenge today is how to promote these structural characteristics in younger stands. Researchers have been asking if lessons can be learned from the development of our current old growth and applied to management of younger stands. Dr. John Tappeiner and his university and agency research partners are helping to answer this question by examining the differences in development between old-growth and young stands in western Oregon. Understanding how the structure of these old forests developed may provide a model for management of young stands, especially when the management goal is to provide habitat for species associated with older forests.

  2. Evaluation of forest management systems under risk of wildfire

    Treesearch

    Kari Hyytiainen; Robert G. Haight

    2010-01-01

    We evaluate the economic efficiency of even- and uneven-aged management systems under risk of wildfire. The management problems are formulated for a mixed-conifer stand and approximations of the optimal solutions are obtained using simulation optimization. The Northern Idaho variant of the Forest Vegetation Simulator and its Fire and Fuels Extension is used to predict...

  3. Freeway roadside management: the urban forest beyond the white line

    Treesearch

    Kathleen. Wolf

    2003-01-01

    A national survey was conducted in the United States to learn more about public preferences and perceptions regarding forest and vegetation planning and management in urban freeway roadsides. In response to images depicting a visual continuum of landscape management treatments, drivers most preferred settings having tree plantings that...

  4. Vegetation change impacts on soil organic carbon chemical composition in subtropical forests

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xiaoping; Meng, Miaojing; Zhang, Jinchi; Chen, Han Y. H.

    2016-01-01

    Changes in the chemical composition of soil organic carbon (SOC) might strongly affect the global carbon cycle as it controls the SOC decomposition rate. Vegetation change associated with long-term land use changes is known to strongly impact the chemical composition of SOC; however, data on the impacts of vegetation change following disturbance events of short durations and succession that occur frequently in forest ecosystems via diverse management objectives on SOC chemical composition are negligible. Here we examined the impacts of vegetation changes on the chemical composition of SOC by sampling soils of native broad-leaved forests, planted mixed broad-leaved and coniferous forests, and tea gardens in eastern China. We used nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to quantify SOC chemical composition. We found that among all components of SOC chemical composition, alkyl carbon (C) and aryl C were more liable to change with vegetation than other SOC components. Soil pH was negatively correlated to the relative abundances of alkyl C and N-alkyl C, and Shannon’s index of overstory plant species was positively correlated to the relative abundances of phenolic C and aromaticity. Our results suggest that vegetation changes following short disturbance events and succession may strongly alter SOC chemical composition in forest ecosystems. PMID:27403714

  5. Vegetation change impacts on soil organic carbon chemical composition in subtropical forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xiaoping; Meng, Miaojing; Zhang, Jinchi; Chen, Han Y. H.

    2016-07-01

    Changes in the chemical composition of soil organic carbon (SOC) might strongly affect the global carbon cycle as it controls the SOC decomposition rate. Vegetation change associated with long-term land use changes is known to strongly impact the chemical composition of SOC; however, data on the impacts of vegetation change following disturbance events of short durations and succession that occur frequently in forest ecosystems via diverse management objectives on SOC chemical composition are negligible. Here we examined the impacts of vegetation changes on the chemical composition of SOC by sampling soils of native broad-leaved forests, planted mixed broad-leaved and coniferous forests, and tea gardens in eastern China. We used nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to quantify SOC chemical composition. We found that among all components of SOC chemical composition, alkyl carbon (C) and aryl C were more liable to change with vegetation than other SOC components. Soil pH was negatively correlated to the relative abundances of alkyl C and N-alkyl C, and Shannon’s index of overstory plant species was positively correlated to the relative abundances of phenolic C and aromaticity. Our results suggest that vegetation changes following short disturbance events and succession may strongly alter SOC chemical composition in forest ecosystems.

  6. Vegetation change impacts on soil organic carbon chemical composition in subtropical forests.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaoping; Meng, Miaojing; Zhang, Jinchi; Chen, Han Y H

    2016-07-11

    Changes in the chemical composition of soil organic carbon (SOC) might strongly affect the global carbon cycle as it controls the SOC decomposition rate. Vegetation change associated with long-term land use changes is known to strongly impact the chemical composition of SOC; however, data on the impacts of vegetation change following disturbance events of short durations and succession that occur frequently in forest ecosystems via diverse management objectives on SOC chemical composition are negligible. Here we examined the impacts of vegetation changes on the chemical composition of SOC by sampling soils of native broad-leaved forests, planted mixed broad-leaved and coniferous forests, and tea gardens in eastern China. We used nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to quantify SOC chemical composition. We found that among all components of SOC chemical composition, alkyl carbon (C) and aryl C were more liable to change with vegetation than other SOC components. Soil pH was negatively correlated to the relative abundances of alkyl C and N-alkyl C, and Shannon's index of overstory plant species was positively correlated to the relative abundances of phenolic C and aromaticity. Our results suggest that vegetation changes following short disturbance events and succession may strongly alter SOC chemical composition in forest ecosystems.

  7. Education and Training in Natural Forest Management. Training Discussion Paper No. 88.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longo, Alceu Natal

    A program for natural forest management in developing countries consists of several integrated projects. Although aimed at establishing norms and criteria for natural forest management in Mata Atlantica (Atlantic Forest) in southern Brazil, the norms also apply to other types of tropical vegetation in order to ensure continuous economic…

  8. Education and Training in Natural Forest Management. Training Discussion Paper No. 88.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longo, Alceu Natal

    A program for natural forest management in developing countries consists of several integrated projects. Although aimed at establishing norms and criteria for natural forest management in Mata Atlantica (Atlantic Forest) in southern Brazil, the norms also apply to other types of tropical vegetation in order to ensure continuous economic…

  9. The role of vegetation in the stability of forested slopes

    Treesearch

    Robert R. Ziemer

    1981-01-01

    Summary - Vegetation helps stabilize forested slopes by providing root strength and by modifying the saturated soil water regime. Plant roots can anchor through the soil mass into fractures in bedrock, can cross zones of weakness to more stable soil, and can provide interlocking long fibrous binders within a weak soil mass. In Mediterranean-type climates, having warm...

  10. Effect of certain chemical attributes of vegetation on forest inflammability

    Treesearch

    Leon W. Richards

    1940-01-01

    Forest Service administrators and fire-research men have long felt the need of information concerning the effect of vegetation such as shrubs, grasses, and forbs (nongrasslike herbs) on the rate of spread of fires. To date, all knowledge of the subject has been acquired empirically in the field, or deduced from knowledge of fire behavior as influenced by the condition...

  11. Measuring Tree Seedlings and Associated Understory Vegetation in Pennsylvania's Forests

    Treesearch

    William H. McWilliams; Todd W. Bowersox; Patrick H. Brose; Daniel A. Devlin; James C. Finley; Kurt W. Gottschalk; Steve Horsley; Susan L. King; Brian M. LaPoint; Tonya W. Lister; Larry H. McCormick; Gary W. Miller; Charles T. Scott; Harry Steele; Kim C. Steiner; Susan L. Stout; James A. Westfall; Robert L. White

    2005-01-01

    The Northeastern Research Station's Forest Inventory and Analysis (NE-FIA) unit is conducting the Pennsylvania Regeneration Study (PRS) to evaluate composition and abundance of tree seedlings and associated vegetation. Sampling methods for the PRS were tested and developed in a pilot study to determine the appropriate number of 2-m microplots needed to capture...

  12. Soil and vegetation response to soil compaction and forest floor removal after aspen harvesting. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Alban, D.H.; Host, G.E.; Elioff, J.D.; Shadis, D.

    1994-01-01

    Reduced soil porosity and organic matter removal have been identified as common factors associated with loss of forest productivity (Powers et al. 1990). In both agriculture and forestry, management activities can modify soil porosity and organic matter with resultant impacts on vegetative growth. As part of a nationwide long-term soil productivity (LTSP) study soil porosity and organic matter are being experimentally manipulated on large plots to determine the impacts of such manipulations on growth and species diversity for a wide range of forest types.

  13. Forest edges: Effects on vegetation, environmental gradients and local avian communities in the Sierra Juarez, Oaxaca, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burcsu, Theresa Katherine

    Edge effects are among the most serious threats to forest integrity because as global forest cover decreases overall, forest edge influence increases proportionally, driving habitat change and loss. Edge effects occur at the division between adjacent habitat types. Our understanding of edge effects comes mainly from tropical wet, temperate and boreal forests. Because forest structure in moisture-limited forests differs from wetter forest types, edge dynamics are likely to differ as well. Moreover, dry forests in the tropics have been nearly eliminated or exist only as forest fragments, making edge influence an important conservation and management concern for remaining dry forests. This study addresses this gap in the edge influence knowledge by examining created, regenerating edges associated with forest management in a seasonally dry pine-oak forest of Oaxaca, creating a new data point in edge effects research. In this study I used Landsat TM imagery and a modified semivariance analysis to estimate the distance of edge influence for vegetation. I also used field methods to characterize forest structure and estimate edge influence on canopy and subcanopy vegetation. To finalize the project I extended the study to bird assemblages to identify responses and habitat preferences to local-scale changes associated with regenerating edges created by group-selection timber harvest. Remote sensing analysis estimated that the distance of edge influence was 30-90 m from the edge. Vegetation analysis suggested that edge effects were weak relative to wetter forest types and that remote sensing data did not provide an estimate that was directly applicable to field-measured vegetative edge effects. The bird assemblages likewise responded weakly to habitat change associated with edge effect. Open canopy structure, simple vertical stratigraphy, and topographic variation create forest conditions in which small openings do not create a high contrast to undisturbed forest. Thus, in

  14. [Dynamics of major forest vegetations in Tiantong National Forest Park during the last 30 years].

    PubMed

    Wu, Yang-Yang; Guo, Chun-Zi; Ni, Jian

    2014-06-01

    The study of vegetation succession and development is not only one of the hot spots of modern ecology, but also a key issue of the sustainable development of human society, especially under the circumstances of climate change and anthropogenic disturbance. A comparison of forest communities in the Tiantong National Forest Park (TNFP) in Zhejiang Province, eastern China from 1982 to 2012 was performed. Six forests in the park were investigated, including the typical evergreen broadleaved forest (EBLF, three sub-associations), evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved mixed forest (EDBLMF), evergreen conifer forest (ECF) and bamboo forest (BF). Data from two field investigations in 1982 and 2012, respectively, were used to analyze the changes of species composition, community structure and species diversity during the past 30 years. The spatial pattern and community structure of the forest vegetation in the TNFP did not obviously change. The spatial distribution of plant communities did not significantly shifted. The proportion of young trees and individuals in small diameters increased. The regeneration status of communities was healthy and the natural regeneration ability of communities was enhanced. The species diversity of the TNFP forests showed an increasing trend in the tree layer and a decreasing trend in the shrub and herb layers. Meanwhile, the evergreen component increased. Along with the changed climate, forest vegetation in the TNFP was developing towards the forward succession. Species diversity, especially the trees, increased with the increase of temperature. This demonstrated that, on one hand, forest vegetation in Tiantong had been well protected; on the other hand, there was a potential positive relationship between the EBLF succession and climate change.

  15. Vegetation of forested uplands in the Massabesic Experimental Forest

    Treesearch

    Alison C. Dibble; Catherine A. Rees; Paul E. Sendak; John C. Brissette

    2004-01-01

    A summary of an inventory of vascular plants in the 3,700-acre Massabesic Experimental Forest in York County, Maine. We identified about 500 species and subspecies. The most common overstory trees were eastern white pine, eastern hemlock, northern red oak, and red maple. Hemlock was the most abundant tree seedling. Shrub density was greatest for beaked hazlenut,...

  16. Forest inventory: role in accountability for sustainable forest management

    Treesearch

    Lloyd C. Irland

    2007-01-01

    Forest inventory can play several roles in accountability for sustainable forest management. A first dimension is accountability for national performance. The new field of Criteria and Indicators is an expression of this need. A more familiar role for the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program is for assessment and...

  17. Compromise Programming in forest management

    Treesearch

    Boris A. Poff; Aregai Tecle; Daniel G. Neary; Brian Geils

    2010-01-01

    Multi-objective decision-making (MODM) is an appropriate approach for evaluating a forest management scenario involving multiple interests. Today's land managers must accommodate commercial as well as non-commercial objectives that may be expressed quantitatively and/or qualitatively, and respond to social, political, economic and cultural changes. The spatial and...

  18. Forest ecosystems: Vegetation, disturbance, and economics: Chapter 5

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Littell, Jeremy S.; Hicke, Jeffrey A.; Shafer, Sarah L.; Capalbo, Susan M.; Houston, Laurie L.; Glick, Patty

    2013-01-01

    Forests cover about 47% of the Northwest (NW–Washington, Oregon, and Idaho) (Smith et al. 2009, fig. 5.1, table 5.1). The impacts of current and future climate change on NW forest ecosystems are a product of the sensitivities of ecosystem processes to climate and the degree to which humans depend on and interact with those systems. Forest ecosystem structure and function, particularly in relatively unmanaged forests where timber harvest and other land use have smaller effects, is sensitive to climate change because climate has a strong influence on ecosystem processes. Climate can affect forest structure directly through its control of plan physiology and life history (establishment, individual growth, productivity, and morality) or indirectly through its control of disturbance (fire, insects, disease). As climate changes, many forest processes will be affected, altering ecosystem services such as timber production and recreation. These changes have socioeconomic implications (e.g. for timber economies) and will require changes to current management of forests. Climate and management will interact to determine the forests of the future, and the scientific basis for adaptation to climate change in forests thus depends significantly on how forests will be affected.

  19. Do multiple fires interact to affect vegetation structure in temperate eucalypt forests?

    PubMed

    Haslem, Angie; Leonard, Steve W J; Bruce, Matthew J; Christie, Fiona; Holland, Greg J; Kelly, Luke T; MacHunter, Josephine; Bennett, Andrew F; Clarke, Michael F; York, Alan

    2016-12-01

    topography, on many structural features show that foothill forest vegetation is also influenced by factors outside human control. While fire is amenable to human management, results suggest that at broad scales, structural attributes of these forests are relatively resilient to the effects of current fire regimes. Nonetheless, the potential for more frequent severe fires at short intervals, associated with a changing climate and/or fire management, warrant further consideration. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  20. Management to conserve forest ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robbins, C.S.; McComb, William C.

    1984-01-01

    Historically, management of forests for wildlife has emphasized creation of openings and provision for a maximum of edge habitats. Wildlife managers have believed, quite logically, that increased sunlight enhances productivity among plants and insects, resulting in greater use by game animals and other wildlife. Recent studies comparing breeding bird populations of extensive forests with those of isolated woodlots have shown that the smaller woodlots, especially those under 35 ha (about 85 acres), lack many species that are typical of the larger tracts. The missing species can be predicted, and basically are the neotropical migrants. These long-distance migrants share several characteristics that make them especially vulnerable to reproductive failure in situations where predation and cowbird parasitism are high: they are primarily single-brooded, open nesters that lay small clutches on or near the ground. Edge habitats and forest openings attract cowbirds and predators. The edge species of birds, which are mostly permanent residents or short-distance migrants, are well adapted to survive and reproduce in small isolated woodlands without the benefit of special habitat management. The obligate forest interior species, on the other hand, are decreasing in those parts of North America where extensive forests are being replaced by isolated woodlands. If we are to preserve ecosystems intact for the benefit of future generations, and maintain a viable gene pool for the scarcer species, we must think in terms of retaining large, unbroken tracts of forest and of limiting disturbance in the more remote portions of these tracts.

  1. Forest-management modelling

    Treesearch

    Mark J. Twery; Aaron R. Weiskittel

    2013-01-01

    Forests are complex and dynamic ecosystems comprising individual trees that can vary in both size and species. In comparison to other organisms, trees are relatively long lived (40-2000 years), quite plastic in terms of their morphology and ecological niche, and adapted to a wide variety of habitats, which can make predicting their behaviour exceedingly difficult....

  2. 50 CFR 35.8 - Forest management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Forest management. 35.8 Section 35.8... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM WILDERNESS PRESERVATION AND MANAGEMENT General Rules § 35.8 Forest management. Forest management activities in a wilderness unit will be directed toward allowing natural...

  3. 50 CFR 35.8 - Forest management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Forest management. 35.8 Section 35.8... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM WILDERNESS PRESERVATION AND MANAGEMENT General Rules § 35.8 Forest management. Forest management activities in a wilderness unit will be directed toward allowing natural...

  4. 50 CFR 35.8 - Forest management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Forest management. 35.8 Section 35.8... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM WILDERNESS PRESERVATION AND MANAGEMENT General Rules § 35.8 Forest management. Forest management activities in a wilderness unit will be directed toward allowing natural...

  5. 50 CFR 35.8 - Forest management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Forest management. 35.8 Section 35.8... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM WILDERNESS PRESERVATION AND MANAGEMENT General Rules § 35.8 Forest management. Forest management activities in a wilderness unit will be directed toward allowing natural...

  6. Forest restoration: a global dataset for biodiversity and vegetation structure.

    PubMed

    Crouzeilles, Renato; Ferreira, Mariana S; Curran, Michael

    2016-08-01

    Restoration initiatives are becoming increasingly applied around the world. Billions of dollars have been spent on ecological restoration research and initiatives, but restoration outcomes differ widely among these initiatives in part due to variable socioeconomic and ecological contexts. Here, we present the most comprehensive dataset gathered to date on forest restoration. It encompasses 269 primary studies across 221 study landscapes in 53 countries and contains 4,645 quantitative comparisons between reference ecosystems (e.g., old-growth forest) and degraded or restored ecosystems for five taxonomic groups (mammals, birds, invertebrates, herpetofauna, and plants) and five measures of vegetation structure reflecting different ecological processes (cover, density, height, biomass, and litter). We selected studies that (1) were conducted in forest ecosystems; (2) had multiple replicate sampling sites to measure indicators of biodiversity and/or vegetation structure in reference and restored and/or degraded ecosystems; and (3) used less-disturbed forests as a reference to the ecosystem under study. We recorded (1) latitude and longitude; (2) study year; (3) country; (4) biogeographic realm; (5) past disturbance type; (6) current disturbance type; (7) forest conversion class; (8) restoration activity; (9) time that a system has been disturbed; (10) time elapsed since restoration started; (11) ecological metric used to assess biodiversity; and (12) quantitative value of the ecological metric of biodiversity and/or vegetation structure for reference and restored and/or degraded ecosystems. These were the most common data available in the selected studies. We also estimated forest cover and configuration in each study landscape using a recently developed 1 km consensus land cover dataset. We measured forest configuration as the (1) mean size of all forest patches; (2) size of the largest forest patch; and (3) edge:area ratio of forest patches. Global analyses of the

  7. Changing Forest Values and Ecosystem Management

    Treesearch

    David N. Bengston

    1994-01-01

    There is substantial evidence that we are currently in a period of rapid and significant change in forest values. Some have charged that managing forests in ways that are responsive to diverse and changing forest values is the main challenge faced by public forest managers. To tackle this challenge, we need to address the following questions: (1) What is the nature of...

  8. ForWarn Forest Disturbance Change Detection System Provides a Weekly Snapshot of US Forest Conditions to Aid Forest Managers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hargrove, W. W.; Spruce, J.; Kumar, J.; Hoffman, F. M.

    2012-12-01

    The Eastern Forest Environmental Threat Assessment Center and Western Wildland Environmental Assessment Center of the USDA Forest Service have collaborated with NASA Stennis Space Center to develop ForWarn, a forest monitoring tool that uses MODIS satellite imagery to produce weekly snapshots of vegetation conditions across the lower 48 United States. Forest and natural resource managers can use ForWarn to rapidly detect, identify, and respond to unexpected changes in the nation's forests caused by insects, diseases, wildfires, severe weather, or other natural or human-caused events. ForWarn detects most types of forest disturbances, including insects, disease, wildfires, frost and ice damage, tornadoes, hurricanes, blowdowns, harvest, urbanization, and landslides. It also detects drought, flood, and temperature effects, and shows early and delayed seasonal vegetation development. Operating continuously since January 2010, results show ForWarn to be a robust and highly capable tool for detecting changes in forest conditions. To help forest and natural resource managers rapidly detect, identify, and respond to unexpected changes in the nation's forests, ForWarn produces sets of national maps showing potential forest disturbances at 231m resolution every 8 days, and posts the results to the web for examination. ForWarn compares current greenness with the "normal," historically seen greenness that would be expected for healthy vegetation for a specific location and time of the year, and then identifies areas appearing less green than expected to provide a strategic national overview of potential forest disturbances that can be used to direct ground and aircraft efforts. In addition to forests, ForWarn also tracks potential disturbances in rangeland vegetation and agriculural crops. ForWarn is the first national-scale system of its kind based on remote sensing developed specifically for forest disturbances. The ForWarn system had an official unveiling and rollout in

  9. Integrated Vegetation Management Practices Memorandum of Understanding

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Memorandum of Understanding between EPA and the Edison Electric Institute, U.S. Department of Agriculture (Forest Service), and U.S. Department of the Interior (Bureau of Land Management, Fish and Wildlife Service, and National Park Service for IVM.

  10. An Evaluation of Plotless Sampling Using Vegetation Simulations and Field Data from a Mangrove Forest

    PubMed Central

    Hijbeek, Renske; Koedam, Nico; Khan, Md Nabiul Islam; Kairo, James Gitundu; Schoukens, Johan; Dahdouh-Guebas, Farid

    2013-01-01

    In vegetation science and forest management, tree density is often used as a variable. To determine the value of this variable, reliable field methods are necessary. When vegetation is sparse or not easily accessible, the use of sample plots is not feasible in the field. Therefore, plotless methods, like the Point Centred Quarter Method, are often used as an alternative. In this study we investigate the accuracy of different plotless sampling methods. To this end, tree densities of a mangrove forest were determined and compared with estimates provided by several plotless methods. None of these methods proved accurate across all field sites with mean underestimations up to 97% and mean overestimations up to 53% in the field. Applying the methods to different vegetation patterns shows that when random spatial distributions were used the true density was included within the 95% confidence limits of all the plotless methods tested. It was also found that, besides aggregation and regularity, density trends often found in mangroves contribute to the unreliability. This outcome raises questions about the use of plotless sampling in forest monitoring and management, as well as for estimates of density-based carbon sequestration. We give recommendations to minimize errors in vegetation surveys and recommendations for further in-depth research. PMID:23826233

  11. An Evaluation of Plotless Sampling Using Vegetation Simulations and Field Data from a Mangrove Forest.

    PubMed

    Hijbeek, Renske; Koedam, Nico; Khan, Md Nabiul Islam; Kairo, James Gitundu; Schoukens, Johan; Dahdouh-Guebas, Farid

    2013-01-01

    In vegetation science and forest management, tree density is often used as a variable. To determine the value of this variable, reliable field methods are necessary. When vegetation is sparse or not easily accessible, the use of sample plots is not feasible in the field. Therefore, plotless methods, like the Point Centred Quarter Method, are often used as an alternative. In this study we investigate the accuracy of different plotless sampling methods. To this end, tree densities of a mangrove forest were determined and compared with estimates provided by several plotless methods. None of these methods proved accurate across all field sites with mean underestimations up to 97% and mean overestimations up to 53% in the field. Applying the methods to different vegetation patterns shows that when random spatial distributions were used the true density was included within the 95% confidence limits of all the plotless methods tested. It was also found that, besides aggregation and regularity, density trends often found in mangroves contribute to the unreliability. This outcome raises questions about the use of plotless sampling in forest monitoring and management, as well as for estimates of density-based carbon sequestration. We give recommendations to minimize errors in vegetation surveys and recommendations for further in-depth research.

  12. Role of MODIS Vegetation Phenology Products in the U.S. for Warn Early Warning System for Forest Threats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spruce, Joseph; Hargrove, William; Norman, Steve; Gasser, Gerald; Smoot, James; Kuper, Philip

    2012-01-01

    U.S. forests occupy approx 751 million acres (approx 1/3 of total land). Several abiotic and biotic damage agents disturb, damage, kill, and/or threaten these forests. Regionally extensive forest disturbances can also threaten human life and property, bio-diversity and water supplies. timely regional forest disturbance monitoring products are needed to aid forest health management work at finer scales. daily MODIS data provide a means to monitor regional forest disturbances on a weekly basis, leveraging vegetation phenology. In response, the USFS and NASA began collaborating in 2006 to develop a Near Real Time (NRT) forest monitoring capability, based on MODIS NDVI data, as part of a national forest threat Early Warning System (EWS).

  13. Collaboration in national forest management

    Treesearch

    Susan Charnley; Jonathan W. Long; Frank K. Lake

    2014-01-01

    National forest management efforts have generally moved toward collaborative and participatory approaches at a variety of scales. This includes, at a larger scale, greater public participation in transparent and inclusive democratic processes and, at a smaller scale, more engagement with local communities. Participatory approaches are especially important for an all-...

  14. Forest carbon estimation using the Forest Vegetation Simulator: Seven things you need to know

    Treesearch

    Coeli M. Hoover; Stephanie A. Rebain

    2011-01-01

    Interest in options for forest-related greenhouse gas mitigation is growing, and so is the need to assess the carbon implications of forest management actions. Generating estimates of key carbon pools can be time consuming and cumbersome, and exploring the carbon consequences of management alternatives is often a complicated task. In response to this, carbon reporting...

  15. [Estimation for vegetation carbon storage in Tiantong National Forest Park].

    PubMed

    Guo, Chun-Zi; Wu, Yang-Yang; Ni, Jian

    2014-11-01

    Based on the field investigation and the data combination from literature, vegetation carbon storage, carbon density, and their spatial distribution were examined across six forest community types (Schima superba--Castanopsis fargesii community, S. superba--C. fargesii with C. sclerophylla community, S. superba--C. fargesii with Distylium myricoides community, Illicium lanceolatum--Choerospondias axillaris community, Liquidambar formosana--Pinus massoniana community and Hedyotis auricularia--Phylostachys pubescens community) in Tiantong National Forest Park, Zhejiang Province, by using the allometric biomass models for trees and shrubs. Results showed that: Among the six communities investigated, carbon storage and carbon density were highest in the S. superba--C. fargesii with C. sclerophylla community (storage: 12113.92 Mg C; density: 165.03 Mg C · hm(-2)), but lowest in the I. lanceolatum--C. axillaris community (storage: 680.95 Mg C; density: 101.26 Mg C · hm(-2)). Carbon storage was significantly higher in evergreen trees than in deciduous trees across six communities. Carbon density ranged from 76.08 to 144.95 Mg C · hm(-2), and from 0. 16 to 20. 62 Mg C · hm(-2) for evergreen trees and deciduous trees, respectively. Carbon storage was highest in stems among tree tissues in the tree layer throughout communities. Among vegetation types, evergreen broad-leaved forest had the highest carbon storage (23092.39 Mg C), accounting for 81.7% of the total carbon storage in all forest types, with a car- bon density of 126.17 Mg C · hm(-2). Total carbon storage for all vegetation types in Tiantong National Forest Park was 28254.22 Mg C, and the carbon density was 96.73 Mg C · hm(-2).

  16. Tropical secondary forest management influences frugivorous bat composition, abundance and fruit consumption in Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Vleut, Ivar; Levy-Tacher, Samuel Israel; de Boer, Willem Frederik; Galindo-González, Jorge; Vazquez, Luis-Bernardo

    2013-01-01

    Most studies on frugivorous bat assemblages in secondary forests have concentrated on differences among successional stages, and have disregarded the effect of forest management. Secondary forest management practices alter the vegetation structure and fruit availability, important factors associated with differences in frugivorous bat assemblage structure, and fruit consumption and can therefore modify forest succession. Our objective was to elucidate factors (forest structural variables and fruit availability) determining bat diversity, abundance, composition and species-specific abundance of bats in (i) secondary forests managed by Lacandon farmers dominated by Ochroma pyramidale, in (ii) secondary forests without management, and in (iii) mature rain forests in Chiapas, Southern Mexico. Frugivorous bat species diversity (Shannon H') was similar between forest types. However, bat abundance was highest in rain forest and O. pyramidale forests. Bat species composition was different among forest types with more Carollia sowelli and Sturnira lilium captures in O. pyramidale forests. Overall, bat fruit consumption was dominated by early-successional shrubs, highest late-successional fruit consumption was found in rain forests and more bats consumed early-successional shrub fruits in O. pyramidale forests. Ochroma pyramidale forests presented a higher canopy openness, tree height, lower tree density and diversity of fruit than secondary forests. Tree density and canopy openness were negatively correlated with bat species diversity and bat abundance, but bat abundance increased with fruit abundance and tree height. Hence, secondary forest management alters forests' structural characteristics and resource availability, and shapes the frugivorous bat community structure, and thereby the fruit consumption by bats.

  17. Book review: Southern Forested Wetlands: Ecology and Management

    Treesearch

    Carl C. Trettin

    2000-01-01

    The southern region has the largest proportion of wetlands in the conterminous US. The majority of that wetland resource is forested by diverse vegetation communities reflecting differences in soil, hydrology, geomorphology, climatic conditions and past management. Wetland resources in the southern US are very important to the economy providing both commodity and non-...

  18. Aboveground Biomass and Dynamics of Forest Attributes using LiDAR Data and Vegetation Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    V V L, P. A.

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, biomass estimation for tropical forests has received much attention because of the fact that regional biomass is considered to be a critical input to climate change. Biomass almost determines the potential carbon emission that could be released to the atmosphere due to deforestation or conservation to non-forest land use. Thus, accurate biomass estimation is necessary for better understating of deforestation impacts on global warming and environmental degradation. In this context, forest stand height inclusion in biomass estimation plays a major role in reducing the uncertainty in the estimation of biomass. The improvement in the accuracy in biomass shall also help in meeting the MRV objectives of REDD+. Along with the precise estimate of biomass, it is also important to emphasize the role of vegetation models that will most likely become an important tool for assessing the effects of climate change on potential vegetation dynamics and terrestrial carbon storage and for managing terrestrial ecosystem sustainability. Remote sensing is an efficient way to estimate forest parameters in large area, especially at regional scale where field data is limited. LIDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) provides accurate information on the vertical structure of forests. We estimated average tree canopy heights and AGB from GLAS waveform parameters by using a multi-regression linear model in forested area of Madhya Pradesh (area-3,08,245 km2), India. The derived heights from ICESat-GLAS were correlated with field measured tree canopy heights for 60 plots. Results have shown a significant correlation of R2= 74% for top canopy heights and R2= 57% for stand biomass. The total biomass estimation 320.17 Mt and canopy heights are generated by using random forest algorithm. These canopy heights and biomass maps were used in vegetation models to predict the changes biophysical/physiological characteristics of forest according to the changing climate. In our study we have

  19. Logging safety in forest management education

    Treesearch

    David Elton Fosbroke; John R. Myers

    1995-01-01

    Forest management degree programs prepare students for careers in forestry by teaching a combination of biological sciences (e.g., silvics and genetics) and business management (e.g., forest policy and timber valuation). During a 4-year degree program, students learn the impact of interest rates, equipment costs, and environmental policies on forest management and...

  20. Method for Forest Vegetation Change Monitoring Using GF-1 Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Lingyu; Qin, Xianlin; Sun, Guifen; Zu, Xiaofeng; Deng, Guang; Cassanova, Jose-Luis

    2016-08-01

    To the monitoring technology needs for the forest cover change, Yajiang County in Sichuan province of People Republic of China has been selected as the experimental areas. By means of the analysed results on the factors, such as the image spectral characteristics and texture by using the images of the NO.1 high-resolution satellite (GF-1), the change of forest vegetation cover in the experimental region has been analyzed by using the image direct difference method, NDVI difference method, the first principal component difference method and tasseledcap difference method respectively. At the same time, the monitoring results have been compared and verified by using the large area forest fires which had taken place in yajiang County in recent year. The results showed that the overall accuracy and Kappa coefficient difference method are better than the tasseledcap difference method than other method.

  1. Effects of boreal forest vegetation on global climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonan, Gordon B.; Pollard, David; Thompson, Starley L.

    1992-10-01

    TERRESTRIAL ecosystems are thought to play an important role in determining regional and global climate1-6 one example of this is in Amazonia, where destruction of the tropical rainforest leads to warmer and drier conditions4-6. Boreal forest ecosystems may also affect climate. As temperatures rise, the amount of continental and oceanic snow and ice is reduced, so the land and ocean surfaces absorb greater amounts of solar radiation, reinforcing the warming in a 'snow/ice/albedo' feedback which results in large climate sensitivity to radiative forcings7-9. This sensitivity is moderated, however, by the presence of trees in northern latitudes, which mask the high reflectance of snow10,11, leading to warmer winter temperatures than if trees were not present12-14. Here we present results from a global climate model which show that the boreal forest warms both winter and summer air temperatures, relative to simulations in which the forest is replaced with bare ground or tundra vegetation. Our results suggest that future redistributions of boreal forest and tundra vegetation (due, for example, to extensive logging, or the influence of global warming) could initiate important climate feedbacks, which could also extend to lower latitudes.

  2. Climate and Vegetation Effects on Temperate Mountain Forest ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Current forest composition may be resilient to typical climatic variability; however, climate trends, combined with projected changes in species composition, may increase tree vulnerability to water stress. A shift in forest composition toward tree species with higher water use has implications for biogenic emissions and deposition of reactive nitrogen and carbon compounds. Forest evapotranspiration (ET) can vary greatly at daily and seasonal time scales, but compared to carbon fluxes, often exhibits relatively consistent inter-annual behavior. The processes controlling ET involve the combined effects of physical and biological factors. Atmospheric conditions that promote high ET, consisting of high radiation and vapor pressure deficit (D), are often characterized by rainless periods when soil water supply to vegetation may be limiting and plant stomata may close to prevent excessive water loss. In contrast, periods of high ecosystem water availability require frequent precipitation and are characterized by low D. Thus, the combination of these contrasting conditions throughout a growing season may explain some of the consistency in ET. Additionally, vegetation composition is also an important factor in determining ET. In mixed species forests, physiological differences in water use strategies (e.g. isohydric/anisohydric species) can produce conservative water use throughout wet and dry phases of the growing season. Furthermore, transpiration by evergreen specie

  3. Forest Management Expenses of Mississippi's Nonindustrial Private Forest Landowners

    Treesearch

    Kathryn G. Arano; Tamara L. Cushing; Ian A. Munn

    2002-01-01

    Detailed information about the forest management expenditures incurred by nonindustrial private forest (NIPF) landowners over time provides a wealth of information about costs associated with forestland ownership, management practices implemented hv NIPF landowners, and changes in management intensity over time. A survey of Mississippi's nonindustrial private...

  4. Potential effects of forest management on surface albedo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otto, J.; Bréon, F.-M.; Schelhaas, M.-J.; Pinty, B.; Luyssaert, S.

    2012-04-01

    is closed. During this period, albedo is affected for a short time by forest operations. The modelling approach allowed us to estimate the importance of ground vegetation in the stand albedo. Given that ground vegetation depends on the light reaching the forest floor, ground vegetation could act as a natural buffer to dampen changes in albedo, allowing the stand to maintain optimal leaf temperature. Consequently, accounting for only the carbon balance component of forest management ignores albedo impacts and is thus likely to yield biased estimates of the climate benefits of forest ecosystems.

  5. Use of LIDAR for forest inventory and forest management application

    Treesearch

    Birgit Peterson; Ralph Dubayah; Peter Hyde; Michelle Hofton; J. Bryan Blair; JoAnn Fites-Kaufman

    2007-01-01

    A significant impediment to forest managers has been the difficulty in obtaining large-area forest structure and fuel characteristics at useful resolutions and accuracies. This paper demonstrates how LIDAR data were used to predict canopy bulk density (CBD) and canopy base height (CBH) for an area in the Sierra National Forest. The LIDAR data were used to generate maps...

  6. The response of Fraxinus nigra forest ground-layer vegetation to emulated emerald ash borer mortality and management strategies in northern Minnesota, USA

    Treesearch

    Christopher E. Looney; Anthony W. D' Amato; Brian J. Palik; Robert A. Slesak; Mitchell A. Slater

    2017-01-01

    When an invasive organism targets a dominant tree species, it can trigger unprecedented shifts in forest plant communities. Emerald ash borer (EAB; Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire), an invasive insect that kills by girdling trees, represents a significant threat to North American Fraxinus (ash) species. EAB has already decimated...

  7. The effectiveness of vegetation management practices for prevention and control of bark beetle infestations in coniferous forests of the western and southern United States

    Treesearch

    Christopher J. Fettig; Kier D. Klepzig; Ronald f. Billings; A. Steven Munson; T. Evan Nebeker; Jose F. Negron; John T. Nowak

    2007-01-01

    Insects are major components of forest ecosystems, representing most of the biological diversity and affecting virtually all processes and uses. In the USA, bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) heavily influence the structure and function of these ecosystems by regulating certain aspects of primary production, nutrient cycling, ecological succession and...

  8. Tropical Secondary Forest Management Influences Frugivorous Bat Composition, Abundance and Fruit Consumption in Chiapas, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Vleut, Ivar; Levy-Tacher, Samuel Israel; de Boer, Willem Frederik; Galindo-González, Jorge; Vazquez, Luis-Bernardo

    2013-01-01

    Most studies on frugivorous bat assemblages in secondary forests have concentrated on differences among successional stages, and have disregarded the effect of forest management. Secondary forest management practices alter the vegetation structure and fruit availability, important factors associated with differences in frugivorous bat assemblage structure, and fruit consumption and can therefore modify forest succession. Our objective was to elucidate factors (forest structural variables and fruit availability) determining bat diversity, abundance, composition and species-specific abundance of bats in (i) secondary forests managed by Lacandon farmers dominated by Ochroma pyramidale, in (ii) secondary forests without management, and in (iii) mature rain forests in Chiapas, Southern Mexico. Frugivorous bat species diversity (Shannon H’) was similar between forest types. However, bat abundance was highest in rain forest and O. pyramidale forests. Bat species composition was different among forest types with more Carollia sowelli and Sturnira lilium captures in O. pyramidale forests. Overall, bat fruit consumption was dominated by early-successional shrubs, highest late-successional fruit consumption was found in rain forests and more bats consumed early-successional shrub fruits in O. pyramidale forests. Ochroma pyramidale forests presented a higher canopy openness, tree height, lower tree density and diversity of fruit than secondary forests. Tree density and canopy openness were negatively correlated with bat species diversity and bat abundance, but bat abundance increased with fruit abundance and tree height. Hence, secondary forest management alters forests’ structural characteristics and resource availability, and shapes the frugivorous bat community structure, and thereby the fruit consumption by bats. PMID:24147029

  9. Managing forest products for community benefit

    Treesearch

    Susan Charnley; Jonathan W. Long

    2014-01-01

    Forest products harvesting and use from national forest lands remain important to local residents and communities in some parts of the Sierra Nevada science synthesis area. Managing national forests for the sustainable production of timber, biomass, nontimber forest products, and forage for livestock can help support forestbased livelihoods in parts of the region where...

  10. Forest management practices and silviculture. Chapter 12.

    Treesearch

    Donald A. Perala; Elon S. Verry

    2011-01-01

    This chapter is an overview of forest management and silviculture practices, and lessons learned, on the Marcell Experimental Forest (MEF). The forests there are a mosaic of natural regeneration and conifer plantations. Verry (1969) described forest-plant communities in detail for the study watersheds (Sl through S6) on the MEF. The remaining area is described in...

  11. Classification of the forest vegetation on the National Forests of Arizona and New Mexico

    Treesearch

    Robert R. Alexander; Frank Ronco

    1987-01-01

    Forest vegetation classified by habitat types and community types in Arizona and New Mexico are tabulated. Eleven series and 123 habitat and community types are identified; however, these habitat types and community types have been grouped into a lesser number of categories having similar characteristics or synonymous names. The table includes the name, location,...

  12. Addressing climate change in the forest vegetation simulator to assess impacts on landscape forest dynamics

    Treesearch

    Nicholas L. Crookston; Gerald E. Rehfeldt; Gary E. Dixon; Aaron R. Weiskittel

    2010-01-01

    To simulate stand-level impacts of climate change, predictors in the widely used Forest Vegetation Simulator (FVS) were adjusted to account for expected climate effects. This was accomplished by: (1) adding functions that link mortality and regeneration of species to climate variables expressing climatic suitability, (2) constructing a function linking site index to...

  13. Addressing climate change in the Forest Vegetation Simulator to assess impacts on landscape forest dynamics

    Treesearch

    Nicholas L. Crookston; Gerald E. Rehfeldt; Gary E. Dixon; Aaron R. Weiskittel

    2010-01-01

    To simulate stand-level impacts of climate change, predictors in the widely used Forest Vegetation Simulator (FVS) were adjusted to account for expected climate effects. This was accomplished by: (1) adding functions that link mortality and regeneration of species to climate variables expressing climatic suitability, (2) constructing a function linking site index to...

  14. Associations between soil variables and vegetation structure and composition of Caribbean dry forests

    Treesearch

    Elvia M. Melendez-Ackerman; Julissa Rojas-Sandoval; Danny S. Fernandez; Grizelle Gonzalez; Hana Lopez; Jose Sustache; Mariely Morales; Miguel Garcia-Bermudez; Susan Aragon

    2016-01-01

    Soil–vegetation associations have been understudied in tropical dry forests when compared to the amount of extant research on this issue in tropical wet forests. Recent studies assert that vegetation in tropical dry forests is highly heterogeneous and that soil variability may be a contributing factor. In this study, we evaluated the relationship between soil variables...

  15. Vegetation indicators of transformation in the urban forest ecosystems of "Kuzminki-Lyublino" Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buyvolova, Anna; Trifonova, Tatiana; Bykova, Elena

    2017-04-01

    Forest ecosystems in the city are at the same time a component of its natural environment and part of urban developmental planning. It imposes upon urban forests a large functional load, both environmental (formation of environment, air purification, noise pollution reducing, etc.) and social (recreational, educational) which defines the special attitude to their management and study. It is not a simple task to preserve maximum accessibility to the forest ecosystems of the large metropolises with a minimum of change. The urban forest vegetates in naturally formed soil, it has all the elements of a morphological structure (canopy layers), represented by natural species of the zonal vegetation. Sometimes it is impossible for a specialist to distinguish between an urban forest and a rural one. However, the urban forests are changing, being under the threat of various negative influences of the city, of which pollution is arguably the most significant. This article presents some indicators of structural changes to the plant communities, which is a response of forest ecosystems to an anthropogenic impact. It is shown that the indicators of the transformation of natural ecosystems in the city can be a reduction of the projective cover of moss layer, until its complete absence (in the pine forest), increasing the role of Acer negundo (adventive species) in the undergrowth, high variability of floristic indicators of the ground herbaceous vegetation, and a change in the spatial arrangement of adventive species. The assessment of the impact of the urban environment on the state of vegetation in the "Kuzminki-Lyublino" Natural-Historical Park was conducted in two key areas least affected by anthropogenic impacts under different plant communities represented by complex pine and birch forests and in similar forest types in the Prioksko-Terrasny Biosphere Reserve. The selection of pine forests as a model is due to the fact that, according to some scientists, pine (Pinus

  16. Perspectives on secondary forest management in tropical humid lowland America.

    PubMed

    Kammesheidt, Ludwig

    2002-05-01

    Secondary forests regrowing on abandoned agricultural land constitute an important, albeit widely overlooked, component in the landscape matrix of tropical lowland America. These 'new' forest resources on private land-holdings derive either from unsustainable cattle-ranching practices of better-off farmers or are part of the crop/fallow system of resource-poor farmers. If previous land use was light, secondary forest management may offer an interesting use option to better-off farmers, providing that subsidies for stand improvement are given. Improved fallow systems using partly the successional vegetation may be a way to establish sustainable small-scale agriculture for resource-poor farmers. Given some technical and financial input, land-use systems based on secondary vegetation could play a vital role both in sustainable landscape management and biodiversity conservation.

  17. Can intensive management increase carbon storage in forests

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, P.

    1991-01-01

    A possible response to increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration is to attempt to increase the amount of carbon stored in terrestrial vegetation. One approach to increasing the size of the terrestrial carbon sink is to increase the growth of forests by utilizing intensive forest management practices. The paper uses data from the literature and from forest growth and yield models to analyze the impact of three management practices on carbon storage: thinning, fertilization, and control of competing vegetation. Using Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) as example species, results showed that thinning generally does not increase carbon storage, and may actually cause a decrease. The exception is thinning of very dense young stands.

  18. Estimating soil seed bank characteristics in ponderosa pine forests using vegetation and forest-floor data

    Treesearch

    Scott R. Abella; Judith D. Springer

    2008-01-01

    Soil seed banks are important for vegetation management because they contain propagules of species that may be considered desirable or undesirable for site colonization after management and disturbance events. Knowledge of seed bank size and composition before planning management activities facilitates proactive management by providing early alerts of exotic species...

  19. Importance of vegetation for manganese cycling in temperate forested watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herndon, Elizabeth M.; Jin, Lixin; Andrews, Danielle M.; Eissenstat, David M.; Brantley, Susan L.

    2015-02-01

    Many surface soils are enriched in metals due to anthropogenic atmospheric inputs. To predict the persistence of these contaminants in soils, factors that impact rates of metal removal from soils into streams must be understood. Experiments at containerized seedling (mesocosm), pedon, and catchment scales were used to investigate the influence of vegetation on manganese (Mn) transport at the Susquehanna/Shale Hills Critical Zone Observatory (SSHCZO) in Pennsylvania, USA, where past atmospheric inputs from industrial sources have enriched Mn in surface soils. Large quantities of Mn that were leached from soil components into solution were taken up by vegetation; as a result, only relatively small quantities of Mn were removed from soil into effluent and streams. Manganese uptake into vegetation exceeded Mn losses in soil leachate by 20-200X at all scales, and net Mn loss from soils decreased in the presence of vegetation due to uptake into plant tissues. The majority of Mn taken up by forest vegetation at SSHCZO each year was returned to the soil in leaf litter and consequently immobilized as Mn oxides that formed during litter decomposition. Thus, plant uptake of Mn combined with rapid oxidation of Mn during litter decomposition contribute to long-term retention. Current release rates of soluble Mn from SSHCZO soils were similar to release rates from the larger Susquehanna River Basin, indicating that the processes observed at SSHCZO may be widespread across the region. Indeed, although atmospheric deposition of Mn has declined, surface soils at SSHCZO and throughout the eastern United States remain enriched in Mn. If recycling through vegetation can attenuate the removal of Mn from soils, as observed in this study, then Mn concentrations in soils and river waters will likely decrease slowly over time following watershed contamination. Understanding the role of vegetation in regulating metal transport is important for evaluating the long-term effects of historical

  20. Restoration treatments in urban park forests drive long-term changes in vegetation trajectories.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Lea R; Handel, Steven N

    2016-04-01

    Municipalities are turning to ecological restoration of urban forests as a measure to improve air quality, ameliorate urban heat island effects, improve storm water infiltration, and provide other social and ecological benefits. However, community dynamics following urban forest restoration treatments are poorly documented. This study examines the long-term effects of ecological restoration undertaken in New York City, New York, USA, to restore native forest in urban park natural areas invaded by woody non-native plants that are regional problems. In 2009 and 2010, we sampled vegetation in 30 invaded sites in three large public parks that were restored 1988-1993, and 30 sites in three large parks that were similarly invaded but had not been restored. Data from these matched plots reveal that the restoration treatment achieved its central goals. After 15-20 years, invasive species removal followed by native tree planting resulted in persistent structural and compositional shifts, significantly lower invasive species abundance, a more complex forest structure, and greater native tree recruitment. Together, these findings indicate that successional trajectories of vegetation dynamics have diverged between restored forests and invaded forests that were not restored. In addition, the data suggest that future composition of these urban forest patches will be novel assemblages. Restored and untreated sites shared a suite of shade-intolerant, quickly-growing tree species that colonize disturbed sites, indicating that restoration treatments created sites hospitable for germination and growth of species adapted to high light conditions and disturbed soils. These findings yield an urban perspective on the use of succession theory in ecological restoration. Models of ecological restoration developed in more pristine environments must be modified for use in cities. By anticipating both urban disturbances and ecological succession, management of urban forest patches can be

  1. Effects of forest management on carbon and energy exchange of beech forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herbst, Mathias; Mund, Martina; Knohl, Alexander

    2014-05-01

    Atmospheric carbon and energy fluxes of a managed beech forest are compared with those of a nearby unmanaged, old-growth beech forest in central Germany. Both forests are located at similar altitude and they face similar meteorological conditions. They are also similar with respect to canopy height (37 m) and mean tree age (120 years). The managed forest is a monospecific, even-aged stand with species-rich ground vegetation and a leaf area index of about 4, whereas the old stand is clearly beech-dominated but interspersed with ash and sycamore trees. It has a multi-layer canopy made up of trees of various ages and its leaf area index is about 5. The comparison is based on 23 site-years of eddy covariance measurements of carbon and energy fluxes and on regular biomass measurements in terms of dendrometry and litter collection. On average the two forests did not differ significantly in annual net carbon uptake derived from eddy covariance data (508 and 483 g C m-2a-1 for the managed and the unmanaged forest, respectively), however the managed forest showed a much larger interannual variability in gross primary production than the unmanaged forest did. This trend agreed well with independent dendrometric measurements of net ecosystem production from both forests. In contrast, ecosystem respiration did neither vary significantly between the two forests nor between different years. The total annual evapotranspiration was higher at the unmanaged forest site (549 mm a-1 compared to 504 mm a-1 at the managed site), which was probably due to a higher interception loss from the denser canopy in the unmanaged forest. We discuss whether the conclusion can be drawn from this case study that common forest management activities improve the water use efficiency of European beech forests but make them more vulnerable, in terms of carbon uptake, against extreme meteorological conditions such as, for example, summer heat waves or late frosts in springtime. Regardless of this

  2. Correlation analysis between forest carbon stock and spectral vegetation indices in Xuan Lien Nature Reserve, Thanh Hoa, Viet Nam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dung Nguyen, The; Kappas, Martin

    2017-04-01

    In the last several years, the interest in forest biomass and carbon stock estimation has increased due to its importance for forest management, modelling carbon cycle, and other ecosystem services. However, no estimates of biomass and carbon stocks of deferent forest cover types exist throughout in the Xuan Lien Nature Reserve, Thanh Hoa, Viet Nam. This study investigates the relationship between above ground carbon stock and different vegetation indices and to identify the most likely vegetation index that best correlate with forest carbon stock. The terrestrial inventory data come from 380 sample plots that were randomly sampled. Individual tree parameters such as DBH and tree height were collected to calculate the above ground volume, biomass and carbon for different forest types. The SPOT6 2013 satellite data was used in the study to obtain five vegetation indices NDVI, RDVI, MSR, RVI, and EVI. The relationships between the forest carbon stock and vegetation indices were investigated using a multiple linear regression analysis. R-square, RMSE values and cross-validation were used to measure the strength and validate the performance of the models. The methodology presented here demonstrates the possibility of estimating forest volume, biomass and carbon stock. It can also be further improved by addressing more spectral bands data and/or elevation.

  3. Range management research, Fort Valley Experimental Forest

    Treesearch

    Henry A. Pearson; Warren P. Clary; Margaret M. Moore; Carolyn Hull Sieg

    2008-01-01

    Range management research at the Fort Valley Experimental Forest during the past 100 years has provided scientific knowledge for managing ponderosa pine forests and forest-range grazing lands in the Southwest. Three research time periods are identified: 1908 to 1950, 1950 to 1978, and 1978 to 2008. Early research (1908-1950) addressed ecological effects of livestock...

  4. Activity: Managing an 80-Acre School Forest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EE News: Environmental Education in Wisconsin, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Students play the role of members serving on a Wisconsin school forest advisory committee. Through these roles students begin to explore and understand the complex considerations that influence the management of an imaginary school forest, including both educational and forest management needs. Analytical, problem-solving, and consensus-building…

  5. Vegetation management and protection research: Disturbance processes and ecosystem management

    Treesearch

    Robert D. Averill; Louise Larson; Jim Saveland; Philip Wargo; Jerry Williams; Melvin. Bellinger

    1994-01-01

    This paper is intended to broaden awareness and help develop consensus among USDA Forest Service scientists and resource managers about the role and significance of disturbance in ecosystem dynamics and, hence, resource management. To have an effective ecosystem management policy, resource managers and the public must understand the nature of ecological resiliency and...

  6. Contributions of silvicultural studies at Fort Valley to watershed management of Arizona's ponderosa pine forests

    Treesearch

    Gerald J. Gottfried; Peter F. Ffolliott; Daniel G. Neary

    2008-01-01

    Watershed management and water yield augmentation have been important objectives for chaparral, ponderosa pine, and mixed conifer management in Arizona and New Mexico. The ponderosa pine forests and other vegetation types generally occur in relatively high precipitation zones where the potential for increased water yields is great. The ponderosa pine forests have been...

  7. Measurements of turbulence and vegetation structure across a forest clearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Queck, R.; Bernhofer, C.; Bienert, A.; Maas, H.-G.

    2012-04-01

    Detailed knowledge of the energy and mass exchange between forests and atmosphere is essential for the assessment of carbon sequestration of forests and their capacity for absorption and emission of atmospheric trace gases. Compared to agricultural land uses the vegetation layer of forests is much larger, involves significant currents of air and acts as storage for energy and gases. Advective fluxes within and above a forest canopy occur as a result of the heterogeneity of the soil conditions and the vegetation composition. Turbulent and advective fluxes change with meteorological conditions (e.g. radiation, wind speed and direction) but also with the state of the canopy. The influence of the canopy structure on the fluxes is rarely investigated. To address this topic and to improve the parameterisation of unresolved exchange effects at inhomogeneities in numerical models the TurbEFA experiment was designed. TurbEFA is the acronym for the interdisciplinary project "Turbulent Exchange processes between Forested areas and the Atmosphere", it encompasses the work of five groups applying terrestrial laser scanning, meteorological field measurements, wind tunnel measurements, boundary layer modelling and large eddy simulation. Subject of investigation is the FluxNet site `Anchor Station Tharandt' which is located about 20 km southwest of the city of Dresden in Germany (N 50°57'49", E 13°34'01", 380 m a.s.l.). From May 2008 to May 2009 intensive measurements took place across the forest clearing "Wildacker" in the vicinity of the FluxNet site. Sonic anemometers at 32 measurement positions in total are used to record the turbulent flow at 4 towers (heights: 40m, 40m, 40m, 30m) and five ground level positions (2 m). The forest stands around the clearing (500 m x 60 m) were scanned applying a terrestrial laser scanner. Thereby scans from different ground positions and from the top of two towers (height: 40m) were accomplished. The scans were filtered and combined to a

  8. Forest Resource Management Plans: A Sustainability Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pile, Lauren S.; Watts, Christine M.; Straka, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    Forest Resource Management Plans is the capstone course in many forestry and natural resource management curricula. The management plans are developed by senior forestry students. Early management plans courses were commonly technical exercises, often performed on contrived forest "tracts" on university-owned or other public lands, with a goal of…

  9. Forest Resource Management Plans: A Sustainability Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pile, Lauren S.; Watts, Christine M.; Straka, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    Forest Resource Management Plans is the capstone course in many forestry and natural resource management curricula. The management plans are developed by senior forestry students. Early management plans courses were commonly technical exercises, often performed on contrived forest "tracts" on university-owned or other public lands, with a goal of…

  10. Forest management challenged in the Pacific Northwest

    SciTech Connect

    Heilman, P.E. )

    1990-11-01

    This article discusses the US Forest Service Pacific Northwest and current management practice in the light of increasingly cynical public questions about forest policy. Policy challenges to the Service include clearcutting, sustainability, diversity, and ecosystem preservation.

  11. Detection and Characterization of Stress Symptoms in Forest Vegetation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heller, R. C.

    1971-01-01

    Techniques used at the Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station to detect advanced and previsual symptoms of vegetative stress are discussed. Stresses caused by bark beetles in coniferous stands of timber are emphasized because beetles induce stress more rapidly than most other destructive agents. Bark beetles are also the most damaging forest insects in the United States. In the work on stress symptoms, there are two primary objectives: (1) to learn the best combination of films, scales, and filters to detect and locate injured trees from aircraft and spacecraft, and (2) to learn if stressed trees can be detected before visual symptoms of decline occur. Equipment and techniques used in a study of the epidemic of the Black Hills bark beetle are described.

  12. Prehistoric vegetation on the Loess Plateau: steppe or forest?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tungsheng, Liu; Zhengtang, Guo; Wu Naiqin; Lu Houyuan

    The paper aims to assess the Holocene natural vegetation on the Loess Plateau before human reclamation, a contentious point in paleo-environmental studies. Coordinated analyses on the soils, phytolith assemblage, organic carbon isotope composition and pollen data from selected sites suggest that the Holocene vegetation on the Loess Plateau was dominated by steppe. During the mid-Holocene, corresponding to the climatic optimum, the southernmost part of the Plateau (Weinan and Xian) was covered by an open meadow steppe with the presence of some coniferous species, while the middle part of the plateau (Luochuan) was covered by steppe. Our results do not support the notion that dense forest cover had developed on the Loess Plateau during the Holocene.

  13. The Missouri Ozark Forest Ecosystem Project: the effects of forest management on the forest ecosystem

    Treesearch

    Brian Brookshire; Carl Hauser

    1993-01-01

    The effects of forest management on non-timber resources are of growing concern to forest managers and the public. While many previous studies have reported effects of stand-level treatments (less than 15 ha) on various stand-level attributes, few studies have attempted to document the influence of forest management on the biotic and abiotic characteristics of entire...

  14. Vegetation analysis, environmental relationships, and potential successional trends in the Missouri forest ecosystem project

    Treesearch

    Stephen G. Pallardy

    1995-01-01

    The vegetation data set of the Missouri Forest Ecosystem Project (MOFEP, initiated by the Missouri Department of Conservation) in the Ozark Mountains of southeastern Missouri was ordinated by Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA) to identify vegetation gradients and potential environmental influences.

  15. Streamflow response to increasing precipitation extremes altered by forest management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Charlene N.; McGuire, Kevin J.; Miniat, Chelcy Ford; Vose, James M.

    2016-04-01

    Increases in extreme precipitation events of floods and droughts are expected to occur worldwide. The increase in extreme events will result in changes in streamflow that are expected to affect water availability for human consumption and aquatic ecosystem function. We present an analysis that may greatly improve current streamflow models by quantifying the impact of the interaction between forest management and precipitation. We use daily long-term data from paired watersheds that have undergone forest harvest or species conversion. We find that interactive effects of climate change, represented by changes in observed precipitation trends, and forest management regime, significantly alter expected streamflow most often during extreme events, ranging from a decrease of 59% to an increase of 40% in streamflow, depending upon management. Our results suggest that vegetation might be managed to compensate for hydrologic responses due to climate change to help mitigate effects of extreme changes in precipitation.

  16. Bird-vegetation associations in thinned and unthinned young Douglas-fir forests 10 years after thinning

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yegorova, Svetlana; Betts, Matthew G.; Hagar, Joan; Puettmann, Klaus J.

    2013-01-01

    Quantitative associations between animals and vegetation have long been used as a basis for conservation and management, as well as in formulating predictions about the influence of resource management and climate change on populations. A fundamental assumption embedded in the use of such correlations is that they remain relatively consistent over time. However, this assumption of stationarity has been rarely tested – even for forest birds, which are frequently considered to be 'indicator species' in management operations. We investigated the temporal dynamics of bird-vegetation relationships in young Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) forests over more than a decade following initial anthropogenic disturbance (commercial thinning). We modeled bird occurrence or abundance as a function of vegetation characteristics for eight common bird species for each of six breeding seasons following forest thinning. Generally, vegetation relationships were highly inconsistent in magnitude across years, but remained positive or negative within species. For 3 species, relationships that were initially strong dampened over time. For other species, strength of vegetation association was apparently stochastic. These findings indicate that caution should be used when interpreting weak bird-vegetation relationships found in short-term studies and parameterizing predictive models with data collected over the short term.

  17. 75 FR 3442 - Tahoe National Forest, California, Tahoe National Forest Motorized Travel Management Supplemental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-21

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Tahoe National Forest, California, Tahoe National Forest Motorized Travel Management Supplemental Draft EIS AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of intent to prepare a supplemental draft environmental impact statement. SUMMARY: The Tahoe National Forest (TNF)...

  18. Possible impacts of the invasive plant Rubus niveus on the native vegetation of the Scalesia forest in the Galapagos islands.

    PubMed

    Rentería, Jorge Luis; Gardener, Mark R; Panetta, F Dane; Atkinson, Rachel; Crawley, Mick J

    2012-01-01

    Originally from Asia, Rubus niveus has become one of the most widespread invasive plant species in the Galapagos Islands. It has invaded open vegetation, shrubland and forest alike. It forms dense thickets up to 4 m high, appearing to displace native vegetation, and threaten the integrity of several native communities. This study used correlation analysis between a R. niveus cover gradient and a number of biotic (vascular plant species richness, cover and vegetation structure) and abiotic (light and soil properties) parameters to help understand possible impacts in one of the last remaining fragments of the Scalesia forest in Santa Cruz Island, Galapagos. Higher cover of R. niveus was associated with significantly lower native species richness and cover, and a different forest structure. Results illustrated that 60% R. niveus cover could be considered a threshold for these impacts. We suggest that a maximum of 40% R. niveus cover could be a suitable management target.

  19. Possible Impacts of the Invasive Plant Rubus niveus on the Native Vegetation of the Scalesia Forest in the Galapagos Islands

    PubMed Central

    Rentería, Jorge Luis; Gardener, Mark R.; Panetta, F. Dane; Atkinson, Rachel; Crawley, Mick J.

    2012-01-01

    Originally from Asia, Rubus niveus has become one of the most widespread invasive plant species in the Galapagos Islands. It has invaded open vegetation, shrubland and forest alike. It forms dense thickets up to 4 m high, appearing to displace native vegetation, and threaten the integrity of several native communities. This study used correlation analysis between a R. niveus cover gradient and a number of biotic (vascular plant species richness, cover and vegetation structure) and abiotic (light and soil properties) parameters to help understand possible impacts in one of the last remaining fragments of the Scalesia forest in Santa Cruz Island, Galapagos. Higher cover of R. niveus was associated with significantly lower native species richness and cover, and a different forest structure. Results illustrated that 60% R. niveus cover could be considered a threshold for these impacts. We suggest that a maximum of 40% R. niveus cover could be a suitable management target. PMID:23118934

  20. Vegetation management practices: Past and present

    Treesearch

    Peter F. Ffolliott; Gerald J. Gottfried; William H. Kruse

    2003-01-01

    Improving management practices have been at the core of most research conducted in the semidesert grass-shrub vegetation on the Santa Rita Experimental Range. Much of this research has been directed to sustaining forage resources through proper livestock grazing and controlling the invasion of competing woody plants, primarily mesquite. Both research orientations...

  1. 18 CFR 1304.203 - Vegetation management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) Fertilizers and herbicides shall not be applied within the SMZ or elsewhere on TVA land, except as specifically approved in the Vegetative Management Plan. (m) Restricted use herbicides and pesticides shall not be applied on TVA-owned shoreland except by a State certified applicator. All herbicides...

  2. 18 CFR 1304.203 - Vegetation management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) Fertilizers and herbicides shall not be applied within the SMZ or elsewhere on TVA land, except as specifically approved in the Vegetative Management Plan. (m) Restricted use herbicides and pesticides shall not be applied on TVA-owned shoreland except by a State certified applicator. All herbicides...

  3. 18 CFR 1304.203 - Vegetation management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) Fertilizers and herbicides shall not be applied within the SMZ or elsewhere on TVA land, except as specifically approved in the Vegetative Management Plan. (m) Restricted use herbicides and pesticides shall not be applied on TVA-owned shoreland except by a State certified applicator. All herbicides...

  4. Vegetation management 1994 fiscal year end report

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, J.M.

    1995-02-01

    This year-end report evaluates vegetation management operations on the Hanford reservation conducted during fiscal year (FY) 1994 and proposed control methods to be used in FY 1995 and following years. The 1995 control methods proposed are based on an evaluation of past and current ALARA principles, employee safety, environmental impacts, applicable regulations, site esthetics, and other site-specific factors.

  5. Disentangling the response of streamflow to forest management and climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dymond, S.; Miniat, C.; Bladon, K. D.; Keppeler, E.; Caldwell, P. V.

    2016-12-01

    Paired watershed studies have showcased the relationships between forests, management, and streamflow. However, classical analyses of paired-watershed studies have done little to disentangle the effects of management from overarching climatic signals, potentially masking the interaction between management and climate. Such approaches may confound our understanding of how forest management impacts streamflow. Here we use a 50-year record of streamflow and climate data from the Caspar Creek Experimental Watersheds (CCEW), California, USA to separate the effects of forest management and climate on streamflow. CCEW has two treatment watersheds that have been harvested in the past 50 years. We used a nonlinear mixed model to combine the pre-treatment relationship between streamflow and climate and the post-treatment relationship via an interaction between climate and management into one equation. Our results show that precipitation and potential evapotranspiration alone can account for >95% of the variability in pre-treatment streamflow. Including management scenarios into the model explained most of the variability in streamflow (R2 > 0.98). While forest harvesting altered streamflow in both of our modeled watersheds, removing 66% of the vegetation via selection logging using a tractor yarding system over the entire watershed had a more substantial impact on streamflow than clearcutting small portions of a watershed using cable-yarding. These results suggest that forest harvesting may result in differing impacts on streamflow and highlights the need to incorporate climate into streamflow analyses of paired-watershed studies.

  6. Simulating timber management in Lake States forests.

    Treesearch

    Gary J. Brand

    1981-01-01

    Describes in detail a management subsystem to simulate cutting in Lake States forest types. This subsystem is part of a Stand and Tree Evaluation and Modeling System (STEMS) contained in the Forest Resource Evaluation Program (FREP) for the Lake States. The management subsystem can be used to test the effect of alternate management strategies.

  7. Method for Burned Forest Vegetation Recovery Monitoring Using Satellite Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Guifen; Qin, Xianlin; Yin, Lingyu; Zu, Xiaofeng; Deng, Guang; Casanova, Jose-Luis,

    2016-08-01

    To satisfy the monitoring technology needs for the effect on forest growth and restoration of alpine region by forest fires, Yajiang County in Sichuan province of People Republic of China has been selected as the experimental area. By means of analyzing results on factors, such as vegetation spectral characteristics, Normalized difference vegetation index(NDVI) of burned forest area and normal vegetation region using time-series images of NO.1 high-resolution satellite (GF-1),the method for monitoring burned forest vegetation recovery has been studied. The conclusion showed that the trends of the burned forest recovery were correlated with the damage degree by forest fire. The more serious forest burned, the slower the restoration.

  8. Landscape development, forest fires, and wilderness management.

    PubMed

    Wright, H E

    1974-11-08

    fire. Major fires occur so often that the vegetation pattern is a record of fire history. All elements in the forest mosaic are in various stages of postfire succession, with only a few approaching climax. Fire interrupts the successful sequence toward climax. Geomorphic and edaphic factors in vegetational distribution are largely submerged by the fire regime, except for bog and other lowland vegetation. Fire recycles nutrients and renews succession. Nevertheless, despite the fire regime, the resulting long-term equilibrium of the forest mosaic, characterized by severe and irregular fluctuations of individual elements, reflects regional climate. In the BWCA and the western mountains, large virgin forests can be preserved for study and wilderness recreation. These wilderness areas must be managed to return them to the natural equilibrium which has been disturbed by 50 to 70 years of fire suppression. The goal should be to maintain virgin forests as primeval wilderness. This can be done by management that permits fire and other natural processes to determine the forest mosaic. Mechanized tree-felling and other human disturbances should be kept to an absolute minimum. Natural landforms also should be preserved for study and for certain nondestructive recreational activities. It is somewhat late for the Colorado River and other rivers of the West, because natural balances are upset by drainagebasin disturbances. Modification of plant cover on hillslopes changes infiltration and erosion rates and thus the stream discharge and sediment load, so the stream balance is altered from primeval conditions. Scenic Rivers legislation should thus be used to restore certain river systems and their drainage basins. Mountain meadows, badlands, desert plains, and patterned permafrost terrain are extremely fragile and sensitive. Intricate stream and weathering processes leave patterns easily obliterated by mechanized vehicles. Tire tracks can last for decades or centuries. The mineral

  9. Multiple environmental changes drive forest floor vegetation in a temperate mountain forest.

    PubMed

    Helm, Norbert; Essl, Franz; Mirtl, Michael; Dirnböck, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Human-induced changes of the environment and their possible impacts on temperate forest understory plant communities have been examined in many studies. However, the relative contribution of individual environmental factors to these changes in the herb layer is still unclear. In this study, we used vegetation survey data covering a time period of 21 years and collected from 143 permanent plots in the Northern Limestone Alps, Austria. Data on soil chemistry (49 plots), light condition (51 plots), soil temperature and moisture (four and six plots), disturbance (all plots), climate (one station in a clearing area), and airborne sulfur (S) and nitrogen (N) deposition (two forest stands) were available for analyses. We used these data together with plot mean Ellenberg indicator values in a path analysis to attribute their relative contributions to observed vegetation changes. Our analysis reveals a strong directional shift of the forest understory plant community. We found strong evidence for a recovery of the ground-layer vegetation from acidification as response to decreased S deposition. We did not observe a community response to atmospheric N deposition, but we found a response to altered climatic conditions (thermophilization and drying). The path analysis revealed that changes in the light regime, which were related to small-scale disturbances, had most influence on herb layer community shifts. Thermophilization and drying were identified as drivers of understory community changes independent of disturbance events.

  10. An ecological aesthetic for forest landscape management

    Treesearch

    Paul H. Gobster

    1999-01-01

    Although aesthetics and ecological sustainability are two highly regared values of forest landscapes, practices developed to manage forests for these values can sometimes conflict with one another. In this paper I argue that such conflicts are rooted in our conception of forest aesthetics as scenery, and propose that a normative, "ecological aesthetic" based...

  11. Solid Waste Management in Recreational Forest Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spooner, Charles S.

    The Forest Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture, requested the Bureau of Solid Waste Management to conduct a study of National Forest recreation areas to establish waste generation rates for major recreation activities and to determine the cost of solid waste handling for selected Forest Service Districts. This report describes the 1968 solid…

  12. Assessing economic tradeoffs in forest management.

    Treesearch

    Ernie Niemi; Ed. Whitelaw

    1999-01-01

    Method is described for assessing the competing demands for forest resources in a forest management plan by addressing economics values, economic impacts, and perceptions of fairness around each demand. Economics trends and forces that shape the dynamic ecosystem-economy relation are developed. The method is demonstrated through an illustrative analysis of a forest-...

  13. Forest Interpreter's Primer on Fire Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zelker, Thomas M.

    Specifically prepared for the use of Forest Service field-based interpreters of the management, protection, and use of forest and range resources and the associated human, cultural, and natural history found on these lands, this book is the second in a series of six primers on the multiple use of forest and range resources. Following an…

  14. Indiana forest management history and practices

    Treesearch

    Sam F. Carman

    2013-01-01

    Indiana's landscape and forests today are largely the result of Ice Age glaciations, Native Americans' use of fire, and over-harvesting in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Any intentional management of the forest was not generally apparent until the early 1900s. Early visionaries at that time recognized the future impact forest depletion would have on...

  15. Ecosystem management, forest health, and silviculture

    Treesearch

    Merrill R. Kaufmann; Claudia M. Regan

    1995-01-01

    Forest health issues include the effects of fire suppression and grazing on forest stands, reduction in amount of old-growth forests, stand structural changes associated with even-aged management, .changes in structure of the landscape mosaic, loss of habitat for threatened species, and the introduction of exotic species. The consequences of these impacts can be...

  16. Intelligent Model Management in a Forest Ecosystem Management Decision Support System

    Treesearch

    Donald Nute; Walter D. Potter; Frederick Maier; Jin Wang; Mark Twery; H. Michael Rauscher; Peter Knopp; Scott Thomasma; Mayukh Dass; Hajime Uchiyama

    2002-01-01

    Decision making for forest ecosystem management can include the use of a wide variety of modeling tools. These tools include vegetation growth models, wildlife models, silvicultural models, GIS, and visualization tools. NED-2 is a robust, intelligent, goal-driven decision support system that integrates tools in each of these categories. NED-2 uses a blackboard...

  17. Scaling Forest Management Practices in Earth System Models: Case Study of Southeast and Pacific Northwest Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pourmokhtarian, A.; Becknell, J. M.; Hall, J.; Desai, A. R.; Boring, L. R.; Duffy, P.; Staudhammer, C. L.; Starr, G.; Dietze, M.

    2014-12-01

    A wide array of human-induced disturbances can alter the structure and function of forests, including climate change, disturbance and management. While there have been numerous studies on climate change impacts on forests, interactions of management with changing climate and natural disturbance are poorly studied. Forecasts of the range of plausible responses of forests to climate change and management are need for informed decision making on new management approaches under changing climate, as well as adaptation strategies for coming decades. Terrestrial biosphere models (TBMs) provide an excellent opportunity to investigate and assess simultaneous responses of terrestrial ecosystems to climatic perturbations and management across multiple spatio-temporal scales, but currently do not represent a wide array of management activities known to impact carbon, water, surface energy fluxes, and biodiversity. The Ecosystem Demography model 2 (ED2) incorporates non-linear impacts of fine-scale (~10-1 km) heterogeneity in ecosystem structure both horizontally and vertically at a plant level. Therefore it is an ideal candidate to incorporate different forest management practices and test various hypotheses under changing climate and across various spatial scales. The management practices that we implemented were: clear-cut, conversion, planting, partial harvest, low intensity fire, restoration, salvage, and herbicide. The results were validated against observed data across 8 different sites in the U.S. Southeast (Duke Forest, Joseph Jones Ecological Research Center, North Carolina Loblolly Pine, and Ordway-Swisher Biological Station) and Pacific Northwest (Metolius Research Natural Area, H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest, Wind River Field Station, and Mount Rainier National Park). These sites differ in regards to climate, vegetation, soil, and historical land disturbance as well as management approaches. Results showed that different management practices could successfully

  18. Understory vegetation data quality assessment for the Interior West Forest and Inventory Analysis program

    Treesearch

    Paul L. Patterson; Renee A. O' Brien

    2011-01-01

    The Interior West Forest Inventory and Analysis (IW-FIA) program of the USDA Forest Service collects field data on understory vegetation structure that have broad applications. In IW-FIA one aspect of quality assurance is assessed based on the repeatability of field measurements. The understory vegetation protocol consists of two suites of measurements; (1) the...

  19. Relationships between forest cutting and understory vegetation: an overview of eastern hardwood stands

    Treesearch

    Hewlette S. Crawford

    1976-01-01

    The impacts of forest cutting upon understory vegetation were evaluated for Ozark oak-hickory and Appalachian oak-pine stands. These findings were related to similar information from other eastern forest types. Production of understory vegetation is related to stand type, stand structure, stand disturbance, and site. Stand type, structure, and site operate together to...

  20. Prediction of understory vegetation cover with airborne lidar in an interior ponderosa pine forest

    Treesearch

    Brian M. Wing; Martin W. Ritchie; Kevin Boston; Warren B. Cohen; Alix Gitelman; Michael J. Olsen

    2012-01-01

    Forest understory communities are important components in forest ecosystems providing wildlife habitat and influencing nutrient cycling, fuel loadings, fire behavior and tree species composition over time. One of the most widely utilized understory component metrics is understory vegetation cover, often used as a measure of vegetation abundance. To date, understory...

  1. Forest insect pest management and forest management in China: an overview.

    PubMed

    Ji, Lanzhu; Wang, Zhen; Wang, Xiaowei; An, Linli

    2011-12-01

    According to the Seventh National Forest Inventory (2004-2008), China's forests cover an area of 195.45 million ha, or 20.36% of the total land area. China has the most rapidly increasing forest resources in the world. However, China is also a country with serious forest pest problems. There are more than 8,000 species of potential forest pests in China, including insects, plant diseases, rodents and lagomorphs, and hazardous plants. Among them, 300 species are considered as economically or ecologically important, and half of these are serious pests, including 86 species of insects. Forest management and utilization have a considerable influence on the stability and sustainability of forest ecosystems. At the national level, forestry policies always play a major role in forest resource management and forest health protection. In this paper, we present a comprehensive overview of both achievements and challenges in forest management and insect pest control in China. First, we summarize the current status of forest resources and their pests in China. Second, we address the theories, policies, practices and major national actions on forestry and forest insect pest management, including the Engineering Pest Management of China, the National Key Forestry Programs, the Classified Forest Management system, and the Collective Forest Tenure Reform. We analyze and discuss three representative plantations-Eucalyptus, poplar and Masson pine plantations-with respect to their insect diversity, pest problems and pest management measures.

  2. Forest Insect Pest Management and Forest Management in China: An Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Lanzhu; Wang, Zhen; Wang, Xiaowei; An, Linli

    2011-12-01

    According to the Seventh National Forest Inventory (2004-2008), China's forests cover an area of 195.45 million ha, or 20.36% of the total land area. China has the most rapidly increasing forest resources in the world. However, China is also a country with serious forest pest problems. There are more than 8,000 species of potential forest pests in China, including insects, plant diseases, rodents and lagomorphs, and hazardous plants. Among them, 300 species are considered as economically or ecologically important, and half of these are serious pests, including 86 species of insects. Forest management and utilization have a considerable influence on the stability and sustainability of forest ecosystems. At the national level, forestry policies always play a major role in forest resource management and forest health protection. In this paper, we present a comprehensive overview of both achievements and challenges in forest management and insect pest control in China. First, we summarize the current status of forest resources and their pests in China. Second, we address the theories, policies, practices and major national actions on forestry and forest insect pest management, including the Engineering Pest Management of China, the National Key Forestry Programs, the Classified Forest Management system, and the Collective Forest Tenure Reform. We analyze and discuss three representative plantations— Eucalyptus, poplar and Masson pine plantations—with respect to their insect diversity, pest problems and pest management measures.

  3. A report on the potential use of USDA Forest Service forest inventory and analysis data by the Bureau of Land Management

    Treesearch

    Bill Williams; Tracey S. Frescino; Larry T. DeBlander; Sharon W. Woudenberg; Michael Wilson

    2006-01-01

    The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) does not have a consistent internal program or source of vegetation data to use for strategic level planning, such as in resource management plans. This technical note discusses and evaluates the potential of the USDA Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Program to assist the BLM in filling this data gap. The FIA...

  4. [Variation of forest vegetation carbon storage and carbon sequestration rate in Liaoning Province, Northeast China].

    PubMed

    Zhen, Wei; Huang, Mei; Zhai, Yin-Li; Chen, Ke; Gong, Ya-Zhen

    2014-05-01

    The forest vegetation carbon stock and carbon sequestration rate in Liaoning Province, Northeast China, were predicted by using Canadian carbon balance model (CBM-CFS3) combining with the forest resource data. The future spatio-temporal distribution and trends of vegetation carbon storage, carbon density and carbon sequestration rate were projected, based on the two scenarios, i. e. with or without afforestation. The result suggested that the total forest vegetation carbon storage and carbon density in Liaoning Province in 2005 were 133.94 Tg and 25.08 t x hm(-2), respectively. The vegetation carbon storage in Quercus was the biggest, while in Robinia pseudoacacia was the least. Both Larix olgensis and broad-leaved forests had higher vegetation carbon densities than others, and the vegetation carbon densities of Pinus tabuliformis, Quercus and Robinia pseudoacacia were close to each other. The spatial distribution of forest vegetation carbon density in Liaoning Province showed a decrease trend from east to west. In the eastern forest area, the future increase of vegetation carbon density would be smaller than those in the northern forest area, because most of the forests in the former part were matured or over matured, while most of the forests in the later part were young. Under the scenario of no afforestation, the future increment of total forest vegetation carbon stock in Liaoning Province would increase gradually, and the total carbon sequestration rate would decrease, while they would both increase significantly under the afforestation scenario. Therefore, afforestation plays an important role in increasing vegetation carbon storage, carbon density and carbon sequestration rate.

  5. Tapping into the Forest Management Assistance Programs

    Treesearch

    John L. Greene; Terry K. Haines

    1998-01-01

    Use of federal and state forest management assistance programs can enable nonindustial private forest owners to reduce their management expenses and practice better stewardship. This paper summarizes six federal and twelve state assistance programs available to owners in the North Central states. It also describes how to calculate the amount of a government...

  6. Forest pest management in a changing world

    Treesearch

    Andrew M. Liebhold

    2012-01-01

    The scope, context and science guiding forest pest management have evolved and are likely to continue changing into the future. Here, I present six areas of advice to guide practitioners in the implementation of forest pest management. First, human dimensions will continue to play a key role in most pest problems and should always be a primary consideration in...

  7. 75 FR 16728 - Beaver Creek Landscape Management Project, Ashland Ranger District, Custer National Forest...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-02

    ... to manage vegetation for more early-, mid- and late-development open forest structural classes to... distribution of forest development classes and structure that is more resistant to large scale, high severity, stand replacement fires in order to provide sustainable environmental, social, and economic benefits...

  8. Huckleberry abundance, stand conditions, and use in western Oregon: evaluating the role of forest management.

    Treesearch

    Becky K Kerns; Susan J. Alexander; John D. Bailey

    2004-01-01

    Huckleberries are major components of the understory vegetation in coniferous Pacific Northwest forests of the United States. Vaccinium species also have a long history of human use. However, little research has been done to ascertain how they respond to common forest management practices. We used data obtained from old-growth, young thinned, and...

  9. Impacts and management implications of ice storms on forests in the southern United States

    Treesearch

    Don C. Bragg; Michael G Shelton; Boris Zeide

    2003-01-01

    Abstract: This review explores the ecological and silvicultural impacts of ice storms on forests in the southern United States. Different environmental factors like weather conditions, topography, vegetation, stand density, and management practices influence the degree of glaze damage a particular forest may experience. Additionally, the frequent...

  10. Proceeding of the 2017 Forest vegetation simulator (FVS) e-Conference

    Treesearch

    Chad E. Keyser; Tara L. Keyser

    2017-01-01

    The Forest Vegetation Simulator (FVS) is a forest dynamics modeling system with geographic variants covering forested areas of the contiguous United States. As a direct descendant of the Prognosis model of the 1970/80s, FVS has seen continuous development and use for over 40 years. The 2017 FVS e-Conference, the fifth in a series of quinquennial conferences, was a...

  11. Plant community classification for alpine vegetation on the Beaverhead National Forest, Montana

    Treesearch

    Stephen V. Cooper; Peter Lesica; Deborah Page-Dumroese

    1997-01-01

    Vegetation of the alpine zone of eight mountain ranges in southwestern Montana was classified using IWINSPAN, DECORAN, and STRATA-algorithms embedded within the U.S. Forest Service Northern Region's ECADS (ecological classification and description system) program. Quantitative estimates of vegetation and soil attributes were sampled from 138 plots. Vegetation...

  12. New forest vegetation maps facilitate assessment of biodiversity indicators over large, multi-ownership regions.

    Treesearch

    Janet L. Ohmann

    2003-01-01

    Natural resource policy analysis and conservation planning are best served by broad-scale information about vegetation that is detailed, spatially complete, and consistent across land ownerships and allocations. In this paper I describe how a new generation of forest vegetation maps can be used to assess the distribution of vegetation biodiversity among land ownerships...

  13. Global survey of anthropogenic neighborhood threats to conservation of grass-shrub and forest vegetation

    Treesearch

    Kurt H. Riitters; James D. Wickham; Timothy G. Wade; Peter Vogt

    2012-01-01

    The conservation value of natural vegetation is degraded by proximity to anthropogenic land uses. Previous global assessments focused primarily on the amount of land protected or converted to anthropogenic uses, and on forest vegetation. Comparative assessments of extant vegetation in terms of proximity to anthropogenic land uses are needed to better inform...

  14. Real and Simulated Waveform Recording LIDAR Data in Boreal Juvenile Forest Vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hovi, A.; Korpela, I.

    2013-05-01

    Airborne small-footprint LiDAR is replacing field measurements in regional-level forest inventories, but auxiliary field work is still required for the optimal management of young stands. Waveform (WF) recording sensors can provide a more detailed description of the vegetation compared to discrete return (DR) systems. Furthermore, knowing the shape of the signal facilitates comparisons between real data and those obtained with simulation tools. We performed a quantitative validation of a Monte Carlo ray tracing (MCRT) -based LiDAR simulator against real data and used simulations and empirical data to study the WF recording LiDAR for the classification of boreal juvenile forest vegetation. Geometric-optical models of three common species were used as input for the MCRT model. Simulated radiometric and geometric WF features were in good agreement with the real data, and interspecies differences were preserved. We used the simulator to study the effects of sensor parameters on species classification performance. An increase in footprint size improved the classification accuracy up to a certain footprint size, while the emitted pulse width and the WF sampling rate had minor effects. Analyses on empirical data showed small improvement in performance compared to existing studies, when classifying seedling stand vegetation to four operational classes. The results on simulator validation serve as a basis for the future use of simulation models e.g. in LiDAR survey planning or in the simulation of synthetic training data, while the empirical findings clarify the potential of WF LiDAR data in the inventory chain for the operational forest management planning in Finland.

  15. Changes in ground layer vegetation following timber harvests on the Missouri Ozark Forest Ecosystem Project

    Treesearch

    Jennifer K. Grabner; Eric K. Zenner

    2002-01-01

    The Missouri Ozark Forest Ecosystem Project (MOFEP) is a landscape-scale experiment to test for effects of the following three common forest management practices on upland forests: 1) even-aged management (EAM), 2) uneven-aged management (UAM), and 3) no-harvest management (NHM). The first round of harvesting treatments was applied on the nine MOFEP sites in 1996. One...

  16. Field investigations of the interaction between debris flows and forest vegetation in two Alpine fans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michelini, Tamara; Bettella, Francesco; D'Agostino, Vincenzo

    2017-02-01

    A key objective in debris-flow hazard mitigation is the reduction of the potential depositional area in the fan. From this point of view, forested areas are able to provide a protective function hindering the flow motion and promoting the surge deposition. Despite extensive research on Alpine forests and their protective functions, relatively few studies in the literature have quantitatively focused on the relationship between debris-flow depositional features and vegetation. In light of the above, our research investigates how vegetation characteristics in the fan area interact with debris-flow deposition. Field investigations were carried out in two Alpine fans where debris-flow events occurred in the summer of 2012. By recording the characteristics of 1567 involved trees and the associated deposit thicknesses, this paper provides a data set that contributes to the improvement of the knowledge of these interaction processes. The integration of literature findings and the analysis of the collected dataset adds insights into the relationships between tree characteristics and the dynamics of debris flow during the runout path. The main results prove the capacity of the forest of uniformly promoting flow-energy dissipation, presence of high species diversity in debris-flow deposits when comparing disturbed and undisturbed forest stands, tree mortality largely affecting small diameters < 10 cm in the upper/medium part of the cone, and deposit thicknesses depending on the trunk diameter only if the debris-flow regime was collisional. Based on the field results and their analysis, some criteria for the management of protection forests in alluvial fans are suggested.

  17. Early vegetational changes on a forested wetland constructed for mitigation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perry, M.C.; Osenton, P.C.; Sibrel, C.B.

    1997-01-01

    Changes in vegetation were studied on 15 acres of a 35 acre forested wetland created as a mitigation site in Anne Arundel County, Maryland during 1994-96. Meter-square sampling on four different hydrologic elevations determined that grasses initially dominated the area, but decreased from 59 percent in 1994 to 51 percent in 1995 and 30 percent in 1996. Herbaceous non-grass plants (forbs) increased from 19 percent to 56 percent in the three-year period. Area with no plant cover decreased from 21 percent in 1994 to 11 percent in 1995, and 10 percent in 1996. Woody plants comprised 2 percent of the cover in 1994, increased to 4 percent in 1995, and remained at 4 percent in 1996. The increase of woody plants was mainly from natural regeneration (pioneer) plants. Monitoring of the transplanted trees and shrubs indicated 35 percent mortality and little growth of surviving plants. The pioneer woody plant forming most of the cover was black willow (Salix nigra). Differences in the vegetation were observed among the four elevations, although no differences were observed for the major vegetation classes between plots that were planted and those that were not planted with woody plants. Dominant grass species was redtop (Agrostis stolonifera), which comprised 51 percent of the cover in 1994 and 42 percent cover in 1995 and 23 percent in 1996. Other species that were common were bush clover (Lespedeza cuneata), Japanese clover (Lespedeza striata) and flat pea (Lathyrus sylvestris). All four of these dominant species were part of the original seed mixtures that were seeded on the site. A total of 134 species of plants was recorded on the site indicating a fairly diverse community for a newly established habitat.

  18. WebGIS Platform Adressed to Forest Fire Management Methodologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    André Ramos-Simões, Nuno; Neto Paixão, Helena Maria; Granja Martins, Fernando Miguel; Pedras, Celestina; Lança, Rui; Silva, Elisa; Jordán, António; Zavala, Lorena; Soares, Cristina

    2015-04-01

    Forest fires are one of the natural disasters that causes more damages in nature, as well as high material costs, and sometimes, a significant losses in human lives. In summer season, when high temperatures are attained, fire may rapidly progress and destroy vast areas of forest and also rural and urban areas. The forest fires have effect on forest species, forest composition and structure, soil properties and soil capacity for nutrient retention. In order to minimize the negative impact of the forest fires in the environment, many studies have been developed, e.g. Jordán et al (2009), Cerdà & Jordán (2010), and Gonçalves & Vieira (2013). Nowadays, Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographic Information System (GIS) technologies are used as support tools in fire management decisions, namely during the fire, but also before and after. This study presents the development of a user-friendly WebGIS dedicated to share data, maps and provide updated information on forest fire management for stakeholders in Iberia Peninsula. The WebGIS platform was developed with ArcGIS Online, ArcGIS for Desktop; HyperText Markup Language (HTML) and Javascript. This platform has a database that includes spatial and alphanumeric information, such as: origin, burned areas, vegetation change over time, terrain natural slope, land use, soil erosion and fire related hazards. The same database contains also the following relevant information: water sources, forest tracks and traffic ways, lookout posts and urban areas. The aim of this study is to provide the authorities with a tool to assess risk areas and manage more efficiently forest fire hazards, giving more support to their decisions and helping the populations when facing this kind of phenomena.

  19. Habitat use by elk (cervus elaphus) within structural stages of a managed forest of the northcentral United States

    Treesearch

    Mark A. Rumble; R. Scott Gamo

    2011-01-01

    Timber management is the most prominent land management activity in the Black Hills National Forest in the northcentral United States. Management units are stands 4-32 ha in size and are described using a hierarchal vegetative description including vegetation type, size class (age), and overstory canopy cover. For the most part, these stands are relatively homogeneous...

  20. Quantifying the effects of trampling and habitat edges on forest understory vegetation--a field experiment.

    PubMed

    Hamberg, Leena; Malmivaara-Lämsä, Minna; Lehvävirta, Susanna; O'Hara, Robert B; Kotze, D Johan

    2010-09-01

    We investigated the effects of human trampling on boreal forest understory vegetation on, and off paths from suburban forest edges towards the interiors and on the likelihood of trampling-aided dispersal into the forests for three years by carrying out a trampling experiment. We showed that the vegetation was highly sensitive to trampling. Even low levels of trampling considerably decreased covers of the most abundant species on the paths. Cover decreased between 10 and 30% on paths which had been trampled 35 times, and at least by 50% on those trampled 70-270 times. On-path vegetation cover decreased similarly at forest edges and in the interiors. However, some open habitat plant species that occurred outside the forest patches and at forest edges dispersed into the forests, possibly through the action of trampling. A higher cover percentage of an open habitat species at the forest edge line increased its probability to disperse into the forest interior. The vegetation community on, next to, and away from lightly trampled paths remained the same throughout the trampling experiment. For heavily trampled paths, the community changed drastically on the paths, but stayed relatively similar next to and away from the paths. As boreal vegetation is highly sensitive to the effects of trampling, overall ease of access throughout the forest floor should be restricted to avoid the excessive creation of spontaneous paths. To minimize the effects of trampling, recreational use could be guided to the maintained path network in heavily used areas.

  1. Impacts of forest and land management on biodiversity and carbon

    Treesearch

    Valerie Kapos; Werner A. Kurz; Toby Gardner; Joice Ferreira; Manuel Guariguata; Lian Pin Koh; Stephanie Mansourian; John A. Parrotta; Nokea Sasaki; Christine B. Schmitt; Jos Barlow; Markku Kanninen; Kimiko Okabe; Yude Pan; Ian D. Thompson; Nathalie. van Vliet

    2012-01-01

    Changes in the management of forest and non-forest land can contribute significantly to reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation. Such changes can include both forest management actions - such as improving the protection and restoration of existing forests, introducing ecologically responsible logging practices and regenerating forest on degraded...

  2. Vegetation and Ecological Characteristics of Mixed-Conifer and Red Fir Forests at the Teakettle Experimental Forest

    Treesearch

    Malcolm North; Brian Oakley; Jiquan Chen; Heather Erickson; Andrew Gray; Antonio Izzo; Dale Johnson; Siyan Ma; Jim Marra; Marc Meyer; Kathryn Purcell; Tom Rambo; Dave Rizzo; Brent Roath; Tim. Schowalter

    2002-01-01

    Detailed analysis of mixed-conifer and red fir forests were made from extensive, large vegetation sampling, systematically conducted throughout the Teakettle Experimental Forest. Mixed conifer is characterized by distinct patch conditions of closed-canopy tree clusters, persistent gaps and shrub thickets. This heterogeneous spatial structure provides contrasting...

  3. Public attitudes toward forest management: a Shawnee National Forest example

    Treesearch

    Joanne Vining

    2003-01-01

    One of the fundamental problems of modern public lands management is the accurate and representative assessment of public opinion. The purpose of this study was to examine differences in perceptions and attitudes of Shawnee National Forest management activities and plans among members of local and regional publics. A survey was administered to members of the public in...

  4. Understory vegetation and site factors : implications for a managed Wisconsin landscape

    Treesearch

    K.D. Brosofske; J. Chen; Thomas R. Crow

    2001-01-01

    We investigated relationships between edaphic and environmental factors (soil, forest floor, topography, and canopy) and understory vegetation (composition, richness, and Shannon-Wiener diversity index, H')among 77 plots representing seven major patch types comprising a landscape in northern Wisconsin that has a long history of human management. Sampled patch...

  5. Assessment of vegetation change in a fire-altered forest landscape

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jakubauskas, Mark E.; Lulla, Kamlesh P.; Mausel, Paul W.

    1990-01-01

    This research focused on determining the degree to which differences in burn severity relate to postfire vegetative cover within a Michigan pine forest. Landsat MSS data from June 1973 and TM data from October 1982 were classified using an unsupervised approach to create prefire and postfire cover maps of the study area. Using a raster-based geographic information system (GIS), the maps were compared, and a map of vegetation change was created. An IR/red band ratio from a June 1980 Landsat scene was classified to create a map of three degres of burn severity, which was then compared with the vegetation change map using a GIS. Classification comparisons of pine and deciduous forest classes (1973 to 1982) revealed that the most change in vegetation occurred in areas subjected to the most intense burn. Two classes of regenerating forest comprised the majority of the change, while the remaining change was associated with shrub vegetation or another forest class.

  6. Assessment of vegetation change in a fire-altered forest landscape

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jakubauskas, Mark E.; Lulla, Kamlesh P.; Mausel, Paul W.

    1990-01-01

    This research focused on determining the degree to which differences in burn severity relate to postfire vegetative cover within a Michigan pine forest. Landsat MSS data from June 1973 and TM data from October 1982 were classified using an unsupervised approach to create prefire and postfire cover maps of the study area. Using a raster-based geographic information system (GIS), the maps were compared, and a map of vegetation change was created. An IR/red band ratio from a June 1980 Landsat scene was classified to create a map of three degres of burn severity, which was then compared with the vegetation change map using a GIS. Classification comparisons of pine and deciduous forest classes (1973 to 1982) revealed that the most change in vegetation occurred in areas subjected to the most intense burn. Two classes of regenerating forest comprised the majority of the change, while the remaining change was associated with shrub vegetation or another forest class.

  7. 43 CFR 5003.2 - Notice of forest management decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Notice of forest management decisions... LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FOREST MANAGEMENT (5000) ADMINISTRATION OF FOREST MANAGEMENT DECISIONS Administrative Remedies § 5003.2 Notice of forest management decisions. (a) The...

  8. 43 CFR 5003.2 - Notice of forest management decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Notice of forest management decisions... LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FOREST MANAGEMENT (5000) ADMINISTRATION OF FOREST MANAGEMENT DECISIONS Administrative Remedies § 5003.2 Notice of forest management decisions. (a) The...

  9. 43 CFR 5003.2 - Notice of forest management decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Notice of forest management decisions... LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FOREST MANAGEMENT (5000) ADMINISTRATION OF FOREST MANAGEMENT DECISIONS Administrative Remedies § 5003.2 Notice of forest management decisions. (a) The...

  10. 43 CFR 5003.2 - Notice of forest management decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Notice of forest management decisions... LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FOREST MANAGEMENT (5000) ADMINISTRATION OF FOREST MANAGEMENT DECISIONS Administrative Remedies § 5003.2 Notice of forest management decisions. (a) The...

  11. Distribution and physical traits of red wood ant mounds in a managed Rhodope mountains forest.

    PubMed

    Tsikas, Angelos; Karanikola, Paraskevi; Papageorgiou, Aristotelis C

    2016-07-01

    Red wood ants (RWA) are of great ecological importance for the forest ecosystem. Forestry practices, like clear-cutting, and trampling load, due to tourism, logging, and grazing stock, can greatly affect their colonies, disturbing their microhabitat. RWA in Greek forests have not been investigated so far. We herein report on the distribution and morphological traits of Formica lugubris mounds studied in Elatia forest (Rhodope mountains, Northern Greece), an all-aged managed mixed forest where selective logging practices are performed. Nearby vegetation, slope, canopy cover, shrub density, and distance from the nearest neighboring trees were also recorded. Mound density was shown to be much higher in this Greek forest compared to RWA mounds in other European-managed forests. Furthermore, we recorded a continuous nest establishment, despite forest management disturbances and trampling load. Our study suggests that single-tree selective forestry practices are essential for creating ideal microhabitats for the RWA and, therefore, for maintaining RWA populations.

  12. Vegetation composition and structure of southern coastal plain pine forests: An ecological comparison

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hedman, C.W.; Grace, S.L.; King, S.E.

    2000-01-01

    Longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) ecosystems are characterized by a diverse community of native groundcover species. Critics of plantation forestry claim that loblolly (Pinus taeda) and slash pine (Pinus elliottii) forests are devoid of native groundcover due to associated management practices. As a result of these practices, some believe that ecosystem functions characteristic of longleaf pine are lost under loblolly and slash pine plantation management. Our objective was to quantify and compare vegetation composition and structure of longleaf, loblolly, and slash pine forests of differing ages, management strategies, and land-use histories. Information from this study will further our understanding and lead to inferences about functional differences among pine cover types. Vegetation and environmental data were collected in 49 overstory plots across Southlands Experiment Forest in Bainbridge, GA. Nested plots, i.e. midstory, understory, and herbaceous, were replicated four times within each overstory plot. Over 400 species were identified. Herbaceous species richness was variable for all three pine cover types. Herbaceous richness for longleaf, slash, and loblolly pine averaged 15, 13, and 12 species per m2, respectively. Longleaf pine plots had significantly more (p < 0.029) herbaceous species and greater herbaceous cover (p < 0.001) than loblolly or slash pine plots. Longleaf and slash pine plots were otherwise similar in species richness and stand structure, both having lower overstory density, midstory density, and midstory cover than loblolly pine plots. Multivariate analyses provided additional perspectives on vegetation patterns. Ordination and classification procedures consistently placed herbaceous plots into two groups which we refer to as longleaf pine benchmark (34 plots) and non-benchmark (15 plots). Benchmark plots typically contained numerous herbaceous species characteristic of relic longleaf pine/wiregrass communities found in the area. Conversely

  13. Vegetation, soil, and flooding relationships in a blackwater floodplain forest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burke, M.K.; King, S.L.; Gartner, D.; Eisenbies, M.H.

    2003-01-01

    Hydroperiod is considered the primary determinant of plant species distribution in temperate floodplain forests, but most studies have focused on alluvial (sediment-laden) river systems. Few studies have evaluated plant community relationships in blackwater river systems of the South Atlantic Coastal Plain of North America. In this study, we characterized the soils, hydroperiod, and vegetation communities and evaluated relationships between the physical and chemical environment and plant community structure on the floodplain of the Coosawhatchie River, a blackwater river in South Carolina, USA. The soils were similar to previous descriptions of blackwater floodplain soils but had greater soil N and P availability, substantially greater clay content, and lower soil silt content than was previously reported for other blackwater river floodplains. Results of a cluster analysis showed there were five forest communities on the site, and both short-term (4 years) and long-term (50 years) flooding records documented a flooding gradient: water tupelo community > swamp tupelo > laurel oak = overcup oak > mixed oak. The long-term hydrologic record showed that the floodplain has flooded less frequently from 1994 to present than in previous decades. Detrended correspondence analysis of environmental and relative basal area values showed that 27% of the variation in overstory community structure could be explained by the first two axes; however, fitting the species distributions to the DCA axes using Gaussian regression explained 67% of the variation. Axes were correlated with elevation (flooding intensity) and soil characteristics related to rooting volume and cation nutrient availability. Our study suggests that flooding is the major factor affecting community structure, but soil characteristics also may be factors in community structure in blackwater systems. ?? 2003, The Society of Wetland Scientists.

  14. Understanding predation: implications toward forest management

    Treesearch

    Harvey R. Smith

    1991-01-01

    It is generally accepted that when gypsy moths rest in the litter survival is low due to predation by ground-foraging generalist predators and that predation can maintain these populations indefinitely. Forest Service research on predators of gypsy moth continues to focus on population dynamics, the mechanisms of predation and forest management implications.

  15. Culture and resource management: factors affecting forests

    Treesearch

    Marjorie C. Falanruw

    1992-01-01

    Efforts to manage Pacific Island forest resources are more likely to succeed if they are based on an understanding of the cultural framework of land use activities. This paper explores the relationship between agricultural systems, population density, culture, and use of forest resources on the islands of Yap. Agricultural intensification is related to population...

  16. Regional forestry practices and forest management certification

    Treesearch

    Steverson O. Moffat; Frederick W. Cubbage; Matthew H. Pelkki

    2001-01-01

    Under a "mandated" management scenario, landowners in states with comprehensive forest practices laws meet more sustainable forestry standards and certification programs' guidelines than do owners in states with other regulatory approaches. This confers certification advantages to landowners in the Pacific Northwest where comprehensive forest laws...

  17. Eastern national forests: managing for nontimber products

    Treesearch

    James L. Chamberlain; Robert J. Bush; A.L. Hammett; Philip A. Araman

    2002-01-01

    Many products are harvested from the forests of the eastern United States that are not timber-based but originate from plant materials. Over the past decade, concern has grown about the sustainability of the forest resources from which these products originate, and an associated interest in managing for these products has materialized. A content analysis of the...

  18. Wood-inhabiting fungi in southern Italy forest stands: morphogroups, vegetation types and decay classes.

    PubMed

    Granito, Vito Mario; Lunghini, Dario; Maggi, Oriana; Persiani, Anna Maria

    2015-01-01

    The authors conducted an ecological study of forests subjected to varying management. The aim of the study was to extend and integrate, within a multivariate context, knowledge of how saproxylic fungal communities behave along altitudinal/vegetational gradients in response to the varying features and quality of coarse woody debris (CWD). The intra-annual seasonal monitoring of saproxylic fungi, based on sporocarp inventories, was used to investigate saproxylic fungi in relation to vegetation types and management categories. We analyzed fungal species occurrence, recorded according to the presence/absence and frequency of sporocarps, on the basis of the harvest season, of coarse woody debris decay classes as well as other environmental and ecological variables. Two-way cluster analysis, DCA and Spearman's rank correlations, for indirect gradient analysis, were performed to identify any patterns of seasonality and decay. Most of the species were found on CWD in an intermediate decay stage. The first DCA axis revealed the vegetational/microclimate gradient as the main driver of fungal community composition, while the second axis corresponded to a strong gradient of CWD decay classes. © 2015 by The Mycological Society of America.

  19. Climate change impact on forest cover and vegetation in Betwa Basin, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmate, S. S.; Pandey, Ashish; Kumar, Dheeraj; Pandey, R. P.; Mishra, S. K.

    2017-03-01

    This paper evaluates the effect of climate change (described in terms of temperature and rainfall) on forest cover and vegetation (described in terms of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) in the Betwa river basin, a tributary of River Yamuna in Central India. Temperature and rainfall data of 18 stations, forest cover and vegetation (derived using 5 years data from Landsat images employing ERDAS Imagine and ArcGIS) were used in the analysis. The effect of climate change was studied for both the pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons. In this study, the simple regression method was used to evaluate their relationship. In pre-monsoon season, temperature and forest cover analysis shows regression coefficient value of 0.6876 and, temperature and vegetation analysis shows regression coefficient value of 0.5751. Further, in post-monsoon season analysis rainfall and forest cover shows regression coefficient value of 0.8417 and, temperature and vegetation analysis shows regression coefficient value of 0.6854. The study reveals that, in pre-monsoon season temperature was significantly related with forest cover and vegetation. In post-monsoon season rainfall exhibited positive response to forest cover and, temperature exhibited negative response to vegetation in the Betwa river basin.

  20. Climate change impact on forest cover and vegetation in Betwa Basin, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmate, S. S.; Pandey, Ashish; Kumar, Dheeraj; Pandey, R. P.; Mishra, S. K.

    2014-07-01

    This paper evaluates the effect of climate change (described in terms of temperature and rainfall) on forest cover and vegetation (described in terms of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) in the Betwa river basin, a tributary of River Yamuna in Central India. Temperature and rainfall data of 18 stations, forest cover and vegetation (derived using 5 years data from Landsat images employing ERDAS Imagine and ArcGIS) were used in the analysis. The effect of climate change was studied for both the pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons. In this study, the simple regression method was used to evaluate their relationship. In pre-monsoon season, temperature and forest cover analysis shows regression coefficient value of 0.6876 and, temperature and vegetation analysis shows regression coefficient value of 0.5751. Further, in post-monsoon season analysis rainfall and forest cover shows regression coefficient value of 0.8417 and, temperature and vegetation analysis shows regression coefficient value of 0.6854. The study reveals that, in pre-monsoon season temperature was significantly related with forest cover and vegetation. In post-monsoon season rainfall exhibited positive response to forest cover and, temperature exhibited negative response to vegetation in the Betwa river basin.

  1. Forest land area estimates from vegetation continuous fields

    Treesearch

    Mark D. Nelson; Ronald E. McRoberts; Matthew C. Hansen

    2004-01-01

    The USDA Forest Service's Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program provides data, information, and knowledge about our Nation's forest resources. FIA regional units collect data from field plots and remotely sensed imagery to produce statistical estimates of forest extent (area); volume, growth, and removals; and health and condition. There is increasing...

  2. Using soil quality indicators for monitoring sustainable forest management

    Treesearch

    James A. Burger; Garland Gray; D. Andrew Scott

    2010-01-01

    Most private and public forest land owners and managers are compelled to manage their forests sustainably, which means management that is economically viable,environmentally sound, and socially acceptable. To meet this mandate, the USDA Forest Service protects the productivity of our nation’s forest soils by monitoring and evaluating management activities to ensure...

  3. Pioneer forest - a half century of sustainable uneven-aged forest management in the Missouri Ozarks

    Treesearch

    James M. Guldin; Greg F. Iffrig; Susan L. Flader

    2008-01-01

    This collection of papers analyzes the Pioneer Forest, a privately owned 150,000-acre working forest in the Missouri Ozarks, on which the science and art of forest management has been practiced for more than 50 years. The papers discuss how this half century of management has contributed to forest restoration and sustainability on the forest itself and, through its...

  4. Contributions of silvicultural studies at Fort Valley to watershed management of Arizona's ponderosa pine forests (P-53)

    Treesearch

    Gerald J. Gottfried; Peter F. Ffolliott; Daniel G. Neary

    2008-01-01

    Watershed management and water yield augmentation have been important objectives for chaparral, ponderosa pine, and mixed conifer management in Arizona and New Mexico. The ponderosa pine forests and other vegetation types generally occur in relatively high precipitation zones where the potential for increased water yields is great. The ponderosa pine forests have been...

  5. Strategies for sustainable forest management

    Treesearch

    Stephen R. Shifley; Francisco X. Aguilar; Nianfu Song; Susan I. Stewart; David J. Nowak; Dale D. Gormanson; W. Keith Moser; Sherri Wormstead; Eric J. Greenfield

    2012-01-01

    Sustainable forestry is widely discussed and almost universally desired, but tangible standards, goals, targets, or thresholds to evaluate sustainability are often defined vaguely. Identifying such standards is complicated by the diversity of forests, the diversity of objectives among forest decisionmakers (both public and private), the diversity of values among people...

  6. Habitat use by Swainson's Warblers in a managed bottomland forest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Somershoe, S.G.; Hudman, S.P.; Chandler, C.R.

    2003-01-01

    The Swainson's Warbler (Limnothlypis swainsonii) is a locally distributed and relatively uncommon Neotropical migrant songbird that breeds in the bottomland forests of the southeastern United States and spends the nonbreeding season in the Caribbean Basin. Populations of Swainson's Warblers have declined during recent decades as bottomland forests have come under increasingly intensive management and large areas have been converted to other land uses. We examined the habitat around song perches used by male Swainson's Warblers at Big Hammock Wildlife Management Area, a managed bottomland forest along the Altamaha River in Tattnall County, Georgia. We quantified 20 features of habitat structure in areas occupied by Swainson's Warblers (occupied plots) and two sets of controls: unoccupied plots adjacent to occupied plots (adjacent control plots) and unoccupied plots throughout the management area (general control plots). Occupied plots and adjacent control plots both differed in structure from the general control plots. We detected no significant differences, however, in vegetation structure between occupied plots and adjacent control plots. General control plots tended to have a greater number of trees, greater basal area, and a complete canopy, whereas occupied and adjacent control plots had high densities of small stems, cane, herbaceous ground cover, and leaf litter; this latter pattern is typical of documented Swainson's Warbler breeding habitat. Lack of significant differences in vegetation structure may be due to great variation in habitat structure around song perches, small sample size, or scarcity of Swainson's Warblers. Future research should focus on quantifying habitat characteristics around nest sites, song perches, and feeding areas. Our results suggest that management of bottomland habitats by thinning forests and encouraging regeneration of canebrakes is needed for successful conservation of Swainson's Warblers.

  7. The canary in the coal mine: Sprouts as a rapid indicator of browse impact in managed forests

    Treesearch

    Alex Royo; David W. Kramer; Karl V. Miller; Nathan P. Nibbelink; Susan L. Stout

    2016-01-01

    Forest managers are frequently confronted with sustaining vegetation diversity and structure in land-scapes experiencing high ungulate browsing pressure. Often, managers monitor browse damage and risk to plant communities using vegetation as indicators (i.e., phytoindicators). Although useful, the efficacy of traditional phytoindicators is sometimes hampered by limited...

  8. Comparing the impacts of hiking, skiing and horse riding on trail and vegetation in different types of forest.

    PubMed

    Törn, A; Tolvanen, A; Norokorpi, Y; Tervo, R; Siikamäki, P

    2009-03-01

    Nature-based tourism in protected areas has increased and diversified dramatically during the last decades. Different recreational activities have a range of impacts on natural environments. This paper reports results from a comparison of the impacts of hiking, cross-country skiing and horse riding on trail characteristics and vegetation in northern Finland. Widths and depths of existing trails, and vegetation on trails and in the neighbouring forests were monitored in two research sites during 2001 and 2002. Trail characteristics and vegetation were clearly related to the recreational activity, research site and forest type. Horse trails were as deep as hiking trails, even though the annual number of users was 150-fold higher on the hiking trails. Simultaneously, cross-country skiing had the least effect on trails due to the protective snow cover during winter. Hiking trail plots had little or no vegetation cover, horse riding trail plots had lower vegetation cover than forest plots, while skiing had no impact on total vegetation cover. On the other hand, on horse riding trails there were more forbs and grasses, many of which did not grow naturally in the forest. These species that were limited to riding trails may change the structure of adjacent plant communities in the long run. Therefore, the type of activities undertaken and the sensitivity of habitats to these activities should be a major consideration in the planning and management of nature-based tourism. Establishment of artificial structures, such as stairs, duckboards and trail cover, or complete closure of the site, may be the only way to protect the most sensitive or deteriorated sites.

  9. The status of forest management research in the United States.

    Treesearch

    Donald G. Hodges; Pamela J. Jakes; Frederick W. Cubbage

    1988-01-01

    In 1985, the USDA Forest Service invested nearly $30 million in forest management research, forest industry invested $19 million, and universities invested at least $17 million. Investments in this research have been declining since then. Forest Service data indicate that the public sector is the largest beneficiary of forest management research.

  10. Vegetation and fire in lowland dry forest at Wa'ahila Ridge on O'ahu, Hawai'i.

    PubMed

    Lu, Pei-Luen; DeLay, John K

    2016-01-01

    Long-term ecological studies are critical for providing key insights in ecology, environmental change, natural resource management and biodiversity conservation. However, island fire ecology is poorly understood. No previous studies are available that analyze vegetative changes in burned and unburned dry forest remnants on Wa'ahila Ridge, Hawai'i. This study investigates vegetation succession from 2008 to 2015, following a fire in 2007 which caused significant differences in species richness, plant density, and the frequency of woody, herb, grass, and lichens between burned and unburned sites. These findings infer that introduced plants have better competitive ability to occupy open canopy lands than native plants after fire. This study also illustrates the essential management need to prevent alien plant invasion, and to restore the native vegetation in lowland areas of the Hawaiian Islands by removing invasive species out-planting native plants after fire.

  11. Vegetation and fire in lowland dry forest at Wa’ahila Ridge on O’ahu, Hawai’i

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Pei-Luen; DeLay, John K.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Long-term ecological studies are critical for providing key insights in ecology, environmental change, natural resource management and biodiversity conservation. However, island fire ecology is poorly understood. No previous studies are available that analyze vegetative changes in burned and unburned dry forest remnants on Wa’ahila Ridge, Hawai’i. This study investigates vegetation succession from 2008 to 2015, following a fire in 2007 which caused significant differences in species richness, plant density, and the frequency of woody, herb, grass, and lichens between burned and unburned sites. These findings infer that introduced plants have better competitive ability to occupy open canopy lands than native plants after fire. This study also illustrates the essential management need to prevent alien plant invasion, and to restore the native vegetation in lowland areas of the Hawaiian Islands by removing invasive species out-planting native plants after fire. PMID:27698574

  12. Maximizing vegetation response on management burns by identifying fire regimes

    Treesearch

    V. Thomas Parker

    1989-01-01

    Maintenance of vegetation is a central goal of watershed management. When prescribed burning of chaparral is included in management practice, then it is important for managers to understand and use the natural chaparral fire regime to maximize vegetation response. Variations from the natural fire regime in intensity, frequency, season, and environmental conditions at...

  13. Effects of forest management practices and environment on occurrence of Armillaria species

    Treesearch

    Mee-Sook Kim; Ned B. Klopfenstein; Geral I. McDonald

    2010-01-01

    Influences of environment (indicated by plant associations) and forest management practices on the distribution of Armillaria spp. and genets (vegetative clones) were investigated. A total of 142 isolates of Armillaria was collected from various host trees on pristine and managed sites (thinned and/or fertilized) growing in relatively wet and dry environments in...

  14. Vegetation classification in southern pine mixed hardwood forests using airborne scanning laser point data.

    SciTech Connect

    McGaughey, Robert J.; Reutebuch, Stephen E.

    2012-10-15

    Forests of the southeastern United States are dominated by a relatively small number of conifer species. However, many of these forests also have a hardwood component composed of a wide variety of species that are found in all canopy positions. The presence or absence of hardwood species and their position in the canopy often dictates management activities such as thinning or prescribed burning. In addition, the characteristics of the under- and mid-story layers, often dominated by hardwood species, are key factors when assessing suitable habitat for threatened and endangered species such as the Red Cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) (RCW), making information describing the hardwood component important to forest managers. General classification of cover types using LIDAR data has been reported (Song et al. 2002, Brennan and Webster 2006) but most efforts focusing on the identification of individual species or species groups rely on some type of imagery to provide more complete spectral information for the study area. Brandtberg (2007) found that use of intensity data significantly improved LIDAR detection and classification of three leaf-off deciduous eastern species: oaks (Quercus spp.), red maple (Acer rubrum L.), and yellow poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.). Our primary objective was to determine the proportion of hardwood species present in the canopy using only the LIDAR point data and derived products. However, the presence of several hardwood species that retain their foliage through the winter months complicated our analyses. We present two classification approaches. The first identifies areas containing hardwood and softwood (conifer) species (H/S) and the second identifies vegetation with foliage absent or present (FA/FP) at the time of the LIDAR data acquisition. The classification results were used to develop predictor variables for forest inventory models. The ability to incorporate the proportion of hardwood and softwood was important to the

  15. Insect pest management in forest ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahlsten, Donald L.; Rowney, David L.

    1983-01-01

    Understanding the role of insects in forest ecosystems is vital to the development of environmentally and economically sound pest management strategies in forestry Most of the research on forest insects has been confined to phytophagous species associated with economically important tree species The roles of most other insects in forest environments have generally been ignored, including the natural enemies and associates of phytophagous species identified as being important In the past few years several investigations have begun to reevaluate the role of phytophagous species responsible for perturbation in forest ecosystems, and it appears that these species may be playing an important role in the primary productivity of those ecosystems Also, there is an increasing awareness that forest pest managers have been treating the symptoms and not the causes of the problems in the forest Many insect problems are associated with poor sites or sites where trees are growing poorly because of crowding As a result, there is considerable emphasis on the hazard rating of stands of trees for their susceptibility to various phytophagous insects The next step is to manipulate forest stands to make them less susceptible to forest pest complexes A thinning study in California is used as an example and shows that tree mortality in ponderosa pine ( Pinus ponderosa) attributable to the western pine beetle ( Dendroctonus brevicomis) can be reduced by commercial thinning to reduce stocking

  16. Climate and Vegetation Effects on Temperate Mountain Forest Evapotranspiration

    EPA Science Inventory

    Current forest composition may be resilient to typical climatic variability; however, climate trends, combined with projected changes in species composition, may increase tree vulnerability to water stress. A shift in forest composition toward tree species with higher water use h...

  17. Climate and Vegetation Effects on Temperate Mountain Forest Evapotranspiration

    EPA Science Inventory

    Current forest composition may be resilient to typical climatic variability; however, climate trends, combined with projected changes in species composition, may increase tree vulnerability to water stress. A shift in forest composition toward tree species with higher water use h...

  18. Influence of environment, disturbance, and ownership on forest vegetation of coastal Oregon.

    Treesearch

    J.L. Ohmann; M.J. Gregory; T.A. Spies

    2007-01-01

    We used spatial predictions from gradient models to examine the influence of environment, disturbance, and ownership on patterns of forest vegetation biodiversity across a large forested region, the Oregon Coast Range (USA). Gradients in tree species composition were strongly associated with physical environment, especially climate, and insensitive to disturbance. In...

  19. Vegetation re-establishment on a hardwood forest site denuded by brine

    Treesearch

    R.S. Walters; L.R. Auchmoody

    1989-01-01

    Brine from active oil wells seeped through the soil of a forested site in north-western Pennsylvania and killed all vegetation in its path, leaving the affected area unproductive and unsightly. After the brine source was eliminated, herbaceous plants, shrubs and forest tree seedlings became established and developed rapidly. Establishment began in the first year and by...

  20. Second Forest Vegetation Simulator Conference; February 12-14, 2002; Fort Collins, CO.

    Treesearch

    Nicholas L. Crookston; Robert N. Havis

    2002-01-01

    The Forest Vegetation Simulator (FVS) is a computer program that projects the development of forest stands in the United States and British Columbia, Canada. The proceedings of the second FVS conference, held in Fort Collins, CO, includes 34 papers dealing with applications of FVS that range from the stand-level through full-scale landscape analyses. Forecasts ranging...

  1. Understory vegetation response to mechanical mastication and other fuels treatments in a ponderosa pine forest

    Treesearch

    Jeffrey M. Kane; J. Morgan Varner; Eric E. Knapp

    2010-01-01

    Questions: What influence does mechanical mastication and other fuel treatments have on: (1) canopy and forest floor response variables that influence understory plant development; (2) initial understory vegetation cover, diversity, and composition; and (3) shrub and non-native species density in a secondgrowth ponderosa pine forest....

  2. Seeing the future impacts of climate change and forest management: a landscape visualization system for forest managers

    Treesearch

    Eric J. Gustafson; Melissa Lucash; Johannes Liem; Helen Jenny; Rob Scheller; Kelly Barrett; Brian R. Sturtevant

    2016-01-01

    Forest managers are increasingly considering how climate change may alter forests' capacity to provide ecosystem goods and services. But identifying potential climate change effects on forests is difficult because interactions among forest growth and mortality, climate change, management, and disturbances are complex and uncertain. Although forest landscape models...

  3. Global Survey of Anthropogenic Neighborhood Threats to Conservation of Grass-Shrub and Forest Vegetation

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ecological functions of natural vegetation are threatened when it is subsumed in anthropogenic landscapes. We report the first comparative global survey of anthropogenic landscape threats to forest and grass-shrub vegetation. Using a global land-cover map derived from remote...

  4. Global Survey of Anthropogenic Neighborhood Threats to Conservation of Grass-Shrub and Forest Vegetation

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ecological functions of natural vegetation are threatened when it is subsumed in anthropogenic landscapes. We report the first comparative global survey of anthropogenic landscape threats to forest and grass-shrub vegetation. Using a global land-cover map derived from remote...

  5. Use of the forest vegetation simulator to quantify disturbance activities in state and transition models

    Treesearch

    Reuben Weisz; Don Vandendriesche

    2012-01-01

    The Forest Vegetation Simulator (FVS) has been used to provide rates of natural growth transitions under endemic conditions for use in State and Transition Models (STMs). This process has previously been presented. This paper expands on that work by citing the methods used to capture resultant vegetation states following disturbance activities; be it of natural causes...

  6. Modeling of the interactions between forest vegetation, disturbances, and sediment yields

    Treesearch

    Erkan Istanbulluoglu; David G. Tarboton; Robert T. Pack; Charles H. Luce

    2004-01-01

    The controls of forest vegetation, wildfires, and harvest vegetation disturbances on the frequency and magnitude of sediment delivery from a small watershed (~3.9 km2) in the Idaho batholith are investigated through numerical modeling. The model simulates soil development based on continuous bedrock weathering and the divergence of diffusive...

  7. Photo series for quantifying natural forest residues in common vegetation types of the Pacific Northwest.

    Treesearch

    Wayne G. Maxwell; Franklin R. Ward

    1980-01-01

    Twenty-five series of photographs display different levels of natural forest residue loadings by size classes for areas of like vegetation in the Pacific Northwest. Information with each photo includes measured weights, volumes, and other data on residues, information about live vegetation, and fuel ratings.These photo series provide a fast, easy-to-use way to...

  8. It's Not Really Over: Thurston County, Washington's Vegetation Management Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacGregor, Jean

    1992-01-01

    Describes the establishment and results of a study committee asked to review existing pesticide policy, vegetation management programs and provide improvement recommendations in Thurston County, Washington. (MCO)

  9. Effectiveness of Vegetation in Erosion Control From Forest Road Sideslopes

    Treesearch

    Johnny M. Grace

    2002-01-01

    Abstract.. Forest roads have been identified as the major contributor to sediment production from forested lands, accounting for perhaps as much as 90% of all sediment produced. In recent years, increased concern and societal pressure has focused on the impacts of forest roads and the effectiveness of erosion control measures. In addition, the re–...

  10. A structural classification for inland northwest forest vegetation.

    Treesearch

    Kevin L. O' Hara; Penelope A. Latham; Paul Hessburg; Bradley G. Smith

    1996-01-01

    Existing approaches to vegetation classification range from those bassed on potential vegetation to others based on existing vegetation composition, or existing structural or physiognomic characteristics. Examples of these classifications are numerous, and in some cases, date back hundreds of years (Mueller-Dumbois and Ellenberg 1974). Small-scale or stand level...

  11. Forest community classification of the Porcupine River drainage, interior Alaska, and its application to forest management.

    Treesearch

    John. Yarie

    1983-01-01

    The forest vegetation of 3,600,000 hectares in northeast interior Alaska was classified. A total of 365 plots located in a stratified random design were run through the ordination programs SIMORD and TWINSPAN. A total of 40 forest communities were described vegetatively and, to a limited extent, environmentally. The area covered by each community was similar, ranging...

  12. Regional impacts of Atlantic Forest deforestation on climate and vegetation dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holm, J. A.; Chambers, J. Q.

    2012-12-01

    The Brazilian Atlantic Forest was a large and important forest due to its high biodiversity, endemism, range in climate, and complex geography. The original Atlantic Forest was estimated to cover 150 million hectares, spanning large latitudinal, longitudinal, and elevation gradients. This unique environment helped contribute to a diverse assemblage of plants, mammals, birds, and reptiles. Unfortunately, due to land conversion into agriculture, pasture, urban areas, and increased forest fragmentation, only ~8-10% of the original Atlantic Forest remains. Tropical deforestation in the Americas can have considerable effects on local to global climates, and surrounding vegetation growth and survival. This study uses a fully coupled, global climate model (Community Earth System Model, CESM v.1.0.1) to simulate the full removal of the historical Atlantic Forest, and evaluate the regional climatic and vegetation responses due to deforestation. We used the fully coupled atmosphere and land surface components in CESM, and a partially interacting ocean component. The vegetated grid cell portion of the land surface component, the Community Landscape Model (CLM), is divided into 4 of 16 plant functional types (PFTs) with vertical layers of canopy, leaf area index, soil physical properties, and interacting hydrological features all tracking energy, water, and carbon state and flux variables, making CLM highly capable in predicting the complex nature and outcomes of large-scale deforestation. The Atlantic Forest removal (i.e. deforestation) was conducted my converting all woody stem PFTs to grasses in CLM, creating a land-use change from forest to pasture. By comparing the simulated historical Atlantic Forest (pre human alteration) to a deforested Atlantic Forest (close to current conditions) in CLM and CESM we found that live stem carbon, NPP (gC m-2 yr-1), and other vegetation dynamics inside and outside the Atlantic Forest region were largely altered. In addition to vegetation

  13. Visual Training for Sustainable Forest Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aik, Chong-Tek; Tway, Duane C.

    2004-01-01

    It is increasingly important for timber companies to train managers in the principles and practices of sustainable forest management. One of the most effective ways to conduct such training is through use of visual training methods. This is partly because visual representations encode large amounts of information and help learners to grasp…

  14. Phosphorus and nitrogen co-limitation of forest ground vegetation under elevated anthropogenic nitrogen deposition.

    PubMed

    Hedwall, Per-Ola; Bergh, Johan; Brunet, Jörg

    2017-09-07

    Plant growth in northern forest ecosystems is considered to be primarily nitrogen limited. Nitrogen deposition is predicted to change this towards co-limitation/limitation by other nutrients (e.g., phosphorus), although evidence of such stoichiometric effects is scarce. We utilized two forest fertilization experiments in southern Sweden to analyze single and combined effects of nitrogen and phosphorus on the productivity, composition, and diversity of the ground vegetation. Our results indicate that the productivity of forest ground vegetation in southern Sweden is co-limited by nitrogen and phosphorus. Additionally, the combined effect of nitrogen and phosphorus on the productivity was larger than when applied solely. No effects on species richness of any of these two nutrients were observed when applied separately, while applied in combination, they increased species richness and changed species composition, mainly by promoting more mesotrophic species. All these effects, however, occurred only for the vascular plants and not for bryophytes. The tree layer in a forest has a profound impact on the productivity and diversity of the ground vegetation by competing for both light and nutrients. This was confirmed in our study where a combination of nitrogen and high tree basal area reduced cover of the ground vegetation compared to all the other treatments where basal area was lower after stand thinning. During the past decades, nitrogen deposition may have further increased this competition from the trees for phosphorus and gradually reduced ground vegetation diversity. Phosphorus limitation induced by nitrogen deposition may, thus, contribute to ongoing changes in forest ground vegetation.

  15. Vulnerability and Resilience of Temperate Forest Landscapes to Broad-Scale Deforestation in Response to Changing Fire Regimes and Altered Post-Fire Vegetation Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tepley, A. J.; Veblen, T. T.; Perry, G.; Anderson-Teixeira, K. J.

    2015-12-01

    In the face of on-going climatic warming and land-use change, there is growing concern that temperate forest landscapes could be near a tipping point where relatively small changes to the fire regime or altered post-fire vegetation dynamics could lead to extensive conversion to shrublands or savannas. To evaluate vulnerability and resilience to such conversion, we develop a simple model based on three factors we hypothesize to be key in predicting temperate forest responses to changing fire regimes: (1) the hazard rate (i.e., the probability of burning in the next year given the time since the last fire) in closed-canopy forests, (2) the hazard rate for recently-burned, open-canopy vegetation, and (3) the time to redevelop canopy closure following fire. We generate a response surface representing the proportions of the landscape potentially supporting closed-canopy forest and non-forest vegetation under nearly all combinations of these three factors. We then place real landscapes on this response surface to assess the type and magnitude of changes to the fire regime that would drive extensive forest loss. We show that the deforestation of much of New Zealand that followed initial human colonization and the introduction of a new ignition source ca. 750 years ago was essentially inevitable due to the slow rate of forest recovery after fire and the high flammability of post-fire vegetation. In North America's Pacific Northwest, by contrast, a predominantly forested landscape persisted despite two periods of widespread burning in the recent past due in large part to faster post-fire forest recovery and less pronounced differences in flammability between forests and the post-fire vegetation. We also assess the factors that could drive extensive deforestation in other regions to identify where management could reduce this potential and to guide field and modeling work to better understand the responses and ecological feedbacks to changing fire regimes.

  16. Criteria and indicators of sustainable forest management.

    PubMed

    Hall, J P

    2001-01-01

    Sustainable development is a term reflecting human, societal, and environmental values and in order to determine progress toward this goal; it is necessary to identify and define these values, and for governments or other institutions to establish the means to assess progress. Canada is directly involved in national and international processes to assess the sustainability of forest management processes using Criteria and Indicators. These consist of a group of broad core values (Criteria) and are supported by an number of measures (Indicators) to assess status or progress toward the realization of these values. Measuring and monitoring indicators is necessary to demonstrate progress toward sustainable development nationally and internationally. The criteria that have been identified include the traditional concepts of timber values, and include economics, environmental, social values, and national infrastructures. Each criterion is supported by a number of indicators to track progress. Countries in the international process also collaborate on defining terms, methods of reporting, and improving and enhancing indicators. C&I facilitate international reporting and provide a framework for international agreements while reflecting national differences in characteristics and descriptions of forests. The reporting process has stimulated the emergence of forest management issues that will influence forest science and forest ecosystem management in the future. For Canada, these include the development of a national system of forest ecosystem inventory, and ecological classification, the interpretation of the range of historic variation, and the adequacy and applicability of data sources.

  17. Climate and anthropogenic impacts on forest vegetation derived from satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoran, M.; Savastru, R.; Savastru, D.; Tautan, M.; Miclos, S.; Baschir, L.

    2010-09-01

    Vegetation and climate interact through a series of complex feedbacks, which are not very well understood. The patterns of forest vegetation are largely determined by temperature, precipitation, solar irradiance, soil conditions and CO2 concentration. Vegetation impacts climate directly through moisture, energy, and momentum exchanges with the atmosphere and indirectly through biogeochemical processes that alter atmospheric CO2 concentration. Changes in forest vegetation land cover/use alter the surface albedo and radiation fluxes, leading to a local temperature change and eventually a vegetation response. This albedo (energy) feedback is particularly important when forests mask snow cover. Forest vegetation-climate feedback regimes are designated based on the temporal correlations between the vegetation and the surface temperature and precipitation. The different feedback regimes are linked to the relative importance of vegetation and soil moisture in determining land-atmosphere interactions. Forest vegetation phenology constitutes an efficient bio-indicator of impacts of climate and anthropogenic changes and a key parameter for understanding and modeling vegetation-climate interactions. Climate variability represents the ensemble of net radiation, precipitation, wind and temperature characteristic for a region in a certain time scale (e.g.monthly, seasonal annual). The temporal and/or spatial sensitivity of forest vegetation dynamics to climate variability is used to characterize the quantitative relationship between these two quantities in temporal and/or spatial scales. So, climate variability has a great impact on the forest vegetation dynamics. Satellite remote sensing is a very useful tool to assess the main phenological events based on tracking significant changes on temporal trajectories of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVIs), which requires NDVI time-series with good time resolution, over homogeneous area, cloud-free and not affected by

  18. Forest nursery management in Chile

    Treesearch

    Rene Escobar R.; Manuel Sanchez O.; Guillermo Pereira C.

    2002-01-01

    The forest economy in Chile is based on products from artificial reforestation efforts on approximately 2 million ha. From these, about 1.5 million ha (75%) are planted with Pinus radiata, 400,000 ha (20%) with species of Eucalyptus, principally E. globulus and E. nitens, and the rest (5%) composed by other...

  19. Forest management effects on snow, runoff and evapotranspiration in Sierra Nevada mixed-conifer headwater catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, R. L.; Saksa, P. C.; Bales, R. C.; Conklin, M. H.

    2012-12-01

    We used intensive field measurements and data-intensive hydro-ecological modeling to investigate the impact of forest vegetation management on the sensitivity of snow accumulation, evapotranspiration and discharge at seven headwater catchments in the Sierra Nevada. Catchments are located in dense mixed-conifer forest, at elevations of 1500 - 2100 m, and receive a mix of rain and snow precipitation. Management scenarios for reducing forest density by uniform thinning and forest clearings were implemented in the Regional Hydro-ecological Simulation System (RHESSys). Results obtained using inherent model equations to separate total precipitation into snow and rain underestimated snow water content in some of the catchments, requiring manual input of snow and rain for accurate simulations. Modeling precipitation phase accurately was critical for the current forest condition, as the change in vegetation has differing effects on rain, snow and snowmelt. Results using RHESSys show that light, uniform thinning alone (<20% canopy) may not be enough to change water yield significantly, but this threshold of canopy reduction is lowered by creating gaps in the forest alone or in combination with uniform thinning, and has potential to measurably increase water yield beyond background variation. Clarifying these specific impacts of forest vegetation on snow processes and water yield is essential for simulating forest management in the Sierra Nevada and it shows the forest structure has significant influence on the catchment water balance. However, modifying forest canopy density and canopy cover to calculate average levels of snow water equivalent at a basin-scale may not be detailed enough to incorporate all the complex forest structure effects on snow processes in mountain watersheds.

  20. Forested floristic quality index: An assessment tool for forested wetland habitats using the quality and quantity of woody vegetation at Coastwide Reference Monitoring System (CRMS) vegetation monitoring stations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, William B.; Shaffer, Gary P.; Visser, Jenneke M.; Krauss, Ken W.; Piazza, Sarai C.; Sharp, Leigh Anne; Cretini, Kari F.

    2017-02-08

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Coastal Protection and Restoration Authority of Louisiana and the Coastal Wetlands Planning, Protection and Restoration Act, developed the Forested Floristic Quality Index (FFQI) for the Coastwide Reference Monitoring System (CRMS). The FFQI will help evaluate forested wetland sites on a continuum from severely degraded to healthy and will assist in defining areas where forested wetland restoration can be successful by projecting the trajectories of change. At each CRMS forested wetland site there are stations for quantifying the overstory, understory, and herbaceous vegetation layers. Rapidly responding overstory canopy cover and herbaceous layer composition are measured annually, while gradually changing overstory basal area and species composition are collected on a 3-year cycle.A CRMS analytical team has tailored these data into an index much like the Floristic Quality Index (FQI) currently used for herbaceous marsh and for the herbaceous layer of the swamp vegetation. The core of the FFQI uses basal area by species to assess the quality and quantity of the overstory at each of three stations within each CRMS forested wetland site. Trees that are considered by experts to be higher quality swamp species like Taxodium distichum (bald cypress) and Nyssa aquatica (water tupelo) are scored higher than tree species like Triadica sebifera (Chinese tallow) and Salix nigra (black willow) that are indicators of recent disturbance. This base FFQI is further enhanced by the percent canopy cover in the overstory and the presence of indicator species at the forest floor. This systemic approach attempts to differentiate between locations with similar basal areas that are on different ecosystem trajectories. Because of these varying states of habitat degradation, paired use of the FQI and the FFQI is useful to interpret the vegetative data in transitional locations. There is often an inverse relation between the health of the

  1. Terrain and vegetation structural influences on local avian species richness in two mixed-conifer forests

    Treesearch

    Jody C. Vogeler; Andrew T. Hudak; Lee A. Vierling; Jeffrey Evans; Patricia Green; Kerri T. Vierling

    2014-01-01

    Using remotely-sensed metrics to identify regions containing high animal diversity and/or specific animal species or guilds can help prioritize forest management and conservation objectives across actively managed landscapes. We predicted avian species richness in two mixed conifer forests, Moscow Mountain and Slate Creek, containing different management contexts and...

  2. Forest Management Guidance Package: How to Conduct Forest Product Sales and Handle Forest Management Service Contracts,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-03-01

    Management Service Contracts 6 HQ, AIR FORCE ENGINEERING & SERVICES CENTER TYNDALL AIR FORCE BASE , FLORIDA 32403 DTIC E ECTE,.,.,P s7 SM...82TEW 08 16 14 -o ran ... .. p’,tole"" ,,I*. _ iin n •i ft ib to ni mi t I PREFACE ’ This document is intended to assist the base civil engineer in...this project. The author is a graduate of West Virginia University with a Ph.D. degree in Forest Resource Sciences . He is also a member of the 167th

  3. Management of tropical forests for products and energy

    Treesearch

    John I. Zerbe

    1992-01-01

    Tropical forests have always been sources for prized timbers, rubber, tannin, and other forest products for use worldwide. However, with the recent concern regarding global change, the importance of effective forest products management and utilization has increased significantly. The USDA Forest Service's Forest Products Laboratory at Madison, Wisconsin, has...

  4. 76 FR 32135 - National Forest System Invasive Species Management Policy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-03

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service RIN 0596-AC77 National Forest System Invasive Species Management... and terrestrial areas of the National Forest System (NFS). The directive articulates broad objectives..., National Invasive Species Program Coordinator, National Forest System, USDA Forest Service, Mailstop 1103...

  5. Nontimber forest products management on national forests in the United States.

    Treesearch

    Rebecca J. McLain; Eric T. Jones

    2005-01-01

    This study provides an overview of nontimber forest products (NTFP) programs on national forests in the United States. We conducted an email survey in 2003 to obtain data on NTFP management activities on national forests across the country. Program characteristics examined in the study included important NTFPs managed on national forests, presence of NTFP coordinators...

  6. A Passive Microwave L-Band Boreal Forest Freeze/Thaw and Vegetation Phenology Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, A.; Sonnentag, O.; Pappas, C.; Mavrovic, A.; Royer, A.; Berg, A. A.; Rowlandson, T. L.; Lemay, J.; Helgason, W.; Barr, A.; Black, T. A.; Derksen, C.; Toose, P.

    2016-12-01

    The boreal forest is the second largest land biome in the world and thus plays a major role in the global and regional climate systems. The extent, timing and duration of seasonal freeze/thaw (F/T) state influences vegetation developmental stages (phenology) and, consequently, constitute an important control on how boreal forest ecosystems exchange carbon, water and energy with the atmosphere. The effective retrieval of seasonal F/T state from L-Band radiometry was demonstrated using satellite mission. However, disentangling the seasonally differing contributions from forest overstory and understory vegetation, and the soil surface to the satellite signal remains challenging. Here we present initial results from a radiometer field campaign to improve our understanding of the L-Band derived boreal forest F/T signal and vegetation phenology. Two L-Band surface-based radiometers (SBR) are installed on a micrometeorological tower at the Southern Old Black Spruce site in central Saskatchewan over the 2016-2017 F/T season. One radiometer unit is installed on the flux tower so it views forest including all overstory and understory vegetation and the moss-covered ground surface. A second radiometer unit is installed within the boreal forest overstory, viewing the understory and the ground surface. The objectives of our study are (i) to disentangle the L-Band F/T signal contribution of boreal forest overstory from the understory and ground surface, (ii) to link the L-Band F/T signal to related boreal forest structural and functional characteristics, and (iii) to investigate the use of the L-Band signal to characterize boreal forest carbon, water and energy fluxes. The SBR observations above and within the forest canopy are used to retrieve the transmissivity (γ) and the scattering albedo (ω), two parameters that describe the emission of the forest canopy though the F/T season. These two forest parameters are compared with boreal forest structural and functional

  7. Restoration of three forest herbs in the Liliaceae family by manipulating deer herbivory and overstorey and understorey vegetation

    Treesearch

    Cynthia D. Huebner; Kurt W. Gottschalk; Gary W. Miller; Patrick H. Brose

    2010-01-01

    Research on herbaceous vegetation restoration in forests characterised by overstorey tree harvests, excessive deer herbivory, and a dominant fern understorey is lacking. Most of the plant diversity found in Eastern hardwood forests in the United States is found in the herbaceous understorey layer. Loss of forest herbaceous species is an indicator of declining forest...

  8. Forest vegetation of the Black Hills National Forest of South Dakota and Wyoming: A habitat type classification

    Treesearch

    George R. Hoffman; Robert R. Alexander

    1987-01-01

    A vegetation classification based on concepts and methods developed by Daubenmire was used to identify 12 forest habitat types and one shrub habitat type in the Black Hills. Included were two habitat types in the Quercus macrocarpa series, seven in the Pinus ponderosa series, one in the Populus tremuloides series, two in the Picea glaucci series, and one in the...

  9. Natural vegetation groups and canopy chemical markers in a dry subtropical forest on calcareous substrate: the vegetation of Mona Island, Puerto Rico

    Treesearch

    E. Medina; E.H. Helmer; E. Melendez-Ackerman; H. Marcano-Vega

    2014-01-01

    Mona Island is the third largest island in the archipelago of Puerto Rico located about 70 km west of the main island. Presently it is a wilderness refuge that contains well-preserved arboreal and shrubby vegetation, and distinct cactus forests, covering the calcareous, elevated plateau. During a forest inventory conducted by the US Forest Service, we obtained leaves...

  10. Mountain biking: issues and actions for USDA Forest Service managers

    Treesearch

    Deborah J. Chavez

    1996-01-01

    Managers of National Forests are faced with many challenges related to the growing use of mountain bikes. To determine the issues and management actions associated with this growth, USDA Forest Service managers from across the United States were surveyed. Managers from at least two National Forests from every Region (except Alaska) reported annual use of trails by 10,...

  11. Forest forming process and dynamic vegetation models under global change

    Treesearch

    A. Shvidenko; E. Gustafson

    2009-01-01

    The paper analyzes mathematical models that are used to project the dynamics of forest ecosystems on different spatial and temporal scales. Landscape disturbance and succession models (LDSMs) are of a particular interest for studying the forest forming process in Northern Eurasia. They have a solid empirical background and are able to model ecological processes under...

  12. Wildlife and vegetation of unmanaged Douglas-Fir forests.

    Treesearch

    Leonard F. Ruggiero; Keith B. Aubry; Andrew B. Carey; Mark H. Huff

    1991-01-01

    Old-growth Douglas-fir forests in the Pacific Northwest—and their most celebrated inhabitant, the northern spotted owl—have engendered an acrimonious controversy that has been raging for over a decade. Should ancient forests be protected for their aesthetic appeal and because they provide a broad range of ecological values, including the most amenable...

  13. Soil bacterial community structure responses to precipitation reduction and forest management in forest ecosystems across Germany.

    PubMed

    Felsmann, Katja; Baudis, Mathias; Gimbel, Katharina; Kayler, Zachary E; Ellerbrock, Ruth; Bruelheide, Helge; Bruehlheide, Helge; Bruckhoff, Johannes; Welk, Erik; Puhlmann, Heike; Weiler, Markus; Gessler, Arthur; Ulrich, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Soil microbial communities play an important role in forest ecosystem functioning, but how climate change will affect the community composition and consequently bacterial functions is poorly understood. We assessed the effects of reduced precipitation with the aim of simulating realistic future drought conditions for one growing season on the bacterial community and its relation to soil properties and forest management. We manipulated precipitation in beech and conifer forest plots managed at different levels of intensity in three different regions across Germany. The precipitation reduction decreased soil water content across the growing season by between 2 to 8% depending on plot and region. T-RFLP analysis and pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene were used to study the total soil bacterial community and its active members after six months of precipitation reduction. The effect of reduced precipitation on the total bacterial community structure was negligible while significant effects could be observed for the active bacteria. However, the effect was secondary to the stronger influence of specific soil characteristics across the three regions and management selection of overstorey tree species and their respective understorey vegetation. The impact of reduced precipitation differed between the studied plots; however, we could not determine the particular parameters being able to modify the response of the active bacterial community among plots. We conclude that the moderate drought induced by the precipitation manipulation treatment started to affect the active but not the total bacterial community, which points to an adequate resistance of the soil microbial system over one growing season.

  14. Validating the southern variant forest vegetation simulator height predictions on southeastern hardwoods in Kentucky and Tennessee

    Treesearch

    Bernard R. Parresol; Steven C. Stedman

    2004-01-01

    The accuracy of forest growth and yield forecasts affects the quality of forest management decisions (Rauscher et al. 2000). Users of growth and yield models want assurance that model outputs are reasonable and mimic local/regional forest structure and composition and accurately reflect the influences of stand dynamics such as competition and disturbance. As such,...

  15. Forest carbon management in the United States: 1600-2100

    Treesearch

    Richard A. Birdsey; Kurt Pregitzer; Alan Lucier

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews the effects of past forest management on carbon stocks in the United States, and the challenges for managing forest carbon resources in the 21st century. Forests in the United States were in approximate carbon balance with the atmosphere from 1600-1800. Utilization and land clearing caused a large pulse of forest carbon emissions during the 19th...

  16. Simulating Secondary Succession of Elk Forage Values in a Managed Forest Landscape, Western Washington

    PubMed

    Jenkins; Starkey

    1996-09-01

    Modern timber management practices often influence forage production for elk (Cervus elaphus) on broad temporal and spatial scales in forested landscapes. We incorporated site-specific information on postharvesting forest succession and forage characteristics in a simulation model to evaluate past and future influences of forest management practices on forage values for elk in a commercially managed Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii, PSME)-western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla, TSHE) forest in western Washington. We evaluated future effects of: (1) clear-cut logging 0, 20, and 40% of harvestable stands every five years; (2) thinning 20-year-old Douglas fir forests; and (3) reducing the harvesting cycle from 60 to 45 years. Reconstruction of historical patterns of vegetation succession indicated that forage values peaked in the 1960s and declined from the 1970s to the present, but recent values still were higher than may have existed in the unmanaged landscape in 1945. Increased forest harvesting rates had little short-term influence on forage trends because harvestable stands were scarce. Simulations of forest thinning also produced negligible benefits because thinning did not improve forage productivity appreciably at the stand level. Simulations of reduced harvesting cycles shortened the duration of declining forage values from approximately 30 to 15 years. We concluded that simulation models are useful tools for examining landscape responses of forage production to forest management strategies, but the options examined provided little potential for improving elk forages in the immediate future.KEY WORDS:Cervus elaphus; Elk; Forage; Forest management; Modeling; Secondary succession

  17. Soil moisture and vegetation patterns in northern California forests

    Treesearch

    James R. Griffin

    1967-01-01

    Twenty-nine soil-vegetation plots were studied in a broad transect across the southern Cascade Range. Variations in soil moisture patterns during the growing season and in soil moisture tension values are discussed. Plot soil moisture values for 40- and 80-cm. depths in August and September are integrated into a soil drought index. Vegetation patterns are described in...

  18. Using weather in forest management

    Treesearch

    Michael A. Fosberg

    1986-01-01

    The summer of 1933 in northwest Oregon had been exceptionally hot and dry. When in mid-August, hot, dry winds blew in from the east, all the fire crews were ready. But there were not enough of them. Scattered fires that started in the coast range merged into what became known as the Tillamook Bum. In 1986, the Forest Service is researching procedures to forecast...

  19. Advances in Remote Sensing for Vegetation Dynamics and Agricultural Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, Compton; Puma, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Spaceborne remote sensing has led to great advances in the global monitoring of vegetation. For example, the NASA Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS) group has developed widely used datasets from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) sensors as well as the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) map imagery and normalized difference vegetation index datasets. These data are valuable for analyzing vegetation trends and variability at the regional and global levels. Numerous studies have investigated such trends and variability for both natural vegetation (e.g., re-greening of the Sahel, shifts in the Eurasian boreal forest, Amazonian drought sensitivity) and crops (e.g., impacts of extremes on agricultural production). Here, a critical overview is presented on recent developments and opportunities in the use of remote sensing for monitoring vegetation and crop dynamics.

  20. Advances in remote sensing for vegetation dynamics and agricultural management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucker, C. J.; Puma, M. J.

    2015-12-01

    Spaceborne remote sensing has led to great advances in the global monitoring of vegetation. For example, the NASA Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS) group has developed widely used datasets from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) sensors as well as the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) map imagery and normalized difference vegetation index datasets. These data are valuable for analyzing vegetation trends and variability at the regional and global levels. Numerous studies have investigated such trends and variability for both natural vegetation (e.g., re-greening of the Sahel, shifts in the Eurasian boreal forest, Amazonian drought sensitivity) and crops (e.g., impacts of extremes on agricultural production). Here, a critical overview is presented on recent developments and opportunities in the use of remote sensing for monitoring vegetation and crop dynamics.

  1. Long-term effects of post-harvest stump removal and N-fertilization on understory vegetation in Western USA forests

    Treesearch

    Thomas N. Kaye; Matt Blakely-Smith; Walter G. Thies

    2008-01-01

    Intensive forest management practices often disturb understory vegetation. and the recovery of these plant communities may depend on the type and severity of the disturbance. We examined the effects of stump removal and N-fertilization on understory plant communities and functional group (shrubs, graminoids, forbs, and introduced species) cover and diversity at five...

  2. Lichen conservation in heavily managed boreal forests.

    PubMed

    McMullin, Richard Troy; Thompson, Ian D; Newmaster, Steven G

    2013-10-01

    Lichens are an important component of the boreal forest, where they are long lived, tend to accumulate in older stands, and are a major food source for the threatened woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou). To be fully sustainable, silvicultural practices in the boreal forest must include the conservation of ecological integrity. Dominant forest management practices, however, have short-term negative effects on lichen diversity, particularly the application of herbicides. To better understand the long-term effects of forest management, we examined lichen regeneration in 35 mixed black spruce (Picea mariana) and jack pine (Pinus banksiana) forest stands across northern Ontario to determine recovery following logging and postharvest silvicultural practices. Our forest stands were 25-40 years old and had undergone 3 common sivilcultural treatments that included harvested and planted; harvested, planted, and treated with N-[phosphonomethyl] glycine (glyphosate); and harvested, planted, and treated with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). Forest stands with herbicide treatments had lower lichen biomass and higher beta and gamma diversity than planted stands that were not treated chemically or control stands. In northwestern Ontario, planted stands that were not treated chemically had significantly greater (p < 0.05) alpha diversity than stands treated with herbicides or control stands. Our results show that common silvicultural practices do not emulate natural disturbances caused by wildfires in the boreal forest for the lichen community. We suggest a reduction in the amount of chemical application be considered in areas where lichen biomass is likely to be high and where the recovery of woodland caribou is an objective. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  3. Holocene changes in a park-forest vegetation mosaic in the Wind River Range, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Lynch, E.A. )

    1994-06-01

    The modern mod-elevation vegetation of the Rocky Mountains is a mosaic of conifer forests and open parks dominated by sagebrush (Artemisia spp.), grasses, and other herbs. It is not known how this pattern originated or how sensitive the balance between forest and park is to disturbance. Using pollen from sediments of five small ponds in Fish Creek Park, WY (elev. 2700 m), I reconstructed the last 8000 yrs of changes in the park-forest mosaic in an are about 16 km[sup 2]. Surface samples collected from 52 ponds in the Fish Creek Park area and from forest and park sites in Wyoming and Colorado indicate that park and forest pollen assemblages can be distinguished using multivariate statistical methods and conifer:herb pollen ratios. Fossil pollen from the five sediment cores shows that the distribution of the two vegetation types on the landscape has changed through the Holocene, and that the changes in vegetation are gradual. Past changes from park to forest have apparently occurred much more slowly than changes from forest to park, suggesting that areas subjected to recent clearcutting may remain unforested for centuries.

  4. [Phenology of forest vegetation in northeast of China in ten years using remote sensing].

    PubMed

    Hou, Xue-Hui; Niu, Zheng; Gao, Shuai

    2014-02-01

    Plant phenology is the best indicator of terrestrial ecosystem response to climate change and it becomes a hot issue in the study of global change. The forest in northeast of China plays an important part in global forest ecosystem. In this paper, yearly integrated Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) of forest vegetation in northeast China was calculated based on Spot Vegetation datasets from 2001-2010, which has been filtered using Savtiky-Galoy method. And then, the yearly integrated NDVI profile was fitted using a logistic model. Two key parameters of forest phenology (start of season, SOS; end of season, EOS) were extracted according to the greatest rate of curvature of fitted cumulative NDVI and the length of forest phenology (length of season, LOS) was also analyzed. The main conclusions of this paper are (1) SOS mainly occurs in the 110th-140th day and EOS in 260th and 290th day. SOS displays a marked delayed from south to north while EOS gradually advances. However, the changes of SOS and EOS in ten years are not obvious. (2) Corresponding to the SOS and EOS, LOS of forest in study area mainly occurs in the 120th-160th day; however, it is spatially heterogeneous. LOS of forest in Greater Khingan Mountains is shorter (about 120-140 day) than forests in Xiao Hinggan Ling and Changbai Mountains (about 160 day). The results in this paper are concordant with records of phenology in situ measurements and previous researches in the same area. It indicates that forest phenophases using method in this paper from Spot Vegetation dataset is feasible.

  5. Microwave and optical remote sensing of forest vegetation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffer, R. M.; Bauer, M. E.; Biehl, L. L.; Mroczynski, R. P.

    1984-01-01

    The objectives and anticipated results of a study to define the strengths and limitations of microwave (SIR-B) and optical (thematic Mapper) data, singly and in combination, for the purpose of characterizing forest cover types and condition classes are described. Other specific objectives include: (1) the assessment of the effectiveness of a contextual classification algorithm (SECHO); (2) evaluation of the utility of different look angles of SAR data in determining differences in stand density of commercial forests; and (3) the determination of the effectiveness of the L-band HH polarized SIR-B data in differentiating forest-stand densities.

  6. Managing carbon sequestration and storage in northern hardwood forests

    Treesearch

    Eunice A. Padley; Deahn M. Donner; Karin S. Fassnacht; Ronald S. Zalesny; Bruce Birr; Karl J. Martin

    2011-01-01

    Carbon has an important role in sustainable forest management, contributing to functions that maintain site productivity, nutrient cycling, and soil physical properties. Forest management practices can alter ecosystem carbon allocation as well as the amount of total site carbon.

  7. Pollen-rain-vegetation relationships along a forest-savanna transect in southeastern Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Vincens; Dubois; Guillet; Achoundong; Buchet; Kamgang Kabeyene Beyala V; de Namur C; Riera

    2000-07-01

    Modern soil and litter samples from southeastern Cameroon, collected along a continuous forest-savanna transect were analysed for pollen content to define modern pollen-vegetation relationships. The pollen results, completed and compared with botanical inventories, leaf area index and basal area measurements performed in the same area, clearly registered the physiognomy, the main floristic composition and floral richness of the two sampled ecosystems. Distortions were observed between sampled vegetations and their pollen rain, related to important differences in pollen production and dispersal of plant species: this is a general feature in many tropical regions. The pollen data in the area studied reflected well the recent transgression of forest versus savanna. This permitted us to define inside the forest ecosystem more successional vegetation communities than the botanical surveys allowed.

  8. Avian species richness in relation to intensive forest management practices in early seral tree plantations.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jay E; Kroll, Andrew J; Giovanini, Jack; Duke, Steven D; Ellis, Tana M; Betts, Matthew G

    2012-01-01

    Managers of landscapes dedicated to forest commodity production require information about how practices influence biological diversity. Individual species and communities may be threatened if management practices truncate or simplify forest age classes that are essential for reproduction and survival. For instance, the degradation and loss of complex diverse forest in young age classes have been associated with declines in forest-associated Neotropical migrant bird populations in the Pacific Northwest, USA. These declines may be exacerbated by intensive forest management practices that reduce hardwood and broadleaf shrub cover in order to promote growth of economically valuable tree species in plantations. We used a Bayesian hierarchical model to evaluate relationships between avian species richness and vegetation variables that reflect stand management intensity (primarily via herbicide application) on 212 tree plantations in the Coast Range, Oregon, USA. Specifically, we estimated the influence of broadleaf hardwood vegetation cover, which is reduced through herbicide applications, on bird species richness and individual species occupancy. Our model accounted for imperfect detection. We used average predictive comparisons to quantify the degree of association between vegetation variables and species richness. Both conifer and hardwood cover were positively associated with total species richness, suggesting that these components of forest stand composition may be important predictors of alpha diversity. Estimates of species richness were 35-80% lower when imperfect detection was ignored (depending on covariate values), a result that has critical implications for previous efforts that have examined relationships between forest composition and species richness. Our results revealed that individual and community responses were positively associated with both conifer and hardwood cover. In our system, patterns of bird community assembly appear to be associated with

  9. Changing forests and forest management policy in relation to dealing with forest diseases.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Robert L

    2003-08-01

    ABSTRACT The forest landscape of the United States has changed over time, as has public concern for the trees, water, and wildlife. Early in the history of the United States, forests were viewed as an encumbrance and an inexhaustible resource, used to meet the needs of a growing nation. Around 1900, it became clear that old approaches were not sustainable and forest pathology saw its beginning. Annual lumber production increased from 5.4 billion to 44.5 billion board feet. Forest pathologists were called upon to help manage forests for a variety of products, with a focus on decays of wood and wood products. Projection of timber famine stirred public concern, and a number of laws were enacted to deal with the issue. Pathologists were called upon to deal with many of the issues associated with intensive management, and new pests such as chestnut blight and white pine blister rust demanded attention. Then pathologists were called upon to help manage for multiple benefits, and the issues became more complex. Pests such as mistletoes, root diseases, rusts, nursery pests, and urban pests presented new challenges. Concepts such as landscape level assessments, ecosystem management, and multiple-use led to the management of forests to provide for a complex variety of needs. Management objectives vary across the landscape, and pathologists find themselves working with managers who want to maximize fiber production, those that manage areas set aside for special purposes, and all combinations in between. Issues such as acceptable levels of pests, nonnative invasive species, landowner values, visual and watershed quality, and best management practices must be considered in an ever-changing landscape.

  10. Management and utilization of forest resources in Papua New Guinea

    Treesearch

    P.B.L. Srivastava

    1992-01-01

    Papua New Guinea, with an area of about 46.7 million ha and population of 3.7 million, is blessed with a large natural forest resource. Over 80 percent of the land is covered with forests of various types, ranging from swamp and lowland rain forests in coastal plains to alpine vegetation and moss forests in the highlands, most of which are owned by the people. About 15...

  11. Conservation of the Ethiopian church forests: Threats, opportunities and implications for their management.

    PubMed

    Aerts, Raf; Van Overtveld, Koen; November, Eva; Wassie, Alemayehu; Abiyu, Abrham; Demissew, Sebsebe; Daye, Desalegn D; Giday, Kidane; Haile, Mitiku; TewoldeBerhan, Sarah; Teketay, Demel; Teklehaimanot, Zewge; Binggeli, Pierre; Deckers, Jozef; Friis, Ib; Gratzer, Georg; Hermy, Martin; Heyn, Moïra; Honnay, Olivier; Paris, Maxim; Sterck, Frank J; Muys, Bart; Bongers, Frans; Healey, John R

    2016-05-01

    In the central and northern highlands of Ethiopia, native forest and forest biodiversity is almost confined to sacred groves associated with churches. Local communities rely on these 'church forests' for essential ecosystem services including shade and fresh water but little is known about their region-wide distribution and conservation value. We (1) performed the first large-scale spatially-explicit assessment of church forests, combining remote-sensing and field data, to assess the number of forests, their size, shape, isolation and woody plant species composition, (2) determined their plant communities and related these to environmental variables and potential natural vegetation, (3) identified the main challenges to biodiversity conservation in view of plant population dynamics and anthropogenic disturbances, and (4) present guidelines for management and policy. The 394 forests identified in satellite images were on average ~2ha in size and generally separated by ~2km from the nearest neighboring forest. Shape complexity, not size, decreased from the northern to the central highlands. Overall, 148 indigenous tree, shrub and liana species were recorded across the 78 surveyed forests. Patch α-diversity increased with mean annual precipitation, but typically only 25 woody species occurred per patch. The combined results showed that >50% of tree species present in tropical northeast Africa were still present in the 78 studied church forests, even though individual forests were small and relatively species-poor. Tree species composition of church forests varied with elevation and precipitation, and resembled the potential natural vegetation. With a wide distribution over the landscape, these church forests have high conservation value. However, long-term conservation of biodiversity of individual patches and evolutionary potential of species may be threatened by isolation, small sizes of tree species populations and disturbance, especially when considering climate

  12. Ground-Vegetation Clutter Affects Phyllostomid Bat Assemblage Structure in Lowland Amazonian Forest.

    PubMed

    Marciente, Rodrigo; Bobrowiec, Paulo Estefano D; Magnusson, William E

    2015-01-01

    Vegetation clutter is a limiting factor for bats that forage near ground level, and may determine the distribution of species and guilds. However, many studies that evaluated the effects of vegetation clutter on bats have used qualitative descriptions rather than direct measurements of vegetation density. Moreover, few studies have evaluated the effect of vegetation clutter on a regional scale. Here, we evaluate the influence of the physical obstruction of vegetation on phyllostomid-bat assemblages along a 520 km transect in continuous Amazonian forest. We sampled bats using mist nets in eight localities during 80 nights (3840 net-hours) and estimated the ground-vegetation density with digital photographs. The total number of species, number of animalivorous species, total number of frugivorous species, number of understory frugivorous species, and abundance of canopy frugivorous bats were negatively associated with vegetation clutter. The bat assemblages showed a nested structure in relation to degree of clutter, with animalivorous and understory frugivorous bats distributed throughout the vegetation-clutter gradient, while canopy frugivores were restricted to sites with more open vegetation. The species distribution along the gradient of vegetation clutter was not closely associated with wing morphology, but aspect ratio and wing load differed between frugivores and animalivores. Vegetation structure plays an important role in structuring assemblages of the bats at the regional scale by increasing beta diversity between sites. Differences in foraging strategy and diet of the guilds seem to have contributed more to the spatial distribution of bats than the wing characteristics of the species alone.

  13. Optimizing continuous cover forest management. Chapter 6.

    Treesearch

    Kari Hyytiäinen; Robert G. Haight

    2012-01-01

    The practice of silviculture involves the art and science of controlling the establishment, growth, composition, health, and quality of forests and woodlands to meet the diverse needs and values of landowners and society on a sustainable basis. Silvicultural practices are often divided into two broadly defined management systems, which in North America are usually...

  14. 50 CFR 35.8 - Forest management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Forest management. 35.8 Section 35.8 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE... ecological processes to operate freely. Commercial harvesting of timber shall not be permitted except...

  15. Chapter 6: Managing forests for wildlife communities

    Treesearch

    M North; P. Manley

    2012-01-01

    Forest management to maintain native wildlife communities is an important, yet complex objective. The complexities stem from two primary sources: habitat requirements for native species are diverse and span multiple spatial scales and seral stages, and habitat is a species-specific concept making multispecies community response difficult to predict. Given these...

  16. Forest management guidelines for controlling wild grapevines

    Treesearch

    H. Clay Smith

    1984-01-01

    Grapevines (Vitis spp.) are becoming a major problem to forest managers in the Appalachians, especially when clearcutting is done on highly productive hardwood sites. Where present, grapevines can reduce tree quality and growth, and eventually kill the tree. Silvical characteristics of grapevines are discussed as background for grapevine control....

  17. Decision-support systems for forest management

    Treesearch

    H. Michael Rauscher

    2005-01-01

    The basic concept of sustainable development, formulated in the Brundtland report and applied to forest management by the Montreal Process, has focused attention on the need for formal decision processes (Brundtland. 1987). The application of decision theory is essential because meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to...

  18. Watershed forest management using decision support technology

    Treesearch

    Mark Twery; Robert Northrop

    2004-01-01

    Using innovative partnerships and a variety of decision support tools, we identified the needs and goals of Baltimore, Maryland, for their reservoir properties containing over 17000 forested acres; developed a management plan; determined the information necessary to evaluate conditions, processes, and context; chose tools to use; collected, organized, and analyzed data...

  19. Forest restoration and forest communities: have local communities benefited from forest service contracting of ecosystem management?

    PubMed

    Moseley, Cassandra; Reyes, Yolanda E

    2008-08-01

    Conservation-based development programs have sought to create economic opportunities for people negatively impacted by biological diversity protection. The USDA Forest Service, for example, developed policies and programs to create contracting opportunities for local communities to restore public lands to replace jobs lost from reduced timber harvest. This article examines 12 years of Forest Service land management contracting in western Oregon, Washington, and northern California to evaluate if contractors located in communities near national forests have been awarded more land management contracts and contract value over time. We find that land management contracting spending has declined dramatically and, once we control for intervening factors, we find that local contractors have received a smaller proportion of land management contracts over time.

  20. Forest Restoration and Forest Communities: Have Local Communities Benefited from Forest Service Contracting of Ecosystem Management?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moseley, Cassandra; Reyes, Yolanda E.

    2008-08-01

    Conservation-based development programs have sought to create economic opportunities for people negatively impacted by biological diversity protection. The USDA Forest Service, for example, developed policies and programs to create contracting opportunities for local communities to restore public lands to replace jobs lost from reduced timber harvest. This article examines 12 years of Forest Service land management contracting in western Oregon, Washington, and northern California to evaluate if contractors located in communities near national forests have been awarded more land management contracts and contract value over time. We find that land management contracting spending has declined dramatically and, once we control for intervening factors, we find that local contractors have received a smaller proportion of land management contracts over time.

  1. Water resource management in Japan: Forest management or dam reservoirs?

    PubMed

    Komatsu, Hikaru; Kume, Tomonori; Otsuki, Kyoichi

    2010-01-01

    Researchers and journalists in Japan recently proposed forest management as an alternative to dam reservoir development for water resource management. To examine the validity of the proposal, we compared the potential low-flow increase due to forest clearcutting with the increase due to dam reservoir development. Here, we focused on forest clearcutting as an end member among various types of forest management. We first analyzed runoff data for five catchments and found a positive correlation between annual precipitation and the low-flow increase due to deforestation. We then examined the increase in low-flow rates due to dam reservoir development (dQ(d)) using inflow and outflow data for 45 dam reservoirs across Japan. Using the relationship between annual precipitation and the low-flow increase due to deforestation, we estimated the potential increase in the low-flow rate for each dam reservoir watershed if forests in the watershed were clearcut (dQ(f)). Only 6 of the 45 samples satisfied dQ(f)>dQ(d), indicating that the potential increase in the low-flow rate due to forest clearcutting was less than the increase due to dam reservoir development in most cases. Twenty-five of the 45 samples satisfied dQ(f)<0.2 dQ(d), indicating the potential increase in the low-flow rate due to forest clearcutting was less than 20% of the increase due to dam reservoir development in more than half the cases. Therefore, forest management is far less effective for water resource management than dam reservoir development is in Japan.

  2. Relative vegetation profiles in a Neotropical forest: comparison of lidar instrumentation and field-based measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, F. B.; Palace, M. W.; Ducey, M.; Czarnecki, C.; Zanin Shimbo, J.; Mota e Silva, J.

    2012-12-01

    Tropical forests are considered to be some of the most structurally complex forests in the world. Understanding vegetation height structure in these forests can aid in understanding the spatial temporal components of disturbance, from blowdowns to gap dynamics. Vegetation profiles can be used to better estimate carbon storage and flux across the landscape. Using light detection and ranging (lidar) data collected at La Selva, Costa Rica from four instruments (three airborne, one terrestrial) at four times since 2005, and field data collected in January 2012, we generated relative vegetation profiles for twenty plots in La Selva. Relative vegetation profiles were derived from lidar data by accounting for obscured plant material through a log transformation of the cumulative proportion of observations (percent canopy closure). Profiles were derived from field data using two different sets of allometric equations describing crown shape and tree height. We conducted a cluster analysis on similarity matrices developed in R (version 2.14.1) using three different metrics (sum of squares, Kullback-Leibler divergence, Kolmogorov-Smirnov D statistic) and identified general similarity between lidar profiles. Results were consistent across each of the three similarity metrics. Three distinct clusters were found, with profiles from three airborne lidar instruments, two profiles from a terrestrial lidar instrument, and profiles derived from field data forming the clusters. Our results indicate that although estimating lidar relative vegetation profiles from field data was not possible, terrestrial lidar relative vegetation profiles are generally similar to airborne relative vegetation profiles. Given the rapidity and repeatability of terrestrial lidar measurements, these results show promise for terrestrial lidar instruments to collect plot-specific data on forest structure and vertical distribution of plant material. Furthermore, identifying relationships between terrestrial and

  3. Songbird response to alternative forest density management in young Douglas-fir stands

    Treesearch

    Joan C. Hagar

    2013-01-01

    Th inning has been increasingly used in the Pacifi c Northwest to restore structural and biological diversity to densely-stocked young- to mid-aged forests that have been previously intensively managed for timber production. In the short term, thinning promotes development of understory vegetation, which in turn can increase habitat diversity for wildlife, particularly...

  4. Integrating fuel and forest management: developing prescriptions for the Central Hardwood Region

    Treesearch

    Edward F. Loewenstein; Keith W. Grabner; George W. Hartman; Erin R. McMurry

    2003-01-01

    The oak dominated forests in the Ozarks of southern Missouri evolved under the influence of fire for thousands of years. However, fire exclusion and timber harvests have changed historical fuel loads and modified vegetative structure. The resurgent interest in restoration of fire dependent ecosystems in conjunction with the needs of resource managers to control fuel...

  5. Influence of forest management alternatives and land type on susceptibility to fire in northern Wisconsin, USA

    Treesearch

    Eric J. Gustafson; Patrick A. Zollner; Brian R. Sturtevant; S. He Hong; David J. Mladenoff

    2004-01-01

    We used the LANDIS disturbance and succession model to study the effects of six alternative vegetation management scenarios on forest succession and the subsequent risk of canopy fire on a 2791 km2 landscape in northern Wisconsin, USA. The study area is a mix of fire-prone and fire-resistant land types. The alternatives vary the spatial...

  6. Mapping vegetation structure in the Pinaleno Mountains using lidar-phase 3: Forest inventory modeling

    Treesearch

    Brent Mitchell; Mike Walterman; Tom Mellin; Craig Wilcox; Ann M. Lynch; John Anhold; Donald A. Falk; John Koprowski; Denise Laes; Don Evans; Haans Fisk

    2012-01-01

    Understanding forest structure and how it is affected by management practices and natural events is a critical part of managing natural resources within the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. The Pinaleno Mountains of southeastern Arizona represent a Madrean sky island ecosystem and the last remaining habitat for the Mt. Graham red squirrel. This unique...

  7. A chronosequence of vegetation change following timber harvest in naturally recovering coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) forests

    Treesearch

    Kristin K. Hageseth Michels; Will. Russell

    2012-01-01

    The management of second-growth coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) forests for the purpose of restoration and ecological conservation is a growing trend. However, little is known about the long-term regenerative potential of this forest type in the absence of postharvest management techniques such as thinning and planting. Data were...

  8. Local calibration of the Forest Vegetation simulator (FVS) using custom inventory data

    Treesearch

    J. D. Shaw; G. Vacchiano; R. J. DeRose; A. Brough; A. Kusbach; J. N. Long

    2006-01-01

    Fort Bragg, North Carolina includes over 65,000 acres of longleaf pine forest, which is primary habitat for the endangered red-cockaded woodpecker (RCW). Effective management of the RCW depends on effective management of the longleaf pine forest. However, growth and yield models available in the geographic area that includes Fort Bragg over-predict stand growth and...

  9. NED Software for Forest Management: Much More Than Cruising

    Treesearch

    Mark J. Twery; H. Michael Rauscher

    2002-01-01

    The term NED describes a set of computer programs intended to help resource managers and landowners develop goals, assess current and potential conditions, and produce sustainable management plans for forest properties. NED-l helps analyze forest inventory data from the perspective of various forest resources for management areas up to several thousand acres. The...

  10. 78 FR 13316 - National Forest System Land Management Planning Directives

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-27

    ... Forest Service RIN 0596-AD06 National Forest System Land Management Planning Directives AGENCY: Forest...) land management planning regulation. Issuance of these proposed directives will provide consistent... land management plans for units of the NFS. Public comment is invited and will be considered in...

  11. 25 CFR 163.10 - Management of Indian forest land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Management of Indian forest land. 163.10 Section 163.10 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.10 Management of Indian forest land. (a) The Secretary shall...

  12. 25 CFR 163.10 - Management of Indian forest land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Management of Indian forest land. 163.10 Section 163.10 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.10 Management of Indian forest land. (a) The Secretary shall...

  13. 25 CFR 163.25 - Forest management deductions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Forest management deductions. 163.25 Section 163.25 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.25 Forest management deductions. (a) Pursuant to the provisions of...

  14. 25 CFR 163.25 - Forest management deductions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Forest management deductions. 163.25 Section 163.25 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.25 Forest management deductions. (a) Pursuant to the provisions of...

  15. 25 CFR 163.25 - Forest management deductions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Forest management deductions. 163.25 Section 163.25 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.25 Forest management deductions. (a) Pursuant to the provisions of...

  16. 25 CFR 163.10 - Management of Indian forest land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Management of Indian forest land. 163.10 Section 163.10 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.10 Management of Indian forest land. (a) The Secretary shall...

  17. 25 CFR 163.10 - Management of Indian forest land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Management of Indian forest land. 163.10 Section 163.10 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.10 Management of Indian forest land. (a) The Secretary shall...

  18. 25 CFR 163.25 - Forest management deductions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Forest management deductions. 163.25 Section 163.25 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.25 Forest management deductions. (a) Pursuant to the provisions of...

  19. 25 CFR 163.10 - Management of Indian forest land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Management of Indian forest land. 163.10 Section 163.10 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.10 Management of Indian forest land. (a) The Secretary shall...

  20. 25 CFR 163.25 - Forest management deductions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Forest management deductions. 163.25 Section 163.25 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.25 Forest management deductions. (a) Pursuant to the provisions of...

  1. A framework for evaluating forest restoration alternatives and their outcomes, over time, to inform monitoring: Bioregional inventory originated simulation under management

    Treesearch

    Jeremy S. Fried; Theresa B. Jain; Sara Loreno; Robert F. Keefe; Conor K. Bell

    2017-01-01

    The BioSum modeling framework summarizes current and prospective future forest conditions under alternative management regimes along with their costs, revenues and product yields. BioSum translates Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) data for input to the Forest Vegetation Simulator (FVS), summarizes FVS outputs for input to the treatment operations cost model (OpCost...

  2. Carbon dynamics of intensively managed forest along a full rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreaux, V.; Bosc, A.; Bonnefond, J.; Burlett, R.; Lamaud, E.; Sartore, M.; Trichet, P.; Chipeaux, C.; Lambrot, C.; Kowalski, A. S.; Loustau, D.

    2012-12-01

    Temperate and tropical forests are increasingly exploited for wood and biomass extraction and only one third of forest area was considered as primary in the recent FRA in 2010. Management practices affect the soil-forest-atmosphere continuum through various effects on soil and surface properties. They result ultimately in either positive or negative changes in the biomass and soil carbon pools but, if any, few datasets or modeling tools are available for quantifying their impacts on the net carbon balance of forest stands. To analyse these effects, the net half-hourly fluxes of CO2, water vapour and heat exchanges were monitored for 23 years in two closed stands of maritime pines in southwestern France. Carbon content of the aboveground biomass was measured annually and soil pools 10-early in the younger stand and 5-yearly in the mature stand. For analysing the data collected and disentangling the climate and management effects, we used the three components process-based model GRAECO+ (Loustau et al. this session) linking a 3D radiative transfer and photosynthesis model, MAESTRA, a soil carbon model adapted from ROTH-C and a plant growth model. Eddy flux data were processed, gapfilled and partitioned using the methodological recommendations (Aubinet et al. 2000, Adv. Eco. Res:30, 114-173, Falge et al. 2001, Agr. For. Meteo. : 107, 43-69, Reichstein et al. 2005, Glob. Change Biol., 11:1424-1439). Analysis of the sequence showed that, whether by an increased sensitivity to soil drought compared to the pines or by a rapid re-colonization of the inter-row after understorey removal and plowing, the weeded vegetation contributed to create specific intra-annual dynamics of the fluxes and therefore, controls the dynamics of carbon balance of the stand. After three growing seasons, the stand was already a carbon sink, but the impact of thinning and weeded vegetation removal at the age of 5-year brought the balance to almost neutral. We interpret this change as the combined

  3. Chapter 13 Application of landscape and habitat suitability models to conservation: the Hoosier National Forest land-management plan

    Treesearch

    Chadwick D. Rittenhouse; Stephen R. Shifley; William D. Dijak; Zhaofei Fan; Frank R., III Thompson; Joshua J. Millspaugh; Judith A. Perez; Cynthia M. Sandeno

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate an approach to integrated land-management planning and quantify differences in vegetation and avian habitat conditions among 5 management alternatives as part of the Hoosier National Forest planning process. The alternatives differed in terms of the type, extent, magnitude, frequency, and location of management activities. We modeled ecological processes...

  4. Methane emissions from upland forest soils and vegetation.

    PubMed

    Megonigal, J Patrick; Guenther, Alex B

    2008-04-01

    Most work on methane (CH(4)) emissions from natural ecosystems has focused on wetlands because they are hotspots of CH(4) production. Less attention has been directed toward upland ecosystems that cover far larger areas, but are assumed to be too dry to emit CH(4). Here we review CH(4) production and emissions in upland ecosystems, with attention to the influence of plant physiology on these processes in forests. Upland ecosystems are normally net sinks for atmospheric CH(4) because rates of CH(4) consumption exceed CH(4) production. Production of CH(4) in upland soils occurs in microsites and may be common in upland forest soils. Some forests switch from being CH(4) sinks to CH(4) sources depending on soil water content. Plant physiology influences CH(4) cycling by modifying the availability of electron donors and acceptors in forest soils. Plants are the ultimate source of organic carbon (electron donor) that microbes process into CH(4). The availability of O(2) (electron acceptor) is sensitive to changes in soil water content, and therefore, to transpiration rates. Recently, abiotic production of CH(4) from aerobic plant tissue was proposed, but has not yet been verified with independent data. If confirmed, this new source is likely to be a minor term in the global CH(4) budget, but important to quantify for purposes of greenhouse gas accounting. A variety of observations suggest that our understanding of CH(4) sources in upland systems is incomplete, particularly in tropical forests which are stronger sources then expected.

  5. Influence of forest roads standards and networks on water yield as predicted by the distributed hydrology-soil-vegetation model

    Treesearch

    Salli F. Dymond; W. Michael Aust; Steven P. Prisley; Mark H. Eisenbies; James M. Vose

    2013-01-01

    Throughout the country, foresters are continually looking at the effects of logging and forest roads on stream discharge and overall stream health. In the Pacific Northwest, a distributed hydrology-soil-vegetation model (DHSVM) has been used to predict the effects of logging on peak discharge in mountainous regions. DHSVM uses elevation, meteorological, vegetation, and...

  6. A closer look: decoupling the effects of prescribed fire and grazing on vegetation in a ponderosa pine forests

    Treesearch

    Marie Oliver; Becky K. Kerns; Michelle Buonopane

    2012-01-01

    Scientists have had little information about how prescribed fire and cattle grazing—common practices in many Western ponderosa pine forests—affects plant abundance and reproduction in the forest understory. Pacific Northwest Research Station scientists began to explore how these practices affect vegetation in a five-year study of postfire vegetation in eastern Oregon...

  7. Lidar Remote Sensing for Characterizing Forest Vegetation - Special Issue. Foreword

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Popescu, Sorin C.; Nelson, Ross F.

    2011-01-01

    The Silvilaser 2009 conference held in College Station, Texas, USA, was the ninth conference in the Silvilaser series, which started in 2002 with the international workshop on using lidar (Light Detection and Ranging) for analyzing forest structure, held in Victoria, British Columbia, Canada. Following the Canadian workshop, subsequent forestry-lidar conferences took place in Australia, Sweden, Germany, USA, Japan, Finland, and the United Kingdom (UK). By the time this Silvilaser 2009 special issue of PE&RS is published, the 10th international conference will have been held in Freiburg, Germany, and planning will be ongoing for the 11th meeting to take place in Tasmania, Australia, in October 2011. Papers presented at the 2005 conference held in Blacksburg, Virginia, USA, were assembled in a special issue of PE&RS published in December 2006. Other special issues resulting from previous conferences were published in journals such as the Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing (2003), the Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research (2004), and Japan s Journal of Forest Planning (2008). Given the conference history and the much longer record of publications on lidar applications for estimating forest biophysical parameters, which dates back to the early 1980s, we may consider lidar an established remote sensing technology for characterizing forest canopy structure and estimating forest biophysical parameters. Randy Wynne, a professor at Virginia Tech and the final keynote speaker at Silvilaser 2009, made the case that it was time to push 30 years of research into operations, along the lines of what has already been done to good effect in the Scandinavian countries. In Randy s words, it s time to "Just do it!" This special issue includes a selection of papers presented during the 2009 Silvilaser conference, which consisted of eight sections as follows: (1) biomass and carbon stock estimates, (2) tree species and forest type classification, (3) data fusion and integration, (4, 5

  8. Spectral vegetation relationships in a tropical rain forest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holben, B. N.; Tucker, C. T.

    1978-01-01

    Jordan's (1969) spectral method of leaf-area index determination from measurements of the transmitted light at the forest floor is evaluated under a wide variety of illumination conditions in the Luquillo Rain Forest of Puerto Rico, using a hand-held radiometer. Previously suggested 'correction factors' for temporal adjustment were found to degrade the data. Quantitative use of the method was found to be restricted to high sun periods. Data collected under uniformly overcast conditions were of greater stability than under clear skies, however, stability was impaired by changes in cloud thickness. Care must be taken to minimize irradiational variability and to adquately sample the spatial variability.

  9. Research in the Luquillo Experimental Forest has advanced understanding of tropical forests and resolved management issues

    Treesearch

    A.E. Lugo; T. Heartsill Scalley

    2014-01-01

    Long-term research on the response of wet forests in the Luquillo Experimental Forest (LEF) to natural and anthropogenic disturbances yielded information useful for the management of these forests and to a better understanding of the functioning of tropical forests and how species composition changes under different distrubance regimes. We summarize studies on basal...

  10. Conversion of natural forest to managed forest plantations decreases tree resistance to prolonged droughts

    Treesearch

    Jean-Christophe Domec; John S. King; Eric Ward; A. Christopher Oishi; Sari Palmroth; Andrew Radecki; Dave M. Bell; Guofang Miao; Michael Gavazzi; Daniel M. Johnson; Steve G. McNulty; Ge Sun; Asko. Noormets

    2015-01-01

    Throughout the southern US, past forest management practices have replaced large areas of native forests with loblolly pine plantations and have resulted in changes in forest response to extreme weather conditions. However, uncertainty remains about the response of planted versus natural species to drought across the geographical range of these forests. Taking...

  11. Recent Forest Disturbance History in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem Reconstructed using Remote Sensing and Management Record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, F.; Huang, C.; Zhu, Z.

    2014-12-01

    The Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE), located in Central Rocky Mountains of United States, is of complex ecological and land management histories along with different land ownerships. What are effects of the different land management practices (such as those by national parks vs. national forests) on ecosystem disturbances and carbon balance? We present here the methods and results of a study on forest disturbance history over the GYE from 1984 to 2010 reconstructed from Landsat time series stacks and local management records. Annual forest fire, harvest and other disturbances were tracked and separated by integrating a model called Vegetation Change Tracker and the Support Vector Machine algorithm. Local management records were separated into training and validation data for the disturbance maps. Area statistics and rates of disturbances were quantified and compared across GYE land ownership over the multi-decade period and interpreted for implications of these changes for forest management and carbon analysis. Our results indicate that during the study interval (1984 - 2010), GYE National Parks (NPs) and Wilderness Area (WA) had higher percentages of area of forests disturbed compared to GYE National Forests (NF). Within the GYE NPs, over 45% of the forest lands were disturbed at least once during the study period, the majority (37%) was by wildfire. For GYE wilderness area, the total disturbance was 30% of forest with 19.4% by wildfire and 10.6% by other disturbances. In Bridger-Teton NF, 14.7% of forest was disturbed and 3.6%, 0.5% and 10.6% of forest were disturbed by fire, harvest and other disturbances, respectively. For Caribou-Targhee NF, 25% of total forest was disturbed during this time interval and 1.5%, 6.4% and 17.1% of forest were disturbed by fire, harvest and other disturbances, respectively.

  12. Pacific northwest region vegetation and inventory monitoring system. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Max, T.A.; Schreuder, H.T.; Hazard, J.W.; Oswald, D.D.; Teply, J.

    1996-12-01

    A grid sampling strategy was adopted for broad-scale inventory and monitoring of forest and range vegetation on National Forest System lands in the Pacific Northwest Region, USDA Forest Service. This paper documents the technical details of the adopted design and discusses alternative sampling designs that were considered. The design is flexible and can be used with many types of maps. The theory of point and change estimation is described, as well as estimates of variation that assess the statistical precision of estimates.

  13. Disentangling Modern Fire-Climate-Vegetation Relationships across the Boreal Forest Biome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, A. M.; Boschetti, L.; Duffy, P.; Hu, F.; Higuera, P.

    2015-12-01

    Fire regimes differ between Eurasian and North American boreal forests, due in part to differences in climate and the dominant forest types. While North American boreal forests are dominated by stand-replacing fires, much of the Eurasian boreal forest is characterized by lower intensity surface fires. These different fire regimes have important consequences for continental-scale biogeochemical cycling and surface-energy fluxes1. Here, we use generalized linear models (GLM) and boosted regression trees (BRT) to explore the relative importance of vegetation, annual climatic factors, and their interactions in determining annual fire occurrence across Eurasian and North American boreal forests. We use remotely sensed burned area (MCD64A1), land cover (MCD12Q1), and observed climate data (CRU) from 2002-2012 at 0.25° spatial resolution to quantify these relationships at annual temporal scales and continental spatial scales. The spatial distribution of boreal fire occurrence was well explained with climate and vegetation variables, with similarities and differences in fire-climate-vegetation relationships between Eurasia and North America. For example, while GLMs indicate vegetation is a significant factor determining fire occurrence in both continents, the effect of climate differed. Spring temperature and precipitation are significant factors explaining fire occurrence in Eurasia, but no climate variables were significant for explaining fire occurrence in North America. BRTs complement this analysis, highlighting climatic thresholds to fire occurrence in both continents. The nature of these thresholds can vary among vegetation types, even within each continent, further implying regional sensitivity to climate-induced shifts in wildfire activity. To build on these results and better understand regional sensitivity of northern-high latitude fire regimes, future work will explore these relationships in forest-tundra and arctic tundra ecosystems, and apply historical

  14. Soil and vegetation carbon turnover times across forest biomes in eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jingsong; Niu, Shuli

    2017-04-01

    1. Resent studies reveal that terrestrial biosphere is now a net carbon (C) sink for atmospheric C dixoide (CO2), however, whether this C sink can persist with climate change is still uncertain. Such uncertainty comes not only from C input, but also largely from C turnover times in an ecosystem. Knowledge of C turnover times is critical for modelling C cycle and evaluating C sink potential. Our current understanding of how long C can be stored in soils and vegetation and what are their controlling factors are still poorly understood. 2. We used C stocks from 1087 plots in soils and 2753 plots in vegetation and investigated the spatial patterns and controlling factors of C turnover times across the forest transect in the eastern China. 3. Our results showed a clear latitudinal pattern of C turnover times, with the lowest turnover times in the low-latitude zones and highest values in the high-latitude. Mean annual temperature (MAT) and mean annual precipitation (MAP) were the most important controlling factors on the soil C turnover times while forest age accounted for the most majority of variations in the vegetation C turnover times. Our findings also indicated that forest origin (planted forest, natural forest) was also responsible for the variations of vegetation C turnover times while forest type and soil properties were not the dominant controlling factors. 4. Our study highlights different dominant controlling factors on the soils and vegetation C turnover times and different mechanisms underlying above- and below-ground C turnover. The findings can help to better understand and reduce the large uncertainty in predictive models of the coupled carbon-climate system.

  15. Vegetation, land surface brightness, and temperature dynamics after aspen forest die-off

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Cho-ying; Anderegg, William R. L.

    2014-07-01

    Forest dynamics following drought-induced tree mortality can affect regional climate through biophysical surface properties. These dynamics have not been well quantified, particularly at the regional scale, and are a large uncertainty in ecosystem-climate feedback. We investigated regional biophysical characteristics through time (1995-2011) in drought-impacted (2001-2003), trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) forests by utilizing Landsat time series green and brown vegetation cover, surface brightness (total shortwave albedo), and daytime land surface temperature. We quantified the temporal dynamics and postdrought recovery of these characteristics for aspen forests experiencing severe drought-induced mortality in the San Juan National Forest in southwestern Colorado, USA. We partitioned forests into three categories from healthy to severe mortality (Healthy, Intermediate, and Die-off) by referring to field observations of aspen canopy mortality and live aboveground biomass losses. The vegetation cover of die-off areas in 2011 (26.9% of the aspen forest) was significantly different compared to predrought conditions (decrease of 7.4% of the green vegetation cover and increase of 12.1% of the brown vegetation cover compared to 1999). The surface brightness of the study region 9 years after drought however was comparable to predrought estimates (12.7-13.7%). Postdrought brightness was potentially influenced by understory shrubs, since they became the top layer green canopies in disturbed sites from a satellite's point of view. Satellite evidence also showed that the differences of land surface temperature among the three groups increased substantially (≥45%) after drought, possibly due to the reduction of plant evapotranspiration in the Intermediate and Die-off sites. Our results suggest that the mortality-affected systems have not recovered in terms of the surface biophysical properties. We also find that the temporal dynamics of vegetation cover holds

  16. Silvicultural management in maintaining biodiversity and resistance of forests in Europe-boreal zone: case Finland.

    PubMed

    Mielikäinen, Kari; Hynynen, Jari

    2003-01-01

    The majority of untouched natural boreal forests have been regenerated through large catastrophes, occurring by intervals between 50 and 100 years. Storm and fire will open the landscape, result in a huge amount of dead or dying trees and let the pioneer tree species germinate. These processes are the guideline for Finnish forest management today. The main focus by maintaining the biodiversity in Finnish boreal forest zone is directed to managed forests. Nature-orientated silviculture on stand level is practised. The site type classification, a reflection of the modern concept of biodiversity and developed by Cajander early in 1900s, on the basis of natural vegetation composition of the site, has the central role by choosing tree species, regeneration methods and thinning procedure, and reflects also on the site productivity. The small size of stands, the abundance of natural seedlings in planted stands and the popularity of mixed stands have a positive impact on biodiversity of forests. The protection of small-sized valuable habitats in commercially managed stands, the leaving of retention trees standing and lying in the forest in all phases of the rotation, are activities made for biodiversity. Many insects and fungi are adapted to catastrophes and so they can survive in single stems left on regeneration areas. Maintaining the biodiversity in multifunctional forests is also supported by the new forest legislation and by the criteria of Finnish Forest Certification System.

  17. Satellite remote sensing assessment of climate impact on forest vegetation dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoran, M.

    2009-04-01

    Forest vegetation phenology constitutes an efficient bio-indicator of impacts of climate and anthropogenic changes and a key parameter for understanding and modelling vegetation-climate interactions. Climate variability represents the ensemble of net radiation, precipitation, wind and temperature characteristic for a region in a certain time scale (e.g.monthly, seasonal annual). The temporal and/or spatial sensitivity of forest vegetation dynamics to climate variability is used to characterize the quantitative relationship between these two quantities in temporal and/or spatial scales. So, climate variability has a great impact on the forest vegetation dynamics. Satellite remote sensing is a very useful tool to assess the main phenological events based on tracking significant changes on temporal trajectories of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVIs), which requires NDVI time-series with good time resolution, over homogeneous area, cloud-free and not affected by atmospheric and geometric effects and variations in sensor characteristics (calibration, spectral responses). Spatio-temporal vegetation dynamics have been quantified as the total amount of vegetation (mean NDVI) and the seasonal difference (annual NDVI amplitude) by a time series analysis of NDVI satellite images with the Harmonic ANalysis of Time Series algorithm. A climate indicator (CI) was created from meteorological data (precipitation over net radiation). The relationships between the vegetation dynamics and the CI have been determined spatially and temporally. The driest test regions prove to be the most sensitive to climate impact. The spatial and temporal patterns of the mean NDVI are the same, while they are partially different for the seasonal difference. The aim of this paper was to quantify this impact over a forest ecosystem placed in the North-Eastern part of Bucharest town, Romania, with Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) parameter extracted from IKONOS and LANDSAT TM and

  18. Assessment of Climate Impact Changes on Forest Vegetation Dynamics by Satellite Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoran, Maria

    Climate variability represents the ensemble of net radiation, precipitation, wind and temper-ature characteristic for a region in a certain time scale (e.g.monthly, seasonal annual). The temporal and/or spatial sensitivity of forest vegetation dynamics to climate variability is used to characterize the quantitative relationship between these two quantities in temporal and/or spatial scales. So, climate variability has a great impact on the forest vegetation dynamics. Forest vegetation phenology constitutes an efficient bio-indicator of climate and anthropogenic changes impacts and a key parameter for understanding and modelling vegetation-climate in-teractions. Satellite remote sensing is a very useful tool to assess the main phenological events based on tracking significant changes on temporal trajectories of Normalized Difference Vege-tation Index (NDVIs), which requires NDVI time-series with good time resolution, over homo-geneous area, cloud-free and not affected by atmospheric and geometric effects and variations in sensor characteristics (calibration, spectral responses). Spatio-temporal vegetation dynamics have been quantified as the total amount of vegetation (mean NDVI) and the seasonal difference (annual NDVI amplitude) by a time series analysis of NDVI satellite images with the Harmonic ANalysis of Time Series algorithm. A climate indicator (CI) was created from meteorological data (precipitation over net radiation). The relationships between the vegetation dynamics and the CI have been determined spatially and temporally. The driest test regions prove to be the most sensitive to climate impact. The spatial and temporal patterns of the mean NDVI are the same, while they are partially different for the seasonal difference. The aim of this paper was to quantify this impact over a forest ecosystem placed in the North-Eastern part of Bucharest town, Romania, with Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) parameter extracted from IKONOS and LANDSAT TM and

  19. Ground-cover vegetation in wetland forests of the lower Suwannee River floodplain, Florida, and potential impacts of flow reductions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Darst, Melanie R.; Light, Helen M.; Lewis, Lori J.

    2002-01-01

    Ground-cover vegetation was surveyed in wetland forests in the lower Suwannee River floodplain, Florida, in a study conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Suwannee River Water Management District from 1996 to 1999. Increased water use in the basin, supplied primarily from ground water, could reduce ground-water discharge to the river and flows in the lower Suwannee River. Many of the 282 ground-cover species found in wetland forests of the floodplain have distributions that are related to flow-dependent hydrologic characteristics of forest types, and their distributions would change if flows were reduced. Overall species diversity in the floodplain might decrease, and the composition of ground-cover vegetation in all forest types might change with flow reductions. The study area included forests within the 10-year floodplain of the lower Suwannee River from its confluence with the Santa Fe River to the lower limit of forests near the Gulf of Mexico. The floodplain is divided into three reaches (riverine, upper tidal, and lower tidal) due to variations in hydrology, vegetation, and soils with proximity to the coast. The riverine (non-tidal) reach had the greatest number of total species (203) and species unique to that reach (81). Mitchella repens, Toxicodendron radicans, and Axonopus furcatus were the most frequently dominant species in riverine bottomland hardwoods. Free-floating aquatic species, such as Spirodela punctata and Lemna valdiviana, were the dominant species in the wettest riverine swamps. The upper tidal reach had the lowest number of total species (116), only two species unique to that reach, and the lowest density of ground cover (26 percent). Panicum commutatum and Crinum americanum were frequent dominant species in upper tidal forests. The lower tidal reach had the highest ground-cover density (43 percent) and the second highest number of total species (183) and number of species unique to that reach (55). Saururus cernuus

  20. Simulating post-wildfire forest trajectories under alternative climate and management scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azpeleta, Alicia; Fule, Peter; Shive, Kristen; Sieg, Carolyn; Sanchez-Meador, Andrew; Strom, Barbara

    2013-04-01

    To assess post-fire vegetation recovery under the influence of climate change, we applied the Climate-Forest Vegetation Simulator (Climate-FVS), a new version of a widely used forest management model, to compare alternative climate and management scenarios in a severely burned multi-species forest of Arizona, U.S.A. The incorporation of seven combinations of General Circulation Models (GCM) and emissions scenarios altered long-term (100 years) projections of future forest condition compared to a No Climate Change (NCC) scenario, which forecast a gradual increase to high levels of forest density and carbon storage. In contrast, emissions scenarios that included continued high greenhouse gas releases led to near-complete deforestation by 2111. GCM-emissions scenario combinations that were less severe reduced forest structure and carbon storage relative to NCC. Fuel reduction treatments that had been applied prior to the severe wildfire did have persistent effects, especially under NCC, but were overwhelmed by increasingly severe climate change. We tested six management strategies aimed at sustaining future forests: prescribed burning at 5, 10, or 20-year intervals, thinning 40% or 60% of stand basal area, and no-treatment. Severe climate change led to deforestation under all management regimes, but important differences emerged under the moderate scenarios: treatments that included regular prescribed burning fostered low density, wildfire-resistant forests composed of the naturally dominant species, ponderosa pine. Non-fire treatments under moderate climate change were forecast to become dense and susceptible to severe wildfire, with a shift to dominance by sprouting species. Current U.S.A. management requires modeling of future scenarios but does not mandate consideration of climate change effects. However, this study showed substantial differences in model outputs depending on climate and management actions. Managers should incorporate climate change into the

  1. Use and applicability of the vegetation component of the national site classification system. [Sumter National Forest, South Carolina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, C. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    Existing vegetation on a site in Sumter National Forest, South Carolina was classified using high altitude aerial optical bar color infrared photography in an effort to determine if the National Site Classification (NSC) system could be used in the heterogeneously forested southeastern United States where it had not previously been used. Results show that the revised UNESCO international classification and mapping of vegetation system, as incorporated into the NSCS, is general enough at the higher levels and specific enough at the lower levels to adequately accommodate densely forested, heterogeneous areas as well as the larger, more homogeneous regions of the Pacific Northwest. The major problem is of existing vegetation versus natural vegetation.

  2. Hidden Forests: The role of vegetated coastal habitats in the ocean carbon budget (Vladimir Ivanovich Vernadsky Medal Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, Carlos M.

    2016-04-01

    Vegetated coastal habitats, including mangrove forests, salt-marshes, seagrass meadows and macroalgal beds, provide the marine equivalent to terrestrial forests. However, in contrast to the traditional recognition of forests as significant components of the global carbon budget, the biogeochemical significance of vegetated coastal habitats has been largely ignored. However, the past decade has witness a paradigm shift, where vegetated coastal habitats have been recognized to play a globally significant role in the carbon budget of the ocean. Here I synthesize this evidence and consider how current representations of the ocean carbon budget need be reconsidered to incorporate the role of vegetated coastal habitats and globally relevant, sites of intense carbon cycling.

  3. Hydrologic influences of forest vegetation in a changing world: Learning from Forest Service experimental forests, ranges, and watersheds

    Treesearch

    Thomas E. Lisle; Mary Beth Adams; Leslie M. Reid; Kelly Elder

    2010-01-01

    The importance of forests in providing reliable sources of clean water cannot be underestimated. Therefore, there is a pressing need to understand how hydrologic systems function in forested ecosystems, in response to a variety of traditional and novel stressors and environments. Long-term watershed research on Experimental Forests and Ranges (EFRs) of the Forest...

  4. Habitat typing versus advanced vegetation classification in western forests

    Treesearch

    Tony Kusbach; John Shaw; James Long; Helga Van Miegroet

    2012-01-01

    Major habitat and community types in northern Utah were compared with plant alliances and associations that were derived from fidelity- and diagnostic-species classification concepts. Each of these classification approaches was associated with important environmental factors. Within a 20,000-ha watershed, 103 forest ecosystems were described by physiographic features,...

  5. Vegetation, Soil, and Flooding Relationships in a Blackwater Floodplain Forest

    Treesearch

    Marianne K. Burke; Sammy L. King; David Gartner; Mark H. Eisenbies

    2003-01-01

    Hydroperiod is considered the primary determinant of plant species distribution in temperate floodplain forests, but most studies have focused on alluvial (sediment-laden) river systems. Few studies have evaluated plant community relationships in blackwater river systems of the South Atlantic Coastal Plain of North America. In this study. we characterized the soils....

  6. Vegetation data collection in temperate forest research natural areas.

    Treesearch

    Lewis F. Ohmann

    1973-01-01

    Despite a long history of research natural area preservation by the USDA Forest Service and other governmental agencies, ecological baseline data have been gathered for few areas. This report presents a framework, including possible sampling schemes for ecological baseline data collection by nonprofessionals working under the consulting supervision of professional...

  7. 75 FR 1748 - Helena National Forest, Montana, Stonewall Vegetation Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-13

    ... susceptible to insect and wildfire mortality (Douglas-fir and lodgepole pine). In addition, a large-scale... conditions are elevating fuel levels which pose a wildfire threat to nearby homes and communities in the... this project area has become a more uniform dense forest susceptible to insect and wildfire...

  8. Hydrological principles for sustainable management of forest ecosystems

    Treesearch

    Irena F. Creed; Gabor Z. Sass; Jim M. Buttle; Julia A. Jones

    2011-01-01

    Forested landscapes around the world are changing as a result of human activities, including forest management, fire suppression, mountaintop mining, conversion of natural forests to plantations, and climate change (Brockerhoff et al., 2008; Cyr et al., 2009; Johnston et al., 2010; Miller et al., 2009; Kelly et al., 2010; Palmer et al., 2010). Forests...

  9. Supplement Analysis for the Transmission System Vegetation Management Program FEIS (DOE/EIS-0285/SA-130- Keeler-Tillamook)

    SciTech Connect

    Sherer, Brett M.

    2003-03-10

    Vegetation Management for the Keeler Tillamook 115 kV transmission line from structure 1/7 through structure 58/2, and along adjacent portions of the Keeler-Forest Grove #2 115KV transmission line. In addition the project includes 11miles of the 115KV Timber Tap.

  10. Watershed management in the central and southern Rocky Mountains: A summary of the status of our knowledge by vegetation types

    Treesearch

    Charles F. Leaf

    1975-01-01

    Summarizes a series of comprehensive reports on watershed management in five major vegetation zones: (1) the coniferous forest subalpine zone; (2) the Front Range ponderosa pine zone; (3) the Black Hills ponderosa pine zone; (4) the alpine zone; and (5) the big sagebrush zone. Includes what is known about the hydrology of these lands, what hydrologic principles are...

  11. Effects of Vegetation Management With Prescribed Fire on Soil Physical Properties in a Young Longleaf Pine Stand

    Treesearch

    W.B. Patterson; M.A. Sword-Sayer; J.D. Haywood; S. Brooker

    2004-01-01

    The intensity and frequency of prescribed fire affects soil properties that control its quality. This project evaluates how six vegetation management treatments, four of which include biennial prescribed fire, affect the soil physical properties in two stands of longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) located on the Kisatchie National Forest, Rapides...

  12. Managing for diversity: harvest gap size drives complex light, vegetation, and deer herbivory impacts on tree seedlings

    Treesearch

    Michael B. Walters; Evan J. Farinosi; John L. Willis; Kurt W. Gottschalk

    2016-01-01

    Many managed northern hardwood forests are characterized by low-diversity tree regeneration. Small harvest gaps, competition from shrub–herb vegetation, and browsing by white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) contribute to this pattern, but we know little about how these factors interact. With a stand-scale experiment, we examined the effects of...

  13. Preliminary classification of forest vegetation of the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska.

    Treesearch

    K.M. Reynolds

    1990-01-01

    A total of 5,597 photo points was systematically located on 1:60,000-scale high altitude photographs of the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska; photo interpretation was used to classify the vegetation at each grid position. Of the total grid points, 12.3 percent were classified as timberland; 129 photo points within the timberland class were randomly selected for field survey....

  14. Upland forest vegetation of the Ozark Mountains in Northwestern Arkansas

    Treesearch

    Steven L. Stephenson; Harold S. Adams; Cynthia D. Huebner

    2007-01-01

    Quantitative data on structure and composition of all strata of vegetation were collected from 20 study sites in the Boston Mountains Subsection of the Ozark Mountains of northwestern Arkansas in June 2004. All study sites were located at upper slope or ridgetop positions and occurred at elevations > 457 m. Oaks (Quercus spp.) were dominants in...

  15. Effects of intensive management practices on 10-year Douglas-fir growth, soil nutrient pools, and vegetation communities in the Pacific Northwest, USA

    Treesearch

    Robert A. Slesak; Timothy B. Harrington; Dave Peter; Daniel G. DeBruler; Stephen H. Schoenholtz; Brian D. Strahm

    2016-01-01

    Intensive management practices are commonly used to increase fiber production from forests, but potential tradeoffs with maintenance of long-term productivity and early successional biodiversity have yet to be quantified. We assessed soil and vegetation responses in replicated manipulations of logging debris (LD; either retained or removed) and competing vegetation...

  16. Simulating secondary succession of elk forage values in a managed forest landscape, western Washington

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, Kurt; Starkey, Edward

    1996-09-01

    Modern timber management practices often influence forage production for elk ( Cervus elaphus) on broad temporal and spatial scales in forested landscapes. We incorporated site-specific information on postharvesting forest succession and forage characteristics in a simulation model to evaluate past and future influences of forest management practices on forage values for elk in a commercially managed Douglas fir ( Pseudotsuga menziesii, PSME)-western hemlock ( Tsuga heterophylla, TSHE) forest in western Washington. We evaluated future effects of: (1) clear-cut logging 0, 20, and 40% of harvestable stands every five years; (2) thinning 20-year-old Douglas fir forests; and (3) reducing the harvesting cycle from 60 to 45 years. Reconstruction of historical patterns of vegetation succession indicated that forage values peaked in the 1960s and declined from the 1970s to the present, but recent values still were higher than may have existed in the unmanaged landscape in 1945. Increased forest harvesting rates had little short-term influence on forage trends because harvestable stands were scarce. Simulations of forest thinning also produced negligible benefits because thinning did not improve forage productivity appreciably at the stand level. Simulations of reduced harvesting cycles shortened the duration of declining forage values from approximately 30 to 15 years. We concluded that simulation models are useful tools for examining landscape responses of forage production to forest management strategies, but the options examined provided little potential for improving elk forages in the immediate future.

  17. Simulating secondary succession of elk forage values in a managed forest landscape, western Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jenkins, Kurt J.; Starkey, Edward E.

    1996-01-01

    Modern timber management practices often influence forage production for elk (Cervus elaphus) on broad temporal and spatial scales in forested landscapes. We incorporated site-specific information on postharvesting forest succession and forage characteristics in a simulation model to evaluate past and future influences of forest management practices on forage values for elk in a commercially managed Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii, PSME)-western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla, TSHE) forest in western Washington. We evaluated future effects of: (1) clear-cut logging 0, 20, and 40% of harvestable stands every five years; (2) thinning 20-year-old Douglas fir forests; and (3) reducing the harvesting cycle from 60 to 45 years. Reconstruction of historical patterns of vegetation succession indicated that forage values peaked in the 1960s and declined from the 1970s to the present, but recent values still were higher than may have existed in the unmanaged landscape in 1945. Increased forest harvesting rates had little short-term influence on forage trends because harvestable stands were scarce. Simulations of forest thinning also produced negligible benefits because thinning did not improve forage productivity appreciably at the stand level. Simulations of reduced harvesting cycles shortened the duration of declining forage values from approximately 30 to 15 years. We concluded that simulation models are useful tools for examining landscape responses of forage production to forest management strategies, but the options examined provided little potential for improving elk forages in the immediate future.

  18. Self-amplified Amazon forest loss due to vegetation-atmosphere feedbacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zemp, Delphine Clara; Schleussner, Carl-Friedrich; Barbosa, Henrique M. J.; Hirota, Marina; Montade, Vincent; Sampaio, Gilvan; Staal, Arie; Wang-Erlandsson, Lan; Rammig, Anja

    2017-03-01

    Reduced rainfall increases the risk of forest dieback, while in return forest loss might intensify regional droughts. The consequences of this vegetation-atmosphere feedback for the stability of the Amazon forest are still unclear. Here we show that the risk of self-amplified Amazon forest loss increases nonlinearly with dry-season intensification. We apply a novel complex-network approach, in which Amazon forest patches are linked by observation-based atmospheric water fluxes. Our results suggest that the risk of self-amplified forest loss is reduced with increasing heterogeneity in the response of forest patches to reduced rainfall. Under dry-season Amazonian rainfall reductions, comparable to Last Glacial Maximum conditions, additional forest loss due to self-amplified effects occurs in 10-13% of the Amazon basin. Although our findings do not indicate that the projected rainfall changes for the end of the twenty-first century will lead to complete Amazon dieback, they suggest that frequent extreme drought events have the potential to destabilize large parts of the Amazon forest.

  19. Self-amplified Amazon forest loss due to vegetation-atmosphere feedbacks.

    PubMed

    Zemp, Delphine Clara; Schleussner, Carl-Friedrich; Barbosa, Henrique M J; Hirota, Marina; Montade, Vincent; Sampaio, Gilvan; Staal, Arie; Wang-Erlandsson, Lan; Rammig, Anja

    2017-03-13

    Reduced rainfall increases the risk of forest dieback, while in return forest loss might intensify regional droughts. The consequences of this vegetation-atmosphere feedback for the stability of the Amazon forest are still unclear. Here we show that the risk of self-amplified Amazon forest loss increases nonlinearly with dry-season intensification. We apply a novel complex-network approach, in which Amazon forest patches are linked by observation-based atmospheric water fluxes. Our results suggest that the risk of self-amplified forest loss is reduced with increasing heterogeneity in the response of forest patches to reduced rainfall. Under dry-season Amazonian rainfall reductions, comparable to Last Glacial Maximum conditions, additional forest loss due to self-amplified effects occurs in 10-13% of the Amazon basin. Although our findings do not indicate that the projected rainfall changes for the end of the twenty-first century will lead to complete Amazon dieback, they suggest that frequent extreme drought events have the potential to destabilize large parts of the Amazon forest.

  20. Percent canopy cover and stand structure statistics from the Forest Vegetation Simulator

    Treesearch

    Nicholas L. Crookston; Albert R. Stage

    1999-01-01

    Estimates of percent canopy cover generated by the Forest Vegetation Simulator (FVS) are corrected for crown overlap using an equation presented in this paper. A comparison of the new cover estimate to some others is provided. The cover estimate is one of several describing stand structure. The structure descriptors also include major species, ranges of diameters, tree...

  1. Development of full regeneration establishment models for the forest vegetation simulator

    Treesearch

    John D. Shaw

    2015-01-01

    For most simulation modeling efforts, the goal of model developers is to produce simulations that are the best representations of realism as possible. Achieving this goal commonly requires a considerable amount of data to set the initial parameters, followed by validation and model improvement – both of which require even more data. The Forest Vegetation Simulator (FVS...

  2. Vegetation, topography and daily weather influenced burn severity in central Idaho and western Montana forests

    Treesearch

    Donovan S. Birch; Penelope Morgan; Crystal A. Kolden; John T. Abatzoglou; Gregory K. Dillon; Andrew T. Hudak; Alistair M. S. Smith

    2015-01-01

    Burn severity as inferred from satellite-derived differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBR) is useful for evaluating fire impacts on ecosystems but the environmental controls on burn severity across large forest fires are both poorly understood and likely to be different than those influencing fire extent. We related dNBR to environmental variables including vegetation,...

  3. Evaluating Forest Vegetation Simulator predictions for southern Appalachian upland hardwoods with a modified mortality model

    Treesearch

    Philip J. Radtke; Nathan D. Herring; David L. Loftis; Chad E. Keyser

    2012-01-01

    Prediction accuracy for projected basal area and trees per acre was assessed for the growth and yield model of the Forest Vegetation Simulator Southern Variant (FVS-Sn). Data for comparison with FVS-Sn predictions were compiled from a collection of n

  4. An empirical approach for estimating natural regeneration for the Forest Vegetation Simulator

    Treesearch

    Don Vandendriesche

    2010-01-01

    The “partial” establishment model that is available for most Forest Vegetation Simulator (FVS) geographic variants does not provide an estimate of natural regeneration. Users are responsible for supplying this key aspect of stand development. The process presented for estimating natural regeneration begins by summarizing small tree components based on observations from...

  5. Information for forest process models: a review of NRS-FIA vegetation measurements

    Treesearch

    Charles D. Canham; William H. McWilliams

    2012-01-01

    The Forest and Analysis Program of the Northern Research Station (NRS-FIA) has re-designed Phase 3 measurements and intensified the sample intensity following a study to balance costs, utility, and sample size. The sampling scheme consists of estimating canopy-cover percent for six vegetation growth habits on 24-foot-radius subplots in four height classes and as an...

  6. Fire and fire surrogate treatments in mixed-oak forests: Effects on herbaceous layer vegetation

    Treesearch

    Ross Phillips; Todd Hutchinson; Lucy Brudnak; Thomas Waldrop

    2007-01-01

    Herbaceous layer vegetation responses to prescribed fire and fire surrogate treatments (thinning and understory removal) were examined. Results from 3 to 4 years following treatment are presented for the Ohio Hills Country and the Southern Appalachian Mountain sites of the National Fire and Fire Surrogate Study. At the Ohio Hills site, changes in forest structure were...

  7. Vegetation response to large scale disturbance in a southern Appalachian forest: Hurricane Opal and salvage logging

    Treesearch

    Katherine J. Elliott; Stephanie L. Hitchcock; Lisa Krueger

    2002-01-01

    Disturbance such as catastrophic windthrow can play a major role in the structure and composition of southern Appalachian forests. We report effects of Hurricane Opal followed by salvage logging on vegetation dynamics (regeneration, composition, and diversity) the first three years after disturbance at the Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory in western North Carolina. The...

  8. Vegetative characteristics of five forest types across a Lake States sulfate disposition gradient.

    Treesearch

    Lewis F. Ohmann; David F. Grigal; Stephen R. Shifley; William E. Berguson

    1994-01-01

    Presents the vegetative characteristics of the five forest types that comprised the study plots established to test the hypothesis that the wet sulfate deposition gradient across the Lake States is reflected in the amount of accumulated sulfur in soil and tree tissue, which in turn is reflected in tree growth.

  9. Bird, mammal, and vegetation community surveys of research natural areas in the Tongass National Forest.

    Treesearch

    W.P. Smith; M.J. Stotts; B.A. Andres; J.M. Melton; A. Garibaldi; K. Boggs

    2001-01-01

    In June 1977, we surveyed seven research natural areas (RNAs) in the Tongass National Forest (Tongass). We documented the composition of biotic communities using rare plant and tidal community surveys, targeted searches for rare animals, and samples of permanent vegetation plots. Birds were sampled once along each transect with 10-minute point counts at stations 8...

  10. Fire and vegetation dynamics in the Cross Timbers forests of south-central North America

    Treesearch

    Steve W. Hallgren; Ryan D. DeSantis; Jesse A. Burton

    2012-01-01

    The vegetation of the Cross Timbers forests was maintained for thousands of years by fire; the historic fire return interval was likely 1 to 10 years. Fire suppression over the past century led to a doubling of stand basal area, increased diversity of tree species, reduced dominance of oak, and increased mesic species intolerant of fire. Dendrochronological studies...

  11. Reproductive phenology of coastal plain Atlantic forest vegetation: comparisons from seashore to foothills.

    PubMed

    Staggemeier, Vanessa Graziele; Morellato, Leonor Patrícia Cerdeira

    2011-11-01

    The diversity of tropical forest plant phenology has called the attention of researchers for a long time. We continue investigating the factors that drive phenological diversity on a wide scale, but we are unaware of the variation of plant reproductive phenology at a fine spatial scale despite the high spatial variation in species composition and abundance in tropical rainforests. We addressed fine scale variability by investigating the reproductive phenology of three contiguous vegetations across the Atlantic rainforest coastal plain in Southeastern Brazil. We asked whether the vegetations differed in composition and abundance of species, the microenvironmental conditions and the reproductive phenology, and how their phenology is related to regional and local microenvironmental factors. The study was conducted from September 2007 to August 2009 at three contiguous sites: (1) seashore dominated by scrub vegetation, (2) intermediary covered by restinga forest and (3) foothills covered by restinga pre-montane transitional forest. We conducted the microenvironmental, plant and phenological survey within 30 transects of 25 m × 4 m (10 per site). We detected significant differences in floristic, microenvironment and reproductive phenology among the three vegetations. The microenvironment determines the spatial diversity observed in the structure and composition of the flora, which in turn determines the distinctive flowering and fruiting peaks of each vegetation (phenological diversity). There was an exchange of species providing flowers and fruits across the vegetation complex. We conclude that plant reproductive patterns as described in most phenological studies (without concern about the microenvironmental variation) may conceal the fine scale temporal phenological diversity of highly diverse tropical vegetation. This phenological diversity should be taken into account when generating sensor-derived phenologies and when trying to understand tropical vegetation

  12. Public acceptability of forest management practices at Morgan-Monroe State Forest

    Treesearch

    Shannon C. Rogers; William L. Hoover; Shorna B. Allred

    2013-01-01

    Forest management practices on public forests are controversial with many organizational and individual stakeholders. Forest managers' understanding of the attitudes of stakeholders is necessary to honor statutory requirements and the social contract under which they operate. The human dimension component of the Hardwood Ecosystem Experiment (HEE) in Indiana...

  13. Management impacts on forest floor and soil organic carbon in northern temperate forests of the US

    Treesearch

    Coeli M. Hoover

    2011-01-01

    The role of forests in the global carbon cycle has been the subject of a great deal of research recently, but the impact of management practices on forest soil dynamics at the stand level has received less attention. This study used six forest management experimental sites in five northern states of the US to investigate the effects of silvicultural treatments (light...

  14. Quantifying pollen-vegetation relationships to reconstruct forests using 19th-century forest composition and pollen data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dawson, Andria; Paciorek, Christopher J.; McLachlan, Jason S.; Goring, Simon; Williams, John W.; Jackson, Stephen T.

    2016-01-01

    Mitigation of climate change and adaptation to its effects relies partly on how effectively land-atmosphere interactions can be quantified. Quantifying composition of past forest ecosystems can help understand processes governing forest dynamics in a changing world. Fossil pollen data provide information about past forest composition, but rigorous interpretation requires development of pollen-vegetation models (PVMs) that account for interspecific differences in pollen production and dispersal. Widespread and intensified land-use over the 19th and 20th centuries may have altered pollen-vegetation relationships. Here we use STEPPS, a Bayesian hierarchical spatial PVM, to estimate key process parameters and associated uncertainties in the pollen-vegetation relationship. We apply alternate dispersal kernels, and calibrate STEPPS using a newly developed Euro-American settlement-era calibration data set constructed from Public Land Survey data and fossil pollen samples matched to the settlement-era using expert elicitation. Models based on the inverse power-law dispersal kernel outperformed those based on the Gaussian dispersal kernel, indicating that pollen dispersal kernels are fat tailed. Pine and birch have the highest pollen productivities. Pollen productivity and dispersal estimates are generally consistent with previous understanding from modern data sets, although source area estimates are larger. Tests of model predictions demonstrate the ability of STEPPS to predict regional compositional patterns.

  15. Quantifying pollen-vegetation relationships to reconstruct ancient forests using 19th-century forest composition and pollen data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, Andria; Paciorek, Christopher J.; McLachlan, Jason S.; Goring, Simon; Williams, John W.; Jackson, Stephen T.

    2016-04-01

    Mitigation of climate change and adaptation to its effects relies partly on how effectively land-atmosphere interactions can be quantified. Quantifying composition of past forest ecosystems can help understand processes governing forest dynamics in a changing world. Fossil pollen data provide information about past forest composition, but rigorous interpretation requires development of pollen-vegetation models (PVMs) that account for interspecific differences in pollen production and dispersal. Widespread and intensified land-use over the 19th and 20th centuries may have altered pollen-vegetation relationships. Here we use STEPPS, a Bayesian hierarchical spatial PVM, to estimate key process parameters and associated uncertainties in the pollen-vegetation relationship. We apply alternate dispersal kernels, and calibrate STEPPS using a newly developed Euro-American settlement-era calibration data set constructed from Public Land Survey data and fossil pollen samples matched to the settlement-era using expert elicitation. Models based on the inverse power-law dispersal kernel outperformed those based on the Gaussian dispersal kernel, indicating that pollen dispersal kernels are fat tailed. Pine and birch have the highest pollen productivities. Pollen productivity and dispersal estimates are generally consistent with previous understanding from modern data sets, although source area estimates are larger. Tests of model predictions demonstrate the ability of STEPPS to predict regional compositional patterns.

  16. Adaptive genetic potential of coniferous forest tree species under climate change: implications for sustainable forest management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihai, Georgeta; Birsan, Marius-Victor; Teodosiu, Maria; Dumitrescu, Alexandru; Daia, Mihai; Mirancea, Ionel; Ivanov, Paula; Alin, Alexandru

    2017-04-01

    Mountain ecosystems are extremely vulnerable to climate change. The real potential for adaptation depends upon the existence of a wide genetic diversity in trees populations, upon the adaptive genetic variation, respectively. Genetic diversity offers the guarantee that forest species can survive, adapt and evolve under the influence of changing environmental conditions. The aim of this study is to evaluate the genetic diversity and adaptive genetic potential of two local species - Norway spruce and European silver fir - in the context of regional climate change. Based on data from a long-term provenance experiments network and climate variables spanning over more than 50 years, we have investigated the impact of climatic factors on growth performance and adaptation of tree species. Our results indicate that climatic and geographic factors significantly affect forest site productivity. Mean annual temperature and annual precipitation amount were found to be statistically significant explanatory variables. Combining the additive genetic model with the analysis of nuclear markers we obtained different images of the genetic structure of tree populations. As genetic indicators we used: gene frequencies, genetic diversity, genetic differentiation, genetic variance, plasticity. Spatial genetic analyses have allowed identifying the genetic centers holding high genetic diversity which will be valuable sources of gene able to buffer the negative effects of future climate change. Correlations between the marginal populations and in the optimal vegetation, between the level of genetic diversity and ecosystem stability, will allow the assessment of future risks arising from current genetic structure. Therefore, the strategies for sustainable forest management have to rely on the adaptive genetic variation and local adaptation of the valuable genetic resources. This work was realized within the framework of the project GENCLIM (Evaluating the adaptive potential of the main

  17. Effects of national forest-management regimes on unprotected forests of the Himalaya.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Jodi S; Allendorf, Teri; Radeloff, Volker; Brooks, Jeremy

    2017-03-15

    Globally, deforestation continues, and although protected areas effectively protect forests, the majority of forests are not in protected areas. Thus, how effective are different management regimes to avoid deforestation in non-protected forests? We sought to assess the effectiveness of different national forest-management regimes to safeguard forests outside protected areas. We compared 2000-2014 deforestation rates across the temperate forests of 5 countries in the Himalaya (Bhutan, Nepal, China, India, and Myanmar) of which 13% are protected. We reviewed the literature to characterize forest management regimes in each country and conducted a quasi-experimental analysis to measure differences in deforestation of unprotected forests among countries and states in India. Countries varied in both overarching forest-management goals and specific tenure arrangements and policies for unprotected forests, from policies emphasizing economic development to those focused on forest conservation. Deforestation rates differed up to 1.4% between countries, even after accounting for local determinants of deforestation, such as human population density, market access, and topography. The highest deforestation rates were associated with forest policies aimed at maximizing profits and unstable tenure regimes. Deforestation in national forest-management regimes that emphasized conservation and community management were relatively low. In India results were consistent with the national-level results. We interpreted our results in the context of the broader literature on decentralized, community-based natural resource management, and our findings emphasize that the type and quality of community-based forestry programs and the degree to which they are oriented toward sustainable use rather than economic development are important for forest protection. Our cross-national results are consistent with results from site- and regional-scale studies that show forest-management regimes that

  18. The applicability of ERTS-1 data covering the major landforms of Kenya. [landforms, vegetation, soils, forests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Omino, J. H. O. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Five investigators report on the applicability of ERTS-1 data covering the major landforms of Kenya. Deficiencies due to lack of equipment, repetitive coverage and interpretation know-how are also reported on. Revision of lake shorelines is an immediate benefit. Basement system metasediments are rapidly differentiated, but dune areas are not readily distinguishable from sandy soils. Forest, moorland, high altitude grass, tea, and conifer plantations are readily distinguished, with podocarpus forest especially distinguishable from podocarpus/juniperus forest. In the arid areas physiographic features, indicating the major soil types, are readily identified and mapped. Preliminary vegetation type analysis in the Mara Game Reserve indicates that in a typical savannah area about 36% of the vegetation types are distinguishable at a scale of 1:1 million as well as drainage patterns and terrain features.

  19. Methane production from mixed tropical savanna and forest vegetation in Venezuela

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crutzen, P. J.; Sanhueza, E.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.

    2006-04-01

    Measurements of methane concentrations in the boundary layer in the northern part of the Guayana shield, Venezuela, during the wet season (October 1988), showed the presence of substantial methane surface emissions. The measuring site is within the savanna climate region, but is affected by emissions from savanna and forest vegetation. From day versus night concentration measurements, with higher concentrations during night, a methane source strength near the site of 3-7×1011 molecules/cm2/s can be estimated, which includes emissions from small tracts of flooded soils, termites and especially tropical vegetation. Extrapolated to the entire savanna, this may imply a methane source of ~30-60 Tg yr-1 similar to the one calculated for tropical vegetation on the basis of recently published in vitro plant emission experiments by Keppler et al. (2006), which indicate emissions of ~30 Tg yr-1 for tropical savannas and grasslands and ~78 Tg yr-1 for tropical forests.

  20. The influence of vegetation on bird distribution in dry forests and oak woodlands of western Mexico.

    PubMed

    Corcuera, Pablo; Zavala-Hurtado, J Alejandro

    2006-06-01

    The bird species distribution along a dry forest-oak woodland vegetation gradient was studied in autumn and spring in two consecutive years. Intra-seasonal comparisons showed that bird species had similar distributions in each of the two years. Inter-seasonal changes were mainly due to compositional differences even though resident species generally used similar habitats in both seasons. Ordination analyses, based on the first year bird species abundances, showed a clearly segregated distribution between forest and woodland birds. Within these two vegetation types, the distribution tended to be more individualistic. Nevertheless further habitats could be identified according to groups of birds having similar distributions. These habitats did not correspond to the plant associations which resulted from a previous classification of the vegetation. Observations of the plant use by the birds during the study period showed that, in most cases, the plant variables associated with ordination analyses are unlikely to be very important for the bird species life cycles.

  1. Historical and current forest landscapes of eastern Oregon and Washington Part I: Vegetation pattern and insect and disease hazards.

    Treesearch

    J.F. Lehmkuhl; P.F. Hessburg; R.L. Everett; M.H. Huff; R.D. Ottmar

    1994-01-01

    We analyzed historical and current vegetation composition and structure in 49 sample watersheds, primarily on National Forests, within six river basins in eastern Oregon and Washington. Vegetation patterns were mapped from aerial photographs taken from 1932 to 1959, and from 1985 to 1992. We described vegetation attributes, landscape patterns, the range of historical...

  2. Range management research, Fort Valley Experimental Forest (P-53)

    Treesearch

    Henry A. Pearson; Warren P. Clary; Margaret M. Moore; Carolyn Hull Sieg

    2008-01-01

    Range management research at the Fort Valley Experimental Forest during the past 100 years has provided scientific knowledge for managing ponderosa pine forests and forest-range grazing lands in the Southwest. Three research timeperiods are identified: 1908 to 1950, 1950 to 1978, and 1978 to 2008. Early research (1908-1950) addressed ecological effects of livestock...

  3. Soil carbon sequestration and forest management: challenges and opportunities

    Treesearch

    Coeli M. Hoover

    2003-01-01

    The subject of the effects of forest management activities on soil carbon is a difficult one to address, but ongoing discussions of carbon sequestration as an emissions offset and the emergence of carbon-credit-trading systems necessitate that we broaden and deepen our understanding of the response of forest-soil carbon pools to forest management. There have been...

  4. Ecosystems and people: managing forests for mutual gains.

    Treesearch

    Valerie. Rapp

    2004-01-01

    The debate over forest management has often portrayed management choices as tradeoffs between ecological and socioeconomic values. Scientists at Pacific Northwest (PNW) Research Station, along with their colleagues at universities and national forests, decided to look scientifically at the question: "Can we as a society produce wood products and other forest...

  5. Will concern for biodiversity spell doom to tropical forest management?

    Treesearch

    A.E. Lugo

    1999-01-01

    Arguments against active tropical management are analyzed in light of available data and new research that shows tropical forests to be more resilient after disturbances than previously thought. Tropical forest management involves a diverse array of human activity embedded in a complex social and natural environment. Within this milieu, forest structure and composition...

  6. A framework for identifying carbon hotspots and forest management drivers

    Treesearch

    Nilesh Timilsina; Francisco J. Escobedo; Wendell P. Cropper; Amr Abd-Elrahman; Thomas Brandeis; Sonia Delphin; Samuel Lambert

    2013-01-01

    Spatial analyses of ecosystem system services that are directly relevant to both forest management decision making and conservation in the subtropics are rare. Also, frameworks that identify and map carbon stocks and corresponding forest management drivers using available regional, national, and international-level forest inventory datasets could provide insights into...

  7. The role of experimental forests in science and management

    Treesearch

    Theresa B. Jain

    2012-01-01

    Happy 100 years to the Priest River Experimental Forest (PREF)! PREF, which is managed by the Research and Development Branch of the USDA Forest Service, celebrated its centennial in September 2011. It was established in northern Idaho to provide useful information that would improve forest management in the western part of District One at a time when US forestry was...

  8. Accounting for spatial variation in vegetation properties improves simulations of Amazon forest biomass and productivity in a global vegetation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Almeida Castanho, A. D.; Coe, M. T.; Heil Costa, M.; Malhi, Y.; Galbraith, D.; Quesada, C. A.

    2012-08-01

    Dynamic vegetation models forced with spatially homogeneous biophysical parameters are capable of producing average productivity and biomass values for the Amazon basin forest biome that are close to the observed estimates, but are unable to reproduce the observed spatial variability. Recent observational studies have shown substantial regional spatial variability of above-ground productivity and biomass across the Amazon basin, which is believed to be primarily driven by soil physical and chemical properties. In this study, spatial heterogeneity of vegetation properties is added to the IBIS land surface model, and the simulated productivity and biomass of the Amazon basin are compared to observations from undisturbed forest. The maximum Rubisco carboxylation capacity (Vcmax) and the woody biomass residence time (τw) were found to be the most important properties determining the modeled spatial variation of above-ground woody net primary productivity and biomass, respectively. Spatial heterogeneity of these properties may lead to a spatial variability of 1.8 times in the simulated woody net primary productivity and 2.8 times in the woody above-ground biomass. The coefficient of correlation between the modeled and observed woody productivity improved from 0.10 with homogeneous parameters to 0.73 with spatially heterogeneous parameters, while the coefficient of correlation between the simulated and observed woody above-ground biomass improved from 0.33 to 0.88. The results from our analyses with the IBIS dynamic vegetation model demonstrate that using single values for key ecological parameters in the tropical forest biome severely limits simulation accuracy. We emphasize that our approach must be viewed as an important first step and that a clearer understanding of the biophysical mechanisms that drive the spatial variability of carbon allocation, τw and Vcmax are necessary.

  9. A survey of drought and Variation of Vegetation by statistical indexes and remote sensing (Case study: Jahad forest in Bandar Abbas)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamassoki, E.; Soleymani, Z.; Bahrami, F.; Abbasgharemani, H.

    2014-06-01

    The damages of drought as a climatic and creeping phenomenon are very enormous specially in deserts. Necessity of management and conflict with it is clear. In this case vegetation are damaged too, and even are changed faster. This paper describes the process of vegetation changes and surveys it with drought indexes such as statistical and remote sensing indexes and correlation between temperature and relative humidity by Geographical Information System (GIS) and Remote Sensing (RS) in forest park of Bandar Abbas in successive years. At the end the regression and determination-coefficient for showing the importance of droughts survey are computed. Results revealed that the correlation between vegetation and indexes was 0.5. The humidity had maximum correlation and when we close to 2009 the period of droughts increase and time intervals decrease that influence vegetation enormously and cause the more area lost its vegetation.

  10. Analysis of Multipsectral Time Series for supporting Forest Management Plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simoniello, T.; Carone, M. T.; Costantini, G.; Frattegiani, M.; Lanfredi, M.; Macchiato, M.

    2010-05-01

    Adequate forest management requires specific plans based on updated and detailed mapping. Multispectral satellite time series have been largely applied to forest monitoring and studies at different scales tanks to their capability of providing synoptic information on some basic parameters descriptive of vegetation distribution and status. As a low expensive tool for supporting forest management plans in operative context, we tested the use of Landsat-TM/ETM time series (1987-2006) in the high Agri Valley (Southern Italy) for planning field surveys as well as for the integration of existing cartography. As preliminary activity to make all scenes radiometrically consistent the no-change regression normalization was applied to the time series; then all the data concerning available forest maps, municipal boundaries, water basins, rivers, and roads were overlapped in a GIS environment. From the 2006 image we elaborated the NDVI map and analyzed the distribution for each land cover class. To separate the physiological variability and identify the anomalous areas, a threshold on the distributions was applied. To label the non homogenous areas, a multitemporal analysis was performed by separating heterogeneity due to cover changes from that linked to basilar unit mapping and classification labelling aggregations. Then a map of priority areas was produced to support the field survey plan. To analyze the territorial evolution, the historical land cover maps were elaborated by adopting a hybrid classification approach based on a preliminary segmentation, the identification of training areas, and a subsequent maximum likelihood categorization. Such an analysis was fundamental for the general assessment of the territorial dynamics and in particular for the evaluation of the efficacy of past intervention activities.

  11. Using a Global Vegetation Model to Plan Local Natural Resource Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Symstad, A.; King, D. A.; Bachelet, D. M.; Burkhart, B.; Roddy, D.; Schroeder, G.; Swanson, D.

    2012-12-01

    Like politics, all ecology is local. Vegetation structure, composition, and production are strongly affected by local soils, topography, climate, and management. Local effects can be particularly strong in vegetation transition zones, areas that are often especially sensitive to climate variability, and in national parks or reserves, where management often differs substantially from surrounding areas. Natural resource management planning for future climate conditions in the latter is complicated by government-mandated or publically expected management priorities, such as maintaining a viable population of individual species of interest or the character of a landscape. Wind Cave National Park (WCNP), a 13,000-ha natural area in the Black Hills of South Dakota, lies on a prairie-forest transition where grass production controls the population viability of important wildlife and fire strongly influences the extent and character of the forest within the park. Both of these processes are quite climate-sensitive and park managers have been looking for ways to prepare for the challenges of climate change. The dynamic global vegetation model MC1 incorporates ecosystem science (C, water and N cycling; wildfire; CO2 effects), climate (temperature, precipitation, humidity), and natural resource management practices (fire suppression, prescribed fire, grazing) to simulate vegetation dynamics, thereby providing a means for natural resource managers to anticipate the effects of climate change, their management actions, and the interactions of the two on critical resources at the park scale. We parameterized MC1 to approximate the historical balance between forest and grasslands at WCNP, then ran 100-year-long simulations into the future using three fire and grazing scenarios and statistically downscaled climate projections from three general circulation models (GCMs). Under all fire/climate scenario combinations some forest remains in the park, but with lower biomass due to

  12. Forest management in Northeast China: history, problems, and challenges.

    PubMed

    Yu, Dapao; Zhou, Li; Zhou, Wangming; Ding, Hong; Wang, Qingwei; Wang, Yue; Wu, Xiaoqing; Dai, Limin

    2011-12-01

    Studies of the history and current status of forest resources in Northeast China have become important in discussions of sustainable forest management in the region. Prior to 1998, excessive logging and neglected cultivation led to a series of problems that left exploitable forest reserves in the region almost exhausted. A substantial decrease in the area of natural forests was accompanied by severe disruption of stand structure and serious degradation of overall forest quality and function. In 1998, China shifted the primary focus of forest management in the country from wood production to ecological sustainability, adopting ecological restoration and protection as key foci of management. In the process, China launched the Natural Forest Conversion Program and implemented a new system of Classification-based Forest Management. Since then, timber harvesting levels in Northeast China have decreased, and forest area and stocking levels have slowly increased. At present, the large area of low quality secondary forest lands, along with high levels of timber production, present researchers and government agencies in China with major challenges in deciding on management models and strategies that will best protect, restore and manage so large an area of secondary forest lands. This paper synthesizes information from a number of sources on forest area, stand characteristics and stocking levels, and forest policy changes in Northeastern China. Following a brief historical overview of forest harvesting and ecological research in Northeast China, the paper discusses the current state of forest resources and related problems in forest management in the region, concluding with key challenges in need of attention in order to meet the demands for multi-purpose forest sustainability and management in the future.

  13. Landscape and vegetation effects on avian reproduction on bottomland forest restorations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twedt, Daniel J.; Somershoe, Scott G.; Hazler, Kirsten R.; Cooper, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Forest restoration has been undertaken on >200,000 ha of agricultural land in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley, USA, during the past few decades. Decisions on where and how to restore bottomland forests are complex and dependent upon landowner objectives, but for conservation of silvicolous (forest-dwelling) birds, ecologists have espoused restoration through planting a diverse mix of densely spaced seedlings that includes fast-growing species. Application of this planting strategy on agricultural tracts that are adjacent to extant forest or within landscapes that are predominately forested has been advocated to increase forest area and enhance forested landscapes, thereby benefiting area-sensitive, silvicolous birds. We measured support for these hypothesized benefits through assessments of densities of breeding birds and reproductive success of 9 species on 36 bottomland forest restoration sites. Densities of thamnic (shrub-scrub dwelling) and silvicolous birds, such as yellow-breasted chat (Icteria virens), indigo bunting (Passerina cyanea), and white-eyed vireo (Vireo griseus) were positively associated with 1) taller trees, 2) greater stem densities, and 3) a greater proportion of forest within the landscape, whereas densities of birds associated with grasslands, such as dickcissel (Spiza americana) and red-winged blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus), were negatively associated with these variables. Vegetation structure, habitat edge, and temporal effects had greater influence on nest success than did landscape effects. Taller trees, increased density of woody stems, greater vegetation density, and more forest within the landscape were often associated with greater nest success. Nest success of grassland birds was positively related to distance from forest edge but, for thamnic birds, success was greater near edges. Moreover, nest success and estimated fecundity of thamnic species suggested their populations are self-sustaining on forest restoration sites, whereas

  14. Ten years post-wildfire recovery and health of Eucalypt forests and woodland in the Sydney Basin, Australia, using remotely sensed vegetation indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heath, J.; Chafer, C.; Bishop, T.; Van Ogtrop, F.

    2012-04-01

    The response of vegetation after a wildfire is dependent on factors such as fire intensity and vegetation type. Australian woody vegetation species have evolved two mechanisms of disturbance survival i) seed germination (obligate seeders) and ii) resprouting from dormant vegetative buds and/or lignotubers (obligate resprouters). The majority of post wildfire vegetation response studies conducted in Victoria, Australia have been in obligate seeder dominant communities. These studies have found that there is a significant delay in species germination as they rely on the seed bank. Those studies do not represent the response of vegetation in the Sydney Basin, which is dominated by obligate resprouter species. This study examines the vegetation recovery of four burnt subcatchments affected by the summer 2001/02 wildfire event and compared to three unburnt subcatchments. The study uses a 20 year time series of Landsat and SPOT satellite data assessing vegetation 10 years pre-wildfire and 10 years post-wildfire on an annual basis. Several vegetation indices were compared to assess the health and integrity of eucalypt forests and woodlands (NDVI, NDVIc, NBR). This study provides land managers with crucial information about the response of vegetation communities to wildfire within the Sydney Basin.

  15. Small mammals in young forests: implications for management for sustainability.

    Treesearch

    A.B. Carey; C.A. Harrington

    2001-01-01

    Small mammals have been proposed as indicators of sustainability in forests in the Pacific Northwest and elsewhere. Mammal community composition and species abundances purportedly result from interactions among species, forest-floor characteristics, large coarse woody debris, understory vegetation, and overstory composition. Coarse woody debris is thought to be...

  16. Historical and current forest landscapes of eastern Oregon and Washington. Part 1. Vegetation pattern and insect and disease hazards. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Lehmkuhl, J.F.; Hessburg, P.F.; Everett, R.L.; Huff, M.H.; Ottmar, R.D.

    1994-04-01

    The authors analyzed historical and current vegetation composition and structure in 49 sample watersheds, primarily on National Forests, within six river basins in eastern Oregon and Washington. Vegetation patterns were mapped from serial photographs taken from 1932 to 1959, and from 1985 to 1992. The authors described vegetation attributed, landscape patterns, the range of historical variability, scales of change, and disturbance hazards. The distribution of forest age classes and structure has changed, with smaller area in early -seral and old forest stages and greater area in multiple-canopy young and mature stands.

  17. Vegetated buffer management practice to improve surface water quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, M.; Zhang, X.; Liu, X.

    2007-12-01

    Vegetated buffer best management practices (BMPs) installed in agricultural landscapes have been suggested as promising candidate tactics to reduce erosion and offsite transportation of agrochemicals. A wide range of vegetated buffer management practices have been installed in many areas to reduce agrochemical loss from applied fields, to filter sediments from tailwaters, and to deter their transportation to water bodies. This presentation will focus on reviewing vegetated buffers and their efficacies in reducing agrochemical offsite movements, with a discussion on the major factors influencing BMP efficacy. Percent removal by various BMPs ranged from 16.7 to 100% for sediments, 29 to 98% for nitrogen, 1 to 100% for phosphorus, and 27 to 100% for pesticides, depending on the setting. Preliminary meta-analyses on the data obtained from the literature review showed that vegetated buffers were mostly effective in removing sediment, followed by pesticides and nutrients. BMP efficacy is mainly influenced by buffer width, buffer slope, rainfall and vegetation. As for sediment reduction, the results based on the limited data showed that buffer width and buffer slope are two major factors influencing mitigation efficacy of vegetated buffers. The results also showed that a design with 10-m width and a 9% slope optimizes the sediment trapping capability of vegetated buffers. The meta-analysis results of this study could provide specific recommendations such as buffer width and slope for future vegetated buffer BMP construction to increase soil and water conservation.

  18. A historical forest management conundrum: do social and biophysical mix?

    Treesearch

    Heidi. Bigler-Cole

    2005-01-01

    Forest managers face an array of prickly, seemingly intractable environmental problems. They have traditionally turned to the biophysical sciences to help gauge potential management effects, weigh alternatives, and set priorities. Over the past several decades, forest managers have watched management plans disintegrate in the face of grassroots-level protests, quarrels...

  19. Forest management manual for Crown lands 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    The forest management plan describes the objectives for which Crown lands and the resources of Crown lands are used by the licensee and sublicensees. The operating plan describes all the proposed activities of the licensee, constituting an implementation plan for the management plan. This document describes the contents of the operating plan in relation to roads, harvest, silviculture, fish and wildlife habitat, recreation, required letters of agreement, and DNR amendments; operating plan approval and maintenance; and annual report requirements for each operating plan element.

  20. Characterizing Drought and Vegetation Response at the Forest Line in Hawai`i

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frazier, A. G.; Crausbay, S.; Brewington, L.; Giambelluca, T. W.

    2016-12-01

    Globally, montane treelines are thought to be controlled by low-temperature limitations. The upper limit of cloud forest on Haleakalā, Maui, however, is hypothesized to be controlled by moisture limitations, particularly drought events. Drought in Hawai`i is largely driven by El Niño and future projections show an increased frequency of extreme El Niño events, which may ultimately lower the forest line and threaten biodiversity in Hawai`i. This study aims to characterize the drought regime at the forest line ecotone in Hawai`i since 1920, investigate the role of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), and examine the landscape-scale vegetation responses to drought around the forest line. Drought events were characterized from 1920 to 2014 using the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI). Two remotely-sensed vegetation indices (VI) were analyzed from the moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite measurements from 2000 to 2014 to determine vegetation responses to drought events identified using the SPI. The forest line area experienced 28 drought events from 1920 to 2014. A multi-year drought from 2008 to 2014 was the most extreme on record, persisting for 70 consecutive months and resulting in browning both above and below the forest line while the other three drought events since 2000 resulted in overall greening. No clear pattern was found between El Niño event strength and drought severity, and surprisingly almost half of the droughts were associated with La Niña events. This work highlights for the first time the importance of La Niña events for Hawaiian drought and contributes to our understanding of ecological response to drought at the forest line ecotone.

  1. Monitoring Post-Fire Vegetation Rehabilitation Projects: A Common Approach for Non-Forested Ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wirth, Troy A.; Pyke, David A.

    2007-01-01

    Emergency Stabilization and Rehabilitation (ES&R) and Burned Area Emergency Response (BAER) treatments are short-term, high-intensity treatments designed to mitigate the adverse effects of wildfire on public lands. The federal government expends significant resources implementing ES&R and BAER treatments after wildfires; however, recent reviews have found that existing data from monitoring and research are insufficient to evaluate the effects of these activities. The purpose of this report is to: (1) document what monitoring methods are generally used by personnel in the field; (2) describe approaches and methods for post-fire vegetation and soil monitoring documented in agency manuals; (3) determine the common elements of monitoring programs recommended in these manuals; and (4) describe a common monitoring approach to determine the effectiveness of future ES&R and BAER treatments in non-forested regions. Both qualitative and quantitative methods to measure effectiveness of ES&R treatments are used by federal land management agencies. Quantitative methods are used in the field depending on factors such as funding, personnel, and time constraints. There are seven vegetation monitoring manuals produced by the federal government that address monitoring methods for (primarily) vegetation and soil attributes. These methods vary in their objectivity and repeatability. The most repeatable methods are point-intercept, quadrat-based density measurements, gap intercepts, and direct measurement of soil erosion. Additionally, these manuals recommend approaches for designing monitoring programs for the state of ecosystems or the effect of management actions. The elements of a defensible monitoring program applicable to ES&R and BAER projects that most of these manuals have in common are objectives, stratification, control areas, random sampling, data quality, and statistical analysis. The effectiveness of treatments can be determined more accurately if data are gathered using

  2. Forest management opportunities for Michigan, 1981-1990.

    Treesearch

    W. Brad Smith; John S. Jr. Spencer

    1985-01-01

    Uses a computer model to identify commercial forest that would benefit from forest management and the volume of removals that would result. Targets 63% of the state's commercial area for treatment--primarily harvest, stand conversions, and thinning.

  3. Vegetation composition and structure of forest patches along urban-rural gradients

    Treesearch

    W.C. Zipperer; G.R. Guntenspergen

    2009-01-01

    The urban landscape is highly altered by human activities and is a mosaic of different land covers and land uses. Imbedded in this are forest patches of different origins (Zipperer et al .• 1997). How these patches influence and are influenced by the urban landscape is of ecological importance when managing the urban forest for ecosystem goods and services.

  4. Forest road sideslopes and soil conservation techniques

    Treesearch

    Johnny M. Grace

    2000-01-01

    Forest road sideslopes have been identified as one of the major sources of erosion losses from managed forest systems. Stabilization by vegetation has shown the greatest potential for mitigation of soil erosion on forest road sideslopes. Sediment and runoff production from a wood excelsior erosion mat, native species vegetative mix, and exotic species vegetative mix...

  5. A Special Issue of the Journal of Forestry—Tribal Forest Management: Innovations for Sustainable Forest Management

    Treesearch

    Michael J. Dockry; Serra J. Hoagland

    2017-01-01

    Native American forests and tribal forest management practices have sustained indigenous communities, economies, and resources for millennia. These systems provide a wealth of knowledge and successful applications of long-term environmental stewardship and integrated, sustainable forest management. Tribal forestry has received an increasing amount of attention from...

  6. Soil Bacterial Community Structure Responses to Precipitation Reduction and Forest Management in Forest Ecosystems across Germany

    PubMed Central

    Felsmann, Katja; Baudis, Mathias; Gimbel, Katharina; Kayler, Zachary E.; Ellerbrock, Ruth; Bruehlheide, Helge; Bruckhoff, Johannes; Welk, Erik; Puhlmann, Heike; Weiler, Markus; Gessler, Arthur; Ulrich, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Soil microbial communities play an important role in forest ecosystem functioning, but how climate change will affect the community composition and consequently bacterial functions is poorly understood. We assessed the effects of reduced precipitation with the aim of simulating realistic future drought conditions for one growing season on the bacterial community and its relation to soil properties and forest management. We manipulated precipitation in beech and conifer forest plots managed at different levels of intensity in three different regions across Germany. The precipitation reduction decreased soil water content across the growing season by between 2 to 8% depending on plot and region. T-RFLP analysis and pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene were used to study the total soil bacterial community and its active members after six months of precipitation reduction. The effect of reduced precipitation on the total bacterial community structure was negligible while significant effects could be observed for the active bacteria. However, the effect was secondary to the stronger influence of specific soil characteristics across the three regions and management selection of overstorey tree species and their respective understorey vegetation. The impact of reduced precipitation differed between the studied plots; however, we could not determine the particular parameters being able to modify the response of the active bacterial community among plots. We conclude that the moderate drought induced by the precipitation manipulation treatment started to affect the active but not the total bacterial community, which points to an adequate resistance of the soil microbial system over one growing season. PMID:25875835

  7. A comparison of denitrifying bacterial community structures and abundance in acidic soils between natural forest and re-vegetated forest of Nanling Nature Reserve in southern China.

    PubMed

    Meng, Han; Wu, Ruonan; Wang, Yong-Feng; Gu, Ji-Dong

    2017-08-01

    Denitrification plays a key role in converting reactive nitrogen species to dinitrogen gas back into the atmosphere to maintain the equilibrium of nitrogen cycling in ecosystems. In this study, functional genes of nirK and nosZ were used to detect the community structure and abundance of denitrifying microorganisms in acidic forest soils in southern China. Three sets of factors were considered for a comparison among 5 forests, including forest types (natural vs. re-vegetated), depths (surface layer vs. lower layer) and seasons (winter vs. summer). The community of nirK gene detected from these acidic forest soils was closely related to Proteobacteria especially α-Proteobacteria and uncultured soil sequences, while that of nosZ gene was affiliated with the α-, β- and γ-Proteobacteria. Higher diversity of denitrifiers was observed in re-vegetated forest soils than natural ones. Not only the community but also the abundance showed significant differences between forest types as well as depths. The abundance of denitrifiers ranged from 10(5) to 10(7) gene copies g(-1) dry soil in this study. For nirK gene, the abundance was much higher in the lower layer than surface layer in both forest types, and the differences between winter and summer in natural forest soils were higher than those in re-vegetated forest soils. The abundance of nosZ and nirK genes showed a similar trend in natural forest, but the former was higher in matured forest than re-vegetated forest. This study provided a direct comparison on community composition and abundance of denitrifying bacteria in natural and re-vegetated acidic forest soils to allow further assessment of the nitrogen cycling. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Expanding global forest management: An easy first proposal

    SciTech Connect

    Winjum, J.K.; Meganck, R.A.; Dixon, R.K.

    1993-01-01

    Interest is growing in the international community for a world treaty or protocol on forest management and protection. World leaders have become increasingly aware of the relationship between sustainable forest resources and healthy social, economic, and environmental conditions in all nations. As a result, international discussions toward a global forest agreement (GFA) are underway with the impetus stemming from a number of significant conditions related to global forests. The paper briefly reviews the status of the GFA and suggests an approach for expanding programs within forested nations to contribute to global forest management goals.

  9. Forest-succession models and their ecological and management implications

    SciTech Connect

    West, D.; Smith, T.M.; Weinstein, D.A.; Shugart, H.H.

    1981-01-01

    Computer models of forest succession have been developed to an extent that allows their use as a tool for predicting forest ecosystem behavior over long periods of time. This paper outlines the use of one approach to forest succession modeling for a variety of problems including: (1) determining the effect of climate change on forests; (2) integrating information on wildlife habitat changes with the changes in forest structure associated with timber management; (3) assessing the potential effect of air pollutants on forest dynamics; and (4) determining the theoretical importance of disturbance on forest community diversity and function.

  10. Vegetation in group-selection openings: Early trends. Forest Service research note

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, P.M.; Anderson, P.J.; Fiddler, G.O.

    1997-12-01

    Nine openings that ranged from 0.2 to 1.6 acres and were grouped into small, medium, and large size classes comprised the initial group-selection cut on the Boggs Mountain State Forest in north central California. Five growing seasons after site preparation by pile and burn, 81 plant species in 35 families were present. Forbs, ferns, graminoids, manzanita, other shrubs, and ponderosa pine seedlings were sampled in a variety of environments that ranged from the surrounding forest to near plot centers. Few statistically significant differences were found among opening sizes, but developing trends suggest that significant differences will occur in the near future. Many statistical differences were present when the location of the vegetation in the forest and openings was tested. In general, the density of manzanita, other shrubs, and ferns in the openings was greater than that in the forest. Cover of pine seedlings, manzanita, ferns, and forbs showed similar trends.

  11. Holocene vegetation and fire regimes in subalpine and mixed conifer forests, southern Rocky Mountains, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, R. Scott; Allen, C.D.; Toney, J.L.; Jass, R.B.; Bair, A.N.

    2008-01-01

    Our understanding of the present forest structure of western North America hinges on our ability to determine antecedent forest conditions. Sedimentary records from lakes and bogs in the southern Rocky Mountains of Colorado and New Mexico provide information on the relationships between climate and vegetation change, and fire history since deglaciation. We present a new pollen record from Hunters Lake (Colorado) as an example of a high-elevation vegetation history from the southern Rockies. We then present a series of six sedimentary records from ???2600 to 3500-m elevation, including sites presently at the alpine?subalpine boundary, within the Picea engelmannii?Abies lasiocarpa forest and within the mixed conifer forest, to determine the history of fire in high-elevation forests there. High Artemisia and low but increasing percentages of Picea and Pinus suggest vegetation prior to 13 500 calendar years before present (cal yr BP) was tundra or steppe, with open spruce woodland to ???11 900 cal yr BP. Subalpine forest (Picea engelmannii, Abies lasiocarpa) existed around the lake for the remainder of the Holocene. At lower elevations, Pinus ponderosa and/or contorta expanded 11 900 to 10 200 cal yr BP; mixed conifer forest expanded ???8600 to 4700 cal yr BP; and Pinus edulis expanded after ???4700 cal yr BP. Sediments from lake sites near the alpine?subalpine transition contained five times less charcoal than those entirely within subalpine forests, and 40 times less than bog sites within mixed conifer forest. Higher fire episode frequencies occurred between ???12 000 and 9000 cal yr BP (associated with the initiation or expansion of south-west monsoon and abundant lightning, and significant biomass during vegetation turnover) and at ???2000?1000 cal yr BP (related to periodic droughts during the long-term trend towards wetter conditions and greater biomass). Fire episode frequencies for subalpine?alpine transition and subalpine sites were on average 5 to 10 fire

  12. Ground-Vegetation Clutter Affects Phyllostomid Bat Assemblage Structure in Lowland Amazonian Forest

    PubMed Central

    Marciente, Rodrigo; Bobrowiec, Paulo Estefano D.; Magnusson, William E.

    2015-01-01

    Vegetation clutter is a limiting factor for bats that forage near ground level, and may determine the distribution of species and guilds. However, many studies that evaluated the effects of vegetation clutter on bats have used qualitative descriptions rather than direct measurements of vegetation density. Moreover, few studies have evaluated the effect of vegetation clutter on a regional scale. Here, we evaluate the influence of the physical obstruction of vegetation on phyllostomid-bat assemblages along a 520 km transect in continuous Amazonian forest. We sampled bats using mist nets in eight localities during 80 nights (3840 net-hours) and estimated the ground-vegetation density with digital photographs. The total number of species, number of animalivorous species, total number of frugivorous species, number of understory frugivorous species, and abundance of canopy frugivorous bats were negatively associated with vegetation clutter. The bat assemblages showed a nested structure in relation to degree of clutter, with animalivorous and understory frugivorous bats distributed throughout the vegetation-clutter gradient, while canopy frugivores were restricted to sites with more open vegetation. The species distribution along the gradient of vegetation clutter was not closely associated with wing morphology, but aspect ratio and wing load differed between frugivores and animalivores. Vegetation structure plays an important role in structuring assemblages of the bats at the regional scale by increasing beta diversity between sites. Differences in foraging strategy and diet of the guilds seem to have contributed more to the spatial distribution of bats than the wing characteristics of the species alone. PMID:26066654

  13. Understanding ponderosa pine forest-grassland vegetation dynamics at Fort Valley Experimental Forest using phytolith analysis

    Treesearch

    Becky K. Kerns; Margaret M. Moore; Stephen C. Hart

    2008-01-01

    In the last century, ponderosa pine forests in the Southwest have changed from more open park-like stands of older trees to denser stands of younger, small-diameter trees. Considerable information exists regarding ponderosa pine forest fire history and recent shifts in stand structure and composition, yet quantitative studies investigating understory reference...

  14. Mammal indicator species for protected areas and managed forests in a landscape conservation area in northern India

    Treesearch

    Pradeep K. Mathur; Harish Kumar; John F. Lehmkuhl; Anshuman Tripathi; Vishwas B. Sawarkar; Rupak. De

    2010-01-01

    There is a realization that managed forests and other natural areas in the landscape matrix can and must make significant contributions to biodiversity conservation. Often, however, there are no consistent baseline vegetation or wildlife data for assessing the status of biodiversity elements across protected and managed areas for conservation planning, nor is there a...

  15. Snag densities in relation to human access and associated management factors in forests of Northeastern Oregon, USA

    Treesearch

    Lisa J. Bate; Michael J. Wisdom; Barbara C. Wales

    2007-01-01

    A key element of forest management is the maintenance of sufficient densities of snags (standing dead trees) to support associated wildlife. Management factors that influence snag densities, however, are numerous and complex. Consequently, accurate methods to estimate and model snag densities are needed. Using data collected in 2002 and Current Vegetation Survey (CVS)...

  16. Driving factors of a vegetation shift from Scots pine to pubescent oak in dry Alpine forests.

    PubMed

    Rigling, Andreas; Bigler, Christof; Eilmann, Britta; Feldmeyer-Christe, Elisabeth; Gimmi, Urs; Ginzler, Christian; Graf, Ulrich; Mayer, Philipp; Vacchiano, Giorgio; Weber, Pascale; Wohlgemuth, Thomas; Zweifel, Roman; Dobbertin, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    An increasing number of studies have reported on forest declines and vegetation shifts triggered by drought. In the Swiss Rhone valley (Valais), one of the driest inner-Alpine regions, the species composition in low elevation forests is changing: The sub-boreal Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) dominating the dry forests is showing high mortality rates. Concurrently the sub-Mediterranean pubescent oak (Quercus pubescens Willd.) has locally increased in abundance. However, it remains unclear whether this local change in species composition is part of a larger-scale vegetation shift. To study variability in mortality and regeneration in these dry forests we analysed data from the Swiss national forest inventory (NFI) on a regular grid between 1983 and 2003, and combined it with annual mortality data from a monitoring site. Pine mortality was found to be highest at low elevation (below 1000 m a.s.l.). Annual variation in pine mortality was correlated with a drought index computed for the summer months prior to observed tree death. A generalized linear mixed-effects model indicated for the NFI data increased pine mortality on dryer sites with high stand competition, particularly for small-diameter trees. Pine regeneration was low in comparison to its occurrence in the overstorey, whereas oak regeneration was comparably abundant. Although both species regenerated well at dry sites, pine regeneration was favoured at cooler sites at higher altitude and oak regeneration was more frequent at warmer sites, indicating a higher adaptation potential of oaks under future warming. Our results thus suggest that an extended shift in species composition is actually occurring in the pine forests in the Valais. The main driving factors are found to be climatic variability, particularly drought, and variability in stand structure and topography. Thus, pine forests at low elevations are developing into oak forests with unknown consequences for these ecosystems and their goods and

  17. Contribution of understorey vegetation and soil processes to boreal forest isoprenoid exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mäki, Mari; Heinonsalo, Jussi; Hellén, Heidi; Bäck, Jaana

    2017-03-01

    Boreal forest floor emits biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) from the understorey vegetation and the heterogeneous soil matrix, where the interactions of soil organisms and soil chemistry are complex. Earlier studies have focused on determining the net exchange of VOCs from the forest floor. This study goes one step further, with the aim of separately determining whether the photosynthesized carbon allocation to soil affects the isoprenoid production by different soil organisms, i.e., decomposers, mycorrhizal fungi, and roots. In each treatment, photosynthesized carbon allocation through roots for decomposers and mycorrhizal fungi was controlled by either preventing root ingrowth (50 µm mesh size) or the ingrowth of roots and fungi (1 µm mesh) into the soil volume, which is called the trenching approach. Isoprenoid fluxes were measured using dynamic (steady-state flow-through) chambers from the different treatments. This study aimed to analyze how important the understorey vegetation is as a VOC sink. Finally, a statistical model was constructed based on prevailing temperature, seasonality, trenching treatments, understory vegetation cover, above canopy photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), soil water content, and soil temperature to estimate isoprenoid fluxes. The final model included parameters with a statistically significant effect on the isoprenoid fluxes. The results show that the boreal forest floor emits monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and isoprene. Monoterpenes were the most common group of emitted isoprenoids, and the average flux from the non-trenched forest floor was 23 µg m-2 h-1. The results also show that different biological factors, including litterfall, carbon availability, biological activity in the soil, and physico-chemical processes, such as volatilization and absorption to the surfaces, are important at various times of the year. This study also discovered that understorey vegetation is a strong sink of monoterpenes. The

  18. Net effect of 250 years of forest management in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luyssaert, Sebastiaan; Naudts, Kim; McGrath, Matthew M.; Ryder, James; Chen, Yiying; Otto, Juliane; Valade, Aude

    2015-04-01

    Globally, 70% of the forest is managed and the importance of management is still increasing both in relative and absolute terms. In Europe, almost all forest is intensively managed by humans. Forests not only influence the global carbon cycle, they also dramatically affect the water vapour and energy fluxes exchanged with the overlying atmosphere. Recently, forest management has become a top priority on the agenda of the political negotiations to mitigate climate change. However, the net effect of biogeochemical and biophysical impacts of forest management is poorly understood. To this aim, the land surface model ORCHIDEE was extended for studying the effects of forest management on the land-atmosphere interaction and forest management was reconstructed for Europe between 1600 and 2010. The effects of forest management on the C-budget was quantified by means of a factorial experiment between 1750 and 2000. Climate change alone was responsible for a cumulated terrestrial sink of 8.1 Pg between 1750 and 2000, land cover changes and forest management sequestered another 0.8 Pg. In the absence of forest management, climate change alone would not have been able to compensate for the losses due to land cover changes. The factorial experiment was extended by coupled land-atmopshere simulations to quantify the effects of forest management on the climate over Europe. The net effect of both biogeochemical and biophysical changes due to present day land management is an increase of the top of the atmosphere radiative forcing by 0.11 to 0.16 Wm-2 on top of the increase due to climate change. 0.09 to 0.14 Wm-2 can be attributed to forest management including litter raking, changes in management strategies and species changes.

  19. Carbon sequestration, biological diversity, and sustainable development: Integrated forest management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cairns, Michael A.; Meganck, Richard A.

    1994-01-01

    Tropical deforestation provides a significant contribution to anthropogenic increases in atmospheric CO2 concentration that may lead to global warming. Forestation and other forest management options to sequester CO2 in the tropical latitudes may fail unless they address local economic, social, environmental, and political needs of people in the developing world. Forest management is discussed in terms of three objectives: carbon sequestration, sustainable development, and biodiversity conservation. An integrated forest management strategy of land-use planning is proposed to achieve these objectives and is centered around: preservation of primary forest, intensified use of nontimber resources, agroforestry, and selective use of plantation forestry.

  20. Land and resource management plan: Huron-Manistee national forests

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The document represents one integrated plan for the Huron-Manistee National Forests, which will guide all natural resource management activities. The purpose of the Forests' Plan is to provide direction for multiple use management and the sustained yield of goods and services from National Forest System lands in an environmentally sound manner. The Forests' Plan covers management actions for the next 10-year period. The Plan will be revised at that time or earlier if the Forest Supervisor determines that planning area conditions have changed significantly.

  1. Carbon sequestration, biological diversity, and sustainable development: Integrated forest management

    SciTech Connect

    Cairns, M.A.; Meganck, R.A.

    1994-01-01

    Tropical deforestation provides a significant contribution to anthropogenic increases in atmospheric CO2 concentration that may lead to global warming. Forestation and other forest management options to sequester CO2 in the tropical latitudes may fail unless they address local economic, social, environmental, and political needs of people in the developing world. Forest management is discussed in terms of three objectives: carbon sequestration; sustainable development; and biodiversity conservation. An integrated forest management strategy of land-use planning is proposed to achieve these objectives, and is centered around: preservation of primary forests; intensified use of non-timber resources; agroforestry, and selective use of plantation forestry.

  2. 75 FR 69619 - East Reservoir Project; Kootenai National Forest, Lincoln County, MT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ... Forest Service East Reservoir Project; Kootenai National Forest, Lincoln County, MT AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of intent to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement. SUMMARY: The Forest... vegetation management through commercial timber harvest, commercial thinning, precommercial thinning and...

  3. Biomass Burning Related Ozone Damage on Vegetation Over the Amazon Forest: a Model Sensitivity Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitch, S.; Folberth, G.; Pacifico, F.; Haywood, J. M.; Malavelle, F.; Rizzo, L. V.; Artaxo, P.

    2015-12-01

    The HadGEM2 earth system climate model was used to assess the impact of biomass burning on surface ozone concentrations over the Amazon forest and its impact on vegetation, under present-day climate conditions. Here we consider biomass burning emissions from wildfires, deforestation fires, agricultural forest burning, and residential and commercial combustion. Simulated surface ozone concentration is evaluated against observations taken at two sites in the Brazilian Amazon forest for years 2010 to 2012. The model is able to reproduce the observed diurnal cycle of surface ozone mixing ratio at the two sites, but overestimates the magnitude of the monthly averaged hourly measurements by 5-15 ppb for each available month at one of the sites. We vary biomass burning emissions over South America by ± 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100% to quantify the modelled impact of biomass burning on surface ozone concentrations and ozone damage on vegetation productivity over the Amazon forest. We used the ozone damage scheme in the "high" sensitivity mode to give an upper limit for this effect. Decreasing South American biomass burning emissions by 100% (i.e. to zero) reduces surface ozone concentrations (by about 15 ppb during the biomass burning season) and suggests a 15% increase in monthly mean net primary productivity averaged over the Amazon forest, with local increases up to 60 %. The simulated impact of ozone damage from present-day biomass burning on vegetation productivity is about 230 TgC yr-1. Taking into account that uncertainty in these estimates is substantial, this ozone damage impact over the Amazon forest is of the same order of magnitude as the release of carbon dioxide due to fire in South America; in effect it potentially doubles the impact of biomass burning on the carbon cycle.

  4. Forest Vegetation Monitoring Protocol for National Parks in the North Coast and Cascades Network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodward, Andrea; Hutten, Karen M.; Boetsch, John R.; Acker, Steven A.; Rochefort, Regina M.; Bivin, Mignonne M.; Kurth, Laurie L.

    2009-01-01

    Plant communities are the foundation for terrestrial trophic webs and animal habitat, and their structure and species composition are an integrated result of biological and physical drivers (Gates, 1993). Additionally, they have a major role in geologic, geomorphologic and soil development processes (Jenny, 1941; Stevens and Walker, 1970). Throughout most of the Pacific Northwest, environmental conditions support coniferous forests as the dominant vegetation type. In the face of anthropogenic climate change, forests have a global role as potential sinks for atmospheric carbon (Goodale and others, 2002). Consequently, knowledge of the status of forests in the three large parks of the NCCN [that is, Mount Rainier (MORA), North Cascades (NOCA), and Olympic (OLYM) National Parks] is fundamental to understanding the condition of Pacific Northwest ecosystems. Diverse climate and soil properties across the Pacific Northwest result in a variety of forest types (Franklin and Dyrness, 1973; Franklin and others, 1988; Henderson and others, 1989, 1992). The mountainous terrain of Mount Rainier, North Cascades, and Olympic National Parks create steep elevational and precipitation gradients within and among the parks: collectively, these parks span from sea level to more than 4,200 m; and include areas with precipitation from 90 to more than 500 cm. The resulting forests range from coastal rainforests with dense understories and massive trees draped with epiphytes; to areas with drought-adapted Ponderosa pines; to high-elevation subalpine fir forests interspersed with meadows just below treeline (table 1). These forests, in turn, are the foundation for other biotic communities constituting Pacific Northwest ecosystems.

  5. The importance of remnant native vegetation of Amazonian submontane forest for the conservation of lizards.

    PubMed

    Silva, D J; Santos-Filho, M; Canale, G R

    2014-08-01

    Forest fragmentation affects animal population dynamics mainly by loss of habitat and disruption of animal movement. Lizard assemblages are affected by environmental changes, but, depending on their ecological needs, some species might be more vulnerable than others. The southern Amazon suffers accelerated anthropic actions replacing natural environments by farmland (crops and pasture). This region is considerably drier than most of the northern Amazon, with stational semi-deciduous forests fragmented and isolated by pasture, and crops to a lesser extent. Here we report data on lizard assemblages using semi-deciduous forests, forest edge and the surrounding pasture in the southern Amazon in Mato Grosso, Brazil. Lizards were collected in 21 forest fragments (41 to 7,035 ha) surrounded by pasture; using pitfall traps placed on a degradation gradient - from pasture inwards forest fragment (up to 200 m). We collected 242 individuals (14 species, seven families) in 6,300 trap-days. The pattern of species occurrence was largely nested and this nesting was associated with three habitat guilds (generalist, edge-tolerant, and forest species). Although there was no obvious fragmentation effect on lizards diversity community-wise, Hoplocercus spinosus, Bachia dorbignyi, Micrablepharus maximiliani and Kentropyx calcarta were more vulnerable to such effects than all other ten species collected. We verified that assemblages inhabiting pasture and forest edge are a nested subset of assemblages from the forest core. The remnant native vegetation is not distributed homogeneously and lizards species can persist in different parts of the landscape, therefore we recommend the protection of forest remnants as an important conservation action for lizards of the southern Amazon.

  6. 25 CFR 163.11 - Forest management planning and sustained yield management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Forest management planning and sustained yield management. 163.11 Section 163.11 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.11 Forest management planning and...

  7. 25 CFR 163.11 - Forest management planning and sustained yield management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Forest management planning and sustained yield management. 163.11 Section 163.11 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.11 Forest management planning and...

  8. 25 CFR 163.11 - Forest management planning and sustained yield management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Forest management planning and sustained yield management. 163.11 Section 163.11 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.11 Forest management planning and...

  9. 25 CFR 163.11 - Forest management planning and sustained yield management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Forest management planning and sustained yield management. 163.11 Section 163.11 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.11 Forest management planning and...

  10. 25 CFR 163.11 - Forest management planning and sustained yield management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Forest management planning and sustained yield management. 163.11 Section 163.11 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.11 Forest management planning and...

  11. Use of plots to define pollen-vegetation relationships in densely forested ecosystems of Tropical Africa.

    PubMed

    Elenga; de Namur C; Vincens; Roux; Schwartz

    2000-10-01

    Modern soil samples from South Congo were analyzed for pollen content and compared to forest inventories to define modern pollen-vegetation relationships. A correspondence analysis (CA) was applied independently to botanical and pollen data and a hierarchical cluster analysis to pollen data only. Subsequently, a CA using a presence-absence approach has been made to directly compare the two types of data. Results show that the pollen rain and floristic composition of the sampled sites are not directly linked to altitudinal or precipitation gradients, but clear evidence of variation in relation to hygromorphy and soil type is detected. The forests occurring in swampy environments are well differentiated from the forests developed on well-drained soils by pollen and floristic data. Among forests on well-drained soils, a good distinction can be made between those growing on sandy soils and those growing on ferralitic soils. The comparison between pollen spectra and vegetation shows site-to-site variations in pollen assemblages in relation to the floristic heterogeneity of forests, and it appears that few taxa show a good correlation between plant cover and pollen abundance.

  12. Elephant movement closely tracks precipitation-driven vegetation dynamics in a Kenyan forest-savanna landscape.

    PubMed

    Bohrer, Gil; Beck, Pieter Sa; Ngene, Shadrack M; Skidmore, Andrew K; Douglas-Hamilton, Ian

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the ranging behavior of elephants in relation to precipitation-driven dynamics of vegetation. Movement data were acquired for five bachelors and five female family herds during three years in the Marsabit protected area in Kenya and changes in vegetation were mapped using MODIS normalized difference vegetation index time series (NDVI). In the study area, elevations of 650 to 1100 m.a.s.l experience two growth periods per year, while above 1100 m.a.s.l. growth periods last a year or longer. We find that elephants respond quickly to changes in forage and water availability, making migrations in response to both large and small rainfall events. The elevational migration of individual elephants closely matched the patterns of greening and senescing of vegetation in their home range. Elephants occupied lower elevations when vegetation activity was high, whereas they retreated to the evergreen forest at higher elevations while vegetation senesced. Elephant home ranges decreased in size, and overlapped less with increasing elevation. A recent hypothesis that ungulate migrations in savannas result from countervailing seasonally driven rainfall and fertility gradients is demonstrated, and extended to shorter-distance migrations. In other words, the trade-off between the poor forage quality and accessibility in the forest with its year-round water sources on the one hand and the higher quality forage in the low-elevation scrubland with its seasonal availability of water on the other hand, drives the relatively short migrations (the two main corridors are 20 and 90 km) of the elephants. In addition, increased intra-specific competition appears to influence the animals' habitat use during the dry season indicating that the human encroachment on the forest is affecting the elephant population.

  13. Native Grasses as a Management Alternative on Vegetated Closure Caps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwit, Charles; Collins, Beverly

    2008-06-01

    Capped waste sites often are vegetated with commercial turf grasses to increase evapotranspiration and prevent erosion and possible exposure of the barrier. Fertilizer, frequent watering, and mowing may be required to establish the turf grass and prevent invasion by trees and shrubs. Oldfield vegetation of grasses and forbs is a possible sustainable alternative to turf grass communities. To determine if oldfield vegetation can establish on caps, we (1) compared establishment of a dominant oldfield grass and a commercial turf grass under different combinations of new closure cap management: spring or summer planting and presence or absence of amendments to alleviate drought (watering, mulch) or increase soil fertility (fertilizer, lime, a nitrogen-fixing legume); (2) surveyed existing caps to determine if oldfield species establish naturally; and (3) performed a greenhouse experiment to compare growth of two native grasses under low and amended (added water, soil nutrients) conditions. Both the commercial grass and oldfield species established under new cap conditions; fertilizer, water, and mulch improved vegetation establishment in spring or summer, but legumes decreased grass cover. In the greenhouse, both native grasses grew best with amendments; however, substantial stem and root length were obtained with no fertilizer and only once-weekly watering. Existing vegetated caps supported planted grasses and naturally established oldfield species. Overall, the results indicate native grasses can establish on new caps and oldfields can serve as a management model; further work is needed to determine the management strategy to maintain herbaceous vegetation and slow woody species invasion.

  14. Native grasses as a management alternative on vegetated closure caps.

    PubMed

    Kwit, Charles; Collins, Beverly

    2008-06-01

    Capped waste sites often are vegetated with commercial turf grasses to increase evapotranspiration and prevent erosion and possible exposure of the barrier. Fertilizer, frequent watering, and mowing may be required to establish the turf grass and prevent invasion by trees and shrubs. Oldfield vegetation of grasses and forbs is a possible sustainable alternative to turf grass communities. To determine if oldfield vegetation can establish on caps, we (1) compared establishment of a dominant oldfield grass and a commercial turf grass under different combinations of new closure cap management: spring or summer planting and presence or absence of amendments to alleviate drought (watering, mulch) or increase soil fertility (fertilizer, lime, a nitrogen-fixing legume); (2) surveyed existing caps to determine if oldfield species establish naturally; and (3) performed a greenhouse experiment to compare growth of two native grasses under low and amended (added water, soil nutrients) conditions. Both the commercial grass and oldfield species established under new cap conditions; fertilizer, water, and mulch improved vegetation establishment in spring or summer, but legumes decreased grass cover. In the greenhouse, both native grasses grew best with amendments; however, substantial stem and root length were obtained with no fertilizer and only once-weekly watering. Existing vegetated caps supported planted grasses and naturally established oldfield species. Overall, the results indicate native grasses can establish on new caps and oldfields can serve as a management model; further work is needed to determine the management strategy to maintain herbaceous vegetation and slow woody species invasion.

  15. The science of decisionmaking: applications for sustainable forest and grassland management in the National Forest System

    Treesearch

    Matthew P. Thompson; Bruce G. Marcot; Frank R. Thompson; Steven McNulty; Larry A. Fisher; Michael C. Runge; David Cleaves; Monica Tomosy

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable management of national forests and grasslands within the National Forest System (NFS) often requires managers to make tough decisions under considerable uncertainty, complexity, and potential conflict. Resource decisionmakers must weigh a variety of risks, stressors, and challenges to sustainable management, including climate change, wildland fire, invasive...

  16. Vegetation and disturbance history of two forest stands in northern New York using paleoecological data from small forest hollows

    SciTech Connect

    Kearsley, J.B.; Jackson, S.T.

    1995-06-01

    Pollen, macrofossils and charcoal from two small hollows (<0.05 ha) were analyzed to reconstruct the vegetational history of an outwash plain in the central Adirondack upland of New York. The basins are located 700 meters apart in contrasting modern vegetation at 461 in elevation. Dave`s Lost Hollow (DLH) is in a hemlock-dominated old-growth forest with yellow birch, red spruce and red maple, and Valhalla Hollow (VH) is surrounded by second-growth forest of white pine, balsam fir, paper birch and red maple. The record from DLH spans the entire Holocene, while VH provides data for the late Holocene. Modem pollen-vegetation data from 26 closed-canopy sites in the area provide evidence for the fine-scale sensing properties of closed- canopy pollen assemblages. We found abundant jack pine needles during the early Holocene at DLH. In contrast, data from the High Peaks, 30 km to the east, show white pine as the dominant pine species during that time period. DLH provides an early Holocene record for yellow birch in the region, whereas yellow birch was not present in the High Peaks until 6,000 yrs. B.P.

  17. Dynamics of Bottomland Geomorphology and Vegetation Along a Dammed, Arid Region River: Implications for Streamflow Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafroth, P. B.; House, P. K.

    2007-05-01

    In arid and semiarid western North America, floodplain forests dominated by native cottonwood and willow trees are highly valued as wildlife habitat and preferred recreation sites and are thus the focus of conservation efforts. The Bill Williams River harbors some of the most extensive native floodplain forests in the lower Colorado River region. Our work is aimed at understanding the dynamics of the Bill Williams River floodplain forests, in the context of pre- and post-dam hydrology and geomorphology. We have mapped bottomland geomorphology and vegetation using seven sets of orthorectified aerial photographs spanning more than 50 years. Two sets of photos (1953 and 1964) pre-date the completion of Alamo Dam, a large flood control structure; and three sets of photos (1996, 2002, and 2005) are from an era during which streamflow downstream of the dam has been managed to promote the establishment and survival of native floodplain forest. Comparison of the aerial photographs to LiDAR data collected in 2005 is providing a framework for quantifying changes in valley bottom morphology and estimating reach-scale changes in volumes of stored and evacuated sediment between 1953 and 2005. Furthermore, comparison of the extent of pre-dam active channel in 1953 with the extent of floodwaters from a regulated moderate flood in 2005 provides an approximation of the predominant patterns of aggradation and degradation in the system over this interval of time. Flood magnitude on the Bill Williams has been dramatically reduced since the closure of Alamo Dam in 1968, and low flows have increased considerably since 1979. Channels along the Bill Williams R. narrowed an average of 111 m (71 %) between 1953 and 1987, with most narrowing occurring after dam closure. Multiple regression analysis revealed significant relationships among flood power, summer flows, intermittency (independent variables) and channel width (dependent variable). Concurrent with channel narrowing was an expansion

  18. Managing forests because carbon matters: integrating energy, products, and land management policy

    Treesearch

    Robert W. Malmsheimer; James L. Bowyer; Jeremy S. Fried; Edmund Gee; Robert Izlar; Reid A. Miner; Ian A. Munn; Elaine Oneil; William C. Stewart

    2011-01-01

    The United States needs many different types of forests: some managed for wood products plus other benefits, and some managed for nonconsumptive uses and benefits. The objective of reducing global greenhouse gases (GHG) requires increasing carbon storage in pools other than the atmosphere. Growing more forests and keeping forests as forests are only part of the...

  19. Stratification of forest vegetation for timber inventory using Landsat and collateral data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodcock, C. E.; Strahler, A. H.; Logan, T. L.

    1980-01-01

    An automated forest stratification procedure based on Landsat and digital terrain data is reviewed. The system uses Landsat multispectral brightness values, a spatial texture channel, and digital terrain data information to divide Klamath National Forest vegetation into timber volume-homogeneous strata. The stratification process involves analyst-supervised class pooling editing, and the modeling of the regional type in a spatial manner using the digital terrain data. It is noted that for a given size and density class, the timber volume will change when the regional type changes, reflecting differences in growth potential.

  20. Stratification of forest vegetation for timber inventory using Landsat and collateral data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodcock, C. E.; Strahler, A. H.; Logan, T. L.

    1980-01-01

    An automated forest stratification procedure based on Landsat and digital terrain data is reviewed. The system uses Landsat multispectral brightness values, a spatial texture channel, and digital terrain data information to divide Klamath National Forest vegetation into timber volume-homogeneous strata. The stratification process involves analyst-supervised class pooling editing, and the modeling of the regional type in a spatial manner using the digital terrain data. It is noted that for a given size and density class, the timber volume will change when the regional type changes, reflecting differences in growth potential.

  1. Multistage, multiseasonal and multiband imagery to identify and qualify non-forest vegetation resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Driscoll, R. S.; Francis, R. E.

    1970-01-01

    A description of space and supporting aircraft photography for the interpretation and analyses of non-forest (shrubby and herbaceous) native vegetation is presented. The research includes the development of a multiple sampling technique to assign quantitative area values of specific plant community types included within an assigned space photograph map unit. Also, investigations of aerial film type, scale, and season of photography for identification and quantity measures of shrubby and herbaceous vegetation were conducted. Some work was done to develop automated interpretation techniques with film image density measurement devices.

  2. Modeling annual production and carbon fluxes of a large managed temperate forest using forest inventories, satellite data and field measurements.

    PubMed

    Le Maire, Guerric; Davi, Hendrik; Soudani, Kamel; François, Christophe; Le Dantec, Valérie; Dufrêne, Eric

    2005-07-01

    We evaluated annual productivity and carbon fluxes over the Fontainebleau forest, a large heterogeneous forest region of 17,000 ha, in terms of species composition, canopy structure, stand age, soil type and water and mineral resources. The model is a physiological process-based forest ecosystem model coupled with an allocation model and a soil model. The simulations were done stand by stand, i.e., 2992 forest management units of simulation. Some input parameters that are spatially variable and to which the model is sensitive were calculated for each stand from forest inventory attributes, a network of 8800 soil pits, satellite data and field measurements. These parameters are: (1) vegetation attributes: species, age, height, maximal leaf area index of the year, aboveground biomass and foliar nitrogen content; and (2) soil attributes: available soil water capacity, soil depth and soil carbon content. Main outputs of the simulations are wood production and carbon fluxes on a daily to yearly basis. Results showed that the forest is a carbon sink, with a net ecosystem exchange of 371 g C m(-2) year(-1). Net primary productivity is estimated at 630 g C m(-2) year(-1) over the entire forest. Reasonably good agreement was found between simulated trunk relative growth rate (2.74%) and regional production estimated from the National Forest Inventory (IFN) (2.52%), as well as between simulated and measured annual wood production at the forest scale (about 71,000 and 68,000 m(3) year(-1), respectively). Results are discussed species by species.

  3. Disturbance ecology and forest management: A review of the literature

    Treesearch

    Paul Rogers

    1996-01-01

    This review of the disturbance ecology literature, and how it pertains to forest management, is a resource for forest managers and researchers interested in disturbance theory, specific disturbance agents, their interactions, and appropriate methods of inquiry for specific geographic regions. Implications for the future of disturbance ecology-based management are...

  4. Forest management strategy, spatial heterogeneity, and winter birds in Washington.

    Treesearch

    B. Haveri; A.B. Carey

    2000-01-01

    Ecological management of second-growth forest holds great promise for conservation of biodiversity, yet little experimental evidence exists to compare alternative management approaches. Wintering birds are one of several groups of species most likely to be influenced by forest management activities. We compared species richness and proportion of stand area used over...

  5. Forest residues management guidelines for the Pacific Northwest.

    Treesearch

    John M. Pierovich; Edward H. Clarke; Stewart G. Pickford; Franklin R. Ward

    1975-01-01

    Forest residues often require treatment to meet land management objectives. Guideline statements for managing forest residues are presented to provide direction for achieving these objectives. The latest research information and the best knowledge of experts in various land management disciplines were used to formulate these statements. A unique keying system is...

  6. Decision support models for economically efficient integrated forest management

    Treesearch

    Hans R. Zuuring; Judy M. Troutwine; Greg J. Jones; Janet Sullivan

    2005-01-01

    Forest managers are challenged to fulfill conflicting social, biological, and commodity production objectives. To wisely use available, scarce resources for management activities, it is not enough to consider short term costs and effects of management (fuel reduction, planting, or other forest treatments). Long term tactical, spatial and temporal planning is needed to...

  7. Atypical forest products, processes, and uses: a developing component of National Forest management

    Treesearch

    Mike Higgs; John Sebelius; Mike Miller

    1995-01-01

    The silvicultural practices prescribed under an ecosystem management regimen will alter the volume and character of National Forests' marketable raw material base. This alteration will affect forest-dependent communities that have traditionally relied upon these resources for their economic and social well being. Community based atypical forest products, processes...

  8. Integrating GIS Technology With Forest Management And Habitat Assessment Efforts On Our National Forests

    Treesearch

    Joan M. Nichols; S. Arif Husain; Christos Papadas

    2000-01-01

    Research was conducted on a section of the Superior National Forest to develop and examine potential methods or approaches that may be used to integrate non-timber resources in multiple-use planning. An indicator species for old-growth conifer forests, pine marten (Martes americana), was chosen to examine potential conflicts between specific forest management practices...

  9. Regulating the sustainability of forest management in the Americas: Cross-country comparisons of forest legislation

    Treesearch

    Kathleen McGinley; Raquel Alvarado; Frederick Cubbage; Diana Diaz; Pablo J. Donoso; Laercio Antonio Jacovine Goncalves; Fabiano Luiz de Silva; Charles MacIntyre; Elizabeth. Monges Zalazar

    2012-01-01

    Based on theoretical underpinnings and an empirical review of forest laws and regulations of selected countries throughout the Americas, we examine key components of natural forest management and how they are addressed in the legal frameworks of Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Nicaragua, Paraguay, Uruguay, and the U.S. We consider forest policy...

  10. Vegetation history of the walnut forests in Kyrgyzstan (Central Asia): natural or anthropogenic origin?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beer, Ruth; Kaiser, Franziska; Schmidt, Kaspar; Ammann, Brigitta; Carraro, Gabriele; Grisa, Ennio; Tinner, Willy

    2008-03-01

    Extensive forests of common walnut ( Juglans regia L.) occur in the mountains of the Fergana and the Chatkal Ranges of Kyrgyzstan (Central Asia), where they form a rich cultural landscape with a mosaic of natural and planted forest stands, fields, pastures, and drier open areas. These remote forests are likely to be an important genetic resource for J. regia, not only for in situ conservation but also as a resource for tree breeding. Pollen and charcoal analyses of the sediments of four lakes and two peat bogs in the core regions of the walnut forests provide new data to infer the vegetation history of the last 6800 years in the Fergana and Chatkal Ranges in Kyrgyzstan. Our results suggest that the potential natural forests or woods in the modern walnut forest region were dominated by Juniperus together with trees of Betula, Fraxinus, Rosaceae, and possibly Acer. A special focus was put on the vegetation history of J. regia, as it has been suggested that the walnut forests of Kyrgyzstan might be a refuge for this tree. However, our results suggest that the stands of J. regia are at the most 2000 years old, most of them even only about 1000 years old and probably of anthropogenic origin, confirming an old legend that is still orally transmitted in Kyrgyzstan. As with other old and widespread cultivated plants, it is not easy to reconstruct the original distribution and determine the borders of the past natural ranges. A review of paleoecological data points to refugia in southern Europe, Syria, Kyrgyzstan, China, and the Himalaya, where Juglans possibly outlived the last glaciation.

  11. 77 FR 64310 - Shoshone National Forest, WY, Revised Land and Resource Management Plan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Shoshone National Forest, WY, Revised Land and Resource Management Plan AGENCY: Forest... the Shoshone National Forest Land Management Plan Revision Draft Environmental Impact Statement....

  12. Tropical forest biomass and successional age class relationships to a vegetation index derived from Landsat TM data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sader, Steven A.; Waide, Robert B.; Lawrence, William T.; Joyce, Armond T.

    1989-01-01

    Forest stand structure and biomass data were collected using conventional forest inventory techniques in tropical, subtropical, and warm temperate forest biomes. The feasibility of detecting tropical forest successional age class and total biomass differences using Landsat-Thematic mapper (TM) data, was evaluated. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) calculated from Landsat-TM data were not significantly correlated with forest regeneration age classes in the mountain terrain of the Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico. The low sun angle and shadows cast on steep north and west facing slopes reduced spectral reflectance values recorded by TM orbital altitude. The NDVI, calculated from low altitude aircraft scanner data, was significatly correlated with forest age classes. However, analysis of variance suggested that NDVI differences were not detectable for successional forests older than approximately 15-20 years. Also, biomass differences in young successional tropical forest were not detectable using the NDVI. The vegetation index does not appear to be a good predictor of stand structure variables (e.g., height, diameter of main stem) or total biomass in uneven age, mixed broadleaf forest. Good correlation between the vegetation index and low biomass in even age pine plantations were achieved for a warm temperate study site. The implications of the study for the use of NDVI for forest structure and biomass estimation are discussed.

  13. Tropical forest biomass and successional age class relationships to a vegetation index derived from Landsat TM data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sader, Steven A.; Waide, Robert B.; Lawrence, William T.; Joyce, Armond T.

    1989-01-01

    Forest stand structure and biomass data were collected using conventional forest inventory techniques in tropical, subtropical, and warm temperate forest biomes. The feasibility of detecting tropical forest successional age class and total biomass differences using Landsat-Thematic mapper (TM) data, was evaluated. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) calculated from Landsat-TM data were not significantly correlated with forest regeneration age classes in the mountain terrain of the Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico. The low sun angle and shadows cast on steep north and west facing slopes reduced spectral reflectance values recorded by TM orbital altitude. The NDVI, calculated from low altitude aircraft scanner data, was significatly correlated with forest age classes. However, analysis of variance suggested that NDVI differences were not detectable for successional forests older than approximately 15-20 years. Also, biomass differences in young successional tropical forest were not detectable using the NDVI. The vegetation index does not appear to be a good predictor of stand structure variables (e.g., height, diameter of main stem) or total biomass in uneven age, mixed broadleaf forest. Good correlation between the vegetation index and low biomass in even age pine plantations were achieved for a warm temperate study site. The implications of the study for the use of NDVI for forest structure and biomass estimation are discussed.

  14. Forest canopy characterization and vegetation penetration assessment with space-borne radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imhoff, M.; Vermillion, C.; Story, M.; Khan, F.; Polcyn, F.

    1986-01-01

    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Shuttle Imaging Radar-B mission were used to analyze the effects of radar incidence angle on information content and vegetation penetration. Three SAR data sets using incidence angles of 26, 46, and 58 deg were acquired over the mangrove jungles of Southern Bangladesh. The data sets were digitally processed using 3 x 3, 7 x 7, and 11 x 11 spatial filters and geometrically registered to a multisource-multilevel-corraborative data base consisting of Landsat data, forest map data, and in situ acquired forest enumeration and topographic information. Analyses revealed that significant vegetation 'penetration' was found at all angles, and that tree and canopy structural morphology may exert an influence on this phenomenon.

  15. Community type classification of forest vegetation in young, mixed stands, interior Alaska. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Youngblood, A.

    1993-04-01

    A total of 53 upland mixed communities were sampled and classified into five community types: Populus tremuloides/Arctostaphylos uva-ursi, Populus tremuloides/Shepherdia canadensis, Betula papyrifera-Populus tremuloides/Viburnum edule, Betula papyrifera-Populus tremuloides/Alnus crispa and Picea glauca-Betula papyrifera/ Hylocomlum splendens. Community types were described by distribution and physical environment, vegetation composition, structural features, and relation to previously described vegetation units.

  16. A management guide for invasive plants in southern forests

    Treesearch

    James H. Miller; Steven T. Manning; Stephen F. Enloe

    2013-01-01

    Invasions of nonnative plants into forests of the Southern United States continue to spread and include new species, increasingly eroding forest productivity, hindering forest use and management activities, and degrading diversity and wildlife habitat. This book provides the latest information on how to organize and enact prevention programs, build strategies,...

  17. Impacts of forest management on runoff and erosion

    Treesearch

    William J. Elliot; Brandon D. Glaza

    2009-01-01

    In a parallel study, ten small watersheds (about 5 ha) were installed in the Priest River Experimental Forest (PREF) in northern Idaho, and another ten were installed in the Boise Basin Experimental Forest (BBEF) in central Idaho. The long-term objective of the study is to compare the effects of different forest management activities on runoff and...

  18. Small-forest management in the spruce-fir region

    Treesearch

    A. C. Hart

    1953-01-01

    Small forest properties occupy about 3.4 million acres, or 25 percent of the total forest land, in the spruce-fir region of Maine and New Hampshire. Careful management of these small forest properties is important to the region and to the owners.

  19. Forest carbon calculators: a review for managers, policymakers, and educators

    Treesearch

    Harold S.J. Zald; Thomas A. Spies; Mark E. Harmon; Mark J. Twery

    2016-01-01

    Forests play a critical role sequestering atmospheric carbon dioxide, partially offsetting greenhouse gas emissions, and thereby mitigating climate change. Forest management, natural disturbances, and the fate of carbon in wood products strongly influence carbon sequestration and emissions in the forest sector. Government policies, carbon offset and trading programs,...

  20. Multiple-use management of upland hardwood forests

    Treesearch

    Frederick A. Dorrell

    1971-01-01

    In recent years the National Forests have experienced much controversy over multiple-use management Because of this, the Forest Service is examining ways to improve the multiple-use planning process. One of the new approaches involves a special plan for eight National Forests in the South and Central Appalachian Mountains, in which planning is done by interdisciplinary...