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Sample records for form hemispherical shaped

  1. Free form hemispherical shaped charge

    DOEpatents

    Haselman, L.C. Jr.

    1996-06-04

    A hemispherical shaped charge has been modified such that one side of the hemisphere is spherical and the other is aspherical allowing a wall thickness variation in the liner. A further modification is to use an elongated hemispherical shape. The liner has a thick wall at its pole and a thin wall at the equator with a continually decreasing wall thickness from the pole to the equator. The ratio of the wall thickness from the pole to the equator varies depending on liner material and HE shape. Hemispherical shaped charges have previously been limited to spherical shapes with no variations in wall thicknesses. By redesign of the basic liner thicknesses, the jet properties of coherence, stability, and mass distribution have been significantly improved. 8 figs.

  2. Free form hemispherical shaped charge

    DOEpatents

    Haselman, Jr., Leonard C.

    1996-01-01

    A hemispherical shaped charge has been modified such that one side of the hemisphere is spherical and the other is aspherical allowing a wall thickness variation in the liner. A further modification is to use an elongated hemispherical shape. The liner has a thick wall at its pole and a thin wall at the equator with a continually decreasing wall thickness from the pole to the equator. The ratio of the wall thickness from the pole to the equator varies depending on liner material and HE shape. Hemispherical shaped charges have previously been limited to spherical shapes with no variations in wall thicknesses. By redesign of the basic liner thicknesses, the jet properties of coherence, stability, and mass distribution have been significantly improved.

  3. Particulation in jets from free-form hemispherical shaped charges with copper liners

    SciTech Connect

    Simonson, S.C. III; Haselman, L.C. Jr.; Breithaupt, R.D.

    1995-05-01

    Particulation in free-form hemispherical shaped charge jets is considerably different from that in conical shaped charge jets. From the analysis of the particulation data for 23 experiments covering ten free-form hemi designs with copper liners, it is concluded that jets with higher convergence pressures have delayed particulation, sometimes by as much as a factor of two. Breakup is also found to be design dependent, with free-form hemis have delayed breakup compared with cones. Also, in going from the earlier, boat-tail high explosive (HE) designs to later, more efficient hemispherical HE designs, it is found that particulation is delayed in the tail of the jet. These effects indicate the potential for deeper armor penetration based on control of particulation.

  4. Analytical and Numerical Investigations into Hemisphere-Shaped Electrostatic Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jun; Chen, Zhong-Sheng; Hu, Zheng; Yang, Yong-Min; Tang, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Electrostatic sensors have been widely used in many applications due to their advantages of low cost and robustness. Their spatial sensitivity and time-frequency characteristics are two important performance parameters. In this paper, an analytical model of the induced charge on a novel hemisphere-shaped electrostatic sensor was presented to investigate its accurate sensing characteristics. Firstly a Poisson model was built for electric fields produced by charged particles. Then the spatial sensitivity and time-frequency response functions were directly derived by the Green function. Finally, numerical calculations were done to validate the theoretical results. The results demonstrate that the hemisphere-shaped sensors have highly 3D-symmetrical spatial sensitivity expressed in terms of elementary function, and the spatial sensitivity is higher and less homogeneous near the hemispherical surface and vice versa. Additionally, the whole monitoring system, consisting of an electrostatic probe and a signal conditioner circuit, acts as a band-pass filter. The time-frequency characteristics depend strongly on the spatial position and velocity of the charged particle, the radius of the probe as well as the equivalent resistance and capacitance of the circuit. PMID:25090419

  5. Analytical and numerical investigations into hemisphere-shaped electrostatic sensors.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jun; Chen, Zhong-Sheng; Hu, Zheng; Yang, Yong-Min; Tang, Xin

    2014-07-31

    Electrostatic sensors have been widely used in many applications due to their advantages of low cost and robustness. Their spatial sensitivity and time-frequency characteristics are two important performance parameters. In this paper, an analytical model of the induced charge on a novel hemisphere-shaped electrostatic sensor was presented to investigate its accurate sensing characteristics. Firstly a Poisson model was built for electric fields produced by charged particles. Then the spatial sensitivity and time-frequency response functions were directly derived by the Green function. Finally, numerical calculations were done to validate the theoretical results. The results demonstrate that the hemisphere-shaped sensors have highly 3D-symmetrical spatial sensitivity expressed in terms of elementary function, and the spatial sensitivity is higher and less homogeneous near the hemispherical surface and vice versa. Additionally, the whole monitoring system, consisting of an electrostatic probe and a signal conditioner circuit, acts as a band-pass filter. The time-frequency characteristics depend strongly on the spatial position and velocity of the charged particle, the radius of the probe as well as the equivalent resistance and capacitance of the circuit.

  6. The changing shape of Northern Hemisphere summer temperature distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKinnon, Karen A.; Rhines, Andrew; Tingley, Martin P.; Huybers, Peter

    2016-08-01

    The occurrence of recent summer temperature extremes in the midlatitudes has raised questions about whether and how the distributions of summer temperature are changing. While it is clear that in most regions the average temperature is increasing, there is less consensus regarding the presence or nature of changes in the shape of the distributions, which can influence the probability of extreme events. Using data from over 4000 weather stations in the Global Historical Climatology Network-Daily database, we quantify the changes in daily maximum and minimum temperature distributions for peak summer in the Northern Hemisphere midlatitudes during 1980-2015 using quantile regression. A large majority (87-88%) of the trends across percentiles and stations can be explained by a shift of the distributions with no change in shape. The remaining variability is summarized through projections onto orthogonal basis functions that are closely related to changes in variance, skewness, and kurtosis. North America and Eurasia show significant shifts in the estimated distributions of daily maximum and minimum temperatures. Although no general change in summer variance is found, variance has regionally increased in Eurasia and decreased in most of North America. Changes in shape that project onto the skewness and kurtosis basis functions have a much smaller spatial scale and are generally insignificant.

  7. Hemispheric processing of mental representations during text comprehension: evidence for inhibition of inconsistent shape information.

    PubMed

    Briner, Stephen W; Virtue, Sandra M; Schutzenhofer, Michael C

    2014-08-01

    To successfully understand a text, readers often mentally represent the shape of an object described in a text (e.g., creating a mental image of a sliced tomato when reading about a tomato on a pizza). However, it is currently unclear how the cerebral hemispheres contribute to these mental images during reading. In the current study, participants were presented with sentences consistent with the shape of an object (i.e., the match condition), sentences inconsistent with the shape of an object (i.e., the mismatch condition), or sentences that did not specify the shape of an object (i.e., the neutral condition). Participants read each sentence and then viewed an image of an object that was quickly presented to either the right visual field-left hemisphere (rvf-LH) or the left visual field-right hemisphere (lvf-RH). Results indicate that when the shape of an object was implicitly described in the text (in Experiment 1), response times for images presented to the rvf-LH were longer in the mismatch condition than in the neutral or match conditions. However, no response time differences were evident in the lvf-RH. When the shape of an object was explicitly described in the text (in Experiment 2), response times were longer in the mismatch condition than in the neutral and match conditions in both hemispheres. Thus, hemispheric involvement in mental representation depends on how explicit information is described in a text. Furthermore, these findings suggest that readers inhibit information that does not match an object׳s shape described in a text. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Material cutting, shaping, and forming: A compilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Information is presented concerning cutting, shaping, and forming of materials, and the equipment and techniques required for utilizing these materials. The use of molds, electrical fields, and mechanical devices are related to forming materials. Material cutting methods by devices including borers and slicers are presented along with chemical techniques. Shaping and fabrication techniques are described for tubing, honeycomb panels, and ceramic structures. The characteristics of the materials are described. Patent information is included.

  9. How are large western hemisphere warm pools formed?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enfield, David B.; Lee, Sang-Ki; Wang, Chunzai

    2006-08-01

    During the boreal summer the Western Hemisphere warm pool (WHWP) stretches from the eastern North Pacific to the tropical North Atlantic and is a key feature of the climate of the Americas and Africa. In the summers following nine El Niño events during 1950-2000, there have been five instances of extraordinarily large warm pools averaging about twice the climatological annual size. These large warm pools have induced a strengthened divergent circulation aloft and have been associated with rainfall anomalies throughout the western hemisphere tropics and subtropics and with more frequent hurricanes. However, following four other El Niño events large warm pools did not develop, such that the mere existence of El Niño during the boreal winter does not provide the basis for predicting an anomalously large warm pool the following summer. In this paper, we find consistency with the hypothesis that large warm pools result from an anomalous divergent circulation forced by sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in the Pacific, the so-called atmospheric bridge. We also find significant explanations for why large warm pools do not always develop. If the El Niño event ends early in the eastern Pacific, the Pacific warm anomaly lacks the persistence needed to force the atmospheric bridge and the Atlantic portion of the warm pool remains normal. If SST anomalies in the eastern Pacific do not last much beyond February of the following year, then the eastern North Pacific portion of the warm pool remains normal. The overall strength of the Pacific El Niño does not appear to be a critical factor. We also find that when conditions favor a developing atmospheric bridge and the winter atmosphere over the North Atlantic conforms to a negative North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) pattern (as in 1957-58 and 1968-69), the forcing is reinforced and the warm pool is stronger. On the other hand, if a positive NAO pattern develops the warm pool may remain normal even if other circumstances

  10. Cup-Shaped Superparamagnetic Hemispheres for Size-Selective Cell Filtration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyonchol; Terazono, Hideyuki; Takei, Hiroyuki; Yasuda, Kenji

    2014-09-01

    We propose a new method of size separation of cells exploiting precisely size-controlled hemispherical superparamagnetic microparticles. A three-layered structure of a 2-nm nickel layer inserted between 15-nm silicon dioxide layers was formed on polystyrene cast spheres by vapor deposition. The polystyrene was then removed by burning and the hemispherical superparamagnetic microparticles, ``magcups'', were obtained. The standard target cells (CCRF-CEM, 12 +/- 2 μm) were mixed with a set of different sizes of the fabricated magcups, and we confirmed that the cells were captured in the magcups having cavities larger than 15 μm in diameter, and then gathered by magnetic force. The collected cells were grown in a culture medium without any damage. The results suggest that this method is quick, simple and non-invasive size separation of target cells.

  11. Cup-Shaped Superparamagnetic Hemispheres for Size-Selective Cell Filtration

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyonchol; Terazono, Hideyuki; Takei, Hiroyuki; Yasuda, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    We propose a new method of size separation of cells exploiting precisely size-controlled hemispherical superparamagnetic microparticles. A three-layered structure of a 2-nm nickel layer inserted between 15-nm silicon dioxide layers was formed on polystyrene cast spheres by vapor deposition. The polystyrene was then removed by burning and the hemispherical superparamagnetic microparticles, “magcups”, were obtained. The standard target cells (CCRF-CEM, 12 ± 2 μm) were mixed with a set of different sizes of the fabricated magcups, and we confirmed that the cells were captured in the magcups having cavities larger than 15 μm in diameter, and then gathered by magnetic force. The collected cells were grown in a culture medium without any damage. The results suggest that this method is quick, simple and non-invasive size separation of target cells. PMID:25219418

  12. DETAIL VIEW OF LARGE BORE HOLE, SHOWING TRIANGULAR SHAPE FORMED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF LARGE BORE HOLE, SHOWING TRIANGULAR SHAPE FORMED BY CHISEL METHOD OF DRILLING - Granite Hill Plantation, Quarry No. 3, South side of State Route 16, 1.3 miles northeast east of Sparta, Sparta, Hancock County, GA

  13. Aerodynamic Shape Optimization Based on Free-form Deformation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samareh, Jamshid A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a free-form deformation technique suitable for aerodynamic shape optimization. Because the proposed technique is independent of grid topology, we can treat structured and unstructured computational fluid dynamics grids in the same manner. The proposed technique is an alternative shape parameterization technique to a trivariate volume technique. It retains the flexibility and freedom of trivariate volumes for CFD shape optimization, but it uses a bivariate surface representation. This reduces the number of design variables by an order of magnitude, and it provides much better control for surface shape changes. The proposed technique is simple, compact, and efficient. The analytical sensitivity derivatives are independent of the design variables and are easily computed for use in a gradient-based optimization. The paper includes the complete formulation and aerodynamics shape optimization results.

  14. Alternative form for the pseudo-Voigt peak shape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Végh, János

    2005-05-01

    A number of different approximations are in use in different fields of spectroscopy for calculating the Voigt line shape. The most popular among them is the pseudo-Voigt line shape. Its main disadvantage is that it is quite complicated to conclude from its parameters the natural width of the line and the spectrometer contribution. Furthermore there exists no simple possibility to replace the line shape with a more accurate approximation to the Voigt shape. An alternative form for this peak shape is presented, which is parametrized with the natural width and spectrometer contribution and transparently maps these parameters to the parameters "Gauss/Lorentz mixing ratio" and "total width." This representation keeps the calculation simple and quick. Furthermore it allows a smooth transition to the more accurate Voigt approximations.

  15. Electrohydraulic Forming of Near Net Shape Automotive Panels

    SciTech Connect

    2009-01-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to develop the electrohydraulic forming (EHF) process as a near net shape automotive panel manufacturing technology that simultaneously reduces the energy embedded in vehicles and the energy consumed while producing automotive structures.

  16. An Interdisciplinary Analysis of Microteaching Evaluation Forms: How Peer Feedback Forms Shape What Constitutes "Good Teaching"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vander Kloet, Marie Annette; Chugh, Brige Paul

    2012-01-01

    Microteaching, a standard method for developing teaching skills, places high importance on peer feedback, which is guided by post-session feedback forms. This paper focuses on how feedback forms can shape what becomes understood as important to teaching. A sample of 10 microteaching evaluation forms drawn from North American postsecondary…

  17. An Interdisciplinary Analysis of Microteaching Evaluation Forms: How Peer Feedback Forms Shape What Constitutes "Good Teaching"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vander Kloet, Marie Annette; Chugh, Brige Paul

    2012-01-01

    Microteaching, a standard method for developing teaching skills, places high importance on peer feedback, which is guided by post-session feedback forms. This paper focuses on how feedback forms can shape what becomes understood as important to teaching. A sample of 10 microteaching evaluation forms drawn from North American postsecondary…

  18. On The Influence Of The Yield Locus Shape In The Simulation Of Sheet Stretch Forming

    SciTech Connect

    Mattiasson, Kjell; Sigvant, Mats

    2005-08-05

    In the present paper results from an ongoing project at Volvo Cars and Chalmers University will be presented. The object of this project is to reduce the gap between the research frontier and the industrial practice concerning material modeling. One of the targets of the project is to identify a yield function, which can fulfill the special industrial demands concerning accuracy, easy parameter identification, and computational efficiency. Lately, some new yield functions have been presented, which seem to satisfy these demands. These yield functions belong to a group of non-quadratic yield criteria, sometimes referred to as 'the Hosford family'. These criteria are characterized by a stress exponent, which has been shown to have a strong coupling to the crystallographic structure of the material. The present paper addresses the issue of how the main parameters controlling the shape of the yield locus are influencing the material flow in sheet forming simulations. Since it is a well established fact that the shape of the yield locus has its major influence in pure stretch forming, i.e. on the right hand side of a FLD, we have chosen stretch forming with a hemispherical punch as a simple demonstration example. The M-K approach will also be used as a means to try to explain some of the observed phenomena.

  19. On The Influence Of The Yield Locus Shape In The Simulation Of Sheet Stretch Forming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattiasson, Kjell; Sigvant, Mats

    2005-08-01

    In the present paper results from an ongoing project at Volvo Cars and Chalmers University will be presented. The object of this project is to reduce the gap between the research frontier and the industrial practice concerning material modeling. One of the targets of the project is to identify a yield function, which can fulfill the special industrial demands concerning accuracy, easy parameter identification, and computational efficiency. Lately, some new yield functions have been presented, which seem to satisfy these demands. These yield functions belong to a group of non-quadratic yield criteria, sometimes referred to as "the Hosford family". These criteria are characterized by a stress exponent, which has been shown to have a strong coupling to the crystallographic structure of the material. The present paper addresses the issue of how the main parameters controlling the shape of the yield locus are influencing the material flow in sheet forming simulations. Since it is a well established fact that the shape of the yield locus has its major influence in pure stretch forming, i.e. on the right hand side of a FLD, we have chosen stretch forming with a hemispherical punch as a simple demonstration example. The M-K approach will also be used as a means to try to explain some of the observed phenomena.

  20. Near net shape forming of advanced structural ceramic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hao-Chih

    This research applied a combination of rapid prototyping techniques and ceramic gelcasting processes in the design and manufacturing of advanced structural ceramic components that cannot be fabricated by other shape-forming processes. An Assembly Mold SDM process, a derivative process of Shape Deposition Manufacturing, was adopted along with modified gelcasting with great success. The fabricated gas turbine rotors, inlet nozzles, and mesoscale burner arrays have demonstrated superior shape accuracy, mechanical strength, and surface smoothness with a feature size of 200 mum. The design concepts and functionalities of the ceramic devices were verified with performance tests. The shape complexity and surface quality of ceramic parts have been further improved by the use of a mold assembly made of a low melting temperature metal alloy. The introduction of metal alloy required modifications in the mold design, machining procedure, and ceramic processing. A complete shape forming process (from slurry to final parts) was developed for the low melting temperature metal alloy. In addition, the choice of ceramic material now includes SiC, which is critical to the development of micro heat exchangers. Forty-channel, high-aspect-ratio structured SiC heat exchangers were fabricated, and the thermal conductivity value of SiC was found to be comparable to that of steel. The catalyst deposition and ceramic precursor impregnation processes were proposed to enable use of the SiC heat exchangers as micro reactors. Micro-electro-mechanical-systems (MEMS)-related techniques such as SU-8 deep photolithography and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) soft lithography were combined with gelcasting to make micro patterns on structural ceramics. A feature size of 125 mum and aspect ratio of 8 have been achieved in the preliminary experiments. Based on the fabricated ceramic devices, a graphical method to characterize the shape attributes of complex-shaped components was proposed and used to compare

  1. Process for forming shaped group III-V semiconductor nanocrystals, and product formed using process

    DOEpatents

    Alivisatos, A. Paul; Peng, Xiaogang; Manna, Liberato

    2001-01-01

    A process for the formation of shaped Group III-V semiconductor nanocrystals comprises contacting the semiconductor nanocrystal precursors with a liquid media comprising a binary mixture of phosphorus-containing organic surfactants capable of promoting the growth of either spherical semiconductor nanocrystals or rod-like semiconductor nanocrystals, whereby the shape of the semiconductor nanocrystals formed in said binary mixture of surfactants is controlled by adjusting the ratio of the surfactants in the binary mixture.

  2. Process for forming shaped group II-VI semiconductor nanocrystals, and product formed using process

    DOEpatents

    Alivisatos, A. Paul; Peng, Xiaogang; Manna, Liberato

    2001-01-01

    A process for the formation of shaped Group II-VI semiconductor nanocrystals comprises contacting the semiconductor nanocrystal precursors with a liquid media comprising a binary mixture of phosphorus-containing organic surfactants capable of promoting the growth of either spherical semiconductor nanocrystals or rod-like semiconductor nanocrystals, whereby the shape of the semiconductor nanocrystals formed in said binary mixture of surfactants is controlled by adjusting the ratio of the surfactants in the binary mixture.

  3. Form equals function? Bacterial shape and its consequences for pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Dworkin, Jonathan

    2010-11-01

    Bacteria exhibit a wide variety of morphologies. This could simply be a consequence of an elaboration of bacterial cellular architecture akin to the famous decorative but not structurally essential Spandrels in the Basilica di San Marco in Venice that are a side-effect of an adaptation, rather than a direct product of natural selection. However, it is more likely that particular morphologies facilitate a specific function in cellular physiology. Two recent publications including one in this issue of Molecular Microbiology and another in Cell provide new insights into the molecular basis for the helical shape of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori and the role of this shape in pathogenesis. They identify a novel endopeptidase that is necessary to generate the helical shape by processing the peptidoglycan and report that catalytically inactive mutants lead to defects in colonization that appear to be independent of an effect on cellular motility. Here, we put these findings in the context of some of what is known about peptidoglycan and cell shape and suggest that the role of this endopeptidase in forming coccoid morphology may be critical for pathogenesis.

  4. Assessing the applicability of the reduction to effective one-dimensional description of diffusion in a hemispherical shaped tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vázquez, Marco-Vinicio; Dagdug, Leonardo

    2010-12-01

    Computer simulations of the diffusion of a Brownian particle, in a hemispherical shaped tube, were carried out to assess the range of applicability of the reduction of the three-dimensional diffusion to an effective one-dimensional description. Previously Berezhkovskii et al. [21] founded that the one-dimensional description centered in the Fick-Jacobs' equation with a position dependent diffusion coefficients, D(x) (one due to R. Zwanzig [14], and another by Reguera-Rubí [15]), has a restricted range of applicability, for a conical tube. Remarkably, our results have shown that applying the Zwanzig's formula one can predict variation of τ in the whole range of a/R in n→w direction, while the Reguera-Rubí's formula fits simulations' data in the w→n direction. This is an important result since it is known that Reguera-Rubí's predicts better the mean first-passage time's behavior without regard of direction in other geometries, and this is our principal result.

  5. Analysis of the Dynamic Sensitivity of Hemisphere-Shaped Electrostatic Sensors' Circular Array for Charged Particle Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xin; Chen, Zhong-Sheng; Li, Yue; Hu, Zheng; Yang, Yong-Min

    2016-08-31

    Electrostatic sensor arrays (ESAs) are promising in industrial applications related to charged particle monitoring. Sensitivity is a fundamental and commonly-used sensing characteristic of an ESA. However, the usually used spatial sensitivity, which is called static sensitivity here, is not proper for moving particles or capable of reflecting array signal processing algorithms integrated in an ESA. Besides, reports on ESAs for intermittent particles are scarce yet, especially lacking suitable array signal processing algorithms. To solve the problems, the dynamic sensitivity of ESA is proposed, and a hemisphere-shaped electrostatic sensors' circular array (HSESCA) along with its application in intermittent particle monitoring are taken as an example. In detail, a sensing model of the HSESCA is built. On this basis, its array signals are analyzed; the dynamic sensitivity is thereupon defined by analyzing the processing of the array signals. Besides, a component extraction-based array signal processing algorithm for intermittent particles is proposed, and the corresponding dynamic sensitivity is analyzed quantitatively. Moreover, simulated and experimental results are discussed, which validate the accuracy of the models and the effectiveness of the relevant approaches. The proposed dynamic sensitivity of ESA, as well as the array signal processing algorithm are expected to provide references in modeling, designing and using ESAs.

  6. Analysis of the Dynamic Sensitivity of Hemisphere-Shaped Electrostatic Sensors’ Circular Array for Charged Particle Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Xin; Chen, Zhong-Sheng; Li, Yue; Hu, Zheng; Yang, Yong-Min

    2016-01-01

    Electrostatic sensor arrays (ESAs) are promising in industrial applications related to charged particle monitoring. Sensitivity is a fundamental and commonly-used sensing characteristic of an ESA. However, the usually used spatial sensitivity, which is called static sensitivity here, is not proper for moving particles or capable of reflecting array signal processing algorithms integrated in an ESA. Besides, reports on ESAs for intermittent particles are scarce yet, especially lacking suitable array signal processing algorithms. To solve the problems, the dynamic sensitivity of ESA is proposed, and a hemisphere-shaped electrostatic sensors’ circular array (HSESCA) along with its application in intermittent particle monitoring are taken as an example. In detail, a sensing model of the HSESCA is built. On this basis, its array signals are analyzed; the dynamic sensitivity is thereupon defined by analyzing the processing of the array signals. Besides, a component extraction-based array signal processing algorithm for intermittent particles is proposed, and the corresponding dynamic sensitivity is analyzed quantitatively. Moreover, simulated and experimental results are discussed, which validate the accuracy of the models and the effectiveness of the relevant approaches. The proposed dynamic sensitivity of ESA, as well as the array signal processing algorithm are expected to provide references in modeling, designing and using ESAs. PMID:27589767

  7. How language production shapes language form and comprehension

    PubMed Central

    MacDonald, Maryellen C.

    2012-01-01

    Language production processes can provide insight into how language comprehension works and language typology—why languages tend to have certain characteristics more often than others. Drawing on work in memory retrieval, motor planning, and serial order in action planning, the Production-Distribution-Comprehension (PDC) account links work in the fields of language production, typology, and comprehension: (1) faced with substantial computational burdens of planning and producing utterances, language producers implicitly follow three biases in utterance planning that promote word order choices that reduce these burdens, thereby improving production fluency. (2) These choices, repeated over many utterances and individuals, shape the distributions of utterance forms in language. The claim that language form stems in large degree from producers' attempts to mitigate utterance planning difficulty is contrasted with alternative accounts in which form is driven by language use more broadly, language acquisition processes, or producers' attempts to create language forms that are easily understood by comprehenders. (3) Language perceivers implicitly learn the statistical regularities in their linguistic input, and they use this prior experience to guide comprehension of subsequent language. In particular, they learn to predict the sequential structure of linguistic signals, based on the statistics of previously-encountered input. Thus, key aspects of comprehension behavior are tied to lexico-syntactic statistics in the language, which in turn derive from utterance planning biases promoting production of comparatively easy utterance forms over more difficult ones. This approach contrasts with classic theories in which comprehension behaviors are attributed to innate design features of the language comprehension system and associated working memory. The PDC instead links basic features of comprehension to a different source: production processes that shape language form

  8. Size, shape, and form: concepts of allometry in geometric morphometrics.

    PubMed

    Klingenberg, Christian Peter

    2016-06-01

    Allometry refers to the size-related changes of morphological traits and remains an essential concept for the study of evolution and development. This review is the first systematic comparison of allometric methods in the context of geometric morphometrics that considers the structure of morphological spaces and their implications for characterizing allometry and performing size correction. The distinction of two main schools of thought is useful for understanding the differences and relationships between alternative methods for studying allometry. The Gould-Mosimann school defines allometry as the covariation of shape with size. This concept of allometry is implemented in geometric morphometrics through the multivariate regression of shape variables on a measure of size. In the Huxley-Jolicoeur school, allometry is the covariation among morphological features that all contain size information. In this framework, allometric trajectories are characterized by the first principal component, which is a line of best fit to the data points. In geometric morphometrics, this concept is implemented in analyses using either Procrustes form space or conformation space (the latter also known as size-and-shape space). Whereas these spaces differ substantially in their global structure, there are also close connections in their localized geometry. For the model of small isotropic variation of landmark positions, they are equivalent up to scaling. The methods differ in their emphasis and thus provide investigators with flexible tools to address specific questions concerning evolution and development, but all frameworks are logically compatible with each other and therefore unlikely to yield contradictory results.

  9. Feeling form: the neural basis of haptic shape perception

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung Soo; Thakur, Pramodsingh H.; Bensmaia, Sliman J.

    2015-01-01

    The tactile perception of the shape of objects critically guides our ability to interact with them. In this review, we describe how shape information is processed as it ascends the somatosensory neuraxis of primates. At the somatosensory periphery, spatial form is represented in the spatial patterns of activation evoked across populations of mechanoreceptive afferents. In the cerebral cortex, neurons respond selectively to particular spatial features, like orientation and curvature. While feature selectivity of neurons in the earlier processing stages can be understood in terms of linear receptive field models, higher order somatosensory neurons exhibit nonlinear response properties that result in tuning for more complex geometrical features. In fact, tactile shape processing bears remarkable analogies to its visual counterpart and the two may rely on shared neural circuitry. Furthermore, one of the unique aspects of primate somatosensation is that it contains a deformable sensory sheet. Because the relative positions of cutaneous mechanoreceptors depend on the conformation of the hand, the haptic perception of three-dimensional objects requires the integration of cutaneous and proprioceptive signals, an integration that is observed throughout somatosensory cortex. PMID:26581869

  10. Form, shape and function: segmented blood flow in the choriocapillaris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zouache, M. A.; Eames, I.; Klettner, C. A.; Luthert, P. J.

    2016-10-01

    The development of fluid transport systems was a key event in the evolution of animals and plants. While within vertebrates branched geometries predominate, the choriocapillaris, which is the microvascular bed that is responsible for the maintenance of the outer retina, has evolved a planar topology. Here we examine the flow and mass transfer properties associated with this unusual geometry. We show that as a result of the form of the choriocapillaris, the blood flow is decomposed into a tessellation of functional vascular segments of various shapes delineated by separation surfaces across which there is no flow, and in the vicinity of which the transport of passive substances is diffusion-limited. The shape of each functional segment is determined by the distribution of arterioles and venules and their respective relative flow rates. We also show that, remarkably, the mass exchange with the outer retina is a function of the shape of each functional segment. In addition to introducing a novel framework in which the structure and function of the metabolite delivery system to the outer retina may be investigated in health and disease, the present work provides a general characterisation of the flow and transfers in multipole Hele-Shaw configurations.

  11. Form, shape and function: segmented blood flow in the choriocapillaris

    PubMed Central

    Zouache, M. A.; Eames, I.; Klettner, C. A.; Luthert, P. J.

    2016-01-01

    The development of fluid transport systems was a key event in the evolution of animals and plants. While within vertebrates branched geometries predominate, the choriocapillaris, which is the microvascular bed that is responsible for the maintenance of the outer retina, has evolved a planar topology. Here we examine the flow and mass transfer properties associated with this unusual geometry. We show that as a result of the form of the choriocapillaris, the blood flow is decomposed into a tessellation of functional vascular segments of various shapes delineated by separation surfaces across which there is no flow, and in the vicinity of which the transport of passive substances is diffusion-limited. The shape of each functional segment is determined by the distribution of arterioles and venules and their respective relative flow rates. We also show that, remarkably, the mass exchange with the outer retina is a function of the shape of each functional segment. In addition to introducing a novel framework in which the structure and function of the metabolite delivery system to the outer retina may be investigated in health and disease, the present work provides a general characterisation of the flow and transfers in multipole Hele-Shaw configurations. PMID:27779198

  12. Identifying the evolution of Southern Hemisphere poleward moving auroral forms (PMAFs) in the context of plasma convection and magnetic reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremsina, E. A.; Mende, S. B.; Frey, H. U.

    2017-04-01

    In this study we examine the dynamic evolution of Southern Hemisphere auroral precipitation patterns, specifically poleward moving auroral forms (PMAFs). The spatial, structural, and temporal characteristics of these events have been linked to underlying magnetopause-boundary layer flux transfer events which are responsible for the generation of these ionospheric transient forms. We present five case studies of Southern Hemisphere PMAFs using optical data for 630.0 nm and 427.8 nm wavelengths from the US Automatic Geophysical Observatory Network in Antarctica. Emphasis is put on the unique capabilities of two-dimensional optical data when it comes to studying PMAFs in the context of pulsed magnetic reconnection. In a detailed examination of three PMAFs recorded in 2007, we have found that their motion closely follows the underlying plasma convection patterns as determined from backscatter radar data, which in turn are governed by the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) configuration. Of particular interest are periods when the positive IMF By component causes an asymmetric convection pattern which is biased toward the dawn region. These cases are consistent with the expected antisymmetric nature of the northern and southern hemisphere convection. In addition, we present two "pseudo" PMAFs which are actually independent auroral arcs executing poleward motions and occurring when the IMF Bz was positive. Using two-dimensional images instead of one-dimensional keograms or meridian scanning photometer recordings, we were able to distinguish these arcs from PMAFs. The misidentification of these arcs as PMAFs would cause inconsistencies with the theories of cusp aurora dynamics and magnetic reconnection, and some previous studies may have included such non-PMAF events.

  13. Prediction of Multipreform Shapes in Warm Forming with Experimental Verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, T. F.; Chan, L. C.

    2015-02-01

    This study uses a computer-aided simulation approach to predict the multipreform shapes of warm-forming intricate components. Nearly 100% of the scraps of primary hollow preforms are used to make secondary hollow preforms. This study simultaneously fabricates the AISI 316L stainless steel watch bezel by using scraps from the corresponding watch case. The appropriate preforms are designed with the aid of computer simulation such that die filling is completed, flash is reduced, and forming load is decreased. The specimens were prepared by custom-made tooling to verify the simulation results. Furthermore, the forming facilities are specially configured to carry out the physical experiments. Engineers eventually gain a better understanding of the warm-forming process using computer simulation. Moreover, they are able to design accurate preforms and fully utilize the material, which leads to a 50% improvement of the material utilization rate. The full material utilization also saves 40% and 20% of the total production cost and time, respectively.

  14. Electrohydraulic Forming of Near-Net Shape Automotive Panels

    SciTech Connect

    Golovaschenko, Sergey F.

    2013-09-26

    The objective of this project was to develop the electrohydraulic forming (EHF) process as a near-net shape automotive panel manufacturing technology that simultaneously reduces the energy embedded in vehicles and the energy consumed while producing automotive structures. Pulsed pressure is created via a shockwave generated by the discharge of high voltage capacitors through a pair of electrodes in a liquid-filled chamber. The shockwave in the liquid initiated by the expansion of the plasma channel formed between two electrodes propagates towards the blank and causes the blank to be deformed into a one-sided die cavity. The numerical model of the EHF process was validated experimentally and was successfully applied to the design of the electrode system and to a multi-electrode EHF chamber for full scale validation of the process. The numerical model was able to predict stresses in the dies during pulsed forming and was validated by the experimental study of the die insert failure mode for corner filling operations. The electrohydraulic forming process and its major subsystems, including durable electrodes, an EHF chamber, a water/air management system, a pulse generator and integrated process controls, were validated to be capable to operate in a fully automated, computer controlled mode for forming of a portion of a full-scale sheet metal component in laboratory conditions. Additionally, the novel processes of electrohydraulic trimming and electrohydraulic calibration were demonstrated at a reduced-scale component level. Furthermore, a hybrid process combining conventional stamping with EHF was demonstrated as a laboratory process for a full-scale automotive panel formed out of AHSS material. The economic feasibility of the developed EHF processes was defined by developing a cost model of the EHF process in comparison to the conventional stamping process.

  15. Form follows function: a computational simulation exercise on bone shape forming and conservation.

    PubMed

    Mittag, U; Kriechbaumer, A; Bartsch, M; Rittweger, J

    2015-06-01

    The present paper explores whether the shape of long bone shafts can be explained as a mere result of mechano-adapation. A computer simulation study was conducted in order to investigate adaptation processes of bone-like structures under load patterns comparable to those acting on the diaphysis of long bones. The aim of the study was to have a deeper look into the relationship between typical loading patterns and resulting bone shape and structure. The simulations are based on a mechanistic model approach for mechano-transduction and bone transformation. Results of the simulations are that axial torsion around the long axis is important for the evolvement and maintenance of tube-like structures. Of note such structures can form from a variety of starting geometries, provided that axial torsion is present. The selection of the set-point parameter for the regulation of load adapted bone transformation has an impact on the final structure as well. In conclusion, the present study confirms the mechanical environment's potential to generate shaft-like structures and demonstrates the respective boundary conditions.

  16. Form follows function: a computational simulation exercise on bone shape forming and conservation

    PubMed Central

    Mittag, U.; Kriechbaumer, A.; Bartsch, M.; Rittweger, J.

    2015-01-01

    The present paper explores whether the shape of long bone shafts can be explained as a mere result of mechano-adapation. A computer simulation study was conducted in order to investigate adaptation processes of bone-like structures under load patterns comparable to those acting on the diaphysis of long bones. The aim of the study was to have a deeper look into the relationship between typical loading patterns and resulting bone shape and structure. The simulations are based on a mechanistic model approach for mechano-transduction and bone transformation. Results of the simulations are that axial torsion around the long axis is important for the evolvement and maintenance of tube-like structures. Of note such structures can form from a variety of starting geometries, provided that axial torsion is present. The selection of the set-point parameter for the regulation of load adapted bone transformation has an impact on the final structure as well. In conclusion, the present study confirms the mechanical environment’s potential to generate shaft-like structures and demonstrates the respective boundary conditions. PMID:26032215

  17. Auto-sensuous shapes: prototypes for creative forms.

    PubMed

    Charles, M

    2001-09-01

    The author looks at some of the more normative, adaptive, and creative aspects of what have been called 'autistic' or 'auto-sensuous' shapes by Tustin and others. She explores the construct from several frameworks, including the literature on early sensory experience and that on the empathic attunement between infant and caretaker in which interpersonal rhythms and meanings are built. The views of Bion and Matte-Blanco are utilized to help explore the processes by which meaning is created from experience, while the works of Segal and Milner are used to focus more explicitly on the role of symbol formation in the creative process. Finally, it is suggested that these auto-sensuous shapes can become prototypes for creative endeavours, including the creative process we call psychoanalysis. The author uses examples from her own experience in deriving pattern from basic sensory experience, toward the creation of poetry, drawings, and the establishment of attunement and 'meaning-making' within the analytic setting.

  18. Shape forming by thermal expansion mismatch and shape memory locking in polymer/elastomer laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Chao; Ding, Zhen; Wang, T. J.; Dunn, Martin L.; Qi, H. Jerry

    2017-10-01

    This paper studies a novel method to fabricate three-dimensional (3D) structure from 2D thermo-responsive shape memory polymer (SMP)/elastomer bilayer laminate. In this method, the shape change is actuated by the thermal mismatch strain between the SMP and the elastomer layers upon heating. However, the glass transition behavior of the SMP locks the material into a new 3D shape that is stable even upon cooling. Therefore, the second shape becomes a new permanent shape of the laminate. A theoretical model that accounts for the temperature-dependent thermomechanical behavior of the SMP material and thermal mismatch strain between the two layers is developed to better understand the underlying physics. Model predictions and experiments show good agreement and indicate that the theoretical model can well predict the bending behavior of the bilayer laminate. The model is then used in the optimal design of geometrical configuration and material selection. The latter also illustrates the requirement of thermomechanical behaviors of the SMP to lock the shape. Based on the fundamental understandings, several self-folding structures are demonstrated by the bilayer laminate design.

  19. Dip molding to form intricately-shaped medical elastomer devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broyles, H. F.

    1975-01-01

    Preshaped mandrel mounted on rotating mechanism is partically immersed in tank filled with liquid elastomer. While mandrel rotates, elastomer film forms om mandrel surface due to surface tension and capillary behavior of liquid. Devices with well-defined flanges can be made using process.

  20. Effects of Processing Parameters on the Forming Quality of C-Shaped Thermosetting Composite Laminates in Hot Diaphragm Forming Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bian, X. X.; Gu, Y. Z.; Sun, J.; Li, M.; Liu, W. P.; Zhang, Z. G.

    2013-10-01

    In this study, the effects of processing temperature and vacuum applying rate on the forming quality of C-shaped carbon fiber reinforced epoxy resin matrix composite laminates during hot diaphragm forming process were investigated. C-shaped prepreg preforms were produced using a home-made hot diaphragm forming equipment. The thickness variations of the preforms and the manufacturing defects after diaphragm forming process, including fiber wrinkling and voids, were evaluated to understand the forming mechanism. Furthermore, both interlaminar slipping friction and compaction behavior of the prepreg stacks were experimentally analyzed for showing the importance of the processing parameters. In addition, autoclave processing was used to cure the C-shaped preforms to investigate the changes of the defects before and after cure process. The results show that the C-shaped prepreg preforms with good forming quality can be achieved through increasing processing temperature and reducing vacuum applying rate, which obviously promote prepreg interlaminar slipping process. The process temperature and forming rate in hot diaphragm forming process strongly influence prepreg interply frictional force, and the maximum interlaminar frictional force can be taken as a key parameter for processing parameter optimization. Autoclave process is effective in eliminating voids in the preforms and can alleviate fiber wrinkles to a certain extent.

  1. Secondary growth as a determinant of plant shape and form.

    PubMed

    Ragni, Laura; Greb, Thomas

    2017-08-31

    Plants are the primary producers of biomass on earth. As an almost stereotypic feature, higher plants generate continuously growing bodies mediated by the activity of different groups of stem cells, the meristems. Shoot and root thickening is one of the fundamental growth processes determining form and function of these bodies. Mediated by a group of cylindrical meristems located below organ surfaces, vascular and protective tissues are continuously generated in a highly plastic manner, a competence essential for the survival in an ever changing environment. Acknowledging the fundamental role of this process, which is overall designated as secondary growth, we discuss in this review our current knowledge about the evolution and molecular regulation of the vascular cambium. The cambium is the meristem responsible for the formation of wood and bast, the two types of vascular tissues important for long-distance transport of water and assimilates, respectively. Although regulatory patterns are only beginning to emerge, we show that cambium activity represents a highly rewarding model for studying cell fate decisions, tissue patterning and differentiation, which has experienced an outstanding phylogenetic diversification. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Advanced method and processing technology for complicated shape airframe part forming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miodushevsky, P. V.; Rajevskaya, G. A.

    1994-01-01

    Slow deformation modes of forming give considerably higher residual fatigue life of the airframe part. It has experimentally proven that fatigue life of complicated shape integral airframe panels made of high strength aluminum alloys is significantly increased after creep deformation process. To implement the slow deformation mode forming methods, universal automated equipment was developed. Multichannel forming systems provide high accuracy of airframe part shape eliminating residual stresses and spring effect. Forming process multizone control technology was developed and experimentally proved that static/fatigue properties of formed airframe parts are increased.

  3. Use of the Bernstein form to derive sufficient conditions for shape preserving piecewise polynomial interpolation

    SciTech Connect

    Fritsch, F.N.

    1983-11-01

    The Bernstein form for the degree 2K-1 polynomial pieces of an Hermite spline can be used to derive sufficient conditions for shape preserving interpolation. These conditions are worked out in detail for the linear, cubic, and quintic cases.

  4. Shape, form, function and Leishmania pathogenicity: from textbook descriptions to biological understanding.

    PubMed

    Sunter, Jack; Gull, Keith

    2017-09-01

    The shape and form of protozoan parasites are inextricably linked to their pathogenicity. The evolutionary pressure associated with establishing and maintaining an infection and transmission to vector or host has shaped parasite morphology. However, there is not a 'one size fits all' morphological solution to these different pressures, and parasites exhibit a range of different morphologies, reflecting the diversity of their complex life cycles. In this review, we will focus on the shape and form of Leishmania spp., a group of very successful protozoan parasites that cause a range of diseases from self-healing cutaneous leishmaniasis to visceral leishmaniasis, which is fatal if left untreated. © 2017 The Authors.

  5. An Illustrated Key to the Cyst-Forming Genera and Species of Heteroderidae in the Western Hemisphere with Species Morphometrics and Distribution

    PubMed Central

    Mulvey, R. H.; Golden, A. Morgan

    1983-01-01

    Diagnoses of the cyst-forming genera of Heteroderidae (viz., Heterodera, Sarisodera, Globodera, Punctodera, Cactodera, and Dolichodera) and distribution and morphometrics of the 34 known cyst species in the Western Hemisphere are presented along with an illustrated key for the identification of these genera and species. The key is based mainly on cysts and larvae, and important morphological and diagnostic features are extensively shown by LM and SEM illustrations. The genus Bidera is placed as a new synonym under the genus Heterodera. PMID:19295764

  6. Novel free-form hohlraum shape design and optimization for laser-driven inertial confinement fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Shaoen; Jing, Longfei Ding, Yongkun; Huang, Yunbao

    2014-10-15

    The hohlraum shape attracts considerable attention because there is no successful ignition method for laser-driven inertial confinement fusion at the National Ignition Facility. The available hohlraums are typically designed with simple conic curves, including ellipses, parabolas, arcs, or Lame curves, which allow only a few design parameters for the shape optimization, making it difficult to improve the performance, e.g., the energy coupling efficiency or radiation drive symmetry. A novel free-form hohlraum design and optimization approach based on the non-uniform rational basis spline (NURBS) model is proposed. In the present study, (1) all kinds of hohlraum shapes can be uniformly represented using NURBS, which is greatly beneficial for obtaining the optimal available hohlraum shapes, and (2) such free-form uniform representation enables us to obtain an optimal shape over a large design domain for the hohlraum with a more uniform radiation and higher drive temperature of the fuel capsule. Finally, a hohlraum is optimized and evaluated with respect to the drive temperature and symmetry at the Shenguang III laser facility in China. The drive temperature and symmetry results indicate that such a free-form representation is advantageous over available hohlraum shapes because it can substantially expand the shape design domain so as to obtain an optimal hohlraum with high performance.

  7. Spray Forming of NiTi and NiTiPd Shape-Memory Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mabe, James; Ruggeri, Robert; Noebe, Ronald

    2008-01-01

    In the work to be presented, vacuum plasma spray forming has been used as a process to deposit and consolidate prealloyed NiTi and NiTiPd powders into near net shape actuators. Testing showed that excellent shape memory behavior could be developed in the deposited materials and the investigation proved that VPS forming could be a means to directly form a wide range of shape memory alloy components. The results of DSC characterization and actual actuation test results will be presented demonstrating the behavior of a Nitinol 55 alloy and a higher transition temperature NiTiPd alloy in the form of torque tube actuators that could be used in aircraft and aerospace controls.

  8. Spray Forming of NiTi and NiTiPd Shape-Memory Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mabe, James; Ruggeri, Robert; Noebe, Ronald

    2008-01-01

    In the work to be presented, vacuum plasma spray forming has been used as a process to deposit and consolidate prealloyed NiTi and NiTiPd powders into near net shape actuators. Testing showed that excellent shape memory behavior could be developed in the deposited materials and the investigation proved that VPS forming could be a means to directly form a wide range of shape memory alloy components. The results of DSC characterization and actual actuation test results will be presented demonstrating the behavior of a Nitinol 55 alloy and a higher transition temperature NiTiPd alloy in the form of torque tube actuators that could be used in aircraft and aerospace controls.

  9. Right Hemisphere Brain Damage

    MedlinePlus

    ... Language and Swallowing / Disorders and Diseases Right Hemisphere Brain Damage [ en Español ] What is right hemisphere brain ... right hemisphere brain damage ? What is right hemisphere brain damage? Right hemisphere brain damage (RHD) is damage ...

  10. Method of and apparatus for forming long metal tubing stock to tapered shape

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshida, K.

    1985-02-12

    The method and apparatus permit a relatively long metal tubing stock to be finished to any desired tapered shape through a single-pass operation. The apparatus is provided in the form of a tandem configuration including any number of individual swaging units each having the identical construction including the same working parts and assemblies. The grooved roll arrangement associated with the tandem-configured swaging units is used as a preliminary step, and forms an initial metal tubing stock to a multiple-stepped shape.

  11. Insect form vision as one potential shaping force of spider web decoration design.

    PubMed

    Cheng, R-C; Yang, E-C; Lin, C-P; Herberstein, M E; Tso, I-M

    2010-03-01

    Properties of prey sensory systems are important factors shaping the design of signals generated by organisms exploiting them. In this study we assessed how prey sensory preference affected the exploiter signal design by investigating the evolutionary relationship and relative attractiveness of linear and cruciate form web decorations built by Argiope spiders. Because insects have an innate preference for bilaterally symmetrical patterns, we hypothesized that cruciate form decorations were evolved from linear form due to their higher visual attractiveness to insects. We first reconstructed a molecular phylogeny of the Asian members of the genus Argiope using mitochondrial markers to infer the evolutionary relationship of two decoration forms. Results of ancestral character state reconstruction showed that the linear form was ancestral and the cruciate form derived. To evaluate the luring effectiveness of two decoration forms, we performed field experiments in which the number and orientation of decoration bands were manipulated. Decoration bands arranged in a cruciate form were significantly more attractive to insects than those arranged in a linear form, no matter whether they were composed of silks or dummies. Moreover, dummy decoration bands arranged in a cruciate form attracted significantly more insects than those arranged in a vertical/horizontal form. Such results suggest that pollinator insects' innate preference for certain bilateral or radial symmetrical patterns might be one of the driving forces shaping the arrangement pattern of spider web decorations.

  12. Global shape integration and illusory form perception in the absence of awareness.

    PubMed

    Jimenez, Mikel; Montoro, Pedro R; Luna, Dolores

    2017-08-01

    Previous research on perceptual organization operations still provides contradictory evidence on whether the integration of sparse local elements into coherently unified shapes and the construction of the illusory form are accomplished without the need of awareness. In the present study, three experiments were conducted in which participants were presented with masked (Experiment 1, SOA=27ms; Experiment 2; SOA=53ms) and unmasked (Experiment 3) primes consisting of geometric shapes (a square or a diamond) that could be congruent or incongruent with subsequent probe stimuli (square vs. diamond). Furthermore, the primes were divided into: a grouping condition (where local elements may group together into global shapes), an illusory condition (where the arrangement of local elements produced illusory shapes) and a hybrid condition (where both operations were presented simultaneously). While no priming effects were found for the shortest SOA (27ms), both grouping and illusory primes produced significant priming effects in the longer SOA (53ms). On the other hand, results in Experiment 3 (unmasked) showed strong priming effects for the grouping of the inducers in both the grouping and the hybrid conditions, and also a significant but weaker priming effect for the illusory condition. Overall, our results support the possibility of the integration of local visual features into a global shape in the absence of awareness and, likewise, they suggest an early -subliminal- construction of the illusory shape, implying that feedback projections from higher to lower visual areas are not crucial in the construction of the illusory form. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Functional modulation of cardiac form through regionally confined cell shape changes.

    PubMed

    Auman, Heidi J; Coleman, Hope; Riley, Heather E; Olale, Felix; Tsai, Huai-Jen; Yelon, Deborah

    2007-03-01

    Developing organs acquire a specific three-dimensional form that ensures their normal function. Cardiac function, for example, depends upon properly shaped chambers that emerge from a primitive heart tube. The cellular mechanisms that control chamber shape are not yet understood. Here, we demonstrate that chamber morphology develops via changes in cell morphology, and we determine key regulatory influences on this process. Focusing on the development of the ventricular chamber in zebrafish, we show that cardiomyocyte cell shape changes underlie the formation of characteristic chamber curvatures. In particular, cardiomyocyte elongation occurs within a confined area that forms the ventricular outer curvature. Because cardiac contractility and blood flow begin before chambers emerge, cardiac function has the potential to influence chamber curvature formation. Employing zebrafish mutants with functional deficiencies, we find that blood flow and contractility independently regulate cell shape changes in the emerging ventricle. Reduction of circulation limits the extent of cardiomyocyte elongation; in contrast, disruption of sarcomere formation releases limitations on cardiomyocyte dimensions. Thus, the acquisition of normal cardiomyocyte morphology requires a balance between extrinsic and intrinsic physical forces. Together, these data establish regionally confined cell shape change as a cellular mechanism for chamber emergence and as a link in the relationship between form and function during organ morphogenesis.

  14. Functional Modulation of Cardiac Form through Regionally Confined Cell Shape Changes

    PubMed Central

    Auman, Heidi J; Coleman, Hope; Riley, Heather E; Olale, Felix; Tsai, Huai-Jen; Yelon, Deborah

    2007-01-01

    Developing organs acquire a specific three-dimensional form that ensures their normal function. Cardiac function, for example, depends upon properly shaped chambers that emerge from a primitive heart tube. The cellular mechanisms that control chamber shape are not yet understood. Here, we demonstrate that chamber morphology develops via changes in cell morphology, and we determine key regulatory influences on this process. Focusing on the development of the ventricular chamber in zebrafish, we show that cardiomyocyte cell shape changes underlie the formation of characteristic chamber curvatures. In particular, cardiomyocyte elongation occurs within a confined area that forms the ventricular outer curvature. Because cardiac contractility and blood flow begin before chambers emerge, cardiac function has the potential to influence chamber curvature formation. Employing zebrafish mutants with functional deficiencies, we find that blood flow and contractility independently regulate cell shape changes in the emerging ventricle. Reduction of circulation limits the extent of cardiomyocyte elongation; in contrast, disruption of sarcomere formation releases limitations on cardiomyocyte dimensions. Thus, the acquisition of normal cardiomyocyte morphology requires a balance between extrinsic and intrinsic physical forces. Together, these data establish regionally confined cell shape change as a cellular mechanism for chamber emergence and as a link in the relationship between form and function during organ morphogenesis. PMID:17311471

  15. Hemispheric Amphigory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youngblood, Michael

    1981-01-01

    Reviewing some empirical studies on brain hemisphere functions, the author concludes that though the brain is lateralized for specific tasks, this fact has no necessary bearing on educational methodology. He asserts that we do not yet know enough to label and teach art as a "right brain" activity. (Author/SJL)

  16. Europa's Leading Hemisphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This image of Europa's leading hemisphere was obtained by the solid state imaging (CCD) system on board NASA's Galileo spacecraft during its seventh orbit of Jupiter. In the upper left part of the image is Tyre, a multi-ringed structure that may have formed as a result of an ancient impact. Also visible are numerous lineaments that extend for over 1000 kilometers. The limb, or edge, of Europa in this image can be used by scientists to constrain the radius and shape of the satellite. North is to the top of the picture and the sun illuminates the surface from the right. The image, centered at -40 latitude and 180 longitude, covers an area approximately 2000 by 1300 kilometers. The finest details that can be discerned in this picture are about 6.6 kilometers across. The images were taken on April 3, 1997 at 17 hours, 42 minutes, 19 seconds Universal Time when the spacecraft was at a range of 31,8628 kilometers.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  17. Analysis Of Hydro Formed Complex Shape Parts Using A Ductile Fracture Criterion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palumbo, G.; Pinto, S.; Sorgente, D.; Tricarico, L.

    2004-06-01

    Nowadays the Hydro Forming techniques have been largely accepted by industries for the production of components characterized by complex shape, good surface quality, near net shape and low volume batch. In particular the Sheet Hydro Forming (SHF) process offers the possibility of no restrictions in the final shape of the part. This is the reason why a deeper investigation on the chance of using the SHF process for the production of complex shaped parts could be of great interest. In this work, the authors have considered as case of study a compound part which is made of a cylindrical region (the base) connected to a square part (the protrusion). Experimental and numerical activities have been performed. In particular, a commercial Finite Element (FE) code has been chosen to simulate the SHF process; a stress-strain based damage variable according to the Oh's criterion (derived from the Cockroft and Latham one) has been also used to evaluate the process limits. The Critical Damage Value (CDV) of the steel adopted for the analysis (AISI 304) has been set using experimental test results. The critical regions and the blank thinning have been analyzed for different geometrical configurations of the compound die cavity. Thus, a complexity shape factor has been defined.

  18. An unusual form of reaction wood in Koromiko [Hebe salicifolia G. Forst. (Pennell)], a southern hemisphere angiosperm.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Miho; Becker, Verena K; Altaner, Clemens M

    2012-02-01

    Koromiko [Hebe salicifolia G. Forst. (Pennell)] is a woody angiosperm native to New Zealand and Chile. Hebe spp. belong to the otherwise herbaceous family Plantaginaceae in the order Lamiales. Reaction wood exerting expansional forces was found on the lower side of leaning H. salicifolia stems. Such reaction wood is atypical for angiosperms, which commonly form contracting reaction wood on the upper side of leaning stems. Reaction wood typical for angiosperms is formed by species in other families in the order Lamiales. This suggests that the form of reaction wood is specific to the family level. Functionally the reaction wood of H. salicifolia is similar to that found in gymnosperms, which both act by pushing. However, their chemical, anatomical and physical characteristics are different. Typical features of reaction wood present in gymnosperms such as high density, thick-walled rounded cells and the presence of (1 → 4)-β-galactan in the secondary cell wall layer are absent in H. salicifolia reaction wood. Reaction wood of H. salicifolia varies from normal wood in having a higher microfibril angle, which is likely to determine the direction of generated maturation stresses.

  19. FUNCTION FOLLOWS FORM: ACTIVATION OF SHAPE & FUNCTION FEATURES DURING OBJECT IDENTIFICATION

    PubMed Central

    Yee, Eiling; Huffstetler, Stacy; Thompson-Schill, Sharon L.

    2011-01-01

    Most theories of semantic memory characterize knowledge of a given object as comprising a set of semantic features. But how does conceptual activation of these features proceed during object identification? We present the results of a pair of experiments that demonstrate that object recognition is a dynamically unfolding process in which function follows form. We used eye movements to explore whether activating one object’s concept leads to the activation of others that share perceptual (shape) or abstract (function) features. Participants viewed four-picture displays and clicked on the picture corresponding to a heard word. In critical trials, the conceptual representation of one of the objects in the display was similar in shape or function (i.e., its purpose) to the heard word. Importantly, this similarity was not apparent in the visual depictions (e.g., for the target “frisbee,” the shape-related object was a triangular slice of pizza – a shape that a frisbee cannot take); preferential fixations on the related object were therefore attributable to overlap of the conceptual representations on the relevant features. We observed relatedness effects for both shape and function, but shape effects occurred earlier than function effects. We discuss the implications of these findings for current accounts of the representation of semantic memory. PMID:21417543

  20. Shape Beyond Recognition: Form-derived Directionality and its Effects on Visual Attention and Motion Perception

    PubMed Central

    Sigurdardottir, Heida M.; Michalak, Suzanne M.; Sheinberg, David L.

    2013-01-01

    The shape of an object restricts its movements and therefore its future location. The rules governing selective sampling of the environment likely incorporate any available data, including shape, that provide information about where important things are going to be in the near future so that the object can be located, tracked, and sampled for information. We asked people to assess in which direction several novel objects pointed or directed them. With independent groups of people, we investigated whether their attention and sense of motion were systematically biased in this direction. Our work shows that nearly any novel object has intrinsic directionality derived from its shape. This shape information is swiftly and automatically incorporated into the allocation of overt and covert visual orienting and the detection of motion, processes which themselves are inherently directional. The observed connection between form and space suggests that shape processing goes beyond recognition alone and may help explain why shape is a relevant dimension throughout the visual brain. PMID:23565670

  1. The Visual Word Form Area remains in the dominant hemisphere for language in late-onset left occipital lobe epilepsies: A postsurgery analysis of two cases.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Ricardo; Nunes, Rita Gouveia; Simões, Mário Rodrigues; Secca, Mário Forjaz; Leal, Alberto

    2015-05-01

    Automatic recognition of words from letter strings is a critical processing step in reading that is lateralized to the left-hemisphere middle fusiform gyrus in the so-called Visual Word Form Area (VWFA). Surgical lesions in this location can lead to irreversible alexia. Very early left hemispheric lesions can lead to transfer of the VWFA to the nondominant hemisphere, but it is currently unknown if this capability is preserved in epilepsies developing after reading acquisition. In this study, we aimed to determine the lateralization of the VWFA in late-onset left inferior occipital lobe epilepsies and also the effect of surgical disconnection from the adjacent secondary visual areas. Two patients with focal epilepsies with onset near the VWFA underwent to surgery for epilepsy, with sparing of this area. Neuropsychology evaluations were performed before and after surgery, as well as quantitative evaluation of the speed of word reading. Comparison of the surgical localization of the lesion, with the BOLD activation associated with the contrast of words-strings, was performed, as well as a study of the associated main white fiber pathways using diffusion-weighted imaging. Neither of the patients developed alexia after surgery (similar word reading speed before and after surgery) despite the fact that the inferior occipital surgical lesions reached the neighborhood (less than 1cm) of the VWFA. Surgeries partly disconnected the VWFA from left secondary visual areas, suggesting that pathways connecting to the posterior visual ventral stream were severely affected but did not induce alexia. The anterior and superior limits of the resection suggest that the critical connection between the VWFA and the Wernicke's Angular Gyrus cortex was not affected, which is supported by the detection of this tract with probabilistic tractography. Left occipital lobe epilepsies developing after reading acquisition did not produce atypical localizations of the VWFA, even with foci in the

  2. Effect of temper rolling on final shape defects in a V-section roll forming process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abvabi, Akbar; Rolfe, Bernard; Hodgson, Peter D.; Weiss, Matthias

    2013-12-01

    Roll forming is a continuous process in which a flat strip is shaped to the desired profile by sequential bending in a series of roll stands. Because of the large variety of applications of roll forming in the industry, Finite Element Analysis (FEA) is increasingly utilized for roll forming process design. Bending is the dominant deformation mode in roll forming. Sheet materials used in this process are generally temper rolled, roller- or tension- leveled. These processes introduce residual stresses into the material, and recent studies have shown that those affect the material behavior in bending. In this study a numerical model of the temper rolling (skin passing) process was used to determine a residual stress distribution in a dual phase, DP780, steel strip. A 5-stand roll forming process for the forming of a V-section was modeled, and the effect of various thickness reduction levels in the temper rolling process on the final shape defects was analyzed. The results show that a small thickness reduction in the temper rolling process decreases the maximum bow height but the final springback angle increases. It is also shown that reasonable model accuracy can be achieved by including the residual stress information due to temper rolling as initial condition in the numerical modeling of a roll forming process.

  3. Apparatus and method for forming a workpiece surface into a non-rotationally symmetric shape

    DOEpatents

    Dow, Thomas A.; Garrard, Kenneth P.; Moorefield, II, George M.; Taylor, Lauren W.

    1995-11-21

    A turning machine includes a controller for generating both aspherical and non-symmetrical shape components defining the predetermined shape, and a controller for controlling a spindle and a positionable cutting blade to thereby form a predetermined non-rotationally symmetric shape in a workpiece surface. The apparatus includes a rotatable spindle for rotatably mounting the workpiece about an axis, a spindle encoder for sensing an angular position of the rotating workpiece, the cutting blade, and radial and transverse positioners for relatively positioning the cutting blade and workpiece along respective radial and transverse directions. The controller cooperates with a fast transverse positioner for positioning the cutting blade in predetermined varying transverse positions during a revolution of the workpiece.

  4. The form of the auto-shaped response with food or water reinforcers1

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, H. M.; Moore, Bruce R.

    1973-01-01

    The relation between the form of auto-shaped responses to the lighting of a key and the consummatory responses of pecking grain and drinking water was examined in pigeons. Responses on the key were analyzed by means of high-speed photography, recordings of the force of contact, and judges' ratings of response-form based on film and videotape recordings. The first experiment showed that food-deprived birds presented grain as a reinforcer responded on the key with a grain-pecking movement, while water-deprived birds presented water as a reinforcer responded with drinking-like movements. The second and third experiments showed that the resemblance between auto-shaped and consummatory responses does not require the dominance of the deprivational state appropriate to the reinforcer. Changing the dominant state of deprivation did not immediately change the form of the key response, and in subjects simultaneously deprived of food and water, the form of response depended on the reinforcer. In the fourth and fifth experiments, subjects simultaneously deprived of food and water received one stimulus signalling food and another signalling water in a random series. In most subjects, the response to each stimulus resembled the consummatory response to the particular reinforcer that was signalled by the stimulus. This result demonstrates the role of association between a stimulus and a reinforcer in producing a resemblance of the auto-shaped response to the consummatory response. ImagesFig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4. PMID:4752087

  5. Metamorphic hemispherical microphone array for three-dimensional acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, Shantonu; Reiprich, Johannes; Cohrs, Thaden; Stauden, Thomas; Pezoldt, Joerg; Jacobs, Heiko O.

    2017-07-01

    This article describes the realization of a metamorphic stretchable microphone array, which can be inflated by air to morph from a planar to a hemispherical shape. The array undergoes morphological changes to adjust their receive characteristic. To realize this device, a metamorphic printed circuit board technology (m-PCB) is described. The resulting products are millimeter-thin stretchable silicone embedded and electrically interconnected electronic structures with mechanical properties, which resemble a silicone membrane. The microphone array is used to localize a sound source in a 3D space. The results of the planar orientation (resting shape), and the 3D hemispherical orientation after air inflation are compared. The inflated hemispherical microphone array proofs to be better for 3D acoustic localization and/or beam-forming.

  6. Form and performance: body shape and prey-capture success in four drift-feeding minnows.

    PubMed

    Rincón, Pedro A; Bastir, Markus; Grossman, Gary D

    2007-05-01

    Identifying links between morphology and performance for ecologically relevant tasks will help elucidate the relationships between organismal design and fitness. We conducted a laboratory study to quantify the relationship between variation in body shape and prey-capture success in four drift-feeding minnow species. We offered drifting prey to individual fish in a test flume, counted successful strikes to measure prey-capture success and recorded the position (X, Y coordinates) of ten landmarks on each fish's outline to delineate the specimen's form. We then quantified shape variation among species and related it to capture performance through thin-plate spline analysis. Body shape varied significantly among species and with specimen size and was the major determinant of capture success, explaining 45-47% of its variability. Prey-capture success at differing velocities differed among species, but once the effects of shape and size were accounted for, those differences were no longer significant. Allometric shape changes appeared responsible for most of the ontogenetic variation in capture performance, although other size-related, non-shape factors also seemed relevant. Fishes with deeper, shorter bodies, more caudally placed median fins and larger, more upward-pointing mouths exhibited greater capture success than more fusiform fish, suggesting that streamlining, which is energetically advantageous for sustained swimming, entails a cost in terms of prey-capture ability. Our findings demonstrate a strong connection between organismal shape and performance and provide empirical evidence of the cost of morphological specialization for fishes in the drift-feeding functional guild.

  7. Words, Hemispheres, and Dissociable Subsystems: The Effects of Exposure Duration, Case Alternation, Priming, and Continuity of Form on Word Recognition in the Left and Right Visual Fields

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Andrew W.; Ansorge, Lydia; Lavidor, Michal

    2007-01-01

    Three experiments explore aspects of the dissociable neural subsystems theory of hemispheric specialisation proposed by Marsolek and colleagues, and in particular a study by [Deason, R. G., & Marsolek, C. J. (2005). A critical boundary to the left-hemisphere advantage in word processing. "Brain and Language," 92, 251-261]. Experiment 1A showed…

  8. Words, Hemispheres, and Dissociable Subsystems: The Effects of Exposure Duration, Case Alternation, Priming, and Continuity of Form on Word Recognition in the Left and Right Visual Fields

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Andrew W.; Ansorge, Lydia; Lavidor, Michal

    2007-01-01

    Three experiments explore aspects of the dissociable neural subsystems theory of hemispheric specialisation proposed by Marsolek and colleagues, and in particular a study by [Deason, R. G., & Marsolek, C. J. (2005). A critical boundary to the left-hemisphere advantage in word processing. "Brain and Language," 92, 251-261]. Experiment 1A showed…

  9. Near-net-shape manufacturing: Spray-formed metal matrix composites and tooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mchugh, Kevin M.

    1994-01-01

    Spray forming is a materials processing technology in which a bulk liquid metal is converted to a spray of fine droplets and deposited onto a substrate or pattern to form a near-net-shape solid. The technology offers unique opportunities for simplifying materials processing without sacrificing, and oftentimes substantially improving, product quality. Spray forming can be performed with a wide range of metals and nonmetals, and offers property improvements resulting from rapid solidification (e.g. refined microstructures, extended solid solubilities and reduced segregation). Economic benefits result from process simplification and the elimination of unit operations. The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory is developing a unique spray-forming method, the Controlled Aspiration Process (CAP), to produce near-net-shape solids and coatings of metals, polymers, and composite materials. Results from two spray-accompanying technical and economic benefits. These programs involved spray forming aluminum strip reinforced with SiC particulate, and the production of tooling, such as injection molds and dies, using low-melting-point metals.

  10. Closed-form modelling and design analysis of V- and Z-shaped electrothermal microactuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhuo; Zhang, Weize; Wu, Qiyang; Yu, Yueqing; Liu, Xinyu; Zhang, Xuping

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the modelling and design analysis of V- and Z-shaped electrothermal microactuators. First, a comprehensive but concise closed-form multiphysical analytical model is developed to predict the output displacement and force of both V- and Z-shaped electrothermal microactuators operating either in vacuum or in air conditions. The analytical model is verified by finite element analysis and experimental testing. Then, a novel comparison benchmark is proposed for the design and analysis of the V- and Z-shaped microactuators. With the multiphysical model and comparison benchmark, comprehensive performance comparison and analysis of the V- and Z-shaped beams are performed with the aim of providing insight and guidance on selection and design of the two typical types of electrothermal microactuators. Finally, the application of the comparison model into the design analysis is demonstrated using a design example of an electrothermal microactuator, and the detailed investigation is conducted to examine the effects of the material properties and structural parameters on the microactuator outputs.

  11. Method of forming variable cross-sectional shaped three-dimensional fabrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohamed, Mansour H. (Inventor); Zhang, Zhong-Huai (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    Method of weaving a variable cross-sectional shaped three-dimensional fabric which utilizes different weft yarn insertion from at least one side of the warp layers for selectively inserting weft yarns into different portions of the fabric cross-sectional profile defined by the warp yarn layers during the weaving process. If inserted from both sides of the warp yarn layers, the weft yarns may be inserted simultaneously or alternately from each side of the warp yarn layers. The vertical yarn is then inserted into the fabric by reciprocation of a plurality of harnesses which separate the vertical yarn into a plurality of vertical yarn systems as required by the shape of the three-dimensional fabric being formed.

  12. Hull-form optimization of a container ship based on bell-shaped modification function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Hee Jong

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, a hydrodynamic hull-form optimization algorithm for a container ship was presented in terms of the minimum wave-making resistance. Bell-shaped modification functions were developed to modify the original hull-form and a sequential quadratic programming algorithm was used as an optimizer. The wave-making resistance as an objective function was obtained by the Rankine source panel method in which non-linear free surface conditions and the trim and sinkage of the ship were fully taken into account. Numerical computation was performed to investigate the validity and effectiveness of the proposed hull-form modification algorithm for the container carrier. The computational results were validated by comparing them with the experimental data.

  13. Theory of Brushes Formed by Ψ-Shaped Macromolecules at Solid-Liquid Interfaces.

    PubMed

    Zhulina, Ekaterina B; Leermakers, Frans A M; Borisov, Oleg V

    2015-06-16

    We present a theoretical analysis targeted to describe the structural properties of brushes formed by Ψ-shaped macromolecules tethered by terminal segment of stem to planar surface while exposing multiple free branches to the surrounding solution. We use an analytical self-consistent field approach based on the strong stretching approximation, and the assumption of Gaussian elasticity for linear chain fragments of the tethered macromolecules. The effect of weak and strong polydispersity of branches is analyzed. In the case of weakly polydisperse macromolecules, variations in length of branches lead to a more uniform polymer density distribution with slight increase in the brush thickness compared to the case of monodisperse chains with the same degree of polymerization. We demonstrate that in contrast to linear chains, strong polydispersity of Ψ-shaped macromolecules does not necessarily lead to strong perturbations in polymer density distribution. In particular, mixed brushes of the so-called "mirror" dendrons (in which number of stem monomers in one component coincides with number of monomers in a branch of the other component, and vice versa) give rise to a unified polymer density distribution with shape independent of the brush composition. The predictions of analytical theory are systematically compared to the results of numerical self-consistent field modeling based on the Scheutjens-Fleer approach.

  14. Shape of magnetic domain walls formed by coupling to mobile charges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozawa, Ryo; Hayami, Satoru; Barros, Kipton; Motome, Yukitoshi

    2017-09-01

    Magnetic domain walls, which are crucially important in both fundamental physics and technical applications, often have a preference in their form due to many different origins, such as the crystalline shape, lattice symmetry, and magnetic anisotropy. We theoretically investigate yet another origin stemming from the coupling to mobile charges in itinerant magnets. Performing a large-scale numerical simulation in a minimal model for itinerant magnets, i.e., the Kondo lattice model with classical localized spins, we show that the shape of magnetic domain walls depends on the electronic band structure and electron filling. While Néel and 120∘ antiferromagnetic states do not show a strong preference in the shape of domain walls, noncoplanar spin states with scalar chiral ordering have distinct directional preferences of the domain walls depending on the electron filling. We find that the directional preference is rationalized by the wave-number dependence of the effective magnetic interactions induced by the mobile charges, which are set by the band structure and electron filling. We also observe that, in the noncoplanar chiral states, an electric current is induced along the domain walls owing to the spin Berry phase mechanism, with different spatial distributions depending on whether the bulk state is metallic or insulating.

  15. Amphiphilic crescent-moon-shaped microparticles formed by selective adsorption of colloids.

    PubMed

    Kim, Shin-Hyun; Abbaspourrad, Alireza; Weitz, David A

    2011-04-13

    We use a microfluidic device to prepare monodisperse amphiphilic particles in the shape of a crescent-moon and use these particles to stabilize oil droplets in water. The microfluidic device is comprised of a tapered capillary in a theta (θ) shape that injects two oil phases into water in a single receiving capillary. One oil is a fluorocarbon, while the second is a photocurable monomer, which partially wets the first oil drop; silica colloids in the monomer migrate and adsorb to the interface with water but do not protrude into the oil interface. Upon UV-induced polymerization, solid particles with the shape of a crescent moon are formed; removal of fluorocarbon oil yields amphiphilic particles due to the selective adsorption of silica colloids. The resultant amphiphilic microparticles can be used to stabilize oil drops in a mixture of water and ethanol; if they are packed to sufficient surface density on the interface of the oil drop, they become immobilized, preventing direct contact between neighboring drops, thereby providing the stability.

  16. Hemispheric differences in relational reasoning: novel insights based on an old technique.

    PubMed

    Vendetti, Michael S; Johnson, Elizabeth L; Lemos, Connor J; Bunge, Silvia A

    2015-01-01

    Relational reasoning, or the ability to integrate multiple mental relations to arrive at a logical conclusion, is a critical component of higher cognition. A bilateral brain network involving lateral prefrontal and parietal cortices has been consistently implicated in relational reasoning. Some data suggest a preferential role for the left hemisphere in this form of reasoning, whereas others suggest that the two hemispheres make important contributions. To test for a hemispheric asymmetry in relational reasoning, we made use of an old technique known as visual half-field stimulus presentation to manipulate whether stimuli were presented briefly to one hemisphere or the other. Across two experiments, 54 neurologically healthy young adults performed a visuospatial transitive inference task. Pairs of colored shapes were presented rapidly in either the left or right visual hemifield as participants maintained central fixation, thereby isolating initial encoding to the contralateral hemisphere. We observed a left-hemisphere advantage for encoding a series of ordered visuospatial relations, but both hemispheres contributed equally to task performance when the relations were presented out of order. To our knowledge, this is the first study to reveal hemispheric differences in relational encoding in the intact brain. We discuss these findings in the context of a rich literature on hemispheric asymmetries in cognition.

  17. Hemispheric Differences in Relational Reasoning: Novel Insights Based on an Old Technique

    PubMed Central

    Vendetti, Michael S.; Johnson, Elizabeth L.; Lemos, Connor J.; Bunge, Silvia A.

    2015-01-01

    Relational reasoning, or the ability to integrate multiple mental relations to arrive at a logical conclusion, is a critical component of higher cognition. A bilateral brain network involving lateral prefrontal and parietal cortices has been consistently implicated in relational reasoning. Some data suggest a preferential role for the left hemisphere in this form of reasoning, whereas others suggest that the two hemispheres make important contributions. To test for a hemispheric asymmetry in relational reasoning, we made use of an old technique known as visual half-field stimulus presentation to manipulate whether stimuli were presented briefly to one hemisphere or the other. Across two experiments, 54 neurologically healthy young adults performed a visuospatial transitive inference task. Pairs of colored shapes were presented rapidly in either the left or right visual hemifield as participants maintained central fixation, thereby isolating initial encoding to the contralateral hemisphere. We observed a left-hemisphere advantage for encoding a series of ordered visuospatial relations, but both hemispheres contributed equally to task performance when the relations were presented out of order. To our knowledge, this is the first study to reveal hemispheric differences in relational encoding in the intact brain. We discuss these findings in the context of a rich literature on hemispheric asymmetries in cognition. PMID:25709577

  18. Shape and optical properties of aerosols formed by photolysis of acetylene, ethylene, and hydrogen cyanide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bar-Nun, A.; Kleinfeld, I.; Ganor, E.

    1988-07-01

    The shapes and sizes of photochemically produced aerosol particles of polyacetylene, polyethylene, and polyhydrogen cyanide were studied experimentally. All of the single particles were found to be perfectly spherical and semiliquid. However, they aggregate readily, with a sticking coefficient near unity, to form nonspherical particles, which could give rise to the observed polarization from Titan's and Jupiter's upper haze layers. The absorbance of polyacetylene was remeasured and corrected, and it is now much closer to that of polyethylene. The measured real and imaginary indices of refraction of the two materials make them both suitable material for Titan's and Jupiter's upper haze layers. However, the larger abundance and higher rate of polymerization of acetylene would make it the dominant aerosol-forming material in both atmospheres.

  19. Shape and optical properties of aerosols formed by photolysis of acetylene, ethylene, and hydrogen cyanide

    SciTech Connect

    Bar-Nun, A.; Kleinfeld, I.; Ganor, E.

    1988-07-20

    The shapes and sizes of photochemically produced aerosol particles of polyacetylene, polyethylene, and polyhydrogen cyanide were studied experimentally. All of the single particles were found to be perfectly spherical and semiliquid. However, they aggregate readily, with a sticking coefficient near unity, to form nonspherical particles, which could give rise to the observed polarization from Titan's and Jupiter's upper haze layers. The absorbance of polyacetylene was remeasured and corrected, and it is now much closer to that of polyethylene. The measured real and imaginary indices of refraction of the two materials make them both suitable material for Titan's and Jupiter's upper haze layers. However, the larger abundance and higher rate of polymerization of acetylene would make it the dominant aerosol-forming material in both atmospheres. copyright American Geophysical Union 1988

  20. Net-Shape Forming and Mechanical Properties of MIM418 Turbine Wheel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lin; Chen, Xiaowei; Li, Dan; Xuanhui, Qu; Mingli, Qin; Li, Zhou

    2016-09-01

    Near-net shape forming of the turbine wheel with a hollow internal structure was realized by adopting the die with side core-pulling mechanism. MIM418 turbine wheel with relative density above 99.5% is obtained by the combination of vacuum sintering and hot isostatic pressing. A high volume fraction (57%) of near cuboidal γ' phase with average particle size of 0.52 μm is formed in γ matrix. Small amount of discrete carbides with size of 0.2-0.4 μm is distributed uniformly on grain boundaries and within grains. The tensile strength, yield strength, and ductility of MIM418 superalloy reach 1425 MPa, 1004 MPa, and 19.4%, respectively, which are much higher than that of the cast K418 superalloy.

  1. Helical arrays of U-shaped ATP synthase dimers form tubular cristae in ciliate mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Mühleip, Alexander W.; Joos, Friederike; Wigge, Christoph; Frangakis, Achilleas S.; Kühlbrandt, Werner; Davies, Karen M.

    2016-01-01

    F1Fo-ATP synthases are universal energy-converting membrane protein complexes that synthesize ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate. In mitochondria of yeast and mammals, the ATP synthase forms V-shaped dimers, which assemble into rows along the highly curved ridges of lamellar cristae. Using electron cryotomography and subtomogram averaging, we have determined the in situ structure and organization of the mitochondrial ATP synthase dimer of the ciliate Paramecium tetraurelia. The ATP synthase forms U-shaped dimers with parallel monomers. Each complex has a prominent intracrista domain, which links the c-ring of one monomer to the peripheral stalk of the other. Close interaction of intracrista domains in adjacent dimers results in the formation of helical ATP synthase dimer arrays, which differ from the loose dimer rows in all other organisms observed so far. The parameters of the helical arrays match those of the cristae tubes, suggesting the unique features of the P. tetraurelia ATP synthase are directly responsible for generating the helical tubular cristae. We conclude that despite major structural differences between ATP synthase dimers of ciliates and other eukaryotes, the formation of ATP synthase dimer rows is a universal feature of mitochondria and a fundamental determinant of cristae morphology. PMID:27402755

  2. Right hemisphere dominance in visual statistical learning.

    PubMed

    Roser, Matthew E; Fiser, József; Aslin, Richard N; Gazzaniga, Michael S

    2011-05-01

    Several studies report a right hemisphere advantage for visuospatial integration and a left hemisphere advantage for inferring conceptual knowledge from patterns of covariation. The present study examined hemispheric asymmetry in the implicit learning of new visual feature combinations. A split-brain patient and normal control participants viewed multishape scenes presented in either the right or the left visual fields. Unbeknownst to the participants, the scenes were composed from a random combination of fixed pairs of shapes. Subsequent testing found that control participants could discriminate fixed-pair shapes from randomly combined shapes when presented in either visual field. The split-brain patient performed at chance except when both the practice and the test displays were presented in the left visual field (right hemisphere). These results suggest that the statistical learning of new visual features is dominated by visuospatial processing in the right hemisphere and provide a prediction about how fMRI activation patterns might change during unsupervised statistical learning.

  3. Neptune's Southern Hemisphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    This photograph of Neptune's southern hemisphere was taken by the narrow-angle camera on NASA's Voyager 2 when the spacecraft was 4.2 million km (2.6 million miles) from the planet. The smallest features that can be seen are 38 km (24 miles) across. The almond-shaped structure at the left is a large cloud system that has been seen for several weeks. Internal details in the feature have become increasingly apparent as Voyager 2 has approached. Systems with similar shapes in Jupiter's atmosphere rotate about their centers, rolling in the local winds that increase toward the south. However, the wispy nature of the white central clouds in this Neptunian feature make confirmation of the system's rotation difficult. The Voyager Mission is conducted by JPL for NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications.

  4. Mitsugumin 23 Forms a Massive Bowl-Shaped Assembly and Cation-Conducting Channel

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Mitsugumin 23 (MG23) is a 23 kDa transmembrane protein localized to the sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum and nuclear membranes in a wide variety of cells. Although the characteristics imply the participation in a fundamental function in intracellular membrane systems, the physiological role of MG23 is unknown. Here we report the biochemical and biophysical characterization of MG23. Hydropathicity profile and limited proteolytic analysis proposed three transmembrane segments in the MG23 primary structure. Chemical cross-linking analysis suggested a homo-oligomeric assembly of MG23. Ultrastructural observations detected a large symmetrical particle as the predominant component and a small asymmetric assembly as the second major component in highly purified MG23 preparations. Single-particle three-dimensional reconstruction revealed that MG23 forms a large bowl-shaped complex equipped with a putative central pore, which is considered an assembly of the small asymmetric subunit. After reconstitution into planar phospholipid bilayers, purified MG23 behaved as a voltage-dependent, cation-conducting channel, permeable to both K+ and Ca2+. A feature of MG23 gating was that multiple channels always appeared to be gating together in the bilayer. Our observations suggest that the bowl-shaped MG23 can transiently assemble and disassemble. These building transitions may underlie the unusual channel gating behavior of MG23 and allow rapid cationic flux across intracellular membrane systems. PMID:21381722

  5. Free form fabrication of metallic components using laser engineered net shaping (LENS{trademark})

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, M.L.; Keicher, D.M.; Atwood, C.L.

    1996-09-01

    Solid free form fabrication is one of the fastest growing automated manufacturing technologies that has significantly impacted the length of time between initial concept and actual part fabrication. Starting with CAD renditions of new components, several techniques such as stereolithography and selective laser sintering are being used to fabricate highly accurate complex three-dimensional concept models using polymeric materials. Coupled with investment casting techniques, sacrificial polymeric objects are used to minimize costs and time to fabricate tooling used to make complex metal castings. This paper will describe recent developments in a new technology, known as LENS{sup {trademark}} (Laser Engineered Net Shaping), to fabricate metal components directly from CAD solid models and thus further reduce the lead times for metal part fabrication. In a manner analogous to stereolithography or selective sintering, the LENS{sup {trademark}} process builds metal parts line by line and layer by layer. Metal particles are injected into a laser beam, where they are melted and deposited onto a substrate as a miniature weld pool. The trace of the laser beam on the substrate is driven by the definition of CAD models until the desired net-shaped densified metal component is produced.

  6. A Skeleton-Based 3D Shape Reconstruction of Free-Form Objects with Stereo Vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saini, Deepika; Kumar, Sanjeev

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, an efficient approach is proposed for recovering the 3D shape of a free-form object from its arbitrary pair of stereo images. In particular, the reconstruction problem is treated as the reconstruction of the skeleton and the external boundary of the object. The reconstructed skeleton is termed as the line-like representation or curve-skeleton of the 3D object. The proposed solution for object reconstruction is based on this evolved curve-skeleton. It is used as a seed for recovering shape of the 3D object, and the extracted boundary is used for terminating the growing process of the object. NURBS-skeleton is used to extract the skeleton of both views. Affine invariant property of the convex hulls is used to establish the correspondence between the skeletons and boundaries in the stereo images. In the growing process, a distance field is defined for each skeleton point as the smallest distance from that point to the boundary of the object. A sphere centered at a skeleton point of radius equal to the minimum distance to the boundary is tangential to the boundary. Filling in the spheres centered at each skeleton point reconstructs the object. Several results are presented in order to check the applicability and validity of the proposed algorithm.

  7. Multiple Shape Memory Polymers Based on Laminates Formed from Thiol-Click Chemistry Based Polymerizations

    PubMed Central

    Podgórski, M.; Wang, C.

    2015-01-01

    This investigation details the formation of polymer network trilayer laminates formed by thiol-X click chemistries, and their subsequent implementation and evaluation for quadruple shape memory behavior. Thiol-Michael addition and thiol-isocyanate-based crosslinking reactions were employed to fabricate each of the laminate’s layers with independent control of the chemistry and properties of each layer and outstanding interlayer adhesion and stability. The characteristic features of step-growth thiol-X reactions, such as excellent network uniformity and narrow thermal transitions as well as their stoichiometric nature, enabled fabrication of trilayer laminates with three distinctly different glass transition temperatures grouped within a narrow range of 100 °C. Through variations in the layer thicknesses, a step-wise modulus drop as a function of temperature was achieved. This behavior allowed multi-step programming and the demonstration and quantification of quadruple shape memory performance. As is critical for this performance, the interface connecting the layers was evaluated in stoichiometric as well as off-stoichiometric systems. It was shown that the laminated structures exhibit strong interfacial binding and hardly suffer any delamination during cyclic material testing and deformation. PMID:26234205

  8. MACHINING ELIMINATION THROUGH APPLICATION OF THREAD FORMING FASTENERS IN NET SHAPED CAST HOLES

    SciTech Connect

    Cleaver, Ryan J; Cleaver, Todd H; Talbott, Richard

    2012-05-02

    The ultimate objective of this work was to eliminate approximately 30% of the machining performed in typical automotive engine and transmission plants by using thread forming fasteners in as-cast holes of aluminum and magnesium cast components. The primary issues at the source of engineers reluctance to implementing thread forming fasteners in lightweight castings are: * Little proof of consistency of clamp load vs. input torque in either aluminum or magnesium castings. * No known data to understand the effect on consistency of clamp load as casting dies wear. The clamp load consistency concern is founded in the fact that a portion of the input torque used to create clamp load is also used to create threads. The torque used for thread forming may not be consistent due to variations in casting material, hole size and shape due to tooling wear and process variation (thermal and mechanical). There is little data available to understand the magnitude of this concern or to form the basis of potential solutions if the range of clamp load variation is very high (> +/- 30%). The range of variation that can be expected in as-cast hole size and shape over the full life cycle of a high pressure die casting die was established in previous work completed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, (PNNL). This established range of variation was captured in a set of 12 cast bosses by designing core pins at the size and draft angles identified in the sited previous work. The cast bosses were cut into nuts that could be used in the Ford Fastener Laboratory test-cell to measure clamp load when a thread forming fastener was driven into a cast nut. There were two sets of experiments run. First, a series of cast aluminum nuts were made reflecting the range of shape and size variations to be expected over the life cycle of a die casting die. Taptite thread forming fasteners, (a widely used thread forming fastener suitable for aluminum applications), were driven into the various cored, as

  9. General associative learning shapes the plasticity of the visual word form area.

    PubMed

    Song, Yiying; Bu, Yong; Liu, Jia

    2010-03-31

    Earlier studies identify a region in the left fusiform gyrus that responds selectively to visual words, termed the visual word form area (VWFA). Converging evidence suggests that the VWFA is wired up largely by language experience. Here we asked whether general associative experience without explicit language learning accounts for the selectivity of the VWFA. Specifically, we trained individuals to associate novel stimuli with objects. We found that the blood oxygen level-dependent response of the VWFA to the trained stimuli was significantly higher than that of visually similar but untrained stimuli. No learning effects were found in the face-selective and object-selective regions. Our study illuminates that the plasticity of the VWFA can be shaped by associative learning without language experience.

  10. 3D shape measurement of optical free-form surface based on fringe projection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shaohui; Liu, Shugui; Zhang, Hongwei

    2011-05-01

    Present a novel method of 3D shape measurement of optical free-from surface based on fringe projection. A virtual reference surface is proposed which can be used to improve the detection efficiency and realize the automation of measuring process. Sinusoidal fringe patterns are projected to the high reflected surface of the measured object. The deflection fringe patterns that modulated by the object surface are captured by the CCD camera. The slope information can be obtained by analyzing the relationship between the phase deflectometry and the slope of the object surface. The wave-front reconstruction method is used to reconstruct the surface. With the application of fringe projection technology the accuracy of optical free-form surfaces measurement could reach the level of tens of micrometer or even micrometer.

  11. Near net shape forming processes for chemically prepared zinc oxide varistors.

    SciTech Connect

    Lockwood, Steven John; Voigt, James A.; Tuttle, Bruce Andrew; Bell, Nelson Simmons

    2005-01-01

    Chemically prepared zinc oxide powders are fabricated for the production of high aspect ratio varistor components. Colloidal processing in water was performed to reduce agglomerates to primary particles, form a high solids loading slurry, and prevent dopant migration. The milled and dispersed powder exhibited a viscoelastic to elastic behavioral transition at a volume loading of 43-46%. The origin of this transition was studied using acoustic spectroscopy, zeta potential measurements and oscillatory rheology. The phenomenon occurs due to a volume fraction solids dependent reduction in the zeta potential of the solid phase. It is postulated to result from divalent ion binding within the polyelectrolyte dispersant chain, and was mitigated using a polyethylene glycol plasticizing additive. Chemically prepared zinc oxide powders were processed for the production of high aspect ratio varistor components. Near net shape casting methods including slip casting and agarose gelcasting were evaluated for effectiveness in achieving a uniform green microstructure achieving density values near the theoretical maximum during sintering. The structure of the green parts was examined by mercury porisimetry. Agarose gelcasting produced green parts with low solids loading values and did not achieve high fired density. Isopressing the agarose cast parts after drying raised the fired density to greater than 95%, but the parts exhibited catastrophic shorting during electrical testing. Slip casting produced high green density parts, which exhibited high fired density values. The electrical characteristics of slip cast parts are comparable with dry pressed powder compacts. Alternative methods for near net shape forming of ceramic dispersions were investigated for use with the chemically prepared ZnO material. Recommendations for further investigation to achieve a viable production process are presented.

  12. Surface form memory by indentation-planarization training of nickel titanium shape memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fei, Xueling

    Shape memory alloys respond to deformation by indentation with strong two-way cyclic displacements on heating and cooling. Shallow indents can vanish on heating, and deeper indents will change depth when thermally cycled. In the present work, following indentation by an added step of surface planarization can furthermore produce what has been termed "Surface Form Memory" or SFM. The term SFM describes an effect that causes one surface form to reversibly transform to another, under thermal excitation. The term surface form is meant to distinguish between say, flat and "bumpy" surfaces, on a scale much larger than the intrinsic surface roughness. Surface protrusions, or 'exdents' may reach an amplitude near 20% of the initial indent depth, and may be created on nano to macroscopic size scales. The surface form memory effect may have special applications into novel optical, microelectromechanical, and tribological systems. Surface deformation of a NiTi shape memory alloy (SMA) was accomplished using spherical, cylindrical, pyramidal, and flat punch indenters. Single indents and indent arrays have been made. The amplitude of SFM after planarization was found to be related to the size of the subsurface deformation zone and can be maximized by thermal cycling, multiple indentations, by changing indent depth and spacing, and by varying indentation temperature parameters. The spatial extent of the subsurface deformation zone was studied by both experimental methods and finite element modeling. Methods such as successive front and back thinning probed the size of the deformation zone directly, while finite element modeling provided stress-strain information supporting the conclusion that the deformation zone responsible for the two-way effect was a slip zone that had plastic strains larger than 7%. NiTi SFM, when studied in constrained recovery experiments, showed an energy density up to 10 MJ/m3, which is about the same as that of a conventional NiTi actuator. This proves

  13. Fluctuations and Shape of Cooperative Rearranging Regions in Glass-Forming Liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biroli, Giulio; Cammarota, Chiara

    2017-01-01

    We develop a theory of amorphous interfaces in glass-forming liquids. We show that the statistical properties of these surfaces, which separate regions characterized by different amorphous arrangements of particles, coincide with the ones of domain walls in the random field Ising model. A major consequence of our results is that supercooled liquids are characterized by two different static lengths: the point-to-set ξPS , which is a measure of the spatial extent of cooperative rearranging regions, and the wandering length ξ⊥, which is related to the fluctuations of their shape. We find that ξ⊥ grows when approaching the glass transition but slower than ξPS. The wandering length increases as sc-1 /2, where sc is the configurational entropy. Our results strengthen the relationship with the random field Ising model found in recent works. They are in agreement with previous numerical studies of amorphous interfaces and provide a theoretical framework for explaining numerical and experimental findings on pinned particle systems and static lengths in glass-forming liquids.

  14. Split-brain, the right hemisphere, and art: fact and fiction.

    PubMed

    Zaidel, Dahlia W

    2013-01-01

    The research studies of complete commissurotomy patients (split-brain) in Roger W. Sperry's psychobiology laboratory at Caltech, Pasadena, galvanized the scientific and intellectual world in the 1960s and 1970s. The findings had an important and enduring impact on brain research in countless areas. Interest in hemispheric specialization in particular was sparked by these studies and paved the way for countless discoveries. Right hemisphere specialization for visuospatial functions and facial processing was confirmed with these patients. The further unraveling of right-hemisphere cognition, the "mute" hemisphere, was a major goal in Sperry's laboratory, and much factual knowledge was learned that was not known previously. However, the linking of art and creativity with the right hemisphere was a nonempirically based inference made not by Sperry's lab but rather by others wishing to "assign" functional hemisphericity. The general assumption was that "art" is anchored in spatial cognition, that it is a nonverbal activity requiring imagery and thus must be controlled by the right, nonlanguage hemisphere. To this day, robust evidence that the right specializes in art expression or art perception is yet to be shown, if for no other reason than that art is not a single, unitary form of expression or cognition. The conjectured right hemisphere-art link turned into a popular story that filtered back into science, shaped future research of brain and art, and overlooked other avenues for insights. This chapter traces and explores this background. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The influence of brow shape on the perception of facial form and brow aesthetics.

    PubMed

    Baker, Stephen B; Dayan, Joseph H; Crane, Amy; Kim, Sugene

    2007-06-01

    Previous studies have described the ideal shape of the aesthetic brow. These studies were based on fashion models, who typically have ideal oval faces. In people with different facial shapes, makeup artists modify brow shape to give the illusion of an oval shape. The purpose of this investigation was to compare the classically described ideal brow to the modified brow for each facial shape. The faces of five models were morphed into round, square, oval, and long facial shapes. The eyebrows were digitally removed. A makeup artist drew the brows specifically for each facial shape. In a second set of prints, the brow shape was based on the previously published criteria. Seventy-eight people were asked which face they believed was more aesthetic. There was no significant difference between the classic and the modified eyebrow in the oval or round facial shapes. In the square and long facial shapes, the modified brow was found to be more attractive in 62.7 percent and 58.7 percent of the subjects, which is statistically significant (p < 0.05). The ideal brow may differ from the classic description when applied to the long or square face. In long faces, a flatter brow may give the illusion of fullness. In the square face, an accentuated lateral curvature may help soften the angles of the face. It may be difficult to achieve these modifications surgically, but it is important to be aware of the effect that brow shape has on facial shape.

  16. Mechanisms of hemispheric specialization: Insights from analyses of connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Stephan, Klaas Enno; Fink, Gereon R.; Marshall, John C.

    2007-01-01

    Traditionally, anatomical and physiological descriptions of hemispheric specialization have focused on hemispheric asymmetries of local brain structure or local functional properties, respectively. This article reviews the current state of an alternative approach that aims at unraveling the causes and functional principles of hemispheric specialization in terms of asymmetries in connectivity. Starting with an overview of the historical origins of the concept of lateralization, we briefly review recent evidence from anatomical and developmental studies that asymmetries in structural connectivity may be a critical factor shaping hemispheric specialization. These differences in anatomical connectivity, which are found both at the intra- and inter-regional level, are likely to form the structural substrate of different functional principles of information processing in the two hemispheres. The main goal of this article is to describe how these functional principles can be characterized using functional neuroimaging in combination with models of functional and effective connectivity. We discuss the methodology of established models of connectivity which are applicable to data from positron emission tomography and functional magnetic resonance imaging and review published studies that have applied these approaches to characterize asymmetries of connectivity during lateralized tasks. Adopting a model-based approach enables functional imaging to proceed from mere descriptions of asymmetric activation patterns to mechanistic accounts of how these asymmetries are caused. PMID:16949111

  17. Hemispheric Asymmetries in the Perceptual Representations of Words

    PubMed Central

    Lincoln, Amy E.; Long, Debra L.; Swick, Diane; Larsen, Jary; Baynes, Kathleen

    2009-01-01

    The representation of words in sentences can involve the activation and integration of perceptual information. For example, readers who are asked to view pictures of objects relating to a word in a sentence are influenced by perceptual information in the sentence context—readers are faster to respond to a picture of a whole apple after reading “There is an apple in the bag” than after reading “There is an apple in the salad.” The purpose of this study was to examine how the two cerebral hemispheres use perceptual information about words as a function of sentence context. Patients who had damage to the left or right hemisphere and age-matched control participants read sentences that described, but did not entail, the shape or state of an object. They then made recognition judgments to pictures that either matched or mismatched the perceptual form implied by the sentence. Responses and latencies were examined for a match effect—faster and more accurate responses to pictures in the match than mismatch condition—controlling for comprehension ability and lesion size. When comprehension ability and lesion size are properly controlled, left-hemisphere damaged patients and control participants exhibited the expected match effect, whereas right-hemisphere damaged participants showed no effect of match condition. These results are consistent with research implicating the right hemisphere in the representation of contextually relevant perceptual information. PMID:18048008

  18. Hemispheric asymmetries in the perceptual representations of words.

    PubMed

    Lincoln, Amy E; Long, Debra L; Swick, Diane; Larsen, Jary; Baynes, Kathleen

    2008-01-10

    The representation of words in sentences can involve the activation and integration of perceptual information. For example, readers who are asked to view pictures of objects relating to a word in a sentence are influenced by perceptual information in the sentence context-readers are faster to respond to a picture of a whole apple after reading, "There is an apple in the bag," than after reading, "There is an apple in the salad." The purpose of this study was to examine how the two cerebral hemispheres use perceptual information about words as a function of sentence context. Patients who had damage to the left or right hemisphere and age-matched control participants read sentences that described, but did not entail, the shape or state of an object. They then made recognition judgments to pictures that either matched or mismatched the perceptual form implied by the sentence. Responses and latencies were examined for a match effect -- faster and more accurate responses to pictures in the match than mismatch condition -- controlling for comprehension ability and lesion size. When comprehension ability and lesion size are properly controlled, left-hemisphere-damaged patients and control participants exhibited the expected match effect, whereas right-hemisphere-damaged participants showed no effect of match condition. These results are consistent with research implicating the right hemisphere in the representation of contextually relevant perceptual information.

  19. A MEMS diamond hemispherical resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernstein, J. J.; Bancu, M. G.; Cook, E. H.; Chaparala, M. V.; Teynor, W. A.; Weinberg, M. S.

    2013-12-01

    In this paper we report the fabrication of hemispherical polycrystalline diamond resonators fabricated on a novel high-temperature glass substrate. The hemispherical resonator gyroscope is one of the most accurate and rugged of the mechanical gyroscopes, and can be operated in either rate or whole-angle mode due to its high degree of symmetry. A fabrication sequence for creating extremely symmetric 3D MEMS hemispheres is presented. Mode shapes and frequencies obtained with a laser vibrometer are shown, as well as curves of Q versus pressure, and the dependence of frequency on anchor size. Fundamental mode frequency matching to <0.1% in as-fabricated devices has been achieved, which is essential to gyroscope operation in whole-angle mode.

  20. The Function of Form in Newspapers' Political Conflict Coverage: The "New York Times'" Shaping of Expectations in the Bitburg Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Kathryn M.

    1995-01-01

    Argues that form, in the Burkean sense, can operate in a body of conflict coverage to shape expectations for subsequent developments in the controversy covered. Focuses on a series of news reports concerning President Ronald Reagan's visit to the Bitburg war cemetery and reveals the exercise of progressive and repetitive form in the agonistic…

  1. The Shape of Things: The Origin of Young Children's Knowledge of the Names and Properties of Geometric Forms

    PubMed Central

    Verdine, Brian N.; Lucca, Kelsey R.; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy; Newcombe, Nora S.

    2015-01-01

    How do toddlers learn the names of geometric forms? Past work suggests that preschoolers have fragmentary knowledge and that defining properties are not understood until well into elementary school. The current study investigates when children first begin to understand shape names and how they apply those labels to unusual instances. We tested 25- and 30-month-old children's (N = 30 each) understanding of names for canonical shapes (commonly-encountered instances, e.g., equilateral triangles), non-canonical shapes (more irregular instances, e.g., scalene triangles), and embedded shapes (shapes within a larger picture, e.g., triangular slices of pizza). At 25 months, children know very few names, including those for canonical shapes. By 30 months, however, children have acquired more shape names, and are beginning to apply them to some of the less typical instances of the shapes. Possible mechanisms driving this initial development of shape knowledge and implications of that development for school readiness are explored. PMID:27019647

  2. A ring-shaped structure with a crown formed by streptolysin O on the erythrocyte membrane.

    PubMed Central

    Sekiya, K; Satoh, R; Danbara, H; Futaesaku, Y

    1993-01-01

    Streptolysin O (SLO) is a membrane-damaging toxin produced by most strains of group A beta-hemolytic streptococci. We performed ultrastructural analysis of SLO-derived lesions on erythrocyte membranes by examining electron micrographs of negatively stained preparations. SLO formed numerous arc- and ring-shaped structures with or without holes on membranes. Rings formed on intact cell membranes had an inner diameter of ca. 24 nm and had distinct borders of ca. 4.9 nm in width, but the diameter of rings varied from 24 to 30 nm on membranes of erythrocyte ghosts. Image analysis of electron micrographs demonstrated that each ring was composed of an inner and an outer layer. Each layer contained an array of 22 to 24 SLO molecules. On the top of the ring, we found a characteristic crown that projected from the cell membrane. The crown was separated by an electron-dense layer from the basal part of the ring that was embedded in the lipid bilayer of the erythrocyte membrane. Heights of the three parts, namely, the crown (head), the space (neck), and the basal portion (base), were ca. 3.2, 1.6, and 5.0 nm, respectively, and we postulated that these parts are the constituents of a single SLO molecule. The volumes of SLO molecules in the inner and outer layers were calculated to be 77 and 88 nm3. On the basis of a model of the structure of SLO, we propose some new details of the mechanisms of hemolysis by SLO toxin. Images PMID:8376341

  3. Social class shapes the form and function of relationships and selves.

    PubMed

    Carey, Rebecca M; Markus, Hazel Rose

    2017-09-01

    Social class shapes relational realities, which in turn situate and structure different selves and their associated psychological tendencies. We first briefly review how higher class contexts tend to foster independent models of self and lower class contexts tend to foster interdependent models of self. We then consider how these independent and interdependent models of self are situated in and adapted to different social class-driven relational realities. We review research demonstrating that in lower social class contexts, social networks tend to be small, dense, homogenous and strongly connected. Ties in these networks provide the bonding capital that is key for survival and that promotes the interdependence between self and other(s). In higher social class contexts, social networks tend to be large, far-reaching, diverse and loosely connected. Ties in these networks provide the bridging capital that is key for achieving personal goals and that promotes an independence of self from other. We conclude that understanding and addressing issues tied to social class and inequality requires understanding the form and function of relationships across class contexts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Dendritic Domains with Hexagonal Symmetry Formed by X-Shaped Bolapolyphiles in Lipid Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Werner, Stefan; Ebert, Helgard; Lechner, Bob-Dan; Lange, Frank; Achilles, Anja; Bärenwald, Ruth; Poppe, Silvio; Blume, Alfred; Saalwächter, Kay; Tschierske, Carsten; Bacia, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    A novel class of bolapolyphile (BP) molecules are shown to integrate into phospholipid bilayers and self-assemble into unique sixfold symmetric domains of snowflake-like dendritic shapes. The BPs comprise three philicities: a lipophilic, rigid, π–π stacking core; two flexible lipophilic side chains; and two hydrophilic, hydrogen-bonding head groups. Confocal microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, XRD, and solid-state NMR spectroscopy confirm BP-rich domains with transmembrane-oriented BPs and three to four lipid molecules per BP. Both species remain well organized even above the main 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine transition. The BP molecules only dissolve in the fluid membrane above 70 °C. Structural variations of the BP demonstrate that head-group hydrogen bonding is a prerequisite for domain formation. Independent of the head group, the BPs reduce membrane corrugation. In conclusion, the BPs form nanofilaments by π stacking of aromatic cores, which reduce membrane corrugation and possibly fuse into a hexagonal network in the dendritic domains. PMID:25940233

  5. Form Perception of Partly Occluded Shapes in 4-Month-Old Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Wit, Tessa C. J.; Vrins, Sven; Dejonckheere, Peter J. N.; van Lier, Rob

    2008-01-01

    Two habituation experiments were conducted to investigate how 4-month-old infants perceive partly occluded shapes. In the first experiment, we presented a simple, partly occluded shape to the infants until habituation was reached. Then we showed either a probable completion (one that would be predicted on the basis of both local and global cues)…

  6. A unified free-form representation applied to the shape optimization of the hohlraum with octahedral 6 laser entrance holes

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Shaoen; Ding, Yongkun; Huang, Yunbao E-mail: scmyking-2008@163.com; Li, Haiyan; Jing, Longfei E-mail: scmyking-2008@163.com; Huang, Tianxuan

    2016-01-15

    The hohlraum is very crucial for indirect laser driven Inertial Confinement Fusion. Usually, its shape is designed as sphere, cylinder, or rugby with some kind of fixed functions, such as ellipse or parabola. Recently, a spherical hohlraum with octahedral 6 laser entrance holes (LEHs) has been presented with high flux symmetry [Lan et al., Phys. Plasmas 21, 010704 (2014); 21, 052704 (2014)]. However, there is only one shape parameter, i.e., the hohlraum to capsule radius ratio, being optimized. In this paper, we build the hohlraum with octahedral 6LEHs with a unified free-form representation, in which, by varying additional shape parameters: (1) available hohlraum shapes can be uniformly and accurately represented, (2) it can be used to understand why the spherical hohlraum has higher flux symmetry, (3) it allows us to obtain a feasible shape design field satisfying flux symmetry constraints, and (4) a synthetically optimized hohlraum can be obtained with a tradeoff of flux symmetry and other hohlraum performance. Finally, the hohlraum with octahedral 6LEHs is modeled, analyzed, and then optimized based on the unified free-form representation. The results show that a feasible shape design field with flux asymmetry no more than 1% can be obtained, and over the feasible design field, the spherical hohlraum is validated to have the highest flux symmetry, and a synthetically optimal hohlraum can be found with closing flux symmetry but larger volume between laser spots and centrally located capsule.

  7. A unified free-form representation applied to the shape optimization of the hohlraum with octahedral 6 laser entrance holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Shaoen; Huang, Yunbao; Jing, Longfei; Li, Haiyan; Huang, Tianxuan; Ding, Yongkun

    2016-01-01

    The hohlraum is very crucial for indirect laser driven Inertial Confinement Fusion. Usually, its shape is designed as sphere, cylinder, or rugby with some kind of fixed functions, such as ellipse or parabola. Recently, a spherical hohlraum with octahedral 6 laser entrance holes (LEHs) has been presented with high flux symmetry [Lan et al., Phys. Plasmas 21, 010704 (2014); 21, 052704 (2014)]. However, there is only one shape parameter, i.e., the hohlraum to capsule radius ratio, being optimized. In this paper, we build the hohlraum with octahedral 6LEHs with a unified free-form representation, in which, by varying additional shape parameters: (1) available hohlraum shapes can be uniformly and accurately represented, (2) it can be used to understand why the spherical hohlraum has higher flux symmetry, (3) it allows us to obtain a feasible shape design field satisfying flux symmetry constraints, and (4) a synthetically optimized hohlraum can be obtained with a tradeoff of flux symmetry and other hohlraum performance. Finally, the hohlraum with octahedral 6LEHs is modeled, analyzed, and then optimized based on the unified free-form representation. The results show that a feasible shape design field with flux asymmetry no more than 1% can be obtained, and over the feasible design field, the spherical hohlraum is validated to have the highest flux symmetry, and a synthetically optimal hohlraum can be found with closing flux symmetry but larger volume between laser spots and centrally located capsule.

  8. Two-Stage Superplastic Forming of a V-Shaped Aluminum Sheet into a Trough with Deep and Irregular Contour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Hsien-Chin; Fuh, Yiin-Kuen; Lee, Shyong; Chu, Chun-Lin; Chang, Tien-Chan

    2013-08-01

    A sheet metal trough of aluminum alloy is manufactured by a two-stage gas forming process at 500 °C. The product with sloped side walls is of ~1.2 m length and ~260 mm opening width, comprising two near-conical-shaped sinks at two ends. The depth of one sink apex is ~350 mm, which results in the depth/width ratio reaching 1.4. To form such a deep and irregular trough, a superplastic aluminum alloy 5083 initially bent into a V-shaped groove was prepared prior to the gas forming work. Within a single die, gas pressure is used to form the V-shaped blank into a preform die cavity prior to the pressure being reversed to form the sheet into the final component cavity. The preforming of the V blank creates a uniform length of line in order to improve the thickness profile of the final part. In this work, a preform has been designed to improve the forming of a complex component by providing a superior thickness profile as compared to a conventional single-stage forming cycle. However, a serious wrinkling situation was encountered, the cause of which has been analyzed using basic mechanics as well as numerical simulation.

  9. Numerical study on the matching law between charge caliber and delay time of the rod-shaped explosively formed projectile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, H. M.; Li, W. B.; Wang, X. M.; Li, W. B.

    2017-09-01

    To study the application of multi-point initiation technology on shaped charge warhead, numerically simulated the influence of initiating delay time of different charge caliber on detonation wave and performance forming of penetrator. The study found that as charge caliber increased, the allowable initiating delay time also increased. For the commonly used small and medium-charge caliber shaped charge warhead, the charge caliber(Dk ) and the delay time (σ) presented a linear relationship σ = ‑12.79+1.25Dk . As charge caliber continue increasing, the initiating allowable delay time started to increase exponentially. The study reveals the matching law between charge caliber, initiating delay time and performance forming of penetrator, and it offers guidance for the design of multi-point initiation network for shaped charge.

  10. Method for estimating closed-form solutions of the light diffusion equation for turbid media of any boundary shape

    PubMed Central

    Alqasemi, Umar; Salehi, Hassan S.; Zhu, Quing

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports a method of estimating an approximate closed-form solution to the light diffusion equation for any type of geometry involving Dirichlet’s boundary condition with known source location. It is based on estimating the optimum locations of multiple imaginary point sources to cancel the fluence at the extrapolated boundary by constrained optimization using a genetic algorithm. The mathematical derivation of the problem to approach the optimum solution for the direct-current type of diffuse optical systems is described in detail. Our method is first applied to slab geometry and compared with a truncated series solution. After that, it is applied to hemispherical geometry and compared with Monte Carlo simulation results. The method provides a fast and sufficiently accurate fluence distribution for optical reconstruction. PMID:26831771

  11. The Shape of Things: The Origin of Young Children's Knowledge of the Names and Properties of Geometric Forms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verdine, Brian N.; Lucca, Kelsey R.; Golinkoff, Roberta M.; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathryn; Newcombe, Nora S.

    2016-01-01

    How do toddlers learn the names of geometric forms? Previous work suggests that preschoolers have fragmentary knowledge and that defining properties are not understood until well into elementary school. The current study investigated when children first begin to understand shape names and how they apply those labels to unusual instances. We tested…

  12. Study of dynamical formation and shape of microlenses formed by the reflow method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Audran, S.; Faure, B.; Mortini, B.; Aumont, C.; Tiron, R.; Zinck, C.; Sanchez, Y.; Fellous, C.; Regolini, J.; Reynard, J. P.; Schlatter, G.; Hadziioannou, G.

    2006-03-01

    Microlenses arrays are commonly used in CMOS images sensors to focus the incident light onto the photosensitive area of the pixel. These microlenses are fabricated using a thermal reflow method. Currently, due to the fast evolution of CMOS Imager technology, the understanding of the mechanisms involved in microlens formation becomes essential to better control what occurs during the process. We have seen in a previous study that the complexity of the reflow method comes from the competition between two phenomena occurring during the melt bake step: on one hand the surface tension tends to push the resist patterns into a spherical shape, on the other hand the resist crosslinking reaction drastically increases the resist viscosity hindering the microlens formation. In this paper the influence of resist crosslinking, resist volume and resist/substrate interface on the final shape of the microlens has been investigated. It appears that the contact angle between microlens and substrate varies depending on substrate wettability but is the same whatever the resist volume for a given substrate/resist combination. The microlens shape depends also significantly on bake temperature and crosslinking kinetics. In fact the right tuning of process conditions seems to be the key parameter in the control of the final microlens shape because it enables to adjust the kinetics of each mechanism and thus favour the microlens formation with regards to resist crosslinking.

  13. Actuation profiles to form Zernike shapes with a thermal active mirror.

    PubMed

    Saathof, Rudolf; Schutten, Gerrit Jan M; Spronck, Jo W; Munnig Schmidt, Robert H

    2015-01-15

    In EUV lithography, the absorption of EUV light causes wavefront distortion that deteriorates the imaging process. An adaptive optics system has been developed ["Adaptive optics to counteract thermal aberrations," Ph.D. thesis (TU Delft, 2013)] to correct for this distortion using an active mirror (AM). This AM is thermally actuated by absorbing an irradiance profile exposed by a projector onto the AM. Due to thermal conductivity and bimorph-like deformation of the AM, the relation between actuation profile and actuated shape is not trivial. Therefore, this Letter describes how actuation profiles are obtained to generate Zernike shapes. These actuation profiles have been obtained by a finite-element-based optimization procedure. Furthermore, these actuation profiles are exposed to the AM, and the resulting deformations are measured. This Letter shows actuated Zernike shapes with purities higher than 0.9 for most actuation profiles. In addition, superimposed actuation profiles resulted in superimposed Zernike shapes, showing linearity needed to apply modal wavefront correction. Therefore, this approach can be used to obtain actuation profiles for this AM concept, which can be used for highly precise wavefront correction.

  14. [Computerized ultrasound imaging of the shape of the tongue in forming long vowels in German].

    PubMed

    Wein, B; Böckler, R; Huber, W; Klajman, S; Willmes, K

    1990-04-01

    The contours of the tongue during pronunciation of the long German vowels were assessed by ultrasound in 22 healthy volunteers. Using statistical methods, models of the shape of tongue were calculated. These models can be used for clinical diagnosis and bio-feedback therapy in patients with speech disorders.

  15. Form and performance: body shape and prey-capture success in four drift-feeding minnows

    Treesearch

    Pedro A. Rincón; Markus Bastir; Gary D. Grossman

    2008-01-01

    Identifying links between morphology and performance for ecologically relevant tasks will help elucidate the relationships between organismal design and fitness. We conducted a laboratory study to quantify the relationship between variation in body shape and prey-capture success in four drift-feeding minnow species. We offered drifting prey to individual fish in a test...

  16. The Design of Case Products’ Shape Form Information Database Based on NURBS Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xing; Liu, Guo-zhong; Xu, Nuo-qi; Zhang, Wei-she

    2017-07-01

    In order to improve the computer design of product shape design,applying the Non-uniform Rational B-splines(NURBS) of curves and surfaces surface to the representation of the product shape helps designers to design the product effectively.On the basis of the typical product image contour extraction and using Pro/Engineer(Pro/E) to extract the geometric feature of scanning mold,in order to structure the information data base system of value point,control point and node vector parameter information,this paper put forward a unified expression method of using NURBS curves and surfaces to describe products’ geometric shape and using matrix laboratory(MATLAB) to simulate when products have the same or similar function.A case study of electric vehicle’s front cover illustrates the access process of geometric shape information of case product in this paper.This method can not only greatly reduce the capacity of information debate,but also improve the effectiveness of computer aided geometric innovation modeling.

  17. Hemispheric sunspot unit area: comparison with hemispheric sunspot number and sunspot area

    SciTech Connect

    Li, K. J.; Xiang, N. B.; Qu, Z. N.; Xie, J. L.

    2014-03-01

    The monthly mean northern and southern hemispheric sunspot numbers (SNs) and sunspot areas (SAs) in the time interval of 1945 January to 2012 December are utilized to construct the monthly northern and southern hemispheric sunspot unit areas (SUAs), which are defined as the ratio of hemispheric SA to SN. Hemispheric SUAs are usually found to rise at the beginning and to fall at the ending time of a solar cycle more rapidly, forming a more irregular cycle profile than hemispheric SNs and SAs, although it also presents Schwabe-cycle-like hemispheric SNs and SAs. Sunspot activity (SN, SA, and SUA) is found asynchronously and is asymmetrically distributed in the northern and southern hemispheres, and hemispheric SNs, SAs, and SUAs are not in phase in the two hemispheres. The similarity of hemispheric SNs and SAs is found to be much more obvious than that of hemispheric SUAs and SNs (or SAs), and also for their north-south asymmetry. A notable feature is found for the behavior of the SUA around the minimum time of cycle 24: the SUA rapidly decreases from the cycle maximum value to the cycle minimum value of sunspot cycles 19-24 within just 22 months.

  18. Evaluation of tungsten shaped-charge liners spray-formed using the low-pressure plasma spray process

    SciTech Connect

    Buchanan, E.R.; Sickinger, A.

    1994-12-31

    This paper documents the results of a DARPA Phase 1 SBIR program which was awarded following a solicitation to develop new technologies for the forming of refractory metal shaped-charge liners. Holtgren had proposed to manufacture liners by spraying refractory metal powder onto a rapidly-rotating mandrel inside the chamber of a low-pressure plasma spray system. A total of nine tungsten shaped-charge liners were sprayed during the course of the program. Metallographic evaluation of the liners revealed that the as-sprayed microstructure was dense, averaging 98.5% density. The grain structure is equiaxed and fine, averaging five microns in diameter. The sprayed shapes were then processed to the final liner configuration by cylindrical grinding. The liners were ductile enough to withstand the strains of grinding and normal handling.

  19. ``Nanoarmoured'' droplets of different shapes formed by interfacial self-assembly and crosslinking of metal nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalczyk, Bartlomiej; Lagzi, István; Grzybowski, Bartosz A.

    2010-11-01

    Films comprising metal nanoparticles are assembled on the surfaces of liquid droplets of different shapes and macroscopic dimensions. These films are reinforced by dithiol crosslinks and are mechanically rugged yet permeable to the diffusion of small molecules.Films comprising metal nanoparticles are assembled on the surfaces of liquid droplets of different shapes and macroscopic dimensions. These films are reinforced by dithiol crosslinks and are mechanically rugged yet permeable to the diffusion of small molecules. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Movie 1 illustrating water uptake experiments (Fig. 2d-f). Movie 2 illustrating thawing and disintegration of a droplet infused with bromothymol blue. Experimental details. See DOI: 10.1039/c0nr00381f

  20. Simulation of the shape of chaperonins using the small-angle x-ray scattering curves and torus form factor

    SciTech Connect

    Amarantov, S. V.; Naletova, I. N.; Kurochkina, L. P.

    2011-08-15

    The inverse scattering problem has been solved for protein complexes whose surfaces can be described by a set of the simplest doubly connected surfaces in the uniform approximation (a scattering potential inside the molecule is a constant). Solutions of two proteins-well-known GroEL bacterial chaperonin and poor-studied bacteriophage chaperonin, which is a product of 146 gene (gp146)-were taken for the experiment. The shapes of protein complexes have been efficiently reconstructed from the experimental scattering curves. The shell method, the method of the rotation of amino acid sequences with the use of the form factor of an amino acid, and the method of seeking the model parameters of a protein complex with the preliminarily obtained form factor of the model have been used to reconstruct the shape of these particles.

  1. Story Telling or Storied Telling? Media's Pedagogical Ability to Shape Narrative as a Form of "Knowing"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blevins, Dean G.

    2007-01-01

    Storytellers know that stories are "formed" in their telling. Stories, whether oral or written, personal or mass communicated, ultimately express the boundaries of their medium (their "embodiment" through mediated forms). Religious Educators must always address the medium as well as the message in any theory of narrative accounting. Media often…

  2. Story Telling or Storied Telling? Media's Pedagogical Ability to Shape Narrative as a Form of "Knowing"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blevins, Dean G.

    2007-01-01

    Storytellers know that stories are "formed" in their telling. Stories, whether oral or written, personal or mass communicated, ultimately express the boundaries of their medium (their "embodiment" through mediated forms). Religious Educators must always address the medium as well as the message in any theory of narrative accounting. Media often…

  3. Proton beam shaped by "particle lens" formed by laser-driven hot electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, S. H.; Shen, B. F.; Wang, W. P.; Zhang, H.; He, S. K.; Lu, F.; Zhang, F. Q.; Deng, Z. G.; Dong, K. G.; Wang, S. Y.; Zhou, K. N.; Xie, N.; Wang, X. D.; Zhang, L. G.; Huang, S.; Liu, H. J.; Zhao, Z. Q.; Gu, Y. Q.; Zhang, B. H.; Xu, Z. Z.

    2016-05-01

    Two-dimensional tailoring of a proton beam is realized by a "particle lens" in our experiment. A large quantity of electrons, generated by an intense femtosecond laser irradiating a polymer target, produces an electric field strong enough to change the trajectory and distribution of energetic protons flying through the electron area. The experiment shows that a strip pattern of the proton beam appears when hot electrons initially converge inside the plastic plate. Then the shape of the proton beam changes to a "fountain-like" pattern when these hot electrons diffuse after propagating a distance.

  4. Proton beam shaped by “particle lens” formed by laser-driven hot electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Zhai, S. H.; Shen, B. F. E-mail: wwpvin@hotmail.com Wang, W. P. E-mail: wwpvin@hotmail.com Zhang, H.; Zhang, L. G.; Huang, S.; Xu, Z. Z.; He, S. K.; Lu, F.; Zhang, F. Q.; Deng, Z. G.; Dong, K. G.; Wang, S. Y.; Zhou, K. N.; Xie, N.; Wang, X. D.; Liu, H. J.; Zhao, Z. Q.; Gu, Y. Q. E-mail: wwpvin@hotmail.com Zhang, B. H.

    2016-05-23

    Two-dimensional tailoring of a proton beam is realized by a “particle lens” in our experiment. A large quantity of electrons, generated by an intense femtosecond laser irradiating a polymer target, produces an electric field strong enough to change the trajectory and distribution of energetic protons flying through the electron area. The experiment shows that a strip pattern of the proton beam appears when hot electrons initially converge inside the plastic plate. Then the shape of the proton beam changes to a “fountain-like” pattern when these hot electrons diffuse after propagating a distance.

  5. Free form fabrication using the laser engineered net shaping (LENS{trademark}) process

    SciTech Connect

    Keicher, D.M.; Romero, J.A.; Atwood, C.L.; Griffith, M.L.; Jeantette, F.P.; Harwell, L.D.; Greene, D.L.; Smugeresky, J.E.

    1996-12-31

    Sandia National Laboratories is developing a technology called Laser Engineered Net Shaping{trademark} (LENS{trademark}). This process allows complex 3-dimensional solid metallic objects to be directly fabricated for a CAD solid model. Experiments performed demonstrate that complex alloys such as Inconel{trademark} 625 and ANSI stainless steel alloy 316 can be used in the LENS{trademark} process to produce solid metallic-shapes. In fact, the fabricated structures exhibit grain growth across the deposition layer boundaries. Mechanical testing data of deposited 316 stainless steel material indicates that the deposited material strength and elongation are greater than that reported for annealed 316 stainless steel. Electron microprobe analysis of the deposited Inconel{trademark} 625 material shows no compositional degradation of the 625 alloy and that 100% dense structures can be obtained using this technique. High speed imaging used to acquire process data during experimentation shows that the powder particle size range can significantly affect the stability, and subsequently, the performance of the powder deposition process. Finally, dimensional studies suggest that dimensional accuracy to {+-} 0.002 inches (in the horizontal direction) can be maintained.

  6. A non-invasive heuristic approach to shape optimization in forming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landkammer, P.; Steinmann, P.

    2016-02-01

    The aim is to determine—relating to a given forming process—the optimal material (undeformed) configuration of a workpiece when knowing the target spatial (deformed) configuration. Therefore, the nodal positions of a discretized setting based on the finite element method (FEM) are the discrete free parameters of the form finding problem. As a verification, inputting the determined optimal material nodal positions, a subsequent re-computation of the forming process should then result in exactly the target spatial nodal positions. A new, non-invasive iterative algorithm, which is purely based on the nodal data of each iteration, is proposed to determine the discretized optimal material configuration. Specifically, the L^2-smoothed deformation gradient at each discretization node is used to update the discretized material configuration by a transformation of the difference vectors between the currently computed and the target spatial nodal positions. The iterative strategy can be easily coupled in a non-invasive fashion via subroutines with arbitrary external FEM software. Since only the computed positions of the discretization nodes are required for an update step within the form finding algorithm, the procedure does not depend on the specific material modelling and is moreover applicable to arbitrary element types, e. g. solid- or solid-shell-elements. Furthermore the convergence rate for solving the form finding problem is nearly linear. This is demonstrated by examples that are realized by a coupling of Matlab (iterative update procedure) and MSC.Marc (external FEM software). Solving the form finding problem to determine an optimum workpiece design is of great interest especially for metal forming applications.

  7. Tissue engineering with electric fields: investigation of the shape of mammalian cell aggregates formed at interdigitated oppositely castellated electrodes.

    PubMed

    Sebastian, Anil; Venkatesh, Alagarswamy G; Markx, Gerard H

    2007-11-01

    The shape of aggregates of cells formed by positive dielectrophoresis (DEP) at interdigitated oppositely castellated electrodes under different conditions was investigated and compared with calculations of the electric field gradient |nablaE(2)|, and the electric field E, and E(2). The results confirm that at low field strength the cells predominantly accumulate above the tips of the electrodes, but at higher electric field strengths the cells predominantly accumulate in the middle of the aggregate. For a given electrode size, a higher applied voltage significantly increases the aggregate footprint. Higher flow rates distort this pattern, with more cells accumulating at the electrodes that are upstream. Calculation of the electric field strength E, E(2) and the electric field strength gradient |nablaE(2)| in the interdigitated oppositely castellated electrode array shows that, at low flow rates, there is a strong correlation between the aggregate shape and the distribution of the electric field E and E(2), but not so between the aggregate shape and |nablaE(2)|. The results indicate that interparticle forces such as pearlchain formation strongly affect the aggregation process, but that, when positive DEP is used to make the aggregates, the distribution of the electric field E, or better E(2), can be used as a useful guide to the final aggregate shape.

  8. Excitatory cortical neurons with multipolar shape establish neuronal polarity by forming a tangentially oriented axon in the intermediate zone.

    PubMed

    Hatanaka, Yumiko; Yamauchi, Kenta

    2013-01-01

    The formation of axon-dendrite polarity is crucial for neuron to make the proper information flow within the brain. Although the processes of neuronal polarity formation have been extensively studied using neurons in dissociated culture, the corresponding developmental processes in vivo are still unclear. Here, we illuminate the initial steps of morphological polarization of excitatory cortical neurons in situ, by sparsely labeling their neuroepithelial progenitors using in utero electroporation and then examining their neuronal progeny in brain sections and in slice cultures. Morphological analysis showed that an axon-like long tangential process formed in progeny cells in the intermediate zone (IZ). Time-lapse imaging analysis using slice culture revealed that progeny cells with multipolar shape, after alternately extending and retracting their short processes for several hours, suddenly elongated a long process tangentially. These cells then transformed into a bipolar shape, extending a pia-directed leading process, and migrated radially leaving the tangential process behind, which gave rise to an "L-shaped" axon. Our findings suggest that neuronal polarity in these cells is established de novo from a nonpolarized stage in vivo and indicate that excitatory cortical neurons with multipolar shape in the IZ initiate axon outgrowth before radial migration into the cortical plate.

  9. The shape of things to come in speech production: Visual form interference during lexical access.

    PubMed

    de Zubicaray, Greig I; McLean, Mia; Oppermann, Frank; Hegarty, Aidan; McMahon, Katie; Jescheniak, Jörg D

    2017-08-13

    Naming a picture is slower in categorically related compared to unrelated contexts, an effect termed semantic interference. This effect has informed the development of all contemporary models of lexical access in speech production. However, category members typically share visual features, so semantic interference might in part reflect this confound. Surprisingly little work has addressed this issue, and the relative absence of evidence for visual form interference has been proposed to be problematic for production models implementing competitive lexical selection mechanisms. In a series of 5 experiments using two different naming paradigms, we demonstrate a reliable visual form interference effect in the absence of a category relation, and show the effect is more likely to originate during lexical or later response selection than during perceptual/conceptual processing. We conclude visual form interference in naming is a significant complicating factor for studies of semantic interference effects, and discuss the implications for current accounts of lexical access in spoken word production.

  10. Research on the skirt tail explosively formed projectile stable shaping technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, W.; Wang, X.; Li, W.; Chen, K.

    2016-09-01

    The effect of the arc-cone liner configuration parameters on explosively formed projectile (EFP) flight stability is studied experimentally. The effect of the liner edge structure on the EFP formation is computed numerically. The results show that an EFP formed by a liner whose thickness is 0.046 times the charge caliber has improved flight stability and can perforate a steel armor 0.5 times the charge caliber thick in the case of large stand-off distances. A good tail skirt EFP can be formed by choosing appropriate parameters: the liner-to-charge diameter ratio in the interval 0.96-0.98, the liner edge thickness equal to 0.0020-0.0025 times the charge caliber, and the liner edge chamfer of 45-50°.

  11. Methodology development for the sustainability process assessment of sheet metal forming of complex-shaped products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankratov, D. L.; Kashapova, L. R.

    2015-06-01

    A methodology was developed for automated assessment of the reliability of the process of sheet metal forming process to reduce the defects in complex components manufacture. The article identifies the range of allowable values of the stamp parameters to obtain defect-free punching of spars trucks.

  12. Spindle-shaped Microstructures: Potential Models for Planktonic Life Forms on Other Worlds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oehler, Dorothy Z.; Walsh, Maud M.; Sugitani, Kenichiro; House, Christopher H.

    2014-01-01

    Spindle-shaped, organic microstructures ("spindles") are now known from Archean cherts in three localities (Figs. 1-4): The 3 Ga Farrel Quartzite from the Pilbara of Australia [1]; the older, 3.3-3.4 Ga Strelley Pool Formation, also from the Pilbara of Australia [2]; and the 3.4 Ga Kromberg Formation of the Barberton Mountain Land of South Africa [3]. Though the spindles were previously speculated to be pseudofossils or epigenetic organic contaminants, a growing body of data suggests that these structures are bona fide microfossils and further, that they are syngenetic with the Archean cherts in which they occur [1-2, 4-10]. As such, the spindles are among some of the oldest-known organically preserved microfossils on Earth. Moreover, recent delta C-13 study of individual spindles from the Farrel Quartzite (using Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry [SIMS]) suggests that the spindles may have been planktonic (living in open water), as opposed to benthic (living as bottom dwellers in contact with muds or sediments) [9]. Since most Precambrian microbiotas have been described from benthic, matforming communities, a planktonic lifestyle for the spindles suggests that these structures could represent a segment of the Archean biosphere that is poorly known. Here we synthesize the recent work on the spindles, and we add new observations regarding their geographic distribution, robustness, planktonic habit, and long-lived success. We then discuss their potential evolutionary and astrobiological significance.

  13. Theoretical study on substituent and solvent effects for nanocubes formed with gear-shaped amphiphile molecules.

    PubMed

    Mashiko, T; Hiraoka, S; Nagashima, U; Tachikawa, M

    2017-01-04

    Gear-shaped amphiphile molecules (1) recently synthesized by Hiraoka et al. self-assemble into a hexameric structure, nanocubes (16), in 25% aqueous methanol due to a solvophobic effect. Here we have carried out molecular dynamic simulations to elucidate the stability of these hexameric capsules (16 and 26) in water, 25% aqueous methanol, and methanol. In all solvents, the 16 nanocubes are maintained for all trajectories. On the other hand, 26 was found to collapse for one trajectory in water and seven trajectories in 25% aqueous methanol. In a pure methanol solvent, 26 was found to collapse for all trajectories. The number of collapsed trajectories of 26 increased with the amount of methanol in the solvent. We therefore focused on the structure of the π-π stacking between pyridyl groups and the CH-π interactions between the methyl and pyridyl groups within the nanocube. Our study clearly shows the role played by the methanol solvent molecules in the assembly of the nanocube in terms of the substituent and solvent effects at the molecular level, and that these substituent and solvent effects are important for the self-assembly of the nanocubes.

  14. How predation shaped fish: the impact of fin spines on body form evolution across teleosts

    PubMed Central

    Price, S. A.; Friedman, S. T.; Wainwright, P. C.

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that predators can induce morphological changes in some fish: individuals exposed to predation cues increase body depth and the length of spines. We hypothesize that these structures may evolve synergistically, as together, these traits will further enlarge the body dimensions of the fish that gape-limited predators must overcome. We therefore expect that the orientation of the spines will predict which body dimension increases in the presence of predators. Using phylogenetic comparative methods, we tested this prediction on the macroevolutionary scale across 347 teleost families, which display considerable variation in fin spines, body depth and width. Consistent with our predictions, we demonstrate that fin spines on the vertical plane (dorsal and anal fins) are associated with a deeper-bodied optimum. Lineages with spines on the horizontal plane (pectoral fins) are associated with a wider-bodied optimum. Optimal body dimensions across lineages without spines paralleling the body dimension match the allometric expectation. Additionally, lineages with longer spines have deeper and wider body dimensions. This evolutionary relationship between fin spines and body dimensions across teleosts reveals functional synergy between these two traits and a potential macroevolutionary signature of predation on the evolutionary dynamics of body shape. PMID:26559954

  15. Reaction-Forming Method for Producing Near Net-Shape Refractory Metal Carbides

    SciTech Connect

    Palmisiano, Marc N.; Jakubenas, Kevin J.; Baranwal, Rita

    2004-07-20

    A method for reaction forming refractory metal carbides. The method involves the fabrication of a glassy carbon preform by casting an organic, resin-based liquid mixture into a mold and subsequently heat treating it in two steps, which cures and pyrolizes the resin resulting in a porous carbon preform. By varying the amounts of the constituents in the organic, resin-based liquid mixture, control over the density of the carbon preform is obtained. Control of the density and microstructure of the carbon preform allows for determination of the microstructure and properties of the refractory metal carbide material produced. The glassy carbon preform is placed on a bed of refractory metal or refractory metal--silicon alloy. The pieces are heated above the melting point of the metal or alloy. The molten metal wicks inside the porous carbon preform and reacts, forming the refractory metal carbide or refractory metal carbide plus a minor secondary phase.

  16. INTRINSIC SHAPE OF STAR-FORMING BzK GALAXIES AT z {approx} 2 IN GOODS-N

    SciTech Connect

    Yuma, Suraphong; Ohta, Kouji; Yabe, Kiyoto; Kajisawa, Masaru; Ichikawa, Takashi

    2011-08-01

    We study the structure of star-forming galaxies at z {approx} 2 in a Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey North field selected as star-forming BzK (sBzK) galaxies down to K{sub AB} < 24.0 mag. Among 1029 sBzK galaxies, 551 galaxies (54%) show a single component in the Advanced Camera for Survey (ACS)/F850LP image obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope; the rest show multiple components. We fit the single-component sBzK galaxies with the single Sersic profile using the ACS/F850LP image and find that a majority of them (64%) show a Sersic index of n = 0.5-2.5, indicating that they have a disk-like structure. The resulting effective radii typically range from 1.0 to 3.0 kpc in the rest-frame UV wavelength. After correcting the effective radii to those in the rest-frame optical wavelength, we find that the single-component sBzK galaxies are located in the region where the local and z {approx} 1 disk galaxies are distributed in the stellar-mass-size diagram, suggesting comparable surface stellar-mass density between the sBzK and z {approx} 0-1 disk galaxies. All these properties suggest that the single-component sBzK galaxies are progenitors of the present-day disk galaxies. However, by studying their intrinsic shape through comparison between the observed distribution of apparent axial ratios and the distribution for triaxial models with axes A > B > C, we find that the mean B/A ratio is 0.61{sup +0.05}{sub -0.08} and disk thickness C/A is 0.28{sup +0.03}{sub -0.04}. This indicates that the single-component sBzK galaxies at z {approx} 2 have a bar-like or oval shape rather than a round disk shape. The shape seems to resemble a bar/oval structure that forms through bar instability; if this is the case, the intrinsic shape may give us a clue to understand dynamical evolution of baryonic matter in a dark matter halo.

  17. Oxide Scales Formed on NiTi and NiPtTi Shape Memory Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smialek, James L.; Garg, Anita; Rogers, Richard B.; Noebe, Ronald D.

    2011-01-01

    Ni-49Ti and Ni-30Pt-50Ti (at.%) shape memory alloys were oxidized isothermally in air over the temperature range of 500 to 900 C. The microstructure, composition, and phase content of the scales were studied by SEM, EDS, XRD, and metallography. Extensive plan view SEM/EDS identified various features of intact or spalled scale surfaces. The outer surface of the scale was a relatively pure TiO2 rutile structure, typified by a distinct highly striated and faceted crystal morphology. Crystal size increased significantly with temperature. Spalled regions exhibited some porosity and less distinct features. More detailed information was obtained by correlation of SEM/EDS studies of 700 C/100 hr cross-sections with XRD analyses of serial or taper-polishing of plan surfaces. Overall, multiple layers exhibited graded mixtures of NiO, TiO2, NiTiO3, Ni(Ti) or Pt(Ni,Ti) metal dispersoids, Ni3Ti or Pt3Ti depletion zones, and substrate, in that order. The NiTi alloy contained a 3 at.% Fe impurity that appeared in embedded localized Fe-Ti-rich oxides, while the NiPtTi alloy contained a 2 v/o dispersion of TiC that appeared in lower layers. The oxidation kinetics of both alloys (in a previous report) indicated parabolic growth and an activation energy (250 kJ/mole) near those reported in other Ti and NiTi studies. This is generally consistent with TiO2 existing as the primary scale constituent, as described here.

  18. Influence of fourfold anisotropy form on hysteresis loop shape in ferromagnetic nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrmann, Andrea; Blachowicz, Tomasz

    2014-08-01

    The dependence of the form of different mathematical depictions of fourfold magnetic anisotropies has been examined, using a simple macro-spin model. Strong differences in longitudinal and transverse hysteresis loops occur due to deviations from the usual phenomenological model, such as using absolute value functions. The proposed possible models can help understanding measurements on sophisticated magnetic nanosystems, like exchange bias layered structures employed in magnetic hard disk heads or magnetic nano-particles, and support the development of solutions with specific magnetization reversal behavior needed in novel magneto-electronic devices.

  19. Influence of fourfold anisotropy form on hysteresis loop shape in ferromagnetic nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Ehrmann, Andrea; Blachowicz, Tomasz

    2014-08-15

    The dependence of the form of different mathematical depictions of fourfold magnetic anisotropies has been examined, using a simple macro-spin model. Strong differences in longitudinal and transverse hysteresis loops occur due to deviations from the usual phenomenological model, such as using absolute value functions. The proposed possible models can help understanding measurements on sophisticated magnetic nanosystems, like exchange bias layered structures employed in magnetic hard disk heads or magnetic nano-particles, and support the development of solutions with specific magnetization reversal behavior needed in novel magneto-electronic devices.

  20. Synthesis and new structure shaping mechanism of silica particles formed at high pH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Henan; Zhao, Yu; Akins, Daniel L.

    2012-10-01

    For the sol-gel synthesis of silica particles under high pH catalytic conditions (pH>12) in water/ethanol solvent, we have deduced that the competing dynamics of chemical etching and sol-gel process can explain the types of silica particles formed and their morphologies. We have demonstrated that emulsion droplets that are generated by adding tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) to a water-ethanol solution serve as soft templates for hollow spherical silica (1-2 μm). And if the emulsion is converted by the sol-gel process, one finds that suspended solid silica spheres of diameter of ˜900 nm are formed. Moreover, several other factors are found to play fundamental roles in determining the final morphologies of silica particles, such as by variation of the pH (in our case, using OH-) to a level where condensation dominates; by changing the volume ratios of water/ethanol; and using an emulsifier (specifically, CTAB)

  1. Synthesis and new structure shaping mechanism of silica particles formed at high pH

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Henan; Zhao, Yu; Akins, Daniel L.

    2012-10-15

    For the sol-gel synthesis of silica particles under high pH catalytic conditions (pH>12) in water/ethanol solvent, we have deduced that the competing dynamics of chemical etching and sol-gel process can explain the types of silica particles formed and their morphologies. We have demonstrated that emulsion droplets that are generated by adding tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) to a water-ethanol solution serve as soft templates for hollow spherical silica (1-2 {mu}m). And if the emulsion is converted by the sol-gel process, one finds that suspended solid silica spheres of diameter of {approx}900 nm are formed. Moreover, several other factors are found to play fundamental roles in determining the final morphologies of silica particles, such as by variation of the pH (in our case, using OH{sup -}) to a level where condensation dominates; by changing the volume ratios of water/ethanol; and using an emulsifier (specifically, CTAB) - Graphical abstract: 'Local chemical etching' and sol-gel process have been proposed to interpret the control of morphologies of silica particles through varying initial pHs in syntheses. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Different initial pHs in our syntheses provides morphological control of silica particles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 'Local chemical etching' and sol-gel process describes the formation of silica spheres. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The formation of emulsions generates hollow silica particles.

  2. Grazers and vitamins shape chain formation in a bloom-forming dinoflagellate, Cochlodinium polykrikoides.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiaodong; Lonsdale, Darcy J; Gobler, Christopher J

    2010-10-01

    Predators influence the phenotype of prey through both natural selection and induction. We investigated the effects of grazers and nutrients on chain formation in a dinoflagellate, Cochlodinium polykrikoides, which forms dense blooms and has deleterious effects on marine ecosystems around the world. Field populations of C. polykrikoides formed longer chains than laboratory cultures without grazers. In the field, chain length of C. polykrikoides was positively correlated with the abundance of the copepod Acartia tonsa. Chain length of C. polykrikoides increased when exposed to live females of A. tonsa or its fresh (<24 h post-isolation) exudates for 48 h. These results suggest that dissolved chemical cues released by A. tonsa induce chain formation in C. polykrikoides. Ingestion rate of A. tonsa on four-cell chains of C. polykrikoides was lower than on single cells, suggesting that chain formation may be an effective anti-grazing defense. Finally, nutrient amendment experiments demonstrated that vitamins (B(1), B(7), and B(12)) increased the chain length of C. polykrikoides both singly and collectively, while trace metals and inorganic nutrients did not, showing that vitamins may also influence chain formation in this species.

  3. Right hemisphere dominance in visual statistical learning

    PubMed Central

    Roser, Matthew E.; Fiser, József; Aslin, Richard N.; Gazzaniga, Michael S.

    2010-01-01

    Several studies report a right hemisphere (RH) advantage for visuo-spatial integration and a left hemisphere (LH) advantage for inferring conceptual knowledge from patterns of covariation. The present study examined hemispheric asymmetry in the implicit learning of new visual-feature combinations. A split-brain patient and normal control participants viewed multi-shape scenes presented in either the right or left visual fields. Unbeknownst to the participants the scenes were composed from a random combination of fixed pairs of shapes. Subsequent testing found that control participants could discriminate fixed-pair shapes from randomly combined shapes when presented in either visual field. The split-brain patient performed at chance except when both the practice and test displays were presented in the left visual field (RH). These results suggest that the statistical learning of new visual features is dominated by visuospatial processing in the right hemisphere and provide a prediction about how fMRI activation patterns might change during unsupervised statistical learning. PMID:20433243

  4. On the Shape of Meissner Solutions to a Limiting Form of Ginzburg-Landau Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Xingfei

    2016-12-01

    In this paper we study a semilinear system involving the curl operator, which is a limiting form of the Ginzburg-Landau model for superconductors in R^3 for a large value of the Ginzburg-Landau parameter. We consider the locations of the maximum points of the magnitude of solutions, which are associated with the nucleation of instability of the Meissner state for superconductors when the applied magnetic field is increased in the transition between the Meissner state and the vortex state. For small penetration depth, we prove that the location is not only determined by the tangential component of the applied magnetic field, but also by the normal curvatures of the boundary in some directions. This improves the result obtained by Bates and Pan in Commun. Math. Phys. 276, 571-610 (2007). We also show that the solutions decay exponentially in the normal direction away from the boundary if the penetration depth is small.

  5. Optical methods for measurements of surface shape in optical components for high power laser beam forming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Józwik, Michał; Trusiak, Maciej; LiŻewski, Kamil; Martínez-Carranza, Juan; Voznesenskiy, Nikolay; Kujawińska, Małgorzata

    2016-12-01

    The paper presents modifications of full-field optical methods commonly used to test the surface quality of optical components used for forming a high power laser beam and tests of a final wavefront. The modifications in reference to surface measurements rely on implementation of the novel fringe pattern processing methods including the quality improvement of initial interferogram and analysis of a reconstructed phase based on Hilbert-Huang transform aided by the principal component analysis. Also the Point Diffraction Interferometer as the efficient tool for high quality measurements of elements with high NA is introduced. In reference to a wavefront quality measurements two solutions are discussed: the use of a lateral shear interferometer and the system employing Transport of Intensity Equation method. The pros and cons for both methods are discussed.

  6. Visual Experience Shapes Orthographic Representations in the Visual Word Form Area

    PubMed Central

    Wimmer, Heinz; Ludersdorfer, Philipp; Richlan, Fabio; Kronbichler, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Current neurocognitive research suggests that the efficiency of visual word recognition rests on abstract memory representations of written letters and words stored in the visual word form area (VWFA) in the left ventral occipitotemporal cortex. These representations are assumed to be invariant to visual characteristics such as font and case. In the present functional MRI study, we tested this assumption by presenting written words and varying the case format of the initial letter of German nouns (which are always capitalized) as well as German adjectives and adverbs (both usually in lowercase). As evident from a Word Type × Case Format interaction, activation in the VWFA was greater to words presented in unfamiliar case formats relative to familiar case formats. Our results suggest that neural representations of written words in the VWFA are not fully abstract and still contain information about the visual format in which words are most frequently perceived. PMID:27435995

  7. Hemispherical spondylosclerosis - a polyetiologic syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Dihlmann, W.

    1981-11-01

    Radiologic examination of 43 patients revealed 47 lesions of a type which we have termed hemispherical spondylosclerosis (HSS). This term describes and includes the following essential and possible radiologic findings of the disease: 1) Hemispherical (or dome - or helmet-shaped ) sclerosis of the vertebra above the intervertebral disk. Thus it is a supradiscal HSS. 2) One or more small erosions of the inferior end plate of the vertebra involved. 3) Periosteal apposition on the anterior border of the vertebra along the length of the sclerosis. 4) New bone formation on the inferior end plate. 5) Anterior vertebral osteophytes. 6) Narrowing of the disk space below the affected vertebra. HSS occurs not only as a sequel of degenerative disk disease, but also in bacterial (tuberculous and non-tuberculous) spondylitis, ankylosing spondylitis, osteoid osteoma, and metastases of neoplasms. The differential diagnosis between inflammatory and non-inflammatory pathogenesis and etiology of HSS is described. The characteristic shape of HSS, its sites of predilection (L4 >> L5 > L3), and the preponderance of female sufferers from this painful condition are due to factors which, as yet, remain unknown.

  8. Division of labor: subsets of dorsal-appendage-forming cells control the shape of the entire tube.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Michael J; French, Rachael L; Cosand, K Amber; Dorman, Jennie B; Kiehart, Daniel P; Berg, Celeste A

    2010-10-01

    The function of an organ relies on its form, which in turn depends on the individual shapes of the cells that create it and the interactions between them. Despite remarkable progress in the field of developmental biology, how cells collaborate to make a tissue remains an unsolved mystery. To investigate the mechanisms that determine organ structure, we are studying the cells that form the dorsal appendages (DAs) of the Drosophila melanogaster eggshell. These cells consist of two differentially patterned subtypes: roof cells, which form the outward-facing roof of the lumen, and floor cells, which dive underneath the roof cells to seal off the floor of the tube. In this paper, we present three lines of evidence that reveal a further stratification of the DA-forming epithelium. Laser ablation of only a few cells in the anterior of the region causes a disproportionately severe shortening of the appendage. Genetic alteration through the twin peaks allele of tramtrack69 (ttk(twk)), a female-sterile mutation that leads to severely shortened DAs, causes no such shortening when removed from a majority of the DA-forming cells, but rather, produces short appendages only when removed from cells in the very anterior of the tube-forming tissue. Additionally we show that heterotrimeric G-protein function is required for DA morphogenesis. Like TTK69, Gbeta 13F is not required in all DA-forming follicle cells but only in the floor and leading roof cells. The different phenotypes that result from removal of Gbeta 13F from each region demonstrate a striking division of function between different DA-forming cells. Gbeta mutant floor cells are unable to control the width of the appendage while Gbeta mutant leading roof cells fail to direct the elongation of the appendage and the convergent-extension of the roof-cell population.

  9. Division of labor: Subsets of dorsal-appendage-forming cells control the shape of the entire tube

    PubMed Central

    Boyle, Michael J.; French, Rachael L.; Cosand, K. Amber; Dorman, Jennie B.; Kiehart, Daniel P.; Berg, Celeste A.

    2010-01-01

    The function of an organ relies on its form, which in turn depends on the individual shapes of the cells that create it and the interactions between them. Despite remarkable progress in the field of developmental biology, how cells collaborate to make a tissue remains an unsolved mystery. To investigate the mechanisms that determine organ structure, we are studying the cells that form the dorsal appendages (DAs) of the Drosophila melanogaster eggshell. These cells consist of two differentially patterned subtypes: roof cells, which form the outward-facing roof of the lumen, and floor cells, which dive underneath the roof cells to seal off the floor of the tube. In this paper, we present three lines of evidence that reveal a further stratification of the DA-forming epithelium. Laser ablation of only a few cells in the anterior of the region causes a disproportionately severe shortening of the appendage. Genetic alteration through the twin peaks allele of tramtrack69 (ttktwk), a female-sterile mutation that leads to severely shortened DAs, causes no such shortening when removed from a majority of the DA-forming cells, but rather, produces short appendages only when removed from cells in the very anterior of the tube-forming tissue. Additionally we show that heterotrimeric G-protein function is required for DA morphogenesis. Like TTK69, Gβ13F is not required in all DA-forming follicle cells but only in the floor and leading roof cells. The different phenotypes that result from removal of Gβ13F from each region demonstrate a striking division of function between different DA-forming cells. Gβ mutant floor cells are unable to control the width of the appendage while Gβ mutant leading roof cells fail to direct the elongation of the appendage and the convergent-extension of the roof-cell population. PMID:20659448

  10. Venus Hemispherical Globes

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-03-15

    The images used for the base of this globe show the northern and southern hemispheres of Venus as revealed by more than a decade of radar investigations culminating in the 1990-1994 NASA Magellan mission.

  11. Bowl-shaped oligomeric structures on membranes as DegP's new functional forms in protein quality control

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Qing-Tao; Bai, Xiao-Chen; Chang, Lei-Fu; Wu, Yi; Wang, Hong-Wei; Sui, Sen-Fang

    2009-01-01

    In the periplasm of Escherichia coli, DegP (also known as HtrA), which has both chaperone-like and proteolytic activities, prevents the accumulation of toxic misfolded and unfolded polypeptides. In solution, upon binding to denatured proteins, DegP forms large cage-like structures. Here, we show that DegP forms a range of bowl-shaped structures, independent of substrate proteins, each with a 4-, 5-, or 6-fold symmetry and all with a DegP trimer as the structural unit, on lipid membranes. These membrane-bound DegP assemblies have the capacity to recruit and process substrates in the bowl chamber, and they exhibit higher proteolytic and lower chaperone-like activities than DegP in solution. Our findings imply that DegP might regulate its dual roles during protein quality control, depending on its assembly state in the narrow bacterial envelope. PMID:19255437

  12. Thermodynamic and kinetic characteristics of variations in shapes of ridges formed on l brace 100 r brace lithium fluoride surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Bullard, J.W.; Glaeser, A.M.; Searcy, A.W.

    1991-12-01

    channels with widths in the range form 5 {mu}m were formed in {l brace}100{r brace} surfaces of LiF single crystals by a photolithographic technique. Specimens annealed at or above 0.90 T{mu}m, where T{mu} is the melting point, and then quenched showed the channels and the ridges between them develop rounded profiles. Evolution of these profiles was evaluated for the various channel widths and for interchannel ridge spacings of 5 to 100 {mu}m in terms of: (a) an accepted theoretical model for a surface diffusion controlled process, and (b) a model which assumes that shape changes depend only on the relative energies of attachment of atoms in surface sites with various surface curvatures. Either model is consistent with the experimental observations to within the reproducibility in measurements.

  13. Root phototropism: how light and gravity interact in shaping plant form.

    PubMed

    Kiss, John Z; Correll, Melanie J; Mullen, Jack L; Hangarter, Roger P; Edelmann, Richard E

    2003-06-01

    The interactions among tropisms can be critical in determining the final growth form of plants and plant organs. We have studied tropistic responses in roots as an example of these type of interactions. While gravitropism is the predominant tropistic response in roots, phototropism also plays a role in the oriented growth in this organ in flowering plants. In blue or white light, roots exhibit negative phototropism, but red light induces positive phototropism. In the flowering plant Arabidopsis, the photosensitive pigments phytochrome A (phyA) and phytochrome B (phyB) mediate this positive red-light-based photoresponse in roots since single mutants (and the double phyAB mutant) were severely impaired in this response. While blue-light-based negative phototropism is primarily mediated by the phototropin family of photoreceptors, the phyA and phyAB mutants (but not phyB) were inhibited in this response relative to the WT. The differences observed in phototropic responses were not due to growth limitations since the growth rates among all the mutants tested were not significantly different from that of the WT. Thus, our study shows that the blue-light and red-light systems interact in plants and that phytochrome plays a key role in integrating multiple environmental stimuli.

  14. Root phototropism: how light and gravity interact in shaping plant form

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiss, John Z.; Correll, Melanie J.; Mullen, Jack L.; Hangarter, Roger P.; Edelmann, Richard E.

    2003-01-01

    The interactions among tropisms can be critical in determining the final growth form of plants and plant organs. We have studied tropistic responses in roots as an example of these type of interactions. While gravitropism is the predominant tropistic response in roots, phototropism also plays a role in the oriented growth in this organ in flowering plants. In blue or white light, roots exhibit negative phototropism, but red light induces positive phototropism. In the flowering plant Arabidopsis, the photosensitive pigments phytochrome A (phyA) and phytochrome B (phyB) mediate this positive red-light-based photoresponse in roots since single mutants (and the double phyAB mutant) were severely impaired in this response. While blue-light-based negative phototropism is primarily mediated by the phototropin family of photoreceptors, the phyA and phyAB mutants (but not phyB) were inhibited in this response relative to the WT. The differences observed in phototropic responses were not due to growth limitations since the growth rates among all the mutants tested were not significantly different from that of the WT. Thus, our study shows that the blue-light and red-light systems interact in plants and that phytochrome plays a key role in integrating multiple environmental stimuli.

  15. Mars life: how Darwinian pressures might have shaped its form and function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, Gilbert V.

    2005-09-01

    The possible existence of life on Mars is now gaining credence. Evidence consistent with or supporting the presence of extant microbial life, as reported by a life detection experiment on the Viking Mission in 1976, has been rapidly accumulating from spacecraft orbital and lander operations, and from terrestrial observations. Vast oceans of frozen water near the planet's surface are being discovered, with strong indications of recent or present liquid flows, and theory and laboratory experiment have demonstrated that liquid water should exist on the surface of Mars. The biosphere on Earth has been extended into extreme environments until recently thought inimical to life. Places void of life have become rare. No life requirement has been found lacking on Mars. It is possible that, by the time of this 50th Anniversary SPIE Meeting, the paradigm shift accepting life beyond the Earth may have been made. Mankind will then emerge from its ancient fear of loneliness into a new fear of anticipation of what that still unidentified life might portend. The author attempts to apply Darwinian principles of evolution to life on Mars under the selection pressures, opportunities and constraints that have been imposed by past and present Martian conditions. Starting with the type of cell believed to have begun the evolutionary process on Earth, he speculates on what the current life on Mars may be like in form and function, including what threat or promise it might hold for Earth life.

  16. Root phototropism: how light and gravity interact in shaping plant form

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiss, John Z.; Correll, Melanie J.; Mullen, Jack L.; Hangarter, Roger P.; Edelmann, Richard E.

    2003-01-01

    The interactions among tropisms can be critical in determining the final growth form of plants and plant organs. We have studied tropistic responses in roots as an example of these type of interactions. While gravitropism is the predominant tropistic response in roots, phototropism also plays a role in the oriented growth in this organ in flowering plants. In blue or white light, roots exhibit negative phototropism, but red light induces positive phototropism. In the flowering plant Arabidopsis, the photosensitive pigments phytochrome A (phyA) and phytochrome B (phyB) mediate this positive red-light-based photoresponse in roots since single mutants (and the double phyAB mutant) were severely impaired in this response. While blue-light-based negative phototropism is primarily mediated by the phototropin family of photoreceptors, the phyA and phyAB mutants (but not phyB) were inhibited in this response relative to the WT. The differences observed in phototropic responses were not due to growth limitations since the growth rates among all the mutants tested were not significantly different from that of the WT. Thus, our study shows that the blue-light and red-light systems interact in plants and that phytochrome plays a key role in integrating multiple environmental stimuli.

  17. Southern hemisphere observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orchiston, Wayne

    Because of insurmountable problems associated with absolute dating, the non-literate cultures of the Southern Hemisphere can contribute little to Applied Historical Astronomy, although Maori traditions document a possible supernova dating to the period 1000-1770 AD. In contrast, the abundant nineteenth century solar, planetary, cometary and stellar observational data provided by Southern Hemisphere professional and amateur observatories can serve as an invaluable mine of information for present-day astronomers seeking to incorporate historical data in their investigations.

  18. Leaf-shape variation of Paederia foetida in Japan: reexamination of the small, narrow leaf form from Miyajima Island.

    PubMed

    Tsukaya, Hirokazu; Imaichi, Ryoko; Yokoyama, Jun

    2006-07-01

    Variations in Paederia foetida L. leaf shape were examined to evaluate the taxonomic validity of the small, narrow leaf form of P. foetida f. microphylla Honda from Miyajima Island, Honshu, Japan. There is considerable variation in P. foetida individuals in terms of leaf size and leaf index (leaf length:leaf width ratio). On Miyajima Island, some individuals have narrow leaves with a high leaf index value, a phenotype represented by the type specimen of P. foetida f. microphylla, and some do not. Given that the leaf size of individuals from Miyajima Island is smaller than that of individuals from other localities in Japan, and that the small leaf phenotype is stable even under cultivation, P. foetida f. microphylla is classified as the form having the smallest leaf size. Anatomical examination of leaf blades revealed that the large variation in leaf size was attributable to variation in the number of leaf cells but not to differences in cell size or cell shape. Based on these results, we discuss the endemism of P. foetida f. microphylla.

  19. Hemispheric contributions to pragmatics.

    PubMed

    Zaidel, E; Kasher, A; Soroker, N; Batori, G; Giora, R; Graves, D

    2000-01-01

    Twenty-seven patients with right-hemisphere damage (RBD) and thirty-one patients with left-hemisphere damage (LBD) received a new pragmatics battery in Hebrew consisting of two parts: (1) comprehension and production of basic speech acts (BSAs), including tests of assertions, questions, requests, and commands, and (2) comprehension of implicatures, including implicatures of quantity, quality, relevance, and manner. Each test had a verbal and a nonverbal version. Patients also received Hebrew versions of the Western Aphasia Battery and of the Right Hemisphere Communication Battery. Both LBD and RBD patients were impaired relative to controls but did not differ from each other in their overall scores on BSAs and on Implicatures when scores were corrected by aphasia and neglect indices. There was a systematic localization of BSAs in the left hemisphere (LH) but not in the right hemisphere (RH). There was poor localization of Implicatures in either hemisphere. In LBD patients, BSAs were associated with language functions measured with the WAB, suggesting the radical possibility that the classic localization of language functions in aphasia is influenced by the localization of the BSAs required by aphasia language tests. Both BSAs and implicatures show greater functional independence from other pragmatic, language and cognitive functions in the RBD than in the LBD patients. Thus, the LH is more likely to contain an unmodular domain-nonspecific set of central cognitive mechanisms for applying means-ends rationality principles to intentional activity.

  20. Hemispherical Laue camera

    DOEpatents

    Li, James C. M.; Chu, Sungnee G.

    1980-01-01

    A hemispherical Laue camera comprises a crystal sample mount for positioning a sample to be analyzed at the center of sphere of a hemispherical, X-radiation sensitive film cassette, a collimator, a stationary or rotating sample mount and a set of standard spherical projection spheres. X-radiation generated from an external source is directed through the collimator to impinge onto the single crystal sample on the stationary mount. The diffracted beam is recorded on the hemispherical X-radiation sensitive film mounted inside the hemispherical film cassette in either transmission or back-reflection geometry. The distances travelled by X-radiation diffracted from the crystal to the hemispherical film are the same for all crystal planes which satisfy Bragg's Law. The recorded diffraction spots or Laue spots on the film thereby preserve both the symmetry information of the crystal structure and the relative intensities which are directly related to the relative structure factors of the crystal orientations. The diffraction pattern on the exposed film is compared with the known diffraction pattern on one of the standard spherical projection spheres for a specific crystal structure to determine the orientation of the crystal sample. By replacing the stationary sample support with a rotating sample mount, the hemispherical Laue camera can be used for crystal structure determination in a manner previously provided in conventional Debye-Scherrer cameras.

  1. Pharyngeal Swallowing Mechanics Secondary to Hemispheric Stroke.

    PubMed

    May, Nelson H; Pisegna, Jessica M; Marchina, Sarah; Langmore, Susan E; Kumar, Sandeep; Pearson, William G

    2017-05-01

    Computational analysis of swallowing mechanics (CASM) is a method that utilizes multivariate shape change analysis to uncover covariant elements of pharyngeal swallowing mechanics associated with impairment using videofluoroscopic swallowing studies. The goals of this preliminary study were to (1) characterize swallowing mechanics underlying stroke-related dysphagia, (2) decipher the impact of left and right hemispheric strokes on pharyngeal swallowing mechanics, and (3) determine pharyngeal swallowing mechanics associated with penetration-aspiration status. Videofluoroscopic swallowing studies of 18 dysphagic patients with hemispheric infarcts and age- and gender-matched controls were selected from well-controlled data sets. Patient data including laterality and penetration-aspiration status were collected. Coordinates mapping muscle group action during swallowing were collected from videos. Multivariate morphometric analyses of coordinates associated with stroke, affected hemisphere, and penetration-aspiration status were performed. Pharyngeal swallowing mechanics differed significantly in the following comparisons: stroke versus controls (D = 2.19, P < .0001), right hemispheric stroke versus controls (D = 3.64, P < .0001), left hemispheric stroke versus controls (D = 2.06, P < .0001), right hemispheric stroke versus left hemispheric stroke (D = 2.89, P < .0001), and penetration-aspiration versus within normal limits (D = 2.25, P < .0001). Differences in pharyngeal swallowing mechanics associated with each comparison were visualized using eigenvectors. Whereas current literature focuses on timing changes in stroke-related dysphagia, these data suggest that mechanical changes are also functionally important. Pharyngeal swallowing mechanics differed by the affected hemisphere and the penetration-aspiration status. CASM can be used to identify patient-specific swallowing impairment associated with stroke injury that could help

  2. Recovering two languages with the right hemisphere.

    PubMed

    Marini, Andrea; Galetto, Valentina; Tatu, Karina; Duca, Sergio; Geminiani, Giuliano; Sacco, Katiuscia; Zettin, Marina

    2016-08-01

    Converging evidence suggests that the right hemisphere (RH) plays an important role in language recovery from aphasia after a left hemisphere (LH) lesion. In this longitudinal study we describe the neurological, cognitive, and linguistic profile of A.C., a bilingual who, after a severe traumatic brain injury, developed a form of fluent aphasia that affected his two languages (i.e., Romanian and Italian). The trauma-induced parenchymal atrophy led to an exceptional ventricular dilation that, gradually, affected the whole left hemisphere. A.C. is now recovering both languages relying only on his right hemisphere. An fMRI experiment employing a bilingual covert verb generation task documented the involvement of the right middle temporal gyrus in processes of lexical selection and access. This case supports the hypothesis that the RH plays a role in language recovery from aphasia when the LH has suffered massive lesions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Intrinsic and extrinsic regulatory mechanisms are required to form and maintain a lens of the correct size and shape.

    PubMed

    McAvoy, J W; Dawes, L J; Sugiyama, Y; Lovicu, F J

    2017-03-01

    Understanding how tissues and organs acquire and maintain an appropriate size and shape remains one of the most challenging areas in developmental biology. The eye lens represents an excellent system to provide insights into regulatory mechanisms because in addition to its relative simplicity in cellular composition (being made up of only two forms of cells, epithelial and fiber cells), these cells must become organized to generate the precise spheroidal arrangement that delivers normal lens function. Epithelial and fiber cells also represent spatially distinct proliferation and differentiation compartments, respectively, and an ongoing balance between these domains must be tightly regulated so that the lens achieves and maintains appropriate dimensions during growth and ageing. Recent research indicates that reciprocal inductive interactions mediated by Wnt-Frizzled and Notch-Jagged signaling pathways are important for maintaining and organizing these compartments. The Hippo-Yap pathway has also been implicated in maintaining the epithelial progenitor compartment and regulating growth processes. Thus, whilst some molecules and mechanisms have been identified, further work in this important area is needed to provide a clearer understanding of how lens size and shape is regulated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Net Shape Spin Formed Cryogenic Aluminum Lithium Cryogenic Tank Domes for Lower Cost Higher Performance Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curreri, Peter A.; Hoffman, Eric; Domack, Marcia; Brewster, Jeb; Russell, Carolyn

    2013-01-01

    With the goal of lower cost (simplified manufacturing and lower part count) and higher performance (higher strength to weight alloys) the NASA Technical Maturation Program in 2006 funded a proposal to investigate spin forming of space launch vehicle cryogenic tank domes. The project funding continued under the NASA Exploration Technology Development Program through completion in FY12. The first phase of the project involved spin forming of eight, 1 meter diameter "path finder" domes. Half of these were processed using a concave spin form process (MT Aerospace, Augsburg Germany) and the other half using a convex process (Spincraft, Boston MA). The convex process has been used to produce the Ares Common Bulkhead and the concave process has been used to produce dome caps for the Space Shuttle light weight external tank and domes for the NASDA H2. Aluminum Lithium material was chosen because of its higher strength to weight ratio than the Aluminum 2219 baseline. Aluminum lithium, in order to obtain the desired temper (T8), requires a cold stretch after the solution heat treatment and quench. This requirement favors the concave spin form process which was selected for scale up. This paper describes the results of processing four, 5.5 meter diameter (upper stage scale) net shaped spin formed Aluminum Lithium domes. In order to allow scalability beyond the limits of foundry and rolling mills (about 12 foot width) the circular blank contained one friction stir weld (heavy lifter scales require a flat blank containing two welds). Mechanical properties data (tensile, fracture toughness, stress corrosion, and simulated service testing) for the parent metal and weld will also be discussed.

  5. An experimental study on the effect of wind load around tall towers of square and hexagonal shapes in staggered form

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anwar, Proma; Islam, Md. Quamrul; Ali, Mohammad

    2017-06-01

    In this research work an experiment is conducted to observe the effect of wind load around square and hexagonal shaped cylinders in staggered form. The experiment is performed in an open circuit wind tunnel at a Reynolds number of 4.23×104 based on the face width of the cylinder across the flow direction. The flow velocity has been kept uniform at 14.3 m/s throughout the experiment. The test is conducted for single cylinders first and then in staggered form. The cylinders are rotated to create different angles of attack and the angles are chosen at a definite interval. The static pressure readings are taken at different locations of the cylinder by inclined multi-manometers. From the surface static pressure readings pressure coefficients, drag coefficients and lift coefficients are calculated using numerical integration method. These results will surely help engineers to design buildings more stable against wind load. All the results are expressed in non-dimensional form, so that they can be applied for prototype structures.

  6. Free-form Airfoil Shape Optimization Under Uncertainty Using Maximum Expected Value and Second-order Second-moment Strategies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huyse, Luc; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Free-form shape optimization of airfoils poses unexpected difficulties. Practical experience has indicated that a deterministic optimization for discrete operating conditions can result in dramatically inferior performance when the actual operating conditions are different from the - somewhat arbitrary - design values used for the optimization. Extensions to multi-point optimization have proven unable to adequately remedy this problem of "localized optimization" near the sampled operating conditions. This paper presents an intrinsically statistical approach and demonstrates how the shortcomings of multi-point optimization with respect to "localized optimization" can be overcome. The practical examples also reveal how the relative likelihood of each of the operating conditions is automatically taken into consideration during the optimization process. This is a key advantage over the use of multipoint methods.

  7. Hemispheric Differences in Processing Handwritten Cursive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellige, Joseph B.; Adamson, Maheen M.

    2007-01-01

    Hemispheric asymmetry was examined for native English speakers identifying consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) non-words presented in standard printed form, in standard handwritten cursive form or in handwritten cursive with the letters separated by small gaps. For all three conditions, fewer errors occurred when stimuli were presented to the right…

  8. Hemispheric Differences in Processing Handwritten Cursive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellige, Joseph B.; Adamson, Maheen M.

    2007-01-01

    Hemispheric asymmetry was examined for native English speakers identifying consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) non-words presented in standard printed form, in standard handwritten cursive form or in handwritten cursive with the letters separated by small gaps. For all three conditions, fewer errors occurred when stimuli were presented to the right…

  9. Processes for forming exoergic structures with the use of a plasma and for producing dense refractory bodies of arbitrary shape therefrom

    DOEpatents

    Holt, J. Birch; Kelly, Michael D.

    1990-01-01

    Plasma spraying methods of forming exoergic structures and coatings, as well as exoergic structures produced by such methods, are provided. The methods include the plasma spraying of reactive exoergic materials that are capable of sustaining a combustion synthesis reaction onto a flat substrate or into molds of arbitrary shape and igniting said plasma sprayed materials, either under an inert gas pressure or not, to form refractory materials of varying densities and of varying shapes.

  10. A Brief History of Shaped Charges

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    liner geometry may be conical, hemispherical, parabolic, or any arcuate device. If the liner is “bow shaped” it is called an explosively formed...apex. Other Japanese studies related to detonation physics and methods of focusing the gas flow, calculation of the target hole volume and...rounds, and other devices using shaped charges. Many of these improvements and research activities are well documented, for example, in the

  11. Moon - Western Hemisphere

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-01-29

    This image of the western hemisphere of the Moon was taken through a green filter by NASA's Galileo spacecraft at 9:35 a.m. PST Dec. 9 at a range of about 350,000 miles. In the center is the Orientale Basin. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00120

  12. Hemispheric lateralization in reasoning.

    PubMed

    Turner, Benjamin O; Marinsek, Nicole; Ryhal, Emily; Miller, Michael B

    2015-11-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that reasoning in humans relies on a number of related processes whose neural loci are largely lateralized to one hemisphere or the other. A recent review of this evidence concluded that the patterns of lateralization observed are organized according to two complementary tendencies. The left hemisphere attempts to reduce uncertainty by drawing inferences or creating explanations, even at the cost of ignoring conflicting evidence or generating implausible explanations. Conversely, the right hemisphere aims to reduce conflict by rejecting or refining explanations that are no longer tenable in the face of new evidence. In healthy adults, the hemispheres work together to achieve a balance between certainty and consistency, and a wealth of neuropsychological research supports the notion that upsetting this balance results in various failures in reasoning, including delusions. However, support for this model from the neuroimaging literature is mixed. Here, we examine the evidence for this framework from multiple research domains, including an activation likelihood estimation analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging studies of reasoning. Our results suggest a need to either revise this model as it applies to healthy adults or to develop better tools for assessing lateralization in these individuals.

  13. Hemispheric Asymmetries in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewandowski, Lawrence

    1982-01-01

    Hemispheric specialization tasks were given to different-aged boys. Asymmetries were demonstrated on manual, visual, and auditory tasks; however, the degree of asymmetries did not change across age groups. There appears to be a dissociation between visual and auditory perceptual asymmetries. (Author/RD)

  14. Hemispheric Asymmetries in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewandowski, Lawrence

    1982-01-01

    Hemispheric specialization tasks were given to different-aged boys. Asymmetries were demonstrated on manual, visual, and auditory tasks; however, the degree of asymmetries did not change across age groups. There appears to be a dissociation between visual and auditory perceptual asymmetries. (Author/RD)

  15. Neptune Southern Hemisphere

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-01-29

    This photograph of Neptune southern hemisphere was taken by the narrow-angle camera on NASA Voyager 2 when the spacecraft was 4.2 million km 2.6 million miles from the planet. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00050

  16. Inverted hemispherical mask colloidal lithography.

    PubMed

    Xu, Haixia; Rao, Wenyuan; Meng, Jun; Shen, Yang; Jin, Chongjun; Wang, Xuehua

    2009-11-18

    This paper presents a cost-effective nanofabrication method for forming large area and high coverage two-dimensional metal nanostructures on flat and curved surfaces. This method starts with a periodic array of hemispherical dimples on polystyrene (PS) film prepared by colloidal lithography with a sacrificial layer of polyacrylic acid (PAA) underneath. After the removal of PAA in water solution, the PS layer is turned over and attached to the substrate to be patterned. An inverted hemispherical mask is formed after oxygen plasma etching. As the holes at the bottom are much larger than those on the surface, the mask is especially suitable for a standard lift-off process. Based on this mask, metal nano-disk and pair-disk arrays, as well as two-dimensional nanostructures on a curved surface, have been fabricated. Optical measurement shows that a surface plasmon resonance exists in a periodic disk array. This method is valuable for the fabrication of a magnifying metamaterial hyperlens in order to eliminate the limitation of optical diffraction.

  17. Right hemispheric dominance of visual phenomena evoked by intracerebral stimulation of the human visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Jonas, Jacques; Frismand, Solène; Vignal, Jean-Pierre; Colnat-Coulbois, Sophie; Koessler, Laurent; Vespignani, Hervé; Rossion, Bruno; Maillard, Louis

    2014-07-01

    Electrical brain stimulation can provide important information about the functional organization of the human visual cortex. Here, we report the visual phenomena evoked by a large number (562) of intracerebral electrical stimulations performed at low-intensity with depth electrodes implanted in the occipito-parieto-temporal cortex of 22 epileptic patients. Focal electrical stimulation evoked primarily visual hallucinations with various complexities: simple (spot or blob), intermediary (geometric forms), or complex meaningful shapes (faces); visual illusions and impairments of visual recognition were more rarely observed. With the exception of the most posterior cortical sites, the probability of evoking a visual phenomenon was significantly higher in the right than the left hemisphere. Intermediary and complex hallucinations, illusions, and visual recognition impairments were almost exclusively evoked by stimulation in the right hemisphere. The probability of evoking a visual phenomenon decreased substantially from the occipital pole to the most anterior sites of the temporal lobe, and this decrease was more pronounced in the left hemisphere. The greater sensitivity of the right occipito-parieto-temporal regions to intracerebral electrical stimulation to evoke visual phenomena supports a predominant role of right hemispheric visual areas from perception to recognition of visual forms, regardless of visuospatial and attentional factors. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Brain Hemisphericity and Developmental Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vlachos, Filippos; Andreou, Eleni; Delliou, Afroditi

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the link between brain hemisphericity and dyslexia in secondary school students, using the Preference Test (PT), a widely used self-report index of preferred hemisphere thinking styles. The hypothesis was that differences would be revealed between the dyslexic group and their peers in hemispheric preference. A total of…

  19. Music, Hemisphere Preference and Imagery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stratton, Valerie N.; Zalanowski, Annette H.

    Two experiments were conducted to determine a possible relationship between the right hemisphere, music perception, and mental imagery. The first experiment compared two groups of college students, one of which showed a preference for left hemisphere thinking (n=22) and the other a preference for right hemisphere thinking (n=20), in order to test…

  20. Brain Hemisphericity and Developmental Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vlachos, Filippos; Andreou, Eleni; Delliou, Afroditi

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the link between brain hemisphericity and dyslexia in secondary school students, using the Preference Test (PT), a widely used self-report index of preferred hemisphere thinking styles. The hypothesis was that differences would be revealed between the dyslexic group and their peers in hemispheric preference. A total of…

  1. Isolation and characterization of new poly(3HB)-accumulating star-shaped cell-aggregates-forming thermophilic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, M H A; Willems, A; Steinbüchel, A

    2010-11-01

    This study aimed at isolating thermophilic bacteria that utilize cheap carbon substrates for the economically feasible production of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate), poly(3HB), at elevated temperatures. Thermophilic bacteria were enriched from an aerobic organic waste treatment plant in Germany, and from hot springs in Egypt. Using the viable colony staining method for hydrophobic cellular inclusions with Nile red in mineral salts medium (MSM) containing different carbon sources, six Gram-negative bacteria were isolated. Under the cultivation conditions used in this study, strains MW9, MW11, MW12, MW13 and MW14 formed stable star-shaped cell-aggregates (SSCAs) during growth; only strain MW10 consisted of free-living rod-shaped cells. The phylogenetic relationships of the strains as derived from 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons revealed them as members of the Alphaproteobacteria. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of the isolates were very similar (>99% similarity) and exhibited similarities ranging from 93 to 99% with the most closely related species that were Chelatococcus daeguensis, Chelatococcus sambhunathii,Chelatococcus asaccharovorans, Bosea minatitlanensis, Bosea thiooxidans and Methylobacterium lusitanum. Strains MW9, MW10, MW13 and MW14 grew optimally in MSM with glucose, whereas strains MW11 and MW12 preferred glycerol as sole carbon source for growth and poly(3HB) accumulation. The highest cell density and highest poly(3HB) content attained were 4·8g l(-l) (cell dry weight) and 73% (w/w), respectively. Cells of all strains grew at temperatures between 37 and 55°C with the optimum growth at 50°C. New PHA-accumulating thermophilic bacterial strains were isolated and characterized to produce poly(3HB) from glucose or glycerol in MSM at 50°C. SSCAs formation was reported during growth. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the formation of SSCAs by PHA-accumulating bacteria and also by thermophilic bacteria. PHA-producing thermophiles can

  2. Probability Matching in the Right Hemisphere

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, M.B.; Valsangkar-Smyth, M.

    2005-01-01

    Previously it has been shown that the left hemisphere, but not the right, of split-brain patients tends to match the frequency of previous occurrences in probability-guessing paradigms (Wolford, Miller, & Gazzaniga, 2000). This phenomenon has been attributed to an ''interpreter,'' a mechanism for making interpretations and forming hypotheses,…

  3. Does a Causal Relation Exist between the Functional Hemispheric Asymmetries of Visual Processing Subsystems?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andresen, David R.; Marsolek, Chad J.

    2005-01-01

    Past research indicates that specific shape recognition and spatial-relations encoding rely on subsystems that exhibit right-hemisphere advantages, whereas abstract shape recognition and spatial-relations encoding rely on subsystems that exhibit left-hemisphere advantages. Given these apparent regularities, we tested whether asymmetries in shape…

  4. Shapes of standing jumps formed in granular flows down inclines: implications for the design of snow avalanche protection dams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faug, Thierry; Childs, Philippa; Wyburn, Edward; Castro, Luiza Cardoso Ribas e.; Einav, Itai

    2015-04-01

    The European guidelines for the design of avalanche protection dams mainly rely on a couple of criteria based on the formation of granular jumps upstream of obstacles. The equations proposed to describe granular jumps are strictly valid for incompressible and frictionless fluids but generally hold for rapid granular flows mimicking snow avalanches. We have conducted a series of tests on a newly established granular chute to investigate in detail the shape of the steady jumps by varying both the slope angle and the mass discharge. Our laboratory tests confirm that the traditional shallow-water shock equation works well for the steep jumps formed in rapid and dense flows (characterized by a Froude number in the range 4-7 at high inclination and high mass discharge) but the equation fails for either low slope angles or low mass discharges. At low slope angles and high mass discharges, the jumps are very diffuse and elongated. The traditional shock equation underestimates the jump height. At low mass discharges, the incoming flows become dilute and produce compressible jumps for which the density variation across the jump cannot be neglected. A full jump equation accounting for the source terms (weight of the jump itself minus its effective friction) and the density variation as well is proposed. Approximate solutions are discussed to describe the transition between steep and diffuse jumps on the one side and the transition from incompressible to compressible jumps on the other side. Our study clearly reveals the limits of the current European guidelines for the design of avalanche protection dams when the incoming flows are relatively slow (Froude number about 1-3 in our tests). The latter avalanche flow-regime is relevant for many situations in avalanche run-out zones where protection dams are generally settled.

  5. Optimization of the preform shape in the three-stage forming process of the shielded slot plate in fuel cell manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Dong-Yol; Lee, Chang-Whan; Kang, Dong-Woo; Chang, In-Gab; Lee, Tae-Won

    2013-05-01

    The shielded slot plate, a repeated structure of high sheared protrusions, is a major component of metallic bipolar plates for the molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC). In order to increase the efficiency of the MCFC and long-term operation capability, the sheared protrusion should have a relatively large flat contact area. In addition, defects from the forming process such as local thinning should be minimized. In this work, the preform shape in the three-stage forming process that integrates the slitting process, the preforming process, and the final forming process was optimized to minimize the effective plastic strain. In the simulation of the forming process, the ductile fracture criterion was employed to the user material subroutine VUMAT in ABAQUS/Explicit. Steepest descent method was utilized in the design of the forming process to minimize equivalent plastic strain. High sheared protrusions were manufactured without defects from the three-stage forming process using the optimized preform shape. The minimum thickness of one sheared protrusion was increased by 25% over that of the two-stage forming process. The three-stage forming process using the optimized preform shape enables more uniformly distributed deformation and reduces localized deformation.

  6. Hypnosis in the Right Hemisphere

    PubMed Central

    Kihlstrom, John F.; Glisky, Martha L.; McGovern, Susan; Rapcsak, Steven Z.; Mennemeier, Mark S.

    2012-01-01

    Speculations about the neural substrates of hypnosis have often focused on the right hemisphere, implying that right-hemisphere damage should impair hypnotic responsiveness more than left-hemisphere damage. The present study examined the performance of a patient who suffered a stroke destroying most of his left hemisphere, on slightly modified versions of two hypnotizability scales. This patient was at least modestly hypnotizable, as indicated in particular by the arm rigidity and age regression items, suggesting that hypnosis can be mediated by the right hemisphere alone -- provided that the language capacities normally found in the left hemisphere remain available. A further study of 16 patients with unilateral strokes of the left or right hemisphere found no substantial differences in hypnotizability between the two groups. Future neuropsychological studies of hypnosis might explore the dorsal/ventral or anterior/posterior dichotomies, with special emphasis on the role of prefrontal cortex. PMID:22705266

  7. Detailed Cloud Patterns in Martian Northern Hemisphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Cold and cloudy mornings; cool, hazy afternoons. High winds aloft and weather fronts moving slowly to the east. It is winter in the Martian northern hemisphere. One of the many reasons to study Mars is that, at times, its weather is very 'Earth-like.' At this time of the Martian year, clouds are abundant, especially in the morning and especially in the high northern latitudes. Clouds and fogs are also observed in low-lying areas farther to the south, in some lowlands they are as far south as the equator.

    The above color composite images, obtained by Mars Global Surveyor's camera on June 4, 1998, illustrate this Martian 'weather report.' Most of the thick, white clouds seen here occur north of latitude 35oN (roughly equivalent to Albuquerque NM, Memphis TN, and Charlotte, NC). Fog (seen as bright orange because it is lighter than the ground but some of the ground is still visible) occupies the lowest portions of the Kasei Valles outflow channel around 30oN and at 25oN.

    Several different types of cloud features are seen. The repetitious, wash-board pattern of parallel lines are 'gravity wave clouds'. These commonly form, in the lee--downwind side-- of topographic features such as mountain ranges (on Earth) or crater rims (on Mars), under very specific atmospheric conditions (low temperatures, high humidity, and high wind speeds). In this area, the wave clouds are lower in the atmosphere than some of the other clouds. These other clouds show attributes reflecting more the regional weather pattern, occasionally showing the characteristic 'slash' shape (southwest to northeast) of a weather front. These clouds probably contain mostly crystals of water ice but, depending on the temperature at high altitude (and more likely closer to the pole), some could also contain frozen carbon dioxide ('dry ice').

    MOC images 34501 (the red wide angle image) and 34502 (the blue wide angle image) were obtained on Mars Global Surveyor's 345th orbit about the planet

  8. Triton Southern Hemisphere

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-06-08

    This polar projection from NASA Voyager 2 of Triton southern hemisphere provides a view of the southern polar cap and bright equatorial fringe. The margin of the cap is scalloped and ranges in latitude from +10 degrees to -30 degrees. The bright fringe is closely associated with the cap's margin; from it, diffuse bright rays extend north-northeast for hundreds of kilometers. The bright fringe probably consists of very fresh nitrogen frost or snow, and the rays consist of bright-fringe materials that were redistributed by north-moving Coriolis-deflected winds. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00423

  9. Hemispherical latching apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, K. H. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    An apparatus for securing payloads in a space vehicle such as the space shuttle is described. The apparatus includes many latching assemblies carried by a platform on the vehicle and a like number of latching elements carried by the payload and adapted to mate with the latching assemblies. The novelty of the invention is believed to reside in the use of complementary hemispherical elements which automatically align and engage with one another. This enables a simple but effective mode of operation and avoids the need for hinged linkages and similar moving parts.

  10. Triton's Southern Hemisphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This polar projection of Triton's southern hemisphere provides a view of the southern polar cap and bright equatorial fringe. The margin of the cap is scalloped and ranges in latitude from +10 degrees to -30 degrees. The bright fringe is closely associated with the cap's margin; from it, diffuse bright rays extend north-northeast for hundreds of kilometers. The bright fringe probably consists of very fresh nitrogen frost or snow, and the rays consist of bright-fringe materials that were redistributed by north-moving Coriolis-deflected winds.

  11. Factors Influencing Hemispheric Specialization.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-05-01

    the effects of hemispheric lateralizatnn on cornitive processing, HeIsdyck et al. conducted a ser’ies of’ exper’ments using Chinese characters as...1;1 times, over 104 trials for each of four s~or~s. T1he stirrali were projected on a screen f’or 100 i%-oc, arn th- artic - rant- were innir-ucted to...screen either to the or and particpants responded by pressing a !, ey only ,: two of the faces were positive faces. ’ar-tciprant:: ,.;ere ;-ven fo’-r

  12. Electroformation of uranium hemispherical shells

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, S.L.; Redey, L.; Vandegrift, G.F.; Vissers, D.R.

    1989-11-01

    This effort was directed at developing an electrochemical process for forming uniform and dendrite-free deposits of uranium from molten salts. This process is to be used for the electroformation of free-standing hemispherical shells of uranium for nuclear applications. Electrodeposition of uranium onto a substrate was accomplished with a fused chloride mixture containing 42 wt% UCl{sub 3} and a fused chloride-fluoride mixture containing 4 wt % UF{sub 4}. Under pulsed potential control at 504{degree}C, the chloride-fluoride mixture yielded the widest range of plating conditions for which dendrites could be avoided. Bipolar current pulse plating with both electrolytes gave good results, and successful application of this technique to a large tubular cathode has been demonstrated. 24 refs., 10 figs.

  13. Photo-Mediated Copper(I)-Catalyzed Azide-Alkyne Cycloaddition (CuAAC) “Click” Reactions for Forming Polymer Networks as Shape Memory Materials

    PubMed Central

    McBride, Matthew K.; Gong, Tao; Nair, Devatha P.; Bowman, Christopher N.

    2014-01-01

    The formation of polymer networks polymerized with the Copper (I) – catalyzed azide – alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) click reaction is described along with their accompanying utilization as shape memory polymers. Due to the click nature of the reaction and the synthetic accessibility of azide and alkyne functional-monomers, the polymer architecture was readily controlled through monomer design to manipulate crosslink density, ability for further functionalization, and the glass transition temperature (55 to 120°C). Free strain recovery is used to quantify the shape memory properties of a model CuAAC network resulting in excellent shape fixity and recovery of 99%. The step growth nature of this polymerization results in homogenous network formation with narrow glass transitions ranges having half widths of the transition close to 15°C for these materials resulting in shape recovery sharpness of 3.9 %/°C in a model system comparable to similarly crosslinked chain growth polymers. Utilization of the CuAAC reaction to form shape memory materials opens a range of possibilities and behaviors that are not readily achieved in other shape memory materials such as (meth) acrylates, thiolene, thiol-Michael, and poly(caprolactone) based shape memory materials. PMID:25378717

  14. New results form HST on fast, colimated outflows in dying stars - the primary mechanism for shaping planetary nebulae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sahai, R.; Contreras, C.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we briefly describe the results from imaging surveys of young PNe and PPNe with HST, and then present new results from detailed kinematic studies of several prominent objects which support our hypothesis for shaping PNe.

  15. Bio-inspired hemispherical compound eye camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Jianliang; Song, Young Min; Xie, Yizhu; Malyarchuk, Viktor; Jung, Inhwa; Choi, Ki-Joong; Liu, Zhuangjian; Park, Hyunsung; Lu, Chaofeng; Kim, Rak-Hwan; Li, Rui; Crozier, Kenneth B.; Huang, Yonggang; Rogers, John A.

    2014-03-01

    Compound eyes in arthropods demonstrate distinct imaging characteristics from human eyes, with wide angle field of view, low aberrations, high acuity to motion and infinite depth of field. Artificial imaging systems with similar geometries and properties are of great interest for many applications. However, the challenges in building such systems with hemispherical, compound apposition layouts cannot be met through established planar sensor technologies and conventional optics. We present our recent progress in combining optics, materials, mechanics and integration schemes to build fully functional artificial compound eye cameras. Nearly full hemispherical shapes (about 160 degrees) with densely packed artificial ommatidia were realized. The number of ommatidia (180) is comparable to those of the eyes of fire ants and bark beetles. The devices combine elastomeric compound optical elements with deformable arrays of thin silicon photodetectors, which were fabricated in the planar geometries and then integrated and elastically transformed to hemispherical shapes. Imaging results and quantitative ray-tracing-based simulations illustrate key features of operation. These general strategies seem to be applicable to other compound eye devices, such as those inspired by moths and lacewings (refracting superposition eyes), lobster and shrimp (reflecting superposition eyes), and houseflies (neural superposition eyes).

  16. High-performance chromatofocusing using linear and concave pH gradients formed with simple buffer mixtures. I. Effect of buffer composition on the gradient shape.

    PubMed

    Bates, R C; Kang, X; Frey, D D

    2000-08-18

    Numerical calculations together with simplified analytical relations based on local equilibrium theory are used to determine the factors which govern the shape of the gradient formed during chromatofocusing when simple mixtures of buffering species are employed to produce linear or concave pH gradients. The numerical and analytical development is also used to determine the relation between the gradient shape and the buffering capacities of the adsorbed and liquid phases. Experiments which verify the theoretical methods are described where internally generated, retained pH gradients of various shapes are formed using high-performance chromatography columns. The resulting experimental and theoretical basis can be employed as means for the selection of the buffer composition for use in chromatofocusing.

  17. Branching fraction and form-factor shape measurements of exclusive charmless semileptonic B decays, and determination of |Vub|

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lees, J. P.; Poireau, V.; Tisserand, V.; Garra Tico, J.; Grauges, E.; Palano, A.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Brown, D. N.; Kerth, L. T.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Lynch, G.; Koch, H.; Schroeder, T.; Asgeirsson, D. J.; Hearty, C.; Mattison, T. S.; McKenna, J. A.; So, R. Y.; Khan, A.; Blinov, V. E.; Buzykaev, A. R.; Druzhinin, V. P.; Golubev, V. B.; Kravchenko, E. A.; Onuchin, A. P.; Serednyakov, S. I.; Skovpen, Yu. I.; Solodov, E. P.; Todyshev, K. Yu.; Yushkov, A. N.; Bondioli, M.; Kirkby, D.; Lankford, A. J.; Mandelkern, M.; Atmacan, H.; Gary, J. W.; Liu, F.; Long, O.; Vitug, G. M.; Campagnari, C.; Hong, T. M.; Kovalskyi, D.; Richman, J. D.; West, C. A.; Eisner, A. M.; Kroseberg, J.; Lockman, W. S.; Martinez, A. J.; Schumm, B. A.; Seiden, A.; Chao, D. S.; Cheng, C. H.; Echenard, B.; Flood, K. T.; Hitlin, D. G.; Ongmongkolkul, P.; Porter, F. C.; Rakitin, A. Y.; Andreassen, R.; Huard, Z.; Meadows, B. T.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Sun, L.; Bloom, P. C.; Ford, W. T.; Gaz, A.; Nauenberg, U.; Smith, J. G.; Wagner, S. R.; Ayad, R.; Toki, W. H.; Spaan, B.; Schubert, K. R.; Schwierz, R.; Bernard, D.; Verderi, M.; Clark, P. J.; Playfer, S.; Bettoni, D.; Bozzi, C.; Calabrese, R.; Cibinetto, G.; Fioravanti, E.; Garzia, I.; Luppi, E.; Munerato, M.; Piemontese, L.; Santoro, V.; Baldini-Ferroli, R.; Calcaterra, A.; de Sangro, R.; Finocchiaro, G.; Patteri, P.; Peruzzi, I. M.; Piccolo, M.; Rama, M.; Zallo, A.; Contri, R.; Guido, E.; Lo Vetere, M.; Monge, M. R.; Passaggio, S.; Patrignani, C.; Robutti, E.; Bhuyan, B.; Prasad, V.; Lee, C. L.; Morii, M.; Edwards, A. J.; Adametz, A.; Uwer, U.; Lacker, H. M.; Lueck, T.; Dauncey, P. D.; Mallik, U.; Chen, C.; Cochran, J.; Meyer, W. T.; Prell, S.; Rubin, A. E.; Gritsan, A. V.; Guo, Z. J.; Arnaud, N.; Davier, M.; Derkach, D.; Grosdidier, G.; Le Diberder, F.; Lutz, A. M.; Malaescu, B.; Roudeau, P.; Schune, M. H.; Stocchi, A.; Wormser, G.; Lange, D. J.; Wright, D. M.; Chavez, C. A.; Coleman, J. P.; Fry, J. R.; Gabathuler, E.; Hutchcroft, D. E.; Payne, D. J.; Touramanis, C.; Bevan, A. J.; Di Lodovico, F.; Sacco, R.; Sigamani, M.; Cowan, G.; Brown, D. N.; Davis, C. L.; Denig, A. G.; Fritsch, M.; Gradl, W.; Griessinger, K.; Hafner, A.; Prencipe, E.; Barlow, R. J.; Jackson, G.; Lafferty, G. D.; Behn, E.; Cenci, R.; Hamilton, B.; Jawahery, A.; Roberts, D. A.; Dallapiccola, C.; Cowan, R.; Dujmic, D.; Sciolla, G.; Cheaib, R.; Lindemann, D.; Patel, P. M.; Robertson, S. H.; Biassoni, P.; Neri, N.; Palombo, F.; Stracka, S.; Cremaldi, L.; Godang, R.; Kroeger, R.; Sonnek, P.; Summers, D. J.; Nguyen, X.; Simard, M.; Taras, P.; De Nardo, G.; Monorchio, D.; Onorato, G.; Sciacca, C.; Martinelli, M.; Raven, G.; Jessop, C. P.; LoSecco, J. M.; Wang, W. F.; Honscheid, K.; Kass, R.; Brau, J.; Frey, R.; Sinev, N. B.; Strom, D.; Torrence, E.; Feltresi, E.; Gagliardi, N.; Margoni, M.; Morandin, M.; Posocco, M.; Rotondo, M.; Simi, G.; Simonetto, F.; Stroili, R.; Akar, S.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bomben, M.; Bonneaud, G. R.; Briand, H.; Calderini, G.; Chauveau, J.; Hamon, O.; Leruste, Ph.; Marchiori, G.; Ocariz, J.; Sitt, S.; Biasini, M.; Manoni, E.; Pacetti, S.; Rossi, A.; Angelini, C.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Carpinelli, M.; Casarosa, G.; Cervelli, A.; Forti, F.; Giorgi, M. A.; Lusiani, A.; Oberhof, B.; Paoloni, E.; Perez, A.; Rizzo, G.; Walsh, J. J.; Lopes Pegna, D.; Olsen, J.; Smith, A. J. S.; Telnov, A. V.; Anulli, F.; Faccini, R.; Ferrarotto, F.; Ferroni, F.; Gaspero, M.; Li Gioi, L.; Mazzoni, M. A.; Piredda, G.; Bünger, C.; Grünberg, O.; Hartmann, T.; Leddig, T.; Voß, C.; Waldi, R.; Adye, T.; Olaiya, E. O.; Wilson, F. F.; Emery, S.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Vasseur, G.; Yèche, Ch.; Aston, D.; Bard, D. J.; Bartoldus, R.; Benitez, J. F.; Cartaro, C.; Convery, M. R.; Dorfan, J.; Dubois-Felsmann, G. P.; Dunwoodie, W.; Ebert, M.; Field, R. C.; Franco Sevilla, M.; Fulsom, B. G.; Gabareen, A. M.; Graham, M. T.; Grenier, P.; Hast, C.; Innes, W. R.; Kelsey, M. H.; Kim, P.; Kocian, M. L.; Leith, D. W. G. S.; Lewis, P.; Lindquist, B.; Luitz, S.; Luth, V.; Lynch, H. L.; MacFarlane, D. B.; Muller, D. R.; Neal, H.; Nelson, S.; Perl, M.; Pulliam, T.; Ratcliff, B. N.; Roodman, A.; Salnikov, A. A.; Schindler, R. H.; Snyder, A.; Su, D.; Sullivan, M. K.; Va'vra, J.; Wagner, A. P.; Wisniewski, W. J.; Wittgen, M.; Wright, D. H.; Wulsin, H. W.; Young, C. C.; Ziegler, V.; Park, W.; Purohit, M. V.; White, R. M.; Wilson, J. R.; Randle-Conde, A.; Sekula, S. J.; Bellis, M.; Burchat, P. R.; Miyashita, T. S.; Puccio, E. M. T.; Alam, M. S.; Ernst, J. A.; Gorodeisky, R.; Guttman, N.; Peimer, D. R.; Soffer, A.; Lund, P.; Spanier, S. M.; Ritchie, J. L.; Ruland, A. M.; Schwitters, R. F.; Wray, B. C.; Izen, J. M.; Lou, X. C.; Bianchi, F.; Gamba, D.; Zambito, S.; Lanceri, L.; Vitale, L.; Martinez-Vidal, F.; Oyanguren, A.; Villanueva-Perez, P.; Ahmed, H.; Albert, J.; Banerjee, Sw.; Bernlochner, F. U.; Choi, H. H. F.; King, G. J.; Kowalewski, R.; Lewczuk, M. J.; Nugent, I. M.; Roney, J. M.; Sobie, R. J.; Tasneem, N.; Gershon, T. J.; Harrison, P. F.; Latham, T. E.; Band, H. R.; Dasu, S.; Pan, Y.; Prepost, R.; Wu, S. L.

    2012-11-01

    We report the results of a study of the exclusive charmless semileptonic decays, B0→π-ℓ+ν, B+→π0ℓ+ν, B+→ωℓ+ν, B+→ηℓ+ν, and B+→η'ℓ+ν (ℓ=e or μ) undertaken with approximately 462×106 BB¯ pairs collected at the Υ(4S) resonance with the BABAR detector. The analysis uses events in which the signal B decays are reconstructed with a loose neutrino reconstruction technique. We obtain partial branching fractions in several bins of q2, the square of the momentum transferred to the lepton-neutrino pair, for B0→π-ℓ+ν, B+→π0ℓ+ν, B+→ωℓ+ν, and B+→ηℓ+ν. From these distributions, we extract the form-factor shapes f+(q2) and the total branching fractions B(B0→π-ℓ+ν)=(1.45±0.04stat±0.06syst)×10-4 (combined π- and π0 decay channels assuming isospin symmetry), B(B+→ωℓ+ν)=(1.19±0.16stat±0.09syst)×10-4 and B(B+→ηℓ+ν)=(0.38±0.05stat±0.05syst)×10-4. We also measure B(B+→η'ℓ+ν)=(0.24±0.08stat±0.03syst)×10-4. We obtain values for the magnitude of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix element |Vub| by direct comparison with three different QCD calculations in restricted q2 ranges of B→πℓ+ν decays. From a simultaneous fit to the experimental data over the full q2 range and the FNAL/MILC lattice QCD predictions, we obtain |Vub|=(3.25±0.31)×10-3, where the error is the combined experimental and theoretical uncertainty.

  18. Hemispheric differences in processing handwritten cursive.

    PubMed

    Hellige, Joseph B; Adamson, Maheen M

    2007-09-01

    Hemispheric asymmetry was examined for native English speakers identifying consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) non-words presented in standard printed form, in standard handwritten cursive form or in handwritten cursive with the letters separated by small gaps. For all three conditions, fewer errors occurred when stimuli were presented to the right visual field/left hemisphere (RVF/LH) than to the left visual field/right hemisphere (LVF/RH) and qualitative error patterns indicated that the last letter was missed more often than the first letter on LVF/RH trials but not on RVF/LH trials. Despite this overall similarity, the RVF/LH advantage was smaller for both types of cursive stimuli than for printed stimuli. In addition, the difference between first-letter and last-letter errors was smaller for handwritten cursive than for printed text, especially on LVF/RH trials. These results suggest a greater contribution of the right hemisphere to the identification of handwritten cursive, which is likely related visual complexity and to qualitative differences in the processing of cursive versus print.

  19. Identification of different shapes, colors and sizes of standard oral dosage forms in diabetes type 2 patients-A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Stegemann, Sven; Riedl, Regina; Sourij, Harald

    2017-01-30

    The clear identification of drug products by the patients is essential for a safe and effective medication management. In order to understand the impact of shape, size and color on medication identification a study was performed in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). Ten model drugs differentiated by shape, size and color were evaluated using a mixed method of medication schedule preparation by the participants followed by a semi-structured interview. Detection times were fastest for the large round tablet shape and the bi-chromatic forms. Larger size was easier to identify than the smaller sizes except for the bi-chromatic forms. The shape was the major source of errors, followed by the size and the color dimension. The results from this study suggests that color as a single dimension are perceived more effectively by subjects with T2D compared to shape and size, which requires a more demanding processing of three dimension and is dependent on the perspective. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Heat transfer distributions around nominal ice accretion shapes formed on a cylinder in the NASA Lewis icing research tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanfossen, G. J.; Simoneau, R. J.; Olsen, W. A.; Shaw, R. J.

    1984-01-01

    Local heat transfer coefficients were obtained on irregular cylindrical shapes which typify the accretion of ice on circular cylinders in cross flow. The ice shapes were grown on a 5.1 cm (2.0 in.) diameter cylinder in the NASA Lewis Icing Research Tunnel. The shapes were 2, 5, and 15 min accumulations of glaze ice and 15 min accumulation of rime ice. Heat transfer coefficients were also measured around the cylinder with no ice accretion. These icing shapes were averaged axially to obtain a nominal shape of constant cross section for the heat transfer tests. Heat transfer coefficients around the perimeter of each shape were measured with electrically heated copper strips embedded in the surface of the model which was cast from polyurethane foam. Each strip contained a thermocouple to measure the local surface temperature. The models were run in a 15.2 x 68.6 cm (6 x 27 in.) wind tunnel at several velocities. Background turbulence in the wind tunnel was less than 0.5 percent. The models were also run with a turbulence producing grid which gave about 3.5 percent turbulence at the model location with the model removed. The effect of roughness was also simulated with sand grains glued to the surface. Results are presented as Nusselt number versus angle from the stagnation line for the smooth and rough models for both high and low levels of free stream turblence. Roughness of the surface in the region prior to flow separation plays a major role in determining the heat transfer distribution.

  1. Hypnosis and hemispheric asymmetry.

    PubMed

    Naish, Peter L N

    2010-03-01

    Participants of low and high hypnotic susceptibility were tested on a temporal order judgement task, both with and without hypnosis. Judgements were made of the order of presentation of light flashes appearing in first one hemi-field then the other. There were differences in the inter-stimulus intervals required accurately to report the order, depending upon which hemi-field led. This asymmetry was most marked in hypnotically susceptible participants and reversed when they were hypnotized. This implies not only that brain activity changes in hypnosis, but also that there is a difference in brain function between people of low and high hypnotic susceptibility. The latter exhibited a faster-acting left hemisphere in the waking state, but faster right when hypnotized.

  2. Saturn Northern Hemisphere

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-12-05

    This false color picture of Saturn’s northern hemisphere was assembled from ultraviolet, violet and green images obtained Aug. 19 by Voyager 2 from a range of 7.1 million kilometers (4.4 million miles). The several weather patterns evident include three spots flowing westward at about 15 meters-per-second (33 mph). Although the cloud system associated with the western-most spot is part of this flow, the spot itself moves eastward at about 30 meters-per-second (65 mph). Their joint flow shows the anti-cyclonic rotation of the spot, which is about 3,000 km. (1,900 mi.) in diameter. The ribbon- like feature to the north marks a high-speed jet where wind speeds approach 150 meters-per-second (330 mph). http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA01365

  3. Left Hemisphere Dysfunction and Left Hemisphere Overactivation in Schizophrenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gur, Raquel E.

    1978-01-01

    Reports two studies relating schizophrenia to functional brain asymmetry. The first study found support for the hypothesis of left hemisphere dysfunction in schizophrenia, occurring at a rather early stage of information processing; the second study, using eye directionality as a measure of hemispheric activation, found that schizophrenics…

  4. EEG Gamma Band Is Asymmetrically Activated by Location and Shape Memory Tasks in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Nakajima, Yoshio; Shibata, Tadahiko; Shimizu, Shinobu

    2002-01-01

    From the viewpoint of psychology, it is thought that perception analysis of the visual world includes two information processes: global (whole) and local (part) processes. It is assumed that the global process is carried out in the right hemisphere, and the local process, in the left hemisphere. In the present study, gamma EEG band activities during location memory (LM) task, as a global form, and shape memory (SM) task, as a local form, were calculated from the temporal, parietal and occipital areas using stimuli consisting of categorical patterns of small shapes. Gamma band activity during the SM task was greater than that during the LM task. It was assumed that the SM task requires a higher memory load condition than the LM task. In terms of the laterality ratio obtained from the whole electrode array, the gamma band was significantly activated in the right hemisphere during the LM task, and in the left hemisphere during the SM task. The gamma activation in the occipital area was significantly high in the right hemisphere for both tasks. High gamma band activation was observed in the right parietal area during the LM task and in the left temporal area during the SM task. It was concluded that global and local information processes occur in the left temporal areas and in the right occipitoparietal areas, respectively. The results of this study are useful in the assessment of visual cognition deficits in patients with cerebral hemispheric lesions in the physical therapy. PMID:25792923

  5. EEG gamma band is asymmetrically activated by location and shape memory tasks in humans.

    PubMed

    Numata, Kenji; Nakajima, Yoshio; Shibata, Tadahiko; Shimizu, Shinobu

    2002-01-01

    From the viewpoint of psychology, it is thought that perception analysis of the visual world includes two information processes: global (whole) and local (part) processes. It is assumed that the global process is carried out in the right hemisphere, and the local process, in the left hemisphere. In the present study, gamma EEG band activities during location memory (LM) task, as a global form, and shape memory (SM) task, as a local form, were calculated from the temporal, parietal and occipital areas using stimuli consisting of categorical patterns of small shapes. Gamma band activity during the SM task was greater than that during the LM task. It was assumed that the SM task requires a higher memory load condition than the LM task. In terms of the laterality ratio obtained from the whole electrode array, the gamma band was significantly activated in the right hemisphere during the LM task, and in the left hemisphere during the SM task. The gamma activation in the occipital area was significantly high in the right hemisphere for both tasks. High gamma band activation was observed in the right parietal area during the LM task and in the left temporal area during the SM task. It was concluded that global and local information processes occur in the left temporal areas and in the right occipitoparietal areas, respectively. The results of this study are useful in the assessment of visual cognition deficits in patients with cerebral hemispheric lesions in the physical therapy.

  6. Circular single domains in hemispherical Permalloy nanoclusters

    SciTech Connect

    Araujo, Clodoaldo I. L de Fonseca, Jakson M.; Sinnecker, João P.; Delatorre, Rafael G.; Garcia, Nicolas; Pasa, André A.

    2014-11-14

    We have studied ferromagnetic Permalloy clusters obtained by electrodeposition on n-type silicon. Magnetization measurements reveal hysteresis loops almost independent on temperature and very similar in shape to those obtained in nanodisks with diameter bigger than 150 nm. The spin configuration for the ground state, obtained by micromagnetic simulation, shows topological vortices with random chirality and polarization. This behavior in the small diameter clusters (∼80 nm) is attributed to the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction that arises in its hemispherical geometries. This magnetization behavior can be utilized to explain the magnetoresistance measured with magnetic field in plane and out of sample plane.

  7. Europa Hemispherical Globes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The images used for the base of this globe were chosen from coverage supplied by the Galileo solid-state imaging (SSI) camera and Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft. The individual images were radiometrically calibrated and photometrically normalized using a Lunar-Lambert function with empirically derived values. A linear correction based on the statistics of all overlapping areas was then applied to minimize image brightness variations. The image data were selected on the basis of overall image quality, reasonable original input resolution (from 20 km/pixel for gap fill to as much as 200 m/pixel), and availability of moderate emission/incidence angles for topography. Although consistency was achieved where possible, different filters were included for global image coverage as necessary: clear/blue for Voyager 1 and 2, and clear, near-IR (757 nm), and green (559 nm) for Galileo SSI. Individual images were projected to a Sinusoidal Equal-Area projection at an image resolution of 500 m/pixel, and a final global mosaic was constructed in this same Sinusoidal projection.

    The global mosaic was then reprojected so that the entire surface of Europa is portrayed in a manner suitable for the production of a globe. A specialized program was used to create the 'flower petal' appearance of the images; the area of each petal from 0 to 75 degrees latitude is in the Transverse Mercator projection, and the area from 75 to 90 degrees latitude is in the Lambert Azimuthal Equal-Area projection. The projections for adjacent petals overlap by 2 degrees of longitude, so that some features are shown twice.

    Names shown on the globe are approved by the International Astronomical Union. The number, size, and placement of text were chosen for a 9-inch globe. A complete list of Europa nomenclature can be found at the Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature at http://planetarynames.wr.usgs.gov. The northern hemisphere is shown on the left, and the southern hemisphere is shown on the right.

  8. Callisto Hemispherical Globes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The images used for the base of this globe were chosen from the best image quality and moderate resolution coverage supplied by Galileo SSI and Voyager 1 and 2 (Batson, 1987; Becker and others, 1998; Becker and others, 1999; Becker and others, 2001). The digital map was produced using Integrated Software for Imagers and Spectrometers (ISIS) (Eliason, 1997; Gaddis and others, 1997; Torson and Becker, 1997). The individual images were radiometrically calibrated and photometrically normalized using a Lunar-Lambert function with empirically derived values (McEwen, 1991; Kirk and others, 2000). A linear correction based on the statistics of all overlapping areas was then applied to minimize image brightness variations. The image data were selected on the basis of overall image quality, reasonable original input resolution (from 20 km/pixel for gap fill to as much as 150 m/pixel), and availability of moderate emission/incidence angles for topography. Although consistency was achieved where possible, different filters were included for global image coverage as necessary: clear for Voyager 1 and 2; clear and green (559 nm) for Galileo SSI. Individual images were projected to a Sinusoidal Equal-Area projection at an image resolution of 1.0 kilometer/pixel, and a final global mosaic was constructed in this same projection. The final mosaic was enhanced using commercial software. The global mosaic was then reprojected so that the entire surface of Callisto is portrayed in a manner suitable for the production of a globe. A specialized program was used to create the 'flower petal' appearance of the images; the area of each petal from 0 to 75 degrees latitude is in the Transverse Mercator projection, and the area from 75 to 90 degrees latitude is in the Lambert Azimuthal Equal-Area projection. The projections for adjacent petals overlap by 2 degrees of longitude, so that some features are shown twice. The northern hemisphere is shown on the left, and the southern hemisphere is

  9. Europa Hemispherical Globes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The images used for the base of this globe were chosen from coverage supplied by the Galileo solid-state imaging (SSI) camera and Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft. The individual images were radiometrically calibrated and photometrically normalized using a Lunar-Lambert function with empirically derived values. A linear correction based on the statistics of all overlapping areas was then applied to minimize image brightness variations. The image data were selected on the basis of overall image quality, reasonable original input resolution (from 20 km/pixel for gap fill to as much as 200 m/pixel), and availability of moderate emission/incidence angles for topography. Although consistency was achieved where possible, different filters were included for global image coverage as necessary: clear/blue for Voyager 1 and 2, and clear, near-IR (757 nm), and green (559 nm) for Galileo SSI. Individual images were projected to a Sinusoidal Equal-Area projection at an image resolution of 500 m/pixel, and a final global mosaic was constructed in this same Sinusoidal projection.

    The global mosaic was then reprojected so that the entire surface of Europa is portrayed in a manner suitable for the production of a globe. A specialized program was used to create the 'flower petal' appearance of the images; the area of each petal from 0 to 75 degrees latitude is in the Transverse Mercator projection, and the area from 75 to 90 degrees latitude is in the Lambert Azimuthal Equal-Area projection. The projections for adjacent petals overlap by 2 degrees of longitude, so that some features are shown twice.

    Names shown on the globe are approved by the International Astronomical Union. The number, size, and placement of text were chosen for a 9-inch globe. A complete list of Europa nomenclature can be found at the Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature at http://planetarynames.wr.usgs.gov. The northern hemisphere is shown on the left, and the southern hemisphere is shown on the right.

  10. Callisto Hemispherical Globes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The images used for the base of this globe were chosen from the best image quality and moderate resolution coverage supplied by Galileo SSI and Voyager 1 and 2 (Batson, 1987; Becker and others, 1998; Becker and others, 1999; Becker and others, 2001). The digital map was produced using Integrated Software for Imagers and Spectrometers (ISIS) (Eliason, 1997; Gaddis and others, 1997; Torson and Becker, 1997). The individual images were radiometrically calibrated and photometrically normalized using a Lunar-Lambert function with empirically derived values (McEwen, 1991; Kirk and others, 2000). A linear correction based on the statistics of all overlapping areas was then applied to minimize image brightness variations. The image data were selected on the basis of overall image quality, reasonable original input resolution (from 20 km/pixel for gap fill to as much as 150 m/pixel), and availability of moderate emission/incidence angles for topography. Although consistency was achieved where possible, different filters were included for global image coverage as necessary: clear for Voyager 1 and 2; clear and green (559 nm) for Galileo SSI. Individual images were projected to a Sinusoidal Equal-Area projection at an image resolution of 1.0 kilometer/pixel, and a final global mosaic was constructed in this same projection. The final mosaic was enhanced using commercial software. The global mosaic was then reprojected so that the entire surface of Callisto is portrayed in a manner suitable for the production of a globe. A specialized program was used to create the 'flower petal' appearance of the images; the area of each petal from 0 to 75 degrees latitude is in the Transverse Mercator projection, and the area from 75 to 90 degrees latitude is in the Lambert Azimuthal Equal-Area projection. The projections for adjacent petals overlap by 2 degrees of longitude, so that some features are shown twice. The northern hemisphere is shown on the left, and the southern hemisphere is

  11. Asteroid survivability: The importance of asteroid shape and porosity and their possible influence on the Morokweng crater-forming impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potter, R. W.; Collins, G. S.

    2012-12-01

    The fate of an impacting asteroid is an important aspect of the cratering process. 'Surviving' asteroidal fragments, which can be used to infer the impactor's structure and composition, have been recovered from terrestrial impact sites. Because small impactors decelerate in the atmosphere, these finds are often associated with small, simple craters where fragments are found within, or proximal to, the impact crater. Impactor fragments have been recovered from large-scale impacts, such as Chicxulub, but from distal locations. Recently though, a collection of unmolten impactor fragments were recovered from within the highly meteoritic impact melt sheet of the large-scale (>70 km diameter) Morokweng crater, South Africa, demonstrating impactor material can survive large-scale impact events without melting and remain within the crater. The aim of this work is to investigate how impactor shape and porosity influence asteroid survivability in large-scale terrestrial impact events. To do this, we use 2D and 3D versions of the iSALE hydrocode to numerically model the first stage of crater formation, contact and compression, which determines whether the impactor remains solid, melts or vaporizes. By altering the ratio of the vertical and horizontal length of the impactors we produce a variety of oblate- (horizontal length > vertical length) and prolate- (vertical length > horizontal length) shaped impactors, keeping impactor volume constant. By defining our dunite impactor (a reasonable proxy for asteriodal material) as surviving if it experiences a peak shock pressure less than that required for incipient melting, we find increasing the oblateness of the impactor decreases survivability. Conversely, increasing the prolateness of the impactor increases survivability. This is likely due to impactor geometry and complex interactions between shock and release waves. The porosity of spherical impactors (with constant mass) was varied between 0% (non-porous) and 67% and showed

  12. Callisto's Southern Hemisphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    These views of Callisto's southern hemisphere were taken by the Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer just after closest approach in orbit G8 on May 6, 1997. These false color images show surface compositional differences, red = more ice, blue = less ice.

    The upper left view contains Buri, a crater with a diameter of about 60 km. In the infrared spectrum, Buri and the rays that extend from the crater have high abundance of water ice compared to the surrounding region. The center view, a large (200 km or 120 mile diameter) unnamed impact crater with a distinct ring or circle around it reveals a complex mix of ice and non-ice materials. This is possibly due to impact excavation of the ice-rich subsurface which suggests that the darker material is just a thin surface covering caused by impact debris or a lag deposit from which the ice has evaporated away. The infrared data shows spectral signatures for both sulfur and carbon as two potential materials which could play a part in the complicated make-up of Callisto's surface.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov.

  13. Detonation in TATB Hemispheres

    SciTech Connect

    Druce, B; Souers, P C; Chow, C; Roeske, F; Vitello, P; Hrousis, C

    2004-03-17

    Streak camera breakout and Fabry-Perot interferometer data have been taken on the outer surface of 1.80 g/cm{sup 3} TATB hemispherical boosters initiated by slapper detonators at three temperatures. The slapper causes breakout to occur at 54{sup o} at ambient temperatures and 42{sup o} at -54 C, where the axis of rotation is 0{sup o}. The Fabry velocities may be associated with pressures, and these decrease for large timing delays in breakout seen at the colder temperatures. At room temperature, the Fabry pressures appear constant at all angles. Both fresh and decade-old explosive are tested and no difference is seen. The problem has been modeled with reactive flow. Adjustment of the JWL for temperature makes little difference, but cooling to -54 C decreases the rate constant by 1/6th. The problem was run both at constant density and with density differences using two different codes. The ambient code results show that a density difference is probably there but it cannot be quantified.

  14. Io's Kanehekili Hemisphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This color composite of Io, acquired by Galileo during its ninth orbit (C9) of Jupiter, shows the hemisphere of Io which is centered at longitude 52 degrees. The dark feature just to the lower right of the center of the disk is called Kanehekili. Named after an Hawaiian thunder god, Kanehekili contains two persistent high temperature hot spots and a 'new' active volcanic plume. NASA's Voyager spacecraft returned images of nine active plumes during its 1979 flyby of this dynamic satellite. To date, Galileo's plume monitoring observations have shown continued activity at four of those nine plume locations as well as new activity at six other locations.

    North is to the top of the picture which combines images acquired using violet, green, and near-infrared (756 micrometers) filters. The resolution is 21 kilometers per picture element. The images were taken on June 27, 1997 at a range of 1,033,000 kilometers by the solid state imaging (CCD) system on NASA's Galileo spacecraft.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  15. Sphaerotilus natans encrusted with nanoball-shaped Fe(III) oxide minerals formed by nitrate-reducing mixotrophic Fe(II) oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sunhwa; Kim, Dong-Hun; Lee, Ji-Hoon; Hur, Hor-Gil

    2014-01-01

    Ferrous iron has been known to function as an electron source for iron-oxidizing microorganisms in both anoxic and oxic environments. A diversity of bacteria has been known to oxidize both soluble and solid-phase Fe(II) forms coupled to the reduction of nitrate. Here, we show for the first time Fe(II) oxidation by Sphaerotilus natans strain DSM 6575T under mixotrophic condition. Sphaerotilus natans has been known to form a sheath structure enclosing long chains of rod-shaped cells, resulting in a thick biofilm formation under oxic conditions. Here, we also demonstrate that strain DSM 6575T grows mixotrophically with pyruvate, Fe(II) as electron donors and nitrate as an electron acceptor and single cells of strain DSM 6575T are dominant under anoxic conditions. Furthermore, strain DSM 6575T forms nanoball-shaped amorphous Fe(III) oxide minerals encrusting on the cell surfaces through the mixotrophic iron oxidation reaction under anoxic conditions. We propose that cell encrustation results from the indirect Fe(II) oxidation by biogenic nitrite during nitrate reduction and that causes the bacterial morphological change to individual rod-shaped single cells from filamentous sheath structures. This study extends the group of existing microorganisms capable of mixotrophic Fe(II) oxidation by a new strain, S. natans strain DSM 6575T, and could contribute to biogeochemical cycles of Fe and N in the environment. PMID:24965827

  16. Southern Hemisphere Polygonal Patterned Ground

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On Earth, periglacial is a term that refers to regions and processes where cold climate contributes to the evolution of landforms and landscapes. Common in periglacial environments on Earth, such as the arctic of northern Canada,Siberia, and Alaska, is a phenomenon called patterned ground. The 'patterns' in patterned ground often take the form of large polygons, each bounded by either troughs or ridges made up of rock particles different in size from those seen in the interior of the polygon. On Earth, many polygons in periglacial environments are directly linked to water: they typically form from stresses induced by repeated freezing and thawing of water, contraction from stress induced by changing temperatures, and sorting of rocks brought to the surface along polygon boundaries by the freeze-thaw processes. Although not exclusively formed by freezing and thawing of water, that is often the dominant mechanism on Earth.

    Polygons similar to those found in Earth's arctic and antarctic regions are also found in the polar regions of Mars. Typically, they occur on crater floors, or on intercrater plains, between about 60o and 80o latitude. The polygons are best seen when bright frost or dark sand has been trapped in the troughs that form the polygon boundaries. Three examples of martian polygons seen by the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) are shown here. Each is located in the southern hemisphere:(left) Polygon troughs highlighted by frost as the south polar cap retreats during spring. The circular features are the locations of buried craters that were originally formed by meteor impact. This image, E09-00029, is located at 75.1oS, 331.3oW, and was acquired on 1 October 2001.(center) Summertime view of polygons, highlighted by dark, windblown sand, on the floor of a crater at 71.2oS, 282.6oW. The image, E12-02319, was obtained on 21January 2002.(right) Polygon troughs highlighted by the retreating south polar frost cap during southern summer

  17. Valles Marineris Hemisphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Mosaic composed of 102 Viking Orbiter images of Mars, covering nearly a full hemisphere of the planet (approximate latitude -55 to 60 degrees, longitude 30 to 130 degrees). The mosaic is in a point-perspective projection with a scale of about 1 km/pixel. The color variations have been enhanced by a factor of about two, and the large-scale brightness variations (mostly due to sun-angle variations) have been normalized by large-scale filtering. The center of the scene shows the entire Valles Marineris canyon system, over 3,000 km long and up to 8 km deep, extending from Noctis Labyrinthus, the arcuate system of graben to the west, to the chaotic terrain to the east. Bright white layers of material in the eastern canyons may consist of carbonates deposited in ancient lakes. Huge ancient river channels begin from the chaotic terrain and from north-central canyons and run north. Many of the channels flowed into a basin called Acidalia Planitia, which is the dark area in the extreme north of this picture. The Viking 1 landing site (Mutch Memorial Station) is located in Chryse Planitia, south of Acidalia Planitia. The three Tharsis volcanoes (dark red spots), each about 25 km high, are visible to the west. The large crater with two prominent rings located at the bottom of this image is named Lowell, after the Flagstaff astronomer. The images were acquired by Viking Orbiter 1 in 1980 during early northern summer on Mars (Ls = 70 degrees); the atmosphere was relatively dust-free. A variety of clouds appear as bright blue streaks and hazes, and probably consist of water ice. Long, linear clouds north of central Valles Marineris appear to emanate from impact craters.

  18. Valles Marineris Hemisphere

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-06-03

    Mosaic composed of 102 Viking Orbiter images of Mars, covering nearly a full hemisphere of the planet (approximate latitude -55 to 60 degrees, longitude 30 to 130 degrees). The mosaic is in a point-perspective projection with a scale of about 1 km/pixel. The color variations have been enhanced by a factor of about two, and the large-scale brightness variations (mostly due to sun-angle variations) have been normalized by large-scale filtering. The center of the scene shows the entire Valles Marineris canyon system, over 3,000 km long and up to 8 km deep, extending from Noctis Labyrinthus, the arcuate system of graben to the west, to the chaotic terrain to the east. Bright white layers of material in the eastern canyons may consist of carbonates deposited in ancient lakes. Huge ancient river channels begin from the chaotic terrain and from north-central canyons and run north. Many of the channels flowed into a basin called Acidalia Planitia, which is the dark area in the extreme north of this picture. The Viking 1 landing site (Mutch Memorial Station) is located in Chryse Planitia, south of Acidalia Planitia. The three Tharsis volcanoes (dark red spots), each about 25 km high, are visible to the west. The large crater with two prominent rings located at the bottom of this image is named Lowell, after the Flagstaff astronomer. The images were acquired by Viking Orbiter 1 in 1980 during early northern summer on Mars (Ls = 70 degrees); the atmosphere was relatively dust-free. A variety of clouds appear as bright blue streaks and hazes, and probably consist of water ice. Long, linear clouds north of central Valles Marineris appear to emanate from impact craters. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00003

  19. The Southern Hemisphere VLBI experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Preston, R.A.; Meier, D.L.; Louie, A.P.; Morabito, D.D.; Skjerve, L.; Slade, M.A.; Niell, A.E.; Wehrle, A.E.; Jauncey, D.L.; Tzioumis, A.K.; Haystack Observatory, Westford, MA; California Univ., Los Angeles; CSIRO, Div. of Radiophysics, Epping; Sydney Univ.; Manchester Victoria Univ., Jodrell Bank )

    1989-07-01

    Six radio telescopes were operated as the first Southern Hemisphere VLBI array in April and May 1982. Observations were made at 2.3 and 8.4 GHz. This array provided VLBI modeling and hybrid imaging of celestial radio sources in the Southern Hemisphere, high-accuracy VLBI geodesy between Southern Hemisphere sites, and subarcsecond radio astrometry of celestial sources south of declination -45 deg. The goals and implementation of the array are discussed, the methods of modeling and hybrid image production are explained, and the VLBI structure of the sources that were observed is summarized. 36 refs.

  20. [Hemispheric functional specialization and anxiety. Focus on an evaluation procedure].

    PubMed

    Perier, N; Boulenger, J P; Eustache, F; Bisserbe, J C; Lebreuilly, J; Zarifian, E

    1992-01-01

    Observations of brain-lesioned patients and experimental psychology studies have shown that the influence of the specific functioning of the two hemispheres of the brain on the regulation of emotional behaviour appears to be unequal and suggests a functional specialization of the right hemisphere for the expression and comprehension of the affective components of behaviour. However, the extension of this hypothesis to include all emotional experiences remains controversial. The observed superiority of the left hemisphere in the perception of positive emotions and the predominance of the right hemisphere in the treatment of negative emotions would appear to favour a joint and complementary participation of both cerebral hemispheres in emotional experiences. In the case of affective disorders, and particularly in anxiety symptoms, the hypothesis of a dysfunctioning of the right hemisphere is similarly questioned: while all metabolic studies corroborate this hypothesis, experimental psychological studies suggest the existence of a preferential involvement of one or the other hemisphere in relation to individual differences such as the "trait" anxiety score. Moreover, the few studies which have been undertaken with healthy volunteers raise the problem of their extrapolation to pathological situations. In view of the potential interest in the neuropsychological evaluations of subjects with different forms of pathological anxiety, we have developed an experimented with two tests aimed at evaluating the differential activity of the two hemispheres of the brain. These two tests, constructed on a "mirror-image" model from the specifications of a functional hemispheric specialization, are supposed to involve cognitive strategies pinpointing preferentially one hemisphere or the other.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Colloidal processing of chemically prepared zinc oxide varistors. Part 2, near net shape forming and fired electrical properties.

    SciTech Connect

    Voigt, James A.; Tuttle, Bruce Andrew; Bell, Nelson Simmons; Dimos, Duane Brian

    2003-07-01

    Chemically prepared zinc oxide powders were processed for the production of high aspect ratio varistor components (length/diameter >5). Near-net-shape casting methods including slip casting and agarose gelcasting were evaluated for effectiveness in achieving a uniform green microstructure that densifies to near theoretical values during sintering. The structure of the green parts was examined by mercury porisimetry. Agarose gelcasting produced green parts having low solids loading values and did not achieve high fired density. Isopressing the agarose cast parts after drying raised the fired density to greater than 95%, but the parts exhibited catastrophic shorting during electrical testing. Slip casting produced high green density parts, which exhibit high fired density values. The electrical characteristics of slip-cast parts are comparable with dry-pressed powder compacts.

  2. Dynamic DNA devices and assemblies formed by shape-complementary, non-base pairing 3D components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerling, Thomas; Wagenbauer, Klaus F.; Neuner, Andrea M.; Dietz, Hendrik

    2015-03-01

    We demonstrate that discrete three-dimensional (3D) DNA components can specifically self-assemble in solution on the basis of shape-complementarity and without base pairing. Using this principle, we produced homo- and heteromultimeric objects, including micrometer-scale one- and two-stranded filaments and lattices, as well as reconfigurable devices, including an actuator, a switchable gear, an unfoldable nanobook, and a nanorobot. These multidomain assemblies were stabilized via short-ranged nucleobase stacking bonds that compete against electrostatic repulsion between the components’ interfaces. Using imaging by electron microscopy, ensemble and single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer spectroscopy, and electrophoretic mobility analysis, we show that the balance between attractive and repulsive interactions, and thus the conformation of the assemblies, may be finely controlled by global parameters such as cation concentration or temperature and by an allosteric mechanism based on strand-displacement reactions.

  3. Dynamic DNA devices and assemblies formed by shape-complementary, non-base pairing 3D components.

    PubMed

    Gerling, Thomas; Wagenbauer, Klaus F; Neuner, Andrea M; Dietz, Hendrik

    2015-03-27

    We demonstrate that discrete three-dimensional (3D) DNA components can specifically self-assemble in solution on the basis of shape-complementarity and without base pairing. Using this principle, we produced homo- and heteromultimeric objects, including micrometer-scale one- and two-stranded filaments and lattices, as well as reconfigurable devices, including an actuator, a switchable gear, an unfoldable nanobook, and a nanorobot. These multidomain assemblies were stabilized via short-ranged nucleobase stacking bonds that compete against electrostatic repulsion between the components' interfaces. Using imaging by electron microscopy, ensemble and single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer spectroscopy, and electrophoretic mobility analysis, we show that the balance between attractive and repulsive interactions, and thus the conformation of the assemblies, may be finely controlled by global parameters such as cation concentration or temperature and by an allosteric mechanism based on strand-displacement reactions. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  4. The predominant circular form of avocado sunblotch viroid accumulates in planta as a free RNA adopting a rod-shaped secondary structure unprotected by tightly bound host proteins.

    PubMed

    López-Carrasco, Amparo; Flores, Ricardo

    2017-07-01

    Avocado sunblotch viroid (ASBVd), the type member of the family Avsunviroidae, replicates and accumulates in chloroplasts. Whether this minimal non-protein-coding circular RNA of 246-250 nt exists in vivo as a free nucleic acid or closely associated with host proteins remains unknown. To tackle this issue, the secondary structures of the monomeric circular (mc) (+) and (-) strands of ASBVd have been examined in silico by searching those of minimal free energy, and in vitro at single-nucleotide resolution by selective 2'-hydroxyl acylation analysed by primer extension (SHAPE). Both approaches resulted in predominant rod-like secondary structures without tertiary interactions, with the mc (+) RNA being more compact than its (-) counterpart as revealed by non-denaturing polyacryamide gel electrophoresis. Moreover, in vivo SHAPE showed that the mc ASBVd (+) form accumulates in avocado leaves as a free RNA adopting a similar rod-shaped conformation unprotected by tightly bound host proteins. Hence, the mc ASBVd (+) RNA behaves in planta like the previously studied mc (+) RNA of potato spindle tuber viroid, the type member of nuclear viroids (family Pospiviroidae), indicating that two different viroids replicating and accumulating in distinct subcellular compartments, have converged into a common structural solution. Circularity and compact secondary structures confer to these RNAs, and probably to all viroids, the intrinsic stability needed to survive in their natural habitats. However, in vivo SHAPE has not revealed the (possibly transient or loose) interactions of the mc ASBVd (+) RNA with two host proteins observed previously by UV irradiation of infected avocado leaves.

  5. The Shape of Things to Come: Estimating Northern-Hemisphere (NH) Transient Climate Response Through Hindcasting and Forecasting the Frequency Distribution of Earth's NH Land Temperature Anomalies for the Period 1951-2071

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leclerc, D. F.

    2016-12-01

    Northern-hemisphere (NH) heatwaves, during which temperatures rise 5 standard deviations (SD), sigma, above the historical mean temperature, mu, are becoming frequent; these events skew temperature anomaly (delta T) profiles towards extreme values. Although general extreme value (GEV) distributions have modeled precipitation data, their application to temperatures have met with limited success. This work presents a modified three-parameter (mu, sigma and tau (skew)) Exponential-Gaussian (eGd) model that hindcasts decadal NH land winter (DJF) and summer (JJA) delta Ts from 1951 to 2011, and forecasts profiles for a business-as-usual (BAU) scenario for 2061-2071. We accessed 12 numerical binned (0.05 °C/bin) z-scored NH decadal datasets (posted online until August 2015) from the publicly available website http://www.columbia.edu/ mhs119/PerceptionsAndDice/ mentioned in Hansen et al, PNAS 109 E2415-E2423 (2012) and stated to be in the public domain. No pre-processing was done. Parameters were calculated for the 12 NH datasets pasted into Microsoft Excel™ through the method of moments for 1-tail distributions and through the BEST deconvolution program described by Pommé and Marroyo, Applied Radiation and Isotopes 96 148-153 (2015) for 2-tail distributions. We used maximum likelihood estimation (MLE), residual sum of squares (RSS) and F-test to find optimal parameter values. Calculated 1st (= sigma + tau) and 2nd (= sigma2 + tau2) moments were found to be within 0.5% of observed values. Land delta Ts were recovered from the z-score values by multiplying the winter data by its SD (1.2 °C) and likewise the summer data by 0.6 °C. Results were all within 0.05 °C of 10-year averages from the GHCNv3 NH land dataset. Assuming BAU (increases from 2.1 to 2.6 ppm/y CO2) and using temperature rises of 0.27 °C and 0.35 °C per decade, for summer and winter, respectively, and forecasting to 2071, we obtain for the transient climate response for doubled CO2 (560 ppm CO2) mean

  6. Brain Hemispheres and Thinking Styles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Esther Cappon

    1980-01-01

    The author reviews some research, particularly that of Roger Sperry, substantiating the existence of different thinking styles in the two brain hemispheres and the development of this differentiation in infancy and childhood. She draws some implications for elementary teaching. (SJL)

  7. Brain Hemispheres and Thinking Styles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Esther Cappon

    1980-01-01

    The author reviews some research, particularly that of Roger Sperry, substantiating the existence of different thinking styles in the two brain hemispheres and the development of this differentiation in infancy and childhood. She draws some implications for elementary teaching. (SJL)

  8. Archimedes and the Magdeburg Hemispheres

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayn, Carl H.

    1975-01-01

    Weights suspended from a lever arm separate evacuated hemispheres allowing estimation of atmospheric pressure to within five percent of the barometric reading. An illustration and a reference to von Guericke's demonstration are provided. (GH)

  9. Archimedes and the Magdeburg Hemispheres

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayn, Carl H.

    1975-01-01

    Weights suspended from a lever arm separate evacuated hemispheres allowing estimation of atmospheric pressure to within five percent of the barometric reading. An illustration and a reference to von Guericke's demonstration are provided. (GH)

  10. Prediction of part shape and associated material properties in hot-press forming using Unite element analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hwigeon; Ha, Jinjin; Lee, Myoung-Gyu; Barlat, Frederic

    2016-08-01

    The hot-press forming of a U-channel was conducted on a boron-steel blank. The die consisted of two separate parts in order to perform the partial quenching process. The cold die was initially at 25 °C while the heated die was set to five different temperatures, namely, 25, 120, 220, 320 and 400 °C. The cooling temperature history, Vickers hardness and springback of the channel were measured. A thermo-mechanical-metallurgical model, which accounts for the prior austenite deformation effect, was successfully implemented in the LS-DYNA explicit solver to simulate the hot-press forming process under partial quenching conditions. The predicted and experimental results were compared and found in reasonable agreement.

  11. Deducing the form factors for shear used in the calculus of the displacements based on strain energy methods. Mathematical approach for currently used shapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constantinescu, E.; Oanta, E.; Panait, C.

    2017-08-01

    The paper presents an initial study concerning the form factors for shear, for a rectangular and for a circular cross section, being used an analytical method and a numerical study. The numerical study considers a division of the cross section in small areas and uses the power of the definitions in order to compute the according integrals. The accurate values of the form factors are increasing the accuracy of the displacements computed by the use of the strain energy methods. The knowledge resulted from this study will be used for several directions of development: calculus of the form factors for a ring-type cross section of variable ratio of the inner and outer diameters, calculus of the geometrical characteristics of an inclined circular segment and, using a Bool algebra that operates with geometrical shapes, for an inclined circular ring segment. These shapes may be used to analytically define the geometrical model of a complex composite section, i.e. a ship hull cross section. The according calculus relations are also useful for the development of customized design commands in CAD commercial applications. The paper is a result of the long run development of original computer based instruments in engineering of the authors.

  12. Western Hemisphere Knowledge Partnerships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malone, T. F.

    2001-05-01

    , and application of knowledge concerning the nature of -- and interaction among -- matter, living organisms, energy, information, and human behavior. This strategy calls for innovative partnerships among the physical, biological, health, and social sciences, engineering, and the humanities. New kinds of partnership must also be forged among academia, business and industry, governments, and nongovernmental organizations. Geophysicists can play an important role in these partnerships. A focus for these partnerships is to manage the individual economic productivity that drives both human development and global change. As world population approaches stability during the twenty-first century, individual economic productivity will be the critical link between the human and the natural systems on planet Earth. AGU is among a core group of individuals and institutions proposing Western Hemisphere Knowledge Partnerships (WHKP) to test the hypothesis that knowledge, broadly construed, is an important organizing principle in choosing a path into the future. The WHKP agenda includes: (1) life-long learning, (2) the health and resilience of natural ecosystems, (3) eco-efficiency in economic production and consumption, (4) extension of national income accounts, (5) environmentally benign sources of energy, (6) delivery of health care, (7) intellectual property rights, and (8) networks for action by local communities.Collaboratories and distance education technologies will be major tools. A panel of experts will explore this proposal.

  13. Shape-Shifting Plastic

    SciTech Connect

    2015-05-20

    A new plastic developed by ORNL and Washington State University transforms from its original shape through a series of temporary shapes and returns to its initial form. The shape-shifting process is controlled through changes in temperature

  14. Experimental and numerical investigation of cylindrical and hemispherical jet formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betney, Matthew; Foster, Peta; Ringrose, Tim; Edwards, Thomas; Tully, Brett; Doyle, Hugo; Hawker, Nicholas; First Light Fusion Ltd. Team

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents a detailed investigation of the formation of jets in cylindrical and spherical cavities, when impacted by shocks at extreme pressures. As the shock pressure increases the effects of material strength lessen in proportion. Beyond a certain magnitude the behaviour is referred to as "hydrodynamic". In this domain both cylindrical and spherical cavities involute to form jets, which go on to strike the leeward cavity wall, compressing the cavity contents to high pressures and temperatures. In this study, the jet formation process is isolated by cutting hemispherical and half-cylindrical cavities from the rear side of PMMA and copper blocks. This allows direct measurement of the jet speed and shape using high speed imaging, providing data against which numerical models may be compared. Shock waves at pressures of up to 30 GPa are formed in the targets by the impact of projectiles from a two-stage light gas gun, at velocities of up to 7 km/s. Numerically, the jet formation process is modelled using our in-house front-tracking code. This code uses Lagrangian hypersurfaces to model the interfaces between different media, with an underlying Eulerian mesh used to model the bulk flow. Detailed comparisons between numerical and experimental results are presented.

  15. Numerical and experimental evaluation of laser forming process for the shape correction in ultra high strength steels

    SciTech Connect

    Song, J. H.; Lee, J.; Lee, S.; Kim, E. Z.; Lee, N. K.; Lee, G. A.; Park, S. J.; Chu, A.

    2013-12-16

    In this paper, laser forming characteristics in ultra high strength steel with ultimate strength of 1200MPa are investigated numerically and experimentally. FE simulation is conducted to identify the response related to deformation and characterize the effect of laser power, beam diameter and scanning speed with respect to the bending angle for a square sheet part. The thermo-mechanical behaviors during the straight-line heating process are presented in terms of temperature, stress and strain. An experimental setup including a fiber laser with maximum mean power of 3.0 KW is used in the experiments. From the results in this work, it would be easily adjustment the laser power and the scanning speed by controlling the line energy for a bending operation of CP1180 steel sheets.

  16. A lysigenic programmed cell death-dependent process shapes schizogenously formed aerenchyma in the stems of the waterweed Egeria densa.

    PubMed

    Bartoli, G; Forino, L M C; Durante, M; Tagliasacchi, A M

    2015-07-01

    Plant adaptation to submergence can include the formation of prominent aerenchyma to facilitate gas exchange. The aim of this study was to characterize the differentiation of the constitutive aerenchyma in the stem of the aquatic macrophyte Egeria densa (Hydrocharitaceae) and to verify if any form of cell death might be involved. Plants were collected from a pool in a botanical garden. Aerenchyma differentiation and apoptotic hallmarks were investigated by light microscopy and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labelling (TUNEL) assay coupled with genomic DNA extraction and gel electrophoresis (DNA laddering assay). Cell viability and the occurrence of peroxides and nitric oxide (NO) were determined histochemically using specific fluorogenic probes. Aerenchyma differentiation started from a hexagonally packed pre-aerenchymatic tissue and, following a basipetal and centripetal developmental pattern, produced a honeycomb arrangement. After an early schizogenous differentiation process, a late lysigenous programmed cell death- (PCD) dependent mechanism occurred. This was characterized by a number of typical apoptotic hallmarks, including DNA fragmentation, chromatin condensation, apoptotic-like bodies, partial cell wall lysis and plasmolysis. In addition, local increases in H2O2 and NO were observed and quantified. The differentiation of cortical aerenchyma in the stem of E. densa is a complex process, consisting of a combination of an early schizogenous differentiation mechanism and a late lysigenous PCD-dependent process. The PCD remodels the architecture of the gas spaces previously formed schizogenously, and also results in a reduction of O2-consuming cells and in recycling of material derived from the lysigenic dismantling of the cells. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. A lysigenic programmed cell death-dependent process shapes schizogenously formed aerenchyma in the stems of the waterweed Egeria densa

    PubMed Central

    Bartoli, G.; Forino, L. M. C.; Durante, M.; Tagliasacchi, A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Plant adaptation to submergence can include the formation of prominent aerenchyma to facilitate gas exchange. The aim of this study was to characterize the differentiation of the constitutive aerenchyma in the stem of the aquatic macrophyte Egeria densa (Hydrocharitaceae) and to verify if any form of cell death might be involved. Methods Plants were collected from a pool in a botanical garden. Aerenchyma differentiation and apoptotic hallmarks were investigated by light microscopy and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labelling (TUNEL) assay coupled with genomic DNA extraction and gel electrophoresis (DNA laddering assay). Cell viability and the occurrence of peroxides and nitric oxide (NO) were determined histochemically using specific fluorogenic probes. Key Results Aerenchyma differentiation started from a hexagonally packed pre-aerenchymatic tissue and, following a basipetal and centripetal developmental pattern, produced a honeycomb arrangement. After an early schizogenous differentiation process, a late lysigenous programmed cell death- (PCD) dependent mechanism occurred. This was characterized by a number of typical apoptotic hallmarks, including DNA fragmentation, chromatin condensation, apoptotic-like bodies, partial cell wall lysis and plasmolysis. In addition, local increases in H2O2 and NO were observed and quantified. Conclusions The differentiation of cortical aerenchyma in the stem of E. densa is a complex process, consisting of a combination of an early schizogenous differentiation mechanism and a late lysigenous PCD-dependent process. The PCD remodels the architecture of the gas spaces previously formed schizogenously, and also results in a reduction of O2-consuming cells and in recycling of material derived from the lysigenic dismantling of the cells. PMID:26002256

  18. Thrust Faulting as the Origin of Dorsa in the Trailing Hemisphere of Enceladus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappalardo, Robert T.; Crow-Willard, E.; Golombek, M.

    2010-10-01

    Several large ridges, or "dorsa,” located within a tectonically deformed region of the trailing hemisphere of Enceladus, have remained poorly understood since they were imaged in Feb. 2005. In map view these 2.5 km wide ridges can bifurcate in a branching manner, and in profile they appear to be somewhat trapezoidal or "boxy” in shape. Geological mapping of the trailing hemisphere's Sarandib and Diyar Planitiae (Crow-Willard and Pappalardo, 2009) suggests the dorsa cut across and deform older striated terrain, which consists of small-scale (200 m wide) ridges and troughs. A single high-resolution (65 m/pixel) Cassini image captures the western portions of the Cufa Dorsa, where ridges of the striated terrain are visible on the southern flanks. This relationship is inconsistent with a previously suggested cryovolcanic origin, and there is no evidence of surrounding embayment. Instead, the relationships suggest tectonic uplift to form the dorsa. We propose that these ridges were formed by thrust faulting; in particular, the Cufa Dorsa suggest formation above south-dipping master thrusts, as either fault-bend folds or more likely as fault-propagation folds. The high-resolution image reveals small ( 300 m) irregular crenulations atop the ridges, and shadow roughness indicates significant roughness at sub-pixel scale. The crenulations appear analogous to those atop wrinkle ridges on the Moon and Mars, and to the Yakima Ridges of eastern Washington state, which form via high-level back thrusts in layered materials above a relatively flat décollement. The Cufa Dorsa terminate to the west against a prominent trough, which may have served as a transcurrent fault that permitted north-south contraction. Bifurcation of the Cufa Dorsa is consistent with three-dimensional straining, if the dorsa resulted from multi-directional contraction. Perhaps a thermal uplift that initialized trailing hemisphere tectonic deformation subsequently cooled and collapsed to form the dorsa.

  19. Superplastic forming of ceramic insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nieh, T. G.; Wittenauer, J. P.; Wadsworth, J.

    1992-01-01

    Superplasticity has been demonstrated in many fine-grained structural ceramics and ceramic composites, including yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (YTZP), alumina, and Al2O3-reinforced zirconia (Al2O3/YTZ) duplex composites and SiC-reinforced Si3N4. These superplastic ceramics obviously offer the potential benefit of forming net shape or near net shape parts. This could be particularly useful for forming complicated shapes that are difficult to achieve using conventional forming techniques, or require elaborate, subsequent machining. In the present study, we successfully demonstrated the following: (1) superplastic 3Y-TXP and 20 percent Al2O3/YTZ composite have for the first time been successfully deformed into hemispherical caps via a biaxial gas-pressure forming technique; (2) no experimental difficulty was encountered in applying the required gas pressures and temperatures to achieve the results, thus, it is certain that higher rates of deformation than those presented in this study will be possible by using the current test apparatus at higher temperatures and pressures; and (3) an analytical model incorporating material parameters, such as variations during forming in the strain rate sensitivity exponent and grain growth-induced strain hardening, is needed to model accurately and therefore precisely control the biaxial gas-pressure forming of superplastic ceramics. Based on the results of this study, we propose to fabricate zirconia insulation tubes by superplastic extrusion of zirconia polycrystal. This would not only reduce the cost, but also improve the reliability of the tube products.

  20. Regional and local environmental conditions do not shape the response to warming of a marine habitat-forming species.

    PubMed

    Crisci, C; Ledoux, J-B; Mokhtar-Jamaï, K; Bally, M; Bensoussan, N; Aurelle, D; Cebrian, E; Coma, R; Féral, J- P; La Rivière, M; Linares, C; López-Sendino, P; Marschal, C; Ribes, M; Teixidó, N; Zuberer, F; Garrabou, J

    2017-07-11

    The differential response of marine populations to climate change remains poorly understood. Here, we combine common garden thermotolerance experiments in aquaria and population genetics to disentangle the factors driving the population response to thermal stress in a temperate habitat-forming species: the octocoral Paramuricea clavata. Using eight populations separated from tens of meters to hundreds of kilometers, which were differentially impacted by recent mortality events, we identify 25 °C as a critical thermal threshold. After one week of exposure at this temperature, seven of the eight populations were affected by tissue necrosis and after 30 days of exposure at this temperature, the mean % of affected colonies increased gradually from 3 to 97%. We then demonstrate the weak relation between the observed differential phenotypic responses and the local temperature regimes experienced by each population. A significant correlation was observed between these responses and the extent of genetic drift impacting each population. Local adaptation may thus be hindered by genetic drift, which seems to be the main driver of the differential response. Accordingly, conservation measures should promote connectivity and control density erosion in order to limit the impact of genetic drift on marine populations facing climate change.

  1. Discourse functions and hemispheric asymmetry.

    PubMed

    Osiejuk, E

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the main results of an application of discourse analysis in aphasics with the left hemisphere damages and in the right hemisphere damaged (RHD) patients. Research findings indicate that aphasics have marked deficits on the level of microstructure, especially cohesion of discourse, whereas the coherence and superstructure of their texts are relatively well preserved. RHD patients show difficulties at the microstructure of discourse but not so marked as that of aphasic subjects. The main impairments of RHD patients' discourse can be observed at the level of text coherence. The both populations have also preserved cognitive representation concerned with script knowledge. Discourse processing at macrostructural level of discourse is affected in aphasics as well as in RHD patients. These results suggest that both hemispheres are necessary for normal discourse processes.

  2. Flow past 2-D Hemispherical Rigid Canopies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carnasciali, Maria-Isabel

    2013-11-01

    The flow past a 2-dimensional rigid hemispherical shape is investigated using PIV. Flow field measurements and images were generated with the use of a Thermoflow® apparatus. Results of this study are compared to prior work (APS DFD 2012 Session E9.00003) which employed CFD to investigate the flow in the near wake of hemispherical parachutes. The various sized gaps/open areas were positioned at distinct locations. The work presented here is part of a larger research project to investigate flow fields in deceleration devices and parachutes. Understanding the pitch-stability of parachutes is essential for accurate design and implementation of these deceleration devices but they present a difficult system to analyze. The flexibility of the parachute fabric results in large variations in the parachute geometry leading to complex fluid-structure interactions. Such flow, combined with flow through gaps and open areas, has been postulated to shed alternating vortices causing pitching/oscillations of the canopy. The results presented provide some insight into which geometric features affect vortex shedding and may enable the redesign of the baseline parachute to minimize instabilities.

  3. In situ 3D topographic and shape analysis by synchrotron radiation X-ray microtomography for crystal form identification in polymorphic mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Xian-Zhen; Xiao, Ti-Qiao; Nangia, Ashwini; Yang, Shuo; Lu, Xiao-Long; Li, Hai-Yan; Shao, Qun; He, You; York, Peter; Zhang, Ji-Wen

    2016-04-01

    Polymorphism denotes the existence of more than one crystal structure of a substance, and great practical and theoretical interest for the chemical and pharmaceutical industries. In many cases, it is challenging to produce a pure crystal form and establish a sensitive detection method for the identification of crystal form in a mixture of polymorphs. In this study, an accurate and sensitive method based on synchrotron radiation X-ray computed microtomography (SR-μCT) was devised to identify the polymorphs of clopidogrel bisulphate (CLP). After 3D reconstruction, crystal particles were extracted and dozens of structural parameters were calculated. Whilst, the particle shapes of the two crystal forms were all irregular, the surface of CLP II was found to be rougher than CLP I. In order to classify the crystal form based on the quantitative morphological property of particles, Volume Bias Percentage based on Surface Smoothing (VBP) was defined and a new method based on VBP was successfully developed, with a total matching rate of 99.91% for 4544 particles and a lowest detectable limit of 1%. More important for the mixtures in solid pharmaceutical formulations, the interference of excipients can be avoided, a feature cannot achieved by other available analytical methods.

  4. Mutism following left hemisphere infarction.

    PubMed Central

    David, A S; Bone, I

    1984-01-01

    A case of mutism due to left hemisphere infarction is described. Recovery revealed mild motor dysphasia. Review of the literature showed that the case resembles aphemia but is unique by virtue of its duration, and the absence of associated apraxia and paresis. Images PMID:6210346

  5. Math Learning: The Two Hemispheres.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grow, Meda F.; Johnson, Norbert

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the duality of mental processes, learning styles and brain research (concerning brain growth, hemispheric specialization, and sex differences) as they apply to teaching mathematics. Discusses the implications of these topics as well as individual learning styles and basics-versus-creative school curricula for curriculum development. (WAS)

  6. Hemispheric differences in motor control.

    PubMed

    Goodale, M A

    1988-09-15

    Two lines of evidence are presented to suggest that the left hemisphere in human beings plays a special role in the organization of complex motor behaviour, an idea first put forward by Liepmann and extended more recently by Kimura. The results of one line of research suggest that the right-sided asymmetries observed in movements of the mouth during verbal and non-verbal tasks reflect the fact that mechanisms within the left hemisphere are particularly involved in selecting individual movements and facilitating the transition from one movement to another. The results of the second line of research extend this idea and suggest that the organization of eye and limb movements during visually guided reaching is also dependent on these left-hemisphere mechanisms. These findings, together with the work of a number of other workers, all point to the same conclusion: that speech is but one example of a great number of different motor patterns mediated in part by neural systems within the so-called 'dominant' hemisphere.

  7. Flat-on ambipolar triphenylamine/C60 nano-stacks formed from the self-organization of a pyramid-sphere-shaped amphiphile.

    PubMed

    Liang, Wei-Wei; Huang, Chi-Feng; Wu, Kuan-Yi; Wu, San-Lien; Chang, Shu-Ting; Cheng, Yen-Ju; Wang, Chien-Lung

    2016-04-21

    A giant amphiphile, which is constructed with an amorphous nano-pyramid (triphenylamine, TPA) and a crystalline nano-sphere (C60), was synthesized. Structural characterization indicates that this pyramid-sphere-shaped amphiphile (TPA-C60 ) forms a solvent-induced ordered phase, in which the two constituent units self-assemble into alternating stacks of two-dimensional (2D) TPA and C60 nano-sheets. Due to the complexity of the molecular structure and the amorphous nature of the nano-pyramid, phase formation was driven by intermolecular C60-C60 interactions and the ordered phase could not be reformed from the TPA-C60 melt. Oriented crystal arrays of TPA-C60 , which contain flat-on TPA/C60 nano-stacks, can be obtained via a PDMS-assisted crystallization (PAC) technique. The flat-on dual-channel supramolecular structure of TPA-C60 delivered ambipolar and balanced charge-transport characteristics with an average μe of 2.11 × 10(-4) cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) and μh of 3.37 × 10(-4) cm(2) V(-1) s(-1). The anisotropic charge-transport ability of the pyramid-sphere-shaped amphiphile was further understood based on the lattice structure and the lattice orientation of TPA-C60 revealed from electron diffraction analyses.

  8. Measurement of the B0 to pi l nu Form Factor Shape and Branching Fraction, and Determination of |Vub| with a Loose Neutrino Reconstruction Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Cote, D

    2006-09-26

    The authors report the results of a study of the exclusive charmless semileptonic B{sup 0} {yields} {pi}{sup -}{ell}{sup +}{nu} decay undertaken with approximately 227 million B{bar B} pairs collected at the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance with the BABAR detector. The analysis uses events in which the signal B mesons are reconstructed with a novel loose neutrino reconstruction technique. We obtain partial branching fractions in 12 bins of q{sup 2}, the {ell}{sup +}{nu} invariant mass squared, from which we extract the f{sup +}(q{sup 2}) form factor shape and the total branching fraction: {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} {pi}{sup -}{ell}{sup +}{nu}) = 1.44 {+-} 0.08{sub stat} {+-} 0.10{sub syst} x 10{sup -4}. Based on a recent theoretical calculation of the form factor, we find the magnitude of the CKM matrix element |V{sub ub}| to be (4.1 {+-} 0.2{sub stat} {+-} 0.2{sub syst{sub -0.4}{sup +0.6}}FF) x 10{sup -3}, where the last uncertainty is due to the normalization of the form factor.

  9. Shape and Gravity of Vesta South Pole

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-04-25

    This set of images from NASA Dawn spacecraft shows topography of the southern hemisphere of the giant asteroid Vesta and a map of Vesta gravity variations that have been adjusted to account for Vesta shape.

  10. Hypnosis in the right hemisphere.

    PubMed

    Kihlstrom, John F; Glisky, Martha L; McGovern, Susan; Rapcsak, Steven Z; Mennemeier, Mark S

    2013-02-01

    Speculations about the neural substrates of hypnosis have often focused on the right hemisphere (RH), implying that RH damage should impair hypnotic responsiveness more than left-hemisphere (LH) damage. The present study examined the performance of a patient who suffered a stroke destroying most of his LH, on slightly modified versions of two hypnotizability scales. This patient was at least modestly hypnotizable, as indicated in particular by the arm rigidity and age regression items, suggesting that hypnosis can be mediated by the RH alone - provided that the language capacities normally found in the LH remain available. A further study of 16 patients with unilateral strokes of the LH or RH found no substantial differences in hypnotizability between the two groups. Future neuropsychological studies of hypnosis might explore the dorsal/ventral or anterior/posterior dichotomies, with special emphasis on the role of prefrontal cortex. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Hemispheric ultra-wideband antenna.

    SciTech Connect

    Brocato, Robert Wesley

    2006-04-01

    This report begins with a review of reduced size ultra-wideband (UWB) antennas and the peculiar problems that arise when building a UWB antenna. It then gives a description of a new type of UWB antenna that resolves these problems. This antenna, dubbed the hemispheric conical antenna, is similar to a conventional conical antenna in that it uses the same inverted conical conductor over a ground plane, but it also uses a hemispheric dielectric fill in between the conductive cone and the ground plane. The dielectric material creates a fundamentally new antenna which is reduced in size and much more rugged than a standard UWB conical antenna. The creation of finite-difference time domain (FDTD) software tools in spherical coordinates, as described in SAND2004-6577, enabled this technological advance.

  12. Shape memory polymers

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, Thomas S.; Bearinger, Jane P.

    2017-08-29

    New shape memory polymer compositions, methods for synthesizing new shape memory polymers, and apparatus comprising an actuator and a shape memory polymer wherein the shape memory polymer comprises at least a portion of the actuator. A shape memory polymer comprising a polymer composition which physically forms a network structure wherein the polymer composition has shape-memory behavior and can be formed into a permanent primary shape, re-formed into a stable secondary shape, and controllably actuated to recover the permanent primary shape. Polymers have optimal aliphatic network structures due to minimization of dangling chains by using monomers that are symmetrical and that have matching amine and hydroxl groups providing polymers and polymer foams with clarity, tight (narrow temperature range) single transitions, and high shape recovery and recovery force that are especially useful for implanting in the human body.

  13. Shape memory polymers

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, Thomas S.; Bearinger, Jane P.

    2015-06-09

    New shape memory polymer compositions, methods for synthesizing new shape memory polymers, and apparatus comprising an actuator and a shape memory polymer wherein the shape memory polymer comprises at least a portion of the actuator. A shape memory polymer comprising a polymer composition which physically forms a network structure wherein the polymer composition has shape-memory behavior and can be formed into a permanent primary shape, re-formed into a stable secondary shape, and controllably actuated to recover the permanent primary shape. Polymers have optimal aliphatic network structures due to minimization of dangling chains by using monomers that are symmetrical and that have matching amine and hydroxyl groups providing polymers and polymer foams with clarity, tight (narrow temperature range) single transitions, and high shape recovery and recovery force that are especially useful for implanting in the human body.

  14. PIIID-formed (Ti, O)/Ti, (Ti, N)/Ti and (Ti, O, N)/Ti coatings on NiTi shape memory alloy for medical applications.

    PubMed

    Sun, Tao; Wang, Lang-Ping; Wang, Min; Tong, Ho-Wang; Lu, William W

    2012-08-01

    (Ti, O)/Ti, (Ti, N)/Ti and (Ti, O, N)/Ti composite coatings were fabricated on NiTi shape memory alloy via plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (PIIID). Surface morphology of samples was investigated using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Cross-sectional morphology indicated that the PIIID-formed coatings were dense and uniform. X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to characterize the phase composition of samples. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results showed that the surface of coated NiTi SMA samples was Ni-free. Nanoindentation measurements and pin-on-disc tests were carried out to evaluate mechanical properties and wear resistance of coated NiTi SMA, respectively. For the in vitro biological assessment of the composite coatings in terms of cell morphology and cell viability, osteoblast-like SaOS-2 cells and breast cancer MCF-7 cells were cultured on NiTi SMA samples, respectively. SaOS-2 cells attached and spread better on coated NiTi SMA. Viability of MCF-7 cells showed that the PIIID-formed composite coatings were noncytotoxic and coated samples were more biocompatible than uncoated samples.

  15. Ceres Northern Hemisphere in Survey

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-06-10

    Craters in the northern hemisphere of dwarf planet Ceres are seen in this image taken by NASA's Dawn spacecraft on June 6, 2015. This is among the first snapshots from Dawn's second mapping orbit, which is 2,700 miles (4,400 kilometers) in altitude. The resolution is 1,400 feet (410 meters) per pixel. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19570

  16. Western Hemisphere Defense Policy Statement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    14. ABSTRACT 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT Same as Report (SAR) 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 14 19a...to support the Government of Iraq. Since the turn of the 21st century, Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador ...lag behind in some countries. Almost all countries in the hemisphere now elect their leaders, but electoral systems are sometimes manipulated to

  17. Brain Hemispheric Functions and the Native American.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Allen Chuck

    1982-01-01

    Uses brain research conducted by Dr. Roger Sperry to show that traditional Native Americans are more dominant in right hemisphere thinking, setting them apart from a modern left hemisphere-oriented society (especially emphasized in schools). Describes some characteristics of Native American thinking that illustrate a right hemisphere orientation…

  18. Hemispheric Laterality in Music and Math

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szirony, Gary Michael; Burgin, John S.; Pearson, L. Carolyn

    2008-01-01

    Hemispheric laterality may be a useful concept in teaching, learning, training, and in understanding more about human development. To address this issue, a measure of hemispheric laterality was compared to musical and mathematical ability. The Human Information Processing Survey (HIPS) instrument, designed to measure hemispheric laterality, was…

  19. Brain Hemispheric Functions and the Native American.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Allen Chuck

    1982-01-01

    Uses brain research conducted by Dr. Roger Sperry to show that traditional Native Americans are more dominant in right hemisphere thinking, setting them apart from a modern left hemisphere-oriented society (especially emphasized in schools). Describes some characteristics of Native American thinking that illustrate a right hemisphere orientation…

  20. Hemispheric Specialization in Normal and Disabled Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newell, David; Rugel, Robert P.

    1981-01-01

    Degree of hemispheric specialization in 32 normal and 32 disabled readers (9 to 12 years old) was evaluated using a linguistic task and a musical task. While normals demonstrated hemispheric specialization on these tasks in the expected directions, disabled readers showed a right hemisphere deficit. (Author)

  1. Emotional Television Scenes and Hemispheric Specialization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves, Byron; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examines hemispheric differences in cortical arousal as a function of positive and negative emotional television scenes. Finds that (1) the processing of emotional content is hemispherically asymmetric; and (2) negative material produced greater cortical arousal in the right hemisphere and positive material greater arousal in the left. (MS)

  2. Right Hemisphere Dominance in Visual Statistical Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roser, Matthew E.; Fiser, Jozsef; Aslin, Richard N.; Gazzaniga, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    Several studies report a right hemisphere advantage for visuospatial integration and a left hemisphere advantage for inferring conceptual knowledge from patterns of covariation. The present study examined hemispheric asymmetry in the implicit learning of new visual feature combinations. A split-brain patient and normal control participants viewed…

  3. Hemispheric superiority for processing a mirror image.

    PubMed

    Garren, R B; Gehlsen, G M

    1981-04-01

    39 adult subjects were administered a test using tachistoscopic half-field presentations to determine hemispheric dominance and a mirror-tracing task to determine if an hemispheric superiority exists for processing a mirror-image. The results indicate superiority of the nondominant hemisphere for this task.

  4. Right Hemisphere Dominance in Visual Statistical Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roser, Matthew E.; Fiser, Jozsef; Aslin, Richard N.; Gazzaniga, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    Several studies report a right hemisphere advantage for visuospatial integration and a left hemisphere advantage for inferring conceptual knowledge from patterns of covariation. The present study examined hemispheric asymmetry in the implicit learning of new visual feature combinations. A split-brain patient and normal control participants viewed…

  5. Hemispheric Laterality in Music and Math

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szirony, Gary Michael; Burgin, John S.; Pearson, L. Carolyn

    2008-01-01

    Hemispheric laterality may be a useful concept in teaching, learning, training, and in understanding more about human development. To address this issue, a measure of hemispheric laterality was compared to musical and mathematical ability. The Human Information Processing Survey (HIPS) instrument, designed to measure hemispheric laterality, was…

  6. Awake right hemisphere brain surgery.

    PubMed

    Hulou, M Maher; Cote, David J; Olubiyi, Olutayo I; Smith, Timothy R; Chiocca, E Antonio; Johnson, Mark D

    2015-12-01

    We report the indications and outcomes of awake right hemispheric brain surgery, as well as a rare patient with crossed aphasia. Awake craniotomies are often performed to protect eloquent cortex. We reviewed the medical records for 35 of 96 patients, in detail, who had awake right hemisphere brain operations. Intraoperative cortical mapping of motor and/or language function was performed in 29 of the 35 patients. A preoperative speech impairment and left hand dominance were the main indicators for awake right-sided craniotomies in patients with right hemisphere lesions. Four patients with lesion proximity to eloquent areas underwent awake craniotomies without cortical mapping. In addition, one patient had a broncho-pulmonary fistula, and another had a recent major cardiac procedure that precluded awake surgery. An eloquent cortex representation was identified in 14 patients (48.3%). Postoperatively, seven of 17 patients (41.1%) who presented with weakness, experienced improvements in their motor functions, 11 of 16 (68.7%) with seizures became seizure-free, and seven of nine (77.7%) with moderate to severe headaches and one of two with a visual field deficit improved significantly. There were also improvements in speech and language functions in all patients who presented with speech difficulties. A right sided awake craniotomy is an excellent option for left handed patients, or those with right sided cortical lesions that result in preoperative speech impairments. When combined with intraoperative cortical mapping, both speech and motor function can be well preserved.

  7. Hemispheric differences in the activation of perceptual information during sentence comprehension.

    PubMed

    Lincoln, Amy E; Long, Debra L; Baynes, Kathleen

    2007-01-28

    Previous research has suggested that perceptual information about objects is activated during sentence comprehension [Zwaan, R. A., Stanfield, R. A., & Yaxley, R. H. (2002). Language comprehenders mentally represent the shapes of objects. Psychological Science, 13(2), 168-171]. The goal in the current study was to examine the role of the two hemispheres in the activation of such information. Participants read sentences that conveyed information about the shape of an object (e.g., the egg was in the pan versus the egg was in the carton) and then received a picture of the object that was either consistent or inconsistent with the shape implied by the sentence (e.g., a fried egg versus a whole egg). In Experiment 1, pictures were presented briefly in either the left-visual field or the right-visual field. Participants showed a mismatch effect, slower responses when the picture was inconsistent with the shape of the object implied by the sentence than when it was consistent, but only when the pictures appeared in the right-visual field (left hemisphere). In Experiment 2, the sentences were revised such that the shape of the object was described explicitly. Participants showed a mismatch effect in both visual fields. These findings suggest that the right hemisphere activates shape information during sentence comprehension when a shape description is explicit, whereas the left hemisphere activates such information both when the shape is described explicitly and when it is implied.

  8. Geomorphological mapping of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko's Southern hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jui-Chi; Massironi, Matteo; Ip, Wing-Huen; Giacomini, Lorenza; Ferrari, Sabrina; Penasa, Luca; El-Maarry, Mohamed Ramy; Pajola, Maurizio; Lai, Ian-Lin; Lin, Zhong-Yi; Ferri, Francesca; Sierks, Holger; Barbieri, Cesare; Lamy, Philippe; Rodrigo, Rafael; Koschny, Detlef; Rickman, Hans; Keller, Horst Uwe; Agarwal, Jessica; A'Hearn, Michael F.; Barucci, Maria Antonella; Bertaux, Jean-Loup; Bertini, Ivano; Cremonese, Gabriele; Da Deppo, Vania; Davidsson, Björn; Debei, Stefano; De Cecco, Mariolino; Deller, Jakob; Fornasier, Sonia; Fulle, Marco; Groussin, Olivier; Gutiérrez, Pedro J.; Güttler, Carsten; Hofmann, Marc; Hviid, Stubbe F.; Jorda, Laurent; Knollenberg, Jörg; Kovacs, Gabor; Kramm, J.-Rainer; Kührt, Ekkehard; Küppers, Michael; Lara, Luisa M.; Lazzarin, Monica; Marzari, Francesco; Lopez Moreno, Josè J.; Naletto, Giampiero; Oklay, Nilda; Shi, Xian; Thomas, Nicolas; Tubiana, Cecilia; Vincent, Jean-Baptiste

    2016-11-01

    In 2015 May, the Southern hemisphere of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko became visible by the OSIRIS cameras on-board the Rosetta spacecraft. The resolution was high enough to carry out a detailed analysis of the surface morphology, which is quite different from the Northern hemisphere. Previous works show that fine particle deposits are the most extensive geological unit in the Northern hemisphere. In contrast, the Southern hemisphere is dominated by outcropping consolidated terrain. In this work, we provide geomorphological maps of the Southern hemisphere with the distinction of both geological units and linear features. The geomorphological maps described in this study allow us to gain a better understanding of the processes shaping the comet nucleus and the distribution of primary structures such as fractures and strata.

  9. Astigmatism inducing the degenerate effect in nearly hemispherical cavities: generation of three-dimensional structured light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tung, J. C.; Hsieh, Y. H.; Liang, H. C.; Su, K. W.; Huang, K. F.; Chen, Y. F.

    2017-04-01

    We originally perform an analytical form to explore the influence of the astigmatism on the degenerate effect in nearly hemispherical cavities. The frequency spectrum near hemispherical cavities clearly reveals that not only the difference of cavity lengths between each degeneracies but also frequency gaps have significant difference from non-hemispherical cavities. We further thoroughly demonstrate the laser experiment under the condition of nearly hemispherical cavities to confirm the theoretical exploration that the transverse topology of three-dimensional (3D) structured light in the degenerate cavities is well localized on the Lissajous curves.

  10. Morphology and Depth of Mars Northern Hemisphere Gullies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilmore, M. S.; Goldenson, N.

    2003-12-01

    Gullies, defined by having an alcove, channel and basin morphology have been interpreted to be evidence of melting ice in the recent era. Building on previous work (Gilmore and Phillips, Geology, Dec 2002) on southern hemisphere gullies, we have examined morphology and depth of gullies in the northern hemisphere of Mars. Forty-six gullies in 31 images have been identified in the northern hemisphere, compiled from a survey of the literature and some reconnaissance. Most of the gullies occur between 30N and 60; 8 of these landforms have been identified between 0 and 30N and are located at the summits of the Tharsis volcanoes. The gullies tend to form in regional clusters and are found within Amazonian and Hesperian aged geologic units, specifically materials of the Vastitas Borealis formation in both Utopia and Acidalia Planitae and flows from Elysium Mons. As with the southern hemisphere gullies, we find all northern hemisphere gullies to emanate from a particular layer that appears to be competent (often a cliff-former). We measured the depth of the gully heads below the local surface by registering MOC images and MOLA profiles in ISIS (MOC2MOLA script) supplied by the USGS. On average, northern hemisphere gullies lie 257m (range 86m to 555 m) below the local surface (error is approx. 20 m), consistent with previous measurements of southern hemisphere gullies (ibid). Omitting gullies on volcanoes, absolute depths range from approx. -5000 to -2100 m with respect to the MOLA datum; gullies on volcanoes span approx. 4700m - 20000m. The relationship of gullies with competent layers is consistent with a casual relationship, perhaps as an aquiclude. Models for gully formation must address the fact that the gullies are a near-surface phenomenon.

  11. Priming Nouns and Verbs: Differential Influences of Semantic and Grammatical Cues in the Two Cerebral Hemispheres

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arambel, Stella R.; Chiarello, Christine

    2006-01-01

    The current experiment investigated how sentential form-class expectancies influenced lexical-semantic priming within each hemisphere. Sentences were presented that led readers to expect a noun or a verb and the sentence-final target word was presented to one visual field/hemisphere for a lexical decision response. Noun and verb targets in the…

  12. The Integration of the Cerebral Hemispheres in Poetry and Mystic Texts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cashford, Jules

    1979-01-01

    The author explores some of the implications of E. Rossi's hypothesis that "fine literature and poetry is essentially a form by which the words of the left hemisphere give voice to symbols and archetypal patterns of the right" (hemisphere). (Author/PHR)

  13. Priming Nouns and Verbs: Differential Influences of Semantic and Grammatical Cues in the Two Cerebral Hemispheres

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arambel, Stella R.; Chiarello, Christine

    2006-01-01

    The current experiment investigated how sentential form-class expectancies influenced lexical-semantic priming within each hemisphere. Sentences were presented that led readers to expect a noun or a verb and the sentence-final target word was presented to one visual field/hemisphere for a lexical decision response. Noun and verb targets in the…

  14. Remembering 1500 Pictures: The Right Hemisphere Remembers Better than the Left

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laeng, Bruno; Overvoll, Morten; Ole Steinsvik, Oddmar

    2007-01-01

    We hypothesized that the right hemisphere would be superior to the left hemisphere in remembering having seen a specific picture before, given its superiority in perceptually encoding specific aspects of visual form. A large set of pictures (N=1500) of animals, human faces, artifacts, landscapes, and art paintings were shown for 2 s in central…

  15. Remembering 1500 Pictures: The Right Hemisphere Remembers Better than the Left

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laeng, Bruno; Overvoll, Morten; Ole Steinsvik, Oddmar

    2007-01-01

    We hypothesized that the right hemisphere would be superior to the left hemisphere in remembering having seen a specific picture before, given its superiority in perceptually encoding specific aspects of visual form. A large set of pictures (N=1500) of animals, human faces, artifacts, landscapes, and art paintings were shown for 2 s in central…

  16. Modeling the Influence of Hemispheric Transport on Trends in ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    We describe the development and application of the hemispheric version of the CMAQ to examine the influence of long-range pollutant transport on trends in surface level O3 distributions. The WRF-CMAQ model is expanded to hemispheric scales and multi-decadal model simulations were recently performed for the period spanning 1990-2010 to examine changes in hemispheric air pollution resulting from changes in emissions over this period. Simulated trends in ozone and precursor species concentrations across the U.S. and the northern hemisphere over the past two decades are compared with those inferred from available measurements during this period. Additionally, the decoupled direct method (DDM) in CMAQ is used to estimate the sensitivity of O3 to emissions from different source regions across the northern hemisphere. The seasonal variations in source region contributions to background O3 is then estimated from these sensitivity calculations and will be discussed. A reduced form model combining these source region sensitivities estimated from DDM with the multi-decadal simulations of O3 distributions and emissions trends, is then developed to characterize the changing contributions of different source regions to background O3 levels across North America. The National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) Computational Exposure Division (CED) develops and evaluates data, decision-support tools, and models to be applied to media-specific or receptor-specific problem areas

  17. Hemispheric asymmetry in the hierarchical perception of music and speech.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, Matthew A

    2016-11-01

    The perception of music and speech involves a higher level, cognitive mechanism that allows listeners to form expectations for future music and speech events. This article comprehensively reviews studies on hemispheric differences in the formation of melodic and harmonic expectations in music and selectively reviews studies on hemispheric differences in the formation of syntactic and semantic expectations in speech. On the basis of this review, it is concluded that the higher level mechanism flexibly lateralizes music processing to either hemisphere depending on the expectation generated by a given musical context. When a context generates in the listener an expectation whose elements are sequentially ordered over time, higher level processing is dominant in the left hemisphere. When a context generates in the listener an expectation whose elements are not sequentially ordered over time, higher level processing is dominant in the right hemisphere. This article concludes with a spreading activation model that describes expectations for music and speech in terms of shared temporal and nontemporal representations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. [Vaccines: producers in countries of the Southern hemisphere].

    PubMed

    Bertrand, J J

    2007-08-01

    Vaccine producers in southern hemisphere countries now contribute significantly to global output. In 2006 southern hemisphere countries accounted for more than 10% of the total worldwide production with a progression approximately 70% greater than all producers combined in the two-year period between 2004 and 2006. Though difficult to measure, production in volume is higher due to lower prices practiced in most of these countries. For many years before the 1980s, production was scattered among numerous limited-scale companies. Most were founded at the initiative of governments striving to cover the needs of the population for essential vaccines. A number of institutions and private structures such as Institut Pasteur Production, Connaught Laboratories, and Institut Merieux have also set up production facilities. Today's producers can be divided into two categories, i.e., local producers that produce mainly monovalent vaccines and worldwide producers with strong R&D investment programs. Local producers are located mainly in large southern hemisphere countries such as China, India, Brazil, and Indonesia as well as in eastern countries. For the most dynamic companies, international development is focused on southern hemisphere countries excluding North America and Europe. With the support international organization such as WHO, UNICEF and GAVI, alliances are now being formed and networks are being organized in an effort to ensure reliable supplies of high quality vaccines at affordable prices in developing countries. The contribution of these producers will increase for the greater benefit of the people living in the southern hemisphere.

  19. Simulation of plasma filled hemispherical cavity as dielectric resonator antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trenchev, G.; Kissóvski, Zh

    2016-10-01

    Plasma antennas are becoming an increasingly interesting research topic because of their uncommon characteristics. They are highly configurable, can be turned on and off rapidly, and exhibit lower thermal noise compared to metal antennas. In recent years, research has been conducted on cylindrical plasma columns sustained by DC, RF or microwave field, and their application as leaky wave antennas or as regular monopole antennas. Dielectric resonator antennas (DRA) with high dielectric permittivity are known for their small size and excellent operating characteristics for modern mobile communications (WiMAX, LTE). Hemispherical dielectric resonator antennas are characterized by simple shape, high radiation efficiency and wide bandwidth. Hemispherical DRA with a low density weakly ionized plasma as dielectric material will combine the positive features of plasma and dielectric antennas, and is particularly interesting, as antennas of this type have not been studied yet. The hemispherical plasma antenna is simulated with Ansoft HFSS in the microwave S-band. Obtained radiation pattern and bandwidth show the advantages of hemispherical plasma antennas for future communication technology.

  20. Mitogenomics of southern hemisphere blue mussels (Bivalvia: Pteriomorphia): Insights into the evolutionary characteristics of the Mytilus edulis complex

    PubMed Central

    Gaitán-Espitia, Juan Diego; Quintero-Galvis, Julian F.; Mesas, Andres; D’Elía, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    Marine blue mussels (Mytilus spp.) are widespread species that exhibit an antitropical distribution with five species occurring in the Northern Hemisphere (M. trossulus, M. edulis, M. galloprovincialis, M. californianus and M. coruscus) and three in the Southern Hemisphere (M. galloprovincialis, M. chilensis and M. platensis). Species limits in this group remain controversial, in particular for those forms that live in South America. Here we investigated structural characteristics of marine mussels mitogenomes, based on published F mtDNA sequences of Northern Hemisphere species and two newly sequenced South American genomes, one from the Atlantic M. platensis and another from the Pacific M. chilensis. These mitogenomes exhibited similar architecture to those of other genomes of Mytilus, including the presence of the Atp8 gene, which is missing in most of the other bivalves. Our evolutionary analysis of mitochondrial genes indicates that purifying selection is the predominant force shaping the evolution of the coding genes. Results of our phylogenetic analyses supported the monophyly of Pteriomorphia and fully resolved the phylogenetic relationships among its five orders. Finally, the low genetic divergence of specimens assigned to M. chilensis and M. platensis suggests that these South American marine mussels represent conspecific variants rather than distinct species. PMID:27241855

  1. Bifunctional quorum-quenching and antibiotic-acylase MacQ forms a 170-kDa capsule-shaped molecule containing spacer polypeptides.

    PubMed

    Yasutake, Yoshiaki; Kusada, Hiroyuki; Ebuchi, Teppei; Hanada, Satoshi; Kamagata, Yoichi; Tamura, Tomohiro; Kimura, Nobutada

    2017-08-21

    Understanding the molecular mechanisms of bacterial antibiotic resistance will help prepare against further emergence of multi-drug resistant strains. MacQ is an enzyme responsible for the multi-drug resistance of Acidovorax sp. strain MR-S7. MacQ has acylase activity against both N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs), a class of signalling compounds involved in quorum sensing, and β-lactam antibiotics. Thus, MacQ is crucial as a quencher of quorum sensing as well as in conferring antibiotic resistance in Acidovorax. Here, we report the X-ray structures of MacQ in ligand-free and reaction product complexes. MacQ forms a 170-kDa capsule-shaped molecule via face-to-face interaction with two heterodimers consisting of an α-chain and a β-chain, generated by the self-cleaving activity of a precursor polypeptide. The electron density of the spacer polypeptide in the hollow of the molecule revealed the close orientation of the peptide-bond atoms of Val20SP-Gly21SP to the active-site, implying a role of the residues in substrate binding. In mutational analyses, uncleaved MacQ retained degradation activity against both AHLs and penicillin G. These results provide novel insights into the mechanism of self-cleaving maturation and enzymatic function of N-terminal nucleophile hydrolases.

  2. Evaluation of the shape, viability, stemness and osteogenic differentiation of cell spheroids formed from human gingiva-derived stem cells and osteoprecursor cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung-Il; Ko, Youngkyung; Park, Jun-Beom

    2017-06-01

    The present study was performed to create stem cell spheroids from human gingiva-derived stem cells and osteoprecursor cells and to evaluate the maintenance of the stemness, the viability and osteogenic differentiation of the cell spheroids. Gingiva-derived stem cells were isolated, and a total of 6×10(5) stem cells and osteoprecursor cells were seeded into concave micromolds at various ratios. Gingiva-derived stem cells and/or osteoprecursor cells formed spheroids in concave microwells. The spheroids demonstrated a smaller diameter when the number of osteoprecursor cells seeded was lower. The majority of cells in the spheroids were identified to be live cells and the cell spheroids preserved viability throughout the experimental period. The cell spheroids, which contained stem cells, were positive for stem-cell markers. Cell spheroids in concave microwells demonstrated a statistically significant increase in alkaline phosphatase activity as time progressed (P<0.05). A statistically significant difference in phosphatase activity was observed in the stem cell alone group when compared with the osteoprecursor cell group at day 5 (P<0.05). Mineralized extracellular deposits were observed in each group after Alizarin Red S staining. Within the limits of the present study, cell spheroids from gingival cells and osteoprecursor cells maintained shape, viability, stemness and osteogenic differentiation potential.

  3. Hemispheric specialization in quantification processes.

    PubMed

    Pasini, M; Tessari, A

    2001-01-01

    Three experiments were carried out to study hemispheric specialization for subitizing (the rapid enumeration of small patterns) and counting (the serial quantification process based on some formal principles). The experiments consist of numerosity identification of dot patterns presented in one visual field, with a tachistoscopic technique, or eye movements monitored through glasses, and comparison between centrally presented dot patterns and lateralized tachistoscopically presented digits. Our experiments show left visual field advantage in the identification and comparison tasks in the subitizing range, whereas right visual field advantage has been found in the comparison task for the counting range.

  4. Large subcortical hemispheric infarctions. Presentation and prognosis.

    PubMed

    Levine, R L; Lagreze, H L; Dobkin, J A; Turski, P A

    1988-10-01

    A specific form of large subcortical hemispheric infarction on computed tomography was identified in 24 of 2198 (1%) stroke registry patients. Combined with 13 cases from earlier literature reports, a characteristic neurologic picture developed. Severe face plus arm plus leg weakness at onset (76%), corticallike features of aphasia and/or contralateral neglect (68%), and premonitory transient ischemic attacks (24%) were frequent. Twenty-two patients (59%) had large vessel arterial occlusive disease. Eight patients (22%) had primary embolic occlusion in the middle cerebral artery territory. During an average follow-up of 16 months, five patients (14%) suffered recurrent stroke or death. The clinical presentation and prognostic features of this distinct stroke subtype are described.

  5. Dynamically tunable hemispherical electronic eye camera system with adjustable zoom capability

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Inhwa; Xiao, Jianliang; Malyarchuk, Viktor; Lu, Chaofeng; Li, Ming; Liu, Zhuangjian; Yoon, Jongseung; Huang, Yonggang; Rogers, John A.

    2011-01-01

    Imaging systems that exploit arrays of photodetectors in curvilinear layouts are attractive due to their ability to match the strongly nonplanar image surfaces (i.e., Petzval surfaces) that form with simple lenses, thereby creating new design options. Recent work has yielded significant progress in the realization of such “eyeball” cameras, including examples of fully functional silicon devices capable of collecting realistic images. Although these systems provide advantages compared to those with conventional, planar designs, their fixed detector curvature renders them incompatible with changes in the Petzval surface that accompany variable zoom achieved with simple lenses. This paper describes a class of digital imaging device that overcomes this limitation, through the use of photodetector arrays on thin elastomeric membranes, capable of reversible deformation into hemispherical shapes with radii of curvature that can be adjusted dynamically, via hydraulics. Combining this type of detector with a similarly tunable, fluidic plano-convex lens yields a hemispherical camera with variable zoom and excellent imaging characteristics. Systematic experimental and theoretical studies of the mechanics and optics reveal all underlying principles of operation. This type of technology could be useful for night-vision surveillance, endoscopic imaging, and other areas that require compact cameras with simple zoom optics and wide-angle fields of view. PMID:21245356

  6. Dynamically tunable hemispherical electronic eye camera system with adjustable zoom capability.

    PubMed

    Jung, Inhwa; Xiao, Jianliang; Malyarchuk, Viktor; Lu, Chaofeng; Li, Ming; Liu, Zhuangjian; Yoon, Jongseung; Huang, Yonggang; Rogers, John A

    2011-02-01

    Imaging systems that exploit arrays of photodetectors in curvilinear layouts are attractive due to their ability to match the strongly nonplanar image surfaces (i.e., Petzval surfaces) that form with simple lenses, thereby creating new design options. Recent work has yielded significant progress in the realization of such "eyeball" cameras, including examples of fully functional silicon devices capable of collecting realistic images. Although these systems provide advantages compared to those with conventional, planar designs, their fixed detector curvature renders them incompatible with changes in the Petzval surface that accompany variable zoom achieved with simple lenses. This paper describes a class of digital imaging device that overcomes this limitation, through the use of photodetector arrays on thin elastomeric membranes, capable of reversible deformation into hemispherical shapes with radii of curvature that can be adjusted dynamically, via hydraulics. Combining this type of detector with a similarly tunable, fluidic plano-convex lens yields a hemispherical camera with variable zoom and excellent imaging characteristics. Systematic experimental and theoretical studies of the mechanics and optics reveal all underlying principles of operation. This type of technology could be useful for night-vision surveillance, endoscopic imaging, and other areas that require compact cameras with simple zoom optics and wide-angle fields of view.

  7. Mechanism of secular increasing of mean gravity in Northern hemisphere and secular decreasing of mean gravity in Southern hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barkin, Yu. V.; Ferrandiz, J. M.

    2009-04-01

    Mechanism. To present time the observant data in various geosciences more and more confidently testify for the benefit of existence of secular drift of the Earth core in the direction of North Pole. 1). So the superfluous mass of a displaced core relatively to elastic mantle, obviously, results in displacement of the centre of mass of the Earth with respect to basic system of coordinates on a surface of the Earth also in northern direction. Methods of a space geodesy let us confidently to determine drift of the centre of mass to the north with velocity about 0.5 - 1.0 cm/yr. The fundamental phenomenon of drift of the centre of mass and the core of the Earth has been predicted in 1995 (Barkin, 1995) at the analysis of secular change of the pear-shaped form of the Earth in present epoch (velocity of drift of the centre of mass of the Earth was appreciated in 1.8 +/-1.0 cm/yr in the direction of North Pole of the Earth). For an explanation of observably drift of the centre of mass at once the model of drift of the core was offered and the geodynamic model of forced relative displacements and wanderings of interacting shells of the Earth under action of a gravitational attraction of external celestial bodies (Barkin, 1996, 2002) has been developed. 2). The core makes slow secular drift and cyclic displacements. Predicted spectrum of oscillations of the centre of mass of the Earth and its core (Barkin, 2001) has received precise confirmation as a result of the Fourier analysis of temporal series for coordinates of a geocenter (Kaftan, Tatevian, 2003; Barkin, Vilke, 2004; Barkin, Lyubushin, Zotov, 2007). 3). The displaced core makes active all bouquet of natural processes in all shells of the Earth (including an atmosphere, ocean and internal shells), varying in the certain rhythms and styles the tension conditions of shells, their thermodynamic conditions etc. The core as though "conducts" by all planetary processes at once. From here take the origin such fundamental

  8. A study on blank optimization for blow forming of Inconel 718 to secure formability at high temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Joon-Tae; Yoon, Jong-Hoon; Lee, Ho-Sung; Youn, Sung-Kie

    2013-12-01

    In this study, thickness profiled blank is designed using optimization technique to get high formability in blow forming of Inconel 718 by equivalent static loads method for non-linear static response structural optimization (ESLSO). When ESLSO is applied, optimization with wide design range is difficult because the effectiveness of equivalent static loads is not valid if there are wide changes in design values. To maximize the design range in ESLSO, move limit scheme is applied during non-linear iteration considering the effectiveness of equivalent static loads. Optimization results show increased formability within limited strain range and possibility of gas forming using non-SPF grade Inconel 718. Free bulging test using blank which has optimized profile is conducted to verify the optimization process. Result is compared with that of numerical analysis in bulged height, deformed shape and thickness and they show good agreement. Verified optimization process is applied to obtain profile of blank thickness for hemi-sphere forming and sandwich structure forming. In hemi-sphere forming, the maximum strain after forming is minimized. Flat blank could not be applied for hemi-sphere forming because of failure caused from local thinning. As a result of optimization, hemi-sphere could be formed without failure. In sandwich structure forming, blank is designed to minimize un-deformed area without failure. Its result shows that sandwich structure can be formed successfully using NON-SPF grade material.

  9. Climate modelling: Northern Hemisphere circulation.

    PubMed

    Gillett, Nathan P

    2005-09-22

    Air pressure at sea level during winter has decreased over the Arctic and increased in the Northern Hemisphere subtropics in recent decades, a change that has been associated with 50% of the Eurasian winter warming observed over the past 30 years, with 60% of the rainfall increase in Scotland and with 60% of the rainfall decrease in Spain. This trend is inconsistent with the simulated response to greenhouse-gas and sulphate-aerosol changes, but it has been proposed that other climate influences--such as ozone depletion--could account for the discrepancy. Here I compare observed Northern Hemisphere sea-level pressure trends with those simulated in response to all the major human and natural climate influences in nine state-of-the-art coupled climate models over the past 50 years. I find that these models all underestimate the circulation trend. This inconsistency suggests that we cannot yet simulate changes in this important property of the climate system or accurately predict regional climate changes.

  10. Intra-hemispheric intrinsic connectivity asymmetry and its relationships with handedness and language Lateralization.

    PubMed

    Joliot, M; Tzourio-Mazoyer, N; Mazoyer, B

    2016-12-01

    significant positive linear relationship between the HICAs and HFLI indices, with an effect of handedness on the intercept but not on the slope of this relationship. These findings demonstrate that handedness and hemispheric dominance for language are significantly but independently associated with the asymmetry of intra-hemispheric intrinsic connectivity. These findings suggest that asymmetry in intra-hemispheric connectivity is a variable phenotype shaped in part by hemispheric lateralization for language, but possibly also depending on other lateralized functions.

  11. INTRINSIC SHAPE OF STAR-FORMING BzK GALAXIES. II. REST-FRAME ULTRAVIOLET AND OPTICAL STRUCTURES IN GOODS-SOUTH AND SXDS

    SciTech Connect

    Yuma, Suraphong; Ohta, Kouji; Yabe, Kiyoto

    2012-12-10

    We study the statistical intrinsic shape of star-forming BzK galaxies (sBzK galaxies) at z {approx} 2 in both rest-frame UV and rest-frame optical wavelengths. The sBzK galaxies are selected down to K{sub AB} = 24.0 mag in the GOODS-S and Subaru-XMM Deep Survey (SXDS) fields, where high-resolution images from the Hubble Space Telescope are publicly available. Of all 1028 galaxies in GOODS-S, 57% (583) show a single component in the Advanced Camera for Surveys/F850LP image. As Wide Field Camera (WFC3)/F160W images cover only part of GOODS-S and SXDS, 724/1028 and 2500/29835 sBzK galaxies in GOODS-S and SXDS, respectively, have WFC3 coverage. Of the sBzK galaxies in the WFC3/F160W images, 86% (626) and 82% (2044) appear as a single component in the GOODS-S and SXDS, respectively. A larger fraction of single-component objects in the F850LP images represents multiple star-forming regions in galaxies, while they are not so obvious in the F160W image which appears smoother. Most of the single-component sBzK galaxies show Sersic indices of n = 0.5-2.5, in agreement with those of local disk galaxies. Their effective radii are 1.0-3.0 kpc and 1.5-4.0 kpc in F850LP and F160W images, respectively, regardless of the observed fields. The stellar surface mass density of the sBzK galaxies is also comparable to that of the local disk galaxies. However, the intrinsic shape of sBzK galaxies is not a round disk as seen in the local disk galaxies. By comparing apparent axial ratio (b/a) distributions of the sBzK galaxies with those of local disk galaxies by assuming tri-axial model with axes A > B > C, we found that their intrinsic face-on B/A ratios peak at B/A = 0.70 and B/A = 0.77-0.79 in the rest-frame UV and optical, respectively, and are statistically more bar-like than those of the local disk galaxies. The intrinsic edge-on C/A ratios in both rest-frame UV and optical wavelengths peak at 0.26, which is slightly larger than those of the local disk galaxies. Possible origins of

  12. Structural hemispheric asymmetries underlie verbal Stroop performance.

    PubMed

    Vallesi, Antonino; Mazzonetto, Ilaria; Ambrosini, Ettore; Babcock, Laura; Capizzi, Mariagrazia; Arbula, Sandra; Tarantino, Vincenza; Semenza, Carlo; Bertoldo, Alessandra

    2017-09-29

    Performance on tasks involving cognitive control such as the Stroop task is often associated with left lateralized brain activations. Based on this neuro-functional evidence, we tested whether leftward structural grey matter asymmetries would also predict inter-individual differences in combatting Stroop interference. To check for the specificity of the results, both a verbal Stroop task and a spatial one were administered to a total of 111 healthy young individuals, for whom T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images were also acquired. Surface thickness and area estimations were calculated using FreeSurfer. Participants' hemispheres were registered to a symmetric template and Laterality Indices (LI) for the surface thickness and for the area at each vertex in each participant were computed. The correlation of these surface LI measures with the verbal and spatial Stroop effects (incongruent-congruent difference in trial performance) was assessed at each vertex by means of general linear models at the whole-brain level. We found a significant correlation between performance and surface area LI in an inferior posterior temporal cluster (overlapping with the so-called visual word form area, VWFA), with a more left-lateralized area in this region associated with a smaller Stroop effect only in the verbal task. These results point to an involvement of the VWFA for higher-level processes based on word reading, including the suppression of this process when required by the task, and could be interpreted in the context of cross-hemispheric rivalry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Increasing Northern Hemisphere water deficit

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCabe, Gregory J.; Wolock, David M.

    2015-01-01

    A monthly water-balance model is used with CRUTS3.1 gridded monthly precipitation and potential evapotranspiration (PET) data to examine changes in global water deficit (PET minus actual evapotranspiration) for the Northern Hemisphere (NH) for the years 1905 through 2009. Results show that NH deficit increased dramatically near the year 2000 during both the cool (October through March) and warm (April through September) seasons. The increase in water deficit near 2000 coincides with a substantial increase in NH temperature and PET. The most pronounced increases in deficit occurred for the latitudinal band from 0 to 40°N. These results indicate that global warming has increased the water deficit in the NH and that the increase since 2000 is unprecedented for the 1905 through 2009 period. Additionally, coincident with the increase in deficit near 2000, mean NH runoff also increased due to increases in P. We explain the apparent contradiction of concurrent increases in deficit and increases in runoff.

  14. A hemispherical dynamo on Mars?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietrich, Wieland; Wicht, Johannes; Hori, Kumiko

    2015-04-01

    Numerous threedimensional MHD models investigated the induction of planetary magnetic fields under the influence of a laterally varying heat flux through the core mantle boundary (CMB). E.g. for the dynamo process in ancient Mars, a planetary scale CMB heat flux anomaly (Y10) reduces the rate of heat escaping the core in the north and increases it in the south, what concentrates the convection and induction into a single hemisphere. On the expense of rapid polarity inversions, it then seemed possible to increase the equatorial asymmetry far enough to correspond to the hemisphericity of the Martian crustal magnetisation. Within this study we parametrise horizontal extent, latitudinal position and amplitude of the anomaly in a rather comprehensive parameter study. Global flow symmetry properties are justified and used to quantify the influence of the heat flux anomalies and the action of the magnetic field. Our results suggest, that only rather large scale and strong amplitude anomalies are sufficient to induce magnetic fields matching the equatorial asymmetry of the crustal magnetisation pattern. Further all geometrically corresponding dynamo models show the problematic rapid polarity inversions which allow a strong and unidirectional magnetisation only when the crustal built-up time is on the order of the magnetic diffusion time (several kyrs). In summary, our results suggest that a single mantle hot spot positionend anywhere at the CMB will affect the core dynamics significantly only if its horizontal extent is on the order of the radius of the outer core. For Mars it seemes quite plausible, that the crustal magnetisation pattern was strongly influenced by post-dynamo demagnetisation processes rather than being magnetised by a geometrically corresponding internal dynamo field.

  15. Homotopic Language Reorganization in the Right Hemisphere after Early Left Hemisphere Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tivarus, Madalina E.; Starling, Sarah J.; Newport, Elissa L.; Langfitt, John T.

    2012-01-01

    To determine the areas involved in reorganization of language to the right hemisphere after early left hemisphere injury, we compared fMRI activation patterns during four production and comprehension tasks in post-surgical epilepsy patients with either left (LH) or right hemisphere (RH) speech dominance (determined by Wada testing) and healthy…

  16. Right hemispheric reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome in a patient with left hemispheric partial seizures

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Gina S.; McCaslin, Justin

    2017-01-01

    We report a right-handed 19-year-old girl who developed reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) lateralized to the right hemisphere with simultaneous new-onset left hemispheric seizures. RCVS, typically more diffuse, was lateralized to one of the cerebral hemispheres. PMID:28405089

  17. Homotopic Language Reorganization in the Right Hemisphere after Early Left Hemisphere Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tivarus, Madalina E.; Starling, Sarah J.; Newport, Elissa L.; Langfitt, John T.

    2012-01-01

    To determine the areas involved in reorganization of language to the right hemisphere after early left hemisphere injury, we compared fMRI activation patterns during four production and comprehension tasks in post-surgical epilepsy patients with either left (LH) or right hemisphere (RH) speech dominance (determined by Wada testing) and healthy…

  18. Hemispheric inference priming during comprehension of conversations and narratives.

    PubMed

    Powers, Chivon; Bencic, Rachel; Horton, William S; Beeman, Mark

    2012-09-01

    In this study we examined asymmetric semantic activation patterns as people listened to conversations and narratives that promoted causal inferences. Based on the hypothesis that understanding the unique features of conversational input may benefit from or require a modified pattern of conceptual activation during conversation, we compared semantic priming in both hemispheres for inferences embedded in conversations and in narratives. Participants named inference-related target words or unrelated words presented to the left visual field-right hemisphere (lvf-RH) or to the right visual field-left hemisphere (rvf-LH) at critical coherence points that required an inference in order to correctly understand an utterance in the context of the conversation or narrative. Fifty-seven undergraduates listened to 36 conversations or narratives and were tested at 100 target inference points. During narrative comprehension, inference-related priming was reliable and equally strong in both hemispheres. In contrast, during conversation comprehension, inference-related priming was only reliable for target words presented to lvf-RH. This work demonstrates that priming for inference-related concepts can be measured with input in conversational form and suggests the language processing style of the RH is advantageous for comprehending conversation.

  19. Measurements of right / left hemisphere activation using functional near-infrared spectroscopy during incongruent Stroop test.

    PubMed

    Hiroyasu, Tomoyuki; Fukuhara, Michihiro; Yokouchi, Hisatake; Miki, Mitsunori; Yoshimi, Masato

    2011-01-01

    The human brain automatically processes information at multiple sites when recognizing various types of information at the same time, such as color, shape, etc. Cognitive conflict may occur when conflicting information is recognized at the same time. Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is often used to examine the brain activity associated with this phenomenon. To examine activation of the visual system, we measured brain activity in the right / left hemispheres during cognitive conflict in the Stroop test. Consistent with the results reported previously by Ehlis, the brain activity in the near inferior-frontal gyrus of the left hemisphere was increased during the incongruent task. The brain activity also increased in the near inferior-frontal gyrus of the right hemisphere during the incongruent task. These results indicated that fNIRS can be used to detect brain activity in the inferior-frontal gyrus of the right / left hemispheres during the Stroop test.

  20. Shaped Recess Flow Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shyam, Vikram (Inventor); Poinsatte, Philip (Inventor); Thurman, Douglas (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    One or more embodiments of techniques or systems for shaped recess flow control are provided herein. A shaped recess or cavity can be formed on a surface associated with fluid flow. The shaped recess can be configured to create or induce fluid effects, temperature effects, or shedding effects that interact with a free stream or other structures. The shaped recess can be formed at an angle to a free stream flow and may be substantially "V" shaped. The shaped recess can be coupled with a cooling channel, for example. The shaped recess can be upstream or downstream from a cooling channel and aligned in a variety of manners. Due to the fluid effects, shedding effects, and temperature effects created by a shaped recess, lift-off or separation of cooling jets of cooling channels can be mitigated, thereby enhancing film cooling effectiveness.

  1. Interaction of cerebral hemispheres and artistic thinking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolaenko, Nikolay N.

    1998-07-01

    Study of drawings by patients with local lesions of the right or left hemisphere allows to understand how artistic thinking is supported by brain structures. The role of the right hemisphere is significant at the early stage of creative process. The right hemisphere is a generator of nonverbal visuo-spatial thinking. It operates with blurred nonverbal images and arrange them in a visual space. With the help of iconic signs the right hemisphere reflects the world and creates perceptive visual standards which are stored in the long-term right hemisphere memory. The image, which appeared in the `inner' space, should be transferred into a principally different language, i.e. a left hemispheric sign language. This language operates with a number of discrete units, logical succession and learned grammar rules. This process can be explained by activation (information) transfer from the right hemisphere to the left one. Thus, natural and spontaneous creative process, which is finished by a conscious effort, can be understood as an activation impulse transfer from the right hemisphere to the left one and back.

  2. Hemispheric Dominance of Native American Indian Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stellern, John; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Examines language and spatial lateralization of 49 elementary American Indian students using a cognitive-manual dual task model and psychoeducational assessment techniques. All students were found to be left-hemisphere dominant for language and some were lateralized to the left hemisphere for spatial function. Contradicts evidence of right-brain…

  3. The Cost of Action Miscues: Hemispheric Asymmetries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shenal, Brian V.; Hinze, Stephan; Heilman, Kenneth M.

    2012-01-01

    Adaptive behaviors require preparation and when necessary inhibition or alteration of actions. The right hemisphere has been posited to be dominant for preparatory motor activation. This experiment was designed to learn if there are hemispheric asymmetries in the control of altered plans of actions. Cues, both valid and invalid, which indicate the…

  4. Fantasy and the Brain's Right Hemisphere.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shuman, R. Baird

    While the left hemisphere of the brain is responsible for logical and verbal activity, the right brain is the center of much of human feeling and emotion. Its vision is holistic rather than segmented or compartmentalized. Although schools today are geared almost exclusively to training the brain's left hemisphere, fantasy literature can provide…

  5. The Cost of Action Miscues: Hemispheric Asymmetries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shenal, Brian V.; Hinze, Stephan; Heilman, Kenneth M.

    2012-01-01

    Adaptive behaviors require preparation and when necessary inhibition or alteration of actions. The right hemisphere has been posited to be dominant for preparatory motor activation. This experiment was designed to learn if there are hemispheric asymmetries in the control of altered plans of actions. Cues, both valid and invalid, which indicate the…

  6. Robust Controller Design for Hemispherical Resonator Gyroscope

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-01

    f v Figure 1. Operating principle of HRG Robust Controller Design for Hemispherical Resonator Gyroscope Chul Hyun1), Byung ...Petersburg, Russia.: 26-34 4) Chul Hyun. 2011. Design of Robust Digital Controller for Hemispherical Resonator Gyroscopes, Ph.D. dissertation, Seoul

  7. Hemispheric lateralization of semantic feature distinctiveness.

    PubMed

    Reilly, M; Machado, N; Blumstein, S E

    2015-08-01

    Recent models of semantic memory propose that the semantic representation of concepts is based, in part, on a network of features. In this view, a feature that is distinctive for an object (a zebra has stripes) is processed differently from a feature that is shared across many objects (a zebra has four legs). The goal of this paper is to determine whether there are hemispheric differences in such processing. In a feature verification task, participants responded 'yes' or 'no' following concepts which were presented to a single visual field (left or right) paired with a shared or distinctive feature. Both hemispheres showed faster reaction times to shared features than to distinctive features, although right hemisphere responses were significantly slower overall and particularly in the processing of distinctive features. These findings support models of semantic processing in which the dominant left hemisphere more efficiently performs highly discriminating 'fine' encoding, in contrast to the right hemisphere which performs less discriminating 'coarse' encoding.

  8. Inter-hemispheric asymmetries in Saturn's aurora

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badman, Sarah; Lamy, Laurent; Bunce, Emma; Cecconi, Baptiste; Clarke, John; Crary, Frank; Dougherty, Michele; Dyudina, Ulyana; Kinrade, Joe; Kurth, Bill; Melin, Henrik; Mitchell, Don; Nichols, Jonathan; Prange, Renee; Pryor, Wayne; Radioti, Katerina; Schippers, Patricia; Zarka, Philippe

    2017-04-01

    During two intervals in 2016 Saturn's UV aurorae were observed simultaneously in the northern, summer hemisphere by the Hubble Space Telescope and the southern, winter hemisphere by Cassini. For the first time the full auroral region was visible in both hemispheres allowing the nightside auroral morphology to be examined as well as the dayside. We find significant differences in the relative auroral intensities between the two hemispheres, particularly in the most poleward arcs observed under more active magnetospheric conditions. We propose that these asymmetries could be driven by inter-hemispheric field-aligned currents, or, considering the high latitude extent of some features, in association with enhanced auroral precipitation on newly-reconnected field lines. In the latter scenario, the lifetime of the high latitude auroral feature suggests that enhanced precipitation persists for at least 4 hours, longer than previously estimated, as the arc rotates to the nightside.

  9. Reciprocal organization of the cerebral hemispheres

    PubMed Central

    McGilchrist, Iain

    2010-01-01

    The cerebral hemispheres are anatomically and neurophysiologically asymmetrical. The evolutionary basis for these differences remains uncertain. There are, however, highly consistent differences between the hemispheres, evident in reptiles, birds, and mammals, as well as in humans, in the nature of the attention each applies to the environment. This permits the simultaneous application of precisely focused, but narrow, attention, needed for grasping food or prey, with broad, open, and uncommitted attention, needed to watch out for predators and to interpret the intentions of conspecifics. These different modes of attention can account for a very wide range of repeated observations relating to hemisphere specialization, and suggest that hemisphere differences lie not in discrete functional domains as such, but distinct modes of functioning within any one domain. These modes of attention are mutually incompatible, and their application depends on inhibitory transmission in the corpus callosum. There is also an asymmetry of interaction between the hemispheres at the phenomenological level. PMID:21319495

  10. UV Observations of Hemispheric Asymmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, R. K.; Paxton, L. J.; Wolven, B. C.; Zhang, Y.; Romeo, G.

    2015-12-01

    Asymmetry in the auroral patterns can be an important diagnostic for understanding the dynamics of solar wind interaction with the magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere system (e.g., Newel and Meng, 1998; Fillingrim et al., 2005). Molecular nitrogen emission in the UV Lyman-Birge-Hopfield bands can be used to determine energy flux and electron mean energy (Sotirelis, et al, 2013) and thereby Hall and Pederson integrated conductances (Gjerloev, et al., 2014). UV imagery provided by the 4 SSUSI instruments on the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) F16-F19 spacecraft provide two dimensional maps of this emission at different local times. Often there are near simultaneous observations of both poles by some combination of the satellites. (see figure 1) The SSUSI auroral data products are well suited to this study, as they have the following features.: - dayglow has been subtracted on dayside aurora - electron energy flux and mean energy are pre-calculated - individual arcs have been identified through image processing. In order to intercompare data from multiple satellites, we must first ensure that the instrument calibrations are consistent. In this work we show that the instruments are consistently calibrated, and that results generated from the SSUSI data products can be trusted. Several examples of storm time asymmetries captured by the SSUSI instruments will be discussed. Fillingim, M. O., G. K. Parks, H. U. Frey, T. J. Immel, and S. B. Mende (2005), Hemispheric asymmetry of the afternoon electron aurora, Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L03113, doi:10.1029/2004GL021635. Gjerloev, J., Schaefer, R., Paxton, L, and Zhang, Y. (2014), A comprehensive empirical model of the ionospheric conductivity derived from SSUSI/GUVI, SuperMAG and SuperDARN data, SM51G-4339, Fall 2014 AGU meeting, San Francisco. Newell, P. T., and C.-I. Meng (1988), Hemispherical asymmetry in cusp precipitation near solstices, J. Geophys. Res., 93(A4), 2643-2648, doi:10.1029/JA093iA04p02643

  11. A free-standing, sheet-shaped, "hydrophobic" biomaterial containing polymeric micelles formed from poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(lactic acid) block copolymer for possible incorporation/release of "hydrophilic" compounds.

    PubMed

    Moroishi, Hitomi; Yoshida, Chikara; Murakami, Yoshihiko

    2013-02-01

    Sheet-shaped materials with a large contact area relative to the drug targeting site lead to advantages over conventional particle-shaped drug carriers and have several advantages for their biomedical applications. The present study proposes a methodology for preparing a novel sheet-shaped "hydrophobic" and biocompatible biomaterial in which polymeric micelles are uniformly dispersed for the incorporation of "hydrophilic" compounds into the sheet. The methoxy-terminated poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(lactic acid) block copolymer (CH(3)O-PEG-b-PLA) was successfully synthesized by means of the anionic ring-opening polymerization of both ethylene oxide and dl-lactide. CH(3)O-PEG-b-PLA was self-assembled and formed stable micelle-like w/o emulsion with a hydrophilic inner core in organic solvents. A sheet-shaped material containing a hydrophilic inner space for incorporating hydrophilic compounds was obtained by spin-coating both the micelle solution and a sheet-forming polymer. Fluorescent images of the sheet proved that polymeric micelles providing hydrophilic spaces were uniformly dispersed in the hydrophobic sheet. The facile technique presented in this paper can be a tool for fabricating sheet-shaped biomaterials that have a hydrophilic inner core and, consequently, that are suitable for the sustained release of hydrophilic compounds.

  12. Ceres's Southern Hemisphere Navigation Image

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-04-21

    NASA's Dawn spacecraft took this picture as it reached its new orbit to observe Ceres in opposition, when Dawn is directly between the sun and the Occator Crater bright spots. Entering the very tight opposition geometry (explained here) is a major feat that requires extra checks for increased delivery accuracy. Hence, this picture was part of a series of images intended to help the navigation of the spacecraft relative to Ceres. This vantage point highlights the southern hemisphere of Ceres. Abundant polygonal craters can be seen, starting with Kerwan, Ceres' largest crater at 174 miles (280 kilometers) in diameter, in the upper right of Ceres' circular disc. Kerwan's rims appear subdued and its floor is relatively relaxed. The crater found almost in the "bullseye" of the crater is called Insitor (16 miles or 26 kilometers in diameter). The Inamahari and Homshuk craters featured here can be found at the top of the disc. Another large polygonal crater called Chaminuka (76 miles, 122 kilometers in diameter) is found toward the center. This map can be used to locate these and more features. The name "Kerwan" refers to the Hopi spirit of sprouting maize and "Chaminuka" to the Shona (Zimbabwe) spirit who provides rains in times of droughts. "Insitor" is named for the Roman agricultural deity in charge of the sowing. This picture was taken on April 17, 2017, from an altitude of about 28,000 miles (45,000 kilometers). https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21403

  13. Aurora over the Southern Hemisphere

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1985-05-02

    51B-116-005 (29 April - 6 May 1985) --- Astronaut Don L. Lind, mission specialist, termed this scene of an aurora in the Southern Hemisphere as "spectacular," during a TV down link featuring discussion of the auroral observations on the seven-day flight. This scene was captured by astronaut Robert F. Overmyer, crew commander, using a 35mm camera. Dr. Lind, monitoring activity in the magnetosphere at various points throughout the flight, pinpointed the spacecraft's location as being over a point halfway between Australia and the Antarctic continent. There are moonlit clouds on Earth. The blue-green band and the tall red rays are aurora. The brownish band parallel to the Earth's horizon is a luminescence of the atmosphere itself and is referred to as airglow. Dr. T. Hallinan of the Geophysical Institute of Fairbanks serves as principal investigator for the auroral observations experiment and spent a great deal of time with Dr. Lind in preparation for the flight. Photo credit: NASA

  14. HEMISPHERIC CENTER FOR ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    M.A. Ebadian

    1999-10-31

    The Deactivation and Decommissioning (D&D) Technology Assessment Program (TAP) was developed to provide detailed, comparable data for environmental technologies and to disseminate this data to D&D professionals in a manner that will facilitate the review and selection of technologies to perform decontamination and decommissioning. The objectives for this project include the following: Determine technology needs through review of the Site Technology Coordination Group (STCG) information and other applicable websites and needs databases; Perform a detailed review of industries that perform similar activities as those required in D&D operations to identify additional technologies; Define the technology assessment program for characterization and waste management problem sets; Define the data management program for characterization, dismantlement, and waste management problem sets; Evaluate baseline and innovative technologies under standard test conditions at Florida International University's Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology (FIU-HCET) and other locations and collect data in the areas of performance, cost, health and safety, operations and maintenance, and primary and secondary waste generation; Continue to locate, verify, and incorporate technology performance data from other sources into the multimedia information system; and Develop the conceptual design for a dismantlement technology decision analysis tool for dismantlement technologies.

  15. Transient Ablation of Teflon Hemispheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arai, Norio; Karashima, Kei-ichi; Sato, Kiyoshi

    1997-01-01

    For high-speed entry of space vehicles into atmospheric environments, ablation is a practical method for alleviating severe aerodynamic heating. Several studies have been undertaken on steady or quasi-steady ablation. However, ablation is a very complicated phenomenon in which a nonequilibrium chemical process is associated with an aerodynamic process that involves changes in body shape with time. Therefore, it seems realistic to consider that ablation is an unsteady phenomenon. In the design of an ablative heat-shield system, since the ultimate purpose of the heat shield is to keep the internal temperature of the space vehicle at a safe level during entry, the transient heat conduction characteristics of the ablator may be critical in the selection of the material and its thickness. This note presents an experimental study of transient ablation of Teflon, with particular emphasis on the change in body shape, the instantaneous internal temperature distribution, and the effect of thermal expansion on ablation rate.

  16. Remote canopy hemispherical image collection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Xuefen; Liu, Bingyu; Yang, Yi; Han, Fang; Cui, Jian

    2016-11-01

    Canopies are major part of plant photosynthesis and have distinct architectural elements such as tree crowns, whorls, branches, shoots, etc. By measuring canopy structural parameters, the solar radiation interception, photosynthesis effects and the spatio-temporal distribution of solar radiation under the canopy can be evaluated. Among canopy structure parameters, Leaf Area Index (LAI) is the key one. Leaf area index is a crucial variable in agronomic and environmental studies, because of its importance for estimating the amount of radiation intercepted by the canopy and the crop water requirements. The LAI can be achieved by hemispheric images which are obtained below the canopy with high accuracy and effectiveness. But existing hemispheric images canopy-LAI measurement technique is based on digital SLR camera with a fisheye lens. Users need to collect hemispheric image manually. The SLR camera with fisheye lens is not suit for long-term canopy-LAI outdoor measurement too. And the high cost of SLR limits its capacity. In recent years, with the development of embedded system and image processing technology, low cost remote canopy hemispheric image acquisition technology is becoming possible. In this paper, we present a remote hemispheric canopy image acquisition system with in-field/host configuration. In-field node based on imbed platform, low cost image sensor and fisheye lens is designed to achieve hemispherical image of plant canopy at distance with low cost. Solar radiation and temperature/humidity data, which are important for evaluating image data validation, are obtained for invalid hemispherical image elimination and node maintenance too. Host computer interacts with in-field node by 3G network. The hemispherical image calibration and super resolution are used to improve image quality in host computer. Results show that the remote canopy image collection system can make low cost remote canopy image acquisition for LAI effectively. It will be a potential

  17. Hemispheric Asymmetries in Substorm Recovery Time Scales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fillingim, M. O.; Chua, D H.; Germany, G. A.; Spann, James F.

    2009-01-01

    Previous statistical observations have shown that the recovery time scales of substorms occurring in the winter and near equinox (when the nighttime auroral zone was in darkness) are roughly twice as long as the recovery time scales for substorms occurring in the summer (when the nighttime auroral region was sunlit). This suggests that auroral substorms in the northern and southern hemispheres develop asymmetrically during solstice conditions with substorms lasting longer in the winter (dark) hemisphere than in the summer (sunlit) hemisphere. Additionally, this implies that more energy is deposited by electron precipitation in the winter hemisphere than in the summer one during substorms. This result, coupled with previous observations that have shown that auroral activity is more common when the ionosphere is in darkness and is suppressed when the ionosphere is in daylight, strongly suggests that the ionospheric conductivity plays an important role governing how magnetospheric energy is transferred to the ionosphere during substorms. Therefore, the ionosphere itself may dictate how much energy it will accept from the magnetosphere during substorms rather than this being an externally imposed quantity. Here, we extend our earlier work by statistically analyzing the recovery time scales for a large number of substorms observed in the conjugate hemispheres simultaneously by two orbiting global auroral imagers: Polar UVI and IMAGE FUV. Our current results are consistent with previous observations. The recovery time scales are observed to be longer in the winter (dark) hemisphere while the auroral activity has a shorter duration in the summer (sunlit) hemisphere. This leads to an asymmetric energy input from the magnetosphere to the ionosphere with more energy being deposited in the winter hemisphere than in the summer hemisphere.

  18. Hemispheric Asymmetries in Substorm Recovery Time Scales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fillingim, M. O.; Chua, D H.; Germany, G. A.; Spann, James F.

    2009-01-01

    Previous statistical observations have shown that the recovery time scales of substorms occurring in the winter and near equinox (when the nighttime auroral zone was in darkness) are roughly twice as long as the recovery time scales for substorms occurring in the summer (when the nighttime auroral region was sunlit). This suggests that auroral substorms in the northern and southern hemispheres develop asymmetrically during solstice conditions with substorms lasting longer in the winter (dark) hemisphere than in the summer (sunlit) hemisphere. Additionally, this implies that more energy is deposited by electron precipitation in the winter hemisphere than in the summer one during substorms. This result, coupled with previous observations that have shown that auroral activity is more common when the ionosphere is in darkness and is suppressed when the ionosphere is in daylight, strongly suggests that the ionospheric conductivity plays an important role governing how magnetospheric energy is transferred to the ionosphere during substorms. Therefore, the ionosphere itself may dictate how much energy it will accept from the magnetosphere during substorms rather than this being an externally imposed quantity. Here, we extend our earlier work by statistically analyzing the recovery time scales for a large number of substorms observed in the conjugate hemispheres simultaneously by two orbiting global auroral imagers: Polar UVI and IMAGE FUV. Our current results are consistent with previous observations. The recovery time scales are observed to be longer in the winter (dark) hemisphere while the auroral activity has a shorter duration in the summer (sunlit) hemisphere. This leads to an asymmetric energy input from the magnetosphere to the ionosphere with more energy being deposited in the winter hemisphere than in the summer hemisphere.

  19. Compact Autonomous Hemispheric Vision System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pingree, Paula J.; Cunningham, Thomas J.; Werne, Thomas A.; Eastwood, Michael L.; Walch, Marc J.; Staehle, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    Solar System Exploration camera implementations to date have involved either single cameras with wide field-of-view (FOV) and consequently coarser spatial resolution, cameras on a movable mast, or single cameras necessitating rotation of the host vehicle to afford visibility outside a relatively narrow FOV. These cameras require detailed commanding from the ground or separate onboard computers to operate properly, and are incapable of making decisions based on image content that control pointing and downlink strategy. For color, a filter wheel having selectable positions was often added, which added moving parts, size, mass, power, and reduced reliability. A system was developed based on a general-purpose miniature visible-light camera using advanced CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) imager technology. The baseline camera has a 92 FOV and six cameras are arranged in an angled-up carousel fashion, with FOV overlaps such that the system has a 360 FOV (azimuth). A seventh camera, also with a FOV of 92 , is installed normal to the plane of the other 6 cameras giving the system a > 90 FOV in elevation and completing the hemispheric vision system. A central unit houses the common electronics box (CEB) controlling the system (power conversion, data processing, memory, and control software). Stereo is achieved by adding a second system on a baseline, and color is achieved by stacking two more systems (for a total of three, each system equipped with its own filter.) Two connectors on the bottom of the CEB provide a connection to a carrier (rover, spacecraft, balloon, etc.) for telemetry, commands, and power. This system has no moving parts. The system's onboard software (SW) supports autonomous operations such as pattern recognition and tracking.

  20. Modeling Hemispheric Detonation Experiments in 2-Dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, W M; Fried, L E; Vitello, P A; Druce, R L; Phillips, D; Lee, R; Mudge, S; Roeske, F

    2006-06-22

    Experiments have been performed with LX-17 (92.5% TATB and 7.5% Kel-F 800 binder) to study scaling of detonation waves using a dimensional scaling in a hemispherical divergent geometry. We model these experiments using an arbitrary Lagrange-Eulerian (ALE3D) hydrodynamics code, with reactive flow models based on the thermo-chemical code, Cheetah. The thermo-chemical code Cheetah provides a pressure-dependent kinetic rate law, along with an equation of state based on exponential-6 fluid potentials for individual detonation product species, calibrated to high pressures ({approx} few Mbars) and high temperatures (20000K). The parameters for these potentials are fit to a wide variety of experimental data, including shock, compression and sound speed data. For the un-reacted high explosive equation of state we use a modified Murnaghan form. We model the detonator (including the flyer plate) and initiation system in detail. The detonator is composed of LX-16, for which we use a program burn model. Steinberg-Guinan models5 are used for the metal components of the detonator. The booster and high explosive are LX-10 and LX-17, respectively. For both the LX-10 and LX-17, we use a pressure dependent rate law, coupled with a chemical equilibrium equation of state based on Cheetah. For LX-17, the kinetic model includes carbon clustering on the nanometer size scale.

  1. Shape controllable synthesis of ZnCdS 1-D nanostructures formed on ITO/glass by using the co-evaporation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dong Jin; Jeon, Hee Chang; Yuldashev, Shavkat; Kang, Tae Won; Ryu, Sung Ryong; Son, Moon A.; Park, Ji Won; Woo, Yong Deuk

    2015-01-01

    Self-assembled, one dimensional (1-D) Zn1- x Cd x S nanostructures with a Cd composition of x = 0.11 have been successfully fabricated on indium-tin-oxide/glass substrates by using a co-evaporation method in the absence of any catalyst. The structures and the morphologies of these nanostructures were studied using X-ray diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed that the Cd ions occupied the Zn sites in the ZnCdS nanowire. The fabricated ZnCdS nanostructures exhibited various shapes, such as hexagonal nanorods (H-NRs), cylindrical nanorods (C-NRs), nanoneedles (NNs), nanowires (NWs) and nanodumbbells (NDs), for different substrate temperatures. Increasing the substrate temperature resulted in the formation of nanostructures with smaller diameters. The shape-controllable growth of ZnCdS 1-D nanostructures might result in the development of a high-efficiency nano-solar cell.

  2. Volcanism in the cratered terrain hemisphere of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeley, R.; Spudis, P. D.

    1978-01-01

    Four kinds of Martian volcanoes and their prevalences in the cratered terrain hemisphere (generally the southern hemisphere) are described. Patera, which are large low-profile volcanic structures, appear to be either older shield volcanoes or a unique type of volcano. 'Plains' volcanics represent low-volume eruptions that formed cones, low shields, and other small-scale structures. Flood volcanics are produced by high-volume eruptions, post-date the older and more degraded plateau plains, and occur mostly as basin-fill materials. Plateau plains, the Martian intercrater plains, contain many wrinkle ridges and floor-fractured craters. It is suggested that volcanic processes as well as erosional processes have been important in obliterating small Martian craters and that volcanic products may constitute a significant fraction (up to 44%) of the surface rocks in the cratered terrain

  3. A Southern Hemisphere VLBI Survey on a 275-km Baseline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morabito, D. D.; Preston, R. A.; Faulkner, J.; Wehrle, A. E.; Jauncey, D. L.; Batty, M. J.; Haynes, R. F.; Wright, A. E.

    1983-01-01

    A very long base interferometry (VLBI) survey at 2.29 GHz was conducted using a 275 km baseline consisting of the NASA Deep Space Network tracking site in Tidbinbilla, Australia, and the 64 m antenna located at Parkes, Australia. The purpose of the survey was to identify sources in the southern sky possessing strong compact cores ( 0.1 arcseconds). Such sources will be used to form a reference frame for conducting VLBI geodesy experiments in the Southern Hemisphere. The 70 candidate sources were chosen to be south of -39 degrees declination, and only four had been previously observed from the northern hemisphere. Of the observed sources, 49 were found to have compact structure. In addition to determining correlated flux densities, the delay and delay rate observables of several detected sources were used to determine an estimate of the three dimensional location of the Parkes antenna relative to the Tidbinbilla site with a 1-sigma accuracy of 10 meters.

  4. Fast discharge in a plasma gun with hemispherical insulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antsiferov, P. S.; Dorokhin, L. A.; Sidelnikov, Yu. V.; Koshelev, K. N.

    2009-05-01

    A method of creation of hot dense plasma is proposed. It is based on cumulation of a shockwave, which originates on a hemispherical surface of insulator of plasma gun. The results of first experiments are presented. The shock wave is driven by fast electrical discharge (dI /dt>1012 A/s). The inductive storage with semiconductor opening switch is used as a current driver. Time resolved pin-hole images and vacuum ultraviolet (vuv) spectra are studied. Shockwaves from hemispherical insulator with 4 mm radius create plasma with a form of column about 1 mm diameter and 3-4 mm length. vuv spectra contain the lines of Ar ions that corresponds to the electron temperature about 20 eV. Possible practical application is discussed.

  5. Fast discharge in a plasma gun with hemispherical insulator

    SciTech Connect

    Antsiferov, P. S.; Dorokhin, L. A.; Sidelnikov, Yu. V.; Koshelev, K. N.

    2009-05-15

    A method of creation of hot dense plasma is proposed. It is based on cumulation of a shockwave, which originates on a hemispherical surface of insulator of plasma gun. The results of first experiments are presented. The shock wave is driven by fast electrical discharge (dI/dt>10{sup 12} A/s). The inductive storage with semiconductor opening switch is used as a current driver. Time resolved pin-hole images and vacuum ultraviolet (vuv) spectra are studied. Shockwaves from hemispherical insulator with 4 mm radius create plasma with a form of column about 1 mm diameter and 3-4 mm length. vuv spectra contain the lines of Ar ions that corresponds to the electron temperature about 20 eV. Possible practical application is discussed.

  6. Venus Hemispherical Globes with place names

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-08-27

    The images used for the base of this globe show the northern and southern hemispheres of Venus as revealed by more than a decade of radar investigations culminating in the 1990-1994 NASA Magellan mission.

  7. Huge Filament Rises From Sun's Northern Hemisphere

    NASA Image and Video Library

    On August 1, 2010 following a C3-class solar flare from sunspot 1092, an enormous magnetic filament stretching across the sun's northern hemisphere erupted. This 304 angstrom video shows that filam...

  8. Grinding tool for making hemispherical bores in hard materials

    DOEpatents

    Duran, E.L.

    1985-04-03

    A grinding tool for forming hemispherical bores in hard materials such as boron carbide. The tool comprises a hemicircular grinding bit, formed of a metal bond diamond matrix, which is mounted transversely on one end of a tubular tool shaft. The bit includes a spherically curved outer edge surface which is the active grinding surface of the tool. Two coolant fluid ports on opposite sides of the bit enable introduction of coolant fluid through the bore of the tool shaft so as to be emitted adjacent the opposite sides of the grinding bit, thereby providing optimum cooling of both the workpiece and the bit.

  9. Cerebral Economics: Resource Competition within but not Between Hemispheres.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-01

    reverse #ido If nececeey and Identify by block ntobw) ’n this paper , we test a model in which it is assumed that the left and right cerebral hemispheres...and then spent 20 minutes completing Form BB of the Minnesota Paper Form Board Test. The latter was not used as a basis for subject seiection, for...AFB, TX 76311 4 friedman/alberta June 26, 1981 Page 5 CoastGuard Other DoD 1 Chief, Psychological Reserch Branch 12 Defense Technical Information Center

  10. The Effects of Multiple Script Priming on Word Recognition by the Two Cerebral Hemispheres: Implications for Discourse Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faust, Miriam; Barak, Ofra; Chiarello, Christine

    2006-01-01

    The present study examined left (LH) and right (RH) hemisphere involvement in discourse processing by testing the ability of each hemisphere to use world knowledge in the form of script contexts for word recognition. Participants made lexical decisions to laterally presented target words preceded by centrally presented script primes (four…

  11. The Effects of Multiple Script Priming on Word Recognition by the Two Cerebral Hemispheres: Implications for Discourse Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faust, Miriam; Barak, Ofra; Chiarello, Christine

    2006-01-01

    The present study examined left (LH) and right (RH) hemisphere involvement in discourse processing by testing the ability of each hemisphere to use world knowledge in the form of script contexts for word recognition. Participants made lexical decisions to laterally presented target words preceded by centrally presented script primes (four…

  12. Hemispheric energy balance from an ocean perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakuba, M. Z.; Stephens, G. L.

    2016-12-01

    Although the Earth's energy balance has been studied for many decades, a number of challenges still remain in quantifying it globally and in understanding its behavior regionally. The recent advances in satellite-based radiation products allow to estimate the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) energy budget with unprecedented accuracy. In contrast, no equivalent data record exists for the energy balance at the surface with associated uncertainties being much larger than the small imbalance of 0.6 Wm-2 inferred from changes in ocean heat content. Recent studies combine the total and atmospheric heat budgets derived from satellite-based TOA irradiances and atmospheric reanalysis to infer the hemispheric surface heat budget as their residual. Here, we propose an approach that takes the perspective of the ocean, deriving the multi-annual surface net heat flux as the residual of the hemispheric ocean heat storage (OHS) and cross-equatorial ocean heat transport (OHT). The latter is taken from ocean model solutions (i.e. ECCOv4), while the OHS is derived from in-situ temperature profiles covering the ARGO period 2005-2015. Notable features of the hemispheric energy balance portrayed here are the dominance of the Southern hemispheric oceans in taking up heat (0.9 Wm-2) and the slight inter-hemispheric energy imbalance that leads to a net cross-equatorial heat transport from the Southern to the Northern hemisphere. This is achieved by the oceans transporting about 0.45 PW northward across the equator, accompanied by a southward transport of heat by the atmosphere (0.2-0.3 PW). The hemispheric turbulent heat fluxes, calculated as the residual of the net balance at the surface and satellite-derived surface radiative flux (CERES EBAF), differ by about 3 Wm-2, which is largely in line with the hemispheric contrast in precipitation according to GPCP data.

  13. Hemispheric differences in solar wind - magnetosphere interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reistad, J. P.; Ostgaard, N.; Laundal, K.; Snekvik, K.; Tenfjord, P.; Oksavik, K.

    2014-12-01

    Although the aurora to a large degree behave similar in the two hemispheres, recent simultaneous observations of the global aurora from space have revealed that sometimes rather large intensity and location asymmetries are present in the global aurora. From event studies using e.g. conjugate imaging, multiple mechanisms have been proposed to be responsible for the asymmetric aurora. However, we know very little about their general importance. We have investigated the general importance of an asymmetric solar wind dynamo. It has been suggested that the radial component of the IMF can modify the energy conversion between the solar wind and magnetosphere differently in the two hemispheres in a general sense. By looking at the global aurora using IMAGE WIC during carefully selected events minimally contaminated by other mechanisms affecting the two hemispheres differently, we find that the dusk side aurora depend oppositely on the radial IMF direction in the two hemispheres. These results are consistent with an asymmetric solar wind dynamo where the hemispheric preference is controlled by the radial IMF. This is the first study indicating the importance of the asymmetric solar wind dynamo in a general sense. A different mechanism, the asymmetric loading of magnetic flux during IMF By conditions is also expected to account for North-South asymmetries in the nightside global aurora. This will be investigated using a similar approach to establish the general importance of of this IMF By mechanism on the global aurora in the two hemispheres.

  14. Differential hemispheric modulation of preparatory attention.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Laura Gabriela; Siéroff, Eric

    2014-06-01

    Preparatory attention (PA) is the ability to allocate attention to a stimulus prior to its occurrence and is a crucial component of attentional control. We investigated the role of brain hemispheres in PA using an experimental test in which normal participants responded to a target that could appear in the right or the left visual fields, thus projecting to the left or the right hemispheres, while ignoring a central distractor that could appear in the preparatory phase preceding the target. This experimental test measures the ability of participants to modulate PA directed to a target location when the probability of a distractor occurrence varies across three blocks of trials (0%, 33%, 67%). The competition between distractors and target for PA should produce slower response times when the probability of distractors is high. Three experiments were conducted varying the temporal predictability of the target occurrence within a trial (high predictability in Experiments 1 and 3, and low predictability in Experiment 2), and the task used (location in Experiments 1 and 2, and detection in Experiment 3). We found that the modulation of PA by the expected probability of events was different in each visual field/hemisphere. Whereas the left hemisphere PA was influenced by the mere probability of events in each block of trials, the right hemisphere PA was mainly influenced by events with high temporal predictability. These results suggest that each hemisphere uses a different strategy to modulate PA when directed to a target location at the perceptual level of visual processing.

  15. Hemispherical map for the human brain cortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tosun, Duygu; Prince, Jerry L.

    2001-07-01

    Understanding the function of the human brain cortex is a primary goal in human brain mapping. Methods to unfold and flatten the cortical surface for visualization and measurement have been described in previous literature; but comparison across multiple subjects is still difficult because of the lack of a standard mapping technique. We describe a new approach that maps each hemisphere of the cortex to a portion of a sphere in a standard way, making comparison of anatomy and function across different subjects possible. Starting with a three-dimensional magnetic resonance image of the brain, the cortex is segmented and represented as a triangle mesh. Defining a cut around the corpus collosum identifies the left and right hemispheres. Together, the two hemispheres are mapped to the complex plane using a conformal mapping technique. A Mobius transformation, which is conformal, is used to transform the points on the complex plane so that a projective transformation maps each brain hemisphere onto a spherical segment comprising a sphere with a cap removed. We determined the best size of the spherical cap by minimizing the relative area distortion between hemispherical maps and original cortical surfaces. The relative area distortion between the hemispherical maps and the original cortical surfaces for fifteen human brains is analyzed.

  16. Tympanic Membrane Temperature and Hemispheric Cognitive Style.

    PubMed

    Genovese, Jeremy E C; Sparks, Kenneth E; Little, Kathleen D

    2017-01-01

    The authors tested the hypothesis that there is a correlation between hemispheric cognitive style and ear temperature. A sample of 100 participants completed a measure of hemispheric cognitive style, the Hemispheric Consensus Prediction Profile. Ear temperatures were taken in 2 sessions, 2 times for each ear at each session. Average left ear temperature was subtracted from average right ear temperature as an index of dominant temperature. Only 56 of the participants showed a stable dominant ear temperature. For these 56 participants, there was a statistically significant positive correlation between scores on the Hemispheric Consensus Prediction Profile and tympanic member temperature (Spearman's  ρ =.29, 95% CI [.04,.51]). Individuals with a left hemispheric cognitive style tended to have a warmer left tympanic membrane temperature while those with a right hemispheric cognitive style tended to have a warmer right tympanic membrane temperature. Tympanic membrane temperatures are easily obtained using inexpensive and noninvasive technology. The relationship suggested by these findings may open new opportunities for the study of cerebral asymmetry.

  17. Northern Hemisphere forcing of Southern Hemisphere climate during the last deglaciation.

    PubMed

    He, Feng; Shakun, Jeremy D; Clark, Peter U; Carlson, Anders E; Liu, Zhengyu; Otto-Bliesner, Bette L; Kutzbach, John E

    2013-02-07

    According to the Milankovitch theory, changes in summer insolation in the high-latitude Northern Hemisphere caused glacial cycles through their impact on ice-sheet mass balance. Statistical analyses of long climate records supported this theory, but they also posed a substantial challenge by showing that changes in Southern Hemisphere climate were in phase with or led those in the north. Although an orbitally forced Northern Hemisphere signal may have been transmitted to the Southern Hemisphere, insolation forcing can also directly influence local Southern Hemisphere climate, potentially intensified by sea-ice feedback, suggesting that the hemispheres may have responded independently to different aspects of orbital forcing. Signal processing of climate records cannot distinguish between these conditions, however, because the proposed insolation forcings share essentially identical variability. Here we use transient simulations with a coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model to identify the impacts of forcing from changes in orbits, atmospheric CO(2) concentration, ice sheets and the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) on hemispheric temperatures during the first half of the last deglaciation (22-14.3 kyr BP). Although based on a single model, our transient simulation with only orbital changes supports the Milankovitch theory in showing that the last deglaciation was initiated by rising insolation during spring and summer in the mid-latitude to high-latitude Northern Hemisphere and by terrestrial snow-albedo feedback. The simulation with all forcings best reproduces the timing and magnitude of surface temperature evolution in the Southern Hemisphere in deglacial proxy records. AMOC changes associated with an orbitally induced retreat of Northern Hemisphere ice sheets is the most plausible explanation for the early Southern Hemisphere deglacial warming and its lead over Northern Hemisphere temperature; the ensuing rise in atmospheric CO(2

  18. Buried mass anomalies along the hemispheric dichotomy in eastern Mars: Implications for the origin and evolution of the dichotomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiefer, Walter S.

    2005-11-01

    Gravity observations indicate the presence of buried, high-density material along the hemispheric dichotomy in eastern Mars. This material is unrelated to present-day topography and is probably the result of localized thinning of the crust. This thinning may be the result of an epoch of edge-driven convection that occurred shortly after the dichotomy formed. Initiation of edge-driven convection requires that lateral variations in lithospheric structure be created on a timescale that is shorter than the conductive cooling time for the lithosphere, a few tens of million years at most. This timescale cannot be achieved if the dichotomy boundary is created solely by large-scale convective flow. Formation or modification of the boundary by large impact basins such as Utopia can create the required lithospheric structure in a geologic instant. This suggests that large impacts were important in shaping the dichotomy, at least on a regional scale.

  19. Spin-forming Project Report

    SciTech Connect

    Switzner, Nathan; Henry, Dick

    2009-03-20

    In a second development order, spin-forming equipment was again evaluated using the test shape, a hemispherical shell. In this second development order, pure vanadium and alloy titanium (Ti-6Al-4V) were spin-formed, as well as additional copper and 21-6-9 stainless. In the first development order the following materials had been spin-formed: copper (alloy C11000 ETP), 6061 aluminum, 304L stainless steel, 21-6-9 stainless steel, and tantalum-2.5% tungsten. Significant challenges included properly adjusting the rotations-per-minute (RPM), cracking at un-beveled edges and laser marks, redressing of notches, surface cracking, non-uniform temperature evolution in the titanium, and cracking of the tailstock. Lessons learned were that 300 RPM worked better than 600 RPM for most materials (at the feed rate of 800 mm/min); beveling the edges to lower the stress reduces edge cracking; notches, laser marks, or edge defects in the preform doom the process to cracking and failure; coolant is required for vanadium spin-forming; increasing the number of passes to nine or more eliminates surface cracking for vanadium; titanium develops a hot zone in front of the rollers; and the tailstock should be redesigned to eliminate the cylindrical stress concentrator in the center.

  20. A comparison between semi-spheroid- and dome-shaped quantum dots coupled to wetting layer

    SciTech Connect

    Shahzadeh, Mohammadreza; Sabaeian, Mohammad

    2014-06-15

    During the epitaxial growth method, self-assembled semi-spheroid-shaped quantum dots (QDs) are formed on the wetting layer (WL). However for sake of simplicity, researchers sometimes assume semi-spheroid-shaped QDs to be dome-shaped (hemisphere). In this work, a detailed and comprehensive study on the difference between electronic and transition properties of dome- and semi-spheroid-shaped quantum dots is presented. We will explain why the P-to-S intersubband transition behaves the way it does. The calculated results for intersubband P-to-S transition properties of quantum dots show two different trends for dome-shaped and semi-spheroid-shaped quantum dots. The results are interpreted using the probability of finding electron inside the dome/spheroid region, with emphasis on the effects of wetting layer. It is shown that dome-shaped and semi-spheroid-shaped quantum dots feature different electronic and transition properties, arising from the difference in lateral dimensions between dome- and semi-spheroid-shaped QDs. Moreover, an analogy is presented between the bound S-states in the quantum dots and a simple 3D quantum mechanical particle in a box, and effective sizes are calculated. The results of this work will benefit researchers to present more realistic models of coupled QD/WL systems and explain their properties more precisely.

  1. Equilibrium Shaping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izzo, Dario; Petazzi, Lorenzo

    2006-08-01

    We present a satellite path planning technique able to make identical spacecraft aquire a given configuration. The technique exploits a behaviour-based approach to achieve an autonomous and distributed control over the relative geometry making use of limited sensorial information. A desired velocity is defined for each satellite as a sum of different contributions coming from generic high level behaviours: forcing the final desired configuration the behaviours are further defined by an inverse dynamic calculation dubbed Equilibrium Shaping. We show how considering only three different kind of behaviours it is possible to acquire a number of interesting formations and we set down the theoretical framework to find the entire set. We find that allowing a limited amount of communication the technique may be used also to form complex lattice structures. Several control feedbacks able to track the desired velocities are introduced and discussed. Our results suggest that sliding mode control is particularly appropriate in connection with the developed technique.

  2. A hemispherical electronic eye camera based on compressible silicon optoelectronics.

    PubMed

    Ko, Heung Cho; Stoykovich, Mark P; Song, Jizhou; Malyarchuk, Viktor; Choi, Won Mook; Yu, Chang-Jae; Geddes, Joseph B; Xiao, Jianliang; Wang, Shuodao; Huang, Yonggang; Rogers, John A

    2008-08-07

    The human eye is a remarkable imaging device, with many attractive design features. Prominent among these is a hemispherical detector geometry, similar to that found in many other biological systems, that enables a wide field of view and low aberrations with simple, few-component imaging optics. This type of configuration is extremely difficult to achieve using established optoelectronics technologies, owing to the intrinsically planar nature of the patterning, deposition, etching, materials growth and doping methods that exist for fabricating such systems. Here we report strategies that avoid these limitations, and implement them to yield high-performance, hemispherical electronic eye cameras based on single-crystalline silicon. The approach uses wafer-scale optoelectronics formed in unusual, two-dimensionally compressible configurations and elastomeric transfer elements capable of transforming the planar layouts in which the systems are initially fabricated into hemispherical geometries for their final implementation. In a general sense, these methods, taken together with our theoretical analyses of their associated mechanics, provide practical routes for integrating well-developed planar device technologies onto the surfaces of complex curvilinear objects, suitable for diverse applications that cannot be addressed by conventional means.

  3. Optimized design of a nanostructured SPCE-based multipurpose biosensing platform formed by ferrocene-tethered electrochemically-deposited cauliflower-shaped gold nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Argoubi, Wicem; Saadaoui, Maroua

    2015-01-01

    Summary The demand for on-site nanodevices is constantly increasing. The technology development for the design of such devices is highly regarded. In this work, we report the design of a disposable platform that is structured with cauliflower-shaped gold nanoparticles (cfAuNPs) and we show its applications in immunosensing and enzyme-based detection. The electrochemical reduction of Au(III) allows for the electrodeposition of highly dispersed cauliflower-shaped gold nanoparticles on the surface of screen-printed carbon electrodes (SPCEs). The nanostructures were functionalized using ferrocenylmethyl lipoic acid ester which allowed for the tethering of the ferrocene group to gold, which serves as an electrochemical transducer/mediator. The bioconjugation of the surface with anti-human IgG antibody (α-hIgG) or horseradish peroxidase (HRP) enzyme yields biosensors, which have been applied for the selective electrochemical detection of human IgG (hIgG) or H2O2 as model analytes, respectively. Parameters such as the number of sweeps, amount of charge generated from the oxidation of the electrodeposited gold, time of incubation and concentration of the ferrocene derivatives have been studied using cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Selectivity and specificity tests have been also performed in the presence of potentially interfering substances to either hIgG or H2O2. Results showed that the devised immunosensor is endowed with good selectivity and specificity in the presence of several folds of competitive analytes. The enzyme-based platform showed a good catalytic activity towards H2O2 oxidation which predestined it to potential applications pertaining to enzymatic kinetics studies. The levels of hIgG in human serum and H2O2 in honey were successfully determined and served as assessment tools of the applicability of the platforms for real samples analysis. PMID:26425435

  4. Music Appreciation and Hemisphere Orientation: Visual versus Verbal Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zalanowski, Annette H.

    1990-01-01

    Analyzes effect of brain hemisphere orientation on music appreciation. Reports results from 36 left-hemisphere and 36 right-hemisphere undergraduates who responded to a musical selection verbally or visually. Finds right-hemisphere students show greater appreciation, measured by attention, understanding, and enjoyment scores. Discusses…

  5. Music Appreciation and Hemisphere Orientation: Visual versus Verbal Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zalanowski, Annette H.

    1990-01-01

    Analyzes effect of brain hemisphere orientation on music appreciation. Reports results from 36 left-hemisphere and 36 right-hemisphere undergraduates who responded to a musical selection verbally or visually. Finds right-hemisphere students show greater appreciation, measured by attention, understanding, and enjoyment scores. Discusses…

  6. Hemispheric Specialization and Cognitive Development: Implications for Mathematics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheatley, Grayson, H.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Evidence is presented for the theory that the two brain hemispheres process stimuli differently: the left hemisphere is specialized for logico-analytic tasks and the right hemisphere for visuo-spatial tasks. They contend that cognitive ability is related to the development of hemispheric asymmetry and present implications for mathematics education…

  7. Possible link of the V-shaped phase diagram to the glass-forming ability and fragility in a water-salt mixture.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Mika; Tanaka, Hajime

    2011-03-25

    Water is a very poor glass former, but its link to the thermodynamic and kinetic anomalies remains elusive. We experimentally reveal that the glass-forming ability and fragility of a water-salt mixture are closely related to its equilibrium phase diagram. We propose that frustration between local and global orderings controls both the glass-forming ability and the fragility. Relying on the same role of salt and pressure, which commonly break tetrahedral order, we apply this idea to pure water under pressure. This scenario not only explains unusual behavior of water-type liquids such as water, Si, and Ge but also provides a mechanism for a link between the equilibrium phase diagram, glass-forming ability, and fragility for various materials including oxides, chalcogenides, and metallic glasses.

  8. Motivation and attention following hemispheric stroke.

    PubMed

    Olgiati, E; Russell, C; Soto, D; Malhotra, P

    2016-01-01

    Spatial neglect (SN) is an extremely common disorder of attention; it is most frequently a consequence of stroke, especially to the right cerebral hemisphere. The current view of SN is that it is not a unitary deficit but a multicomponent syndrome. Crucially, it has been repeatedly shown that it has a considerable negative impact on rehabilitation outcome. Although a number of behavioral and pharmacological therapies have been developed, none of these appears to be applicable to all patients with SN or has proved unequivocally successful in clinical trials. One potential avenue for therapeutic intervention in neglect relates to the interaction between motivation and attention. A number of investigators, including ourselves, have observed a possible motivational component to the syndrome and showed that motivational stimulation can temporarily improve attention in patients with SN. In this chapter we review previous work looking at how motivation can modulate attention in healthy individuals and how it may be affected by neurological disease before discussing how motivational impairments may contribute to neglect, and how motivation has been used to modulate neglect. In the final section, we present recent experimental work examining how reward interacts with attentional biases in patients with SN. In this study, we adapted the classic Landmark task to explore the mechanisms behind the effect of reward in SN, and found that centrally located stimuli that were explicitly associated with reward appeared to improve neglect and reduce rightward bias. Our results suggest that positive motivation, in the form of anticipated monetary reward, may influence attentional bias via more general mechanisms, such as alerting and task engagement, rather than directly increasing salience of items in contralesional space. We conclude by discussing how motivation might be practically integrated into the rehabilitation of patients with this debilitating disorder. © 2016 Elsevier B

  9. Competition for Left Hemisphere Resources: Right Hemisphere Superiority at Abstract Verbal Information Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polson, Martha C.; And Others

    A study tested a multiple-resources model of human information processing wherein the two cerebral hemispheres are assumed to have separate, limited-capacity pools of undifferentiated resources. The subjects were five right-handed males who had demonstrated right visual field-left hemisphere (RVF-LH) superiority for processing a centrally…

  10. Hemispheric asymmetries in cortical and subcortical anatomy.

    PubMed

    Kang, Xiaojian; Herron, Timothy J; Ettlinger, Marc; Woods, David L

    2015-01-01

    Previous research studies have reported many hemispherical asymmetries in cortical and subcortical anatomy, but only a subset of findings is consistent across studies. Here, we used improved Freesurfer-based automated methods to analyse the properties of the cortex and seven subcortical structures in 138 young adult subjects. Male and female subjects showed similar hemispheric asymmetries in gyral and sulcal structures, with many areas associated with language processing enlarged in the left hemisphere (LH) and a number of areas associated with visuospatial processing enlarged in the right hemisphere (RH). In addition, we found greater (non-directional) cortical asymmetries in subjects with larger brains. Asymmetries in subcortical structures included larger LH volumes of thalamus, putamen and globus pallidus and larger RH volumes of the cerebellum and the amygdala. We also found significant correlations between the subcortical structural volumes, particularly of the thalamus and cerebellum, with cortical area. These results help to resolve some of the inconsistencies in previous studies of hemispheric asymmetries in brain anatomy.

  11. Hemispheric lateralization of semantic feature distinctiveness

    PubMed Central

    Reilly, M.; Machado, N.; Blumstein, S. E.

    2015-01-01

    Recent models of semantic memory propose that the semantic representation of concepts is based, in part, on a network of features. In this view, a feature that is distinctive for an object (a zebra has stripes) is processed differently from a feature that is shared across many objects (a zebra has four legs). The goal of this paper is to determine whether there are hemispheric differences in such processing. In a feature verification task, participants responded ‘yes’ or ‘no’ following concepts which were presented to a single visual field (left or right) paired with a shared or distinctive feature. Both hemispheres showed faster reaction times to shared features than to distinctive features, although right hemisphere responses were significantly slower overall and particularly in the processing of distinctive features. These findings support models of semantic processing in which the dominant left hemisphere more efficiently performs highly discriminating ‘fine’ encoding, in contrast to the right hemisphere which performs less discriminating ‘coarse’ encoding. PMID:26022059

  12. Hemispheric dysplasia and hemimegalencephaly: imaging definitions.

    PubMed

    Santos, Antonio Carlos; Escorsi-Rosset, Sara; Simao, Gustavo N; Terra, Vera C; Velasco, Tonicarlo; Neder, Luciano; Sakamoto, Americo C; Machado, Helio R

    2014-11-01

    Hemispheric dysplasia (HD) and hemimegalencephaly (HME) are both brain malformations with early clinical manifestation including developmental delay and intractable epilepsy. Sometimes the differentiation of these conditions is not simple. HME is an anomaly of cortical development caused by a combination of neural proliferation and cell migration dysfunction, showing lobar or hemispheric enlargement. On the other hand, HD shows no brain hypertrophy, and even brain atrophy, eventually. To compare both conditions, we reviewed clinical, MRI, and histopathology of 23 patients with developmental delay and refractory epilepsy treated with hemispheric surgery. Histologically, both groups presented polymicrogyria, focal cortical dysplasia, gray matter (GM) heterotopia, pachygyria, and agyria. The white matter (WM) showed different degrees of gliosis and myelin impairment. Even though with no specificity in histopathology, the degree of lesion was more impressive on HME. The combination of WM dysmyelination and hypertrophy leads to the so called hamartomatous appearing. Although not all HME showed brain enlargement and some HD might show no size changes or atrophy, the size of affected hemisphere and the hamartomatous appearance of the WM were the more relevant signs to differentiate both conditions. Brain MRI was the best diagnostic tolls because it allowed together high contrast resolution, whole brain coverage and spatial distribution analysis. HD and HMD showed brain asymmetry tendency, but in opposite directions. The size of affected hemisphere and the hamartomatous appearance of the WM were the more relevant signs to differentiate both conditions.

  13. Tuber-specific silencing of asparagine synthetase-1 reduces the acrylamide-forming potential of potatoes grown in the field without affecting tuber shape and yield.

    PubMed

    Chawla, Rekha; Shakya, Roshani; Rommens, Caius M

    2012-10-01

    Simultaneous silencing of asparagine synthetase (Ast)-1 and -2 limits asparagine (ASN) formation and, consequently, reduces the acrylamide-forming potential of tubers. The phenotype of silenced lines appears normal in the greenhouse, but field-grown tubers are small and cracked. Assessing the effects of silencing StAst1 and StAst2 individually, we found that yield drag was mainly linked to down-regulation of StAst2. Interestingly, tubers from untransformed scions grafted onto intragenic StAst1/2-silenced rootstock contained almost the same low ASN levels as those in the original silenced lines, indicating that ASN is mainly formed in tubers rather than being transported from leaves. This conclusion was further supported by the finding that overexpression of StAst2 caused ASN to accumulate in leaves but not tubers. Thus, ASN does not appear to be the main form of organic nitrogen transported from leaves to tubers. Because reduced ASN levels coincided with increased levels of glutamine, it appears likely that this alternative amide amino acid is mobilized to tubers, where it is converted into ASN by StAst1. Indeed, tuber-specific silencing of StAst1, but not of StAst2, was sufficient to substantially lower ASN formation in tubers. Extensive field studies demonstrated that the reduced acrylamide-forming potential achieved by tuber-specific StAst1 silencing did not affect the yield or quality of field-harvested tubers.

  14. Shape, shell, and vacuole formation during the drying of a single concentrated whey protein droplet.

    PubMed

    Sadek, Céline; Tabuteau, Hervé; Schuck, Pierre; Fallourd, Yannick; Pradeau, Nicolas; Le Floch-Fouéré, Cécile; Jeantet, Romain

    2013-12-17

    The drying of milk concentrate droplets usually leads to specific particle morphology influencing their properties and their functionality. Understanding how the final shape of the particle is formed therefore represents a key issue for industrial applications. In this study, a new approach to the investigation of droplet-particle conversion is proposed. A single droplet of concentrated globular proteins extracted from milk was deposited onto a hydrophobic substrate and placed in a dry environment. Complementary methods (high-speed camera, confocal microscopy, and microbalance) were used to record the drying behavior of the concentrated protein droplets. Our results showed that whatever the initial concentration, particle formation included three dynamic stages clearly defined by the loss of mass and the evolution of the internal and external shapes of the droplet. A new and reproducible particle shape was related in this study. It was observed after drying a smooth, hemispherical cap-shaped particle, including a uniform protein shell and the nucleation of an internal vacuole. The particle morphology was strongly influenced by the drying environment, the contact angle, and the initial protein concentration, all of which governed the duration of the droplet shrinkage, the degree of buckling, and the shell thickness. These results are discussed in terms of specific protein behaviors in forming a predictable and a characteristic particle shape. The way the shell is formed may be the starting point in shaping particle distortion and thus represents a potential means of tuning the particle morphology.

  15. Single Mode Lasing from Hybrid Hemispherical Microresonators

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Rui; Van Duong Ta; Sun, Han Dong

    2012-01-01

    Enormous attention has been paid to optical microresonators which hold a great promise for microlasers as well as fundamental studies in cavity quantum electrodynamics. Here we demonstrate a three-dimensional (3D) hybrid microresonator combining self-assembled hemispherical structure with a planar reflector. By incorporating dye molecules into the hemisphere, optically pumped lasing phenomenon is observed at room temperature. We have studied the lasing behaviors with different cavity sizes, and particularly single longitudinal mode lasing from hemispheres with diameter ∼15 μm is achieved. Detailed characterizations indicate that the lasing modes shift under varying pump densities, which can be well-explained by frequency shift and mode hopping. This work provides a versatile approach for 3D confined microresonators and opens an opportunity to realize tunable single mode microlasers. PMID:22540027

  16. Speech disorders in right-hemisphere stroke.

    PubMed

    Dyukova, G M; Glozman, Z M; Titova, E Y; Kriushev, E S; Gamaleya, A A

    2010-07-01

    Clinical practice shows that right-hemisphere cerebral strokes are often accompanied by one speech disorder or another. The aim of the present work was to analyze published data addressing speech disorders in right-sided strokes. Questions of the lateralization of speech functions are discussed, with particular reference to the role of the right hemisphere in speech activity and the structure of speech pathology in right-hemisphere foci. Clinical variants of speech disorders, such as aphasia, dysprosody, dysarthria, mutism, and stutter are discussed in detail. Types of speech disorders are also discussed, along with the possible mechanisms of their formation depending on the locations of lesions in the axis of the brain (cortex, subcortical structures, stem, cerebellum) and focus size.

  17. Dynamic contribution to hemispheric mean temperature trends

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, J.M.; Zhang, Y.; Renwick, J.A.

    1995-11-03

    On the basis of land station data from the Northern Hemisphere, it was determined that roughly half of the temporal variance of monthly mean hemispheric mean anomalies in surface air temperature during the period from 1900 through 1990 were linearly related to the amplitude of a distinctive spatial pattern in which the oceans are anomalously cold and the continents are anomalously warm poleward of 40 degrees north when the hemisphere is warm. Apart from an upward trend since 1975, to which El Nino has contributed, the amplitude time series associated with this pattern resembles seasonally dependent white noise. it is argued that the variability associated with this pattern is dynamically induced and is not necessarily an integral part of the fingerprint of global warming. 12 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  18. The prenatal origin of hemispheric asymmetry: an in utero neuroimaging study.

    PubMed

    Kasprian, Gregor; Langs, Georg; Brugger, Peter C; Bittner, Mario; Weber, Michael; Arantes, Mavilde; Prayer, Daniela

    2011-05-01

    Anatomical and functional hemispheric lateralization originates from differential gene expression and leads to asymmetric structural brain development, which initially appears in the perisylvian regions by 26 gestational weeks (GWs). In this in vivo neuroimaging study, we demonstrated a predominant pattern of temporal lobe (TL) asymmetry in a large cohort of human fetuses between 18 and 37 GWs. Over two-thirds of fetuses showed a larger, left-sided TL, combined with the earlier appearance of the right superior temporal sulcus by 23 GWs (vs. 25 GWs on the left side), which was also deeper than its left counterpart in the majority of cases (94.2%). Shape analysis detected highly significant differences in the contour of the right and left TLs by 20 GWs. Thus, fetal hemispheric asymmetry can be detected in utero, opening new diagnostic possibilities for the assessment of diseases that are believed to be linked to atypical hemispheric lateralization.

  19. Hemispheric Observations of Ionospheric Processes in the Polar Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, J. B. H.; Ruohoniemi, J. M.; Maimaiti, M.; Thomas, E. G.

    2016-12-01

    Capabilities to monitor ionospheric processes in the polar regions have been significantly improved in recent years by expansion of ground-based instrument networks distributed over hemispheric spatial scales. For example, construction of several new radars at high latitudes (e.g. PolarDARN and RISR) are providing exciting new opportunities to monitor dayside magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling processes poleward of the cusp, particularly during extreme northward IMF conditions. Together with the increasingly dense coverage of GNSS receivers these new radars are also providing valuable new insights about the role of the convection electric field in shaping high latitude ionospheric density features such as polar cap patches and the Tongue of Ionization (TOI). In addition, AMPERE measurements of region-1 and region-2 field-aligned currents can be used to monitor coupled magnetosphere-ionosphere dynamics during storms and substorms, uninterrupted, and in both hemispheres simultaneously. In this presentation, we discuss several case study examples which illustrate how spatially distributed datasets are fundamentally changing our understanding of magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling processes in the polar regions.

  20. Right hemisphere grey matter structure and language outcomes in chronic left hemisphere stroke.

    PubMed

    Xing, Shihui; Lacey, Elizabeth H; Skipper-Kallal, Laura M; Jiang, Xiong; Harris-Love, Michelle L; Zeng, Jinsheng; Turkeltaub, Peter E

    2016-01-01

    The neural mechanisms underlying recovery of language after left hemisphere stroke remain elusive. Although older evidence suggested that right hemisphere language homologues compensate for damage in left hemisphere language areas, the current prevailing theory suggests that right hemisphere engagement is ineffective or even maladaptive. Using a novel combination of support vector regression-based lesion-symptom mapping and voxel-based morphometry, we aimed to determine whether local grey matter volume in the right hemisphere independently contributes to aphasia outcomes after chronic left hemisphere stroke. Thirty-two left hemisphere stroke survivors with aphasia underwent language assessment with the Western Aphasia Battery-Revised and tests of other cognitive domains. High-resolution T1-weighted images were obtained in aphasia patients and 30 demographically matched healthy controls. Support vector regression-based multivariate lesion-symptom mapping was used to identify critical language areas in the left hemisphere and then to quantify each stroke survivor's lesion burden in these areas. After controlling for these direct effects of the stroke on language, voxel-based morphometry was then used to determine whether local grey matter volumes in the right hemisphere explained additional variance in language outcomes. In brain areas in which grey matter volumes related to language outcomes, we then compared grey matter volumes in patients and healthy controls to assess post-stroke plasticity. Lesion-symptom mapping showed that specific left hemisphere regions related to different language abilities. After controlling for lesion burden in these areas, lesion size, and demographic factors, grey matter volumes in parts of the right temporoparietal cortex positively related to spontaneous speech, naming, and repetition scores. Examining whether domain general cognitive functions might explain these relationships, partial correlations demonstrated that grey matter

  1. Right hemisphere grey matter structure and language outcomes in chronic left hemisphere stroke.

    PubMed

    Xing, Shihui; Lacey, Elizabeth H; Skipper-Kallal, Laura M; Jiang, Xiong; Harris-Love, Michelle L; Zeng, Jinsheng; Turkeltaub, Peter E

    2015-10-31

    The neural mechanisms underlying recovery of language after left hemisphere stroke remain elusive. Although older evidence suggested that right hemisphere language homologues compensate for damage in left hemisphere language areas, the current prevailing theory suggests that right hemisphere engagement is ineffective or even maladaptive. Using a novel combination of support vector regression-based lesion-symptom mapping and voxel-based morphometry, we aimed to determine whether local grey matter volume in the right hemisphere independently contributes to aphasia outcomes after chronic left hemisphere stroke. Thirty-two left hemisphere stroke survivors with aphasia underwent language assessment with the Western Aphasia Battery-Revised and tests of other cognitive domains. High-resolution T1-weighted images were obtained in aphasia patients and 30 demographically matched healthy controls. Support vector regression-based multivariate lesion-symptom mapping was used to identify critical language areas in the left hemisphere and then to quantify each stroke survivor's lesion burden in these areas. After controlling for these direct effects of the stroke on language, voxel-based morphometry was then used to determine whether local grey matter volumes in the right hemisphere explained additional variance in language outcomes. In brain areas in which grey matter volumes related to language outcomes, we then compared grey matter volumes in patients and healthy controls to assess post-stroke plasticity. Lesion-symptom mapping showed that specific left hemisphere regions related to different language abilities. After controlling for lesion burden in these areas, lesion size, and demographic factors, grey matter volumes in parts of the right temporoparietal cortex positively related to spontaneous speech, naming, and repetition scores. Examining whether domain general cognitive functions might explain these relationships, partial correlations demonstrated that grey matter

  2. Right hemisphere grey matter structure and language outcomes in chronic left hemisphere stroke

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Shihui; Lacey, Elizabeth H.; Skipper-Kallal, Laura M.; Jiang, Xiong; Harris-Love, Michelle L.; Zeng, Jinsheng

    2016-01-01

    The neural mechanisms underlying recovery of language after left hemisphere stroke remain elusive. Although older evidence suggested that right hemisphere language homologues compensate for damage in left hemisphere language areas, the current prevailing theory suggests that right hemisphere engagement is ineffective or even maladaptive. Using a novel combination of support vector regression-based lesion-symptom mapping and voxel-based morphometry, we aimed to determine whether local grey matter volume in the right hemisphere independently contributes to aphasia outcomes after chronic left hemisphere stroke. Thirty-two left hemisphere stroke survivors with aphasia underwent language assessment with the Western Aphasia Battery-Revised and tests of other cognitive domains. High-resolution T1-weighted images were obtained in aphasia patients and 30 demographically matched healthy controls. Support vector regression-based multivariate lesion-symptom mapping was used to identify critical language areas in the left hemisphere and then to quantify each stroke survivor’s lesion burden in these areas. After controlling for these direct effects of the stroke on language, voxel-based morphometry was then used to determine whether local grey matter volumes in the right hemisphere explained additional variance in language outcomes. In brain areas in which grey matter volumes related to language outcomes, we then compared grey matter volumes in patients and healthy controls to assess post-stroke plasticity. Lesion–symptom mapping showed that specific left hemisphere regions related to different language abilities. After controlling for lesion burden in these areas, lesion size, and demographic factors, grey matter volumes in parts of the right temporoparietal cortex positively related to spontaneous speech, naming, and repetition scores. Examining whether domain general cognitive functions might explain these relationships, partial correlations demonstrated that grey matter

  3. Shaping a high-mass star-forming cluster through stellar feedback. The case of the NGC 7538 IRS 1-3 complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frau, P.; Girart, J. M.; Zhang, Q.; Rao, R.

    2014-07-01

    Context. NGC 7538 IRS 1-3 is a high-mass star-forming cluster with several detected dust cores, infrared sources, (ultra)compact H II regions, molecular outflows, and masers. In such a complex environment, interactions and feedback among the embedded objects are expected to play a major role in the evolution of the region. Aims: We study the dust, kinematic, and polarimetric properties of the NGC 7538 IRS 1-3 region to investigate the role of the different forces in the formation and evolution of high-mass star-forming clusters. Methods: We performed SMA high angular resolution observations at 880 μm with the compact configuration. We developed the RATPACKS code to generate synthetic velocity cubes from models of choice to be compared to the observational data. To quantify the stability against gravitational collapse we developed the "mass balance" analysis that accounts for all the energetics on core scales. Results: We detect 14 dust cores from 3.5 M⊙ to 37 M⊙ arranged in two larger scale structures: a central bar and a filamentary spiral arm. The spiral arm presents large-scale velocity gradients in H13CO+ 4-3 and C17O 3-2, and magnetic field segments aligned well to the dust main axis. The velocity gradient is reproduced well by a spiral arm expanding at 9 km s-1 with respect to the central core MM1, which is known to power a large precessing outflow. The energy of the outflow is comparable to the spiral-arm kinetic energy, which dominates gravitational and magnetic energies. In addition, the dynamical ages of the outflow and spiral arm are comparable. On core scales, those embedded in the central bar seem to be unstable against gravitational collapse and prone to forming high-mass stars, while those in the spiral arm have lower masses that seem to be supported by non-thermal motions and magnetic fields. Conclusions: The NGC 7538 IRS 1-3 cluster seems to be dominated by protostellar feedback. The dusty spiral arm appears to be formed in a snowplow fashion

  4. Comparing parametric solid modelling/reconfiguration, global shape modelling and free-form deformation for the generation of 3D digital models of femurs from X-ray images.

    PubMed

    Filippi, Stefano; Motyl, Barbara; Bandera, Camillo

    2009-02-01

    At present, computer assisted surgery systems help orthopaedic surgeons both plan and perform surgical procedures. To enable these systems to function, it is crucial to have at one's disposal 3D models of anatomical structures, surgical tools and prostheses (if required). This paper analyses and compares three methods for generating 3D digital models of anatomical structures starting from X-ray images: parametric solid modelling/reconfiguration, global shape modelling and free-form deformation. Seven experiences involving the generation of a femur model were conducted by software developers and different skilled users. These experiences are described in detail and compared at different stages and from different points of view.

  5. Hemispherical and Longitudinal Asymmetries in the Heliospheric Magnetic Field: Flip-flops of a Bashful Ballerina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiltula, T.; Mursula, K.

    2004-12-01

    Several studies during many decennia have studied possible longitudinal and hemispherical asymmetries in various forms of solar activity. E.g., there are well known periods when one of the solar hemispheres has dominated the other in sunspot numbers, flare occurrence or some other form of solar activity. However, the solar asymmetries have not been found to be very conclusive, or to form any clear systematical patterns (e.g., relation to solar cycle). On the contrary, recent studies of similar longitudinal and hemispherical asymmetries in the heliospheric magnetic field have shown a very clear and systematic behaviour. E.g., it was found recently that the dominance of the two HMF sectors experiences an oscillation with a period of about 3.2 years. This new flip-flop periodicity in the heliospheric magnetic field is most likely related to a similar periodicity recently found in sunspots. Also, it has recently been found that the HMF sector coming from the northern solar hemisphere systematically dominates at 1AU during solar minimum times. This leads to a persistent southward shift or coning of the heliospheric current sheet at these times that can be picturesquely described by the concept of a Bashful Ballerina. This result also implies that the Sun has a large-scale quadrupole magnetic moment. Here we review these recent developments concerning the longitudinal and hemispherical asymmetries in the heliospheric magnetic field and study their inter-connection.

  6. Right Hemisphere Specialization for Color Detection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sasaki, Hitoshi; Morimoto, Akiko; Nishio, Akira; Matsuura, Sumie

    2007-01-01

    Three experiments were carried out to investigate hemispheric asymmetry in color processing among normal participants. In Experiment 1, it was shown that the reaction times (RTs) of the dominant and non-dominant hands assessed using a visual target presented at the central visual field, were not significantly different. In Experiment 2, RTs of…

  7. Forest carbon sinks in the Northern Hemisphere

    Treesearch

    Christine L. Goodale; Michael J. Apps; Richard A. Birdsey; Christopher B. Field; Linda S. Heath; Richard A. Houghton; Jennifer C. Jenkins; Gundolf H. Kohlmaier; Werner Kurz; Shirong Liu; Gert-Jan Nabuurs; Sten Nilsson; Anatoly Z. Shvidenko

    2002-01-01

    There is general agreement that terrestrial systems in the Northern Hemisphere provide a significant sink for atmospheric CO2; however, estimates of the magnitude and distribution of this sink vary greatly. National forest inventories provide strong, measurement-based constraints on the magnitude of net forest carbon uptake. We brought together...

  8. Hemispheric Learning and the Hispanic Student.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Contreras, Maximiliano

    People of different cultures differ in the cognitive style they use. Research reports that Mexican American children indicate a preference for field-sensitive cognitive strategies that are spatial-holistic, and middle class children a preference for field-independent strategies that are verbal-analytic. Brain research in hemisphericity appears to…

  9. Hemispheric Learning and the Hispanic Student.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Contreras, Maximiliano

    People of different cultures differ in the cognitive style they use. Research reports that Mexican American children indicate a preference for field-sensitive cognitive strategies that are spatial-holistic, and middle class children a preference for field-independent strategies that are verbal-analytic. Brain research in hemisphericity appears to…

  10. Visual Hemispheric Specialization: A Computational Theory.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-10-31

    language and arithmetic), will in general become stronger in the left hemisphere. This notion is supported by evidence from studies of stroke patients and...instructions) and right-side hemiplegia (making it difficult, or impossible, to use the right hand). In addition, drawing is a problematic dependent

  11. Right-hemisphere specialization for contour grouping.

    PubMed

    Volberg, Gregor

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies often revealed a right-hemisphere specialization for processing the global level of compound visual stimuli. Here we explore whether a similar specialization exists for the detection of intersected contours defined by a chain of local elements. Subjects were presented with arrays of randomly oriented Gabor patches that could contain a global path of collinearly arranged elements in the left or in the right visual hemifield. As expected, the detection accuracy was higher for contours presented to the left visual field/right hemisphere. This difference was absent in two control conditions where the smoothness of the contour was decreased. The results demonstrate that the contour detection, often considered to be driven by lateral coactivation in primary visual cortex, relies on higher-level visual representations that differ between the hemispheres. Furthermore, because contour and non-contour stimuli had the same spatial frequency spectra, the results challenge the view that the right-hemisphere advantage in global processing depends on a specialization for processing low spatial frequencies.

  12. Right Hemisphere Specialization for Color Detection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sasaki, Hitoshi; Morimoto, Akiko; Nishio, Akira; Matsuura, Sumie

    2007-01-01

    Three experiments were carried out to investigate hemispheric asymmetry in color processing among normal participants. In Experiment 1, it was shown that the reaction times (RTs) of the dominant and non-dominant hands assessed using a visual target presented at the central visual field, were not significantly different. In Experiment 2, RTs of…

  13. Meaning Apprehension in the Cerebral Hemispheres

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kandhadai, Padmapriya A.

    2009-01-01

    When we hear a word, it is remarkable how we store, activate and rapidly retrieve a vast amount of relevant information within a few hundred milliseconds. This thesis examines how meaning is processed in parallel--but with critical differences--between the two hemispheres of the brain. Event-related brain potentials (ERP) were used to examine…

  14. Meaning Apprehension in the Cerebral Hemispheres

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kandhadai, Padmapriya A.

    2009-01-01

    When we hear a word, it is remarkable how we store, activate and rapidly retrieve a vast amount of relevant information within a few hundred milliseconds. This thesis examines how meaning is processed in parallel--but with critical differences--between the two hemispheres of the brain. Event-related brain potentials (ERP) were used to examine…

  15. Rethinking a Right Hemisphere Deficit in ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, T. Sigi; Loo, Sandra K.; Zaidel, Eran; Hanada, Grant; Macion, James; Smalley, Susan L.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Early observations from lesion studies suggested right hemisphere (RH) dysfunction in ADHD. However, a strictly right-lateralized deficit has not been well supported. An alternatively view suggests increased R greater than L asymmetry of brain function and abnormal interhemispheric interaction. If true, RH pathology in ADHD should…

  16. Civilisations of the Left Cerebral Hemisphere?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Racle, Gabriel L.

    Research conducted by Tadanobu Tsunoda on auditory and visual sensation, designed to test and understand the functions of the cerebral hemispheres, is discussed. Tsunoda discovered that the Japanese responses to sounds by the left and the right sides of the brain are very different from the responses obtained from people from other countries. His…

  17. Hemispherical asymmetry in cusp precipitation near solstices

    SciTech Connect

    Newell, P.T.; Meng, C.

    1988-04-01

    A statistical comparison of the peak flux in electron and ion polar cusp precipitation in the summer and winter hemispheres as observed by the low-altitude DMSP F7 satellite is performed. Data studied encompass four consecutive solstices from December 1983 to June 1985, comprising 77 days of data with a total of 292 individual cusp passes. On each day, observations were restricted to those few hours UT in which the interhemispherical MLT variation of DMSP F7 was smallest. After the remaining local time effect was averaged out, the summer hemisphere ion (electron) precipitating energy flux was larger, on the average, by 61 +- 11% (51 +- 5%) than that in the winter hemisphere. However, the average particle energy was always lower for both species in the summer hemisphere. These effects generally hold true for northward as well as southward interplanetary magnetic fields (IMF). It is argued that the observed asymmetry is very hard to explain if the most intense part of the cusp lies on closed field lines, but it is shown that the standard open field line model of the cusp virtually requires the observed differences to occur. The present results thus suggest that the most intense portion of the cusp lies on open field lines even for northward IMF. copyright American Geophysical Union 1988

  18. 3-D Image of Vesta Eastern Hemisphere

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-01-23

    This anaglyph shows the topography of Vesta eastern hemisphere; equatorial troughs are visible around asteroid Vesta equator and north of these troughs there are a number of highly degraded, old, large craters. You need 3-D glasses to view this image.

  19. Creative Cognitive Processes and Hemispheric Specialization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poreh, A. M.; Whitman, R. D.

    1991-01-01

    The relationship between creative thought processes and hemispheric asymmetry was examined in 47 right-handed male undergraduates. Four factors were identified, accounting for 75 percent of the total variance: Verbal Divergent Thinking Factor, Nonverbal Divergent Thinking Factor, Convergent Verbal Search Factor, and Cognitive Complexity Factor.…

  20. Rethinking a Right Hemisphere Deficit in ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, T. Sigi; Loo, Sandra K.; Zaidel, Eran; Hanada, Grant; Macion, James; Smalley, Susan L.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Early observations from lesion studies suggested right hemisphere (RH) dysfunction in ADHD. However, a strictly right-lateralized deficit has not been well supported. An alternatively view suggests increased R greater than L asymmetry of brain function and abnormal interhemispheric interaction. If true, RH pathology in ADHD should…

  1. Civilisations of the Left Cerebral Hemisphere?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Racle, Gabriel L.

    Research conducted by Tadanobu Tsunoda on auditory and visual sensation, designed to test and understand the functions of the cerebral hemispheres, is discussed. Tsunoda discovered that the Japanese responses to sounds by the left and the right sides of the brain are very different from the responses obtained from people from other countries. His…

  2. Fabrication of liquid-filled square lens array with hemispherical partition walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koo, Gyohyun; Kim, Junoh; Kim, Cheoljoong; Shin, Dooseub; Lee, Junsik; Won, Yong Hyub

    2016-03-01

    Liquid-filled square lens array has been developed for an alternative to solid lens array because of its advantage in variable focus length. In addition, the square lens array has advantage with high fill factor compared to liquid circular lens array which is another alternative. However, one of the main limitations of conventional square lens array is the distortion. In this paper, distortion-free liquid square lens array is proposed. The partition walls of the proposed square lens array is fabricated into hemispherical shape to reduce the distortion, and then additional vertical walls are set up on the hemispherical structures to unify the height of partition walls and divide chamber sections. UV lithography techniques are used to fabricate this structure, and diffuser which has an angle of 80 degrees is used in the process. Photoresist is exposed to scattered ultraviolet rays which pass through the diffuser, and hemispherical lens-shaped structures of photoresist remains after development process. Supplementary vertical partition walls are obtained by additional photoresist patterning process on the structure. In this structure, the interface between oil and water comes into contact with the surface of the hemispherical walls, and the refractive index of oil and the walls are equally matched to maximize the part which acts as lens in the chamber. The proposed liquid square lens array can provide us with aberration-free 3D images with high fill factor.

  3. Corneal-shaping electrode

    DOEpatents

    Doss, James D.; Hutson, Richard L.

    1982-01-01

    The disclosure relates to a circulating saline electrode for changing corneal shape in eyes. The electrode comprises a tubular nonconductive electrode housing having an annular expanded base which has a surface substantially matched to a subject corneal surface. A tubular conductive electrode connected to a radiofrequency generating source is disposed within the electrode housing and longitudinally aligned therewith. The electrode has a generally hemispherical head having at least one orifice. Saline solution is circulated through the apparatus and over the cornea to cool the corneal surface while radiofrequency electric current emitted from the electrode flows therefrom through the cornea to a second electrode, on the rear of the head. This current heats the deep corneal stroma and thereby effects corneal reshaping as a biological response to the heat.

  4. Ion scattering spectroscopy intensities for supported nanoparticles: The hemispherical cap model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Charles T.; James, Trevor E.

    2015-11-01

    Nanoparticles of one element or compound dispersed across the surface of another substance form the basis for many materials of great technological importance, like catalysts, fuel cells, sensors and biomaterials. Nanoparticles also often grow during thin film deposition. The size and number density of such nanoparticles are important, often estimated with electron or scanning tunneling microscopies. However, these are slow and often unavailable with sufficient resolution for particles near 1 nm. Because the probe depth of low-energy ion scattering spectroscopy (LEIS) with He+ and Ne+ is so shallow (less than one atom), it provides quantitative information on the fraction of the surface that is covered by such nanoparticles. Combined with the total amount per unit area, this fraction provides the average particle thickness. When the ions are incident or detected at some angle away from the surface normal, macroscopic screening effects cause interpretation of LEIS signals in terms of area fraction covered to be complicated. In this paper, we report a geometric analysis of particles with the shape of hemispherical caps so that LEIS signals obtained in any measurement geometry can also be used to quantitatively determine the area fraction, average particle thickness and diameter, or number density of particles.

  5. Homologous recombination and retention of a single form of most genes shape the highly chimeric mitochondrial genome of a cybrid plant.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Puerta, M Virginia; Zubko, Mikhajlo K; Palmer, Jeffrey D

    2015-04-01

    The structure and evolution of angiosperm mitochondrial genomes are driven by extremely high rates of recombination and rearrangement. An excellent experimental system for studying these events is offered by cybrid plants, in which parental mitochondria usually fuse and their genomes recombine. Little is known about the extent, nature and consequences of mitochondrial recombination in these plants. We conducted the first study in which the organellar genomes of a cybrid - between Nicotiana tabacum and Hyoscyamus niger - were sequenced and compared to those of its parents. This cybrid mitochondrial genome is highly recombinant, reflecting at least 30 crossovers and five gene conversions between its parental genomes. It is also surprisingly large (41% and 64% larger than the parental genomes), yet contains single alleles for 90% of mitochondrial genes. Recombination produced a remarkably chimeric cybrid mitochondrial genome and occurred entirely via homologous mechanisms involving the double-strand break repair and/or break-induced replication pathways. Retention of a single form of most genes could be advantageous to minimize intracellular incompatibilities and/or reflect neutral forces that preferentially eliminate duplicated regions. We discuss the relevance of these findings to the surprisingly frequent occurrence of horizontal gene - and genome - transfer in angiosperm mitochondrial DNAs. © 2014 The Authors New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  6. Concave-hemisphere-patterned organic top-light emitting device

    DOEpatents

    Forrest, Stephen R; Slootsky, Michael; Lunt, Richard

    2014-01-21

    A first device is provided. The first device includes an organic light emitting device, which further comprises a first electrode, a second electrode, and an organic emissive layer disposed between the first and second electrode. Preferably, the second electrode is more transparent than the first electrode. The organic emissive layer has a first portion shaped to form an indentation in the direction of the first electrode, and a second portion shaped to form a protrusion in the direction of the second electrode. The first device may include a plurality of organic light emitting devices. The indentation may have a shape that is formed from a partial sphere, a partial cylinder, a pyramid, or a pyramid with a mesa, among others. The protrusions may be formed between adjoining indentations or between an indentation and a surface parallel to the substrate.

  7. Concave-hemisphere-patterned organic top-light emitting device

    DOEpatents

    Forrest, Stephen R.; Slootsky, Michael; Lunt, Richard

    2015-06-09

    A first device is provided. The first device includes an organic light emitting device, which further comprises a first electrode, a second electrode, and an organic emissive layer disposed between the first and second electrode. Preferably, the second electrode is more transparent than the first electrode. The organic emissive layer has a first portion shaped to form an indentation in the direction of the first electrode, and a second portion shaped to form a protrusion in the direction of the second electrode. The first device may include a plurality of organic light emitting devices. The indentation may have a shape that is formed from a partial sphere, a partial cylinder, a pyramid, or a pyramid with a mesa, among others. The protrusions may be formed between adjoining indentations or between an indentation and a surface parallel to the substrate.

  8. Asteroid (2867) Steins: Shape, topography and global physical properties from OSIRIS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorda, L.; Lamy, P. L.; Gaskell, R. W.; Kaasalainen, M.; Groussin, O.; Besse, S.; Faury, G.

    2012-11-01

    The Rosetta spacecraft flew by Asteroid (2867) Steins on 5 September 2008, allowing the onboard OSIRIS cameras to collect the first images of an E-type asteroid. We implemented several three-dimensional reconstruction techniques to retrieve its shape. Limb profiles, combined with stereo control points, were used to reconstruct an approximate shape model. This model was refined using a stereophotoclinometry technique to accurately retrieve the topography of the hemisphere observed by OSIRIS. The unseen part of the surface was constrained by the technique of light curves inversion. The global shape resembles a top with dimensions along the principal axes of inertia of 6.83 × 5.70 × 4.42 km. It is conspicuously more regular than other small asteroids like (233) Eros and (25143) Itokawa. Its mean radius is Rm = 2.70 km and its equivalent radius (radius of a sphere of equivalent volume) is Rv = 2.63 km. The north pole is oriented at RA = 99 ± 5° and Dec = -59 ± 5°, which implies a very large obliquity of 172° and a retrograde rotation. Maps of the gravitational field and slopes were calculated for the well-imaged part of the asteroid. Together with the shape, they helped characterizing the most prominent topographic features identified at the surface of (2867) Steins: an equatorial ridge restricted to the extremities of the long axis, a large crater having dimensions of 2100 × 1800 m in the southern hemisphere, and an elongated hill in the northern hemisphere. We conjecture that the equatorial ridge was formed by centrifugal acceleration as the asteroid was spun up by the Yarkovsky-O’Keefe-Radzievskii-Paddack effect.

  9. Resting state EEG power, intra-hemisphere and inter-hemisphere coherence in bipolar disorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handayani, Nita; Khotimah, S. N.; Haryanto, F.; Arif, I.; Taruno, Warsito P.

    2017-02-01

    This paper examines the differences of EEG power and coherence between bipolar disorder patients and healthy subjects in the resting state. Observations are focused on the prefrontal cortex area by calculating intra-hemisphere and inter-hemisphere coherence. EEG data acquisition are conducted by using wireless Emotiv Epoc on AF3, AF4, FC5, FC6, F7 and F8 channels. The power spectral analysis shows that in bipolar disoder there is an increase of power in the delta, theta and beta frequencies, and power decrease in the alpha frequency. The coherence test results show that both intra-hemisphere and inter-hemisphere coherence in bipolar disorder patients are lower than healthy subjects. This shows the lack of brain synchronization in bipolar disorder patients.

  10. Choosing words: left hemisphere, right hemisphere, or both? Perspective on the lateralization of word retrieval.

    PubMed

    Riès, Stéphanie K; Dronkers, Nina F; Knight, Robert T

    2016-04-01

    Language is considered to be one of the most lateralized human brain functions. Left hemisphere dominance for language has been consistently confirmed in clinical and experimental settings and constitutes one of the main axioms of neurology and neuroscience. However, functional neuroimaging studies are finding that the right hemisphere also plays a role in diverse language functions. Critically, the right hemisphere may also compensate for the loss or degradation of language functions following extensive stroke-induced damage to the left hemisphere. Here, we review studies that focus on our ability to choose words as we speak. Although fluidly performed in individuals with intact language, this process is routinely compromised in aphasic patients. We suggest that parceling word retrieval into its subprocesses-lexical activation and lexical selection-and examining which of these can be compensated for after left hemisphere stroke can advance the understanding of the lateralization of word retrieval in speech production. In particular, the domain-general nature of the brain regions associated with each process may be a helpful indicator of the right hemisphere's propensity for compensation.

  11. Choosing words: left hemisphere, right hemisphere, or both? Perspective on the lateralization of word retrieval

    PubMed Central

    Ries, Stephanie K.; Dronkers, Nina F.; Knight, Robert T.

    2015-01-01

    Language is considered to be one of the most lateralized human brain functions. Left hemisphere dominance for language has been consistently confirmed in clinical and experimental settings and constitutes one of the main axioms of neurology and neuroscience. However, functional neuroimaging studies are finding that the right hemisphere also plays a role in diverse language functions. Critically, the right hemisphere may also compensate for the loss or degradation of language functions following extensive stroke-induced damage to the left hemisphere. Here, we review studies that focus on our ability to choose words as we speak. Although fluidly performed in individuals with intact language, this process is routinely compromised in aphasic patients. We suggest that parceling word retrieval into its sub-processes—lexical activation and lexical selection—and examining which of these can be compensated for after left hemisphere stroke can advance the understanding of the lateralization of word retrieval in speech production. In particular, the domain-general nature of the brain regions associated with each process may be a helpful indicator of the right hemisphere's propensity for compensation. PMID:26766393

  12. Hemispheric Brain Preference: What Are the Educational Implications?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fountain, Juanita Cummings; Fillmer, H. Thompson

    1987-01-01

    Investigates the relationship between hemisphere, brain preferences, and academic failure or success by studying 131 average and above average fourth and seventh grade students. Concludes that cerebral hemisphere functions do affect learning. (MM)

  13. Hemisphericity and Journalism--How Do Journalists Think?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vannatta, Bonnie Ann

    1981-01-01

    Reports on a study finding that journalists preferred a right brain hemisphere or integrated style of information processing. Proposes the further application of right-left brain hemisphere research in the field of journalism. (RL)

  14. Cortical Hemisphere Registration Via Large Deformation Diffeomorphic Metric Curve Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Anqi; Miller, Michael I.

    2010-01-01

    We present large deformation diffeomorphic metric curve mapping (LDDMM-Curve) for registering cortical hemispheres. We showed global cortical hemisphere matching and evaluated the mapping accuracy in five subregions of the cortex in fourteen MRI scans. PMID:18051058

  15. Asymmetric auroral intensities in the Earth's Northern and Southern hemispheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laundal, K. M.; Østgaard, N.

    2009-07-01

    It is commonly assumed that the aurora borealis (Northern Hemisphere) and aurora australis (Southern Hemisphere) are mirror images of each other because the charged particles causing the aurora follow the magnetic field lines connecting the two hemispheres. The particles are believed to be evenly distributed between the two hemispheres, from the source region in the equatorial plane of the magnetosphere. Although it has been shown that similar auroral features in the opposite hemispheres can be displaced tens of degree in longitude and that seasonal effects can cause differences in global intensity, the overall auroral patterns were still similar. Here we report observations that clearly contradict the common assumption about symmetric aurora: intense spots are seen at dawn in the Northern summer Hemisphere, and at dusk in the Southern winter Hemisphere. The asymmetry is interpreted in terms of inter-hemispheric currents related to seasons, which have been predicted but hitherto had not been seen.

  16. Mesoscale Temperature Fluctuations in the Southern Hemisphere Stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gary, Bruce L.

    2008-01-01

    Isentrope surfaces in the Southern Hemisphere stratosphere reveal that air parcels undergo mesoscale temperature fluctuations that depend on latitude and season. The largest temperature fluctuations occur at high latitude winter, whereas the smallest fluctuations occur at high latitude summer. This is the same pattern found for the Northern Hemisphere stratosphere. However, the amplitude of the seasonal dependence in the Southern Hemisphere is only 37% of the Northern Hemisphere's seasonal amplitude.

  17. Mesoscale Temperature Fluctuations in the Southern Hemisphere Stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gary, Bruce L.

    2008-01-01

    Isentrope surfaces in the Southern Hemisphere stratosphere reveal that air parcels undergo mesoscale temperature fluctuations that depend on latitude and season. The largest temperature fluctuations occur at high latitude winter, whereas the smallest fluctuations occur at high latitude summer. This is the same pattern found for the Northern Hemisphere stratosphere. However, the amplitude of the seasonal dependence in the Southern Hemisphere is only 37% of the Northern Hemisphere's seasonal amplitude.

  18. Spontaneous gestures following right hemisphere infarct.

    PubMed

    Blonder, L X; Burns, A F; Bowers, D; Moore, R W; Heilman, K M

    1995-02-01

    Neurobehavioral studies of gesturing have been largely limited to left hemisphere damaged (LHD) patients. We compared spontaneous gesturing in seven right hemisphere damaged (RHD) patients, seven LHD patients, and seven normal controls (NHD) during videotaped interviews. Two judges coded symbolic, expressive, grooming, and fidgeting gestures in 120 10-sec intervals of videotape per patient. We found that RHD patients made significantly more total gestures and grooming gestures with the hand ipsilateral to their lesion than did LHD patients. Furthermore, RHD patients made more total and grooming gestures with their right hand than NHD subjects did with either hand. There were no differences in gesture production between the right and left hands of NHD patients. These results suggest that RHD produces enhanced gesturing, particularly involving grooming behavior.

  19. Quaternary glaciations in the Northern Hemisphere

    SciTech Connect

    Sibrava, V.; Bowen, D.Q.; Richmond, G.M.

    1987-01-01

    This volume presents the final report of Project 24 of the International Geological Correlation Programme. The publication is drawn from the contributions of leading individual scientist as well as from scientific research teams. It reflects the present state of knowledge of the Quaternary Glaciations in the Northern Hemisphere and their correlation in space and time, as well as providing a unique summary of climatic change.

  20. Flexible Contrast Gain Control in the Right Hemisphere

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okubo, Matia; Nicholls, Michael E. R.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigates whether the right hemisphere has more flexible contrast gain control settings for the identification of spatial frequency. Right-handed participants identified 1 and 9 cycles per degree sinusoidal gratings presented either to the left visual field-right hemisphere (LVF-RH) or the right visual field-left hemisphere (RVF-LH).…

  1. Evidence for Right Hemisphere Phonology in a Backward Masking Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halderman, Laura K.

    2011-01-01

    The extent to which orthographic and phonological processes are available during the initial moments of word recognition within each hemisphere is under specified, particularly for the right hemisphere. Few studies have investigated whether each hemisphere uses orthography and phonology under constraints that restrict the viewing time of words and…

  2. Brain Hemisphere Dominance: Building the Whole-Brain Singer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Amanda R.

    2012-01-01

    The concept of brain hemisphere dominance serves as the basis for many educational learning theories. The dominant brain hemisphere guides the learning process, but both hemispheres are necessary for true learning to take place. This treatise outlines and analyzes the dominance factor, a learning theory developed by Dr. Carla Hannaford, which…

  3. Hemispheric Asymmetries in the Activation and Monitoring of Memory Errors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giammattei, Jeannette; Arndt, Jason

    2012-01-01

    Previous research on the lateralization of memory errors suggests that the right hemisphere's tendency to produce more memory errors than the left hemisphere reflects hemispheric differences in semantic activation. However, all prior research that has examined the lateralization of memory errors has used self-paced recognition judgments. Because…

  4. Hemisphericity Research: An Overview with Some Implications for Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, John T.

    1982-01-01

    Research on cerebral hemisphericity and lateral dominance is reviewed, and relationships between right and left hemispheric modes of information processing as well as problem solving techniques are discussed. Conclusions focus mainly on need for educators to know information processing differences of the two hemispheres to teach children problem…

  5. Tectonic Evolution of the Eastern Hemisphere of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pounders, E.; Anderson, R. C.; Dohm, J. M.; Haldemann, A. F. C.; Golombek, M. P.

    2002-01-01

    The magmatic-tectonic history of Mars is largely dominated by the Tharsis magmatic complex of the western hemisphere and the Elysium rise of the eastern hemisphere. In order to address the history of Mars, the tectonic history of the eastern hemisphere must also be unraveled. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  6. Hemispheric Specialization and Implications for Education of the Hearing Impaired.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Shari

    The paper reviews research on cerebral hemispheric functioning and considers the implications for instruction of the deaf. The nature of right and left hemisphere function and communication is addressed, as are findings on cerebral asymmetry for aspects of language processing. Studies on hemispheric specialization of hearing impaired persons…

  7. The Influence of Context on Hemispheric Recruitment during Metaphor Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz, Michele T.; Hogstrom, Larson J.

    2011-01-01

    Although the left hemisphere's prominence in language is well established, less emphasis has been placed on possible roles for the right hemisphere. Behavioral, patient, and neuroimaging research suggests that the right hemisphere may be involved in processing figurative language. Additionally, research has demonstrated that context can modify…

  8. Brain Hemisphere Dominance: Building the Whole-Brain Singer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Amanda R.

    2012-01-01

    The concept of brain hemisphere dominance serves as the basis for many educational learning theories. The dominant brain hemisphere guides the learning process, but both hemispheres are necessary for true learning to take place. This treatise outlines and analyzes the dominance factor, a learning theory developed by Dr. Carla Hannaford, which…

  9. Cognitive Correlates of Hemispheric Performance on Dichotic Tasks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Ronald C.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Examined the relationship between performance on left and right hemisphere dominant measures of cognition and performance on dichotic memory tasks in 53 adults age 50 and older. Right hemisphere performance on dichotic and cognitive tasks showed a negative association with age while left hemisphere performance showed no decline. (JAC)

  10. Flexible Contrast Gain Control in the Right Hemisphere

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okubo, Matia; Nicholls, Michael E. R.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigates whether the right hemisphere has more flexible contrast gain control settings for the identification of spatial frequency. Right-handed participants identified 1 and 9 cycles per degree sinusoidal gratings presented either to the left visual field-right hemisphere (LVF-RH) or the right visual field-left hemisphere (RVF-LH).…

  11. Hemispheric Differences in Attentional Orienting by Social Cues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Deanna J.; Zaidel, Eran

    2011-01-01

    Research points to a right hemisphere bias for processing social stimuli. Hemispheric specialization for attention shifts cued by social stimuli, however, has been rarely studied. We examined the capacity of each hemisphere to orient attention in response to social and nonsocial cues using a lateralized spatial cueing paradigm. We compared the…

  12. Teaching ESL from the Right Hemisphere of the Brain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curt, Carmen Judith Nine

    Based on the idea that the brain consists of hemispheres which control different types of behavior, this paper argues that the Puerto Rican school system is deteriorating because its emphasis on left hemisphere (quantitative) activities does not synchronize with Puerto Rico's cultural orientation toward the right hemisphere (qualitative…

  13. Evidence for Right Hemisphere Phonology in a Backward Masking Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halderman, Laura K.

    2011-01-01

    The extent to which orthographic and phonological processes are available during the initial moments of word recognition within each hemisphere is under specified, particularly for the right hemisphere. Few studies have investigated whether each hemisphere uses orthography and phonology under constraints that restrict the viewing time of words and…

  14. Tectonic Evolution of the Eastern Hemisphere of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pounders, E.; Anderson, R. C.; Dohm, J. M.; Haldemann, A. F. C.; Golombek, M. P.

    2002-01-01

    The magmatic-tectonic history of Mars is largely dominated by the Tharsis magmatic complex of the western hemisphere and the Elysium rise of the eastern hemisphere. In order to address the history of Mars, the tectonic history of the eastern hemisphere must also be unraveled. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  15. Hemispheric Asymmetries in the Activation and Monitoring of Memory Errors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giammattei, Jeannette; Arndt, Jason

    2012-01-01

    Previous research on the lateralization of memory errors suggests that the right hemisphere's tendency to produce more memory errors than the left hemisphere reflects hemispheric differences in semantic activation. However, all prior research that has examined the lateralization of memory errors has used self-paced recognition judgments. Because…

  16. The Influence of Context on Hemispheric Recruitment during Metaphor Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz, Michele T.; Hogstrom, Larson J.

    2011-01-01

    Although the left hemisphere's prominence in language is well established, less emphasis has been placed on possible roles for the right hemisphere. Behavioral, patient, and neuroimaging research suggests that the right hemisphere may be involved in processing figurative language. Additionally, research has demonstrated that context can modify…

  17. Laser shaping of cartilage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobol, Emil N.; Bagratashvili, Victor N.; Omelchenko, Alexander I.; Sviridov, Alexander P.; Helidonis, Emmanuel S.; Kavvalos, George; Christodoulou, P. N.; Naoumidi, I.; Velegrakis, G.; Ovchinnikov, Yuriy M.; Shechter, A.

    1994-09-01

    The carbon dioxide laser has been used for the first time to change the cartilage's shape. After the laser irradiation the cartilage has the tendency to retain its new form. Different types of laser modified cartilage structures were studied. The inferred physical mechanism for cartilage shaping using the stresses relaxation process is presented. The clinical significance of the results for corrective laser surgery is discussed.

  18. Acoustic change responses to amplitude modulation: a method to quantify cortical temporal processing and hemispheric asymmetry.

    PubMed

    Han, Ji Hye; Dimitrijevic, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Sound modulation is a critical temporal cue for the perception of speech and environmental sounds. To examine auditory cortical responses to sound modulation, we developed an acoustic change stimulus involving amplitude modulation (AM) of ongoing noise. The AM transitions in this stimulus evoked an acoustic change complex (ACC) that was examined parametrically in terms of rate and depth of modulation and hemispheric symmetry. Auditory cortical potentials were recorded from 64 scalp electrodes during passive listening in two conditions: (1) ACC from white noise to 4, 40, 300 Hz AM, with varying AM depths of 100, 50, 25% lasting 1 s and (2) 1 s AM noise bursts at the same modulation rate. Behavioral measures included AM detection from an attend ACC condition and AM depth thresholds (i.e., a temporal modulation transfer function, TMTF). The N1 response of the ACC was large to 4 and 40 Hz and small to the 300 Hz AM. In contrast, the opposite pattern was observed with bursts of AM showing larger responses with increases in AM rate. Brain source modeling showed significant hemispheric asymmetry such that 4 and 40 Hz ACC responses were dominated by right and left hemispheres respectively. N1 responses to the ACC resembled a low pass filter shape similar to a behavioral TMTF. In the ACC paradigm, the only stimulus parameter that changes is AM and therefore the N1 response provides an index for this AM change. In contrast, an AM burst stimulus contains both AM and level changes and is likely dominated by the rise time of the stimulus. The hemispheric differences are consistent with the asymmetric sampling in time hypothesis suggesting that the different hemispheres preferentially sample acoustic time across different time windows. The ACC provides a novel approach to studying temporal processing at the level of cortex and provides further evidence of hemispheric specialization for fast and slow stimuli.

  19. Casimir Effect in Hemisphere Capped Tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezerra de Mello, E. R.; Saharian, A. A.

    2016-02-01

    In this paper we investigate the vacuum densities for a massive scalar field with general curvature coupling in background of a (2 + 1)-dimensional spacetime corresponding to a cylindrical tube with a hemispherical cap. A complete set of mode functions is constructed and the positive-frequency Wightman function is evaluated for both the cylindrical and hemispherical subspaces. On the base of this, the vacuum expectation values of the field squared and energy-momentum tensor are investigated. The mean field squared and the normal stress are finite on the boundary separating two subspaces, whereas the energy density and the parallel stress diverge as the inverse power of the distance from the boundary. For a conformally coupled field, the vacuum energy density is negative on the cylindrical part of the space. On the hemisphere, it is negative near the top and positive close to the boundary. In the case of minimal coupling the energy density on the cup is negative. On the tube it is positive near the boundary and negative at large distances. Though the geometries of the subspaces are different, the Casimir pressures on the separate sides of the boundary are equal and the net Casimir force vanishes. The results obtained may be applied to capped carbon nanotubes described by an effective field theory in the long-wavelength approximation.

  20. Meteor showers of the southern hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molau, Sirko; Kerr, Steve

    2014-04-01

    We present the results of an exhaustive meteor shower search in the southern hemisphere. The underlying data set is a subset of the IMO Video Meteor Database comprising 50,000 single station meteors obtained by three Australian cameras between 2001 and 2012. The detection technique was similar to previous single station analysis. In the data set we find 4 major and 6 minor northern hemisphere meteor showers, and 12 segments of the Antihelion source (including the Northern and Southern Taurids and six streams from the MDC working list). We present details for 14 southern hemisphere showers plus the Centaurid and Puppid-Velid complex, with the η Aquariids and the Southern δ Aquariids being the strongest southern showers. Two of the showers (θ^2 Sagittariids and τ Cetids) were previously unknown and have received preliminary designations by the MDC. Overall we find that the fraction of southern meteor showers south of -30deg declination (roughly 25%) is clearly smaller than the fraction of northern meteor showers north of +30deg declination (more than 50%) obtained in our previous analysis.

  1. Hemispheric modulations of the attentional networks.

    PubMed

    Spagna, Alfredo; Martella, Diana; Fuentes, Luis J; Marotta, Andrea; Casagrande, Maria

    2016-10-01

    Although several recent studies investigated the hemispheric contributions to the attentional networks using the Attention Network Test (ANT), the role of the cerebral hemispheres in modulating the interaction among them remains unclear. In this study, two lateralized versions of this test (LANT) were used to investigate theal effects on the attentional networks under different conflict conditions. One version, the LANTI-A, presented arrows as target and flankers, while the other version, the LANTI-F, had fruits as target and flankers. Data collected from forty-seven participants confirmed well-known results on the efficiency and interactions among the attentional networks. Further, a left visual field advantage was found when a target occurred in an unattended location (e.g. invalid trials), only with the LANTI-F, but not with LANTI-A. The present study adds more evidence to the hemispheric asymmetry of the orienting of attention, and further reveals patterns of interactions between the attentional networks and the visual fields across different conflicting conditions, underlying the dynamic control of attention in complex environments. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Epidemiology of obesity in the Western Hemisphere.

    PubMed

    Ford, Earl S; Mokdad, Ali H

    2008-11-01

    Obesity has emerged as a global public health challenge. The objective of this review was to examine epidemiological aspects of obesity in the Western Hemisphere. Using PubMed, we searched for publications about obesity (prevalence, trends, correlates, economic costs) in countries in North America, Central America, South America, and the Caribbean. To the extent possible, we focused on studies that were primarily population based in design and on four countries in the Western Hemisphere: Brazil, Canada, Mexico, and the United States. Data compiled by the International Obesity Task Force show a substantial level of obesity in all of or selected areas of the Bahamas, Barbados, Canada, Chile, Guyana, Mexico, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, St. Lucia, Trinidad and Tobago, the United States, and Venezuela. Furthermore, countries such as Brazil, Canada, Mexico, and the United States have experienced increases in the prevalence of obesity. In many countries, the prevalence of obesity is higher among women than men and in urban areas than in rural areas. The relationship between socioeconomic status and obesity depends on the stage of economic transition. Early in the transition, the prevalence of obesity is positively related to income whereas at some point during the transition the prevalence becomes inversely related to income. Like other countries in the Western Hemisphere, the four countries that we focused on have experienced a rising tide of obesity. The high and increasing prevalence of obesity and its attendant comorbidities are likely to pose a serious challenge to the public health and medical care systems in these countries.

  3. Depression and the hyperactive right-hemisphere.

    PubMed

    Hecht, David

    2010-10-01

    Depression is associated with an inter-hemispheric imbalance; a hyperactive right-hemisphere (RH) and a relatively hypoactive left-hemisphere (LH). Nevertheless, the underlying mechanisms which can explain why depression is associated with a RH dominance remain elusive. This article points out the potential links between functional cerebral asymmetries and specific symptoms and features of depression. There is evidence that the RH is selectively involved in processing negative emotions, pessimistic thoughts and unconstructive thinking styles--all which comprise the cognitive phenomenology of depression and in turn contribute to the elevated anxiety, stress and pain associated with the illness. Additionally, the RH mediates vigilance and arousal which may explain the sleep disturbances often reported in depression. The RH had also been linked with self-reflection, accounting for the tendency of depressed individuals to withdraw from their external environments and focus attention inward. Physiologically, RH activation is associated with hyprecortisolemia, which contributes to the deterioration of the immune system functioning and puts depressed patients at a greater risk of developing other illnesses, accounting for depression's high comorbidity with other diseases. Conversely, the LH is specifically involved in processing pleasurable experiences, and its relative attenuation is in line with the symptoms of anhedonia that characterize depression. The LH is also relatively more involved in decision-making processes, accounting for the indecisiveness that is often accompanied with depression. 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  4. Double infarction in one cerebral hemisphere.

    PubMed

    Bogousslavsky, J

    1991-07-01

    Thirty-two patients whose first stroke was due to double infarct in one cerebral hemisphere were identified among 1,911 consecutive patients from the Lausanne Stroke Registry. The double infarct involved territories of the superficial middle cerebral artery, superficial posterior cerebral artery, lenticulostriate, anterior choroidal artery, or borderzone. The most common combination involved territories of the anterior middle cerebral artery plus the posterior middle cerebral artery. In the patients with the double infarct, the prevalence of potential cardiac sources of embolism (19%) was similar to that found in the registry in general, but the double infarct was closely associated with tight (greater than or equal to 90% of the lumen diameter) stenosis or occlusion (75%) of the internal carotid artery. The most common neurological picture mimicked large infarction in the middle cerebral artery territory, but nearly half of the patients with double infarct in one cerebral hemisphere had a specific clinical syndrome, which was not found in the 1,879 remaining patients from the registry, including hemianopia-hemiplegia (in 6), acute conduction aphasia-hemiparesis (in 2), and acute transcortical mixed aphasia (in 6), in relation to characteristic combinations of infarcts. These unique clinical and etiological correlates warrant the recognition of double infarct in one cerebral hemisphere from other acute ischemic strokes.

  5. Geometry, landmarks and the cerebral hemispheres: 2D spatial reorientation in split-brain patients.

    PubMed

    Prete, Giulia; Fabri, Mara; Foschi, Nicoletta; Tommasi, Luca

    2016-12-13

    A right-hemispheric superiority in spatial encoding based on geometric cues has been largely documented in a variety of species, together with a left-hemispheric specialization for encoding based on landmarks. In humans, hemispheric asymmetries for spatial encoding have been little explored. In this study, we compared a patient with a complete callosal resection (D.D.C.) and a patient with a wide callosal resection saving the splenium (A.P.), with healthy participants. In two 2D versions of the 'reorientation task', participants were asked to find the target corner of a rectangle-shaped environment, by exploiting either geometric information alone or the combination of geometric and landmark information. In Experiment 1, the landmark consisted of a coloured side of the rectangle; in Experiment 2, this cue was replaced by a coloured disc located inside the rectangle. In both experiments, the rectangular shape ensured the geometric cue. D.D.C. was always unable to recall the target, whereas A.P. correctly solved the task when only the geometric information was available, without difference with respect to the controls. Importantly, the performance of A.P. did not differ from controls' when the right hemisphere was tested with the landmark cues (the task being carried out using the left hand), whereas when the left hemisphere was tested (right-hand session) his performance was worse than controls' with the coloured side of the space, but it was better than controls' with the coloured disc. The results are discussed comparing them with data collected on other species, and with theories of spatial processing. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  6. Comparing forward and inverse models to estimate the seasonal variation of hemisphere-integrated fluxes of carbonyl sulfide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kettle, A. J.; Kuhn, U.; von Hobe, M.; Kesselmeier, J.; Liss, P. S.; Andreae, M. O.

    2002-06-01

    A simple inverse model is proposed to deduce hemisphere-integrated COS flux based on published time series of total column COS. The global atmosphere is divided into two boxes representing the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, and the total column COS data from several stations are used to deduce hemispheric COS loadings. The integrated flux within each hemisphere is calculated as a linear combination of a steady-state solution and time-varying perturbation. The nature of the time-varying perturbation is deduced using two different approaches: an analytic solution based on a cosine function that was fitted to the original total column COS measurement time series and a Simplex optimization with no underlying assumption about the functional form of the total column time series. The results suggest that there is a steady-state COS flux from the Northern to the Southern Hemisphere. There is a seasonal variation superimposed on this flux that in the Southern Hemisphere has a maximum rate of COS input into the atmosphere around January and a maximum rate of COS removal from the atmosphere around August--September. In the Northern Hemisphere, the maximum rate of COS input into the atmosphere is around May--June, and the maximum rate of COS removal is either August or January, depending on which station in the Northern Hemisphere is considered. The results of the inverse model are compared with the outcome of a forward approach on the temporal and spatial variation of the dominant global sources and sinks published earlier. In general, the deduced hemisphere-integrated flux estimates showed good agreement with the database estimates, though it remains uncertain whether COS removal from the atmosphere in the Northern Hemisphere is dominated by plant and soil uptake in the boreal summer or by oceanic uptake in boreal winter.

  7. Comparing forward and inverse models to estimate the seasonal variation of hemisphere-integrated fluxes of carbonyl sulfide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kettle, A. J.; Kuhn, U.; von Hobe, M.; Kesselmeier, J.; Liss, P. S.; Andreae, M. O.

    2002-11-01

    A simple inverse model is proposed to deduce hemisphere-integrated COS flux based on published time series of total column COS. The global atmosphere is divided into two boxes representing the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, and the total column COS data from several stations are used to calculate hemispheric COS loadings. The integrated flux within each hemisphere is calculated as a linear combination of a steady-state solution and time-varying perturbation. The nature of the time-varying perturbation is deduced using two different approaches: an analytic solution based on a cosine function that was fitted to the original total column COS measurement time series and a Simplex optimization with no underlying assumption about the functional form of the total column time series. The results suggest that there is a steady-state COS flux from the Northern to the Southern Hemisphere. There is a seasonal variation superimposed on this flux that in the Southern Hemisphere has a maximum rate of COS input into the atmosphere around January and a maximum rate of COS removal from the atmosphere around August--September. In the Northern Hemisphere, the maximum rate of COS input into the atmosphere is around May--June, and the maximum rate of COS removal is either August or January, depending on which station in the Northern Hemisphere is considered. The results of the inverse model are compared with the outcome of a forward approach on the temporal and spatial variation of the dominant global sources and sinks published earlier. In general, the deduced hemisphere-integrated flux estimates showed good agreement with the database estimates, though it remains uncertain whether COS removal from the atmosphere in the Northern Hemisphere is dominated by plant and soil uptake in the boreal summer or by oceanic uptake in boreal winter.

  8. Climatology of the middle atmosphere of the Southern hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koshelkov, Yu. P.

    1984-09-01

    Main features of spatial distribution and time variations of meteorological parameters in the Southern hemisphere at altitudes 25-80 km are reviewed on the basis of zonal empirical models revised in 1982. Meridional distribution and seasonal variations are analysed. For comparison purposes with the Northern hemisphere, a model developed by Cole and Kantor in 1978 is used. It is revealed that the compilation of new models of the Southern hemisphere atmosphere has not resulted in substantial revision of hemispheric-structure outlined earlier in studies conducted in the Central Aerological Observatory. Meridional distribution of the parameters in summer is characterized by higher values of temperature, pressure and density gradients in the stratosphere of the Southern hemisphere than in that of the Northern hemisphere. This resulted in greater advancement of the core of the summer-time easterly (low towards the equator in the Southern hemisphere than in its northern counterpart. In winter, meridional temperature gradients in the middle stratosphere are greater in the Southern hemisphere than those in the Northern hemisphere, however, rapid attenuation of the gradients with height is observed in the Southern hemisphere, and above 35-40 km they become negative near 50-60°S, in contrast to positive values typical for the Northern hemisphere stratosphere. In the wind field, specific features of the Southern hemisphere westerly flow are high intensity and relatively low altitude of the maximum speed (as compared to the Northern hemisphere). The phases of the annual temperature wave at low latitudes are similar south and north of the equator; south of 30°S a reversal of the phase is observed. The semi-annual oscillation of temperature and wind is less pronounced in middle and high latitudes of the Southern hemisphere than in the Northern hemisphere. The origin of the primary differences between the hemispheres is related mainly to lower intensity of large

  9. Words, Hemispheres, and Processing Mechanisms: A Response to Marsolek and Deason (2007)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Andrew W.; Ansorge, Lydia; Lavidor, Michal

    2007-01-01

    Ellis, Ansorge and Lavidor (2007) [Ellis, A.W., Ansorge, L., & Lavidor, M. (2007). Words, hemispheres, and dissociable subsystems: The effects of exposure duration, case alternation, priming and continuity of form on word recognition in the left and right visual fields. "Brain and Language," 103, 292-303.] presented three experiments investigating…

  10. Words, Hemispheres, and Processing Mechanisms: A Response to Marsolek and Deason (2007)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Andrew W.; Ansorge, Lydia; Lavidor, Michal

    2007-01-01

    Ellis, Ansorge and Lavidor (2007) [Ellis, A.W., Ansorge, L., & Lavidor, M. (2007). Words, hemispheres, and dissociable subsystems: The effects of exposure duration, case alternation, priming and continuity of form on word recognition in the left and right visual fields. "Brain and Language," 103, 292-303.] presented three experiments investigating…

  11. Latent profiles of executive functioning in healthy young adults: evidence of individual differences in hemispheric asymmetry.

    PubMed

    Rau, Holly K; Suchy, Yana; Butner, Jonathan E; Williams, Paula G

    2016-11-01

    Two competing theoretical models of individual differences in executive functioning (EF) were examined: the Prefrontal Convexity Model and the Hemispheric Asymmetry Model. Neurologically healthy individuals (N = 315; mean age 20.8) completed a modified switching task (MST) and the Attention Network Test (ANT) in a single testing session. Data analysis was conducted in two phases. In the first phase (model identification), latent profile analysis was applied to MST variables measuring the abilities to form, switch, and maintain mental sets under conditions designed to tax left or right hemisphere resources. In the second phase (model validation), participant clusters obtained from the first phase were compared on the ANT. The Model Identification phase yielded a 3-profile solution consistent with the Hemispheric Asymmetry Model. Profile 1 (N = 203) was characterized by average EF performances. Profile 2 (N = 43) revealed a set maintenance weakness under non-verbal conditions. Profile 3 (N = 38) demonstrated weaknesses in cognitive flexibility combined with poor executive performances under verbal conditions. The Model Validation phase confirmed group differences. Profile 1 demonstrated average EF performances. Profile 2 demonstrated distractibility and decreased alertness, consistent with a right hemisphere weakness. Profile 3 demonstrated cognitive rigidity in the absence of external cues, consistent with a left hemisphere weakness. Individual differences in EF appear to follow a Hemispheric Asymmetry Model of EF among neurologically healthy adults. Investigating the relationship between hemispherically mediated executive functions and other individual difference factors known to confer health risk or resilience could inform numerous disciplines within the field of psychology.

  12. Calvarial reconstruction using high-density porous polyethylene cranial hemispheres

    PubMed Central

    Mokal, Nitin J.; Desai, Mahinoor F.

    2011-01-01

    Aims: Cranial vault reconstruction can be performed with a variety of autologous or alloplastic materials. We describe our experience using high-density porous polyethylene (HDPE) cranial hemisphere for cosmetic and functional restoration of skull defects. The porous nature of the implant allows soft tissue ingrowth, which decreases the incidence of infection. Hence, it can be used in proximity to paranasal sinuses and where previous alloplastic cranioplasties have failed due to implant infection. Materials and Methods: We used the HDPE implant in seven patients over a three-year period for reconstruction of moderate to large cranial defects. Two patients had composite defects, which required additional soft tissue in the form of free flap and tissue expansion. Results: In our series, decompressive craniectomy following trauma was the commonest aetiology and all defects were located in the fronto-parieto-temporal region. The defect size was 10 cm on average in the largest diameter. All patients had good post-operative cranial contour and we encountered no infections, implant exposure or implant migration. Conclusions: Our results indicate that the biocompatibility and flexibility of the HDPE cranial hemisphere implant make it an excellent alternative to existing methods of calvarial reconstruction. PMID:22279274

  13. Hemispheric View of Venus Centered at the North Pole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The hemispheric view of Venus, as revealed by more than a decade of radar investigations culminating in the 1990-1994 Magellan mission, is centered on the North Pole. The Magellan spacecraft imaged more than 98% of Venus at a resolution of about 100 meters; the effective resolution of this image is about 3 km. A mosaic of the Magellan images (most with illumination from the west) forms the image base. Gaps in the Magellan coverage were filled with images from the Earth-based Arecibo radar in a region centered roughly on 0 degree latitude and longitude, and with a neutral tone elsewhere (primarily near the south pole). The composite image was processed to improve contrast and to emphasize small features, and was color-coded to represent elevation. Gaps in the elevation data from the Magellan radar altimeter were filled with altimetry from the Venera spacecraft and the U.S. Pioneer Venus missions. An orthographic projection was used, simulating a distant view of one hemisphere of the planet. The Magellan mission was managed for NASA by Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Pasadena, CA. Data processed by JPL, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, and the U.S. Geological Survey, Flagstaff, AZ.

  14. Hemispheric View of Venus Centered at the North Pole

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-06-03

    The hemispheric view of Venus, as revealed by more than a decade of radar investigations culminating in the 1990-1994 Magellan mission, is centered on the North Pole. The Magellan spacecraft imaged more than 98% of Venus at a resolution of about 100 meters; the effective resolution of this image is about 3 km. A mosaic of the Magellan images (most with illumination from the west) forms the image base. Gaps in the Magellan coverage were filled with images from the Earth-based Arecibo radar in a region centered roughly on 0 degree latitude and longitude, and with a neutral tone elsewhere (primarily near the south pole). The composite image was processed to improve contrast and to emphasize small features, and was color-coded to represent elevation. Gaps in the elevation data from the Magellan radar altimeter were filled with altimetry from the Venera spacecraft and the U.S. Pioneer Venus missions. An orthographic projection was used, simulating a distant view of one hemisphere of the planet. The Magellan mission was managed for NASA by Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Pasadena, CA. Data processed by JPL, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, and the U.S. Geological Survey, Flagstaff, AZ. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00007

  15. Testing the Language of German Cerebral Palsy Patients with Right Hemispheric Language Organization after Early Left Hemispheric Damage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwilling, Eleonore; Krageloh-Mann, Ingeborg; Konietzko, Andreas; Winkler, Susanne; Lidzba, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Language functions are generally represented in the left cerebral hemisphere. After early (prenatally acquired or perinatally acquired) left hemispheric brain damage language functions may be salvaged by reorganization into the right hemisphere. This is different from brain lesions acquired in adulthood which normally lead to aphasia. Right…

  16. Testing the Language of German Cerebral Palsy Patients with Right Hemispheric Language Organization after Early Left Hemispheric Damage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwilling, Eleonore; Krageloh-Mann, Ingeborg; Konietzko, Andreas; Winkler, Susanne; Lidzba, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Language functions are generally represented in the left cerebral hemisphere. After early (prenatally acquired or perinatally acquired) left hemispheric brain damage language functions may be salvaged by reorganization into the right hemisphere. This is different from brain lesions acquired in adulthood which normally lead to aphasia. Right…

  17. Lesion characteristics driving right-hemispheric language reorganization in congenital left-hemispheric brain damage.

    PubMed

    Lidzba, Karen; de Haan, Bianca; Wilke, Marko; Krägeloh-Mann, Ingeborg; Staudt, Martin

    2017-10-01

    Pre- or perinatally acquired ("congenital") left-hemispheric brain lesions can be compensated for by reorganizing language into homotopic brain regions in the right hemisphere. Language comprehension may be hemispherically dissociated from language production. We investigated the lesion characteristics driving inter-hemispheric reorganization of language comprehension and language production in 19 patients (7-32years; eight females) with congenital left-hemispheric brain lesions (periventricular lesions [n=11] and middle cerebral artery infarctions [n=8]) by fMRI. 16/17 patients demonstrated reorganized language production, while 7/19 patients had reorganized language comprehension. Lesions to the insular cortex and the temporo-parietal junction (predominantly supramarginal gyrus) were significantly more common in patients in whom both, language production and comprehension were reorganized. These areas belong to the dorsal stream of the language network, participating in the auditory-motor integration of language. Our data suggest that the integrity of this stream might be crucial for a normal left-lateralized language development. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Are reptile and amphibian species younger in the Northern Hemisphere than in the Southern Hemisphere?

    PubMed

    Dubey, Sylvain; Shine, R

    2012-01-01

    A previous analysis of molecular phylogenies suggested that intraspecific diversification had occurred more recently in temperate-zone Northern Hemisphere reptiles and amphibians than in Southern Hemisphere taxa. Here, we test potential explanations for this pattern. We examined published phylogenetic analyses, derived from genetic sequence data, to generate two estimates of the age of species: (i) the oldest intraspecific diversification event within each taxon and (ii) the inferred timing of the split between two sister species. The timing of splits between species shows the same pattern as splits within species, and thus may be due to climatically driven cladogenic and extinction events or may be an artefact of differing levels of taxonomic knowledge about the fauna. Current rates of species descriptions suggest that many more taxa remain to be described in the Southern Hemisphere than the Northern Hemisphere; for that bias to fully explain our results on species age differences, the proportion of undescribed Southern taxa would need to be ≥ 12% in reptiles and ≥ 51% in anurans. For reptiles, taxonomic ignorance plausibly explains the apparent difference in mean age of species between the Southern and Northern Hemispheres; but this explanation can apply to amphibians only if a vast number of Southern taxa remain to be described.

  19. Hemispheric dominance underlying the neural substrate for learned vocalizations develops with experience.

    PubMed

    Chirathivat, Napim; Raja, Sahitya C; Gobes, Sharon M H

    2015-06-22

    Many aspects of song learning in songbirds resemble characteristics of speech acquisition in humans. Genetic, anatomical and behavioural parallels have most recently been extended with demonstrated similarities in hemispheric dominance between humans and songbirds: the avian higher order auditory cortex is left-lateralized for processing song memories in juvenile zebra finches that already have formed a memory of their fathers' song, just like Wernicke's area in the left hemisphere of the human brain is dominant for speech perception. However, it is unclear if hemispheric specialization is due to pre-existing functional asymmetry or the result of learning itself. Here we show that in juvenile male and female zebra finches that had never heard an adult song before, neuronal activation after initial exposure to a conspecific song is bilateral. Thus, like in humans, hemispheric dominance develops with vocal proficiency. A left-lateralized functional system that develops through auditory-vocal learning may be an evolutionary adaptation that could increase the efficiency of transferring information within one hemisphere, benefiting the production and perception of learned communication signals.

  20. Brain Stimulation and the Role of the Right Hemisphere in Aphasia Recovery.

    PubMed

    Turkeltaub, Peter E

    2015-11-01

    Aphasia is a common consequence of left hemisphere stroke and causes a disabling loss of language and communication ability. Current treatments for aphasia are inadequate, leaving a majority of aphasia sufferers with ongoing communication difficulties for the rest of their lives. In the past decade, two forms of noninvasive brain stimulation, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and transcranial direct current stimulation, have emerged as promising new treatments for aphasia. The most common brain stimulation protocols attempt to inhibit the intact right hemisphere based on the hypothesis that maladaptive activity in the right hemisphere limits language recovery in the left. There is now sufficient evidence to demonstrate that this approach, at least for repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation, improves specific language abilities in aphasia. However, the biological mechanisms that produce these behavioral improvements remain poorly understood. Taken in the context of the larger neurobiological literature on aphasia recovery, the role of the right hemisphere in aphasia recovery remains unclear. Additional research is needed to understand biological mechanisms of recovery, in order to optimize brain stimulation treatments for aphasia. This article summarizes the current evidence on noninvasive brain stimulation methods for aphasia and the neuroscientific considerations surrounding treatments using right hemisphere inhibition. Suggestions are provided for further investigation and for clinicians whose patients ask about brain stimulation treatments for aphasia.

  1. The calculating hemispheres: studies of a split-brain patient.

    PubMed

    Funnell, Margaret G; Colvin, Mary K; Gazzaniga, Michael S

    2007-06-11

    The purpose of the study was to investigate simple calculation in the two cerebral hemispheres of a split-brain patient. In a series of four experiments, the left hemisphere was superior to the right in simple calculation, confirming the previously reported left hemisphere specialization for calculation. In two different recognition paradigms, right hemisphere performance was at chance for all arithmetic operations, with the exception of subtraction in a two-alternative forced choice paradigm (performance was at chance when the lure differed from the correct answer by a magnitude of 1 but above chance when the magnitude difference was 4). In a recall paradigm, the right hemisphere performed above chance for both addition and subtraction, but performed at chance levels for multiplication and division. The error patterns in that experiment suggested that for subtraction and addition, the right hemisphere does have some capacity for approximating the solution even when it is unable to generate the exact solution. Furthermore, right hemisphere accuracy in addition and subtraction was higher for problems with small operands than with large operands. An additional experiment assessed approximate and exact addition in the two hemispheres for problems with small and large operands. The left hemisphere was equally accurate in both tasks but the right hemisphere was more accurate in approximate addition than in exact addition. In exact addition, right hemisphere accuracy was higher for problems with small operands than large, but the opposite pattern was found for approximate addition.

  2. Rat model of focal cerebral ischemia in the dominant hemisphere

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hua; Shen, Yan; Wang, Wei; Gao, Huanmin

    2015-01-01

    In the human brain, the dominant hemisphere is more complex than the non-dominant hemisphere. Hence, cerebral ischemia of the dominant hemisphere often leads to serious consequences. This study aims to establish a rodent model of focal cerebral ischemia in the dominant hemisphere. The quadruped feeding test was used to screen 70 male Sprague Dawley rats. From this test, 48 rats with right paw preference were selected and randomly assigned numbers. Half were assigned to the dominant hemisphere ischemia (DHI) group, and the other half were assigned to the non-dominant hemisphere ischemia (NDHI) group. The middle cerebral artery was occluded 2 h before reperfusion. Neurological functions were tested. TTC and HE staining were performed. The volume of cerebral infarction was calculated. Rats in the DHI group had significantly worse neurological scores than rats in the NDHI group (P < 0.05). TTC staining indicated ischemia had more severe consequences in the dominant hemisphere than in the non-dominant hemisphere. The dominant hippocampus indicated severe neuronal loss and disorderly cellular arrangement. The volume of cerebral infarction was also greater in the DHI group compared to the NDHI group (P < 0.05). Compared to MCA occlusion in the non-dominant hemisphere, MCA occlusion in the dominant hemisphere caused greater impairment in neurological functions. The proposed rodent model is reliable and has high levels of reproducibility. Therefore, his model can be reliably for investigating the mechanism of focal cerebral ischemia in the dominant hemisphere of human brains. PMID:25785023

  3. Design and Fabrication of Micro Hemispheric Shell Resonator with Annular Electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Renxin; Bai, Bing; Feng, Hengzhen; Ren, Ziming; Cao, Huiliang; Xue, Chenyang; Zhang, Binzhen; Liu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Electrostatic driving and capacitive detection is widely used in micro hemispheric shell resonators (HSR). The capacitor gap distance is a dominant factor for the initial capacitance, and affects the driving voltage and sensitivity. In order to decrease the equivalent gap distance, a micro HSR with annular electrodes fabricated by a glassblowing method was developed. Central and annular cavities are defined, and then the inside gas drives glass softening and deformation at 770 °C. While the same force is applied, the deformation of the hemispherical shell is about 200 times that of the annular electrodes, illustrating that the deformation of the electrodes will not affect the measurement accuracy. S-shaped patterns on the annular electrodes and internal-gear-like patterns on the hemispherical shell can improve metal malleability and avoid metal cracking during glass expansion. An arched annular electrode and a hemispheric shell are demonstrated. Compared with HSR with a spherical electrode, the applied voltage could be reduced by 29%, and the capacitance could be increased by 39%, according to theoretical and numerical calculation. The surface roughness of glass after glassblowing was favorable (Rq = 0.296 nm, Ra = 0.217 nm). In brief, micro HSR with an annular electrode was fabricated, and its superiority was preliminarily confirmed. PMID:27897977

  4. Haptic processing by the left hemisphere in a split-brain patient.

    PubMed

    Badan, M; Caramazza, A

    1997-09-01

    We report the case of a patient who suffered an ischemic accident resulting in damage to the anterior part of the corpus callosum and to the white matter in the posterior right hemisphere. Recognition of two-dimensional haptic stimuli explored with the right hand was severely impaired. The deficit was not specific to the type of stimuli, since letters, digits and geometrical shapes were not correctly recognized. Poor performance was not due to a specific mode of haptic exploration, since deficits were also observed without active manipulation of the stimuli. In contrast, the patient correctly named visual letters presented in the right visual hemifield (left hemisphere), and recognized three-dimensional common objects palpated with the right hand. Comparable results were observed in a surgical split-brain patient tested as a control. We conclude that (i) the construction of spatial representations of haptic stimuli, such as two-dimensional stimuli or three-dimensional block letters, cannot be fully realized in the intact left hemisphere, this ability requiring the contribution of both hemispheres, and (ii) tests for correct naming of common objects do not provide sufficient evidence to establish the integrity of the system involved in the identification of haptic information processed by the right hand of split-brain patients.

  5. Croll revisited: Why is the northern hemisphere warmer than the southern hemisphere?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Sarah M.; Seager, Richard; Frierson, Dargan M. W.; Liu, Xiaojuan

    2015-03-01

    The question of why, in the annual-mean, the northern hemisphere (NH) is warmer than the southern hemisphere (SH) is addressed, revisiting an 1870 paper by James Croll. We first show that ocean is warmer than land in general which, acting alone, would make the SH, with greater ocean fraction, warmer. Croll was aware of this and thought it was caused by greater specific humidity and greenhouse trapping over ocean than over land. However, for any given temperature, it is shown that greenhouse trapping is actually greater over land. Instead, oceans are warmer than land because of the smaller surface albedo. However, hemispheric differences in planetary albedo are negligible because the impact of differences in land-sea fraction are offset by the SH ocean and land reflecting more than their NH counterparts. In the absence of a role for albedo differences it is shown that, in agreement with Croll, northward cross-equatorial ocean heat transport (X-OHT) is critical for the warmer NH. This is examined in a simple box model based on the energy budget of each hemisphere. The hemispheric difference forced by X-OHT is enhanced by the positive water vapor-greenhouse feedback, and is partly compensated by the southward atmospheric energy transport. Due to uncertainties in the ocean data, a range of X-OHT is considered. A X-OHT of larger than 0.5 PW is needed to explain the warmer NH solely by X-OHT. For smaller X-OHT, a larger basic state greenhouse trapping in the NH, conceived as imposed by continental geometry, needs to be imposed. Numerical experiments with a GCM coupled to a slab ocean provide evidence that X-OHT is fundamentally important in determining the hemispheric differences in temperature. Therefore, despite some modifications to his theory, analysis of modern data confirms Croll's 140-year-old theory that the warmer NH is partly because of northward X-OHT.

  6. Inter-Hemispherical Currents for Realistic Model of Ionospheric Conductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyatsky, S.; Khazanov, G. V.

    2013-12-01

    We present results of modeling of the global 3-D ionosphere-magnetosphere current system including in addition to the R1 and R2 field-aligned currents also inter-hemispherical currents. The inter-hemispherical currents flow between Northern and Southern conjugate ionospheres in case of a North-South asymmetry in ionospheric conductivity in two hemispheres. These currents link together the ionospheric currents in two hemispheres, so the currents observed in one hemisphere can provide us with information about currents in the opposite hemisphere, which is especially important when their magnitude can not be obtained from direct observation (e.g., in Antarctica). In this study, we investigate the generation of the inter-hemispherical currents for several distributions of ionospheric conductivity in two hemispheres including a simplified model of ionospheric conductivity, which is important for better understanding of the expected distribution and magnitude of these currents, and a more realistic model of ionospheric conductivity, which is observed during magnetospheric substorms, when the geometry of the inter-hemispherical currents is more complicated. Simulation results show that the inter-hemispherical currents during substorms could play a very significant role, and neglecting these currents does not allow obtaining the correct picture of 3-D magnetosphere-ionosphere current system. These currents are an important part of 3-D field-aligned current system, and they are especially strong during summer-winter months, when they are comparable in magnitude with the R2 currents (about ~0.5 MA). Inter-hemispherical currents map. Left panel is related to Northern hemisphere, right panel to Southern. R1 and R2 currents are not shown; their locations are indicated by the red and blue dashed circles, respectively. The inter-hemispherical currents appear inside the auroral zone in the region of conductivity gradient. The currents in both hemispheres are equal in magnitude and

  7. HUBBLE SPOTS NORTHERN HEMISPHERIC CLOUDS ON URANUS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Using visible light, astronomers for the first time this century have detected clouds in the northern hemisphere of Uranus. The newest images, taken July 31 and Aug. 1, 1997 with NASA Hubble Space Telescope's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, show banded structure and multiple clouds. Using these images, Dr. Heidi Hammel (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) and colleagues Wes Lockwood (Lowell Observatory) and Kathy Rages (NASA Ames Research Center) plan to measure the wind speeds in the northern hemisphere for the first time. Uranus is sometimes called the 'sideways' planet, because its rotation axis is tipped more than 90 degrees from the planet's orbit around the Sun. The 'year' on Uranus lasts 84 Earth years, which creates extremely long seasons - winter in the northern hemisphere has lasted for nearly 20 years. Uranus has also been called bland and boring, because no clouds have been detectable in ground-based images of the planet. Even to the cameras of the Voyager spacecraft in 1986, Uranus presented a nearly uniform blank disk, and discrete clouds were detectable only in the southern hemisphere. Voyager flew over the planet's cloud tops near the dead of northern winter (when the northern hemisphere was completely shrouded in darkness). Spring has finally come to the northern hemisphere of Uranus. The newest images, both the visible-wavelength ones described here and those taken a few days earlier with the Near Infrared and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS) by Erich Karkoschka (University of Arizona), show a planet with banded structure and detectable clouds. Two images are shown here. The 'aqua' image (on the left) is taken at 5,470 Angstroms, which is near the human eye's peak response to wavelength. Color has been added to the image to show what a person on a spacecraft near Uranus might see. Little structure is evident at this wavelength, though with image-processing techniques, a small cloud can be seen near the planet's northern limb (rightmost

  8. Hubble Spots Northern Hemispheric Clouds on Uranus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Using visible light, astronomers for the first time this century have detected clouds in the northern hemisphere of Uranus. The newest images, taken July 31 and Aug. 1, 1997 with NASA Hubble Space Telescope's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, show banded structure and multiple clouds. Using these images, Dr. Heidi Hammel (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) and colleagues Wes Lockwood (Lowell Observatory) and Kathy Rages (NASA Ames Research Center) plan to measure the wind speeds in the northern hemisphere for the first time.

    Uranus is sometimes called the 'sideways' planet, because its rotation axis tipped more than 90 degrees from the planet's orbit around the Sun. The 'year' on Uranus lasts 84 Earth years, which creates extremely long seasons - winter in the northern hemisphere has lasted for nearly 20 years. Uranus has also been called bland and boring, because no clouds have been detectable in ground-based images of the planet. Even to the cameras of the Voyager spacecraft in 1986, Uranus presented a nearly uniform blank disk, and discrete clouds were detectable only in the southern hemisphere. Voyager flew over the planet's cloud tops near the dead of northern winter (when the northern hemisphere was completely shrouded in darkness).

    Spring has finally come to the northern hemisphere of Uranus. The newest images, both the visible-wavelength ones described here and those taken a few days earlier with the Near Infrared and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS) by Erich Karkoschka (University of Arizona), show a planet with banded structure and detectable clouds.

    Two images are shown here. The 'aqua' image (on the left) is taken at 5,470 Angstroms, which is near the human eye's peak response to wavelength. Color has been added to the image to show what a person on a spacecraft near Uranus might see. Little structure is evident at this wavelength, though with image-processing techniques, a small cloud can be seen near the planet's northern limb

  9. Has Northern Hemisphere Heat Flow Been Underestimated?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gosnold, W. D.; Majorowicz, J.; Safanda, J.; Szewczyk, J.

    2005-05-01

    We present three lines of evidence to suggest the hypothesis that heat flow in the northern hemisphere may have been underestimated by 15 to 60 percent in shallow wells due to a large post-glacial warming signal. First, temperature vs. depth (T-z) measurements in parts of Europe and North America show a systematic increase in heat flow with depth. This phenomenon is best recognized in analyses of deep (greater than 2km) boreholes in non-tectonic regions with normal to low background heat flow. In Europe, the increase in heat flow with depth has been observed by analysis of more than 1500 deep boreholes located throughout the Fennoscandian Shield, East European Platform, Danish Basin, Germany, Czech Republic, and Poland. There are significantly fewer deep boreholes in North America, but the increase in heat flow with depth appears in a suite of 759 sites in the IHFC Global Heat Flow Database for the region east of the Rocky Mountains and north of latitude 40 N. Second, surface heat flow values in southern hemisphere shields average approximately 50 mWm-2, but surface heat flow values in northern hemisphere shields average 33 mWm-2. Unless crustal radioactivity or mantle heat flow or both factors are greater in southern hemisphere continents, there is no reason for the northern and southern shield areas having similar ages to have different heat flow values. Third, two recently published surface heat flow maps show anomalously low heat flow in the Canadian Shield in a pattern that is coincident with the Wisconsinan ice sheet. The coincidence of low heat flow and ice accumulation has no geophysical basis, thus the coincidence may suggest the existence of a transient signal caused by a warming event. Recent studies of heat flow in North America indicate that in several sites, the ice base temperature was close to the pressure melting point. We hypothesize that there may have been cold ice-free periods during the Pleistocene that would account for the apparent colder

  10. Phenological changes in the southern hemisphere.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Lynda E; Altwegg, Res; Barbraud, Christophe; Barnard, Phoebe; Beaumont, Linda J; Crawford, Robert J M; Durant, Joel M; Hughes, Lesley; Keatley, Marie R; Low, Matt; Morellato, Patricia C; Poloczanska, Elvira S; Ruoppolo, Valeria; Vanstreels, Ralph E T; Woehler, Eric J; Wolfaardt, Anton C

    2013-01-01

    Current evidence of phenological responses to recent climate change is substantially biased towards northern hemisphere temperate regions. Given regional differences in climate change, shifts in phenology will not be uniform across the globe, and conclusions drawn from temperate systems in the northern hemisphere might not be applicable to other regions on the planet. We conduct the largest meta-analysis to date of phenological drivers and trends among southern hemisphere species, assessing 1208 long-term datasets from 89 studies on 347 species. Data were mostly from Australasia (Australia and New Zealand), South America and the Antarctic/subantarctic, and focused primarily on plants and birds. This meta-analysis shows an advance in the timing of spring events (with a strong Australian data bias), although substantial differences in trends were apparent among taxonomic groups and regions. When only statistically significant trends were considered, 82% of terrestrial datasets and 42% of marine datasets demonstrated an advance in phenology. Temperature was most frequently identified as the primary driver of phenological changes; however, in many studies it was the only climate variable considered. When precipitation was examined, it often played a key role but, in contrast with temperature, the direction of phenological shifts in response to precipitation variation was difficult to predict a priori. We discuss how phenological information can inform the adaptive capacity of species, their resilience, and constraints on autonomous adaptation. We also highlight serious weaknesses in past and current data collection and analyses at large regional scales (with very few studies in the tropics or from Africa) and dramatic taxonomic biases. If accurate predictions regarding the general effects of climate change on the biology of organisms are to be made, data collection policies focussing on targeting data-deficient regions and taxa need to be financially and logistically

  11. Phenological Changes in the Southern Hemisphere

    PubMed Central

    Chambers, Lynda E.; Altwegg, Res; Barbraud, Christophe; Barnard, Phoebe; Beaumont, Linda J.; Crawford, Robert J. M.; Durant, Joel M.; Hughes, Lesley; Keatley, Marie R.; Low, Matt; Morellato, Patricia C.; Poloczanska, Elvira S.; Ruoppolo, Valeria; Vanstreels, Ralph E. T.; Woehler, Eric J.; Wolfaardt, Anton C.

    2013-01-01

    Current evidence of phenological responses to recent climate change is substantially biased towards northern hemisphere temperate regions. Given regional differences in climate change, shifts in phenology will not be uniform across the globe, and conclusions drawn from temperate systems in the northern hemisphere might not be applicable to other regions on the planet. We conduct the largest meta-analysis to date of phenological drivers and trends among southern hemisphere species, assessing 1208 long-term datasets from 89 studies on 347 species. Data were mostly from Australasia (Australia and New Zealand), South America and the Antarctic/subantarctic, and focused primarily on plants and birds. This meta-analysis shows an advance in the timing of spring events (with a strong Australian data bias), although substantial differences in trends were apparent among taxonomic groups and regions. When only statistically significant trends were considered, 82% of terrestrial datasets and 42% of marine datasets demonstrated an advance in phenology. Temperature was most frequently identified as the primary driver of phenological changes; however, in many studies it was the only climate variable considered. When precipitation was examined, it often played a key role but, in contrast with temperature, the direction of phenological shifts in response to precipitation variation was difficult to predict a priori. We discuss how phenological information can inform the adaptive capacity of species, their resilience, and constraints on autonomous adaptation. We also highlight serious weaknesses in past and current data collection and analyses at large regional scales (with very few studies in the tropics or from Africa) and dramatic taxonomic biases. If accurate predictions regarding the general effects of climate change on the biology of organisms are to be made, data collection policies focussing on targeting data-deficient regions and taxa need to be financially and logistically

  12. Hemispheric asymmetry: contributions from brain imaging.

    PubMed

    Hugdahl, Kenneth

    2011-09-01

    A series of studies using functional and structural magnetic resonance imaging, including diffusion tensor imaging measures also, to elucidate the aspects of hemispheric asymmetry are reviewed. It is suggested that laterality evolved as a response to the demands of language and the need for air-based communication which may have necessitated a division of labor between the hemispheres in order to avoid having duplicate copies in both the hemispheres that would increase processing redundancy. This would have put pressure on brain structures related to the evolution of language and speech, such as the left peri-Sylvian region. MRI data are provided showing structural and functional asymmetry in this region of the brain and how fibers connecting the right and left peri-Sylvian regions pass through the corpus callosum. It is further suggested that the so-called Yakelovian-torque, i.e., the twisting of the brain along the longitudinal axis, with the right frontal and left occipital poles protruding beyond the corresponding left and right sides, was necessary for the expansion of the left peri-Sylvian region and the right occipito-parietal regions subserving the processing of spatial relations. Functional magnetic resonance imaging data related to sex differences for visuo-spatial processing are presented showing enhanced right-sided activation in posterior parts of the brain in both sexes, and frontal activation including Broca's area in the female group only, suggesting that males and females use different strategies when solving a cognitive task. The paper ends with a discussion of the role of the corpus callosum in laterality and the role played by structural asymmetry in understanding corresponding functional asymmetry. WIREs Cogni Sci 2011 2 461-478 DOI: 10.1002/wcs.122 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  13. Effects of hemisphere speech dominance and seizure focus on patterns of behavioral response errors for three types of stimuli.

    PubMed

    Rausch, R; MacDonald, K

    1997-03-01

    We used a protocol consisting of a continuous presentation of stimuli with associated response requests during an intracarotid sodium amobarbital procedure (IAP) to study the effects of hemisphere injected (speech dominant vs. nondominant) and seizure focus (left temporal lobe vs. right temporal lobe) on the pattern of behavioral response errors for three types of visual stimuli (pictures of common objects, words, and abstract forms). Injection of the left speech dominant hemisphere compared to the right nondominant hemisphere increased overall errors and affected the pattern of behavioral errors. The presence of a seizure focus in the contralateral hemisphere increased overall errors, particularly for the right temporal lobe seizure patients, but did not affect the pattern of behavioral errors. Left hemisphere injections disrupted both naming and reading responses at a rate similar to that of matching-to-sample performance. Also, a short-term memory deficit was observed with all three stimuli. Long-term memory testing following the left hemisphere injection indicated that only for pictures of common objects were there fewer errors during the early postinjection period than for the later long-term memory testing. Therefore, despite the inability to respond to picture stimuli, picture items, but not words or forms, could be sufficiently encoded for later recall. In contrast, right hemisphere injections resulted in few errors, with a pattern suggesting a mild general cognitive decrease. A selective weakness in learning unfamiliar forms was found. Our findings indicate that different patterns of behavioral deficits occur following the left vs. right hemisphere injections, with selective patterns specific to stimulus type.

  14. Persistent anomalies of the Southern Hemisphere circulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mo, K. C.

    1983-01-01

    The persistent features of large anomalies have been examined and the locations of blocking in the Southern Hemisphere were determined. The data set used here contains daily maps of 500 mb geopotential heights for 100 months (June 1, 1972 to Nov. 30, 1980) covering from 10S to 90S. The seasonal cycle was defined as a 8 year mean and the 8th (annual) and 16th (semiannual) Fourier components of the time series at each grid point. Anomalies were defined as the difference between the total field and the seasonal cycle for each grid point.

  15. Spatial disorientation in right-hemisphere infarction.

    PubMed Central

    Meerwaldt, J D; van Harskamp, F

    1982-01-01

    Spatial orientation was tested with the rod orientation test. The subjects were 40 normal controls and 68 brain-damaged patients with cerebral infarcts. Patients in whom the lesion included the post-rolandic region of the right hemisphere performed worse than controls or patients with lesions at other sites. Patients with an exclusively postrolandic (usually occipital) lesion showed higher error rates than patients with a combined prerolandic and postrolandic lesion, but only for the visual part of the test. These patients were re-examined one year after the stroke. Most of them showed an incomplete recovery of spatial function. PMID:7119828

  16. The genus Platychara from the Western Hemisphere

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peck, R.E.; Forester, R.M.

    1979-01-01

    The systematics of four species belonging to the genus Platychara (Charophyta) from the Western Hemisphere is discussed. Three of the species, as defined herein, occur in Cretaceous and Paleocene rocks from Mexico through South America. The type species, P. compressa (Peck and Reker) Grambast, also of Cretaceous and Paleocene age, is herein restricted to deposits north of Mexico. These latter restrictions geographically separate P. compressa and P. perlata as presently defined but the relationship between these two species is still uncertain. A new species, P. grambastii, is proposed for specimens from Maestrichtian sediments in Jamaica. ?? 1979.

  17. Biocompatible shaped particles from dried multilayer polymer capsules.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun; Kozlovskaya, Veronika; Goins, Allison; Campos-Gomez, Javier; Saeed, Mohammad; Kharlampieva, Eugenia

    2013-11-11

    We demonstrated a simple and facile approach to fabricate biocompatible monodisperse hollow microparticles of controlled geometry. The hemispherical, spherical, and cubical microparticles are obtained by drying multilayer capsules of hydrogen-bonded poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone)/tannic acid (PVPON/TA)n. Drying spherical capsules results in hemispherical particles if 15 < n < 20. This shape transformation is controlled by capsule stiffness, which is regulated by the layer number, capsule diameter, and PVPON molecular weight. Cubical and spherical hollow particles maintaining their three-dimensional shapes in the dry state are obtained if n ≥ 25.5. A 17-fold stiffness increase is required to lead from totally collapsed (PVPON/TA)5.5 to dried self-supporting (PVPON/TA)25.5 particles of 2 μm in dimensions. All hollow particles could be further resuspended in aqueous solutions while retaining their shapes upon rehydration. The cell growth and viability studies using human cancer cells revealed noncytotoxic properties of the (PVPON/TA) multilayer particles. Both spherical and hemispherical capsules were internalized by macrophages with the uptake of the hemispherical particles per cell two times more efficient. The method presented here allows for a robust preparation of biocompatible shaped particles whose shape and dimensions can be easily tuned by controlling capsule size and wall thickness. The reported structures can be potentially useful for biomedical applications such as shape-controlled cellular uptake and flow dynamics.

  18. Revisiting the Acanthamoeba species that form star-shaped cysts (genotypes T7, T8, T9, and T17): characterization of seven new Brazilian environmental isolates and phylogenetic inferences.

    PubMed

    Magliano, Ana C M; Teixeira, Marta M G; Alfieri, Silvia C

    2012-01-01

    Free-living amoebae of the genus Acanthamoeba are the agents of both opportunistic and non-opportunistic infections and are frequently isolated from the environment. Of the 17 genotypes (T1-T17) identified thus far, 4 (T7, T8, T9, and T17) accommodate the rarely investigated species of morphological group I, those that form large, star-shaped cysts. We report the isolation and characterization of 7 new Brazilian environmental Acanthamoeba isolates, all assigned to group I. Phylogenetic analyses based on partial (~1200 bp) SSU rRNA gene sequences placed the new isolates in the robustly supported clade composed of the species of morphological group I. One of the Brazilian isolates is closely related to A. comandoni (genotype T9), while the other 6, together with 2 isolates recently assigned to genotype T17, form a homogeneous, well-supported group (2·0% sequence divergence) that likely represents a new Acanthamoeba species. Thermotolerance, osmotolerance, and cytophatic effects, features often associated with pathogenic potential, were also examined. The results indicated that all 7 Brazilian isolates grow at temperatures up to 40°C, and resist under hyperosmotic conditions. Additionally, media conditioned by each of the new Acanthamoeba isolates induced the disruption of SIRC and HeLa cell monolayers.

  19. Completing the K-band CRF in the Southern Hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Witt, A.; Bertarini, A.; Jacobs, Christopher S.; McCallum, J.; Jung, T.; Quick, J.; Horiuchi, S.; Lovell, J.; Phillips, C.; Sohn, B. Won; Ojha, R.

    2014-03-01

    K-band (22 GHz) radio observations have the potential to form the basis for the most accurate Celestial Reference Frame (CRF) ever constructed. Relative to the standard S/X (2.3/8.4 GHz) observing bands, K-band is expected to exhibit a reduction in extended source morphology and core-shift. This reduction in astrophysical systematics should allow for a more stable CRF at K-band and should also be advantageous in tying the VLBI radio frame to the Gaia optical frame. K-band CRF observations currently exist only from the all-northern Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) and therefore must be complemented by observations from southern arrays in order to realise this potential. A collaboration has been formed with the goal of completing sky coverage at K-band with specific emphasis on the Southern hemisphere where K-band CRF coverage is weak. Southern hemisphere observations to densify the CRF at K-band are under way and preliminary astrometric observations were carried out on 23 August 2013 between telescopes in Australia (Hobart 26m), Korea (Tamna 21m) and South Africa (HartRAO 26m). More extensive astrometric observations were carried out on the 21st and 22nd of December 2013 that also included the Tidbinbilla 70m DSN antenna in Australia. A proposal for imaging source structure at K-band has been submitted to the Australian Telescope-Long Baseline Array (AT-LBA). We discuss some of our results as well as the implications for K-band CRF work.

  20. Bacteria form tellurium nanocrystals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oremland, R.S.

    2007-01-01

    A team of researchers have found two bacterial species that produce tellurium oxyanions as respiratory electron acceptors for growth, leaving elemental tellurium in the form of nanoparticles. The crystals from the two organisms exhibit distinctively different structures. Bacillus selenitireducens initially forms nanorods that cluster together to form rosettes. Sulfurospirillum barnesii forms irregularly-shaped nanospheres that coalesce into larger composite aggregates.

  1. Cognitive correlates of hemispheric performance on dichotic tasks.

    PubMed

    Johnson, R C; Green, P; Ahern, F M; Cole, R E

    Older (age 50+) adults were tested twice on three measures of dichotic memory and once on three measures of cognition. Internal consistencies of all three measures generally were adequate. However, test-retest reliabilities, by ear of presentation, were comparatively low for the three dichotic measures. A measure of vocabulary (a left hemisphere dominant cognitive ability) was related to performance on most dichotic tasks. Years of education (an index of left hemisphere mediated crystallized intelligence) was related to performance on left but not right hemisphere function on two of three dichotic tasks. Performance on tests of spatial ability was related to performance on left ear/right hemisphere but not right ear/left hemisphere function on two of three dichotic memory tasks. Individual differences in accuracy of recall and recognition of stimuli presented via dichotic tasks to the right ear/left hemisphere and the left ear/right hemisphere appear to have different cognitive correlates. Right hemisphere performance on dichotic tasks generally shows a significant negative association with age, as did performance on right hemisphere dominant cognitive tasks. On the other hand, most measures of left hemisphere performance showed no decline associated with age.

  2. Complementary hemispheric specialization for word and accent detection.

    PubMed

    Berman, Steven M; Mandelkern, Mark A; Phan, Hao; Zaidel, Eran

    2003-06-01

    When we hear a familiar word pronounced in a foreign accent, which parts of the brain identify the word and which identify the accent? Here we present converging evidence from PET blood flow, event-related scalp potentials, and behavioral responses during dichotic listening, showing homologous and complementary hemispheric specialization for word and accent detection. Accuracy of detecting target words was greater when stimuli were presented to the right ear, indicating left hemisphere specialization, with no ear advantage for detecting target accents. Detection of words also produced increased blood flow in a left frontal area associated with motor and phonetic processing, and a left temporal area associated with semantic memory. Homologous areas of the right hemisphere, together with right prefrontal and precuneus regions, showed increased blood flow during detection of accents. Separate analyses for each detection task indicated that voxels whose activity maximally correlated with accuracy were in the left hemisphere for word detection, but in the right hemisphere for accent detection. Voxels whose activity maximally correlated with inaccuracy were in the opposite hemisphere for both tasks, strengthening the interpretation that between-task differences in brain activation are related to lateralized specializations for task performance. ERP waveforms and reaction times suggested that greater left hemisphere activation during word detection preceded greater right hemisphere activation during accent detection. The results are interpreted as supporting left hemisphere specialization for extraction of the linguistic, phonetic, and semantic information contained in speech, and right hemisphere specialization for pragmatics, the social context of linguistic communication.

  3. Hemispheric specialization in dogs for processing different acoustic stimuli.

    PubMed

    Siniscalchi, Marcello; Quaranta, Angelo; Rogers, Lesley J

    2008-01-01

    Considerable experimental evidence shows that functional cerebral asymmetries are widespread in animals. Activity of the right cerebral hemisphere has been associated with responses to novel stimuli and the expression of intense emotions, such as aggression, escape behaviour and fear. The left hemisphere uses learned patterns and responds to familiar stimuli. Although such lateralization has been studied mainly for visual responses, there is evidence in primates that auditory perception is lateralized and that vocal communication depends on differential processing by the hemispheres. The aim of the present work was to investigate whether dogs use different hemispheres to process different acoustic stimuli by presenting them with playbacks of a thunderstorm and their species-typical vocalizations. The results revealed that dogs usually process their species-typical vocalizations using the left hemisphere and the thunderstorm sounds using the right hemisphere. Nevertheless, conspecific vocalizations are not always processed by the left hemisphere, since the right hemisphere is used for processing vocalizations when they elicit intense emotion, including fear. These findings suggest that the specialisation of the left hemisphere for intraspecific communication is more ancient that previously thought, and so is specialisation of the right hemisphere for intense emotions.

  4. Inter-hemispheric asymmetry of Pedersen conductance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Y.; Lu, Y.; Sheng, C.; Yue, X.

    2015-12-01

    Ionospheric conductance is very important to the magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling in the high latitude region, since it connects the polar cap potential with the currents. Meanwhile, the altitudinal distribution of Pederson conductance gives us a rough idea about the altitudinal distribution of Joule heating at high latitudes. Based on the Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate (COSMIC) satellites observations of electron density profiles from 2009-2014, Pedersen conductivity has been calculated. A climatologic study of the height-integrated Pedersen conductivities in both E (100-150 km) and F (150-600 km) regions and their ratio in different seasons, solar and geomagnetic conditions have been conducted. A significant inter-hemispheric asymmetry is identified in the seasonal variation. Meanwhile, the conductance in both regions and the conductance ratio show a strong dependence on F10.7 and Ap indices. This result will strongly help our understanding of the inter-hemispheric difference in the high-latitude electrodynamics.

  5. Hemisphere asymmetries for imitation of novel gestures.

    PubMed

    Goldenberg, Georg; Strauss, Stefan

    2002-09-24

    Disorders of imitation are traditionally considered as a symptom of apraxia, but defective imitation of gestures can contrast with intact performance of gestures to verbal command and vice versa. It thus seems worthwhile to explore the neural basis of imitation of gestures independently of other manifestations of apraxia. To assess body part specificity of disturbances of imitation for meaningless gestures of fingers, hand, and foot. Imitation of meaningless gestures involving fingers (internal hand configuration), hand (external hand position), or foot was examined in 30 patients with left brain damage (LBD), 20 patients with right brain damage (RBD), and 20 normal control subjects. LBD affected imitation of hand and foot gestures more than imitation of finger gestures, whereas RBD had the strongest effect on finger gestures and affected foot gestures more than hand gestures. These results can be accounted for by the assumption that body part coding of gestures depends on left hemisphere function and that additional right hemisphere contributions are afforded when demands on perceptual discrimination rise.

  6. A Search for Hemispheric Asymmetry on Triton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIntosh, C. M.; Storrs, A. D.

    2004-12-01

    We will present reconstructed images of Neptune's largest satellite Triton as part of an investigation of hemispheric asymmetry. The images we observed from the Hubble Space Telescope in July of 1997, using the Wide Field/Planetary Camera. The images were taken in several filters: F439W, F555W, and F791W. Image restoration was performed using the MISTRAL program (Mugnier, Fusco, and Conan 2003). We present the ratio between the filters to determine if there is any hemispheric color asymmetry at this time. The photometry of Triton appears normal in this data although Hicks and Buratti (2004) observe Triton to be anomalously red in August of 1997. References: Hicks, M.D., and Buratti, B.J. (2004): "The Spectral Variability of Triton from 1997-2000", Icarus 171 pp. 210-218 Mugnier, L.M., T. Fusco, and J.-M. Conan, 2003. "MISTRAL: a Myopic Edge-Preserving Image Restoration Method. Applicaton to Astronomical Adaptive Optics Corrected Long-Exposure Images." JOSA A (submitted)

  7. Interannual Variability and Trends of Extratropical Ozone, Part II: Southern Hemisphere. Part 2; Southern Hemisphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yung, Y. L.

    2008-01-01

    A principal component analysis (PCA) is applied to the Southern Hemisphere (SH) total column ozone following the method established for analyzing the data in the Northern Hemisphere (NH) in a companion paper. The interannual variability (IAV) of extratropical O-3 in the SH is characterized by four main modes, which account for 75% of the total variance. The first two leading modes are approximately zonally symmetric and relate to the Southern Hemisphere annular mode and the quasi-biennial oscillation. The third and fourth modes exhibit wavenumber-1 structures. Contrary to the Northern Hemisphere, the third and fourth are nor related to stationary waves. Similar results obtained for the 30 100-hPa geopotential thickness.The decreasing O3 trend in the SH is captured in the first mode. The largest trend is at the South Pole, with value similar to-2 Dobson Units (DU)/yr. Both the spatial pattern and trends in the column ozone are captured by the Goddard Earth Observation System chemistry-climate model (GEOS-CCM) in the SH.

  8. Does cognition in the disconnected right hemisphere require right hemisphere possession of language?

    PubMed

    Bogen, J E

    1997-03-01

    It has been asserted at times that the human right hemisphere is cognitively inferior to that of a chimpanzee or even a monkey. Related is the even stronger claim that human consciousness, as well as cognition, requires language. These claims are discussed, and counterexamples are presented from both split-brain subjects and patients hemispherectomized in adulthood after customary development as righthanders.

  9. First Geological Mapping Investigation of the Kerwan Hemisphere of Ceres (0-180°E), from NASA’s Dawn Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scully, Jennifer E. C.; Williams, David A.; Mest, Scott C.; Buczkowski, Debra L.; Jaumann, Ralf; Raymond, Carol A.; Russell, Christopher T.; Roatsch, Thomas; Preusker, Frank; Park, Ryan; Natheus, Andreas; Hoffmann, Martin; Schafer, Michael; Platz, Thomas; Schenk, Paul M.; Marchi, Simone; O'Brien, David P.; De Sanctis, Maria C.

    2015-11-01

    The Dawn Science team divided the surface of Ceres into quadrangles, in order to facilitate systematic geological mapping, which is a tool used to methodically observe and interpret the surfaces of planetary bodies. Here we present a geological map of the Kerwan hemisphere of Ceres (0-180°E), which we assemble from a combination of quadrangle-scale geological maps. Ceres’ Kerwan hemisphere is dominated by smooth plains, which surround the 284-km-diameter Kerwan crater. The smooth material has a lower abundance of craters than other parts of the Kerwan hemisphere, and may suggest that regional resurfacing has occurred. The current topography data also indicates that broad, positive topography features are present within Kerwan crater. In addition, there are ejecta deposits surrounding Haulani and Dantu craters, which are distinctive in photometrically corrected mosaics and color composite mosaics. These ejecta deposits may contribute to the #1 and #2 bright albedo regions observed by Li et al. (2006) with the Hubble Space Telescope. In the northern region, there are homogeneously distributed impact craters, most of which are circular, shallow, flat-floored and contain central mounds. Polygonal craters are also observed, which may provide inferences about the target materials in which they formed. In the southern region there are numerous craters containing central mounds and smooth material in their interiors. For example, the 129-km-diameter Zadeni crater contains a broad central mound. Moreover, lobate deposits are found in numerous craters in the Kerwan hemisphere, which are likely formed by mass wasting. Ongoing work will include the development of a detailed geological history and the use of crater morphologies to infer the composition and physical properties of the sub-surface. Currently, our geological mapping is based on Approach (~1.3 km/pixel) and Survey (~400 m/pixel) mosaics of clear and color filter data from the Dawn spacecraft’s Framing Camera

  10. Dominant hemisphere lateralization of cortical parasympathetic control as revealed by frontotemporal dementia

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Christine C.; Sturm, Virginia E.; Zhou, Juan; Gennatas, Efstathios D.; Trujillo, Andrew J.; Hua, Alice Y.; Crawford, Richard; Stables, Lara; Kramer, Joel H.; Rankin, Katherine; Levenson, Robert W.; Rosen, Howard J.; Miller, Bruce L.; Seeley, William W.

    2016-01-01

    The brain continuously influences and perceives the physiological condition of the body. Related cortical representations have been proposed to shape emotional experience and guide behavior. Although previous studies have identified brain regions recruited during autonomic processing, neurological lesion studies have yet to delineate the regions critical for maintaining autonomic outflow. Even greater controversy surrounds hemispheric lateralization along the parasympathetic–sympathetic axis. The behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), featuring progressive and often asymmetric degeneration that includes the frontoinsular and cingulate cortices, provides a unique lesion model for elucidating brain structures that control autonomic tone. Here, we show that bvFTD is associated with reduced baseline cardiac vagal tone and that this reduction correlates with left-lateralized functional and structural frontoinsular and cingulate cortex deficits and with reduced agreeableness. Our results suggest that networked brain regions in the dominant hemisphere are critical for maintaining an adaptive level of baseline parasympathetic outflow. PMID:27071080

  11. Stereotyping, self-affirmation, and the cerebral hemispheres.

    PubMed

    Shrira, Ilan; Martin, Leonard L

    2005-06-01

    The authors used the processing characteristics of the left and right cerebral hemispheres to gain some insight into the relation between self-affirmation and stereotyping. In Study 1, self-affirmation led to greater stereotyping (of a librarian) and to greater left hemisphere activation, which in turn mediated the self-affirmation/stereotyping relationship. Study 2 replicated these results but also found that self-affirmation decreased stereotyping for a stigmatized target. However, relative hemisphere activation did not mediate this self-affirmation/stereotyping relationship. These studies showed that self-affirmation can either increase or decrease stereotyping depending on the status of the target and that relative hemisphere activation may provide clues as to underlying processes of stereotyping. In both studies, relative hemisphere activation was assessed using a line bisection task. Discussion focuses on possible mechanisms of different kinds of stereotyping and on the ways in which a consideration of relative hemisphere activation could help researchers gain insights into those mechanisms.

  12. Antarctic Role in Northern Hemisphere Glaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodard, S. C.; Rosenthal, Y.; Miller, K. G.; Wright, J. D.; Lawrence, K. T.; Chiu, B. K.

    2014-12-01

    The late Pliocene, ~3 million years ago (Ma), is the most recent period in geologic history with elevated atmospheric CO2 and global surface temperature estimates analogous to those projected for the end of the 21st century making it a focus of paleoclimate research. Proxy reconstructions suggest average global sea surface temperatures (SSTs) were ~2-3°C above present during the late Pliocene warm period (~3.3-2.9 Ma). In the North Atlantic, regional SST anomalies reached as much as +6°C and even larger temperature anomalies occurred on land in the northern hemisphere. An episode of global cooling and sea level fall following the warm late Pliocene is attributed to a major expansion of northern hemisphere ice sheets at ~2.73 Ma and referred to as the intensification of northern hemisphere glaciation (NHG). We reconstruct the thermal and geochemical history of North Pacific deep water (ODP Site 1208) from 3.3-2.5 Ma at orbital scale resolution using benthic foraminiferal Mg/Ca and stable isotopic ratios (δ18O, δ13C) in order to evaluate changes in continental ice volume and deep ocean circulation as the climate deteriorated and NHG intensified. We find that the oceanic cooling trend which followed late Pliocene warmth did not occur in the deep Pacific Ocean and an average ~21±10 m sea level equivalent ice growth occurred from 3.15-2.75 Ma prior to the intensification of NHG. Furthermore, both the benthic d18Oc and BWTs in the Pacific are offset from the North Atlantic prior to 2.75 Ma. By ~2.73 Ma (interglacial-glacial cycle G7-G6), the Atlantic-Pacific BWT and d18O gradients were reduced to <1°C and <0.1‰, respectively. We interpret these abrupt hydrographic changes as the initiation of stronger heat and salt transfer from the North Atlantic to the Pacific due to a fundamental change in deep ocean circulation driven by late Pliocene ice growth on Antarctica.

  13. Hemispheric cups do not reproduce acetabular rim morphology.

    PubMed

    Vandenbussche, Eric; Saffarini, Mohammed; Delogé, Nicolas; Moctezuma, José-Luis; Nogler, Michael

    2007-06-01

    Iliopsoas impingement is a recurrent complication following THA, caused by muscle friction against a protrusive prosthetic cup.This study was designed to quantify the dimensional variations in acetabular rim profiles, with particular regard to the iliopubic valley, in order to suggest means to prevent iliopsoas impingement. 34 cadaver pelvises were analyzed using a hip navigation system. The morphometric data were processed to plot profiles of all acetabular rims with particular regard to the shape and depth of the psoas valley. The acetabular rim is an asymmetric succession of 3 peaks and 3 troughs. The psoas valley is a salient feature in most pelvises and there is only a weak correlation between its depth (mean 3.8 mm, SD 2.0) and acetabular diameter, anteversion, or inclination. It would be difficult to obviate the anterior overlap of the acetabulum using a hemispheric cup, a fortiori in certain morphotypes, without compromising range of motion or risk of dislocation. The solution for prevention of iliopsoas impingement would be to adapt cup design to acetabular anatomy, which may require different implants for the right and left sides, and hence a doubled inventory.

  14. Universality of fragment shapes

    PubMed Central

    Domokos, Gábor; Kun, Ferenc; Sipos, András Árpád; Szabó, Tímea

    2015-01-01

    The shape of fragments generated by the breakup of solids is central to a wide variety of problems ranging from the geomorphic evolution of boulders to the accumulation of space debris orbiting Earth. Although the statistics of the mass of fragments has been found to show a universal scaling behavior, the comprehensive characterization of fragment shapes still remained a fundamental challenge. We performed a thorough experimental study of the problem fragmenting various types of materials by slowly proceeding weathering and by rapid breakup due to explosion and hammering. We demonstrate that the shape of fragments obeys an astonishing universality having the same generic evolution with the fragment size irrespective of materials details and loading conditions. There exists a cutoff size below which fragments have an isotropic shape, however, as the size increases an exponential convergence is obtained to a unique elongated form. We show that a discrete stochastic model of fragmentation reproduces both the size and shape of fragments tuning only a single parameter which strengthens the general validity of the scaling laws. The dependence of the probability of the crack plan orientation on the linear extension of fragments proved to be essential for the shape selection mechanism. PMID:25772300

  15. Universality of fragment shapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domokos, Gábor; Kun, Ferenc; Sipos, András Árpád; Szabó, Tímea

    2015-03-01

    The shape of fragments generated by the breakup of solids is central to a wide variety of problems ranging from the geomorphic evolution of boulders to the accumulation of space debris orbiting Earth. Although the statistics of the mass of fragments has been found to show a universal scaling behavior, the comprehensive characterization of fragment shapes still remained a fundamental challenge. We performed a thorough experimental study of the problem fragmenting various types of materials by slowly proceeding weathering and by rapid breakup due to explosion and hammering. We demonstrate that the shape of fragments obeys an astonishing universality having the same generic evolution with the fragment size irrespective of materials details and loading conditions. There exists a cutoff size below which fragments have an isotropic shape, however, as the size increases an exponential convergence is obtained to a unique elongated form. We show that a discrete stochastic model of fragmentation reproduces both the size and shape of fragments tuning only a single parameter which strengthens the general validity of the scaling laws. The dependence of the probability of the crack plan orientation on the linear extension of fragments proved to be essential for the shape selection mechanism.

  16. Concept and verbal ability as related to the cerebral hemispheres.

    PubMed

    Cook, N D

    1977-10-01

    A new theory of human brain function is outlined in terms of the cooperative interaction of the cerebral hemispheres. The well-established verbal, symbolic functions of the left hemisphere and the wholistic, spatial functions of the right hemisphere are seen as separate and independent manifestations of the normally integrated verbal-analytic (or "error detector") and conceptual (or "goal state") functions of the left and right, respectively. The relationship between the hemispheres is described in terms of the "goal-directed" system of cybernetics and then compared with related ideas previously presented by Dimond, Penfield, and Piaget.

  17. Northern vs. Southern Hemisphere energy conversions in January 1979

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurrell, James W.; Vincent, Dayton G.; Huang, Huo-Jin

    1986-01-01

    The methodology applied by Huang and Vincent (1985) for the diagnosis of the zonal and eddy energy conversions in the Southern Hemisphere was used to diagnose the energetics of the Northern Hemisphere for the same period (i.e., January 10-27, 1979). It was found that, in both hemispheres, the larger synoptic-scale waves are important in the AZ-AE-KE conversion. However, in the Northern Hemisphere, the long waves make the most significant contribution to this conversion cycle, whereas in the Southern Hemispere, the intermediate waves dominate.

  18. Developmental trends in right hemispheric participation in reading.

    PubMed

    Waldie, K E; Mosley, J L

    2000-01-01

    Behavioral laterality tasks assessed the differential processing efficiencies of the cerebral hemispheres in younger and older reading-age children. Lateralized lexical decision task findings supported a "direct access" model of hemispheric processing for the younger children whereas the older children demonstrated a "callosal relay" pattern. A dual-task with oral and silent reading indicated that the right hand was significantly more disrupted than the left during unimanual finger tapping. The findings suggest that although the left hemisphere's involvement during reading is developmentally stable, the involvement of the right hemisphere appears to change dynamically as reading experience increases.

  19. Shortwave Array Spectroradiometer–Hemispheric (SASHe) Instrument Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Flynn, Connor J

    2016-04-01

    The Shortwave Array Spectroradiometer–Hemispheric (SASHe) provides measurements of direct solar, hemispheric diffuse, and total hemispheric shortwave irradiance over a continuous spectral range from approximately 300 nm to 1700 nm at a rate of about 30 seconds. The SASHe design connects an optical collector located outdoors to a pair of spectrometers and data collections systems located indoors within a climate-controlled building via an umbilical cable of fiber optic and electrical cables. The light collector uses a small Spectralon button as a hemispheric diffuser with a shadowband to distinguish signal from diffuse sky and direct sun.

  20. Right hemisphere involvement in imprinting memory revealed by glutamate treatment.

    PubMed

    Johnston, A N; Rogers, L J

    1998-08-01

    The lateralized use of the forebrain hemispheres during recall of imprinting memory was investigated using unilateral intrahemispheric injections of glutamate. Administration of glutamate to the right hemisphere 1.3, or 6 h after exposure to the imprinting stimulus disrupted recall 8 h after the end of training, whereas the same treatment of the left hemisphere had no effect. Imprinted chicks treated with glutamate injected into the right hemisphere did not approach the imprinting stimulus in preference to an alternative, unfamiliar stimulus during a simultaneous choice test, whereas imprinted chicks treated with glutamate injected into the left hemisphere showed a preference for the imprinting stimulus. Thus, the left and right hemispheres are involved differentially in the recall of imprinting memory. Fear behavior or activity levels were not altered by glutamate treatment of either the right or left hemisphere, indicating that the effects of glutamate were specific to recall of imprinting memory. However, the amnestic effect of treatment of the right hemisphere with glutamate was transient: it was no longer evident by 48 h after the end of training. Also, glutamate had no effect when the chicks were treated 9 h after the end of training. These results suggest that regions in right hemisphere of the chick brain are involved in early (0-8 h after training) recall of imprinting memory.

  1. Attenuated hemispheric asymmetry in metaphor processing among adults with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Segal, Dorit; Shalev, Lilach; Mashal, Nira

    2017-09-01

    To characterize the hemispheric processing of metaphors in adults with ADHD compared to controls. We investigated the hemispheric processing of metaphors in 24 adult participants diagnosed with ADHD and 24 control participants. The hemispheric processing was examined using a divided visual field paradigm, in which different kinds of metaphors as well as literal word pairs and unrelated word pairs were presented either to the right visual field/left hemisphere (RVF/LH) or to the left visual field/right hemisphere (LVF/RH). Control participants processed metaphors more efficiently when presented in the LVF/RH than when presented in the RVF/LH, whereas participants with ADHD demonstrated attenuated asymmetry of hemispheric processing. Furthermore, asymmetry of hemispheric processing, together with sustained attention, contributed significantly to the prediction of self-report of ADHD symptoms. Our results suggest that the hemispheric processing of adults with ADHD is less lateralized than the hemispheric processing of control participants. Moreover, the diminished lateralization of metaphor processing along with deficient sustained attention may reflect distinct cognitive mechanisms underlying ADHD and as such our results support multiple pathway models of ADHD. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Hemispheric asymmetry and theory of mind: is there an association?

    PubMed

    Herzig, Daniela A; Sullivan, Sarah; Evans, Jonathan; Corcoran, Rhiannon; Mohr, Christine

    2012-01-01

    In autism and schizophrenia attenuated/atypical functional hemispheric asymmetry and theory of mind impairments have been reported, suggesting common underlying neuroscientific correlates. We here investigated whether impaired theory of mind performance is associated with attenuated/atypical hemispheric asymmetry. An association may explain the co-occurrence of both dysfunctions in psychiatric populations. Healthy participants (n=129) performed a left hemisphere (lateralised lexical decision task) and right hemisphere (lateralised face decision task) dominant task as well as a visual cartoon task to assess theory of mind performance. Linear regression analyses revealed inconsistent associations between theory of mind performance and functional hemisphere asymmetry: enhanced theory of mind performance was only associated with (1) faster right hemisphere language processing, and (2) reduced right hemisphere dominance for face processing (men only). The majority of non-significant findings suggest that theory of mind and functional hemispheric asymmetry are unrelated. Instead of "overinterpreting" the two significant results, discrepancies in the previous literature relating to the problem of the theory of mind concept, the variety of tasks, and the lack of normative data are discussed. We also suggest how future studies could explore a possible link between hemispheric asymmetry and theory of mind.

  3. Molecular phylogenetics and evolutionary history of sect. Quinquefoliae (Pinus): implications for Northern Hemisphere biogeography.

    PubMed

    Hao, Zhen-Zhen; Liu, Yan-Yan; Nazaire, Mare; Wei, Xiao-Xin; Wang, Xiao-Quan

    2015-06-01

    Climatic changes and tectonic events in the Cenozoic have greatly influenced the evolution and geographic distribution of the temperate flora. Such consequences should be most evident in plant groups that are ancient, widespread, and diverse. As one of the most widespread genera of trees, Pinus provides a good model for investigating the history of species diversification and biogeographic disjunction in the Northern Hemisphere. In this study, we reconstructed the phylogeny and investigated the evolutionary and biogeographic history of sect. Quinquefoliae (Pinus), a species-rich lineage disjunctly distributed in Asia, Europe and North America, based on complete taxon sampling and by using nine DNA fragments from chloroplast (cp), mitochondrial (mt) and nuclear genomes. The monophyly of the three subsections, Krempfianae, Gerardianae, and Strobus, is well-supported by cpDNA and nuclear gene phylogenies. However, neither subsect. Gerardianae nor subsect. Strobus forms a monophyletic group in the mtDNA phylogeny, in which sect. Quinquefoliae was divided into two major clades, one consisting of the North American and northeastern Asian species as well as the European P. peuce of subsect. Strobus, and the other comprising the remaining Eurasian species belonging to three subsections. The significant topological incongruence among the gene trees, in conjunction with divergence time estimation and ancestral area reconstruction, indicates that both ancient and relatively recent introgressive hybridization events occurred in the evolution of sect. Quinquefoliae, particularly in northeastern Asia and northwestern North America. In addition, the phylogenetic analysis suggests that the species of subsect. Strobus from subtropical eastern Asia and neighboring areas may have a single origin, although species non-monophyly is very widespread in the nuclear gene trees. Moreover, our study seems to support a Tethyan origin of sect. Quinquefoliae given the distributions and

  4. Onsite-effects of dual-hemisphere versus conventional single-hemisphere transcranial direct current stimulation: A functional MRI study.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Yong Hyun; Jang, Sung Ho

    2012-08-25

    We performed functional MRI examinations in six right-handed healthy subjects. During functional MRI scanning, transcranial direct current stimulation was delivered with the anode over the right primary sensorimotor cortex and the cathode over the left primary sensorimotor cortex using dual-hemispheric transcranial direct current stimulation. This was compared to a cathode over the left supraorbital area using conventional single-hemispheric transcranial direct current stimulation. Voxel counts and blood oxygenation level-dependent signal intensities in the right primary sensorimotor cortex regions were estimated and compared between the two transcranial direct current stimulation conditions. Our results showed that dual-hemispheric transcranial direct current stimulation induced greater cortical activities than single-hemispheric transcranial direct current stimulation. These findings suggest that dual-hemispheric transcranial direct current stimulation may provide more effective cortical stimulation than single-hemispheric transcranial direct current stimulation.

  5. Atmospheric Motion in Jupiter Northern Hemisphere

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-09-25

    True-color (left) and false-color (right) mosaics of Jupiter's northern hemisphere between 10 and 50 degrees latitude. Jupiter's atmospheric motions are controlled by alternating eastward and westward bands of air between Jupiter's equator and polar regions. The direction and speed of these bands influences the color and texture of the clouds seen in this mosaic. The high and thin clouds are represented by light blue, deep clouds are reddish, and high and thick clouds are white. A high haze overlying a clear, deep atmosphere is represented by dark purple. This image was taken by NASA's Galileo spacecraft on April 3, 1997 at a distance of 1.4 million kilometers (.86 million miles). http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA03000

  6. Atmospheric Motion in Jupiter's Northern Hemisphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    True-color (left) and false-color (right) mosaics of Jupiter's northern hemisphere between 10 and 50 degrees latitude. Jupiter's atmospheric motions are controlled by alternating eastward and westward bands of air between Jupiter's equator and polar regions. The direction and speed of these bands influences the color and texture of the clouds seen in this mosaic. The high and thin clouds are represented by light blue, deep clouds are reddish, and high and thick clouds are white. A high haze overlying a clear, deep atmosphere is represented by dark purple. This image was taken by NASA's Galileo spacecraft on April 3, 1997 at a distance of 1.4 million kilometers (.86 million miles).

  7. Voyager 1 Jupiter Southern Hemisphere Movie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This movie shows a portion of Jupiter in the southern hemisphere over 17Jupiter days. Above the white belt, notice the series of atmospheric vortices headed west. Even these early approach frames show wild dynamics in the roiling environment south of the white belt. Notice the small tumbling white cloud near the center.

    As Voyager 1 approached Jupiter in 1979, it took images of the planet at regular intervals. This sequence is made from 17 images taken once every Jupiter rotation period (about 10 hours). These images were acquired in the Blue filter around Feb. 1, 1979. The spacecraft was about 37 million kilometers from Jupiter at that time.

    This time-lapse movie was produced at JPL by the Image Processing Laboratory in 1979.

  8. Paleoceanography. Antarctic role in Northern Hemisphere glaciation.

    PubMed

    Woodard, Stella C; Rosenthal, Yair; Miller, Kenneth G; Wright, James D; Chiu, Beverly K; Lawrence, Kira T

    2014-11-14

    Earth's climate underwent a major transition from the warmth of the late Pliocene, when global surface temperatures were ~2° to 3°C higher than today, to extensive Northern Hemisphere glaciation (NHG) ~2.73 million years ago (Ma). We show that North Pacific deep waters were substantially colder (4°C) and probably fresher than the North Atlantic Deep Water before the intensification of NHG. At ~2.73 Ma, the Atlantic-Pacific temperature gradient was reduced to <1°C, suggesting the initiation of stronger heat transfer from the North Atlantic to the deep Pacific. We posit that increased glaciation of Antarctica, deduced from the 21 ± 10-meter sea-level fall from 3.15 to 2.75 Ma, and the development of a strong polar halocline fundamentally altered deep ocean circulation, which enhanced interhemispheric heat and salt transport, thereby contributing to NHG. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  9. Atmospheric Motion in Jupiter's Northern Hemisphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    True-color (left) and false-color (right) mosaics of Jupiter's northern hemisphere between 10 and 50 degrees latitude. Jupiter's atmospheric motions are controlled by alternating eastward and westward bands of air between Jupiter's equator and polar regions. The direction and speed of these bands influences the color and texture of the clouds seen in this mosaic. The high and thin clouds are represented by light blue, deep clouds are reddish, and high and thick clouds are white. A high haze overlying a clear, deep atmosphere is represented by dark purple. This image was taken by NASA's Galileo spacecraft on April 3, 1997 at a distance of 1.4 million kilometers (.86 million miles).

  10. Stenomaps: Shorthand for shapes.

    PubMed

    van Goethem, Arthur; Reimer, Andreas; Speckmann, Bettina; Wood, Jo

    2014-12-01

    We address some of the challenges in representing spatial data with a novel form of geometric abstraction-the stenomap. The stenomap comprises a series of smoothly curving linear glyphs that each represent both the boundary and the area of a polygon. We present an efficient algorithm to automatically generate these open, C1-continuous splines from a set of input polygons. Feature points of the input polygons are detected using the medial axis to maintain important shape properties. We use dynamic programming to compute a planar non-intersecting spline representing each polygon's base shape. The results are stylised glyphs whose appearance may be parameterised and that offer new possibilities in the 'cartographic design space'. We compare our glyphs with existing forms of geometric schematisation and discuss their relative merits and shortcomings. We describe several use cases including the depiction of uncertain model data in the form of hurricane track forecasting; minimal ink thematic mapping; and the depiction of continuous statistical data.

  11. Precision study of the η → μ+μ-γ and ω → μ+μ-π0 electromagnetic transition form-factors and of the ρ → μ+μ- line shape in NA60

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnaldi, R.; Banicz, K.; Borer, K.; Castor, J.; Chaurand, B.; Chen, W.; Cicalò, C.; Colla, A.; Cortese, P.; Damjanovic, S.; David, A.; de Falco, A.; Devaux, A.; Ducroux, L.; En'yo, H.; Fargeix, J.; Ferretti, A.; Floris, M.; Förster, A.; Force, P.; Guettet, N.; Guichard, A.; Gulkanian, H.; Heuser, J. M.; Jarron, P.; Keil, M.; Kluberg, L.; Li, Z.; Lourenço, C.; Lozano, J.; Manso, F.; Martins, P.; Masoni, A.; Neves, A.; Ohnishi, H.; Oppedisano, C.; Parracho, P.; Pillot, P.; Poghosyan, T.; Puddu, G.; Radermacher, E.; Ramalhete, P.; Rosinsky, P.; Scomparin, E.; Seixas, J.; Serci, S.; Shahoyan, R.; Sonderegger, P.; Specht, H. J.; Tieulent, R.; Uras, A.; Usai, G.; Veenhof, R.; Wöhri, H. K.

    2016-06-01

    The NA60 experiment studied low-mass muon pair production in proton-nucleus (p-A) collisions using a 400 GeV proton beam at the CERN SPS. The low-mass dimuon spectrum is well described by the superposition of the two-body and Dalitz decays of the light neutral mesons η, ρ, ω, η‧ and ϕ, and no evidence of in-medium effects is found. A new high-precision measurement of the electromagnetic transition form factors of the η and ω was performed, profiting from a 10 times larger data sample than the peripheral In-In sample previously collected by NA60. Using the pole-parameterisation | F (M)|2 =(1 -M2 /Λ2)- 2 we find Λη-2 = 1.934 ± 0.067 (stat.) ±0.050 (syst.) (GeV /c2)-2 and Λω-2 = 2.223 ± 0.026 (stat.) ±0.037 (syst.) (GeV /c2)-2. An improved value of the branching ratio of the Dalitz decay ω →μ+μ-π0 is also obtained, with BR (ω →μ+μ-π0) = [ 1.41 ± 0.09 (stat.) ± 0.15 (syst.) ] ×10-4. Further results refer to the ρ line shape and a new limit on ρ / ω interference in hadron interactions.

  12. Precision study of the η → μ+μ-γ and ω → μ+μ-π0 electromagnetic transition form-factors and of the ρ → μ+μ- line shape in NA60

    DOE PAGES

    Arnaldi, R.; Banicz, K.; Borer, K.; ...

    2016-04-11

    The NA60 experiment studied low-mass muon pair production in proton–nucleus (p–A) collisions using a 400 GeV proton beam at the CERN SPS. The low-mass dimuon spectrum is well described by the superposition of the two-body and Dalitz decays of the light neutral mesons η, ρ, ω, η' and φ, and no evidence of in-medium effects is found. A new high-precision measurement of the electromagnetic transition form factors of the η and ω was performed, profiting from a 10 times larger data sample than the peripheral In–In sample previously collected by NA60. Using the pole-parameterisation |F(M)|2=(1 - M2/Λ2)-2 we find Λ-2ηmore » = 1.934 ± 0.067 (stat.) ±0.050(syst.) (GeV/c2)-2 and Λ-2ω = 2.223 ± 0.026(stat.) ± 0.037(syst.) (GeV/c2)-2. An improved value of the branching ratio of the Dalitz decay ω → μ+μ-π0 is also obtained, with BR(ω → μ+μ-π0) = [1.41 ± 0.09(stat.) ± 0.15(syst.)] ×10-4. Finally, further results refer to the ρ line shape and a new limit on ρ/ω interference in hadron interactions.« less

  13. SAXS data based global shape analysis of trigger factor (TF) proteins from E. coli, V. cholerae, and P. frigidicola: resolving the debate on the nature of monomeric and dimeric forms.

    PubMed

    Rathore, Yogendra S; Dhoke, Reema R; Badmalia, Maulik; Sagar, Amin; Ashish

    2015-05-21

    Dimerization of bacterial chaperone trigger factor (TF) is an inherent protein concentration based property which available biophysical characterization and crystal structures have kept debatable. We acquired small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) intensity data from different TF homologues from Escherichia coli (ECTF), Vibrio cholerae (VCTF), and Psychrobacter frigidicola (PFTF) while varying each protein concentration. We found that ECTF and VCTF adopt a compact dimeric shape at higher concentrations which did not resemble the "back-to-back" conformation reported earlier for ECTF from crystallography (PDB ID: 1W26 ). In contrast, PFTF remained monomeric throughout the concentration range 2-90 μM displaying a multimodal open extended conformation. OLIGOMER analysis showed that both the ECTF and VCTF remained completely monomeric at lower concentrations (2-11 μM), while, at higher concentrations (60-90 μM), they adopted a dimeric form. Interestingly, the equilibrium existed in the medium concentration range (>11 and <60 μM), which correlates with the physiological concentration (40-50 μM) of TF in cell cytoplasm. Additionally, circular dichroism data revealed that solution structures of ECTF and VCTF contain predominantly α-helical content, while PFTF contains 310-helical content.

  14. Hemispherical anomaly from asymmetric initial states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashoorioon, Amjad; Koivisto, Tomi

    2016-08-01

    We investigate if the hemispherical asymmetry in the CMB is produced from "asymmetric" excited initial conditions. We show that in the limit where the deviations from the Bunch-Davies vacuum are large and the scale of new physics is maximally separated from the inflationary Hubble parameter, the primordial power spectrum is modulated only by position-dependent dipole and quadrupole terms. Requiring the dipole contribution in the power spectrum to account for the observed power asymmetry, A =0.07 ±0.022 , we show that the amount of quadrupole terms is roughly equal to A2. The mean local bispectrum, which gets enhanced for the excited initial state, is within the 1 σ bound of Planck 2015 results for a large field model, fNL≃4.17 , but is reachable by future CMB experiments. The amplitude of the local non-Gaussianity modulates around this mean value, depending on the angle that the correlated patches on the 2d CMB surface make with the preferred direction. The amount of variation is minimized for the configuration in which the short and long wavelength modes are around the preferred pole and |k→3|≈|k→l ≈10|≪|k→1|≈|k→2|≈|k→l ≈2500| with fNLmin≈3.64 . The maximum occurs when these modes are at the antipode of the preferred pole, fNLmax≈4.81 . The difference of non-Gaussianity between these two configurations is as large as ≃1.17 , which can be used to distinguish this scenario from other scenarios that try to explain the observed hemispherical asymmetry.

  15. The Tropical Western Hemisphere Warm Pool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C.; Enfield, D. B.

    2002-12-01

    The paper describes and examines variability of the tropical Western Hemisphere warm pool (WHWP) of water warmer than 28.5oC. The WHWP is the second-largest tropical warm pool on Earth. Unlike the Eastern Hemisphere warm pool in the western Pacific, which straddles the equator, the WHWP is entirely north of the equator. At various stages of development the WHWP extends over parts of the eastern North Pacific, the Gulf of Mexico, the Caribbean, and the western tropical North Atlantic. It has a large seasonal cycle and its interannual fluctuations of area and intensity are significant. Surface heat fluxes warm the WHWP through the boreal spring to an annual maximum of SST and WHWP area in the late summer/early fall, associated with eastern North Pacific and Atlantic hurricane activities and rainfall from northern South America to the southern tier of the United States. Observations suggest that a positive ocean-atmosphere feedback operating through longwave radiation and associated cloudiness seems to operate in the WHWP. During winter preceding large warm pool, there is an alteration of the Walker and Hadley circulation cells that serves as a "tropospheric bridge" for transferring Pacific ENSO effects to the Atlantic sector and inducing initial warming of warm pool. Associated with the warm SST anomalies is a decrease in sea level pressure anomalies and an anomalous increase in atmospheric convection and cloudiness. The increase in convective activity and cloudiness results in less net longwave radiation loss from the sea surface, which then reinforces SST anomalies.

  16. [Hemispheric interaction during the processing of spatial information].

    PubMed

    Gabibov, I M

    1993-01-01

    As a result studying the features of single neurons of prestrial cortex (field 21) of a cat the interhemispheric differences are revealed. It is found that the sizes of receptive fields (RF) of the neurons of this region in the left hemisphere is 1.5 larger as in the right one. The RFs of the left hemisphere consist of zones (mainly 5-9) than the RFs of the right hemisphere which in turn consist of 1-4 zones. About 70% of neurons of the left hemisphere are invariant to a direction of the movement of stimulus, the similar number of the right hemisphere neurons are selective with respect to orientation of a stimulus. The study of the spatial-frequency characteristics of RTs of this region indicated that the left hemisphere neurons are tuned to more lower frequencies (0.05-0.89 cycle/grade) than neurons of the right hemisphere (0.11-3.5 cycle/grade). The study of an activity of the neurons of field 21 after commissurotomy has demonstrated that in this case the hemispheres are fully lost the possibility to receive information from contralateral semifield of the vision. The sizes of RFs are significantly less and become equal in the both hemispheres. The neurons of this region become selective to an orientation of stimulus both in the left and right hemispheres. On the basis of the results of clinical and psychophysical studies it is customary to assume that the two sides of the visual perception--concrete and abstract--to a certain extent are disintegrated between each other and are supplied chiefly by different hemispheres.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Activity of the northern and southern hemispheres as a basis of the solar cycle manifestation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryabov, M. I.

    2015-12-01

    The dynamics of the evolution of solar cycles is considered a result of the activity manifestation in the northern and southern hemispheres. A study was performed based on separate datasets for the northern and southern hemispheres that contain the monthly and daily averages of the areas of sunspot groups for the period covering activity cycles from 12 to 24 (1874-2013) and the daily values of the Wolf number in the northern and southern hemispheres during cycles 23-24 (1992-2013).To obtain a pattern of development of the "northern" and "southern" solar cycles in detail, a special technique for the extended application of the wavelet analysis has been developed. It allows different the wave processes forming a solar cycle to be distinguished, together with the time of their existence. The application of bandpass Fourier filtering to the obtained data shows that the length of "11-year" cycles by the index S p varies from 10.2 to 11.5 years in the northern hemisphere and from 9.7 to 13.2 years in the southern. The 19th "northern" and 18th "southern" cycles turned out to be maximal. The formation of each of the cycles by all activity indices is determined by the joint effect of long-period processes lasting from 3 to 7 years and short-period processes lasting less than 2 years. When moving from one cycle to another, the long-period processes demonstrate mergings, separations, modulation, and periodic decays. The abnormal activity that appears during the growth, maximum, or decay phase of a cycle is formed at the expense of the simultaneous strengthening of short-period processes, the lengths and "period spectra" of which noticeably differ in the northern and southern hemispheres.

  18. How shape from contours affects shape from shading.

    PubMed

    Todorović, Dejan

    2014-10-01

    The spatial pattern of reflected light carries detailed but ambiguous information about 3D shapes of illuminated objects. A little studied factor that affects the perceived 3D relief of 2D shaded figures is the shape of their contours. An experiment is reported in which 102 subjects matched twelve contoured grating displays (horizontal three-cycle gratings with variously shaped top and bottom contours) with perspective line drawings of different 3D shapes, and also judged their depth extent and direction of illumination. The results showed that contour shapes can have surprisingly strong and salient effects on perceived relief. For each display there was a dominant matching drawing, chosen by the largest percentage of subjects, which varied from 95% to 26% across the set of displays. The luminance distribution of contoured gratings is essentially 1D, so that, compared to the general 2D case, their mathematical analysis is considerably simplified, and shape can in certain cases be recovered from shading in analytical form, yielding a three-parameter family of solutions. An analysis of subject responses showed that most reported reliefs had shapes which were closely related to members of the solution family. Furthermore, the particular perceived shapes of contoured gratings could with some success be predicted from the shapes of their contours, based on a simple shape-from-contours rule. However, the data also indicated the presence of a convexity tendency, independent from contour shape.

  19. The Holocene perspective of Northern Hemisphere temperature evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lohmann, G.; Laepple, T.

    2009-04-01

    The average surface air temperature of the globe has increased by about 0.5°C since the middle of the nineteenth century. Regarding the climate changes observed during the 20th century, it is of particular importance to identify and quantify the environmental changes to put the recent warming in relationship with the natural climate variations at different timescales. Considering the relatively short period of the available instrumental data, the use of paleoclimate records in combination with model simulations proves to be very useful for the estimation of past climate variability. Here we analyse the Holocene temperature evolution of the past 6000 years as well as the recent and projected future climate evolution. For our analysis, we use the output of an ensemble of general circulation models for the mid-Holocene (PMIP II project) and for recent and projected future (CMIP 3 project), complemented by transient simulations over the mid-to-late Holocene. The model data are also compared to observations and proxy data. The general structure of the Northern Hemisphere appears to have a "Hockey Stick" shape: The Northern Hemisphere cooling during the mid-to-late Holocene (neoglaciation) has been partly compensated during the past century. The reason for the Holocene trend lies in the astronomical forcing in conjunction with climate feedbacks whereas the recent and projected future warming trend can be attributed to anthropogenic influence on greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere plus climate feedbacks. It is important to detect regional differences: At low latitudes and over large parts of the open ocean, the present climate is already warmer than that of the mid-Holocene during boreal summer, whereas at mid and high latitudes (especially over land and parts of the Arctic Ocean) the mid-Holocene values will be reached within the next 20-80 years. Seasonality and regional circulation and temperature anomalies are discussed. It is argued that the Holocene

  20. Differentiating hemispheric contributions to syntax and semantics in patients with left-hemisphere lesions.

    PubMed

    Wright, Paul; Stamatakis, Emmanuel A; Tyler, Lorraine K

    2012-06-13

    Understanding the relationship between brain and cognition critically depends on data from brain-damaged patients since these provide major constraints on identifying the essential components of brain-behavior systems. Here we relate structural and functional fMRI data with behavioral data in 21 human patients with chronic left hemisphere (LH) lesions and a range of language impairments to investigate the controversial issue of the role of the hemispheres in different language functions. We address this issue within a dual neurocognitive model of spoken language comprehension in which core linguistic functions, e.g., syntax, depend critically upon an intact left frontotemporal system, whereas more general communicative abilities, e.g., semantics, are supported by a bilateral frontotemporal system and may recover from LH damage through normal or enhanced activity in the intact right hemisphere. The fMRI study used a word-monitoring task that differentiated syntactic and semantic aspects of sentence comprehension. We distinguished overlapping interactions between structure, neural activity, and performance using joint independent components analysis, identifying two structural-functional networks, each with a distinct relationship with performance. Syntactic performance correlated with tissue integrity and activity in a left frontotemporal network. Semantic performance correlated with activity in right superior/middle temporal gyri regardless of tissue integrity. Right temporal activity did not differ between patients and controls, suggesting that the semantic network is degenerately organized, with regions in both hemispheres able to perform similar computations. Our findings support the dual neurocognitive model of spoken language comprehension and emphasize the importance of linguistic specificity in investigations of language recovery in patients.