Sample records for form netcdf format

  1. Implementing Network Common Data Form (netCDF) for the 3DWF Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-01

    format. In addition, data extraction from netCDF-formatted Weather Research and Forecasting ( WRF ) model results necessary for the 3DWF model’s wind...Requirement for the 3DWF Model 1 3. Implementing netCDF to the 3DWF Model 2 3.1 Weather Research and Forecasting ( WRF ) domain and results 3 3.2...Extracting Variables from netCDF Formatted WRF Data File 5 3.3 Converting the 3DWF’s Results into netCDF 11 4. Conclusion 14 5. References 15 Appendix

  2. Visualizing NetCDF Files by Using the EverVIEW Data Viewer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conzelmann, Craig; Romañach, Stephanie S.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past few years, modelers in South Florida have started using Network Common Data Form (NetCDF) as the standard data container format for storing hydrologic and ecologic modeling inputs and outputs. With its origins in the meteorological discipline, NetCDF was created by the Unidata Program Center at the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research, in conjunction with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and other organizations. NetCDF is a portable, scalable, self-describing, binary file format optimized for storing array-based scientific data. Despite attributes which make NetCDF desirable to the modeling community, many natural resource managers have few desktop software packages which can consume NetCDF and unlock the valuable data contained within. The U.S. Geological Survey and the Joint Ecosystem Modeling group, an ecological modeling community of practice, are working to address this need with the EverVIEW Data Viewer. Available for several operating systems, this desktop software currently supports graphical displays of NetCDF data as spatial overlays on a three-dimensional globe and views of grid-cell values in tabular form. An included Open Geospatial Consortium compliant, Web-mapping service client and charting interface allows the user to view Web-available spatial data as additional map overlays and provides simple charting visualizations of NetCDF grid values.

  3. Filtering NetCDF Files by Using the EverVIEW Slice and Dice Tool

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conzelmann, Craig; Romañach, Stephanie S.

    2010-01-01

    Network Common Data Form (NetCDF) is a self-describing, machine-independent file format for storing array-oriented scientific data. It was created to provide a common interface between applications and real-time meteorological and other scientific data. Over the past few years, there has been a growing movement within the community of natural resource managers in The Everglades, Fla., to use NetCDF as the standard data container for datasets based on multidimensional arrays. As a consequence, a need surfaced for additional tools to view and manipulate NetCDF datasets, specifically to filter the files by creating subsets of large NetCDF files. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Joint Ecosystem Modeling (JEM) group are working to address these needs with applications like the EverVIEW Slice and Dice Tool, which allows users to filter grid-based NetCDF files, thus targeting those data most important to them. The major functions of this tool are as follows: (1) to create subsets of NetCDF files temporally, spatially, and by data value; (2) to view the NetCDF data in table form; and (3) to export the filtered data to a comma-separated value (CSV) file format. The USGS and JEM will continue to work with scientists and natural resource managers across The Everglades to solve complex restoration problems through technological advances.

  4. Linking netCDF Data with the Semantic Web - Enhancing Data Discovery Across Domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biard, J. C.; Yu, J.; Hedley, M.; Cox, S. J. D.; Leadbetter, A.; Car, N. J.; Druken, K. A.; Nativi, S.; Davis, E.

    2016-12-01

    Geophysical data communities are publishing large quantities of data across a wide variety of scientific domains which are overlapping more and more. Whilst netCDF is a common format for many of these communities, it is only one of a large number of data storage and transfer formats. One of the major challenges ahead is finding ways to leverage these diverse data sets to advance our understanding of complex problems. We describe a methodology for incorporating Resource Description Framework (RDF) triples into netCDF files called netCDF-LD (netCDF Linked Data). NetCDF-LD explicitly connects the contents of netCDF files - both data and metadata, with external web-based resources, including vocabularies, standards definitions, and data collections, and through them, a whole host of related information. This approach also preserves and enhances the self describing essence of the netCDF format and its metadata, whilst addressing the challenge of integrating various conventions into files. We present a case study illustrating how reasoning over RDF graphs can empower researchers to discover datasets across domain boundaries.

  5. NetCDF-U - Uncertainty conventions for netCDF datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigagli, Lorenzo; Nativi, Stefano; Domenico, Ben

    2013-04-01

    To facilitate the automated processing of uncertain data (e.g. uncertainty propagation in modeling applications), we have proposed a set of conventions for expressing uncertainty information within the netCDF data model and format: the NetCDF Uncertainty Conventions (NetCDF-U). From a theoretical perspective, it can be said that no dataset is a perfect representation of the reality it purports to represent. Inevitably, errors arise from the observation process, including the sensor system and subsequent processing, differences in scales of phenomena and the spatial support of the observation mechanism, lack of knowledge about the detailed conversion between the measured quantity and the target variable. This means that, in principle, all data should be treated as uncertain. The most natural representation of an uncertain quantity is in terms of random variables, with a probabilistic approach. However, it must be acknowledged that almost all existing data resources are not treated in this way. Most datasets come simply as a series of values, often without any uncertainty information. If uncertainty information is present, then it is typically within the metadata, as a data quality element. This is typically a global (dataset wide) representation of uncertainty, often derived through some form of validation process. Typically, it is a statistical measure of spread, for example the standard deviation of the residuals. The introduction of a mechanism by which such descriptions of uncertainty can be integrated into existing geospatial applications is considered a practical step towards a more accurate modeling of our uncertain understanding of any natural process. Given the generality and flexibility of the netCDF data model, conventions on naming, syntax, and semantics have been adopted by several communities of practice, as a means of improving data interoperability. Some of the existing conventions include provisions on uncertain elements and concepts, but, to our

  6. NetCDF4/HDF5 and Linked Data in the Real World - Enriching Geoscientific Metadata without Bloat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ip, Alex; Car, Nicholas; Druken, Kelsey; Poudjom-Djomani, Yvette; Butcher, Stirling; Evans, Ben; Wyborn, Lesley

    2017-04-01

    NetCDF4 has become the dominant generic format for many forms of geoscientific data, leveraging (and constraining) the versatile HDF5 container format, while providing metadata conventions for interoperability. However, the encapsulation of detailed metadata within each file can lead to metadata "bloat", and difficulty in maintaining consistency where metadata is replicated to multiple locations. Complex conceptual relationships are also difficult to represent in simple key-value netCDF metadata. Linked Data provides a practical mechanism to address these issues by associating the netCDF files and their internal variables with complex metadata stored in Semantic Web vocabularies and ontologies, while complying with and complementing existing metadata conventions. One of the stated objectives of the netCDF4/HDF5 formats is that they should be self-describing: containing metadata sufficient for cataloguing and using the data. However, this objective can be regarded as only partially-met where details of conventions and definitions are maintained externally to the data files. For example, one of the most widely used netCDF community standards, the Climate and Forecasting (CF) Metadata Convention, maintains standard vocabularies for a broad range of disciplines across the geosciences, but this metadata is currently neither readily discoverable nor machine-readable. We have previously implemented useful Linked Data and netCDF tooling (ncskos) that associates netCDF files, and individual variables within those files, with concepts in vocabularies formulated using the Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) ontology. NetCDF files contain Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) links to terms represented as SKOS Concepts, rather than plain-text representations of those terms, so we can use simple, standardised web queries to collect and use rich metadata for the terms from any Linked Data-presented SKOS vocabulary. Geoscience Australia (GA) manages a large volume of diverse

  7. NCWin — A Component Object Model (COM) for processing and visualizing NetCDF data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liu, Jinxun; Chen, J.M.; Price, D.T.; Liu, S.

    2005-01-01

    NetCDF (Network Common Data Form) is a data sharing protocol and library that is commonly used in large-scale atmospheric and environmental data archiving and modeling. The NetCDF tool described here, named NCWin and coded with Borland C + + Builder, was built as a standard executable as well as a COM (component object model) for the Microsoft Windows environment. COM is a powerful technology that enhances the reuse of applications (as components). Environmental model developers from different modeling environments, such as Python, JAVA, VISUAL FORTRAN, VISUAL BASIC, VISUAL C + +, and DELPHI, can reuse NCWin in their models to read, write and visualize NetCDF data. Some Windows applications, such as ArcGIS and Microsoft PowerPoint, can also call NCWin within the application. NCWin has three major components: 1) The data conversion part is designed to convert binary raw data to and from NetCDF data. It can process six data types (unsigned char, signed char, short, int, float, double) and three spatial data formats (BIP, BIL, BSQ); 2) The visualization part is designed for displaying grid map series (playing forward or backward) with simple map legend, and displaying temporal trend curves for data on individual map pixels; and 3) The modeling interface is designed for environmental model development by which a set of integrated NetCDF functions is provided for processing NetCDF data. To demonstrate that the NCWin can easily extend the functions of some current GIS software and the Office applications, examples of calling NCWin within ArcGIS and MS PowerPoint for showing NetCDF map animations are given.

  8. Serving Real-Time Point Observation Data in netCDF using Climate and Forecasting Discrete Sampling Geometry Conventions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward-Garrison, C.; May, R.; Davis, E.; Arms, S. C.

    2016-12-01

    NetCDF is a set of software libraries and self-describing, machine-independent data formats that support the creation, access, and sharing of array-oriented scientific data. The Climate and Forecasting (CF) metadata conventions for netCDF foster the ability to work with netCDF files in general and useful ways. These conventions include metadata attributes for physical units, standard names, and spatial coordinate systems. While these conventions have been successful in easing the use of working with netCDF-formatted output from climate and forecast models, their use for point-based observation data has been less so. Unidata has prototyped using the discrete sampling geometry (DSG) CF conventions to serve, using the THREDDS Data Server, the real-time point observation data flowing across the Internet Data Distribution (IDD). These data originate in text format reports for individual stations (e.g. METAR surface data or TEMP upper air data) and are converted and stored in netCDF files in real-time. This work discusses the experiences and challenges of using the current CF DSG conventions for storing such real-time data. We also test how parts of netCDF's extended data model can address these challenges, in order to inform decisions for a future version of CF (CF 2.0) that would take advantage of features of the netCDF enhanced data model.

  9. Developing a Hadoop-based Middleware for Handling Multi-dimensional NetCDF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Z.; Yang, C. P.; Schnase, J. L.; Duffy, D.; Lee, T. J.

    2014-12-01

    Climate observations and model simulations are collecting and generating vast amounts of climate data, and these data are ever-increasing and being accumulated in a rapid speed. Effectively managing and analyzing these data are essential for climate change studies. Hadoop, a distributed storage and processing framework for large data sets, has attracted increasing attentions in dealing with the Big Data challenge. The maturity of Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) of cloud computing further accelerates the adoption of Hadoop in solving Big Data problems. However, Hadoop is designed to process unstructured data such as texts, documents and web pages, and cannot effectively handle the scientific data format such as array-based NetCDF files and other binary data format. In this paper, we propose to build a Hadoop-based middleware for transparently handling big NetCDF data by 1) designing a distributed climate data storage mechanism based on POSIX-enabled parallel file system to enable parallel big data processing with MapReduce, as well as support data access by other systems; 2) modifying the Hadoop framework to transparently processing NetCDF data in parallel without sequencing or converting the data into other file formats, or loading them to HDFS; and 3) seamlessly integrating Hadoop, cloud computing and climate data in a highly scalable and fault-tolerance framework.

  10. MK3TOOLS & NetCDF - storing VLBI data in a machine independent array oriented data format

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobiger, T.; Koyama, Y.; Kondo, T.

    2007-07-01

    In the beginning of 2002 the International VLBI Service (IVS) has agreed to introduce a Platform-independent VLBI exchange format (PIVEX) which permits the exchange of observational data and stimulates the research across different analysis groups. Unfortunately PIVEX has never been implemented and many analysis software packages are still depending on prior processing (e.g. ambiguity resolution and computation of ionosphere corrections) done by CALC/SOLVE. Thus MK3TOOLS which handles MK3 databases without CALC/SOLVE being installed has been developed. It uses the NetCDF format to store the data and since interfaces exist for a variety of programming languages (FORTRAN, C/C++, JAVA, Perl, Python) it can be easily incorporated in existing and upcoming analysis software packages.

  11. A Study of NetCDF as an Approach for High Performance Medical Image Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magnus, Marcone; Coelho Prado, Thiago; von Wangenhein, Aldo; de Macedo, Douglas D. J.; Dantas, M. A. R.

    2012-02-01

    The spread of telemedicine systems increases every day. The systems and PACS based on DICOM images has become common. This rise reflects the need to develop new storage systems, more efficient and with lower computational costs. With this in mind, this article discusses a study for application in NetCDF data format as the basic platform for storage of DICOM images. The study case comparison adopts an ordinary database, the HDF5 and the NetCDF to storage the medical images. Empirical results, using a real set of images, indicate that the time to retrieve images from the NetCDF for large scale images has a higher latency compared to the other two methods. In addition, the latency is proportional to the file size, which represents a drawback to a telemedicine system that is characterized by a large amount of large image files.

  12. CfRadial - CF NetCDF for Radar and Lidar Data in Polar Coordinates.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixon, M. J.; Lee, W. C.; Michelson, D.; Curtis, M.

    2016-12-01

    Since 1990, NCAR has supported over 20 different data formats for radar and lidar data in polar coordinates. Researchers, students and operational users spend unnecessary time handling a multitude of unique formats. CfRadial grew out of the need to simplify the use of these data and thereby to improve efficiency in research and operations. CfRadial adopts the well-known NetCDF framework, along with the Climate and Forecasting (CF) conventions such that data and metadata are accurately represented. Mobile platforms are also supported. The first major release, CfRadial version 1.1, occurred in February 2011, followed by minor updates. CfRadial has been adopted by NCAR as well as other agencies in the US and the UK. CfRadial development was boosted in 2015 through a two-year NSF EarthCube grant to improve CF in general. Version 1.4 was agreed upon in May 2016, adding explicit support for quality control fields and spectra. In Europe and Australia, EUMETNET OPERA's HDF5-based ODIM_H5 standard has been rapidly embraced as the modern standard for exchanging weather radar data for operations. ODIM_H5 exploits data groups, hierarchies, and built-in compression, characteristics that have been added to NetCDF4. A meeting of the WMO Task Team on Weather Radar Data Exchange (TT-WRDE) was held at NCAR in Boulder in July 2016, with a goal of identifying a single global standard for radar and lidar data in polar coordinates. CfRadial and ODIM_H5 were considered alongside the older and more rigid table-driven WMO BUFR and GRIB2 formats. TT-WRDE recommended that CfRadial 1.4 be merged with the sweep-oriented structure of ODIM_H5, making use of NetCDF groups, to produce a single format that will encompass the best ideas of both formats. That has led to the emergence of the CfRadial 2.0 standard. This format should meet the objectives of both the NSF EarthCube CF 2.0 initiative and the WMO TT-WRDE. It has the added benefit of improving data exchange between operational and research

  13. Using GDAL to Convert NetCDF 4 CF 1.6 to GeoTIFF: Interoperability Problems and Solutions for Data Providers and Distributors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haran, T. M.; Brodzik, M. J.; Nordgren, B.; Estilow, T.; Scott, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    An increasing number of new Earth science datasets are being producedby data providers in self-describing, machine-independent file formatsincluding Hierarchical Data Format version 5 (HDF5) and NetworkCommon Data Form version 4 (netCDF-4). Furthermore data providers maybe producing netCDF-4 files that follow the conventions for Climateand Forecast metadata version 1.6 (CF 1.6) which, for datasets mappedto a projected raster grid covering all or a portion of the earth,includes the Coordinate Reference System (CRS) used to define howlatitude and longitude are mapped to grid coordinates, i.e. columnsand rows, and vice versa. One problem that users may encounter is thattheir preferred visualization and analysis tool may not yet includesupport for one of these newer formats. Moreover, data distributorssuch as NASA's NSIDC DAAC may not yet include support for on-the-flyconversion of data files for all data sets produced in a new format toa preferred older distributed format.There do exist open source solutions to this dilemma in the form ofsoftware packages that can translate files in one of the new formatsto one of the preferred formats. However these software packagesrequire that the file to be translated conform to the specificationsof its respective format. Although an online CF-Convention compliancechecker is available from cfconventions.org, a recent NSIDC userservices incident described here in detail involved an NSIDC-supporteddata set that passed the (then current) CF Checker Version 2.0.6, butwas in fact lacking two variables necessary for conformance. Thisproblem was not detected until GDAL, a software package which reliedon the missing variables, was employed by a user in an attempt totranslate the data into a different file format, namely GeoTIFF.This incident indicates that testing a candidate data product with oneor more software products written to accept the advertised conventionsis proposed as a practice which improves interoperability

  14. Tool to assess contents of ARM surface meteorology network netCDF files

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Staudt, A.; Kwan, T.; Tichler, J.

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program, supported by the US Department of Energy, is a major program of atmospheric measurement and modeling designed to improve the understanding of processes and properties that affect atmospheric radiation, with a particular focus on the influence of clouds and the role of cloud radiative feedback in the climate system. The ARM Program will use three highly instrumented primary measurement sites. Deployment of instrumentation at the first site, located in the Southern Great Plains of the United States, began in May of 1992. The first phase of deployment at the second site in the Tropicalmore » Western Pacific is scheduled for late in 1995. The third site will be in the North Slope of Alaska and adjacent Arctic Ocean. To meet the scientific objectives of ARM, observations from the ARM sites are combined with data from other sources; these are called external data. Among these external data sets are surface meteorological observations from the Oklahoma Mesonet, a Kansas automated weather network, the Wind Profiler Demonstration Network (WPDN), and the National Weather Service (NWS) surface stations. Before combining these data with the Surface Meteorological Observations Station (SMOS) ARM data, it was necessary to assess the contents and quality of both the ARM and the external data sets. Since these data sets had previously been converted to netCDF format for use by the ARM Science Team, a tool was written to assess the contents of the netCDF files.« less

  15. Users' Manual and Installation Guide for the EverVIEW Slice and Dice Tool (Version 1.0 Beta)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roszell, Dustin; Conzelmann, Craig; Chimmula, Sumani; Chandrasekaran, Anuradha; Hunnicut, Christina

    2009-01-01

    Network Common Data Form (NetCDF) is a self-describing, machine-independent file format for storing array-oriented scientific data. Over the past few years, there has been a growing movement within the community of natural resource managers in The Everglades, Fla., to use NetCDF as the standard data container for datasets based on multidimensional arrays. As a consequence, a need arose for additional tools to view and manipulate NetCDF datasets, specifically to create subsets of large NetCDF files. To address this need, we created the EverVIEW Slice and Dice Tool to allow users to create subsets of grid-based NetCDF files. The major functions of this tool are (1) to subset NetCDF files both spatially and temporally; (2) to view the NetCDF data in table form; and (3) to export filtered data to a comma-separated value file format.

  16. DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Mather, James

    Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program standard data format is NetCDF 3 (Network Common Data Form). The object of this tutorial is to provide a basic introduction to NetCDF with an emphasis on aspects of the ARM application of NetCDF. The goal is to provide basic instructions for reading and visualizing ARM NetCDF data with the expectation that these examples can then be applied to more complex applications.

  17. The UGRID Reader - A ParaView Plugin for the Visualization of Unstructured Climate Model Data in NetCDF Format

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brisc, Felicia; Vater, Stefan; Behrens, Joern

    2016-04-01

    We present the UGRID Reader, a visualization software component that implements the UGRID Conventions into Paraview. It currently supports the reading and visualization of 2D unstructured triangular, quadrilateral and mixed triangle/quadrilateral meshes, while the data can be defined per cell or per vertex. The Climate and Forecast Metadata Conventions (CF Conventions) have been set for many years as the standard framework for climate data written in NetCDF format. While they allow storing unstructured data simply as data defined at a series of points, they do not currently address the topology of the underlying unstructured mesh. However, it is often necessary to have additional mesh topology information, i.e. is it a one dimensional network, a 2D triangular mesh or a flexible mixed triangle/quadrilateral mesh, a 2D mesh with vertical layers, or a fully unstructured 3D mesh. The UGRID Conventions proposed by the UGRID Interoperability group are attempting to fill in this void by extending the CF Conventions with topology specifications. As the UGRID Conventions are increasingly popular with an important subset of the CF community, they warrant the development of a customized tool for the visualization and exploration of UGRID-conforming data. The implementation of the UGRID Reader has been designed corresponding to the ParaView plugin architecture. This approach allowed us to tap into the powerful reading and rendering capabilities of ParaView, while the reader is easy to install. We aim at parallelism to be able to process large data sets. Furthermore, our current application of the reader is the visualization of higher order simulation output which demands for a special representation of the data within a cell.

  18. Enabling data-driven provenance in NetCDF, via OGC WPS operations. Climate Analysis services use case.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihajlovski, A.; Spinuso, A.; Plieger, M.; Som de Cerff, W.

    2016-12-01

    Modern Climate analysis platforms provide generic and standardized ways of accessing data and processing services. These are typically supported by a wide range of OGC formats and interfaces. However, the problem of instrumentally tracing the lineage of the transformations occurring on a dataset and its provenance remains an open challenge. It requires standard-driven and interoperable solutions to facilitate understanding, sharing of self-describing data products, fostering collaboration among peers. The CLIPC portal provided us real use case, where the need of an instrumented provenance management is fundamental. CLIPC provides a single point of access for scientific information on climate change. The data about the physical environment which is used to inform climate change policy and adaptation measures comes from several categories: satellite measurements, terrestrial observing systems, model projections and simulations and from re-analyses. This is made possible through the Copernicus Earth Observation Programme for Europe. With a backbone combining WPS and OPeNDAP services, CLIPC has two themes: 1. Harmonized access to climate datasets derived from models, observations and re-analyses 2. A climate impact tool kit to evaluate, rank and aggregate indicators The climate impact tool kit is realised with the orchestration of a number of WPS that ingest, normalize and combine NetCDF files. The WPS allowing this specific computation are hosted by the climate4impact portal, which is a more generic climate data-access and processing service. In this context, guaranteeing validation and reproducibility of results, is a clearly stated requirement to improve the quality of the results obtained by the combined analysis Two core contributions made, are the enabling of a provenance wrapper around WPS services and the enabling of provenance tracing within the NetCDF format, which adopts and extends the W3C's PROV model. To disseminate indicator data and create transformed

  19. Displaying Composite and Archived Soundings in the Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, Joe H., III; Volkmer, Matthew R.; Blottman, Peter F.; Sharp, David W.

    2008-01-01

    In a previous task, the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) developed spatial and temporal climatologies of lightning occurrence based on eight atmospheric flow regimes. The AMU created climatological, or composite, soundings of wind speed and direction, temperature, and dew point temperature at four rawinsonde observation stations at Jacksonville, Tampa, Miami, and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, for each of the eight flow regimes. The composite soundings were delivered to the National Weather Service (NWS) Melbourne (MLB) office for display using the National version of the Skew-T Hodograph analysis and Research Program (NSHARP) software program. The NWS MLB requested the AMU make the composite soundings available for display in the Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System (AWIPS), so they could be overlaid on current observed soundings. This will allow the forecasters to compare the current state of the atmosphere with climatology. This presentation describes how the AMU converted the composite soundings from NSHARP Archive format to Network Common Data Form (NetCDF) format, so that the soundings could be displayed in AWl PS. The NetCDF is a set of data formats, programming interfaces, and software libraries used to read and write scientific data files. In AWIPS, each meteorological data type, such as soundings or surface observations, has a unique NetCDF format. Each format is described by a NetCDF template file. Although NetCDF files are in binary format, they can be converted to a text format called network Common data form Description Language (CDL). A software utility called ncgen is used to create a NetCDF file from a CDL file, while the ncdump utility is used to create a CDL file from a NetCDF file. An AWIPS receives soundings in Binary Universal Form for the Representation of Meteorological data (BUFR) format (http://dss.ucar.edu/docs/formats/bufr/), and then decodes them into NetCDF format. Only two sounding files are generated in AWIPS per day. One

  20. Comparing NetCDF and SciDB on managing and querying 5D hydrologic dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Haicheng; Xiao, Xiao

    2016-11-01

    Efficiently extracting information from high dimensional hydro-meteorological modelling datasets requires smart solutions. Traditional methods are mostly based on files, which can be edited and accessed handily. But they have problems of efficiency due to contiguous storage structure. Others propose databases as an alternative for advantages such as native functionalities for manipulating multidimensional (MD) arrays, smart caching strategy and scalability. In this research, NetCDF file based solutions and the multidimensional array database management system (DBMS) SciDB applying chunked storage structure are benchmarked to determine the best solution for storing and querying 5D large hydrologic modelling dataset. The effect of data storage configurations including chunk size, dimension order and compression on query performance is explored. Results indicate that dimension order to organize storage of 5D data has significant influence on query performance if chunk size is very large. But the effect becomes insignificant when chunk size is properly set. Compression of SciDB mostly has negative influence on query performance. Caching is an advantage but may be influenced by execution of different query processes. On the whole, NetCDF solution without compression is in general more efficient than the SciDB DBMS.

  1. Unleashing Geophysics Data with Modern Formats and Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ip, Alex; Brodie, Ross C.; Druken, Kelsey; Bastrakova, Irina; Evans, Ben; Kemp, Carina; Richardson, Murray; Trenham, Claire; Wang, Jingbo; Wyborn, Lesley

    2016-04-01

    Geoscience Australia (GA) is the national steward of large volumes of geophysical data extending over the entire Australasian region and spanning many decades. The volume and variety of data which must be managed, coupled with the increasing need to support machine-to-machine data access, mean that the old "click-and-ship" model delivering data as downloadable files for local analysis is rapidly becoming unviable - a "big data" problem not unique to geophysics. The Australian Government, through the Research Data Services (RDS) Project, recently funded the Australian National Computational Infrastructure (NCI) to organize a wide range of Earth Systems data from diverse collections including geoscience, geophysics, environment, climate, weather, and water resources onto a single High Performance Data (HPD) Node. This platform, which now contains over 10 petabytes of data, is called the National Environmental Research Data Interoperability Platform (NERDIP), and is designed to facilitate broad user access, maximise reuse, and enable integration. GA has contributed several hundred terabytes of geophysical data to the NERDIP. Historically, geophysical datasets have been stored in a range of formats, with metadata of varying quality and accessibility, and without standardised vocabularies. This has made it extremely difficult to aggregate original data from multiple surveys (particularly un-gridded geophysics point/line data) into standard formats suited to High Performance Computing (HPC) environments. To address this, it was decided to use the NERDIP-preferred Hierarchical Data Format (HDF) 5, which is a proven, standard, open, self-describing and high-performance format supported by extensive software tools, libraries and data services. The Network Common Data Form (NetCDF) 4 API facilitates the use of data in HDF5, whilst the NetCDF Climate & Forecasting conventions (NetCDF-CF) further constrain NetCDF4/HDF5 data so as to provide greater inherent interoperability

  2. Extending netCDF and CF conventions to support enhanced Earth Observation Ontology services: the Prod-Trees project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzetti, Paolo; Valentin, Bernard; Koubarakis, Manolis; Nativi, Stefano

    2013-04-01

    Access to Earth Observation products remains not at all straightforward for end users in most domains. Semantically-enabled search engines, generally accessible through Web portals, have been developed. They allow searching for products by selecting application-specific terms and specifying basic geographical and temporal filtering criteria. Although this mostly suits the needs of the general public, the scientific communities require more advanced and controlled means to find products. Ranges of validity, traceability (e.g. origin, applied algorithms), accuracy, uncertainty, are concepts that are typically taken into account in research activities. The Prod-Trees (Enriching Earth Observation Ontology Services using Product Trees) project will enhance the CF-netCDF product format and vocabulary to allow storing metadata that better describe the products, and in particular EO products. The project will bring a standardized solution that permits annotating EO products in such a manner that official and third-party software libraries and tools will be able to search for products using advanced tags and controlled parameter names. Annotated EO products will be automatically supported by all the compatible software. Because the entire product information will come from the annotations and the standards, there will be no need for integrating extra components and data structures that have not been standardized. In the course of the project, the most important and popular open-source software libraries and tools will be extended to support the proposed extensions of CF-netCDF. The result will be provided back to the respective owners and maintainers for ensuring the best dissemination and adoption of the extended format. The project, funded by ESA, has started in December 2012 and will end in May 2014. It is coordinated by Space Applications Services, and the Consortium includes CNR-IIA and the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens. The first activities included

  3. A NetCDF version of the two-dimensional energy balance model based on the full multigrid algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Kelin; North, Gerald R.; Stevens, Mark J.

    A NetCDF version of the two-dimensional energy balance model based on the full multigrid method in Fortran is introduced for both pedagogical and research purposes. Based on the land-sea-ice distribution, orbital elements, greenhouse gases concentration, and albedo, the code calculates the global seasonal surface temperature. A step-by-step guide with examples is provided for practice.

  4. Public-domain-software solution to data-access problems for numerical modelers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jenter, Harry; Signell, Richard

    1992-01-01

    Unidata's network Common Data Form, netCDF, provides users with an efficient set of software for scientific-data-storage, retrieval, and manipulation. The netCDF file format is machine-independent, direct-access, self-describing, and in the public domain, thereby alleviating many problems associated with accessing output from large hydrodynamic models. NetCDF has programming interfaces in both the Fortran and C computer language with an interface to C++ planned for release in the future. NetCDF also has an abstract data type that relieves users from understanding details of the binary file structure; data are written and retrieved by an intuitive, user-supplied name rather than by file position. Users are aided further by Unidata's inclusion of the Common Data Language, CDL, a printable text-equivalent of the contents of a netCDF file. Unidata provides numerous operators and utilities for processing netCDF files. In addition, a number of public-domain and proprietary netCDF utilities from other sources are available at this time or will be available later this year. The U.S. Geological Survey has produced and is producing a number of public-domain netCDF utilities.

  5. Collaborative Sharing of Multidimensional Space-time Data Using HydroShare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, T.; Tarboton, D. G.; Horsburgh, J. S.; Dash, P. K.; Idaszak, R.; Yi, H.; Blanton, B.

    2015-12-01

    HydroShare is a collaborative environment being developed for sharing hydrological data and models. It includes capability to upload data in many formats as resources that can be shared. The HydroShare data model for resources uses a specific format for the representation of each type of data and specifies metadata common to all resource types as well as metadata unique to specific resource types. The Network Common Data Form (NetCDF) was chosen as the format for multidimensional space-time data in HydroShare. NetCDF is widely used in hydrological and other geoscience modeling because it contains self-describing metadata and supports the creation of array-oriented datasets that may include three spatial dimensions, a time dimension and other user defined dimensions. For example, NetCDF may be used to represent precipitation or surface air temperature fields that have two dimensions in space and one dimension in time. This presentation will illustrate how NetCDF files are used in HydroShare. When a NetCDF file is loaded into HydroShare, header information is extracted using the "ncdump" utility. Python functions developed for the Django web framework on which HydroShare is based, extract science metadata present in the NetCDF file, saving the user from having to enter it. Where the file follows Climate Forecast (CF) convention and Attribute Convention for Dataset Discovery (ACDD) standards, metadata is thus automatically populated. Users also have the ability to add metadata to the resource that may not have been present in the original NetCDF file. HydroShare's metadata editing functionality then writes this science metadata back into the NetCDF file to maintain consistency between the science metadata in HydroShare and the metadata in the NetCDF file. This further helps researchers easily add metadata information following the CF and ACDD conventions. Additional data inspection and subsetting functions were developed, taking advantage of Python and command line

  6. netCDF Operators for Rapid Analysis of Measured and Modeled Swath-like Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zender, C. S.

    2015-12-01

    Swath-like data (hereafter SLD) are defined by non-rectangular and/or time-varying spatial grids in which one or more coordinates are multi-dimensional. It is often challenging and time-consuming to work with SLD, including all Level 2 satellite-retrieved data, non-rectangular subsets of Level 3 data, and model data on curvilinear grids. Researchers and data centers want user-friendly, fast, and powerful methods to specify, extract, serve, manipulate, and thus analyze, SLD. To meet these needs, large research-oriented agencies and modeling center such as NASA, DOE, and NOAA increasingly employ the netCDF Operators (NCO), an open-source scientific data analysis software package applicable to netCDF and HDF data. NCO includes extensive, fast, parallelized regridding features to facilitate analysis and intercomparison of SLD and model data. Remote sensing, weather and climate modeling and analysis communities face similar problems in handling SLD including how to easily: 1. Specify and mask irregular regions such as ocean basins and political boundaries in SLD (and rectangular) grids. 2. Bin, interpolate, average, or re-map SLD to regular grids. 3. Derive secondary data from given quality levels of SLD. These common tasks require a data extraction and analysis toolkit that is SLD-friendly and, like NCO, familiar in all these communities. With NCO users can 1. Quickly project SLD onto the most useful regular grids for intercomparison. 2. Access sophisticated statistical and regridding functions that are robust to missing data and allow easy specification of quality control metrics. These capabilities improve interoperability, software-reuse, and, because they apply to SLD, minimize transmission, storage, and handling of unwanted data. While SLD analysis still poses many challenges compared to regularly gridded, rectangular data, the custom analyses scripts SLD once required are now shorter, more powerful, and user-friendly.

  7. eWaterCycle visualisation. combining the strength of NetCDF and Web Map Service: ncWMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hut, R.; van Meersbergen, M.; Drost, N.; Van De Giesen, N.

    2016-12-01

    As a result of the eWatercycle global hydrological forecast we have created Cesium-ncWMS, a web application based on ncWMS and Cesium. ncWMS is a server side application capable of reading any NetCDF file written using the Climate and Forecasting (CF) conventions, and making the data available as a Web Map Service(WMS). ncWMS automatically determines available variables in a file, and creates maps colored according to map data and a user selected color scale. Cesium is a Javascript 3D virtual Globe library. It uses WebGL for rendering, which makes it very fast, and it is capable of displaying a wide variety of data types such as vectors, 3D models, and 2D maps. The forecast results are automatically uploaded to our web server running ncWMS. In turn, the web application can be used to change the settings for color maps and displayed data. The server uses the settings provided by the web application, together with the data in NetCDF to provide WMS image tiles, time series data and legend graphics to the Cesium-NcWMS web application. The user can simultaneously zoom in to the very high resolution forecast results anywhere on the world, and get time series data for any point on the globe. The Cesium-ncWMS visualisation combines a global overview with local relevant information in any browser. See the visualisation live at forecast.ewatercycle.org

  8. Integrating Test-Form Formatting into Automated Test Assembly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diao, Qi; van der Linden, Wim J.

    2013-01-01

    Automated test assembly uses the methodology of mixed integer programming to select an optimal set of items from an item bank. Automated test-form generation uses the same methodology to optimally order the items and format the test form. From an optimization point of view, production of fully formatted test forms directly from the item pool using…

  9. Bit Grooming: Statistically accurate precision-preserving quantization with compression, evaluated in the netCDF operators (NCO, v4.4.8+)

    DOE PAGES

    Zender, Charles S.

    2016-09-19

    Geoscientific models and measurements generate false precision (scientifically meaningless data bits) that wastes storage space. False precision can mislead (by implying noise is signal) and be scientifically pointless, especially for measurements. By contrast, lossy compression can be both economical (save space) and heuristic (clarify data limitations) without compromising the scientific integrity of data. Data quantization can thus be appropriate regardless of whether space limitations are a concern. We introduce, implement, and characterize a new lossy compression scheme suitable for IEEE floating-point data. Our new Bit Grooming algorithm alternately shaves (to zero) and sets (to one) the least significant bits ofmore » consecutive values to preserve a desired precision. This is a symmetric, two-sided variant of an algorithm sometimes called Bit Shaving that quantizes values solely by zeroing bits. Our variation eliminates the artificial low bias produced by always zeroing bits, and makes Bit Grooming more suitable for arrays and multi-dimensional fields whose mean statistics are important. Bit Grooming relies on standard lossless compression to achieve the actual reduction in storage space, so we tested Bit Grooming by applying the DEFLATE compression algorithm to bit-groomed and full-precision climate data stored in netCDF3, netCDF4, HDF4, and HDF5 formats. Bit Grooming reduces the storage space required by initially uncompressed and compressed climate data by 25–80 and 5–65 %, respectively, for single-precision values (the most common case for climate data) quantized to retain 1–5 decimal digits of precision. The potential reduction is greater for double-precision datasets. When used aggressively (i.e., preserving only 1–2 digits), Bit Grooming produces storage reductions comparable to other quantization techniques such as Linear Packing. Unlike Linear Packing, whose guaranteed precision rapidly degrades within the relatively narrow dynamic

  10. Bit Grooming: statistically accurate precision-preserving quantization with compression, evaluated in the netCDF Operators (NCO, v4.4.8+)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zender, Charles S.

    2016-09-01

    Geoscientific models and measurements generate false precision (scientifically meaningless data bits) that wastes storage space. False precision can mislead (by implying noise is signal) and be scientifically pointless, especially for measurements. By contrast, lossy compression can be both economical (save space) and heuristic (clarify data limitations) without compromising the scientific integrity of data. Data quantization can thus be appropriate regardless of whether space limitations are a concern. We introduce, implement, and characterize a new lossy compression scheme suitable for IEEE floating-point data. Our new Bit Grooming algorithm alternately shaves (to zero) and sets (to one) the least significant bits of consecutive values to preserve a desired precision. This is a symmetric, two-sided variant of an algorithm sometimes called Bit Shaving that quantizes values solely by zeroing bits. Our variation eliminates the artificial low bias produced by always zeroing bits, and makes Bit Grooming more suitable for arrays and multi-dimensional fields whose mean statistics are important. Bit Grooming relies on standard lossless compression to achieve the actual reduction in storage space, so we tested Bit Grooming by applying the DEFLATE compression algorithm to bit-groomed and full-precision climate data stored in netCDF3, netCDF4, HDF4, and HDF5 formats. Bit Grooming reduces the storage space required by initially uncompressed and compressed climate data by 25-80 and 5-65 %, respectively, for single-precision values (the most common case for climate data) quantized to retain 1-5 decimal digits of precision. The potential reduction is greater for double-precision datasets. When used aggressively (i.e., preserving only 1-2 digits), Bit Grooming produces storage reductions comparable to other quantization techniques such as Linear Packing. Unlike Linear Packing, whose guaranteed precision rapidly degrades within the relatively narrow dynamic range of values that

  11. OpenClimateGIS - A Web Service Providing Climate Model Data in Commonly Used Geospatial Formats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erickson, T. A.; Koziol, B. W.; Rood, R. B.

    2011-12-01

    The goal of the OpenClimateGIS project is to make climate model datasets readily available in commonly used, modern geospatial formats used by GIS software, browser-based mapping tools, and virtual globes.The climate modeling community typically stores climate data in multidimensional gridded formats capable of efficiently storing large volumes of data (such as netCDF, grib) while the geospatial community typically uses flexible vector and raster formats that are capable of storing small volumes of data (relative to the multidimensional gridded formats). OpenClimateGIS seeks to address this difference in data formats by clipping climate data to user-specified vector geometries (i.e. areas of interest) and translating the gridded data on-the-fly into multiple vector formats. The OpenClimateGIS system does not store climate data archives locally, but rather works in conjunction with external climate archives that expose climate data via the OPeNDAP protocol. OpenClimateGIS provides a RESTful API web service for accessing climate data resources via HTTP, allowing a wide range of applications to access the climate data.The OpenClimateGIS system has been developed using open source development practices and the source code is publicly available. The project integrates libraries from several other open source projects (including Django, PostGIS, numpy, Shapely, and netcdf4-python).OpenClimateGIS development is supported by a grant from NOAA's Climate Program Office.

  12. Methods for forming wellbores in heated formations

    DOEpatents

    Guimerans, Rosalvina Ramona; Mansure, Arthur James

    2012-09-25

    A method for forming a wellbore in a heated formation includes flowing liquid cooling fluid to a bottom hole assembly in a wellbore in a heated formation. At least a portion of the liquid cooling fluid is vaporized at or near a region to be cooled. Vaporizing the liquid cooling fluid absorbs heat from the region to be cooled.

  13. 21 CFR 20.33 - Form or format of response.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Form or format of response. 20.33 Section 20.33 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PUBLIC INFORMATION General Policy § 20.33 Form or format of response. (a) The Food and Drug Administration shall make...

  14. Challenges to Standardization: A Case Study Using Coastal and Deep-Ocean Water Level Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweeney, A. D.; Stroker, K. J.; Mungov, G.; McLean, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    Sea levels recorded at coastal stations and inferred from deep-ocean pressure observations at the seafloor are submitted for archive in multiple data and metadata formats. These formats include two forms of schema-less XML and a custom binary format accompanied by metadata in a spreadsheet. The authors report on efforts to use existing standards to make this data more discoverable and more useful beyond their initial use in detecting tsunamis. An initial review of data formats for sea level data around the globe revealed heterogeneity in presentation and content. In the absence of a widely-used domain-specific format, we adopted the general model for structuring data and metadata expressed by the Network Common Data Form (netCDF). netCDF has been endorsed by the Open Geospatial Consortium and has the advantages of small size when compared to equivalent plain text representation and provides a standard way of embedding metadata in the same file. We followed the orthogonal time-series profile of the Climate and Forecast discrete sampling geometries as the convention for structuring the data and describing metadata relevant for use. We adhered to the Attribute Convention for Data Discovery for capturing metadata to support user search. Beyond making it possible to structure data and metadata in a standard way, netCDF is supported by multiple software tools in providing programmatic cataloging, access, subsetting, and transformation to other formats. We will describe our successes and failures in adhering to existing standards and provide requirements for either augmenting existing conventions or developing new ones. Some of these enhancements are specific to sea level data, while others are applicable to time-series data in general.

  15. 37 CFR 1.824 - Form and format for nucleotide and/or amino acid sequence submissions in computer readable form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Form and format for... And/or Amino Acid Sequences § 1.824 Form and format for nucleotide and/or amino acid sequence... Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) text. No other formats shall be allowed. (3) The computer...

  16. A Prototype Web-based system for GOES-R Space Weather Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundaravel, A.; Wilkinson, D. C.

    2010-12-01

    The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite-R Series (GOES-R) makes use of advanced instruments and technologies to monitor the Earth's surface and provide with accurate space weather data. The first GOES-R series satellite is scheduled to be launched in 2015. The data from the satellite will be widely used by scientists for space weather modeling and predictions. This project looks into the ways of how these datasets can be made available to the scientists on the Web and to assist them on their research. We are working on to develop a prototype web-based system that allows users to browse, search and download these data. The GOES-R datasets will be archived in NetCDF (Network Common Data Form) and CSV (Comma Separated Values) format. The NetCDF is a self-describing data format that contains both the metadata information and the data. The data is stored in an array-oriented fashion. The web-based system will offer services in two ways: via a web application (portal) and via web services. Using the web application, the users can download data in NetCDF or CSV format and can also plot a graph of the data. The web page displays the various categories of data and the time intervals for which the data is available. The web application (client) sends the user query to the server, which then connects to the data sources to retrieve the data and delivers it to the users. Data access will also be provided via SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol) and REST (Representational State Transfer) web services. These provide functions which can be used by other applications to fetch data and use the data for further processing. To build the prototype system, we are making use of proxy data from existing GOES and POES space weather datasets. Java is the programming language used in developing tools that formats data to NetCDF and CSV. For the web technology we have chosen Grails to develop both the web application and the services. Grails is an open source web application

  17. The Hierarchical Data Format as a Foundation for Community Data Sharing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habermann, T.

    2017-12-01

    Hierarchical Data Format (HDF) formats and libraries have been used by individual researchers and major science programs across many Earth and Space Science disciplines and sectors to provide high-performance information storage and access for several decades. Generic group, dataset, and attribute objects in HDF have been combined in many ways to form domain objects that scientists understand and use. Well-known applications of HDF in the Earth Sciences include thousands of global satellite observations and products produced by NASA's Earth Observing System using the HDF-EOS conventions, navigation quality bathymetry produced as Bathymetric Attributed Grids (BAGs) by the OpenNavigationSurface project and others, seismic wave collections written into the Adoptable Seismic Data Format (ASDF) and many oceanographic and atmospheric products produced using the climate-forecast conventions with the netCDF4 data model and API to HDF5. This is the modus operandi of these communities: 1) develop a model of scientific data objects and associated metadata used in a domain, 2) implement that model using HDF, 3) develop software libraries that connect that model to tools and 4) encourage adoption of those tools in the community. Understanding these domain object implementations and facilitating communication across communities is an important goal of The HDF Group. We will discuss these examples and approaches to community outreach during this session.

  18. Woods Hole Image Processing System Software implementation; using NetCDF as a software interface for image processing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paskevich, Valerie F.

    1992-01-01

    The Branch of Atlantic Marine Geology has been involved in the collection, processing and digital mosaicking of high, medium and low-resolution side-scan sonar data during the past 6 years. In the past, processing and digital mosaicking has been accomplished with a dedicated, shore-based computer system. With the need to process sidescan data in the field with increased power and reduced cost of major workstations, a need to have an image processing package on a UNIX based computer system which could be utilized in the field as well as be more generally available to Branch personnel was identified. This report describes the initial development of that package referred to as the Woods Hole Image Processing System (WHIPS). The software was developed using the Unidata NetCDF software interface to allow data to be more readily portable between different computer operating systems.

  19. Pristionchus pacificus daf-16 is essential for dauer formation but dispensable for mouth form dimorphism.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Akira; Bento, Gilberto; Bartelmes, Gabi; Dieterich, Christoph; Sommer, Ralf J

    2011-04-01

    The nematode Pristionchus pacificus shows two forms of phenotypic plasticity: dauer formation and dimorphism of mouth form morphologies. It can therefore serve as a model for studying the evolutionary mechanisms that underlie phenotypic plasticity. Formation of dauer larvae is observed in many other species and constitutes one of the most crucial survival strategies in nematodes, whereas the mouth form dimorphism is an evolutionary novelty observed only in P. pacificus and related nematodes. We have previously shown that the same environmental cues and steroid signaling control both dauer formation and mouth form dimorphism. Here, we examine by mutational analysis and whole-genome sequencing the function of P. pacificus (Ppa) daf-16, which encodes a forkhead transcription factor; in C. elegans, daf-16 is the target of insulin signaling and plays important roles in dauer formation. We found that mutations in Ppa-daf-16 cause strong dauer formation-defective phenotypes, suggesting that Ppa-daf-16 represents one of the evolutionarily conserved regulators of dauer formation. Upon strong dauer induction with lophenol, Ppa-daf-16 individuals formed arrested larvae that partially resemble wild-type dauer larvae, indicating that Ppa-daf-16 is also required for dauer morphogenesis. By contrast, regulation of mouth form dimorphism was unaffected by Ppa-daf-16 mutations and mutant animals responded normally to environmental cues. Our results suggest that mechanisms for dauer formation and mouth form regulation overlap partially, but not completely, and one of two key transcriptional regulators of the dauer regulatory network was either independently co-opted for, or subsequently lost by, the mouth form regulatory network.

  20. Star-formation rate in compact star-forming galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izotova, I. Y.; Izotov, Y. I.

    2018-03-01

    We use the data for the Hβ emission-line, far-ultraviolet (FUV) and mid-infrared 22 μm continuum luminosities to estimate star formation rates < SFR > averaged over the galaxy lifetime for a sample of about 14000 bursting compact star-forming galaxies (CSFGs) selected from the Data Release 12 (DR12) of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). The average coefficient linking < SFR > and the star formation rate SFR0 derived from the Hβ luminosity at zero starburst age is found to be 0.04. We compare < SFR > s with some commonly used SFRs which are derived adopting a continuous star formation during a period of {˜} 100 Myr, and find that the latter ones are 2-3 times higher. It is shown that the relations between SFRs derived using a geometric mean of two star-formation indicators in the UV and IR ranges and reduced to zero starburst age have considerably lower dispersion compared to those with single star-formation indicators. We suggest that our relations for < SFR > determination are more appropriate for CSFGs because they take into account a proper temporal evolution of their luminosities. On the other hand, we show that commonly used SFR relations can be applied for approximate estimation within a factor of {˜} 2 of the < SFR > averaged over the lifetime of the bursting compact galaxy.

  1. 37 CFR 1.824 - Form and format for nucleotide and/or amino acid sequence submissions in computer readable form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... which the data were recorded on the computer readable form, the operating system used, a reference... in a self-extracting format that will decompress on one of the systems described in paragraph (b) of... these format requirements: (1) Computer Compatibility: IBM PC/XT/AT or Apple Macintosh; (2) Operating...

  2. Common Data Format (CDF) and Coordinated Data Analysis Web (CDAWeb)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Candey, Robert M.

    2010-01-01

    The Coordinated Data Analysis Web (CDAWeb) data browsing system provides plotting, listing and open access v ia FTP, HTTP, and web services (REST, SOAP, OPeNDAP) for data from mo st NASA Heliophysics missions and is heavily used by the community. C ombining data from many instruments and missions enables broad resear ch analysis and correlation and coordination with other experiments a nd missions. Crucial to its effectiveness is the use of a standard se lf-describing data format, in this case, the Common Data Format (CDF) , also developed at the Space Physics Data facility , and the use of metadata standa rds (easily edited with SKTeditor ). CDAweb is based on a set of IDL routines, CDAWlib . . The CDF project also maintains soft ware and services for translating between many standard formats (CDF. netCDF, HDF, FITS, XML) .

  3. The survey on data format of Earth observation satellite data at JAXA.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsunaga, M.; Ikehata, Y.

    2017-12-01

    JAXA's earth observation satellite data are distributed by a portal web site for search and deliver called "G-Portal". Users can download the satellite data of GPM, TRMM, Aqua, ADEOS-II, ALOS (search only), ALOS-2 (search only), MOS-1, MOS-1b, ERS-1 and JERS-1 from G-Portal. However, these data formats are different by each satellite like HDF4, HDF5, NetCDF4, CEOS, etc., and which formats are not familiar to new data users. Although the HDF type self-describing format is very convenient and useful for big dataset information, old-type format product is not readable by open GIS tool nor apply OGC standard. Recently, the satellite data are widely used to be applied to the various needs such as disaster, earth resources, monitoring the global environment, Geographic Information System(GIS) and so on. In order to remove a barrier of using Earth Satellite data for new community users, JAXA has been providing the format-converted product like GeoTIFF or KMZ. In addition, JAXA provides format conversion tool itself. We investigate the trend of data format for data archive, data dissemination and data utilization, then we study how to improve the current product format for various application field users and make a recommendation for new product.

  4. The formation of prebiotic molecules in star-forming regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivilla, V. M.

    New sensitive observations using the current generation of (sub)millimeter telescopes have revealed in several star-forming regions molecular species of different chemical families (e.g. sugars, esters, isocyanates, phosphorus-bearing species) that may play an important role in prebiotic chemistry, and eventually in the origin of life. The observed molecular abundances of complex organic molecules (glycolaldehyde, ethylene glycol and ethyl formate) are better explained by surface-phase chemistry on dust grains, although gas-phase reactions can also play an important role, as in the case of methyl isocyanate. The PO molecule - a basic chemical bond to build-up the backbone of the DNA - has been detected for the first time in star-forming regions. These new observations indicate that phosphorus, a key element for the development of life, is much more abundant in star-forming regions than previously thought.

  5. 78 FR 18457 - Definition of Form I-94 To Include Electronic Format

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-27

    ... parole stamp in a foreign passport to the list of documents designated as evidence of alien registration... will create a Form I-94 in an electronic format based on passenger, passport and visa information DHS... inspection. The officer stamps the Form I-94 and the alien's passport, detaches the bottom portion of the...

  6. Moving from HDF4 to HDF5/netCFD-4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pourmal, Elena; Yang, Kent; Lee, Joe

    2017-01-01

    In this presentation, we will go over the major differences between two file formats and libraries, and will talk about the HDF5 features that users should consider when designing new products in HDF5netCDF4. We will also discuss the h4h5tools toolkit that can facilitate conversion of data in the existing HDF4 files to HDF5 and netCDF-4, and we will engage the participants in the discussion of how The HDF Group can help with the transition and adoption of HDF5 and netCDF-4.

  7. Star Formation Activity Beyond the Outer Arm. I. WISE -selected Candidate Star-forming Regions

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Izumi, Natsuko; Yasui, Chikako; Saito, Masao

    The outer Galaxy beyond the Outer Arm provides a good opportunity to study star formation in an environment significantly different from that in the solar neighborhood. However, star-forming regions in the outer Galaxy have never been comprehensively studied or cataloged because of the difficulties in detecting them at such large distances. We studied 33 known young star-forming regions associated with 13 molecular clouds at R {sub G} ≥ 13.5 kpc in the outer Galaxy with data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer ( WISE ) mid-infrared all-sky survey. From their color distribution, we developed a simple identification criterion of star-forming regions inmore » the outer Galaxy with the WISE color. We applied the criterion to all the WISE sources in the molecular clouds in the outer Galaxy at R {sub G} ≥ 13.5 kpc detected with the Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory (FCRAO) {sup 12}CO survey of the outer Galaxy, of which the survey region is 102.°49 ≤  l  ≤ 141.°54, −3.°03 ≤  b  ≤ 5.°41, and successfully identified 711 new candidate star-forming regions in 240 molecular clouds. The large number of samples enables us to perform the statistical study of star formation properties in the outer Galaxy for the first time. This study is crucial to investigate the fundamental star formation properties, including star formation rate, star formation efficiency, and initial mass function, in a primordial environment such as the early phase of the Galaxy formation.« less

  8. Fluorine-containing composition for forming anti-reflection film on resist surface and pattern formation method

    DOEpatents

    Nishi, Mineo; Makishima, Hideo

    1996-01-01

    A composition for forming anti-reflection film on resist surface which comprises an aqueous solution of a water soluble fluorine compound, and a pattern formation method which comprises the steps of coating a photoresist composition on a substrate; coating the above-mentioned composition for forming anti-reflection film; exposing the coated film to form a specific pattern; and developing the photoresist, are provided. Since the composition for forming anti-reflection film can be coated on the photoresist in the form of an aqueous solution, not only the anti-reflection film can be formed easily, but also, the film can be removed easily by rinsing with water or alkali development. Therefore, by the pattern formation method according to the present invention, it is possible to form a pattern easily with a high dimensional accuracy.

  9. Discrete stages of core formation survive the Moon-forming impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, C.; Bennett, N.; Du, Z.; Fei, Y.

    2016-12-01

    There is mounting evidence that Earth contains isotopic variations produced by short-lived systems, namely Hf-W and I-Xe. The lifetimes of these systems are 50 Ma and 80 Ma, respectively, requiring that chemical heterogeneities that were formed extremely early in solar system history and have survived within Earth's mantle to the modern day. The isotopic heterogeneity observed within Earth's mantle contrasts the isotopic similarity of bulk silicate Earth and bulk silicate Moon. This suggests the process(es) responsible for the isotopic variations within Earth predate the Moon-forming impact. Here, we focus on the potential role of core-formation in generating coupled isotopic variations associated with the Hf-W and I-Xe systems. We present metal-silicate partitioning data for W and I from experiments employing laser-heated diamond anvil cells. Experiments were conducted up to the pressure and temperature conditions directly relevant to core formation at GSECARS, APS. Samples were prepared using focused ion beam milling and analyzed by field emission electron microbeam techniques (EDS & WDS). These analyses demonstrate that W and I preferentially partition into the core under a wide range of conditions. In combination with literature data, this suggests that core formation left the residual mantle with an increased Hf/W ratio and a decreased I/Xe ratio. These parent-daughter fractionations lead to radiogenic W and unradiogenic Xe isotopic signatures compared to mantle that experienced the extraction of core material at a later date, on average. Relatively radiogenic W and unradiogenic Xe isotopic signatures are associated with plume rocks, potentially linking the plume source to mantle reservoirs that experienced early core extraction relative to the bulk mantle. Compositional variables, pressure, and temperature also affect the magnitude of Hf/W and I/Xe fractionation associated with core formation. The interplay of these variables will be evaluated alongside the

  10. Rosetta: Ensuring the Preservation and Usability of ASCII-based Data into the Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramamurthy, M. K.; Arms, S. C.

    2015-12-01

    Field data obtained from dataloggers often take the form of comma separated value (CSV) ASCII text files. While ASCII based data formats have positive aspects, such as the ease of accessing the data from disk and the wide variety of tools available for data analysis, there are some drawbacks, especially when viewing the situation through the lens of data interoperability and stewardship. The Unidata data translation tool, Rosetta, is a web-based service that provides an easy, wizard-based interface for data collectors to transform their datalogger generated ASCII output into Climate and Forecast (CF) compliant netCDF files following the CF-1.6 discrete sampling geometries. These files are complete with metadata describing what data are contained in the file, the instruments used to collect the data, and other critical information that otherwise may be lost in one of many README files. The choice of the machine readable netCDF data format and data model, coupled with the CF conventions, ensures long-term preservation and interoperability, and that future users will have enough information to responsibly use the data. However, with the understanding that the observational community appreciates the ease of use of ASCII files, methods for transforming the netCDF back into a CSV or spreadsheet format are also built-in. One benefit of translating ASCII data into a machine readable format that follows open community-driven standards is that they are instantly able to take advantage of data services provided by the many open-source data server tools, such as the THREDDS Data Server (TDS). While Rosetta is currently a stand-alone service, this talk will also highlight efforts to couple Rosetta with the TDS, thus allowing self-publishing of thoroughly documented datasets by the data producers themselves.

  11. Hydratools, a MATLAB® based data processing package for Sontek Hydra data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martini, M.; Lightsom, F.L.; Sherwood, C.R.; Xu, Jie; Lacy, J.R.; Ramsey, A.; Horwitz, R.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has developed a set of MATLAB tools to process and convert data collected by Sontek Hydra instruments to netCDF, which is a format used by the USGS to process and archive oceanographic time-series data. The USGS makes high-resolution current measurements within 1.5 meters of the bottom. These data are used in combination with other instrument data from sediment transport studies to develop sediment transport models. Instrument manufacturers provide software which outputs unique binary data formats. Multiple data formats are cumbersome. The USGS solution is to translate data streams into a common data format: netCDF. The Hydratools toolbox is written to create netCDF format files following EPIC conventions, complete with embedded metadata. Data are accepted from both the ADV and the PCADP. The toolbox will detect and remove bad data, substitute other sources of heading and tilt measurements if necessary, apply ambiguity corrections, calculate statistics, return information about data quality, and organize metadata. Standardized processing and archiving makes these data more easily and routinely accessible locally and over the Internet. In addition, documentation of the techniques used in the toolbox provides a baseline reference for others utilizing the data.

  12. An Adaptable Seismic Data Format for Modern Scientific Workflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, J. A.; Bozdag, E.; Krischer, L.; Lefebvre, M.; Lei, W.; Podhorszki, N.; Tromp, J.

    2013-12-01

    Data storage, exchange, and access play a critical role in modern seismology. Current seismic data formats, such as SEED, SAC, and SEG-Y, were designed with specific applications in mind and are frequently a major bottleneck in implementing efficient workflows. We propose a new modern parallel format that can be adapted for a variety of seismic workflows. The Adaptable Seismic Data Format (ASDF) features high-performance parallel read and write support and the ability to store an arbitrary number of traces of varying sizes. Provenance information is stored inside the file so that users know the origin of the data as well as the precise operations that have been applied to the waveforms. The design of the new format is based on several real-world use cases, including earthquake seismology and seismic interferometry. The metadata is based on the proven XML schemas StationXML and QuakeML. Existing time-series analysis tool-kits are easily interfaced with this new format so that seismologists can use robust, previously developed software packages, such as ObsPy and the SAC library. ADIOS, netCDF4, and HDF5 can be used as the underlying container format. At Princeton University, we have chosen to use ADIOS as the container format because it has shown superior scalability for certain applications, such as dealing with big data on HPC systems. In the context of high-performance computing, we have implemented ASDF into the global adjoint tomography workflow on Oak Ridge National Laboratory's supercomputer Titan.

  13. Geospatial Analysis Tool Kit for Regional Climate Datasets (GATOR) : An Open-source Tool to Compute Climate Statistic GIS Layers from Argonne Climate Modeling Results

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-08-01

    This large repository of climate model results for North America (Wang and Kotamarthi 2013, 2014, 2015) is stored in Network Common Data Form (NetCDF...Network Common Data Form (NetCDF). UCAR/Unidata Program Center, Boulder, CO. Available at: http://www.unidata.ucar.edu/software/netcdf. Accessed on 6/20...emissions diverge from each other regarding fossil fuel use, technology, and other socioeconomic factors. As a result, the estimated emissions for each of

  14. Formation of a new crystalline form of anhydrous β-maltose by ethanol-mediated crystal transformation.

    PubMed

    Verhoeven, Nicolas; Neoh, Tze Loon; Ohashi, Tetsuya; Furuta, Takeshi; Kurozumi, Sayaka; Yoshii, Hidefumi

    2012-04-01

    β-Maltose monohydrate was transformed into an anhydrous form by ethanol-mediated method under several temperatures with agitation. A new stable anhydrous form of β-maltose (Mβ(s)) was obtained, as substantiated by the X-ray diffraction patterns. Mβ(s) obtained by this method presented a fine porous structure, resulting in greater specific surface area compared to those of β-maltose monohydrate and anhydrous β-maltose obtained by vacuum drying (Mβ(h)). The crystal transformation presumably consisted of two steps: dehydration reaction from the hydrous to amorphous forms and crystal formation from the amorphous forms to the noble anhydrous form. The kinetics of these reactions were determined by thermal analysis using Jander's equation and Arrhenius plots. The overall activation energies of the dehydration reaction and the formation of anhydrous maltose were evaluated to be 100 and 90 kJ/mol, respectively. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. 37 CFR 1.824 - Form and format for nucleotide and/or amino acid sequence submissions in computer readable form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... which the data were recorded on the computer readable form, the operating system used, a reference...) Operating System Compatibility: MS-DOS, MS-Windows, Unix or Macintosh; (3) Line Terminator: ASCII Carriage... in a self-extracting format that will decompress on one of the systems described in paragraph (b) of...

  16. 37 CFR 1.824 - Form and format for nucleotide and/or amino acid sequence submissions in computer readable form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... which the data were recorded on the computer readable form, the operating system used, a reference...) Operating System Compatibility: MS-DOS, MS-Windows, Unix or Macintosh; (3) Line Terminator: ASCII Carriage... in a self-extracting format that will decompress on one of the systems described in paragraph (b) of...

  17. 37 CFR 1.824 - Form and format for nucleotide and/or amino acid sequence submissions in computer readable form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... which the data were recorded on the computer readable form, the operating system used, a reference...) Operating System Compatibility: MS-DOS, MS-Windows, Unix or Macintosh; (3) Line Terminator: ASCII Carriage... in a self-extracting format that will decompress on one of the systems described in paragraph (b) of...

  18. 2 CFR 25.210 - Authority to modify agency application forms or formats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Authority to modify agency application forms or formats. 25.210 Section 25.210 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GOVERNMENTWIDE GUIDANCE FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS...

  19. 2 CFR 25.210 - Authority to modify agency application forms or formats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Authority to modify agency application forms or formats. 25.210 Section 25.210 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GOVERNMENTWIDE GUIDANCE FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS...

  20. 2 CFR 25.210 - Authority to modify agency application forms or formats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Authority to modify agency application forms or formats. 25.210 Section 25.210 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GOVERNMENTWIDE GUIDANCE FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS...

  1. 2 CFR 25.210 - Authority to modify agency application forms or formats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Authority to modify agency application forms or formats. 25.210 Section 25.210 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GOVERNMENTWIDE GUIDANCE FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS...

  2. Aperture-free star formation rate of SDSS star-forming galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte Puertas, S.; Vilchez, J. M.; Iglesias-Páramo, J.; Kehrig, C.; Pérez-Montero, E.; Rosales-Ortega, F. F.

    2017-03-01

    Large area surveys with a high number of galaxies observed have undoubtedly marked a milestone in the understanding of several properties of galaxies, such as star-formation history, morphology, and metallicity. However, in many cases, these surveys provide fluxes from fixed small apertures (e.g. fibre), which cover a scant fraction of the galaxy, compelling us to use aperture corrections to study the global properties of galaxies. In this work, we derive the current total star formation rate (SFR) of Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) star-forming galaxies, using an empirically based aperture correction of the measured Hα flux for the first time, thus minimising the uncertainties associated with reduced apertures. All the Hα fluxes have been extinction-corrected using the Hα/ Hβ ratio free from aperture effects. The total SFR for 210 000 SDSS star-forming galaxies has been derived applying pure empirical Hα and Hα/ Hβ aperture corrections based on the Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field Area (CALIFA) survey. We find that, on average, the aperture-corrected SFR is 0.65 dex higher than the SDSS fibre-based SFR. The relation between the SFR and stellar mass for SDSS star-forming galaxies (SFR-M⋆) has been obtained, together with its dependence on extinction and Hα equivalent width. We compare our results with those obtained in previous works and examine the behaviour of the derived SFR in six redshift bins, over the redshift range 0.005 ≤ z ≤ 0.22. The SFR-M⋆ sequence derived here is in agreement with selected observational studies based on integral field spectroscopy of individual galaxies as well as with the predictions of recent theoretical models of disc galaxies. A table of the aperture-corrected fluxes and SFR for 210 000 SDSS star-forming galaxies and related relevant data is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/599/A71 Warning, no authors

  3. Situational Lightning Climatologies for Central Florida: Phase III

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, Joe H., III

    2008-01-01

    This report describes work done by the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) to add composite soundings to the Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System (AWIPS). This allows National Weather Service (NWS) forecasters to compare the current atmospheric state with climatology. In a previous phase, the AMU created composite soundings for four rawinsonde observation stations in Florida, for each of eight flow regimes. The composite soundings were delivered to the NWS Melbourne (MLB) office for display using the NSHARP software program. NWS MLB requested that the AMU make the composite soundings available for display in AWIPS. The AMU first created a procedure to customize AWIPS so composite soundings could be displayed. A unique four-character identifier was created for each of the 32 composite soundings. The AMU wrote a Tool Command Language/Tool Kit (TcVTk) software program to convert the composite soundings from NSHARP to Network Common Data Form (NetCDF) format. The NetCDF files were then displayable by AWIPS.

  4. Early Cambrian wave-formed shoreline deposits: the Hardeberga Formation, Bornholm, Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemmensen, Lars B.; Glad, Aslaug C.; Pedersen, Gunver K.

    2017-09-01

    During the early Cambrian, the Danish island Bornholm was situated on the northern edge of the continent Baltica with palaeolatitudes of about 35°S. An early Cambrian (Terreneuvian) transgression inundated large areas of Baltica including Bornholm creating shallow marine and coastline environments. During this period, wave-formed shoreline sediments (the Vik Member, Hardeberga Formation) were deposited on Bornholm and are presently exposed at Strøby quarry. The sediments consist of fine- and medium-grained quartz-cemented arenites in association with a few silt-rich mudstones. The presence of well-preserved subaqueous dunes and wave ripples indicates deposition in a wave-dominated upper shoreface (littoral zone) environment, and the presence of interference ripples indicates that the littoral zone environment experienced water level fluctuations due to tides and/or changing meteorological conditions. Discoidal structures (medusoids) are present in the quarry, but due to the relative poor preservation of their fine-scale structures it is difficult to determine if the discoids represent true medusae imprints or inorganic structures. The preservation of the shallow-water bedforms as well as the possible medusae imprints is related to either the formation of thin mud layers, formed during a period of calm water when winds blew offshore for a longer period, or to the growth of bacterial mats. The orientation of the wave-formed bedforms indicates a local palaeoshoreline trending NE-SW and facing a large ocean to the north.

  5. Forming Hot Jupiters: Observational Constraints on Gas Giant Formation and migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Juliette; Vanderburg, Andrew; Adams, Fred C.; Khain, Tali; Bryan, Marta

    2018-04-01

    Since the first extrasolar planets were detected, the existence of hot Jupiters has challenged prevailing theories of planet formation. The three commonly considered pathways for hot Jupiter formation are in situ formation, runaway accretion in the outer disk followed by disk migration, and tidal migration (occurring after the disk has dissipated). None of these explains the entire observed sample of hot Jupiters, suggesting that different selections of systems form via different pathways. The way forward is to use observational data to constrain the migration pathways of particular classes of systems, and subsequently assemble these results into a coherent picture of hot Jupiter formation. We present constraints on the migratory pathway for one particular type of system: hot Jupiters orbiting cool stars (T< 6200 K). Using the full observational sample, we find that the orbits of most wide planetary companions to hot Jupiters around these cool stars must be well aligned with the orbits of the hot Jupiters and the spins of the host stars. The population of systems containing both a hot Jupiter and an exterior companion around a cool star thus generally exist in roughly coplanar configurations, consistent with the idea that disk-driven migratory mechanisms have assembled most of this class of systems. We then discuss the overall applicability of this result to a wider range of systems and the broader implications on planet formation.

  6. On the formation redshift of Low-Mass Star-Forming Galaxies at intermediate redshifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallego, Jesus; Rodriguez-Muñoz, Lucía; Pacifici, Camilla; Tresse, Laurence; Charlot, Stéphane; Gil de Paz, Armando; Barro, Guillermo; Gomez-Guijarro, Carlos; Villar, Víctor

    2015-08-01

    Dwarf galaxies play a key role in galaxy formation and evolution: (1) hierarchical models predict that low-mass systems merged to form massive galaxies (building block paradigm; Dekel & Silk 1986); (2) dwarf systems might have been responsible for the reionization of the Universe (Wyithe & Loeb 2006); (3) theoretical models are particularly sensitive to the density of low-mass systems at diferent redshifts (Mamon et al. 2011), being one of the key science cases for the future E-ELT (Evans et al. 2013). While the history of low-mass dark matter halos is relatively well understood, the formation history of dwarf galaxies is still poorly reproduced by the models due to the distinct evolution of baryonic and dark matter.We present constraints on the star formation histories (SFHs) of a sample of low-mass Star-Forming Galaxies (LMSFGs; 7.3 < log M∗/Mo < 8.0, at 0.3 < zspec < 0.9) selected by photometric stellar mass and apparent magnitude. The SFHs were obtained through the analysis of their spectral energy distributions using a novel approach (Pacifici et al. 2012) that (1) consistently combines photometric (HST and ground-based multi-broadband) and spectroscopic (equivalent widths of emission lines from VLT and GTC spectroscopy) data, and (2) uses physically motivated SFHs with non-uniform variations of the star formation rate (SFR) as a function of time.The median SFH of our LMSFGs appears to form 90% of the median stellar mass inferred for the sample in the ˜0.5-1.8 Gyr immediately preceding the observation. These results suggest a recent stellar mass assembly for dwarf SFGs, consistent with the cosmological downsizing trends. We find similar median SFH timescales for a slightly more massive secondary sample 8.0 < log M∗/Mo < 9.1).This is a pilot study for future surveys on dwarf galaxies at high redshift.

  7. THE STAR FORMATION LAWS OF EDDINGTON-LIMITED STAR-FORMING DISKS

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Ballantyne, D. R.; Armour, J. N.; Indergaard, J., E-mail: david.ballantyne@physics.gatech.edu

    2013-03-10

    Two important avenues into understanding the formation and evolution of galaxies are the Kennicutt-Schmidt (K-S) and Elmegreen-Silk (E-S) laws. These relations connect the surface densities of gas and star formation ({Sigma}{sub gas} and {Sigma}-dot{sub *}, respectively) in a galaxy. To elucidate the K-S and E-S laws for disks where {Sigma}{sub gas} {approx}> 10{sup 4} M{sub Sun} pc{sup -2}, we compute 132 Eddington-limited star-forming disk models with radii spanning tens to hundreds of parsecs. The theoretically expected slopes ( Almost-Equal-To 1 for the K-S law and Almost-Equal-To 0.5 for the E-S relation) are relatively robust to spatial averaging over the disks.more » However, the star formation laws exhibit a strong dependence on opacity that separates the models by the dust-to-gas ratio that may lead to the appearance of a erroneously large slope. The total infrared luminosity (L{sub TIR}) and multiple carbon monoxide (CO) line intensities were computed for each model. While L{sub TIR} can yield an estimate of the average {Sigma}-dot{sub *} that is correct to within a factor of two, the velocity-integrated CO line intensity is a poor proxy for the average {Sigma}{sub gas} for these warm and dense disks, making the CO conversion factor ({alpha}{sub CO}) all but useless. Thus, observationally derived K-S and E-S laws at these values of {Sigma}{sub gas} that uses any transition of CO will provide a poor measurement of the underlying star formation relation. Studies of the star formation laws of Eddington-limited disks will require a high-J transition of a high density molecular tracer, as well as a sample of galaxies with known metallicity estimates.« less

  8. 12 CFR 792.13 - Can I get the records in different forms or formats?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT AND PRIVACY ACT, AND BY SUBPOENA; SECURITY PROCEDURES FOR CLASSIFIED... computer disk, if the record is readily reproducible by us in that form or format, but we will not provide...

  9. 12 CFR 792.13 - Can I get the records in different forms or formats?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT AND PRIVACY ACT, AND BY SUBPOENA; SECURITY PROCEDURES FOR CLASSIFIED... computer disk, if the record is readily reproducible by us in that form or format, but we will not provide...

  10. 12 CFR 792.13 - Can I get the records in different forms or formats?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT AND PRIVACY ACT, AND BY SUBPOENA; SECURITY PROCEDURES FOR CLASSIFIED... computer disk, if the record is readily reproducible by us in that form or format, but we will not provide...

  11. 12 CFR 792.13 - Can I get the records in different forms or formats?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT AND PRIVACY ACT, AND BY SUBPOENA; SECURITY PROCEDURES FOR CLASSIFIED... computer disk, if the record is readily reproducible by us in that form or format, but we will not provide...

  12. 12 CFR 792.13 - Can I get the records in different forms or formats?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT AND PRIVACY ACT, AND BY SUBPOENA; SECURITY PROCEDURES FOR CLASSIFIED... computer disk, if the record is readily reproducible by us in that form or format, but we will not provide...

  13. Trade Study: Storing NASA HDF5/netCDF-4 Data in the Amazon Cloud and Retrieving Data Via Hyrax Server Data Server

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habermann, Ted; Gallagher, James; Jelenak, Aleksandar; Potter, Nathan; Lee, Joe; Yang, Kent

    2017-01-01

    This study explored three candidate architectures with different types of objects and access paths for serving NASA Earth Science HDF5 data via Hyrax running on Amazon Web Services (AWS). We studied the cost and performance for each architecture using several representative Use-Cases. The objectives of the study were: Conduct a trade study to identify one or more high performance integrated solutions for storing and retrieving NASA HDF5 and netCDF4 data in a cloud (web object store) environment. The target environment is Amazon Web Services (AWS) Simple Storage Service (S3). Conduct needed level of software development to properly evaluate solutions in the trade study and to obtain required benchmarking metrics for input into government decision of potential follow-on prototyping. Develop a cloud cost model for the preferred data storage solution (or solutions) that accounts for different granulation and aggregation schemes as well as cost and performance trades.We will describe the three architectures and the use cases along with performance results and recommendations for further work.

  14. Structural analysis of star-forming blue early-type galaxies. Merger-driven star formation in elliptical galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, Koshy

    2017-02-01

    Context. Star-forming blue early-type galaxies at low redshift can give insight to the stellar mass growth of L⋆ elliptical galaxies in the local Universe. Aims: We wish to understand the reason for star formation in these otherwise passively evolving red and dead stellar systems. The fuel for star formation can be acquired through recent accretion events such as mergers or flyby. The signatures of such events should be evident from a structural analysis of the galaxy image. Methods: We carried out structural analysis on SDSS r-band imaging data of 55 star-forming blue elliptical galaxies, derived the structural parameters, analysed the residuals from best-fit to surface brightness distribution, and constructed the galaxy scaling relations. Results: We found that star-forming blue early-type galaxies are bulge-dominated systems with axial ratio >0.5 and surface brightness profiles fitted by Sérsic profiles with index (n) mostly >2. Twenty-three galaxies are found to have n< 2; these could be hosting a disc component. The residual images of the 32 galaxy surface brightness profile fits show structural features indicative of recent interactions. The star-forming blue elliptical galaxies follow the Kormendy relation and show the characteristics of normal elliptical galaxies as far as structural analysis is concerned. There is a general trend for high-luminosity galaxies to display interaction signatures and high star formation rates. Conclusions: The star-forming population of blue early-type galaxies at low redshifts could be normal ellipticals that might have undergone a recent gas-rich minor merger event. The star formation in these galaxies will shut down once the recently acquired fuel is consumed, following which the galaxy will evolve to a normal early-type galaxy.

  15. The effectiveness of formative assessment with understanding by design (UbD) stages in forming habits of mind in prospective teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gloria, R. Y.; Sudarmin, S.; Wiyanto; Indriyanti, D. R.

    2018-03-01

    Habits of mind are intelligent thinking dispositions that every individual needs to have, and it needs an effort to form them as expected. A behavior can be formed by continuous practice; therefore the student's habits of mind can also be formed and trained. One effort that can be used to encourage the formation of habits of mind is a formative assessment strategy with the stages of UbD (Understanding by Design), and a study needs to be done to prove it. This study aims to determine the contribution of formative assessment to the value of habits of mind owned by prospective teachers. The method used is a quantitative method with a quasi-experimental design. To determine the effectiveness of formative assessment with Ubd stages on the formation of habits of mind, correlation test and regression analysis were conducted in the formative assessment questionnaire consisting of three components, i.e. feed back, peer assessment and self assessment, and habits of mind. The result of the research shows that from the three components of Formative Assessment, only Feedback component does not show correlation to students’ habits of mind (r = 0.323). While peer assessment component (r = 0. 732) and self assessment component (r = 0.625), both indicate correlation. From the regression test the overall component of the formative assessment contributed to the habits of mind at 57.1%. From the result of the research, it can be concluded that the formative assessment with Ubd stages is effective and contributes in forming the student's habits of mind; the formative assessment components that contributed the most are the peer assessment and self assessment. The greatest contribution goes to the Thinking interdependently category.

  16. Sharing electronic structure and crystallographic data with ETSF_IO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caliste, D.; Pouillon, Y.; Verstraete, M. J.; Olevano, V.; Gonze, X.

    2008-11-01

    We present a library of routines whose main goal is to read and write exchangeable files (NetCDF file format) storing electronic structure and crystallographic information. It is based on the specification agreed inside the European Theoretical Spectroscopy Facility (ETSF). Accordingly, this library is nicknamed ETSF_IO. The purpose of this article is to give both an overview of the ETSF_IO library and a closer look at its usage. ETSF_IO is designed to be robust and easy to use, close to Fortran read and write routines. To facilitate its adoption, a complete documentation of the input and output arguments of the routines is available in the package, as well as six tutorials explaining in detail various possible uses of the library routines. Catalogue identifier: AEBG_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEBG_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Gnu Lesser General Public License No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 63 156 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 363 390 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran 95 Computer: All systems with a Fortran95 compiler Operating system: All systems with a Fortran95 compiler Classification: 7.3, 8 External routines: NetCDF, http://www.unidata.ucar.edu/software/netcdf Nature of problem: Store and exchange electronic structure data and crystallographic data independently of the computational platform, language and generating software Solution method: Implement a library based both on NetCDF file format and an open specification (http://etsf.eu/index.php?page=standardization)

  17. Chondrule-forming Shock Fronts in the Solar Nebula: A Possible Unified Scenario for Planet and Chondrite Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boss, A. P.; Durisen, R. H.

    2005-03-01

    Chondrules are millimeter-sized spherules found throughout primitive chondritic meteorites. Flash heating by a shock front is the leading explanation of their formation. However, identifying a mechanism for creating shock fronts inside the solar nebula has been difficult. In a gaseous disk capable of forming Jupiter, the disk must have been marginally gravitationally unstable at and beyond Jupiter's orbit. We show that this instability can drive inward spiral shock fronts with shock speeds of up to ~10 km s-1 at asteroidal orbits, sufficient to account for chondrule formation. The mixing and transport of solids in such a disk, combined with the planet-forming tendencies of gravitational instabilities, results in a unified scenario linking chondrite production with gas giant planet formation.

  18. Insights from Synthetic Star-forming Regions. III. Calibration of Measurement and Techniques of Star Formation Rates

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Koepferl, Christine M.; Robitaille, Thomas P.; Dale, James E., E-mail: koepferl@usm.lmu.de

    Through an extensive set of realistic synthetic observations (produced in Paper I), we assess in this part of the paper series (Paper III) how the choice of observational techniques affects the measurement of star formation rates (SFRs) in star-forming regions. We test the accuracy of commonly used techniques and construct new methods to extract the SFR, so that these findings can be applied to measure the SFR in real regions throughout the Milky Way. We investigate diffuse infrared SFR tracers such as those using 24 μ m, 70 μ m and total infrared emission, which have been previously calibrated formore » global galaxy scales. We set up a toy model of a galaxy and show that the infrared emission is consistent with the intrinsic SFR using extra-galactic calibrated laws (although the consistency does not prove their reliability). For local scales, we show that these techniques produce completely unreliable results for single star-forming regions, which are governed by different characteristic timescales. We show how calibration of these techniques can be improved for single star-forming regions by adjusting the characteristic timescale and the scaling factor and give suggestions of new calibrations of the diffuse star formation tracers. We show that star-forming regions that are dominated by high-mass stellar feedback experience a rapid drop in infrared emission once high-mass stellar feedback is turned on, which implies different characteristic timescales. Moreover, we explore the measured SFRs calculated directly from the observed young stellar population. We find that the measured point sources follow the evolutionary pace of star formation more directly than diffuse star formation tracers.« less

  19. CMGTooL user's manual

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xu, Jingping; Lightsom, Fran; Noble, Marlene A.; Denham, Charles

    2002-01-01

    During the past several years, the sediment transport group in the Coastal and Marine Geology Program (CMGP) of the U. S. Geological Survey has made major revisions to its methodology of processing, analyzing, and maintaining the variety of oceanographic time-series data. First, CMGP completed the transition of the its oceanographic time-series database to a self-documenting NetCDF (Rew et al., 1997) data format. Second, CMGP’s oceanographic data variety and complexity have been greatly expanded from traditional 2-dimensional, single-point time-series measurements (e.g., Electro-magnetic current meters, transmissometers) to more advanced 3-dimensional and profiling time-series measurements due to many new acquisitions of modern instruments such as Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (RDI, 1996), Acoustic Doppler Velocitimeter, Pulse-Coherence Acoustic Doppler Profiler (SonTek, 2001), Acoustic Bacscatter Sensor (Aquatec, 1001001001001001001). In order to accommodate the NetCDF format of data from the new instruments, a software package of processing, analyzing, and visualizing time-series oceanographic data was developed. It is named CMGTooL. The CMGTooL package contains two basic components: a user-friendly GUI for NetCDF file analysis, processing and manipulation; and a data analyzing program library. Most of the routines in the library are stand-alone programs suitable for batch processing. CMGTooL is written in MATLAB computing language (The Mathworks, 1997), therefore users must have MATLAB installed on their computer in order to use this software package. In addition, MATLAB’s Signal Processing Toolbox is also required by some CMGTooL’s routines. Like most MATLAB programs, all CMGTooL codes are compatible with different computing platforms including PC, MAC, and UNIX machines (Note: CMGTooL has been tested on different platforms that run MATLAB 5.2 (Release 10) or lower versions. Some of the commands related to MAC may not be compatible with later releases

  20. The ionisation parameter of star-forming galaxies evolves with the specific star formation rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaasinen, Melanie; Kewley, Lisa; Bian, Fuyan; Groves, Brent; Kashino, Daichi; Silverman, John; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan

    2018-04-01

    We investigate the evolution of the ionisation parameter of star-forming galaxies using a high-redshift (z ˜ 1.5) sample from the FMOS-COSMOS survey and matched low-redshift samples from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. By constructing samples of low-redshift galaxies for which the stellar mass (M*), star formation rate (SFR) and specific star formation rate (sSFR) are matched to the high-redshift sample we remove the effects of an evolution in these properties. We also account for the effect of metallicity by jointly constraining the metallicity and ionisation parameter of each sample. We find an evolution in the ionisation parameter for main-sequence, star-forming galaxies and show that this evolution is driven by the evolution of sSFR. By analysing the matched samples as well as a larger sample of z < 0.3, star-forming galaxies we show that high ionisation parameters are directly linked to high sSFRs and are not simply the byproduct of an evolution in metallicity. Our results are physically consistent with the definition of the ionisation parameter, a measure of the hydrogen ionising photon flux relative to the number density of hydrogen atoms.

  1. Investigating the feasibility of Visualising Complex Space Weather Data in a CAVE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loughlin, S.; Habash Krause, L.

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of visualising complex space weather data in a Cave Automatic Virtual Environment (CAVE). Space weather is increasingly causing disruptions on Earth, such as power outages and disrupting communication to satellites. We wanted to display this space weather data within the CAVE since the data from instruments, models and simulations are typically too complex to understand on their own, especially when they are of 7 dimensions. To accomplish this, I created a VTK to NetCDF converter. NetCDF is a science data format, which stores array oriented scientific data. The format is maintained by the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research, and is used extensively by the atmospheric and space communities.

  2. Formation of DNA adducts by ellipticine and its micellar form in rats - a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Stiborova, Marie; Manhartova, Zuzana; Hodek, Petr; Adam, Vojtech; Kizek, Rene; Frei, Eva

    2014-12-03

    The requirements for early diagnostics as well as effective treatment of cancer diseases have increased the pressure on development of efficient methods for targeted drug delivery as well as imaging of the treatment success. One of the most recent approaches covering the drug delivery aspects is benefitting from the unique properties of nanomaterials. Ellipticine and its derivatives are efficient anticancer compounds that function through multiple mechanisms. Formation of covalent DNA adducts after ellipticine enzymatic activation is one of the most important mechanisms of its pharmacological action. In this study, we investigated whether ellipticine might be released from its micellar (encapsulated) form to generate covalent adducts analogous to those formed by free ellipticine. The (32)P-postlabeling technique was used as a useful imaging method to detect and quantify covalent ellipticine-derived DNA adducts. We compared the efficiencies of free ellipticine and its micellar form (the poly(ethylene oxide)-block-poly(allyl glycidyl ether) (PAGE-PEO) block copolymer, P 119 nanoparticles) to form ellipticine-DNA adducts in rats in vivo. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that treatment of rats with ellipticine in micelles resulted in formation of ellipticine-derived DNA adducts in vivo and suggest that a gradual release of ellipticine from its micellar form might produce the enhanced permeation and retention effect of this ellipticine-micellar delivery system.

  3. Proteus vulgaris and Proteus mirabilis Decrease Candida albicans Biofilm Formation by Suppressing Morphological Transition to Its Hyphal Form.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyoung Ho; Park, Su Jung; Choi, Sun Ju; Park, Joo Young

    2017-11-01

    Candida albicans (C. albicans) and Proteus species are causative agents in a variety of opportunistic nosocomial infections, and their ability to form biofilms is known to be a virulence factor. In this study, the influence of co-cultivation with Proteus vulgaris (P. vulgaris) and Proteus mirabilis (P. mirabilis) on C. albicans biofilm formation and its underlying mechanisms were examined. XTT reduction assays were adopted to measure biofilm formation, and viable colony counts were performed to quantify yeast growth. Real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction was used to evaluate the expression of yeast-specific genes (rhd1 and rbe1), filament formation inhibiting genes (tup1 and nrg1), and hyphae-related genes (als3, ece1, hwp1, and sap5). Candida biofilm formation was markedly inhibited by treatment with either living or heat-killed P. vulgaris and P. mirabilis. Proteus-cultured supernatant also inhibited Candida biofilm formation. Likewise, treatment with live P. vulgaris or P. mirabilis or with Proteus-cultured supernatant decreased expression of hyphae-related C. albicans genes, while the expression of yeast-specific genes and the filament formation inhibiting genes of C. albicans were increased. Heat-killed P. vulgaris and P. mirabilis treatment, however, did not affect the expression of C. albicans morphology-related genes. These results suggest that secretory products from P. vulgaris and P. mirabilis regulate the expression of genes related to morphologic changes in C. albicans such that transition from the yeast form to the hyphal form can be inhibited. © Copyright: Yonsei University College of Medicine 2017

  4. The ionization parameter of star-forming galaxies evolves with the specific star formation rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaasinen, Melanie; Kewley, Lisa; Bian, Fuyan; Groves, Brent; Kashino, Daichi; Silverman, John; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan

    2018-07-01

    We investigate the evolution of the ionization parameter of star-forming galaxies using a high-redshift (z˜ 1.5) sample from the FMOS-COSMOS (Fibre Multi-Object Spectrograph-COSMic evOlution Survey) and matched low-redshift samples from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. By constructing samples of low-redshift galaxies for which the stellar mass (M*), star formation rate (SFR), and specific star formation rate (sSFR) are matched to the high-redshift sample, we remove the effects of an evolution in these properties. We also account for the effect of metallicity by jointly constraining the metallicity and ionization parameter of each sample. We find an evolution in the ionization parameter for main-sequence, star-forming galaxies and show that this evolution is driven by the evolution of sSFR. By analysing the matched samples as well as a larger sample of z< 0.3, star-forming galaxies we show that high ionization parameters are directly linked to high sSFRs and are not simply the by-product of an evolution in metallicity. Our results are physically consistent with the definition of the ionization parameter, a measure of the hydrogen ionizing photon flux relative to the number density of hydrogen atoms.

  5. Informatic infrastructure for Climatological and Oceanographic data based on THREDDS technology in a Grid environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tronconi, C.; Forneris, V.; Santoleri, R.

    2009-04-01

    CNR-ISAC-GOS is responsible for the Mediterranean Sea satellite operational system in the framework of MOON Patnership. This Observing System acquires satellite data and produces Near Real Time, Delayed Time and Re-analysis of Ocean Colour and Sea Surface Temperature products covering the Mediterranean and the Black Seas and regional basins. In the framework of several projects (MERSEA, PRIMI, Adricosm Star, SeaDataNet, MyOcean, ECOOP), GOS is producing Climatological/Satellite datasets based on optimal interpolation and specific Regional algorithm for chlorophyll, updated in Near Real Time and in Delayed mode. GOS has built • an informatic infrastructure data repository and delivery based on THREDDS technology The datasets are generated in NETCDF format, compliant with both the CF convention and the international satellite-oceanographic specification, as prescribed by GHRSST (for SST). All data produced, are made available to the users through a THREDDS server catalog. • A LAS has been installed in order to exploit the potential of NETCDF data and the OPENDAP URL. It provides flexible access to geo-referenced scientific data • a Grid Environment based on Globus Technologies (GT4) connecting more than one Institute; in particular exploiting CNR and ESA clusters makes possible to reprocess 12 years of Chlorophyll data in less than one month.(estimated processing time on a single core PC: 9months). In the poster we will give an overview of: • the features of the THREDDS catalogs, pointing out the powerful characteristics of this new middleware that has replaced the "old" OPENDAP Server; • the importance of adopting a common format (as NETCDF) for data exchange; • the tools (e.g. LAS) connected with THREDDS and NETCDF format use. • the Grid infrastructure on ISAC We will present also specific basin-scale High Resolution products and Ultra High Resolution regional/coastal products available on these catalogs.

  6. 36 CFR 1223.18 - Must vital records be in a particular form or format?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Must vital records be in a particular form or format? 1223.18 Section 1223.18 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND..., magnetic tape, optical disk, photographic film, and microform. In selecting the media, agencies must ensure...

  7. 36 CFR 1223.18 - Must vital records be in a particular form or format?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Must vital records be in a particular form or format? 1223.18 Section 1223.18 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND..., magnetic tape, optical disk, photographic film, and microform. In selecting the media, agencies must ensure...

  8. Formation and characterization of non-growth states in Clostridium thermocellum: spores and L-forms

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Clostridium thermocellum is an anaerobic thermophilic bacterium that exhibits high levels of cellulose solublization and produces ethanol as an end product of its metabolism. Using cellulosic biomass as a feedstock for fuel production is an attractive prospect, however, growth arrest can negatively impact ethanol production by fermentative microorganisms such as C. thermocellum. Understanding conditions that lead to non-growth states in C. thermocellum can positively influence process design and culturing conditions in order to optimize ethanol production in an industrial setting. Results We report here that Clostridium thermocellum ATCC 27405 enters non-growth states in response to specific growth conditions. Non-growth states include the formation of spores and a L-form-like state in which the cells cease to grow or produce the normal end products of metabolism. Unlike other sporulating organisms, we did not observe sporulation of C. thermocellum in low carbon or nitrogen environments. However, sporulation did occur in response to transfers between soluble and insoluble substrates, resulting in approximately 7% mature spores. Exposure to oxygen caused a similar sporulation response. Starvation conditions during continuous culture did not result in spore formation, but caused the majority of cells to transition to a L-form state. Both spores and L-forms were determined to be viable. Spores exhibited enhanced survival in response to high temperature and prolonged storage compared to L-forms and vegetative cells. However, L-forms exhibited faster recovery compared to both spores and stationary phase cells when cultured in rich media. Conclusions Both spores and L-forms cease to produce ethanol, but provide other advantages for C. thermocellum including enhanced survival for spores and faster recovery for L-forms. Understanding the conditions that give rise to these two different non-growth states, and the implications that each has for enabling or

  9. Determining Experimental Parameters for Thermal-Mechanical Forming Simulation considering Martensite Formation in Austenitic Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmid, Philipp; Liewald, Mathias

    2011-08-01

    The forming behavior of metastable austenitic stainless steel is mainly dominated by the temperature-dependent TRIP effect (transformation induced plasticity). Of course, the high dependency of material properties on the temperature level during forming means the temperature must be considered during the FE analysis. The strain-induced formation of α'-martensite from austenite can be represented by using finite element programs utilizing suitable models such as the Haensel-model. This paper discusses the determination of parameters for a completely thermal-mechanical forming simulation in LS-DYNA based on the material model of Haensel. The measurement of the martensite evolution in non-isothermal tensile tests was performed with metastable austenitic stainless steel EN 1.4301 at different rolling directions between 0° and 90 °. This allows an estimation of the influence of the rolling direction to the martensite formation. Of specific importance is the accuracy of the martensite content measured by magnetic induction methods (Feritscope). The observation of different factors, such as stress dependence of the magnetisation, blank thickness and numerous calibration curves discloses a substantial important influence on the parameter determination for the material models. The parameters obtained for use of Haensel model and temperature-dependent friction coefficients are used to simulate forming process of a real component and to validate its implementation in the commercial code LS-DYNA.

  10. Formation of DNA Adducts by Ellipticine and Its Micellar Form in Rats — A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Stiborova, Marie; Manhartova, Zuzana; Hodek, Petr; Adam, Vojtech; Kizek, Rene; Frei, Eva

    2014-01-01

    The requirements for early diagnostics as well as effective treatment of cancer diseases have increased the pressure on development of efficient methods for targeted drug delivery as well as imaging of the treatment success. One of the most recent approaches covering the drug delivery aspects is benefitting from the unique properties of nanomaterials. Ellipticine and its derivatives are efficient anticancer compounds that function through multiple mechanisms. Formation of covalent DNA adducts after ellipticine enzymatic activation is one of the most important mechanisms of its pharmacological action. In this study, we investigated whether ellipticine might be released from its micellar (encapsulated) form to generate covalent adducts analogous to those formed by free ellipticine. The 32P-postlabeling technique was used as a useful imaging method to detect and quantify covalent ellipticine-derived DNA adducts. We compared the efficiencies of free ellipticine and its micellar form (the poly(ethylene oxide)-block-poly(allyl glycidyl ether) (PAGE-PEO) block copolymer, P 119 nanoparticles) to form ellipticine-DNA adducts in rats in vivo. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that treatment of rats with ellipticine in micelles resulted in formation of ellipticine-derived DNA adducts in vivo and suggest that a gradual release of ellipticine from its micellar form might produce the enhanced permeation and retention effect of this ellipticine-micellar delivery system. PMID:25479328

  11. HOW DO STONES FORM? IS UNIFICATION OF THEORIES ON STONE FORMATION POSSIBLE?

    PubMed Central

    Bird, Victoria Y.; Khan, Saeed R.

    2017-01-01

    Summary There are two basic pathways for formation of calcium based kidney stones. Most idiopathic calcium oxalate (CaOx) stones are formed in association with sub-epithelial plaques of calcium phosphate (CaP), known as Randall’s plaques, on renal papillary surfaces. Crystal formation and retention within the terminal collecting ducts, the ducts of Bellini, leading to the formation of Randall’s plugs, is the other pathway. Both pathways require supersaturation leading to crystallization, regulated by various crystallization modulators produced in response to changing urinary conditions. High supersaturation, as a result of a variety of genetic and environmental factors, leads to crystallization in the terminal collecting ducts, eventually plugging their openings into the renal pelvis. Stasis behind the plugs may lead to the formation of attached or unattached stones in the tubular lumen. Deposition of crystals on the plug surface facing the pelvic or tubular urine may result in stone formation on the Randall’s plugs. Kidneys of idiopathic stone formers may be subjected to oxidative stress as a result of increased urinary excretion of calcium/oxalate/phosphate and/or decrease in the production of functional crystallization inhibitors or in relation to co-morbidities such as hypertension, atherosclerosis, or acute kidney injury. We have proposed that production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) causes dedifferentiation of epithelial/endothelial cells into osteoblast type cells and deposition of CaP in the basement membrane of renal tubules or vessels. Growth, aggregation and melding of CaP crystals leads to the formation of plaque which grows by further calcification of interstitial collagen and membranous vesicles. Plaque becomes exposed to pelvic urine once the covering papillary epithelium is breached. Surface layers of CaP are replaced by CaOx through direct transformation or demineralization of CaP and mineralization of CaOx. Alternatively, or in addition

  12. Formation of the predicted training parameters in the form of a discrete information stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smolentseva, T. E.; Sumin, V. I.; Zolnikov, V. K.; Lavlinsky, V. V.

    2018-03-01

    In work process of training in the form of a discrete information stream is considered. On each of stages of the considered process portions of the training information and quality of their assimilation are analysed. Individual characteristics and reaction trained for every portion of information on appropriate sections are defined. The control algorithm of training with the predicted number of control checks of the trainee who allows to define what operating influence is considered it is necessary to create for the trainee. On the basis of this algorithm the vector of probabilities of ignorance of elements of the training information is received. As a result of the conducted researches the algorithm on formation of the predicted training parameters is developed. In work the task of comparison of duration of training received experimentally with predicted on the basis of it is solved the conclusion is drawn on efficiency of formation of the predicted training parameters. The program complex on the basis of the values of individual parameters received as a result of experiments on each trainee who allows to calculate individual characteristics is developed, to form rating and to monitor process of change of parameters of training.

  13. Development of Web GIS for complex processing and visualization of climate geospatial datasets as an integral part of dedicated Virtual Research Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordov, Evgeny; Okladnikov, Igor; Titov, Alexander

    2017-04-01

    legends and corresponding metadata information. The specialized Web GIS client contains three basic tires: • Tier of NetCDF metadata in JSON format • Middleware tier of JavaScript objects implementing methods to work with: o NetCDF metadata o XML file of selected calculations configuration (XML task) o WMS/WFS/WPS cartographical services • Graphical user interface tier representing JavaScript objects realizing general application business logic Web-GIS developed provides computational processing services launching to support solving tasks in the area of environmental monitoring, as well as presenting calculation results in the form of WMS/WFS cartographical layers in raster (PNG, JPG, GeoTIFF), vector (KML, GML, Shape), and binary (NetCDF) formats. It has shown its effectiveness in the process of solving real climate change research problems and disseminating investigation results in cartographical formats. The work is supported by the Russian Science Foundation grant No 16-19-10257.

  14. IVS Working Group 4: VLBI Data Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gipson, J.

    2012-12-01

    I present an overview of the "openDB format" for storing, archiving, and processing VLBI data. In this scheme, most VLBI data is stored in NetCDF files. NetCDF has the advantage that there are interfaces to most common computer languages including Fortran, Fortran-90, C, C++, Perl, etc, and the most common operating systems including Linux, Windows, and Mac. The data files for a particular session are organized by special ASCII "wrapper" files which contain pointers to the data files. This allows great flexibility in the processing and analysis of VLBI data. For example it allows you to easily change subsets of the data used in the analysis such as troposphere modeling, ionospheric calibration, editing, and ambiguity resolution. It also allows for extending the types of data used, e.g., source maps. I present a roadmap to transition to this new format. The new format can already be used by VieVS and by the global mode of solve. There are plans in work for other software packages to be able to use the new format.

  15. Propensity for biofilm formation by aerobic mesophilic and thermophilic spore forming bacteria isolated from Chinese milk powders.

    PubMed

    Sadiq, Faizan A; Flint, Steve; Yuan, Lei; Li, Yun; Liu, TongJie; He, GuoQing

    2017-12-04

    Biofilms on the surface of dairy manufacturing plants are potential reservoirs of microbial contamination. These microbial aggregates may harbour pathogenic and spoilage organisms which contaminate dairy products. The biofilm forming capacity of many spore forming isolates of dairy origin has not been given much attention. The present study explored the biofilm forming potential of 148 isolates, comprising mesophilic and thermophilic bacteria, with particular emphasis on Bacillus licheniformis on polystyrene and stainless steel (SS) surfaces. We concluded that only four species are of significance for biofilm development on the surface of SS in the presence of skimmed milk, namely, B. licheniformis, Geobacillus stearothermophilus, Geobacillus thermoleovorans group and Anoxybacillus flavithermus. The maximum number of cells recovered from the biofilms developed on SS coupons in the presence of skimmed milk for these four species was as follows: 4.8, 5.2, 4.5 and 5.3logCFU/cm 2 , respectively. Number of cells recovered from biofilms on 1cm 2 SS coupons increased in the presence of tryptic soy broth (TSB) for all mesophiles including B. licheniformis, while decreased for G. stearothermophilus, G. thermoleovorans group and A. flavithermus. The crystal violet staining assay on polystyrene proved to be inadequate to predict cell counts on SS for the bacteria tested in our trial in the presence of either TSB or skimmed milk. The results support the idea that biofilm formation is an important part of bacterial survival strategy as only the most prevalent isolates from milk powders formed good biofilms on SS in the presence of skimmed milk. Biofilm formation also proved to be a strain-dependent characteristic and interestingly significant variation in biofilm formation was observed within the same RAPD groups of B. licheniformis which supports the previously reported genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity within the same RAPD based groups. The work reported in this manuscript

  16. Surface roughness formation during shot peen forming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koltsov, V. P.; Vinh, Le Tri; Starodubtseva, D. A.

    2018-03-01

    Shot peen forming (SPF) is used for forming panels and skins, and for hardening. As a rule, shot peen forming is performed after milling. Surface roughness is a complex structure, a combination of an original microrelief and shot peen forming indentations of different depths and chaotic distribution along the surface. As far as shot peen forming is a random process, surface roughness resulted from milling and shot peen forming is random too. During roughness monitoring, it is difficult to determine the basic surface area which would ensure accurate results. It can be assumed that the basic area depends on the random roughness which is characterized by the degree of shot peen forming coverage. The analysis of depth and shot peen forming indentations distribution along the surface made it possible to identify the shift of an original center profile plane and create a mathematical model for the arithmetic mean deviation of the profile. Experimental testing proved model validity and determined an inversely proportional dependency of the basic area on the degree of coverage.

  17. Which products are available for subsetting?

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-12-08

    ... users to create smaller files (subsets) of the original data by selecting desired parameters, parameter criterion, or latitude and ... fluxes, where the net flux is constrained to the global heat storage in netCDF format. Single Scanner Footprint TOA/Surface Fluxes ...

  18. The Formation of Glycine in Hot Cores: New Gas-grain Chemical Simulations of Star-forming Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrod, Robin

    2012-07-01

    Organic molecules of increasing complexity have been detected in the warm envelopes of star-forming cores, commonly referred to as "hot cores". Spectroscopic searches at mm/sub-mm wavelengths have uncovered both amines and carboxylic acids in these regions, as well as a range of other compounds including alcohols, ethers, esters, and nitriles. However, the simplest amino acid, glycine (NH2CH2COOH), has not yet been reliably detected in the ISM. There has been much interest in this molecule, due to its importance to the formation of proteins, and to life, while the positive identification of interstellar molecules of similar or greater complexity suggests that its existence in star-forming regions is plausible. I will present the results of recent models of hot-core chemistry that simulate the formation of both simple and complex molecules on the surfaces or within the ice mantles of dust grains. I will also present results from the first gas-grain astrochemical model to approach the question of amino-acid formation in hot cores. The formation of glycine in moderate abundance is found to be as efficient as that for similarly complex species, while its sublimation from the grains occurs at somewhat higher temperatures. However, simulated emission spectra based on the model results show that the degree of compactness of high-abundance regions, and the density and temperature profiles of the cores may be the key variables affecting the future detection of glycine, as well as other amino acids, and may explain its non-detection to date.

  19. OceanSITES format and Ocean Observatory Output harmonisation: past, present and future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagnani, Maureen; Galbraith, Nan; Diggs, Stephen; Lankhorst, Matthias; Hidas, Marton; Lampitt, Richard

    2015-04-01

    The Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS) initiative was launched in 1991, and was the first step in creating a global view of ocean observations. In 1999 oceanographers at the OceanObs conference envisioned a 'global system of eulerian observatories' which evolved into the OceanSITES project. OceanSITES has been generously supported by individual oceanographic institutes and agencies across the globe, as well as by the WMO-IOC Joint Technical Commission for Oceanography and Marine Meteorology (under JCOMMOPS). The project is directed by the needs of research scientists, but has a strong data management component, with an international team developing content standards, metadata specifications, and NetCDF templates for many types of in situ oceanographic data. The OceanSITES NetCDF format specification is intended as a robust data exchange and archive format specifically for time-series observatory data from the deep ocean. First released in February 2006, it has evolved to build on and extend internationally recognised standards such as the Climate and Forecast (CF) standard, BODC vocabularies, ISO formats and vocabularies, and in version 1.3, released in 2014, ACDD (Attribute Convention for Dataset Discovery). The success of the OceanSITES format has inspired other observational groups, such as autonomous vehicles and ships of opportunity, to also use the format and today it is fulfilling the original concept of providing a coherent set of data from eurerian observatories. Data in the OceanSITES format is served by 2 Global Data Assembly Centres (GDACs), one at Coriolis, in France, at ftp://ftp.ifremer.fr/ifremer/oceansites/ and one at the US NDBC, at ftp://data.ndbc.noaa.gov/data/oceansites/. These two centres serve over 26,800 OceanSITES format data files from 93 moorings. The use of standardised and controlled features enables the files held at the OceanSITES GDACs to be electronically discoverable and ensures the widest access to the data. The Ocean

  20. Formation of ethylene glycol and other complex organic molecules in star-forming regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivilla, V. M.; Beltrán, M. T.; Cesaroni, R.; Fontani, F.; Codella, C.; Zhang, Q.

    2017-02-01

    luminosity. We also find that the abundance ratios of pairs of isomers (CH2OHCHO/CH3OCHO and C2H5OH/CH3OCH3) decrease with the luminosity of the sources. Conclusions: The most likely explanation for the behavior of the (CH2OH)2/CH2OHCHO ratio is that these molecules are formed by different chemical formation routes not directly linked, although different formation and destruction efficiencies in the gas phase cannot be ruled out. The most likely formation route of (CH2OH)2 is by combination of two CH2OH radicals on dust grains. We also favor that CH2OHCHO is formed via the solid-phase dimerization of the formyl radical HCO. The interpretation of the observations also suggests a chemical link between CH3OCHO and CH3OCH3, and between (CH2OH)2 and C2H5OH. The behavior of the abundance ratio C2H5OH/CH3OCH3 with luminosity may be explained by the different warm-up timescales in hot cores and hot corinos. The reduced spectra (ASCII files) are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/598/A59

  1. Matrix Elasticity of Void-Forming Hydrogels Controls Transplanted Stem Cell-Mediated Bone Formation

    PubMed Central

    Huebsch, Nathaniel; Lippens, Evi; Lee, Kangwon; Mehta, Manav; Koshy, Sandeep T; Darnell, Max C; Desai, Rajiv; Madl, Christopher M.; Xu, Maria; Zhao, Xuanhe; Chaudhuri, Ovijit; Verbeke, Catia; Kim, Woo Seob; Alim, Karen; Mammoto, Akiko; Ingber, Donald E.; Duda, Georg N; Mooney, David J.

    2015-01-01

    The effectiveness of stem-cell therapies has been hampered by cell death and limited control over fate1. These problems can be partially circumvented by using macroporous biomaterials that improve the survival of transplanted stem cells and provide molecular cues to direct cell phenotype2–4. Stem cell behavior can also be controlled in vitro by manipulating the elasticity of both porous and non-porous materials5–7, yet translation to therapeutic processes in vivo remains elusive. Here, by developing injectable, void-forming hydrogels that decouple pore formation from elasticity, we show that mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) osteogenesis in vitro, and cell deployment in vitro and in vivo, can be controlled by modifying, respectively, the hydrogel's elastic modulus or its chemistry. When the hydrogels were used to transplant MSCs, the hydrogel's elasticity regulated bone regeneration, with optimal bone formation at 60 kPa. Our findings show that biophysical cues can be harnessed to direct therapeutic stem-cell behaviors in situ. PMID:26366848

  2. Matrix elasticity of void-forming hydrogels controls transplanted-stem-cell-mediated bone formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huebsch, Nathaniel; Lippens, Evi; Lee, Kangwon; Mehta, Manav; Koshy, Sandeep T.; Darnell, Max C.; Desai, Rajiv M.; Madl, Christopher M.; Xu, Maria; Zhao, Xuanhe; Chaudhuri, Ovijit; Verbeke, Catia; Kim, Woo Seob; Alim, Karen; Mammoto, Akiko; Ingber, Donald E.; Duda, Georg N.; Mooney, David J.

    2015-12-01

    The effectiveness of stem cell therapies has been hampered by cell death and limited control over fate. These problems can be partially circumvented by using macroporous biomaterials that improve the survival of transplanted stem cells and provide molecular cues to direct cell phenotype. Stem cell behaviour can also be controlled in vitro by manipulating the elasticity of both porous and non-porous materials, yet translation to therapeutic processes in vivo remains elusive. Here, by developing injectable, void-forming hydrogels that decouple pore formation from elasticity, we show that mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) osteogenesis in vitro, and cell deployment in vitro and in vivo, can be controlled by modifying, respectively, the hydrogel’s elastic modulus or its chemistry. When the hydrogels were used to transplant MSCs, the hydrogel’s elasticity regulated bone regeneration, with optimal bone formation at 60 kPa. Our findings show that biophysical cues can be harnessed to direct therapeutic stem cell behaviours in situ.

  3. Data Publishing and Sharing Via the THREDDS Data Repository

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, A.; Caron, J.; Davis, E.; Baltzer, T.

    2007-12-01

    The terms "Team Science" and "Networked Science" have been coined to describe a virtual organization of researchers tied via some intellectual challenge, but often located in different organizations and locations. A critical component to these endeavors is publishing and sharing of content, including scientific data. Imagine pointing your web browser to a web page that interactively lets you upload data and metadata to a repository residing on a remote server, which can then be accessed by others in a secure fasion via the web. While any content can be added to this repository, it is designed particularly for storing and sharing scientific data and metadata. Server support includes uploading of data files that can subsequently be subsetted, aggregrated, and served in NetCDF or other scientific data formats. Metadata can be associated with the data and interactively edited. The THREDDS Data Repository (TDR) is a server that provides client initiated, on demand, location transparent storage for data of any type that can then be served by the THREDDS Data Server (TDS). The TDR provides functionality to: * securely store and "own" data files and associated metadata * upload files via HTTP and gridftp * upload a collection of data as single file * modify and restructure repository contents * incorporate metadata provided by the user * generate additional metadata programmatically * edit individual metadata elements The TDR can exist separately from a TDS, serving content via HTTP. Also, it can work in conjunction with the TDS, which includes functionality to provide: * access to data in a variety of formats via -- OPeNDAP -- OGC Web Coverage Service (for gridded datasets) -- bulk HTTP file transfer * a NetCDF view of datasets in NetCDF, OPeNDAP, HDF-5, GRIB, and NEXRAD formats * serving of very large volume datasets, such as NEXRAD radar * aggregation into virtual datasets * subsetting via OPeNDAP and NetCDF Subsetting services This talk will discuss TDR

  4. A Multi-Faceted Study of Three Forms of Galactic Formation in the Early Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Gareth Christopher

    While observations of the early universe have focused on bright, highly starbursting galaxies, star formation activity in the early universe was dominated by main sequence galaxies. Observations of the former group have been accumulating for decades, but the latter are only recently observable using modern instruments. In this work, we apply the Very Large Array (VLA) and the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) to observe specific examples of each galactic class, in order to explore three modes of galaxy formation: smooth accretion, satellite accretion, and massive mergers. Using the molecular gas tracer CO and a broad set of continuum measurements, we characterize the gas mass and distribution, star formation, and dust temperature of the two archetypal massively merging Hyper-Luminous IR Galaxies (HyLIRGs) BRI1202-0725 & BRI1335-0417. We then examine the [C II] emission of the Lyman-Break Galaxy (LBG) WMH5, which shows two infalling gas clouds, implying ongoing formation via filamentary accretion. Finally, we apply a classical suite of dynamical characterization tools to [C II] observations of three MS galaxies and three starbursts, resulting in rotation curves and dynamical masses for each. By examining each of these sources in detail, we find that galaxies in the early (i.e., z > 4) universe formed via a broad range of interactions, ranging from cold-mode accretion to major mergers. As these instruments continue observing, and with the future advent of JWST and perhaps the ngVLA, stronger constraints may be placed on the behavior of the galaxies in the epoch of initial galaxy formation.

  5. Carolinas Coastal Change Processes Project data report for observations near Diamond Shoals, North Carolina, January-May 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Armstrong, Brandy N.; Warner, John C.; Voulgaris, George; List, Jeffrey H.; Thieler, E. Robert; Martini, Marinna A.; Montgomery, Ellyn T.

    2011-01-01

    This Open-File Report provides information collected for an oceanographic field study that occurred during January - May 2009 to investigate processes that control the sediment transport dynamics at Diamond Shoals, North Carolina. The objective of this report is to make the data available in digital form and to provide information to facilitate further analysis of the data. The report describes the background, experimental setup, equipment, and locations of the sensor deployments. The edited data are presented in time-series plots for rapid visualization of the data set, and in data files that are in the Network Common Data Format (netcdf). Supporting observational data are also included.

  6. Monte Carlo simulation to investigate the formation of molecular hydrogen and its deuterated forms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahu, Dipen; Das, Ankan; Majumdar, Liton; Chakrabarti, Sandip K.

    2015-07-01

    H2 is the most abundant interstellar species, and its deuterated forms (HD and D2) are also present in high abundance. The high abundance of these molecules could be explained by considering the chemistry that occurs on interstellar dust. Because of its simplicity, the rate equation method is widely used to study the formation of grain-surface species. However, because the recombination efficiency for the formation of any surface species is highly dependent on various physical and chemical parameters, the Monte Carlo method is best suited for addressing the randomness of the processes. We perform Monte Carlo simulations to study the formation of H2, HD and D2 on interstellar ice. The adsorption energies of surface species are the key inputs for the formation of any species on interstellar dusts, but the binding energies of deuterated species have yet to be determined with certainty. A zero-point energy correction exists between hydrogenated and deuterated species, which should be considered during modeling of the chemistry on interstellar dusts. Following some previous studies, we consider various sets of adsorption energies to investigate the formation of these species under diverse physical conditions. As expected, notable differences in these two approaches (rate equation method and Monte Carlo method) are observed for the production of these simple molecules on interstellar ice. We introduce two factors, namely, Sf and β , to explain these discrepancies: Sf is a scaling factor, which can be used to correlate the discrepancies between the rate equation and Monte Carlo methods, and β indicates the formation efficiency under various conditions. Higher values of β indicate a lower production efficiency. We observed that β increases with a decrease in the rate of accretion from the gas phase to the grain phase.

  7. The collagen type I segment long spacing (SLS) and fibrillar forms: Formation by ATP and sulphonated diazo dyes.

    PubMed

    Harris, J Robin; Lewis, Richard J

    2016-07-01

    The collagen type I segment long spacing (SLS) crystallite is a well-ordered rod-like molecular aggregate, ∼300nm in length, which is produced in vitro under mildly acidic conditions (pH 2.5-3.5) in the presence of 1mM ATP. The formation of the SLS crystallite amplifies the inherent linear structural features of individual collagen heterotrimers, due to the punctate linear distribution and summation of the bulkier amino acid side chains along the length of individual collagen heterotrimers. This can be correlated structurally with the 67nm D-banded collagen fibril that is found in vivo, and formed in vitro. Although first described many years ago, the range of conditions required for ATP-induced SLS crystallite formation from acid-soluble collagen have not been explored extensively. Consequently, we have addressed biochemical parameters such as the ATP concentration, pH, speed of formation and stability so as to provide a more complete structural understanding of the SLS crystallite. Treatment of collagen type I with 1mM ATP at neutral and higher pH (6.0-9.0) also induced the formation of D-banded fibrils. Contrary to previous studies, we have shown that the polysulphonated diazo dyes Direct red (Sirius red) and Evans blue, but not Congo red and Methyl blue, can also induce the formation of SLS-like aggregates of collagen, but under markedly different ionic conditions to those employed in the presence of ATP. Specifically, pre-formed D-banded collagen fibrils, prepared in a higher than the usual physiological NaCl concentration (e.g. 500mM NaCl, 20mM Tris-HCl pH7.4 or x3 PBS), readily form SLS aggregates when treated with 0.1mM Direct red and Evans blue, but this did not occur at lower NaCl concentrations. These new data are discussed in relation to the anion (Cl(-)) and polyanion (phosphate and sulphonate) binding by the collagen heterotrimer and their likely role in collagen fibrillogenesis and SLS formation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Satellite Level 3 & 4 Data Subsetting at NASA GES DISC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huwe, Paul; Su, Jian; Loeser, Carlee; Ostrenga, Dana; Rui, Hualan; Vollmer, Bruce

    2017-01-01

    Earth Science data are available in many file formats (NetCDF, HDF, GRB, etc.) and in a wide range of sizes, from kilobytes to gigabytes. These properties have become a challenge to users if they are not familiar with these formats or only want a small region of interest (ROI) from a specific dataset. At NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC), we have developed and implemented a multipurpose subset service to ease user access to Earth Science data. Our Level 3 & 4 Regridder is capable of subsetting across multiple parameters (spatially, temporally, by level, and by variable) as well as having additional beneficial features (temporal means, regridding to target grids, and file conversion to other data formats). In this presentation, we will demonstrate how users can use this service to better access only the data they need in the form they require.

  9. Satellite Level 3 & 4 Data Subsetting at NASA GES DISC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huwe, P.; Su, J.; Loeser, C. F.; Ostrenga, D.; Rui, H.; Vollmer, B.

    2017-12-01

    Earth Science data are available in many file formats (NetCDF, HDF, GRB, etc.) and in a wide range of sizes, from kilobytes to gigabytes. These properties have become a challenge to users if they are not familiar with these formats or only want a small region of interest (ROI) from a specific dataset. At NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC), we have developed and implemented a multipurpose subset service to ease user access to Earth Science data. Our Level 3 & 4 Regridder is capable of subsetting across multiple parameters (spatially, temporally, by level, and by variable) as well as having additional beneficial features (temporal means, regridding to target grids, and file conversion to other data formats). In this presentation, we will demonstrate how users can use this service to better access only the data they need in the form they require.

  10. Dense Gas, Dynamical Equilibrium Pressure, and Star Formation in Nearby Star-forming Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallagher, Molly J.; Leroy, Adam K.; Bigiel, Frank; Cormier, Diane; Jiménez-Donaire, María J.; Ostriker, Eve; Usero, Antonio; Bolatto, Alberto D.; García-Burillo, Santiago; Hughes, Annie; Kepley, Amanda A.; Krumholz, Mark; Meidt, Sharon E.; Meier, David S.; Murphy, Eric J.; Pety, Jérôme; Rosolowsky, Erik; Schinnerer, Eva; Schruba, Andreas; Walter, Fabian

    2018-05-01

    We use new ALMA observations to investigate the connection between dense gas fraction, star formation rate (SFR), and local environment across the inner region of four local galaxies showing a wide range of molecular gas depletion times. We map HCN (1–0), HCO+ (1–0), CS (2–1), 13CO (1–0), and C18O (1–0) across the inner few kiloparsecs of each target. We combine these data with short-spacing information from the IRAM large program EMPIRE, archival CO maps, tracers of stellar structure and recent star formation, and recent HCN surveys by Bigiel et al. and Usero et al. We test the degree to which changes in the dense gas fraction drive changes in the SFR. {I}HCN}/{I}CO} (tracing the dense gas fraction) correlates strongly with I CO (tracing molecular gas surface density), stellar surface density, and dynamical equilibrium pressure, P DE. Therefore, {I}HCN}/{I}CO} becomes very low and HCN becomes very faint at large galactocentric radii, where ratios as low as {I}HCN}/{I}CO}∼ 0.01 become common. The apparent ability of dense gas to form stars, {{{Σ }}}SFR}/{{{Σ }}}dense} (where Σdense is traced by the HCN intensity and the star formation rate is traced by a combination of Hα and 24 μm emission), also depends on environment. {{{Σ }}}SFR}/{{{Σ }}}dense} decreases in regions of high gas surface density, high stellar surface density, and high P DE. Statistically, these correlations between environment and both {{{Σ }}}SFR}/{{{Σ }}}dense} and {I}HCN}/{I}CO} are stronger than that between apparent dense gas fraction ({I}HCN}/{I}CO}) and the apparent molecular gas star formation efficiency {{{Σ }}}SFR}/{{{Σ }}}mol}. We show that these results are not specific to HCN.

  11. In-situ formation of Uranian satellites from debris disk formed by Giant Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishizawa, Y.; Sasaki, T.; Hosono, N.

    2017-12-01

    Uranus has a 98° tilt of the rotational axis with respect to the plane of Solar System, whereas the regular satellites of Uranus orbit in the plane of its equator. Several scenarios have been proposed so far to explain the large tilt and the origin of the satellites respectively (e.g., Slattery et al., 1992; Canup & Ward, 2006; Crida & Charnoz, 2012). In this study, we adapt the so-called giant impact scenario, which could explain both the large tilt of Uranus and the formation of the regular satellites simultaneously. The hydrodynamic simulations of the giant impact have been carried out using the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method (Slattery et al, 1992; Ueta et al., in prep.). They suggested that the giant impact of an Earth-sized protoplanet with proto-Uranus could tilt the rotational axis, and a circum-planetary debris disk would be produced throughout the current Uranian satellites orbits by the impact. However, it is still unknown whether the Uranian satellites can be actually formed from the debris disk. Here we perform N-body simulations to investigate the in-situ satellites formation from the debris disk. We used a 4th order Hermite scheme for the numerical integration, and considered the gravity, collision and merger between each particle (Kokubo et al., 2000). We found that satellites with the similar orbital radius and mass to the current satellite were formed from the debris disk as a preliminary result. We also found that orbital decays of the satellites due to the tidal torque of the planet would play a key role to explain the inner satellite distribution.

  12. A data model of the Climate and Forecast metadata conventions (CF-1.6) with a software implementation (cf-python v2.1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassell, David; Gregory, Jonathan; Blower, Jon; Lawrence, Bryan N.; Taylor, Karl E.

    2017-12-01

    The CF (Climate and Forecast) metadata conventions are designed to promote the creation, processing, and sharing of climate and forecasting data using Network Common Data Form (netCDF) files and libraries. The CF conventions provide a description of the physical meaning of data and of their spatial and temporal properties, but they depend on the netCDF file encoding which can currently only be fully understood and interpreted by someone familiar with the rules and relationships specified in the conventions documentation. To aid in development of CF-compliant software and to capture with a minimal set of elements all of the information contained in the CF conventions, we propose a formal data model for CF which is independent of netCDF and describes all possible CF-compliant data. Because such data will often be analysed and visualised using software based on other data models, we compare our CF data model with the ISO 19123 coverage model, the Open Geospatial Consortium CF netCDF standard, and the Unidata Common Data Model. To demonstrate that this CF data model can in fact be implemented, we present cf-python, a Python software library that conforms to the model and can manipulate any CF-compliant dataset.

  13. Improving the Accessibility and Use of NASA Earth Science Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tisdale, Matthew; Tisdale, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Many of the NASA Langley Atmospheric Science Data Center (ASDC) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) multidimensional tropospheric and atmospheric chemistry data products are stored in HDF4, HDF5 or NetCDF format, which traditionally have been difficult to analyze and visualize with geospatial tools. With the rising demand from the diverse end-user communities for geospatial tools to handle multidimensional products, several applications, such as ArcGIS, have refined their software. Many geospatial applications now have new functionalities that enable the end user to: Store, serve, and perform analysis on each individual variable, its time dimension, and vertical dimension. Use NetCDF, GRIB, and HDF raster data formats across applications directly. Publish output within REST image services or WMS for time and space enabled web application development. During this webinar, participants will learn how to leverage geospatial applications such as ArcGIS, OPeNDAP and ncWMS in the production of Earth science information, and in increasing data accessibility and usability.

  14. Formation and Human Risk of Carcinogenic Heterocyclic Amines Formed from Natural Precursors in Meat

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Knize, M G; Felton, J S

    2004-11-22

    A group of heterocyclic amines that are mutagens and rodent carcinogens form when meat is cooked to medium and well-done states. The precursors of these compounds are natural meat components: creatinine, amino acids and sugars. Defined model systems of dry-heated precursors mimic the amounts and proportions of heterocyclic amines found in meat. Results from model systems and cooking experiments suggest ways to reduce their formation and, thus, to reduce human intake. Human cancer epidemiology studies related to consumption of well-done meat products are listed and compared.

  15. Forms of acid hydrolysis and gley formation and their role in the development of light-colored acid eluvial (Podzolic) horizons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaidel'Man, F. R.

    2010-04-01

    Nowadays, three processes, namely lessivage, acid hydrolysis, and gleying, are considered as responsible for the development of loamy and clayey podzolic soils. However, as was shown earlier, lessivage is not obligatory for their origin. In view of assessing the reasons for the formation of light-colored acid eluvial horizons, this article deals with the role of acid hydrolysis under aerobic conditions against the background of a percolative water regime and of two forms of gleying in the development of the horizons mentioned above. One form of gleying occurs under permanent anaerobic conditions against the background of a stagnant water regime; the other one is formed under pulsating anaerobic-aerobic conditions against the background of a stagnant-percolative water regime. As a result, three large genetically individual groups of soils are formed: nondifferentiated brown and gley, and differentiated podzolic soils on different parent rocks. The two latter forms of gleying are identical in their effects on the mineral substrates. They cause the iron removal from the soils. Among the three processes considered, the last one (gleying under a stagnant-percolative water regime) is the single reason for the leaching of most of the metals, the formation of light-colored acid eluvial horizons and their clay depletion, and for the differentiation of the soil profile.

  16. THE EFFECTS OF EPISODIC STAR FORMATION ON THE FUV-NUV COLORS OF STAR FORMING REGIONS IN OUTER DISKS

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Barnes, Kate L.; Van Zee, Liese; Dowell, Jayce D., E-mail: barneskl@astro.indiana.edu, E-mail: vanzee@astro.indiana.edu, E-mail: jdowell@unm.edu

    2013-09-20

    We run stellar population synthesis models to examine the effects of a recently episodic star formation history (SFH) on UV and Hα colors of star forming regions. Specifically, the SFHs we use are an episodic sampling of an exponentially declining star formation rate (SFR; τ model) and are intended to simulate the SFHs in the outer disks of spiral galaxies. To enable comparison between our models and observational studies of star forming regions in outer disks, we include in our models sensitivity limits that are based on recent deep UV and Hα observations in the literature. We find significant dispersionmore » in the FUV-NUV colors of simulated star forming regions with frequencies of star formation episodes of 1 × 10{sup –8} to 4 × 10{sup –9} yr{sup –1}. The dispersion in UV colors is similar to that found in the outer disk of nearby spiral galaxies. As expected, we also find large variations in L{sub H{sub α}}/L{sub FUV}. We interpret our models within the context of inside-out disk growth, and find that a radially increasing τ and decreasing metallicity with an increasing radius will only produce modest FUV-NUV color gradients, which are significantly smaller than what is found for some nearby spiral galaxies. However, including moderate extinction gradients with our models can better match the observations with steeper UV color gradients. We estimate that the SFR at which the number of stars emitting FUV light becomes stochastic is ∼2 × 10{sup –6} M{sub ☉} yr{sup –1}, which is substantially lower than the SFR of many star forming regions in outer disks. Therefore, we conclude that stochasticity in the upper end of the initial mass function is not likely to be the dominant cause of dispersion in the FUV-NUV colors of star forming regions in outer disks. Finally, we note that if outer disks have had an episodic SFH similar to that used in this study, this should be taken into account when estimating gas depletion timescales and modeling

  17. Global Ocean Currents Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyer, T.; Sun, L.

    2016-02-01

    The NOAA's National Centers for Environmental Information has released an ocean currents database portal that aims 1) to integrate global ocean currents observations from a variety of instruments with different resolution, accuracy and response to spatial and temporal variability into a uniform network common data form (NetCDF) format and 2) to provide a dedicated online data discovery, access to NCEI-hosted and distributed data sources for ocean currents data. The portal provides a tailored web application that allows users to search for ocean currents data by platform types and spatial/temporal ranges of their interest. The dedicated web application is available at http://www.nodc.noaa.gov/gocd/index.html. The NetCDF format supports widely-used data access protocols and catalog services such as OPeNDAP (Open-source Project for a Network Data Access Protocol) and THREDDS (Thematic Real-time Environmental Distributed Data Services), which the GOCD users can use data files with their favorite analysis and visualization client software without downloading to their local machine. The potential users of the ocean currents database include, but are not limited to, 1) ocean modelers for their model skills assessments, 2) scientists and researchers for studying the impact of ocean circulations on the climate variability, 3) ocean shipping industry for safety navigation and finding optimal routes for ship fuel efficiency, 4) ocean resources managers while planning for the optimal sites for wastes and sewages dumping and for renewable hydro-kinematic energy, and 5) state and federal governments to provide historical (analyzed) ocean circulations as an aid for search and rescue

  18. Star-forming galaxies are predicted to lie on a fundamental plane of mass, star formation rate and α-enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthee, Jorryt; Schaye, Joop

    2018-05-01

    Observations show that star-forming galaxies reside on a tight three-dimensional plane between mass, gas-phase metallicity and star formation rate (SFR), which can be explained by the interplay between metal-poor gas inflows, SFR and outflows. However, different metals are released on different time-scales, which may affect the slope of this relation. Here, we use central, star-forming galaxies with Mstar = 109.0 - 10.5 M⊙ from the EAGLE hydrodynamical simulation to examine three-dimensional relations between mass, SFR and chemical enrichment using absolute and relative C, N, O and Fe abundances. We show that the scatter is smaller when gas-phase α-enhancement is used rather than metallicity. A similar plane also exists for stellar α-enhancement, implying that present-day specific SFRs are correlated with long time-scale star formation histories. Between z = 0 and 1, the α-enhancement plane is even more insensitive to redshift than the plane using metallicity. However, it evolves at z > 1 due to lagging iron yields. At fixed mass, galaxies with higher SFRs have star formation histories shifted toward late times, are more α-enhanced and this α-enhancement increases with redshift as observed. These findings suggest that relations between physical properties inferred from observations may be affected by systematic variations in α-enhancements.

  19. Playing the Metadata Game: Technologies and Strategies Used by Climate Diagnostics Center for Cataloging and Distributing Climate Data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweitzer, R. H.

    2001-05-01

    the metadata from the netCDF files into a mySQL database. The combination of the mySQL database and the controlled names makes it possible to automate the construction of user interfaces and standard format metadata descriptions, like Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) and Directory Interchange Format (DIF). These standard descriptions also include an association between our controlled names and standard keywords such as those developed by the Global Change Master Directory (GCMD). This talk will give an overview of each of these technology and metadata standards as it applies to work at the Climate Diagnostics Center. The talk will also discuss the pros and cons of each approach and discuss areas for future development.

  20. Stellar Absorption Line Analysis of Local Star-forming Galaxies: The Relation between Stellar Mass, Metallicity, Dust Attenuation, and Star Formation Rate

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Jabran Zahid, H.; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Ho, I-Ting

    We analyze the optical continuum of star-forming galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey by fitting stacked spectra with stellar population synthesis models to investigate the relation between stellar mass, stellar metallicity, dust attenuation, and star formation rate. We fit models calculated with star formation and chemical evolution histories that are derived empirically from multi-epoch observations of the stellar mass–star formation rate and the stellar mass–gas-phase metallicity relations, respectively. We also fit linear combinations of single-burst models with a range of metallicities and ages. Star formation and chemical evolution histories are unconstrained for these models. The stellar mass–stellar metallicity relationsmore » obtained from the two methods agree with the relation measured from individual supergiant stars in nearby galaxies. These relations are also consistent with the relation obtained from emission-line analysis of gas-phase metallicity after accounting for systematic offsets in the gas-phase metallicity. We measure dust attenuation of the stellar continuum and show that its dependence on stellar mass and star formation rate is consistent with previously reported results derived from nebular emission lines. However, stellar continuum attenuation is smaller than nebular emission line attenuation. The continuum-to-nebular attenuation ratio depends on stellar mass and is smaller in more massive galaxies. Our consistent analysis of stellar continuum and nebular emission lines paves the way for a comprehensive investigation of stellar metallicities of star-forming and quiescent galaxies.« less

  1. Refining Inquiry with Multi-Form Assessment: Formative and summative assessment functions for flexible inquiry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuiker, Steven; Reid Whitaker, J.

    2014-04-01

    This paper describes the 5E+I/A inquiry model and reports a case study of one curricular enactment by a US fifth-grade classroom. A literature review establishes the model's conceptual adequacy with respect to longstanding research related to both the 5E inquiry model and multiple, incremental innovations of it. As a collective line of research, the review highlights a common emphasis on formative assessment, at times coupled either with differentiated instruction strategies or with activities that target the generalization of learning. The 5E+I/A model contributes a multi-level assessment strategy that balances formative and summative functions of multiple forms of assessment in order to support classroom participation while still attending to individual achievement. The case report documents the enactment of a weeklong 5E+I/A curricular design as a preliminary account of the model's empirical adequacy. A descriptive and analytical narrative illustrates variable ways that multi-level assessment makes student thinking visible and pedagogical decision-making more powerful. In light of both, it also documents productive adaptations to a flexible curricular design and considers future research to advance this collective line of inquiry.

  2. Report on IVS-WG4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gipson, John

    2011-07-01

    I describe the proposed data structure for storing, archiving and processing VLBI data. In this scheme, most VLBI data is stored in NetCDF files. NetCDF has the advantage that there are interfaces to most common computer languages including Fortran, Fortran-90, C, C++, Perl, etc, and the most common operating systems including linux, Windows and Mac. The data files for a particular session are organized by special ASCII "wrapper" files which contain pointers to the data files. This allows great flexibility in the processing and analysis of VLBI data, and also allows for extending the types of data used, e.g., source maps. I discuss the use of the new format in calc/solve and other VLBI analysis packages. I also discuss plans for transitioning to the new structure.

  3. Sequential Star Formation in RCW 34: A Spectroscopic Census of the Stellar Content of High-Mass Star-Forming Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bik, A.; Puga, E.; Waters, L. B. F. M.; Horrobin, M.; Henning, Th.; Vasyunina, T.; Beuther, H.; Linz, H.; Kaper, L.; van den Ancker, M.; Lenorzer, A.; Churchwell, E.; Kurtz, S.; Kouwenhoven, M. B. N.; Stolte, A.; de Koter, A.; Thi, W. F.; Comerón, F.; Waelkens, Ch.

    2010-04-01

    In this paper, we present VLT/SINFONI integral field spectroscopy of RCW 34 along with Spitzer/IRAC photometry of the surroundings. RCW 34 consists of three different regions. A large bubble has been detected in the IRAC images in which a cluster of intermediate- and low-mass class II objects is found. At the northern edge of this bubble, an H II region is located, ionized by 3 OB stars, of which the most massive star has spectral type O8.5V. Intermediate-mass stars (2-3 M sun) are detected of G- and K-spectral type. These stars are still in the pre-main-sequence (PMS) phase. North of the H II region, a photon-dominated region is present, marking the edge of a dense molecular cloud traced by H2 emission. Several class 0/I objects are associated with this cloud, indicating that star formation is still taking place. The distance to RCW 34 is revised to 2.5 ± 0.2 kpc and an age estimate of 2 ± 1 Myr is derived from the properties of the PMS stars inside the H II region. Between the class II sources in the bubble and the PMS stars in the H II region, no age difference could be detected with the present data. The presence of the class 0/I sources in the molecular cloud, however, suggests that the objects inside the molecular cloud are significantly younger. The most likely scenario for the formation of the three regions is that star formation propagated from south to north. First the bubble is formed, produced by intermediate- and low-mass stars only, after that, the H II region is formed from a dense core at the edge of the molecular cloud, resulting in the expansion similar to a champagne flow. More recently, star formation occurred in the rest of the molecular cloud. Two different formation scenarios are possible. (1) The bubble with the cluster of low- and intermediate-mass stars triggered the formation of the O star at the edge of the molecular cloud, which in its turn induces the current star formation in the molecular cloud. (2) An external triggering is

  4. Climate Prediction Center - NCEP Global Ocean Data Assimilation System:

    Science.gov Websites

    home page National Weather Service NWS logo - Click to go to the NWS home page Climate Prediction Monthly in NetCDF Other formats Links NOAA Ocean Climate Observation Program (OCO) Climate Test Bed About Prediction (NCEP) are a valuable community asset for monitoring different aspects of ocean climate

  5. Excess Secretion of Gel-Forming Mucins and Associated Innate Defense Proteins with Defective Mucin Un-Packaging Underpin Gallbladder Mucocele Formation in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Kesimer, Mehmet; Cullen, John; Cao, Rui; Radicioni, Giorgia; Mathews, Kyle G.; Seiler, Gabriela; Gookin, Jody L.

    2015-01-01

    Mucosal protection of the gallbladder is vital yet we know very little about the mechanisms involved. In domestic dogs, an emergent syndrome referred to as gallbladder mucocele formation is characterized by excessive secretion of abnormal mucus that results in obstruction and rupture of the gallbladder. The cause of gallbladder mucocele formation is unknown. In these first mechanistic studies of this disease, we investigated normal and mucocele-forming dog gallbladders to determine the source, identity, biophysical properties, and protein associates of the culprit mucins with aim to identify causes for abnormal mucus behavior. We established that mucocele formation involves an adoptive excess secretion of gel forming mucins with abnormal properties by the gallbladder epithelium. The mucus is characterized by a disproportionally significant increase in Muc5ac relative to Muc5b, defective mucin un-packaging, and mucin-interacting innate defense proteins that are capable of dramatically altering the physical and functional properties of mucus. These findings provide an explanation for abnormal mucus behavior and based on similarity to mucus observed in the airways of people with cystic fibrosis, suggest that abnormal mechanisms for maintenance of gallbladder epithelial hydration may be an instigating factor for mucocele formation in dogs. PMID:26414376

  6. Soot Formation in Purely-Curved Premixed Flames and Laminar Flame Speeds of Soot-Forming Flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchanan, Thomas; Wang, Hai

    2005-01-01

    The research addressed here is a collaborative project between University of Delaware and Case Western Reserve University. There are two basic and related scientific objectives. First, we wish to demonstrate the suitability of spherical/cylindrical, laminar, premixed flames in the fundamental study of the chemical and physical processes of soot formation. Our reasoning is that the flame standoff distance in spherical/cylindrical flames under microgravity can be substantially larger than that in a flat burner-stabilized flame. Therefore the spherical/cylindrical flame is expected to give better spatial resolution to probe the soot inception and growth chemistry than flat flames. Second, we wish to examine the feasibility of determining the laminar flame speed of soot forming flames. Our basic assumption is that under the adiabatic condition (in the absence of conductive heat loss), the amount and dynamics of soot formed in the flame is unique for a given fuel/air mixture. The laminar flame speed can be rigorously defined as long as the radiative heat loss can be determined. This laminar flame speed characterizes the flame soot formation and dynamics in addition to the heat release rate. The research involves two integral parts: experiments of spherical and cylindrical sooting flames in microgravity (CWRU), and the computational counterpart (UD) that aims to simulate sooting laminar flames, and the sooting limits of near adiabatic flames. The computations work is described in this report, followed by a summary of the accomplishments achieved to date. Details of the microgra+ experiments will be discussed in a separate, final report prepared by the co-PI, Professor C-J. Sung of CWRU. Here only a brief discussion of these experiments will be given.

  7. The full-length form of the Drosophila amyloid precursor protein is involved in memory formation.

    PubMed

    Bourdet, Isabelle; Preat, Thomas; Goguel, Valérie

    2015-01-21

    The APP plays a central role in AD, a pathology that first manifests as a memory decline. Understanding the role of APP in normal cognition is fundamental in understanding the progression of AD, and mammalian studies have pointed to a role of secreted APPα in memory. In Drosophila, we recently showed that APPL, the fly APP ortholog, is required for associative memory. In the present study, we aimed to characterize which form of APPL is involved in this process. We show that expression of a secreted-APPL form in the mushroom bodies, the center for olfactory memory, is able to rescue the memory deficit caused by APPL partial loss of function. We next assessed the impact on memory of the Drosophila α-secretase kuzbanian (KUZ), the enzyme initiating the nonamyloidogenic pathway that produces secreted APPLα. Strikingly, KUZ overexpression not only failed to rescue the memory deficit caused by APPL loss of function, it exacerbated this deficit. We further show that in addition to an increase in secreted-APPL forms, KUZ overexpression caused a decrease of membrane-bound full-length species that could explain the memory deficit. Indeed, we observed that transient expression of a constitutive membrane-bound mutant APPL form is sufficient to rescue the memory deficit caused by APPL reduction, revealing for the first time a role of full-length APPL in memory formation. Our data demonstrate that, in addition to secreted APPL, the noncleaved form is involved in memory, raising the possibility that secreted and full-length APPL act together in memory processes. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/351043-09$15.00/0.

  8. Effects of control parameters of three-point initiation on the formation of an explosively formed projectile with fins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, R.; Li, W. B.; Wang, X. M.; Li, W. B.

    2018-03-01

    The effects of the initiation diameter and synchronicity error on the formation of fins and stable-flight velocity of an explosively formed projectile (EFP) with three-point initiation are investigated. The pressure and area of the Mach wave acting on the metal liner at different initiation diameters are calculated employing the Whitham method. LS-DYNA software is used to investigate the asymmetric collision of detonation waves resulting from three-point initiation synchronicity error, the distortion characteristics of the liner resulting from the composite detonation waves, and the performance parameters of the EFP with fins. Results indicate that deviations of the Y-shaped high-pressure zone and central ultrahigh-pressure zone from the liner center can be attributed to the error of three-point initiation, which leads to the irregular formation of EFP fins. It is noted that the area of the Mach wave decreases, but the pressure of the Mach wave and the final speed and length-to-diameter ( L/ D) ratio of the EFP increase, benefiting the formation of the EFP fins, as the initiation diameter increases.

  9. Star Formation in Irregular Galaxies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Deidre; Wolff, Sidney

    1985-01-01

    Examines mechanisms of how stars are formed in irregular galaxies. Formation in giant irregular galaxies, formation in dwarf irregular galaxies, and comparisons with larger star-forming regions found in spiral galaxies are considered separately. (JN)

  10. Observsational Planet Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Ruobing; Zhu, Zhaohuan; Fung, Jeffrey

    2017-06-01

    Planets form in gaseous protoplanetary disks surrounding newborn stars. As such, the most direct way to learn how they form from observations, is to directly watch them forming in disks. In the past, this was very difficult due to a lack of observational capabilities; as such, planet formation was largely a subject of pure theoretical astrophysics. Now, thanks to a fleet of new instruments with unprecedented resolving power that have come online recently, we have just started to unveil features in resolve images of protoplanetary disks, such as gaps and spiral arms, that are most likely associated with embedded (unseen) planets. By comparing observations with theoretical models of planet-disk interactions, the masses and orbits of these still forming planets may be constrained. Such planets may help us to directly test various planet formation models. This marks the onset of a new field — observational planet formation. I will introduce the current status of this field.

  11. Exploring the Dust Content, Metallicity, Star Formation and AGN Activity in Distant Dusty, Star-Forming Galaxies Using Cosmic Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walth, Gregory; Egami, Eiichi; Clément, Benjamin; Rujopakarn, Wiphu; Rawle, Tim; Richard, Johan; Dessauges, Miroslava; Perez-Gonzalez, Pablo; Ebeling, Harald; Vayner, Andrey; Wright, Shelley; Cosens, Maren; Herschel Lensing Survey

    2018-01-01

    We present our recent ALMA observations of Herschel-detected gravitationally lensed dusty, star-forming galaxies (DSFGs) and how they compliment our near-infrared spectroscopic observations of their rest-frame optical nebular emission. This provides the complete picture of star formation; from the molecular gas that fuels star formation, to the dust emission which are the sites of star formation, and the nebular emission which is the gas excited by the young stars. DSFGs undergo the largest starbursts in the Universe, contributing to the bulk of the cosmic star formation rate density between redshifts z = 1 - 4. Internal processes within high-redshift DSFGs remains largely unexplored; such as feedback from star formation, the role of turbulence, gas surface density of molecular gas, AGN activity, and the rates of metal production. Much that is known about DSFGs star formation properties comes from their CO and dust emission. In order to fully understand the star formation history of DSFGs, it is necessary to observe their optical nebular emission. Unfortunately, UV/optical emission is severely attenuated by dust, making it challenging to detect. With the Herschel Lensing Survey, a survey of the cores of almost 600 massive galaxy clusters, we are able to probe faint dust-attenuated nebular emission. We are currently conducting a new survey using Keck/OSIRIS to resolve a sample of gravitationally lensed DSFGs from the Herschel Lensing Survey (>100 mJy, with SFRs >100 Msun/yr) at redshifts z=1-4 with magnifications >10x all with previously detected nebular emission lines. We present the physical and resolved properties of gravitationally lensed DSFGs at unprecedented spatial scales; such as ionization, metallicity, AGN activity, and dust attenuation.

  12. {sup 13}C-METHYL FORMATE: OBSERVATIONS OF A SAMPLE OF HIGH-MASS STAR-FORMING REGIONS INCLUDING ORION-KL AND SPECTROSCOPIC CHARACTERIZATION

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Favre, Cécile; Bergin, Edwin A.; Crockett, Nathan R.

    2015-01-01

    We have surveyed a sample of massive star-forming regions located over a range of distances from the Galactic center for methyl formate, HCOOCH{sub 3}, and its isotopologues H{sup 13}COOCH{sub 3} and HCOO{sup 13}CH{sub 3}. The observations were carried out with the APEX telescope in the frequency range 283.4-287.4 GHz. Based on the APEX observations, we report tentative detections of the {sup 13}C-methyl formate isotopologue HCOO{sup 13}CH{sub 3} toward the following four massive star-forming regions: Sgr B2(N-LMH), NGC 6334 IRS 1, W51 e2, and G19.61-0.23. In addition, we have used the 1 mm ALMA science verification observations of Orion-KL and confirm the detection ofmore » the {sup 13}C-methyl formate species in Orion-KL and image its spatial distribution. Our analysis shows that the {sup 12}C/{sup 13}C isotope ratio in methyl formate toward the Orion-KL Compact Ridge and Hot Core-SW components (68.4 ± 10.1 and 71.4 ± 7.8, respectively) are, for both the {sup 13}C-methyl formate isotopologues, commensurate with the average {sup 12}C/{sup 13}C ratio of CO derived toward Orion-KL. Likewise, regarding the other sources, our results are consistent with the {sup 12}C/{sup 13}C in CO. We also report the spectroscopic characterization, which includes a complete partition function, of the complex H{sup 13}COOCH{sub 3} and HCOO{sup 13}CH{sub 3} species. New spectroscopic data for both isotopomers H{sup 13}COOCH{sub 3} and HCOO{sup 13}CH{sub 3}, presented in this study, have made it possible to measure this fundamentally important isotope ratio in a large organic molecule for the first time.« less

  13. 13C-Methyl Formate: Observations of a Sample of High-mass Star-forming Regions Including orion-KL and Spectroscopic Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favre, Cécile; Carvajal, Miguel; Field, David; Jørgensen, Jes K.; Bisschop, Suzanne E.; Brouillet, Nathalie; Despois, Didier; Baudry, Alain; Kleiner, Isabelle; Bergin, Edwin A.; Crockett, Nathan R.; Neill, Justin L.; Margulès, Laurent; Huet, Thérèse R.; Demaison, Jean

    2014-12-01

    We have surveyed a sample of massive star-forming regions located over a range of distances from the Galactic center for methyl formate, HCOOCH3, and its isotopologues H13COOCH3 and HCOO13CH3. The observations were carried out with the APEX telescope in the frequency range 283.4-287.4 GHz. Based on the APEX observations, we report tentative detections of the 13C-methyl formate isotopologue HCOO13CH3 toward the following four massive star-forming regions: Sgr B2(N-LMH), NGC 6334 IRS 1, W51 e2, and G19.61-0.23. In addition, we have used the 1 mm ALMA science verification observations of Orion-KL and confirm the detection of the 13C-methyl formate species in Orion-KL and image its spatial distribution. Our analysis shows that the 12C/13C isotope ratio in methyl formate toward the Orion-KL Compact Ridge and Hot Core-SW components (68.4 ± 10.1 and 71.4 ± 7.8, respectively) are, for both the 13C-methyl formate isotopologues, commensurate with the average 12C/13C ratio of CO derived toward Orion-KL. Likewise, regarding the other sources, our results are consistent with the 12C/13C in CO. We also report the spectroscopic characterization, which includes a complete partition function, of the complex H13COOCH3 and HCOO13CH3 species. New spectroscopic data for both isotopomers H13COOCH3 and HCOO13CH3, presented in this study, have made it possible to measure this fundamentally important isotope ratio in a large organic molecule for the first time. This publication is based on data acquired with the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment (APEX). APEX is a collaboration between the Max-Planck-Institut fur Radioastronomie, the European Southern Observatory, and the Onsala Space Observatory (under program ID 089.F-9319).

  14. Low Temperature Sheet Forming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voges-Schwieger, Kathrin; Hübner, Sven; Behrens, Bernd-Arno

    2011-05-01

    Metastable austenitic stainless steels change their lattice during forming operations by strain-induced alpha'-martensite formation. Temperatures below T = 20° C can accelerate the phase transformation while temperatures above T = 60° C may suppress the formation of martensite during the forming operation. In past investigations, the effect of high-strength martensitic regions in an austenitic ductile lattice was used in crash relevant parts for transportation vehicles. The local martensitic regions act as reinforcements leading to an increase in crash energy absorption. Moreover, they control the folding behavior as well as the force-distance-characteristic and increase the buckling resistance. This paper deals with a concerted thermomechanical drawing process to increase the local formation of alpha'-martensite caused by low temperatures.

  15. Polymer Stabilized Nanosuspensions Formed via Flash Nanoprecipitation: Nanoparticle Formation, Formulation, and Stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, ZhengXi

    Nanoparticles loaded with hydrophobic components (e.g., active pharmaceutical ingredients, medical diagnostic agents, nutritional or personal care chemicals, catalysts, dyes/pigments, and substances with exceptional magnetic/optical/electronic/thermal properties) have tremendous industrial applications. The common desire is to efficiently generate nanoparticles with a desired size, size distribution, and size stability. Recently, Flash NanoPrecipition (FNP) technique with a fast, continuous, and easily scalable process has been developed to efficiently generate hydrophobe-loaded nanoparticles. This dissertation extended this technique, optimized process conditions and material formulations, and gave new insights into the mechanism and kinetics of nanoparticle formation. This dissertation demonstrated successful generation of spherical beta-carotene nanoparticles with an average diameter of 50--100 nm (90 wt% nanoparticles below 200 nm), good size stability (maintained an average diameter below 200 nm for at least one week in saline), and much higher loading (80--90 wt%) than traditional carriers, such as micelles and polymersomes (typically <20 wt%). Moreover, the nanoparticles are amorphous and expected to have a high dissolution rate and bioavailability. To give insights into the mechanism and kinetics of nanoparticle formation, much remarkable evidence supported the kinetically frozen structures of the nanoparticles rather than the thermodynamic equilibrium micelles. Time scales of the particle formation via FNP were proposed. To optimize the material formulations, either polyelectrolytes (i.e., epsilon-polylysine, branched and linear poly(ethylene imine), and chitosan) or amphiphilic diblock copolymers (i.e., polystyrene-b-poly(ethylene glycol) (PS-b-PEG), polycarprolactone-b-poly(ethylene glycol) (PCL-b-PEG), poly(lactic acid)-b-poly(ethylene glycol) (PLA-b-PEG), and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)-b-poly(ethylene glycol) (PLGA-b-PEG)) were selectively screened

  16. ';Best' Practices for Aggregating Subset Results from Archived Datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baskin, W. E.; Perez, J.

    2013-12-01

    In response to the exponential growth in science data analysis and visualization capabilities Data Centers have been developing new delivery mechanisms to package and deliver large volumes of aggregated subsets of archived data. New standards are evolving to help data providers and application programmers deal with growing needs of the science community. These standards evolve from the best practices gleaned from new products and capabilities. The NASA Atmospheric Sciences Data Center (ASDC) has developed and deployed production provider-specific search and subset web applications for the CALIPSO, CERES, TES, and MOPITT missions. This presentation explores several use cases that leverage aggregated subset results and examines the standards and formats ASDC developers applied to the delivered files as well as the implementation strategies for subsetting and processing the aggregated products. The following topics will be addressed: - Applications of NetCDF CF conventions to aggregated level 2 satellite subsets - Data-Provider-Specific format requirements vs. generalized standards - Organization of the file structure of aggregated NetCDF subset output - Global Attributes of individual subsetted files vs. aggregated results - Specific applications and framework used for subsetting and delivering derivative data files

  17. Leveraging social and digital media for participant recruitment: A review of methods from the Bayley Short Form Formative Study.

    PubMed

    Burke-Garcia, Amelia; Mathew, Sunitha

    2017-06-01

    Social media is increasingly being used in research, including recruitment. For the Bayley Short Form Formative Study, which was conducted under the the National Children's Study, traditional methods of recruitment proved to be ineffective. Therefore, digital media were identified as potential channels for recruitment. Results included successful recruitment of over 1800 infant and toddler participants to the Study. This paper outlines the methods, results, and future research opportunities.

  18. Advances in a distributed approach for ocean model data interoperability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Signell, Richard P.; Snowden, Derrick P.

    2014-01-01

    An infrastructure for earth science data is emerging across the globe based on common data models and web services. As we evolve from custom file formats and web sites to standards-based web services and tools, data is becoming easier to distribute, find and retrieve, leaving more time for science. We describe recent advances that make it easier for ocean model providers to share their data, and for users to search, access, analyze and visualize ocean data using MATLAB® and Python®. These include a technique for modelers to create aggregated, Climate and Forecast (CF) metadata convention datasets from collections of non-standard Network Common Data Form (NetCDF) output files, the capability to remotely access data from CF-1.6-compliant NetCDF files using the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Sensor Observation Service (SOS), a metadata standard for unstructured grid model output (UGRID), and tools that utilize both CF and UGRID standards to allow interoperable data search, browse and access. We use examples from the U.S. Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS®) Coastal and Ocean Modeling Testbed, a project in which modelers using both structured and unstructured grid model output needed to share their results, to compare their results with other models, and to compare models with observed data. The same techniques used here for ocean modeling output can be applied to atmospheric and climate model output, remote sensing data, digital terrain and bathymetric data.

  19. Electron Energy Loss Spectral Imaging of TiC Formed by Supernovae: A Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy Study of Grain Formation and Alteration Mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daulton, T. L.; Bernatowicz, T. J.; Croat, T. K.

    2012-03-01

    Micrometer-sized spherules of graphite formed by supernovae contain numerous TiC and Fe-Ni subgrains. These subgrains often have disordered surface rims. The mechanism(s) of rim formation on these subgrains is studied by transmission electron microscopy.

  20. Massive Star Formation Viewed through Extragalactic-Tinted Glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willis, Sarah; Marengo, M.; Smith, H. A.; Allen, L.

    2014-01-01

    Massive Galactic star forming regions are the local analogs to the luminous star forming regions that dominate the emission from star forming galaxies. Their proximity to us enables the characterization of the full range of stellar masses that form in these more massive environments, improving our understanding of star formation tracers used in extragalactic studies. We have surveyed a sample of massive star forming regions with a range of morphologies and luminosities to probe the star formation activity in a variety of environments. We have used Spitzer IRAC and deep ground based J, H, Ks observations to characterize the Young Stellar Object (YSO) content of 6 massive star forming regions. These YSOs provide insight into the rate and efficiency of star formation within these regions, and enable comparison with nearby, low mass star forming regions as well as extreme cases of Galactic star formation including ‘mini-starburst’ regions. In addition, we have conducted an in-depth analysis of NGC 6334 to investigate how the star formation activity varies within an individual star forming region, using Herschel data in the far-infrared to probe the earliest stages of the ongoing star formation activity.

  1. Investigation of salt formation between memantine and pamoic acid: Its exploitation in nanocrystalline form as long acting injection.

    PubMed

    Mittapelly, Naresh; Rachumallu, Ramakrishna; Pandey, Gitu; Sharma, Shweta; Arya, Abhishek; Bhatta, Rabi Shankar; Mishra, Prabhat Ranjan

    2016-04-01

    In the present work, we prepared memantine-pamoic acid (MEM-PAM) salt by counter ion exchange in the aqueous phase to reduce the water solubility of MEM hydrochloride (native form) to make it suitable for long acting injection. The ratio of MEM to PAM in salt formation was optimized to maximize the loading efficiency and complexation efficiency. The 2:1 molar ratio of MEM to PAM salt form displayed nearly 95% complexation efficiency and 50% drug loading. The solubility was decreased by a ∼1250 folds. Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), and Powder X-ray Diffraction Analysis (PXRD) studies revealed the formation of new solid phase. Additionally, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy confirmed the anhydrous nature of the salt form. Through Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) we identified the molecular interactions. Further, the microcrystals of the salt were transformed into nanocrystals (NCs) using high pressure homogenization. The particle size distribution and atomic force microscopy confirmed the monodispersed and spherical shape of the NCs. The in vitro dissolution studies were performed under sink condition in phosphate buffer saline pH 6.8. The results of MTT assay in murine fibroblast 3T3 cell line show that the NCs were less cytotoxic and more tolerable than plain MEM HCl. The in vivo performance of NCs administered as i.m. injection at three different doses in female Sprague-Dawley rats showed that the plasma levels lasted till the 24th day of the study. The pharmacokinetic parameters AUC0-∞ and Cmax increased linearly with increasing dose. Therefore, the results suggest that injectable NCs could represent a therapeutic alternative for the treatment of AD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Formation of methyl formate in comets by irradiation of methanol-bearing ices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modica, P.; Palumbo, M. E.; Strazzulla, G.

    2012-12-01

    Methyl formate is a complex organic molecule considered potentially relevant as precursor of biologically active molecules. It has been observed in several astrophysical environments, such as hot cores, hot corinos, and comets. The processes that drive the formation of molecules in cometary ices are poorly understood. In particular it is not yet clear if molecules are directly accreted from the pre-solar nebula to form comets or are formed after accretion. The present work analyzes the possible role of cosmic ion irradiation and radioactive decay in methyl formate formation in methanol-bearing ices. The results indicate that cosmic ion irradiation can account for about 12% of the methyl formate observed in comet Hale-Bopp, while radioactive decay can account for about 6% of this amount. The need of new data coming from earth based and space observational projects as well as from laboratory experiments is outlined.

  3. Multifunctional Merkel cells: their roles in electromagnetic reception, finger-print formation, Reiki, epigenetic inheritance and hair form.

    PubMed

    Irmak, M Kemal

    2010-08-01

    Merkel cells are located in glabrous and hairy skin and in some mucosa. They are characterized by dense-core secretory granules and cytoskeletal filaments. They are attached to neighboring keratinocytes by desmosomes and contain melanosomes similar to keratinocytes. They are excitable cells in close contact with sensory nerve endings but their function is still unclear. In this review, following roles are attributed for the first time to the Merkel cells: (1) melanosomes in Merkel cells may be involved in mammalian magnetoreception. In this model melanosome as a biological magnetite is connected by cytoskeletal filaments to mechanically gated ion channels embedded in the Merkel cell membrane. The movement of melanosome with the changing electromagnetic field may open ion channels directly producing a receptor potential that can be transmitted to brain via sensory neurons. (2) Merkel cells may be involved in finger-print formation: Merkel cells in glabrous skin are located at the base of the epidermal ridges the type of which defines the finger-print pattern. Finger-print formation starts at the 10th week of pregnancy after the arrival of Merkel cells. Keratinocyte proliferation and the buckling process observed in the basal layer of epidermis resulting in the epidermal ridges may be controlled and formed by Merkel cells. (3) Brain-Merkel cell connection is bi-directional and Merkel cells not only absorb but also radiate the electromagnetic frequencies. Hence, efferent aspects of the palmar and plantar Merkel nerve endings may form the basis of the biofield modalities such as Reiki, therapeutic touch and telekinesis. (4) Adaptive geographic variations such as skin color, craniofacial morphology and hair form result from interactions between environmental factors and epigenetic inheritance system. While environmental factors produce modifications in the body, they simultaneously induce epigenetic modifications in the oocytes and in this way adaptive changes could be

  4. Far-Infrared and Nebular Star-Formation Rate of Dusty Star Forming Galaxies from Herschel, CANDELS and 3D-HST at z~1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, Farhanul; Nayyeri, Hooshang; Cooray, Asantha R.; Herschel Group: University of California Irvine. Dept. of Physics & Astronomy. Led by professor Asantha Cooray, Reed College Undergraduate Research Committee

    2017-06-01

    We present a combined Herschel/PACS and SPIRE and HST/WFC3 observations of the five CANDELS fields, EGS, GOODS-N, GOODS-S, COSMOS and UDS, to study star-formation activity in dusty star-forming galaxies (DSFGs) at z~1. We use 3D-HST photometry and Grism spectroscopic redshifts to construct the Spectral Energy Distributions (SED) of galaxies in the near UV, optical and near infrared, along with IRAC measurements at 3.6-8 μm in the mid-infrared, and Herschel data at 250-500 μm in the far-infrared. The 3D-HST grism line measurements are used to estimate the star-formation rate from nebular emission. In particular, we compare the H-alpha measured SFRs (corrected for attenuation) to that of direct observations of the far-infrared from Herschel. We further look at the infrared excess in this sample of dusty star-forming galaxies (denoted by LIR/LUV) as a function of the UV slope. We find that the population of high-z DSFGs sit above the trend expected for normal star-forming galaxies. Additionally, we study the dependence of SFR on total dust attenuation and confirm a strong correlation between SFR(Ha) and the balmer decrement (Hα/Hβ).

  5. DNA-RNA hybrid formation mediates RNAi-directed heterochromatin formation.

    PubMed

    Nakama, Mina; Kawakami, Kei; Kajitani, Takuya; Urano, Takeshi; Murakami, Yota

    2012-03-01

    Certain noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) implicated in the regulation of chromatin structure associate with chromatin. During the formation of RNAi-directed heterochromatin in fission yeast, ncRNAs transcribed from heterochromatin are thought to recruit the RNAi machinery to chromatin for the formation of heterochromatin; however, the molecular details of this association are not clear. Here, using RNA immunoprecipitation assay, we showed that the heterochromatic ncRNA was associated with chromatin via the formation of a DNA-RNA hybrid and bound to the RNA-induced transcriptional silencing (RITS) complex. The presence of DNA-RNA hybrid in the cell was also confirmed by immunofluorescence analysis using anti-DNA-RNA hybrid antibody. Over-expression and depletion of RNase H in vivo decreased and increased the amount of DNA-RNA hybrid formed, respectively, and both disturbed heterochromatin. Moreover, DNA-RNA hybrid was formed on, and over-expression of RNase H inhibited the formation of, artificial heterochromatin induced by tethering of RITS to mRNA. These results indicate that heterochromatic ncRNAs are retained on chromatin via the formation of DNA-RNA hybrids and provide a platform for the RNAi-directed heterochromatin assembly and suggest that DNA-RNA hybrid formation plays a role in chromatic ncRNA function. © 2012 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2012 by the Molecular Biology Society of Japan/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Evaluating Statistical Targets for Assembling Parallel Mixed-Format Test Forms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Debeer, Dries; Ali, Usama S.; van Rijn, Peter W.

    2017-01-01

    Test assembly is the process of selecting items from an item pool to form one or more new test forms. Often new test forms are constructed to be parallel with an existing (or an ideal) test. Within the context of item response theory, the test information function (TIF) or the test characteristic curve (TCC) are commonly used as statistical…

  7. A GAS-PHASE FORMATION ROUTE TO INTERSTELLAR TRANS-METHYL FORMATE

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Cole, Callie A.; Wehres, Nadine; Yang Zhibo

    2012-07-20

    The abundance of methyl formate in the interstellar medium has previously been underpredicted by chemical models. Additionally, grain surface chemistry cannot account for the relative abundance of the cis- and trans-conformers of methyl formate, and the trans-conformer is not even formed at detectable abundance on these surfaces. This highlights the importance of studying formation pathways to methyl formate in the gas phase. The rate constant and branching fractions are reported for the gas-phase reaction between protonated methanol and formic acid to form protonated trans-methyl formate and water as well as adduct ion: Rate constants were experimentally determined using a flowingmore » afterglow-selected ion flow tube apparatus at 300 K and a pressure of 530 mTorr helium. The results indicate a moderate overall rate constant of (3.19 {+-} 0.39) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -10} cm{sup 3} s{sup -1} ({+-} 1{sigma}) and an average branching fraction of 0.05 {+-} 0.04 for protonated trans-methyl formate and 0.95 {+-} 0.04 for the adduct ion. These experimental results are reinforced by ab initio calculations at the MP2(full)/aug-cc-pVTZ level of theory to examine the reaction coordinate and complement previous density functional theory calculations. This study underscores the need for continued observational studies of trans-methyl formate and for the exploration of other gas-phase formation routes to complex organic molecules.« less

  8. An integrated system for dissolution studies and magnetic resonance imaging of controlled release, polymer-based dosage forms-a tool for quantitative assessment of hydrogel formation processes.

    PubMed

    Kulinowski, Piotr; Dorozyński, Przemysław; Jachowicz, Renata; Weglarz, Władysław P

    2008-11-04

    Controlled release (CR) dosage forms are often based on polymeric matrices, e.g., sustained-release tablets and capsules. It is crucial to visualise and quantify processes of the hydrogel formation during the standard dissolution study. A method for imaging of CR, polymer-based dosage forms during dissolution study in vitro is presented. Imaging was performed in a non-invasive way by means of the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This study was designed to simulate in vivo conditions regarding temperature, volume, state and composition of dissolution media. Two formulations of hydrodynamically balanced systems (HBS) were chosen as model CR dosage forms. HBS release active substance in stomach while floating on the surface of the gastric content. Time evolutions of the diffusion region, hydrogel formation region and "dry core" region were obtained during a dissolution study of L-dopa as a model drug in two simulated gastric fluids (i.e. in fed and fasted state). This method seems to be a very promising tool for examining properties of new formulations of CR, polymer-based dosage forms or for comparison of generic and originator dosage forms before carrying out bioequivalence studies.

  9. The Comparison of Point Data Models for the Output of WRF Hydro Model in the IDV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Y.; Weber, J.

    2017-12-01

    WRF Hydro netCDF output files contain streamflow, flow depth, longitude, latitude, altitude and stream order values for each forecast point. However, the data are not CF compliant. The total number of forecast points for the US CONUS is approximately 2.7 million and it is a big challenge for any visualization and analysis tool. The IDV point cloud display shows point data as a set of points colored by parameter. This display is very efficient compared to a standard point type display for rendering a large number of points. The one problem we have is that the data I/O can be a bottleneck issue when dealing with a large collection of point input files. In this presentation, we will experiment with different point data models and their APIs to access the same WRF Hydro model output. The results will help us construct a CF compliant netCDF point data format for the community.

  10. An open source Java web application to build self-contained Web GIS sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavala Romero, O.; Ahmed, A.; Chassignet, E.; Zavala-Hidalgo, J.

    2014-12-01

    This work describes OWGIS, an open source Java web application that creates Web GIS sites by automatically writing HTML and JavaScript code. OWGIS is configured by XML files that define which layers (geographic datasets) will be displayed on the websites. This project uses several Open Geospatial Consortium standards to request data from typical map servers, such as GeoServer, and is also able to request data from ncWMS servers. The latter allows for the displaying of 4D data stored using the NetCDF file format (widely used for storing environmental model datasets). Some of the features available on the sites built with OWGIS are: multiple languages, animations, vertical profiles and vertical transects, color palettes, color ranges, and the ability to download data. OWGIS main users are scientists, such as oceanographers or climate scientists, who store their data in NetCDF files and want to analyze, visualize, share, or compare their data using a website.

  11. The modified Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale Short Form: a modified response format and rational scoring rules.

    PubMed

    Sharp, J L; Gough, K; Pascoe, M C; Drosdowsky, A; Chang, V T; Schofield, P

    2018-07-01

    The Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale Short Form (MSAS-SF) is a widely used symptom assessment instrument. Patients who self-complete the MSAS-SF have difficulty following the two-part response format, resulting in incorrectly completed responses. We describe modifications to the response format to improve useability, and rational scoring rules for incorrectly completed items. The modified MSAS-SF was completed by 311 women in our Peer and Nurse support Trial to Assist women in Gynaecological Oncology; the PeNTAGOn study. Descriptive statistics were used to summarise completion of the modified MSAS-SF, and provide symptom statistics before and after applying the rational scoring rules. Spearman's correlations with the Functional Assessment for Cancer Therapy-General (FACT-G) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) were assessed. Correct completion of the modified MSAS-SF items ranged from 91.5 to 98.7%. The rational scoring rules increased the percentage of useable responses on average 4% across all symptoms. MSAS-SF item statistics were similar with and without the scoring rules. The pattern of correlations with FACT-G and HADS was compatible with prior research. The modified MSAS-SF was useable for self-completion and responses demonstrated validity. The rational scoring rules can minimise loss of data from incorrectly completed responses. Further investigation is recommended.

  12. Mental Representations Formed From Educational Website Formats

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Elizabeth T. Cady; Kimberly R. Raddatz; Tuan Q. Tran

    2006-10-01

    The increasing popularity of web-based distance education places high demand on distance educators to format web pages to facilitate learning. However, limited guidelines exist regarding appropriate writing styles for web-based distance education. This study investigated the effect of four different writing styles on reader’s mental representation of hypertext. Participants studied hypertext written in one of four web-writing styles (e.g., concise, scannable, objective, and combined) and were then administered a cued association task intended to measure their mental representations of the hypertext. It is hypothesized that the scannable and combined styles will bias readers to scan rather than elaborately read, whichmore » may result in less dense mental representations (as identified through Pathfinder analysis) relative to the objective and concise writing styles. Further, the use of more descriptors in the objective writing style will lead to better integration of ideas and more dense mental representations than the concise writing style.« less

  13. The Value of Data and Metadata Standardization for Interoperability in Giovanni Or: Why Your Product's Metadata Causes Us Headaches!

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smit, Christine; Hegde, Mahabaleshwara; Strub, Richard; Bryant, Keith; Li, Angela; Petrenko, Maksym

    2017-01-01

    Giovanni is a data exploration and visualization tool at the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data Information Services Center (GES DISC). It has been around in one form or another for more than 15 years. Giovanni calculates simple statistics and produces 22 different visualizations for more than 1600 geophysical parameters from more than 90 satellite and model products. Giovanni relies on external data format standards to ensure interoperability, including the NetCDF CF Metadata Conventions. Unfortunately, these standards were insufficient to make Giovanni's internal data representation truly simple to use. Finding and working with dimensions can be convoluted with the CF Conventions. Furthermore, the CF Conventions are silent on machine-friendly descriptive metadata such as the parameter's source product and product version. In order to simplify analyzing disparate earth science data parameters in a unified way, we developed Giovanni's internal standard. First, the format standardizes parameter dimensions and variables so they can be easily found. Second, the format adds all the machine-friendly metadata Giovanni needs to present our parameters to users in a consistent and clear manner. At a glance, users can grasp all the pertinent information about parameters both during parameter selection and after visualization.

  14. The differences in crown formation during the splash on the thin water layers formed on the saturated soil surface and model surface

    PubMed Central

    Mazur, Rafał; Polakowski, Cezary; Bieganowski, Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    Splash is the first stage of a negative phenomenon–soil erosion. The aim of this work was to describe the crown formation quantitatively (as part of the splash erosion) and compare the course of this phenomenon on the thin water film formed on a smooth glass surface and on the surface of saturated soil. The height of the falling water drop was 1.5 m. The observation of the crowns was carried out by high-speed cameras. The static and dynamic parameters of crown formation were analysed. It was found that the crowns formed on the water film covering the saturated soil surface were smaller and the time intervals of their existence were shorter. In addition, the shapes of the crowns were different from those created on the water layer covering the glass surface. These differences can be explained by the slightly different values of surface tension and viscosity of the soil solution, the greater roughness of the soil surface and the lower thickness of the water film on the soil surface. PMID:28750072

  15. The differences in crown formation during the splash on the thin water layers formed on the saturated soil surface and model surface.

    PubMed

    Beczek, Michał; Ryżak, Magdalena; Sochan, Agata; Mazur, Rafał; Polakowski, Cezary; Bieganowski, Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    Splash is the first stage of a negative phenomenon-soil erosion. The aim of this work was to describe the crown formation quantitatively (as part of the splash erosion) and compare the course of this phenomenon on the thin water film formed on a smooth glass surface and on the surface of saturated soil. The height of the falling water drop was 1.5 m. The observation of the crowns was carried out by high-speed cameras. The static and dynamic parameters of crown formation were analysed. It was found that the crowns formed on the water film covering the saturated soil surface were smaller and the time intervals of their existence were shorter. In addition, the shapes of the crowns were different from those created on the water layer covering the glass surface. These differences can be explained by the slightly different values of surface tension and viscosity of the soil solution, the greater roughness of the soil surface and the lower thickness of the water film on the soil surface.

  16. First constraints on the stellar mass function of star-forming clumps at the peak of cosmic star formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dessauges-Zavadsky, Miroslava; Adamo, Angela

    2018-06-01

    Star-forming clumps dominate the rest-frame ultraviolet morphology of galaxies at the peak of cosmic star formation. If turbulence driven fragmentation is the mechanism responsible for their formation, we expect their stellar mass function to follow a power-law of slope close to -2. We test this hypothesis performing the first analysis of the stellar mass function of clumps hosted in galaxies at z ˜ 1 - 3.5. The sample is gathered from the literature with similar detection thresholds and stellar masses determined in a homogeneous way. To overcome the small number statistics per galaxy (each galaxy hosts up to a few tens of clumps only), we combine all high-redshift clumps. The resulting clump mass function follows a power-law of slope ˜-1.7 and flattens at masses below 2 × 107 M⊙. By means of randomly sampled clump populations, drawn out of a power-law mass function of slope -2, we test the effect of combining small clump populations, detection limits of the surveys, and blending on the mass function. Our numerical exercise reproduces all the features observed in the real clump mass function confirming that it is consistent with a power-law of slope ≃ -2. This result supports the high-redshift clump formation through fragmentation in a similar fashion as in local galaxies, but under different gas conditions.

  17. Forming Different Planetary Architectures. I. The Formation Efficiency of Hot Jupiters from High-eccentricity Mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ying; Zhou, Ji-lin; hui-gen, Liu; Meng, Zeyang

    2017-10-01

    Exoplanets discovered over the past decades have provided a new sample of giant exoplanets: hot Jupiters. For lack of enough materials in the current locations of hot Jupiters, they are perceived to form outside the snowline. Then, they migrate to the locations observed through interactions with gas disks or high-eccentricity mechanisms. We examined the efficiencies of different high-eccentricity mechanisms for forming hot Jupiters in near-coplanar multi-planet systems. These mechanisms include planet-planet scattering, the Kozai-Lidov mechanism, coplanar high-eccentricity migration, and secular chaos, as well as other two new mechanisms that we present in this work, which can produce hot Jupiters with high inclinations even in retrograde. We find that the Kozai-Lidov mechanism plays the most important role in producing hot Jupiters among these mechanisms. Secular chaos is not the usual channel for the formation of hot Jupiters due to the lack of an angular momentum deficit within {10}7{T}{in} (periods of the inner orbit). According to comparisons between the observations and simulations, we speculate that there are at least two populations of hot Jupiters. One population migrates into the boundary of tidal effects due to interactions with the gas disk, such as ups And b, WASP-47 b, and HIP 14810 b. These systems usually have at least two planets with lower eccentricities, and remain dynamically stable in compact orbital configurations. Another population forms through high-eccentricity mechanisms after the excitation of eccentricity due to dynamical instability. These kinds of hot Jupiters usually have Jupiter-like companions in distant orbits with moderate or high eccentricities.

  18. Formate-assisted pyrolysis

    DOEpatents

    DeSisto, William Joseph; Wheeler, Marshall Clayton; van Heiningen, Adriaan R. P.

    2015-03-17

    The present invention provides, among other thing, methods for creating significantly deoxygenated bio-oils form biomass including the steps of providing a feedstock, associating the feedstock with an alkali formate to form a treated feedstock, dewatering the treated feedstock, heating the dewatered treated feedstock to form a vapor product, and condensing the vapor product to form a pyrolysis oil, wherein the pyrolysis oil contains less than 30% oxygen by weight.

  19. The Formation of Mini-Neptunes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venturini, Julia; Helled, Ravit

    2017-10-01

    Mini-Neptunes seem to be common planets. In this work we investigate the possible formation histories and predicted occurrence rates of mini-Neptunes, assuming that the planets form beyond the iceline. We consider pebble and planetesimal accretion accounting for envelope enrichment and two different opacity conditions. We find that the formation of mini-Neptunes is a relatively frequent output when envelope enrichment by volatiles is included, and that there is a “sweet spot” for mini-Neptune formation with a relatively low solid accretion rate of ˜10-6 M ⊕ yr-1. This rate is typical for low/intermediate-mass protoplanetary disks and/or disks with low metallicities. With pebble accretion, envelope enrichment and high opacity favor the formation of mini-Neptunes, with more efficient formation at large semimajor axes (˜30 au) and low disk viscosities. For planetesimal accretion, such planets can also form without enrichment, with the opacity being a key aspect in the growth history and favorable formation location. Finally, we show that the formation of Neptune-like planets remains a challenge for planet formation theories.

  20. Characterization of inclusions in terrestrial impact formed zircon: Constraining the formation conditions of Hadean zircon from Jack Hills, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faltys, J. P.; Wielicki, M. M.; Sizemore, T. M.

    2017-12-01

    Due to the discovery and subsequent geochemical analysis of Hadean terrestrial material (e.g. detrital zircon from Jack Hills, Western Australia), a dramatic paradigm shift has occurred in the hypothesized near surface conditions of the first 500 million years of Earth's evolution. From a hellish setting riddled with impactors and not fit for life to a much milder environment that may have been uniquely suitable for the origin of life. Geochemical analyses of these ancient materials have been used to suggest the presence of water at or near the surface as well as the existence of continental crust during the Hadean, both of which have been suggested as necessary for the origin of life. However, the intensity of extraterrestrial bombardment during the Hadean and the effects of such events on the origin of life remains poorly understood. Clearly, as evidenced by Phanerozoic impact events, extraterrestrial impactors have the potential to dramatically effect the environment, particularly the biosphere. Early Earth likely experienced multiple large impact events, as evidenced by the lunar record, however whether those impacts were sufficient to frustrate the origin of life remains an open question. Although multiple lines of evidence, including the inclusion population, suggest the formation of Hadean zircon from Jack Hills as crystallizing in an under-thrust environment from S-type magmas, a recent study has suggested their formation in an impact melt environment analogous to a portion of the Sudbury Igneous Complex at the Sudbury impact structure. To determine between these two formation scenarios we have under-taken an inclusion study of terrestrial impact formed zircon from four of the largest terrestrial impact structures (Sudbury, Canada; Manicouagan, Canada; Vredefort, South Africa; Morokweng, South Africa), to compare to the vast inclusion dataset that exists for Jack Hills zircon. Preliminary data suggests a different inclusion population, from Hadean zircon

  1. Software reuse example and challenges at NSIDC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billingsley, B. W.; Brodzik, M.; Collins, J. A.

    2009-12-01

    NSIDC has created a new data discovery and access system, Searchlight, to provide users with the data they want in the format they want. NSIDC Searchlight supports discovery and access to disparate data types with on-the-fly reprojection, regridding and reformatting. Architected to both reuse open source systems and be reused itself, Searchlight reuses GDAL and Proj4 for manipulating data and format conversions, the netCDF Java library for creating netCDF output, MapServer and OpenLayers for defining spatial criteria and the JTS Topology Suite (JTS) in conjunction with Hibernate Spatial for database interaction and rich OGC-compliant spatial objects. The application reuses popular Java and Java Script libraries including Struts 2, Spring, JPA (Hibernate), Sitemesh, JFreeChart, JQuery, DOJO and a PostGIS PostgreSQL database. Future reuse of Searchlight components is supported at varying architecture levels, ranging from the database and model components to web services. We present the tools, libraries and programs that Searchlight has reused. We describe the architecture of Searchlight and explain the strategies deployed for reusing existing software and how Searchlight is built for reuse. We will discuss NSIDC reuse of the Searchlight components to support rapid development of new data delivery systems.

  2. DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Bosler, Peter

    Stride Search provides a flexible tool for detecting storms or other extreme climate events in high-resolution climate data sets saved on uniform latitude-longitude grids in standard NetCDF format. Users provide the software a quantitative description of a meteorological event they are interested in; the software searches a data set for locations in space and time that meet the user’s description. In its first stage, Stride Search performs a spatial search of the data set at each timestep by dividing a search domain into circular sectors of constant geodesic radius. Data from a netCDF file is read into memory for eachmore » circular search sector. If the data meet or exceed a set of storm identification criteria (defined by the user), a storm is recorded to a linked list. Finally, the linked list is examined and duplicate detections of the same storm are removed and the results are written to an output file. The first stage’s output file is read by a second program that builds storm. Additional identification criteria may be applied at this stage to further classify storms. Storm tracks are the software’s ultimate output and routines are provided for formatting that output for various external software libraries for plotting and tabulating data.« less

  3. Automated Test-Form Generation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Linden, Wim J.; Diao, Qi

    2011-01-01

    In automated test assembly (ATA), the methodology of mixed-integer programming is used to select test items from an item bank to meet the specifications for a desired test form and optimize its measurement accuracy. The same methodology can be used to automate the formatting of the set of selected items into the actual test form. Three different…

  4. Formation of the formate-nitrate electron transport pathway from inactive components in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Scott, R H; DeMoss, J A

    1976-01-01

    When Escherichia coli was grown on medium containing 10 mM tungstate the formation of active formate dehydrogenase, nitrate reductase, and the complete formate-nitrate electron transport pathway was inhibited. Incubation of the tungstate-grown cells with 1 mM molybdate in the presence of chloramphenicol led to the rapid activation of both formate dehydrogenase and nitrate reductase, and, after a considerable lag, the complete electron transport pathway. Protein bands which corresponded to formate dehydrogenase and nitrate reductase were identified on polyacrylamide gels containing Triton X-100 after the activities were released from the membrane fraction and partially purified Cytochrome b1 was associated with the protein band corresponding to formate dehydrogenase but was not found elsewhere on the gels. When a similar fraction was prepared from cells grown on 10 mM tungstate, an inactive band corresponding to formate dehydrogenase was not observed on polyacrylamide gels; rather, a new faster migrating band was present. Cytochrome b1 was not associated with this band nor was it found anywhere else on the gels. This new band disappeared when the tungstate-grown cells were incubated with molybdate in the presence of chloramphenicol. The formate dehydrogenase activity which was formed, as well as a corresponding protein band, appeared at the original position on the gels. Cytochrome b1 was again associated with this band. The protein band which corresponded to nitrate reductase also was severely depressed in the tungstate-grown cells and a new faster migrating band appeared on the polyacrylamide gels. Upon activation of the nitrate reductase by incubation of the cells with molybdate, the new band diminished and protein reappeared at the original position. Most of the nitrate reductase activity which was formed appeared at the original position of nitrate reductase on gels although some was present at the position of the inactive band formed by tungstate-grown cells

  5. Formative Assessment: Simply, No Additives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roskos, Kathleen; Neuman, Susan B.

    2012-01-01

    Among the types of assessment the closest to daily reading instruction is formative assessment. In contrast to summative assessment, which occurs after instruction, formative assessment involves forming judgments frequently in the flow of instruction. Key features of formative assessment include identifying gaps between where students are and…

  6. High temperature methods for forming oxidizer fuel

    DOEpatents

    Bravo, Jose Luis [Houston, TX

    2011-01-11

    A method of treating a formation fluid includes providing formation fluid from a subsurface in situ heat treatment process. The formation fluid is separated to produce a liquid stream and a first gas stream. The first gas stream includes carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, hydrocarbons, hydrogen or mixtures thereof. Molecular oxygen is separated from air to form a molecular oxygen stream comprising molecular oxygen. The first gas stream is combined with the molecular oxygen stream to form a combined stream comprising molecular oxygen and the first gas stream. The combined stream is provided to one or more downhole burners.

  7. 48 CFR 13.307 - Forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Forms. 13.307 Section 13.307 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND... 1449; SF 18, Request for Quotations; or an agency form/automated format may be used. Each agency...

  8. 48 CFR 49.602-2 - Inventory forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inventory forms. 49.602-2... TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS Contract Termination Forms and Formats 49.602-2 Inventory forms. Standard Form (SF) 1428, Inventory Disposal Schedule, and SF 1429, Inventory Disposal Schedule—Continuation Sheet, shall...

  9. Connecting the Cosmic Star Formation Rate with the Local Star Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gribel, Carolina; Miranda, Oswaldo D.; Williams Vilas-Boas, José

    2017-11-01

    We present a model that unifies the cosmic star formation rate (CSFR), obtained through the hierarchical structure formation scenario, with the (Galactic) local star formation rate (SFR). It is possible to use the SFR to generate a CSFR mapping through the density probability distribution functions commonly used to study the role of turbulence in the star-forming regions of the Galaxy. We obtain a consistent mapping from redshift z˜ 20 up to the present (z = 0). Our results show that the turbulence exhibits a dual character, providing high values for the star formation efficiency (< \\varepsilon > ˜ 0.32) in the redshift interval z˜ 3.5{--}20 and reducing its value to < \\varepsilon > =0.021 at z = 0. The value of the Mach number ({{ M }}{crit}), from which < \\varepsilon > rapidly decreases, is dependent on both the polytropic index (Γ) and the minimum density contrast of the gas. We also derive Larson’s first law associated with the velocity dispersion (< {V}{rms}> ) in the local star formation regions. Our model shows good agreement with Larson’s law in the ˜ 10{--}50 {pc} range, providing typical temperatures {T}0˜ 10{--}80 {{K}} for the gas associated with star formation. As a consequence, dark matter halos of great mass could contain a number of halos of much smaller mass, and be able to form structures similar to globular clusters. Thus, Larson’s law emerges as a result of the very formation of large-scale structures, which in turn would allow the formation of galactic systems, including our Galaxy.

  10. KEY ISSUES REVIEW: Insights from simulations of star formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, Richard B.

    2007-03-01

    Although the basic physics of star formation is classical, numerical simulations have yielded essential insights into how stars form. They show that star formation is a highly nonuniform runaway process characterized by the emergence of nearly singular peaks in density, followed by the accretional growth of embryo stars that form at these density peaks. Circumstellar discs often form from the gas being accreted by the forming stars, and accretion from these discs may be episodic, driven by gravitational instabilities or by protostellar interactions. Star-forming clouds typically develop filamentary structures, which may, along with the thermal physics, play an important role in the origin of stellar masses because of the sensitivity of filament fragmentation to temperature variations. Simulations of the formation of star clusters show that the most massive stars form by continuing accretion in the dense cluster cores, and this again is a runaway process that couples star formation and cluster formation. Star-forming clouds also tend to develop hierarchical structures, and smaller groups of forming objects tend to merge into progressively larger ones, a generic feature of self-gravitating systems that is common to star formation and galaxy formation. Because of the large range of scales and the complex dynamics involved, analytic models cannot adequately describe many aspects of star formation, and detailed numerical simulations are needed to advance our understanding of the subject. 'The purpose of computing is insight, not numbers.' Richard W Hamming, in Numerical Methods for Scientists and Engineers (1962) 'There are more things in heaven and earth, Horatio, than are dreamt of in your philosophy.' William Shakespeare, in Hamlet, Prince of Denmark (1604)

  11. Complex organic molecules and star formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacmann, A.; Faure, A.

    2014-12-01

    Star forming regions are characterised by the presence of a wealth of chemical species. For the past two to three decades, ever more complex organic species have been detected in the hot cores of protostars. The evolution of these molecules in the course of the star forming process is still uncertain, but it is likely that they are partially incorporated into protoplanetary disks and then into planetesimals and the small bodies of planetary systems. The complex organic molecules seen in star forming regions are particularly interesting since they probably make up building blocks for prebiotic chemistry. Recently we showed that these species were also present in the cold gas in prestellar cores, which represent the very first stages of star formation. These detections question the models which were until now accepted to account for the presence of complex organic molecules in star forming regions. In this article, we shortly review our current understanding of complex organic molecule formation in the early stages of star formation, in hot and cold cores alike and present new results on the formation of their likely precursor radicals.

  12. CONTINUOUS MID-INFRARED STAR FORMATION RATE INDICATORS: DIAGNOSTICS FOR 0 < z < 3 STAR-FORMING GALAXIES

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Battisti, A. J.; Calzetti, D.; Johnson, B. D.

    2015-02-20

    We present continuous, monochromatic star formation rate (SFR) indicators over the mid-infrared wavelength range of 6–70 μm. We use a sample of 58 star-forming galaxies (SFGs) in the Spitzer–SDSS–GALEX Spectroscopic Survey at z < 0.2, for which there is a rich suite of multi-wavelength photometry and spectroscopy from the ultraviolet through to the infrared. The data from the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) of these galaxies, which spans 5–40 μm, is anchored to their photometric counterparts. The spectral region between 40–70 μm is interpolated using dust model fits to the IRS spectrum and Spitzer 70 and 160 μm photometry. Since theremore » are no sharp spectral features in this region, we expect these interpolations to be robust. This spectral range is calibrated as a SFR diagnostic using several reference SFR indicators to mitigate potential bias. Our band-specific continuous SFR indicators are found to be consistent with monochromatic calibrations in the local universe, as derived from Spitzer, WISE, and Herschel photometry. Our local composite template and continuous SFR diagnostics are made available for public use through the NASA/IPAC Infrared Science Archive (IRSA) and have typical dispersions of 30% or less. We discuss the validity and range of applicability for our SFR indicators in the context of unveiling the formation and evolution of galaxies. Additionally, in the era of the James Webb Space Telescope this will become a flexible tool, applicable to any SFG up to z ∼ 3.« less

  13. The formation of the solar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfalzner, S.; Davies, M. B.; Gounelle, M.; Johansen, A.; Münker, C.; Lacerda, P.; Portegies Zwart, S.; Testi, L.; Trieloff, M.; Veras, D.

    2015-06-01

    The solar system started to form about 4.56 Gyr ago and despite the long intervening time span, there still exist several clues about its formation. The three major sources for this information are meteorites, the present solar system structure and the planet-forming systems around young stars. In this introduction we give an overview of the current understanding of the solar system formation from all these different research fields. This includes the question of the lifetime of the solar protoplanetary disc, the different stages of planet formation, their duration, and their relative importance. We consider whether meteorite evidence and observations of protoplanetary discs point in the same direction. This will tell us whether our solar system had a typical formation history or an exceptional one. There are also many indications that the solar system formed as part of a star cluster. Here we examine the types of cluster the Sun could have formed in, especially whether its stellar density was at any stage high enough to influence the properties of today’s solar system. The likelihood of identifying siblings of the Sun is discussed. Finally, the possible dynamical evolution of the solar system since its formation and its future are considered.

  14. Direct Measurements of Dust Attenuation in z ~ 1.5 Star-forming Galaxies from 3D-HST: Implications for Dust Geometry and Star Formation Rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Sedona H.; Kriek, Mariska; Brammer, Gabriel B.; Conroy, Charlie; Förster Schreiber, Natascha M.; Franx, Marijn; Fumagalli, Mattia; Lundgren, Britt; Momcheva, Ivelina; Nelson, Erica J.; Skelton, Rosalind E.; van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Whitaker, Katherine E.; Wuyts, Stijn

    2014-06-01

    The nature of dust in distant galaxies is not well understood, and until recently few direct dust measurements have been possible. We investigate dust in distant star-forming galaxies using near-infrared grism spectra of the 3D-HST survey combined with archival multi-wavelength photometry. These data allow us to make a direct comparison between dust around star-forming regions (A V, H II ) and the integrated dust content (A V, star). We select a sample of 163 galaxies between 1.36 <= z <= 1.5 with Hα signal-to-noise ratio >=5 and measure Balmer decrements from stacked spectra to calculate A V, H II . First, we stack spectra in bins of A V, star, and find that A V, H II = 1.86 A V, star, with a significance of σ = 1.7. Our result is consistent with the two-component dust model, in which galaxies contain both diffuse and stellar birth cloud dust. Next, we stack spectra in bins of specific star formation rate (log SSFR), star formation rate (log SFR), and stellar mass (log M *). We find that on average A V, H II increases with SFR and mass, but decreases with increasing SSFR. Interestingly, the data hint that the amount of extra attenuation decreases with increasing SSFR. This trend is expected from the two-component model, as the extra attenuation will increase once older stars outside the star-forming regions become more dominant in the galaxy spectrum. Finally, using Balmer decrements we derive dust-corrected Hα SFRs, and find that stellar population modeling produces incorrect SFRs if rapidly declining star formation histories are included in the explored parameter space.

  15. Elemental sulfur aerosol-forming mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Manoj; Francisco, Joseph S.

    2017-01-01

    Elemental sulfur aerosols are ubiquitous in the atmospheres of Venus, ancient Earth, and Mars. There is now an evolving body of evidence suggesting that these aerosols have also played a role in the evolution of early life on Earth. However, the exact details of their formation mechanism remain an open question. The present theoretical calculations suggest a chemical mechanism that takes advantage of the interaction between sulfur oxides, SOn (n = 1, 2, 3) and hydrogen sulfide (nH2S), resulting in the efficient formation of a Sn+1 particle. Interestingly, the SOn + nH2S → Sn+1 + nH2O reactions occur via low-energy pathways under water or sulfuric acid catalysis. Once the Sn+1 particles are formed, they may further nucleate to form larger polysulfur aerosols, thus providing a chemical framework for understanding the formation mechanism of S0 aerosols in different environments.

  16. Customer-oriented Data Formats and Services for Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) Products at the NASA GES DISC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, H.; Kato, H.; Rodell, M.; Teng, W. L.; Vollmer, B. E.

    2008-12-01

    The Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) has been generating a series of land surface state (e.g., soil moisture and surface temperature) and flux (e.g., evaporation and sensible heat flux) products, simulated by four land surface models (CLM, Mosaic, Noah and VIC). These products are now accessible at the Hydrology Data and Information Services Center (HDISC), a component of the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC). Current GLDAS data hosted at HDISC include a set of 1.0° data products, covering 1979 to the present, from the four models and a 0.25° data product, covering 2000 to the present, from the Noah model. In addition to the basic anonymous ftp data downloading, users can avail themselves of several advanced data search and downloading services, such as Mirador and OPeNDAP. Mirador is a Google-based search tool that provides keywords searching, on-the-fly spatial and parameter subsetting of selected data. OPeNDAP (Open-source Project for a Network Data Access Protocol) enables remote OPeNDAP clients to access OPeNDAP served data regardless of local storage format. Additional data services to be available in the near future from HDISC include (1) on-the-fly converter of GLDAS to NetCDF and binary data formats; (2) temporal aggregation of GLDAS files; and (3) Giovanni, an online visualization and analysis tool that provides a simple way to visualize, analyze, and access vast amounts of data without having to download the data.

  17. Planetesimal formation during protoplanetary disk buildup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drążkowska, J.; Dullemond, C. P.

    2018-06-01

    Context. Models of dust coagulation and subsequent planetesimal formation are usually computed on the backdrop of an already fully formed protoplanetary disk model. At the same time, observational studies suggest that planetesimal formation should start early, possibly even before the protoplanetary disk is fully formed. Aims: In this paper we investigate under which conditions planetesimals already form during the disk buildup stage, in which gas and dust fall onto the disk from its parent molecular cloud. Methods: We couple our earlier planetesimal formation model at the water snow line to a simple model of disk formation and evolution. Results: We find that under most conditions planetesimals only form after the buildup stage, when the disk becomes less massive and less hot. However, there are parameters for which planetesimals already form during the disk buildup. This occurs when the viscosity driving the disk evolution is intermediate (αv 10-3-10-2) while the turbulent mixing of the dust is reduced compared to that (αt ≲ 10-4), and with the assumption that the water vapor is vertically well-mixed with the gas. Such a αt ≪ αv scenario could be expected for layered accretion, where the gas flow is mostly driven by the active surface layers, while the midplane layers, where most of the dust resides, are quiescent. Conclusions: In the standard picture where protoplanetary disk accretion is driven by global turbulence, we find that no planetesimals form during the disk buildup stage. Planetesimal formation during the buildup stage is only possible in scenarios in which pebbles reside in a quiescent midplane while the gas and water vapor are diffused at a higher rate.

  18. Web-based Altimeter Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callahan, P. S.; Wilson, B. D.; Xing, Z.; Raskin, R. G.

    2010-12-01

    We have developed a web-based system to allow updating and subsetting of TOPEX data. The Altimeter Service will be operated by PODAAC along with their other provision of oceanographic data. The Service could be easily expanded to other mission data. An Altimeter Service is crucial to the improvement and expanded use of altimeter data. A service is necessary for altimetry because the result of most interest - sea surface height anomaly (SSHA) - is composed of several components that are updated individually and irregularly by specialized experts. This makes it difficult for projects to provide the most up-to-date products. Some components are the subject of ongoing research, so the ability for investigators to make products for comparison or sharing is important. The service will allow investigators/producers to get their component models or processing into widespread use much more quickly. For coastal altimetry, the ability to subset the data to the area of interest and insert specialized models (e.g., tides) or data processing results is crucial. A key part of the Altimeter Service is having data producers provide updated or local models and data. In order for this to succeed, producers need to register their products with the Altimeter Service and to provide the product in a form consistent with the service update methods. We will describe the capabilities of the web service and the methods for providing new components. Currently the Service is providing TOPEX GDRs with Retracking (RGDRs) in netCDF format that has been coordinated with Jason data. Users can add new orbits, tide models, gridded geophysical fields such as mean sea surface, and along-track corrections as they become available and are installed by PODAAC. The updated fields are inserted into the netCDF files while the previous values are retained for comparison. The Service will also generate SSH and SSHA. In addition, the Service showcases a feature that plots any variable from files in netCDF. The

  19. Concomitant monitoring of implant formation and drug release of in situ forming poly (lactide-co-glycolide acid) implants in a hydrogel matrix mimicking the subcutis using UV-vis imaging.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yu; Jensen, Henrik; Petersen, Nickolaj J; Larsen, Susan W; Østergaard, Jesper

    2018-02-20

    For poly (lactide-co-glycolide acid) (PLGA)-based in situ forming implants, the rate of implant formation plays an important role in determining the overall drug release kinetics. Currently, in vitro techniques capable of characterizing the processes of drug release and implant formation at the same time are not available. A hydrogel-based in vitro experimental setup was recently developed requiring only microliter of formulation and forming a closed system potentially suitable for interfacing with various spectroscopic techniques. The aim of the present proof-of-concept study was to investigate the feasibility of concomitant UV imaging, Vis imaging and light microscopy for detailed characterization of the behavior of in situ forming PLGA implants in the hydrogel matrix mimicking the subcutis. The model compounds, piroxicam and α-lactalbumin were added to PLGA-1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone and PLGA-triacetin solutions. Upon bringing the PLGA-solvent-compound pre-formulation in contact with the hydrogel, Vis imaging and light microscopy were applied to visualize the depot formation and UV imaging was used to quantify drug transport in the hydrogel. As compared to piroxicam, the α-lactalbumin invoked an acceleration of phase separation and an increase of implant size. α-Lactalbumin was released faster from the PLGA-1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone system than the PLGA-triacetin system opposite to the piroxicam release pattern. A linear relationship between the rate of implant formation and initial compound release within the first 4h was established for the PLGA-NMP systems. This implies that phase separation may be one of the controlling factors in drug release. The rate of implant formation may be an important parameter for predicting and tailoring drug release. The approach combining UV imaging, Vis imaging and light microscopy may facilitate understanding of release processes and holds potential for becoming a useful tool in formulation development of in situ forming

  20. A proposed-standard format to represent and distribute tomographic models and other earth spatial data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Postpischl, L.; Morelli, A.; Danecek, P.

    2009-04-01

    ) computational meshes. This approach can exploit the capabilities of the web browser as a computing platform: a series of in-page quick tools for comparative analysis between models will be presented, as well as visualisation techniques for tomographic layers in Google Maps and Google Earth. We are working on tools for conversion into common scientific format like netCDF, to allow easy visualisation in GEON-IDV or gmt.

  1. Planet Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podolak, Morris

    2018-04-01

    Modern observational techniques are still not powerful enough to directly view planet formation, and so it is necessary to rely on theory. However, observations do give two important clues to the formation process. The first is that the most primitive form of material in interstellar space exists as a dilute gas. Some of this gas is unstable against gravitational collapse, and begins to contract. Because the angular momentum of the gas is not zero, it contracts along the spin axis, but remains extended in the plane perpendicular to that axis, so that a disk is formed. Viscous processes in the disk carry most of the mass into the center where a star eventually forms. In the process, almost as a by-product, a planetary system is formed as well. The second clue is the time required. Young stars are indeed observed to have gas disks, composed mostly of hydrogen and helium, surrounding them, and observations tell us that these disks dissipate after about 5 to 10 million years. If planets like Jupiter and Saturn, which are very rich in hydrogen and helium, are to form in such a disk, they must accrete their gas within 5 million years of the time of the formation of the disk. Any formation scenario one proposes must produce Jupiter in that time, although the terrestrial planets, which don't contain significant amounts of hydrogen and helium, could have taken longer to build. Modern estimates for the formation time of the Earth are of the order of 100 million years. To date there are two main candidate theories for producing Jupiter-like planets. The core accretion (CA) scenario supposes that any solid materials in the disk slowly coagulate into protoplanetary cores with progressively larger masses. If the core remains small enough it won't have a strong enough gravitational force to attract gas from the surrounding disk, and the result will be a terrestrial planet. If the core grows large enough (of the order of ten Earth masses), and the disk has not yet dissipated, then

  2. Silicide formation process of Pt added Ni at low temperature: Control of NiSi2 formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikarashi, Nobuyuki; Masuzaki, Koji

    2011-03-01

    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and ab initio calculations revealed that the Ni-Si reaction around 300 °C is significantly changed by adding Pt to Ni. TEM analysis clarified that NiSi2 was formed in a reaction between Ni thin film (˜1 nm) and Si substrate, while NiSi was formed when Pt was added to the Ni film. We also found that the Ni-adamantane structure, which acts as a precursor for NiSi2 formation around the reaction temperature, was formed in the former reaction but was significantly suppressed in the latter reaction. Theoretical calculations indicated that Pt addition increased stress at the Ni-adamantane structure/Si-substrate interface. The increase in interface stress caused by Pt addition should raise the interface energy to suppress the Ni-adamantane structure formation, leading to NiSi2 formation being suppressed.

  3. Dioxin formation from waste incineration.

    PubMed

    Shibamoto, Takayuki; Yasuhara, Akio; Katami, Takeo

    2007-01-01

    There has been great concern about dioxins-polychlorinated dibenzo dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzo furans (PCDFs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)-causing contamination in the environment because the adverse effects of these chemicals on human health have been known for many years. Possible dioxin-contamination has received much attention recently not only by environmental scientists but also by the public, because dioxins are known to be formed during the combustion of industrial and domestic wastes and to escape into the environment via exhaust gases from incinerators. Consequently, there is a pressing need to investigate the formation mechanisms or reaction pathways of these chlorinated chemicals to be able to devise ways to reduce their environmental contamination. A well-controlled small-scale incinerator was used for the experiments in the core references of this review. These articles report the investigation of dioxin formation from the combustion of various waste-simulated samples, including different kinds of paper, various kinds of wood, fallen leaves, food samples, polyethylene (PE), polystyrene (PS), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polyvinylidene chloride, polyethylene tetraphthalate (PET), and various kinds of plastic products. These samples were also incinerated with inorganic chlorides (NaCl, KCl, CuCI2, MgCl2, MnCl2, FeCl2, CoCl2, fly ash, and seawater) or organic chlorides (PVC, chlordane, and pentachlorophenol) to investigate the role of chlorine content and/or the presence of different metals in dioxin formation. Some samples, such as newspapers, were burned after they were impregnated with NaCl or PVC, as well as being cocombusted with chlorides. The roles of incineration conditions, including chamber temperatures, O2 concentrations, and CO concentrations, in dioxin formation were also investigated. Dioxins (PCDDs, PCDFs, and coplanar-PCBs) formed in the exhaust gases from a controlled small-scale incinerator, where experimental waste

  4. 7 CFR 1755.407 - Data formats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Data formats. 1755.407 Section 1755.407 Agriculture... TELECOMMUNICATIONS POLICIES ON SPECIFICATIONS, ACCEPTABLE MATERIALS, AND STANDARD CONTRACT FORMS § 1755.407 Data formats. The following suggested formats listed in this section may be used for recording the test data...

  5. 7 CFR 1755.407 - Data formats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Data formats. 1755.407 Section 1755.407 Agriculture... TELECOMMUNICATIONS POLICIES ON SPECIFICATIONS, ACCEPTABLE MATERIALS, AND STANDARD CONTRACT FORMS § 1755.407 Data formats. The following suggested formats listed in this section may be used for recording the test data...

  6. 7 CFR 1755.407 - Data formats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Data formats. 1755.407 Section 1755.407 Agriculture... TELECOMMUNICATIONS POLICIES ON SPECIFICATIONS, ACCEPTABLE MATERIALS, AND STANDARD CONTRACT FORMS § 1755.407 Data formats. The following suggested formats listed in this section may be used for recording the test data...

  7. 7 CFR 1755.407 - Data formats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Data formats. 1755.407 Section 1755.407 Agriculture... TELECOMMUNICATIONS POLICIES ON SPECIFICATIONS, ACCEPTABLE MATERIALS, AND STANDARD CONTRACT FORMS § 1755.407 Data formats. The following suggested formats listed in this section may be used for recording the test data...

  8. 7 CFR 1755.407 - Data formats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Data formats. 1755.407 Section 1755.407 Agriculture... TELECOMMUNICATIONS POLICIES ON SPECIFICATIONS, ACCEPTABLE MATERIALS, AND STANDARD CONTRACT FORMS § 1755.407 Data formats. The following suggested formats listed in this section may be used for recording the test data...

  9. Minocycline Inhibits Candida albicans Budded-to-Hyphal-Form Transition and Biofilm Formation.

    PubMed

    Kurakado, Sanae; Takatori, Kazuhiko; Sugita, Takashi

    2017-09-25

    Candida albicans frequently causes bloodstream infections; its budded-to-hyphalform transition (BHT) and biofilm formation are major contributors to virulence. During an analysis of antibacterial compounds that inhibit C. albicans BHT, we found that the tetracycline derivative minocycline inhibited BHT and subsequent biofilm formation. Minocycline decreased expression of hypha-specific genes HWP1 and ECE1, and adhesion factor gene ALS3 of C. albicans. In addition, minocycline decreased cell surface hydrophobicity and the extracellular β-glucan level in biofilms. Minocycline has been widely used for catheter antibiotic lock therapy to prevent bacterial infection; this compound may also be prophylactically effective against Candida infection.

  10. Requirements for Hirano Body Formation

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, Paul; Piggott, Cleveland; Maselli, Andrew; Fechheimer, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    Hirano bodies are paracrystalline F-actin-rich structures associated with diverse conditions, including neurodegeneration and aging. Generation of model Hirano bodies using altered forms of Dictyostelium 34-kDa actin-bundling protein allows studies of their physiological function and mechanism of formation. We describe a novel 34-kDa protein mutant, E60K, with a point mutation within the inhibitory domain of the 34-kDa protein. Expression of E60K in Dictyostelium induces the formation of model Hirano bodies. The E60K protein has activated actin binding and is calcium regulated, unlike other forms of the 34-kDa protein that induce Hirano bodies and that have activated actin binding but lack calcium regulation. Actin filaments in the presence of E60K in vitro show enhanced resistance to disassembly induced by latrunculin B. Actin filaments in model Hirano bodies are also protected from latrunculin-induced depolymerization. We used nocodazole and blebbistatin to probe the role of the microtubules and myosin II, respectively, in the formation of model Hirano bodies. In the presence of these inhibitors, model Hirano bodies can form but are smaller than controls at early times of formation. The ultrastructure of model Hirano bodies did not reveal any major difference in structure and organization in the presence of inhibitors. In summary, these results support the conclusion that formation of model Hirano bodies is promoted by gain-of-function actin filament bundling, which enhances actin filament stabilization. Microtubules and myosin II contribute to but are not required for formation of model Hirano bodies. PMID:24632241

  11. Method for forming an in situ oil shale retort with horizontal free faces

    DOEpatents

    Ricketts, Thomas E.; Fernandes, Robert J.

    1983-01-01

    A method for forming a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles in an in situ oil shale retort is provided. A horizontally extending void is excavated in unfragmented formation containing oil shale and a zone of unfragmented formation is left adjacent the void. An array of explosive charges is formed in the zone of unfragmented formation. The array of explosive charges comprises rows of central explosive charges surrounded by a band of outer explosive charges which are adjacent side boundaries of the retort being formed. The powder factor of each outer explosive charge is made about equal to the powder factor of each central explosive charge. The explosive charges are detonated for explosively expanding the zone of unfragmented formation toward the void for forming the fragmented permeable mass of formation particles having a reasonably uniformly distributed void fraction in the in situ oil shale retort.

  12. 11 CFR 104.2 - Forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... committee may use, for reporting purposes, computer produced schedules of itemized receipts and... proposed format with its request for approval. (e) The following forms shall be used by the indicated type...

  13. "Learning Landscapes": A Form of Formative Assessment Supporting Assessment without Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathews, Brian

    2017-01-01

    "Learning Landscapes" are assessment tools that can be used formatively to map progress in specific skills in the classroom and can contribute to learning without levels. "Learning Landscapes" can help both teachers and students recognise specific aspects of behaviour linked to a specific skill that provide evidence of their…

  14. Display formats manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Runnels, R. L.

    1973-01-01

    The standards and procedures for the generation of operational display formats to be used in the Mission Control Center (MCC) display control system are presented. The required effort, forms, and fundamentals for the design, specifications, and production of display formats are identified. The principles of display design and system constraints controlling the creation of optimum operational displays for mission control are explained. The basic two types of MCC display systems for presenting information are described.

  15. The VMC Survey. XXII. Hierarchical Star Formation in the 30 Doradus-N158-N159-N160 Star-forming Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Ning-Chen; de Grijs, Richard; Subramanian, Smitha; Cioni, Maria-Rosa L.; Rubele, Stefano; Bekki, Kenji; Ivanov, Valentin D.; Piatti, Andrés E.; Ripepi, Vincenzo

    2017-02-01

    We study the hierarchical stellar structures in a ˜1.5 deg2 area covering the 30 Doradus-N158-N159-N160 star-forming complex with the VISTA Survey of Magellanic Clouds. Based on the young upper main-sequence stars, we find that the surface densities cover a wide range of values, from log({{Σ }}\\cdot pc2) ≲ -2.0 to log({{Σ }}\\cdot pc2) ≳ 0.0. Their distributions are highly non-uniform, showing groups that frequently have subgroups inside. The sizes of the stellar groups do not exhibit characteristic values, and range continuously from several parsecs to more than 100 pc the cumulative size distribution can be well described by a single power law, with the power-law index indicating a projected fractal dimension D2 = 1.6 ± 0.3. We suggest that the phenomena revealed here support a scenario of hierarchical star formation. Comparisons with other star-forming regions and galaxies are also discussed.

  16. Method for laser drilling subterranean earth formations

    DOEpatents

    Shuck, Lowell Z.

    1976-08-31

    Laser drilling of subterranean earth formations is efficiently accomplished by directing a collimated laser beam into a bore hole in registry with the earth formation and transversely directing the laser beam into the earth formation with a suitable reflector. In accordance with the present invention, the bore hole is highly pressurized with a gas so that as the laser beam penetrates the earth formation the high pressure gas forces the fluids resulting from the drilling operation into fissures and pores surrounding the laser-drilled bore so as to inhibit deleterious occlusion of the laser beam. Also, the laser beam may be dynamically programmed with some time dependent wave form, e.g., pulsed, to thermally shock the earth formation for forming or enlarging fluid-receiving fissures in the bore.

  17. Liposome formation in microgravity.

    PubMed

    Claassen, D E; Spooner, B S

    1996-01-01

    Liposomes are artificial vesicles with a phospholipid bilayer membrane. The formation of liposomes is a self-assembly process that is driven by the amphipathic nature of phospholipid molecules and can be observed during the removal of detergent from phospholipids dissolved in detergent micelles. As detergent concentration in the mixed micelles decreases, the non-polar tail regions of phospholipids produce a hydrophobic effect that drives the micelles to fuse and form planar bilayers in which phospholipids orient with tail regions to the center of the bilayer and polar head regions to the external surface. Remaining detergent molecules shield exposed edges of the bilayer sheet from the aqueous environment. Further removal of detergent leads to intramembrane folding and membrane folding and membrane vesiculation, forming liposomes. We have observed that the formation of liposomes is altered in microgravity. Liposomes that were formed at 1-g did not exceed 150 nm in diameter, whereas liposomes that were formed during spaceflight exhibited diameters up to 2000 nm. Using detergent-stabilized planar bilayers, we determined that the stage of liposome formation most influenced by gravity is membrane vesiculation. In addition, we found that small, equipment-induced fluid disturbances increased vesiculation and negated the size-enhancing effects of microgravity. However, these small disturbances had no effect on liposome size at 1-g, likely due to the presence of gravity-induced buoyancy-driven fluid flows (e.g., convection currents). Our results indicate that fluid disturbances, induced by gravity, influence the vesiculation of membranes and limit the diameter of forming liposomes.

  18. Liposome formation in microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claassen, D. E.; Spooner, B. S.

    Liposomes are artificial vesicles with a phospholipid bilayer membrane. The formation of liposomes is a self-assembly process that is driven by the amphipathic nature of phospholipid molecules and can be observed during the removal of detergent from phospholipids dissolved in detergent micelles. As detergent concentration in the mixed micelles decreases, the non-polar tail regions of phospholipids produce a hydrophobic effect that drives the micelles to fuse and form planar bilayers in which phospholipids orient with tail regions to the center of the bilayer and polar head regions to the external surface. Remaining detergent molecules shield exposed edges of the bilayer sheet from the aqueous environment. Further removal of detergent leads to intramembrane folding and membrane vesiculation, forming liposomes. We have observed that the formation of liposomes is altered in microgravity. Liposomes that were formed at 1-g did not exceed 150 nm in diameter, whereas liposomes that were formed during spaceflight exhibited diameters up to 2000 nm. Using detergent-stabilized planar bilayers, we determined that the stage of liposome formation most influenced by gravity is membrane vesiculation. In addition, we found that small, equipment-induced fluid disturbances increased vesiculation and negated the size-enhancing effects of microgravity. However, these small disturbances had no effect on liposome size at 1-g, likely due to the presence of gravity-induced buoyancy-driven fluid flows (e.g., convection currents). Our results indicate that fluid disturbances, induced by gravity, influence the vesiculation of membranes and limit the diameter of forming liposomes.

  19. Amorphous layer formation in Al86.0Co7.6Ce6.4 glass-forming alloy by large-area electron beam irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, C. L.; Murray, J. W.; Voisey, K. T.; Clare, A. T.; McCartney, D. G.

    2013-09-01

    Amorphous Al-Co-Ce alloys are of interest because of their resistance to corrosion, but high cooling rates are generally required to suppress the formation of crystalline phases. In this study, the surface of a bulk crystalline Al-Co-Ce alloy of a glass-forming composition was treated using large area electron beam (LAEB) irradiation. Scanning electron microscopy shows that, compared to the microstructure of the original crystalline material, the treated surface exhibits greatly improved microstructural and compositional uniformity. Glancing angle X-ray diffraction conducted on the surface of treated samples indicates the formation of the amorphous phase following 25 and 50 pulses at 35 kV cathode voltage. However, when the samples are treated with 100 and 150 pulses at 35 kV cathode voltage of electron beam irradiation, the treated layer comprises localised crystalline regions in an amorphous matrix. In addition, the formation of cracks in the treated layer is found to be localised around the Al8Co2Ce phase in the bulk material. Overall, crack length per unit area had no clear change with an increase in the number of pulses.

  20. Tracing the Fuel for Forming Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-11-01

    Huge reservoirs of cold hydrogen gas the raw fuel for star formation lurk in galaxies throughout the universe. A new study examines whether these reservoirs have always been similar, or whether those in distant galaxies are very different from those in local galaxies today.Left: Optical SLOAN images of the five HIGHz galaxies in this study. Right: ALMA images of the molecular gas in these galaxies. Both images are 30 wide. [Adapted from Cortese et al. 2017]Molecular or Atomic?The formation of stars is a crucial process that determines how galaxies are built and evolve over time. Weve observed that star formation takes place in cold clouds of molecular gas, and that star-formation rates increase in galaxies with a larger surface density of molecular hydrogen so we know that molecular hydrogen feeds the star-forming process.But not all cold gas in the interstellar medium of galaxies exists in molecular form. In the local universe, only around 30% of cold gas is found in molecular form (H2) and able to directly feed star formation; the rest is atomic hydrogen (H I). But is this true of galaxies earlier in the universe as well?Studying Distant GalaxiesCosmological simulations have predicted that earlier in our universes history, the ratio of molecular to atomic hydrogen could be larger i.e., more cold hydrogen may be in a form ready to fuel star formation but this prediction is difficult to test observationally. Currently, radio telescopes are not able to measure the atomic hydrogen in very distant galaxies, such as those at the peak of star formation in the universe, 10 billion years ago.Recently, however, we have measured atomic hydrogen in closer galaxies: those at a redshift of about z 0.20.4, a few billion years ago. One recent study of seven galaxies at this distance, usinga sample from a survey known as COOL BUDHIES, showed that the hydrogen reservoirs of these galaxies are dominated by molecular hydrogen, unlike in the local universe. If this is true of most

  1. Obtaining and processing Daymet data using Python and ArcGIS

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bohms, Stefanie

    2013-01-01

    This set of scripts was developed to automate the process of downloading and mosaicking daily Daymet data to a user defined extent using ArcGIS and Python programming language. The three steps are downloading the needed Daymet tiles for the study area extent, converting the netcdf file to a tif raster format, and mosaicking those rasters to one file. The set of scripts is intended for all levels of experience with Python programming language and requires no scripting by the user.

  2. In vitro characterization of biofilms formed by Kingella kingae.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, J B; Sampathkumar, V; Bendaoud, M; Giannakakis, A K; Lally, E T; Balashova, N V

    2017-08-01

    The Gram-negative bacterium Kingella kingae is part of the normal oropharyngeal mucosal flora of children <4 years old. K. kingae can enter the submucosa and cause infections of the skeletal system in children, including septic arthritis and osteomyelitis. The organism is also associated with infective endocarditis in children and adults. Although biofilm formation has been coupled with pharyngeal colonization, osteoarticular infections, and infective endocarditis, no studies have investigated biofilm formation in K. kingae. In this study we measured biofilm formation by 79 K. kingae clinical isolates using a 96-well microtiter plate crystal violet binding assay. We found that 37 of 79 strains (47%) formed biofilms. All strains that formed biofilms produced corroding colonies on agar. Biofilm formation was inhibited by proteinase K and DNase I. DNase I also caused the detachment of pre-formed K. kingae biofilm colonies. A mutant strain carrying a deletion of the pilus gene cluster pilA1pilA2fimB did not produce corroding colonies on agar, autoaggregate in broth, or form biofilms. Biofilm forming strains have higher levels of pilA1 expression. The extracellular components of biofilms contained 490 μg cm -2 of protein, 0.68 μg cm -2 of DNA, and 0.4 μg cm -2 of total carbohydrates. We concluded that biofilm formation is common among K. kingae clinical isolates, and that biofilm formation is dependent on the production of proteinaceous pili and extracellular DNA. Biofilm development may have relevance to the colonization, transmission, and pathogenesis of this bacterium. Extracellular DNA production by K. kingae may facilitate horizontal gene transfer within the oral microbial community. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Pyruvate formate-lyase interacts directly with the formate channel FocA to regulate formate translocation.

    PubMed

    Doberenz, Claudia; Zorn, Michael; Falke, Dörte; Nannemann, David; Hunger, Doreen; Beyer, Lydia; Ihling, Christian H; Meiler, Jens; Sinz, Andrea; Sawers, R Gary

    2014-07-29

    The FNT (formate-nitrite transporters) form a superfamily of pentameric membrane channels that translocate monovalent anions across biological membranes. FocA (formate channel A) translocates formate bidirectionally but the mechanism underlying how translocation of formate is controlled and what governs substrate specificity remains unclear. Here we demonstrate that the normally soluble dimeric enzyme pyruvate formate-lyase (PflB), which is responsible for intracellular formate generation in enterobacteria and other microbes, interacts specifically with FocA. Association of PflB with the cytoplasmic membrane was shown to be FocA dependent and purified, Strep-tagged FocA specifically retrieved PflB from Escherichia coli crude extracts. Using a bacterial two-hybrid system, it could be shown that the N-terminus of FocA and the central domain of PflB were involved in the interaction. This finding was confirmed by chemical cross-linking experiments. Using constraints imposed by the amino acid residues identified in the cross-linking study, we provide for the first time a model for the FocA-PflB complex. The model suggests that the N-terminus of FocA is important for interaction with PflB. An in vivo assay developed to monitor changes in formate levels in the cytoplasm revealed the importance of the interaction with PflB for optimal translocation of formate by FocA. This system represents a paradigm for the control of activity of FNT channel proteins. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Space-based Observations of Star Formation using ORION: THE MIDEX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scowen, P.; Morse, J.; Beasley, M.; Hester, J.; Windhorst, R.; Jansen, R.; Lauer, T.; Danielson, E.; Sepulveda, C.; Olarte, G.; ORION MIDEX Science Team

    2003-12-01

    The ORION MIDEX mission is a 1.2m UV-visual observatory orbiting at L2 that will conduct the first-ever high spatial resolution survey of a statistically significant sample of visible star-forming environments in the Solar neighborhood in emission lines and continuum. This survey will be used to characterize the star and planet forming environments within 2.5 kpc of the Sun, infer global properties and star formation history in these regions, understand how the environment influences the process of star and planet formation, and develop a classification scheme for star forming regions incorporating the earlier results. Based on these findings we will then conduct a similar high spatial resolution survey of large portions of the Magellanic Clouds, applying the classification scheme from local star forming environments to analogous regions in nearby galaxies, extending the classification scheme to regions that do not have nearby analogs but are common in external galaxies. The results from the local survey will allow us to infer characteristics of low mass star forming environments in the Magellanic Clouds, study the spatial distribution of star forming environments and analyze stellar population photometry to trace star formation history. Finally we will image a representative sample of external galaxies using the same filters used to characterize nearby star formation regions. We will map the distribution of star forming region type as a function of galactic environment for galaxies out to 5 Mpc to infer the distribution and history of low-mass star formation over galactic scales, characterize the stellar content and star formation history of galaxies, and relate these results to the current star forming environments in these galaxies. Ultimately we intend to use these diagnostics to extrapolate to star formation environments in the higher redshift Universe. We will also present details on technology development, project planning and operations for the proposed

  5. Search of massive star formation with COMICS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamoto, Yoshiko K.

    2004-04-01

    Mid-infrared observations is useful for studies of massive star formation. Especially COMICS offers powerful tools: imaging survey of the circumstellar structures of forming massive stars such as massive disks and cavity structures, mass estimate from spectroscopy of fine structure lines, and high dispersion spectroscopy to census gas motion around formed stars. COMICS will open the next generation infrared studies of massive star formation.

  6. Parallax Player: a stereoscopic format converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldman, Mark H.; Lipton, Lenny

    2003-05-01

    The Parallax Player is a software application that is, in essence, a stereoscopic format converter. Various formats may be inputted and outputted. In addition to being able to take any one of a wide variety of different formats and play them back on many different kinds of PCs and display screens. The Parallax Player has built into it the capability to produce ersatz stereo from a planar still or movie image. The player handles two basic forms of digital content - still images, and movies. It is assumed that all data is digital, either created by means of a photographic film process and later digitized, or directly captured or authored in a digital form. In its current implementation, running on a number of Windows Operating Systems, The Parallax Player reads in a broad selection of contemporary file formats.

  7. Measuring star formation rates in blue galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallagher, John S., III; Hunter, Deidre A.

    1987-01-01

    The problems associated with measurements of star formation rates in galaxies are briefly reviewed, and specific models are presented for determinations of current star formation rates from H alpha and Far Infrared (FIR) luminosities. The models are applied to a sample of optically blue irregular galaxies, and the results are discussed in terms of star forming histories. It appears likely that typical irregular galaxies are forming stars at nearly constant rates, although a few examples of systems with enhanced star forming activity are found among HII regions and luminous irregular galaxies.

  8. Rapid gas hydrate formation process

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Thomas D.; Taylor, Charles E.; Unione, Alfred J.

    2013-01-15

    The disclosure provides a method and apparatus for forming gas hydrates from a two-phase mixture of water and a hydrate forming gas. The two-phase mixture is created in a mixing zone which may be wholly included within the body of a spray nozzle. The two-phase mixture is subsequently sprayed into a reaction zone, where the reaction zone is under pressure and temperature conditions suitable for formation of the gas hydrate. The reaction zone pressure is less than the mixing zone pressure so that expansion of the hydrate-forming gas in the mixture provides a degree of cooling by the Joule-Thompson effect and provides more intimate mixing between the water and the hydrate-forming gas. The result of the process is the formation of gas hydrates continuously and with a greatly reduced induction time. An apparatus for conduct of the method is further provided.

  9. Star formation inside a galactic outflow.

    PubMed

    Maiolino, R; Russell, H R; Fabian, A C; Carniani, S; Gallagher, R; Cazzoli, S; Arribas, S; Belfiore, F; Bellocchi, E; Colina, L; Cresci, G; Ishibashi, W; Marconi, A; Mannucci, F; Oliva, E; Sturm, E

    2017-04-13

    Recent observations have revealed massive galactic molecular outflows that may have the physical conditions (high gas densities) required to form stars. Indeed, several recent models predict that such massive outflows may ignite star formation within the outflow itself. This star-formation mode, in which stars form with high radial velocities, could contribute to the morphological evolution of galaxies, to the evolution in size and velocity dispersion of the spheroidal component of galaxies, and would contribute to the population of high-velocity stars, which could even escape the galaxy. Such star formation could provide in situ chemical enrichment of the circumgalactic and intergalactic medium (through supernova explosions of young stars on large orbits), and some models also predict it to contribute substantially to the star-formation rate observed in distant galaxies. Although there exists observational evidence for star formation triggered by outflows or jets into their host galaxy, as a consequence of gas compression, evidence for star formation occurring within galactic outflows is still missing. Here we report spectroscopic observations that unambiguously reveal star formation occurring in a galactic outflow at a redshift of 0.0448. The inferred star-formation rate in the outflow is larger than 15 solar masses per year. Star formation may also be occurring in other galactic outflows, but may have been missed by previous observations owing to the lack of adequate diagnostics.

  10. Chaetomium thermophilum formate dehydrogenase has high activity in the reduction of hydrogen carbonate (HCO3 -) to formate.

    PubMed

    Aslan, Aşkın Sevinç; Valjakka, Jarkko; Ruupunen, Jouni; Yildirim, Deniz; Turner, Nicholas J; Turunen, Ossi; Binay, Barış

    2017-01-01

    While formate dehydrogenases (FDHs) have been used for cofactor recycling in chemoenzymatic synthesis, the ability of FDH to reduce CO 2 could also be utilized in the conversion of CO 2 to useful products via formate (HCOO - ). In this study, we investigated the reduction of CO 2 in the form of hydrogen carbonate (HCO 3 - ) to formate by FDHs from Candida methylica (CmFDH) and Chaetomium thermophilum (CtFDH) in a NADH-dependent reaction. The catalytic performance with HCO 3 - as a substrate was evaluated by measuring the kinetic rates and conducting productivity assays. CtFDH showed a higher efficiency in converting HCO 3 - to formate than CmFDH, whereas CmFDH was better in the oxidation of formate. The pH optimum of the reduction was at pH 7-8. However, the high concentrations of HCO 3 - reduced the reaction rate. CtFDH was modeled in the presence of HCO 3 - showing that it fits to the active site. The active site setting for hydride transfer in CO 2 reduction was modeled. The hydride donated by NADH would form a favorable contact to the carbon atom of HCO 3 - , resulting in a surplus of electrons within the molecule. This would cause the complex formed by hydrogen carbonate and the hydride to break into formate and hydroxide ions. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Mesoarchean Banded Iron Formation sequences in Dixon Island-Cleaverville Formation, Pilbara Australia: Oxygenic signal from DXCL project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiyokawa, S.; Ito, T.; Ikehara, M.; Yamaguchi, K. E.; Naraoka, H.; Onoue, T.; Horie, K.; Sakamoto, R.; Aihara, Y.; Miki, T.

    2013-12-01

    The 3.2-3.1 Ga Dixon island-Cleaverville formations are well-preserved Banded Iron Formation (BIF) within hydrothermal oceanic sequence at oceanic island arc setting (Kiyokawa et al., 2002, 2006, 2012). The stratigraphy of the Dixon Island (3195+15Ma) -Cleaverville (3108+13Ma) formations shows the well preserved environmental condition at the Mesoarchean ocean floor. The stratigraphy of these formations are formed about volcano-sedimentary sequences with hydrothermal chert, black shale and banded iron formation to the top. Based on the scientific drilling of DXCL project at 2007 and 2011, detail lithology between BIF sequence was clearly understood. Four drilling holes had been done at coastal sites; the Dixon Island Formation is DX site (100m) and the Cleaverville Formation is CL2 (40m), CL1 (60m) and CL3 (200m) sites and from stratigraphic bottom to top. Coarsening and thickening upward black shale-BIF sequences are well preserved of the stratigraphy form the core samples. The Dixon Island Formation consists komatiite-rhyolite sequences with many hydrothermal veins and very fine laminated cherty rocks above them. The Cleaverville Formation contains black shale, fragments-bearing pyroclastic beds, white chert, greenish shale and BIF. The CL3 core, which drilled through BIF, shows siderite-chert beds above black shale identified before magnetite lamination bed. U-Pb SHRIMP data of the tuff in lower Dixon Island Formation is 3195+15 Ma and the pyroclastic sequence below the Cleaverville BIF is 3108+13 Ma. Sedimentation rate of these sequence is 2-8 cm/ 1000year. The hole section of the organic carbon rich black shales below BIF are similar amount of organic content and 13C isotope (around -30per mill). There are very weak sulfur MIF signal (less 0.2%) in these black shale sequence. Our result show that thick organic rich sediments may be triggered to form iron rich siderite and magnetite iron beds. The stratigraphy in this sequence quite resemble to other Iron

  12. Web mapping system for complex processing and visualization of environmental geospatial datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titov, Alexander; Gordov, Evgeny; Okladnikov, Igor

    2016-04-01

    metadata, task XML object, and WMS/WFS cartographical services interconnects metadata and GUI tiers. The methods include such procedures as JSON metadata downloading and update, launching and tracking of the calculation task running on the remote servers as well as working with WMS/WFS cartographical services including: obtaining the list of available layers, visualizing layers on the map, exporting layers in graphical (PNG, JPG, GeoTIFF), vector (KML, GML, Shape) and digital (NetCDF) formats. Graphical user interface tier is based on the bundle of JavaScript libraries (OpenLayers, GeoExt and ExtJS) and represents a set of software components implementing web mapping application business logic (complex menus, toolbars, wizards, event handlers, etc.). GUI provides two basic capabilities for the end user: configuring the task XML object functionality and cartographical information visualizing. The web interface developed is similar to the interface of such popular desktop GIS applications, as uDIG, QuantumGIS etc. Web mapping system developed has shown its effectiveness in the process of solving real climate change research problems and disseminating investigation results in cartographical form. The work is supported by SB RAS Basic Program Projects VIII.80.2.1 and IV.38.1.7.

  13. Form Subdivisions: Their Identification and Use in LCSH.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Edward T.; Chan, Lois Mai; Childress, Eric; Dean, Rebecca; El-Hoshy, Lynn M.; Vizine-Goetz, Diane

    2001-01-01

    Discusses form subdivisions as part of Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) and the MARC format, which did not have a separate subfield code to identify form subdivisions. Describes the development of an algorithm to identify form subdivisions and reports results of an evaluation of the algorithm. (LRW)

  14. Galaxy Zoo: star formation versus spiral arm number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, Ross E.; Bamford, Steven P.; Casteels, Kevin R. V.; Kruk, Sandor J.; Lintott, Chris J.; Masters, Karen L.

    2017-06-01

    Spiral arms are common features in low-redshift disc galaxies, and are prominent sites of star formation and dust obscuration. However, spiral structure can take many forms: from galaxies displaying two strong 'grand design' arms to those with many 'flocculent' arms. We investigate how these different arm types are related to a galaxy's star formation and gas properties by making use of visual spiral arm number measurements from Galaxy Zoo 2. We combine ultraviolet and mid-infrared (MIR) photometry from GALEX and WISE to measure the rates and relative fractions of obscured and unobscured star formation in a sample of low-redshift SDSS spirals. Total star formation rate has little dependence on spiral arm multiplicity, but two-armed spirals convert their gas to stars more efficiently. We find significant differences in the fraction of obscured star formation: an additional ˜10 per cent of star formation in two-armed galaxies is identified via MIR dust emission, compared to that in many-armed galaxies. The latter are also significantly offset below the IRX-β relation for low-redshift star-forming galaxies. We present several explanations for these differences versus arm number: variations in the spatial distribution, sizes or clearing time-scales of star-forming regions (I.e. molecular clouds), or contrasting recent star formation histories.

  15. Robotics as science (re)form: Exploring power, learning and gender(ed) identity formation in a "community of practice"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurner, Sheryl Marie

    "Robotics as Science (re)Form" utilizes qualitative research methods to examine the career trajectories and gender identity formation of female youth participating as members of an all-girl, academic team within the male-dominated environment of the FIRST Robotics competition. Following the constant comparative approach (Glaser & Strauss, 1967), my project relies upon triangulating ethnographic data drawn from extensive field notes, semi-structured interviews, and digital and video imagery compiled over two years of participant observation. Drawing upon the sociolinguistic "community of practice" (CoP) framework (Eckert & McConnell-Ginet, 1992; Lave & Wenger, 1991; Wenger, 1998), this study maps the range of gendered "identities" available to girls involved in non-traditional academic and occupational pursuits within a local context, and reveals the nature, structure and impact of power operating within this CoP, a significantly underdeveloped construct within the language and gender literature. These research findings (1) contribute to refining theories of situated or problem based learning with a focus on female youth (Lave & Wenger, 1991; Wenger, 1998); (2) reveal affordances and barriers within the local program design that enable (and preclude) women and minority youth entering the engineering pipeline; and (3) enrich our understanding of intragroup language and gendered "practices" to counter largely essentializing generalizations based upon quantitative analysis. Keywords: Robotics, gender, identity formation, science, STEM, communities of practice

  16. PHIBSS: MOLECULAR GAS, EXTINCTION, STAR FORMATION, AND KINEMATICS IN THE z = 1.5 STAR-FORMING GALAXY EGS13011166

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Genzel, R.; Tacconi, L. J.; Kurk, J.

    We report matched resolution imaging spectroscopy of the CO 3-2 line (with the IRAM Plateau de Bure millimeter interferometer) and of the H{alpha} line (with LUCI at the Large Binocular Telescope) in the massive z = 1.53 main-sequence galaxy EGS 13011166, as part of the ''Plateau de Bure high-z, blue-sequence survey'' (PHIBSS: Tacconi et al.). We combine these data with Hubble Space Telescope V-I-J-H-band maps to derive spatially resolved distributions of stellar surface density, star formation rate, molecular gas surface density, optical extinction, and gas kinematics. The spatial distribution and kinematics of the ionized and molecular gas are remarkably similarmore » and are well modeled by a turbulent, globally Toomre unstable, rotating disk. The stellar surface density distribution is smoother than the clumpy rest-frame UV/optical light distribution and peaks in an obscured, star-forming massive bulge near the dynamical center. The molecular gas surface density and the effective optical screen extinction track each other and are well modeled by a ''mixed'' extinction model. The inferred slope of the spatially resolved molecular gas to star formation rate relation, N = dlog{Sigma}{sub starform}/dlog{Sigma}{sub molgas}, depends strongly on the adopted extinction model, and can vary from 0.8 to 1.7. For the preferred mixed dust-gas model, we find N = 1.14 {+-} 0.1.« less

  17. 11 CFR 9428.5 - Format.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Format. 9428.5 Section 9428.5 Federal Elections ELECTION ASSISTANCE COMMISSION NATIONAL VOTER REGISTRATION ACT (42 U.S.C. 1973gg-1 et seq.) National Mail Voter Registration Form § 9428.5 Format. (a) The application shall conform to the technical...

  18. On the Formation of the C2H6O Isomers Ethanol (C2H5OH) and Dimethyl Ether (CH3OCH3) in Star-forming Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergantini, Alexandre; Maksyutenko, Pavlo; Kaiser, Ralf I.

    2017-06-01

    The structural isomers ethanol (CH3CH2OH) and dimethyl ether (CH3OCH3) were detected in several low-, intermediate-, and high-mass star-forming regions, including Sgr B2, Orion, and W33A, with the relative abundance ratios of ethanol/dimethyl ether varying from about 0.03 to 3.4. Until now, no experimental data regarding the formation mechanisms and branching ratios of these two species in laboratory simulation experiments could be provided. Here, we exploit tunable photoionization reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometry (PI-ReTOF-MS) to detect and analyze the production of complex organic molecules (COMs) resulting from the exposure of water/methane (H2O/CH4) ices to energetic electrons. The main goal is to understand the formation mechanisms in star-forming regions of two C2H6O isomers: ethanol (CH3CH2OH) and dimethyl ether (CH3OCH3). The results show that the experimental branching ratios favor the synthesis of ethanol versus dimethyl ether (31 ± 11:1). This finding diverges from the abundances observed toward most star-forming regions, suggesting that production routes on interstellar grains to form dimethyl ether might be missing; alternatively, ethanol can be overproduced in the present simulation experiments, such as via radical-radical recombination pathways involving ethyl and hydroxyl radicals. Finally, the PI-ReTOF-MS data suggest the formation of methylacetylene (C3H4), ketene (CH2CO), propene (C3H6), vinyl alcohol (CH2CHOH), acetaldehyde (CH3CHO), and methyl hydroperoxide (CH3OOH), in addition to ethane (C2H6), methanol (CH3OH), and CO2 detected from infrared spectroscopy. The yield of all the confirmed species is also determined.

  19. GOODS-HERSCHEL: STAR FORMATION, DUST ATTENUATION, AND THE FIR–RADIO CORRELATION ON THE MAIN SEQUENCE OF STAR-FORMING GALAXIES UP TO z ≃ 4

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Pannella, M.; Elbaz, D.; Daddi, E.

    We use deep panchromatic data sets in the GOODS-N field, from GALEX to the deepest Herschel far-infrared (FIR) and VLA radio continuum imaging, to explore the evolution of star-formation activity and dust attenuation properties of star-forming galaxies to z ≃ 4, using mass-complete samples. Our main results can be summarized as follows: (i) the slope of the star-formation rate–M{sub *} correlation is consistent with being constant ≃0.8 up to z ≃ 1.5, while its normalization keeps increasing with redshift; (ii) for the first time we are able to explore the FIR–radio correlation for a mass-selected sample of star-forming galaxies: themore » correlation does not evolve up to z ≃ 4; (iii) we confirm that galaxy stellar mass is a robust proxy for UV dust attenuation in star-forming galaxies, with more massive galaxies being more dust attenuated. Strikingly, we find that this attenuation relation evolves very weakly with redshift, with the amount of dust attenuation increasing by less than 0.3 mag over the redshift range [0.5–4] for a fixed stellar mass; (iv) the correlation between dust attenuation and the UV spectral slope evolves with redshift, with the median UV slope becoming bluer with redshift. By z ≃ 3, typical UV slopes are inconsistent, given the measured dust attenuations, with the predictions of commonly used empirical laws. (v) Finally, building on existing results, we show that gas reddening is marginally larger (by a factor of around 1.3) than the stellar reddening at all redshifts probed. Our results support a scenario where the ISM conditions of typical star-forming galaxies evolve with redshift, such that at z ≥ 1.5 Main Sequence galaxies have ISM conditions moving closer to those of local starbursts.« less

  20. Formate production through biocatalysis

    PubMed Central

    Alissandratos, Apostolos; Kim, Hye-Kyung; Easton, Christopher J

    2013-01-01

    The generation of formate from CO2 provides a method for sequestration of this greenhouse gas as well as the production of a valuable commodity chemical and stabilized form of hydrogen fuel. Formate dehydrogenases are enzymes with the potential to catalyze this reaction; however they generally favor the reverse process, i.e., formate oxidation. By contrast, the formate dehydrogenase of the acetogen Clostridium carboxidivorans has been found to preferentially catalyze the reduction of CO2. This is in accord with its natural role to introduce CO2 as a carbon source in the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway. The direction of catalysis derives from the enzyme’s low affinity for formate. This enzyme is therefore an excellent candidate for biotechnological applications aimed at producing formic acid and derivative chemicals from CO2. PMID:23841981

  1. UFO (UnFold Operator) default data format

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Kissel, L.; Biggs, F.; Marking, T.R.

    The default format for the storage of x,y data for use with the UFO code is described. The format assumes that the data stored in a file is a matrix of values; two columns of this matrix are selected to define a function of the form y = f(x). This format is specifically designed to allow for easy importation of data obtained from other sources, or easy entry of data using a text editor, with a minimum of reformatting. This format is flexible and extensible through the use of inline directives stored in the optional header of the file. Amore » special extension of the format implements encoded data which significantly reduces the storage required as compared wth the unencoded form. UFO supports several extensions to the file specification that implement execute-time operations, such as, transformation of the x and/or y values, selection of specific columns of the matrix for association with the x and y values, input of data directly from other formats (e.g., DAMP and PFF), and a simple type of library-structured file format. Several examples of the use of the format are given.« less

  2. Dynamic tubulation of mitochondria drives mitochondrial network formation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chong; Du, Wanqing; Su, Qian Peter; Zhu, Mingli; Feng, Peiyuan; Li, Ying; Zhou, Yichen; Mi, Na; Zhu, Yueyao; Jiang, Dong; Zhang, Senyan; Zhang, Zerui; Sun, Yujie; Yu, Li

    2015-10-01

    Mitochondria form networks. Formation of mitochondrial networks is important for maintaining mitochondrial DNA integrity and interchanging mitochondrial material, whereas disruption of the mitochondrial network affects mitochondrial functions. According to the current view, mitochondrial networks are formed by fusion of individual mitochondria. Here, we report a new mechanism for formation of mitochondrial networks through KIF5B-mediated dynamic tubulation of mitochondria. We found that KIF5B pulls thin, highly dynamic tubules out of mitochondria. Fusion of these dynamic tubules, which is mediated by mitofusins, gives rise to the mitochondrial network. We further demonstrated that dynamic tubulation and fusion is sufficient for mitochondrial network formation, by reconstituting mitochondrial networks in vitro using purified fusion-competent mitochondria, recombinant KIF5B, and polymerized microtubules. Interestingly, KIF5B only controls network formation in the peripheral zone of the cell, indicating that the mitochondrial network is divided into subzones, which may be constructed by different mechanisms. Our data not only uncover an essential mechanism for mitochondrial network formation, but also reveal that different parts of the mitochondrial network are formed by different mechanisms.

  3. UVIT observations of the star-forming ring in NGC 7252: Evidence of possible AGN feedback suppressing central star formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, K.; Joseph, P.; Mondal, C.; Devaraj, A.; Subramaniam, A.; Stalin, C. S.; Côté, P.; Ghosh, S. K.; Hutchings, J. B.; Mohan, R.; Postma, J.; Sankarasubramanian, K.; Sreekumar, P.; Tandon, S. N.

    2018-05-01

    Context. Some post-merger galaxies are known to undergo a starburst phase that quickly depletes the gas reservoir and turns it into a red-sequence galaxy, though the details are still unclear. Aims: Here we explore the pattern of recent star formation in the central region of the post-merger galaxy NGC 7252 using high-resolution ultraviolet (UV) images from the UVIT on ASTROSAT. Methods: The UVIT images with 1.2 and 1.4 arcsec resolution in the FUV and NUV are used to construct a FUV-NUV colour map of the central region. Results: The FUV-NUV pixel colour map for this canonical post-merger galaxy reveals a blue circumnuclear ring of diameter 10'' (3.2 kpc) with bluer patches located over the ring. Based on a comparison to single stellar population models, we show that the ring is comprised of stellar populations with ages ≲300 Myr, with embedded star-forming clumps of younger age (≲150Myr). Conclusions: The suppressed star formation in the central region, along with the recent finding of a large amount of ionised gas, leads us to speculate that this ring may be connected to past feedback from a central super-massive black hole that has ionised the hydrogen gas in the central 4'' 1.3 kpc.

  4. Chlorination of bromide-containing waters: enhanced bromate formation in the presence of synthetic metal oxides and deposits formed in drinking water distribution systems.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chao; von Gunten, Urs; Croué, Jean-Philippe

    2013-09-15

    Bromate formation from the reaction between chlorine and bromide in homogeneous solution is a slow process. The present study investigated metal oxides enhanced bromate formation during chlorination of bromide-containing waters. Selected metal oxides enhanced the decay of hypobromous acid (HOBr), a requisite intermediate during the oxidation of bromide to bromate, via (i) disproportionation to bromate in the presence of nickel oxide (NiO) and cupric oxide (CuO), (ii) oxidation of a metal to a higher valence state in the presence of cuprous oxide (Cu2O) and (iii) oxygen formation by NiO and CuO. Goethite (α-FeOOH) did not enhance either of these pathways. Non-charged species of metal oxides seem to be responsible for the catalytic disproportionation which shows its highest rate in the pH range near the pKa of HOBr. Due to the ability to catalyze HOBr disproportionation, bromate was formed during chlorination of bromide-containing waters in the presence of CuO and NiO, whereas no bromate was detected in the presence of Cu2O and α-FeOOH for analogous conditions. The inhibition ability of coexisting anions on bromate formation at pH 8.6 follows the sequence of phosphate > sulfate > bicarbonate/carbonate. A black deposit in a water pipe harvested from a drinking water distribution system exerted significant residual oxidant decay and bromate formation during chlorination of bromide-containing waters. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analyses showed that the black deposit contained copper (14%, atomic percentage) and nickel (1.8%, atomic percentage). Cupric oxide was further confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). These results indicate that bromate formation may be of concern during chlorination of bromide-containing waters in distribution systems containing CuO and/or NiO. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Rapamycin-induced oligomer formation system of FRB-FKBP fusion proteins.

    PubMed

    Inobe, Tomonao; Nukina, Nobuyuki

    2016-07-01

    Most proteins form larger protein complexes and perform multiple functions in the cell. Thus, artificial regulation of protein complex formation controls the cellular functions that involve protein complexes. Although several artificial dimerization systems have already been used for numerous applications in biomedical research, cellular protein complexes form not only simple dimers but also larger oligomers. In this study, we showed that fusion proteins comprising the induced heterodimer formation proteins FRB and FKBP formed various oligomers upon addition of rapamycin. By adjusting the configuration of fusion proteins, we succeeded in generating an inducible tetramer formation system. Proteins of interest also formed tetramers by fusing to the inducible tetramer formation system, which exhibits its utility in a broad range of biological applications. Copyright © 2015 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Special Education Forms. Volume 1: School-Age Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fink, Sandra; And Others

    This document comprises forms (and directions for their use) used in Oregon in conjunction with the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) for school-aged children. Forms are identified as either required or optional and are presented in a two-page format, with one page identifying the form, explaining its purposes, and providing…

  7. CMEMS (Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service) In Situ Thematic Assembly Centre: A service for operational Oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzano Muñoz, Fernando; Pouliquen, Sylvie; Petit de la Villeon, Loic; Carval, Thierry; Loubrieu, Thomas; Wedhe, Henning; Sjur Ringheim, Lid; Hammarklint, Thomas; Tamm, Susanne; De Alfonso, Marta; Perivoliotis, Leonidas; Chalkiopoulos, Antonis; Marinova, Veselka; Tintore, Joaquin; Troupin, Charles

    2016-04-01

    Copernicus, previously known as GMES (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security), is the European Programme for the establishment of a European capacity for Earth Observation and Monitoring. Copernicus aims to provide a sustainable service for Ocean Monitoring and Forecasting validated and commissioned by users. From May 2015, the Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service (CMEMS) is working on an operational mode through a contract with services engagement (result is regular data provision). Within CMEMS, the In Situ Thematic Assembly Centre (INSTAC) distributed service integrates in situ data from different sources for operational oceanography needs. CMEMS INSTAC is collecting and carrying out quality control in a homogeneous manner on data from providers outside Copernicus (national and international networks), to fit the needs of internal and external users. CMEMS INSTAC has been organized in 7 regional Dissemination Units (DUs) to rely on the EuroGOOS ROOSes. Each DU aggregates data and metadata provided by a series of Production Units (PUs) acting as an interface for providers. Homogeneity and standardization are key features to ensure coherent and efficient service. All DUs provide data in the OceanSITES NetCDF format 1.2 (based on NetCDF 3.6), which is CF compliant, relies on SeaDataNet vocabularies and is able to handle profile and time-series measurements. All the products, both near real-time (NRT) and multi-year (REP), are available online for every CMEMS registered user through an FTP service. On top of the FTP service, INSTAC products are available through Oceanotron, an open-source data server dedicated to marine observations dissemination. It provides services such as aggregation on spatio-temporal coordinates and observed parameters, and subsetting on observed parameters and metadata. The accuracy of the data is checked on various levels. Quality control procedures are applied for the validity of the data and correctness tests for the

  8. On the history and future of cosmic planet formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behroozi, Peter; Peeples, Molly S.

    2015-12-01

    We combine constraints on galaxy formation histories with planet formation models, yielding the Earth-like and giant planet formation histories of the Milky Way and the Universe as a whole. In the Hubble volume (1013 Mpc3), we expect there to be ˜1020 Earth-like and ˜1020 giant planets; our own galaxy is expected to host ˜109 and ˜1010 Earth-like and giant planets, respectively. Proposed metallicity thresholds for planet formation do not significantly affect these numbers. However, the metallicity dependence for giant planets results in later typical formation times and larger host galaxies than for Earth-like planets. The Solar system formed at the median age for existing giant planets in the Milky Way, and consistent with past estimates, formed after 80 per cent of Earth-like planets. However, if existing gas within virialized dark matter haloes continues to collapse and form stars and planets, the Universe will form over 10 times more planets than currently exist. We show that this would imply at least a 92 per cent chance that we are not the only civilization the Universe will ever have, independent of arguments involving the Drake equation.

  9. On The History and Future of Cosmic Planet Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behroozi, Peter

    2016-03-01

    We combine constraints on galaxy formation histories with planet formation models, yielding the Earth-like and giant planet formation histories of the Milky Way and the Universe as a whole. In the Hubble Volume (1013 Mpc3), we expect there to be ~1020 Earth-like and ~1020 giant planets; our own galaxy is expected to host ~109 and ~1010 Earth-like and giant planets, respectively. Proposed metallicity thresholds for planet formation do not significantly affect these numbers. However, the metallicity dependence for giant planets results in later typical formation times and larger host galaxies than for Earth-like planets. The Solar System formed at the median age for existing giant planets in the Milky Way, and consistent with past estimates, formed after 80% of Earth-like planets. However, if existing gas within virialised dark matter haloes continues to collapse and form stars and planets, the Universe will form over 10 times more planets than currently exist. We show that this would imply at least a 92% chance that we are not the only civilisation the Universe will ever have, independent of arguments involving the Drake Equation.

  10. 8 CFR 299.4 - Reproduction of Public Use Forms by public and private entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... font style as the body of the form. (2) The final form must match the design, format, and dimensions of... official form. The wording and punctuation of all data elements and identifying information must match exactly. No data elements may be added or deleted. The sequence and format for each item on the form must...

  11. 8 CFR 299.4 - Reproduction of Public Use Forms by public and private entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... font style as the body of the form. (2) The final form must match the design, format, and dimensions of... official form. The wording and punctuation of all data elements and identifying information must match exactly. No data elements may be added or deleted. The sequence and format for each item on the form must...

  12. 8 CFR 299.4 - Reproduction of Public Use Forms by public and private entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... font style as the body of the form. (2) The final form must match the design, format, and dimensions of... official form. The wording and punctuation of all data elements and identifying information must match exactly. No data elements may be added or deleted. The sequence and format for each item on the form must...

  13. 8 CFR 299.4 - Reproduction of Public Use Forms by public and private entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... font style as the body of the form. (2) The final form must match the design, format, and dimensions of... official form. The wording and punctuation of all data elements and identifying information must match exactly. No data elements may be added or deleted. The sequence and format for each item on the form must...

  14. Oxidation and formation of deposit precursors in hydrocarbon fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayo, F. R.; Lan, B.; Cotts, D. B.; Buttrill, S. E., Jr.; St.john, G. A.

    1983-01-01

    The oxidation of two jet turbine fuels and some pure hydrocarbons was studied at 130 C with and without the presence of small amounts of N-methyl pyrrole (NMP) or indene. Tendency to form solid-deposit precursors was studied by measuring soluble gum formation as well as dimer and trimer formation using field ionization mass spectrometry. Pure n-dodecane oxidized fastest and gave the smallest amount of procursors. An unstable fuel oil oxidized much slower but formed large amounts of precursors. Stable Jet A fuel oxidized slowest and gave little precursors. Indene either retarded or accelerated the oxidation of n-dodecane, depending on its concentration, but always caused more gum formation. The NMP greatly retarded n-dodecane oxidation but accelerated Jet A oxidation and greatly increased the latter's gum formation. In general, the additive reacted faster and formed most of the gum. Results are interpreted in terms of classical cooxidation theory. The effect of oxygen pressure on gum formation is also reported.

  15. RNA interfering molecule delivery from in situ forming biodegradable hydrogels for enhancement of bone formation in rat calvarial bone defects.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Minh K; Jeon, Oju; Dang, Phuong N; Huynh, Cong T; Varghai, Davood; Riazi, Hooman; McMillan, Alexandra; Herberg, Samuel; Alsberg, Eben

    2018-06-06

    RNA interference (RNAi) may be an effective and valuable tool for promoting the growth of functional tissue, as short interfering RNA (siRNA) and microRNA (miRNA) can block the expression of genes that have negative effects on tissue regeneration. Our group has recently reported that the localized and sustained presentation of siRNA against noggin (siNoggin) and miRNA-20a from in situ forming poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogels enhanced osteogenic differentiation of encapsulated human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). Here, the capacity of the hydrogel system to accelerate bone formation in a rat calvarial bone defect model is presented. After 12 weeks post-implantation, the hydrogels containing encapsulated hMSCs and miRNA-20a resulted in more bone formation in the defects than the hydrogels containing hMSCs without siRNA or with negative control siRNA. This localized and sustained RNA interfering molecule delivery system may provide an excellent platform for healing bony defects and other tissues. Delivery of RNAi molecules may be a valuable strategy to guide cell behavior for tissue engineering applications, but to date there have been no reports of a biomaterial system capable of both encapsulation of cells and controlled delivery of incorporated RNA. Here, we present PEG hydrogels that form in situ via Michael type reaction, and that permit encapsulation of hMSCs and the concomitant controlled delivery of siNoggin and/or miRNA-20a. These RNAs were chosen to suppress noggin, a BMP-2 antagonist, and/or PPAR-γ, a negative regulator of BMP-2-mediated osteogenesis, and therefore promote osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs and subsequent bone repair in critical-sized rat calvarial defects. Simultaneous delivery of hMSCs and miRNA-20a enhanced repair of these defects compared to hydrogels containing hMSCs without siRNA or with negative control siRNA. This in situ forming PEG hydrogel system offers an exciting platform for healing critical

  16. A Systematic Survey of Star Formation with the ORION MIDEX Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scowen, P.; Morse, J.; Beasley, M.; Hester, J.; Windhorst, R.; Desch, S.; Jansen, R.; Calzetti, D.; Padgett, D.; Hartigan, P.; Oey, S.; Bally, J.; Gallagher, J.; O'Connell, R.; Kennicutt, R.; Lauer, T.

    2004-05-01

    The ORION MIDEX mission is a 1.2m UV-visual observatory orbiting at L2 that will conduct the first-ever high spatial resolution survey of a statistically significant sample of visible star-forming environments in the Solar neighborhood in emission lines and continuum. This survey will be used to characterize the star and planet forming environments within 2.5 kpc of the Sun, infer global properties and star formation history in these regions, understand how the environment influences the process of star and planet formation, and develop a classification scheme for star forming regions incorporating the earlier results. Based on these findings we will then conduct a similar high spatial resolution survey of large portions of the Magellanic Clouds, applying the classification scheme from local star forming environments to analogous regions in nearby galaxies, extending the classification scheme to regions that do not have nearby analogs but are common in external galaxies. The results from the local survey will allow us to infer characteristics of low mass star forming environments in the Magellanic Clouds, study the spatial distribution of star forming environments and analyze stellar population photometry to trace star formation history. Finally we will image a representative sample of external galaxies using the same filters used to characterize nearby star formation regions. We will map the distribution of star forming region type as a function of galactic environment for galaxies out to 5 Mpc to infer the distribution and history of low-mass star formation over galactic scales, characterize the stellar content and star formation history of galaxies, and relate these results to the current star forming environments in these galaxies. Ultimately we intend to use these diagnostics to extrapolate to star formation environments in the higher redshift Universe. We will also present an update on the technology development, project planning and operations for the

  17. A Systematic Survey of Star Formation with the ORION MIDEX Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scowen, P.; Morse, J.; Beasley, M.; Hester, J.; Windhorst, R.; Desch, S.; Jansen, R.; Calzetti, D.; Padgett, D.; Hartigan, P.; Oey, S.; Bally, J.; Gallagher, J.; O'Connell, R.; Kennicutt, R.; Lauer, T.; McCaughrean, M.

    2004-12-01

    The ORION MIDEX mission is a 1.2m UV-visual observatory orbiting at L2 that will conduct the first-ever high spatial resolution survey of a statistically significant sample of visible star-forming environments in the Solar neighborhood in emission lines and continuum. This survey will be used to characterize the star and planet forming environments within 2.5 kpc of the Sun, infer global properties and star formation history in these regions, understand how the environment influences the process of star and planet formation, and develop a classification scheme for star forming regions incorporating the earlier results. Based on these findings we will then conduct a similar high spatial resolution survey of large portions of the Magellanic Clouds, applying the classification scheme from local star forming environments to analogous regions in nearby galaxies, extending the classification scheme to regions that do not have nearby analogs but are common in external galaxies. The results from the local survey will allow us to infer characteristics of low mass star forming environments in the Magellanic Clouds, study the spatial distribution of star forming environments and analyze stellar population photometry to trace star formation history. Finally we will image a representative sample of external galaxies using the same filters used to characterize nearby star formation regions. We will map the distribution of star forming region type as a function of galactic environment for galaxies out to 5 Mpc to infer the distribution and history of low-mass star formation over galactic scales, characterize the stellar content and star formation history of galaxies, and relate these results to the current star forming environments in these galaxies. Ultimately we intend to use these diagnostics to extrapolate to star formation environments in the higher redshift Universe. We will also present an update on the technology development, project planning and operations for the

  18. [Mechanisms of immune deposit formation in glomerulonephritis].

    PubMed

    Bussolati, B; Camussi, G

    1996-03-01

    Recent experimental studies allowed the identification of several mechanisms of immune deposit formation, which are able to reproduce the morphological and clinical pattern of human glomerulonephritis. Moreover, it was shown that most of the lesions considered, in the past, as due to circulating immune complexes (IC), are instead caused by the "in situ" formation of IC. As a result of these studies, the following schematic classification was proposed: 1) immune deposits formed by glomerular localization of IC primarily formed in the circulation; 2) immune deposits formed "in situ" by reaction of circulating antibodies with fixed structural antigens; 3) immune deposits formed "in situ" by antibodies reactive with movable structural antigens; 4) immune deposits formed "in situ" by antibodies reactive with sequestered antigens leaking out of tissues; 5) IC formed "in situ" by antibodies reactive with exogenous or non-glomerular endogenous antigens planted in the glomeruli; 6) ANCA-associated glomerular disease.

  19. 33 CFR 325.5 - Forms of permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) DA permits under this regulation will be in the form of individual permits or general permits. The basic format shall be ENG Form 1721, DA Permit (Appendix A). (2) The general conditions included in ENG... be required. (2) Nationwide permits. Nationwide permits are a type of general permit and represent DA...

  20. Influence of Nitrogen Source on NDMA Formation during Chlorination of Diuron

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei-Hsiang; Young, Thomas M.

    2009-01-01

    N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) is formed during chlorination of water containing the herbicide diuron (N′-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-N, N-dimethylurea) but formation is greatly enhanced in the presence of ammonia (chloramination). Groundwater impacted by agricultural runoff may contain diuron and relatively high total nitrogen concentrations; this study examines the impact of the nitrogen form (ammonium, nitrite or nitrate) on NDMA formation during chlorination of such waters. NDMA formation during chlorination of diuron increased in the order nitrite < nitrate < ammonium for a given chlorine, nitrogen, and diuron dose. Formation of dichloramine seemed to fully explain enhanced NDMA formation in the presence of ammonium. Nitrate unexpectedly enhanced nitrosation of diuron derivatives to form NDMA compared to the cases of no added nitrogen or nitrite addition. Nitrite addition is less effective because it consumes more chlorine and produces intermediates that react rapidly with diuron and its aromatic byproducts. Differences between surface and groundwater in nitrogen forms and concentrations and disinfection approaches, suggest strategies to reduce NDMA formation should vary with drinking water source. PMID:19457535

  1. Influence of nitrogen source on NDMA formation during chlorination of diuron.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Hsiang; Young, Thomas M

    2009-07-01

    N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) is formed during chlorination of water containing the herbicide diuron (N'-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-N,N-dimethylurea) but formation is greatly enhanced in the presence of ammonia (chloramination). Groundwater impacted by agricultural runoff may contain diuron and relatively high total nitrogen concentrations; this study examines the impact of the nitrogen form (ammonium, nitrite or nitrate) on NDMA formation during chlorination of such waters. NDMA formation during chlorination of diuron increased in the order nitriteFormation of dichloramine seemed to fully explain enhanced NDMA formation in the presence of ammonium. Nitrate unexpectedly enhanced nitrosation of diuron derivatives to form NDMA compared to the cases of no added nitrogen or nitrite addition. Nitrite addition is less effective because it consumes more chlorine and produces intermediates that react rapidly with diuron and its aromatic byproducts. Differences between surface water and groundwater in nitrogen forms and concentrations and disinfection approaches suggest strategies to reduce NDMA formation should vary with drinking water source.

  2. Effect of pores formation process and oxygen plasma treatment to hydroxyapatite formation on bioactive PEEK prepared by incorporation of precursor of apatite.

    PubMed

    Yabutsuka, Takeshi; Fukushima, Keito; Hiruta, Tomoko; Takai, Shigeomi; Yao, Takeshi

    2017-12-01

    When bioinert substrates with fine-sized pores are immersed in a simulated body fluid (SBF) and the pH value or the temperature is increased, fine particles of calcium phosphate, which the authors denoted as 'precursor of apatite' (PrA), are formed in the pores. By this method, hydroxyapatite formation ability can be provided to various kinds of bioinert materials. In this study, the authors studied fabrication methods of bioactive PEEK by using the above-mentioned process. First, the fine-sized pores were formed on the surface of the PEEK substrate by H 2 SO 4 treatment. Next, to provide hydrophilic property to the PEEK, the surfaces of the PEEK were treated with O 2 plasma. Finally, PrA were formed in the pores by the above-mentioned process, which is denoted as 'Alkaline SBF' treatment, and the bioactive PEEK was obtained. By immersing in SBF with the physiological condition, hydroxyapatite formation was induced on the whole surface of the substrate within 1day. The formation of PrA directly contributed to hydroxyapatite formation ability. By applying the O 2 plasma treatment, hydroxyapatite formation was uniformly performed on the whole surface of the substrate. The H 2 SO 4 treatment contributed to a considerable enhancement of adhesive strength of the formed hydroxyapatite layer formed in SBF because of the increase of surface areas of the substrate. As a comparative study, the sandblasting method was applied as the pores formation process instead of the H 2 SO 4 treatment. Although hydroxyapatite formation was provided also in this case, however, the adhesion of the formed hydroxyapatite layer to the substrate was not sufficient even if the O 2 plasma treatment was conducted. This result indicates that the fine-sized pores should be formed on the whole surface of the substrate uniformly to achieve high adhesive strength of the hydroxyapatite layer. Therefore, it is considered that the H 2 SO 4 treatment before the O 2 plasma and the 'Alkaline SBF' treatment

  3. The accelerating pace of star formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldwell, Spencer; Chang, Philip

    2018-03-01

    We study the temporal and spatial distribution of star formation rates in four well-studied star-forming regions in local molecular clouds (MCs): Taurus, Perseus, ρ Ophiuchi, and Orion A. Using published mass and age estimates for young stellar objects in each system, we show that the rate of star formation over the last 10 Myr has been accelerating and is (roughly) consistent with a t2 power law. This is in line with previous studies of the star formation history of MCs and with recent theoretical studies. We further study the clustering of star formation in the Orion nebula cluster. We examine the distribution of young stellar objects as a function of their age by computing an effective half-light radius for these young stars subdivided into age bins. We show that the distribution of young stellar objects is broadly consistent with the star formation being entirely localized within the central region. We also find a slow radial expansion of the newly formed stars at a velocity of v = 0.17 km s-1, which is roughly the sound speed of the cold molecular gas. This strongly suggests the dense structures that form stars persist much longer than the local dynamical time. We argue that this structure is quasi-static in nature and is likely the result of the density profile approaching an attractor solution as suggested by recent analytic and numerical analysis.

  4. Methods of forming hardened surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Branagan, Daniel J [Iona, ID

    2004-07-27

    The invention encompasses a method of forming a metallic coating. A metallic glass coating is formed over a metallic substrate. After formation of the coating, at least a portion of the metallic glass can be converted into a crystalline material having a nanocrystalline grain size. The invention also encompasses metallic coatings comprising metallic glass. Additionally, the invention encompasses metallic coatings comprising crystalline metallic material, with at least some of the crystalline metallic material having a nanocrystalline grain size.

  5. Dust Attenuation, Bulge Formation, and Inside-out Quenching of Star Formation in Star-forming Main Sequence Galaxies at z ∼ 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tacchella, S.; Carollo, C. M.; Förster Schreiber, N. M.; Renzini, A.; Dekel, A.; Genzel, R.; Lang, P.; Lilly, S. J.; Mancini, C.; Onodera, M.; Tacconi, L. J.; Wuyts, S.; Zamorani, G.

    2018-05-01

    We derive 2D dust attenuation maps at ∼1 kpc resolution from the UV continuum for 10 galaxies on the z ∼ 2 star-forming main sequence (SFMS). Comparison with IR data shows that 9 out of 10 galaxies do not require further obscuration in addition to the UV-based correction, though our sample does not include the most heavily obscured, massive galaxies. The individual rest-frame V-band dust attenuation (A V) radial profiles scatter around an average profile that gently decreases from ∼1.8 mag in the center down to ∼0.6 mag at ∼3–4 half-mass radii. We use these maps to correct UV- and Hα-based star formation rates (SFRs), which agree with each other. At masses ≲ {10}11 {M}ȯ , the dust-corrected specific SFR (sSFR) profiles are on average radially constant at a mass-doubling timescale of ∼300 Myr, pointing at a synchronous growth of bulge and disk components. At masses ≳ {10}11 {M}ȯ , the sSFR profiles are typically centrally suppressed by a factor of ∼10 relative to the galaxy outskirts. With total central obscuration disfavored, this indicates that at least a fraction of massive z ∼ 2 SFMS galaxies have started their inside-out star formation quenching that will move them to the quenched sequence. In combination with other observations, galaxies above and below the ridge of the SFMS relation have, respectively, centrally enhanced and centrally suppressed sSFRs relative to their outskirts, supporting a picture where bulges are built owing to gas “compaction” that leads to a high central SFR as galaxies move toward the upper envelope of the SFMS. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated under NASA contract NAS 5‑26555 (programs GO9822, GO10092, GO10924, GO11694, GO12578, GO12060, GO12061, GO12062, GO12063, GO12064, GO12440, GO12442, GO12443, GO12444, GO12445, GO13669), and at the Very Large Telescope of the European Southern Observatory

  6. Wave data processing toolbox manual

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sullivan, Charlene M.; Warner, John C.; Martini, Marinna A.; Lightsom, Frances S.; Voulgaris, George; Work, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Researchers routinely deploy oceanographic equipment in estuaries, coastal nearshore environments, and shelf settings. These deployments usually include tripod-mounted instruments to measure a suite of physical parameters such as currents, waves, and pressure. Instruments such as the RD Instruments Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP(tm)), the Sontek Argonaut, and the Nortek Aquadopp(tm) Profiler (AP) can measure these parameters. The data from these instruments must be processed using proprietary software unique to each instrument to convert measurements to real physical values. These processed files are then available for dissemination and scientific evaluation. For example, the proprietary processing program used to process data from the RD Instruments ADCP for wave information is called WavesMon. Depending on the length of the deployment, WavesMon will typically produce thousands of processed data files. These files are difficult to archive and further analysis of the data becomes cumbersome. More imperative is that these files alone do not include sufficient information pertinent to that deployment (metadata), which could hinder future scientific interpretation. This open-file report describes a toolbox developed to compile, archive, and disseminate the processed wave measurement data from an RD Instruments ADCP, a Sontek Argonaut, or a Nortek AP. This toolbox will be referred to as the Wave Data Processing Toolbox. The Wave Data Processing Toolbox congregates the processed files output from the proprietary software into two NetCDF files: one file contains the statistics of the burst data and the other file contains the raw burst data (additional details described below). One important advantage of this toolbox is that it converts the data into NetCDF format. Data in NetCDF format is easy to disseminate, is portable to any computer platform, and is viewable with public-domain freely-available software. Another important advantage is that a metadata

  7. Characterizing filaments in regions of high-mass star formation: High-resolution submilimeter imaging of the massive star-forming complex NGC 6334 with ArTéMiS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    André, Ph.; Revéret, V.; Könyves, V.; Arzoumanian, D.; Tigé, J.; Gallais, P.; Roussel, H.; Le Pennec, J.; Rodriguez, L.; Doumayrou, E.; Dubreuil, D.; Lortholary, M.; Martignac, J.; Talvard, M.; Delisle, C.; Visticot, F.; Dumaye, L.; De Breuck, C.; Shimajiri, Y.; Motte, F.; Bontemps, S.; Hennemann, M.; Zavagno, A.; Russeil, D.; Schneider, N.; Palmeirim, P.; Peretto, N.; Hill, T.; Minier, V.; Roy, A.; Rygl, K. L. J.

    2016-07-01

    Context. Herschel observations of nearby molecular clouds suggest that interstellar filaments and prestellar cores represent two fundamental steps in the star formation process. The observations support a picture of low-mass star formation according to which filaments of ~0.1 pc width form first in the cold interstellar medium, probably as a result of large-scale compression of interstellar matter by supersonic turbulent flows, and then prestellar cores arise from gravitational fragmentation of the densest filaments. Whether this scenario also applies to regions of high-mass star formation is an open question, in part because the resolution of Herschel is insufficient to resolve the inner width of filaments in the nearest regions of massive star formation. Aims: In an effort to characterize the inner width of filaments in high-mass star-forming regions, we imaged the central part of the NGC 6334 complex at a resolution higher by a factor of >3 than Herschel at 350 μm. Methods: We used the large-format bolometer camera ArTéMiS on the APEX telescope and combined the high-resolution ArTéMiS data at 350 μm with Herschel/HOBYS data at 70-500 μm to ensure good sensitivity to a broad range of spatial scales. This allowed us to study the structure of the main narrow filament of the complex with a resolution of 8″ or <0.07 pc at d ~ 1.7 kpc. Results: Our study confirms that this filament is a very dense, massive linear structure with a line mass ranging from ~500 M⊙/pc to ~2000 M⊙/pc over nearly 10 pc. It also demonstrates for the first time that its inner width remains as narrow as W ~ 0.15 ± 0.05 pc all along the filament length, within a factor of <2 of the characteristic 0.1 pc value found with Herschel for lower-mass filaments in the Gould Belt. Conclusions: While it is not completely clear whether the NGC 6334 filament will form massive stars in the future, it is two to three orders of magnitude denser than the majority of filaments observed in Gould Belt

  8. Stellar Masses and Star Formation Rates of Lensed, Dusty, Star-forming Galaxies from the SPT Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Jingzhe; Gonzalez, Anthony. H.; Spilker, J. S.; Strandet, M.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Aravena, M.; Béthermin, M.; Bothwell, M. S.; de Breuck, C.; Brodwin, M.; Chapman, S. C.; Fassnacht, C. D.; Greve, T. R.; Gullberg, B.; Hezaveh, Y.; Malkan, M.; Marrone, D. P.; Saliwanchik, B. R.; Vieira, J. D.; Weiss, A.; Welikala, N.

    2015-10-01

    To understand cosmic mass assembly in the universe at early epochs, we primarily rely on measurements of the stellar masses and star formation rates (SFRs) of distant galaxies. In this paper, we present stellar masses and SFRs of six high-redshift (2.8 ≤ z ≤ 5.7) dusty, star-forming galaxies (DSFGs) that are strongly gravitationally lensed by foreground galaxies. These sources were first discovered by the South Pole Telescope (SPT) at millimeter wavelengths and all have spectroscopic redshifts and robust lens models derived from Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array observations. We have conducted follow-up observations to obtain multi-wavelength imaging data using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), Spitzer, Herschel, and the Atacama Pathfinder EXperiment. We use the high-resolution HST/Wide Field Camera 3 images to disentangle the background source from the foreground lens in Spitzer/IRAC data. The detections and upper limits provide important constraints on the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for these DSFGs, yielding stellar masses, IR luminosities, and SFRs. The SED fits of six SPT sources show that the intrinsic stellar masses span a range more than one order of magnitude with a median value ˜5 ×1010 M⊙. The intrinsic IR luminosities range from 4 × 1012 L⊙ to 4 × 1013 L⊙. They all have prodigious intrinsic SFRs of 510-4800 M⊙ yr-1. Compared to the star-forming main sequence (MS), these six DSFGs have specific SFRs that all lie above the MS, including two galaxies that are a factor of 10 higher than the MS. Our results suggest that we are witnessing ongoing strong starburst events that may be driven by major mergers.

  9. Evolutionary dynamics of group formation.

    PubMed

    Javarone, Marco Alberto; Marinazzo, Daniele

    2017-01-01

    Group formation is a quite ubiquitous phenomenon across different animal species, whose individuals cluster together forming communities of diverse size. Previous investigations suggest that, in general, this phenomenon might have similar underlying reasons across the interested species, despite genetic and behavioral differences. For instance improving the individual safety (e.g. from predators), and increasing the probability to get food resources. Remarkably, the group size might strongly vary from species to species, e.g. shoals of fishes and herds of lions, and sometimes even within the same species, e.g. tribes and families in human societies. Here we build on previous theories stating that the dynamics of group formation may have evolutionary roots, and we explore this fascinating hypothesis from a purely theoretical perspective, with a model using the framework of Evolutionary Game Theory. In our model we hypothesize that homogeneity constitutes a fundamental ingredient in these dynamics. Accordingly, we study a population that tries to form homogeneous groups, i.e. composed of similar agents. The formation of a group can be interpreted as a strategy. Notably, agents can form a group (receiving a 'group payoff'), or can act individually (receiving an 'individual payoff'). The phase diagram of the modeled population shows a sharp transition between the 'group phase' and the 'individual phase', characterized by a critical 'individual payoff'. Our results then support the hypothesis that the phenomenon of group formation has evolutionary roots.

  10. A Hybrid Interview Model for Medical School Interviews: Combining Traditional and Multisampling Formats.

    PubMed

    Bibler Zaidi, Nikki L; Santen, Sally A; Purkiss, Joel A; Teener, Carol A; Gay, Steven E

    2016-11-01

    Most medical schools have either retained a traditional admissions interview or fully adopted an innovative, multisampling format (e.g., the multiple mini-interview) despite there being advantages and disadvantages associated with each format. The University of Michigan Medical School (UMMS) sought to maximize the strengths associated with both interview formats after recognizing that combining the two approaches had the potential to capture additional, unique information about an applicant. In September 2014, the UMMS implemented a hybrid interview model with six, 6-minute short-form interviews-highly structured scenario-based encounters-and two, 30-minute semistructured long-form interviews. Five core skills were assessed across both interview formats. Overall, applicants and admissions committee members reported favorable reactions to the hybrid model, supporting continued use of the model. The generalizability coefficients for the six-station short-form and the two-interview long-form formats were estimated to be 0.470 and 0.176, respectively. Different skills were more reliably assessed by different interview formats. Scores from each format seemed to be operating independently as evidenced through moderate to low correlations (r = 0.100-0.403) for the same skills measured across different interview formats; however, after correcting for attenuation, these correlations were much higher. This hybrid model will be revised and optimized to capture the skills most reliably assessed by each format. Future analysis will examine validity by determining whether short-form and long-form interview scores accurately measure the skills intended to be assessed. Additionally, data collected from both formats will be used to establish baselines for entering students' competencies.

  11. Data Container Study for Handling Array-based Data Using Rasdaman, Hive, Spark, and MongoDB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, M.; Hu, F.; Yu, M.; Scheele, C.; Liu, K.; Huang, Q.; Yang, C. P.; Little, M. M.

    2016-12-01

    Geoscience communities have come up with various big data storage solutions, such as Rasdaman and Hive, to address the grand challenges for massive Earth observation data management and processing. To examine the readiness of current solutions in supporting big Earth observation, we propose to investigate and compare four popular data container solutions, including Rasdaman, Hive, Spark, and MongoDB. Using different types of spatial and non-spatial queries, datasets stored in common scientific data formats (e.g., NetCDF and HDF), and two applications (i.e. dust storm simulation data mining and MERRA data analytics), we systematically compare and evaluate the feature and performance of these four data containers in terms of data discover and access. The computing resources (e.g. CPU, memory, hard drive, network) consumed while performing various queries and operations are monitored and recorded for the performance evaluation. The initial results show that 1) Rasdaman has the best performance for queries on statistical and operational functions, and supports NetCDF data format better than HDF; 2) Rasdaman clustering configuration is more complex than the others; 3) Hive performs better on single pixel extraction from multiple images; and 4) Except for the single pixel extractions, Spark performs better than Hive and its performance is close to Rasdaman. A comprehensive report will detail the experimental results, and compare their pros and cons regarding system performance, ease of use, accessibility, scalability, compatibility, and flexibility.

  12. The formation and assembly of a typical star-forming galaxy at redshift z approximately 3.

    PubMed

    Stark, Daniel P; Swinbank, A Mark; Ellis, Richard S; Dye, Simon; Smail, Ian R; Richard, Johan

    2008-10-09

    Recent studies of galaxies approximately 2-3 Gyr after the Big Bang have revealed large, rotating disks, similar to those of galaxies today. The existence of well-ordered rotation in galaxies during this peak epoch of cosmic star formation indicates that gas accretion is likely to be the dominant mode by which galaxies grow, because major mergers of galaxies would completely disrupt the observed velocity fields. But poor spatial resolution and sensitivity have hampered this interpretation; such studies have been limited to the largest and most luminous galaxies, which may have fundamentally different modes of assembly from those of more typical galaxies (which are thought to grow into the spheroidal components at the centres of galaxies similar to the Milky Way). Here we report observations of a typical star-forming galaxy at z = 3.07, with a linear resolution of approximately 100 parsecs. We find a well-ordered compact source in which molecular gas is being converted efficiently into stars, likely to be assembling a spheroidal bulge similar to those seen in spiral galaxies at the present day. The presence of undisrupted rotation may indicate that galaxies such as the Milky Way gain much of their mass by accretion rather than major mergers.

  13. Laboratory formation of non-cementing, methane hydrate-bearing sands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waite, William F.; Bratton, Peter M.; Mason, David H.

    2011-01-01

    Naturally occurring hydrate-bearing sands often behave as though methane hydrate is acting as a load-bearing member of the sediment. Mimicking this behavior in laboratory samples with methane hydrate likely requires forming hydrate from methane dissolved in water. To hasten this formation process, we initially form hydrate in a free-gas-limited system, then form additional hydrate by circulating methane-supersaturated water through the sample. Though the dissolved-phase formation process can theoretically be enhanced by increasing the pore pressure and flow rate and lowering the sample temperature, a more fundamental concern is preventing clogs resulting from inadvertent methane bubble formation in the circulation lines. Clog prevention requires careful temperature control throughout the circulation loop.

  14. Direct Measurement of Dust Attenuation in z approx. 1.5 Star-Forming Galaxies from 3D-HST: Implications for Dust Geometry and Star Formation Rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, Sedona H.; Kriek, Mariska; Brammer, Gabriel B; Conroy, Charlie; Schreiber, Natascha M. Foerster; Franx, Marijn; Fumagalli, Mattia; Lundren, Britt; Momcheva, Ivelina; Nelson, Erica J.; hide

    2013-01-01

    The nature of dust in distant galaxies is not well understood, and until recently few direct dust measurements have been possible. We investigate dust in distant star-forming galaxies using near-infrared grism spectra of the 3D-HST survey combined with archival multi-wavelength photometry. These data allow us to make a direct comparison between dust towards star-forming regions (measured using Balmer decrements) and the integrated dust properties (derived by comparing spectral energy distributions [SEDs] with stellar population and dust models) for a statistically significant sample of distant galaxies. We select a sample of 163 galaxies between 1.36< or = z< or = 1.5 with H(alpha) SNR > or = 5 and measure Balmer decrements from stacked spectra. First, we stack spectra in bins of integrated stellar dust attenuation, and find that there is extra dust extinction towards star-forming regions (AV,HII is 1.81 times the integrated AV, star), though slightly lower than found for low-redshift starburst galaxies. Next, we stack spectra in bins of specific star formation rate (log sSFR), star formation rate (log SFR), and stellar mass (logM*). We find that on average AV,HII increases with SFR and mass, but decreases with increasing sSFR. The amount of extra extinction also decreases with increasing sSFR and decreasing stellar mass. Our results are consistent with the two-phase dust model - in which galaxies contain both a diffuse and a stellar birth cloud dust component - as the extra extinction will increase once older stars outside the star-forming regions become more dominant. Finally, using our Balmer decrements we derive dust-corrected H(alpha) SFRs, and find evidence that SED fitting produces incorrect SFRs if very rapidly declining SFHs are included in the explored parameter space. Subject headings: dust, extinction- galaxies: evolution- galaxies: high-redshift

  15. Phibss: Molecular Gas, Extinction, Star Formation, and Kinematics in the z = 1.5 Star-forming Galaxy EGS13011166

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genzel, R.; Tacconi, L. J.; Kurk, J.; Wuyts, S.; Combes, F.; Freundlich, J.; Bolatto, A.; Cooper, M. C.; Neri, R.; Nordon, R.; Bournaud, F.; Burkert, A.; Comerford, J.; Cox, P.; Davis, M.; Förster Schreiber, N. M.; García-Burillo, S.; Gracia-Carpio, J.; Lutz, D.; Naab, T.; Newman, S.; Saintonge, A.; Shapiro Griffin, K.; Shapley, A.; Sternberg, A.; Weiner, B.

    2013-08-01

    We report matched resolution imaging spectroscopy of the CO 3-2 line (with the IRAM Plateau de Bure millimeter interferometer) and of the Hα line (with LUCI at the Large Binocular Telescope) in the massive z = 1.53 main-sequence galaxy EGS 13011166, as part of the "Plateau de Bure high-z, blue-sequence survey" (PHIBSS: Tacconi et al.). We combine these data with Hubble Space Telescope V-I-J-H-band maps to derive spatially resolved distributions of stellar surface density, star formation rate, molecular gas surface density, optical extinction, and gas kinematics. The spatial distribution and kinematics of the ionized and molecular gas are remarkably similar and are well modeled by a turbulent, globally Toomre unstable, rotating disk. The stellar surface density distribution is smoother than the clumpy rest-frame UV/optical light distribution and peaks in an obscured, star-forming massive bulge near the dynamical center. The molecular gas surface density and the effective optical screen extinction track each other and are well modeled by a "mixed" extinction model. The inferred slope of the spatially resolved molecular gas to star formation rate relation, N = dlogΣstar form/dlogΣmol gas, depends strongly on the adopted extinction model, and can vary from 0.8 to 1.7. For the preferred mixed dust-gas model, we find N = 1.14 ± 0.1. Based on observations with the Plateau de Bure millimetre interferometer, operated by the Institute for Radio Astronomy in the Millimetre Range (IRAM), which is funded by a partnership of INSU/CNRS (France), MPG (Germany), and IGN (Spain). Based also on data acquired with the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT). The LBT is an international collaboration among institutions in Germany, Italy, and the United States. LBT Corporation partners are LBT Beteiligungsgesellschaft, Germany, representing the Max-Planck Society, the Astrophysical Institute Potsdam, and Heidelberg University; Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica, Italy; The University of

  16. JADDS - towards a tailored global atmospheric composition data service for CAMS forecasts and reanalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, Olaf; Schultz, Martin G.; Rambadt, Michael; Saini, Rajveer; Hoffmann, Lars; Mallmann, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    server and address the major issues identified when relocating large four-dimensional datasets into a RASDAMAN raster array database. So far the RASDAMAN support for data available in netCDF format is limited with respect to metadata related to variables and axes. For community-wide accepted solutions, selected data coverages shall result in downloadable netCDF files including metadata complying with the netCDF CF Metadata Conventions standard (http://cfconventions.org/). This can be achieved by adding custom metadata elements for RASDAMAN bands (model levels) on data ingestion. Furthermore, an optimization strategy for ingestion of several TB of 4D model output data will be outlined.

  17. A model for the biological precipitation of Precambrian iron-formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laberge, G. L.

    1986-01-01

    A biological model for the precipitation of Precambrian iron formations is presented. Assuming an oxygen deficient atmosphere and water column to allow sufficient Fe solubility, it is proposed that local oxidizing environments, produced biologically, led to precipitation of iron formations. It is further suggested that spheroidal structures about 30 mm in diameter, which are widespread in low grade cherty rion formations, are relict forms of the organic walled microfossil Eosphaera tylerii. The presence of these structures suggests that the organism may have had a siliceous test, which allowed sufficient rigidity for accumulation and preservation. The model involves precipitation of ferric hydrates by oxidation of iron in the photic zone by a variety of photosynthetic organisms. Silica may have formed in the frustules of silica secreting organisms, including Eosphaera tylerii. Iron formates formed, therefore, by a sediment rain of biologically produced ferric hydrates and silica and other organic material. Siderite and hematite formed diagenetically on basin floors, and subsequent metamorphism produced magnetite and iron silicates.

  18. Investigating the Formation Mechanisms and Inorganic Precursors of Formate and Acetate in Lost City Hydrothermal Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, S. Q.; Bernasconi, S. M.; Früh-Green, G.

    2010-12-01

    Fluids from the Lost City Hydrothermal Field are rich in hydrogen and methane, with high pHs (9 - 11), as a result of serpentinization reactions at moderate temperatures of approximately 120-200°C. It has been predicted that organic carbon compounds would form abiologically under these chemical and thermal conditions from inorganic precursors, in the form of hydrocarbons and organic acids. Previous work has demonstrated the presence of high concentrations of both formate and acetate in the Lost City fluids [Lang et al., 2010, GCA]. Formate is the second most prevalent carbon species in the fluids and may provide local microbial communities with a necessary carbon source in the face of low dissolved inorganic carbon concentrations. The goals of this study are to constrain the formation mechanisms of these organic acids (abiotic vs. biotic) and to identify their inorganic precursors. Formate and acetate were isolated from multiple fluid samples by preparative high-performance liquid chromatography for isotopic analysis. The δ13C of formate is similar to that of Lost City methane, and consistent with an abiological origin. The isotopic signature of acetate is significantly different from these values, and may be indicative of a biological source. Radiocarbon measurements of the isolated formate are in progress and should allow us to determine if the precursor carbon is derived from a mantle or deep-seawater source. Alkaline hydrothermal systems have been proposed as potential sites to the origin of life and formate has been proposed as a critical intermediate towards the kinds of reduced carbon species found in biochemistry. Evidence of an abiological formation mechanism of formate at Lost City may significantly further our understanding of prebiotic chemistry.

  19. Formation and Assembly of Massive Star Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillan, Stephen

    The formation of stars and star clusters is a major unresolved problem in astrophysics. It is central to modeling stellar populations and understanding galaxy luminosity distributions in cosmological models. Young massive clusters are major components of starburst galaxies, while globular clusters are cornerstones of the cosmic distance scale and represent vital laboratories for studies of stellar dynamics and stellar evolution. Yet how these clusters form and how rapidly and efficiently they expel their natal gas remain unclear, as do the consequences of this gas expulsion for cluster structure and survival. Also unclear is how the properties of low-mass clusters, which form from small-scale instabilities in galactic disks and inform much of our understanding of cluster formation and star-formation efficiency, differ from those of more massive clusters, which probably formed in starburst events driven by fast accretion at high redshift, or colliding gas flows in merging galaxies. Modeling cluster formation requires simulating many simultaneous physical processes, placing stringent demands on both software and hardware. Simulations of galaxies evolving in cosmological contexts usually lack the numerical resolution to simulate star formation in detail. They do not include detailed treatments of important physical effects such as magnetic fields, radiation pressure, ionization, and supernova feedback. Simulations of smaller clusters include these effects, but fall far short of the mass of even single young globular clusters. With major advances in computing power and software, we can now directly address this problem. We propose to model the formation of massive star clusters by integrating the FLASH adaptive mesh refinement magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) code into the Astrophysical Multi-purpose Software Environment (AMUSE) framework, to work with existing stellar-dynamical and stellar evolution modules in AMUSE. All software will be freely distributed on-line, allowing

  20. 16 CFR 1130.6 - Requirements for format of registration forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... manufacturer's name and mailing address where registration information is to be collected. (c) Font size and typeface. The registration form shall use bold black typeface. The size of the type shall be at least 12... information shall be in capital and lower case type. ...

  1. Theories of Giant Planet Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissauer, Jack J.; Young, Richard E. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    An overview of current theories of planetary formation, with emphasis on giant planets, is presented. The most detailed models are based upon observations of our own Solar System and of young stars and their environments. While these models predict that rocky planets should form around most single stars, the frequency of formation of gas giant planets is more difficult to predict theoretically. Terrestrial planets are believed to grow via pairwise accretion until the spacing of planetary orbits becomes large enough that the configuration is stable for the age of the system. Giant planets begin their growth as do terrestrial planets, but they become massive enough that they are able to accumulate substantial amounts of gas before the protoplanetary disk dissipates. Most models for extrasolar giant planets suggest that they formed as did Jupiter and Saturn (in nearly circular orbits, far enough from the star that ice could), and subsequently migrated to their current positions, although some models suggest in situ formation.

  2. Translation Regulation and RNA Granule Formation after Heat Shock of Procyclic Form Trypanosoma brucei: Many Heat-Induced mRNAs Are also Increased during Differentiation to Mammalian-Infective Forms.

    PubMed

    Minia, Igor; Merce, Clementine; Terrao, Monica; Clayton, Christine

    2016-09-01

    African trypanosome procyclic forms multiply in the midgut of tsetse flies, and are routinely cultured at 27°C. Heat shocks of 37°C and above result in general inhibition of translation, and severe heat shock (41°C) results in sequestration of mRNA in granules. The mRNAs that are bound by the zinc-finger protein ZC3H11, including those encoding refolding chaperones, escape heat-induced translation inhibition. At 27°C, ZC3H11 mRNA is predominantly present as an untranslated cytosolic messenger ribonucleoprotein particle, but after heat shocks of 37°C-41°C, the ZC3H11 mRNA moves into the polysomal fraction. To investigate the scope and specificities of heat-shock translational regulation and granule formation, we analysed the distributions of mRNAs on polysomes at 27°C and after 1 hour at 39°C, and the mRNA content of 41°C heat shock granules. We found that mRNAs that bind to ZC3H11 remained in polysomes at 39°C and were protected from sequestration in granules at 41°C. As previously seen for starvation stress granules, the mRNAs that encode ribosomal proteins were excluded from heat-shock granules. 70 mRNAs moved towards the polysomal fraction after the 39°C heat shock, and 260 increased in relative abundance. Surprisingly, many of these mRNAs are also increased when trypanosomes migrate to the tsetse salivary glands. It therefore seems possible that in the wild, temperature changes due to diurnal variations and periodic intake of warm blood might influence the efficiency with which procyclic forms develop into mammalian-infective forms.

  3. Star formation: Cosmic feast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scaringi, Simone

    2016-11-01

    Low-mass stars form through a process known as disk accretion, eating up material that orbits in a disk around them. It turns out that the same mechanism also describes the formation of more massive stars.

  4. Star formation: Cosmic feast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scaringi, Simone

    2017-03-01

    Low-mass stars form through a process known as disk accretion, eating up material that orbits in a disk around them. It turns out that the same mechanism also describes the formation of more massive stars.

  5. Accretion of Planetesimals and the Formation of Rocky Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambers, John E.; O'Brien, David P.; Davis, Andrew M.

    2010-02-01

    Here we describe the formation of rocky planets and asteroids in the context of the planetesimal hypothesis. Small dust grains in protoplanetary disks readily stick together forming mm-to-cm-sized aggregates, many of which experience brief heating episodes causing melting. Growth to km-sized planetesimals might proceed via continued pairwise sticking, turbulent concentration, or gravitational instability of a thin particle layer. Gravitational interactions between planetesimals lead to rapid runaway and oligarchic growth forming lunar-to-Mars-sized protoplanets in 10^5 to 10^6 years. Giant impacts between protoplanets form Earth-mass planets in 10^7 to 10^8 years, and occasionally lead to the formation of large satellites. Protoplanets may migrate far from their formation locations due to tidal interactions with the surrounding disk. Radioactive decay and impact heating cause melting and differentiation of planetesimals and protoplanets, forming iron-rich cores and silicate mantles, and leading to some loss of volatiles. Dynamical perturbations from giant planets eject most planetesimals and protoplanets from regions near orbital resonances, leading to asteroid-belt formation. Some of this scattered material will collide with growing terrestrial planets, altering their composition as a result. Numerical simulations and radioisotope dating indicate that the terrestrial planets of the Solar System were essentially fully formed in 100-200 million years.

  6. Sulfur barrier for use with in situ processes for treating formations

    DOEpatents

    Vinegar, Harold J [Bellaire, TX; Christensen, Del Scot [Friendswood, TX

    2009-12-15

    Methods for forming a barrier around at least a portion of a treatment area in a subsurface formation are described herein. Sulfur may be introduced into one or more wellbores located inside a perimeter of a treatment area in the formation having a permeability of at least 0.1 darcy. At least some of the sulfur is allowed to move towards portions of the formation cooler than the melting point of sulfur to solidify the sulfur in the formation to form the barrier.

  7. The presence of biofilm forming microorganisms on hydrotherapy equipment and facilities.

    PubMed

    Jarząb, Natalia; Walczak, Maciej

    2017-10-01

    Hydrotherapy equipment provides a perfect environment for the formation and growth of microbial biofilms. Biofilms may reduce the microbiological cleanliness of hydrotherapy equipment and harbour opportunistic pathogens and pathogenic bacteria. The aims of this study were to investigate the ability of microorganisms that colonize hydrotherapy equipment to form biofilms, and to assess the influence of temperature and nutrients on the rate of biofilm formation. Surface swab samples were collected from the whirlpool baths, inhalation equipment and submerged surfaces of a brine pool at the spa center in Ciechocinek, Poland. We isolated and identified microorganisms from the swab samples and measured their ability to form biofilms. Biofilm formation was observed at a range of temperatures, in both nutrient-deficient and nutrient-rich environments. We isolated and identified microorganisms which are known to form biofilms on medical devices (e.g. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia). All isolates were classified as opportunistic pathogens, which can cause infections in humans with weakened immunity systems. All isolates showed the ability to form biofilms in the laboratory conditions. The potential for biofilm formation was higher in the presence of added nutrients. In addition, the hydrolytic activity of the biofilm was connected with the presence of nutrients.

  8. Fast Molecular Cloud Destruction Requires Fast Cloud Formation

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark; Burkert, Andreas; Ibáñez-Mejía, Juan C., E-mail: mordecai@amnh.org, E-mail: burkert@usm.lmu.de, E-mail: ibanez@ph1.uni-koeln.de

    A large fraction of the gas in the Galaxy is cold, dense, and molecular. If all this gas collapsed under the influence of gravity and formed stars in a local free-fall time, the star formation rate in the Galaxy would exceed that observed by more than an order of magnitude. Other star-forming galaxies behave similarly. Yet, observations and simulations both suggest that the molecular gas is indeed gravitationally collapsing, albeit hierarchically. Prompt stellar feedback offers a potential solution to the low observed star formation rate if it quickly disrupts star-forming clouds during gravitational collapse. However, this requires that molecular cloudsmore » must be short-lived objects, raising the question of how so much gas can be observed in the molecular phase. This can occur only if molecular clouds form as quickly as they are destroyed, maintaining a global equilibrium fraction of dense gas. We therefore examine cloud formation timescales. We first demonstrate that supernova and superbubble sweeping cannot produce dense gas at the rate required to match the cloud destruction rate. On the other hand, Toomre gravitational instability can reach the required production rate. We thus argue that, although dense, star-forming gas may last only around a single global free-fall time; the dense gas in star-forming galaxies can globally exist in a state of dynamic equilibrium between formation by gravitational instability and disruption by stellar feedback. At redshift z ≳ 2, the Toomre instability timescale decreases, resulting in a prediction of higher molecular gas fractions at early times, in agreement with the observations.« less

  9. Evidence for arrested bone formation during spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, R. T.; Bobyn, J. D.; Duvall, P.; Morey, E. R.; Baylink, D. J.; Spector, M.

    1982-01-01

    Addressing the question of whether the bone formed in space is unusual, the morphology of bone made at the tibial diaphysis of rats before, during, and after spaceflight is studied. Evidence of arrest lines in the bone formed in space is reported suggesting that bone formation ceases along portions of the periosteum during spaceflight. Visualized by microradiography, the arrest lines are shown to be less mineralized than the surrounding bone matrix. When viewed by scanning electron microscopy, it is seen that bone fractures more readily at the site of an arrest line. These observations are seen as suggesting that arrest lines are a zone of weakness and that their formation may result in decreased bone strength in spite of normalization of bone formation after flight. The occurrence, location, and morphology of arrest lines are seen as suggesting that they are a visible result of the phenomenon of arrested bone formation.

  10. ORION: Hierarchical Space-based Observations of Star Formation, From Near to Far

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scowen, P. A.; Morse, J. A.; Beasley, M.; Veach, T.; ORION Science Team

    2005-12-01

    The ORION MIDEX mission is a 1.2m UV-visual observatory orbiting at L2 that will conduct the first-ever high spatial resolution survey of a statistically significant sample of visible star-forming environments in the Solar neighborhood in emission lines and continuum. This survey will be used to characterize the star and planet forming environments within 2.5 kpc of the Sun, infer global properties and star formation history in these regions, understand how the environment influences the process of star and planet formation, and develop a classification scheme for star forming regions incorporating the earlier results. Based on these findings we will then conduct a similar high spatial resolution survey of large portions of the Magellanic Clouds, applying the classification scheme from local star forming environments to analogous regions in nearby galaxies, extending the classification scheme to regions that do not have nearby analogs but are common in external galaxies. The results from the local survey will allow us to infer characteristics of low mass star forming environments in the Magellanic Clouds, study the spatial distribution of star forming environments and analyze stellar population photometry to trace star formation history. Finally we will image a representative sample of external galaxies using the same filters used to characterize nearby star formation regions. We will map the distribution of star forming region type as a function of galactic environment for galaxies out to 5 Mpc to infer the distribution and history of low-mass star formation over galactic scales, characterize the stellar content and star formation history of galaxies, and relate these results to the current star forming environments in these galaxies. Ultimately we intend to use these diagnostics to extrapolate to star formation environments in the higher redshift Universe. We will also present details on technology development, project planning and operations for the proposed

  11. Gas Accretion and Star Formation Rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez Almeida, Jorge

    Cosmological numerical simulations of galaxy evolution show that accretion of metal-poor gas from the cosmic web drives the star formation in galaxy disks. Unfortunately, the observational support for this theoretical prediction is still indirect, and modeling and analysis are required to identify hints as actual signs of star formation feeding from metal-poor gas accretion. Thus, a meticulous interpretation of the observations is crucial, and this observational review begins with a simple theoretical description of the physical process and the key ingredients it involves, including the properties of the accreted gas and of the star formation that it induces. A number of observations pointing out the connection between metal-poor gas accretion and star formation are analyzed, specifically, the short gas-consumption time-scale compared to the age of the stellar populations, the fundamental metallicity relationship, the relationship between disk morphology and gas metallicity, the existence of metallicity drops in starbursts of star-forming galaxies, the so-called G dwarf problem, the existence of a minimum metallicity for the star-forming gas in the local universe, the origin of the α-enhanced gas forming stars in the local universe, the metallicity of the quiescent BCDs, and the direct measurements of gas accretion onto galaxies. A final section discusses intrinsic difficulties to obtain direct observational evidence, and points out alternative observational pathways to further consolidate the current ideas.

  12. Influence of Applied Voltage and Film-Formation Time on Microstructure and Corrosion Resistance of Coatings Formed on Mg-Zn-Zr-Ca Bio-magnesium Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yandong, Yu; Shuzhen, Kuang; Jie, Li

    2015-09-01

    The influence of applied voltage and film-formation time on the microstructure and corrosion resistance of coatings formed on a Mg-Zn-Zr-Ca novel bio-magnesium alloy has been investigated by micro-arc oxidation (MAO) treatment. Phase composition and microstructure of as-coated samples were analyzed by the x-ray diffraction, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. And the porosity and average of micro-pore aperture of the surface on ceramic coatings were analyzed by general image software. Corrosion microstructure of as-coated samples was caught by a microscope digital camera. The long-term corrosion resistance of as-coated samples was tested in simulated body fluid for 30 days. The results showed that the milky white smooth ceramic coating formed on the Mg-Zn-Zr-Ca novel bio-magnesium alloy was a compound of MgO, Mg2SiO4 and MgSiO3, and its corrosion resistance was significantly improved compared with that of the magnesium substrate. In addition, when the MAO applied voltage were 450 V and 500 V and film-formation time were 9 min and 11 min, the surface micro-morphology and the corrosion resistance of as-coated samples were relatively improved. The results provided a theoretical foundation for the application of the Mg-Zn-Zr-Ca novel bio-magnesium alloy in biomedicine.

  13. The Value of Data and Metadata Standardization for Interoperability in Giovanni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smit, C.; Hegde, M.; Strub, R. F.; Bryant, K.; Li, A.; Petrenko, M.

    2017-12-01

    Giovanni (https://giovanni.gsfc.nasa.gov/giovanni/) is a data exploration and visualization tool at the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data Information Services Center (GES DISC). It has been around in one form or another for more than 15 years. Giovanni calculates simple statistics and produces 22 different visualizations for more than 1600 geophysical parameters from more than 90 satellite and model products. Giovanni relies on external data format standards to ensure interoperability, including the NetCDF CF Metadata Conventions. Unfortunately, these standards were insufficient to make Giovanni's internal data representation truly simple to use. Finding and working with dimensions can be convoluted with the CF Conventions. Furthermore, the CF Conventions are silent on machine-friendly descriptive metadata such as the parameter's source product and product version. In order to simplify analyzing disparate earth science data parameters in a unified way, we developed Giovanni's internal standard. First, the format standardizes parameter dimensions and variables so they can be easily found. Second, the format adds all the machine-friendly metadata Giovanni needs to present our parameters to users in a consistent and clear manner. At a glance, users can grasp all the pertinent information about parameters both during parameter selection and after visualization. This poster gives examples of how our metadata and data standards, both external and internal, have both simplified our code base and improved our users' experiences.

  14. Bedforms formed by experimental supercritical density flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naruse, Hajime; Izumi, Norihiro; Yokokawa, Miwa; Muto, Tetsuji

    2014-05-01

    This study reveals characteristics and formative conditions of bedforms produced by saline density flows in supercritical flow conditions, especially focusing on the mechanism of the formation of plane bed. The motion of sediment particles forming bedforms was resolved by high-speed cameras (1/1000 frame/seconds). Experimental density flows were produced by mixtures of salt water (1.01-1.04 in density) and plastic particles (1.5 in specific density, 140 or 240 mm in diameter). Salt water and plastic particles are analogue materials of muddy water and sand particles in turbidity currents respectively. Acrylic flume (4.0 m long, 2.0 cm wide and 0.5 m deep) was submerged in an experimental tank (6.0 m long, 1.8 m wide and 1.2 m deep) that was filled by clear water. Features of bedforms were observed when the bed state in the flume reached equilibrium condition. The experimental conditions range 1.5-4.2 in densimetric Froude number and 0.2-0.8 in Shields dimensionless stress. We report the two major discoveries as a result of the flume experiments: (1) Plane bed under Froude-supercritical flows and (2) Geometrical characteristics of cyclic steps formed by density flows. (1) Plane bed was formed under the condition of supercritical flow regime. In previous studies, plane bed has been known to be formed by subcritical unidirectional flows (ca. 0.8 in Froude number). However, this study implies that plane bed can also be formed by supercritical conditions with high Shields dimensionless stress (>0.4) and very high Froude number (> 4.0). This discovery may suggest that previous estimations of paleo-hydraulic conditions of parallel lamination in turbidites should be reconsidered. The previous experimental studies and data from high-speed camera suggest that the region of plane bed formation coincides with the region of the sheet flow developments. The particle transport in sheet flow (thick bedload layer) induces transform of profile of flow shear stress, which may be

  15. PHAGE FORMATION IN STAPHYLOCOCCUS MUSCAE CULTURES

    PubMed Central

    Price, Winston H.

    1949-01-01

    1. A non-dialyzable fraction from fresh bakers' yeast stimulates the formation of S. muscae virus in cells in synthetic medium in the log phase of multiplication. 2. A similar fraction was not found in calf thymus, pancreas, or liver. 3. The active substance in this fraction has been partially purified. 4. This substance is taken up by the cells. In the absence of virus the added substance is metabolized to a form no longer available for virus formation. 5. A purified yeast fraction, which stimulates adaptive enzyme formation in yeast, has been found to stimulate virus formation in the S. muscae system. 6. The similarities between the yeast fraction that stimulates adaptive enzyme formation and the yeast fraction that stimulates virus formation are discussed. PMID:18123312

  16. The formation conditions of chondrules and chondrites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alexander, C.M. O'D.; Grossman, Jeffrey N.; Ebel, D.S.; Ciesla, F.J.

    2008-01-01

    Chondrules, which are roughly millimeter-sized silicate-rich spherules, dominate the most primitive meteorites, the chondrites. They formed as molten droplets and, judging from their abundances in chondrites, are the products of one of the most energetic processes that operated in the early inner solar system. The conditions and mechanism of chondrule formation remain poorly understood. Here we show that the abundance of the volatile element sodium remained relatively constant during chondrule formation. Prevention of the evaporation of sodium requires that chondrules formed in regions with much higher solid densities than predicted by known nebular concentration mechanisms. These regions would probably have been self-gravitating. Our model explains many other chemical characteristics of chondrules and also implies that chondrule and planetesimal formation were linked.

  17. Extragalactic gamma-ray background from AGN winds and star-forming galaxies in cosmological galaxy-formation models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamastra, A.; Menci, N.; Fiore, F.; Antonelli, L. A.; Colafrancesco, S.; Guetta, D.; Stamerra, A.

    2017-10-01

    We derive the contribution to the extragalactic gamma-ray background (EGB) from active galactic nuclei (AGN) winds and star-forming galaxies by including a physical model for the γ-ray emission produced by relativistic protons accelerated by AGN-driven and supernova-driven shocks into a state-of-the-art semi-analytic model of galaxy formation. This is based on galaxy interactions as triggers of AGN accretion and starburst activity and on expanding blast waves as the mechanism to communicate outwards the energy injected into the interstellar medium by the active nucleus. We compare the model predictions with the latest measurement of the EGB spectrum performed by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi) in the range between 100 MeV and 820 GeV. We find that AGN winds can provide 35 ± 15% of the observed EGB in the energy interval Eγ = 0.1-1 GeV, for 73 ± 15% at Eγ = 1-10 GeV, and for 60 ± 20% at Eγ ≳10 GeV. The AGN wind contribution to the EGB is predicted to be larger by a factor of 3-5 than that provided by star-forming galaxies (quiescent plus starburst) in the hierarchical clustering scenario. The cumulative γ-ray emission from AGN winds and blazars can account for the amplitude and spectral shape of the EGB, assuming the standard acceleration theory, and AGN wind parameters that agree with observations. We also compare the model prediction for the cumulative neutrino background from AGN winds with the most recent IceCube data. We find that for AGN winds with accelerated proton spectral index p = 2.2-2.3, and taking into account internal absorption of γ-rays, the Fermi-LAT and IceCube data could be reproduced simultaneously.

  18. What Determines Star Formation Rates?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Neal John

    2017-06-01

    The relations between star formation and gas have received renewed attention. We combine studies on scales ranging from local (within 0.5 kpc) to distant galaxies to assess what factors contribute to star formation. These include studies of star forming regions in the Milky Way, the LMC, nearby galaxies with spatially resolved star formation, and integrated galaxy studies. We test whether total molecular gas or dense gas provides the best predictor of star formation rate. The star formation ``efficiency," defined as star formation rate divided by mass, spreads over a large range when the mass refers to molecular gas; the standard deviation of the log of the efficiency decreases by a factor of three when the mass of relatively dense molecular gas is used rather than the mass of all the molecular gas. We suggest ways to further develop the concept of "dense gas" to incorporate other factors, such as turbulence.

  19. THE DOMINANT EPOCH OF STAR FORMATION IN THE MILKY WAY FORMED THE THICK DISK

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Snaith, Owain N.; Haywood, Misha; Di Matteo, Paola

    2014-02-01

    We report the first robust measurement of the Milky Way star formation history using the imprint left on chemical abundances of long-lived stars. The formation of the Galactic thick disk occurs during an intense star formation phase between 9.0 (z ∼ 1.5) and 12.5 Gyr (z ∼ 4.5) ago and is followed by a dip (at z ∼ 1.1) lasting about 1 Gyr. Our results imply that the thick disk is as massive as the Milky Way's thin disk, suggesting a fundamental role of this component in the genesis of our Galaxy, something that had been largely unrecognized. This new picture impliesmore » that huge quantities of gas necessary to feed the building of the thick disk must have been present at these epochs, in contradiction with the long-term infall assumed by chemical evolution models in the last two decades. These results allow us to fit the Milky Way within the emerging features of the evolution of disk galaxies in the early universe.« less

  20. The three phases of galaxy formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clauwens, Bart; Schaye, Joop; Franx, Marijn; Bower, Richard G.

    2018-05-01

    We investigate the origin of the Hubble sequence by analysing the evolution of the kinematic morphologies of central galaxies in the EAGLE cosmological simulation. By separating each galaxy into disc and spheroidal stellar components and tracing their evolution along the merger tree, we find that the morphology of galaxies follows a common evolutionary trend. We distinguish three phases of galaxy formation. These phases are determined primarily by mass, rather than redshift. For M* ≲ 109.5M⊙ galaxies grow in a disorganised way, resulting in a morphology that is dominated by random stellar motions. This phase is dominated by in-situ star formation, partly triggered by mergers. In the mass range 109.5M⊙ ≲ M* ≲ 1010.5M⊙ galaxies evolve towards a disc-dominated morphology, driven by in-situ star formation. The central spheroid (i.e. the bulge) at z = 0 consists mostly of stars that formed in-situ, yet the formation of the bulge is to a large degree associated with mergers. Finally, at M* ≳ 1010.5M⊙ growth through in-situ star formation slows down considerably and galaxies transform towards a more spheroidal morphology. This transformation is driven more by the buildup of spheroids than by the destruction of discs. Spheroid formation in these galaxies happens mostly by accretion at large radii of stars formed ex-situ (i.e. the halo rather than the bulge).

  1. 3D tissue formation by stacking detachable cell sheets formed on nanofiber mesh.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Sung; Lee, Byungjun; Kim, Hong Nam; Bang, Seokyoung; Yang, Hee Seok; Kang, Seong Min; Suh, Kahp-Yang; Park, Suk-Hee; Jeon, Noo Li

    2017-03-23

    We present a novel approach for assembling 3D tissue by layer-by-layer stacking of cell sheets formed on aligned nanofiber mesh. A rigid frame was used to repeatedly collect aligned electrospun PCL (polycaprolactone) nanofiber to form a mesh structure with average distance between fibers 6.4 µm. When human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), human foreskin dermal fibroblasts, and skeletal muscle cells (C2C12) were cultured on the nanofiber mesh, they formed confluent monolayers and could be handled as continuous cell sheets with areas 3 × 3 cm 2 or larger. Thicker 3D tissues have been formed by stacking multiple cell sheets collected on frames that can be nested (i.e. Matryoshka dolls) without any special tools. When cultured on the nanofiber mesh, skeletal muscle, C2C12 cells oriented along the direction of the nanofibers and differentiated into uniaxially aligned multinucleated myotube. Myotube cell sheets were stacked (upto 3 layers) in alternating or aligned directions to form thicker tissue with ∼50 µm thickness. Sandwiching HUVEC cell sheets with two dermal fibroblast cell sheets resulted in vascularized 3D tissue. HUVECs formed extensive networks and expressed CD31, a marker of endothelial cells. Cell sheets formed on nanofiber mesh have a number of advantages, including manipulation and stacking of multiple cell sheets for constructing 3D tissue and may find applications in a variety of tissue engineering applications.

  2. The formation of direct collapse black holes under the influence of streaming velocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schauer, Anna T. P.; Regan, John; Glover, Simon C. O.; Klessen, Ralf S.

    2017-11-01

    We study the influence of a high baryonic streaming velocity on the formation of direct collapse black holes (DCBHs) with the help of cosmological simulations carried out using the moving mesh code arepo. We show that a streaming velocity that is as large as three times the root-mean-squared value is effective at suppressing the formation of H2-cooled minihaloes, while still allowing larger atomic cooling haloes (ACHs) to form. We find that enough H2 forms in the centre of these ACHs to effectively cool the gas, demonstrating that a high streaming velocity by itself cannot produce the conditions required for DCBH formation. However, we argue that high streaming velocity regions do provide an ideal environment for the formation of DCBHs in close pairs of ACHs (the `synchronized halo' model). Due to the absence of star formation in minihaloes, the gas remains chemically pristine until the ACHs form. If two such haloes form with only a small separation in time and space, then the one forming stars earlier can provide enough ultraviolet radiation to suppress H2 cooling in the other, allowing it to collapse to form a DCBH. Baryonic streaming may therefore play a crucial role in the formation of the seeds of the highest redshift quasars.

  3. N-terminal Domains Elicit Formation of Functional Pmel17 Amyloid Fibrils*

    PubMed Central

    Watt, Brenda; van Niel, Guillaume; Fowler, Douglas M.; Hurbain, Ilse; Luk, Kelvin C.; Stayrook, Steven E.; Lemmon, Mark A.; Raposo, Graça; Shorter, James; Kelly, Jeffery W.; Marks, Michael S.

    2009-01-01

    Pmel17 is a transmembrane protein that mediates the early steps in the formation of melanosomes, the subcellular organelles of melanocytes in which melanin pigments are synthesized and stored. In melanosome precursor organelles, proteolytic fragments of Pmel17 form insoluble, amyloid-like fibrils upon which melanins are deposited during melanosome maturation. The mechanism(s) by which Pmel17 becomes competent to form amyloid are not fully understood. To better understand how amyloid formation is regulated, we have defined the domains within Pmel17 that promote fibril formation in vitro. Using purified recombinant fragments of Pmel17, we show that two regions, an N-terminal domain of unknown structure and a downstream domain with homology to a polycystic kidney disease-1 repeat, efficiently form amyloid in vitro. Analyses of fibrils formed in melanocytes confirm that the polycystic kidney disease-1 domain forms at least part of the physiological amyloid core. Interestingly, this same domain is also required for the intracellular trafficking of Pmel17 to multivesicular compartments within which fibrils begin to form. Although a domain of imperfect repeats (RPT) is required for fibril formation in vivo and is a component of fibrils in melanosomes, RPT is not necessary for fibril formation in vitro and in isolation is unable to adopt an amyloid fold in a physiologically relevant time frame. These data define the structural core of Pmel17 amyloid, imply that the RPT domain plays a regulatory role in timing amyloid conversion, and suggest that fibril formation might be physically linked with multivesicular body sorting. PMID:19840945

  4. Tools and strategies for instrument monitoring, data mining and data access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Hees, R. M., ,, Dr

    2009-04-01

    particular, the packet table API allows very compact storage of compound data sets and very fast read/write access. Details about this implementation and pitfalls will be given in the presentation. [Data Mining] The ability to select relevant data is a requirement that all data centers have to offer. The NL-SCIA-DC allows the users to select data using several criteria including: time, geo-location, type of observation and data quality. The result of the query are [i] location and name of relevant data products (files), or [ii] listing of meta data of the relevant measurements, or [iii] listing of the measurements (level 2 or higher). For this application, we need the power of a relational database, the SQL language, and the availability of spatial functions. PostgreSQL, extended with postGIS support turned out to be a good choice. Common queries on tables with millions of rows can be executed within seconds. [Data Deployment] The dissemination of scientific data is often cumbersome by the usage of many different formats to store the products. Therefore, time-consuming and inefficient conversions are needed to use data products from different origin. Within the Atmospheric Data Access for the Geospatial User Community (ADAGUC) project we provide selected space borne atmospheric and land data sets in the same data format and consistent internal structure, so that users can easily use and combine data. The common format for storage is HDF5, but the netCDF-4 API is used to create the data sets. The standard for metadata and dataset attributes follow the netCDF Climate and Forecast conventions, in addition metadata complies to the ISO 19115:2003 INSPIRE profile are added. The advantage of netCDF-4 is that the API is essentially equal to netCDF-3 (with a few extensions), while the data format is HDF5 (recognized by many scientific tools). The added metadata ensures product traceability. Details will be given in the presentation and several posters.

  5. Characteristic Structure of Star-forming Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, Philip C.

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents a new method to diagnose the star-forming potential of a molecular cloud region from the probability density function of its column density (N-pdf). This method provides expressions for the column density and mass profiles of a symmetric filament having the same N-pdf as a filamentary region. The central concentration of this characteristic filament can distinguish regions and can quantify their fertility for star formation. Profiles are calculated for N-pdfs which are pure lognormal, pure power law, or a combination. In relation to models of singular polytropic cylinders, characteristic filaments can be unbound, bound, or collapsing depending on their central concentration. Such filamentary models of the dynamical state of N-pdf gas are more relevant to star-forming regions than are spherical collapse models. The star formation fertility of a bound or collapsing filament is quantified by its mean mass accretion rate when in radial free fall. For a given mass per length, the fertility increases with the filament mean column density and with its initial concentration. In selected regions the fertility of their characteristic filaments increases with the level of star formation.

  6. Maggot excretions inhibit biofilm formation on biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Cazander, Gwendolyn; van de Veerdonk, Mariëlle C; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, Christina M J E; Schreurs, Marco W J; Jukema, Gerrolt N

    2010-10-01

    Biofilm-associated infections in trauma surgery are difficult to treat with conventional therapies. Therefore, it is important to develop new treatment modalities. Maggots in captured bags, which are permeable for larval excretions/secretions, aid in healing severe, infected wounds, suspect for biofilm formation. Therefore we presumed maggot excretions/secretions would reduce biofilm formation. We studied biofilm formation of Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Klebsiella oxytoca, Enterococcus faecalis, and Enterobacter cloacae on polyethylene, titanium, and stainless steel. We compared the quantities of biofilm formation between the bacterial species on the various biomaterials and the quantity of biofilm formation after various incubation times. Maggot excretions/secretions were added to existing biofilms to examine their effect. Comb-like models of the biomaterials, made to fit in a 96-well microtiter plate, were incubated with bacterial suspension. The formed biofilms were stained in crystal violet, which was eluted in ethanol. The optical density (at 595 nm) of the eluate was determined to quantify biofilm formation. Maggot excretions/secretions were pipetted in different concentrations to (nonstained) 7-day-old biofilms, incubated 24 hours, and finally measured. The strongest biofilms were formed by S. aureus and S. epidermidis on polyethylene and the weakest on titanium. The highest quantity of biofilm formation was reached within 7 days for both bacteria. The presence of excretions/secretions reduced biofilm formation on all biomaterials. A maximum of 92% of biofilm reduction was measured. Our observations suggest maggot excretions/secretions decrease biofilm formation and could provide a new treatment for biofilm formation on infected biomaterials.

  7. Vascular lumen formation.

    PubMed

    Lammert, Eckhard; Axnick, Jennifer

    2012-04-01

    The vascular system developed early in evolution. It is required in large multicellular organisms for the transport of nutrients, oxygen, and waste products to and from tissues. The vascular system is composed of hollow tubes, which have a high level of complexity in vertebrates. Vasculogenesis describes the de novo formation of blood vessels, e.g., aorta formation in vertebrate embryogenesis. In contrast, angiogenesis is the formation of blood vessels from preexisting ones, e.g., sprouting of intersomitic blood vessels from the aorta. Importantly, the lumen of all blood vessels in vertebrates is lined and formed by endothelial cells. In both vasculogenesis and angiogenesis, lumen formation takes place in a cord of endothelial cells. It involves a complex molecular mechanism composed of endothelial cell repulsion at the cell-cell contacts within the endothelial cell cords, junctional rearrangement, and endothelial cell shape change. As the vascular system also participates in the course of many diseases, such as cancer, stroke, and myocardial infarction, it is important to understand and make use of the molecular mechanisms of blood vessel formation to better understand and manipulate the pathomechanisms involved.

  8. Efficient formation of heterokaryotic sclerotia in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Wada, Ryuta; Jin, Feng Jie; Koyama, Yasuji; Maruyama, Jun-ichi; Kitamoto, Katsuhiko

    2014-01-01

    Heterokaryon formation by hyphal fusion occurs during a sexual/parasexual cycle in filamentous fungi, and therefore, it is biotechnologically important for crossbreeding. In the industrial filamentous fungus Aspergillus oryzae, a parasexual cycle has been reported, and it was recently suggested that sexual reproduction should be possible. However, as A. oryzae enters into hyphal fusion with a much lower frequency than Neurospora crassa, the process of heterokaryon formation has not been extensively characterized in A. oryzae. Here, we developed a detection system for heterokaryon formation by expressing red or green fluorescent proteins in nuclei and conferring uridine/uracil or adenine auxotrophy to MAT1-1 and MAT1-2 strains of A. oryzae. The heterokaryon formation of A. oryzae was investigated in paired culture using the genetically modified strains. No sclerotial formation was observed in the hyphal contact regions of the two strains with the same auxotrophy, whereas numerous sclerotia were formed between the strains with different auxotrophies. In most of the formed sclerotia, the uridine/uracil and adenine auxotrophies were complemented, and both red and green fluorescence were detected, indicating that heterokaryotic fusants were formed by hyphal fusion before or during sclerotial formation. Moreover, overexpressing the sclR gene, which encodes a transcription factor promoting sclerotial formation, increased the number of heterokaryotic sclerotia formed between the two auxotrophic strains. Notably, these effects in sclerotial formation of heterokaryotic fusants were observed independently of the mating type pairing combinations. Taken together, these findings demonstrated that paring of different auxotrophs and sclR overexpression promote the formation of heterokaryotic sclerotia in A. oryzae.

  9. Protein particulates: another generic form of protein aggregation?

    PubMed

    Krebs, Mark R H; Devlin, Glyn L; Donald, A M

    2007-02-15

    Protein aggregation is a problem with a multitude of consequences, ranging from affecting protein expression to its implication in many diseases. Of recent interest is the specific form of aggregation leading to the formation of amyloid fibrils, structures associated with diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. The ability to form amyloid fibrils is now regarded as a property generic to all polypeptide chains. Here we show that around the isoelectric point a different generic form of aggregation can also occur by studying seven widely different, nonrelated proteins that are also all known to form amyloid fibrils. Under these conditions gels consisting of relatively monodisperse spherical particulates are formed. Although these gels have been described before for beta-lactoglobulin, our results suggest that the formation of particulates in the regime where charge on the molecules is minimal is a common property of all proteins. Because the proteins used here also form amyloid fibrils, we further propose that protein misfolding into clearly defined aggregates is a generic process whose outcome depends solely on the general properties of the state the protein is in when aggregation occurs, rather than the specific amino acid sequence. Thus under conditions of high net charge, amyloid fibrils form, whereas under conditions of low net charge, particulates form. This observation furthermore suggests that the rules of soft matter physics apply to these systems.

  10. An Innovative Open Data-driven Approach for Improved Interpretation of Coverage Data at NASA JPL's PO.DAA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGibbney, L. J.; Armstrong, E. M.

    2016-12-01

    Figuratively speaking, Scientific Datasets (SD) are shared by data producers in a multitude of shapes, sizes and flavors. Primarily however they exist as machine-independent manifestations supporting the creation, access, and sharing of array-oriented SD that can on occasion be spread across multiple files. Within the Earth Sciences, the most notable general examples include the HDF family, NetCDF, etc. with other formats such as GRIB being used pervasively within specific domains such as the Oceanographic, Atmospheric and Meteorological sciences. Such file formats contain Coverage Data e.g. a digital representation of some spatio-temporal phenomenon. A challenge for large data producers such as NASA and NOAA as well as consumers of coverage datasets (particularly surrounding visualization and interactive use within web clients) is that this is still not a straight-forward issue due to size, serialization and inherent complexity. Additionally existing data formats are either unsuitable for the Web (like netCDF files) or hard to interpret independently due to missing standard structures and metadata (e.g. the OPeNDAP protocol). Therefore alternative, Web friendly manifestations of such datasets are required.CoverageJSON is an emerging data format for publishing coverage data to the web in a web-friendly, way which fits in with the linked data publication paradigm hence lowering the barrier for interpretation by consumers via mobile devices and client applications, etc. as well as data producers who can build next generation Web friendly Web services around datasets. This work will detail how CoverageJSON is being evaluated at NASA JPL's PO.DAAC as an enabling data representation format for publishing SD as Linked Open Data embedded within SD landing pages as well as via semantic data repositories. We are currently evaluating how utilization of CoverageJSON within SD landing pages addresses the long-standing acknowledgement that SD producers are not currently

  11. Exposing Coverage Data to the Semantic Web within the MELODIES project: Challenges and Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riechert, Maik; Blower, Jon; Griffiths, Guy

    2016-04-01

    Coverage data, typically big in data volume, assigns values to a given set of spatiotemporal positions, together with metadata on how to interpret those values. Existing storage formats like netCDF, HDF and GeoTIFF all have various restrictions that prevent them from being preferred formats for use over the web, especially the semantic web. Factors that are relevant here are the processing complexity, the semantic richness of the metadata, and the ability to request partial information, such as a subset or just the appropriate metadata. Making coverage data available within web browsers opens the door to new ways for working with such data, including new types of visualization and on-the-fly processing. As part of the European project MELODIES (http://melodiesproject.eu) we look into the challenges of exposing such coverage data in an interoperable and web-friendly way, and propose solutions using a host of emerging technologies like JSON-LD, the DCAT and GeoDCAT-AP ontologies, the CoverageJSON format, and new approaches to REST APIs for coverage data. We developed the CoverageJSON format within the MELODIES project as an additional way to expose coverage data to the web, next to having simple rendered images available using standards like OGC's WMS. CoverageJSON partially incorporates JSON-LD but does not encode individual data values as semantic resources, making use of the technology in a practical manner. The development also focused on it being a potential output format for OGC WCS. We will demonstrate how existing netCDF data can be exposed as CoverageJSON resources on the web together with a REST API that allows users to explore the data and run operations such as spatiotemporal subsetting. We will show various use cases from the MELODIES project, including reclassification of a Land Cover dataset client-side within the browser with the ability for the user to influence the reclassification result by making use of the above technologies.

  12. Star formation across galactic environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Jason

    I present here parallel investigations of star formation in typical and extreme galaxies. The typical galaxies are selected to be free of active galactic nuclei (AGN), while the extreme galaxies host quasars (the most luminous class of AGN). These two environments are each insightful in their own way; quasars are among the most violent objects in the universe, literally reshaping their host galaxies, while my sample of AGN-free star-forming galaxies ranges from systems larger than the Milky Way to small galaxies which are forming stars at unsustainably high rates. The current paradigm of galaxy formation and evolution suggests that extreme circumstances are key stepping stones in the assembly of galaxies like our Milky Way. To test this paradigm and fully explore its ramifications, this dual approach is needed. My sample of AGN-free galaxies is drawn from the KPNO International Spectroscopic Survey. This Halpha-selected, volume-limited survey was designed to detect star-forming galaxies without a bias toward continuum luminosity. This type of selection ensures that this sample is not biased toward galaxies that are large or nearby. My work studies the KISS galaxies in the mid- and far-infrared using photometry from the IRAC and MIPS instruments aboard the Spitzer Space Telescope. These infrared bands are particularly interesting for star formation studies because the ultraviolet light from young stars is reprocessed into thermal emission in the far-infrared (24mum MIPS) by dust and into vibrational transitions features in the mid-infrared (8.0mum IRAC) by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The work I present here examines the efficiencies of PAH and thermal dust emission as tracers of star-formation rates over a wide range of galactic stellar masses. I find that the efficiency of PAH as a star-formation tracer varies with galactic stellar mass, while thermal dust has a highly variable efficiency that does not systematically depend on galactic stellar mass

  13. Understanding the operational parameters affecting NDMA formation at Advanced Water Treatment Plants.

    PubMed

    Farré, Maria José; Döderer, Katrin; Hearn, Laurence; Poussade, Yvan; Keller, Jurg; Gernjak, Wolfgang

    2011-01-30

    N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) can be formed when secondary effluents are disinfected by chloramines. By means of bench scale experiments this paper investigates operational parameters than can help Advanced Water Treatment Plants (AWTPs) to reduce the formation of NDMA during the production of high quality recycled water. The formation of NDMA was monitored during a contact time of 24h using dimethylamine as NDMA model precursor and secondary effluent from wastewater treatment plants. The three chloramine disinfection strategies tested were pre-formed and in-line formed monochloramine, and pre-formed dichloramine. Although the latter is not employed on purpose in full-scale applications, it has been suggested as the main contributing chemical generating NDMA during chloramination. After 24h, the NDMA formation decreased in both matrices tested in the order: pre-formed dichloramine>in-line formed monochloramine≫pre-formed monochloramine. The most important parameter to consider for the inhibition of NDMA formation was the length of contact time between disinfectant and wastewater. Formation of NDMA was initially inhibited for up to 6h with concentrations consistently <10 ng/L during these early stages of disinfection, regardless of the disinfection strategy. The reduction of the contact time was implemented in Bundamba AWTP (Queensland, Australia), where NDMA concentrations were reduced by a factor of 20 by optimizing the disinfection strategy. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Substrate system for spray forming

    DOEpatents

    Chu, Men G.; Chernicoff, William P.

    2000-01-01

    A substrate system for receiving a deposit of sprayed metal droplets including a movable outer substrate on which the sprayed metal droplets are deposited. The substrate system also includes an inner substrate disposed adjacent the outer substrate where the sprayed metal droplets are deposited on the outer substrate. The inner substrate includes zones of differing thermal conductivity to resist substrate layer porosity and to resist formation of large grains and coarse constituent particles in a bulk layer of the metal droplets which have accumulated on the outer substrate. A spray forming apparatus and associated method of spray forming a molten metal to form a metal product using the substrate system of the invention is also provided.

  15. Substrate system for spray forming

    DOEpatents

    Chu, Men G.; Chernicoff, William P.

    2002-01-01

    A substrate system for receiving a deposit of sprayed metal droplets including a movable outer substrate on which the sprayed metal droplets are deposited. The substrate system also includes an inner substrate disposed adjacent the outer substrate where the sprayed metal droplets are deposited on the outer substrate. The inner substrate includes zones of differing thermal conductivity to resist substrate layer porosity and to resist formation of large grains and coarse constituent particles in a bulk layer of the metal droplets which have accumulated on the outer substrate. A spray forming apparatus and associated method of spray forming a molten metal to form a metal product using the substrate system of the invention is also provided.

  16. Effect of reaction time on the formation of disinfection byproducts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rathbun, R.E.

    1997-01-01

    The effect of reaction time on the trihalomethane and nonpurgeable total organic-halide formation potentials was determined by chlorinating water samples from the Mississippi, Missouri, and Ohio Rivers. Samples were collected for three seasons at 12 locations on the Mississippi from Minneapolis, Minnesota, to New Orleans, Louisiana, and on the Missouri and Ohio 1.6 kilometers above their confluences with the Mississippi. Both types of compounds formed rapidly during the initial stages of the reaction-time period, with formation rates decreasing with time. The ratio of the nonpurgeable total organic-halide and trihalomethane concentrations decreased with time, with the nonpurgeable total organic-halide compounds forming faster during the first stages of the time period and the trihalomethane compounds forming faster during the latter stages of the time period. Variation with distance along the Mississippi River of the formation rates approximately paralleled the variation of the dissolved organic carbon concentration, indicating that the rates of formation, as well as the concentrations of the compounds formed, depended on the dissolved organic carbon concentration.

  17. Stability of pharmaceutical salts in solid oral dosage forms.

    PubMed

    Nie, Haichen; Byrn, Stephen R; Zhou, Qi Tony

    2017-08-01

    Using pharmaceutical salts in solid dosage forms can raise stability concerns, especially salt dissociation which can adversely affect the product performance. Therefore, a thorough understanding of the salt instability encountered in solid-state formulations is imperative to ensure the product quality. The present article uses the fundamental theory of acid base, ionic equilibrium, relationship of pH and solubility as a starting point to illustrate and interpret the salt formation and salt disproportionation in pharmaceutical systems. The criteria of selecting the optimal salt form and the underlying theory of salt formation and disproportionation are reviewed in detail. Factors influencing salt stability in solid dosage forms are scrutinized and discussed with the case studies. In addition, both commonly used and innovative strategies for preventing salt dissociations in formulation, on storage and during manufacturing will be suggested herein. This article will provide formulation scientists and manufacturing engineers an insight into the mechanisms of salt disproportionation and salt formation, which can help them to avoid and solve the instability issues of pharmaceutical salts in the product design.

  18. STEAM FORMING NEUTRONIC REACTOR AND METHOD OF OPERATING IT

    DOEpatents

    Untermyer, S.

    1960-05-10

    The heterogeneous reactor is liquid moderated and cooled by a steam forming coolant and is designed to produce steam from the coolant directly within the active portion of the reactor while avoiding the formation of bubbles in the liquid moderator. This reactor achieves inherent stability as a result of increased neutron leakage and increased neutron resonance absorption in the U/sup 238/ fuel with the formation of bubbles. The invention produces certain conditions under which the formation of vapor bubbles as a result of a neutron flux excursion from the injection of a reactivity increment into the reactor will operate to nullify the reactivity increment within a sufficiently short period of time to prevent unsafe reactor operating conditions from developing. This is obtained by disposing a plurality of fuel elements within a mass of steam forming coolant in the core with the ratio of the volume of steam forming coolant to the volume of fissionable isotopes being within the range yielding a multiplication factor greater than unity and a negative reactivity to core void coefficient at the boiling temperature of the coolant.

  19. Forming impressions of facial attractiveness is mandatory.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, Kay L; Palermo, Romina; Rhodes, Gillian

    2017-03-28

    First impressions of social traits, such as attractiveness, from faces are often claimed to be made automatically, given their speed and reliability. However, speed of processing is only one aspect of automaticity. Here we address a further aspect, asking whether impression formation is mandatory. Mandatory formation requires that impressions are formed about social traits even when this is task-irrelevant, and that once formed, these impressions are difficult to inhibit. In two experiments, participants learned what new people looked like for the purpose of future identification, from sets of images high or low in attractiveness. They then rated middle-attractiveness images of each person, for attractiveness. Even though instructed to rate the specific images, not the people, their ratings were biased by the attractiveness of the learned images. A third control experiment, with participants rating names, demonstrated that participants in Experiments 1 and 2 were not simply rating the people, rather than the specific images as instructed. These results show that the formation of attractiveness impressions from faces is mandatory, thus broadening the evidence for automaticity of facial impressions. The mandatory formation of impressions is likely to have an important impact in real-world situations such as online dating sites.

  20. The Ocean Observatories Initiative: Data Acquisition Functions and Its Built-In Automated Python Modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, M. J.; Vardaro, M.; Crowley, M. F.; Glenn, S. M.; Schofield, O.; Belabbassi, L.; Garzio, L. M.; Knuth, F.; Fram, J. P.; Kerfoot, J.

    2016-02-01

    The Ocean Observatories Initiative (OOI), funded by the National Science Foundation, provides users with access to long-term datasets from a variety of oceanographic sensors. The Endurance Array in the Pacific Ocean consists of two separate lines off the coasts of Oregon and Washington. The Oregon line consists of 7 moorings, two cabled benthic experiment packages and 6 underwater gliders. The Washington line comprises 6 moorings and 6 gliders. Each mooring is outfitted with a variety of instrument packages. The raw data from these instruments are sent to shore via satellite communication and in some cases, via fiber optic cable. Raw data is then sent to the cyberinfrastructure (CI) group at Rutgers where it is aggregated, parsed into thousands of different data streams, and integrated into a software package called uFrame. The OOI CI delivers the data to the general public via a web interface that outputs data into commonly used scientific data file formats such as JSON, netCDF, and CSV. The Rutgers data management team has developed a series of command-line Python tools that streamline data acquisition in order to facilitate the QA/QC review process. The first step in the process is querying the uFrame database for a list of all available platforms. From this list, a user can choose a specific platform and automatically download all available datasets from the specified platform. The downloaded dataset is plotted using a generalized Python netcdf plotting routine that utilizes a data visualization toolbox called matplotlib. This routine loads each netCDF file separately and outputs plots by each available parameter. These Python tools have been uploaded to a Github repository that is openly available to help facilitate OOI data access and visualization.

  1. Using OPeNDAP's Data-Services Framework to Lift Mash-Ups above Blind Dates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallagher, J. H. R.; Fulker, D. W.

    2015-12-01

    OPeNDAP's data-as-service framework (Hyrax) matches diverse sources with many end-user tools and contexts. Keys to its flexibility include: A data model embracing tabular data alongside n-dim arrays and other structures useful in geoinformatics. A REST-like protocol that supports—via suffix notation—a growing set of output forms (netCDF, XML, etc.) plus a query syntax for subsetting. Subsetting applies (via constraints on column values) to tabular data or (via constraints on indices or coordinates) to array-style data . A handler-style architecture that admits a growing set of input types. Community members may contribute handlers, making Hyrax effective as middleware, where N sources are mapped to M outputs with order N+M effort (not NxM). Hyrax offers virtual aggregations of source data, enabling granularity aimed at users, not data-collectors. OPeNDAP-access libraries exist in multiple languages, including Python, Java, and C++. Recent enhancements are increasing this framework's interoperability (i.e., its mash-up) potential. Extensions implemented as servlets—running adjacent to Hyrax—are enriching the forms of aggregation and enabling new protocols: User-specified aggregations, namely, applying a query to (huge) lists of source granules, and receiving one (large) table or zipped netCDF file. OGC (Open Geospatial Consortium) protocols, WMS and WCS. A Webification (W10n) protocol that returns JavaScript Object Notation (JSON). Extensions to OPeNDAP's query language are reducing transfer volumes and enabling new forms of inspection. Advances underway include: Functions that, for triangular-mesh sources, return sub-meshes spec'd via geospatial bounding boxes. Functions that, for data from multiple, satellite-borne sensors (with differing orbits), select observations based on coincidence. Calculations of means, histograms, etc. that greatly reduce output volumes.. Paths for communities to contribute new server functions (in Python, e.g.) that data

  2. Nitrate formation during ozonation as a surrogate parameter for abatement of micropollutants and the N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) formation potential.

    PubMed

    Song, Yang; Breider, Florian; Ma, Jun; von Gunten, Urs

    2017-10-01

    In this study, nitrate formation from ammonium and/or dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) was investigated as a novel surrogate parameter to evaluate the abatement of micropollutants during ozonation of synthetic waters containing natural organic matter (NOM) isolates, a natural water and secondary wastewater effluents. Nitrate formation during ozonation was compared to the changes in UV absorbance at 254 nm (UVA 254 ) including the effect of pH. For low specific ozone doses UVA 254 was abated more efficiently than nitrate was formed. This is due to a relatively slow rate-limiting step for nitrate formation from the reaction between ozone and a proposed nitrogen-containing intermediate. This reaction cannot compete with the fast reactions between ozone and UV-absorbing moieties (e.g., activated aromatic compounds). To further test the kinetics of nitrate formation, two possible intermediates formed during ozonation of DON were tested. At pH 7, nitrate was formed during ozonation of acetone oxime and methyl nitroacetate with second-order rate constants of 256.7 ± 4.7 M -1  s -1 and 149.5 ± 5.8 M -1  s -1 , respectively. The abatement of the selected micropollutants (i.e., 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), carbamazepine (CBZ), bezafibrate (BZF), ibuprofen (IBU), and p-chlorobenzoic acid (pCBA)) was investigated for specific ozone doses ≤1.53 mgO 3 /mgDOC and its efficiency depended strongly on the reactivity of the selected compounds with ozone. The relative abatement of micropollutants (i.e., EE2 and CBZ) with high ozone reactivity showed linear relationships with nitrate formation. The abatement of micropollutants with intermediate-low ozone reactivity (BZF, IBU, and pCBA) followed one- and two-phase behaviors relative to nitrate formation during ozonation of water samples containing high and low concentrations of nitrate-forming DON, respectively. During ozonation of a wastewater sample, the N-nitrosodimethylamine formation potential (NDMA-FP) during

  3. The Helicobacter pylori L-form: formation and isolation in the human bile cultures in vitro and in the gallbladders of patients with biliary diseases.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dan N; Ding, Wen J; Pan, Yao Z; Tang, Ke L; Wang, Tao; She, Xiao L; Wang, He

    2015-04-01

    The Helicobacter pylori is considered the important causative agent causing biliary diseases, but the H. pylori can be isolated from very few gallbladder specimens with diseases. We studied the formation of H. pylori L-forms in bile in vitro and isolated the H. pylori L-forms from gallbladder of patients with biliary diseases. We inoculated the H. pylori into the human bile to induce the L-form in vitro. The gallbladder specimens were collected from patients with biliary diseases to isolate the bacterial L-forms by the nonhigh osmotic isolation technique, and the H. pylori L-forms in the L-form isolates were identified by the gene assay for the H. pylori-specific genes 16S rRNA and UreA. The H. Pylori cannot be isolated from the bile-induced cultures, but the H. pylori L-form can be isolated from the H. pylori-negative bile-induced cultures. The L-form isolates of bile-induced cultures showed a positive reaction of the H. pylori-specific genes by PCR, and the coincidence ratio of the nucleotide sequences between the L-forms and the H. pylori is 99%. The isolation rate of bacteria L-form is 93.2% in the gallbladder specimens with bacteria-negative isolation culture by the nonhigh osmotic isolation technique, and the positive rate of the H. pylori-specific genes in the L-form isolates is 7.1% in the bacterial L-form-positive isolation cultures by the PCR. H. pylori can be rapidly induced into the L-form in the human bile; the L-form, as the latent bacteria, can live in the host gallbladder for a long times, and they made the host became a latent carrier of the H. pylori L-form. The H. pylori L-form can be isolated by the nonhigh osmotic isolation technique, and the variant can be identified by the gene assay for the H. pylori-specific genes 16S rRNA and reA. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Evaluation of the material and tablet formation properties of modified forms of Dioscorea starches.

    PubMed

    Odeku, Oluwatoyin A; Picker-Freyer, Katharina M

    2009-11-01

    Starches obtained from four different Dioscorea species-namely, White yam (Dioscorea rotundata), Bitter yam (Dioscorea dumetorum), Chinese yam (Dioscorea oppositifolia), and Water yam (Dioscorea alata)-were modified by cross-linking, hydroxypropylation, and dual modification-cross-linking followed by hydroxypropylation. The physicochemical, material, and tablet properties of the modified starches were investigated with the aim of understanding their properties to determine their potential use for different applications. The tablet formation properties were assessed using 3D modeling, the Heckel equation, and force-displacement profiles. The analyzed tablet properties were elastic recovery, compactibility, and disintegration. The result indicates that the modifications generally increased the swelling power for all the starches in the rank order hydroxypropyl > hydroxypropylated cross-linked > cross-linked (CL) while the solubility did not show a clear-cut pattern. This indicates that hydroxypropylation generally showed the strongest effects on swelling. Furthermore, hydroxypropylation improved the hot water swelling of the CL starches. The modifications did not cause any detectable morphological change in the starch granules shape or size although slight rupture was observed in some granules. CL starch had the lowest water sorption capacity and hydroxypropylation increased the sorption capacity of the CL starches. The material property results indicate that hydroxypropylation and cross-linking did not significantly improve the flowability and compressibility but improved bonding, which resulted in an increased compaction and higher tablet crushing force even though they all disintegrated rapidly. Thus, the modified Dioscorea starches showed potentials for development as new excipients in solid dosage form design, and they could be useful as disintegrants or for Soft tableting.

  5. The formation of protoplanets in the planetesimal disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kominami, Junko; Tanaka, Hidekazu; Ida, Shigeru

    We have performed N-body simulations on the stage of protoplanet formation from planetesimals. Generally accepted planet formation theory suggests that protoplanets are formed through accretion of ~km sized planetesimals. The formation process proceeds in the nebular disk. Hence the bodies in the disk suffer gas drag and interact tidally with the nebula. Such interaction triggers the type I migration. We found that the runaway protoplanet forms a gap in the planetesimal disk. It results in the slow down of the migration by factor of ~0.7, and the accretion rate. However, the shepherding does not last so long. Hence the overall migration time scale can not be changed by the formation of the gap in the planetesimal disk. However, if the depletion of the gas occurs from the inner region of the disk, the planets may survive from migration.

  6. Low temperature barrier wellbores formed using water flushing

    DOEpatents

    McKinzie, II; John, Billy [Houston, TX; Keltner, Thomas Joseph [Spring, TX

    2009-03-10

    A method of forming an opening for a low temperature well is described. The method includes drilling an opening in a formation. Water is introduced into the opening to displace drilling fluid or indigenous gas in the formation adjacent to a portion of the opening. Water is produced from the opening. A low temperature fluid is applied to the opening.

  7. A theory of ring formation around Be stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, S.-S.

    1976-01-01

    A theory for the formation of gaseous rings around Be stars is developed which involves the combined effect of stellar rotation and radiation pressure. A qualitative scenario of ring formation is outlined in which the envelope formed about a star from ejected material is in the form of a disk in the equatorial plane, collisions between ejected gas blobs are inevitable, and particles with high angular momenta form a rotating ring around the star. A quantitative description of this process is then formulated by considering the angular momentum and dynamical energy of the ejected matter as well as those of the ring alone, without introducing any other assumptions.

  8. Analysis of Extreme Star Formation Environments in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayak, Omnarayani

    2018-01-01

    My thesis is on three extreme star forming environments in the Large Magellanic Cloud: 30 Doradus, N159, and N79. These three regions are at different evolutionary stage of forming stars. N79 is at a very young stage, just starting its star formation activity. N159 is currently actively forming several massive YSOs. And 30 Doradus has already passed it peak star formation, and several protostars are no longer shrouded by gas and dust, and are starting to be more visible in the optical wavelengths. I analyze the CO molecular gas clouds with ALMA in 30 Doradus, N159, and N79. I identify all massive YSOs within the ALMA footprint of all three regions. My thesis is on relating the star formation activity in 30 Doradus, N159, and N79 to the high density gas in which these protostars form. I find that not all massive young stellar objects are associated with CO gas, higher mass clumps tend to form higher mass stars, and lower mass clumps tend to not be gravitationally bound however the larger clouds are bound. I use ancillary SOFIA data and Magellan FIRE data to place constraints on the outflow rate from the massive protostars, constrain the temperature of the gas, determine the spectral type of the young stellar objects, and estimate the extinction. Looking at the interplay between dense molecular gas and the newly forming stars in a stellar nursery will shed light on how these stars formed: filamentary collision, monolithic collapse, or competitive accretion. The Large Magellanic Cloud has been the subject of star formation studies for decades due to its proximity to the Milky Way (50 kpc), a nearly face-on orientation, and a low metallicity (0.5 solar) similar to that of galaxies at the peak of star formation in the universe (z~2). Thus, my thesis probes the chemical and physical conditions necessary for massive star formation in an environment more typical of the peak of star formation in the universe.

  9. Dynamical Formation and Merger of Binary Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, Nicholas

    2017-01-01

    The advent of gravitational wave (GW) astronomy began with Advanced LIGO's 2015 discovery of GWs from coalescing black hole (BH) binaries. GW astronomy holds great promise for testing general relativity, but also for investigating open astrophysical questions not amenable to traditional electromagnetic observations. One such question concerns the origin of stellar mass BH binaries in the universe: do these form primarily from evolution of isolated binaries of massive stars, or do they form through more exotic dynamical channels? The best studied dynamical formation channel involves multibody interactions of BHs and stars in dense globular cluster environments, but many other dynamical scenarios have recently been proposed, ranging from the Kozai effect in hierarchical triple systems to BH binary formation in the outskirts of Toomre-unstable accretion disks surrounding supermassive black holes. The BH binaries formed through these processes will have different distributions of observable parameters (e.g. mass ratios, spins) than BH binaries formed through the evolution of isolated binary stars. In my talk I will overview these and other dynamical formation scenarios, and summarize the key observational tests that will enable Advanced LIGO or other future detectors to determine what formation pathway creates the majority of binary BHs in the universe. NCS thanks NASA, which has funded his work through Einstein postdoctoral grant PF5-160145.

  10. 21 CFR 601.14 - Regulatory submissions in electronic format.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Regulatory submissions in electronic format. 601... SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS LICENSING Biologics Licensing § 601.14 Regulatory submissions in electronic format. (a) General. Electronic format submissions must be in a form that FDA can process, review, and...

  11. 21 CFR 601.14 - Regulatory submissions in electronic format.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Regulatory submissions in electronic format. 601... SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS LICENSING Biologics Licensing § 601.14 Regulatory submissions in electronic format. (a) General. Electronic format submissions must be in a form that FDA can process, review, and...

  12. 21 CFR 601.14 - Regulatory submissions in electronic format.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Regulatory submissions in electronic format. 601... SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS LICENSING Biologics Licensing § 601.14 Regulatory submissions in electronic format. (a) General. Electronic format submissions must be in a form that FDA can process, review, and...

  13. Influence of temperature on methane hydrate formation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Wu, Qingbai; Mu, Cuicui

    2017-08-11

    During gas hydrate formation process, a phase transition of liquid water exists naturally, implying that temperature has an important influence on hydrate formation. In this study, methane hydrate was formed within the same media. The experimental system was kept at 1.45, 6.49, and 12.91 °C respectively, and then different pressurization modes were applied in steps. We proposed a new indicator, namely the slope of the gas flow rates against time (dν g /dt), to represent the intrinsic driving force for hydrate formation. The driving force was calculated as a fixed value at the different stages of formation, including initial nucleation/growth, secondary nucleation/growth, and decay. The amounts of gas consumed at each stage were also calculated. The results show that the driving force during each stage follows an inverse relation with temperature, whereas the amount of consumed gas is proportional to temperature. This opposite trend indicates that the influences of temperature on the specific formation processes and final amounts of gas contained in hydrate should be considered separately. Our results also suggest that the specific ambient temperature under which hydrate is formed should be taken into consideration, when explaining the formation of different configurations and saturations of gas hydrates in natural reservoirs.

  14. NASA Briefing for Unidata

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynnes, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    The NASA representative to the Unidata Strategic Committee presented a semiannual update on NASAs work with and use of Unidata technologies. The talk covered the program of cloud computing prototypes being undertaken for the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS). Also discussed were dataset interoperability recommendations ratified via the EOSDIS Standards Office and the HDF Product Designer tool with respect to its possible applicability to data in network Common Data Form (NetCDF) version 4.

  15. Star formation is boosted (and quenched) from the inside-out: radial star formation profiles from MaNGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellison, Sara L.; Sánchez, Sebastian F.; Ibarra-Medel, Hector; Antonio, Braulio; Mendel, J. Trevor; Barrera-Ballesteros, Jorge

    2018-02-01

    The tight correlation between total galaxy stellar mass and star formation rate (SFR) has become known as the star-forming main sequence. Using ˜487 000 spaxels from galaxies observed as part of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Mapping Nearby Galaxies at Apache Point Observatory (MaNGA) survey, we confirm previous results that a correlation also exists between the surface densities of star formation (ΣSFR) and stellar mass (Σ⋆) on kpc scales, representing a `resolved' main sequence. Using a new metric (ΔΣSFR), which measures the relative enhancement or deficit of star formation on a spaxel-by-spaxel basis relative to the resolved main sequence, we investigate the SFR profiles of 864 galaxies as a function of their position relative to the global star-forming main sequence (ΔSFR). For galaxies above the global main sequence (positive ΔSFR) ΔΣSFR is elevated throughout the galaxy, but the greatest enhancement in star formation occurs at small radii (<3 kpc, or 0.5Re). Moreover, galaxies that are at least a factor of 3 above the main sequence show diluted gas phase metallicities out to 2Re, indicative of metal-poor gas inflows accompanying the starbursts. For quiescent/passive galaxies that lie at least a factor of 10 below the star-forming main sequence, there is an analogous deficit of star formation throughout the galaxy with the lowest values of ΔΣSFR in the central 3 kpc. Our results are in qualitative agreement with the `compaction' scenario in which a central starburst leads to mass growth in the bulge and may ultimately precede galactic quenching from the inside-out.

  16. Methionine peptide formation under primordial earth conditions.

    PubMed

    Li, Feng; Fitz, Daniel; Fraser, Donald G; Rode, Bernd M

    2008-01-01

    According to recent research on the origin of life it seems more and more likely that amino acids and peptides were among the first biomolecules formed on earth and that a peptide/protein world was thus a key starting point in evolution towards life. Salt-induced Peptide Formation (SIPF) has repeatedly been shown to be the most universal and plausible peptide-forming reaction currently known under prebiotic conditions and forms peptides from amino acids with the help of copper ions and sodium chloride. In this paper we present experimental results for salt-induced peptide formation from methionine. This is the first time that a sulphur-containing amino acid was investigated in this reaction. The possible catalytic effects of glycine and L-histidine in this reaction were also investigated and a possible distinction between the L- and D-forms of methionine was studied as well.

  17. Tube-Forming Assays.

    PubMed

    Brown, Ryan M; Meah, Christopher J; Heath, Victoria L; Styles, Iain B; Bicknell, Roy

    2016-01-01

    Angiogenesis involves the generation of new blood vessels from the existing vasculature and is dependent on many growth factors and signaling events. In vivo angiogenesis is dynamic and complex, meaning assays are commonly utilized to explore specific targets for research into this area. Tube-forming assays offer an excellent overview of the molecular processes in angiogenesis. The Matrigel tube forming assay is a simple-to-implement but powerful tool for identifying biomolecules involved in angiogenesis. A detailed experimental protocol on the implementation of the assay is described in conjunction with an in-depth review of methods that can be applied to the analysis of the tube formation. In addition, an ImageJ plug-in is presented which allows automatic quantification of tube images reducing analysis times while removing user bias and subjectivity.

  18. Histopathology Predicts the Mechanism of Stone Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evan, Andrew P.

    2007-04-01

    About 5% of American women and 12% of men will develop a kidney stone at some time in their life and these numbers appear to be on the rise. Despite years of scientific research into the mechanisms of stone formation and growth, limited advances have been made until recently. Randall's original observations and thoughts on the mechanisms for kidney stone formation have been validated for idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers (ICSF) but not for most other stone forming groups. Our current studies on selected groups of human stone formers using intraoperative papillary biopsies has shown overwhelming evidence for the presence of Randall's plaque in ICSF and that stone formation and growth are exclusively linked to its availability to urinary ions and proteins. Intense investigation of the plaque-stone junction is needed if we are to understand the factors leading to the overgrowth process on exposed regions of plaque. Such information should allow the development of treatment strategies to block stone formation in ICSF patients. Patients who form brushite stones, or who form apatite stones because of distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA), or patients with calcium oxalate stones due to obesity bypass procedures, or patients with cystinuria, get plugged inner medullary collecting ducts (IMCD) which leads to total destruction of the lining cells and focal sites of interstitial fibrosis. These stone formers have plaque but at levels equal to or below non-stone formers, which would suggest that they form stones by a different mechanism than do ICSF patients.

  19. Real-time molecular scale observation of crystal formation.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, Roy E; Houben, Lothar; Wolf, Sharon G; Leitus, Gregory; Lang, Zhong-Ling; Carbó, Jorge J; Poblet, Josep M; Neumann, Ronny

    2017-04-01

    How molecules in solution form crystal nuclei, which then grow into large crystals, is a poorly understood phenomenon. The classical mechanism of homogeneous crystal nucleation proceeds via the spontaneous random aggregation of species from liquid or solution. However, a non-classical mechanism suggests the formation of an amorphous dense phase that reorders to form stable crystal nuclei. So far it has remained an experimental challenge to observe the formation of crystal nuclei from five to thirty molecules. Here, using polyoxometallates, we show that the formation of small crystal nuclei is observable by cryogenic transmission electron microscopy. We observe both classical and non-classical nucleation processes, depending on the identity of the cation present. The experiments verify theoretical studies that suggest non-classical nucleation is the lower of the two energy pathways. The arrangement in just a seven-molecule proto-crystal matches the order found by X-ray diffraction of a single bulk crystal, which demonstrates that the same structure was formed in each case.

  20. Biofilm Formation Characteristics of Pseudomonas lundensis Isolated from Meat.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong-Ji; Xie, Jing; Zhao, Li-Jun; Qian, Yun-Fang; Zhao, Yong; Liu, Xiao

    2015-12-01

    Biofilms formations of spoilage and pathogenic bacteria on food or food contact surfaces have attracted increasing attention. These events may lead to a higher risk of food spoilage and foodborne disease transmission. While Pseudomonas lundensis is one of the most important bacteria that cause spoilage in chilled meat, its capability for biofilm formation has been seldom reported. Here, we investigated biofilm formation characteristics of P. lundensis mainly by using crystal violet staining, and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The swarming and swimming motility, biofilm formation in different temperatures (30, 10, and 4 °C) and the protease activity of the target strain were also assessed. The results showed that P. lundensis showed a typical surface-associated motility and was quite capable of forming biofilms in different temperatures (30, 10, and 4 °C). The strain began to adhere to the contact surfaces and form biofilms early in the 4 to 6 h. The biofilms began to be formed in massive amounts after 12 h at 30 °C, and the extracellular polysaccharides increased as the biofilm structure developed. Compared with at 30 °C, more biofilms were formed at 4 and 10 °C even by a low bacterial density. The protease activity in the biofilm was significantly correlated with the biofilm formation. Moreover, the protease activity in biofilm was significantly higher than that of the corresponding planktonic cultures after cultured 12 h at 30 °C. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  1. Recovery and regeneration of spent MHD seed material by the formate process

    DOEpatents

    Sheth, A.C.; Holt, J.K.; Rasnake, D.G.; Solomon, R.L.; Wilson, G.L.; Herrigel, H.R.

    1991-10-15

    The specification discloses a spent seed recovery and regeneration process for an MHD power plant employing an alkali metal salt seed material such as potassium salt wherein the spent potassium seed in the form of potassium sulfate is collected from the flue gas and reacted with calcium hydroxide and carbon monoxide in an aqueous solution to cause the formation of calcium sulfate and potassium formate. The pH of the solution is adjusted to suppress formation of formic acid and to promote precipitation of any dissolved calcium salts. The solution containing potassium formate is then employed to provide the potassium salt in the form of potassium formate or, optionally, by heating the potassium formate under oxidizing conditions to convert the potassium formate to potassium carbonate. 5 figures.

  2. Recovery and regeneration of spent MHD seed material by the formate process

    DOEpatents

    Sheth, Atul C.; Holt, Jeffrey K.; Rasnake, Darryll G.; Solomon, Robert L.; Wilson, Gregory L.; Herrigel, Howard R.

    1991-01-01

    The specification discloses a spent seed recovery and regeneration process for an MHM power plant employing an alkali metal salt seed material such as potassium salt wherein the spent potassium seed in the form of potassium sulfate is collected from the flue gas and reacted with calcium hydroxide and carbon monoxide in an aqueous solution to cause the formation of calcium sulfate and potassium formate. The pH of the solution is adjusted to supress formation of formic acid and to promote precipitation of any dissolved calcium salts. The solution containing potassium formate is then employed to provide the potassium salt in the form of potassium formate or, optionally, by heating the potassium formate under oxidizing conditions to convert the potassium formate to potassium carbonate.

  3. The dispersal of planet-forming discs: theory confronts observations.

    PubMed

    Ercolano, Barbara; Pascucci, Ilaria

    2017-04-01

    Discs of gas and dust around million-year-old stars are a by-product of the star formation process and provide the raw material to form planets. Hence, their evolution and dispersal directly impact what type of planets can form and affect the final architecture of planetary systems. Here, we review empirical constraints on disc evolution and dispersal with special emphasis on transition discs, a subset of discs that appear to be caught in the act of clearing out planet-forming material. Along with observations, we summarize theoretical models that build our physical understanding of how discs evolve and disperse and discuss their significance in the context of the formation and evolution of planetary systems. By confronting theoretical predictions with observations, we also identify the most promising areas for future progress.

  4. The dispersal of planet-forming discs: theory confronts observations

    PubMed Central

    Pascucci, Ilaria

    2017-01-01

    Discs of gas and dust around million-year-old stars are a by-product of the star formation process and provide the raw material to form planets. Hence, their evolution and dispersal directly impact what type of planets can form and affect the final architecture of planetary systems. Here, we review empirical constraints on disc evolution and dispersal with special emphasis on transition discs, a subset of discs that appear to be caught in the act of clearing out planet-forming material. Along with observations, we summarize theoretical models that build our physical understanding of how discs evolve and disperse and discuss their significance in the context of the formation and evolution of planetary systems. By confronting theoretical predictions with observations, we also identify the most promising areas for future progress. PMID:28484640

  5. Sedimentary architecture and depositional environment of Kudat Formation, Sabah, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghaheri, Samira; Suhaili, Mohd; Sapari, Nasiman; Momeni, Mohammadsadegh

    2017-12-01

    Kudat Formation originated from deep marine environment. Three lithofacies association of deep marine turbidity channel was discovered in three Members of the Kudat Formation in Kudat Peninsula, Sabah, Malaysia. Turbidite and deep marine architecture elements was described based on detailed sedimentological studies. Four architecture elements were identified based on each facies association and their lithology properties and character: inner external levee that was formed by turbidity flows spill out from their confinement of channel belt; Lobes sheet that was formed during downslope debris flows associated with levee; Channel fill which sediments deposited from high to low density currents with different value of sediment concentration; and overbank terrace which was formed by rapid suspension sedimentation. The depositional environment of Kudat Formation is shelf to deep marine fan.

  6. A possible formation scenario for dwarf spheroidal galaxies - III. Adding star formation histories to the fiducial model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alarcón Jara, A. G.; Fellhauer, M.; Matus Carrillo, D. R.; Assmann, P.; Urrutia Zapata, F.; Hazeldine, J.; Aravena, C. A.

    2018-02-01

    Dwarf spheroidal galaxies are regarded as the basic building blocks in the formation of larger galaxies and are the most dark matter dominated systems in the Universe, known so far. There are several models that attempt to explain their formation and evolution, but they have problems modelling the formation of isolated dwarf spheroidal galaxies. Here, we will explain a possible formation scenario in which star clusters form inside the dark matter halo of a dwarf spheroidal galaxy. These star clusters suffer from low star formation efficiency and dissolve while orbiting inside the dark matter halo. Thereby, they build the faint luminous components that we observe in dwarf spheroidal galaxies. In this paper, we study this model by adding different star formation histories to the simulations and compare the results with our previous work and observational data to show that we can explain the formation of dwarf spheroidal galaxies.

  7. Simultaneous junction formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, R. B.

    1984-01-01

    High-risk, high-payoff improvements to a baseline process sequence of simultaneous junction formation of silicon solar cells are discussed. The feasibility of simultaneously forming front and back junctions of solar cells using liquid dopants on dendritic web silicon was studied. Simultaneous diffusion was compared to sequential diffusion. A belt furnace for the diffusion process was tested.

  8. The turbulent formation of stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Federrath, Christoph

    2018-06-01

    How stars are born from clouds of gas is a rich physics problem whose solution will inform our understanding of not just stars but also planets, galaxies, and the universe itself. Star formation is stupendously inefficient. Take the Milky Way. Our galaxy contains about a billion solar masses of fresh gas available to form stars-and yet it produces only one solar mass of new stars a year. Accounting for that inefficiency is one of the biggest challenges of modern astrophysics. Why should we care about star formation? Because the process powers the evolution of galaxies and sets the initial conditions for planet formation and thus, ultimately, for life.

  9. Reversible cluster formation in concentrated monoclonal antibody solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godfrin, P. Douglas; Porcar, Lionel; Falus, Peter; Zarraga, Isidro; Wagner, Norm; Liu, Yun

    2015-03-01

    Protein cluster formation in solution is of fundamental interest for both academic research and industrial applications. Recently, industrial scientists are also exploring the effect of reversible cluster formation on biopharmaceutical processing and delivery. However, despite of its importance, the understanding of protein clusters at concentrated solutions remains scientifically very challenging. Using the neutron spin echo technique to study the short time dynamics of proteins in solutions, we have recently systematically studied cluster formation in a few monoclonal antibody (mAb) solutions and their relation with solution viscosity. We show that the existence of anisotropic attraction can cause the formation of finite sized clusters, which increases the solution viscosity. Interestingly, once clusters form at relatively low concentrations, the average size of clusters in solutions remains almost constant over a wide range of concentrations similar to that of micelle formation. For a different mAb we have also investigated, the attraction is mostly induced by hydrophobic patches. As a result, these mAbs form large clusters with loosely linked proteins. In both cases, the formation of clusters all increases the solution viscosity substantially. However, due to different physics origins of cluster formation, solutions viscosities for these two different types of mAbs need to be controlled by different ways.

  10. Formative Assessment in the High School IMC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Valerie A.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses how she uses formative assessments of information literacy skills in the high school IMC. As a result of informal observation and conversations with individual students--a form of formative assessment itself--the author learned that students were not using indexes to locate relevant information in nonfiction…

  11. Evidence for Ongoing Modeling-Based Bone Formation in Human Femoral Head Trabeculae via Forming Minimodeling Structures: A Study in Patients with Fractures and Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Sano, Hiroshige; Kondo, Naoki; Shimakura, Taketoshi; Fujisawa, Junichi; Kijima, Yasufumi; Kanai, Tomotake; Poole, Kenneth E S; Yamamoto, Noriaki; Takahashi, Hideaki E; Endo, Naoto

    2018-01-01

    Bone modeling is a biological process of bone formation that adapts bone size and shape to mechanical loads, especially during childhood and adolescence. Bone modeling in cortical bone can be easily detected using sequential radiographic images, while its assessment in trabecular bone is challenging. Here, we performed histomorphometric analysis in 21 bone specimens from biopsies collected during hip arthroplasty, and we proposed the criteria for histologically identifying an active modeling-based bone formation, which we call a "forming minimodeling structure" (FMiS). Evidence of FMiSs was found in 9 of 20 specimens (45%). In histomorphometric analysis, bone volume was significant higher in specimens displaying FMiSs compared with the specimens without these structures (BV/TV, 31.7 ± 10.2 vs. 23.1 ± 3.9%; p  < 0.05). Osteoid parameters were raised in FMiS-containing bone specimens (OV/BV, 2.1 ± 1.6 vs. 0.6 ± 0.3%; p  < 0.001, OS/BS, 23.6 ± 15.5 vs. 7.6 ± 4.2%; p  < 0.001, and O.Th, 7.4 µm ± 2.0 vs. 5.2 ± 1.0; p  < 0.05). Our results showed that the modeling-based bone formation on trabecular bone surfaces occurs even during adulthood. As FMiSs can represent histological evidence of modeling-based bone formation, understanding of this physiology in relation to bone homeostasis is crucial.

  12. Meteorological conditions during the formation of ice on aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samuels, L T

    1932-01-01

    These are the results of a number of records recently secured from autographic meteorological instruments mounted on airplanes at times when ice formed. Ice is found to collect on an airplane only when the airplane is in some form of visible moisture, such as cloud, fog, mist, rain. etc., and the air temperature is within certain critical limits. Described here are the characteristics of clear ice and rime ice and the specific types of hazards they present to airplanes and lighter than air vehicles. The weather records are classified according to the two general types of formation (clear ice and rime) together with the respective temperatures, relative humidities, clouds, and elevations above ground at which formations occurred. This classification includes 108 cases where rime formed, 43 cases in which clear ice formed, and 4 cases when both rime and clear ice formed during the same flight. It is evident from the above figures that there was a preponderance of rime by the ratio of 2.5 to 1, while in only a few cases both types of ice formation occurred during the same flight.

  13. Terrestrial planet formation in a protoplanetary disk with a local mass depletion: A successful scenario for the formation of Mars

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Izidoro, A.; Winter, O. C.; Haghighipour, N.

    Models of terrestrial planet formation for our solar system have been successful in producing planets with masses and orbits similar to those of Venus and Earth. However, these models have generally failed to produce Mars-sized objects around 1.5 AU. The body that is usually formed around Mars' semimajor axis is, in general, much more massive than Mars. Only when Jupiter and Saturn are assumed to have initially very eccentric orbits (e ∼ 0.1), which seems fairly unlikely for the solar system, or alternately, if the protoplanetary disk is truncated at 1.0 AU, simulations have been able to produce Mars-like bodiesmore » in the correct location. In this paper, we examine an alternative scenario for the formation of Mars in which a local depletion in the density of the protosolar nebula results in a non-uniform formation of planetary embryos and ultimately the formation of Mars-sized planets around 1.5 AU. We have carried out extensive numerical simulations of the formation of terrestrial planets in such a disk for different scales of the local density depletion, and for different orbital configurations of the giant planets. Our simulations point to the possibility of the formation of Mars-sized bodies around 1.5 AU, specifically when the scale of the disk local mass-depletion is moderately high (50%-75%) and Jupiter and Saturn are initially in their current orbits. In these systems, Mars-analogs are formed from the protoplanetary materials that originate in the regions of disk interior or exterior to the local mass-depletion. Results also indicate that Earth-sized planets can form around 1 AU with a substantial amount of water accreted via primitive water-rich planetesimals and planetary embryos. We present the results of our study and discuss their implications for the formation of terrestrial planets in our solar system.« less

  14. Method of forming a chemical composition

    DOEpatents

    Bingham, Dennis N.; Wilding, Bruce M.; Klingler, Kerry M.; Zollinger, William T.; Wendt, Kraig M.

    2007-10-09

    A method of forming a chemical composition such as a chemical hydride is described and which includes the steps of selecting a composition having chemical bonds and which is capable of forming a chemical hydride; providing a source of hydrogen; and exposing the selected composition to an amount of ionizing radiation to encourage the changing of the chemical bonds of the selected composition, and chemically reacting the selected composition with the source of hydrogen to facilitate the formation of a chemical hydride.

  15. Planet Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissauer, Jack J.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    An overview of current theories of star and planet formation is presented. These models are based upon observations of the Solar System and of young stars and their environments. They predict that rocky planets should form around most single stars, although it is possible that in some cases such planets are lost to orbital decay within the protoplanetary disk. The frequency of formation of gas giant planets is more difficult to predict theoretically. Terrestrial planets are believed to grow via pairwise accretion until the spacing of planetary orbits becomes large enough that the configuration is stable for the age of the system. Giant planets begin their growth like terrestrial planets, but they become massive enough that they are able to accumulate substantial amounts of gas before the protoplanetary disk dissipates.

  16. [Formation of microbial biofilms in causative agents of acute and chronic pyelonephritis].

    PubMed

    Lagun, L V; Atanasova, Iu V; Tapal'skiĭ, D V

    2013-01-01

    Study the intensity of formation of microbial biofilms by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated during various forms of pyelonephritis. 150 clinical isolates of microorganisms isolated from urine ofpatientswith acute and chronic pyelonephritiswere included into the study. Determination of intensity of film-formation was carried out by staining of the formed biofilms by crystal violet with consequent extraction of the dye and measurement of its concentration in washout solution. Among causative agents ofpyelonephritis P. aeruginosa isolates had the maximum film-forming ability. The intensity of biofilm formation of these isolates was 2-3 time higher than staphylococcus and enterobacteria strains. Strains isolated from patients with chronic pyelonephritis by ability to form biofilms significantly surpassed strains isolated from acute pyelonephritis patients. A higher ability to form microbial biofilms for microorganisms--causative agents of pyelonephritis progressing against the background ofurolithiasis was noted. The ability to form biofilms is determined by both causative agent species and character of the infectious process in which this microorganism participates. Intensive formation of biofilms by E. coli, P. aeruginosa, K. pneumoniae, S. aureus clinical isolates may be an important factor of chronization of urinary tract infections.

  17. Early Campanian coastal progradational systems and their coal-forming environments, Wyoming to New Mexico

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Marley, W.E.; Flores, R.M.; Ethridge, F.G.

    1985-05-01

    Ammonite zones (Baculites obtusus-Scaphites hippocrepis) in the marine facies associated with the Mesaverde Formation in the Bighorn basin, Wyoming, Star Point Sandstone and Blackhawk Formation in the Wasatch Plateau, Utah, and the Point Lookout Sandstone, Menefee Formation, and Crevasse Canyon Formation in the Gallup coalfield, New Mexico, indicate that these formations were deposited during early Campanian time (80-84 Ma). The coal-forming environments of these early Campanian formations were located landward of wave-reworked coastal sand complexes of progradational systems along the western margin of the Cretaceous seaway from Wyoming to New Mexico. The Mesaverde coals accumulated in swamps of the lowermore » delta plain and coeval interdeltaic strandplain environments. The Star Point-Blackhawk coals accumulated in swamps of the lower delta plains of laterally shifting, prograding deltas and associated barrier ridge plains. The Point Lookout, Menefee, and Crevasse canyon coals formed in swamps of the lower delta plain and infilled lagoons behind barrier islands. Although the common coal-forming environments of these progradational systems are back barrier and delta plain, the former setting was the more conducive for accumulation of thick, laterally extensive coals. Economic coal deposits formed in swamps built on abandoned back-barrier platforms that were free of detrital influx and marine influence. Delta-plain coals tend to be lenticular and laterally discontinuous and thus uneconomic. The early Campanian coal-forming coastal-plain environments are analogous to modern peat-forming environments along the coast of Belize, Central America. Deltaic sediments deposited along the Belize coast by short-headed streams are reworked by waves into coastal barrier systems.« less

  18. The NeXus data format.

    PubMed

    Könnecke, Mark; Akeroyd, Frederick A; Bernstein, Herbert J; Brewster, Aaron S; Campbell, Stuart I; Clausen, Björn; Cottrell, Stephen; Hoffmann, Jens Uwe; Jemian, Pete R; Männicke, David; Osborn, Raymond; Peterson, Peter F; Richter, Tobias; Suzuki, Jiro; Watts, Benjamin; Wintersberger, Eugen; Wuttke, Joachim

    2015-02-01

    NeXus is an effort by an international group of scientists to define a common data exchange and archival format for neutron, X-ray and muon experiments. NeXus is built on top of the scientific data format HDF5 and adds domain-specific rules for organizing data within HDF5 files, in addition to a dictionary of well defined domain-specific field names. The NeXus data format has two purposes. First, it defines a format that can serve as a container for all relevant data associated with a beamline. This is a very important use case. Second, it defines standards in the form of application definitions for the exchange of data between applications. NeXus provides structures for raw experimental data as well as for processed data.

  19. The NeXus data format

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Könnecke, Mark; Akeroyd, Frederick A.; Bernstein, Herbert J.

    2015-01-30

    NeXus is an effort by an international group of scientists to define a common data exchange and archival format for neutron, X-ray and muon experiments. NeXus is built on top of the scientific data format HDF5 and adds domain-specific rules for organizing data within HDF5 files, in addition to a dictionary of well defined domain-specific field names. The NeXus data format has two purposes. First, it defines a format that can serve as a container for all relevant data associated with a beamline. This is a very important use case. Second, it defines standards in the form of application definitionsmore » for the exchange of data between applications. NeXus provides structures for raw experimental data as well as for processed data.« less

  20. ROCKY PLANETESIMAL FORMATION VIA FLUFFY AGGREGATES OF NANOGRAINS

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Arakawa, Sota; Nakamoto, Taishi, E-mail: arakawa.s.ac@m.titech.ac.jp

    2016-12-01

    Several pieces of evidence suggest that silicate grains in primitive meteorites are not interstellar grains but condensates formed in the early solar system. Moreover, the size distribution of matrix grains in chondrites implies that these condensates might be formed as nanometer-sized grains. Therefore, we propose a novel scenario for rocky planetesimal formation in which nanometer-sized silicate grains are produced by evaporation and recondensation events in early solar nebula, and rocky planetesimals are formed via aggregation of these nanograins. We reveal that silicate nanograins can grow into rocky planetesimals via direct aggregation without catastrophic fragmentation and serious radial drift, and ourmore » results provide a suitable condition for protoplanet formation in our solar system.« less

  1. Current-sheet formation in two-dimensional coronal fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billinghurst, M. N.; Craig, I. J. D.; Sneyd, A. D.

    1993-11-01

    The formation of current sheets by shearing motions in line-tied twin-lobed fields is examined. A general analytic argument shows that current sheets form along the fieldline bounding the two lobes in the case of both symmetric and asymmetric footpoint motions. In the case of strictly antisymmetric motions however no current sheets can form. These findings are reinforced by magnetic relaxation experiments involving sheared two-lobed fields represented by Clebsh variables. It is pointed out that, although current singularites cannot be expected to form when the line-tying assumption is relaxed, the two-lobed geometry is still consistent with the formation of highly localised currents - and strong resistive dissipation - along field lines close to the bounding fieldline.

  2. TRANSIENT AMORPHOUS CALCIUM PHOSPHATE IN FORMING ENAMEL

    PubMed Central

    Beniash, Elia; Metzler, Rebecca A.; Lam, Raymond S.K.; Gilbert, P.U.P.A.

    2009-01-01

    Enamel, the hardest tissue in the body, begins as a three-dimensional network of nanometer size mineral particles, suspended in a protein gel. This mineral network serves as a template for mature enamel formation. To further understand the mechanisms of enamel formation we characterized the forming enamel mineral at an early secretory stage using x-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectromicroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), FTIR microspectroscopy and polarized light microscopy. We show that the newly formed enamel mineral is amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP), which eventually transforms into apatitic crystals. Interestingly, the size, shape and spatial organization of these amorphous mineral particles and older crystals are essentially the same, indicating that the mineral morphology and organization in enamel is determined prior to its crystallization. Mineralization via transient amorphous phases has been previously reported in chiton teeth, mollusk shells, echinoderm spicules and spines, and recent reports strongly suggest the presence transient amorphous mineral in forming vertebrate bones. The present finding of transient ACP in murine tooth enamel suggests that this strategy might be universal. PMID:19217943

  3. Photochemical organonitrate formation in wet aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Yong Bin; Kim, Hwajin; Kim, Jin Young; Turpin, Barbara J.

    2016-10-01

    Water is the most abundant component of atmospheric fine aerosol. However, despite rapid progress, multiphase chemistry involving wet aerosols is still poorly understood. In this work, we report results from smog chamber photooxidation of glyoxal- and OH-containing ammonium sulfate or sulfuric acid particles in the presence of NOx and O3 at high and low relative humidity. Particles were analyzed using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS). During the 3 h irradiation, OH oxidation products of glyoxal that are also produced in dilute aqueous solutions (e.g., oxalic acids and tartaric acids) were formed in both ammonium sulfate (AS) aerosols and sulfuric acid (SA) aerosols. However, the major products were organonitrogens (CHNO), organosulfates (CHOS), and organonitrogen sulfates (CHNOS). These were also the dominant products formed in the dark chamber, indicating non-radical formation. In the humid chamber (> 70 % relative humidity, RH), two main products for both AS and SA aerosols were organonitrates, which appeared at m / z- 147 and 226. They were formed in the aqueous phase via non-radical reactions of glyoxal and nitric acid, and their formation was enhanced by photochemistry because of the photochemical formation of nitric acid via reactions of peroxy radicals, NOx and OH during the irradiation.

  4. Community Intercomparison Suite (CIS) v1.4.0: a tool for intercomparing models and observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson-Parris, Duncan; Schutgens, Nick; Cook, Nicholas; Kipling, Zak; Kershaw, Philip; Gryspeerdt, Edward; Lawrence, Bryan; Stier, Philip

    2016-09-01

    The Community Intercomparison Suite (CIS) is an easy-to-use command-line tool which has been developed to allow the straightforward intercomparison of remote sensing, in situ and model data. While there are a number of tools available for working with climate model data, the large diversity of sources (and formats) of remote sensing and in situ measurements necessitated a novel software solution. Developed by a professional software company, CIS supports a large number of gridded and ungridded data sources "out-of-the-box", including climate model output in NetCDF or the UK Met Office pp file format, CloudSat, CALIOP (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization), MODIS (MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer), Cloud and Aerosol CCI (Climate Change Initiative) level 2 satellite data and a number of in situ aircraft and ground station data sets. The open-source architecture also supports user-defined plugins to allow many other sources to be easily added. Many of the key operations required when comparing heterogenous data sets are provided by CIS, including subsetting, aggregating, collocating and plotting the data. Output data are written to CF-compliant NetCDF files to ensure interoperability with other tools and systems. The latest documentation, including a user manual and installation instructions, can be found on our website (http://cistools.net). Here, we describe the need which this tool fulfils, followed by descriptions of its main functionality (as at version 1.4.0) and plugin architecture which make it unique in the field.

  5. Acoustic vibration can enhance bacterial biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Mark F; Edwards, Thomas; Hobbs, Glyn; Shepherd, Joanna; Bezombes, Frederic

    2016-12-01

    This paper explores the use of low-frequency-low-amplitude acoustic vibration on biofilm formation. Biofilm development is thought to be governed by a diverse range of environmental signals and much effort has gone into researching the effects of environmental factors including; nutrient availability, pH and temperature on the growth of biofilms. Many biofilm-forming organisms have evolved to thrive in mechanically challenging environments, for example soil yet, the effects of the physical environment on biofilm formation has been largely ignored. Exposure of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to vibration at 100, 800 and 1600 Hz for 48 h, resulted in a significant increase in biofilm formation compared with the control, with the greatest growth seen at 800 Hz vibration. The results also show that this increase in biofilm formation is accompanied with an increase in P. aeruginosa cell number. Acoustic vibration was also found to regulate the spatial distribution of biofilm formation in a frequency-dependent manner. Exposure of Staphylococcus aureus to acoustic vibration also resulted in enhanced biofilm formation with the greatest level of biofilm being formed following 48 h exposure at 1600 Hz. These results show that acoustic vibration can be used to control biofilm formation and therefore presents a novel and potentially cost effective means to manipulate the development and yield of biofilms in a range of important industrial and medical processes. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The Dynamics of Group Formation Among Leeches

    PubMed Central

    Bisson, Giacomo; Bianconi, Ginestra; Torre, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    Leeches exploring a new environment continuously meet each other and merge in temporary groups. After 2–3 h, leeches become attracted to each other eventually forming a large and stable group. When their number is reduced, leeches remain solitary, behaving independently. Group formation is facilitated by body injection of serotonin (5-HT) and the level of endogenous 5-HT is elevated in leeches forming a large group. In contrast, intravenous injection of 5-HT antagonists prevented injected leeches from joining a large group of conspecifics. When sensilla near the head were ablated or the supraesophageal ganglion disconnected, leeches remained solitary, but explored the environment swimming and crawling. These results suggest that group formation is initiated by a release of 5-HT triggered by sensilla stimulation and its dynamics can be explained by the establishment of a reinforcement dynamics, as observed during human group formation. As 5-HT affects social interactions also in humans, group formation in leeches and humans share a similar dynamics and hormonal control. PMID:22629247

  7. Star Formation in Nearby Clusters (SFiNCs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Getman, Konstantin

    Most stars form in clusters that rapidly disperse, yet we have a poor understanding of the processes of cluster formation and early evolution. Do clusters form `top-down', rapidly in a dense molecular cloud core? Or, since clouds are turbulent, do clusters form `bottomup' by merging subclusters produced in small kinematically-distinct molecular structures? Do clusters principally form in elongated molecular structures such as Infrared Dark Clouds and Herschel filaments? One of the central reasons for slow progress in resolving these questions is the lack of homogeneous and reliable census of stellar members (both disk-bearing and disk-free) for a wide range of star forming environments. To address these issues we are now completing our major effort, called MYStIX (Massive Young Star-Forming Complex Study in Infrared and X-ray). It combines the Chandra archive with UKIRT+2MASS near-infrared and Spitzer mid-infrared surveys to identify young stellar objects in a wide range of evolutionary stages, from protostars to disk-free pre-main sequence stars, in 20 star forming regions at distances from 0.4 to 3.6 kpc. Each MYStIX region was chosen to have a rich OB-dominated cluster. Started in 2009 with NASA/ADAP and NSF funding, MYStIX has emerged with 8 technical/catalog and the first 4 of a series of science papers (http://astro.psu.edu/mystix). Early MYStIX results include: demonstration of diverse morphologies of young clusters from simple ellipsoids to elongated, clumpy substructures; demonstration of spatio-age gradients across star formation regions; the discovery of core-halo age gradients within two rich nearby MYStIX clusters; and the discovery of important astrophysically empirical correlations among different subcluster properties such as age, absorption, core radius, central stellar density, and total intrinsic population. The early MYStIX result provide new observational evidence for subcluster merging and cluster expansion following gas dissipation. We

  8. Xray: N-dimensional, labeled arrays for analyzing physical datasets in Python

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoyer, S.

    2015-12-01

    Efficient analysis of geophysical datasets requires tools that both preserve and utilize metadata, and that transparently scale to process large datas. Xray is such a tool, in the form of an open source Python library for analyzing the labeled, multi-dimensional array (tensor) datasets that are ubiquitous in the Earth sciences. Xray's approach pairs Python data structures based on the data model of the netCDF file format with the proven design and user interface of pandas, the popular Python data analysis library for labeled tabular data. On top of the NumPy array, xray adds labeled dimensions (e.g., "time") and coordinate values (e.g., "2015-04-10"), which it uses to enable a host of operations powered by these labels: selection, aggregation, alignment, broadcasting, split-apply-combine, interoperability with pandas and serialization to netCDF/HDF5. Many of these operations are enabled by xray's tight integration with pandas. Finally, to allow for easy parallelism and to enable its labeled data operations to scale to datasets that does not fit into memory, xray integrates with the parallel processing library dask.

  9. Observations from the GOES Space Environment Monitor and Solar X-ray Imager are now available in a whole new way!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkinson, D. C.

    2012-12-01

    NOAA's Geosynchronous Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) have been observing the environment in near-earth-space for over 37 years. Those data are down-linked and processed by the Space Weather Prediction Center (SWPC) and form the cornerstone of their alert and forecast services. At the close of each UT day these data are ingested by the National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) where they are merged into the national archive and made available to the user community in a uniform manner. In 2012 NGDC unveiled a RESTful web service for accessing these data. What does this mean? Users can now build a web-like URL using simple predefined constructs that allows their browser or custom software to directly access the relational archives and bundle the requested data into a variety of popular formats. The user can select precisely the data they need and the results are delivered immediately. NGDC understands that many users are perfectly happy retrieving data via pre-generated files and will continue to provide internally documented NetCDF and CSV files far into the future.

  10. Observations from the GOES Space Environment Monitor and Solar X-ray Imager are now available in a whole new way!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkinson, D. C.

    2013-12-01

    NOAA's Geosynchronous Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) have been observing the environment in near-earth-space for over 37 years. Those data are down-linked and processed by the Space Weather Prediction Center (SWPC) and form the cornerstone of their alert and forecast services. At the close of each UT day these data are ingested by the National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) where they are merged into the national archive and made available to the user community in a uniform manner. In 2012 NGDC unveiled a RESTful web service for accessing these data. What does this mean? Users can now build a web-like URL using simple predefined constructs that allows their browser or custom software to directly access the relational archives and bundle the requested data into a variety of popular formats. The user can select precisely the data they need and the results are delivered immediately. NGDC understands that many users are perfectly happy retrieving data via pre-generated files and will continue to provide internally documented NetCDF and CSV files far into the future.

  11. Thermal Stability of Jet Fuels: Kinetics of Forming Deposit Precursors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naegeli, David W.

    1997-01-01

    The focus of this study was on the autoxidation kinetics of deposit precursor formation in jet fuels. The objectives were: (1) to demonstrate that laser-induced fluorescence is a viable kinetic tool for measuring rates of deposit precursor formation in jet fuels; (2) to determine global rate expressions for the formation of thermal deposit precursors in jet fuels; and (3) to better understand the chemical mechanism of thermal stability. The fuels were isothermally stressed in small glass ampules in the 120 to 180 C range. Concentrations of deposit precursor, hydroperoxide and oxygen consumption were measured over time in the thermally stressed fuels. Deposit precursors were measured using laser-induced fluorescence (LIF), hydroperoxides using a spectrophotometric technique, and oxygen consumption by the pressure loss in the ampule. The expressions, I.P. = 1.278 x 10(exp -11)exp(28,517.9/RT) and R(sub dp) = 2.382 x 10(exp 17)exp(-34,369.2/RT) for the induction period, I.P. and rate of deposit precursor formation R(sub dp), were determined for Jet A fuel. The results of the study support a new theory of deposit formation in jet fuels, which suggest that acid catalyzed ionic reactions compete with free radical reactions to form deposit precursors. The results indicate that deposit precursors form only when aromatics are present in the fuel. Traces of sulfur reduce the rate of autoxidation but increase the yield of deposit precursor. Free radical chemistry is responsible for hydroperoxide formation and the oxidation of sulfur compounds to sulfonic acids. Phenols are then formed by the acid catalyzed decomposition of benzylic hydroperoxides, and deposit precursors are produced by the reaction of phenols with aldehydes, which forms a polymer similar to Bakelite. Deposit precursors appear to have a phenolic resin-like structure because the LIF spectra of the deposit precursors were similar to that of phenolic resin dissolved in TAM.

  12. Grain formation around carbon stars. 1: Stationary outflow models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Egan, Michael P.; Leung, Chun Ming

    1995-01-01

    Asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars are known to be sites of dust formation and undergo significant mass loss. The outflow is believed to be driven by radiation pressure on grains and momentum coupling between the grains and gas. While the physics of shell dynamics and grain formation are closely coupled, most previous models of circumstellar shells have treated the problem separately. Studies of shell dynamics typically assume the existence of grains needed to drive the outflow, while most grain formation models assume a constant veolcity wind in which grains form. Furthermore, models of grain formation have relied primarily on classical nucleation theory instead of using a more realistic approach based on chemical kinetics. To model grain formation in carbon-rich AGB stars, we have coupled the kinetic equations governing small cluster growth to moment equations which determine the growth of large particles. Phenomenological models assuming stationary outflow are presented to demonstrate the differences between the classical nucleation approach and the kinetic equation method. It is found that classical nucleation theory predicts nucleation at a lower supersaturation ratio than is predicted by the kinetic equations, resulting in significant differences in grain properties. Coagulation of clusters larger than monomers is unimportant for grain formation in high mass-loss models but becomes more important to grain growth in low mass-loss situations. The properties of the dust grains are altered considerably if differential drift velocities are ignored in modeling grain formation. The effect of stellar temperature, stellar luminosity, and different outflow velocities are investigated. The models indicate that changing the stellar temperature while keeping the stellar luminosity constant has little effect on the physical parameters of the dust shell formed. Increasing the stellar luminosity while keeping the stellar temperature constant results in large differences in

  13. Star formation across cosmic time and its influence on galactic dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freundlich, Jonathan

    2015-12-01

    Observations show that ten billion years ago, galaxies formed their stars at rates up to twenty times higher than now. As stars are formed from cold molecular gas, a high star formation rate means a significant gas supply, and galaxies near the peak epoch of star formation are indeed much more gas-rich than nearby galaxies. Is the decline of the star formation rate mostly driven by the diminishing cold gas reservoir, or are the star formation processes also qualitatively different earlier in the history of the Universe? Ten billion years ago, young galaxies were clumpy and prone to violent gravitational instabilities, which may have contributed to their high star formation rate. Stars indeed form within giant, gravitationally-bound molecular clouds. But the earliest phases of star formation are still poorly understood. Some scenarii suggest the importance of interstellar filamentary structures as a first step towards core and star formation. How would their filamentary geometry affect pre-stellar cores? Feedback mechanisms related to stellar evolution also play an important role in regulating star formation, for example through powerful stellar winds and supernovae explosions which expel some of the gas and can even disturb the dark matter distribution in which each galaxy is assumed to be embedded. This PhD work focuses on three perspectives: (i) star formation near the peak epoch of star formation as seen from observations at sub-galactic scales; (ii) the formation of pre-stellar cores within the filamentary structures of the interstellar medium; and (iii) the effect of feedback processes resulting from star formation and evolution on the dark matter distribution.

  14. Release and Formation of Oxidation-Related Aldehydes during Wine Oxidation.

    PubMed

    Bueno, Mónica; Carrascón, Vanesa; Ferreira, Vicente

    2016-01-27

    Twenty-four Spanish wines were subjected to five consecutive cycles of air saturation at 25 °C. Free and bound forms of carbonyls were measured in the initial samples and after each saturation. Nonoxidized commercial wines contain important and sensory relevant amounts of oxidation-related carbonyls under the form of odorless bound forms. Models relating the contents in total aldehydes to the wine chemical composition suggest that fermentation can be a major origin for Strecker aldehydes: methional, phenylacetaldehyde, isobutyraldehyde, 2-methylbutanal, and isovaleraldehyde. Bound forms are further cleaved, releasing free aldehydes during the first steps of wine oxidation, as a consequence of equilibrium shifts caused by the depletion of SO2. At low levels of free SO2, de novo formation and aldehyde degradation are both observed. The relative importance of these phenomena depends on both the aldehyde and the wine. Models relating aldehyde formation rates to wine chemical composition suggest that amino acids are in most cases the most important precursors for de novo formation.

  15. Kinematic evidence for feedback-driven star formation in NGC 1893

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Beomdu; Sung, Hwankyung; Bessell, Michael S.; Lee, Sangwoo; Lee, Jae Joon; Oh, Heeyoung; Hwang, Narae; Park, Byeong-Gon; Hur, Hyeonoh; Hong, Kyeongsoo; Park, Sunkyung

    2018-06-01

    OB associations are the prevailing star-forming sites in the Galaxy. Up to now, the process of how OB associations were formed remained a mystery. A possible process is self-regulating star formation driven by feedback from massive stars. However, although a number of observational studies uncovered various signposts of feedback-driven star formation, the effectiveness of such feedback has been questioned. Stellar and gas kinematics is a promising tool to capture the relative motion of newborn stars and gas away from ionizing sources. We present high-resolution spectroscopy of stars and gas in the young open cluster NGC 1893. Our findings show that newborn stars and the tadpole nebula Sim 130 are moving away from the central cluster containing two O-type stars, and that the time-scale of sequential star formation is about 1 Myr within a 9 pc distance. The newborn stars formed by feedback from massive stars account for at least 18 per cent of the total stellar population in the cluster, suggesting that this process can play an important role in the formation of OB associations. These results support the self-regulating star formation model.

  16. On-Going Galaxy Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braine, Jonathan; Duc, P.-A.; Lisenfeld, U.; Charmandaris, V.; Vallejo, O.; Leon, S.; Brinks, E.

    2002-07-01

    We investigate the process of galaxy formation as can be observed in the only currently forming galaxies - the so-called Tidal Dwarf Galaxies, hereafter TDGs - through observations of the molecular gas detected via its CO (Carbon Monoxide) emission. These objects are formed of material torn off of the outer parts of a spiral disk due to tidal forces in a collision between two massive galaxies. Molecular gas is a key element in the galaxy formation process, providing the link between a cloud of gas and a bona fide galaxy. We have detected CO in 8 TDGs (Braine, Lisenfeld, Duc and Leon, 2000: Nature 403, 867; Braine, Duc, Lisenfeld, Charmandaris, Vallejo, Leon and Brinks: 2001, A&A 378, 51), with an overall detection rate of 80%, showing that molecular gas is abundant in TDGs, up to a few 108 M ⊙. The CO emission coincides both spatially and kinematically with the HI emission, indicating that the molecular gas forms from the atomic hydrogen where the HI column density is high. A possible trend of more evolved TDGs having greater molecular gas masses is observed, in accord with the transformation of HI into H2. Although TDGs share many of the properties of small irregulars, their CO luminosity is much greater (factor ˜ 100) than that of standard dwarf galaxies of comparable luminosity. This is most likely a consequence of the higher metallicity (≳sim 1/3 solar) of TDGs which makes CO a good tracer of molecular gas. This allows us to study star formation in environments ordinarily inaccessible due to the extreme difficulty of measuring the molecular gas mass. The star formation efficiency, measured by the CO luminosity per Hα flux, is the same in TDGs and full-sized spirals. CO is likely the best tracer of the dynamics of these objects because some fraction of the HI near the TDGs may be part of the tidal tail and not bound to the TDG. Although uncertainties are large for individual objects, as the geometry is unknown, our sample is now of eight detected objects

  17. Bacterial floc mediated rapid streamer formation in creeping flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassanpourfard, Mahtab; Nikakhtari, Zahra; Ghosh, Ranajay; Das, Siddhartha; Thundat, Thomas; Kumar, Aloke

    2015-11-01

    One of the contentious problems regarding the interaction of low Reynolds number (Re << 1) fluid flow with bacterial biomass is the formation of filamentous structures called streamers. Recently, we discovered that streamers can be formed from flow-induced deformation of the pre-formed bacterial flocs over extremely small timescales (less than a second). However, these streamers are different than the ones that mediated by biofilms. To optically probe the inception process of these streamers formation, bacterial flocs were embedded with 200 nm red fluorescent polystyrene beads that served as tracers. We also showed that at their inception the deformation of the flocs is dominated by large recoverable strains indicating significant elasticity. These strains subsequently increase tremendously to produce filamentous streamers. At time scales larger than streamers formation time scale, viscous response was observed from streamers. Finally, rapid clogging of microfluidic devices occurred after these streamers formed.

  18. STAR CLUSTER FORMATION WITH STELLAR FEEDBACK AND LARGE-SCALE INFLOW

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Matzner, Christopher D.; Jumper, Peter H., E-mail: matzner@astro.utoronto.ca

    2015-12-10

    During star cluster formation, ongoing mass accretion is resisted by stellar feedback in the form of protostellar outflows from the low-mass stars and photo-ionization and radiation pressure feedback from the massive stars. We model the evolution of cluster-forming regions during a phase in which both accretion and feedback are present and use these models to investigate how star cluster formation might terminate. Protostellar outflows are the strongest form of feedback in low-mass regions, but these cannot stop cluster formation if matter continues to flow in. In more massive clusters, radiation pressure and photo-ionization rapidly clear the cluster-forming gas when itsmore » column density is too small. We assess the rates of dynamical mass ejection and of evaporation, while accounting for the important effect of dust opacity on photo-ionization. Our models are consistent with the census of protostellar outflows in NGC 1333 and Serpens South and with the dust temperatures observed in regions of massive star formation. Comparing observations of massive cluster-forming regions against our model parameter space, and against our expectations for accretion-driven evolution, we infer that massive-star feedback is a likely cause of gas disruption in regions with velocity dispersions less than a few kilometers per second, but that more massive and more turbulent regions are too strongly bound for stellar feedback to be disruptive.« less

  19. ON THE LIKELIHOOD OF PLANET FORMATION IN CLOSE BINARIES

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Jang-Condell, Hannah, E-mail: hjangcon@uwyo.edu

    2015-02-01

    To date, several exoplanets have been discovered orbiting stars with close binary companions (a ≲ 30 AU). The fact that planets can form in these dynamically challenging environments implies that planet formation must be a robust process. The initial protoplanetary disks in these systems from which planets must form should be tidally truncated to radii of a few AU, which indicates that the efficiency of planet formation must be high. Here, we examine the truncation of circumstellar protoplanetary disks in close binary systems, studying how the likelihood of planet formation is affected over a range of disk parameters. If themore » semimajor axis of the binary is too small or its eccentricity is too high, the disk will have too little mass for planet formation to occur. However, we find that the stars in the binary systems known to have planets should have once hosted circumstellar disks that were capable of supporting planet formation despite their truncation. We present a way to characterize the feasibility of planet formation based on binary orbital parameters such as stellar mass, companion mass, eccentricity, and semimajor axis. Using this measure, we can quantify the robustness of planet formation in close binaries and better understand the overall efficiency of planet formation in general.« less

  20. Formation Stellaire Aux Échelles Des Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boissier, S.

    2012-12-01

    Star Formation is at the very core of the evolution of galaxies. From their gas reservoir (filled by infall or fusions), stars form at the "Star Formation Rate" (SFR), with an enormous impact on many aspects of the evolution of galaxies. This HDR presents first the formalism concerning star formation (SFR, IMF), some theoretical suggestions on physical processes that may affect star formation on various galactic scales, and the methods used to determine the SFR from observations. A large part is dedicated to the "Star Formation Laws" (e.g. Schmidt law) on various scales (local, radial, and global law). Finally, the last part concerns the largest scales (evolution of the "cosmic" SFR and effect of the environment).

  1. Not all stars form in clusters - measuring the kinematics of OB associations with Gaia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Jacob L.; Kruijssen, J. M. Diederik

    2018-04-01

    It is often stated that star clusters are the fundamental units of star formation and that most (if not all) stars form in dense stellar clusters. In this monolithic formation scenario, low-density OB associations are formed from the expansion of gravitationally bound clusters following gas expulsion due to stellar feedback. N-body simulations of this process show that OB associations formed this way retain signs of expansion and elevated radial anisotropy over tens of Myr. However, recent theoretical and observational studies suggest that star formation is a hierarchical process, following the fractal nature of natal molecular clouds and allowing the formation of large-scale associations in situ. We distinguish between these two scenarios by characterizing the kinematics of OB associations using the Tycho-Gaia Astrometric Solution catalogue. To this end, we quantify four key kinematic diagnostics: the number ratio of stars with positive radial velocities to those with negative radial velocities, the median radial velocity, the median radial velocity normalized by the tangential velocity, and the radial anisotropy parameter. Each quantity presents a useful diagnostic of whether the association was more compact in the past. We compare these diagnostics to models representing random motion and the expanding products of monolithic cluster formation. None of these diagnostics show evidence of expansion, either from a single cluster or multiple clusters, and the observed kinematics are better represented by a random velocity distribution. This result favours the hierarchical star formation model in which a minority of stars forms in bound clusters and large-scale, hierarchically structured associations are formed in situ.

  2. Enhancement of equivalence class formation by pretraining discriminative functions.

    PubMed

    Nartey, Richard K; Arntzen, Erik; Fields, Lanny

    2015-03-01

    The present experiment showed that a simple discriminative function acquired by an abstract stimulus through simultaneous and/or successive discrimination training enhanced the formation of an equivalence class of which that stimulus was a member. College students attempted to form three equivalence classes composed of three nodes and five members (A→B→C→D→E), using the simultaneous protocol. In the PIC group, the C stimuli were pictures and the A, B, D, and E stimuli were abstract shapes. In the ABS group, all of the stimuli were abstract shapes. In the SIM + SUCC (simultaneous and successive) group, simple discriminations were formed with the C stimuli through both simultaneous and successive discrimination training before class formation. Finally, in the SIM-only and SUCC-only groups, prior to class formation, simple discriminations were established for the C stimuli with a simultaneous procedure and a successive procedure, respectively. Equivalence classes were formed by 80% and 70% of the participants in the PIC and SIM + SUCC groups respectively, by 30% in the SUCC-only group, and by 10% apiece in the ABS and SIM-only groups. Thus, pretraining of combined simultaneous and successive discriminations enhanced class formation, as did the inclusion of a meaningful stimulus in a class. The isolated effect of forming successive discriminations was more influential than that of forming simultaneous discriminations. The establishment of both discriminations together produced an enhancement greater than the sum of the two procedures alone. Finally, a sorting test documented the maintenance of the classes formed during the simultaneous protocol. These results also provide a stimulus control-function account of the class-enhancing effects of meaningful stimuli.

  3. Sexual Biofilm Formation in Candida tropicalis Opaque Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Stephen K.; Hirakawa, Matthew P.; Bennett, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis are opportunistic fungal pathogens that can transition between white and opaque phenotypic states. White and opaque cells differ both morphologically and in their responses to environmental signals. In C. albicans, opaque cells respond to sexual pheromones by undergoing conjugation, while white cells are induced by pheromones to form sexual biofilms. Here, we show that sexual biofilm formation also occurs in C. tropicalis but, unlike C. albicans, biofilms are formed exclusively by opaque cells. C. tropicalis biofilm formation was dependent on the pheromone receptors Ste2 and Ste3, confirming the role of pheromone signaling in sexual biofilm development. Structural analysis of C. tropicalis sexual biofilms revealed stratified communities consisting of a basal layer of yeast cells and an upper layer of filamentous cells, together with an extracellular matrix. Transcriptional profiling showed that genes involved in pheromone signaling and conjugation were upregulated in sexual biofilms. Furthermore, FGR23, which encodes an agglutinin-like protein, was found to enhance both mating and sexual biofilm formation. Together, these studies reveal that C. tropicalis opaque cells form sexual biofilms with a complex architecture, and suggest a conserved role for sexual agglutinins in mediating mating, cell cohesion and biofilm formation. PMID:24612417

  4. Formation, dissolution and properties of surface nanobubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Che, Zhizhao; Theodorakis, Panagiotis E.

    2017-02-01

    Surface nanobubbles are stable gaseous phases in liquids that form on solid substrates. While their existence has been confirmed, there are many open questions related to their formation and dissolution processes along with their structures and properties, which are difficult to investigate experimentally. To address these issues, we carried out molecular dynamics simulations based on atomistic force fields for systems comprised of water, air (N2 and O2), and a Highly Oriented Pyrolytic Graphite (HOPG) substrate. Our results provide insights into the formation/dissolution mechanisms of nanobubbles and estimates for their density, contact angle, and surface tension. We found that the formation of nanobubbles is driven by an initial nucleation process of air molecules and the subsequent coalescence of the formed air clusters. The clusters form favorably on the substrate, which provides an enhanced stability to the clusters. In contrast, nanobubbles formed in the bulk either move randomly to the substrate and spread or move to the water--air surface and pop immediately. Moreover, nanobubbles consist of a condensed gaseous phase with a surface tension smaller than that of an equivalent system under atmospheric conditions, and contact angles larger than those in the equivalent nanodroplet case. We anticipate that this study will provide useful insights into the physics of nanobubbles and will stimulate further research in the field by using all-atom simulations.

  5. Formation of quasiparallel Alfven solitons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, R. L.; Kennel, C. F.; Mjolhus, E.

    1992-01-01

    The formation of quasi-parallel Alfven solitons is investigated through the inverse scattering transformation (IST) for the derivative nonlinear Schroedinger (DNLS) equation. The DNLS has a rich complement of soliton solutions consisting of a two-parameter soliton family and a one-parameter bright/dark soliton family. In this paper, the physical roles and origins of these soliton families are inferred through an analytic study of the scattering data generated by the IST for a set of initial profiles. The DNLS equation has as limiting forms the nonlinear Schroedinger (NLS), Korteweg-de-Vries (KdV) and modified Korteweg-de-Vries (MKdV) equations. Each of these limits is briefly reviewed in the physical context of quasi-parallel Alfven waves. The existence of these limiting forms serves as a natural framework for discussing the formation of Alfven solitons.

  6. Coupling West WRF to GSSHA with GSSHApy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snow, A. D.

    2017-12-01

    The West WRF output data is in the gridded NetCDF output format containing the required forcing data needed to run a GSSHA simulation. These data include precipitation, pressure, temperature, relative humidity, cloud cover, wind speed, and solar radiation. Tools to reproject, resample, and reformat the data for GSSHA have recently been added to the open source Python library GSSHApy (https://github.com/ci-water/gsshapy). These tools have created a connection that has made it possible to run forecasts using the West WRF forcing data with GSSHA to produce both streamflow and lake level predictions.

  7. DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    North, Michael J.

    SchemaOnRead provides tools for implementing schema-on-read including a single function call (e.g., schemaOnRead("filename")) that reads text (TXT), comma separated value (CSV), raster image (BMP, PNG, GIF, TIFF, and JPG), R data (RDS), HDF5, NetCDF, spreadsheet (XLS, XLSX, ODS, and DIF), Weka Attribute-Relation File Format (ARFF), Epi Info (REC), Pajek network (PAJ), R network (NET), Hypertext Markup Language (HTML), SPSS (SAV), Systat (SYS), and Stata (DTA) files. It also recursively reads folders (e.g., schemaOnRead("folder")), returning a nested list of the contained elements.

  8. PDF for Healthcare and Child Health Data Forms.

    PubMed

    Zuckerman, Alan E; Schneider, Joseph H; Miller, Ken

    2008-11-06

    PDF-H is a new best practices standard that uses XFA forms and embedded JavaScript to combine PDF forms with XML data. Preliminary experience with AAP child health forms shows that the combination of PDF with XML is a more effective method to visualize familiar data on paper and the web than the traditional use of XML and XSLT. Both PDF-H and HL7 Clinical Document Architecture can co-exist using the same data for different display formats.

  9. Polarized protein transport and lumen formation during epithelial tissue morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Blasky, Alex J; Mangan, Anthony; Prekeris, Rytis

    2015-01-01

    One of the major challenges in biology is to explain how complex tissues and organs arise from the collective action of individual polarized cells. The best-studied model of this process is the cross talk between individual epithelial cells during their polarization to form the multicellular epithelial lumen during tissue morphogenesis. Multiple mechanisms of apical lumen formation have been proposed. Some epithelial lumens form from preexisting polarized epithelial structures. However, de novo lumen formation from nonpolarized cells has recently emerged as an important driver of epithelial tissue morphogenesis, especially during the formation of small epithelial tubule networks. In this review, we discuss the latest findings regarding the mechanisms and regulation of de novo lumen formation in vitro and in vivo.

  10. Catalytic carbide formation at aluminium-carbon interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maruyama, B.; Rabenberg, L.; Ohuchi, F. S.

    1990-01-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy investigations of the reaction of several monolayer-thick films of aluminum with glassy carbon substrates are presented. The influence of molecular oxygen and water vapor on the rate of reaction is examined. It is concluded that water vapor catalyzed the formation of aluminum carbide from aluminum and carbon by forming active sites which weakened carbon-carbon bonds at the glassy carbon surface, thus assisting their cleavage. The rate of carbide formation for undosed and molecular oxygen-dosed examples was less as neither metallic aluminum nor oxygen-formed alumina could bond to the carbon atom with sufficient strength to dissociate it quickly.

  11. The NeXus data format

    DOE PAGES

    Könnecke, Mark; Akeroyd, Frederick A.; Bernstein, Herbert J.; ...

    2015-01-30

    NeXus is an effort by an international group of scientists to define a common data exchange and archival format for neutron, X-ray and muon experiments. NeXus is built on top of the scientific data format HDF5 and adds domain-specific rules for organizing data within HDF5 files, in addition to a dictionary of well defined domain-specific field names. The NeXus data format has two purposes. First, it defines a format that can serve as a container for all relevant data associated with a beamline. This is a very important use case. Second, it defines standards in the form of application definitionsmore » for the exchange of data between applications. As a result, NeXus provides structures for raw experimental data as well as for processed data.« less

  12. X-pinch dynamics: Neck formation and implosion

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Oreshkin, V. I.; National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30 Lenin Ave., Tomsk 634050; Chaikovsky, S. A.

    2014-10-15

    We propose a model that describes the neck formation and implosion in an X-pinch. The process is simulated to go in two stages. The first stage is neck formation. This stage begins with an electrical explosion of the wires forming the X-pinch, and at the end of the stage, a micropinch (neck) is formed in the region where the wires are crossed. The second stage is neck implosion. The implosion is accompanied by outflow of matter from the neck region, resulting in the formation of a “hot spot”. Analytical estimates obtained in the study under consideration indicate that these stagesmore » are approximately equal in duration. Having analyzed the neck implosion dynamics, we have verified a scaling which makes it possible to explain the observed dependences of the time of occurrence of an x-ray pulse on the X-pinch current and mass.« less

  13. An extremely young massive clump forming by gravitational collapse in a primordial galaxy.

    PubMed

    Zanella, A; Daddi, E; Le Floc'h, E; Bournaud, F; Gobat, R; Valentino, F; Strazzullo, V; Cibinel, A; Onodera, M; Perret, V; Renaud, F; Vignali, C

    2015-05-07

    When cosmic star formation history reaches a peak (at about redshift z ≈ 2), galaxies vigorously fed by cosmic reservoirs are dominated by gas and contain massive star-forming clumps, which are thought to form by violent gravitational instabilities in highly turbulent gas-rich disks. However, a clump formation event has not yet been observed, and it is debated whether clumps can survive energetic feedback from young stars, and afterwards migrate inwards to form galaxy bulges. Here we report the spatially resolved spectroscopy of a bright off-nuclear emission line region in a galaxy at z = 1.987. Although this region dominates star formation in the galaxy disk, its stellar continuum remains undetected in deep imaging, revealing an extremely young (less than ten million years old) massive clump, forming through the gravitational collapse of more than one billion solar masses of gas. Gas consumption in this young clump is more than tenfold faster than in the host galaxy, displaying high star-formation efficiency during this phase, in agreement with our hydrodynamic simulations. The frequency of older clumps with similar masses, coupled with our initial estimate of their formation rate (about 2.5 per billion years), supports long lifetimes (about 500 million years), favouring models in which clumps survive feedback and grow the bulges of present-day galaxies.

  14. Photochemical Aging of α-pinene and β-pinene Secondary Organic Aerosol formed from Nitrate Radical Oxidation: New Insights into the Formation and Fates of Highly Oxygenated Gas- and Particle-phase Organic Nitrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nah, T.; Sanchez, J.; Boyd, C.; Ng, N. L.

    2015-12-01

    The nitrate radical (NO3), one of the most important oxidants in the nocturnal atmosphere, can react rapidly with a variety of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) to form high mass concentrations of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) and organic nitrates (ON). Despite its critical importance in aerosol formation, the mechanisms and products from the NO3 oxidation of BVOCs have been largely unexplored, and the fates of their SOA and ON after formation are not well characterized. In this work, we studied the formation of SOA and ON from the NO3 oxidation of α-pinene and β-pinene and investigated for the first time how they evolve during dark and photochemical aging through a series of chamber experiments performed at the Georgia Tech Environmental Chamber (GTEC) facility. The α-pinene and β-pinene SOA are characterized using real-time gas- and particle-phase measurements, which are used to propose mechanisms for SOA and organic nitrate formation and aging. Highly oxygenated gas- and particle-phase ON (containing as many as 9 oxygen atoms) are detected during the NO3 reaction. In addition, the β-pinene SOA and α-pinene SOA exhibited drastically different behavior during photochemical aging. Our results indicate that nighttime ON formed by NO3+monoterpene chemistry can serve as either NOx reservoirs or sinks depending on the monoterpene precursor. Results from this study provide fundamental data for evaluating the contributions of NO3+monoterpene reactions to ambient OA measured in the Southeastern U.S.

  15. Investigating Microbial Biofilm Formations on Crustal Rock Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiser, M.; D'Angelo, T.; Carr, S. A.; Orcutt, B.

    2017-12-01

    Ocean crust hosts microbial life that, in some cases, alter the component rocks as a means of obtaining energy. Variations in crust lithology, included trace metal and mineral content, as well as the chemistry of the fluids circulating through them, provide substrates for some microbes to metabolize, leading to formation of biofilm community structures. Microbes have different parameters for the situations in which they will form biofilms, but they must have some source of energy in excess at the site of biofilm formation for them to become stationary and form the carbohydrate-rich structures connecting the cells to one another and the substrate. Generally, the requirements for microbes to form biofilms on crustal minerals are unclear. We designed two experiments to test (1) mineral preference and biofilm formation rates by natural seawater microbial communities, and (2) biofilm development as a function of phosphate availability for an organism isolated from subseafloor ocean crust. In Experiment 1, we observed that phyric basalt groundmass is preferentially colonized over aphyric basalt or metal sulfides in a shallow water and oxic seawater environment. In experiment 2, tests of the anaerobic heterotroph Thalassospira bacteria isolated from oceanic crustal fluids showed that they preferentially form biofilms, lose motility, and increase exponentially in number over time in higher-PO4 treatments (50 micromolar), including with phosphate-doped basalts, than in treatments with low phosphate concentrations (0.5 micromolar) often found in crustal fluids. These observations suggest phosphate as a main driver of biofilm formation in subsurface crust. Overall, these data suggest that the drivers of microbial biofilm formation on crustal substrates are selective to the substrate conditions, which has important implications for estimating the global biomass of life harbored in oceanic crust.

  16. Solidification effects on sill formation: An experimental approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chanceaux, L.; Menand, T.

    2014-10-01

    Sills represent a major mechanism for constructing continental Earth's crust because these intrusions can amalgamate and form magma reservoirs and plutons. As a result, numerous field, laboratory and numerical studies have investigated the conditions that lead to sill emplacement. However, all previous studies have neglected the potential effect magma solidification could have on sill formation. The effects of solidification on the formation of sills are studied and quantified with scaled analogue laboratory experiments. The experiments presented here involved the injection of hot vegetable oil (a magma analogue) which solidified during its propagation as a dyke in a colder and layered solid of gelatine (a host rock analogue). The gelatine solid had two layers of different stiffness, to create a priori favourable conditions to form sills. Several behaviours were observed depending on the injection temperature and the injection rate: no intrusions (extreme solidification effects), dykes stopping at the interface (high solidification effects), sills (moderate solidification effects), and dykes passing through the interface (low solidification effects). All these results can be explained quantitatively as a function of a dimensionless temperature θ, which describes the experimental thermal conditions, and a dimensionless flux ϕ, which describes their dynamical conditions. The experiments reveal that sills can only form within a restricted domain of the (θ , ϕ) parameter space. These experiments demonstrate that contrary to isothermal experiments where cooling could not affect sill formation, the presence of an interface that would be a priori mechanically favourable is not a sufficient condition for sill formation; solidification effects restrict sill formation. The results are consistent with field observations and provide a means to explain why some dykes form sills when others do not under seemingly similar geological conditions.

  17. Clustered star formation and the origin of stellar masses.

    PubMed

    Pudritz, Ralph E

    2002-01-04

    Star clusters are ubiquitous in galaxies of all types and at all stages of their evolution. We also observe them to be forming in a wide variety of environments, ranging from nearby giant molecular clouds to the supergiant molecular clouds found in starburst and merging galaxies. The typical star in our galaxy and probably in others formed as a member of a star cluster, so star formation is an intrinsically clustered and not an isolated phenomenon. The greatest challenge regarding clustered star formation is to understand why stars have a mass spectrum that appears to be universal. This review examines the observations and models that have been proposed to explain these fundamental issues in stellar formation.

  18. Observational insights into aerosol formation from isoprene.

    PubMed

    Worton, David R; Surratt, Jason D; Lafranchi, Brian W; Chan, Arthur W H; Zhao, Yunliang; Weber, Robin J; Park, Jeong-Hoo; Gilman, Jessica B; de Gouw, Joost; Park, Changhyoun; Schade, Gunnar; Beaver, Melinda; Clair, Jason M St; Crounse, John; Wennberg, Paul; Wolfe, Glenn M; Harrold, Sara; Thornton, Joel A; Farmer, Delphine K; Docherty, Kenneth S; Cubison, Michael J; Jimenez, Jose-Luis; Frossard, Amanda A; Russell, Lynn M; Kristensen, Kasper; Glasius, Marianne; Mao, Jingqiu; Ren, Xinrong; Brune, William; Browne, Eleanor C; Pusede, Sally E; Cohen, Ronald C; Seinfeld, John H; Goldstein, Allen H

    2013-10-15

    Atmospheric photooxidation of isoprene is an important source of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) and there is increasing evidence that anthropogenic oxidant emissions can enhance this SOA formation. In this work, we use ambient observations of organosulfates formed from isoprene epoxydiols (IEPOX) and methacrylic acid epoxide (MAE) and a broad suite of chemical measurements to investigate the relative importance of nitrogen oxide (NO/NO2) and hydroperoxyl (HO2) SOA formation pathways from isoprene at a forested site in California. In contrast to IEPOX, the calculated production rate of MAE was observed to be independent of temperature. This is the result of the very fast thermolysis of MPAN at high temperatures that affects the distribution of the MPAN reservoir (MPAN / MPA radical) reducing the fraction that can react with OH to form MAE and subsequently SOA (F(MAE formation)). The strong temperature dependence of F(MAE formation) helps to explain our observations of similar concentrations of IEPOX-derived organosulfates (IEPOX-OS; ~1 ng m(-3)) and MAE-derived organosulfates (MAE-OS; ~1 ng m(-3)) under cooler conditions (lower isoprene concentrations) and much higher IEPOX-OS (~20 ng m(-3)) relative to MAE-OS (<0.0005 ng m(-3)) at higher temperatures (higher isoprene concentrations). A kinetic model of IEPOX and MAE loss showed that MAE forms 10-100 times more ring-opening products than IEPOX and that both are strongly dependent on aerosol water content when aerosol pH is constant. However, the higher fraction of MAE ring opening products does not compensate for the lower MAE production under warmer conditions (higher isoprene concentrations) resulting in lower formation of MAE-derived products relative to IEPOX at the surface. In regions of high NOx, high isoprene emissions and strong vertical mixing the slower MPAN thermolysis rate aloft could increase the fraction of MPAN that forms MAE resulting in a vertically varying isoprene SOA source.

  19. Star Formation in low mass galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, Vihang

    2018-01-01

    Our current hierarchical view of the universe asserts that the large galaxies we see today grew via mergers of numerous smaller galaxies. As evidenced by recent literature, the collective impact of these low mass galaxies on the universe is more substantial than previously thought. Studying the growth and evolution of these low mass galaxies is critical to our understanding of the universe as a whole. Star formation is one of the most important ongoing processes in galaxies. Forming stars is fundamental to the growth of a galaxy. One of the main goals of my thesis is to analyze the star formation in these low mass galaxies at different redshifts.Using the Hubble UltraViolet Ultra Deep Field (UVUDF), I investigate the star formation in galaxies at the peak of the cosmic star formation history using the ultraviolet (UV) light as a star formation indicator. Particularly, I measure the UV luminosity function (LF) to probe the volume-averaged star formation properties of galaxies at these redshifts. The depth of the UVUDF is ideal for a direct measurement of the faint end slope of the UV LF. This redshift range also provides a unique opportunity to directly compare UV to the "gold standard" of star formation indicators, namely the Hα nebular emission line. A joint analysis of the UV and Hα LFs suggests that, on average, the star formation histories in low mass galaxies (~109 M⊙) are more bursty compared to their higher mass counterparts at these redshifts.Complementary to the analysis of the average star formation properties of the bulk galaxy population, I investigate the details of star formation in some very bursty galaxies at lower redshifts selected from Spitzer Large Area Survey with Hyper-Suprime Cam (SPLASH). Using a broadband color-excess selection technique, I identify a sample of low redshift galaxies with bright nebular emission lines in the Subaru-XMM Deep Field (SXDF) from the SPLASH-SXDF catalog. These galaxies are highly star forming and have

  20. Comet formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blum, J.

    2014-07-01

    There has been vast progress in our understanding of planetesimal formation over the past decades, owing to a number of laboratory experiments as well as to refined models of dust and ice agglomeration in protoplanetary disks. Coagulation rapidly forms cm-sized ''pebbles'' by direct sticking in collisions at low velocities (Güttler et al. 2010; Zsom et al. 2010). For the further growth, two model approaches are currently being discussed: (1) Local concentration of pebbles in nebular instabilities until gravitational instability occurs (Johansen et al. 2007). (2) A competition between fragmentation and mass transfer in collisions among the dusty bodies, in which a few ''lucky winners'' make it to planetesimal sizes (Windmark et al. 2012a,b; Garaud et al. 2013). Predictions of the physical properties of the resulting bodies in both models allow a distinction of the two formation scenarios of planetesimals. In particular, the tensile strength (i.e, the inner cohesion) of the planetesimals differ widely between the two models (Skorov & Blum 2012; Blum et al. 2014). While model (1) predicts tensile strengths on the order of ˜ 1 Pa, model (2) results in rather compactified dusty bodies with tensile strengths in the kPa regime. If comets are km-sized survivors of the planetesimal-formation era, they should in principle hold the secret of their formation process. Water ice is the prime volatile responsible for the activity of comets. Thermophysical models of the heat and mass transport close to the comet-nucleus surface predict water-ice sublimation temperatures that relate to maximum sublimation pressures well below the kPa regime predicted for formation scenario (2). Model (1), however, is in agreement with the observed dust and gas activity of comets. Thus, a formation scenario for cometesimals involving gravitational instability is favored (Blum et al. 2014).

  1. Heating subsurface formations by oxidizing fuel on a fuel carrier

    DOEpatents

    Costello, Michael; Vinegar, Harold J.

    2012-10-02

    A method of heating a portion of a subsurface formation includes drawing fuel on a fuel carrier through an opening formed in the formation. Oxidant is supplied to the fuel at one or more locations in the opening. The fuel is combusted with the oxidant to provide heat to the formation.

  2. Smashing a Jet into a Cloud to Form Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-12-01

    What happens when the highly energetic jet from the center of an active galaxy rams into surrounding clouds of gas and dust? A new study explores whether this might be a way to form stars.The authors simulations at an intermediate (top) and final (bottom) stage show the compression in the gas cloud as a jet (red) enters from the left. Undisturbed cloud material is shown in blue, whereas green corresponds to cold, compressed gas actively forming stars. [Fragile et al. 2017]Impacts of FeedbackCorrelation between properties of supermassive black holes and their host galaxies suggest that there is some means of communication between them. For this reason, we suspect that feedback from an active galactic nucleus (AGN) in the form of jets, for instance controls the size of the galaxy by influencing star formation. But how does this process work?AGN feedback can be either negative or positive. In negative feedback, the gas necessary for forming stars is heated or dispersed by the jet, curbing or halting star formation. In positive feedback, jets propagate through the surrounding gas with energies high enough to create compression in the gas, but not so high that they heat it. The increased density can cause the gas to collapse, thereby triggering star formation.In a recent study, a team of scientists led by Chris Fragile (College of Charleston) modeled what happens when an enormous AGN jet slams into a dwarf-galaxy-sized, inactive cloud of gas. In particular, the team explored the possibility of star-forming positive feedback with the goal of reproducing recent observations of something called Minkowskis Object, a stellar nursery located at the endpoint of a radio jet emitted from the active galaxy NGC 541.The star formation rate in the simulated cloud increases dramatically as a result of the jets impact, reaching the rate currently observed for Minkowskis Objects within 20 million years. [Fragile et al. 2017]Triggering Stellar BirthFragile and collaborators used a

  3. Electrochemical formation of field emitters

    DOEpatents

    Bernhardt, A.F.

    1999-03-16

    Electrochemical formation of field emitters, particularly useful in the fabrication of flat panel displays is disclosed. The fabrication involves field emitting points in a gated field emitter structure. Metal field emitters are formed by electroplating and the shape of the formed emitter is controlled by the potential imposed on the gate as well as on a separate counter electrode. This allows sharp emitters to be formed in a more inexpensive and manufacturable process than vacuum deposition processes used at present. The fabrication process involves etching of the gate metal and the dielectric layer down to the resistor layer, and then electroplating the etched area and forming an electroplated emitter point in the etched area. 12 figs.

  4. Electrochemical formation of field emitters

    DOEpatents

    Bernhardt, Anthony F.

    1999-01-01

    Electrochemical formation of field emitters, particularly useful in the fabrication of flat panel displays. The fabrication involves field emitting points in a gated field emitter structure. Metal field emitters are formed by electroplating and the shape of the formed emitter is controlled by the potential imposed on the gate as well as on a separate counter electrode. This allows sharp emitters to be formed in a more inexpensive and manufacturable process than vacuum deposition processes used at present. The fabrication process involves etching of the gate metal and the dielectric layer down to the resistor layer, and then electroplating the etched area and forming an electroplated emitter point in the etched area.

  5. The formation of ice sails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fowler, A. C.; Mayer, C.

    2017-11-01

    Debris-covered glaciers are prone to the formation of a number of supraglacial geomorphological features, and generally speaking, their upper surfaces are far from level surfaces. Some of these features are due to radiation screening or enhancing properties of the debris cover, but theoretical explanations of the consequent surface forms are in their infancy. In this paper we consider a theoretical model for the formation of "ice sails", which are regularly spaced bare ice features which are found on debris-covered glaciers in the Karakoram.

  6. [Effect of indolylacetic acid on formation of bacteroid forms of Rhizobium leguminosarum].

    PubMed

    Lobanok, E V; Bakanchikova, T I

    1979-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to study the effect of indolylacetic acid (IAA) on the strains of Rhizobium leguminosarum, effective and noneffective with respect to symbiotic nitrogen fixation (L4 and 245a, and 14--73, respectively). IAA at a concentration of 50 mcg/ml and higher inhibited the growth of the bacterium, temporarily delayed celular division, and induced intensive formation of elongated bacteroid-like cells, predominantly Y-shaped or having a clavate shape. Many bacteroid-like cells were capable of division after a certain delay.

  7. Star Formation in Merging Galaxies Using FIRE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, Adrianna; Hung, Chao-Ling; Naiman, Jill; Moreno, Jorge; Hopkins, Philip

    2018-01-01

    Galaxy interactions and mergers are efficient mechanisms to birth stars at rates that are significantly higher than found in our Milky Way galaxy. The Kennicut-Schmidt (KS) relation is an empirical relationship between the star-forming rate and gas surface densities of galaxies (Schmidt 1959; Kennicutt 1998). Although most galaxies follow the KS relation, the high levels of star formation in galaxy mergers places them outside of this otherwise tight relationship. The goal of this research is to analyze the gas content and star formation of simulated merging galaxies. Our work utilizes the Feedback In Realistic Environments (FIRE) model (Hopkins et al., 2014). The FIRE project is a high-resolution cosmological simulation that resolves star-forming regions and incorporates stellar feedback in a physically realistic way. In this work, we have noticed a significant increase in the star formation rate at first and second passage, when the two black holes of each galaxy approach one other. Next, we will analyze spatially resolved star-forming regions over the course of the interacting system. Then, we can study when and how the rates that gas converts into stars deviate from the standard KS. These analyses will provide important insights into the physical mechanisms that regulate star formation of normal and merging galaxies and valuable theoretical predictions that can be used to compare with current and future observations from ALMA or the James Webb Space Telescope.

  8. How desert varnish forms?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, Randall S.; Kolb, Vera M.; Lynne, Bridget Y.; Sephton, Mark A.; Mcloughlin, Nicola; Engel, Michael H.; Olendzenski, Lorraine; Brasier, Martin; Staley, James T., Jr.

    2005-09-01

    Desert varnish is a black, manganese-rich rock coating that is widespread on Earth. The mechanism underlying its formation, however, has remained unresolved. We present here new data and an associated model for how desert varnish forms, which substantively challenges previously accepted models. We tested both inorganic processes (e.g. clays and oxides cementing coatings) and microbial methods of formation. Techniques used in this preliminary study include SEM-EDAX with backscatter, HRTEM of focused ion beam prepared (FIB) wafers and several other methods including XRPD, Raman spectroscopy, XPS and Tof-SIMS. The only hypothesis capable of explaining a high water content, the presence of organic compounds, an amorphous silica phase (opal-A) and lesser quantities of clays than previously reported, is a mechanism involving the mobilization and redistribution of silica. The discovery of silica in desert varnish suggests labile organics are preserved by interaction with condensing silicic acid. Organisms are not needed for desert varnish formation but Bacteria, Archaea, Eukarya, and other organic compounds are passively incorporated and preserved as organominerals. The rock coatings thus provide useful records of past environments on Earth and possibly other planets. Additionally this model also helps to explain the origin of key varnish and rock glaze features, including their hardness, the nature of the "glue" that binds heterogeneous components together, its layered botryoidal morphology, and its slow rate of formation.

  9. Effect of Formative Quizzes on Teacher Candidates' Learning in General Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yalaki, Yalcin; Bayram, Zeki

    2015-01-01

    Formative assessment or assessment for learning is one of the most emphasized educational innovations around the world. Two of the common strategies that could be used in formative assessment are use of summative tests for formative purposes and comment only marking. We utilized these strategies in the form of formative quizzes in a general…

  10. The formation of stellar black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirabel, Félix

    2017-08-01

    It is believed that stellar black holes (BHs) can be formed in two different ways: Either a massive star collapses directly into a BH without a supernova (SN) explosion, or an explosion occurs in a proto-neutron star, but the energy is too low to completely unbind the stellar envelope, and a large fraction of it falls back onto the short-lived neutron star (NS), leading to the delayed formation of a BH. Theoretical models set progenitor masses for BH formation by implosion, namely, by complete or almost complete collapse, but observational evidences have been elusive. Here are reviewed the observational insights on BHs formed by implosion without large natal kicks from: (1) the kinematics in three dimensions of space of five Galactic BH X-ray binaries (BH-XRBs), (2) the diversity of optical and infrared observations of massive stars that collapse in the dark, with no luminous SN explosions, possibly leading to the formation of BHs, and (3) the sources of gravitational waves (GWs) produced by mergers of stellar BHs so far detected with LIGO. Multiple indications of BH formation without ejection of a significant amount of matter and with no natal kicks obtained from these different areas of observational astrophysics, and the recent observational confirmation of the expected dependence of BH formation on metallicity and redshift, are qualitatively consistent with the high merger rates of binary black holes (BBHs) inferred from the first detections with LIGO.

  11. Biological ice nucleation initiates hailstone formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michaud, Alexander B.; Dore, John E.; Leslie, Deborah; Lyons, W. Berry; Sands, David C.; Priscu, John C.

    2014-11-01

    Cloud condensation and ice nuclei in the troposphere are required precursors to cloud and precipitation formation, both of which influence the radiative balance of Earth. The initial stage of hailstone formation (i.e., the embryo) and the subsequent layered growth allow hail to be used as a model for the study of nucleation processes in precipitation. By virtue of the preserved particle and isotopic record captured by hailstones, they represent a unique form of precipitation that allows direct characterization of the particles present during atmospheric ice nucleation. Despite the ecological and economic consequences of hail storms, the dynamics of hailstone nucleation, and thus their formation, are not well understood. Our experiments show that hailstone embryos from three Rocky Mountain storms contained biological ice nuclei capable of freezing water at warm, subzero (°C) temperatures, indicating that biological particles can act as nucleation sites for hailstone formation. These results are corroborated by analysis of δD and δ18O from melted hailstone embryos, which show that the hailstones formed at similarly warm temperatures in situ. Low densities of ice nucleation active abiotic particles were also present in hailstone embryos, but their low concentration indicates they were not likely to have catalyzed ice formation at the warm temperatures determined from water stable isotope analysis. Our study provides new data on ice nucleation occurring at the bottom of clouds, an atmospheric region whose processes are critical to global climate models but which has challenged instrument-based measurements.

  12. Unfolding the laws of star formation: the density distribution of molecular clouds.

    PubMed

    Kainulainen, Jouni; Federrath, Christoph; Henning, Thomas

    2014-04-11

    The formation of stars shapes the structure and evolution of entire galaxies. The rate and efficiency of this process are affected substantially by the density structure of the individual molecular clouds in which stars form. The most fundamental measure of this structure is the probability density function of volume densities (ρ-PDF), which determines the star formation rates predicted with analytical models. This function has remained unconstrained by observations. We have developed an approach to quantify ρ-PDFs and establish their relation to star formation. The ρ-PDFs instigate a density threshold of star formation and allow us to quantify the star formation efficiency above it. The ρ-PDFs provide new constraints for star formation theories and correctly predict several key properties of the star-forming interstellar medium.

  13. Star-forming Filament Models

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Myers, Philip C., E-mail: pmyers@cfa.harvard.edu

    2017-03-20

    New models of star-forming filamentary clouds are presented in order to quantify their properties and to predict their evolution. These 2D axisymmetric models describe filaments that have no core, one low-mass core, and one cluster-forming core. They are based on Plummer-like cylinders and spheroids that are bounded by a constant-density surface of finite extent. In contrast to 1D Plummer-like models, they have specific values of length and mass, they approximate observed column density maps, and their distributions of column density ( N -pdfs) are pole-free. Each model can estimate the star-forming potential of a core-filament system by identifying the zonemore » of gas dense enough to form low-mass stars and by counting the number of enclosed thermal Jeans masses. This analysis suggests that the Musca central filament may be near the start of its star-forming life, with enough dense gas to make its first ∼3 protostars, while the Coronet filament is near the midpoint of its star formation, with enough dense gas to add ∼8 protostars to its ∼20 known stars. In contrast, L43 appears to be near the end of its star-forming life, since it lacks enough dense gas to add any new protostars to the two young stellar objectsalready known.« less

  14. Halogen-bonding-triggered supramolecular gel formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meazza, Lorenzo; Foster, Jonathan A.; Fucke, Katharina; Metrangolo, Pierangelo; Resnati, Giuseppe; Steed, Jonathan W.

    2013-01-01

    Supramolecular gels are topical soft materials involving the reversible formation of fibrous aggregates using non-covalent interactions. There is significant interest in controlling the properties of such materials by the formation of multicomponent systems, which exhibit non-additive properties emerging from interaction of the components. The use of hydrogen bonding to assemble supramolecular gels in organic solvents is well established. In contrast, the use of halogen bonding to trigger supramolecular gel formation in a two-component gel (‘co-gel’) is essentially unexplored, and forms the basis for this study. Here, we show that halogen bonding between a pyridyl substituent in a bis(pyridyl urea) and 1,4-diiodotetrafluorobenzene brings about gelation, even in polar media such as aqueous methanol and aqueous dimethylsulfoxide. This demonstrates that halogen bonding is sufficiently strong to interfere with competing gel-inhibitory interactions and create a ‘tipping point’ in gel assembly. Using this concept, we have prepared a halogen bond donor bis(urea) gelator that forms co-gels with halogen bond acceptors.

  15. Formation of the First Stars and Blackholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Naoki

    2018-05-01

    Cosmic reionization is thought to be initiated by the first generation of stars and blackholes. We review recent progress in theoretical studies of early structure formation. Cosmic structure formation is driven by gravitational instability of primeval density fluctuations left over from Big Bang. At early epochs, there are baryonic streaming motions with significant relative velocity with respect to dark matter. The formation of primordial gas clouds is typically delayed by the streaming motions, but then physical conditions for the so-called direct collapse blackhole formation are realized in proto-galactic halos. We present a promising model in which intermediate mass blackholes are formed as early as z = 30.

  16. Combined EXAFS Spectroscopic and Quantum Chemical Study on the Complex Formation of Am(III) with Formate.

    PubMed

    Fröhlich, Daniel R; Kremleva, Alena; Rossberg, André; Skerencak-Frech, Andrej; Koke, Carsten; Krüger, Sven; Rösch, Notker; Panak, Petra J

    2017-06-19

    The complexation of Am(III) with formate in aqueous solution is studied as a function of the pH value using a combination of extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy, iterative transformation factor analysis (ITFA), and quantum chemical calculations. The Am L III -edge EXAFS spectra are analyzed to determine the molecular structure (coordination numbers; Am-O and Am-C distances) of the formed Am(III)-formate species and to track the shift of the Am(III) speciation with increasing pH. The experimental data are compared to predictions from density functional calculations. The results indicate that formate binds to Am(III) in a monodentate fashion, in agreement with crystal structures of lanthanide formates. Furthermore, the investigations are complemented by thermodynamic speciation calculations to verify further the results obtained.

  17. Structure and decomposition of the silver formate Ag(HCO{sub 2})

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Puzan, Anna N., E-mail: anna_puzan@mail.ru; Baumer, Vyacheslav N.; Mateychenko, Pavel V.

    Crystal structure of the silver formate Ag(HCO{sub 2}) has been determined (orthorhombic, sp.gr. Pccn, a=7.1199(5), b=10.3737(4), c=6.4701(3)Å, V=477.88(4) Å{sup 3}, Z=8). The structure contains isolated formate ions and the pairs Ag{sub 2}{sup 2+} which form the layers in (001) planes (the shortest Ag–Ag distances is 2.919 in the pair and 3.421 and 3.716 Å between the nearest Ag atoms of adjacent pairs). Silver formate is unstable compound which decompose spontaneously vs time. Decomposition was studied using Rietveld analysis of the powder diffraction patterns. It was concluded that the diffusion of Ag atoms leads to the formation of plate-like metal particlesmore » as nuclei in the (100) planes which settle parallel to (001) planes of the silver formate matrix. - Highlights: • Silver formate Ag(HCO{sub 2}) was synthesized and characterized. • Layered packing of Ag-Ag pairs in the structure was found. • Decomposition of Ag(HCO{sub 2}) and formation of metal phase were studied. • Rietveld-refined micro-structural characteristics during decomposition reveal the space relationship between the matrix structure and forming Ag phase REPLACE with: Space relationship between the matrix structure and forming Ag phase.« less

  18. Are star formation rates of galaxies bimodal?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldmann, Robert

    2017-09-01

    Star formation rate (SFR) distributions of galaxies are often assumed to be bimodal with modes corresponding to star-forming and quiescent galaxies, respectively. Both classes of galaxies are typically studied separately, and SFR distributions of star-forming galaxies are commonly modelled as lognormals. Using both observational data and results from numerical simulations, I argue that this division into star-forming and quiescent galaxies is unnecessary from a theoretical point of view and that the SFR distributions of the whole population can be well fitted by zero-inflated negative binomial distributions. This family of distributions has three parameters that determine the average SFR of the galaxies in the sample, the scatter relative to the star-forming sequence and the fraction of galaxies with zero SFRs, respectively. The proposed distributions naturally account for (I) the discrete nature of star formation, (II) the presence of 'dead' galaxies with zero SFRs and (III) asymmetric scatter. Excluding 'dead' galaxies, the distribution of log SFR is unimodal with a peak at the star-forming sequence and an extended tail towards low SFRs. However, uncertainties and biases in the SFR measurements can create the appearance of a bimodal distribution.

  19. Micromorphologic evidence for paleosol development in the Endicott group, Siksikpuk formation, Kingak(?) shale, and Ipewik formation, western Brooks range, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dumoulin, Julie A.; White, Tim

    2005-01-01

    Micromorphologic evidence indicates the presence of paleosols in drill-core samples from four sedimentary units in the Red Dog area, western Brooks Range. Well-developed sepic-plasmic fabrics and siderite spherules occur in claystones of the Upper Devonian through Lower Mississippian(?) Kanayut Conglomerate (Endicott Group), the Pennsylvanian through Permian Siksikpuk Formation (Etivluk Group), the Jurassic through Lower Cretaceous Kingak(?) Shale, and the Lower Cretaceous Ipewik Formation. Although exposure surfaces have been previously recognized in the Endicott Group and Kingak Shale on the basis of outcrop features, our study is the first microscopic analysis of paleosols from these units, and it provides the first evidence of subaerial exposure in the Siksikpuk and Ipewik Formations. Regional stratigraphic relations and geochemical data support our interpretations. Paleosols in the Siksikpuk, Kingak, and Ipewik Formations likely formed in nearshore coastal-plain environments, with pore waters subjected to inundation by the updip migration of slightly brackish ground water, whereas paleosols in the Kanayut Conglomerate probably formed in a more distal setting relative to a marine basin.

  20. Complex Organic Parents during Star-Forming Infall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drozdovskaya, Maria; Walsh, Catherine; Visser, Ruud; Harsono, Daniel; van Dishoeck, Ewine

    2013-07-01

    Stars are born upon the gravitation infall of clumps in molecular clouds. Complex organic compounds have been observed to accompany star formation and are also believed to be the simplest ingredients to life. Therefore understanding complex organics under star forming conditions is fundamentally interesting. This work models the formation and distribution of several potential parent species for complex organic compounds, such as formaldehyde (H2CO) and methanol (CH3OH), along trajectories of matter parcels, as they undergo infall from the cold outer envelope towards the hot core region and eventually onto the disk. The code from Visser et al. (2009, 2011) serves as the basis for this research. The gas-phase chemistry network has now been expanded with grain-surface reactions to form CH3OH and, ultimately, larger organics such as methyl formate (HCOOCH3) and dimethyl ether (CH3OCH3). The intention behind this work is to obtain information on complex organic parents in the star formation scenario by means of a physically and chemically robust model. The availability of complex organic compounds will vary depending on where the parent species are abundant, such as in the pre-stellar stage, hot-core, or only in the disk; and where they are available for a sufficient amount of time for the complexity enhancement. Such model-based conclusions can then be used in order to explain the observational data on complex organic compounds.

  1. Multilingual Medical Data Models in ODM Format

    PubMed Central

    Breil, B.; Kenneweg, J.; Fritz, F.; Bruland, P.; Doods, D.; Trinczek, B.; Dugas, M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Semantic interoperability between routine healthcare and clinical research is an unsolved issue, as information systems in the healthcare domain still use proprietary and site-specific data models. However, information exchange and data harmonization are essential for physicians and scientists if they want to collect and analyze data from different hospitals in order to build up registries and perform multicenter clinical trials. Consequently, there is a need for a standardized metadata exchange based on common data models. Currently this is mainly done by informatics experts instead of medical experts. Objectives We propose to enable physicians to exchange, rate, comment and discuss their own medical data models in a collaborative web-based repository of medical forms in a standardized format. Methods Based on a comprehensive requirement analysis, a web-based portal for medical data models was specified. In this context, a data model is the technical specification (attributes, data types, value lists) of a medical form without any layout information. The CDISC Operational Data Model (ODM) was chosen as the appropriate format for the standardized representation of data models. The system was implemented with Ruby on Rails and applies web 2.0 technologies to provide a community based solution. Forms from different source systems – both routine care and clinical research – were converted into ODM format and uploaded into the portal. Results A portal for medical data models based on ODM-files was implemented (http://www.medical-data-models.org). Physicians are able to upload, comment, rate and download medical data models. More than 250 forms with approximately 8000 items are provided in different views (overview and detailed presentation) and in multiple languages. For instance, the portal contains forms from clinical and research information systems. Conclusion The portal provides a system-independent repository for multilingual data models in ODM

  2. Invention through Form and Function Analogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rule, Audrey C.

    2015-01-01

    "Invention through Form and Function Analogy" is an invention book for teachers and other leaders working with youth who are involving students in the invention process. The book consists of an introduction and set of nine learning cycle formatted lessons for teaching the principles of invention through the science and engineering design…

  3. CAPRICE positively regulates stomatal formation in the Arabidopsis hypocotyl

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    In the Arabidopsis hypocotyl, stomata develop only from a set of epidermal cell files. Previous studies have identified several negative regulators of stomata formation. Such regulators also trigger non-hair cell fate in the root. Here, it is shown that TOO MANY MOUTHS (TMM) positively regulates CAPRICE (CPC) expression in differentiating stomaless-forming cell files, and that the CPC protein might move to the nucleus of neighbouring stoma-forming cells, where it promotes stomata formation in a redundant manner with TRIPTYCHON (TRY). Unexpectedly, the CPC protein was also localized in the nucleus and peripheral cytoplasm of hypocotyl fully differentiated epidermal cells, suggesting that CPC plays an additional role to those related to stomata formation. These results identify CPC and TRY as positive regulators of stomata formation in the embryonic stem, which increases the similarity between the genetic control of root hair and stoma cell fate determination. PMID:19513241

  4. Star Formation in a Complete Spectroscopic Survey of Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, B. J.; Fabricant, D. G.; Geller, M. J.; Kurtz, M. J.; McLean, B.

    2001-10-01

    The 15R-North galaxy redshift survey is a uniform spectroscopic survey (S/N~10) covering the range 3650-7400 Å for 3149 galaxies with median redshift 0.05. The sample is 90% complete to R=15.4. The median slit covering fraction is 24% of the galaxy, apparently sufficient to minimize the effects of aperture bias on the EW(Hα). Forty-nine percent of the galaxies in the survey have one or more emission lines detected at >=2 σ. In agreement with previous surveys, the fraction of absorption-line galaxies increases steeply with galaxy luminosity. We use Hβ, [O III], Hα, and [N II] to discriminate between star-forming galaxies and AGNs. At least 20% of the galaxies are star-forming, at least 17% have AGN-like emission, and 12% have unclassifiable emission. The unclassified 12% may include a ``hybrid'' population of galaxies with both star formation and AGN activity. The AGN fraction increases steeply with luminosity; the fraction of star-forming galaxies decreases. We use the EW(Hα+[N II]) to estimate the Scalo birthrate parameter, b, the ratio of the current star formation rate to the time averaged star formation rate. The median birthrate parameter is inversely correlated with luminosity in agreement with the conclusions based on smaller samples (Kennicutt, Tamblyn, & Congdon). Because our survey is large, we identify 33 vigorously star-forming galaxies with b>3. We confirm the conclusion of Jansen, Franx, & Fabricant that EW([O II]) must be used with caution as a measure of current star formation. Finally, we examine the way galaxies of different spectroscopic type trace the large-scale galaxy distribution. As expected the absorption-line fraction decreases and the star-forming emission-line fraction increases as the galaxy density decreases. The AGN fraction is insensitive to the surrounding galaxy density; the unclassified fraction declines slowly as the density increases. For the star-forming galaxies, the EW(Hα) increases very slowly as the galaxy number

  5. Unraveling supported lipid bilayer formation kinetics: osmotic effects.

    PubMed

    Hain, Nicole; Gallego, Marta; Reviakine, Ilya

    2013-02-19

    Solid-supported lipid bilayers are used as cell membrane models and form the basis of biomimetic and biosensor platforms. The mechanism of their formation from adsorbed liposomes is not well-understood. Using membrane-permeable solute glycerol, impermeable solutes sucrose and dextran, and a pore forming peptide melittin, we studied experimentally how osmotic effects affect the kinetics of the adsorbed liposome-to-bilayer transition. We find that its rate is enhanced if adsorbed liposomes are made permeable but is not significantly retarded by impermeable solutes. The results are explained in terms of adsorbed liposome deformation and formation of transmembrane pores.

  6. Rhizobium–legume symbiosis shares an exocytotic pathway required for arbuscule formation

    PubMed Central

    Ivanov, Sergey; Fedorova, Elena E.; Limpens, Erik; De Mita, Stephane; Genre, Andrea; Bonfante, Paola; Bisseling, Ton

    2012-01-01

    Endosymbiotic interactions are characterized by the formation of specialized membrane compartments, by the host in which the microbes are hosted, in an intracellular manner. Two well-studied examples, which are of major agricultural and ecological importance, are the widespread arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis and the Rhizobium–legume symbiosis. In both symbioses, the specialized host membrane that surrounds the microbes forms a symbiotic interface, which facilitates the exchange of, for example, nutrients in a controlled manner and, therefore, forms the heart of endosymbiosis. Despite their key importance, the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the formation of these membrane interfaces are largely unknown. Recent studies strongly suggest that the Rhizobium–legume symbiosis coopted a signaling pathway, including receptor, from the more ancient arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis to form a symbiotic interface. Here, we show that two highly homologous exocytotic vesicle-associated membrane proteins (VAMPs) are required for formation of the symbiotic membrane interface in both interactions. Silencing of these Medicago VAMP72 genes has a minor effect on nonsymbiotic plant development and nodule formation. However, it blocks symbiosome as well as arbuscule formation, whereas root colonization by the microbes is not affected. Identification of these VAMP72s as common symbiotic regulators in exocytotic vesicle trafficking suggests that the ancient exocytotic pathway forming the periarbuscular membrane compartment has also been coopted in the Rhizobium–legume symbiosis. PMID:22566631

  7. Clumpy Disks as a Testbed for Feedback-regulated Galaxy Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, Lucio; Tamburello, Valentina; Lupi, Alessandro; Keller, Ben; Wadsley, James; Madau, Piero

    2016-10-01

    We study the dependence of fragmentation in massive gas-rich galaxy disks at z > 1 on stellar feedback schemes and hydrodynamical solvers, employing the GASOLINE2 SPH code and the lagrangian mesh-less code GIZMO in finite mass mode. Non-cosmological galaxy disk runs with the standard delayed-cooling blastwave feedback are compared with runs adopting a new superbubble feedback, which produces winds by modeling the detailed physics of supernova-driven bubbles and leads to efficient self-regulation of star formation. We find that, with blastwave feedback, massive star-forming clumps form in comparable number and with very similar masses in GASOLINE2 and GIZMO. Typical clump masses are in the range 107-108 M ⊙, lower than in most previous works, while giant clumps with masses above 109 M ⊙ are exceedingly rare. By contrast, superbubble feedback does not produce massive star-forming bound clumps as galaxies never undergo a phase of violent disk instability. In this scheme, only sporadic, unbound star-forming overdensities lasting a few tens of Myr can arise, triggered by non-linear perturbations from massive satellite companions. We conclude that there is severe tension between explaining massive star-forming clumps observed at z > 1 primarily as the result of disk fragmentation driven by gravitational instability and the prevailing view of feedback-regulated galaxy formation. The link between disk stability and star formation efficiency should thus be regarded as a key testing ground for galaxy formation theory.

  8. A galaxy formation cookbook: Recipes and utensils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, Neal Steven

    Numerical simulations of hierarchial galaxy formation including gas dynamics are presented. These simulations are conducted using a general-purpose program for evolving self-gravitating systems in three dimensions. The gravitational forces are calculated using a hierarchial tree algorithm while the gas dynamic properties are determined using smoothed particle hydrodynamics. Since in this method the complete thermodynamic state of the gas is known everywhere, dissipational effects can be included by allowing the gas to cool radiatively, using standard cooling curves, and star formation can be prescribed in a physical manner. The simulations model the collapse of isolated constant density perturbations, made of dark and baryonic matter in a 10 to 1 ratio, initially in solid rotation and in Hubble flow. Small scale power is added using the Zel'dovich approximation assuming a power law slope of either -2.5 or 0. The simulations are successful in making systems that resemble spirals and ellipticals. Of the parameters that are investigated - the small scale power amplitude, the initial angular momentum, and the star formation rate - it is the amplitude of the small scale power that is most important in determining the final Hubble type. Systems form through the merger of sub-clumps. The systems with larger small scale power have clumps with higher central densities. Higher density clumps retain their identities longer than lower density clumps and are able to lose more angular momentum. These systems form ellipticals. Spirals form when these clumps are not very distinct and little angular momentum transport occurs. Since the Hubble type is determined by how much small scale power is present when compared to the height of the galaxy-sized peak, the density-morphology relation is easily explained. The formation and equilibrium characteristics of systems formed through dissipationless collapse using similar initial conditions are also studied.

  9. Star Formation at the Galactic Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-08-01

    Could stars be forming in the inhospitable environment near Sagittarius A* in the heart of the Milky Way? A possible signature of low-mass star formation has recently been found just two light-years from the black hole at the center of our galaxy — a region that was previously thought to be too hostile for such activity. Searching for Signatures: Previous observations of the central few light-years of the Milky Way had focused on a population of about 200 massive, young and very bright stars in tight orbits around Sgr A*. These stars are only a few million years old and prompted scientists to wonder: have they somehow managed to form in situ, in spite of their close proximity to the black hole, or did they form further out and then migrate in? Motivated by this mystery, Farhad Yusef-Zadeh of Northwestern University and collaborators looked for evidence of even younger stars close to Sagittarius A*, which would demonstrate that star formation in the area is an ongoing process. Using the Very Large Array (VLA), the collaboration discovered several small sources in one arm of activity near Sgr A*. This 34-GHz image provides a close-up view of two protoplanetary disk candidates (labeled P26 and P8) located near Sgr A*. These objects are outlined on the right side by a bow shock caused by impacting stellar wind that streams from the young, hot stars closer to the Galactic center. The disks are thought to contain recently-formed, low-mass stars. (Credit: Yusef-Zadeh et al., 2015) Heated Disks: The team identified these sources as candidate photoevaporative protoplanetary disks, or “proplyds” — areas of dense, ionized gas and dust surrounding young, newly formed stars. The proplyd candidates are between 10,000 and 100,000 years old, and they lie along the edge of a large molecular cloud. It is likely that this cloud produced the disks by providing a reservoir of gas to feed the star-formation activity. The region surrounding these proplyds is blasted with harsh

  10. Method and apparatus for forming conformal SiN.sub.x films

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Qi

    2007-11-27

    A silicon nitride film formation method includes: Heating a substrate to be subjected to film formation to a substrate temperature; heating a wire to a wire temperature; supplying silane, ammonia, and hydrogen gases to the heating member; and forming a silicon nitride film on the substrate.

  11. Spatially-resolved star formation histories of CALIFA galaxies. Implications for galaxy formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González Delgado, R. M.; Pérez, E.; Cid Fernandes, R.; García-Benito, R.; López Fernández, R.; Vale Asari, N.; Cortijo-Ferrero, C.; de Amorim, A. L.; Lacerda, E. A. D.; Sánchez, S. F.; Lehnert, M. D.; Walcher, C. J.

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents the spatially resolved star formation history (SFH) of nearby galaxies with the aim of furthering our understanding of the different processes involved in the formation and evolution of galaxies. To this end, we apply the fossil record method of stellar population synthesis to a rich and diverse data set of 436 galaxies observed with integral field spectroscopy in the CALIFA survey. The sample covers a wide range of Hubble types, with stellar masses ranging from M⋆ 109 to 7 × 1011 M⊙. Spectral synthesis techniques are applied to the datacubes to retrieve the spatially resolved time evolution of the star formation rate (SFR), its intensity (ΣSFR), and other descriptors of the 2D SFH in seven bins of galaxy morphology (E, S0, Sa, Sb, Sbc, Sc, and Sd) and five bins of stellar mass. Our main results are that (a) galaxies form very fast independently of their current stellar mass, with the peak of star formation at high redshift (z > 2). Subsequent star formation is driven by M⋆ and morphology, with less massive and later type spirals showing more prolonged periods of star formation. (b) At any epoch in the past, the SFR is proportional to M⋆, with most massive galaxies having the highest absolute (but lowest specific) SFRs. (c) While today, the ΣSFR is similar for all spirals and significantly lower in early-type galaxies (ETG), in the past, the ΣSFR scales well with morphology. The central regions of today's ETGs are where the ΣSFR reached the highest values (> 103 M⊙ Gyr-1 pc-2), similar to those measured in high-redshift star-forming galaxies. (d) The evolution of ΣSFR in Sbc systems matches that of models for Milky Way-like galaxies, suggesting that the formation of a thick disk may be a common phase in spirals at early epochs. (e) The SFR and ΣSFR in outer regions of E and S0 galaxies show that they have undergone an extended phase of growth in mass between z = 2 and 0.4. The mass assembled in this phase is in agreement with

  12. Forming Stars Near Our Supermassive Black Hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2018-01-01

    Is it possible to form stars in the immediate vicinity of the hostile supermassive black hole at the center of our galaxy? New evidence suggests that nature has found a way.Infrared view of the central 300 light-years of our galaxy. [Hubble: NASA/ESA/Q.D. Wang; Spitzer: NASA/JPL/S. Stolovy]Too Hostile for Stellar Birth?Around Sgr A*, the supermassive black hole lurking at the Milky Ways center, lies a population of 200 massive, young, bright stars. Their very tight orbits around the black hole pose a mystery: did these intrepid stars somehow manage to form in situ, or did they instead migrate to their current locations from further out?For a star to be born out of a molecular cloud, the self-gravity of the cloud clump must be stronger than the other forces its subject to. Close to a supermassive black hole, the brutal tidal forces of the black hole dominate over all else. For this reason, it was thought that stars couldnt form in the hostile environment near a supermassive black hole until clues came along suggesting otherwise.Science as an Iterative ProcessVery Large Array observations of candidate photoevaporative protoplanetary disks discovered in 2015. [Yusef-Zadeh et al. 2015]Longtime AAS Nova readers might recall that one of our very first highlights on the site, back in August of 2015, was of a study led by Farhad Yusef-Zadeh of Northwestern University. In this study, the authors presented observations of candidate proplyds photoevaporative protoplanetary disks suggestive of star formation within a few light-years of the galactic center.While these observations seemed to indicate that stars might, even now, be actively forming near Sgr A*, they werent conclusive evidence. Follow-up observations of these and other signs of possible star formation were hindered by the challenges of observing the distant and crowded galactic center.Two and a half years later, Yusef-Zadeh and collaborators are back now aided by high-resolution and high-sensitivity observations

  13. Silicon Promotes Exodermal Casparian Band Formation in Si-Accumulating and Si-Excluding Species by Forming Phenol Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Hinrichs, Martin; Specht, André; Waßmann, Friedrich; Schreiber, Lukas; Schenk, Manfred K.

    2015-01-01

    We studied the effect of Silicon (Si) on Casparian band (CB) development, chemical composition of the exodermal CB and Si deposition across the root in the Si accumulators rice and maize and the Si non-accumulator onion. Plants were cultivated in nutrient solution with and without Si supply. The CB development was determined in stained root cross-sections. The outer part of the roots containing the exodermis was isolated after enzymatic treatment. The exodermal suberin was transesterified with MeOH/BF3 and the chemical composition was measured using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) and flame ionization detector (GC-FID). Laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (LA-ICP-MS) was used to determine the Si deposition across root cross sections. Si promoted CB formation in the roots of Si-accumulator and Si non-accumulator species. The exodermal suberin was decreased in rice and maize due to decreased amounts of aromatic suberin fractions. Si did not affect the concentration of lignin and lignin-like polymers in the outer part of rice, maize and onion roots. The highest Si depositions were found in the tissues containing CB. These data along with literature were used to suggest a mechanism how Si promotes the CB development by forming complexes with phenols. PMID:26383862

  14. Three-dimensional laser window formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verhoff, Vincent G.

    1992-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center has developed and implemented a unique process for forming flawless three-dimensional laser windows. These windows represent a major part of specialized, nonintrusive laser data acquisition systems used in a variety of compressor and turbine research test facilities. This report discusses in detail the aspects of three-dimensional laser window formation. It focuses on the unique methodology and the peculiarities associated with the formation of these windows. Included in this discussion are the design criteria, bonding mediums, and evaluation testing for three-dimensional laser windows.

  15. Formation, dissolution and properties of surface nanobubbles.

    PubMed

    Che, Zhizhao; Theodorakis, Panagiotis E

    2017-02-01

    Surface nanobubbles are stable gaseous phases in liquids that form on solid substrates. While their existence has been confirmed, there are many open questions related to their formation and dissolution processes along with their structures and properties, which are difficult to investigate experimentally. To address these issues, we carried out molecular dynamics simulations based on atomistic force fields for systems comprised of water, air (N 2 and O 2 ), and a Highly Oriented Pyrolytic Graphite (HOPG) substrate. Our results provide insights into the formation/dissolution mechanisms of nanobubbles and estimates for their density, contact angle, and surface tension. We found that the formation of nanobubbles is driven by an initial nucleation process of air molecules and the subsequent coalescence of the formed air clusters. The clusters form favorably on the substrate, which provides an enhanced stability to the clusters. In contrast, nanobubbles formed in the bulk either move randomly to the substrate and spread or move to the water-air surface and pop immediately. Moreover, nanobubbles consist of a condensed gaseous phase with a surface tension smaller than that of an equivalent system under atmospheric conditions, and contact angles larger than those in the equivalent nanodroplet case. We anticipate that this study will provide useful insights into the physics of nanobubbles and will stimulate further research in the field by using all-atom simulations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Planet formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissauer, Jack J.

    1993-01-01

    Models of planetary formation are developed using the present single example of a planetary system, supplemented by limited astrophysical observations of star-forming regions and circumstellar disks. The solar nebula theory and the planetesimal hypothesis are discussed. The latter is found to provide a viable theory of the growth of the terrestrial planets, the cores of the giant planets, and the smaller bodies present in the solar system. The formation of solid bodies of planetary size should be a common event, at least around young stars which do not have binary companions orbiting at planetary distances. Stochastic impacts of large bodies provide sufficient angular momentum to produce the obliquities of the planets. The masses and bulk compositions of the planets can be understood in a gross sense as resulting from planetary growth within a disk whose temperature and surface density decreased with distance from the growing sun.

  17. Forming Super-Puffs Beyond 1 AU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Eve J.; Chiang, Eugene

    2017-06-01

    Super-puffs are an uncommon class of short-period planets seemingly too voluminous for their small masses (4-10 Rearth, 2-6 Mearth). Super-puffs most easily acquire their thick atmospheres as dust-free, rapidly cooling worlds outside ˜1AU where nebular gas is colder, less dense, and therefore less opaque. These puffy planets probably migrated in to their current orbits; they are expected to form the outer links of mean-motion resonant chains, and to exhibit atmospheric characteristics consistent with formation at large distances. I will also discuss, in general, how densities of planets can be used to infer their formation locations.

  18. The role of Proteus mirabilis cell wall features in biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Czerwonka, Grzegorz; Guzy, Anna; Kałuża, Klaudia; Grosicka, Michalina; Dańczuk, Magdalena; Lechowicz, Łukasz; Gmiter, Dawid; Kowalczyk, Paweł; Kaca, Wiesław

    2016-11-01

    Biofilms formed by Proteus mirabilis strains are a serious medical problem, especially in the case of urinary tract infections. Early stages of biofilm formation, such as reversible and irreversible adhesion, are essential for bacteria to form biofilm and avoid eradication by antibiotic therapy. Adhesion to solid surfaces is a complex process where numerous factors play a role, where hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions with solid surface seem to be substantial. Cell surface hydrophobicity and electrokinetic potential of bacterial cells depend on their surface composition and structure, where lipopolysaccharide, in Gram-negative bacteria, is prevailing. Our studies focused on clinical and laboratory P. mirabilis strains, where laboratory strains have determined LPS structures. Adherence and biofilm formation tests revealed significant differences between strains adhered in early stages of biofilm formation. Amounts of formed biofilm were expressed by the absorption of crystal violet. Higher biofilm amounts were formed by the strains with more negative values of zeta potential. In contrast, high cell surface hydrophobicity correlated with low biofilm amount.

  19. Investigation of the Formation Process of Two Piracetam Cocrystals during Grinding

    PubMed Central

    Rehder, Sönke; Klukkert, Marten; Löbmann, Korbinian A. M.; Strachan, Clare J.; Sakmann, Albrecht; Gordon, Keith; Rades, Thomas; Leopold, Claudia S.

    2011-01-01

    Cocrystal formation rates during dry grinding and liquid-assisted grinding were investigated by X-ray powder diffractometry and Raman spectroscopy. Two polymorphic forms of piracetam were used to prepare known piracetam cocrystals as model substances, i.e., piracetam-citric acid and piracetam-tartaric acid cocrystals. Raman spectroscopy in combination with principal component analysis was used to visualize the cocrystal formation pathways. During dry grinding, cocrystal formation appeared to progress via an amorphous intermediate stage, which was more evident for the piracetam-citric acid than for the piracetam-tartaric acid cocrystal. It was shown that liquid-assisted grinding led to faster cocrystal formation than dry grinding, which may be explained by the higher transformation rate due to the presence of liquid. The cocrystal formation rate did not depend on the applied polymorphic form of the piracetam and no polymorphic cocrystals were obtained. PMID:24309304

  20. Stellar populations in local star-forming galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-Gonzalez, P. G.

    2003-11-01

    The main goal of this thesis work is studying the main properties of the stellar populations embedded in a statistically complete sample of local active star-forming galaxies: the Universidad Complutense de Madrid (UCM) Survey of emission-line galaxies. This sample contains 191 local star-forming galaxies at an average redshift of 0.026. The survey was carried out using an objective-prism technique centered at the wavelength of the Halpha nebular emission-line (a common tracer of recent star formation). (continues)

  1. Formation of iron disilicide on amorphous silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erlesand, U.; Östling, M.; Bodén, K.

    1991-11-01

    Thin films of iron disilicide, β-FeSi 2 were formed on both amorphous silicon and on crystalline silicon. The β-phase is reported to be semiconducting with a direct band-gap of about 0.85-0.89 eV. This phase is known to form via a nucleation-controlled growth process on crystalline silicon and as a consequence a rather rough silicon/silicide interface is usually formed. In order to improve the interface a bilayer structure of amorphous silicon and iron was sequentially deposited on Czochralski <111> silicon in an e-gun evaporation system. Secondary ion mass spectrometry profiling (SIMS) and scanning electron micrographs revealed an improvement of the interface sharpness. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) and X-ray diffractiometry showed β-FeSi 2 formation already at 525°C. It was also observed that the silicide growth was diffusion-controlled, similar to what has been reported for example in the formation of NiSi 2 for the reaction of nickel on amorphous silicon. The kinetics of the FeSi 2 formation in the temperature range 525-625°C was studied by RBS and the activation energy was found to be 1.5 ± 0.1 eV.

  2. Evolution of magnetic fields in collapsing star-forming clouds under different environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higuchi, Koki; Machida, Masahiro N.; Susa, Hajime

    2018-04-01

    In nearby star-forming clouds, amplification and dissipation of the magnetic field are known to play crucial roles in the star-formation process. The star-forming environment varies from place to place and era to era in galaxies. In this study, amplification and dissipation of magnetic fields in star-forming clouds are investigated under different environments using magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations. We consider various star-forming environments in combination with the metallicity and the ionization strength, and prepare prestellar clouds having two different mass-to-flux ratios. We calculate the cloud collapse until protostar formation using ideal and non-ideal (inclusion and exclusion of ohmic dissipation and ambipolar diffusion) MHD calculations to investigate the evolution of the magnetic field. We perform 288 runs in total and show the diversity of the density range within which the magnetic field effectively dissipates, depending on the environment. In addition, the dominant dissipation process (Ohmic dissipation or ambipolar diffusion) is shown to strongly depend on the star-forming environment. Especially, for the primordial case, magnetic field rarely dissipates without ionization source, while it efficiently dissipates when very weak ionization sources exist in the surrounding environment. The results of this study help to clarify star formation in various environments.

  3. STAR FORMATION AT Z = 2.481 IN THE LENSED GALAXY SDSS J1110+6459: STAR FORMATION DOWN TO 30 PARSEC SCALES.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Traci L; Rigby, Jane R; Sharon, Keren; Gladders, Michael D; Florian, Michael; Bayliss, Matthew B; Wuyts, Eva; Whitaker, Katherine E; Livermore, Rachael; Murray, Katherine T

    2017-07-10

    We present measurements of the surface density of star formation, the star-forming clump luminosity function, and the clump size distribution function, for the lensed galaxy SGAS J111020.0+645950.8 at a redshift of z =2.481. The physical size scales that we probe, radii r = 30-50 pc, are considerably smaller scales than have yet been studied at these redshifts. The star formation surface density we find within these small clumps is consistent with surface densities measured previously for other lensed galaxies at similar redshift. Twenty-two percent of the rest-frame ultraviolet light in this lensed galaxy arises from small clumps, with r <100 pc. Within the range of overlap, the clump luminosity function measured for this lensed galaxy is remarkably similar to those of z ∼ 0 galaxies. In this galaxy, star-forming regions smaller than 100 pc-physical scales not usually resolved at these redshifts by current telescopes-are important locations of star formation in the distant universe. If this galaxy is representative, this may contradict the theoretical picture in which the critical size scale for star formation in the distant universe is of order 1 kiloparsec. Instead, our results suggest that current telescopes have not yet resolved the critical size scales of star-forming activity in galaxies over most of cosmic time.

  4. X-ray insights into star and planet formation

    PubMed Central

    Feigelson, Eric D.

    2010-01-01

    Although stars and planets form in cold environments, X-rays are produced in abundance by young stars. This review examines the implications of stellar X-rays for star and planet formation studies, highlighting the contributions of NASA’s (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Chandra X-ray Observatory. Seven topics are covered: X-rays from protostellar outflow shocks, X-rays from the youngest protostars, the stellar initial mass function, the structure of young stellar clusters, the fate of massive stellar winds, X-ray irradiation of protoplanetary disks, and X-ray flare effects on ancient meteorites. Chandra observations of star-forming regions often show dramatic star clusters, powerful magnetic reconnection flares, and parsec-scale diffuse plasma. X-ray selected samples of premain sequence stars significantly advance studies of star cluster formation, the stellar initial mass function, triggered star-formation processes, and protoplanetary disk evolution. Although X-rays themselves may not play a critical role in the physics of star formation, they likely have important effects on protoplanetary disks by heating and ionizing disk gases. PMID:20404197

  5. X-ray insights into star and planet formation.

    PubMed

    Feigelson, Eric D

    2010-04-20

    Although stars and planets form in cold environments, X-rays are produced in abundance by young stars. This review examines the implications of stellar X-rays for star and planet formation studies, highlighting the contributions of NASA's (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Chandra X-ray Observatory. Seven topics are covered: X-rays from protostellar outflow shocks, X-rays from the youngest protostars, the stellar initial mass function, the structure of young stellar clusters, the fate of massive stellar winds, X-ray irradiation of protoplanetary disks, and X-ray flare effects on ancient meteorites. Chandra observations of star-forming regions often show dramatic star clusters, powerful magnetic reconnection flares, and parsec-scale diffuse plasma. X-ray selected samples of premain sequence stars significantly advance studies of star cluster formation, the stellar initial mass function, triggered star-formation processes, and protoplanetary disk evolution. Although X-rays themselves may not play a critical role in the physics of star formation, they likely have important effects on protoplanetary disks by heating and ionizing disk gases.

  6. Formation and fates of nitrosamines and their formation potentials from a surface water source to drinking water treatment plants in Southern Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Hsiang; Wang, Chung-Ya; Huang, Tsung-Hsien

    2016-10-01

    Nitrosamines are toxic and emerging disinfection byproducts. In this study, three drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) in southern Taiwan treating the same source water in Gaoping River with comparable technologies were selected. The objective was to evaluate the formation and fates of six nitrosamines and their formation potentials (FPs) from a surface water source to drinking water. Albeit decreased further downstream in the river, four nitrosamine-FPs were observed in the source water due to anthropogenic pollution in the upstream areas. In the DWTPs, nitrosamines were formed and NDMA was the main species. While high organic carbon concentrations indicated elevated nitrosamine-FPs in the source water, NDMA formation in the DWTPs was more positively associated with reductions of water parameters that quantify organic matters with double bonded ring structures. Although precursor removal via pre-oxidation is a viable approach to limit nitrosamine formation during post-disinfection, this study clearly indicates that a great portion of NDMA in treated water has been formed in the 1st oxidation step of drinking water treatment. The pre-oxidation simulations in the lab demonstrated the impact of pre-chlorination on nitrosamine formation. Given the limited removal in conventional treatment processes, avoiding nitrosamine-FPs in sources and/or nitrosamine formation during pre-oxidation become important issues to control the threats of nitrosamines in drinking water. Under current circumstance in which pre-oxidation is widely used to optimize the treatment effectiveness in many DWTPs, its adverse effect by forming nitrosamines needs to be carefully minimized and using technologies other than pre-chlorination (e.g., pre-ozonation) may be considered. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Solar cell contact formation using laser ablation

    DOEpatents

    Harley, Gabriel; Smith, David D.; Cousins, Peter John

    2015-07-21

    The formation of solar cell contacts using a laser is described. A method of fabricating a back-contact solar cell includes forming a poly-crystalline material layer above a single-crystalline substrate. The method also includes forming a dielectric material stack above the poly-crystalline material layer. The method also includes forming, by laser ablation, a plurality of contacts holes in the dielectric material stack, each of the contact holes exposing a portion of the poly-crystalline material layer; and forming conductive contacts in the plurality of contact holes.

  8. Solar cell contact formation using laser ablation

    DOEpatents

    Harley, Gabriel; Smith, David; Cousins, Peter

    2012-12-04

    The formation of solar cell contacts using a laser is described. A method of fabricating a back-contact solar cell includes forming a poly-crystalline material layer above a single-crystalline substrate. The method also includes forming a dielectric material stack above the poly-crystalline material layer. The method also includes forming, by laser ablation, a plurality of contacts holes in the dielectric material stack, each of the contact holes exposing a portion of the poly-crystalline material layer; and forming conductive contacts in the plurality of contact holes.

  9. Solar cell contact formation using laser ablation

    DOEpatents

    Harley, Gabriel; Smith, David D.; Cousins, Peter John

    2014-07-22

    The formation of solar cell contacts using a laser is described. A method of fabricating a back-contact solar cell includes forming a poly-crystalline material layer above a single-crystalline substrate. The method also includes forming a dielectric material stack above the poly-crystalline material layer. The method also includes forming, by laser ablation, a plurality of contacts holes in the dielectric material stack, each of the contact holes exposing a portion of the poly-crystalline materiat layer; and forming conductive contacts in the plurality of contact holes.

  10. Does the evolution of the radio luminosity function of star-forming galaxies match that of the star formation rate function?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonato, Matteo; Negrello, Mattia; Mancuso, Claudia; De Zotti, Gianfranco; Ciliegi, Paolo; Cai, Zhen-Yi; Lapi, Andrea; Massardi, Marcella; Bonaldi, Anna; Sajina, Anna; Smolčić, Vernesa; Schinnerer, Eva

    2017-08-01

    The assessment of the relationship between radio continuum luminosity and star formation rate (SFR) is of crucial importance to make reliable predictions for the forthcoming ultra-deep radio surveys and to allow a full exploitation of their results to measure the cosmic star formation history. We have addressed this issue by matching recent accurate determinations of the SFR function up to high redshifts with literature estimates of the 1.4 GHz luminosity functions of star-forming galaxies (SFGs). This was done considering two options, proposed in the literature, for the relationship between the synchrotron emission (Lsynch), that dominates at 1.4 GHz, and the SFR: a linear relation with a decline of the Lsynch/SFR ratio at low luminosities or a mildly non-linear relation at all luminosities. In both cases, we get good agreement with the observed radio luminosity functions but, in the non-linear case, the deviation from linearity must be small. The luminosity function data are consistent with a moderate increase of the Lsynch/SFR ratio with increasing redshift, indicated by other data sets, although a constant ratio cannot be ruled out. A stronger indication of such increase is provided by recent deep 1.4-GHz counts, down to μJy levels. This is in contradiction with models predicting a decrease of that ratio due to inverse Compton cooling of relativistic electrons at high redshifts. Synchrotron losses appear to dominate up to z ≃ 5. We have also updated the Massardi et al. evolutionary model for radio loud AGNs.

  11. Functional amyloid formation by Streptococcus mutans

    PubMed Central

    Oli, M. W.; Otoo, H. N.; Crowley, P. J.; Heim, K. P.; Nascimento, M. M.; Ramsook, C. B.; Lipke, P. N.

    2012-01-01

    Dental caries is a common infectious disease associated with acidogenic and aciduric bacteria, including Streptococcus mutans. Organisms that cause cavities form recalcitrant biofilms, generate acids from dietary sugars and tolerate acid end products. It has recently been recognized that micro-organisms can produce functional amyloids that are integral to biofilm development. We now show that the S. mutans cell-surface-localized adhesin P1 (antigen I/II, PAc) is an amyloid-forming protein. This conclusion is based on the defining properties of amyloids, including binding by the amyloidophilic dyes Congo red (CR) and Thioflavin T (ThT), visualization of amyloid fibres by transmission electron microscopy and the green birefringent properties of CR-stained protein aggregates when viewed under cross-polarized light. We provide evidence that amyloid is present in human dental plaque and is produced by both laboratory strains and clinical isolates of S. mutans. We provide further evidence that amyloid formation is not limited to P1, since bacterial colonies without this adhesin demonstrate residual green birefringence. However, S. mutans lacking sortase, the transpeptidase enzyme that mediates the covalent linkage of its substrates to the cell-wall peptidoglycan, including P1 and five other proteins, is not birefringent when stained with CR and does not form biofilms. Biofilm formation is inhibited when S. mutans is cultured in the presence of known inhibitors of amyloid fibrillization, including CR, Thioflavin S and epigallocatechin-3-gallate, which also inhibited ThT uptake by S. mutans extracellular proteins. Taken together, these results indicate that S. mutans is an amyloid-forming organism and suggest that amyloidogenesis contributes to biofilm formation by this oral microbe. PMID:23082034

  12. Fluffy dust forms icy planetesimals by static compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kataoka, Akimasa; Tanaka, Hidekazu; Okuzumi, Satoshi; Wada, Koji

    2013-09-01

    Context. Several barriers have been proposed in planetesimal formation theory: bouncing, fragmentation, and radial drift problems. Understanding the structure evolution of dust aggregates is a key in planetesimal formation. Dust grains become fluffy by coagulation in protoplanetary disks. However, once they are fluffy, they are not sufficiently compressed by collisional compression to form compact planetesimals. Aims: We aim to reveal the pathway of dust structure evolution from dust grains to compact planetesimals. Methods: Using the compressive strength formula, we analytically investigate how fluffy dust aggregates are compressed by static compression due to ram pressure of the disk gas and self-gravity of the aggregates in protoplanetary disks. Results: We reveal the pathway of the porosity evolution from dust grains via fluffy aggregates to form planetesimals, circumventing the barriers in planetesimal formation. The aggregates are compressed by the disk gas to a density of 10-3 g/cm3 in coagulation, which is more compact than is the case with collisional compression. Then, they are compressed more by self-gravity to 10-1 g/cm3 when the radius is 10 km. Although the gas compression decelerates the growth, the aggregates grow rapidly enough to avoid the radial drift barrier when the orbital radius is ≲6 AU in a typical disk. Conclusions: We propose a fluffy dust growth scenario from grains to planetesimals. It enables icy planetesimal formation in a wide range beyond the snowline in protoplanetary disks. This result proposes a concrete initial condition of planetesimals for the later stages of the planet formation.

  13. Cosmic Star–Forming Gas as seen from the Milky Way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauffmann, Jens

    2018-01-01

    We still struggle to understand the star formation properties of galaxies throughout the cosmos. Is star formation driven by the structure of galaxies? Or is it plainly controlled by the mass of dense gas that can be found in a galaxy?This poster presents results from several recent projects that deliver important insights on the global star formation activity of galaxies, based on detailed studies of star-forming regions in the Milky Way. First, the proberties of dense clouds in the Galactic Center are discussed, using data from interferometers likw ALMA. Second, the kinematics of Milky Way molecular clouds are discussed based on a variety of data sets. Third, the LEGO survey (Line Emission in Galaxy Observations) is discussed. This latter study challenges concepts of how dense gas in galaxies can be traced. In combination these studies deliver a fresh look at the various factors controlling how galaxies form stars.

  14. Formation of Novel Polydiacetylenes: Synthesis of Poly(iodoethynyliododiacetylene) and Towards the Formation of Conjugated Ladder Polydiacetylenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freitag, Matthew

    Polydiacetylenes (PDAs) are 1-dimensional polymers with a carbon-rich ene-yne backbone. Materials scientists are interested in PDAs because they are semiconductors, they have large multiphoton absorptions, and they can be prepared as ordered assemblies in the solid-state. Polydiacetylenes are formed from the topochemical 1,4-polymerization of a monomer unit made up of at least two sequential alkynes. This work describes attempts to form novel polydiacetylenes from several higher order polyyne monomers, as well as efforts to alter the morphology of known polydiacetylenes into thin films. The first project described here examined the formation of cocrystals of diiodohexatriyne with a bis(alkylnitrile) oxalamide host. Diiodohexatriyne undergoes 1,4-topochemical polymerization, with mild heating, to form poly(iodoethynyliododiacetylene), PIEDA. Polymerization was followed by extensive characterization through Raman spectroscopy, solid-state 13C MAS-NMR, and X-ray crystallography. This work represents the first ordered single-crystal to single-crystal 1,4-topochemical polymerization of a triyne, demonstrated through X-ray diffraction. The second project described efforts towards post-polymerization modification on PIEDA. Despite some success in model studies, isolated PIEDA was found to be too unstable to undergo controlled post-polymerization modification. The third project of this work described the demonstration of the formation of thin films of another PDA, polydiiododiacetylene (PIDA). Thin films of PIDA cocrystals could serve as components in solar cells or photovoltaic devices. Using lower concentration and allowing evaporation to occur in a fume hood, nanometer thick films were formed. However, thin films of PIDA cocrystals were too heterogeneous to be used within devices. The fourth project described here examined the preparation of cocrystals of bis(iodobutadiynyl)benzene monomer with several oxalamide hosts. The goal of this project is formation of conjugated

  15. Forming metal-intermetallic or metal-ceramic composites by self-propagating high-temperature reactions

    DOEpatents

    Rawers, James C.; Alman, David E.; Petty, Jr., Arthur V.

    1996-01-01

    Industrial applications of composites often require that the final product have a complex shape. In this invention intermetallic or ceramic phases are formed from sheets of unreacted elemental metals. The process described in this invention allows the final product shape be formed prior to the formation of the composite. This saves energy and allows formation of shaped articles of metal-intermetallic composites composed of brittle materials that cannot be deformed without breaking.

  16. Spacelab uplink/downlink data flow and formats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kandefer, F.

    1978-01-01

    The results of an analysis of the Spacelab (SL) data uplink/downlink structure and those data system elements associated with the support of this data flow are presented. Specific objectives of this report are to present the results of the following analyses: (1) operations of the SL high rate multiplexer, including format structure, data rates, format combinations, format switching, etc.; (2) operations of SL data recorders to include the definition of modes, data rates and forms; (3) operations of the high rate demultiplexer as described above; (4) potential experiment data formats defining formatting parameters to be considered in decommutation analysis; (5) SL computer input/output (I/O) decommutation channels, including the definition of structure, quantity and use of this I/O data; (6) detailed requirements of the data quality monitoring philosophy for this function.

  17. Stratigraphy, composition and form of the Deccan Basalts, Western Ghats, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beane, J. E.; Turner, C. A.; Hooper, P. R.; Subbarao, K. V.; Walsh, J. N.

    1986-02-01

    In the Western Ghats between latitudes 18° 20' N and 19° 15' N, 7000 km2 of Deccan Basalt have been mapped with the primary objective of establishing a flow stratigraphy as a guide to the volcanic history of the flood basalts. Using over 70 measured vertical sections, major and trace element analyses of nearly 1200 samples, and rare-earth and87Sr/86Sr determinations for over 60 samples, we divide the basalt into three subgroups and ten formations. In this paper we describe the seven principal formations in the area and the most prominent individual flows. The Kalsubai Subgroup is formed by the lower five formations, the Jawhar, Igatpuri, Neral, Thakurvadi, and Bhimashankar formations, from botton to top. In these formations amygdaloidal compound flows predominate and have a typically high MgO content, including picrite basalt (> 10% MgO) and picrite (> 18% MgO) with phenocrysts of olivine and clinopyroxene. These flows are separated by others which contain giant plagioclase phenocrysts and have more evolved chamical compositions. The Lonavala Subgroup overlies the Kalsubai and is composed of two formations, the Khandala and the Bushe. Both are readily recognized in the field and by their chemical compositions. The Wai Subgroup includes the upper three formations, the Poladpur, the Ambenali, and the Mahabaleshwar. The whole subgroup is composed of simple flows with well-developed flow tops, small phenocrysts of plagioclase, pyroxene and olivine, and relatively evolved bulk compositions. Distribution and variation in thickness of the straitigraphic units within the Western Ghats provide a first comprehensive view of the development of the Deccan volcanic edifice. The persistent southerly dip and gentle southerly plunging anticlinal form of the flows, the lensoid shape of many of the formations, and nearly randomly oriented feeder-dike system are together interpreted as evidence of a central volcanic edifice formed as the Indian plate drifted northward over a mantle

  18. Process for forming shaped group III-V semiconductor nanocrystals, and product formed using process

    DOEpatents

    Alivisatos, A. Paul; Peng, Xiaogang; Manna, Liberato

    2001-01-01

    A process for the formation of shaped Group III-V semiconductor nanocrystals comprises contacting the semiconductor nanocrystal precursors with a liquid media comprising a binary mixture of phosphorus-containing organic surfactants capable of promoting the growth of either spherical semiconductor nanocrystals or rod-like semiconductor nanocrystals, whereby the shape of the semiconductor nanocrystals formed in said binary mixture of surfactants is controlled by adjusting the ratio of the surfactants in the binary mixture.

  19. Process for forming shaped group II-VI semiconductor nanocrystals, and product formed using process

    DOEpatents

    Alivisatos, A. Paul; Peng, Xiaogang; Manna, Liberato

    2001-01-01

    A process for the formation of shaped Group II-VI semiconductor nanocrystals comprises contacting the semiconductor nanocrystal precursors with a liquid media comprising a binary mixture of phosphorus-containing organic surfactants capable of promoting the growth of either spherical semiconductor nanocrystals or rod-like semiconductor nanocrystals, whereby the shape of the semiconductor nanocrystals formed in said binary mixture of surfactants is controlled by adjusting the ratio of the surfactants in the binary mixture.

  20. Method for explosive expansion toward horizontal free faces for forming an in situ oil shale retort

    DOEpatents

    Ricketts, Thomas E.

    1980-01-01

    Formation is excavated from within a retort site in formation containing oil shale for forming a plurality of vertically spaced apart voids extending horizontally across different levels of the retort site, leaving a separate zone of unfragmented formation between each pair of adjacent voids. Explosive is placed in each zone, and such explosive is detonated in a single round for forming an in situ retort containing a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale. The same amount of formation is explosively expanded upwardly and downwardly toward each void. A horizontal void excavated at a production level has a smaller horizontal cross-sectional area than a void excavated at a lower level of the retort site immediately above the production level void. Explosive in a first group of vertical blast holes is detonated for explosively expanding formation downwardly toward the lower void, and explosive in a second group of vertical blast holes is detonated in the same round for explosively expanding formation upwardly toward the lower void and downwardly toward the production level void for forming a generally T-shaped bottom of the fragmented mass.

  1. Method for forming suspended micromechanical structures

    DOEpatents

    Fleming, James G.

    2000-01-01

    A micromachining method is disclosed for forming a suspended micromechanical structure from {111} crystalline silicon. The micromachining method is based on the use of anisotropic dry etching to define lateral features of the structure which are etched down into a {111}-silicon substrate to a first etch depth, thereby forming sidewalls of the structure. The sidewalls are then coated with a protection layer, and the substrate is dry etched to a second etch depth to define a spacing of the structure from the substrate. A selective anisotropic wet etchant (e.g. KOH, EDP, TMAH, NaOH or CsOH) is used to laterally undercut the structure between the first and second etch depths, thereby forming a substantially planar lower surface of the structure along a {111} crystal plane that is parallel to an upper surface of the structure. The lateral extent of undercutting by the wet etchant is controlled and effectively terminated by either timing the etching, by the location of angled {111}-silicon planes or by the locations of preformed etch-stops. This present method allows the formation of suspended micromechanical structures having large vertical dimensions and large masses while allowing for detailed lateral features which can be provided by dry etch definition. Additionally, the method of the present invention is compatible with the formation of electronic circuitry on the substrate.

  2. Star Formation: Answering Fundamental Questions During the Spitzer Warm Mission Phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strom, Steve; Allen, Lori; Carpenter, John; Hartmann, Lee; Megeath, S. Thomas; Rebull, Luisa; Stauffer, John R.; Liu, Michael

    2007-10-01

    Through existing studies of star-forming regions, Spitzer has created rich databases which have already profoundly influenced our ability to understand the star and planet formation process on micro and macro scales. However, it is essential to note that Spitzer observations to date have focused largely on deep observations of regions of recent star formation associated directly with well-known molecular clouds located within 500 pc. What has not been done is to explore to sufficient depth or breadth a representative sample of the much larger regions surrounding the more massive of these molecular clouds. Also, while there have been targeted studies of specific distant star forming regions, in general, there has been little attention devoted to mapping and characterizing the stellar populations and star-forming histories of the surrounding giant molecular clouds (GMCs). As a result, we have yet to develop an understanding of the major physical processes that control star formation on the scale or spiral arms. Doing so will allow much better comparison of star-formation in our galaxy to the star-forming complexes that dominate the spiral arms of external galaxies. The power of Spitzer in the Warm Mission for studies of star formation is its ability to carry out large-scale surveys unbiased by prior knowledge of ongoing star formation or the presence of molecular clouds. The Spitzer Warm Mission will provide two uniquely powerful capabilities that promise equally profound advances : high sensitivity and efficient coverage of many hundreds of square degrees, and angular resolution sufficient to resolve dense groups and clusters of YSOs and to identify contaminating background galaxies whose colors mimic those of young stars. In this contribution, we describe two major programs: a survey of the outer regions of selected nearby OB associations, and a study of distant GMCs and star formation on the scale of a spiral arm.

  3. Heliconical smectic phases formed by achiral molecules

    DOE PAGES

    Abberley, Jordan P.; Killah, Ross; Walker, Rebecca; ...

    2018-01-15

    Chiral symmetry breaking in soft matter is a hot topic of current research. Recently, such a phenomenon was found in a fluidic phase showing orientational order of molecules - the nematic phase; although built of achiral molecules, the phase can exhibit structural chirality - average molecular direction follows a short-pitch helix. Here in this paper, we report a series of achiral asymmetric dimers with an odd number of atoms in the spacer, which form twisted structures in nematic as well as in lamellar phases. The tight pitch heliconical nematic (N TB) phase and heliconical tilted smectic C (SmC TB) phasemore » are formed. The formation of a variety of helical structures is accompanied by a gradual freezing of molecular rotation. In the lowest temperature smectic phase, HexI, the twist is expressed through the formation of hierarchical structure: nanoscale helices and mesoscopic helical filaments. The short-pitch helical structure in the smectic phases is confirmed by resonant X-ray measurements.« less

  4. Heliconical smectic phases formed by achiral molecules

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Abberley, Jordan P.; Killah, Ross; Walker, Rebecca

    Chiral symmetry breaking in soft matter is a hot topic of current research. Recently, such a phenomenon was found in a fluidic phase showing orientational order of molecules - the nematic phase; although built of achiral molecules, the phase can exhibit structural chirality - average molecular direction follows a short-pitch helix. Here in this paper, we report a series of achiral asymmetric dimers with an odd number of atoms in the spacer, which form twisted structures in nematic as well as in lamellar phases. The tight pitch heliconical nematic (N TB) phase and heliconical tilted smectic C (SmC TB) phasemore » are formed. The formation of a variety of helical structures is accompanied by a gradual freezing of molecular rotation. In the lowest temperature smectic phase, HexI, the twist is expressed through the formation of hierarchical structure: nanoscale helices and mesoscopic helical filaments. The short-pitch helical structure in the smectic phases is confirmed by resonant X-ray measurements.« less

  5. Water Vapor Effects on Silica-Forming Ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Opila, E. J.; Greenbauer-Seng, L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Silica-forming ceramics such as SiC and Si3N4 are proposed for applications in combustion environments. These environments contain water vapor as a product of combustion. Oxidation of silica-formers is more rapid in water vapor than in oxygen. Parabolic oxidation rates increase with the water vapor partial pressure with a power law exponent value close to one. Molecular water vapor is therefore the mobile species in silica. Rapid oxidation rates and large amounts of gases generated during the oxidation reaction in high water vapor pressures may result in bubble formation in the silica and nonprotective scale formation. It is also shown that silica reacts with water vapor to form Si(OH)4(g). Silica volatility has been modeled using a laminar flow boundary layer controlled reaction equation. Silica volatility depends on the partial pressure of water vapor, the total pressure, and the gas velocity. Simultaneous oxidation and volatilization reactions have been modeled with paralinear kinetics.

  6. Processes Leading to Beaded Channels Formation in Central Yakutia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarbeeva, A. M.; Lebedeva, L.; Efremov, V. S.; Krylenko, I. V.; Surkov, V. V.

    2017-12-01

    Beaded channels, consisting of deepened and widened pools and connecting narrow runs, are common fluvial forms in permafrost regions. Recent studies have shown that beaded channels are very important for connecting alluvial rivers with headwater lakes allowing fish passage and foraging habitats, as well as regulating river runoff. Beaded channels are known as typical thermokarst landforms; however, there is no evidence of their origin and formative processes. Geomorphological analyzes of beaded channels have been completed in several permafrost regions including field observations of Shestakovka River in Central Yakutia. The study aims to recognize the modern exogenic processes and formative mechanisms of beaded river channels. We show that beaded channel of Shestakovka River form in the perennially frozen sand with low ice content, leading us to hypothesize that thermokarst is not the main process of formation. Due to the significant volume of water, the pools don't freeze over entirely during winters, even under harsh climatic conditions. As a result, lenses of pressurized water remain under surface ice underlain by perennially thawed sediments. The presence of thawed sediments under the pools and frozen sediments under the runs leads to uneven thermoerosion of the riverbed during floods, providing the beaded form of the channel. In addition, freezing of pools during winter leads to pressure increasing under ice cover and formation of ice mounds, which crack several times during winter leading to disturbance of riverbanks. Many 1st to 3rd order streams have a specific transitional meandering-to-beaded form resembling the shape of unconfined meandering rivers, but consisting of pools and runs. However, such channels exhibit no evidences of present-day erosion of concave banks and sediment accumulation at the convex banks as typically being observed in normally meandering rivers. Such forms of channels indicates that their formation occurred by the greater channel-forming

  7. Formation of ultra-compact dwarf galaxies from supergiant molecular clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, Morgan; Bekki, Kenji

    2018-05-01

    The origin of ultra-compact dwarf galaxies (UCDs) is not yet clear. One possible formation path of UCDs is the threshing of a nucleated elliptical dwarf galaxy (dE, N), however, it remains unclear how such massive nuclear stellar systems were formed in dwarf galaxies. To better establish the early history of UCDs, we investigate the formation of UCD progenitor clusters from super giant molecular clouds (SGMCs), using hydrodynamical simulations. In this study we focus on SGMCs with masses 107 - 108 M_{\\odot } that can form massive star clusters that display physical properties similar to UCDs. We find that the clusters have extended star formation histories with two phases, producing multiple distinct stellar populations, and that the star formation rate is dependent on the feedback effects of SNe and AGB stars. The later generations of stars formed in these clusters are more compact, leading to a clearly nested structure, and these stars will be more He-rich than those of the first generation, leading to a slight colour gradient. The simulated clusters demonstrate scaling relations between Reff and M and σv and M consistent with those observed in UCDs and strongly consistent with those of the original SGMC. We discuss whether SGMCs such as these can be formed through merging of self-gravitating molecular clouds in galaxies at high-z.

  8. Method of forming calthrate ice

    DOEpatents

    Hino, T.; Gorski, A.J.

    1985-09-30

    A method of forming clathrate ice in a supercooled water-based liquid contained in a vessel is disclosed. Initially, an oscillator device is located in the liquid in the vessel. The oscillator device is then oscillated ultransonically so that small crystals are formed in the liquid. Thes small crystals serve as seed crystals for ice formation in the liquid and thereby prevent supercooling of the liquid. Preferably, the oscillating device is controlled by a thermostat which initiates operation of the oscillator device when the temperature of the liquid is lowered to the freezing point. Thereafter, the operation of the oscillator device is terminated when ice is sensed in the liquid by an ice sensor.

  9. Method of forming clathrate ice

    DOEpatents

    Hino, Toshiyuki; Gorski, Anthony J.

    1987-01-01

    A method of forming clathrate ice in a supercooled water-based liquid contained in a vessel is disclosed. Initially, an oscillator device is located in the liquid in the vessel. The oscillator device is then oscillated ultrasonically so that small crystals are formed in the liquid. These small crystals serve as seed crystals for ice formation in the liquid and thereby prevent supercooling of the liquid. Preferably, the oscillating device is controlled by a thermostat which initiates operation of the oscillator device when the temperature of the liquid is lowered to the freezing point. Thereafter, the operation of the oscillator device is terminated when ice is sensed in the liquid by an ice sensor.

  10. Enhanced equivalence class formation by the delay and relational functions of meaningful stimuli.

    PubMed

    Arntzen, Erik; Nartey, Richard K; Fields, Lanny

    2015-05-01

    Undergraduates in six groups of 10 attempted to form three 3-node 5-member equivalence classes (A → B → C → D → E) under the simultaneous protocol. In five of six groups, all stimuli were abstract shapes; in the PIC group, C stimuli were pictures with the remainder being abstract shapes. Before class formation, participants in the Identity-S and Identity-D groups were given preliminary training to form identity conditional discriminations with the C stimuli using simultaneous and 6 s delayed matching-to-sample procedures, respectively. In the Arbitrary-S and Arbitrary-D groups, before class formation, arbitrary conditional discriminations were formed between C and X stimuli using simultaneous and 6 s delayed matching-to-sample procedures, respectively. With no preliminary training, classes in the PIC and ABS groups were formed by 80% and 0% of participants, respectively. After preliminary training, class formation (yield) increased with delay, regardless of relational type. For each of the two delays, yield was slightly greater after forming arbitrary- instead of identity-relations. Yield was greatest, however, when a class contained a meaningful stimulus (PIC). During failed class formation, probes produced experimenter-defined relations, participant-defined relations, and unsystematic responding; delay, but not the relation type in preliminary training influenced relational and indeterminate responding. These results suggest how meaningful stimuli enhance equivalence class formation. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  11. Probing star formation in the dense environments of z ˜ 1 lensing haloes aligned with dusty star-forming galaxies detected with the South Pole Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welikala, N.; Béthermin, M.; Guery, D.; Strandet, M.; Aird, K. A.; Aravena, M.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Bothwell, M.; Beelen, A.; Bleem, L. E.; de Breuck, C.; Brodwin, M.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Chapman, S. C.; Crawford, T. M.; Dole, H.; Doré, O.; Everett, W.; Flores-Cacho, I.; Gonzalez, A. H.; González-Nuevo, J.; Greve, T. R.; Gullberg, B.; Hezaveh, Y. D.; Holder, G. P.; Holzapfel, W. L.; Keisler, R.; Lagache, G.; Ma, J.; Malkan, M.; Marrone, D. P.; Mocanu, L. M.; Montier, L.; Murphy, E. J.; Nesvadba, N. P. H.; Omont, A.; Pointecouteau, E.; Puget, J. L.; Reichardt, C. L.; Rotermund, K. M.; Scott, D.; Serra, P.; Spilker, J. S.; Stalder, B.; Stark, A. A.; Story, K.; Vanderlinde, K.; Vieira, J. D.; Weiß, A.

    2016-01-01

    We probe star formation in the environments of massive (˜1013 M⊙) dark matter haloes at redshifts of z ˜ 1. This star formation is linked to a submillimetre clustering signal which we detect in maps of the Planck High Frequency Instrument that are stacked at the positions of a sample of high redshift (z > 2) strongly lensed dusty star-forming galaxies (DSFGs) selected from the South Pole Telescope (SPT) 2500 deg2 survey. The clustering signal has submillimetre colours which are consistent with the mean redshift of the foreground lensing haloes (z ˜ 1). We report a mean excess of star formation rate (SFR) compared to the field, of (2700 ± 700) M⊙ yr-1 from all galaxies contributing to this clustering signal within a radius of 3.5 arcmin from the SPT DSFGs. The magnitude of the Planck excess is in broad agreement with predictions of a current model of the cosmic infrared background. The model predicts that 80 per cent of the excess emission measured by Planck originates from galaxies lying in the neighbouring haloes of the lensing halo. Using Herschel maps of the same fields, we find a clear excess, relative to the field, of individual sources which contribute to the Planck excess. The mean excess SFR compared to the field is measured to be (370 ± 40) M⊙ yr-1 per resolved, clustered source. Our findings suggest that the environments around these massive z ˜ 1 lensing haloes host intense star formation out to about 2 Mpc. The flux enhancement due to clustering should also be considered when measuring flux densities of galaxies in Planck data.

  12. Gas seal for an in situ oil shale retort and method of forming thermal barrier

    DOEpatents

    Burton, III, Robert S.

    1982-01-01

    A gas seal is provided in an access drift excavated in a subterranean formation containing oil shale. The access drift is adjacent an in situ oil shale retort and is in gas communication with the fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale formed in the in situ oil shale retort. The mass of formation particles extends into the access drift, forming a rubble pile of formation particles having a face approximately at the angle of repose of fragmented formation. The gas seal includes a temperature barrier which includes a layer of heat insulating material disposed on the face of the rubble pile of formation particles and additionally includes a gas barrier. The gas barrier is a gas-tight bulkhead installed across the access drift at a location in the access drift spaced apart from the temperature barrier.

  13. Simulations of Early Structure Formation: Primordial Gas Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Naoki; Abel, Tom; Hernquist, Lars; Sugiyama, Naoshi

    2003-08-01

    We use cosmological simulations to study the origin of primordial star-forming clouds in a ΛCDM universe, by following the formation of dark matter halos and the cooling of gas within them. To model the physics of chemically pristine gas, we employ a nonequilibrium treatment of the chemistry of nine species (e-, H, H+, He, He+, He++, H2, H+2, H-) and include cooling by molecular hydrogen. By considering cosmological volumes, we are able to study the statistical properties of primordial halos, and the high resolution of our simulations enables us to examine these objects in detail. In particular, we explore the hierarchical growth of bound structures forming at redshifts z~25-30 with total masses in the range ~105-106Msolar. We find that when the amount of molecular hydrogen in these objects reaches a critical level, cooling by rotational line emission is efficient, and dense clumps of cold gas form. We identify these ``gas clouds'' as sites for primordial star formation. In our simulations, the threshold for gas cloud formation by molecular cooling corresponds to a critical halo mass of ~5×105h-1Msolar, in agreement with earlier estimates, but with a weak dependence on redshift in the range z>16. The complex interplay between the gravitational formation of dark halos and the thermodynamic and chemical evolution of the gas clouds compromises analytic estimates of the critical H2 fraction. Dynamical heating from mass accretion and mergers opposes relatively inefficient cooling by molecular hydrogen, delaying the production of star-forming clouds in rapidly growing halos. We also investigate the effect of photodissociating ultraviolet radiation on the formation of primordial gas clouds. We consider two extreme cases, first by including a uniform radiation field in the optically thin limit and second by accounting for the maximum effect of gas self-shielding in virialized regions. For radiation with Lyman-Werner band flux J>10-23 ergs s-1 cm-2 Hz-1 sr-1, hydrogen

  14. IMPACTS OF BIOFILM FORMATION ON CELLULOSE FERMENTATION

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Leschine, Susan

    2009-10-31

    This project addressed four major areas of investigation: i) characterization of formation of Cellulomonas uda biofilms on cellulose; ii) characterization of Clostridium phytofermentans biofilm development; colonization of cellulose and its regulation; iii) characterization of Thermobifida fusca biofilm development; colonization of cellulose and its regulation; and iii) description of the architecture of mature C. uda, C. phytofermentans, and T. fusca biofilms. This research is aimed at advancing understanding of biofilm formation and other complex processes involved in the degradation of the abundant cellulosic biomass, and the biology of the microbes involved. Information obtained from these studies is invaluable in the developmentmore » of practical applications, such as the single-step bioconversion of cellulose-containing residues to fuels and other bioproducts. Our results have clearly shown that cellulose-decomposing microbes rapidly colonize cellulose and form complex structures typical of biofilms. Furthermore, our observations suggest that, as cells multiply on nutritive surfaces during biofilms formation, dramatic cell morphological changes occur. We speculated that morphological changes, which involve a transition from rod-shaped cells to more rounded forms, might be more apparent in a filamentous microbe. In order to test this hypothesis, we included in our research a study of biofilm formation by T. fusca, a thermophilic cellulolytic actinomycete commonly found in compost. The cellulase system of T. fusca has been extensively detailed through the work of David Wilson and colleagues at Cornell, and also, genome sequence of a T. fusca strain has been determine by the DOE Joint Genome Institute. Thus, T. fusca is an excellent subject for studies of biofilm development and its potential impacts on cellulose degradation. We also completed a study of the chitinase system of C. uda. This work provided essential background information for understanding how

  15. Star and Planet Formation through Cosmic Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Aaron Thomas

    The computational advances of the past several decades have allowed theoretical astrophysics to proceed at a dramatic pace. Numerical simulations can now simulate the formation of individual molecules all the way up to the evolution of the entire universe. Observational astrophysics is producing data at a prodigious rate, and sophisticated analysis techniques of large data sets continue to be developed. It is now possible for terabytes of data to be effectively turned into stunning astrophysical results. This is especially true for the field of star and planet formation. Theorists are now simulating the formation of individual planets and stars, and observing facilities are finally capturing snapshots of these processes within the Milky Way galaxy and other galaxies. While a coherent theory remains incomplete, great strides have been made toward this goal. This dissertation discusses several projects that develop models of star and planet forma- tion. This work spans large spatial and temporal scales: from the AU-scale of protoplanetary disks all the way up to the parsec-scale of star-forming clouds, and taking place in both contemporary environments like the Milky Way galaxy and primordial environments at redshifts of z 20. Particularly, I show that planet formation need not proceed in incremental stages, where planets grow from millimeter-sized dust grains all the way up to planets, but instead can proceed directly from small dust grains to large kilometer-sized boulders. The requirements for this model to operate effectively are supported by observations. Additionally, I draw suspicion toward one model for how you form high mass stars (stars with masses exceeding 8 Msun), which postulates that high-mass stars are built up from the gradual accretion of mass from the cloud onto low-mass stars. I show that magnetic fields in star forming clouds thwart this transfer of mass, and instead it is likely that high mass stars are created from the gravitational collapse of

  16. N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) formation during ozonation of N,N-dimethylhydrazine compounds: Reaction kinetics, mechanisms, and implications for NDMA formation control.

    PubMed

    Lim, Sungeun; Lee, Woongbae; Na, Soyoung; Shin, Jaedon; Lee, Yunho

    2016-11-15

    Compounds with N,N-dimethylhydrazine moieties ((CH 3 ) 2 N-N-) form N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) during ozonation, but the relevant reaction chemistry is hitherto poorly understood. This study investigated the reaction kinetics and mechanisms of NDMA formation during ozonation of unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine (UDMH) and daminozide (DMZ) as structural model N,N-dimethylhydrazine compounds. The reaction of ozone with these NDMA precursor compounds was fast, and k O3 at pH 7 was 2 × 10 6  M -1  s -1 for UDMH and 5 × 10 5  M -1  s -1 for DMZ. Molar NDMA yields (i.e., Δ[NDMA]/Δ[precursor] × 100) were 84% and 100% for UDMH and DMZ, respectively, determined at molar ozone dose ratio ([O 3 ] 0 /[precursor] 0 ) of ≥4 in the presence of tert-butanol as hydroxyl radical (OH) scavenger. The molar NDMA yields decreased significantly in the absence of tert-butanol, indicating OH formation and its subsequent reaction with the parent precursors forming negligible NDMA. The k OH at pH 7 was 4.9 × 10 9  M -1  s -1 and 3.4 × 10 9  M -1  s -1 for UDMH and DMZ, respectively. Reaction mechanisms are proposed in which an ozone adduct is formed at the nitrogen next to N,N-dimethylamine which decomposes via homolytic and heterolytic cleavages of the -N + -O-O-O - bond, forming NDMA as a final product. The heterolytic cleavage pathway explains the significant OH formation via radical intermediates. Overall, significant NDMA formation was found to be unavoidable during ozonation or even O 3 /H 2 O 2 treatment of waters containing N,N-dimethylhydrazine compounds due to their rapid reaction with ozone forming NDMA with high yield. Thus, source control or pre-treatment of N,N-dimethylhydrazine precursors and post-treatment of NDMA are proposed as the mitigation options. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. CLUMPY DISKS AS A TESTBED FOR FEEDBACK-REGULATED GALAXY FORMATION

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Mayer, Lucio; Tamburello, Valentina; Lupi, Alessandro

    2016-10-10

    We study the dependence of fragmentation in massive gas-rich galaxy disks at z >1 on stellar feedback schemes and hydrodynamical solvers, employing the GASOLINE2 SPH code and the lagrangian mesh-less code GIZMO in finite mass mode. Non-cosmological galaxy disk runs with the standard delayed-cooling blastwave feedback are compared with runs adopting a new superbubble feedback, which produces winds by modeling the detailed physics of supernova-driven bubbles and leads to efficient self-regulation of star formation. We find that, with blastwave feedback, massive star-forming clumps form in comparable number and with very similar masses in GASOLINE2 and GIZMO. Typical clump masses aremore » in the range 10{sup 7}–10{sup 8} M {sub ⊙}, lower than in most previous works, while giant clumps with masses above 10{sup 9} M {sub ⊙} are exceedingly rare. By contrast, superbubble feedback does not produce massive star-forming bound clumps as galaxies never undergo a phase of violent disk instability. In this scheme, only sporadic, unbound star-forming overdensities lasting a few tens of Myr can arise, triggered by non-linear perturbations from massive satellite companions. We conclude that there is severe tension between explaining massive star-forming clumps observed at z >1 primarily as the result of disk fragmentation driven by gravitational instability and the prevailing view of feedback-regulated galaxy formation. The link between disk stability and star formation efficiency should thus be regarded as a key testing ground for galaxy formation theory.« less

  18. Control of cell fate by the formation of an architecturally complex bacterial community.

    PubMed

    Vlamakis, Hera; Aguilar, Claudio; Losick, Richard; Kolter, Roberto

    2008-04-01

    Bacteria form architecturally complex communities known as biofilms in which cells are held together by an extracellular matrix. Biofilms harbor multiple cell types, and it has been proposed that within biofilms individual cells follow different developmental pathways, resulting in heterogeneous populations. Here we demonstrate cellular differentiation within biofilms of the spore-forming bacterium Bacillus subtilis, and present evidence that formation of the biofilm governs differentiation. We show that motile, matrix-producing, and sporulating cells localize to distinct regions within the biofilm, and that the localization and percentage of each cell type is dynamic throughout development of the community. Importantly, mutants that do not produce extracellular matrix form unstructured biofilms that are deficient in sporulation. We propose that sporulation is a culminating feature of biofilm formation, and that spore formation is coupled to the formation of an architecturally complex community of cells.

  19. Control of cell fate by the formation of an architecturally complex bacterial community

    PubMed Central

    Vlamakis, Hera; Aguilar, Claudio; Losick, Richard; Kolter, Roberto

    2008-01-01

    Bacteria form architecturally complex communities known as biofilms in which cells are held together by an extracellular matrix. Biofilms harbor multiple cell types, and it has been proposed that within biofilms individual cells follow different developmental pathways, resulting in heterogeneous populations. Here we demonstrate cellular differentiation within biofilms of the spore-forming bacterium Bacillus subtilis, and present evidence that formation of the biofilm governs differentiation. We show that motile, matrix-producing, and sporulating cells localize to distinct regions within the biofilm, and that the localization and percentage of each cell type is dynamic throughout development of the community. Importantly, mutants that do not produce extracellular matrix form unstructured biofilms that are deficient in sporulation. We propose that sporulation is a culminating feature of biofilm formation, and that spore formation is coupled to the formation of an architecturally complex community of cells. PMID:18381896

  20. Decentralized and self-centered estimation architecture for formation flying of spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kang, B. H.; Hadaegh, F. Y.; Scharf, D. P.; Ke, N. -P.

    2001-01-01

    Formation estimation methodologies for distributed spacecraft systems are formulated and analyzed. A generic form of the formation estimation problem is described by defining a common hardware configuration, observation graph, and feasible estimation topologies.

  1. Disks, Young Stars, and Radio Waves: The Quest for Forming Planetary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandler, C. J.; Shepherd, D. S.

    2008-08-01

    Kant and Laplace suggested the Solar System formed from a rotating gaseous disk in the 18th century, but convincing evidence that young stars are indeed surrounded by such disks was not presented for another 200 years. As we move into the 21st century the emphasis is now on disk formation, the role of disks in star formation, and on how planets form in those disks. Radio wavelengths play a key role in these studies, currently providing some of the highest-spatial-resolution images of disks, along with evidence of the growth of dust grains into planetesimals. The future capabilities of EVLA and ALMA provide extremely exciting prospects for resolving disk structure and kinematics, studying disk chemistry, directly detecting protoplanets, and imaging disks in formation.

  2. Hindered settling and the formation of layered intrusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bons, Paul D.; Baur, Albrecht; Elburg, Marlina A.; Lindhuber, Matthias J.; Marks, Michael A. W.; Soesoo, Alvar; van Milligen, Boudewijn P.; Walte, Nicolas P.

    2015-04-01

    Layered intrusions are characterized by (often repetitive) layering on a range of scales. Many explanations for the formation of such layering have been proposed over the past decades. We investigated the formation of "mats" by hindered crystal settling, a model that was first suggested by Lauder (1964). The interaction of sinking and rising crystals leads to the amplification of perturbations in crystal density within a magma chamber, a process similar to the formation of traffic jams in dense traffic (Bons et al., 2015). Once these "crystal traffic jams" form they constitute a barrier for further settling of crystals. Between these barriers, the magma evolves in a semi-closed system in which stratification may develop by gravitational sorting. Barriers, and therefore layers, form sequentially during inward cooling of the magma chamber. Barring later equilibration, mineralogical and geochemical trends within the layers are repetitive, but with variations due to the random process of initial perturbation formation. Layers can form in the transition between two end-member regimes: (1) in a fast cooling and/or viscous magma crystals cannot sink or float a significant distance and minerals are distributed homogeneously throughout the chamber; (2) in a slow cooling and/or low-viscosity magma crystals can quickly settle at the top and bottom of the chamber and crystals concentrations are never high enough to form "traffic jams". As a result, heavy and light minerals get fully separated in the chamber. Between these two end members, crystals can sink and float a significant distance, but not the whole height of the magma chamber before entrapment in "traffic jams". We illustrate the development of layers with numerical models and compare the results with the layered nepheline syenites (kakortokites) of the Ilímaussaq intrusion in SW Greenland. References: Bons, P.D., Baur, A., Elburg, M.A., Lindhuber, M.J., Marks, M.A.W., Soesoo, A., van Milligen, B.P., Walte, N.P. 2015

  3. How Does Dense Molecular Gas Contribute to Star Formation in the Starburst Galaxy NGC 2146?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wofford, Alia

    2017-01-01

    The starburst galaxy NGC 2146 is believed to have been formed approximately 800 Myr ago, when two galaxies collided with each other possibly leading to a burst of star formation. NGC 2146 is known as a starburst galaxy for the high frequency of star formation going on in its molecular clouds. These clouds serve as nurseries for star formation to occur. Hydrogen Cyanide (HCN) and Carbon monoxide (CO) are molecules found in molecular gas clouds. HCN molecules are tracers for high density star forming gas. Whereas, CO molecules are tracers for low density star forming gas. In this project, we are observing these two molecules and their proximity to where the stars are forming in the galaxy to determine if the star formation is occurring in the same area as the high and low density molecular gas areas in starburst galaxy NGC 2146.

  4. UV, optical and infrared properties of star forming galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huchra, John P.

    1987-01-01

    The UVOIR properties of galaxies with extreme star formation rates are examined. These objects seem to fall into three distinct classes which can be called (1) extragalactic H II regions, (2) clumpy irregulars, and (3) starburst galaxies. Extragalactic H II regions are dominated by recently formed stars and may be considered 'young' galaxies if the definition of young is having the majority of total integrated star formation occurring in the last billion years. Clumpy irregulars are bursts of star formation superposed on an old population and are probably good examples of stochastic star formation. It is possible that star formation in these galaxies is triggered by the infall of gas clouds or dwarf companions. Starburst galaxies are much more luminous, dustier and more metal rich than the other classes. These objects show evidence for shock induced star formation where shocks may be caused by interaction with massive companions or are the result of an extremely strong density wave.

  5. Highly efficient star formation in NGC 5253 possibly from stream-fed accretion.

    PubMed

    Turner, J L; Beck, S C; Benford, D J; Consiglio, S M; Ho, P T P; Kovács, A; Meier, D S; Zhao, J-H

    2015-03-19

    Gas clouds in present-day galaxies are inefficient at forming stars. Low star-formation efficiency is a critical parameter in galaxy evolution: it is why stars are still forming nearly 14 billion years after the Big Bang and why star clusters generally do not survive their births, instead dispersing to form galactic disks or bulges. Yet the existence of ancient massive bound star clusters (globular clusters) in the Milky Way suggests that efficiencies were higher when they formed ten billion years ago. A local dwarf galaxy, NGC 5253, has a young star cluster that provides an example of highly efficient star formation. Here we report the detection of the J = 3→2 rotational transition of CO at the location of the massive cluster. The gas cloud is hot, dense, quiescent and extremely dusty. Its gas-to-dust ratio is lower than the Galactic value, which we attribute to dust enrichment by the embedded star cluster. Its star-formation efficiency exceeds 50 per cent, tenfold that of clouds in the Milky Way. We suggest that high efficiency results from the force-feeding of star formation by a streamer of gas falling into the galaxy.

  6. DUB: A Format for Writing Descriptive Literature. Dissemination Document No. 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, S. Joseph; Keith, Kitty

    Presented is DUB (description, use, and benefits of an idea), a format for special education teachers to use in writing descriptions of self-developed materials and methods; and included are six examples of the format. The DUB format prescribes the inclusion in brief essay form of the following information: descriptive material (structural…

  7. Pyrophosphate-Dependent ATP Formation from Acetyl Coenzyme A in Syntrophus aciditrophicus , a New Twist on ATP Formation

    DOE PAGES

    James, Kimberly L.; Ríos-Hernández, Luis A.; Wofford, Neil Q.; ...

    2016-08-16

    Syntrophus aciditrophicusis a model syntrophic bacterium that degrades key intermediates in anaerobic decomposition, such as benzoate, cyclohexane-1-carboxylate, and certain fatty acids, to acetate when grown with hydrogen-/formate-consuming microorganisms. ATP formation coupled to acetate production is the main source for energy conservation byS. aciditrophicus. However, the absence of homologs for phosphate acetyltransferase and acetate kinase in the genome ofS. aciditrophicusleaves it unclear as to how ATP is formed, as most fermentative bacteria rely on these two enzymes to synthesize ATP from acetyl coenzyme A (CoA) and phosphate. Here, we combine transcriptomic, proteomic, metabolite, and enzymatic approaches to show thatS. aciditrophicususes AMP-forming, acetyl-CoA synthetase (Acs1)more » for ATP synthesis from acetyl-CoA.acs1mRNA and Acs1 were abundant in transcriptomes and proteomes, respectively, ofS. aciditrophicusgrown in pure culture and coculture. Cell extracts ofS. aciditrophicushad low or undetectable acetate kinase and phosphate acetyltransferase activities but had high acetyl-CoA synthetase activity under all growth conditions tested. Both Acs1 purified fromS. aciditrophicusand recombinantly produced Acs1 catalyzed ATP and acetate formation from acetyl-CoA, AMP, and pyrophosphate. High pyrophosphate levels and a high AMP-to-ATP ratio (5.9 ± 1.4) inS. aciditrophicuscells support the operation of Acs1 in the acetate-forming direction. Thus,S. aciditrophicushas a unique approach to conserve energy involving pyrophosphate, AMP, acetyl-CoA, and an AMP-forming, acetyl-CoA synthetase. We find bacteria use two enzymes, phosphate acetyltransferase and acetate kinase, to make ATP from acetyl-CoA, while acetate-forming archaea use a single enzyme, an ADP-forming, acetyl-CoA synthetase, to synthesize ATP and acetate from acetyl-CoA.Syntrophus aciditrophicusapparently relies on a different approach to conserve energy during acetyl-CoA metabolism, as

  8. Pyrophosphate-Dependent ATP Formation from Acetyl Coenzyme A in Syntrophus aciditrophicus , a New Twist on ATP Formation

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    James, Kimberly L.; Ríos-Hernández, Luis A.; Wofford, Neil Q.

    Syntrophus aciditrophicusis a model syntrophic bacterium that degrades key intermediates in anaerobic decomposition, such as benzoate, cyclohexane-1-carboxylate, and certain fatty acids, to acetate when grown with hydrogen-/formate-consuming microorganisms. ATP formation coupled to acetate production is the main source for energy conservation byS. aciditrophicus. However, the absence of homologs for phosphate acetyltransferase and acetate kinase in the genome ofS. aciditrophicusleaves it unclear as to how ATP is formed, as most fermentative bacteria rely on these two enzymes to synthesize ATP from acetyl coenzyme A (CoA) and phosphate. Here, we combine transcriptomic, proteomic, metabolite, and enzymatic approaches to show thatS. aciditrophicususes AMP-forming, acetyl-CoA synthetase (Acs1)more » for ATP synthesis from acetyl-CoA.acs1mRNA and Acs1 were abundant in transcriptomes and proteomes, respectively, ofS. aciditrophicusgrown in pure culture and coculture. Cell extracts ofS. aciditrophicushad low or undetectable acetate kinase and phosphate acetyltransferase activities but had high acetyl-CoA synthetase activity under all growth conditions tested. Both Acs1 purified fromS. aciditrophicusand recombinantly produced Acs1 catalyzed ATP and acetate formation from acetyl-CoA, AMP, and pyrophosphate. High pyrophosphate levels and a high AMP-to-ATP ratio (5.9 ± 1.4) inS. aciditrophicuscells support the operation of Acs1 in the acetate-forming direction. Thus,S. aciditrophicushas a unique approach to conserve energy involving pyrophosphate, AMP, acetyl-CoA, and an AMP-forming, acetyl-CoA synthetase. We find bacteria use two enzymes, phosphate acetyltransferase and acetate kinase, to make ATP from acetyl-CoA, while acetate-forming archaea use a single enzyme, an ADP-forming, acetyl-CoA synthetase, to synthesize ATP and acetate from acetyl-CoA.Syntrophus aciditrophicusapparently relies on a different approach to conserve energy during acetyl-CoA metabolism, as

  9. Ellagic acid inhibits iron-mediated free radical formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalvi, Luana T.; Moreira, Daniel C.; Andrade, Roberto; Ginani, Janini; Alonso, Antonio; Hermes-Lima, Marcelo

    2017-02-01

    Polyphenols are reported to have some health benefits, which are link to their antioxidant properties. In the case of ellagic acid (EA), there is evidence that it has free radical scavenger properties and that it is able to form complexes with metal ions. However, information on a possible link between the formation of iron-EA complexes and their interference in Haber-Weiss/Fenton reactions was not yet determined. Thus, the present study investigated the in vitro antioxidant mechanism of EA in a system containing ascorbate, Fe(III) and different iron ligands (EDTA, citrate and NTA). Iron-mediated oxidative degradation of 2-deoxyribose was poorly inhibited (by 12%) in the presence of EA (50 μM) and EDTA. When citrate or NTA - which form weak iron complexes - were used, the 2-deoxyribose protection increased to 89-97% and 45%, respectively. EA also presented equivalent inhibitory effects on iron-mediated oxygen uptake and ascorbyl radical formation. Spectral analyses of iron-EA complexes show that EA removes Fe(III) from EDTA within hours, and from citrate within 1 min. This difference in the rate of iron-EA complex formation may explain the antioxidant effects of EA. Furthermore, the EA antioxidant effectiveness was inversely proportional to the Fe(III) concentration, suggesting a competition with EDTA. In conclusion, the results indicate that EA may prevent in vitro free radical formation when it forms a complex with iron ions.

  10. Structural and functional features of formate hydrogen lyase, an enzyme of mixed-acid fermentation from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Bagramyan, K; Trchounian, A

    2003-11-01

    Formate hydrogen lyase from Escherichia coli is a membrane-bound complex that oxidizes formic acid to carbon dioxide and molecular hydrogen. Under anaerobic growth conditions and fermentation of sugars (glucose), it exists in two forms. One form is constituted by formate dehydrogenase H and hydrogenase 3, and the other one is the same formate dehydrogenase and hydrogenase 4; the presence of small protein subunits, carriers of electrons, is also probable. Other proteins may also be involved in formation of the enzyme complex, which requires the presence of metal (nickel-cobalt). Its formation also depends on the external pH and the presence of formate. Activity of both forms requires F(0)F(1)-ATPase; this explains dependence of the complex functioning on proton-motive force. It is also possible that the formate hydrogen lyase complex will exhibit its own proton-translocating function.

  11. A Multi-Wavelength Survey of Intermediate-Mass Star-Forming Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundquist, Michael J.; Kobulnicky, Henry A.; Kerton, Charles R.

    2015-01-01

    Current research into Galactic star formation has focused on either massive star-forming regions or nearby low-mass regions. We present results from a survey of Galactic intermediate-mass star-forming regions (IM SFRs). These regions were selected from IRAS colors that specify cool dust and large PAH contribution, suggesting that they produce stars up to but not exceeding about 8 solar masses. Using WISE data we have classified 984 candidate IM SFRs as star-like objects, galaxies, filamentary structures, or blobs/shells based on their mid-infrared morphologies. Focusing on the blobs/shells, we combined follow-up observations of deep near-infrared (NIR) imaging with optical and NIR spectroscopy to study the stellar content, confirming the intermediate-mass nature of these regions. We also gathered CO data from OSO and APEX to study the molecular content and dynamics of these regions. We compare these results to those of high-mass star formation in order to better understand their role in the star-formation paradigm.

  12. Alkyl Aryl Ether Bond Formation with PhenoFluor**

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Xiao; Neumann, Constanze N.; Kleinlein, Claudia; Claudia, Nathaniel W.; Ritter, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    An alkyl aryl ether bond formation reaction between phenols and primary and secondary alcohols with PhenoFluor has been developed. The reaction features a broad substrate scope and tolerates many functional groups, and substrates that are challenging for more conventional ether bond forming processes may be coupled. A preliminary mechanistic study indicates reactivity distinct from conventional ether bond formation. PMID:25800679

  13. The Formation of a Sunspot Penumbra Sector in Active Region NOAA 12574

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qiaoling; Yan, Xiaoli; Wang, Jincheng; Kong, DeFang; Xue, Zhike; Yang, Liheng; Cao, Wenda

    2018-04-01

    We present a particular case of the formation of a penumbra sector around a developing sunspot in the active region NOAA 12574 on 2016 August 11 by using the high-resolution data observed by the New Solar Telescope at the Big Bear Solar Observatory and the data acquired by the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager and the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory satellite. Before the new penumbra sector formed, the developing sunspot already had two umbrae with some penumbral filaments. The penumbra sector gradually formed at the junction of two umbrae. We found that the formation of the penumbra sector can be divided into two stages. First, during the initial stage of penumbral formation, the region where the penumbra sector formed always appeared blueshifted in a Dopplergram. The area, mean transverse magnetic field strength, and total magnetic flux of the umbra and penumbra sector all increased with time. The initial penumbral formation was associated with magnetic emergence. Second, when the penumbra sector appeared, the magnetic flux and area of the penumbra sector increased after the umbra’s magnetic flux and area decreased. These results indicate that the umbra provided magnetic flux for penumbral development after the penumbra sector appeared. We also found that the newly formed penumbra sector was associated with sunspot rotation. Based on these findings, we suggest that the penumbra sector was the result of the emerging flux that was trapped in the photosphere at the initial stage of penumbral formation, and when the rudimentary penumbra formed, the penumbra sector developed at the cost of the umbra.

  14. Phase formation and morphological stability of ultrathin Ni-Co-Pt silicide films formed on Si(100)

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Xu, Peng; Wu, Dongping, E-mail: dongpingwu@fudan.edu.cn; Kubart, Tomas

    Ultrathin Ni, Co, and Pt films, each no more than 4 nm in thickness, as well as their various combinations are employed to investigate the competing growth of epitaxial Co{sub 1-y}Ni{sub y}Si{sub 2} films against polycrystalline Pt{sub 1-z}Ni{sub z}Si. The phase formation critically affects the morphological stability of the resulting silicide films, with the epitaxial films being superior to the polycrystalline ones. Any combination of those metals improves the morphological stability with reference to their parent individual metal silicide films. When Ni, Co, and Pt are all included, the precise initial location of Pt does little to affect the final phasemore » formation in the silicide films and the epitaxial growth of Co{sub 1-x}Ni{sub x}Si{sub 2} films is always perturbed, in accordance to thermodynamics that shows a preferential formation of Pt{sub 1-z}Ni{sub z}Si over that of Co{sub 1-y}Ni{sub y}Si{sub 2}.« less

  15. Gemini Spectroscopic Survey of Young Intermediate-Mass Star-Forming Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundquist, Michael; Kobulnicky, Henry

    2018-01-01

    The majority of stars form in embedded clusters. Current research into star formation has focused on either high-mass star-forming regions or low-mass star-forming regions. We present the results from a Gemini spectroscopic survey of young intermediate-mass star-forming regions. These are star forming regions selected to produce stars up to but not exceeding 8 solar masses. We obtained spectra of these regions with GNIRS on Gemini North and Flamingos-2 on Gemini South. We also combine this with near-infrared imaging from 2MASS, UKIDSS, and VVV to study the stellar content.

  16. Thermodynamics and kinetics of vesicles formation processes.

    PubMed

    Guida, Vincenzo

    2010-12-15

    Vesicles are hollow aggregates, composed of bilayers of amphiphilic molecules, dispersed into and filled with a liquid solvent. These aggregates can be formed either as equilibrium or as out of equilibrium meta-stable structures and they exhibit a rich variety of different morphologies. The surprising richness of structures, the vast range of industrial applications and the presence of vesicles in a number of biological systems have attracted the interest of numerous researchers and scientists. In this article, we review both the thermodynamics and the kinetics aspects of the phenomena of formation of vesicles. We start presenting the thermodynamics of bilayer membranes formation and deformation, with the aim of deriving the conditions for the existence of equilibrium vesicles. Specifically, we use the results from continuum thermodynamics to discuss the possibility of formation of stable equilibrium vesicles, from both mixed amphiphiles and single component systems. We also link the bilayer membrane properties to the molecular structure of the starting amphiphiles. In the second part of this article, we focus on the dynamics and kinetics of vesiculation. We review the process of vesicles formation both from planar lamellar phase under shear and from isotropic micelles. In order to clarify the physical mechanisms of vesicles formation, we continuously draw a parallel between emulsification and vesiculation processes. Specifically, we compare the experimental results, the driving forces and the relative scaling laws identified for the two processes. Describing the dynamics of vesicles formation, we also discuss why non equilibrium vesicles can be formed by kinetics control and why they are meta-stable. Understanding how to control the properties, the stability and the formation process of vesicles is of fundamental importance for a vast number of industrial applications. Copyright © 2009. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Simulation and Characterization of Methane Hydrate Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhakal, S.; Gupta, I.

    2017-12-01

    The ever rising global energy demand dictates human endeavor to explore and exploit new and innovative energy sources. As conventional oil and gas reserves deplete, we are constantly looking for newer sources for sustainable energy. Gas hydrates have long been discussed as the next big energy resource to the earth. Its global occurrence and vast quantity of natural gas stored is one of the main reasons for such interest in its study and exploration. Gas hydrates are solid crystalline substances with trapped molecules of gas inside cage-like crystals of water molecules. Gases such as methane, ethane, propane and carbon dioxide can form hydrates but in natural state, methane hydrates are the most common. Subsurface geological conditions with high pressure and low temperature favor the formation and stability of gas hydrates. While the occurrence and potential of gas hydrates as energy source has long been studied, there are still gaps in knowledge, especially in the quantitative research of gas hydrate formation and reservoir characterization. This study is focused on exploring and understanding the geological setting in which gas hydrates are formed and the subsequent changes in rock characteristics as they are deposited. It involves the numerical simulation of methane gas flow through fault to form hydrates. The models are representative of the subsurface geologic setting of Gulf of Mexico with a fault through layers of shale and sandstone. Hydrate formation simulated is of thermogenic origin. The simulations are conducted using TOUGH+HYDRATE, a numerical code developed at the Lawrence Berkley National Laboratory for modeling multiphase flow through porous medium. Simulation results predict that as the gas hydrates form in the pores of the model, the porosity, permeability and other rock properties are altered. Preliminary simulation results have shown that hydrates begin to form in the fault zone and gradually in the sandstone layers. The increase in hydrate

  18. Fe/Mg smectite formation under acidic conditions on early Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peretyazhko, T. S.; Sutter, B.; Morris, R. V.; Agresti, D. G.; Le, L.; Ming, D. W.

    2016-01-01

    Phyllosilicates of the smectite group detected in Noachian and early Hesperian terrains on Mars have been hypothesized to form under neutral to alkaline conditions. These pH conditions would also be favorable for formation of widespread carbonate deposits which have not been detected on Mars. We propose that smectite deposits on Mars formed under moderately acidic conditions inhibiting carbonate formation. We report here the first synthesis of Fe/Mg smectite in an acidic hydrothermal system [200 °C, pHRT ∼ 4 (pH measured at room temperature) buffered with acetic acid] from Mars-analogue, glass-rich, basalt simulant with and without aqueous Mg or Fe(II) addition under N2-purged anoxic and ambient oxic redox conditions. Synthesized Fe/Mg smectite was examined by X-ray-diffraction, Mössbauer spectroscopy, visible and near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and electron microprobe to characterize mineralogy, morphology and chemical composition. Alteration of the glass phase of basalt simulant resulted in formation of the Fe/Mg smectite mineral saponite with some mineralogical and chemical properties similar to the properties reported for Fe/Mg smectite on Mars. Our experiments are evidence that neutral to alkaline conditions on early Mars are not necessary for Fe/Mg smectite formation as previously inferred. Phyllosilicate minerals could instead have formed under mildly acidic pH conditions. Volcanic SO2 emanation and sulfuric acid formation is proposed as the major source of acidity for the alteration of basaltic materials and subsequent formation of Fe/Mg smectite.

  19. Comparing Two Forms of Dynamic Assessment and Traditional Assessment of Preschool Phonological Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kantor, Patricia Thatcher; Wagner, Richard K.; Torgesen, Joseph K.; Rashotte, Carol A.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of the current study was to compare two forms of dynamic assessment and standard assessment of preschool children's phonological awareness. The first form of dynamic assessment was a form of scaffolding in which item formats were modified in response to an error so as to make the task easier or more explicit. The second form of dynamic…

  20. Effect of angular momentum alignment and strong magnetic fields on the formation of protostellar discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, William J.; McKee, Christopher F.; Klein, Richard I.

    2018-01-01

    Star-forming molecular clouds are observed to be both highly magnetized and turbulent. Consequently, the formation of protostellar discs is largely dependent on the complex interaction between gravity, magnetic fields, and turbulence. Studies of non-turbulent protostellar disc formation with realistic magnetic fields have shown that these fields are efficient in removing angular momentum from the forming discs, preventing their formation. However, once turbulence is included, discs can form in even highly magnetized clouds, although the precise mechanism remains uncertain. Here, we present several high-resolution simulations of turbulent, realistically magnetized, high-mass molecular clouds with both aligned and random turbulence to study the role that turbulence, misalignment, and magnetic fields have on the formation of protostellar discs. We find that when the turbulence is artificially aligned so that the angular momentum is parallel to the initial uniform field, no rotationally supported discs are formed, regardless of the initial turbulent energy. We conclude that turbulence and the associated misalignment between the angular momentum and the magnetic field are crucial in the formation of protostellar discs in the presence of realistic magnetic fields.

  1. The Maximum Mass Solar Nebula and the early formation of planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nixon, C. J.; King, A. R.; Pringle, J. E.

    2018-03-01

    Current planet formation theories provide successful frameworks with which to interpret the array of new observational data in this field. However, each of the two main theories (core accretion, gravitational instability) is unable to explain some key aspects. In many planet formation calculations, it is usual to treat the initial properties of the planet forming disc (mass, radius, etc.) as free parameters. In this paper, we stress the importance of setting the formation of planet forming discs within the context of the formation of the central stars. By exploring the early stages of disc formation, we introduce the concept of the Maximum Mass Solar Nebula (MMSN), as opposed to the oft-used Minimum Mass Solar Nebula (here mmsn). It is evident that almost all protoplanetary discs start their evolution in a strongly self-gravitating state. In agreement with almost all previous work in this area, we conclude that on the scales relevant to planet formation these discs are not gravitationally unstable to gas fragmentation, but instead form strong, transient spiral arms. These spiral arms can act as efficient dust traps allowing the accumulation and subsequent fragmentation of the dust (but not the gas). This phase is likely to populate the disc with relatively large planetesimals on short timescales while the disc is still veiled by a dusty-gas envelope. Crucially, the early formation of large planetesimals overcomes the main barriers remaining within the core accretion model. A prediction of this picture is that essentially all observable protoplanetary discs are already planet hosting.

  2. The Reliability of [c II] as a Star Formation Rate Indicator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Looze, Ilse; Baes, Maarten; Fritz, Jacopo; Bendo, George J.; Cortese, Luca

    2011-08-01

    We present a calibration of the star formation rate (SFR) as a function of the [C II] 157.74 μ m luminosity for a sample of 24 star-forming galaxies in the nearby universe. In order to calibrate the SFR against the line luminosity, we rely on both GALEX FUV data, which is an ideal tracer of the unobscured star formation, and Spitzer MIPS 24 μ m, to probe the dust-enshrouded fraction of star formation. For this sample of normal star-forming galaxies, the [C II] luminosity correlates well with the star formation rate. However, the extension of this relation to more quiescent (Hα EW ≤ 10 Å) or ultra luminous galaxies (L TIR ≥ 1012 L⊙) should be handled with caution, since these objects show a non-linearity in the L [C II]-to-L FIR ratio as a function of L FIR (and thus, their star formation activity). Two possible scenarios can be invoked to explain the tight correlation between the [C II] emission and the star formation activity on a global galaxy-scale. The first interpretation could be that the [C II] emission from photo dissociation regions arises from the immediate surroundings of actively star-forming regions and contributes a more or less constant fraction on a global galaxy-scale. Alternatively, we consider the possibility that the [C II] emission is associated to the cold interstellar medium, which advocates an indirect link with the star formation activity in a galaxy through the Schmidt law.

  3. The Maximum Mass Solar Nebula and the early formation of planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nixon, C. J.; King, A. R.; Pringle, J. E.

    2018-07-01

    Current planet formation theories provide successful frameworks with which to interpret the array of new observational data in this field. However, each of the two main theories (core accretion, gravitational instability) is unable to explain some key aspects. In many planet formation calculations, it is usual to treat the initial properties of the planet-forming disc (mass, radius, etc.) as free parameters. In this paper, we stress the importance of setting the formation of planet-forming discs within the context of the formation of the central stars. By exploring the early stages of disc formation, we introduce the concept of the Maximum Mass Solar Nebula, as opposed to the oft-used minimum mass solar nebula. It is evident that almost all protoplanetary discs start their evolution in a strongly self-gravitating state. In agreement with almost all previous work in this area, we conclude that on the scales relevant to planet formation these discs are not gravitationally unstable to gas fragmentation, but instead form strong, transient spiral arms. These spiral arms can act as efficient dust traps allowing the accumulation and subsequent fragmentation of the dust (but not the gas). This phase is likely to populate the disc with relatively large planetesimals on short time-scales while the disc is still veiled by a dusty-gas envelope. Crucially, the early formation of large planetesimals overcomes the main barriers remaining within the core accretion model. A prediction of this picture is that essentially all observable protoplanetary discs are already planet hosting.

  4. Galaxies in the act of quenching star formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quai, Salvatore; Pozzetti, Lucia; Citro, Annalisa; Moresco, Michele; Cimatti, Andrea

    2018-04-01

    Detecting galaxies when their star-formation is being quenched is crucial to understand the mechanisms driving their evolution. We identify for the first time a sample of quenching galaxies selected just after th